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Sample records for black pepper

  1. Decontamination of black pepper and red pepper by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oularbi, S.; Mansouri, B.

    1993-04-01

    In the present work, it has been studied the decontamination of two types of spices (black pepper and red pepper) by gamma radiation. The initial microbial population of spices not treated is about 10 (7) to 10 (8) per gram. The population decrease exponentially with irradiation dose. By this, it has been established that a dose of 6 kGy reduces the microbial flora low than 10 (3) per gram. A total elimination of moulds is obtained at dose of 8 kGy

  2. PROSPECT OF INDONESIA BLACK AND WHITE PEPPERS EXPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavi Supriana

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis study analyzes the behavior of pepper exports, consisting of black pepper and white pepper, to various destination countries. The results of this study showed that black pepper exports affected by the destination country's gross domestic product (GDP, the price of white pepper, the population of the country of destination and the exchange rate against the dollar. Meanwhile, white pepper exports affected by the destination country's GDP, the population of the country of destination, the price of black pepper, white pepper prices and the exchange rate against the dollar. The results also showed that black pepper and white pepper are not mutually substituted.Keywords: pepper, exports, GDP, population, exchange rate JEL Classificaiton Numbers: F14, F19AbstrakPenelitian ini menganalisis perilaku ekspor lada, terdiri dari lada hitam dan lada putih, ke berbagai negara tujuan. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa ekspor lada hitam dipengaruhi oleh Pendapatan domestik bruto (PDB negara tujuan, harga lada putih, populasi negara tujuan dan nilai tukar rupiah terhadap dolar. Sementara itu, ekspor lada putih dipengaruhi oleh PDB negara tujuan, populasi negara tujuan, harga lada hitam, harga lada putih dan nilai tukar rupiah terhadap dolar. Hasil penelitian juga menunjukkan bahwa lada hitam dan lada putih tidak saling bersubstitusi.Keywords: Lada, ekspor, PDB, populasi, kursJEL Classificaiton Numbers: F14, F19

  3. Comparative studies of ginger ( Zingiber officinale ) and black pepper

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative studies of ginger ( Zingiber officinale ) and black pepper ( Piper guinenses ) extracts at different concentrations on the microbial quality of soymilk and ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... 3.6% black pepper extract in soymilk and kunuzaki had a microbial load of 3.20 × 106d and 2.90 × 106c, respectively.

  4. Mycoflora and mycotoxins in Brazilian black pepper, white pepper and Brazil nuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, F C; Kozakiewicz, Z; Paterson, R R

    2000-01-01

    A wide range of field and storage fungi were isolated from black pepper, white pepper and Brazil nut kernels from Amazonia. A total of 42 species were isolated from both peppers. Aspergillus flavus and A. niger were isolated more frequently from black than from white pepper. Other potential mycotoxigenic species isolated included: A. ochraceus, A. tamarii, A. versicolor, Emericella nidulans and Chaetomium globosum, Penicillium brevicompactum, P. citrinum, P. islandicum and P. glabrum. Species isolated from pepper for the first time were Acrogenospora sphaerocephala, Cylindrocarpon lichenicola, Lacellinopsis sacchari, Microascus cinereus, Petriella setifera and Sporormiella minima. Seventeen species were isolated from Brazil nut kernels. A. flavus was the dominant species followed by A. niger. P. citrinum and P. glabrum were the only penicillia isolated. Species isolated for the first time included Acremonium curvulum, Cunninghamella elegans, Exophiala sp., Fusarium oxysporum, Pseudoallescheria boydii, Rhizopus oryzae, Scopulariopsis sp., Thielavia terricola and Trichoderma citrinoviride. Considerably more metabolites were detected from black than white pepper in qualitative analyses. Chaetocin, penitrem A, and xanthocillin were identified only from black pepper, and tenuazonic acid was identified from both black and white pepper. Aflatoxin G2, chaetoglobosin C, and spinulosin were identified from poor quality brazil nuts. Aflatoxin B1 and B2 were also only detected in poor quality brazil nuts at concentrations of 27.1 micrograms kg-1 and 2.1 micrograms kg-1 respectively (total 29.2 micrograms kg-1).

  5. Physicochemical properties of black pepper (Piper nigrum) starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fan; Mojel, Reuben; Li, Guantian

    2018-02-01

    Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is among the most popular spices around the world. Starch is the major component of black pepper. However, little is known about functional properties of this starch. In this study, swelling, solubility, thermal properties, rheology, and enzyme susceptibility of 2 black pepper starches were studied and compared with those of maize starch. Pepper starch had lower water solubility and swelling power than maize starch. It had higher viscosity during pasting event. In dynamic oscillatory analysis, pepper starch had lower storage modulus. Thermal analysis showed that pepper starch had much higher gelatinization temperatures (e.g., conclusion temperature of 94°C) than maize starch. The susceptibility to α-amylolysis of pepper starch was not very different from that of maize starch. Overall, the differences in the physicochemical properties of the 2 pepper starches are non-significant. The relationships between structure (especially amylopectin internal molecular structure) and properties of starch components are highlighted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Black pepper and health claims: a comprehensive treatise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Masood Sadiq; Pasha, Imran; Sultan, Muhammad Tauseef; Randhawa, Muhammad Atif; Saeed, Farhan; Ahmed, Waqas

    2013-01-01

    For millennia, spices have been an integral part of human diets and commerce. Recently, the widespread recognition of diet-health linkages bolsters their dietary importance. The bioactive components present in them are of considerable significance owing to their therapeutic potential against various ailments. They provide physiological benefits or prevent chronic ailment in addition to the fundamental nutrition and often included in the category of functional foods. Black pepper (Piper Nigrum L.) is an important healthy food owing to its antioxidant, antimicrobial potential and gastro-protective modules. Black pepper, with piperine as an active ingredient, holds rich phytochemistry that also includes volatile oil, oleoresins, and alkaloids. More recently, cell-culture studies and animal modeling predicted the role of black pepper against number of maladies. The free-radical scavenging activity of black pepper and its active ingredients might be helpful in chemoprevention and controlling progression of tumor growth. Additionally, the key alkaloid components of Piper Nigrum, that is, piperine assist in cognitive brain functioning, boost nutrient's absorption and improve gastrointestinal functionality. In this comprehensive treatise, efforts are made to elucidate the antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, gastro-protective, and antidepressant activities of black pepper. Moreover, the synergistic interaction of black pepper with different drugs and nutrients is the limelight of the manuscript. However, the aforementioned health-promoting benefits associated with black pepper are proven in animal modeling. Thus, there is a need to conduct controlled randomized trials in human subjects, cohort studies, and meta-analyses. Such future studies would be helpful in recommending its application in diet-based regimens to prevent various ailments.

  7. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium in black pepper and red pepper by gamma irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Won-Jae; Sung, Hye-Jung; Kim, Sung-Youn; Kim, Kwang-Pyo; Ryu, Sangryeol; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2014-02-17

    This study evaluated the efficacy of gamma irradiation to inactivate foodborne pathogens in black pepper (Piper nigrum) and red pepper (dried Capsicum annuum). Black pepper and red pepper inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium were subjected to gamma irradiation in the range of 0, 1, 2, 3 and 5 kGy, and color change was evaluated after treatment. Pathogen populations decreased with increasing treatment doses. A gamma irradiation dose of 5 kGy decreased E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium populations >4.4 to >5.2 log CFU/g in black pepper without causing color change. Similarly, 5 kGy of gamma irradiation yielded reduction of 3.8 to >5.2 log CFU/g for E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium in red pepper. During gamma irradiation treatment, L*, a* and b* values of red pepper were not significantly changed except for 297 μm to 420 μm size red pepper treated with 5 kGy of gamma irradiation. Based on the D-value of pathogens in black pepper and red pepper, S. Typhimurium showed more resistant to gamma irradiation than did E. coli O157:H7. These results show that gamma irradiation has potential as a non-thermal process for inactivating foodborne pathogens in spices with minimal color changes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of turmeric rhizome and black pepper on blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) and black pepper (BP) on blood components and performance of male broiler chickens. A 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with two levels of TRP (0 and 0.5 g/kg) and three levels of BP (0, 0.5 and 1 g/kg) were used to provide six dietary treatments ...

  9. High-throughput sequencing of black pepper root transcriptome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) is one of the most popular spices in the world. It is used in cooking and the preservation of food and even has medicinal properties. Losses in production from disease are a major limitation in the culture of this crop. The major diseases are root rot and foot rot, which are results of root infection by Fusarium solani and Phytophtora capsici, respectively. Understanding the molecular interaction between the pathogens and the host’s root region is important for obtaining resistant cultivars by biotechnological breeding. Genetic and molecular data for this species, though, are limited. In this paper, RNA-Seq technology has been employed, for the first time, to describe the root transcriptome of black pepper. Results The root transcriptome of black pepper was sequenced by the NGS SOLiD platform and assembled using the multiple-k method. Blast2Go and orthoMCL methods were used to annotate 10338 unigenes. The 4472 predicted proteins showed about 52% homology with the Arabidopsis proteome. Two root proteomes identified 615 proteins, which seem to define the plant’s root pattern. Simple-sequence repeats were identified that may be useful in studies of genetic diversity and may have applications in biotechnology and ecology. Conclusions This dataset of 10338 unigenes is crucially important for the biotechnological breeding of black pepper and the ecogenomics of the Magnoliids, a major group of basal angiosperms. PMID:22984782

  10. Influence of turmeric rhizome and black pepper on blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-04-26

    Apr 26, 2012 ... triglycerides significantly reduced in birds fed diet containing 1 g BP as compared to those fed control diet. There was no significant interaction between TRP and BP on blood metabolites and performance of male broiler chickens. Key words: Turmeric rhizome, black pepper, hematological criteria, broiler ...

  11. High-throughput sequencing of black pepper root transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordo Sheila MC

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Black pepper (Piper nigrum L. is one of the most popular spices in the world. It is used in cooking and the preservation of food and even has medicinal properties. Losses in production from disease are a major limitation in the culture of this crop. The major diseases are root rot and foot rot, which are results of root infection by Fusarium solani and Phytophtora capsici, respectively. Understanding the molecular interaction between the pathogens and the host’s root region is important for obtaining resistant cultivars by biotechnological breeding. Genetic and molecular data for this species, though, are limited. In this paper, RNA-Seq technology has been employed, for the first time, to describe the root transcriptome of black pepper. Results The root transcriptome of black pepper was sequenced by the NGS SOLiD platform and assembled using the multiple-k method. Blast2Go and orthoMCL methods were used to annotate 10338 unigenes. The 4472 predicted proteins showed about 52% homology with the Arabidopsis proteome. Two root proteomes identified 615 proteins, which seem to define the plant’s root pattern. Simple-sequence repeats were identified that may be useful in studies of genetic diversity and may have applications in biotechnology and ecology. Conclusions This dataset of 10338 unigenes is crucially important for the biotechnological breeding of black pepper and the ecogenomics of the Magnoliids, a major group of basal angiosperms.

  12. High-throughput sequencing of black pepper root transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordo, Sheila M C; Pinheiro, Daniel G; Moreira, Edith C O; Rodrigues, Simone M; Poltronieri, Marli C; de Lemos, Oriel F; da Silva, Israel Tojal; Ramos, Rommel T J; Silva, Artur; Schneider, Horacio; Silva, Wilson A; Sampaio, Iracilda; Darnet, Sylvain

    2012-09-17

    Black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) is one of the most popular spices in the world. It is used in cooking and the preservation of food and even has medicinal properties. Losses in production from disease are a major limitation in the culture of this crop. The major diseases are root rot and foot rot, which are results of root infection by Fusarium solani and Phytophtora capsici, respectively. Understanding the molecular interaction between the pathogens and the host's root region is important for obtaining resistant cultivars by biotechnological breeding. Genetic and molecular data for this species, though, are limited. In this paper, RNA-Seq technology has been employed, for the first time, to describe the root transcriptome of black pepper. The root transcriptome of black pepper was sequenced by the NGS SOLiD platform and assembled using the multiple-k method. Blast2Go and orthoMCL methods were used to annotate 10338 unigenes. The 4472 predicted proteins showed about 52% homology with the Arabidopsis proteome. Two root proteomes identified 615 proteins, which seem to define the plant's root pattern. Simple-sequence repeats were identified that may be useful in studies of genetic diversity and may have applications in biotechnology and ecology. This dataset of 10338 unigenes is crucially important for the biotechnological breeding of black pepper and the ecogenomics of the Magnoliids, a major group of basal angiosperms.

  13. A Sprinkle of Pepper: The State of Black Influence in White Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Frank W., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The influence of Blacks in white institutions of higher education is no more than a sprinkling of pepper. The article discusses some problems facing the Black students, Black faculty and Black administrators at these schools. (Author/HMV)

  14. Introducing Natural Farming in Black Pepper (Piper nigrum L. Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Muyang Tawie Sulok

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the role of Natural Farming as an ecological farming method to produce organically grown food of safe and high quality and at the same time improve soil quality and soil health. Currently, there is a dearth of information on the effects of Natural Farming approach on black pepper farms particularly in Sarawak, Malaysia. Previous studies on other crops had indicated positive outcome using the Natural Farming method. Thus, this paper discusses the essential role of effective microorganisms in Natural Farming and their potential in pepper cultivation. Through the action of effective microorganisms, this approach should be able to transform a degraded soil ecosystem into one that is fertile and has high nutrients availability. The mixed culture of effective microorganisms applied must be mutually compatible and coexist with one another to ensure its favorable establishment and interaction in the soil. Therefore, it is anticipated that introducing Natural Farming in black pepper cultivation can enhance the predominance of effective microorganisms in the soil, which in turn could lead to promising growth and yield of the crop.

  15. Diversity and activity of biosurfactant-producing Pseudomonas in the rhizosphere of black pepper in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, H.; Kruijt, M.; Raaijmakers, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Aims: Phytophthora capsici is a major pathogen of black pepper and zoospores play an important role in the infection process. Fluorescent pseudomonads that produce biosurfactants with zoosporicidal activities were isolated from the black pepper rhizosphere in Vietnam, and their genotypic diversity

  16. Diversity and activity of biosurfactant-producing Pseudomonas in the rhizosphere of black pepper in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, H; Kruijt, M; Raaijmakers, J M

    2008-03-01

    Phytophthora capsici is a major pathogen of black pepper and zoospores play an important role in the infection process. Fluorescent pseudomonads that produce biosurfactants with zoosporicidal activities were isolated from the black pepper rhizosphere in Vietnam, and their genotypic diversity and potential to control Phy. capsici root rot was determined. Biosurfactant-producing pseudomonads were genotypically and biochemically characterized by BOX-polymerase chain reaction (PCR), 16S-rDNA sequencing, reverse-phase-high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. Biosurfactant-producing fluorescent pseudomonads make up c. 1.3% of the culturable Pseudomonas population in the rhizosphere of black pepper. Although BOX-PCR revealed substantial genotypic diversity, the isolates were shown to produce the same biosurfactants and were all identified as Pseudomonas putida. When applied to black pepper stem cuttings, several of the biosurfactant-producing strains provided significant disease control. In absence of the disease, several of the bacterial strains promoted shoot and root growth of black pepper stem cuttings. Biosurfactant-producing pseudomonads indigenous to the rhizosphere of black pepper plants are genotypically diverse and provide a novel resource for the control of Phy. capsici root rot and growth promotion of black pepper stem cuttings. The results of this study provide a strong basis for further development of supplementary strategies with antagonistic bacteria to control foot and root rot of black pepper and to promote plant growth.

  17. Influence of combinations of fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder on production traits of the broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kirubakaran

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the effects of combinations of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L., garlic (Allium sativum, and black pepper (Piper nigrum powder supplementation on production traits of broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: A total of 288 commercial broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 1-9 groups with 4 replicates each. An experiment was conducted in broilers with different feed formulations; control feed, with no added fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder; and 8 treatment groups receiving feed supplemented with different combinations of fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder. The individual broilers’ body weight and feed consumption were recorded and calculate the body weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR. Results: Broiler’s weight gain and FCR were significantly higher in groups receiving feed supplemented with garlic and black pepper powder combinations (p<0.01. Cumulative feed consumption was significantly higher in groups receiving feed supplemented with garlic and black pepper powder combinations (p<0.01. Conclusion: The combination of garlic and black pepper powder supplemented broiler feed fed groups showed higher production performance. The 5 g/kg garlic powder+1 g/kg black pepper powder and 10 g/kg garlic powder+2 g/kg black pepper powder significantly improved the weight gain and FCR.

  18. Turmeric and black pepper spices decrease lipid peroxidation in meat patties during cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanjun; Henning, Susanne M.; Lee, Ru-Po; Huang, Jianjun; Zerlin, Alona; Li, Zhaoping; Heber, David

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Spices are rich in natural antioxidants and have been shown to be potent inhibitors of lipid peroxidation during cooking of meat. Turmeric contains unique conjugated curcuminoids with strong antioxidant activity. Piperine, one of the main constituents of black pepper, is known to increase the bioavailability of curcuminoids in mouse and human studies when consumed with turmeric. We investigated whether adding black pepper to turmeric powder may further inhibit lipid peroxidation when added to meat patties prior to cooking. The addition of black pepper to turmeric significantly decreased the lipid peroxidation in hamburger meat. When investigating the antioxidant activity of the main chemical markers, we determined that piperine did not exhibit any antioxidant activity. Therefore, we conclude that other black pepper ingredients are responsible for the increased antioxidant activity of combining black pepper with turmeric powder. PMID:25582173

  19. Physical Properties of Climbing Black Pepper ( Piper nigrum ) and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mass, density and moisture loss of climbing pepper were significantly affected by drying temperature and duration at 5% level of significance. Other climbing pepper physical properties under study were not influenced significantly. All alligator pepper properties considered were not significant (p > 0.05). Climbing pepper ...

  20. Electron spin resonance characterization of radical components in irradiated black pepper skin and core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaoki, Rumi, E-mail: yamaoki@gly.oups.ac.jp [Osaka University of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 4-20-1 Nasahara, Takatsuki, Osaka 569-1094 (Japan); Kimura, Shojiro [Osaka University of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 4-20-1 Nasahara, Takatsuki, Osaka 569-1094 (Japan); Ohta, Masatoshi [Faculty of Engineering, Niigata University, 8050 Igarashi 2-no-cho, Nishi-ku, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan)

    2011-11-15

    Characteristics of free radical components of irradiated black pepper fruit (skin) and the pepper seed (core) were analyzed using electron spin resonance. A weak signal near g=2.005 was observed in black pepper before irradiation. Complex spectra near g=2.005 with three lines (the skin) or seven lines (the core) were observed in irradiated black pepper (both end line width; ca. 6.8 mT). The spectral intensities decreased considerably at 30 days after irradiation, and continued to decrease steadily thereafter. The spectra simulated on the basis of the content and the stability of radical components derived from plant constituents, including fiber, starch, polyphenol, mono- and disaccharide, were in good agreement with the observed spectra. Analysis showed that the signal intensities derived from fiber in the skin for an absorbed dose were higher, and the rates of decrease were lower, than that in the core. In particular, the cellulose radical component in the skin was highly stable. - Highlights: > We identified the radical components in irradiated black pepper skin and core. > The ESR spectra near g=2.005 with 3-7 lines were emerged after irradiation. > Spectra simulated basing on the content and the stability of radical from the plant constituents. > Cellulose radical component in black pepper skin was highly stable. > Single signal near g=2.005 was the most stable in black pepper core.

  1. Thermoluminescent characteristics of inorganic dust from black pepper spice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furetta, C.; Cruz Z, E.; Favalli, A.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The irradiation of spices is normally used for its sterilization, allowing this procedure to extend the storage time ir different needs, i.e. transportation over large distances from the production places to distribution points for commercialization. The irradiated food allows studying the behaviour and the characteristics of its inorganic content, i.e. minerals. The aim of this work is to study the main thermoluminescent (TL) characteristics of the inorganic dust extracted from Black pepper spice. TL responses as a function of the delivered gamma dose, fading at room temperature, effect of W irradiation are reported. The thermoluminescent kinetic parameters of the glow curves have been accurately analysed using the Computerized Glow Curve Deconvolution (CGCD) method and results are discussed. (Author)

  2. Comparison of Fungal Community in Black Pepper-Vanilla and Vanilla Monoculture Systems Associated with Vanilla Fusarium Wilt Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Wu; Zhao, Qingyun; Xue, Chao; Xun, Weibing; Zhao, Jun; Wu, Huasong; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2016-01-01

    Long-term vanilla monocropping often results in the occurrence of vanilla Fusarium wilt disease, seriously affecting its production all over the world. In the present study, vanilla exhibited significantly less Fusarium wilt disease in the soil of a long-term continuously cropped black pepper orchard. The entire fungal communities of bulk and rhizosphere soils between the black pepper-vanilla system (i.e., vanilla cropped in the soil of a continuously cropped black pepper orchard) and vanilla...

  3. Application of microwaves for microbial load reduction in black pepper (Piper nigrum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevitha, G Chengaiyan; Sowbhagya, H Bogegowda; Hebbar, H Umesh

    2016-09-01

    Black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) is exposed to microbial contamination which could potentially create public health risk and also rejection of consignments in the export market due to non-adherance to microbial safety standards. The present study investigates the use of microwave (MW) radiation for microbial load reduction in black pepper and analyses the effect on quality. Black pepper was exposed to MWs at two different power levels (663 and 800 W) at an intensity of 40 W g(-1) for different time intervals (1-15 min) and moisture content (110 and 260 g kg(-1) on a wet basis). The exposure of black pepper to MWs at 663 W for 12.5 min was found to be sufficient to reduce the microbial load to the permissible level suggested by the International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods and the European Spice Association. The retention of volatile oil, piperine and resin was 91.3 ± 0.03, 87.6 ± 0.02 and 90.7 ± 0.05%, respectively, in MW-treated black pepper. The final moisture content after MW treatment was found to be 100 ± 1 g kg(-1) for black pepper containing initial moisture of 260 ± 3 g kg(-1) . These results suggest that MW heating can be effectively used for microbial load reduction of black pepper without a significant loss in product quality. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Physicochemical and microbiological qualities of steamed and irradiated ground black pepper (Piper nigrum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waje, Catherine K; Kim, Hyun-Ku; Kim, Kyong-Su; Todoriki, Setsuko; Kwon, Joong-Ho

    2008-06-25

    The effects of steam and irradiation treatments on the physicochemical properties (moisture content, pH, extractable yield, reducing sugar, soluble pigment, antioxidant activity, piperine, Hunter's color, and sensory attributes) and microbiological quality (total aerobic bacteria, coliforms, and yeasts and molds) of ground black pepper stored at refrigerated and room temperatures for 6 months were compared and evaluated. Irradiation resulted in a higher microbial reduction in pepper, with minimal effects on the proximate composition, functional components, color, and sensory attributes of the spice. Steamed peppers appeared darker, and a considerable decrease in the piperine content was observed after treatment and storage. This study illustrates that irradiation is a better decontamination method than steam treatment in eliminating microorganisms without apparently affecting the quality of the powdered spice. Storage at 4 degrees C enhanced the microbial quality and minimized the loss of piperine content in ground black peppers.

  5. Growth enhancement of black pepper (Piper nigrum) by a newly isolated Bacillus tequilensis NII-0943

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dastager, S.G.; Deepa, C.K.; Pandey, A.

    vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as an spice and seasoning. Black Pepper is a plant of humid tropics requiring adequate rainfall and humidity. The hot and humid climate of sub-mountainous tracts... with their effective in-vivo plant growth promoting activity in black pepper. Materials and Methods Isolation and characterization of bacteria The soil used for bacterial isolation was collected from a root-free soil of Silent valley in Western ghat [GPS...

  6. Inhibitory effects of black pepper (Piper nigrum) extracts and compounds on human tumor cell proliferation, cyclooxygenase enzymes, lipid peroxidation and nuclear transcription factor-kappa-B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunbao; Yadev, Vivek R; Aggarwal, Bharat B; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2010-08-01

    Black pepper (Piper nigrum) and hot pepper (Capsicum spp.) are widely used in traditional medicines. Although hot Capsicum spp. extracts and its active principles, capsaicinoids, have been linked with anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities, whether black pepper and its active principle exhibit similar activities is not known. In this study, we have evaluated the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of extracts and compounds from black pepper by using proinflammatory transcription factor NF-kappaB, COX-1 and -2 enzymes, human tumor cell proliferation and lipid peroxidation (LPO). The capsaicinoids, the alkylamides, isolated from the hot pepper Scotch Bonnet were also used to compare the bioactivities of alkylamides and piperine from black pepper. All compounds derived from black pepper suppressed TNF-induced NF-kappaB activation, but alkyl amides, compound 4 from black pepper and 5 from hot pepper, were most effective. The human cancer cell proliferation inhibitory activities of piperine and alklyl amides in Capsicum and black pepper were dose dependant. The inhibitory concentrations 50% (IC50) of the alklylamides were in the range 13-200 microg/mL. The extracts of black pepper at 200 microg/mL and its compounds at 25 microg/mL inhibited LPO by 45-85%, COX enzymes by 31-80% and cancer cells proliferation by 3.5-86.8%. Overall, these results suggest that black pepper and its constituents like hot pepper, exhibit anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anticancer activities.

  7. A randomized, controlled trial to assess short-term black pepper consumption on 24-hour energy expenditure and substrate utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalouise O’Connor

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Thermogenic ingredients may play a role in weight management. In vitro and rodent work suggests that components of black pepper may impact energy expenditure, and in humans, other TPRV1 agonists e.g. capsaicin, augment EE. Objectives: To determine the impact of BP on 24-hour EE, respiratory quotient, and biochemical markers of metabolism and satiety, a randomized, controlled, cross-over study of black pepper (0.5mg/meal versus no pepper control was conducted in post-menopausal women. Subjects spent two 24-hour periods in a whole room indirect calorimeter. Results: Post-meal glucose, insulin, gut peptides and catecholamines were measured. Energy expenditure, respiratory quotient, or biochemical markers assessed did not differ significantly between the black pepper and no pepper control study days. Conclusions: Our findings do not support a role for black pepper in modulating energy expenditure in overweight postmenopausal women. Future work targeting alternative populations, administering black pepper in the fasted state, or in combination with other spices, may reveal the thermogenic effect of this spice.Trial registration: This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01729143.Key words: Black pepper, piperine, energy expenditure, metabolic chamber

  8. A Review of Potentials of Black Pepper ( Piper Nigrum L.) to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The essential oils could perforate the bacteria cell to exert its antibacterial property. Other potentials of black pepper include its ability to increase saliva secretion, hydrochloric acid, gastric juice, bile, pancreatic juice and mucus and hence immune stability. Negative effect of rancidity both in the feed and the body could be ...

  9. Effectiveness and safety of botanical pesticides applied in black pepper (Piper nigrum) plantations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiratno,

    2008-01-01

    Black pepper (Piper nigrum L) is an important commodity of Indonesia, which has been cultivated since the 6th century. The plant plays an important role in local economies since 95% of the plantations are cultivated by smallholder farmers. Because of this important economic value, proper plant

  10. Determination of drying kinetics and sorption isotherm of black pepper (Piper Nigrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Vera Flordeliza C.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study of food products, determination of the drying characteristics of black pepper using an oven is not yet completely established. This study aimed to determine the drying kinetics and sorption isotherm of black pepper using a convective oven at 30°C, 40°C and 50°C. The data gathered in this study were used to fit in selected mathematical models for drying kinetics and sorption isotherm. Among these models, the Midilli model (MR=0.5338exp(0.7273t-0.0551+-0.0005t for 30°C, MR=0.5814exp(0.6293t-0.0764+ -0.0008t for 40°C and MR=0.3187exp(1.1777t-0.0466+ -0.0011t for 50°C was the best fit to explain the moisture transfer in black pepper, while the GAB Model (m/0.1302=((0.1906(0.7811aw/(1-(0.7811aw[1-(0.7811aw+(0.1906(0.7811aw] was for the equilibrium moisture content and water activity relationship. After evaluating the data, the drying characteristics of black pepper at 40°C yielded better results than 30°C and 50°C. XLSTAT and ANOVA Add-in of Microsoft Excel was the software used to compute for the necessary values in the assessment of the mathematical models for this study.

  11. Determination of drying kinetics and sorption isotherm of black pepper (Piper Nigrum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vera, Flordeliza C.; Atienza, Vanessa Bernadette B.; Capili, Jomicah B.; Sauli, Zaliman

    2017-11-01

    In the present study of food products, determination of the drying characteristics of black pepper using an oven is not yet completely established. This study aimed to determine the drying kinetics and sorption isotherm of black pepper using a convective oven at 30°C, 40°C and 50°C. The data gathered in this study were used to fit in selected mathematical models for drying kinetics and sorption isotherm. Among these models, the Midilli model (MR=0.5338exp(0.7273t-0.0551)+-0.0005t for 30°C, MR=0.5814exp(0.6293t-0.0764)+ -0.0008t for 40°C and MR=0.3187exp(1.1777t-0.0466)+ -0.0011t for 50°C) was the best fit to explain the moisture transfer in black pepper, while the GAB Model (m/0.1302=((0.1906)(0.7811)aw)/(1-(0.7811)aw)[1-(0.7811)aw+(0.1906)(0.7811)aw])) was for the equilibrium moisture content and water activity relationship. After evaluating the data, the drying characteristics of black pepper at 40°C yielded better results than 30°C and 50°C. XLSTAT and ANOVA Add-in of Microsoft Excel was the software used to compute for the necessary values in the assessment of the mathematical models for this study.

  12. Comparison of Fungal Community in Black Pepper-Vanilla and Vanilla Monoculture Systems Associated with Vanilla Fusarium Wilt Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wu; Zhao, Qingyun; Xue, Chao; Xun, Weibing; Zhao, Jun; Wu, Huasong; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2016-01-01

    Long-term vanilla monocropping often results in the occurrence of vanilla Fusarium wilt disease, seriously affecting its production all over the world. In the present study, vanilla exhibited significantly less Fusarium wilt disease in the soil of a long-term continuously cropped black pepper orchard. The entire fungal communities of bulk and rhizosphere soils between the black pepper-vanilla system (i.e., vanilla cropped in the soil of a continuously cropped black pepper orchard) and vanilla monoculture system were compared through the deep pyrosequencing. The results showed that the black pepper-vanilla system revealed a significantly higher fungal diversity than the vanilla monoculture system in both bulk and rhizosphere soils. The UniFrac-weighted PCoA analysis revealed significant differences in bulk soil fungal community structures between the two cropping systems, and fungal community structures were seriously affected by the vanilla root system. In summary, the black pepper-vanilla system harbored a lower abundance of Fusarium oxysporum in the vanilla rhizosphere soil and increased the putatively plant-beneficial fungal groups such as Trichoderma and Penicillium genus, which could explain the healthy growth of vanilla in the soil of the long-term continuously cropped black pepper field. Thus, cropping vanilla in the soil of continuously cropped black pepper fields for maintaining the vanilla industry is executable and meaningful as an agro-ecological system.

  13. De Novo Assembly and Characterization of Fruit Transcriptome in Black Pepper (Piper nigrum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lisong; Hao, Chaoyun; Fan, Rui; Wu, Baoduo; Tan, Lehe; Wu, Huasong

    2015-01-01

    Black pepper is one of the most popular and oldest spices in the world and valued for its pungent constituent alkaloids. Pinerine is the main bioactive compound in pepper alkaloids, which perform unique physiological functions. However, the mechanisms of piperine synthesis are poorly understood. This study is the first to describe the fruit transcriptome of black pepper by sequencing on Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. A total of 56,281,710 raw reads were obtained and assembled. From these raw reads, 44,061 unigenes with an average length of 1,345 nt were generated. During functional annotation, 40,537 unigenes were annotated in Gene Ontology categories, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways, Swiss-Prot database, and Nucleotide Collection (NR/NT) database. In addition, 8,196 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were detected. In a detailed analysis of the transcriptome, housekeeping genes for quantitative polymerase chain reaction internal control, polymorphic SSRs, and lysine/ornithine metabolism-related genes were identified. These results validated the availability of our database. Our study could provide useful data for further research on piperine synthesis in black pepper.

  14. Effect of dietary black pepper ( Piper nigrum ) on gut ecosystem and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of dietary black pepper (BP) on the digseta pH, viscosity, bacteria population, and blood profile of broilers was investigated. 150 Abor-acre day old chicks were used. Five diets (BP1-BP5) containing respectively 0.00, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0% BP were formulated. BP1 was the control containing no BP. Each treatment ...

  15. Growth and survival of Salmonella in ground black pepper (Piper nigrum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Susanne E; VanDoren, Jane M; Grasso, Elizabeth M; Halik, Lindsay A

    2013-05-01

    A four serovar cocktail of Salmonella was inoculated into ground black pepper (Piper nigrum) at different water activity (aw) levels at a starting level of 4-5 log cfu/g and incubated at 25 and at 35 °C. At 35 °C and aw of 0.9886 ± 0.0006, the generation time in ground black pepper was 31 ± 3 min with a lag time of 4 ± 1 h. Growth at 25 °C had a longer lag, but generation time was not statistically different from growth at 35 °C. The aw threshold for growth was determined to be 0.9793 ± 0.0027 at 35 °C. To determine survival during storage conditions, ground black pepper was inoculated at approximately 8 log cfu/g and stored at 25 and 35 °C at high (97% RH) and ambient (≤40% RH) humidity. At high relative humidity, aw increased to approximately 0.8-0.9 after approximately 20 days at both temperatures and no Salmonella was detected after 100 and 45 days at 25 and 35 °C, respectively. Under ambient humidity, populations showed an initial decrease of 3-4 log cfu/g, then remained stable for over 8 months at 25 and 35 °C. Results of this study indicate Salmonella can readily grow at permissive aw in ground black pepper and may persist for an extended period of time under typical storage conditions. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Response Surface Methodology for Extraction of Curcumin from Turmeric and Piperine from Black Pepper

    OpenAIRE

    Başpınar, Yücel; Üstündaş, Mehmet; Bayraktar, Oğuz; Sezgin, Canfeza

    2017-01-01

    Considering that approximately a third of all drugs currently on themarket is derived from natural products, curcumin attracted attention due toits anticancer, antioxidative, antiinflammatory and antimicrobial properties.Unfortunately, its low solubility and depending on that a poor bioavailabilityare limiting factors for its clinical application. It was shown that theadministration of curcumin with piperin, the main component of black pepper,increased the bioavailability of curcumin. In addi...

  17. The larvicidal effects of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) and piperine against insecticide resistant and susceptible strains of Anopheles malaria vector mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Michael; Oliver, Shüné V; Coetzee, Maureen; Brooke, Basil D

    2016-04-26

    Insecticide resistance carries the potential to undermine the efficacy of insecticide based malaria vector control strategies. Therefore, there is an urgent need for new insecticidal compounds. Black pepper (dried fruit from the vine, Piper nigrum), used as a food additive and spice, and its principal alkaloid piperine, have previously been shown to have larvicidal properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the larvicidal effects of ground black pepper and piperine against third and fourth instar Anopheles larvae drawn from several laboratory-reared insecticide resistant and susceptible strains of Anopheles arabiensis, An. coluzzii, An. gambiae, An. quadriannulatus and An. funestus. Larvae were fed with mixtures of standard larval food and either ground black pepper or piperine in different proportions. Mortality was recorded 24 h after black pepper and 48 h after piperine were applied to the larval bowls. Black pepper and piperine mixtures caused high mortality in the An. gambiae complex strains, with black pepper proving significantly more toxic than piperine. The An. funestus strains were substantially less sensitive to black pepper and piperine which may reflect a marked difference in the feeding habits of this species compared to that of the Gambiae complex or a difference in food metabolism as a consequence of differences in breeding habitat between species. Insecticide resistant and susceptible strains by species proved equally susceptible to black pepper and piperine. It is concluded that black pepper shows potential as a larvicide for the control of certain malaria vector species.

  18. A preliminary assessment of genetic relationships among agronomically important cultivars of black pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soniya EV

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The impact of diseases such as Phytophthora foot rot and the replacement of unproductive cultivars by high yielding ones has brought about the disappearance of varieties in Piper species, like any other crop. Black pepper (King of spices, is a major spice crop consumed throughout the world. It is widely cultivated across various parts of the world apart from India. The different cultivars may be genetically related and could be a source of valuable genes for disease resistance and an increase in quantity and quality. Even though Western Ghats in India is believed to be the site of origin of this crop, numerous accessions from the NBPGR have not yet been evaluated. Our study aims to investigate the genetic relatedness in major cultivars of black pepper using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism. Results Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphic (AFLP DNA analysis was performed in thirty popular cultivars of black pepper from National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources (NBPGR, India. Fingerprint profiles were generated initially with, five different primer combinations, from which three primer pair combinations (EAGC/MCAA, EAGG/MCTA and EAGC/MCTG gave consistent and scorable banding patterns. From 173 scorable markers, 158(> 90% were polymorphic which shows there is considerable variation in the available germplasm. The dendrogram derived by unweighted pair group method analysis (UPGMA grouped the accessions into three major clusters and four diverse cultivars with only 30% similarity. Karimunda, a widely grown and popular cultivar was unique in the fingerprint profiles obtained. Conclusion There are currently few fingerprinting studies using the valuable spice crop black pepper. We found considerable genetic variability among cultivars of black pepper. Fingerprinting analysis with AFLP proved to be an ideal tool for cultivar identification and phylogenetic studies. It shows the high level of polymorphism and the unique

  19. Study of the glow curve structure of the minerals separated from black pepper (Piper nigrum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, S.; Ruiz Gurrola, B.; Cruz-Zaragoza, E.; Tufiño, A.; Furetta, C.; Favalli, A.; Brown, F.

    2011-04-01

    The inorganic mineral fraction extracted from black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) has been analysed using a thermoluminescence (TL) method, investigating the glow curve structure, including an evaluation of the kinetic parameters. Different grain sizes, i.e. 10, 74, and 149 μm, were selected from commercial black pepper. The X-ray diffraction of the inorganic fraction shows that quartz is the main mineral present in it. The samples were exposed to 1-25 kGy doses by gamma rays of 60Co in order to analyse the thermally stimulated luminescence response as a function of the delivered dose. The glow curves show a complex structure for different grain sizes of the pepper mineral samples. The fading of the TL signal at room temperature was obtained after irradiation, and it was observed that the maximum peaks of the glow curves shift towards higher values of the temperature when the elapsed time from irradiation increases. It seems that the fading characteristic may be related to a continuous trap distribution responsible for the complex structure of the glow curve. Similar glow curves structure behaviour was found under ultraviolet irradiation of the samples. The activation energy and the frequency factor were determined from the glow curves of different grain sizes using a deconvolution programme because of the evident complexity of the structure.

  20. Unravelling the complexity of microRNA-mediated gene regulation in black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) using high-throughput small RNA profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asha, Srinivasan; Sreekumar, Sweda; Soniya, E V

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of high-throughput small RNA deep sequencing data, in combination with black pepper transcriptome sequences revealed microRNA-mediated gene regulation in black pepper ( Piper nigrum L.). Black pepper is an important spice crop and its berries are used worldwide as a natural food additive that contributes unique flavour to foods. In the present study to characterize microRNAs from black pepper, we generated a small RNA library from black pepper leaf and sequenced it by Illumina high-throughput sequencing technology. MicroRNAs belonging to a total of 303 conserved miRNA families were identified from the sRNAome data. Subsequent analysis from recently sequenced black pepper transcriptome confirmed precursor sequences of 50 conserved miRNAs and four potential novel miRNA candidates. Stem-loop qRT-PCR experiments demonstrated differential expression of eight conserved miRNAs in black pepper. Computational analysis of targets of the miRNAs showed 223 potential black pepper unigene targets that encode diverse transcription factors and enzymes involved in plant development, disease resistance, metabolic and signalling pathways. RLM-RACE experiments further mapped miRNA-mediated cleavage at five of the mRNA targets. In addition, miRNA isoforms corresponding to 18 miRNA families were also identified from black pepper. This study presents the first large-scale identification of microRNAs from black pepper and provides the foundation for the future studies of miRNA-mediated gene regulation of stress responses and diverse metabolic processes in black pepper.

  1. Aflatoxins and ochratoxin a reduction in black and white pepper by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalili, M.; Jinap, S.; Noranizan, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Irradiation is an important means of decontamination of food commodities, especially spices. The aim of the current study was to investigate the efficacy of gamma radiation ( 60 Co) for decontaminating ochratoxin A (OTA) and aflatoxins B 1 (AFB 1 ), B 2 (AFB 2 ), G 1 (AFG 1 ) and G 2 (AFG 2 ) residues in artificially contaminated black and white pepper samples. The moisture content of the pepper samples was set at 12% or 18%, and the applied gamma dose ranged from 5 to 30 kGy. Mycotoxin levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) after immunoaffinity column (IAC) chromatography. Both the gamma irradiation dose and moisture content showed significant effects (P<0.05) on mycotoxin reduction. The maximum toxin reductions, found at 18% moisture content and 30 kGy, were 55.2%, 50.6%, 39.2%, 47.7% and 42.9% for OTA, AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2, respectively. - Highlights: ► The effect of gamma ray on the reduction of AFs and OTA in pepper was investigated. ► The gamma dose and moisture showed significant effects on mycotoxin reduction. ► The maximum reduction was found at 18% moisture content and 30 kGy gamma ray. ► The method, even at 30 kGy and 18% moisture, failed to destroy total of mycotoxins.

  2. Conservation by irradiation of vacuum packed spices (black pepper and curcuma)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassad, Hela

    2007-01-01

    This work has been carried out to study the effectiveness of the irradiation gamma and its influence on the conservation of the black pepper and curcuma. The latter are used for culinary seasoning and conservation. Moreover, they have phytotherapic properties but remain very contaminated for a use without treatment. Accordingly, after packing them in vacuum plastic films, the powder of the black pepper and the one of curcuma are irradiated at a different doses (3, 6, 10 and 12 kGy). The results show that the irradiation is very effective from a microbiological point of view. indeed, from 10 kGy the spices became sterile. Admittedly, this dose radically inhibited the development of the micro-organisms which were present at very high rates in the non treated spices; and eliminated the agents of toxi-infections ( salmonella, staphylococcus aureus). Moreover, the irradiation doses not have a significant effect on the physicochemical and organoleptic parameters, except for the viscosity which decreased. Concerning the black pepper, it proved that the irradiation does have a significant effect on the piperine whose value is maintained almost stable. As for the curcuma the irradiation improves its color; it actually changed from dark yellow to bright yellow. For the packing the amounts used do not generate significant modification of polyethylene. Throughout the follow-up a significant proliferation of all the germs present in non t reated spices was observed. μIn contrast, there was no recontamination for spices treated with 10 kGy. At the end of storage the contents of piperine and curcuminoids decreased but they remain higher that their corresponding standards. Consequently, we conclude that the irradiation increases the shelf life. (Author)

  3. Determination of homogeneous zones for liming recommendations of black pepper using geostatistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivoney Gontijo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Studies aimed at determining homogeneous zones and the spatial variability of soil characteristics may improve the efficiency of agricultural input applications. The purpose of this study was to determine homogeneous zones for liming applications and to characterize the spatial variability of characteristics related to soil acidity and productivity in an Oxisol cultivated with black pepper (Piper nigrum L.. This study was carried out in São Mateus, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. The experimental site was 100 x 120 m. A grid with 126 sampling points was established. Three soil sub-samples were collected at each sampling point in the black pepper canopy areas, at a 0-0.20 m depth. Crop productivity was estimated by harvesting the three plants neighboring each sampling point. Descriptive statistics and geostatistical analyses were performed. Homogeneous management zones were defined based on map of liming needs. Mathematical models adjusted to semivariograms indicated that all of the studied variables exhibited spatial dependency. An analysis of the spatial variability together with the definition of homogeneous zones can be used to increase the efficiency of soil liming.

  4. Structural and sensory characterization of key pungent and tingling compounds from black pepper (Piper nigrum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawid, Corinna; Henze, Andrea; Frank, Oliver; Glabasnia, Anneke; Rupp, Mathias; Büning, Kirsten; Orlikowski, Diana; Bader, Matthias; Hofmann, Thomas

    2012-03-21

    To gain a more comprehensive knowledge on whether, besides the well-known piperine, other compounds are responsible for the pungent and tingling oral impression imparted by black pepper, an ethanol extract prepared from black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) was screened for its key sensory-active nonvolatiles by application of taste dilution analysis (TDA). Purification of the compounds perceived with the highest sensory impact, followed by LC-MS and 1D/2D NMR experiments as well as synthesis, led to the structure determination of 25 key pungent and tingling phytochemicals, among which the eight amides 1-(octadeca-2E,4E,13Z-trienyl)piperidine, 1-(octadeca-2E,4E,13Z-trienyl)pyrrolidine, (2E,4E,13Z)-N-isobutyl-octadeca-2,4,13-trienamide, 1-(octadeca-2E,4E,12Z-trienoyl)-pyrrolidine, 1-(eicosa-2E,4E,15Z-trienyl)piperidine, 1-(eicosa-2E,4E,15Z-trienyl)pyrrolidine, (2E,4E,15Z)-N-isobutyl-eicosa-2,4,15-trienamide, and 1-(eicosa-2E,4E,14Z-trienoyl)-pyrrolidine were not yet reported in literature. Sensory studies by means of a modified half-tongue test revealed recognition thresholds ranging from 3.0 to 1150.2 nmol/cm² for pungency and from 520.6 to 2162.1 nmol/cm² for the tingling orosensation depending on their chemical structure.

  5. Studies on the interactions of Meloidogyne incognita, Radopholus similis and Fusarium solani on black pepper (Piper nigrum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mustika, I.

    1990-01-01

    This study on the interactions between various cultivars of the black pepper plant (Piper nigrum L. ) and three of its pathogens, Meloidogyne Incognita (Kofoid & White) , Radopholus similis (Cobb) , Thorne and

  6. A gaseous acetic acid treatment to disinfect fenugreek seeds and black pepper inoculated with pathogenic and spoilage bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nei, Daisuke; Enomoto, Katsuyoshi; Nakamura, Nobutaka

    2015-08-01

    Contamination of spices by pathogenic and/or spoilage bacteria can be deleterious to consumer's health and cause deterioration of foods, and inactivation of such bacteria is necessary for the food industry. The present study examined the effect of gaseous acetic acid treatment in reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Enteritidis and Bacillus subtilis populations inoculated on fenugreek seeds and black pepper. Treatment with gaseous acetic acid at 0.3 mmol/L, 0.6 mmol/L and 4.7 mmol/L for 1-3 h significantly reduced the populations of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Enteritidis on black pepper and fenugreek seeds at 55 °C (p pathogens than the treatment at 0.3 mmol/L. An approximately 5.0 log reduction was obtained after 3 h of treatment with 4.7 mmol/L acetic acid. No significant reductions in the population of B. subtilis spores inoculated on fenugreek seeds and black pepper were obtained after the gas treatments at 0.3 mmol/L or 0.6 mmol/L (p > 0.05). However, the gas treatment at 4.7 mmol/L significantly reduced B. subtilis spores (p < 0.05), and 4.0 log CFU/g and 3.5 log CFU/g reductions on fenugreek seeds and black pepper, respectively, were obtained after 3 h of treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Protocols for Improvement of Black Pepper (Piper nigrum L.) Utilizing Biotechnological Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmal Babu, K; Divakaran, Minoo; Yamuna, G; Ravindran, P N; Peter, K V

    2016-01-01

    Black pepper, Piper nigrum L., the "King of spices" is the most widely used spice growing in the South-Western region of India. The humid tropical evergreen forest bordering the Malabar Coast (Western Ghats is one of the hot spot areas of plant bio-diversity on earth) is its center of origin and diversity. However, the crop faces constraints like rampant fungal and viral diseases, lack of disease free planting material, hence biotechnological tools can be utilized to address these problems and strides have been made successfully. The standardization of micropropagation, somatic embryogenesis, in vitro conservation, protoplast isolation, and genetic transformation protocols are described here. The protocols could be utilized to achieve similar goals in the related species of Piper too.

  8. Radio-frequency heating to inactivate Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on black and red pepper spice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Youn; Sagong, Hun-Gu; Choi, Sang Ho; Ryu, Sangryeol; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2012-02-01

    The efficacy of radio-frequency (RF) heating to inactivate Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on black and red pepper spice was investigated. A 27.12 MHz RF heating system consisted of two parallel-plate electrodes was used, with the sample being placed between them. Black peppers (whole and ground) and red peppers (+ 16 mesh, -16 + 25 mesh, and -25 mesh) inoculated with S. Typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7 were treated with RF energy during 50s for black peppers and 40s for red peppers, and color change of samples was evaluated after treatment. RF heating for 50s resulted in 2.80 to 4.29 log CFU/g reductions of S. Typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7 in black peppers and RF heating of red peppers for 40s reduced pathogens by 3.38 log CFU/g to more than 5 log CFU/g (below the detection limit) without affecting the color quality change. The results suggest that RF heating has the potential for novel thermal process to control foodborne pathogens in spice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Studies on the effects of phosphine on Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis in culture medium and in black pepper (Piper nigrum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, M F P M; Rezende, A C B; Benato, E A; Valentini, S R T; Furlani, R P Z; Tfouni, S A V

    2011-04-01

    The effect of phosphine on Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis inoculated in culture medium and in black pepper grains (Piper nigrum), as well as on the reduction of the microbial load of the dried and moisturized product, was verified. The postfumigation effect was verified in inoculated samples with 0.92 and 0.97 water activity (a(w)) exposed to 6 g/m(3) phosphine for 72 h, dried to 0.67 a(w), and stored for 24, 48, and 72 h. No decreases were observed in Salmonella Enteritidis populations in culture medium when fumigant concentrations up to 6 g/m(3) were applied for 48 h at 35°C. However, the colonies showed reductions in size and atypical coloration as the phosphine concentration increased. No reduction in Salmonella counts occurred on the inoculated dried samples after fumigation. On the other hand, when phosphine at concentrations of 6 g/m(3) was applied on moisturized black pepper for 72 h, decreases in Salmonella counts of around 80% were observed. The counts of total aerobic mesophilic bacterium populations of the dried and moisturized black pepper were not affected by the fumigant treatment. The results of the postfumigation studies indicated that Salmonella Enteritidis was absent in the fumigated grains after drying and storage for 72 h, indicating a promising application for this technique. It was concluded that for Salmonella Enteritidis control, phosphine fumigation could be applied to black pepper grains before drying and the producers should rigidly follow good agricultural practices, mainly during the drying process, in order to avoid product recontamination. Additional work is needed to confirm the findings with more Salmonella serotypes and strains.

  10. De novo transcriptome sequencing of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) and an analysis of genes involved in phenylpropanoid metabolism in response to Phytophthora capsici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Chaoyun; Xia, Zhiqiang; Fan, Rui; Tan, Lehe; Hu, Lisong; Wu, Baoduo; Wu, Huasong

    2016-10-21

    Piper nigrum L., or "black pepper", is an economically important spice crop in tropical regions. Black pepper production is markedly affected by foot rot disease caused by Phytophthora capsici, and genetic improvement of black pepper is essential for combating foot rot diseases. However, little is known about the mechanism of anti- P. capsici in black pepper. The molecular mechanisms underlying foot rot susceptibility were studied by comparing transcriptome analysis between resistant (Piper flaviflorum) and susceptible (Piper nigrum cv. Reyin-1) black pepper species. 116,432 unigenes were acquired from six libraries (three replicates of resistant and susceptible black pepper samples), which were integrated by applying BLAST similarity searches and noted by adopting Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Gene Ontology (GO) genome orthology identifiers. The reference transcriptome was mapped using two sets of digital gene expression data. Using GO enrichment analysis for the differentially expressed genes, the majority of the genes associated with the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway were identified in P. flaviflorum. In addition, the expression of genes revealed that after susceptible and resistant species were inoculated with P. capsici, the majority of genes incorporated in the phenylpropanoid metabolism pathway were up-regulated in both species. Among various treatments and organs, all the genes were up-regulated to a relatively high degree in resistant species. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase and peroxidase enzyme activity increased in susceptible and resistant species after inoculation with P. capsici, and the resistant species increased faster. The resistant plants retain their vascular structure in lignin revealed by histochemical analysis. Our data provide critical information regarding target genes and a technological basis for future studies of black pepper genetic improvements, including transgenic breeding.

  11. Postharvest Processing and Benefits of Black Pepper, Coriander, Cinnamon, Fenugreek, and Turmeric Spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, S; Roselin, P; Singh, K K; Zachariah, John; Saxena, S N

    2016-07-26

    Spices are prime source for flavor, aroma, and taste in cuisines and play an active role as medicines due to their high antioxidant properties. As medicine or food, the importance of spices cannot be overemphasized. The medicinal values of spices are very well established in treating various ailments like cancer, fever, malaria, stomach offset, nausea, and many more. A spice may be available in several forms: fresh, whole dried, or pre-ground dried which requires further processing to be utilized in the form of value-added product. This review paper deals with the cultivation, postharvesting, chemical composition, uses, health, and medicinal benefits of the selected spice viz., black pepper, coriander, cinnamon, fenugreek, turmeric, and technological advances in processing of spices viz., super critical fluid extraction, cryogenic grinding, and microencapsulation etc. This paper also focuses on issues related to utilization of spices toward its high end-product development and characterization in pharmaceuticals and other medicinal purposes. The availability of different spices and their varietal differences and location have their pertinent characters, which are much demanding to refine postharvest and processing to assure its quality in the international market.

  12. A case study in Bangka Island, Indonesia on the utilization of pesticides in black pepper plantations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiratno,; Taniwiryono, D.; Brink, van den P.J.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Murk, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    Habits and consequences of pesticide use in pepper plantations were studied in Indonesia. The first study was conducted by questioning 117 farmers about their habits in pesticide use and determining pesticide residues on pepper berries on Bangka Island. Meanwhile, the second study was completed by

  13. In vitro antioxidant activity of pet ether extract of black pepper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ramnik; Singh, Narinder; Saini, B.S.; Rao, Harwinder Singh

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the in vitro antioxidant activity of different fractions (R1, R2 and R3) obtained from pet ether extract of black pepper fruits (Piper nigrum Linn.) Materials and Methods: The fractions R1, R2 and R3 were eluted from pet ether and ethyl acetate in the ratio of 6:4, 5:5 and 4:6, respectively. 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical, superoxide anion radical, nitric oxide radical, and hydroxyl radical scavenging assays were carried out to evaluate the antioxidant potential of the extract. Results: The free radical scavenging activity of the different fractions of pet ether extract of P. nigrum (PEPN) increased in a concentration dependent manner. The R3 and R2 fraction of PEPN in 500 µg/ml inhibited the peroxidation of a linoleic acid emulsion by 60.48±3.33% and 58.89±2.51%, respectively. In DPPH free radical scavenging assay, the activity of R3 and R2 were found to be almost similar. The R3 (100µg/ml) fraction of PEPN inhibited 55.68±4.48% nitric oxide radicals generated from sodium nitroprusside, whereas curcumin in the same concentration inhibited 84.27±4.12%. Moreover, PEPN scavenged the superoxide radical generated by the Xanthine/Xanthine oxidase system. The fraction R2 and R3 in the doses of 1000µg/ml inhibited 61.04±5.11% and 63.56±4.17%, respectively. The hydroxyl radical was generated by Fenton's reaction. The amounts of total phenolic compounds were determined and 56.98 µg pyrocatechol phenol equivalents were detected in one mg of R3. Conclusions: P. nigrum could be considered as a potential source of natural antioxidant. PMID:20040947

  14. SOIL MYCOFLORA OF BLACK PEPPER RHIZOSPHERE IN THE PHILIPPINES AND THEIR IN VITRO ANTAGONISM AGAINST Phytophthora capsici L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Noveriza

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Foot rot disease of black pepper caused by Phytophthora capsici had been reported in Batangas and Laguna, Philippines. The plant was recovered following the application of crop residue (organic substrate and intercropping with other crops. This study was aimed to isolate, identify, and determine the soil mycoflora from the rhizosphere of black pepper grown on various cropping patterns in Batangas and Laguna. Antagonistic activity of mycoflora isolates was tested against P. capsici using dual culture technique. The result showed that 149 colonies of soil mycoflora isolated were belonging to 14 genera; three of them, i.e. Penicillium, Paecilomyces and Aspergillus, were the most dominant. All of the mycoflora isolates were able to inhibit the growth of the pathogen. Eighteen of them were the most promising antagonists, based on their inhibition growth of more than 60%. It is suggested that antagonistic mechanism of Mucor isolate (1001, Trichoderma (125, 170, 171, 179, 180, 181, Gliocladium (109, Cunninghamella (165, 168, Mortierella (177, and Aspergillus (106 was space competitor (competition for nutrient since they rapidly overgrew the pathogen. Aspergillus (67, 79, 81, 83, 108, and 202 isolates inhibited the pathogen apparently by producing antibiotic, whereas Trichoderma (125, 170, 171, 179, 180, and 181 isolates were able to penetrate the hyphae of the pathogen. The organic matter percentage in the soil was significantly correlated with the number of antagonistic mycoflora in rhizosphere (R2 = 0.1094, but the cropping pattern was negatively correlated. This study suggests that organic matter increased antagonistic mycoflora in black pepper rhizosphere, which will reduce severity of the disease.

  15. PENENTUAN WAKTU KADALUARSA DAN MODEL SORPSI ISOTERMIS BIJI DAN BUBUK LADA HITAM (Piper ningrum L. [Shelf Life Prediction and Isotherm Sorption Model of Dried Grain and Powdered Black Pepper (Piper ningrum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Diah2

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Black pepper is one of the most popular spice traded around the globe, either in dried grain form or in bulky powder. However, for retailing purpose both are usually packaged in plastic film. This research was conducted to predict the shelf life of packaged black pepper (both dried grain and powder by applying isotherm sorption and Labuza models. Initial moisture content of dried grain was 12.17 % d.b and for the powder was 10.27 % d.b. The shelf life of black pepper calculated for the dried grain was longer than the powder. When stored at 90 % RH, the dried grain black pepper packaged in HDPE demonstrated the longest shelf life which was equal to 2187 days and for the powder equal to 2037 days. The volatile oil loss for dried grain black pepper after 30 days of preservation was 1.36 % and for the powder was 40.82%.

  16. Antifungal activity and computational study of constituents from Piper divaricatum essential oil against Fusarium infection in black pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Joyce Kelly R; Silva, José Rogério A; Nascimento, Soelange B; da Luz, Shirlley F M; Meireles, Erisléia N; Alves, Cláudio N; Ramos, Alessandra R; Maia, José Guilherme S

    2014-11-04

    Fusarium disease causes considerable losses in the cultivation of Piper nigrum, the black pepper used in the culinary world. Brazil was the largest producer of black pepper, but in recent years has lost this hegemony, with a significant reduction in its production, due to the ravages produced by the Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis, the fungus which causes this disease. Scientific research seeks new alternatives for the control and the existence of other Piper species in the Brazilian Amazon, resistant to disease, are being considered in this context. The main constituents of the oil of Piper divaricatum are methyleugenol (75.0%) and eugenol (10.0%). The oil and these two main constituents were tested individually at concentrations of 0.25 to 2.5 mg/mL against F. solani f. sp. piperis, exhibiting strong antifungal index, from 18.0% to 100.0%. The 3D structure of the β-glucosidase from Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis, obtained by homology modeling, was used for molecular docking and molecular electrostatic potential calculations in order to determine the binding energy of the natural substrates glucose, methyleugenol and eugenol. The results showed that β-glucosidase (Asp45, Arg113, Lys146, Tyr193, Asp225, Trp226 and Leu99) residues play an important role in the interactions that occur between the protein-substrate and the engenol and methyleugenol inhibitors, justifying the antifungal action of these two phenylpropenes against Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis.

  17. Modeling the impact of climate change on wild Piper nigrum (Black Pepper) in Western Ghats, India using ecological niche models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Sandeep; Gode, Ameya; Ramanujam, Srirama; Ravikanth, G; Aravind, N A

    2016-11-01

    The center of diversity of Piper nigrum L. (Black Pepper), one of the highly valued spice crops is reported to be from India. Black pepper is naturally distributed in India in the Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot and is the only known existing source of its wild germplasm in the world. We used ecological niche models to predict the potential distribution of wild P. nigrum in the present and two future climate change scenarios viz (A1B) and (A2A) for the year 2080. Three topographic and nine uncorrelated bioclim variables were used to develop the niche models. The environmental variables influencing the distribution of wild P. nigrum across different climate change scenarios were identified. We also assessed the direction and magnitude of the niche centroid shift and the change in niche breadth to estimate the impact of projected climate change on the distribution of P. nigrum. The study shows a niche centroid shift in the future climate scenarios. Both the projected future climate scenarios predicted a reduction in the habitat of P. nigrum in Southern Western Ghats, which harbors many wild accessions of P. nigrum. Our results highlight the impact of future climate change on P. nigrum and provide useful information for designing sound germplasm conservation strategies for P. nigrum.

  18. Secondary Metabolic Profiles of Two Cultivars of Piper nigrum (Black Pepper) Resulting from Infection by Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Luz, Shirlley F M; Yamaguchi, Lydia F; Kato, Massuo J; de Lemos, Oriel F; Xavier, Luciana P; Maia, José Guilherme S; Ramos, Alessandra de R; Setzer, William N; da Silva, Joyce Kelly do R

    2017-12-07

    Bragantina and Cingapura are the main black pepper ( Piper nigrum L.) cultivars and the Pará state is the largest producer in Brazil with about 90% of national production, representing the third largest production in the world. The infection of Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis , the causal agent of Fusarium disease in black pepper, was monitored on the cultivars Bragantina (susceptible) and Cingapura (tolerant), during 45 days' post infection (dpi). Gas Chromatography-Mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the volatile concentrates of both cultivars showed that the Bragantina responded with the production of higher contents of α-bisabolol at 21 dpi and a decrease of elemol, mostly at 30 dpi; while Cingapura displayed an decrease of δ-elemene production, except at 15 dpi. The phenolic content determined by the Folin Ciocalteu method showed an increase in the leaves of plants inoculated at 7 dpi (Bragantina) and 7-15 dpi (Cingapura); in the roots, the infection caused a phenolic content decrease in Bragantina cultivar at 45 dpi and an increase in the Cingapura cultivar at 15, 30 and 45 dpi. High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) analysis of the root extracts showed a qualitative variation of alkamides during infection. The results indicated that there is a possible relationship between secondary metabolites and tolerance against phytopathogens.

  19. Consumer and farmer safety evaluation of application of botanical pesticides in black pepper crop protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez-Moreno, J.; Soffers, A.E.M.F.; Wiratno,; Falke, H.E.; Rietjens, I.; Murk, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a consumer and farmer safety evaluation on the use of four botanical pesticides in pepper berry crop protection. The pesticides evaluated include preparations from clove, tuba root, sweet flag and pyrethrum. Their safety evaluation was based on their active ingredients being

  20. Foliar diagnosis, nutrition and yield stability of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) in Sarawak

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waard, de P.W.F.

    1969-01-01

    Until 1942 cultivation of pepper P. nigrum L. in Sarawak produced relatively small but regular yields. High demands after 1945 and restricted use of "burnt earth" compelled farmers to abandon the application of this traditional fertilizer. Instead, "fool proof" manufactured fertilizers

  1. Anti-biofilm, anti-hemolysis, and anti-virulence activities of black pepper, cananga, myrrh oils, and nerolidol against Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kayeon; Lee, Jin-Hyung; Kim, Soon-Il; Cho, Moo Hwan; Lee, Jintae

    2014-11-01

    The long-term usage of antibiotics has resulted in the evolution of multidrug-resistant bacteria. Unlike antibiotics, anti-virulence approaches target bacterial virulence without affecting cell viability, which may be less prone to develop drug resistance. Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen that produces diverse virulence factors, such as α-toxin, which is hemolytic. Also, biofilm formation of S. aureus is one of the mechanisms of its drug resistance. In this study, anti-biofilm screening of 83 essential oils showed that black pepper, cananga, and myrrh oils and their common constituent cis-nerolidol at 0.01 % markedly inhibited S. aureus biofilm formation. Furthermore, the three essential oils and cis-nerolidol at below 0.005 % almost abolished the hemolytic activity of S. aureus. Transcriptional analyses showed that black pepper oil down-regulated the expressions of the α-toxin gene (hla), the nuclease genes, and the regulatory genes. In addition, black pepper, cananga, and myrrh oils and cis-nerolidol attenuated S. aureus virulence in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. This study is one of the most extensive on anti-virulence screening using diverse essential oils and provides comprehensive data on the subject. This finding implies other beneficial effects of essential oils and suggests that black pepper, cananga, and myrrh oils have potential use as anti-virulence strategies against persistent S. aureus infections.

  2. Endophytic bacterial flora in root and stem tissues of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) genotype: isolation, identification and evaluation against Phytophthora capsici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravind, R; Kumar, A; Eapen, S J; Ramana, K V

    2009-01-01

    To isolate and identify black pepper (Piper nigrum L) associated endophytic bacteria antagonistic to Phytophthora capsici causing foot rot disease. Endophytic bacteria (74) were isolated, characterized and evaluated against P. capsici. Six genera belong to Pseudomonas spp (20 strains), Serratia (1 strain), Bacillus spp. (22 strains), Arthrobacter spp. (15 strains), Micrococcus spp. (7 strains), Curtobacterium sp. (1 strain) and eight unidentified strains were isolated from internal tissues of root and stem. Three isolates, IISRBP 35, IISRBP 25 and IISRBP 17 were found effective for Phytophthora suppression in multilevel screening assays which recorded over 70% disease suppression in greenhouse trials. A species closest match (99% similarity) of IISRBP 35 was established as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pseudomonas EF568931), IISRBP 25 as P. putida (Pseudomonas EF568932), and IISRBP 17 as Bacillus megaterium (B. megaterium EU071712) based on 16S rDNA sequencing. Black pepper associated P. aeruginosa, P. putida and B. megaterium were identified as effective antagonistic endophytes for biological control of Phytophthora foot rot in black pepper. This work provides the first evidence for endophytic bacterial diversity in black pepper stem and roots, with biocontrol potential against P. capsici infection.

  3. Transfer RNA Derived Small RNAs Targeting Defense Responsive Genes Are Induced during Phytophthora capsici Infection in Black Pepper (Piper nigrum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asha, Srinivasan; Soniya, Eppurath V

    2016-01-01

    Small RNAs derived from transfer RNAs were recently assigned as potential gene regulatory candidates for various stress responses in eukaryotes. In this study, we report on the cloning and identification of tRNA derived small RNAs from black pepper plants in response to the infection of the quick wilt pathogen, Phytophthora capsici. 5'tRFs cloned from black pepper were validated as highly expressed during P. capsici infection. A high-throughput systematic analysis of the small RNAome (sRNAome) revealed the predominance of 5'tRFs in the infected leaf and root. The abundance of 5'tRFs in the sRNAome and the defense responsive genes as their potential targets indicated their regulatory role during stress response in black pepper. The 5'Ala(CGC) tRF mediated cleavage was experimentally mapped at the tRF binding sites on the mRNA targets of Non-expresser of pathogenesis related protein (NPR1), which was down-regulated during pathogen infection. Comparative sRNAome further demonstrated sequence conservation of 5'Ala tRFs across the angiosperm plant groups, and many important genes in the defense response were identified in silico as their potential targets. Our findings uncovered the diversity, differential expression and stress responsive functional role of tRNA-derived small RNAs during Phytophthora infection in black pepper.

  4. Trichoderma harzianum MTCC 5179 impacts the population and functional dynamics of microbial community in the rhizosphere of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umadevi, Palaniyandi; Anandaraj, Muthuswamy; Srivastav, Vivek; Benjamin, Sailas

    2017-11-29

    Employing Illumina Hiseq whole genome metagenome sequencing approach, we studied the impact of Trichoderma harzianum on altering the microbial community and its functional dynamics in the rhizhosphere soil of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.). The metagenomic datasets from the rhizosphere with (treatment) and without (control) T. harzianum inoculation were annotated using dual approach, i.e., stand alone and MG-RAST. The probiotic application of T. harzianum in the rhizhosphere soil of black pepper impacted the population dynamics of rhizosphere bacteria, archae, eukaryote as reflected through the selective recruitment of bacteria [Acidobacteriaceae bacterium (p=1.24e-12), Candidatus koribacter versatilis (p=2.66e-10)] and fungi [(Fusarium oxysporum (p=0.013), Talaromyces stipitatus (p=0.219) and Pestalotiopsis fici (p=0.443)] in terms of abundance in population and bacterial chemotaxis (p=0.012), iron metabolism (p=2.97e-5) with the reduction in abundance for pathogenicity islands (p=7.30e-3), phages and prophages (p=7.30e-3) with regard to functional abundance. Interestingly, it was found that the enriched functional metagenomic signatures on phytoremediation such as benzoate transport and degradation (p=2.34e-4), and degradation of heterocyclic aromatic compounds (p=3.59e-13) in the treatment influenced the rhizosphere micro ecosystem favoring growth and health of pepper plant. The population dynamics and functional richness of rhizosphere ecosystem in black pepper influenced by the treatment with T. harzianum provides the ecological importance of T. harzianum in the cultivation of black pepper. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Consumer and farmer safety evaluation of application of botanical pesticides in black pepper crop protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Moreno, David; Soffers, Ans E M F; Wiratno; Falke, Hein E; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Murk, Albertinka J

    2013-06-01

    This study presents a consumer and farmer safety evaluation on the use of four botanical pesticides in pepper berry crop protection. The pesticides evaluated include preparations from clove, tuba root, sweet flag and pyrethrum. Their safety evaluation was based on their active ingredients being eugenol, rotenone, β-asarone and pyrethrins, respectively. Botanical pesticides from Acorus calamus are of possible concern because of the genotoxic and carcinogenic ingredient β-asarone although estimated margins of exposure (MOE) for consumers indicate a low priority for risk management. For the other three botanical pesticides the margin of safety (MOS) between established acute reference doses and/or acceptable daily intake values and intake estimates for the consumer, resulting from their use as a botanical pesticide are not of safety concern, with the exception for levels of rotenone upon use of tuba root extracts on stored berries. Used levels of clove and pyrethrum as botanical pesticides in pepper berry crop production is not of safety concern for consumers or farmers, whereas for use of tuba root and sweet flag some risk factors were defined requiring further evaluation and/or risk management. It seems prudent to look for alternatives for use of sweet flag extracts containing β-asarone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The influence of radappertization upon some sensory properties of black pepper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchman, W.; Fiszer, W.; Pawlik, A.

    1983-01-01

    Radappertization may be used as an effective method for sterilization of spices. A possible influence of irradiation upon the sensoric qualities should be considered in this context. Therefore the objectives of the work were the determination of the influence of pepper irradiation on its sensoric quality, on the qualitative changes of volatile chemical substances and on the correlation between changes resulting from irradiation and the sensoric quality of pepper. The spice was irradiated with doses of 10, 0, 40 and 60 kGy. Thresholds of recognition and difference were determined. The quantity of the dose was related to the values of thresholds mentioned above. The larger the dose, the less intensive the flavor and the higher the thresholds. A significant influence of irradiation upon the decrease of the quantity of essential oils and carbohydrates was noticed. There was a relation between the results of sensoric assessments and the chemical characteristics (the content of volatile carbonyl, sulphuric and nitrogenic substances). Correlation between these factors was determined on the basic statistical analysis of the results obtained during investigation. (author)

  7. Chemistry and in vitro antioxidant activity of volatile oil and oleoresins of black pepper (Piper nigrum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, I P S; Singh, Bandana; Singh, Gurdip; De Heluani, Carola S; De Lampasona, M P; Catalan, Cesar A N

    2009-06-24

    Essential oil and oleoresins (ethanol and ethyl acetate) of Piper nigrum were extracted by using Clevenger and Soxhlet apparatus, respectively. GC-MS analysis of pepper essential oil showed the presence of 54 components representing about 96.6% of the total weight. beta-Caryophylline (29.9%) was found as the major component along with limonene (13.2%), beta-pinene (7.9%), sabinene (5.9%), and several other minor components. The major component of both ethanol and ethyl acetate oleoresins was found to contain piperine (63.9 and 39.0%), with many other components in lesser amounts. The antioxidant activities of essential oil and oleoresins were evaluated against mustard oil by peroxide, p-anisidine, and thiobarbituric acid. Both the oil and oleoresins showed strong antioxidant activity in comparison with butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) but lower than that of propyl gallate (PG). In addition, their inhibitory action by FTC method, scavenging capacity by DPPH (2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical), and reducing power were also determined, proving the strong antioxidant capacity of both the essential oil and oleoresins of pepper.

  8. The effect of the combined treatment of gamma irradiation and heating on the aerobic bacterial load of white and black peppers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Khan Ayob; Ismail Bahari; Osman Hassan; Verumandy Kaleswaran

    1985-01-01

    The effect of combined heat-irradiation treatment on the aerobic bacterial load of black and white peppers were evaluated in comparison with that of heat or irradiation treatment only. The irradiation doses applied were 0 (control), 2, 4, 6 and 8 kGy and the heating temperatures were 28 (control), 50, 60, 70 and 80 deg C. Results indicated that gamma radiation of 7 kGy and 5 kGy were capable of reducing bacterial population from 3.6 x 10 6 /g and 2.9 x 10 5 /g to 3 /g black and white peppers, respectively. Heating at drying temperature could only reduce the bacterial contaminants to 1/2 log cycle. Combined treatment of irradiation followed by heating is more effective in reducing the bacterial load, and the combined treatment of heating followed by irradiation showed similar effects as in irradiation treatment alone. (author)

  9. Inhibitory Effect of Black and Red Pepper and Thyme Extracts and Essential Oils on Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli and DNase Activity of Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarringhalam, Maryam; Zaringhalam, Jalal; Shadnoush, Mehdi; Safaeyan, Firouzeh; Tekieh, Elaheh

    2013-01-01

    In this study, extracts and essential oils of Black and Red pepper and Thyme were tested for antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli O157: H7 and Staphylococcus aureus. Black and Red pepper and Thyme were provided from Iranian agricultural researches center. 2 g of each plant powder was added to 10 cc ethanol 96°. After 24 h, the crude extract was separated as an alcoholic extract and concentrated by distillation method. Plants were examined for determining their major component and essential oils were separated. Phytochemical analyses were done for detection of some effective substances in extracts. The antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli O157: H7 and Staphylococcus aureus was tested and the results showed that all extracts and essential oils were effective and essential oils were more active. The extracts and oils that showed antimicrobial activity were later tested to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Dilution (MID) for those bacteria. They were also effective on the inhibition of DNase activity. This study was indicated that extracts and essential oils of Black and Red pepper and Thyme can play a significant role in inhibition of Escherichia coli O157: H7 and Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:24250643

  10. Oxidative stability, thermal stability and acceptability of coconut oil flavored with essential oils from black pepper and ginger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Janu; Nayana, N; Roshini, N; Nisha, P

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigates the oxidative and thermal stability of flavoured oils developed by incorporating essential oils from black pepper and ginger to coconut oil (CNO) at concentrations of 0.1 and 1.0% (CNO P-0.1 , CNO P-1 , CNO G-0.1 , CNO G-1 ). The stability of oils were assessed in terms of free fatty acids, peroxide, p -anisidine, conjugated diene and triene values and compared with CNO without any additives and a positive control with synthetic antioxidant TBHQ (CNO T ). It was found that the stability of CNO P-1 and CNO G-1 were comparable with CNO T at both study conditions. The possibility of flavoured oil as a table top salad oil was explored by incorporating the same in vegetable salad and was found more acceptable than the control, on sensory evaluation. The synergetic effect of essential oil as a flavour enhancer and a powerful natural antioxidant that can slow down the oxidation of fats was established in the study.

  11. Differential expression of metallothionein type-2 homologues in leaves and roots of Black pepper (Piper nigrum L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M. Alex

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Black pepper (Piper nigrum L., member of the family Piperaceae is indigenous to India and is one of the most widely used spices in the world. In this paper we report the results of our attempts to identify a set of genes differentially expressed in the leaves of Piper nigrum, which could facilitate targeted engineering of this valuable crop. A PCR-based Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH technique was used to generate a leaf-specific subtracted cDNA library of Piper nigrum. A tester population of leaf cDNA was subtracted with a root derived driver cDNA. The efficiency of subtraction was confirmed by PCR analysis using the housekeeping gene actin. On sequence analysis, almost 30% of the clones showed homology to metallothionein type-2 gene. The predominance of metallothionein transcripts in the leaf was further confirmed using Real-Time PCR analyses and Northern blot. The possible role of metallothionein type-2 homologues in the leaf is discussed along with the feasibility of using SSH technique for identification of more number of tissue-specific genes from Piper nigrum.

  12. Differential inheritance of pepper (capsicum annum) fruit pigments results in black to violet fruit color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Color and appearance of fruits and vegetables are critical determinants of product quality and may afford high-value market opportunities. Exploiting the rich genetic diversity in Capsicum, we characterized the inheritance of black and violet immature fruit color and chlorophyll, carotenoid and ant...

  13. Effects of black pepper (piper nigrum), turmeric powder (curcuma longa) and coriander seeds (coriandrum sativum) and their combinations as feed additives on growth performance, carcass traits, some blood parameters and humoral immune response of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Elkhair, R; Ahmed, H A; Selim, S

    2014-06-01

    Different herbs and spices have been used as feed additives for various purposes in poultry production. This study was conducted to assess the effect of feed supplemented with black pepper (Piper nigrum), turmeric powder (Curcuma longa), coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum) and their combinations on the performance of broilers. A total of 210 (Cobb) one-d-old chicks were divided into seven groups of 30 birds each. The treatments were: a control group received no supplement, 0.5% black pepper (T1), 0.5% turmeric powder (T2), 2% coriander seeds (T3), a mixture of 0.5% black pepper and 0.5% turmeric powder (T4), a mixture of 0.5% black pepper and 2% coriander seed (T5), and a mixture of 0.5% black pepper, 0.5% turmeric powder and 2% coriander seeds (T6). Higher significant values of body weight gain during the whole period of 5 weeks (phealth status of broiler chickens.

  14. Produtividade da pimenta-do-reino em função de doses de esterco bovino Yield of black pepper submitted to different levels of cattle manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademar P Oliveira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Embora o estado da Paraíba tenha mostrado certa aptidão para o cultivo da pimenta-do-reino, sendo possível recomendá-la como alternativa de diversificação agrícola, não existe qualquer recomendação de adubação para a espécie. Este trabalho foi realizado na UFPB, em Areia, PB, e teve como objetivo avaliar genótipos de pimenta-do-reino adubados com doses crescentes de esterco bovino, em delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, com os tratamentos dispostos no esquema fatorial 5 x 3, sendo o primeiro fator representado pelas doses de esterco (0; 4; 8; 12 e 16 kg planta-1 e o segundo pelos genótipos (Bragantina, Iaçará e Cingapura, com quatro repetições. A pimenta-do-reino respondeu positivamente ao emprego de esterco bovino, nas condições edafoclimáticas de Areia. As máximas produções de pimenta verde por planta, dos genótipos Bragantina (1012 g, Iaçará (1269 g e Cingapura (627 g, foram obtidas com as doses estimadas de 7,3; 8,6 e 7,0 kg planta-1 de esterco bovino, respectivamente. Para produção da pimenta seca, as doses estimadas em 6,5; 8,9 e 7,8 kg planta-1 de esterco bovino foram responsáveis pelas máximas produções correspondendo a 358, 793 e 204 g planta-1 para os genótipos Bragantina, Iaçará e Cingapura, respectivamente.Although Paraíba State, has shown aptitude for black pepper cultivation, being possible to recommend it as an alternative for agricultural diversification in that area, no recommendation for black pepper crop fertilization exists. This research was conducted at the Universidade Federal da Paraíba, in Areia, Paraíba State, Brazil, to evaluate black pepper genotypes submitted to increasing levels of cattle manure. The experimental design was of randomized blocks, with treatments in the factorial 5 x 3 scheme. The first factor was represented by cattle manure levels (0; 4; 8; 12; and 16 kg plant-1 and the second factor, by the black pepper genotypes (Iaçará, Cingapura and

  15. Analysis of gamma irradiated pepper constituents, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Kazuko; Ochiai, Junko; Okuyama, Tsuneo

    1988-01-01

    Black pepper, white pepper, frozen green pepper and real pink pepper (kept in vinegar) were analyzed by reversed phase IIPLC. The extraction method and HPLC conditions were same as the first report, that is, the extraction from pepper was performed by Automatic Air Hammer and the extracted samples were separated on a reversed phase C 8 column with a concave gradient from 0.1% trifluoro aceticacid (TFA) in water to 75% acetonitrile - 0.1% TFA in water for 60 minutes and detected at 210 nm, 280 nm. The different constituents were observed clearly on chromatogram between black pepper and white pepper. The different constituents were observed between different producing white peppers, and as the result that the analyzed pepper was distinguished its producing district by HPLC chromatogram. In order to investigate of effect of lyophilization on white pepper extracts, lyophilized extraction was analyzed by this HPLC method. Some peaks were decreased by lyophilization. The effect of heat on white pepper constituents was examined. White pepper was heated by electronic oven and thermostat. When the former method was used, decreased peak number (peak height was lower than without heat treatment) was more than latter method. These subtle change was able to be recognized by these HPLC chromatograms. (author)

  16. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of three terpene synthases from unripe fruit of black pepper (Piper nigrum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhehao; Kwon, Moonhyuk; Lee, Ah-Reum; Ro, Dae-Kyun; Wungsintaweekul, Juraithip; Kim, Soo-Un

    2018-01-15

    To identify terpene synthases (TPS) responsible for the biosynthesis of the sesquiterpenes that contribute to the characteristic flavors of black pepper (Piper nigrum), unripe peppercorn was subjected to the Illumina transcriptome sequencing. The BLAST analysis using amorpha-4,11-diene synthase as a query identified 19 sesquiterpene synthases (sesqui-TPSs), of which three full-length cDNAs (PnTPS1 through 3) were cloned. These sesqui-TPS cDNAs were expressed in E. coli to produce recombinant enzymes for in vitro assays, and also expressed in the engineered yeast strain to assess their catalytic activities in vivo. PnTPS1 produced β-caryophyllene as a main product and humulene as a minor compound, and thus was named caryophyllene synthase (PnCPS). Likewise, PnTPS2 and PnTPS3 were, respectively, named cadinol/cadinene synthase (PnCO/CDS) and germacrene D synthase (PnGDS). PnGDS expression in yeast yielded β-cadinene and α-copaene, the rearrangement products of germacrene D. Their k cat /K m values (20-37.7 s -1  mM -1 ) were comparable to those of other sesqui-TPSs. Among three PnTPSs, the transcript level of PnCPS was the highest, correlating with the predominant β-caryophyllene biosynthesis in the peppercorn. The products and rearranged products of three PnTPSs could account for about a half of the sesquiterpenes in number found in unripe peppercorn. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Acute effects of mustard, horseradish, black pepper and ginger on energy expenditure, appetite, ad libitum energy intake and energy balance in human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Nikolaj Ture; Belza, Anita; Jensen, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Chilli peppers have been shown to enhance diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) and reduce energy intake (EI) in some studies, but there are few data on other pungent spices. The primary aim of the present study was to test the acute effects of black pepper (pepper), ginger, horseradish and mustard...... in a meal on 4 h postprandial DIT. The secondary aim was to examine the effects on subjective appetite measures, ad libitum EI and energy balance. In a five-way placebo-controlled, single-blind, cross-over trial, twenty-two young (age 24·9 (sd 4·6) years), normal-weight (BMI 21·8 (sd 2·1) kg/m2) males were...... produced DIT, which tended to be larger than that of placebo (14 %, 59 (se 3) v. 52 (se 2) kJ/h, respectively, P = 0·08). No other spice induced thermogenic effects approaching statistical significance. Subjective measures of appetite (P>0·85), ad libitum EI (P = 0·63) and energy balance (P = 0·67) also...

  18. De novo Transcriptome Sequencing Reveals a Considerable Bias in the Incidence of Simple Sequence Repeats towards the Downstream of ‘Pre-miRNAs’ of Black Pepper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, Nisha; Asha, Srinivasan; Mallika, Vijayan; Soniya, Eppurathu Vasudevan

    2013-01-01

    Next generation sequencing has an advantageon transformational development of species with limited available sequence data as it helps to decode the genome and transcriptome. We carried out the de novo sequencing using illuminaHiSeq™ 2000 to generate the first leaf transcriptome of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.), an important spice variety native to South India and also grown in other tropical regions. Despite the economic and biochemical importance of pepper, a scientifically rigorous study at the molecular level is far from complete due to lack of sufficient sequence information and cytological complexity of its genome. The 55 million raw reads obtained, when assembled using Trinity program generated 2,23,386 contigs and 1,28,157 unigenes. Reports suggest that the repeat-rich genomic regions give rise to small non-coding functional RNAs. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are the most abundant type of non-coding regulatory RNAs. In spite of the widespread research on miRNAs, little is known about the hair-pin precursors of miRNAs bearing Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs). We used the array of transcripts generated, for the in silico prediction and detection of ‘43 pre-miRNA candidates bearing different types of SSR motifs’. The analysis identified 3913 different types of SSR motifs with an average of one SSR per 3.04 MB of thetranscriptome. About 0.033% of the transcriptome constituted ‘pre-miRNA candidates bearing SSRs’. The abundance, type and distribution of SSR motifs studied across the hair-pin miRNA precursors, showed a significant bias in the position of SSRs towards the downstream of predicted ‘pre-miRNA candidates’. The catalogue of transcripts identified, together with the demonstration of reliable existence of SSRs in the miRNA precursors, permits future opportunities for understanding the genetic mechanism of black pepper and likely functions of ‘tandem repeats’ in miRNAs. PMID:23469176

  19. De novo transcriptome sequencing reveals a considerable bias in the incidence of simple sequence repeats towards the downstream of 'Pre-miRNAs' of black pepper.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Joy

    Full Text Available Next generation sequencing has an advantageon transformational development of species with limited available sequence data as it helps to decode the genome and transcriptome. We carried out the de novo sequencing using illuminaHiSeq™ 2000 to generate the first leaf transcriptome of black pepper (Piper nigrum L., an important spice variety native to South India and also grown in other tropical regions. Despite the economic and biochemical importance of pepper, a scientifically rigorous study at the molecular level is far from complete due to lack of sufficient sequence information and cytological complexity of its genome. The 55 million raw reads obtained, when assembled using Trinity program generated 2,23,386 contigs and 1,28,157 unigenes. Reports suggest that the repeat-rich genomic regions give rise to small non-coding functional RNAs. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are the most abundant type of non-coding regulatory RNAs. In spite of the widespread research on miRNAs, little is known about the hair-pin precursors of miRNAs bearing Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs. We used the array of transcripts generated, for the in silico prediction and detection of '43 pre-miRNA candidates bearing different types of SSR motifs'. The analysis identified 3913 different types of SSR motifs with an average of one SSR per 3.04 MB of thetranscriptome. About 0.033% of the transcriptome constituted 'pre-miRNA candidates bearing SSRs'. The abundance, type and distribution of SSR motifs studied across the hair-pin miRNA precursors, showed a significant bias in the position of SSRs towards the downstream of predicted 'pre-miRNA candidates'. The catalogue of transcripts identified, together with the demonstration of reliable existence of SSRs in the miRNA precursors, permits future opportunities for understanding the genetic mechanism of black pepper and likely functions of 'tandem repeats' in miRNAs.

  20. Clinicobiochemical evaluation of turmeric with black pepper and nigella sativa in management of oral submucous fibrosis-a double-blind, randomized preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipalia, Pratik R; Annigeri, Rajeshwari G; Mehta, Ranjeeta

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of turmeric with black pepper and nigella sativa in oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF). Forty OSMF patients were randomly divided into two groups. The study was performed under a double-blind, randomized design. Group A received turmeric with black pepper and group B received nigella sativa for 3 months. Clinical evaluation was done every 15 days. Patients' serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels were assessed before and after treatment and also compared with healthy controls. The response to treatment was analyzed using analysis of variance, paired t test, and unpaired t test. After the treatment, groups A and B showed 3.85 ± 0.22 mm and 3.6 ± 0.07 mm improvement in mouth opening, respectively (P nigella sativa improved mouth opening, burning sensation, and SOD levels in the present OSMF study patients; however, further investigations are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Immunopathological and antimicrobial effect of black pepper, ginger and thyme extracts on experimental model of acute hematogenous pyelonephritis in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassan, M A; Mohamed, E H

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies showed prominent antimicrobial activity of various plant extracts on certain pathogenic microorganisms, therefore we prepared crude aqueous extracts of black pepper, ginger and thyme and carried out an in vitro study by measuring antimicrobial activity of these extracts using the agar well diffusion method. An in vivo study was carried out on 50 adult healthy male albino rats which were divided into 5 groups, 10 rats each. Group 1: negative control group which received saline solution intragastrically daily; Group 2: Positive control group, injected with mixed bacterial suspension of S.aureus and E.coli as a model of pyelonephritis, then received saline solution intragastrically daily; Group 3: injected with the same dose of mixed bacterial suspension, then received 100 mg/kg/day black pepper extract intragastrically; Group 4: injected with mixed bacterial suspension then received 500 mg/kg/day ginger extract intragastrically. Group 5: injected with mixed bacterial suspension then received 500 mg/kg/day thyme extract intragastrically. All groups were sacrificed after either 1 or 4 weeks. Serum and blood samples were collected for lysozyme activity estimation using agarose lysoplate, measurement of nitric oxide production, and lymphocyte transformation test as well as for counting both total and differential leukocytes and erythrocytes. Kidney samples were tested histopathologically. Both in vivo and in vitro results confirm the efficacy of these extracts as natural antimicrobials and suggest the possibility of using them in treatment procedures.

  2. Determination of Ochratoxin A in Black and White Pepper, Nutmeg, Spice Mix, Cocoa, and Drinking Chocolate by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Fluorescence Detection: Collaborative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubero-Leon, Elena; Bouten, Katrien; Senyuva, Hamide; Stroka, Joerg

    2017-09-01

    A method validation study for the determination of ochratoxin A in black and white pepper (Piper spp.), nutmeg (Myristica fragrans), spice mix (blend of ginger, turmeric, pepper, nutmeg, and chili), cocoa powder, and drinking chocolate was conducted according to the International Harmonized Protocol of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. The method is based on the extraction of samples with aqueous methanol, followed by a cleanup of the extract with an immunoaffinity column. The determination is carried out by reversed-phase LC coupled with a fluorescence detector. The study involved 25 participants representing a cross-section of research, private, and official control laboratories from 12 European Union (EU) Member States, together with Turkey and Macedonia. Mean recoveries ranged from 71 to 85% for spices and from 85 to 88% for cocoa and drinking chocolate. The RSDr values ranged from 5.6 to 16.7% for spices and from 4.5 to 18.7% for cocoa and drinking chocolate. The RSDR values ranged from 9.5 to 22.6% for spices and from 13.7 to 30.7% for cocoa and drinking chocolate. The resulting Horwitz ratios ranged from 0.4 to 1 for spices and from 0.6 to 1.4 for cocoa and drinking chocolate according to the Horwitz function modified by Thompson. The method showed acceptable within-laboratory and between-laboratory precision for each matrix, and it conforms to requirements set by current EU legislation.

  3. Antibacterial and Barrier Properties of Gelatin Coated by Electrospun Polycaprolactone Ultrathin Fibers Containing Black Pepper Oleoresin of Interest in Active Food Biopackaging Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Johana Figueroa-Lopez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the effect of using electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL as a barrier coating and black pepper oleoresin (OR as a natural extract on the morphology, thermal, mechanical, antimicrobial, oxygen, and water vapor barrier properties of solvent cast gelatin (GEL. The antimicrobial activity of the developed multilayer system obtained by the so-called electrospinning coating technique was also evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus strains for 10 days. The results showed that the multilayer system containing PCL and OR increased the thermal resistance, elongated the GEL film, and significantly diminished its permeance to water vapor. Active multilayer systems stored in hermetically closed bottles increased their antimicrobial activity after 10 days by inhibiting the growth of Staphylococcus aureus. This study demonstrates that addition of electrospun PCL ultrathin fibers and OR improved the properties of GEL films, which promoted its potential use in active food packaging applications.

  4. Memory Enhancing Effect of Black Pepper in the AlCl3 Induced Neurotoxicity Mouse Model is Mediated Through Its Active Component Chavicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Ghazala; Iqbal, Anila; Mahboob, Aamra; Farhat, Syeda M; Ahmed, Touqeer

    Black pepper (Piper nigrum Linn.) has vital pharmacological properties with profound effects on central nervous system. Neurotoxic agents like Aluminum Chloride (AlCl3) cause the oxidative stress and result in improper processing of amyloid proteins leading to accumulation of amyloid β plaques. The study aimed to explore the neuroprotective potential of black pepper (BP) extract (12.5mg/kg/day) on memory enhancement and its effect on expression of amyloid precursor protein (APP) isoforms (APP770 and APP695) in AlCl3 induced neurotoxicity (250mg/kg) mouse model. The study included the isolation and identification of pure compound from BP (chavicine) which was found pharmacologically active. Morris water maze test, elevated plus maze, fear conditioning, context and cue dependent test and social preference tests were performed to investigate the learning and memory. Gene expression (APP isoforms) and in-vitro and ex-vivo DPPH free radical scavenging activity were performed to evaluate the role of BP. BP significantly improved memory in AlCl3 induced neurotoxicity mouse model along with effectively decreasing the expression of APP770 (amyloidogenic) isoform and improved level of APP695 (non-amyloidogenic) in hippocampus, amygdala and cortex. Fear extinction learning was considerably improved in BP treated group (7.83±2.03) than AlCl3 induced neurotoxicity group (39.75±4.25). In the hippocampus, BP significantly reduced the expression of APP770 (0.37±0.05) as compared to AlCl3 induced neurotoxicity group (0.72±0.06), and effectively increased (34.80±1.39) the percentage inhibition of DPPH free radicals as compared to AlCl3 induced neurotoxicity group (14±2.68). The study revealed that BP improves memory and chavicine is a lead compound producing pharmacological effects of BP.

  5. Effects of Black Pepper (, Turmeric Powder ( and Coriander Seeds ( and Their Combinations as Feed Additives on Growth Performance, Carcass Traits, Some Blood Parameters and Humoral Immune Response of Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Abou-Elkhair

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Different herbs and spices have been used as feed additives for various purposes in poultry production. This study was conducted to assess the effect of feed supplemented with black pepper (Piper nigrum, turmeric powder (Curcuma longa, coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum and their combinations on the performance of broilers. A total of 210 (Cobb one-d-old chicks were divided into seven groups of 30 birds each. The treatments were: a control group received no supplement, 0.5% black pepper (T1, 0.5% turmeric powder (T2, 2% coriander seeds (T3, a mixture of 0.5% black pepper and 0.5% turmeric powder (T4, a mixture of 0.5% black pepper and 2% coriander seed (T5, and a mixture of 0.5% black pepper, 0.5% turmeric powder and 2% coriander seeds (T6. Higher significant values of body weight gain during the whole period of 5 weeks (p<0.001 were observed in broilers on T1, T3, T5, and T6 compared to control. Dietary supplements with T1, T2, T3, and T6 improved the cumulative G:F of broilers during the whole period of 5 weeks (p<0.001 compared with control. The dressing percentage and edible giblets were not influenced by dietary supplements, while higher values of relative weight of the liver (p<0.05 were obtained in T5 and T6 compared to control. The addition of feed supplements in T5 and T6 significantly increased serum total protein and decreased serum glucose, triglycerides and alkaline phosphatase concentrations compared with the control group (p<0.05. Broilers on T6 showed significant decrease in the serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase concentration (p<0.05 compared to control. The broilers having T5 and T6 supplemented feed had relatively greater antibody titre (p<0.001 at 35 d of age than control. It is concluded that dietary supplements with black pepper or coriander seeds or their combinations enhanced the performance and health status of broiler chickens.

  6. Influence of moisture content on inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in powdered red and black pepper spices by radio-frequency heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seul-Gi; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2014-04-17

    The influence of moisture content during radio-frequency (RF) heating on heating rate, dielectric properties, and inactivation of foodborne pathogens was investigated. The effect of RF heating on the quality of powdered red and black pepper spices with different moisture ranges was also investigated. Red pepper (12.6%, 15.2%, 19.1%, and 23.3% dry basis, db) and black pepper (10.1%, 17.2%, 23.7%, and 30.5% db) inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium were treated in a RF heating system with 27.12 MHz. The heating rate of the sample was dependent on moisture content up to 19.1% (db) of red pepper and 17.2% (db) of black pepper, but there was a significant decrease in the heating rate when the moisture content was increased beyond these levels. The dielectric properties of both samples increased with a rise in moisture content. As the moisture content increased, treatment time required to reduce E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium by more than 7 log CFU/g (below the detection limit, 1 log CFU/g) decreased and then increased again without affecting product quality when the moisture content exceeded a level corresponding to the peak heating rate. RF treatment significantly (Pheating can be effectively used to not only control pathogens but also reduce moisture levels in spices and that the effect of inactivation is dependent on moisture content. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The synthesis and characterisation of MDMA derived from a catalytic oxidation of material isolated from black pepper reveals potential route specific impurities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Christopher M; Breadon, Thomas W; Pearson, James R; Jones, Oliver A H

    2016-05-01

    This work examines the chemical synthesis of 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA) from piperonal prepared via a catalytic ruthenium tetroxide oxidation of piperine extracted from black pepper. A variety of oxidation conditions were experimented with including different solvent systems and co-oxidants. A sample of prepared piperonal was successfully converted into MDMA via 3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl-2-nitropropene (MDP2NP) and 3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl-2-propanone (MDP2P) and the impurities within each product characterised by GC-MS to give a contaminant profile of the synthetic pathway. Interestingly, it was discovered that a chlorinated analogue of piperonal (6-chloropiperonal) was created during the oxidation process by an as yet unknown mechanism. This impurity reacted alongside piperonal to give chlorinated analogues of each precursor, ultimately yielding 2-chloro-4,5-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (6-Cl-MDMA) as an impurity within the MDMA sample. The methodology developed is a simple way to synthesise a substantial amount of precursor material with easy to obtain reagents. The results also show that chlorinated MDMA analogues, previously thought to be deliberately included adulterants, may in fact be route specific impurities with potential application in determining the origin and synthesis method of seized illicit drugs. Copyright © 2016 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Rapid detection of Piper yellow mottle virus and Cucumber mosaic virus infecting black pepper (Piper nigrum) by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, A I; Siljo, A; Deeshma, K P

    2013-10-01

    The loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for Piper yellow mottle virus and the reverse transcription (RT) LAMP assay for Cucumber mosaic virus each consisted of a set of five primers designed against the conserved sequences in the viral genome. Both RNA and DNA isolated from black pepper were used as a template for the assay. The results were assessed visually by checking turbidity, green fluorescence and pellet formation in the reaction tube and also by gel electrophoresis. The assay successfully detected both viruses in infected plants whereas no cross-reactions were recorded with healthy plants. Optimum conditions for successful amplification were determined in terms of the concentrations of magnesium sulphate and betaine, temperature, and duration. The detection limit for both LAMP and RT-LAMP was up to 100 times that for conventional PCR and up to one-hundredth of that for real-time PCR. The optimal conditions arrived at were validated by testing field samples of infected vines of three species from different regions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. SUPERAÇÃO DE DORMÊNCIA EM SEMENTES DE PIMENTA-DO-REINO (Piper nigrum L. DORMANCY OVERCOME IN BLACK PEPPER (Piper nigrum SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antônio Curado

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Com o objetivo de superar a dormência das sementes de pimenta-do-reino (Piper nigrum, levou-se a efeito um ensaio com sementes colhidas em outubro de 2000 no horto de plantas medicinais do Hospital de Medicina Alternativa em Goiânia (GO e conduzidas ao Laboratório de Análise de Sementes da Escola de Agronomia de Universidade Federal de Goiás. Os tratamentos empregados no ensaio foram: (1 testemunha (sementes com casca; (2 sementes sem casca; (3 sementes sem casca e lavadas em água corrente por cinco minutos; (4 sementes sem casca, lavadas em água corrente por cinco minutos, imersas em solução 50% de detergente (Alquilbenzeno sulfonato de sódio e lavadas em água corrente por dois minutos; (5 sementes sem casca, lavadas em água corrente por cinco minutos e imersas em hipoclorito de sódio a 20% por cinco minutos, e depois lavadas em água corrente por dois minutos. Depois de tratadas, as sementes foram submetidas ao teste-padrão de germinação. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Após o término do ensaio, aos 21 dias, observou-se que não houve germinação na testemunha. No tratamento 2 a germinação foi de 56%. Os tratamentos 3 e 5 apresentaram 58% e 60% de germinação, respectivamente, mas não foram diferentes, estatisticamente, do tratamento 2. A maior germinação (73% foi observada no tratamento 4, muito embora não tenha diferido estatisticamente dos tratamentos 3 e 5.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Sementes; dormência; pimenta-do-reino.

    The black pepper fruits are largely used in culinary for its aroma but also useful for cosmetics, insect control and for its medicinal properties. Grafting has been used for propagation due to the period (six months and irregular seed germination. To overcome the

  10. Short-term effects of black pepper (Piper nigrum) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis and Rosmarinus eriocalyx) on sustained attention and on energy and fatigue mood states in young adults with low energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindheimer, Jacob B; Loy, Bryan D; O'Connor, Patrick J

    2013-08-01

    The purpose was to test whether a single dose of black pepper or rosemary produced short-term enhancements in sustained attention, motivation to perform cognitive tasks, or feelings of mental energy and fatigue. Outcomes were measured in 40 young adults with below average feelings of energy before and twice after they orally consumed capsules containing either black pepper (2.0 g), rosemary (1.7 g), or a placebo (3.1 g rice flour). Sustained attention was measured using a 16-min dual task, in which, single-digit numbers were presented every second on a screen and the participant performed both a primary task [detection of three successive, different odd digits] and a secondary task [detection of the number 6]. Feelings of energy and fatigue were measured using the vigor and fatigue subscales of the Profile of Mood States and visual analog scales (VAS). Analysis of variance showed nonsignificant condition (spice versus placebo)×time (T1, T2, & T3) effects for motivation, measured with a VAS, and the intensity of energy and fatigue feelings. Unadjusted effect sizes revealed that rosemary induced small, transient reductions in false alarm errors (d=0.21) and mental fatigue (d=0.40) at isolated time periods. Time-varying analysis of covariance, controlling for motivation to perform cognitive tasks, showed no significant effects on the primary or secondary task outcomes of correct responses (hits), errors (false alarms, misses), speed of response (reaction time), and signal detection sensitivity. It is concluded that black pepper and rosemary, consumed in a capsule form, in the doses used and while wearing a nose clip to block olfactory effects, do not induce consistent short-term improvements in sustained attention, motivation to perform cognitive tasks, or feelings of mental energy and fatigue in young adults with low energy.

  11. Endophytic bacteria from Piper tuberculatum Jacq.: isolation, molecular characterization, and in vitro screening for the control of Fusarium solani f. sp piperis, the causal agent of root rot disease in black pepper (Piper nigrum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, S B; Lima, A M; Borges, B N; de Souza, C R B

    2015-07-06

    Endophytic bacteria have been found to colonize internal tissues in many different plants, where they can have several beneficial effects, including defense against pathogens. In this study, we aimed to identify endophytic bacteria associated with roots of the tropical piperaceae Piper tuberculatum, which is known for its resistance to infection by Fusarium solani f. sp piperis, the causal agent of black pepper (Piper nigrum) root rot disease in the Amazon region. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, we isolated endophytes belonging to 13 genera: Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Rhizobium, Sinorhizobium, Agrobacterium, Ralstonia, Serratia, Cupriavidus, Mitsuaria, Pantoea, and Staphylococcus. The results showed that 56.52% of isolates were associated with the phylum Proteobacteria, which comprised α, β, and γ classes. Other bacteria were related to the phylum Firmicutes, including Bacillus, which was the most abundant genus among all isolates. Antagonistic assays revealed that Pt12 and Pt13 isolates, identified as Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas sp, respectively, were able to inhibit F. solani f. sp piperis growth in vitro. We describe, for the first time, the molecular identification of 23 endophytic bacteria from P. tuberculatum, among which two Pseudomonas species have the potential to control the pathogen responsible for root rot disease in black pepper in the Amazon region.

  12. Caracterização de acessos de pimenta-do-reino com base em sistemas enzimáticos Characterization of black pepper accessions using isozymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José MD Gaia

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Setenta e oito acessos de pimenta-do-reino, incluindo algumas espécies silvestres foram submetidos à análise eletroforética de isoenzimas em gel de poliacrilamida, visando distinguir diferenças fenotípicas que auxiliem na discriminação e seleção dos acessos. Foram utilizados os sistemas enzimáticos SKDH, GOT, ACP, ACO, PGI, FUM, 6PGDH e G6PDH. O polimorfismo de isoenzimas foi avaliado pelo número de alozimas com diferentes mobilidades por sistema enzimático, pelas freqüências de alozimas dentro de cada sistema enzimático em relação ao total de bandas do sistema e pela análise da similaridade genética, com base na ausência e presença de bandas. Todos os sistemas enzimáticos utilizados tiveram boa resolução e definição de bandas, com ênfase para SKDH, 6PGDH, PGI e ACP. Em sua totalidade, os sistemas apresentaram polimorfismo capaz de caracterizar e identificar acessos ou grupos de pequeno número de acessos, sendo que o sistema GOT foi o que apresentou maior variabilidade de alozimas e de perfis; e o que apresentou menor variabilidade foi o sistema FUM, com três alozimas e quatro perfis. Cinqüenta e sete por cento das alozimas podem ser usadas para caracterizar e identificar clones ou grupos de clones. Cerca de 64% dos acessos analisados podem ser identificados por um a seis fenótipos individuais de sistemas enzimáticos. A análise da similaridade indicou os grupos G1, G2 e G3 como os mais divergentes da coleção, os quais são indicados para cruzamentos intraespecíficos e interespecíficos visando a obtenção de clones superiores.Seventy and eight accessions of black pepper, including some wild species, were analyzed through isozyme electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel, aiming to distinguish phenotypic differences to discriminate and select accessions. The enzymatic systems SKDH, GOT, ACO, ACP, PGI, FUM, 6PGDH and G6PDH were studied. The polymorphism of isozymes was evaluated based on number of alozymes with

  13. Diversidade e similaridade genéticas em clones de pimenta-do-reino Genetic diversity and similarity in clones of black pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M.D. Gaia

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Setenta e oito clones de pimenta-do-reino (Piper nigrum L. foram analisados por meio de eletroforese de isozimas para os sistemas ACP, GOT, SKDH, ACO, G6PDH, PGI, 6PGDH e FUM, para avaliar a diversidade por meio da porcentagem de locos polimórficos, número médio de alelos por locos e heterozigosidade média. A similaridade genética foi obtida por meio do coeficiente de semelhança simples e foi resumida num fenograma de média de grupo. Foram detectados 14 locos e 35 alelos. Os locos que apresentaram maior diversidade foram: G6pdh-1, Acp-1 e Skdh-1. A porcentagem de locos polimórficos variou de 3,57% a 64,29%; o número médio de alelos variou de 0,04 a 1,64; e a heterozigosidade média variou de 0,036 a 0,321. Os baixos valores observados no intervalo de variação da heterozigosidade média são consistentes com a estreita base genética dos genótipos e a amplitude deste intervalo pode estar relacionada com o grau de hibridação (artificial ou natural de cada clone. A similaridade genética variou de 65% a 100%, sendo que 70 clones estiveram contidos na faixa de 85% e 100%, o que ratifica o estreitamento da base genética da espécie e conseqüente homogeneidade dos genomas cultivados.Seventy eight black pepper clones (Piper nigrum L. were analyzed by means of isozyme electrophoresis for the systems ACP, GOT, SKDH, ACO, G6PDH, PGI, 6PGDH and FUM, in order to evaluate the diversity through the percentage of polymorphic loci, mean number of alleles per locus and mean heterozigosity. Genetic similarity was calculated by simple matching coefficient and summarized in the group average phenogram. Fourteen loci and 35 alleles were detected. The loci that presented larger diversity were G6pdh-1, Acp-1 and Skdh-1. The percentage of polymorphic loci ranged from 3.57% to 64.29%; the mean number of alleles ranged from 0.04 to 1.64 and; the mean heterozigosity varied from 0.036 to 0.321. The lower values observed in the interval of variation of the

  14. Detection of gamma irradiated pepper and papain by chemiluminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattar, Abdus; Delincee, H.; Diehl, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    Chemiluminescence (CL) measurements of black pepper and of papain using luminol and lucigenin reactions were studied. Effects of grinding, irradiation (5-20 kGy) and particle size (750-140 μm) on CL of pepper, and of irradiation (10-30 kGy) on CL of papain, were investigated. All the tested treatments affected the luminescence response in both the luminol and lucigenin reactions; however, the pattern of changes in each case, was inconsistent. Optimum pepper size for maximum luminescence was 560 μm, and optimum irradiation doses were > 15 kGy for pepper and > 20 kGy for papain. Chemiluminescence may possibly be used as an indicator or irradiation treatment for pepper and papain at a dose of 10 kGy or higher, but further research is needed to establish the reliability of this method. (author)

  15. Preliminary examination of induced radioactivity in pepper by 10 MeV electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, Tadashi; Furuta, Masakazu; Sibata, Setsuko; Ito, Norio; Mizohata, Akira; Matsunami, Tadao; Toratani, Hirokazu; Takeda, Atsuhiko.

    1991-01-01

    β-ray measurement was performed on 10 MeV electron-irradiated black pepper and white pepper with liquid scintillation counter in order to reconfirm the wholesomeness of irradiated foods and present unambiguous data to general consumers concerning about the induced radioactivity in the irradiated foods. In irradiated black pepper no radioactivity other than from natural source, un-irradiated one, was detected. But in irradiated white pepper, it was suggested that induced radioactivity might be detected if the detection method was more improved. (author)

  16. Polyphenols content and antioxidant activity of paprika and pepper spices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soňa Škrovánková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Paprika spices (Capsicium annuum and black pepper spices (Piper nigrum are very popular seasonings for culinary and industrial utilization due to the change of sensory quality (taste, aroma, color of foods and meals with their addition; their health promoting properties; and also, relevant antioxidant activity. Polyphenols are often responsible for the antioxidant capacity of plant products therefore in our study the content of polyphenols (TP and antioxidant activity (TAA were assessed in two common culinary spices - paprika spices (12, ground powder spices and pepper spices (20, unground and ground, black, green, white and colored spices of Czech, Austrian, and Slovak producers. These parameters were determined using spectrometric method, for total polyphenols method with Folin-Ciocaulteu reagent; the antioxidant activity (TAA of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of spices was measured by DPPH method with IC50 evaluation. For paprika the total polyphenol content ranged from 14.67 to 28.78 mg GAE.g-1. However, there is only weak connection between the pungency of the spices and the polyphenolic amount, the hotter samples of paprika spices have slightly higher values of TP than sweet types. Also, more pungent paprika products showed a higher potency in scavenging of DPPH free radical than sweeter ones; and ethanolic extracts had slightly higher TAA values (8.73 to 16.17 mg AAE.g-1 than aqueous spice extracts (4.45 to 16.24 mg AAE.g-1. Phenolic amount for pepper spices was assessed in the range of 12.03 to 22.88 mg GAE.g-1. Generally, paprika spices contained more polyphenols than pepper spices. The values of TAA of pepper spices were in the range from 7.07 to 15.81 mg AAE.g-1 for aqueous extracts and from 8.25 to 15.93 mg AAE.g-1 for ethanolic extracts respectively. The highest TAA values were observed for white ground pepper and unground black pepper spices. Unground black pepper samples had higher TAA than ground black pepper. The extent of

  17. Estimative of Black Pepper leaf area with basis on the leaf blade linear dimension Estimativa da área foliar de pimenta do reino a partir de dimensões lineares do limbo foliar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Luiz Partelli

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed at establishing regression equations to estimate black pepper (Piper nigrum leaf area based on linear leaf measures. Different black pepper varieties where growth on the field, four different size leaves were collected per plant with a total of 52 leaves to establish the regression equation and 28 to validate the equation for each variety (Bragantina, Laçará, Guajarina e Cingapura. Leaf midrib length (LML, maximum leaf broad width (MLBW and leaf area (LA were measured. Pearson's linear correlation coefficients were determined between observed and predicted measures with the observed LA, besides estimating the linear regression equation for each variety. The equations best-fitted to estimate LA based on circumscript rectangle were: 1 LA = 2.2689 + 0.6900 x LML x MLBW; 2 LA = 1.6402 + 0.6816 x LML x MLBW; 3 LA = 1.4942 + 0.6215 x LML x MLBW and 4 LA = 0.7467 + 0.6735 x LML x MLBW, for Bragantina, Laçará, Guajarina and Cingapura varieties respectively. For all equations predicted values had high correlation coefficient with observed values thus showing that these equations must be variety specific and that they are appropriate for black pepper leaf area estimative.O objetivo deste trabalho foi estabelecer equações de regressão para estimar a área foliar de diferentes variedades de pimenta-do-reino (Piper nigrum cultivadas no campo, a partir de medidas lineares de folhas. Foram coletadas quatro folhas por planta, de tamanhos diferentes, totalizando 52 folhas, para estabelecer a equação de regressão e 28 para validar a equação para cada variedade (Bragantina, Laçará, Guajarina e Cingapura. Procederam-se às medições do comprimento da nervura central (LML, da maior largura do limbo foliar (MLBW e da área foliar (LA. Determinaram-se os coeficientes de correlação linear de Pearson entre as medidas mensuráveis e preditas com a LA observada, além de estimarem-se as equações de regressão linear para cada

  18. Efeitos do alumínio em pimenteiras do reino (Piper nigrum, L.cultivadas em solução nutritiva Effect of aluminum on black pepper (Piper nigrum, L. grown in nutruent solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A.C. Veloso

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available A pimenteira do reino (Piper nigrum, L. vem sendo cultivada, em sua maior parte, em áreas com solos de baixa fertilidade natural, caracterizadas por baixa saturação por bases, alta saturação de alumínio e acidez elevada. Visando estudar os efeitos do alumínio sobre a cultura foi conduzido um experimento com a cultivar Guajarina em solução nutritiva. As doses de alumínio estudadas foram: 0; 5; 10; 15; 20 e 40 mg/L. O sintoma inicial de toxidez de alumínio foi caracterizado por um retardamento no crescimento radicular, com aumento no diâmetro das raízes. Observou-se efeito positivo do alumínio na produção de matéria seca com adição de até 15 mg/L na solução, o que correspondeu a maior absorção de P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe e AL Concluiu-se que a pimenteira é tolerante à presença de concentrações de Al inferiores a 20 mg/L no substrato. Doses superiores provocam distúrbios nutricionais com redução no crescimento da planta.Black pepper (Piper nigrum, L. is usually grown in soils of low natural fertility and high aluminum saturation. An experiment using young plants of the Guajarina cultivar grown in nutrient solution was carried out in order to verify the effects of aluminum on the growth and chemical composition and determine the concentration in the substrate which causes toxicity symptoms. Aluminum was added to the nutrient solution at the rates of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 40 mg/L. The initial symptom of Al toxicity was a slower development of the roots, which were thicker than those of the control. Dry weight increased when aluminum supply increased from 0 to 15 ppm Al; correspondingly there was a higher uptake of P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe and AL It appears that black pepper is tolerant to Al concentrations as high as 20 mg/L. Higher rates cause nutritional disturbances and reduction in growth.

  19. Isolation, characterization and identification of pericarp-degrading bacteria for the production of off-odour-free white pepper from fresh berries of Piper nigrum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinod, V; Kumar, A; Zachariah, T J

    2014-04-01

    To isolate, fermentatively evaluate and identify black pepper (Piper nigrum L.)-associated bacteria for the microbial decortication of fresh ripened berries and dried black pepper for preparation of off-odour-free white pepper. Among 45 bacterial isolates obtained from black pepper, seven of them were found to decorticate black pepper (>60%) and fresh pepper berries (98-100%) into white pepper within 5 days of immersion in bacterial suspension. The 16S rRNA genes (1500-bp amplicon) of these bacteria were sequenced, and species identity was established by closest match in GenBank. Superior-quality white pepper was obtained with Bacillus subtilis (IISR WP 33, 34, 38), Bacillus licheniformis (IISR WP 43), Acinetobacter baumanii (IISR WP 35), Klebsiella pneumoniae (IISR WP 19) and Microbacterium barkeri (IISR WP25). The bacterial isolates were found to secrete multiple hydrolytic enzymes such as cellulase, pectinase, amylase, protease and xylanase. Bacterial cultures were deposited with International Depository Authority at Microbial Type Culture Collection, India, as patent deposits as prescribed in Budapest Treaty for microbial deposits. The white pepper, thus obtained from bacterial decortication process, was free from off-odour compound, especially skatole. Other biochemical constituents such as oleoresin, piperine and essential oils were found in the acceptable range. The bacterial decortication did not affect inherent constituents of pepper such as essential oil constituents, oleoresin and piperine content. One of the most significant findings of the work is identification of specific bacterial species for decortication of fresh berries or black pepper berries into value-added white pepper. This work paved way for developing a technological process for microbial decortication of fresh/black pepper for the production of superior-quality white pepper. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Aleurotrachelus trachoides (pepper whitefly)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleurotrachelus trachoides Back also known as solanum or pepper whitefly is a new addition to the list of serious whitefly pests found in Florida. According to EPPO global database, it is a pest of over 70 different crops worldwide, which include a combination of edibles, ornamentals, palms, and wee...

  1. Alumínio e a absorção de cálcio por mudas de pimenta do reino Aluminum and calcium absorption by black pepper seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Costa Veloso

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento com solução nutritiva foi conduzido em casa de vegetação com o objetivo de verificar os efeitos da nutrição de cálcio na toxicidade de alumínio em mudas de pimenta do reino. Os tratamentos constituíram-se de três concentrações de cálcio (10; 40 e 160 mg L-1 adicionados como CaCl2 em combinação com três concentrações de alumínio (0; 10 e 20 mg L-1 adicionados como AlCl3.6H2O. A solução nutritiva continha as seguintes concentrações dos íons expressos em mg L-1: N-NO3 (80,5; N-NH4 (10,5; P(1,5; K(39,0; Mg(24,0; S-SO4(32,0; B(0,5; Cu(0,06; Fe(5,0; Mn(1,0; Mo(0,03 e Zn(0,10. Os tratamentos com alumínio retardaram o crescimento das mudas de pimenta do reino, induziram sintomas de toxicidade de alumínio na parte aérea e principalmente aumentaram o diâmetro das raízes. O acúmulo de cálcio aumentou com o incremento da concentração de cálcio na solução na ausência de alumínio, nas raízes o conteúdo de cálcio foi diminuído com o aumento da concentração de alumínio na solução. A absorção de alumínio diminuiu com o aumento da concentração de cálcio na solução.A nutrient solution experiment with was carried out in a greenhouse with the objective of verifying the specific effects of calcium and aluminum toxicity on black pepper seedlings. The treatments were set up in three concentrations of calcium (10; 40 and 160 mg L-1 added as CaCl2 in combination with three concentrations of aluminum (0; 10 and 20 mg L-1 added as AlCl3. 6 H2O. The nutrient solution contained the following ion concentrations in mg L-1: N-NO3 (80,5; N-NH4 (10,5; P(1,5; K(39,0; Mg(24,0; S-SO4(32,0; B(0,5; Cu(0,06; Fe(5,0; Mn(1,0; Mo(0,03 and Zn(0,10. The treatments with aluminum reduced black pepper growth and the diameter of roots increased. Calcium absorption increased with the increase of calcium concentration in the solution, in the absence of aluminum. Calcium absorption by roots decreased with the increase of the

  2. Influência do manganês sobre a nutrição mineral e crescimento da pimenteira do reino (Piper nigrum, L. Effect of manganese on mineral nutrition and growth of black pepper (Piper nigrum, L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A.C. Veloso

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available A pimenteira do reino (Piper nigrum, L. vem sendo cultivada em sua maior parte em solos com acidez elevada e balia saturação por bases. O manganês em condições de alta acidez pode provocar toxidez às plantas. Visando estudar os efeitos do manganês nessa cultura foi conduzido um experimento com a cultivar Guajarina em solução nutritiva, O manganês foi fornecido nas concentrações de 0; 10; 20; 30; 40 e 50 mg/L. Na ausência do elemento foram observados sintomas de deficiência e redução no crescimento. O excesso de manganês (30 mg/L na solução nutritiva reduziu o desenvolvimento das plantas e a absorção de P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe e ZN. Observaram-se sintomas de toxidez de manganês a partir da concentração de 20 mg/L, caracterizados por cloróse e pontos necróticos nas folhas.Black pepper (Piper nigrum, L. is usually grown in soils of low natural fertility and high acidity. Under such conditions manganese can cause toxicity to plants. An experiment using young plants of the cultivar Guajarina grown in nutrient solution was carried out in order to verify the effects of rates of manganese on this crop. The manganese was supplied at the concentrations of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mg/L. Excess of manganese (30 mg/L in the nutrient solution caused a reduction in growth and in the uptake of P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe and Zn. Toxicity symptoms were chlorosis and necrotic dots in the leaves, when the level of supply was 20 mg/L or higher.

  3. Influência da aplicação de fertilizantes, na concentração de nutrientes em folhas de pimenteira-do-reino The influence of applications of fertilizer on foliar concentrations of nutrients of black pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondino C Bataglia

    1976-07-01

    Full Text Available Procedeu-se à análise de folhas coletadas no verão, outono e inverno, num ensaio de adubação qualitativa instalado na Estação Experimental de Pariquera Açu, do Instituto Agronômico, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da aplicação de fertilizantes na absorção de nutrientes pela pimenteira-do-reino. A amostragem de verão revelou efeito dos tratamentos sobre os teores de fósforo, potássio e cobre, sendo por isso recomendada para fins de diagnose foliar. Apenas para potássio houve aumento de concentração nas folhas quando se compararam as médias dos tratamentos com e sem cada um dos nutrientes.A field trial was conducted since 1965 at the Pariquera Açu Experiment Station, State of São Paulo, to study the effects of the presence and absence of fertilizer on black pepper (Piper nigrum L.. In 1973, recently mature leaves were collected in summer, fall and winter in order to verify the effects of the treatments on the foliar concentration of macro and micronutrients. Summer sampling showed effect of fertilizer treatments on the concentration of phosphorus, potassium, and copper. Fall sampling showed effect only for potassium and no effect was observed in the winter. When the average contents of nutrients from fertilized and not fertilized treatments were compared, only potassium revealed differences by the Scheffé test.

  4. Applicability of viscosity measurement to the detection of irradiated peppers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, T.; Todoriki, S.; Kohyama, K.

    1996-01-01

    Starch is degraded by ionising radiation, resulting in a decrease in viscosity. The viscosities of black and white peppers which contain large amounts of starch are reduced by irradiation so, therefore, viscosity measurement has been proposed as a method to detect the irradiation treatment of these food products. Although detection of irradiated spices by thermoluminescence measurement has been established, it is useful to establish the viscosity measuring technique for detecting irradiated peppers, as this method is carried out widely in the laboratories of food controlling authorities and food processing companies. (author)

  5. Occurrence of pepper mild mottle virus in greenhousegrown pepper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using Pepper mild mottle tobamovirus (PMMoV) specific polyclonal antisera, PMMoV was detected in symptomatic pepper plants by double antibody sandwich-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA). Disease occurrence (the percentage of plants infected) of up to 30% was estimated in the region outbreaks.

  6. ABSORÇÃO E EXTRAÇÃO DE ALGUNS NUTRIENTES PELA CULTIVAR 'GUAJARINA' DE PIMENTA-DO-REINO NUTRIENT UPTAKE AND EXTRACTION BY BLACK PEPPER CULTIVAR 'GUAJARINA'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Costa Veloso

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O potencial econômico da cultura da pimenta do reino e a necessidade real de pesquisas que sustentem a sua exploração levaram a elaboração deste trabalho que teve por objetivo determinar a concentração e a distribuição dos nutrientes N, P, K, Ca e Mg, nas diversas partes da planta. O experimento foi conduzido em Belém, PA, em solo classificado como Latossolo Amarelo, textura média, com as seguintes características químicas: pH em H2O = 4,5; M.O = 17,5 g kg-1; P= 2,0 mg dm-3 e os cátions trocáveis, em mmolc.dm-3, K = 0,48; Ca2+= 4,0; Mg2+ =2,0; Al3+ = 13,0. As amostras foram constituídas de um grupo de seis plantas da cultivar Guajarina, coletadas aos 28 meses de idade, na época da produção. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que os nutrientes extraídos pela pimenta-do-reino obedecem à seguinte ordem: N > Ca > K > Mg > P. As quantidades de macronutrientes exportadas pelos frutos, na colheita em kg.ha-1 foram: N=11,22; K=6,15; Ca=3,84; Mg=1,18 e P=1,07.The economic importance of black pepper and the need for information of production sustainability justified this work, to determine the concentration and the distribution of nutrients N, P, K, Ca and Mg, in several parts of the plant. The experiment was carried out in Belém, Pará, in a soil classified as Yellow Latosol (Alic Haplustox, medium texture, with the following chemical characteristics: pH in H2O = 4.5; OM = 17.5 g kg-1; P = 2.0 mg .dm-3 and the exchangeable cations, in mmolc.dm-3, K = 0.48; Ca2+ = 4.0; Mg2+ =2,0; Al3+ = 13.0. The samples were composed of six plants of the cultivar 'Guajarina', collected at 28 months after planting, at the production period. The nutrients were extracted in the decreasing order: N> Ca> K> Mg> P. The amounts of macronutrients exported by the fruits, in kg.ha-1, are: N=11.22; K=6.15; Ca=3.84; Mg=1.18 and P=1.07.

  7. Variabilidade espacial de cálcio, magnésio, fósforo, potássio no solo e produtividade da pimenta-do-reino Spatial variability of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium in soil and yield of black pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo O. de J. Santos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A pimenta-do-reino é uma importante fonte de renda para o produtor rural, razão por que é uma espécie predominantemente cultivada por pequenos produtores porém ainda é pouco conhecida a relação da variação espacial dos nutrientes e da produtividade da cultura. Objetivou-se, no presente trabalho, descrever a variabilidade espacial do Ca, Mg, K, P no solo e a produtividade de uma lavoura de pimenta-do-reino, cultivada em um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico. O experimento foi conduzido em uma lavoura de pimenta-do-reino, no município de São Mateus, ES, plantada no espaçamento 3,0 x 1,8 m. O projeto foi instalado em uma malha retangular de 100 x 120 m. Em cada ponto amostral foram coletadas amostras de solo, na profundidade de 0-0,20 m e determinada a produtividade, totalizando 126 pontos, com distância mínima de 5 m. Os dados foram submetidos à análise geoestatística. Observou-se estrutura de dependência espacial moderada e forte para os atributos químicos estudados. O estudo da variabilidade espacial dos atributos químicos do solo mostrou-se como ferramenta relevante na compreensão do comportamento dos nutrientes no solo podendo ser fundamental no auxílio à tomada de decisão que vise à maior produtividade da lavoura.The black pepper (Piper nigrum L. has a social importance and it is mainly cultivated by small farmers, however the relationship between the spatial variability of nutrients in soil and yield of black pepper is little known. Thus, the purpose of this study was to analyse the spatial variability of Ca, Mg, K, P in soil and black pepper yield, cultivated in a distrophic Red-Yellow Latosol. The study was carried out in a black pepper plantation, in São Mateus, in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. A 3 x 1,8 m spacing in a mesh of 100 x 120 m (total area 12.000 m2, with 126 sampling points was used. Soil samples at depth of 0-0.2 m were collected at each point of the grid, in order to evaluate the soil

  8. Mutation breeding in pepper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daskalov, S.

    1986-01-01

    Pepper (Capsicum sp.) is an important vegetable and spice crop widely grown in tropical as well as in temperate regions. Until recently the improvement programmes were based mainly on using natural sources of germ plasma, crossbreeding and exploiting the heterosis of F 1 hybrids. However, interest in using induced mutations is growing. A great number of agronomically useful mutants as well as mutants valuable for genetic, cytological and physiological studies have been induced and described. In this review information is presented about suitable mutagen treatment procedures with radiation as well as chemicals, M 1 effects, handling the treated material in M 1 , M 2 and subsequent generations, and mutant screening procedures. This is supplemented by a description of reported useful mutants and released cultivars. Finally, general advice is given on when and how to incorporate mutation induction in Capsicum improvement programmes. (author)

  9. Cayenne pepper in a meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, B. V.; Byrne, D. V.; Bredie, W. L.P.

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated appetite sensations, hedonics, sensory specific desires, physical- and psychological well-being sensations during and after intake of a meal with- and without increased oral heat induced by addition of cayenne pepper. Subjects (n = 66) completed a randomized cross...

  10. Mutation breeding in diffrent types of pepper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This project was carried out under the collaboration of TAEK, SANAEM, and BATEM within 1999-2005 period. The aim of this project was to create new pepper varieties in Sera Demre 8 (green pepper) and ST59 (green pepper) cultivars which are important greenhouse cultivars by using mutation breeding methods. The Effective Mutagen Dose (ED50) was calculated by linear regression analyses. According to results, 166 Gy dose was found as ED50. At the end of the breeding cycle 14 new mutant lines were obtained from mutant population. These mutant lines are still using as genitor for F1 hybrid pepper breeding programs

  11. Preliminary examination of induced radio activity in pepper by 10 MeV electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, Masakazu; Katayama, Tadashi; Ito, Norio; Mizohata, Akira; Matsunami, Tadao; Toratani, Hirokazu; Takeda, Atsuhiko

    1989-01-01

    β-ray measurement was performed on 10 MeV electron-irradiated black pepper and white pepper in order to reconfirm the wholesomeness of irradiated food and present unambiguous data to general consumers concerning about the induced radioactivity in the irradiated foods. From elemental composition of the samples and investigation of photonuclear reactions, several β-emmitters were listed up. But no radioactivity other than from natural sources was detected in the irradiated sample by β-ray counting with 2 π gass flow counter, suggesting that the induced β-emmitters in the irradiated sample was below the detection limit of its induced radioactivity. (author)

  12. Solanum americanum: reservoir for Potato virus Y and Cucumber mosaic virus in sweet pepper crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Fecury Moura

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Weeds can act as important reservoirs for viruses. Solanum americanum (Black nightshade is a common weed in Brazil and samples showing mosaic were collected from sweet pepper crops to verify the presence of viruses. One sample showed mixed infection between Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV and Potato virus Y (PVY and one sample showed simple infection by PVY. Both virus species were transmitted by plant extract and caused mosaic in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Santa Clara, sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum cv. Magda, Nicotiana benthamiana and N. tabaccum TNN, and local lesions on Chenopodium quinoa, C. murale and C. amaranticolor. The coat protein sequences for CMV and PVY found in S. americanum are phylogenetically more related to isolates from tomato. We conclude that S. americanum can act as a reservoir for different viruses during and between sweet pepper crop seasons.

  13. Effect of aqueous extract of alligator pepper

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-07-31

    Jul 31, 2016 ... diabetic rats in group B (p > 0.05) and a significant decrease in the weight of litters of treated diabetic pregnant rats in group C (p < 0.05). It was concluded that alligator pepper significantly reduces litter size in pregnant Sprague. Dawley rats with type 1 diabetic mellitus. Key words: Effect, Alligator Pepper, ...

  14. Identification of silverleaf whitefly resistance in pepper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Firdaus, S.; Heusden, van S.; Harpenas, Asep; Supena, E.D.J.; Visser, R.G.F.; Vosman, B.

    2011-01-01

    Whitefly is economically one of the most threatening pests of pepper worldwide, which is mainly caused by its ability to transmit many different viruses. In this research, we characterized pepper germplasm to identify whitefly-resistant accessions that will form the basis for future resistance

  15. DEMONSTRATING INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT OF HOT PEPPERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    We studied the effects of organic and synthetic chemical fertilizers on crop growth, yield and associated insect pests for two varieties of hot pepper, Capsicum chinense Jacquin (Solanaceae): “Scotch Bonnet” and “Caribbean Red” in north Florida. Hot peppers were grown under three treatments: poultr...

  16. Effect of alligator pepper (Zingiberaceae Aframomum melegueta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alligator pepper (Aframomum melegueta) is a spice that is widely used in many cultures for entertainment, religious rites, food flavor and as a part of many traditional doctors medications. Pregnant women are among those who ingest Alligator pepper in these activities. This experiment was carried out to determine the ...

  17. effect of alligator pepper (zingiberaceae aframomum melegueta)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daniel Owu

    Summary: Alligator pepper (Aframomum melegueta) is a spice that is widely used in many cultures for entertainment, religious rites, food flavor and as a part of many traditional doctors medications. Pregnant women are among those who ingest Alligator pepper in these activities. This experiment was carried out to ...

  18. Vegetative and reproductive evaluation of hot peppers under different plastic mulches in poly/plastic tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, Q.; Amjad, M.; Ahmad, R.

    2009-01-01

    Since the beginning of civilization, the man has developed technologies to increase the efficiency of food production. The use of plastic mulch in commercial vegetable production is one of these traditional techniques that have been used for centuries. Studies were conducted to assess the efficacy of plastic mulch on growth and yield of two hot pepper hybrids, viz. Sky Red and Maha in poly/plastic tunnel. The treatments were black plastic mulch, clear plastic mulch and bare soil as control. Both hot pepper hybrids mulched with black plastic showed significantly better vegetative growth (plant height, leaf area etc) and fruit yield. Clear plastic mulch significantly increased soil temperature and reduced the number of days to first flower than black plastic mulch and bare soil. However, fruit yield was higher by 39.56 and 36.49% respectively in both hybrids when they were grown on black and clear plastic mulch as compared to bare soil. Overall results indicated that the use of plastic mulch is an ideal option to maximize hot pepper productivity as well as to extend their production season in poly/plastic tunnels. (author)

  19. Genetic diversity in some Turkish pepper (Capsicum annuum L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-15

    Sep 15, 2009 ... Turkey. PM-702. Campanulate. INRA Breeding line. France. Urfa local. Blocky. Local Cultivar. Turkey. Elazig. Blocky. Local Cultivar. Turkey vegetables. It has a large number of pepper breeding lines. The institution tries to improve especially elongate fruit shape types pepper for Turkey. Its pepper types are.

  20. Hot Pepper Reaction to Field Diseases | Nsabiyera | African Crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diseases are major constraints to hot pepper (Capsicum annum L.) production in sub-Saharan Africa. The search for cultivars resistant to the major diseases of hot pepper has been limited. This study was conducted in Uganda to evaluate exotic and local hot pepper genotypes for disease resistance. Viral diseases and ...

  1. 7 CFR 319.56-32 - Peppers from New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Peppers from New Zealand. 319.56-32 Section 319.56-32... from New Zealand. Peppers (fruit) (Capsicum spp.) from New Zealand may be imported into the United... peppers must be grown in New Zealand in insect-proof greenhouses approved by the New Zealand Ministry of...

  2. 7 CFR 319.56-31 - Peppers from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Peppers from Spain. 319.56-31 Section 319.56-31... from Spain. Peppers (fruit) (Capsicum spp.) may be imported into the United States from Spain only... subpart: (a) The peppers must be grown in the Alicante or Almeria Province of Spain in pest-proof...

  3. Copper and manganese content of the leaves of pepper ( Capsicum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The degree of Cu uptake by pepper plants was highest in the treatment on chernozem, lower on fluvisol and pseudogley, and lowest on vertisol, while the degree of Mn uptake by pepper plants was highest on chernozem and lowest on pseudogley. The Cu content of pepper leaves in all the treatments was low as compared ...

  4. In the shadow of a pepper-centric historiography: Understanding the global diffusion of capsicums in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halikowski Smith, Stefan

    2015-06-05

    Historians of the Eurasian spice trade focus on the fortunes of black pepper (Piper Nigrum L.), largely because the trading companies of the Dutch and English which they study also did. Capsicum peppers are, however, the world׳s most consumed spice, and their story needs to be told in parallel. The five species of capsicum peppers spread across the world in less than two hundred years following their discovery by Europeans in South and Central America and proved both hardier than Piper nigrum and able to reproduce spontaneously. While the taste was similar but more pungent than black pepper, capsicums provided an important vitamin C and bioflavanoid supplement to poorer people in southern and eastern Europe far from the precepts of good taste as dictated from Paris, and rapidly became a mainstay of tropical cuisine across the world. This contribution seeks both to trace and to understand that diffusion and its principal vectors from historical research amongst a plethora of primary source materials in European and Asian languages. Medical and dietetic reaction is presented from a wide range of contemporary texts. The work proceeds according to deductive reasoning and in comparison to the diffusion of black pepper consumption. It reveals the very different strategies of import substitution and commercial embargo undertaken by Portuguese and Spanish authorities, a somewhat later date of arrival in China than previously thought, and three different, competing lines of entry into an important area of later cultivation, namely Central Europe. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Exploring Western Ghats microbial diversity for antagonistic microorganisms against fungal phytopathogens of pepper and chickpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.N. RAMKUMAR

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Newly isolated microbial cultures from Western Ghat soil samples of Kerala region in India were screened for antagonistic activity by well diffusion and dual culture plating against Phytophthora capsici and Rhizoctonia solani, infecting pepper and chickpea, respectively. Bioactive samples were made by varying solvent extraction of the culture broths of the potent isolates belongs to Actinomycetes, Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Trichoderma. The efficacy of the isolates to produce other potent antifungal metabolites such as cell wall degrading enzymes, HCN and volatile compounds were also checked. Treatment with antagonistic isolates in vivo under greenhouse conditions revealed significant reduction of the disease intensity of foot rot disease of black pepper and collar rot of chick pea.

  6. Abortifacient properties of alligator pepper ( Aframomum melegueta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alligator pepper (Aframomum melegueta) is used in the Surinam cuisine to flavour dishes such as vegetables (okra and tomatoes recipes), soups (lentil and chicken) and fish recipes. It has a wide use and the eating does not exclude pregnant women who actually use it to terminate unwanted pregnancy. A large percentage ...

  7. Occurrence and distribution of pepper veinal mottle virus and cucumber mosaic virus in pepper in Ibadan, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arogundade Olawale

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Viral diseases constitute obstacles to pepper production in the world. In Nigeria, pepper plants are primarily affected by pepper veinal mottle virus (PVMV, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, Pepper leaf curl Virus (TLCV, Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV, Pepper mottle virus (PMV and a host of other viruses. The experiment was carried out with a diagnostic survey on the experimental field of the National Horticultural Research Institute, Ibadan, Nigeria and on pepper farms in six local government areas within Ibadan Oyo State, Nigeria, forty samples were collected from each of the farms. Diseased samples were obtained from the field and taken to the laboratory for indexing. In ELISA test some of the samples from the pepper farms showed positive reaction to single infection with PVMV (36.79%, CMV (22.14% while some others showed positive reaction to mixed infection of the two viruses (10% but some also negative reaction to PVMV and CMV antisera (31.07.

  8. New Insights on Eggplant/Tomato/Pepper Synteny and Identification of Eggplant and Pepper Orthologous QTL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Rinaldi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Eggplant, pepper and tomato are the most exploited berry-producing vegetables within the Solanaceae family. Their genomes differ in size, but each has 12 chromosomes which have undergone rearrangements causing a redistribution of loci. The genome sequences of all three species are available but differ in coverage, assembly quality and percentage of anchorage.Determining their syntenic relationship and QTL orthology will contribute to exploit genomic resources and genetic data for key agronomic traits.The syntenic analysis between tomato and pepper based on the alignment of 34,727 tomato CDS to the pepper genome sequence, identified 19,734 unique hits. The resulting synteny map confirmed the 14 inversions and 10 translocations previously documented, but also highlighted 3 new translocations and 4 major new inversions. Furthermore, each of the 12 chromosomes exhibited a number of rearrangements involving small regions of 0.5-0.7 Mbp.Due to high fragmentation of the publicly available eggplant genome sequence, physical localization of most eggplant QTL was not possible, thus, we compared the organization of the eggplant genetic map with the genome sequence of both tomato and pepper. The eggplant/tomato syntenic map confirmed all the 10 translocations but only 9 of the 14 known inversions; on the other hand, a newly detected inversion was recognized while another one was not confirmed. The eggplant/pepper syntenic map confirmed 10 translocations and 8 inversions already detected and suggested a putative new translocation.In order to perform the assessment of eggplant and pepper QTL orthology, the eggplant and pepper sequence-based markers located in their respective genetic map were aligned onto the pepper genome. GBrowse in pepper was used as reference platform for QTL positioning. A set of 151 pepper QTL were located as well as 212 eggplant QTL, including 76 major QTL (PVE ≥ 10% affecting key agronomic traits. Most were confirmed to cluster in

  9. Antimicrobial Properties of Grape Fruit, Pawpaw and Black Pepper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On average, Nigeria loses 30-50% of its fish harvest to spoilage. This exacerbates her fish demand-supply gap; hence the need to devise means of mitigating the spoilage. This paper reports the findings of a study that delved into the antimicrobial properties of Grape Fruit (Citrus paradisa), Pawpaw (Carica papaya) and ...

  10. Pesticidal Potentials of Seed Extracts Of Black Pepper ( Piper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Saponnins (5.51 – 7.52%) and Phenols (2.01 – 0.71) % in decreasing order of percentage. The infrared spectroscopy revealed some functional groups – OH, - COOH radicals and double bond ketones. These compounds have the implication of exerting different toxicities on organisms. Keywords: P. nigrum, S. zeamais, ...

  11. Comparative studies of ginger (Zingiber officinale) and black pepper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-08-30

    Aug 30, 2012 ... paste using locally fabricated attrition mill and 2.4 L of water was added to the paste. The resulting paste was sieved using muslin cloth and the filtrate boiled for 1 h. Production of kunuzaki. The millet grains .... The hurdle effect of mild heat and two tropical spices extract on growth of three fungi in fruit juices.

  12. Genetic variability of Indonesian local chili pepper: The facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumingtyas, Estri Laras; Kusnadi, Joni; Sari, Dewi Ratih Tirto; Ratih, Nursita

    2017-11-01

    Chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens) is one species of Solanaceae family that is very popular in Indonesia and some other tropical countries because of its pungency. Chili pepper is an important spice in Indonesia and is also eaten fresh as a pickle to increase appetite. In Indonesia, there are various local names for chili pepper includingcabai, cengek, lombok, pedesan etc. These varied local names represent the various morphological shapes of the chili pepper fruit. We have investigated the variability of some chili cultivars based on morphological characteristics, molecular markers, pungency, and capsaicin content. Some biological facts, such as the tendency of chili pepper to outbreed, have also been found. In this paper, the source of variability and the possible mechanism of increasing genetic variability of Indonesian local chili pepper are also discussed.

  13. Effects of gamma irradiation on pepper's volatile compounds sensory qualities and pest infestation control. Part of a coordinated programme in the Asian Regional Cooperative Project of Food Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.M.; Bahari Bin, I.

    1984-04-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation, packaging materials and storage time of black and white peppers on the infestation and reinfestation of microorganism and insects were evaluated. The samples were irradiated at the doses between 2 and 9 kGy. The packaging materials consisted of polypropylene woven bags laminated with thin polyethylene (PPE) and polyethylene bags (PE) of different thickness, 0.05, 01.2 and 0.17 mm. The jute bag was used as a control material. The changes of infestation and reinfestation status were observed for 6 months in Malaysia and for the next 2 months the changes were evaluated when the samples had reached Japan. Results obtained indicated that irradiation at a dose up to 9 kGy reduced the bacterial load of black pepper from 1.6x10 7 /g to 2 /g, while the dose of 6 kGy was required to reduce the population in white pepper from 2.3x10 4 /g to 2 /g. The original population of mould-yeast was relatively low (approx. 10 4 /g) and could be reduced to 2 /g at only 2 kGy. No problems and difficulties were faced with regard to the transportation of the peppers. However, prolonged storage time may encourage microbial growth, and 4 months of storage was a critical period for black pepper. Two species of Anobiidae infesting pepper had been identified, Lasioderma serricone (Fabricius) which made up 80% of the insect counts and Stegobium pamiceum (L.). However, at the doses applied and packaging materials used, there was no reinfestation for all but the material PPPE (no observation made for jute bags)

  14. Research work to obtain pepper (Piper negrum l.) mutants resistant to Fusarium disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, A.; Menten, J.O.M.; Tulmann Neto, A.; Albuquerque, F.C. de

    1984-01-01

    Cuttings of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) variety Singapore were irradiated at different doses (from 3.0-7.0 kR) of gamma radiation in the 60 Co source. After two successive prunings of surviving M 1 plants (from the irradiated cuttings), hundreds of vM 3 cuttings were planted separately in pots and artificially inoculated with Fusarium solani f. piperi. The surviving vM 3 plantlets were transplanted to an experimental field highly infested with this patogen. After two years in the infested field, only three UM 3 plants continue to grow. (M.A.C.) [pt

  15. The Pepper Commission Report and the response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    The recommendations of the "Pepper Commission" [the Bipartisan Commission on Comprehensive Health Care] on health care policy reform (see box on page 20) would cost an estimated $66 billion to implement. As a result, many in Congress already have declared the Pepper report to be politically nonviable. Nevertheless, Commission Chairman John D. Rockefeller IV intends to pursue legislative activity on the report. Recently, Rockefeller said that the Commission's majority recommendations likely will be offered in Congress as one large bill--with the option to break out some of its features for individual consideration. For example, Rockefeller said he will try this year to enact the Commission's recommendations to improve health care coverage for pregnant women and children--as well as suggestions for reform in the health insurance industry. The West Virginia senator said he believes these two proposals will cost about $3.5 billion in new federal funds. The basics of the plan, and the political obstacles facing its enactment, were discussed by several members of the Pepper Commission during the press conference at which the recommendations were unveiled. FAHS Review covered that press conference, and below we reprint excerpts from a tape transcription of the remarks of several Commission members.

  16. Detection of pepper leaf curl virus through PCR amplification and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pepper leaf curl virus (PepLCV) is the most destructive pathogen of pepper and causes substantial economic losses of chilli production worldwide. Curling and puckering of leaves and stunted growth of the plants are typical symptoms of the viral infection. For a reliable detection of PepLCV, coat protein specific primer pairs ...

  17. Production of cell wall enzymes in pepper seedlings, inoculated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pepper seedlings inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal AM fungus, Glomus etunicatum, produced cellulase, polygal-acturonase and pectin methylestrase enzymes. The activities of the enzymes increased as the pepper seedlings matured in age, showing that the activity of the enzymes in the seedlings was age mediated.

  18. Influence of red pepper and capsaicin on body composition and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Inclusion of red pepper or its active principle 'capsaicin' in the diet led to a lowering of total lipids, particularly triglycerides in the liver. The total body fat was lowered in animals fed red pepper or capsaicin but not in animals fed paprika powder which had negligible capsaicin content. Hyperlipogensis and ...

  19. Serological detection of viruses infecting tomato and pepper in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tomato and pepper are important vegetable crops grown in Nigeria, accounting for 50% of the African production. Pathogen diversity is a prerequisite for breeding resistant cultivars, as a means of improving the production. A survey for virus disease incidence on field grown pepper and tomato was carried out in three state ...

  20. Identification of whitefly resistance in tomato and hot pepper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Firdaus, S.

    2012-01-01

    Key words: Capsicum, Bemisia tabaci, trichome density, cuticle thickness
    Whitefly is economically one of the most threatening pests of pepper worldwide, which is mainly caused by its ability to transmit many different viruses. In this research, we characterized pepper germplasm to identify

  1. Formula optimization for garlic and pepper-flavoured puffed snacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian H. Wilkinson

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Herbs show high potential as functional ingredients in Thai snacks. Garlic was the most preferred herb in snacks, followed by holy basil, and pepper. This study was to determine the amount of spices such as garlic and pepper to be added to the products to beneficially improve the health status of the consumer without detrimental effect on the flavour and taste. The Box-Behnken (k = 3, nc = 3 response surface design was used to create a model to determine the optimum garlic and pepper flavour for puffed snacks. Specified quantities of salt (1-2 %(w/w, garlic (0-4 %(w/w, and pepper (0-4 %(w/w were used in the design. Fifteen spiced snacks were evaluated by 30 Thai panelists. The model showed the optimum pepper quantity of 0.7 % (w/w and salt and garlic of no more than 1.10 and 2.80 %(w/w, respectively. If 25 g of the puffed snacks were eaten daily the consumer would get enough garlic to satisfy its daily requirements, but not enough pepper to get its purported health benefits. However, as the Thais use copious quantities of pepper in most other dishes, it is likely that eating 25 g of the proposed functional snack with their other dishes would more than likely provide enough pepper to give them the health benefits from this herb.

  2. The Performance of Five Selected Pepper Accessions in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Ghana three species of pepper (Capsicum annuum, C. chinense and C. frutescens) are commonly found among which C. annuum is the most widely cultivated in farms and gardens. This study sought to compare the growth and yield of 5 pepper accessions against two local cultivars. Seedlings of the accessions were ...

  3. Expression profiles of hot pepper (Capsicum annuum) genes under ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    In an attempt to determine a cold defense mechanism in plants, we have attempted to characterize changes occurring in the expression of cold-regulated transcript levels in the hot pepper (Capsicum annuum), using cDNA microarray analysis, combined with Northern blot analysis. After analysing a 3⋅1 K hot pepper cDNA ...

  4. Sodium fluxes in sweet pepper exposed to varying sodium concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom-Zandstra, M.; Vogelzang, S.A.; Veen, B.W.

    1998-01-01

    The sodium transport and distribution of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) under saline conditions were studied after transferring the plants to a sodium-free nutrient solution. Sodium stress up to 60 mM did not affect the growth of sweet pepper, as it appears able to counteract the unfavourable

  5. Quantification of the gene expression of bell peppers ( Capsicum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fruits can be divided into two groups according to the regulatory mechanisms underlying their ripening process. The two ripening processes are climacteric and non-climacteric process; bell peppers are part of the non-climacteric plant groups. Bell peppers are members of the Solanacaea family. The Solanacaea family is ...

  6. Haematology and serum biochemistry of laying hens fed red pepper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hematology and serum biochemistry of ISA brown laying hens fed red pepper (Capsicum annum. L.) as feed additive in their diet was studied. Sixty (60) laying birds (in their 32nd week) were randomly allotted to four different dietary treatments with graded levels of red pepper (Capsicum annum. L.) as additive.

  7. First report of "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum" on pepper in Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2012, bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) plants exhibiting symptoms that resembled those of the bacterium “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” infection were observed in commercial pepper fields in several departments in Honduras, including Francisco Morazán, Ocotepeque, El Paraíso, and Olancho. Man...

  8. Boron Isotope Fractionation in Bell Pepper

    OpenAIRE

    Geilert, Sonja; Vogl, Jochen; Rosner, Martin; Voerkelius, Susanne; Eichert, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Various plant compartments of a single bell pepper plant were studied to verify the variability of boron isotope composition in plants and to identify possible intra-plant isotope fractionation. Boron mass fractions varied from 9.8 mg/kg in the fruits to 70.0 mg/kg in the leaves. Boron (B) isotope ratios reported as δ11B ranged from -11.0‰ to +16.0‰ (U ≤ 1.9‰, k=2) and showed a distinct trend to heavier δ11B values the higher the plant compartments were located in the plant. A fractionatio...

  9. Local and systemic hormonal responses in pepper leaves during compatible and incompatible pepper-tobamovirus interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziurka, Michał; Janeczko, Anna; Juhász, Csilla; Gullner, Gábor; Oklestková, Jana; Novák, Ondrej; Saja, Diana; Skoczowski, Andrzej; Tóbiás, István; Barna, Balázs

    2016-12-01

    Phytohormone levels and the expression of genes encoding key enzymes participating in hormone biosynthetic pathways were investigated in pepper leaves inoculated with two different tobamoviruses. Obuda pepper virus (ObPV) inoculation led to the development of hypersensitive reaction (incompatible interaction), while Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) inoculation resulted in a systemic, compatible interaction. ObPV-inoculation markedly increased not only the levels of salicylic acid (SA) (73-fold) and jasmonic acid (8-fold) but also those of abscisic acid, indole-3-acetic acid, indole-3-butyric acid, cis-zeatin, cis-zeatin-9-riboside and trans-zeatin-9-riboside in the inoculated pepper leaves 3 days post inoculation. PMMoV infection increased only the contents of gibberellic acid and SA. Hormone contents did not change significantly after ObPV or PMMoV infection in non-infected upper leaves 20 days post inoculation. Concentrations of some brassinosteroids (BRs) and progesterone increased both in ObPV- and PMMoV inoculated leaves. ObPV inoculation markedly induced the expression of three phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and a 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase (ACO) genes, while that of an isochorismate synthase (ICS) gene was not modified. PMMoV inoculation did not alter the expression of PAL and ICS genes but induced the transcript abundance of ACO although later than ObPV. Pre-treatment of pepper leaves with exogenous 24-epi-brassinolide (24-epi-BR) prior to ObPV-inoculation strongly mitigated the visible symptoms caused by ObPV. In addition, 24-epi-BR pre-treatment markedly altered the level of several hormones in pepper leaves following ObPV-inoculation. These data indicate that ObPV- and PMMoV-inoculations lead to intricate but well harmonized hormonal responses that are largely determined by the incompatible or compatible nature of plant-virus interactions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Local and systemic hormonal responses in pepper leaves during compatible and incompatible pepper-tobamovirus interactions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dziurka, M.; Janeczko, A.; Juhasz, C.; Gullner, G.; Oklešťková, Jana; Novák, Ondřej; Saja, D.; Skoczowski, A.; Tobias, I.; Barna, B.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 109, DEC (2016), s. 355-364 ISSN 0981-9428 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-34792S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : tobacco-mosaic-virus * pathogenesis-related proteins * salicylic-acid * abscisic-acid * acquired- resistance * disease resistance * nicotiana-benthamiana * arabidopsis-thaliana * defense response * immune-responses * Brassinosteroids * Ethylene * Hormone * Pepper * Phenylalanine ammonia lyase * Progesterone * Salicylic acid * Tobamovirus Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.724, year: 2016

  11. Heterogeneity in pepper isolates of cucumber mosaic virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Alvarado, G.; Kurath, G.; Dodds, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    Twenty-four cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (CMV) field isolates from pepper crops in Cali-fornia were characterized and compared by nucleic acid hybridization subgrouping, virion electrophoresis, and biological effects in several hosts. Isolates, belonging to subgroup I or subgroup II, were found that induced severe symptoms in mechanically inoculated bell pep-pers. Only two isolates, both from subgroup II, were mild. A group of 19 isolates collected from a single field were all in subgroup II and appeared identical by virion electrophoresis, but they exhibited varying degrees of symptom severity in peppers. As a more detailed indicator of heterogeneity, these 19 isolates were examined by RNase protection assays to delect sequence variation in the coat protein gene region of their genomes. The patterns of bands observed were complex and a high degree of genomic heterogeneity was detected between isolates, with no apparent correlation to symptomatology in bell pepper.

  12. Cloning and characterization of two novel purple pepper genes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Capsicum annuum L.) CHS and F3H genes were amplified using the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction based on the conserved sequence information of some Solanaceae plants and known highly homologous pepper ESTs.

  13. Identification of irradiated pepper with comet assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto Miranda, Enrique Fco.; Moreno Alvarez, Damaris L.; Carro Palacio, Sandra; Iglesia Enriquez, Isora

    2007-01-01

    The treatment of foods with ionizing radiations is a technological process utilized in order to increase the hygienic quality and the storage time of the foods. Several methods of detection of irradiated foods have been recommended. The comet assay of DNA is one fast and economical technique for the qualitative identification of irradiated foods. The objective of the present paper was to identify with the comet assay technique the modifications of the DNA molecule of irradiated pepper storage at environment and refrigeration temperatures and different post-irradiation times for different absorbed dose values, (0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 kGy). It was demonstrated that for the high absorbed dose values was observed a greater break into fragments of the DNA molecule, which shows the application of this technique for the identification of irradiated foods. (author)

  14. Drying hot red pepper using solar tunnel drier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, M.A; Bala, B.K.

    2006-01-01

    A solar tunnel drier was used to dry red hot pepper under the tropical weather conditions of Bangladesh in order to investigate its performance and the quality of the drier product. The drier comprises a plastic sheet-covered flat plate collector and a drying tunnel. The drier is arranged to supply hot air to the drying tunnel using two small fans powered by a 40 watt PV module. Fresh red pepper was water blanched before drying. In each drying batch in the solar tunnel drier, 20 kg of dried red pepper with 4 to 6% moisture content (wb) was obtained from 80 kg of fresh red pepper with initial moisture content of 73 to 75% (wb) in 20 to 22 hours of drying while it took 32 to 34 hours to bring down the moisture content of similar sample to 8 to 10% (wb) in sun drying methods. The pepper dried in the solar tunnel drier was completely protected from dust, dirt, rain, insects, birds, rodents and microorganisms and it was a quality-dried product in term of colour and pungency. The solar tunnel drier is recommended for drying of pepper as well as vegetables and fruits in developing countries especially in Bangladesh

  15. The effect of cryogenic grinding and hammer milling on the flavour quality of ground pepper (Piper nigrum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Zeng, Fankui; Wang, Qinghuang; Ou, Shiyi; Tan, Lehe; Gu, Fenglin

    2013-12-15

    In this study, we compared the effects of cryogenic grinding and hammer milling on the flavour attributes of black, white, and green pepper. The flavour attributes were analysed using headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), sensory evaluation and electronic nose (e-nose) analysis. Cryogenic grinding resulted in minimal damage to the colour, flavour, and sensory attributes of the spices. Cryogenic grinding was also better than hammer milling at preserving the main potent aroma constituents, but the concentrations of the main aroma constituents were dramatically reduced after storing the samples at 4 °C for 6 months. Pattern matching performed by the e-nose further supported our sensory and instrumental findings. Overall, cryogenic grinding was superior to hammer milling for preserving the sensory properties and flavour attributes of pepper without significantly affecting its quality. However, we found that the flavour quality of ground pepper was reduced during storage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of Red Pepper ( Powder or Red Pepper Pigment on the Performance and Egg Yolk Color of Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaqiang Li

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of red pepper (Capsicum frutescens powder or red pepper pigment on the performance and egg yolk color of laying hens. In Exp. 1, 210, thirty-wk old, Hy-line Brown laying hens were fed one of seven diets containing 0.3, 0.6, 1.2, 2.0, 4.8 or 9.6 ppm red pepper pigment or 0.3 ppm carophyll red. Each diet was fed to three replicate batteries of hens with each battery consisting of a row of five cages of hens with two hens per cage (n = 3. In Exp. 2, 180, thirty-wk old, Hyline Brown laying hens, housed similarly to those in Exp. 1, were fed an unsupplemented basal diet as well as treatments in which the basal diet was supplemented with 0.8% red pepper powder processed in a laboratory blender to an average particle size of 300 μm, 0.8% red pepper powder processed as a super fine powder with a vibrational mill (44 μm and finally 0.8% red pepper powder processed as a super fine powder with a vibrational mill but mixed with 5% Na2CO3 either before or after grinding. A diet supplemented with 0.3 ppm carophyll red pigment was also included (n = 3. In both experiments, hens were fed the red pepper powder or pigment for 14 days. After feeding of the powder or pigment was terminated, all hens were fed the basal diet for eight more days to determine if the dietary treatments had any residual effects. In Exp. 1, there were no differences in egg-laying performance, feed consumption or feed conversion ratio due to inclusion of red pepper pigment in the diet. Average egg weight was higher (p0.05. However, compared with the control group, supplementation with all of the red pepper powder treatments increased egg weight (p<0.05. All the red pepper powder treatments also increased (p<0.05 the yolk color score compared with the control. The results of the present study suggest that both red pepper powder and pigment are effective feed additives for improving egg yolk color for laying hens.

  17. Technological innovation of induced breeding of space and selection of new variety on pepper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yahua; Xie Libo; Wang Xue; Deng Liping

    2004-01-01

    New pepper variety Yujiao No.1 and new pepper lines with different horticultural characters are obtained by new breeding technique: combination of space inducement and regular breeding, field selection and inherited marker

  18. Electronic Nose Based Alternative Method for the Determination of Capsaicin in Hot Chili Pepper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, E. I.; Andreoli, A.; Martinelli, E.; Candeloro, N.; Mantini, A.; di Natale, C.; de Lorenzo, A.

    2000-12-01

    The aim of the present study is to examine the EN aptitude to evaluate different pepper brands' freshness by repeated measurements of chosen pepper samples. This, in addition to study the possibility of differentiation and classification of Bell, Thai and Scotch Bonnet pepper brands, available in the Italian market.

  19. Garlic exerts allelopathic effects on pepper physiology in a hydroponic co-culture system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Ding

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A hydroponic co-culture system was adopted to determine the allelopathic potential of garlic on the growth of pepper plants. Different numbers of garlic plants (0, 2, 4, 8 and 12 were hydroponically co-cultured with two pepper plants to investigate allelopathic effects on the growth attributes and antioxidative defense system of the test pepper plants. The responses of the pepper plants depended on the number of garlic plants included in the co-culture system, indicating an association of pepper growth with the garlic root exudate concentration. When grown at a pepper/garlic ratio of 1:1 or 1:2, the pepper plant height, chlorophyll content, and peroxidase (POD, catalase (CAT and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL activities were significantly increased after 30 days of co-culture; in contrast, reduction in methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA content was observed. However, when the pepper/garlic ratio was 1:4 or higher, these morphological indices and protective enzyme activities were significantly inhibited, whereas MDA levels in the pepper leaves were significantly increased due to severe membrane lipid peroxidation. The results indicate that although low concentrations of garlic root exudates appear to induce protective enzyme systems and promote pepper growth, high concentrations have deleterious effects. These findings suggest that further investigations should optimize the co-culture pepper/garlic ratio to reduce continuous cropping obstacles in pepper production.

  20. Investigating radiostimulation effects of tomatoes, pepper and aubergines productivity improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daskalov, Khr.; Mal'tseva, S.

    1974-01-01

    The paper presents results of a study on the stimulating effect of ionizing radiation with low doses on tomatoes, pepper, and eggplants with a view to determining optimal radiation doses and possible practical applications of this method. The tomato varieties used were those most common in Bulgaria. It was found that (a) presowing irradiation of tomato, pepper, and eggplant seeds (graded by moisture content) with low doses of gamma rays from Co 60 had a strong stimulating effect; (b) radiation did not cause any changes in chemical composition or palatability; (c) irradiated variants produced more fruits per plant; and (d) the optimal doses are 1500-2500 r for tomatoes, 1200-1800 r for pepper, and 1500-3000 r for eggplants. (E.T.)

  1. The Paleobiolinguistics of Domesticated Chili Pepper (Capsicum spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecil H. Brown

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Paleobiolinguistics employs the comparative method of historical linguistics to reconstruct the biodiversity known to human groups of the remote, unrecorded past. Comparison of words for biological species from languages of the same language family facilitates reconstruction of the biological vocabulary of the family’s ancient proto-language. This study uses paleobiolinguistics to establish where and when chili peppers (Capsicum spp. developed significance for different prehistoric Native American groups. This entails mapping in both time and geographic space proto-languages for which words for chili pepper reconstruct. Maps show the broad distribution of Capsicum through Mesoamerica and South America mirroring its likely independent domestication in these regions. Proto-language dates indicate that human interest in chili pepper had developed in most of Latin America at least a millennium before a village-farming way of life became widespread.

  2. Black to Black

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Michael Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Pop musicians performing in black stage costume take advantage of cultural traditions relating to matters black. Stylistically, black is a paradoxical color: although a symbol of melancholy, pessimism, and renunciation, black also expresses minimalist modernity and signifies exclusivity (as is hi...... suggested that appreciation of the highly personal motives of both Siouxsie Sioux and Janelle Monáe in wearing black may be achieved via analogies with the minimalist sublime of American artists Frank Stella’s and Ad Reinhardt’s black canvasses.......Pop musicians performing in black stage costume take advantage of cultural traditions relating to matters black. Stylistically, black is a paradoxical color: although a symbol of melancholy, pessimism, and renunciation, black also expresses minimalist modernity and signifies exclusivity (as...... is hinted by Rudyard Kipling’s illustration of ‘The [Black] Cat That Walked by Himself’ in his classic children’s tale). It was well understood by uniformed Anarchists, Fascists and the SS that there is an assertive presence connected with the black-clad figure. The paradox of black’s abstract elegance...

  3. Dissipation and persistence of thiacloprid in pepper fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Lazić

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study gives insight into the behavior of the neonicotinoid insecticide thiacloprid in greenhouse production of pepper. Thiacloprid was applied at a concentration of 96 g a.i./ ha, as recommended by the manufacturer for aphid control. Degradation of thiacloprid in pepper fruits was evaluated over a ten-day period, starting from the moment of insecticide application. Sample preparation was performed using the QuEChERS method for liquid chromatography with diode array detection for identification and quantification of thiacloprid residues in extracts of pepper samples. The method was validated in accordance with the SANCO/12571/2013 document. The obtained mean recovery value was 83.69%, with RSD 5.05%. Intraday precision was 3.21%. Within a concentration range from 0.01-2.0 μg/ml, thiacloprid showed linear calibration with R2 0.997%, while the quantification limit of the method was 0.01 mg/kg. The results of a field trial showed that thiacloprid dissipated rapidly from 1.136 mg/kg to 0.321 mg/kg with a loss of 72% in the first two days after application. Throughout the experimental period, thiacloprid residues in pepper fruits basically remained at a stable low level, and no residue exceeding 0.198 mg/kg was detected in the terminal residue experiment, which was below the MRL of 1.0 mg/kg. The half-life (DT50 of thiacloprid in pepper fruits obtained in this study was 4.95 days. Finally, the pre-harvest interval (PHI for thiacloprid prescribed by Serbian authorities was proved to be safe enough in greenhouse production of pepper.

  4. Bioactive compounds of fresh and dehydrated green pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Marinho do Nascimento

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Pepper Capsicum annuum L., belongs to the Solanaceae family, which contains approximately 31 species. Bioactive compounds also known as phytochemicals are chemical and biochemical components that are present in most fruits and vegetables. The objective of the present study was to verify if the bioactive compounds of the green pepper remain after being submitted to the drying process. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with 2 treatments and 5 replicates. Green peppers were used from the (Economic Center of Supply Corporation of the city of Patos, Paraíba. The peppers were packed in plastic boxes and transported to the Laboratory of Chemistry, Biochemistry and Food Analysis of the Federal University of Campina Grande, Campus Pombal. Where they were selected, washed and sanitized. After that, the minimum processing was done and the drying was carried out in a circulation oven at 60 ºC. At the end of the drying, the samples were crushed and sieved. After this process, the analyzes of ascorbic acid, chlorophylls, carotenoids, anthocyanin flavonoids and phenolic compounds. It was found that there was a significant difference between treatments. The bioactive properties of green pepper were not lost after the heat treatment. Some phytochemicals as ascorbic acid, carotenoids and phenolic compounds were concentrated. Therefore the loss of water during the drying process increased the concentration of the bioactive compounds of dehydrated pepper, the product obtained with this method exhibited high levels of phytochemicals, the use of drying may be an alternative to prolong the shelf life of the vegetable.

  5. Washing effects of limonene on pesticide residues in green peppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hai-Yan; Shen, Yan; Sun, Xing; Zhu, Hong; Liu, Xian-Jin

    2013-09-01

    The presence of pesticide residues in food has caused much concern. The low health risks and environmental impacts of limonene make it a very interesting solvent for use in green chemistry. Washing effects of limonene on pesticide residues of methyl chlorpyrifos, chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, fenpropathrin and deltamethrin were investigated in green pepper. Results showed that washing with a low concentration of limonene for 5 min (where LOQ is limit of quantitation) caused 53.67%, limonene for 10 min produced 55.90%, limonene for 5 min was the optimal treatment for elimination of pesticide residues in green pepper, considering effect and treatment time as well as cost. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Pepper Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Preferences for Specific Pepper Cultivars, Plant Parts, Fruit Colors, Fruit Sizes, and Timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Dakshina R.; Martin, Cliff G.

    2016-01-01

    Peppers (Capsicum spp.) are an important crop in the USA, with about 32,000 ha cultivated in 2007, which resulted in $588 million in farm revenue. The pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the most troublesome insect pest of peppers in the southern United States. It is therefore urgent to find different vulnerabilities of pepper cultivars, fruit and plants parts, fruit colors and sizes, and timing to infestation by A. eugenii. Also relevant is testing whether fruit length and infestation state affect fruit numbers, weights, and proportions of fruit that are infested. Counts of A. eugenii adults and marks from oviposition and feeding suggested that C. chinense Jacquin “Habanero” was least susceptible, and C. annuum L. cultivars “SY” and “SR” were most susceptible. Comparison of plant parts and fruit sizes revealed that A. eugenii preferred the peduncle, calyx, and top of pepper fruits over the middle, bottom, leaves, or remainder of flowers. Anthonomus eugenii does not discriminate between green or yellow fruit color nor vary diurnally in numbers. Based on adult counts, medium to extra-large fruits (≥1.5 cm long) attracted more weevils than small fruits (fruit numbers or fruit weights that were infested, there were no differences between large and small fruits. Choice of pepper cultivar can thus be an important part of an IPM cultural control program designed to combat A. eugenii by reduced susceptibility or by synchronous fruit drop of infested fruits. Our results are potentially helpful in developing scouting programs including paying particular attention to the preferred locations of adults and their sites of feeding and oviposition on the fruit. The results also suggested the potential value of spraying when the fruits are still immature to prevent and control infestation. PMID:26959066

  7. Mona F1: New pepper (Capsicum annuum L. hybrid in the Centre for Vegetable Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvikić Dejan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The planted area various ways of pepper consumption (fresh or processed, make pepper one of the most important cultivars in vegetable breeding. In our country, up until now, the producers have usually grown varieties and domestic populations of pepper, while in more developed countries the usage of F1 hybrids is much more popular. The first pepper hybrids have been created in the Centre for Vegetable Crops by crossing new lines with male sterility gene ms-3 and selected genotypes from pepper collection. Created hybrids have higher yield, quality fruits and early ripening. This paper is the result of comparative trial in controlled conditions. Pepper varieties Župska rana, Zlatna medalja, Palanačka kapija and Duga bela, as well as new hybrid Mona F1 were the research matherial in order to observe the most important pepper traits.

  8. Physical and Sensory Properties of Ice Cream Containing Fermented Pepper Powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeon, Su-Jung; Kim, Ji-Han; Hong, Go-Eun; Park, Woojoon; Kim, Soo-Ki; Seo, Han-Geuk; Lee, Chi-Ho

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the physical and sensory properties of ice cream containing fermented pepper powder. Three ice cream formulas were manufactured: 1, control; 2, supplemented with 0.1% fermented pepper powder; and 3, supplemented with 0.2% fermented pepper powder. Formulas 2 and 3 had significantly higher viscosity and lower overrun than formula 1 ( p ice creams supplemented with fermented pepper powder were harder and maintained their forms longer than the controls. 0.2% fermented pepper powder added ice cream had no pungency as much as that of control and overall sensory attribute was not significantly different from control. Therefore, ice cream containing fermented pepper powder maintained physical and sensory properties similar to the controls, and maintenance was better. It means fermented pepper powder ice cream can be utilized as the material of functional food (dessert).

  9. Comparative analysis of pepper and tomato reveals euchromatin expansion of pepper genome caused by differential accumulation of Ty3/Gypsy-like elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahn Jong Hwa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among the Solanaceae plants, the pepper genome is three times larger than that of tomato. Although the gene repertoire and gene order of both species are well conserved, the cause of the genome-size difference is not known. To determine the causes for the expansion of pepper euchromatic regions, we compared the pepper genome to that of tomato. Results For sequence-level analysis, we generated 35.6 Mb of pepper genomic sequences from euchromatin enriched 1,245 pepper BAC clones. The comparative analysis of orthologous gene-rich regions between both species revealed insertion of transposons exclusively in the pepper sequences, maintaining the gene order and content. The most common type of the transposon found was the LTR retrotransposon. Phylogenetic comparison of the LTR retrotransposons revealed that two groups of Ty3/Gypsy-like elements (Tat and Athila were overly accumulated in the pepper genome. The FISH analysis of the pepper Tat elements showed a random distribution in heterochromatic and euchromatic regions, whereas the tomato Tat elements showed heterochromatin-preferential accumulation. Conclusions Compared to tomato pepper euchromatin doubled its size by differential accumulation of a specific group of Ty3/Gypsy-like elements. Our results could provide an insight on the mechanism of genome evolution in the Solanaceae family.

  10. Prediction of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) flavour over different harvests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggink, P.M.; Maliepaard, C.A.; Tikunov, Y.M.; Haanstra, J.P.W.; Pohu-Flament, L.M.M.; Wit-Maljaars, de S.C.; Willeboordse-Vos, F.; Bos, S.; Benning-de Waard, C.; Grauw-van Leeuwen, de P.J.; Freymark, G.; Bovy, A.G.; Visser, R.G.F.

    2012-01-01

    To better understand and predict the complex multifactorial trait flavor, volatile and non-volatile components were measured in fresh sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) fruits throughout the growing season in a diverse panel of 24 breeding lines, hybrids, several cultivated genotypes and one gene bank

  11. Yield and quality response of drip-irrigated pepper under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Significant linear relations were found between the pepper yield and the total water use for each irrigation interval. Irrigation intervals resulted in similar water use in the treatments with the same irrigation level. Water use efficiency (WUE) and irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) values were significantly influenced by the ...

  12. Poultry manure application and varietal effects of chilli-pepper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cultural practices such as organic manure application can affect soil fertility and also insect pest and disease incidence on the plant. The effect of poultry manure application was therefore evaluated in relation to the infestation by major insect pests and disease of pepper in a humid tropical agro-ecosystem. Treatments ...

  13. effect of aqueous extract of alligator pepper (zingiberaceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daniel Owu

    Key words: Gestational weight gain, Aqueous Extract, Intra-peritoneal injection, Alligator Pepper,. Nutrition. Introduction. In a study on Gestational weight gain and pregnancy outcome in obese .... A transparent plastic dish was placed on a top loading balance. The meter of the top loading balance was then reset at zero. All.

  14. Model Selection for Nondestructive Quantification of Fruit Growth in Pepper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubs, A.M.; Ma, Y.T.; Heuvelink, E.; Hemerik, L.; Marcelis, L.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying fruit growth can be desirable for several purposes (e.g., prediction of fruit yield and size, or for the use in crop simulation models). The goal of this article was to determine the best sigmoid function to describe fruit growth of pepper (Capsicum annuum) from nondestructive fruit

  15. Detection of pepper leaf curl virus through PCR amplification and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-04-25

    Apr 25, 2011 ... Harlow E, Lane N (1988). Antibodies: A Laboratory Manual, New York: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. Khan MS, Raj SK, Singh R (2006). First report of Tomato leaf curl New. Delhi virus infecting chilli in India. Plant Pathol. 55: p. 289. Kumar S, Rai M (2005). Chile in India. Chile Pepper Institute Newslett.

  16. Quantification of the gene expression of bell peppers (Capsicum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osama

    2014-12-31

    Dec 31, 2014 ... such as in Arabidopsis, the genes found were elongation factor-1α (LeEF-1A), expansin protein (leEXP1) and ripening inhibitor (RIN). This research focused on discovering similar genes that may play an important role in the ripening of peppers. Real-time PCR was performed on the cDNA of the green bell.

  17. Recent approaches for bell pepper seed vigor testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Altomani Neves Dias

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Seed vigor is a major attribute in the determination of whether a seed lot can be commercialized. Different physiological tests are used to assess seed vigor and are generally based on different concepts, which could lead to variable interpretations, particularly when comparing lots presenting different vigor levels. This study was conducted to compare the different approaches used to evaluate bell pepper seed vigor and verify the applicability of the Seed Vigor Imaging System (SVIS for this purpose. The experiment was performed using four seed lots of bell pepper hybrids in two periods, and the evaluations involved germination, seedling emergence, seedling emergence speed index, saturated salt accelerated aging and image analysis. The use of seedling imaging analysis by SVISis a new approach for bell pepper seed vigor evaluation. Both the software and traditional tests provided sufficient information for seed vigor analysis, enabling the segregation of the analyzed seed lots. Thus, the new method fulfills the requirement for an efficient, rapid, cost-effective and standardized method that allows comparisons among laboratories and avoids human influence on the interpretation of the results. SVIS can be considered a feasible option to be included in quality assurance programs of the bell pepper seed industry.

  18. Growth and physiological aspects of bell pepper ( Capsicum annuum )

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to evaluate growth and physiological aspects of 'All Big' bell pepper, under saline stress and exogenous application of proline on the leaves. The research was conducted in pots adapted as drainage lysimeters under greenhouse conditions, using sandy-loam eutrophic Regolithic Neosol, in the ...

  19. Nitrogen determination in pepper ( Capsicum frutescens L.) plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, six levels of nitrogen fertilization were established so as to induce nitrogen status in pepper plants. At the flowering and fruiting stages, total nitrogen was evaluated by laboratory analysis. The chlorophyll index was determined using a soil plant analysis development (SPAD)-502 chlorophyll meter. Also, color ...

  20. Improving obstacle awareness for robotic harvesting of sweet-pepper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bac, C.W.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract

    Obstacles are densely spaced in a sweet-pepper crop and they limit the free workspace for a robot that can detach the fruit from the plant. Previous harvesting robots mostly attempted to detach a fruit without using any information of obstacles, thereby reducing

  1. Occurrence of pepper mild mottle virus in greenhouse- grown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-08

    Jun 8, 2011 ... Figure 1. Map of the West Mediterranean region of Turkey showing areas in which the surveys were conducted. showing virus-like symptoms were taken from symptomatic pepper plants from each greenhouse in the same region. Each sample was placed in a plastic bag and symptom types were recorded ...

  2. Fulvic acid affects pepper antioxidant activity and fruit quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fulvic acid has been considered as a valuable fertilizer for sustainable agriculture. The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the effect of fulvic acid (FA) on antioxidant compounds and fruit quality of pepper under field conditions. Plants were grown in the Department of Horticulture Farm, Ferdowsi University of ...

  3. Detection and Quantification of Leveillula taurica Growth in Pepper Leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, Z.; Nonomura, T.; Bóka, K.; Matsuda, Y.; Visser, R.G.F.; Toyoda, H.; Kiss, L.; Bai, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Leveillula taurica is an obligate fungal pathogen that causes powdery mildew disease on a broad range of plants, including important crops such as pepper, tomato, eggplant, onion, cotton, and so on. The early stage of this disease is difficult to diagnose and the disease can easily spread

  4. Molecular characterization and diversity analysis in chilli pepper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    India is considered to be the secondary center of diversity of chilli pepper, especially of Capsicum annuum. Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are the most widely used marker system for plant variety characterization and diversity analysis especially in cultivated species which have low levels of polymorphism. The diversity ...

  5. Fulvic acid affects pepper antioxidant activity and fruit quality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    standard

    2012-08-23

    Aug 23, 2012 ... analysis). Methanol extracts of freeze-dried fruits were prepared for the determination of antioxidant activity and total phenolic content. Weighed pepper fruit samples (5 g) were placed in a glass beaker and homogenised with 50 ml of methanol at. 24°C overnight. The homogenate was filtered and then.

  6. Survival analysis of flower and fruit abortion in sweet pepper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubs, A.M.; Heuvelink, E.; Marcelis, L.F.M.; Hemerik, L.

    2007-01-01

    In order to obtain a crop growth model that can simulate inter- and intra-plant variation in fruit set, fruit abortion times in sweet pepper were analysed by means of survival analysis. Survival analysis is a statistical technique dealing with the timing of events. The Cox proportional hazards model

  7. Growth and physiological aspects of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    2016-08-24

    Aug 24, 2016 ... This study aimed to evaluate growth and physiological aspects of 'All Big' bell pepper, under saline stress and exogenous application of proline on the leaves. The research was conducted in pots .... data were obtained in the transition of vegetative and reproductive stages, at 40 DAT. In the same period, ...

  8. Effect of different mulch materials on the soil dehydrogenase activity (DHA) in an organic pepper crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Marta M.; Peco, Jesús; Campos, Juan; Villena, Jaime; González, Sara; Moreno, Carmen

    2016-04-01

    The use biodegradable materials (biopolymers of different composition and papers) as an alternative to conventional mulches has increased considerably during the last years mainly for environmental reason. In order to assess the effect of these materials on the soil microbial activity during the season of a pepper crop organically grown in Central Spain, the soil dehydrogenase activity (DHA) was measured in laboratory. The mulch materials tested were: 1) black polyethylene (PE, 15 μm); black biopolymers (15 μm): 2) Mater-Bi® (corn starch based), 3) Sphere 4® (potato starch based), 4) Sphere 6® (potato starch based), 5) Bioflex® (polylactic acid based), 6) Ecovio® (polylactic acid based), 7) Mimgreen® (black paper, 85 g/m2). A randomized complete block design with four replications was adopted. The crop was drip irrigated following the water demand of each treatment. Soil samples (5-10 cm depth) under the different mulches were taken at different dates (at the beginning of the crop cycle and at different dates throughout the crop season). Additionally, samples of bare soil in a manual weeding and in an untreated control were taken. The results obtained show the negative effect of black PE on the DHA activity, mainly as result of the higher temperature reached under the mulch and the reduction in the gas interchange between the soil and the atmosphere. The values corresponding to the biodegradable materials were variable, although highlighting the low DHA activity observed under Bioflex®. In general, the uncovered treatments showed higher values than those reached under mulches, especially in the untreated control. Keywords: mulch, biodegradable, biopolymer, paper, dehydrogenase activity (DHA). Acknowledgements: the research was funded by Project RTA2011-00104-C04-03 from the INIA (Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness).

  9. Managing the pepper maggot (Diptera: Tephritidae) using perimeter trap cropping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, T Jude; Ashley, Richard; Durgy, Robert; Sciabarrasi, Michael; Calderwood, William

    2003-04-01

    A perimeter trap crop barrier of hot cherry peppers, border-row insecticide applications, and a combination of the two management strategies were evaluated to see if they could protect a centrally located main crop of bell peppers from oviposition and infestation by the pepper maggot, Zonosemata electa (Say). In large plots, the main cash crop of bell peppers was protected from the majority of the oviposition and infestation by all three barriers. The combination sprayed/trap crop barrier provided the best protection against both oviposition and infestation and resulted in over 98% pest-free fruit at harvest. Maggots infested only 1.7% of the main crop fruit when protected by a sprayed or unsprayed trap crop barrier, compared with 15.4% in control plots. The perimeter sprayed/trap crop strategy was employed in three commercial fields in 2000 and 2001. The combination barrier resulted in superior insect control and reduced insecticide use at all commercial locations, compared with the same farms' past history or to farms using conventional and integrated pest management (IPM) methods. Economic analysis showed that the technique is more cost effective and profitable than relying on whole-field insecticide applications to control the pepper maggot. Farmer users were surveyed and found the perimeter trap crop technique simple to use, with many hard-to-measure benefits associated with worker protection issues, marketing, personnel/management relations, pest control and the environment. Use of the perimeter trap crop technique as part of an IPM or organic program can help improve crop quality and overall farm profitability, while reducing pesticide use and the possibility of secondary pest outbreaks.

  10. Competition Between Weeds and Pepper in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Lovelli

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In arid areas drought conditions and warmer temperatures will alter the competitive balance between crops and some weed species. The objective of this study was to study water competition and its effect on canopy relationship of a C4 weed (pigweed and a C3 weed (bindweed towards a C3 crop (pepper in a Mediterranean area. The experiment was carried out in 2008 in Matera, Southern Italy. Pigweed and bindweed were studied within a naturally occurring weed population in a bell pepper field where a rainfed treatment (V0 was compared to a full irrigated one (V100, the latter corresponding to the restoration of 100% of the maximum crop evapotranspiration, (ETc. Soil water content was measured periodically; leaf water potential, net assimilation rate (A, stomatal conductance (gs, transpiration rate (T, Ci (intercellular CO2 concentration and A/Ci curves were also determined on pigweed, bindweed and pepper leaves. All gas exchange parameters differed between irrigated and rainfed treatments and between the three species.Water use efficiency was higher in pigweed than in pepper and bindweed. Between the considered weeds, pigweed competed for water with pepper significantly since, unlike bindweed, pigweed began to reduce stomatal conductance only when its leaf water potential achieved very negative values, lower than -2.00 MPa. Unlike C4 crops already saturated for CO2, pigweed photosynthesis is not completely saturated for CO2. Consequently, since atmospheric CO2 is increasing, when pigweed is grown in mixed stands where competition occurs, it can further limit other slow-growing species, both crops and weeds.

  11. ACHIEVEMENTS IN PEPPER BREEDING AT RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE FOR VEGETABLE AND FLOWER GROWING - VIDRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gicuţa Sbîrciog

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pepper is one of the annual vegetable species occupying large areas both in open field and in protected areas. In our country there are cultivated several types: bell pepper, round pepper, long pepper for fresh consumption, paprika peppers and hot peppers. During 1980-2016, the Research and Development Institute for Vegetable and Flower and Vegetable Research Stations from Arad, Bacau, Buzau and Işalniţa were obtained a large number of varieties of peppers of all types mentioned. At present, as a result of lower research funding, work to improve the pepper longer takes place only at the Institute Vidra and research vegetable stations Bacau and Buzau. Among the latest creations of the institute include varieties of sweet bell pepper: mid early Asteroid 204 (fruit of 120-210 g and yielding ability of 43-51 t ha and Cornel 209 (fruit of 150-250 g. and yielding ability of 50-53 t/ha and varieties of bell pepper: Bârsan (mid-early with conical fruit and Vidra 9 (mid-late, fruit cordiforme, slightly elongated. All four varieties are more requested by the producers of vegetables for their high production potential, high quality fruit and good behavior to unfavorable biotic and abiotic factors.

  12. Effects of red pepper powder on microbial communities and metabolites during kimchi fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Sang Hyeon; Lee, Hyo Jung; Jung, Ji Young; Lee, Se Hee; Seo, Hye-Young; Park, Wan-Soo; Jeon, Che Ok

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effects of red pepper powder on kimchi fermentation, Baechu (Chinese cabbage) and Mu (radish) kimchi, with and without red pepper powder, were prepared and their characteristics, including pH, colony-forming units (CFU), microbial communities, and metabolites, were periodically monitored for 40days. Measurements of pH and CFU showed that the lag phases of kimchi fermentation were clearly extended by the addition of red pepper powder. Microbial community analysis using a barcoded pyrosequencing analysis showed that the bacterial diversities in kimchi with red pepper powder decreased more slowly than kimchi without red pepper powder as kimchi fermentation progressed. The kimchi microbial communities were represented mainly by the genera Leuconostoc and Lactobacillus in all kimchi, and the abundance of Weissella was negligible in kimchi without red pepper powder. However, interestingly, kimchi with red pepper powder contained much higher proportions of Weissella than kimchi without red pepper powder, while the proportions of Leuconostoc and Lactobacillus were evidently lower in kimchi with red pepper powder compared to kimchi without red pepper powder. Metabolite analysis using a (1)H NMR technique also showed that the fermentation of kimchi with red pepper powder progressed a little more slowly than that of kimchi without red pepper powder. Principle component analysis using microbial communities and metabolites supported the finding that the addition of red pepper powder into kimchi resulted in the slowing of the kimchi fermentation process, especially during the early fermentation period and influenced the microbial succession and metabolite production during the kimchi fermentation processes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Antioxidant, Antinociceptive, and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Carotenoids Extracted from Dried Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ortega, Marcela; Ortiz-Moreno, Alicia; Hernández-Navarro, María Dolores; Chamorro-Cevallos, Germán; Dorantes-Alvarez, Lidia; Necoechea-Mondragón, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    Carotenoids extracted from dried peppers were evaluated for their antioxidant, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory activities. Peppers had a substantial carotenoid content: guajillo 3406 ± 4 μg/g, pasilla 2933 ± 1 μg/g, and ancho 1437 ± 6 μg/g of sample in dry weight basis. A complex mixture of carotenoids was discovered in each pepper extract. The TLC analysis revealed the presence of chlorophylls in the pigment extract from pasilla and ancho peppers. Guajillo pepper carotenoid extracts exhibited good antioxidant activity and had the best scavenging capacity for the DPPH+ cation (24.2%). They also exhibited significant peripheral analgesic activity at 5, 20, and 80 mg/kg and induced central analgesia at 80 mg/kg. The results suggest that the carotenoids in dried guajillo peppers have significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory benefits and could be useful for pain and inflammation relief. PMID:23091348

  14. Improvement of hygienic quality and long-term storage of dried red pepper by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, M.W.; Yook, H.S.; Kwon, J.H.; Kim, J.O.

    1996-01-01

    Dried-red pepper, whole and powdered types, was subjected to a storage-study by investigation the effects of packaging methods (polycloth & polyethylene/polycloth, whole dried-red pepper; nylon/polyethylene-lam-inated film, red pepper powder), temperature and gamma irradiation doses (0-10 kGy). After 6 months storage in polyclith sack at ambient temperature, all whole dried-red pepper showed quality deterioration, such as weight change, insect infestation, discoloration and chemical changes, After 2 years storage in combined packaging with polyethylene/polycloth sack of 5-7.5 kGy irradiated whole dried-red pepper at ambient temperature, however, quality deterioration was not observed. Gamma-irradiated red pepper powder (7.5-10kGy) showed a good quality in hygienic, physicochemical and organoleptic evaluation after 2 years of storage at ambient temperature

  15. Antioxidant, Antinociceptive, and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Carotenoids Extracted from Dried Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Hernández-Ortega

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids extracted from dried peppers were evaluated for their antioxidant, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory activities. Peppers had a substantial carotenoid content: guajillo 3406±4 μg/g, pasilla 2933±1 μg/g, and ancho 1437±6 μg/g of sample in dry weight basis. A complex mixture of carotenoids was discovered in each pepper extract. The TLC analysis revealed the presence of chlorophylls in the pigment extract from pasilla and ancho peppers. Guajillo pepper carotenoid extracts exhibited good antioxidant activity and had the best scavenging capacity for the DPPH+ cation (24.2%. They also exhibited significant peripheral analgesic activity at 5, 20, and 80 mg/kg and induced central analgesia at 80 mg/kg. The results suggest that the carotenoids in dried guajillo peppers have significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory benefits and could be useful for pain and inflammation relief.

  16. Key Microbiota Identification Using Functional Gene Analysis during Pepper (Piper nigrum L. Peeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiachao Zhang

    Full Text Available Pepper pericarp microbiota plays an important role in the pepper peeling process for the production of white pepper. We collected pepper samples at different peeling time points from Hainan Province, China, and used a metagenomic approach to identify changes in the pericarp microbiota based on functional gene analysis. UniFrac distance-based principal coordinates analysis revealed significant changes in the pericarp microbiota structure during peeling, which were attributed to increases in bacteria from the genera Selenomonas and Prevotella. We identified 28 core operational taxonomic units at each time point, mainly belonging to Selenomonas, Prevotella, Megasphaera, Anaerovibrio, and Clostridium genera. The results were confirmed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. At the functional level, we observed significant increases in microbial features related to acetyl xylan esterase and pectinesterase for pericarp degradation during peeling. These findings offer a new insight into biodegradation for pepper peeling and will promote the development of the white pepper industry.

  17. Key Microbiota Identification Using Functional Gene Analysis during Pepper (Piper nigrum L.) Peeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiachao; Hu, Qisong; Xu, Chuanbiao; Liu, Sixin; Li, Congfa

    2016-01-01

    Pepper pericarp microbiota plays an important role in the pepper peeling process for the production of white pepper. We collected pepper samples at different peeling time points from Hainan Province, China, and used a metagenomic approach to identify changes in the pericarp microbiota based on functional gene analysis. UniFrac distance-based principal coordinates analysis revealed significant changes in the pericarp microbiota structure during peeling, which were attributed to increases in bacteria from the genera Selenomonas and Prevotella. We identified 28 core operational taxonomic units at each time point, mainly belonging to Selenomonas, Prevotella, Megasphaera, Anaerovibrio, and Clostridium genera. The results were confirmed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. At the functional level, we observed significant increases in microbial features related to acetyl xylan esterase and pectinesterase for pericarp degradation during peeling. These findings offer a new insight into biodegradation for pepper peeling and will promote the development of the white pepper industry.

  18. Isolation of microorganisms from red pepper powder and their radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, E.H.; Kim, Y.B.; Lee, S.R.

    1977-01-01

    From samples of red pepper powder sold in Korea were isolated and identified 13 species of molds (Aspergillus amsteodami, Asp. chevalieri, Asp. clavatus, Asp. Flavus, Asp. janus var. effusus, Asp. oryzae, Asp. oryzae var. brevis, Asp. repens, Asp. sydowi, Asp. thomii, Asp. tubingensis, Penicillium thomii, Scopulariopsis brevicaulis) and 5 species of bacteria (Bacillus pumilus, Bac. subtilis, Micrococus luteus, M. varians, Staphylococcus aureus). Radiosensitivity of these microorganisms was examined to give D 10 values of 14-41 krad for molds, 11-24 krad for bacterial vegetative cells and 190-250 krad for bacterial spores. The red pepper powder was contaminated with 2-3x10 2 mold counts/g and 3-6x10 7 bacterial counts/g, which would be sufficiently destroyed by irradiating 200 krad r-rays. (Author)

  19. The Dynamic Microbiota Profile During Pepper (Piper nigrum L.) Peeling by Solid-State Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qisong; Zhang, Jiachao; Xu, Chuanbiao; Li, Congfa; Liu, Sixin

    2017-06-01

    White pepper (Piper nigrum L.), a well-known spice, is the main pepper processing product in Hainan province, China. The solid-state method of fermentation can peel pepper in a highly efficient manner and yield high-quality white pepper. In the present study, we used next-generation sequencing to reveal the dynamic changes in the microbiota during pepper peeling by solid-state fermentation. The results suggested that the inoculated Aspergillus niger was dominant throughout the fermentation stage, with its strains constituting more than 95% of the fungi present; thus, the fungal community structure was relatively stable. The bacterial community structure fluctuated across different fermentation periods; among the bacteria present, Pseudomonas, Tatumella, Pantoea, Acinetobacter, Lactococcus, and Enterobacter accounted for more than 95% of all bacteria. Based on the correlations among the microbial community, we found that Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter were significantly positively related with A. niger, which showed strong synergy with them. In view of the microbial functional gene analysis, we found that these three bacteria and fungi were closely related to the production of pectin esterase (COG4677) and acetyl xylan esterase (COG3458), the key enzymes for pepper peeling. The present research clarifies the solid-state fermentation method of pepper peeling and lays a theoretical foundation to promote the development of the pepper peeling process and the production of high-quality white pepper.

  20. Molecular and cellular control of cell death and defense signaling in pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyong Woo; Hwang, Byung Kook

    2015-01-01

    Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) provides a good experimental system for studying the molecular and functional genomics underlying the ability of plants to defend themselves against microbial pathogens. Cell death is a genetically programmed response that requires specific host cellular factors. Hypersensitive response (HR) is defined as rapid cell death in response to a pathogen attack. Pepper plants respond to pathogen attacks by activating genetically controlled HR- or disease-associated cell death. HR cell death, specifically in incompatible interactions between pepper and Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria, is mediated by the molecular genetics and biochemical machinery that underlie pathogen-induced cell death in plants. Gene expression profiles during the HR-like cell death response, virus-induced gene silencing and transient and transgenic overexpression approaches are used to isolate and identify HR- or disease-associated cell death genes in pepper plants. Reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide, cytosolic calcium ion and defense-related hormones such as salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, ethylene and abscisic acid are involved in the execution of pathogen-induced cell death in plants. In this review, we summarize recent molecular and cellular studies of the pepper cell death-mediated defense response, highlighting the signaling events of cell death in disease-resistant pepper plants. Comprehensive knowledge and understanding of the cellular functions of pepper cell death response genes will aid the development of novel practical approaches to enhance disease resistance in pepper, thereby helping to secure the future supply of safe and nutritious pepper plants worldwide.

  1. The decrease in aqueous tear production associated with pepper spray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasier, Rifat; Kukner, Amber Senel; Sengul, Elvan Alper; Yalcin, Nazli Gul; Temizsoylu, Onur; Bahcecioglu, Halil Onder

    2015-04-01

    Pepper spray is used both by civilians and by law enforcement. Burning sensation occurs when exposed to skin, pain and temporary blindness occurs when exposed to the eyes. This study focused on the effect of pepper spray on lacrimal tear production and subsequently on corneal sensitivity in a large group after an intense exposure. Ninety-six people who were exposed to pepper spray during the Gezi park protests volunteered. Subjects were asked if they wore any protective goggles and if they irrigated their eyes after exposure. They were asked to record their symptoms regarding dry eye in a standardized questionnaire. Schirmer I and II tests were performed. Eighty-two people wore protective goggles during exposure, whereas 14 people did not have any protection. Both Schirmer results in unprotected subjects were significantly lower than that in protected subjects. Schirmer I and II results of unprotected subjects were not statistically different, whereas they were statistically different in protected subjects. Thirty-five percent of unprotected subjects and 24% of protected subjects expressed symptoms of dry eye. The active ingredient of pepper spray is oleoresin capsicum. It is randomly diffused to polymodal nerve terminals, leading to opening of non-selective cationic channels and block neuronal transmission. The lower results of both Schirmer in unprotected group emphasize the importance of a protective Google glass around the eyes during exposal, serving as a barrier minimalizing the contact of the spray with the eyes. The combination of the low results and lack of symptoms could suggest that corneal reflex lacrimation in our subjects was not abundant enough. The findings of this study could not fully represent long term findings but it could be assumed that our findings could be indicative of the sensory denervation and alterations demonstrated in studies investigating the long term effects of oleoresin capsicum.

  2. Recent approaches for bell pepper seed vigor testing.

    OpenAIRE

    DIAS, M. A. N.; MONDO, V. H. V.; CICERO, S. M.

    2014-01-01

    Seed vigor is a major attribute in the determination of whether a seed lot can be commercialized. Different physiological tests are used to assess seed vigor and are generally based on different concepts, which could lead to variable interpretations, particularly when comparing lots presenting different vigor levels. This study was conducted to compare the different approaches used to evaluate bell pepper seed vigor and verify the applicability of the Seed Vigor Imaging System (SVIS) for this...

  3. Recent approaches for bell pepper seed vigor testing

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Marcos Altomani Neves; Mondo, Vitor Henrique Vaz; Cicero, Silvio Moure

    2014-01-01

    Seed vigor is a major attribute in the determination of whether a seed lot can be commercialized. Different physiological tests are used to assess seed vigor and are generally based on different concepts, which could lead to variable interpretations, particularly when comparing lots presenting different vigor levels. This study was conducted to compare the different approaches used to evaluate bell pepper seed vigor and verify the applicability of the Seed Vigor Imaging System (SVIS) for this...

  4. Detection and quantification of Leveillula taurica growth in pepper leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zheng; Nonomura, Teruo; Bóka, Károly; Matsuda, Yoshinori; Visser, Richard G F; Toyoda, Hideyoshi; Kiss, Levente; Bai, Yuling

    2013-06-01

    Leveillula taurica is an obligate fungal pathogen that causes powdery mildew disease on a broad range of plants, including important crops such as pepper, tomato, eggplant, onion, cotton, and so on. The early stage of this disease is difficult to diagnose and the disease can easily spread unobserved; for example, in pepper and tomato production fields and greenhouses. The objective of this study was to develop a detection and quantification method of L. taurica biomass in pepper leaves with special regard to the early stages of infection. We monitored the development of the disease to time the infection process on the leaf surface as well as inside the pepper leaves. The initial and final steps of the infection taking place on the leaf surface were consecutively observed using a dissecting microscope and a scanning electron microscope. The development of the intercellular mycelium in the mesophyll was followed by light and transmission electron microscopy. A pair of L. taurica-specific primers was designed based on the internal transcribed spacer sequence of L. taurica and used in real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to quantify the fungal DNA during infection. The specificity of this assay was confirmed by testing the primer pair with DNA from host plants and also from another powdery mildew species, Oidium neolycopersici, infecting tomato. A standard curve was obtained for absolute quantification of L. taurica biomass. In addition, we tested a relative quantification method by using a plant gene as reference and the obtained results were compared with the visual disease index scoring. The real-time PCR assay for L. taurica provides a valuable tool for detection and quantification of this pathogen in breeding activities as well in plant-microbe interaction studies.

  5. Expression profiles of hot pepper (Capsicum annuum) genes under ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    protein homologue, xyloglucanendo-1,4-β-D-gucanase precursor, PR10, and the putative non-specific lipid transfer protein StnsLTP. [Hwang E-W, Kim K-A, Park S-C, Jeong M-J, Byun M-O and Kwon H-B 2005 Expression profiles of hot pepper (Capsicum annuum) genes under cold stress conditions; J. Biosci. 30 657–667].

  6. Asthma exacerbation related with inhalation of hot peppers extract (capsaicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Ceylan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In this study we aimed to prospectively investigate,asthma provoking factors and among thesefactors the place of Hot pepper (Isot during August-Septembermonths which are time period for processing isot.Methods: In this study, 73 female patients with exacerbationof asthma who applied to Chest Diseases OutpatientClinic and emergency department in the period of August-September (2010 were evaluated prospectively.Results: Seventy-three asthmatic female patients, meansage 34.7±6.1 (22-43 years were included. Patients withexacerbation of asthma provoking factors are; inhalationof isot pepper 28.8%, infections 23.3%, irregular use ofdrugs 16.4%, exposure to biomass and cigarette smoke13.7%, allergens 9.6%, emotional factors 5%, and gastroesophagealreflux 2.7%, physical exercise 1.4%.Conclusion: We observed that the most important asthmaprovoking factor was the inhalation of isot extract inasthmatic female patients in August-September (2010period in Sanliurfa. J Clin Exp Invest 2013; 4 (3: 331-334Key words: Asthma, hot pepper, Isot, capsaicin, Sanliurfa

  7. Influence of agricultural practices on fruit quality of bell pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Zahra, T R

    2011-09-15

    An experiment was carried out under plastic house conditions to compare the effect of four fermented organic matter sources (cattle, poultry and sheep manure in addition to 1:1:1 mixture of the three organic matter sources) in which 4 kg organic matter m(-2) were used, with that of the conventional agriculture (chemical fertilizers) treatments on Marvello red pepper fruit quality, by using a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replicates. Pepper fruits characteristics cultivated in soil supplemented with manure were generally better than those from plants grown in soil only. Addition of animal manure increased bell pepper fruit content of soluble solids, ascorbic acid, total phenols, crude fibre and intensity of red color as compare with conventional agriculture that produced fruits with higher titratable acidity, water content, lycopene and bigger fruit size. In most cases of animal manure treatments, best results were obtained by the sheep manure treatment that produced the highest TSS, while the worst results were obtained by the poultry manure treatment that produced the smallest fruit and lowest fruit lycopene content.

  8. Reaction of sweet pepper to the potato virus y (PVYm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Echer Márcia de Moraes

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional sweet pepper cultivars showing susceptibility to the Potato virus Y (PVY are being replaced by resistant hybrids with higher commercial value. Despite of much information about resistance source reaction and their inheritance, there is no knowledge about the genetic background of commercial resistant hybrids. Reaction of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L. hybrids to the Potato virus Y (PVYm such as Acuario, Magali R, Nathalie and their respective generations F2 and F3 as well as hybrids Amanda, Corteso W208, CPC-6272, Dagmar, Elisa, Magali, Margarita, Monteiro, Quantum, Vivo W205 was evaluated. Reaction to PVYm was evaluated as resistant or susceptible. Magali R and Nathalie hybrid did not show any mosaic symptoms. Magali R and Nathalie hybrids resistance is due to a single dominant gene indicating resistant versus susceptible parental lines crossing pedigree. Amanda, Acuario, Corteso W208, Dagmar, Elisa, Margarita, Monteiro, Quantum and Vivo W205, considered resistant to PVY, were highly susceptibility to PVY strain m. Hybrids, claimed as resistant to the Pepper mottle virus (PepMoV, were also resistant to PVYm.

  9. Black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feast, M.W.

    1981-01-01

    This article deals with two questions, namely whether it is possible for black holes to exist, and if the answer is yes, whether we have found any yet. In deciding whether black holes can exist or not the central role in the shaping of our universe played by the forse of gravity is discussed, and in deciding whether we are likely to find black holes in the universe the author looks at the way stars evolve, as well as white dwarfs and neutron stars. He also discusses the problem how to detect a black hole, possible black holes, a southern black hole, massive black holes, as well as why black holes are studied

  10. Effect of Red Pepper (Capsicum frutescens) Powder or Red Pepper Pigment on the Performance and Egg Yolk Color of Laying Hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huaqiang; Jin, Liji; Wu, Feifei; Thacker, Philip; Li, Xiaoyu; You, Jiansong; Wang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Sizhao; Li, Shuying; Xu, Yongping

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of red pepper (Capsicum frutescens) powder or red pepper pigment on the performance and egg yolk color of laying hens. In Exp. 1, 210, thirty-wk old, Hy-line Brown laying hens were fed one of seven diets containing 0.3, 0.6, 1.2, 2.0, 4.8 or 9.6 ppm red pepper pigment or 0.3 ppm carophyll red. Each diet was fed to three replicate batteries of hens with each battery consisting of a row of five cages of hens with two hens per cage (n = 3). In Exp. 2, 180, thirty-wk old, Hyline Brown laying hens, housed similarly to those in Exp. 1, were fed an unsupplemented basal diet as well as treatments in which the basal diet was supplemented with 0.8% red pepper powder processed in a laboratory blender to an average particle size of 300 μm, 0.8% red pepper powder processed as a super fine powder with a vibrational mill (44 μm) and finally 0.8% red pepper powder processed as a super fine powder with a vibrational mill but mixed with 5% Na2CO3 either before or after grinding. A diet supplemented with 0.3 ppm carophyll red pigment was also included (n = 3). In both experiments, hens were fed the red pepper powder or pigment for 14 days. After feeding of the powder or pigment was terminated, all hens were fed the basal diet for eight more days to determine if the dietary treatments had any residual effects. In Exp. 1, there were no differences in egg-laying performance, feed consumption or feed conversion ratio due to inclusion of red pepper pigment in the diet. Average egg weight was higher (ppigment than for birds fed the diet containing 0.3 ppm red pepper pigment. On d 14, egg color scores increased linearly as the level of red pepper pigment in the diet increased. In Exp. 2, feeding red pepper powder did not affect egg-laying performance, feed consumption or feed conversion ratio (p>0.05). However, compared with the control group, supplementation with all of the red pepper powder treatments increased egg weight (ppigment are

  11. Effect of cultivar and roasting technique on sensory quality of Bierzo roasted pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Marcos; Sanz, Miguel A; Valenciano, José B; Casquero, Pedro A

    2011-10-01

    Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is one of the main horticultural products in the world. Roasted pepper is a high quality transformed product in the Iberian Peninsula, and obtained the recognition of 'Protected Geographical Indication' (PGI) of 'Pimiento Asado del Bierzo' in 2002. Roasted pepper has been traditionally processed with a steel-sheet hob. However, there are no data available about the effect of roasting technique in the quality of roasted pepper. The objective of this work was to compare the sensory quality of roasted pepper using industrial roasting techniques. Sensory properties that showed significant differences between roasting techniques were colour, thickness and charred remains (appearance descriptors), bitterness (taste descriptor) and smokiness (after-taste descriptor). Higher value of descriptors such as colour, charred remains and smokiness for peppers elaborated in a rotary oven, helped roasted pepper to reach a higher level of overall quality, although rotary oven samples reached the lowest roast yield. Roasting technique, rather than landrace, had the greatest effect on the sensory quality of roasted pepper, so the rotary oven was the roasting technique that achieved the highest quality score. This will contribute to improve sensory quality and marketing of PGI 'Pimiento Asado del Bierzo' in high quality markets. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. A reply to the response by Mahomed, Nöthling-Slabbert and Pepper

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'confusion' are articles co-authored by inter alia Pepper and Nöthling-. Slabbert on the application of the concept 'genomic sovereignty' to human biological material. In this context, Pepper and Nöthling-. Slabbert indeed express the opinion that there is confusion in the law. However, self-referencing to one's own opinion ...

  13. 7 CFR 319.56-40 - Peppers from certain Central American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....56-40 Section 319.56-40 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL... Vegetables § 319.56-40 Peppers from certain Central American countries. Fresh peppers (Capsicum spp.) may be... approved protein bait must be placed inside the greenhouses at a density of four traps per hectare, with a...

  14. Damage Analysis and Establishment of Control Threshold for Phytophthora Blight of Hot Pepper (Capsicum annuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo-Jung Kang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Incidence of Phytophthora blight of hot pepper (Capsicum annuum and yield (fresh weight of pepper fruits were investigated at four separate fields located in Cheongwon, Boeun, Eumsung, and Goesan, which are major pepper production areas in Chungcheongbuk-Do. In all of the experimental fields except the Goesan field, increased incidence of Phytophthora blight led to decreased yield of pepper fruits. The harvest time in which the yield of red pepper fruits was highly correlated with the incidence of Phytophthora blight was different between areas: it was highly correlated in the third harvest in Cheongwon (y=-11.0x+435.2, r2= 0.99, but in the second harvest in Boeun (y=-15.0x+944.6, r2=0.76. In contrast, there was a very low correlation between the pepper yield and the disease incidence in Goesan in which pepper seedlings grafted on resistant stocks were planted. The final disease incidence in the Cheongwon experimental field reached 100% more than 40 days later in 2007 compared with that in 2006. The control threshold of Phytophthora blight in the pepper fields where disease incidence had been lower than 5% was set as 0.8% disease incidence, which caused less than 5% yield loss

  15. Efficient sweet pepper transformation mediated by the BABY BOOM transcription factor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidmann, I.; Lange, de B.; Lambalk, J.; Angenent, G.C.; Boutilier, K.

    2011-01-01

    Pepper (Capsicum L.) is a nutritionally and economically important crop that is cultivated throughout the world as a vegetable, condiment, and food additive. Genetic transformation using Agrobacterium tumefaciens (agrobacterium) is a powerful biotechnology tool that could be used in pepper to

  16. Partial removal of water from red pepper by immersion in an osmotic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Red pepper is dried for use as a spice. When using solar energy to dry it, there are no energy costs but using other energy sources such as fuel or electricity, the production cost of red pepper spice increase. Due to the fact that energy is becoming expensive globally, it can be envisaged that osmotic dehydration gains more ...

  17. A seasonal model of contracts between a monopsonistic processor and smallholder pepper producers in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sáenz Segura, F.; Haese, D' M.F.C.; Schipper, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    We model the contractual arrangements between smallholder pepper (Piper nigrum L.) producers and a single processor in Costa Rica. Producers in the El Roble settlement sell their pepper to only one processing firm, which exerts its monopsonistic bargaining power by setting the purchase price of

  18. Black Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt

    1988-01-01

    Examines some aspects of the problem of alcoholism among Blacks, asserting that Black alcoholism can best be considered in an ecological, environmental, sociocultural, and public health context. Notes need for further research on alcoholism among Blacks and for action to reduce the problem of Black alcoholism. (NB)

  19. Black Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Angela Khristin

    2013-01-01

    The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united. The population of blacks passed down a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape…

  20. Prehispanic Use of Chili Peppers in Chiapas, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powis, Terry G.; Gallaga Murrieta, Emiliano; Lesure, Richard; Lopez Bravo, Roberto; Grivetti, Louis; Kucera, Heidi; Gaikwad, Nilesh W.

    2013-01-01

    The genus Capsicum is New World in origin and represents a complex of a wide variety of both wild and domesticated taxa. Peppers or fruits of Capsicum species rarely have been identified in the paleoethnobotanical record in either Meso- or South America. We report here confirmation of Capsicum sp. residues from pottery samples excavated at Chiapa de Corzo in southern Mexico dated from Middle to Late Preclassic periods (400 BCE to 300 CE). Residues from 13 different pottery types were collected and extracted using standard techniques. Presence of Capsicum was confirmed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)/MS-MS Analysis. Five pottery types exhibited chemical peaks for Capsicum when compared to the standard (dihydrocapsaicin). No peaks were observed in the remaining eight samples. Results of the chemical extractions provide conclusive evidence for Capsicum use at Chiapas de Corzo during a 700 year period (400 BCE–300 CE). Presence of Capsicum in different types of culinary-associated pottery raises questions how chili pepper could have been used during this early time period. As Pre-Columbian cacao products sometimes were flavored using Capsicum, the same pottery sample set was tested for evidence of cacao using a theobromine marker: these results were negative. As each vessel that tested positive for Capsicum had a culinary use we suggest here the possibility that chili residues from the Chiapas de Corzo pottery samples reflect either paste or beverage preparations for religious, festival, or every day culinary use. Alternatively, some vessels that tested positive merely could have been used to store peppers. Most interesting from an archaeological context was the presence of Capsicum residue obtained from a spouted jar, a pottery type previously thought only to be used for pouring liquids. PMID:24236083

  1. Prehispanic use of chili peppers in Chiapas, Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry G Powis

    Full Text Available The genus Capsicum is New World in origin and represents a complex of a wide variety of both wild and domesticated taxa. Peppers or fruits of Capsicum species rarely have been identified in the paleoethnobotanical record in either Meso- or South America. We report here confirmation of Capsicum sp. residues from pottery samples excavated at Chiapa de Corzo in southern Mexico dated from Middle to Late Preclassic periods (400 BCE to 300 CE. Residues from 13 different pottery types were collected and extracted using standard techniques. Presence of Capsicum was confirmed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC/MS-MS Analysis. Five pottery types exhibited chemical peaks for Capsicum when compared to the standard (dihydrocapsaicin. No peaks were observed in the remaining eight samples. Results of the chemical extractions provide conclusive evidence for Capsicum use at Chiapas de Corzo during a 700 year period (400 BCE-300 CE. Presence of Capsicum in different types of culinary-associated pottery raises questions how chili pepper could have been used during this early time period. As Pre-Columbian cacao products sometimes were flavored using Capsicum, the same pottery sample set was tested for evidence of cacao using a theobromine marker: these results were negative. As each vessel that tested positive for Capsicum had a culinary use we suggest here the possibility that chili residues from the Chiapas de Corzo pottery samples reflect either paste or beverage preparations for religious, festival, or every day culinary use. Alternatively, some vessels that tested positive merely could have been used to store peppers. Most interesting from an archaeological context was the presence of Capsicum residue obtained from a spouted jar, a pottery type previously thought only to be used for pouring liquids.

  2. Commercial preservation of dried anchovy and red pepper by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, H.O.; Byun, M.W.; Kang, I.J.; Yang, J.S.; Jo, S.K.; Kwon, J.H.

    1996-01-01

    Boiled-dried anchovies can be maintained in a sanitary condition for more than one year at refrigerated temperature, instead of freezing by using laminated-film packaging and gamma-irradiation below 5 kGy. Application of this treatment would contribute to the stabilization of demand and supply for boiled-dried anchovies. In the case of red-pepper a combination of polycloth sack and air-tight packaging film inhibited weight loss, insect infestation, discoloration, and chemical changes. With regard to powdering a microbial-decontamination of dried-red pepper prior to marketing, pre-packaged pepper powder exhibited high quality i.e. physicochemcial and organoleptic characteristics after one year of storage at ambient conditions and significantly improved hygienic quality due to irradiation. In regard to perception and attitude towards food irradiation technology, males, well-educated, and older respondents showed a higher understanding and more positive attitude toward this technology. In future purchasing of processed foods, many respondents preferred irradiated food (34.8%) rather than chemically treated food (12.9%). However 51% of consumer sample showed a suspicious attitude toward the wholesomeness of irradiated foods. The survey indicated that the majority of respondents (70.9%) had insufficient information and an incorrect understanding of food irradiation. The survey results explain the delay in commercial utilization of this technology. Therefore, a nationwide education programme on the benefits and safety of food irradiation technology is required to increase public understanding and acceptance of irradiated food. (author). 16 refs, 11 figs, 24 tabs

  3. UV spectrophotometric determination of piperine in pepper preparations: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupina, T; Cripps, H

    1987-01-01

    Eight collaborating laboratories performed replicate analyses for piperine on 5 samples representing pepper raw spice, oleoresins, and soluble seasonings. Piperine is extracted into ethylene dichloride and measured at maximal absorbance 342-345 nm with a UV light source. Piperine content is calculated using an absorbance factor derived from piperine. Intralaboratory coefficients of variation (CVo) ranged from 0.5 to 3.1%; interlaboratory coefficients of variation (CVx) ranged from 3.0 to 5.8%. The method has been adopted as an official method of the American Spice Trade Association and as an official first action method by AOAC.

  4. Effect of Red Pepper (Capsicum frutescens) Powder or Red Pepper Pigment on the Performance and Egg Yolk Color of Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huaqiang; Jin, Liji; Wu, Feifei; Thacker, Philip; Li, Xiaoyu; You, Jiansong; Wang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Sizhao; Li, Shuying; Xu, Yongping

    2012-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of red pepper (Capsicum frutescens) powder or red pepper pigment on the performance and egg yolk color of laying hens. In Exp. 1, 210, thirty-wk old, Hy-line Brown laying hens were fed one of seven diets containing 0.3, 0.6, 1.2, 2.0, 4.8 or 9.6 ppm red pepper pigment or 0.3 ppm carophyll red. Each diet was fed to three replicate batteries of hens with each battery consisting of a row of five cages of hens with two hens per cage (n = 3). In Exp. 2, 180, thirty-wk old, Hyline Brown laying hens, housed similarly to those in Exp. 1, were fed an unsupplemented basal diet as well as treatments in which the basal diet was supplemented with 0.8% red pepper powder processed in a laboratory blender to an average particle size of 300 μm, 0.8% red pepper powder processed as a super fine powder with a vibrational mill (44 μm) and finally 0.8% red pepper powder processed as a super fine powder with a vibrational mill but mixed with 5% Na2CO3 either before or after grinding. A diet supplemented with 0.3 ppm carophyll red pigment was also included (n = 3). In both experiments, hens were fed the red pepper powder or pigment for 14 days. After feeding of the powder or pigment was terminated, all hens were fed the basal diet for eight more days to determine if the dietary treatments had any residual effects. In Exp. 1, there were no differences in egg-laying performance, feed consumption or feed conversion ratio due to inclusion of red pepper pigment in the diet. Average egg weight was higher (pfeeding red pepper powder did not affect egg-laying performance, feed consumption or feed conversion ratio (p>0.05). However, compared with the control group, supplementation with all of the red pepper powder treatments increased egg weight (pfeed additives for improving egg yolk color for laying hens.

  5. BELL PEPPER CULTIVATION WITH BRINE FROM BRACKISH WATER DESALINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS EDUARDO DE MOURA ARRUDA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In desalination process, besides the potable water, highly salty and pollutant water (brine is generated, which can be used for producing crops since it is carefully monitored. In order to test this hypothesis, bell pepper plants, cv. 'Margarita', were grown in coconut fiber substrate under greenhouse and were irrigated with nutrient solutions prepared with tap water, brine from desalination plant, and its dilution with tap water at 75, 50 and 25%, giving a range of electrical conductivities of the nutrient solution (ECs of 2.6, 3.1, 6.6, 10.0 and 12.2 dS m-1 after the dilutions and fertilizers addition. Completely randomized blocks design was used with 5 treatments (salinity levels of the nutrient solutions and six replications. Leaf area, number of marketable fruit, total and marketable yield were reduced with ECs increase. The marketable yield of bell pepper 'Margarita' reduced 6.3% for each unitary increase of ECs above 2.6 dS m-1 (threshold salinity and the results suggest that in hydroponic system, the reduction of marketable yield with increasing ECs is promoted by reduction of the number of fruits per plant instead of a reduction of fruit mean weight.

  6. Evaluation of antioxidant potential of pepper sauce (Capsicum frutescens L.

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    Pamela Freire de Moura Pereira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Functional properties of substances present in in natura foods such as fruits and vegetables are well documented; however, the activity that remains after processing needs more research. The present study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant potential in fruit processed as sauce and quantify the compounds able to contribute to such activity. Three different treatments were developed varying only the concentration of pepper Capsicum frutescens L., with treatment ratios (fruit: water: vinegar: salt being: treatment 1 (0.5: 1: 0.5: 0.33, 2 (1: 1: 0.5: 0.33, and 3 (2: 1: 0.5: 0.33. By the DPPH method, the values found for EC50 (g g DPPH−1 from 3726.9 to 5425.9 for the alcoholic extract were the most significant. The content of total phenols did not vary between the three treatments. While the content of carotenoids found was significantly different in the treatment with lower content of the fruit in natura, when compared to the treatment with higher content (44.02 and 56.09 μg of β-carotene 100 g−1, respectively and the content of ascorbic acid varied between 10.95 and 21.59 mg 100−1 g. Therefore, the pepper sauce was presented as an alternative to the consumption of bioactive compounds that may have antioxidant potential.

  7. Microbiological and Physicochemical Quality Characterization of Commercial Red Pepper Powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, M.S.; Ahn, J.J.; Kashig, A.; Kim, G.R.; Kwon, J.H.; Im, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    Ten commercially available red pepper powders were investigated for their hygienic quality (total aerobic count, yeasts and molds, and coliforms) and physicochemical properties (moisture content, pH, Hunters color values, American Spice Trade Association (ASTA) color and particle size). Microbial analysis resulted in 10 3 -10 6 CFU/g of total aerobic count and same of yeasts and molds, where 2 samples were positive (103 CFU/g) for coliforms. The moisture contents (7.25% to 12.73%) were with in the range as described in the Korean Food Standards Codex. Noteworthy variations were observed in pH (4.97 to 5.15), Hunters E values (47.19 to 58.04) and ASTA color values (89.31 to 98.61). Although the color differences were evident among the samples, but the Hunter values were not in good correlations with ASTA color values. The average particle sizes of the all samples were comparable ranging from 605 μm to 1251 μm with few exceptions. There was a great variation in the key quality attributes of commercially available red pepper powders that should be considered for their various uses in food products. (author)

  8. Desigining of Computer Vision Algorithm to Detect Sweet Pepper for Robotic Harvesting Under Natural Light

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    A Moghimi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, automation in agricultural field has attracted more attention of researchers and greenhouse producers. The main reasons are to reduce the cost including labor cost and to reduce the hard working conditions in greenhouse. In present research, a vision system of harvesting robot was developed for recognition of green sweet pepper on plant under natural light. The major challenge of this study was noticeable color similarity between sweet pepper and plant leaves. To overcome this challenge, a new texture index based on edge density approximation (EDA has been defined and utilized in combination with color indices such as Hue, Saturation and excessive green index (EGI. Fifty images were captured from fifty sweet pepper plants to evaluate the algorithm. The algorithm could recognize 92 out of 107 (i. e., the detection accuracy of 86% sweet peppers located within the workspace of robot. The error of system in recognition of background, mostly leaves, as a green sweet pepper, decreased 92.98% by using the new defined texture index in comparison with color analysis. This showed the importance of integration of texture with color features when used for recognizing sweet peppers. The main reasons of errors, besides color similarity, were waxy and rough surface of sweet pepper that cause higher reflectance and non-uniform lighting on surface, respectively.

  9. THE EFFECT OF AGRO-ECOLOGICAL ZONES ON THE INCIDENCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF APHID VECTORS OF PEPPER VEINAL MOTTLE VIRUS, ON CULTIVATED PEPPER (CAPSICUM ANNUUM L. IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. FAJINMI

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of aphid vectors of Pepper veinal mottle virus (PVMV was studied on cultivated pepper between 2003 and 2005 in the major pepper producing areas of the six agro-ecological zones in Nigeria. The aphids were isolated, identified and their transmission ability determined. Population of aphid vectors increased progressively in all the agro-ecological zones from March at the onset of raining season reaching a peak in August and then declining from September at the on set of the dry season. The Humid forest and Derived Savanna agro-ecological zones recorded highest mean population of aphids / leaf and types of aphid’s species compared with other agro-ecological zones. Six species of aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer, Aphis gossipii (Glover, Aphis craccivora (Koch, Aphis spiraecola (Patch, Aphis fabae (Blanchard, and Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch, were identified on the pepper fields surveyed in all the agro-ecological zones. There was no significant difference in the occurrence of M. persicae, A. gossipii, A. craccivora, and R. maidis while A. spiraecola and A. fabae that varied in occurrence in all the zones. Ability to transmit PVMV to a healthy pepper plants varied in all the identified aphid species but R. maidis was not able to transmit PVMV from infected to a healthy pepper plant. A more sustainable approach to controlling pepper viruses is by targeting the aphid vectors and preventing the vectors from reaching the crops because the aphid vectors which are virus specific are the major means of transmitting virus to healthy plant.

  10. Comparative genomics reveals diversity among xanthomonads infecting tomato and pepper

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Potnis, Neha

    2011-03-11

    Abstract Background Bacterial spot of tomato and pepper is caused by four Xanthomonas species and is a major plant disease in warm humid climates. The four species are distinct from each other based on physiological and molecular characteristics. The genome sequence of strain 85-10, a member of one of the species, Xanthomonas euvesicatoria (Xcv) has been previously reported. To determine the relationship of the four species at the genome level and to investigate the molecular basis of their virulence and differing host ranges, draft genomic sequences of members of the other three species were determined and compared to strain 85-10. Results We sequenced the genomes of X. vesicatoria (Xv) strain 1111 (ATCC 35937), X. perforans (Xp) strain 91-118 and X. gardneri (Xg) strain 101 (ATCC 19865). The genomes were compared with each other and with the previously sequenced Xcv strain 85-10. In addition, the molecular features were predicted that may be required for pathogenicity including the type III secretion apparatus, type III effectors, other secretion systems, quorum sensing systems, adhesins, extracellular polysaccharide, and lipopolysaccharide determinants. Several novel type III effectors from Xg strain 101 and Xv strain 1111 genomes were computationally identified and their translocation was validated using a reporter gene assay. A homolog to Ax21, the elicitor of XA21-mediated resistance in rice, and a functional Ax21 sulfation system were identified in Xcv. Genes encoding proteins with functions mediated by type II and type IV secretion systems have also been compared, including enzymes involved in cell wall deconstruction, as contributors to pathogenicity. Conclusions Comparative genomic analyses revealed considerable diversity among bacterial spot pathogens, providing new insights into differences and similarities that may explain the diverse nature of these strains. Genes specific to pepper pathogens, such as the O-antigen of the lipopolysaccharide cluster

  11. Effect of the smoking process and firewood type in the phytochemical content and antioxidant capacity of red Jalapeño pepper during its transformation to chipotle pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Escamilla, Jesús Omar; de la Rosa, Laura A; López-Díaz, José Alberto; Rodrigo-García, Joaquín; Núñez-Gastélum, José Alberto; Alvarez-Parrilla, Emilio

    2015-10-01

    Chipotle pepper is a dry smoked red Jalapeño pepper well appreciated in the Mexican and American cuisines. Phytochemical content and antioxidant activity of red Jalapeño pepper has been previously reported, however, the effect of the smoking process in the content of phytochemicals, antioxidant capacity and capsaicinoids has not been previously reported. In the present study we found that the smoking process had a significant effect on the content of polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of red Jalapeño pepper. It induced a nearly 50% increase in total phenols and 15% increase in antioxidant capacity in chipotle pepper compared to fresh samples (in dry weight basis). Capsaicinoids and ascorbic acid content decreased in smoked samples, while carotenoids remained practically unchanged. The strongest effect of smoking was observed in the content of total flavonoids and catechin determined by HPLC. Therefore we can conclude that smoking process has a positive effect in the fruit because it raises its phytochemical properties. The type of wood used in the smoking process also had an effect on the phytochemical content and antioxidant capacity with traditional pecan wood being the best. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The hot pepper (Capsicum annuum microRNA transcriptome reveals novel and conserved targets: a foundation for understanding MicroRNA functional roles in hot pepper.

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    Dong-Gyu Hwang

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of non-coding RNAs approximately 21 nt in length which play important roles in regulating gene expression in plants. Although many miRNA studies have focused on a few model plants, miRNAs and their target genes remain largely unknown in hot pepper (Capsicum annuum, one of the most important crops cultivated worldwide. Here, we employed high-throughput sequencing technology to identify miRNAs in pepper extensively from 10 different libraries, including leaf, stem, root, flower, and six developmental stage fruits. Based on a bioinformatics pipeline, we successfully identified 29 and 35 families of conserved and novel miRNAs, respectively. Northern blot analysis was used to validate further the expression of representative miRNAs and to analyze their tissue-specific or developmental stage-specific expression patterns. Moreover, we computationally predicted miRNA targets, many of which were experimentally confirmed using 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends analysis. One of the validated novel targets of miR-396 was a domain rearranged methyltransferase, the major de novo methylation enzyme, involved in RNA-directed DNA methylation in plants. This work provides the first reliable draft of the pepper miRNA transcriptome. It offers an expanded picture of pepper miRNAs in relation to other plants, providing a basis for understanding the functional roles of miRNAs in pepper.

  13. Effect of sweet pepper cultivation on the content of phytotoxic phenolic compounds in substrates

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    Barbara Politycka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the conducted study was to determine to what extent the cultivation of sweet pepper lowers the phytotoxicity of a substrate. The examined material was a highly phytotoxic substrate due to repeated cucumber growing on it. This substrate was a mixture of pine and beech bark, low peat and sawdust. Five sweet pepper cultivars: Amador, Bell Boy, Culinar, Poznańska Słodka and WSE 2/82 were planted. During vegetation of the sweet pepper phytotoxicity and phenolics levels were determined in the substrate. It was found that cultivation of sweet pepper had a significant effect on lowering phytotoxicity and phenolics content in the substrate. Among the five tested cultivars, the highest detoxicating ability was exhibited by Amador, Culinar and WSE 2/82 while the Poznańska Słodka did not show such abilities.

  14. Deficiency symptoms of nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium and sulphur in pepper (Capsicum spp) cv malagueta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruca, F.A.; Gouveia, P.R.; Teixeira, N.T.

    1989-01-01

    The pepper (Capsium spp) was cultivated in sand and nutritive solution to describe the deficiency symptoms of N, P, Ca and S. The deficiency symptoms and the first lack signals were clear to P and N nutrient. (author) [pt

  15. Sensory properties of chile pepper heat - and its importance to food quality and cultural preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Ivette; Bosland, Paul W

    2017-10-01

    Chile peppers are one of the most important vegetable and spice crops in the world. They contain capsaicinoids that are responsible for the characteristic burning (pungency) sensation. Currently, there are 22 known naturally occurring capsaicinoids that can cause the heat sensation when consumed. Each produces a different heat sensation effect in the mouth. A need exists for a standard and new terminology to describe the complex heat sensation one feels when eating a chile pepper. A comprehensive set of descriptors to describe the sensory characteristics of chile pepper heat was developed. It was validated with trained panelists tasting samples representing the five domesticated species and 14 pod-types within these species. Five key attributes that define and reference a lexicon for describing the heat sensation of chile peppers were determined to describe the heat sensation in any product, and importantly, can be used in the food industry worldwide. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Responses of selected pepper varieties to ethyl methanesulfonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longid, C.S.

    1994-01-01

    Seeds of three varieties of pepper (Capsicum anuum L.) were treated with 0.3% and 0.6% EMS with a pH between 9 to 11 at 30 o C, to determine the responses of the M 1 plants and the M 2 seedlings to the mutagen. Seeds treated with 0.3% were soaked in the mutagen for 20 hours, while seeds treated with 0.6% were soaked for 10 hours. Data obtained in the M 1 showed decrease in germination percentage, shoot length, plant height, seed set and survival percentage. Somatic chimeras were obtained. Decrease in shoot length, plant height at maturity, survival percentage and seed set were significant. In the M 2 seedlings, chlorophyll-deficient mutants induced in decreasing frequency were viridis, xantha and albina. The three varieties showed varying responses to the different treatment conditions of EMS. (author). 20 refs., 9 tabs

  17. Xanthomonas euvesicatoria Causes Bacterial Spot Disease on Pepper Plant in Korea

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    Min-Seong Kyeon

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2004, bacterial spot-causing xanthomonads (BSX were reclassified into 4 species—Xanthomonas euvesicatoria, X. vesicatoria, X. perforans, and X. gardneri. Bacterial spot disease on pepper plant in Korea is known to be caused by both X. axonopodis pv. vesicatoria and X. vesicatoria. Here, we reidentified the pathogen causing bacterial spots on pepper plant based on the new classification. Accordingly, 72 pathogenic isolates were obtained from the lesions on pepper plants at 42 different locations. All isolates were negative for pectolytic activity. Five isolates were positive for amylolytic activity. All of the Korean pepper isolates had a 32 kDa-protein unique to X. euvesicatoria and had the same band pattern of the rpoB gene as that of X. euvesicatoria and X. perforans as indicated by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. A phylogenetic tree of 16S rDNA sequences showed that all of the Korean pepper plant isolates fit into the same group as did all the reference strains of X. euvesicatoria and X. perforans. A phylogenetic tree of the nucleotide sequences of 3 housekeeping genes—gapA, gyrB, and lepA showed that all of the Korean pepper plant isolates fit into the same group as did all of the references strains of X. euvesicatoria. Based on the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, we identified the pathogen as X. euvesicatoria. Neither X. vesicatoria, the known pathogen of pepper bacterial spot, nor X. perforans, the known pathogen of tomato plant, was isolated. Thus, we suggest that the pathogen causing bacterial spot disease of pepper plants in Korea is X. euvesicatoria.

  18. Metabolite Profiling of Peppers of Various Colors Reveals Relationships Between Tocopherol, Carotenoid, and Phytosterol Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Jin; Choi, Jaehyuk; Kim, Kil Won; Ahn, Soon Kil; Ha, Sun-Hwa; Choi, Yongsoo; Park, Nam Il; Kim, Jae Kwang

    2017-12-01

    Peppers are widely consumed in Korea; the varietal development of peppers with increased content of beneficial plant metabolites is, therefore, of considerable interest. This requires a comprehensive understanding of the metabolic profile of pepper plants and the factors affecting this profile. To this end, we determined the content of various metabolites, such as hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds, phenolic acids, carotenoids, and capsaicinoids in peppers of various colors (green, red, pale green, and violet peppers) and in a high-pungency (green) pepper. We also performed principal component analysis (PCA), Pearson's correlation analysis, and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) to determine the relationships among these metabolites in peppers. PCA results indicated no significant variances among the 3 sample replicates. The HCA showed correlations between the metabolites resulting from common or closely linked biosynthesis pathways. Our results showed that carotenoids correlated positively with tocopherols and negatively with phytosterols; our findings also indicated a close relationship between the methylerythritol 4-phosphate and mevalonic acid biosynthesis pathways, providing evidence in favor of an earlier hypothesis regarding crosstalk across the chloroplast membrane. We, thus, demonstrate that metabolic profiling combined with multivariate analysis is a useful tool for analyzing metabolic networks. A total of 71 metabolites were measured in 5 peppers of different colors. The metabolic profiling with multivariate analysis revealed that tocopherol content had a positive correlation with the carotenoid content and a negative correlation with the phytosterol content. The results of this study may help in breeding programs to produce new germplasm with enhanced nutritional quality. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  19. Comparison of eco-physiological characteristics of pepper in hydroponic and aquaponic systems

    OpenAIRE

    A. R. Sajjadinia; A. Ershadi; H. R. Roosta

    2010-01-01

    Aquaponics is one of the recirculating aquaculture systems in which plant grows without soil. Considering the lack of information about aquaponic culture for main crops like pepper and the absence of comparison of plant conditions in soilless culture, in this experiment eco-physiological characteristics of pepper in hydroponics and aquaponics were investigated. After starting the plants to flowering, eco-physiological parameters were measured using potable far-red gas analyzer LCA-4, ADC. The...

  20. Foliar Application of the Fungicide Pyraclostrobin Reduced Bacterial Spot Disease of Pepper

    OpenAIRE

    Beom Ryong Kang; Jang Hoon Lee; Young Cheol Kim

    2018-01-01

    Pyraclostrobin is a broad-spectrum fungicide that inhibits mitochondrial respiration. However, it may also induce systemic resistance effective against bacterial and viral diseases. In this study, we evaluated whether pyraclostrobin enhanced resistance against the bacterial spot pathogen, Xanthomonas euvesicatora on pepper (Capsicum annuum). Although pyraclostrobin alone did not suppressed the in vitro growth of X. euvesicatoria, disease severity in pepper was significantly lower by 69% after...

  1. Cause of the Scion Death in Green Pepper Grafting System by a Tobamovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gug-Seoun Choi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was attempted to investigate a cause of the scion death in green pepper grafting system. A tobamovirus particle examined in the rootstock of the sample but not in the scion showing necrosis. The virus isolated from the rootstock was identified as Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV, pepper tobamovirus pathotype P1.2. (PMMoV-2, by nucleotide sequence analysis and host plant reaction. The virus isolate infected systematically in 6 commercial rootstock varieties using for green pepper grafting seedling production. Green pepper varieties ``Long green mart`` and ``Daechan`` represented resistance to the virus showing local lesions only on the inoculated leaves and ``Manitda`` was systematically infected. In the experiment with grafting ``Long green mart`` or ``Daechan`` onto the those rootstocks, the upper leaves of the scions first showed vein necrosis and wilt symptoms 7 days after inoculation with PMMoV-2 on the cotyledon of the rootstock, following to the scion stem necrosis and then only the scion death. The virus was detected in the rootstock but not in the scion. However, ``Manitda`` of susceptible variety in the grafting system showed mottle symptom on the leaves of the scion but not necrosis on the plant. PMMoV-3 isolate, pepper tobamovirus pathotype P1.2.3, did not cause the scion death in the grafting system. All of the varieties were susceptible to PMMoV-3. These results suggest that the scion death is caused by infecting with pepper tobamovirus pathotype P1.2. in the green pepper grafting system combined with the susceptible rootstock and the resistance scion to the virus pathotype.

  2. Rhizogenic behavior of black pepper cultivars to indole-3-butyric acid

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    Welington Secundino

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Little information is available regarding vegetative propagation of the species Piper nigrum L. to generate technical recommendations for the production of seedlings on a commercial scale. The purpose of this study was to investigate the rhizogenic behavior of cultivars of this species regarding indol-3-butyric acid (IBA. The experiment was performed at a vegetation house equipped with an intermittent nebulization irrigation system. The experimental site was located in the University Center of Northern Espírito Santo (CEUNES of the Federal University of Espírito Santo (UFES, Brazil. The experimental design consisted of randomized blocks arranged in a 3 x 5 factorial scheme: three cultivars (Bragantina, Iaçará and Guajarina x five IBA concentrations (0; 1,500; 3,000; 4,500 and 6,000 mg kg-1, with four repetitions of 16 cuttings each. Total immersion of the cuttings in IBA is recommended for the Iaçará and Guajarina cultivars, and immersion of only the basal region is recommended for cv. Bragantina. The recommended IBA concentration for these cultivars is 4,000 mg kg-1.

  3. Preventive Role of Indian Black Pepper in Animal Models of Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, RN; MK, Jayanthi; HL, Kalabharathi; AM, Satish; VH, Pushpa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Dementia is the clinical symptom of alzheimer’s disease. Brain cholinesterase levels and behavioural changes are the markers for Alzheimer’s disease and aluminium chloride is one causative agent for polymerization of tau protein and amyloid plaque formation in Alzheimer’s disease. Effect of piper nigrum and its role in prevention of alzhimer’s disease and symptoms are well linked in this study. Aim: To study the effect of piper nigrum for the prevention of alzheimer’s associated histopathological, biochemical and behaviour changes in rat model. Materials and Methods: Twenty four rats were taken in this study. Their baseline behavioural parameters were noted and group was separated randomly in four. Rats were pretreated with piper nigrum and Alzheimer’s disease was induced. Biochemical and histopathological changes were noted at the end of experiment. Results: There was marked decrease in cholinesterase level, amyloidal plaque formation in rats brain who were pretreated with piper nigrum. At the same time there was decrease in escape latency time (ELT) and increase in memory in piper treated rats. Conclusion: Piper nigrum prove to be effective for prevention of Alzheimer’s disease. This finding has to be confirmed with studies including larger population. Further research on cholinesterase inhibitors, role of flavonoids on prevention of neurodegeneration in Alzheimer’s disease can be encouraged. PMID:26023568

  4. The effect of irradiation in the preservation of pink pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Adriana Régia Marques; Arthur, Valter; Nogueira, Danielle Pires

    2012-08-01

    Pink peppers, also known as "pimenta-rosa" and "poivre rose", are the fruit of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, a species of pepper cultivated in Brazil, and have great potential for the exploration of uses. In efforts to lengthen the shelf life of this pepper, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different doses of radiation on its physical composition and color. The pink pepper samples were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 kGy, and the moisture, ash and lipid contents, pH and color were analyzed. The moisture content, lipid content and pH analysis indicated effects due to the irradiation (p>0.05) in which the higher doses resulted in decreases in the attribute. In contrast, there were no significant differences for the ash analysis (p<0.05) among the studied doses. The color of the pink peppers were affected by the irradiation: the parameters a* and b* were the most affected by the intermediate doses (0.2 and 0.8 kGy), which induced their elevation, enhancing the reddish and yellowish colors. Based on the presented data, irradiation is as an alternative preservation process for pink peppers.

  5. Dehydration of "dedo de moça" pepper: kinetics and phytochemical concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabel Cristina Freitas Moraes

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Red pepper is rich in vitamin C and other phytochemicals and can be consumed as a dehydrated product. The evaluation of the best drying conditions can ensure a better quality product. This study aimed to investigate the effect of air temperature (55, 65, and 75 ºC on drying kinetics of red peppers and on vitamin C, total phenolic content, and color of dried pepper as compared to the fresh product. Dehydration was carried out in a forced convection oven. Drying kinetics was determined by periodic weighting until constant weight. The moisture content of the fresh pepper was approximately 86%. The drying curves were fitted to three different models available in the literature. The Page model showed the best fit for this process. Analysis of variance revealed that the air drying temperature significantly influenced (p < 0.05 the quality parameters (vitamin C content, total phenolic content, and color of the dried pepper as compared to the fresh pepper. After drying, the vitamin C retention increased with reduced air-drying temperature. In general, products dried at lower temperatures exhibited better quality due to reduced losses of bioactive compounds.

  6. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Chili Peppers (Capsicum spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Rocío Gómez-García

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Capsicum species produce fruits that synthesize and accumulate carotenoid pigments, which are responsible for the fruits’ yellow, orange and red colors. Chili peppers have been used as an experimental model for studying the biochemical and molecular aspects of carotenoid biosynthesis. Most reports refer to the characterization of carotenoids and content determination in chili pepper fruits from different species, cultivars, varieties or genotypes. The types and levels of carotenoids differ between different chili pepper fruits, and they are also influenced by environmental conditions. Yellow-orange colors of chili pepper fruits are mainly due to the accumulation of α- and β-carotene, zeaxanthin, lutein and β-cryptoxanthin. Carotenoids such as capsanthin, capsorubin and capsanthin-5,6-epoxide confer the red colors. Chromoplasts are the sites of carotenoid pigment synthesis and storage. According to the most accepted theory, the synthesis of carotenoids in chili peppers is controlled by three loci: c1, c2 and y. Several enzymes participating in carotenoid biosynthesis in chili pepper fruits have been isolated and characterized, and the corresponding gene sequences have been reported. However, there is currently limited information on the molecular mechanisms that regulate this biosynthetic pathway. Approaches to gain more knowledge of the regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis are discussed.

  7. Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Quantification of Phytophthora capsici in Different Pepper Genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvar, C; Díaz, J; Merino, F

    2005-12-01

    ABSTRACT Reliable and sensitive quantification of Phytophthora capsici in pepper plants is of crucial importance in managing the multiple syndromes caused by this pathogen. A real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for the determination of P. capsici in pepper tissues. DNA levels of a highly virulent and a less virulent isolate were measured in different pepper genotypes with varying degrees of resistance. Using SYBR Green and specific primers for P. capsici, the minimal amount of pathogen DNA quantified was 10 pg. Pathogen DNA was recorded as early as 8 h postinoculation. Thereafter, the increase was rapid in susceptible cultivars and slower in resistant ones. The amount of pathogen DNA quantified in each pepper genotype correlated with susceptibility to Phytophthora root rot. Likewise, there was a relationship between the virulence of the pathogen and the degree of colonization. Differences also were found in oomycete amount among pepper tissues, with maximal pathogen biomass occurring in stems. The real-time PCR technique developed in this study was sensitive and robust enough to assess both pathogen development and resistance to Phytophthora root rot in different pepper genotypes.

  8. Black Culture

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    Angela Khristin Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united.  The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape from poverty of enslavement and to establish a way of life through tradition. A way of personal freedoms was through getting a good education that lead to a better foundation and a better way of life.

  9. Black Cohosh

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who have had hormone-sensitive conditions such as breast cancer or for pregnant women or nursing mothers. Black cohosh should not be confused with blue cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictroides) , which has different effects and may not be safe. Black cohosh has ...

  10. A taste of sweet pepper: Volatile and non-volatile chemical composition of fresh sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) in relation to sensory evaluation of taste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggink, P.M.; Maliepaard, C.A.; Tikunov, Y.M.; Haanstra, J.P.W.; Bovy, A.G.; Visser, R.G.F.

    2012-01-01

    In this study volatile and non-volatile compounds, as well as some breeding parameters, were measured in mature fruits of elite sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) lines and hybrids from a commercial breeding program, several cultivated genotypes and one gene bank accession. In addition, all genotypes

  11. DNA profiling of commercial chilli pepper ( Capsicum annuum L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Gemini, G-334, Agnirekha, Pusa jwala, Mangala, Black diamond, Sindura, Pusa jyothi, Badiga-2 and Teja (branch), cultivated in the local area of Andhra Pradesh State, India, using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers was ...

  12. Management of chili pepper root rot and wilt (caused by Phytophthora nicotianae) by grafting onto resistant rootstock

    OpenAIRE

    Mourad SAADOUN; Mohamed Bechir ALLAGUI

    2013-01-01

    Root rot and plant wilting caused by Phytophthora nicotianae is a severe disease of chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in open fields and under greenhouse production in Tunisia. Chili pepper grafting for disease manage- ment is attracting increased interest in recent years. Using the tube grafting technique, different compatible scion/rootstock combinations were obtained with the wild-type pepper SCM334 and the local chili pepper cultivars ‘Beldi’ and ‘Baker’. SCM334 was resistant to P. nicoti...

  13. Distribution of seven heavy metals among hot pepper plant parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonious, George F

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this investigation was to monitor concentrations of seven metals (Cd, Pb, Ni, Mo, Cu, Zn, and Cr) in the fruits, leaves, stem, and roots of Capsicum annuum L. (cv. Xcatic) plants grown under four soil management practices: yard waste (YW), sewage sludge (SS), chicken manure (CM), and no-much (NM) bare soil. Elemental analyses were conducted using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Pb and Cd concentrations in soil amended with YW, SS, and CM were not significantly different (P fruits of plants grown in NM soil were greater compared to the fruits of plants grown in other treatments. Total Ni concentration (sum of Ni in all plant parts) in plants grown in NM bare soil was greater than in plants grown in SS-, YW-, and CM-amended soils. Values of the bioaccumulation factor indicated that pepper fruits of plants grown in YW, SS, and CM did not show any tendency to accumulate Pb, Cr, and Ni in their edible fruits.

  14. Development of virulence to Meloidogyne incognita on resistant pepper rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ros Ibáñez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The root-knot nematode (RKN Meloidogyne incognita is a major soil parasite of pepper crops in greenhouses in Southeast Spain. Due to the limitations of the use of soil fumigants, grafting plants on resistant rootstocks (R-rootstocks has become an important alternative to chemical nematicides. The repeated use of R-rootstocks can bring about the selection of virulent populations capable of overcoming resistance. We carried out a six-year investigation on resistant rootstocks in a naturally M. incognita infested greenhouse, and found that two successive years of growing plants grafted on R-rootstocks Atlante (ATL were sufficient to overcome resistance (galling index 1.5 and 5.6 in the first and second years respectively. A large variability was observed between several R-rootstocks. Two R-rootstocks (C19 and Snooker behaved like ATL while two others (Terrano and DRO 8801 were not infected by RKN. Laboratory studies with the same R-rootstocks, inoculated with two nematode isolates (avirulent and virulent against ATL confirmed the greenhouse results, indicating that some rootstocks may be infested by virulent populations and others may not. It suggests that different R-genes, which are differentially overcome by RKN, have been introgressed into the rootstocks. This may have consequences for the management of resistant rootstocks in the field.

  15. Development of virulence to Meloidogyne incognita on resistant pepper rootstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ros-Ibanez, C.; Robertson, L.; Martinez-Lluch, M. C.; Cano-Garcia, A.; Lacasa-Plasencia, A.

    2014-06-01

    The root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne incognita is a major soil parasite of pepper crops in greenhouses in Southeast Spain. Due to the limitations of the use of soil fumigants, grafting plants on resistant rootstocks (R-rootstocks) has become an important alternative to chemical nematicides. The repeated use of R-rootstocks can bring about the selection of virulent populations capable of overcoming resistance. We carried out a six-year investigation on resistant rootstocks in a naturally M. incognita infested greenhouse, and found that two successive years of growing plants grafted on R-rootstocks Atlante (ATL) were sufficient to overcome resistance (galling index 1.5 and 5.6 in the first and second years respectively). A large variability was observed between several R-rootstocks. Two R-rootstocks (C19 and Snooker) behaved like ATL while two others (Terrano and DRO 8801) were not infected by RKN. Laboratory studies with the same R-rootstocks, inoculated with two nematode isolates (avirulent and virulent against ATL) confirmed the greenhouse results, indicating that some rootstocks may be infested by virulent populations and others may not. It suggests that different R-genes, which are differentially overcome by RKN, have been introgressed into the rootstocks. This may have consequences for the management of resistant rootstocks in the field. (Author)

  16. Fire feedbacks facilitate invasion of pine savannas by Brazilian pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jens T; Beckage, Brian

    2009-10-01

    * Fire disturbance can mediate the invasion of ecological communities by nonnative species. Nonnative plants that modify existing fire regimes may initiate a positive feedback that can facilitate their continued invasion. Fire-sensitive plants may successfully invade pyrogenic landscapes if they can inhibit fire in the landscape. * Here, we investigated whether the invasive shrub Brazilian pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius) can initiate a fire-suppression feedback in a fire-dependent pine savanna ecosystem in the southeastern USA. * We found that prescribed burns caused significant (30-45%) mortality of Brazilian pepper at low densities and that savannas with more frequent fires contained less Brazilian pepper. However, high densities of Brazilian pepper reduced fire temperature by up to 200 degrees C, and experienced as much as 80% lower mortality. * A cellular automaton model was used to demonstrate that frequent fire may control low-density populations, but that Brazilian pepper may reach a sufficient density during fire-free periods to initiate a positive feedback that reduces the frequency of fire and converts the savanna to an invasive-dominated forest.

  17. IMPROVEMENT OF SHELF LIFE QUALITY OF GREEN BELL PEPPERS USING EDIBLE COATING FORMULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Ochoa-Reyes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In Latin-America, there are countries with high production levels of green bell peppers, which requires of new strategies of conservation for their international trade. Traditional techniques of preservations do not guarantee to prolong the shelf life of these kinds of fruits, for this reason, in the present study, the Influence of different edible coating formulations on shelf-life quality of green bell peppers was studied. Three different biopolymers (pectin, arabic, and xanthan gums were evaluated in mixtures with candelilla wax as hydrophobic phase, jojoba oil as plasticizer and a crude extract of polyphenols as source of bioactive compounds. Green bell peppers were immersion-treated and then stored at room temperature. Response variables were: weight loss, color, appearance, pH, total soluble solids and firmness changes which were kinetically determined. All peppers treated with edible-coating showed a significant difference (Tukey, p≤0.05 in weight loss compared to control treatment (without edible coating, while a lower level of deterioration was observed in fruits treated with edible coating formulated with arabic gum, but appearance remained similar among fruits treated with different edible coatings. Use of mixtures of biopolymers, candelilla wax, jojoba oil and polyphenols to develop edible and functionalized coatings significantly extended shelf life of green bell pepper.

  18. Biocontrol of Phytophthora Blight and Anthracnose in Pepper by Sequentially Selected Antagonistic Rhizobacteria against Phytophthora capsici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Mee Kyung; Shrestha, Anupama; Kim, Du-Yeon; Park, Kyungseok; Pak, Chun Ho; Kim, Ki Deok

    2013-06-01

    We previously developed a sequential screening procedure to select antagonistic bacterial strains against Phytophthora capsici in pepper plants. In this study, we used a modified screening procedure to select effective biocontrol strains against P. capsici; we evaluated the effect of selected strains on Phytophthora blight and anthracnose occurrence and fruit yield in pepper plants under field and plastic house conditions from 2007 to 2009. We selected four potential biocontrol strains (Pseudomonas otitidis YJR27, P. putida YJR92, Tsukamurella tyrosinosolvens YJR102, and Novosphingobium capsulatum YJR107) among 239 bacterial strains. In the 3-year field tests, all the selected strains significantly (P biocontrol activities were variable. In addition, strains YJR27, YJR92, and YJR102, in certain harvests, increased pepper fruit numbers in field tests and red fruit weights in plastic house tests. Taken together, these results indicate that the screening procedure is rapid and reliable for the selection of potential biocontrol strains against P. capsici in pepper plants. In addition, these selected strains exhibited biocontrol activities against anthracnose, and some of the strains showed plant growth-promotion activities on pepper fruit.

  19. Natural occurrence of mycotoxins and toxigenic capacity of Alternaria strains from mouldy peppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cruz Cabral, Lucía; Terminiello, Laura; Fernández Pinto, Virginia; Fog Nielsen, Kristian; Patriarca, Andrea

    2016-11-07

    Sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) is an important crop cultivated worldwide, with Argentina being one of the major producers in South America. The fruit is susceptible to several fungal diseases, leading to severe economic losses for producers. In this study, Alternaria was found as the prevalent genus in mouldy peppers (50% fruits infected). Morphological identification revealed that all 64 Alternaria isolates belonged to small-spored species, most of them corresponding to A. tenuissima, A. arborescens and A. alternata species-groups. Their secondary metabolite profile was evaluated in vitro; alternariols were synthesized by most of the isolates (91% for alternariol and 92% for alternariol monomethyl ether). A high number of Alternaria spp. also produced tenuazonic acid (64%), altenuene (84%) and tentoxin (72%). In addition, damaged pepper fruits were analysed for the presence of tenuazonic acid and alternariols. A total 32 out of 48 spoiled pepper fruits were contaminated with at least one of these metabolites. Half of the samples were positive for tenuazonic acid (range 8-11,422μg/kg), while alternariol and its monomethyl ether were less frequently detected (21 and 29%, respectively) and at lower concentrations. This is the first report on the natural occurrence of Alternaria mycotoxins in Argentinean sweet pepper, and highlights a consumer risk when mouldy fruits are used in industrialized products because these compounds are not destroyed by conventional heat treatments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Biocontrol of Phytophthora Blight and Anthracnose in Pepper by Sequentially Selected Antagonistic Rhizobacteria against Phytophthora capsici

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Mee Kyung; Shrestha, Anupama; Kim, Du-Yeon; Park, Kyungseok; Pak, Chun Ho; Kim, Ki Deok

    2013-01-01

    We previously developed a sequential screening procedure to select antagonistic bacterial strains against Phytophthora capsici in pepper plants. In this study, we used a modified screening procedure to select effective biocontrol strains against P. capsici; we evaluated the effect of selected strains on Phytophthora blight and anthracnose occurrence and fruit yield in pepper plants under field and plastic house conditions from 2007 to 2009. We selected four potential biocontrol strains (Pseudomonas otitidis YJR27, P. putida YJR92, Tsukamurella tyrosinosolvens YJR102, and Novosphingobium capsulatum YJR107) among 239 bacterial strains. In the 3-year field tests, all the selected strains significantly (P < 0.05) reduced Phytophthora blight without influencing rhizosphere microbial populations; they showed similar or better levels of disease suppressions than in metalaxyl treatment in the 2007 and 2009 tests, but not in the 2008 test. In the 2-year plastic house tests, all the selected strains significantly (P < 0.05) reduced anthracnose incidence in at least one of the test years, but their biocontrol activities were variable. In addition, strains YJR27, YJR92, and YJR102, in certain harvests, increased pepper fruit numbers in field tests and red fruit weights in plastic house tests. Taken together, these results indicate that the screening procedure is rapid and reliable for the selection of potential biocontrol strains against P. capsici in pepper plants. In addition, these selected strains exhibited biocontrol activities against anthracnose, and some of the strains showed plant growth-promotion activities on pepper fruit. PMID:25288942

  1. Biocontrol of Phytophthora Blight and Anthracnose in Pepper by Sequentially Selected Antagonistic Rhizobacteria against Phytophthora capsici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mee Kyung Sang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We previously developed a sequential screening procedure to select antagonistic bacterial strains against Phytophthora capsici in pepper plants. In this study, we used a modified screening procedure to select effective biocontrol strains against P. capsici; we evaluated the effect of selected strains on Phytophthora blight and anthracnose occurrence and fruit yield in pepper plants under field and plastic house conditions from 2007 to 2009. We selected four potential biocontrol strains (Pseudomonas otitidis YJR27, P. putida YJR92, Tsukamurella tyrosinosolvens YJR102, and Novosphingobium capsulatum YJR107 among 239 bacterial strains. In the 3-year field tests, all the selected strains significantly (P < 0.05 reduced Phytophthora blight without influencing rhizosphere microbial populations; they showed similar or better levels of disease suppressions than in metalaxyl treatment in the 2007 and 2009 tests, but not in the 2008 test. In the 2-year plastic house tests, all the selected strains significantly (P < 0.05 reduced anthracnose incidence in at least one of the test years, but their biocontrol activities were variable. In addition, strains YJR27, YJR92, and YJR102, in certain harvests, increased pepper fruit numbers in field tests and red fruit weights in plastic house tests. Taken together, these results indicate that the screening procedure is rapid and reliable for the selection of potential biocontrol strains against P. capsici in pepper plants. In addition, these selected strains exhibited biocontrol activities against anthracnose, and some of the strains showed plant growth-promotion activities on pepper fruit.

  2. Development of a sweet cherry pepper line with resistance to the southern root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita

    Science.gov (United States)

    The southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) is a major pathogen of pepper (Capsicum spp.), causing significant yield losses in heavily infected plants. The N-gene confers resistance to M. incognita, and has been successfully used to mitigate nematode damage in specific pepper varieties f...

  3. Potential for breeding sweet pepper adapted to cooler growing conditions : a physiological and genetic analysis of growth traits in Capsicum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, de E.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is an important greenhouse crop in theNetherlands. In 2005, the production area of sweet pepper in the

  4. Effect of 1-methylcyclopropene and modified atmosphere packaging on chilling injury, and antioxidative defensive mechanism of sweet pepper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) are chilling sensitive vegetable, and develop injury when stored at temperatures less than 7 C. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) (650 ppb) and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on chilling injuries of sweet pepper...

  5. Honeybees as an aid in improving labour conditions in sweet bell pepper greenhouses: reduction of pollen allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, van der J.J.M.; Blacquière, T.; Jong, de N.W.; Groot, de H.

    2004-01-01

    Sweet bell pepper is the most important greenhouse vegetable crop in the Netherlands. It is grown on an area of 10,000 hectares, and about 8000 people are working in these greenhouses. One third of these workers sooner or later develop an occupational allergy to the sweet bell pepper pollen. The

  6. Black Tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... leaves of the same plant, has some different properties. Black tea is used for improving mental alertness ... that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others), naproxen ( ...

  7. Natural occurrence of mycotoxins and toxigenic capacity of Alternaria strains from mouldy peppers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Cruz Cabral, Lucía; Terminiello, Laura; Fernández Pinto, Virginia

    2016-01-01

    genus in mouldy peppers (50% fruits infected). Morphological identification revealed that all 64 Alternaria isolates belonged to small-spored species, most of them corresponding to A. tenuissima, A. arborescens and A. alternata species-groups. Their secondary metabolite profile was evaluated in vitro......Sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) is an important crop cultivated worldwide, with Argentina being one of the major producers in South America. The fruit is susceptible to several fungal diseases, leading to severe economic losses for producers. In this study, Alternaria was found as the prevalent......; alternariols were synthesized by most of the isolates (91% for alternariol and 92% for alternariol monomethyl ether). A high number of Alternaria spp. also produced tenuazonic acid (64%), altenuene (84%) and tentoxin (72%). In addition, damaged pepper fruits were analysed for the presence of tenuazonic acid...

  8. Foliar Application of the Fungicide Pyraclostrobin Reduced Bacterial Spot Disease of Pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beom Ryong Kang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Pyraclostrobin is a broad-spectrum fungicide that inhibits mitochondrial respiration. However, it may also induce systemic resistance effective against bacterial and viral diseases. In this study, we evaluated whether pyraclostrobin enhanced resistance against the bacterial spot pathogen, Xanthomonas euvesicatora on pepper (Capsicum annuum. Although pyraclostrobin alone did not suppressed the in vitro growth of X. euvesicatoria, disease severity in pepper was significantly lower by 69% after treatments with pyraclostrobin alone. A combination of pyraclostrobin with streptomycin reduced disease by over 90% that of the control plants. The preventive control of the pyraclostrobin against bacterial spot was required application 1-3 days before pathogen inoculation. Our findings suggest that the fungicide pyraclostrobin can be used with a chemical pesticide to control bacterial leaf spot diseases in pepper.

  9. Rapid biodiesel synthesis from waste pepper seeds without lipid isolation step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jechan; Kim, Jieun; Ok, Yong Sik; Kwon, Eilhann E

    2017-09-01

    In situ transformation of lipid in waste pepper seeds into biodiesel (i.e., fatty acid methyl esters: FAMEs) via thermally-induced transmethylation on silica was mainly investigated in this study. This study reported that waste pepper seeds contained 26.9wt% of lipid and that 94.1% of the total lipid in waste pepper seeds could be converted into biodiesel without lipid extraction step for only ∼1min reaction time. This study also suggested that the optimal temperature for in situ transmethylation was identified as 390°C. Moreover, comparison of in situ process via the conventional transmethylation catalyzed by H 2 SO 4 showed that the introduced biodiesel conversion in this study had a higher tolerance against impurities, thereby being technically feasible. The in situ biodiesel production from other oil-bearing food wastes can be studied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sanity of bell pepper fruit fertigated with wastewater from hog production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Rodrigues de Souza

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the microbiological quality of bell pepper fruits produced with swine wastewater (SW, after preliminary treatment, pepper seedlings of variety Casca Dura Elquida were grown and fertigated with different levels of this wastewater providing 100 and 200% of the amount of the nitrogen needed for cultivation, with and without supplementation of fertilization. The fruits were analyzed for the presence of thermo-tolerant and total coliforms, and of Salmonella sp. The results showed that fertigation with SW, by trickle irrigation system, resulted in bell pepper fruits uncontaminated by fecal coliform and Salmonella spp., in accordance with the microbiological standards required by RDC n°12 02/01/2001.

  11. Enzymatic firming of processed red pepper by means of exogenous pectinesterase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, M.; Petersen, B.R.; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to demonstrate that the firmness of a commercial vegetable product, diced and frozen red pepper (Capsicum annum var. Sendt), could be improved by the use of exogenous pectinesterase in an industrially relevant process. The diced pepper pieces 10 x 10 x 7 mm(3......) were infused under vacuum with a commercially available pectinesterase. The range of optimal process conditions was: 15-20degrees C, 45 min infusion time, a 10-25 mM CaCl2 infusion brine, a w/w ratio of pepper fruit to infusion brine of 1.5:1, and an enzyme dosage of 30-60 pectinesterase units (PEU...

  12. Assessment of total aflatoxin level in red pepper obtained from Istanbul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpsoy, Lokman; Kiren, Artin; Can, Sevde Nur; Koprubasi, Ayşenur

    2013-10-01

    Aflatoxins (Aspergillus flavus toxins (AFT)) are biologically active secondary metabolites mostly produced by some Aspergillus species that causes hepatotoxicity, teratogenicity, immunotoxicity, and cancers in human. The aim of this study is to determine the level of total AFT in powdered red pepper in the retail markets in 40 district of Istanbul using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Of the 36 unpacked powdered red pepper samples, 32 samples (88%) contained AFT in the range of 0.2-106.4 µg/kg; 16 samples (44.4%) were above the regulatory limit which is at 10 µg/kg for total AFT in Turkey. More precautions on the production, transport, harvest, and storage of red pepper should be taken on hygiene to prevent toxic and carcinogenic effects of AFT.

  13. Analysis of the degradation of biodegradable mulches in a pepper crop under organic management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Carmen; González, Sara; Villena, Jaime; Meco, Ramón; María Moreno, Marta

    2016-04-01

    The use of biodegradable mulch materials (biopolymers and papers) as an alternative to polyethylene is increasing nowadays, particularly in organic farming, due to environmental factors. It is necessary to test their functionality under field conditions by identifying, for example, the undesirable early degradation which commonly takes place in some of these biodegradable materials. In this sense, it is quite common and easy to apply the use of visual scales to estimate the level of deterioration of mulches, which can be subjective. Therefore, the objectives of this work are: i) To study the degradation of different mulch materials under field conditions by measuring the soil surface they covered. ii) To compare these soil surface values with the overall assessment of their functionality obtained by visual scales. The trial was performed in an organically grown pepper crop in Ciudad Real (Central Spain) in the 2014 spring-summer season. The mulch materials used were: 1) black polyethylene (15 μm); black biopolymers (15 μm): 2) Mater-Bi® (corn starch based), 3) Sphere 4® (potato starch based), 4) Sphere 6® (potato starch based), 5) Bioflex® (polylactic acid based), 6) Ecovio® (polylactic acid based), 7) Mimgreen® (black paper, 85 g/m2). A randomized complete block design with four replications was adopted. The crop was drip irrigated following the water demand of each treatment. To assess the evolution of the soil surface covered by the mulches, a total of 560 photographs of the superficial (exposed) part and 196 photographs of the buried part of the materials (1415x2831 pixels, 28 pixels/cm) were analyzed by using Adobe Photoshop CS at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90,120, 145 days after transplanting. Additionally, four experts evaluated the functionality of these materials based on the photographs according to a scale from 1 (completely deteriorated material) to 9 (intact material). The results show: i) The superficial part corresponding to the polyethylene and the

  14. Physiology of pepper fruit and the metabolism of antioxidants: chloroplasts, mitochondria and peroxisomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, José M.; Sevilla, Francisca; Jiménez, Ana; del Río, Luis A.; Corpas, Francisco J.; Álvarez de Morales, Paz; Camejo, Daymi M.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Pepper (Capsicum annuum) contains high levels of antioxidants, such as vitamins A and C and flavonoids. However, information on the role of these beneficial compounds in the physiology of pepper fruit remains scarce. Recent studies have shown that antioxidants in ripe pepper fruit play a key role in responses to temperature changes, and the redox state at the time of harvest affects the nutritional value for human consumption. In this paper, the role of antioxidant metabolism of pepper fruit during ripening and in the response to low temperature is addressed, paying particular attention to ascorbate, NADPH and the superoxide dismutase enzymatic system. The participation of chloroplasts, mitochondria and peroxisomes in the ripening process is also investigated. Scope and Results Important changes occur at a subcellular level during ripening of pepper fruit. Chloroplasts turn into chromoplasts, with drastic conversion of their metabolism, and the role of the ascorbate–glutathione cycle is essential. In mitochondria from red fruits, higher ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and Mn-SOD activities are involved in avoiding the accumulation of reactive oxygen species in these organelles during ripening. Peroxisomes, whose antioxidant capacity at fruit ripening is substantially affected, display an atypical metabolic pattern during this physiological stage. In spite of these differences observed in the antioxidative metabolism of mitochondria and peroxisomes, proteomic analysis of these organelles, carried out by 2-D electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF/TOF and provided here for the first time, reveals no changes between the antioxidant metabolism from immature (green) and ripe (red) fruits. Conclusions Taken together, the results show that investigation of molecular and enzymatic antioxidants from cell compartments, especially chloroplasts, mitochondria and peroxisomes, is a useful tool to study the physiology of pepper fruit, particularly in the context of

  15. Constitutive expression of a fungus-inducible carboxylesterase improves disease resistance in transgenic pepper plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Moonkyung; Cho, Jung Hyun; Seo, Hyo-Hyoun; Lee, Hyun-Hwa; Kang, Ha-Young; Nguyen, Thai Son; Soh, Hyun Cheol; Kim, Young Soon; Kim, Jeong-Il

    2016-08-01

    Resistance against anthracnose fungi was enhanced in transgenic pepper plants that accumulated high levels of a carboxylesterase, PepEST in anthracnose-susceptible fruits, with a concurrent induction of antioxidant enzymes and SA-dependent PR proteins. A pepper esterase gene (PepEST) is highly expressed during the incompatible interaction between ripe fruits of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and a hemibiotrophic anthracnose fungus (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides). In this study, we found that exogenous application of recombinant PepEST protein on the surface of the unripe pepper fruits led to a potentiated state for disease resistance in the fruits, including generation of hydrogen peroxide and expression of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes that encode mostly small proteins with antimicrobial activity. To elucidate the role of PepEST in plant defense, we further developed transgenic pepper plants overexpressing PepEST under the control of CaMV 35S promoter. Molecular analysis confirmed the establishment of three independent transgenic lines carrying single copy of transgenes. The level of PepEST protein was estimated to be approximately 0.002 % of total soluble protein in transgenic fruits. In response to the anthracnose fungus, the transgenic fruits displayed higher expression of PR genes, PR3, PR5, PR10, and PepThi, than non-transgenic control fruits did. Moreover, immunolocalization results showed concurrent localization of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and PR3 proteins, along with the PepEST protein, in the infected region of transgenic fruits. Disease rate analysis revealed significantly low occurrence of anthracnose disease in the transgenic fruits, approximately 30 % of that in non-transgenic fruits. Furthermore, the transgenic plants also exhibited resistance against C. acutatum and C. coccodes. Collectively, our results suggest that overexpression of PepEST in pepper confers enhanced resistance against the anthracnose fungi by activating the defense signaling

  16. Simple emittance measurement of negative hydrogen ion beam using pepper-pot method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamabe, M.; Tsumori, K.; Takeiri, Y.; Kaneko, O.; Asano, E.; Kawamoto, T.; Kuroda, T. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Nagoya (Japan); Guharay, S.K.

    1997-02-01

    A simple apparatus for emittance measurement using pepper-pot method is developed. The pepper-pot patterns are directly exposed and recorded on a Kapton foil. Using this apparatus, emittance was measured in the case of the negative hydrogen (H{sup -}) beam from the large negative ion source, which is the 1/3 scaled test device for the negative-ion-based neutral beam injection (N-NBI) on the Large Helical Device (LHD). As the consequence of the first trial, the 95% normalized emittance value is measured as 0.59 mm mrad. (author)

  17. Consumers’ Preference for Sweet Peppers with different Process Attributes: A Discrete Choice Experiment in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Hua Yeh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on an online discrete choice experiment (DCE this study investigates the relative importance of food label information (country of origin, production methods, chemical residue testing (CRT and price for Taiwanese consumers’ in their purchase of sweet peppers. Results show that respondents focus mostly on the COO labeling during their sweet-pepper shopping, followed by price. Information concerning CRT results and production methods are of less importance. Our findings also indicate that interaction between attributes matter and that preference for attribute levels differs depending on socioeconomic characteristics.

  18. Rheological behaviour of white pepper gels - a new method for studying the effect of irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteves, M. Paula; Raymundo, Anabela; Sousa, Isabel de; Andrade, M. Eduarda; Empis, Jose

    2002-01-01

    Ground white pepper was treated by gamma radiation at average doses of 5, 10 and 15 kGy and the alterations in the rheological properties of its aqueous suspensions were used to study the radiation effects. Amylose and amylopectin suspensions were used as model systems. Ground pepper gels presented decreased strength expressed by a decrease of G' and G'' values and smaller limiting viscosity (η 0 ), as the irradiation dose increased. A similar behaviour was shown by the amylopectin gels. For the amylose gels, in opposition, irradiation induced a higher level of gel structure

  19. Resolution of "salt and pepper" appearance of the skull with vitamin D therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gursimran Kaur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic hypovitaminosis D leads to state of decreased mineralization and generalized osteomalacia. It also results in secondary hyperparathyroidism causing increased bone turn over and decreased bone mass, manifested radiologically as a "salt and pepper" appearance in skull, subperiosteal resorption, bone cysts and lytic lesions. In this case, a young male patient with hypovitaminosis D and secondary hyperparathyroidism, radiological features show resolution of "salt and pepper" appearance of the skull with vitamin D in 11 months and regression of other lytic lesions.

  20. Phylogenetic relationships, diversification and expansion of chili peppers (Capsicum, Solanaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrizo García, Carolina; Barfuss, Michael H. J.; Sehr, Eva M.; Barboza, Gloria E.; Samuel, Rosabelle; Moscone, Eduardo A.; Ehrendorfer, Friedrich

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Capsicum (Solanaceae), native to the tropical and temperate Americas, comprises the well-known sweet and hot chili peppers and several wild species. So far, only partial taxonomic and phylogenetic analyses have been done for the genus. Here, the phylogenetic relationships between nearly all taxa of Capsicum were explored to test the monophyly of the genus and to obtain a better knowledge of species relationships, diversification and expansion. Methods Thirty-four of approximately 35 Capsicum species were sampled. Maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference analyses were performed using two plastid markers (matK and psbA-trnH) and one single-copy nuclear gene (waxy). The evolutionary changes of nine key features were reconstructed following the parsimony ancestral states method. Ancestral areas were reconstructed through a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis. Key Results Capsicum forms a monophyletic clade, with Lycianthes as a sister group, following both phylogenetic approaches. Eleven well-supported clades (four of them monotypic) can be recognized within Capsicum, although some interspecific relationships need further analysis. A few features are useful to characterize different clades (e.g. fruit anatomy, chromosome base number), whereas some others are highly homoplastic (e.g. seed colour). The origin of Capsicum is postulated in an area along the Andes of western to north-western South America. The expansion of the genus has followed a clockwise direction around the Amazon basin, towards central and south-eastern Brazil, then back to western South America, and finally northwards to Central America. Conclusions New insights are provided regarding interspecific relationships, character evolution, and geographical origin and expansion of Capsicum. A clearly distinct early-diverging clade can be distinguished, centred in western–north-western South America. Subsequent rapid speciation has led to the origin of the remaining clades. The

  1. Infection of some cayenne pepper varieties (Capsicum frustescens L.) by Tobacco mosaic virus at different growth stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiri, N.; Sofita, I. S.; Effend, T. A.; Rahim, S. E.

    2017-09-01

    This research aimed to study the infection of three varieties of cayenne pepper (Capsicum frustescens L.) by Tobacco Mosaic Virus when they were inoculated at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 weeks old after planting. This experiment was conducted in a green house, at the Plant pests and diseases department, Agriculture Faculty, Sriwijaya University, Indralaya, South Sumatra Indonesia from March to October 2014. The study was arranged in factorial completely randomized design with three replicates. First factor was varieties of cayenne pepper namely green, white and small. Second factor was growth stage. Results of the study showed that TMV inoculated at different growth stages of three cayenne pepper varieties affected the incubation period of TMV symptom, time for flowering and productions. The infection of TMV on various ages affected the disease severity on cayenne pepper variety. The highest disease severity was taking place on small cayenne pepper variety that was inoculated at the early stages of age namely 2 weeks after planting. Inoculation of TMV at younger stages of all Cayenne peppers varieties caused a significant reduction in the number of fruits and its weights. TMV has caused a reduction of more than 50% in weight of cayenne pepper fruits regardless of the variety.

  2. Characterisation of antioxidant compounds in sweet bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) under organic and conventional growing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallmann, Ewelina; Rembiałkowska, Ewa

    2012-09-01

    Sweet red bell pepper is one of the best sources of ascorbic acid and carotenoids as well as phenolic compounds important in the human diet. There have been some studies showing a higher level of bioactive compounds in organic bell pepper fruits compared with conventional fruits, but not all studies have been consistent in this respect. The levels of carotenoids and phenolics are very variable and may be affected by ripeness, genotype and cultivation. The results obtained in this study showed that an organic growing system affected the level of bioactive compounds (carotenoids and polyphenols) in sweet bell pepper fruits cultivated in Poland. Organic bell pepper fruits contained significantly more dry matter, vitamin C, total carotenoids, β-carotene, α-carotene, cis-β-carotene, total phenolic acids (as well as individual gallic and chlorogenic acids) and flavonoids (quercetin D-glucoside, quercetin and kaempferol) compared with conventional fruits. The bell pepper variety also affected the level of antioxidant compounds in fruits. Organic growing increased the level of antioxidant compounds such as carotenoids, phenolic compounds and vitamin C in sweet bell pepper. The second significant factor affecting the antioxidant compound content of sweet bell pepper was variety. It would be necessary to continue this study as a long-term experiment in order to eliminate the influence of seasonality. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Stem localization of sweet-pepper plants using the support wire as a visual cue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bac, C.W.; Hemming, J.; Henten, van E.

    2014-01-01

    A robot arm should avoid collisions with the plant stem when it approaches a candidate sweet-pepper for harvesting. This study therefore aims at stem localization, a topic so far only studied under controlled lighting conditions. Objectives were to develop an algorithm capable of stem localization,

  4. Enzymatic firming of processed red pepper by means of exogenous pectinesterase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, M.; Petersen, B.R.; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to demonstrate that the firmness of a commercial vegetable product, diced and frozen red pepper (Capsicum annum var. Sendt), could be improved by the use of exogenous pectinesterase in an industrially relevant process. The diced pepper pieces 10 x 10 x 7 mm(3......) were infused under vacuum with a commercially available pectinesterase. The range of optimal process conditions was: 15-20degrees C, 45 min infusion time, a 10-25 mM CaCl2 infusion brine, a w/w ratio of pepper fruit to infusion brine of 1.5:1, and an enzyme dosage of 30-60 pectinesterase units (PEU......) per kg pepper fruit. The firmness as measured by back extrusion was improved by a factor of two to three. The effect of firming was robust and conserved after freezing and heating in a simulated household cooking process. The firming process seems easily adaptable to industrial conditions and may...

  5. First report of Tomato chlorosis virus infecting sweet pepper in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    In September 2008, a survey of whiteflies and whitefly-borne viruses was performed in greenhouses in the province of Cartago, Costa Rica. During this survey, sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum cv. Nataly) plants showing interveinal chlorosis, enations, necrosis, and mild upward leaf curling were observed...

  6. Changes in Vitamin C and Color during Cooking Of Green Peppers (Capsicum Annuum L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francia E. Quipo-Muñoz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The quality of pepper is mainly valued for flavor, color, and vitamin C. This study explored the effect of cooking on the physicochemical characteristics of the fruits of green pepper. Weighed 150 g, cut to size of 2.2 cm long and 1.3 cm wide and subjected to heat treatment (steam and water for 5 min, and 760 W microwave for 2 min, and quenched proceeded to determine the pH and acidity, vitamin C concentration by the indophenol method, total chlorophyll content by spectrophotometry at 652 nm and the surface color coordinates. After heat treatment the concentration of vitamin C, chlorophyll content and acidity significant differences (p <0.05, in contrast pH, L *, a *, b *, C * and h ° not statistically affected. Vitamin C ranged from 147.84 ± 4.36 and 79.31 ± 5.44 mg ascorbic acid/100 g fresh weight. The total chlorophyll ranged from 4.44 ± 0.04 and 2.61 ± 0.04 mg/ 100 of pepper. In the acidity values were between 0.10 ± 0.005 and 0.07 ± 0.001% citric acid. The microwave cooking method obtains the highest level of retention of vitamin C, and the surface color of green pepper is not affected by the different cooking methods evaluated in this study.

  7. Factors affecting oviposition of Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in sweet pepper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Larissa C. de; Campos, Alcebiades R.

    2008-01-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gen.) biotype B is considered a pest of economical importance for several vegetables. The oviposition behaviour of the while fly was evaluated in sweet pepper plants. The trials were carried out under greenhouse condition and in the Laboratory of Entomology of DEFERS/ UNESP, Campus of Ilha Solteira-SP, with the sweet pepper Magali-R genotype. The effect of plant age on the whitefly oviposition was evaluated in free-choice tests, in plants, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45- day-old, as egg distribution in the plant and on the leaf blade was evaluated in 35-days-old plants. In a no-choice tests, 35-day-old plants were used to evaluate the effect of the densities of 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 adults per plant on the number of eggs laid by insects. The silver leaf whitefly preferred to oviposition the third to sixth leaflets, of the medium and superior part of plants of sweet pepper; the leaf blade areas, located in the lobes right and left close the base of the leaf were the preferential site for whitefly oviposition. Older plants, 40- and 45-day-old, were preferentially used for oviposition, and 200 and 250 adults per plant were both enough to lay a number of eggs that allowed to differentiate among sweet pepper genotypes with different whitefly resistance levels. (author)

  8. Surveys of virus diseases on pepper ( Capsicum spp.) in South-west ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surveys to determine the incidence, diversity and distribution of viruses infecting pepper (Capsicum spp.) were conducted in six states (Oyo, Ondo, Osun, Ogun, Ekiti and Lagos) of South-west Nigeria in 2010 and 2011. Leaf samples from symptomatic and asymptomatic plants were collected at random from farmers' fields ...

  9. Improvement of red pepper yield and soil environment by summer catch aquatic crops in greenhouses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, X. F.; Wang, L. Z.; Peng, J.; Wang, G. L.; Guo, X. S.; Wen, T. G.; Gu, D. L.; Wang, W. Z.; Wu, C. W.

    2016-08-01

    To investigate effects of the rotation of summer catch crops on remediation retrogressed soils in continuous cropping, a field experiment was conducted. Rice, water spinach, or cress were selected as summer catch crops; bare fallow during summer fallow was used as the control group. Results showed that aquatic crops grown in summer fallow period could effectively reduce soil bulk density and pH, facilitate soil nutrient release, and improve soil physical and chemical properties compared with those grown in fallow period. Paddy-upland rotation could improve soil microbial members and increase bacterial and actinomycete populations; by contrast, paddy-upland rotation could reduce fungal populations and enhance bacterium-to-fungus ratio. Paddy-upland rotation could also actively promote activities of soil enzymes, such as urease, phosphatase, invertase, and catalase. The proposed paddy-upland rotation significantly affected the growth of red pepper; the yield and quality of the grown red pepper were enhanced. Summer catch crops, such as rice, water spinach, and cress significantly increased pepper yield in the following growing season by 15.4%, 10.2% and 14.0%, respectively, compared with those grown in fallow treatment. Therefore, the proposed paddy-upland crop rotation could be a useful method to alleviate continuous cropping problems involved in cultivating red pepper in greenhouses.

  10. Irradiation Maintains Functional Components of Dry Hot Peppers (Capsicum annuum L. under Ambient Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qumer Iqbal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hot peppers used as natural flavoring and coloring agents are usually irradiated in prepacked form for decontamination. The effects of gamma radiation on the stability of functional components such as capsaicinoids and antioxidant compounds (carotenoids, ascorbic acid and total phenolics were investigated in hot peppers (Capsicum annuum. Whole dried peppers packed in polyethylene bags were gamma irradiated at 0 (control, 2, 4, and 6 kGy and subsequently stored at 25 °C for 90 days. The irradiation dose did not substantially affect the initial contents of capsaicinoids, ascorbic acid and total phenolics, though the concentration of carotenoids declined by 8% from the control (76.9 mg/100 g to 6 kGy radiation dose (70.7 mg/100 g. Similarly, during storage for 90 days at ambient temperature the concentrations of capsaicinoids and total phenolics remained fairly stable with mean percent reductions from 3.3% to 4.2%, while the levels of total carotenoids and ascorbic acid significantly (p < 0.05 declined by 12% and 14%, respectively. Overall, neither irradiation nor subsequent ambient storage could appreciably influence the contents of functional components in hot peppers. These results revealed that gamma irradiation up to 6 kGy can be safely used for decontamination to meet the needs for overseas markets without compromising product quality.

  11. Employing airborne multispectral digital imagery to map Brazilian pepper infestation in south Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted in south Texas to determine the feasibility of using airborne multispectral digital imagery for differentiating the invasive plant Brazilian pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius) from other cover types. Imagery obtained in the visible, near infrared, and mid infrared regions of th...

  12. An ESR protocol based on relaxation phenomena of irradiated Japanese pepper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukai, Mitsuko; Nakamura, Hideo; Shimoyama, Yuhei

    2006-03-01

    We found various free radicals in a commercially available pepper in Japan before and after irradiation using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The typical ESR spectrum of the pepper consists of a sextet centered at g = 2.0, a singlet at the same g-value and a singlet at g = 4.0. Upon gamma ray irradiation, a new pair of signals appeared in the pepper. The progressive saturation behavior (PSB) at various microwave power levels indicated quite different relaxation behaviors of those radicals. Namely, the peak intensity of the organic free radical component decreases in a monotonic fashion, whereas the Mn 2+ and Fe 3+ ESR signals substantially keep constant. This reflects the evidence of three independent radicals in the pepper before irradiation. The PSB of the pair peaks as induced by irradiation possessed quite different PSB from that of the free radical located at g = 2.0. We proposed a new protocol for the ESR detection of irradiated foods by the PSB method at different microwave power levels. This would call for a major modification of the CEN protocol in European Union.

  13. Structure and genetic diversity of natural Brazilian pepper populations (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvares-Carvalho, S V; Duarte, J F; Santos, T C; Santos, R M; Silva-Mann, R; Carvalho, D

    2016-06-17

    In the face of a possible loss of genetic diversity in plants due the environmental changes, actions to ensure the genetic variability are an urgent necessity. The extraction of Brazilian pepper fruits is a cause of concern because it results in the lack of seeds in soil, hindering its distribution in space and time. It is important to address this concern and explore the species, used by riparian communities and agro-factories without considering the need for keeping the seeds for natural seed banks and for species sustainability. The objective of this study was to evaluate the structure and the genetic diversity in natural Brazilian pepper populations (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi). Twenty-two alleles in 223 individuals were identified from eight forest remnants located in the states of Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo, and Sergipe. All populations presented loci in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium deviation. Four populations presented six combinations of loci in linkage disequilibrium. Six exclusive alleles were detected in four populations. Analysis of molecular variance showed the absence of diversity between regions and that between the populations (GST) was 41%. Genetic diversity was structured in seven clusters (ΔK7). Brazilian pepper populations were not structured in a pattern of isolation by distance and present genetic bottleneck. The populations São Mateus, Canastra, Barbacena, and Ilha das Flores were identified as management units and may support conservation projects, ecological restoration and in implementation of management plans for Brazilian pepper in the State of Sergipe.

  14. Aphidius gifuensis: a promising parasitoid for biological control of two important aphid species in sweet pepper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Messelink, G.J.; Bloemhard, C.M.J.; Hoogerbrugge, H.; Schelt, van J.

    2011-01-01

    The parasitoid Aphidius gifuensis is able to parasitize both the green peach aphid Myzus persicae and the foxglove aphid Aulacorthum solani in sweet pepper. In a greenhouse experiment we showed that rates of parasitism on green peach aphids alone were equal to the commonly used Aphidius colemani,

  15. Abortion of reproductive organs in sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.): a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubs, A.M.; Heuvelink, E.; Marcelis, L.F.M.

    2009-01-01

    Levels of abortion of reproductive organs (i.e., buds, flowers, and young fruits) in sweet pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.) are high, and cyclical fluctuations occur in fruit set. Stages susceptible to abortion are very young buds (<2.5 mm), buds close to anthesis, and flowers and fruits up to

  16. 7 CFR 319.56-24 - Lettuce and peppers from Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....56-24 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-24... fruits and vegetables from passing vehicles. (6) Sorting and packing of peppers shall be done in the...

  17. Efficiency of NEB-33 fortified fertilizers on growth and yield of pepper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A two year field study was conducted in Institute of Agriculture Reasearch and Training experimental field at Ibadan, Nigeria to evaluate the effects of NEB-33 fertilizer additive on the growth and yield of chilli pepper (Capsium fruitscen). Treatments consisted of control, NPK, poultry manure (PM), organomineral fertilizer (OM) ...

  18. Design and Development of Emittance Measurement Device by Using the Pepper-pot Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakluea, S.; Rimjaem, S.

    2017-09-01

    Transverse emittance of a charged particle beam is one of the most important properties that reveals the quality of the beam. It is related to charge density, transvers size and angular displacement of the beam in transverse phase space. There are several techniques to measure the transverse emittance value. One of practical methods is the pepper-pot technique, which can measure both horizontal and vertical emittance value in a single measurement. This research concentrates on development of a pepper-pot device to measure the transverse emittance of electron beam produced from an accelerator injector system, which consists of a thermionic cathode RF electron gun and an alpha magnet, at the Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Chiang Mai University. Simulation of beam dynamics was conducted with programs PARMELA, ELEGANT and self-developed codes using C and MATLAB. The geometry, dimensions and location of the pepper-pot as well as its corresponding screen station position were included in the simulation. The result from this study will be used to design and develop a practical pepper-pot experimental station.

  19. An investigation of a defensive chitinase against Fusarium oxysporum in pepper leaf tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khemika S. Lomthaisong

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant chitinase is classified as a PR-protein involved in a defense mechanism against a pathogen. This research aims to investigate a specific type of chitinase which is produced by pepper in response to an early defense against Fusarium oxysporum, which causes wilt disease. The changes of chitinase isozyme patterns in the inter- and intracellular fluids in the leaf of four cultivars of pepper (Capsicum annuum L. at day 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 from fungal inoculation were analysed using SDS-PAGE in polyacrylamide gel supplemented with glycol chitin as a substrate. The levels of disease severity in the four varieties of pepper were also compared with the isozyme patterns. The results showed that the resistance of pepper to F. oxysporum attack corresponded to the expression of ~70 kDa chitinase band (Chi-3 in the intercellular fluid. Therefore, such chitinase could possibly be used as a protein marker to identify the tolerant line and as a springboard for further study of wilt disease control.

  20. Cytokinin response in pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.) exposed to silver nanoparticles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vinković, T.; Novák, Ondřej; Strnad, Miroslav; Goessler, W.; Jurašin, D. D.; Parađiković, N.; Vrček, I. V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 156, JUL (2017), s. 10-18 ISSN 0013-9351 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Abiotic stress * Biodistribution * Cytokinin response * Pepper * Silver nanoparticles * Uptake Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 3.835, year: 2016

  1. Reading "Salt and Pepper": Social Practices, Unfinished Narratives, and Critical Interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Diane Downer

    2008-01-01

    In "Reading "Salt and Pepper"" Anderson examines a story written by three third grade girls and their insights about that story as they re-read it during its production and retrospectively, eight years later. Using a frame for understanding children's writing as social practice, the children's interviews, showing their multiple and sometimes…

  2. Evaluation of pepper spent as an egg yolk colouring agent in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The egg yolk pigmenting properties of increasing levels (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5%) of pepper spent in the diet of White Leghorn layers was evaluated. Six months old two hundred and forty layers were divided randomly into six groups of 40 layers. Each group was further divided into two replicate groups of 20 layers and assigned ...

  3. Effect of Soil Nursery Mixtures on the Growth of Pepper Seedlings in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken to determine the best nursery medium for raising seedlings of pepper in a tropical rainforest location of Owerri, south eastern Nigeria. The experiment was carried out in the teaching and research farm of the department of Agricultural Science, Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education, Owerri.

  4. Effect of low temperature during the night in young sweet pepper plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorbe Sanchez, Elisa; Heuvelink, E.; Jalink, H.; Stanghellini, C.

    2015-01-01

    The optimization of heating in greenhouses should be an energy saving target in the cultivation of sweet pepper plants; from both an environmental and economical point of view. It is important to understand the effect of low temperatures on this crop. While the effect of low temperature has been

  5. Interactions of Phytophthora capsici with Resistant and Susceptible Pepper Roots and Stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Amara R; Smart, Christine D

    2015-10-01

    Using host resistance is an important strategy for managing pepper root and crown rot caused by Phytophthora capsici. An isolate of P. capsici constitutively expressing a gene for green fluorescent protein was used to investigate pathogen interactions with roots, crowns, and stems of Phytophthora-susceptible bell pepper 'Red Knight', Phytophthora-resistant bell pepper 'Paladin', and Phytophthora-resistant landrace Criollos de Morelos 334 (CM-334). In this study, the same number of zoospores attached to and germinated on roots of all cultivars 30 and 120 min postinoculation (pi), respectively. At 3 days pi, significantly more secondary roots had necrotic lesions on Red Knight than on Paladin and CM-334 plants. By 4 days pi, necrotic lesions had formed on the taproot of Red Knight but not Paladin or CM-334 plants. Although hyphae were visible in the crowns and stems of all Red Knight plants observed at 4 days pi, hyphae were observed in crowns of only a few Paladin and in no CM-334 plants, and never in stems of either resistant cultivar at 4 days pi. These results improve our understanding of how P. capsici infects plants and may contribute to the use of resistant pepper cultivars for disease management and the development of new cultivars.

  6. Biting into the Yellow Pepper: The Development of the Interdisciplinary Learner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    In the opening credits of the television cult classic "Iron Chef," Chairman Kaga takes a huge bite out of a big yellow bell pepper. With the ensuing smirk on his face, he introduces the famous "Kitchen Stadium," which he notes is his "dream in a form never seen before." What follows is a learning experience in which…

  7. The evolution of chili peppers (Capsicum-Solanaceae): a cytogenetic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capsicum (chili peppers) is a New World genus with five crop species of great economic importance for food and spices. An up-to-date summary of the karyotypic knowledge is presented, including data on classical staining (chromosome number, size and morphology), silver impregnation (number and positi...

  8. Application of Volatile Antifungal Plant Essential Oils for Controlling Pepper Fruit Anthracnose by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeum Kyu Hong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides has been destructive during pepper fruit production in outdoor fields in Korea. In vitro antifungal activities of 15 different plant essential oils or its components were evaluated during conidial germination and mycelial growth of C. gloeosporioides. In vitro conidial germination was most drastically inhibited by vapour treatments with carvacrol, cinnamon oil, trans-cinnamaldehyde, citral, p-cymene and linalool. Inhibition of the mycelial growth by indirect vapour treatment with essential oils was also demonstrated compared with untreated control. Carvacrol, cinnamon oil, trans-cinnamaldehyde, citral and eugenol were among the most inhibitory plant essential oils by the indirect antifungal efficacies. Plant protection efficacies of the plant essential oils were demonstrated by reduced lesion diameter on the C. gloeosporioides-inoculated immature green pepper fruits compared to the inoculated control fruits without any plant essential oil treatment. In planta test showed that all plant essential oils tested in this study demonstrated plant protection efficacies against pepper fruit anthracnose with similar levels. Thus, application of different plant essential oils can be used for eco-friendly disease management of anthracnose during pepper fruit production.

  9. First Report of Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum in Pepper Plants in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) plants exhibiting symptoms that resemble those of potato psyllid damage and/or ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ infection were observed in La Cruz de Elota, Sinaloa, México in March 2009. The plants had chlorotic or pale green leaves and exhibited leaf cupping, sh...

  10. Parthenocarpic Fruit Growth Reduces Yield Fluctuations and Blossom-end Rot in Sweet Pepper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelink, E.; Körner, O.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate whether parthenocarpic fruit growth could avoid flushing, i.e. an irregular yield pattern, in sweet pepper. Plants were grown in a greenhouse compartment from April until August. Half of the plants were grown without a fruit set treatment (control), whereas

  11. Burkholderia sp. KCTC 11096BP modulates pepper growth and resistance against Phytophthora capsici

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, S.M.; Hamayun, M.; Shinwari, Z.K.

    2016-01-01

    Biological control of crop diseases is desirable for sustainable agriculture as it minimizes chemical inputs in the agricultural system and promotes eco-friendly environment. We analyzed the favorable role of Burkholderia sp. KCTC 11096BP against the pathogen Phytophthora capsici in pepper. We screen thirty rhizobateria for their anti-pathogen activity, and found that Burkholderia sp. KCTC 11096BP exhibits maximum growth inhibition of the pathogen P. capsici. The bacterium inoculation to pepper plants significantly enhanced growth attributes of pepper in infected and control treatments. The total proteins (10.9%), and the amino acids viz. glycine (4.08 ug/g), leucine (3.3 ug/g), and alanine (3.26 ug/g) were preset in considerably higher quantities in Burkholderia sp. applied treatments as compare to control. The systemic acquired resistance (SAR) of the host plant was up-regulated by Burkholderia sp. KCTC, as endogenous salicylic acid (235.5 ng/g) and jasmonic acid (22.8 ng/g) levels were found higher in such treatments. It was concluded that Burkholderia sp. KCTC 11096BP mitigates the adverse effects of P. capsici on pepper crop and can improve crop productivity at the field level. (author)

  12. Anaerobic soil disinfestation reduces survival and infectivity of Phytophthora nicotianae chlamydospores in pepper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora nicotianae is the principal causal agent of root and crown rot disease of pepper plants in Extremadura (western Spain), a spring-summer crop in this region. Preplant soil treatment by anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) may effectively control plant pathogens in many crop production sys...

  13. Development of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolated from green pepper in different culture media, temperatures, and light regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mello Alexandre Furtado Silveira

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Control of anthracnose in green pepper involves the use of resistant varieties and/or fungicides. The selection of varieties and efficient products demands great amounts of conidia as inoculum. It is thus necessary to optimize the production of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides conidia in the laboratory, establishing the best conditions for fungus development. The present study aimed at determining the most favorable culture media, temperature, and light conditions for the production of fungus inoculum. The fungus was isolated from green pepper fruits (Capsicum annuum L. and transferred to four culture media (PDA, oat, filtered pepper extract, and autoclaved pepper extract, under different temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30, and 35ºC and light conditions (24h dark, and 24h light. Colony growth was evaluated after 7 and 12 days of incubation. No differences were found between the culture media. However, the greatest number of conidia was obtained from colonies grown in oat medium at 25ºC. Temperatures of 20 and 25ºC were the most favorable for colony growth and sporulation. Higher sporulation was obtained under incubation in constant light. Cultivation of C. gloeosporioides in oat medium, at 25ºC, and constant light is recommended.

  14. Innovations in microspore embryogenesis in Indonesian hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and Brassica napus L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Supena, E.D.J.

    2004-01-01

    Hot pepper (Capsicum annuumL.) is the most important vegetable in

  15. Phylogenetic relationships, diversification and expansion of chili peppers (Capsicum, Solanaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrizo García, Carolina; Barfuss, Michael H J; Sehr, Eva M; Barboza, Gloria E; Samuel, Rosabelle; Moscone, Eduardo A; Ehrendorfer, Friedrich

    2016-07-01

    Capsicum (Solanaceae), native to the tropical and temperate Americas, comprises the well-known sweet and hot chili peppers and several wild species. So far, only partial taxonomic and phylogenetic analyses have been done for the genus. Here, the phylogenetic relationships between nearly all taxa of Capsicum were explored to test the monophyly of the genus and to obtain a better knowledge of species relationships, diversification and expansion. Thirty-four of approximately 35 Capsicum species were sampled. Maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference analyses were performed using two plastid markers (matK and psbA-trnH) and one single-copy nuclear gene (waxy). The evolutionary changes of nine key features were reconstructed following the parsimony ancestral states method. Ancestral areas were reconstructed through a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis. Capsicum forms a monophyletic clade, with Lycianthes as a sister group, following both phylogenetic approaches. Eleven well-supported clades (four of them monotypic) can be recognized within Capsicum, although some interspecific relationships need further analysis. A few features are useful to characterize different clades (e.g. fruit anatomy, chromosome base number), whereas some others are highly homoplastic (e.g. seed colour). The origin of Capsicum is postulated in an area along the Andes of western to north-western South America. The expansion of the genus has followed a clockwise direction around the Amazon basin, towards central and south-eastern Brazil, then back to western South America, and finally northwards to Central America. New insights are provided regarding interspecific relationships, character evolution, and geographical origin and expansion of Capsicum A clearly distinct early-diverging clade can be distinguished, centred in western-north-western South America. Subsequent rapid speciation has led to the origin of the remaining clades. The diversification of Capsicum has culminated in the origin

  16. Black Willow

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. M. Krinard

    1980-01-01

    Black willow and other species of Salix together comprise a majority of the stocking. Cottonwood is the chief associate, particularly in the early stages, but green ash, sycamore, pecan, persimmon, waterlocust, American elm, baldcypress, red maple, sugarberry, box-elder, and in some areas, silver maple are invaders preceding the next successional stage.

  17. Counseling Blacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vontress, Clemmont E.

    1970-01-01

    Blacks have developed unique environmental perceptions, values, and attitudes, making it difficult for counselors to establish and maintain positive rapport. This article examines attitudinal ingredients posited by Carl Rogers for relevance to this problem, and suggests in-service training to help counselors and other professionals relate…

  18. Black Psyllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by mouth for up to 6 weeks reduces blood sugar in people with type 2 diabetes. Cancer. Diarrhea. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Other conditions. ... with the dose. Diabetes: Black psyllium can lower blood sugar levels ... with type 2 diabetes by slowing down absorption of carbohydrates. Monitor blood ...

  19. Rapid identification of QTLs underlying resistance to Cucumber mosaic virus in pepper (Capsicum frutescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Guangjun; Wang, Shubin; Liu, Jinbing; Pan, Baogui; Diao, Weiping; Ge, Wei; Gao, Changzhou; Snyder, John C

    2017-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing enabled a fast discovery of QTLs controlling CMV resistant in pepper. The gene CA02g19570 as a possible candidate gene of qCmr2.1 was identified for resistance to CMV in pepper. Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is one of the most important viruses infecting pepper, but the genetic basis of CMV resistance in pepper is elusive. In this study, we identified a candidate gene for CMV resistance QTL, qCmr2.1 through SLAF-seq. Segregation analysis in F 2 , BC 1 and F 2:3 populations derived from a cross between two inbred lines 'PBC688' (CMV-resistant) and 'G29' (CMV-susceptible) suggested quantitative inheritance of resistance to CMV in pepper. Genome-wide comparison of SNP profiles between the CMV-resistant and CMV-susceptible bulks constructed from an F 2 population identified two QTLs, designated as qCmr2.1 on chromosome 2 and qCmr11.1 on chromosome 11 for resistance to CMV in PBC688, which were confirmed by InDel marker-based classical QTL mapping in the F 2 population. As a major QTL, joint SLAF-seq and traditional QTL analysis delimited qCmr2.1 to a 330 kb genomic region. Two pepper genes, CA02g19570 and CA02g19600, were identified in this region, which are homologous with the genes LOC104113703, LOC104248995, LOC102603934 and LOC101248357, which were predicted to encode N-like protein associated with TMV-resistant in Solanum crops. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed higher expression levels of CA02g19570 in CMV resistance genotypes. The CA02g19600 did not exhibit obvious regularity in expression patterns. Higher relative expression levels of CA02g19570 in PBC688 and F 1 were compared with those in G29 during days after inoculation. These results provide support for CA02g19570 as a possible candidate gene of qCmr2.1 for resistance to CMV in pepper.

  20. Black hole astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blandford, R.D.; Thorne, K.S.

    1979-01-01

    Following an introductory section, the subject is discussed under the headings: on the character of research in black hole astrophysics; isolated holes produced by collapse of normal stars; black holes in binary systems; black holes in globular clusters; black holes in quasars and active galactic nuclei; primordial black holes; concluding remarks on the present state of research in black hole astrophysics. (U.K.)

  1. Quantum black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Calmet, Xavier; Winstanley, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Written by foremost experts, this short book gives a clear description of the physics of quantum black holes. The reader will learn about quantum black holes in four and higher dimensions, primordial black holes, the production of black holes in high energy particle collisions, Hawking radiation, black holes in models of low scale quantum gravity and quantum gravitational aspects of black holes.

  2. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) as bio protector agents against wilt induced by Verticillium spp. in pepper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goicoechea, N.; Garmendia, I.; Sanchez-Diaz, M.; Aguirreolea, J.

    2010-07-01

    Verticillium dahliae Kleb. is a vascular pathogen that alters water status and growth of pepper plants and causes drastic reductions in yield. Its control is difficult because it can survive in field soil for several years. The application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) as bio protector agents against V. dahliae is an alternative to the use of chemicals which, in addition, is more respectful with the environment. The establishment of the mutualistic association of plant roots and AMF involves a continuous cellular and molecular dialogue between both symbionts that includes the pre activation of plant defense responses that may enhance the resistance or tolerance of mycorrhizal plants to soil-borne pathogens. Some AMF can improve the resistance of Capsicum annuum L. against V. dahliae. This is especially relevant for pepper cultivars (i.e. cv. Piquillo) that exhibit high susceptibility to this pathogen. Compared with non-mycorrhizal plants, mycorrhizal pepper can exhibit more balanced antioxidant metabolism in leaves along the first month after pathogen inoculation, which may contribute to delay both the development of disease symptoms and the decrease of photosynthesis in Verticillium-inoculated plants with the subsequent benefit for yield. In stems, mycorrhizal pepper show earlier and higher deposition of lignin in xylem vessels than non mycorrhizal plants, even in absence of the pathogen. Moreover, AMF can induce new isoforms of acidic chitinases and superoxide dismutase in roots. Mycorrhizal-specific induction of these enzymatic activities together with enhanced peroxidase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in roots may also be involved in the bio protection of Verticillium-induced wilt in pepper by AMF. (Author) 81 refs.

  3. Antioxidant activity and prevention of pork meat lipid oxidation using traditional Mexican condiments (pasilla dry pepper, achiote, and mole sauce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Alvarez-Parrilla

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering the extensive use of hot peppers and spicy sauces in the Mexican cuisine, in the present paper, three widely consumed Mexican condiments (mole sauce, achiote, and pasilla hot pepper were analyzed for their total phenols, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins, antioxidant activity, and protective effect against lipid oxidation in chopped pork meat. All samples were extracted first with methanol and then with acetone, and the extracts were compared. Pasilla pepper showed the highest phenolic and flavonoid content in both solvents, followed by mole and achiote. Achiote showed the highest proanthocyanidin concentration. All samples showed high antioxidant activity, and good correlations with phenolic compounds and flavonoids, while no correlation was observed in the case of condensed tannins. Mole sauce methanolic extract showed the highest inhibition of pork meat oxidation, followed by pasilla pepper, and finally achiote paste extracts. These results suggest that these condiments are useful to prevent meat lipid oxidation during storage.

  4. Arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculant increases yield of spice pepper and affects the indigenous fungal community in the field

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hernádi, I.; Sasvári, Z.; Albrechtová, Jana; Vosátka, Miroslav; Posta, K.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 5 (2012), s. 603-606 ISSN 0018-5345 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : yield of pepper * diversity of fungi * AMS inoculation Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.938, year: 2012

  5. Efficacy of Seaweed Concentrate from Ecklonia maxima (Osbeck and Conventional Fungicides in the Control of Verticillium Wilt of Pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Rekanović

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to control the causal agent of Verticillium wilt of pepper (Verticillium dahliae,the efficacy of two conventional fungicides, thiophanate-methyl and carbendazim,and seaweed concentrate (SWC from Ecklonia maxima was evaluated in greenhouse conditions. Pepper plants were inoculated with selected V. dahliae isolate in the stage of more than nine fully developed leaves on primary stem. The tested fungicides and SWC were applied three days before inoculation of pepper plants. Carbendazim was the most efficient fungicide among tested substances (69.64%. SWC proved to be more effective when applied at 1.0% concentarion (41.96%. The use of thiophanate-methyl provided good Verticillium wilt control in pepper (60.71%. SWC was less efficient than thiophanate-methyl and carbendazim, but still significantly better compared to the disease control plot.

  6. Antibacterial Compound Identification of Cayenne Pepper Leaf Extract (Capsicum frutescens L.) against Klebsiella pneumoniae and Cell Leakage Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Fauziyya, Riri; Nurani, Laela Hayu; Sulistyani, Nanik

    2017-01-01

    Pneumonia is an acute inflammation of the pulmonary parenchyma that can be caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae. This study aims to determine the active fraction of cayenne pepper leaves on the growth of K. pneumoniae. Cayenne pepper leaf which previously defatted using n-hexane was macerated with 95% ethanol, then fractionated successively with dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol. Ethanol extract and each fraction with concentration of 40% were tested for their antibacterial activity agai...

  7. CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS AND ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECT OF ESSENTIAL OIL OF JAVANEESE PEPPER LEAVES (PIPER RETROFRACTUM VAHL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliasri Jamal

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Daun cabe jawa (Piper retrofractum Vahl. telah terbukti berkhasiat sebagai bahan antimikroba, akan tetapi belum ada informasi lebih lanjut tentang mekanisme aksi antibakteri dari minyak atsiri daun cabe jawa. Penelitian ini untuk mengetahui pengaruh minyak atsiri daun cabe jawa terhadap bakteri uji sensitif serta difokuskan untuk melihat kerusakan membran sel bakteri melalui analisis protein, asam nukleat dan ion-ion logam kalsium dan kalium. Distilasi uap minyak atsiri dari daun segar cabe jawa (Piper retrofractum Vahl. menghasilkan 0.03% cairan kental kekuningan. Analisis dengan GC-MS mengidentifikasi 4 senyawa sebagai komponen utama, yaitu germakren D (24.20%, tetrametilsiklo[5.3.1.0(4.11]-undek-8-ena (17.73%, ar-turmeron (11.55% dan benzil benzoat (6.28%. Minyak atsiri cabe jawa terbukti aktif melawan beberapa bakteri patogen antara lain Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Micrococcus luteus dengan diameter daya hambat berturut-turut 8.0; 9.7; 8.5 mm. Pengamatan lebih lanjut memperlihatkan nilai MIC dari minyak atsiri cabe jawa  terhadap B. subtilis adalah 2% (v/v, dan juga merubah morfologi sel dari bakteri yang diobservasi menggunakan SEM. Kata kunci: Piper retrofractum Vah., cabe jawa, minyak atsiri, aktivitas antibakteri Abstract The leaves of Javaneese pepper (Piper retrofractum Vahl. has been proven efficacious as antimicrobial agent, however, there was no further information about action mechanism of antibacterial of Javaneese pepper leaves essential oil. This study was to determine the effect of essential oils of javaneese pepper leaves against bacterial sensitive test and is focused on investigating the damage of cell membranes of bacteria through the analysis of proteins, nucleic acids and metal ions, calcium and potassium. Steam distillation of essential oil from fresh leaves of Javaneese pepper (Piper retrofractum Vahl. gave 0.03 % yellowish viscous liquid. Germacrene D (24.20 %, tetramethylcyclo[5

  8. Yield Traits and Water and Nitrogen Use Efficiencies of Bell Pepper Grown in Plastic-Greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rita Rivelli

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We report the results of a two-year study assessing the effects of nitrogen fertilization and irrigation regimes on yield traits and on water and nitrogen use efficiency of greenhouse-grown bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.. The trials involved the combination of four N doses (0, 100, 200, 300 kg ha-1 with two irrigation regimes (100% restitution of ETc; repeated cycles of water stress starting from fruit set. In the second year, the crop was transplanted one month earlier than in the first year and was mulched with plastic sheeting. The highest yield in both years was obtained by associating 100% restitution of ETc and the N dose of 200 kg ha-1. The marketable yields were 37 and 72 t ha-1 in 1998 and 1999, respectively. Doubling of the yield in the second year was probably due to the earlier transplantation and mulching, confirming the numerous benefits of the latter technique. The water deficit imposed during the late flowering-early fruit set phase had negative effects on the crop, with declines of the marketable yield of up to 44% due to the reduced number and weight of the fruit and the increased waste, mainly peppers with blossom-end rot, cracking, sun-burn and malformations. The peppers grown under water stress were richer in dry matter and soluble solids. The yield declines due to water deficit varied in relation to the N dose, as confirmed by the numerous interactions recorded between irrigation regime and nitrogen level.Without nitrogen fertilization, the quantity and quality of the fruits remained unchanged, while the maximum dose (300 kg ha-1 enhanced the negative effects of the water deficit on the number (-52% and weight (-161% of marketable peppers. Moreover, the waste peppers reached 31% of the total production (by weight, with over 21% affected by blossom-end rot. Water stress led to a drastic reduction of the total above-ground dry biomass (40% and a significant decrease of nitrogen absorption by the plant (54% with preferential

  9. Effectiveness and Public Acceptance Rate of Powder Pepper (Piper nigrum L. to Decrease Density of Anopheles spp larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andri Ruliansyah

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Pepper fruit (Piper nigrum L. is one of several pesticides from plant that can be used as insecticide. The purpose of this study was to identify the effectiveness and public acceptance of pepper fruit powder (Piper nigrum L. on reducing Anopheles spp. larvae density. The experiment was a quasi-experimental study which includes a pre-post test design with both treatment group and a control group. Pepper powder with a dose of 0.75 g in one litre of water kills 59.91% larvae in average through 24 hours treatment. Wilcoxon test results obtained from the pepper powder treatment was proved effective in decreasing the density of Anopheles spp. larvae since there was significant difference between before and after treatment. The result of public acceptance for pepper powder out of 20 respondents are 75% respondents accepted it well, 15% respondents accepted it fairly well, and 10% respondents accepted it poorly. These results showed pepper fruit powder potency as a good and accepted larvacide.

  10. Black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, B.

    1980-01-01

    In years 1920 as a result of quantum mechanics principles governing the structure of ordinary matter, a sudden importance for a problem raised a long time ago by Laplace: what happens when a massive body becomes so dense that even light cannot escape from its gravitational field. It is difficult to conceive how could be avoided in the actual universe the accumulation of important masses of cold matter having been submitted to gravitational breaking down followed by the formation of what is called to day a black hole [fr

  11. Influence of nitrogen deficiency on photosynthesis and chloroplast ultrastructure of pepper plants (Research Note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. DONCHEVA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Zlaten Medal were grown on nutrient solution without nitrogen, and photosynthetic response of plants was examined by determination of leaf CO2 fixation and chlorophyll and carotenoid contents. The absence of nitrogen in the medium resulted in a decrease of the leaf area and of plant biomass accumulation, and in an increase of the root-shoot dry weight ratio. The photosynthetic activity and chlorophyll and carotenoid contents decreased significantly under nitrogen deprivation. Examination of nitrogen deficient leaves by transmission electron microscopy showed dramatic changes in chloroplast ultrastructure. The proportion of starch granules and plastoglobules in the stroma matrix was increased and internal membrane system was greatly reduced. It seems that nitrogen plays an important role in the formation of chloroplast structure and hence to the photosynthetic intensity and productivity of pepper plants.

  12. Characters of tomato and pepper bred by space mutation in glasshouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei Xiaobo; Gu Xiaojun; Chen Chunhong; Li Shicheng

    2004-01-01

    Plant growth and yield of tomato and pepper bred by space mutation and materials carried by aero-craft 'Shenzhou' No.4 and its parent variety as control were studied in glasshouse. The results show that all varieties grew vigorously in glasshouse and the average fruit weight was about 221 g for tomato variety 641 and 648 and material HT10-3-2 and HT10-2. Accumulated yield for variety 648 was 2847.5 g, which was 9.9% higher than variety 641, indicating that they are suitable for glasshouse cultivation. Average fruit weight for pepper variety 616 was about 76 g, potential with accumulated yield of 440.9 g, indicating that it can be used for glasshouse cultivation. There was no significant difference between the Aero-craft carried materials and but the yield range change of among and its the carried materials 7.5%-8.0%

  13. Changes in structure of red pepper (Capsicum annuum L. seedlings shoots under aluminum stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Konarska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The seedlings of the red pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Trapez grown in water culture for a period of 14 days with Al (0, 10, 20 and 40 mg·dm-3 AlCl3·6 H2O. Some morphological and anatomical features of red pepper shoots were analyzed. Reduction in height and diameter of stems as well as decrease in fresh mass of shoots were observed after Al-treatment. In the hypocotyl the thickness of cortex parenchyma layer and the size of their cells were reduced. The aluminum treatment resulted in the increased in thickness of the epidermis outer cell wall. Under Al stress in the cotrex and the central cylinder parenchyma cells were present numerous enlarge plastids which contained large grains of starch and dark little bodies which were possible aluminum deposits. They weren`t observed in control seedlings.

  14. The Growth of Root Rot Disease on Pepper Seed Applied by Trichoderma Harzianum Inoculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sofian

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Root rot disease on pepper caused by Phytophthora capsici is one of the most important diseases on pepper. The using of antagonistic fungus of Trichoderma harzianum as a biological control agent of the pathogen is one of the important alternatives in controlling P. capsici without causing negative effects on the environment. The objectives of the research were to study about the ability of T. harzianum inoculum application in inhibiting the development of root-rot disease, influenced the growth of pepper seed, to studythe effective length time application of T. harzianum inoculum in inhibiting the development of root rot disease, and increased the growth of pepper seedlings. This research was arranged in a completely randomized design, with five treatments of length time application of T. harzianum inoculum i.e. control treatment without applicationtime of T. harzianum inoculum (K, application time of T. harzianum inoculum for 0 week (S0, application time of T. harzianum inoculum for 1 week (S1, application time of T. harzianum inoculum for two weeks (S2, application time of T. harzianum inoculum for three weeks (S3, and application time of T. harzianum inoculum for 4 weeks (S4 before planting. Each treatment was repeated15 times. The observed parameterswere disease percentage, the inhibition of antagonistic fungus, disease infection rate, plant height, number of leaves, wet and dry weight of plant, stem and leaves on pepper seed, and P. capsici population density. The result showed that application time of T. harzianum inoculumfor 4 weeks (S4 before planting is the most effective time in inhibiting the development of root rot disease than the other treatment sand also had significant effect on increasing the growth of pepper seed. The antagonism test showed that T. harzianum could inhibit P. capsiciin vitro. This result proves that application time of T. harzianum inoculums

  15. Chemical control trials against Phytophthora capsici (Leon on pepper cultivations in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pussemier, L.

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical control trials against Phytophthora capsici (Leon on pepper cultivations in Morocco. Pepper protection trials against collar and root rot have been undertaken under laboratory and culture conditions using Aliette (80 % of phosethylaluminium and Ridomil M 58 (10 % of metalaxyl associated to 48 % of maneb. It has been proved that, contrary to Ridomil M 58, Aliette does not protect the hostplant when the Phytophthora capsici (Leon zoospores are used as inoculum. But both fongicides are active when inoculating with a mycelian suspension. Trials undertaken under plastic glasshouses confirmed the laboratory results both with an artificial inoculation and with a natural one on contaminated soil. Only Ridomil M 58 provides satisfactory protection during the first weeks after the treatment. When disease propagation conditions are particularly favorable (permanent presence of an active inoculum source, the protection given by repeated Ridomil M 58 applications gradually disappears after a few weeks.

  16. RESEARCH ON STOLBUR OF PEPPER (CAPSICUM ANNUUM L. CULTIVATED UNDER THE CONDITIONS OF ORGANIC FARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselka Vlahova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In Bulgaria stolbur is a disease of economic significance that affects pepper, eggplant, tomatoes, and potatoes. Stolbur is referred to the transmission diseases, i.e. the agent is being transferred via vector, namely cicada Hyalesthes obsoletus in this specific case. This research aims at following the stolbur disease of pepper of the variety of Sofiiska Kapiya. The experiment took place in 2010 and in 2011 on the experimental fields of the Agroecological Centre at the Agricultural University- Plovdiv. The occurence of Hyalesthes obsoletus was determined via visual observations of flower sticky traps (yellow, blue, and white. Route investigations were carried out for the purpose of tracking the symptoms of the disease. Reinforced migration of cicadas was established during the second ten days of July. It was established that the larger number of cicadas were reported for the yellow sticky traps, which may be recommended for practical application as a successful fight against cicada and limitation of its flight.

  17. Effects of organic fertilizers on growth and development of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Augusto Luna Murillo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic fertilizers are biofertilizers for crop treatment as activators of the physiologic functions, so that its application makes better use of nutrients and represent an appropriate option to address the pro-blems of chemical fertilization. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of two organic fertilizers on the growth and development of pepper plants, which were subjected to different doses of these fertilizers in a completely randomized design with five repetitions. The work was developed in the Experimental Center “The Beach”, belonging to the Technical University of Cotopaxi, extension La Maná. The stem length, number of fruits, fruit diameter, and fresh biomass of the fruit were measured. The results showed that the pepper plants with the application of organic fertilizers stimulated the variables height of the plant, number of fruits, long of the fruit, diameter of the fruits and fresh biomass of the fruits

  18. Effects of boarding return satellite on antioxidant enzyme activities during germination of hot pepper seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shuifeng; Wang Bingliang; Guan Xueyu; Zhang Yan

    2006-01-01

    The effect of boarding return satellite on antioxidant enzyme activities during germination of hot pepper seed was studied. The results showed that the germination potentiality and germination rate of hot pepper seed after boarding return satellite were increased by 3.5% and 5.3%, respectively. During seed germination, soluble protein and MDA contents decreased, however, the SOD activities increased. SOD activity of treated seeds was higher than that of the control especially during the initial period of germination, while the content of soluble and MDA contents were much lower than those of control. The activities of SOD, G-POD, APX and CAT in 13d seedlings of treated seeds were increased by 14.29%, 25.23%, 1.84% and 21.52%, respectively. It was concluded that space flight enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities of seeds and seedlings, which were very important to prevent membrane lipid superoxide. (authors)

  19. Physicochemical and in vitro antioxidant properties of pectin extracted from hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L. var. acuminatum (Fingerh.)) residues with hydrochloric and sulfuric acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Honggao; Tai, Kedong; Wei, Tong; Yuan, Fang; Gao, Yanxiang

    2017-11-01

    Transformation of hot pepper residues to value-added products with concomitant benefits on environmental pollution would be of great value to capsicum oleoresin manufacturers. Pectin, a soluble dietary fiber with multiple functions, from hot pepper residues was investigated in this study. The extraction of hot pepper pectin using hydrochloric acid was first optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The most efficient parameters for maximum hot pepper pectin yield (14.63%, dry basis) were a pH of 1.0, a temperature of 90 °C, an extraction time of 2 h and a liquid-to-solid ratio of 20 L g -1 . The pectin was mainly composed of uronic acids, and the major neutral sugars were galactose and glucose. The structure of hot pepper pectin was characterized by homogalacturonan and rhamnogalacturonan I elements. The physicochemical properties of hot pepper pectin extracted by sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid were further investigated. The content of protein and degree of esterification in hot pepper pectin extracted with sulfuric acid solution (SP) were higher (P acid solution (HP), while the mean molecular weight of SP was lower than that of HP. Compared with HP, SP exhibited higher viscosity and better emulsifying property. Based on the yield and physicochemical properties of hot pepper pectin, hot pepper residues would be a new source to obtain pectin, and SP would be more preferred than HP. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. One-step Multiplex RT-PCR Method for Simultaneous Detection of Seed Transmissible Bacteria and Viruses in Pepper and Tomato Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyusik Jeong

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop specific and sensitive PCR-based procedures for simultaneous detection of economically important plant seed infection pathogenic bacteria and virus, Xanthomonns campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv, Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm, Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc, Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV and Tobacco mild green mosaic virus (TMGMV in pepper and tomato seeds. Most of pepper and tomato bacterial and virus diseases are responsible for germination and growth obstruction. PCR with arbitral primers: selection of specific primers, performance of PCR with specific primers and determination of the threshold level for pathogens detection. To detect simultaneously the Xcv, Cmm, Ecc, PMMoV and TMGMV in pepper and tomato seeds, five pairs (Cmm-F/R, Ecc-F/R, Xcv-F/R, PMMoV-F/R, TMGMV-F/R of specific primer were synthesized by primer-blast program. The multiplex PCR for the five pathogens in pepper and tomato seeds could detect specially without interference among primers and/or cDNA of plant seeds and other plant pathogens. The PCR result for pathogen detection using 20 commercial pepper and 10 tomato seed samples, Ecc was detected from 4 pepper and 2 tomato seed samples, PMMoV was detected from 1 pepper seed sample, and PMMoV and TMGMV were simultaneously detected from 1 pepper seed sample.

  1. The roles of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the intensity of the foot rot disease on pepper plant from the infected soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Fauziyah

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Pepper (Piper nigrum L. is an important spice plant of  Indonesia. In Bangka Belitung Province, the main pepper producer, pepper has been the most commonly cultivated commodity. However, the production has declined from time to time. One of the causes of the decline is Pepper Fot Rot, caused by Phytophthora capsici. The rapid spread and development of the disease is mainly due to utilization of diseased plant materials for pepper cuttings and infested or diseased plantation soil. The materials used in this research included the infected soil taken from the infectedpepper plantation at Bangka Island with disease intensity of pepper foot rot 60%, inoculum of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal fungi in the zeolite medium, compost, and pepper seedling from Natar variety. This research was done by planting pepper seedling on infected soil and observing plant height, disease intensity, and infection of AM fungi on the roots. The results showed that soil from diseased pepper plants harbored high population of plant pathogens inoculum and caused the death of 9 week-old cuttings and retarded growth of the survivors. Sterilization of the infected soil with hot water vapor for 3 hours still could not control the pathogen. Good growth was observed on one node cutting planted in sterile soil amended with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

  2. Overexpression of a defensin enhances resistance to a fruit-specific anthracnose fungus in pepper.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo-Hyoun Seo

    Full Text Available Functional characterization of a defensin, J1-1, was conducted to evaluate its biotechnological potentiality in transgenic pepper plants against the causal agent of anthracnose disease, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. To determine antifungal activity, J1-1 recombinant protein was generated and tested for the activity against C. gloeosporioides, resulting in 50% inhibition of fungal growth at a protein concentration of 0.1 mg·mL-1. To develop transgenic pepper plants resistant to anthracnose disease, J1-1 cDNA under the control of 35S promoter was introduced into pepper via Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation method. Southern and Northern blot analyses confirmed that a single copy of the transgene in selected transgenic plants was normally expressed and also stably transmitted to subsequent generations. The insertion of T-DNA was further analyzed in three independent homozygous lines using inverse PCR, and confirmed the integration of transgene in non-coding region of genomic DNA. Immunoblot results showed that the level of J1-1 proteins, which was not normally accumulated in unripe fruits, accumulated high in transgenic plants but appeared to differ among transgenic lines. Moreover, the expression of jasmonic acid-biosynthetic genes and pathogenesis-related genes were up-regulated in the transgenic lines, which is co-related with the resistance of J1-1 transgenic plants to anthracnose disease. Consequently, the constitutive expression of J1-1 in transgenic pepper plants provided strong resistance to the anthracnose fungus that was associated with highly reduced lesion formation and fungal colonization. These results implied the significance of the antifungal protein, J1-1, as a useful agronomic trait to control fungal disease.

  3. Radiosensitivity of California Wonder pepper variety to Co-60 gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puertas Arias, Ana Leonor; Gonzalez Nunez, Luis Manuel; Ramirez Fernandez, Ramiro

    1998-01-01

    Seeds of California wonder pepper variety were irradiated with dosages among 100-800 Gy, to intervals of 100 Gy, in a source of Co 60 gamma rays, with the objective of determining its radiosensitivity and to establish the adequate interval of dosage for the mutation breeding. A decrease of the growing indicators, productivity and plant fertility was observed with the increasing of irradiation dosages and the interval among 130-460 Gy was established as the most adequate

  4. OVERCOMING OF UNILATERAL INCOMPATIBILITY OF SWEET PEPPER CV. BELOSNEZHKA AND KARLIK BY COLD STRESS OF POLLEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Kozar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes a technique for overcoming the unilateral cross- incompatibility of of sweet pepper cultivars Belosnezhka and Karlik (Capsicum annuumL. by pre- coating the stigma of the parental plants by own frozen pollen (fertile, but lost fertilizing capacity in order to initiate the necessary changes in the tissues of the pistil that ensures germination of pollen tubes of foreign pollen , successful fertilization and hybrid seeds formation.

  5. Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling to Improve Natural Flow Rate and Sweet Pepper Productivity in Greenhouse

    OpenAIRE

    W. Limtrakarn; P. Boonmongkol; A. Chompupoung; K. Rungprateepthaworn; J. Kruenate; P. Dechaumphai

    2012-01-01

    Natural flow rate and sweet peppers productivity in tropical greenhouse are improved by CFD simulation is the main objective of this research work. Most of the greenhouse types today are in the arch shape. To develop an improved greenhouse structure for the region, the arch type was built and used as the control model. Mae Sar Mai agriculture research station under the royal project foundation was selected as the field test site. Temperature sensors with data logger were installed to monitor ...

  6. PePPER: a webserver for prediction of prokaryote promoter elements and regulons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Anne; Pietersma, Hilco; Cordes, Martijn; Kuipers, Oscar P; Kok, Jan

    2012-07-02

    Accurate prediction of DNA motifs that are targets of RNA polymerases, sigma factors and transcription factors (TFs) in prokaryotes is a difficult mission mainly due to as yet undiscovered features in DNA sequences or structures in promoter regions. Improved prediction and comparison algorithms are currently available for identifying transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) and their accompanying TFs and regulon members. We here extend the current databases of TFs, TFBSs and regulons with our knowledge on Lactococcus lactis and developed a webserver for prediction, mining and visualization of prokaryote promoter elements and regulons via a novel concept. This new approach includes an all-in-one method of data mining for TFs, TFBSs, promoters, and regulons for any bacterial genome via a user-friendly webserver. We demonstrate the power of this method by mining WalRK regulons in Lactococci and Streptococci and, vice versa, use L. lactis regulon data (CodY) to mine closely related species. The PePPER webserver offers, besides the all-in-one analysis method, a toolbox for mining for regulons, promoters and TFBSs and accommodates a new L. lactis regulon database in addition to already existing regulon data. Identification of putative regulons and full annotation of intergenic regions in any bacterial genome on the basis of existing knowledge on a related organism can now be performed by biologists and it can be done for a wide range of regulons. On the basis of the PePPER output, biologist can design experiments to further verify the existence and extent of the proposed regulons. The PePPER webserver is freely accessible at http://pepper.molgenrug.nl.

  7. Dietary Brazilian red pepper essential oil on pork meat quality and lipid oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Dias Gois

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of feeding pigs with diets containing increasing levels of Brazilian red pepper essential oil ( Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi on the physical attributes, fatty acid profile and oxidative stability of precooked meat. Seventy-two weanling pigs (5.7±0.8kg were allotted in a completely randomized block design experiment with four treatments, six replicates per treatment, and three animals per experimental unit (pen. Animals were fed with a basal diet supplemented with 0, 500, 1,000, or 1,500mg kg-1 Brazilian red pepper essential oil during the 35-d experimental period. At the end of the experiment, one animal per experimental unit (16.4±2.2kg was slaughtered to sample Longissimus dorsi muscle for analysis. Dietary supplementation of Brazilian red pepper had no effect (P>0.05 on pork meat color, pH, cooking loss and shear force. Inclusion of essential oil in the diet provided a linear increase (P<0.05 of the saturated fatty acids content of L. dorsi, especially myristic (C14:0 and stearic (C18:0 fatty acids. Utilization of essential oil in pig diets reduced significantly the production of secondary lipid oxidation compounds measured as TBARS in raw pork meat (P<0.001 and immediately after cooking (P<0.001. However, during 8-d storage assay, the addition of essential oil in the diet did not protect pork meat lipids from oxidation. Therefore, Brazilian red pepper added to pig diets increased the saturated fatty acids content and reduced lipid oxidation in fresh meat and short-term heat treatment without affecting pork meat physical attributes.

  8. Seed yield and quality of pepper plants grown under salt stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of salinity on seed yield and quality of pepper plants were evaluated. Plants were grown in five salt levels (electrical conductivity, EC): 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 4.0 to 6.0 dSm-1 in glasshouse. Seed yield was assessed by seed weight/fruit, seed weight/plant and individual seed weight. Seed quality was measured by ...

  9. Response of four greenhouse pepper hybrids to NaCl salinity

    OpenAIRE

    Argyropoulou, Konstantina Efstathiou

    2011-01-01

    The decline in availability of fresh water in the region of Ierapetra, Crete, Greece has resulted in the increased use of saline water for irrigation of greenhouse crops. The aim of this work is to study the responses of four greenhouse pepper hybrids, that are widely used in this region ( Capsicum annuum L., Drago, Sammy, Kappy and Gracia ), to NaCl salinity during in hydroponic culture ( perlite ) and culture in soil of young plants and during in vitro germination and seedlin...

  10. Le syndrome de Pepper: à propos de deux cas observés au Centre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le syndrome de Pepper est une forme métastatique hépatique du neuroblastome. C'est une entité spécifique du nourrisson de moins de six mois qui a la particularité de pouvoir régresser de façon spontanée avec un pronostic favorable dans 80% des cas. A cause de sa rareté, nous rapportons deux cas du syndrome de ...

  11. Seed yield and quality of pepper plants grown under salt stress

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    İbrahim Demir

    2013-12-04

    Dec 4, 2013 ... The effect of salinity on seed yield and quality of pepper plants were evaluated. Plants were grown in five salt levels (electrical conductivity, EC): 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 4.0 to 6.0 dSm-1 in glasshouse. Seed yield was assessed by seed weight/fruit, seed weight/plant and individual seed weight. Seed quality was.

  12. Effects of moisture content on some physical properties of red pepper

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-14

    Jun 14, 2010 ... (2003) for hemp, Singh and. Goswami (1996) for cumin and Ixtaina et al. (2008) for chia. Projected area of seed. The projected area of red pepper seed (Figure 2) increased from 8.40 to 9.09 mm2, while the moisture content of seed increased from 7.27 to 20.69% d.b. The variation in projected area Ap in ...

  13. Innovations in microspore embryogenesis in Indonesian hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and Brassica napus L.

    OpenAIRE

    Supena, E.D.J.

    2004-01-01

    Hot pepper (Capsicum annuumL.) is the most important vegetable inIndonesia, but the yield is low, and the breeding programs are confined to the conventional methods and not efficient. To improve the efficiency of the breeding programs by speeding up the production of homozygous lines, studies were aimed at the introduction of haploid technology, which includes the regeneration and the production of doubled haploid plants from gametes. This technique is well developed in the model speciesBrass...

  14. Expert System With Certainty Factor For Early Diagnosis Of Red Chili Peppers Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahrul Agus

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Red chili peppers (Capsicum annuum L. plants classified as fruit and vegetables spices (herbs, that almost all people consume it for everyday purposes. Not only used for household consumption, but also used in various industries as a raw material. Utilization as raw materials in various industry makes red chili as vegetable crops of high economic value and has a great prospect. But its diseases are complex enough for causing farmers hard to diagnose and resulted in reduced production levels. One solution to this problem is the establishment of an expert system that can help farmers to diagnose major diseases of red pepper plant in a practical and accurate. The purpose of this research is to make the application of expert systems for diagnosing diseases of red chili. This application uses forward chaining to diagnose disease and calculate the value of possibilities with Certainty Factor. This method is to prove whether a fact that certainly would not have been shaped or metrics that are typically used in an expert system. This method is suitable for expert systems to diagnose something uncertain. Certainty Factor expressed confidence in an event or factual hypothesis based on evidence or expert judgment. The results of research is in the form of an expert system application that can diagnose diseases of red pepper plants with enough accuracy and can help in overcoming the problem of crop failure. Based on the data taken from tests performed in this study, the system can diagnose red chili plant disease with high accuracy.

  15. Prototype Design of Smart System as A Vines Medium of Javanese Long Pepper (Piper Retrofractum Vahl)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramudia, M.; Umami, K. K.

    2018-01-01

    Javanese long pepper is one of the Indonesia’s native medicinal plants which is included in the family Piperaceae. This plant has a characteristic thrives on plains which high rainfall between 1,200 - 3,000 mm per year and the level of soil moisture ranges from 80-100%. In the area of Bluto, Madura, these plants are generally grown on farmland by using a moringa tree as a vines medium. However, in line with technological developments, the vines media plants of Javanese long pepper begin to be replaced by technology that utilizes a concrete cylindrical as the vines media. In this research, the vines media are made from hollow concrete cylindrical with a height of 180 cm which is controlled automatically by the device of Arduino Uno as a microcontroller and its connected with ultrasonic sensors, light dependent resistor sensors, soil moisture sensors, and solar cell as an alternative energy source which called smart system. It has several main functions such as medium vines of Javanese long pepper plants, keep the moisture of plants, store the water as well as being able to do the watering automatically. This prototype design is expected to be an alternative solution to improve the quality of plant growth, especially in the dry season.

  16. Developmentally regulated sesquiterpene production confers resistance to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in ripe pepper fruits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangkyu Park

    Full Text Available Sesquiterpenoid capsidiol, exhibiting antifungal activity against pathogenic fungus, is accumulated in infected ripe pepper fruits. In this study, we found a negative relation between the capsidiol level and lesion size in fruits infected with Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, depending on the stage of ripening. To understand the developmental regulation of capsidiol biosynthesis, fungal-induced gene expressions in the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathways were examined in unripe and ripe pepper fruits. The sterol biosynthetic pathway was almost shut down in healthy ripe fruits, showing very low expression of hydroxymethyl glutaryl CoA reductase (HMGR and squalene synthase (SS genes. In contrast, genes in the carotenoid pathway were highly expressed in ripe fruits. In the sesquiterpene pathway, 5-epi-aristolochene synthase (EAS, belonging to a sesquiterpene cyclase (STC family, was significantly induced in the ripe fruits upon fungal infection. Immunoblot and enzyme activity analyses showed that the STCs were induced both in the infected unripe and ripe fruits, while capsidiol was synthesized discriminatively in the ripe fruits, implying diverse enzymatic specificity of multiple STCs. Thereby, to divert sterol biosynthesis into sesquiterpene production, infected fruits were pretreated with an SS inhibitor, zaragozic acid (ZA, resulting in increased levels of capsidiol by more than 2-fold in the ripe fruits, with concurrent reduction of phytosterols. Taken together, the present results suggest that the enhanced expression and activity of EAS in the ripe fruits play an important role in capsidiol production, contributing to the incompatibility between the anthracnose fungus and the ripe pepper fruits.

  17. Biochar potential in intensive cultivation of Capsicum annuum L. (sweet pepper): crop yield and plant protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Abhay; Elad, Yigal; Tsechansky, Ludmila; Abrol, Vikas; Lew, Beni; Offenbach, Rivka; Graber, Ellen R

    2018-01-01

    The influence of various biochars on crop yield and disease resistance of Capsicum annuum L. (sweet pepper) under modern, high input, intensive net house cultivation was tested over the course of 2011-2014 in the Arava desert region of Israel. A pot experiment with Lactuca sativa L. (lettuce) grown in the absence of fertilizer employed the 3-year-old field trial soils to determine if biochar treatments contributed to soil intrinsic fertility. Biochar amendments resulted in a significant increase in the number and weight of pepper fruits over 3 years. Concomitant with the increased yield, biochar significantly decreased the severity of powdery mildew (Leveillula taurica) disease and broad mite (Polyphagotarsonemus latus) pest infestation. Biochar additions resulted in increased soil organic matter but did not influence the pH, electrical conductivity or soil or plant mineral nutrients. Intrinsic fertility experiments with lettuce showed that two of the four biochar-treated field soils had significant positive impacts on lettuce fresh weight and total chlorophyll, carotenoid and anthocyanin contents. Biochar-based soil management can enhance the functioning of intensive, commercial, net house production of peppers under the tested conditions, resulting in increased crop yield and plant resistance to disease over several years. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Enterobacter cloacae, an Emerging Plant-Pathogenic Bacterium Affecting Chili Pepper Seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-González, Tanahiri; Sáenz-Hidalgo, Hilda Karina; Silva-Rojas, Hilda Victoria; Morales-Nieto, Carlos; Vancheva, Taca; Koebnik, Ralf; Ávila-Quezada, Graciela Dolores

    2018-01-01

    A previously unreported bacterial disease on chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seedlings affecting as many as 4% of seedlings was observed in greenhouses in Chihuahua, Mexico (Delicias and Meoqui counties). Initial lesions appeared as irregular small spots on leaves and brown necrosis at margins tips were observed. Later, the spots became necrotic with a chlorotic halo. Advanced disease was associated with defoliation. A Gram negative, rod-shaped bacterium was isolated from diseased chili pepper seedlings. Three inoculation methods revealed that isolated strains produce foliage symptoms, similar to those observed in naturally infected seedlings. Pathogenic strains that caused symptoms in inoculated seedlings were re-isolated and identified to fulfill koch’s postulate. Polyphasic approaches for identification including biochemical assays (API 20E and 50CH), carbon source utilization profiling (Biolog) and 16S rDNA, hsp60 and rpoB sequence analysis were done. Enterobacter cloacae was identified as the causal agent of this outbreak on chili pepper seedlings. PMID:29422783

  19. Aflatoxin contaminated chili pepper detection by hyperspectral imaging and machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atas, Musa; Yardimci, Yasemin; Temizel, Alptekin

    2011-06-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by fungi. They have been demonstrated to cause various health problems in humans, including immunosuppression and cancer. A class of mycotoxins, aflatoxins, has been studied extensively because they have caused many deaths particularly in developing countries. Chili pepper is also prone to aflatoxin contamination during harvesting, production and storage periods. Chemical methods to detect aflatoxins are quite accurate but expensive and destructive in nature. Hyperspectral and multispectral imaging are becoming increasingly important for rapid and nondestructive testing for the presence of such contaminants. We propose a compact machine vision system based on hyperspectral imaging and machine learning for detection of aflatoxin contaminated chili peppers. We used the difference images of consecutive spectral bands along with individual band energies to classify chili peppers into aflatoxin contaminated and uncontaminated classes. Both UV and halogen illumination sources were used in the experiments. The significant bands that provide better discrimination were selected based on their neural network connection weights. Higher classification rates were achieved with fewer numbers of spectral bands. This selection scheme was compared with an information-theoretic approach and it demonstrated robust performance with higher classification accuracy.

  20. Elicitor Mixtures Significantly Increase Bioactive Compounds, Antioxidant Activity, and Quality Parameters in Sweet Bell Pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Garcia-Mier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweet bell peppers are greatly appreciated for their taste, color, pungency, and aroma. Additionally, they are good sources of bioactive compounds with antioxidant activity, which can be improved by the use of elicitors. Elicitors act as metabolite-inducing factors (MIF by mimic stress conditions. Since plants rarely experience a single stress condition one by one but are more likely to be exposed to simultaneous stresses, it is important to evaluate the effect of elicitors on plant secondary metabolism as mixtures. Jasmonic acid (JA, hydrogen peroxide (HP, and chitosan (CH were applied to fruits and plants of bell pepper as mixtures. Bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity, and quality parameters were evaluated. The assessed elicitor cocktail leads to an increase in the variables evaluated (P ≤ 0.05 when applied to mature fruits after harvest, whereas the lowest values were observed in the treatment applied to immature fruits. Therefore, the application of the elicitor cocktail to harvested mature fruits is recommended in order to improve bioactive compounds and the antioxidant activity of sweet bell peppers.

  1. Dynamic plant uptake model applied for drip irrigation of an insecticide to pepper fruit plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legind, Charlotte N; Kennedy, Coleen M; Rein, Arno; Snyder, Nathan; Trapp, Stefan

    2011-05-01

    Drip application of insecticides is an effective way to deliver the chemical to the plant that avoids off-site movement via spray drift and minimizes applicator exposure. The aim of this paper is to present a cascade model for the uptake of pesticide into plants following drip irrigation, its application for a soil-applied insecticide and a sensitivity analysis of the model parameters. The model predicted the measured increase and decline of residues following two soil applications of an insecticide to peppers, with an absolute error between model and measurement ranging from 0.002 to 0.034 mg kg fw(-1). Maximum measured concentrations in pepper fruit were approximately 0.22 mg kg fw(-1). Temperature was the most sensitive component for predicting the peak and final concentration in pepper fruit, through its influence on soil and plant degradation rates. Repeated simulations of pulse inputs with the cascade model adequately describe soil pesticide applications to an actual cropped system and reasonably mimic it. The model has the potential to be used for the optimization of practical features, such as application rates and waiting times between applications and before harvest, through the integrated accounting of soil, plant and environmental influences. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Effect of polyethylene coated calcium carbide on physiology, photosynthesis, growth and yield of sweet pepper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, W.; Yaseen, M.; Arshad, M.; Shahid, M.

    2014-01-01

    Polyethylene coated calcium carbide (PCC) is a potent and continuous slowly releasing source of acetylene and ethylene. It potentially improves plant growth by affecting physiology of plant. A pot study was conducted to investigate comparative effects of different rates of PCC on growth and yield attributes of sweet pepper. PCC performed better when applied with soil applied fertilizers. Results revealed that hormonal properties of calcium carbide significantly influenced physiological nutrient use efficiency and vegetative growth by affecting photosynthetic and physiological parameters of sweet pepper. Application of 20 mg PCC kg/sup -1/ soil with soil applied recommended dose of NPK fertilizers significantly improved the net photosynthetic rate by 32%, stomatal conductance by 11%, transpiration rate by 14%, carboxylation efficiency by 47%, physiological water use efficiency by 13%, physiological nitrogen use efficiency by 29% over the control treatment. This improvement in physiological attributes resulted in increase in leaf area by 20%, leaf area index by 78%, total plant dry weight by 35%, flower and fruits by 29% and fruit yield by 24% compared to the treatment of alone recommended dose of NPK fertilizers. Present study suggests that application of PCC particularly at the rate of 20mg PCC kg/sup -1/ soil plus recommended dose of NPK fertilizers improved about 25% sweet pepper production compared to its production in the alone recommended fertilizer treatment. (author)

  3. Biochemical and Molecular Analysis of Some Commercial Samples of Chilli Peppers from Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troconis-Torres, Ivonne Guadalupe; Rojas-López, Marlon; Hernández-Rodríguez, César; Villa-Tanaca, Lourdes; Maldonado-Mendoza, Ignacio Eduardo; Dorantes-Álvarez, Lidia; Tellez-Medina, Darío; Jaramillo-Flores, María Eugenia

    2012-01-01

    The genus Capsicum provides antioxidant compounds, such as phenolics and carotenoids, into the diet. In Mexico, there is a wide diversity of species and varieties of chilli peppers, a fruit which has local cultural and gastronomic importance. In the present study, the relationship of the carotenoid and phenolic profiles with the RAPD fingerprint of three different commercial cultivars of chilli peppers of seven regions of Mexico was investigated. Through RAPD, the species of chilli were differentiated by means of different primers (OPE-18, MFG-17, MFG-18, C51, and C52). The genetic distance found with OPE 18 was in the order of 2.6. The observed differences were maintained when the chromatographic profile of carotenoids, and the molecular markers were analyzed, which suggest a close relationship between carotenoids and the genetic profile. While the chromatographic profile of phenols and the molecular markers were unable to differentiate between genotypes of chilli peppers. In addition, by using infrared spectroscopy and statistical PCA, differences explained by geographic origin were found. Thus, this method could be an alternative for identification of chilli species with respect to their geographic origin. PMID:22665993

  4. Use of Fertigation and Municipal Solid Waste Compost for Greenhouse Pepper Cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzortzakis, Nikos; Gouma, Sofia; Dagianta, Eleni; Saridakis, Christos; Papamichalaki, Maria; Goumas, Dimitrios; Manios, Thrassyvoulos

    2012-01-01

    Municipal solid waste compost (MSWC) and/or fertigation used in greenhouse pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) cultivation with five different substrates with soil (S) and/or MSWC mixtures (0–5–10–20–40%) used with or without fertigation. Plants growth increased in 10–20% MSWC and fertigation enhanced mainly the plant height. Fruit number increased in S : MSWC 80 : 20 without fertilizer. Plant biomass increased as MSWC content increased. There were no differences regarding leaf fluoresces and plant yield. The addition of MSWC increased nutritive value (N, K, P, organic matter) of the substrate resulting in increased EC. Fruit fresh weight decreased (up to 31%) as plants grown in higher MSWC content. Fruit size fluctuated when different MSWC content used into the soil and the effects were mainly in fruit diameter rather than in fruit length. Interestingly, the scale of marketable fruits reduced as MSWC content increased into the substrate but addition of fertilizer reversed this trend and maintained the fruit marketability. MSWC affected quality parameters and reduced fruit acidity, total phenols but increased fruit lightness. No differences observed in fruit dry matter content, fruit firmness, green colour, total soluble sugars and EC of peppers and bacteria (total coliform and E. coli) units. Low content of MSWC improved plant growth and maintained fruit fresh weight for greenhouse pepper without affecting plant yield, while fertigation acted beneficially. PMID:22645489

  5. Use of Fertigation and Municipal Solid Waste Compost for Greenhouse Pepper Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos Tzortzakis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Municipal solid waste compost (MSWC and/or fertigation used in greenhouse pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cultivation with five different substrates with soil (S and/or MSWC mixtures (0–5–10–20–40% used with or without fertigation. Plants growth increased in 10–20% MSWC and fertigation enhanced mainly the plant height. Fruit number increased in S : MSWC 80 : 20 without fertilizer. Plant biomass increased as MSWC content increased. There were no differences regarding leaf fluoresces and plant yield. The addition of MSWC increased nutritive value (N, K, P, organic matter of the substrate resulting in increased EC. Fruit fresh weight decreased (up to 31% as plants grown in higher MSWC content. Fruit size fluctuated when different MSWC content used into the soil and the effects were mainly in fruit diameter rather than in fruit length. Interestingly, the scale of marketable fruits reduced as MSWC content increased into the substrate but addition of fertilizer reversed this trend and maintained the fruit marketability. MSWC affected quality parameters and reduced fruit acidity, total phenols but increased fruit lightness. No differences observed in fruit dry matter content, fruit firmness, green colour, total soluble sugars and EC of peppers and bacteria (total coliform and E. coli units. Low content of MSWC improved plant growth and maintained fruit fresh weight for greenhouse pepper without affecting plant yield, while fertigation acted beneficially.

  6. Effect of compost on antioxidant components and fruit quality of sweet pepper (capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad AMINIFARD

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the effect of compost (CO on antioxidant compounds and fruit quality of sweet pepper (Capsicum annum L., an experiment was conducted in open field. Treatments consisted of four levels of compost (0, 5, 10 and 15 ton ha-1.The experiment was designed in randomized block design with three replications. Compost treatments positively affected fruit antioxidant compounds of pepper (antioxidant activity, total phenolic and carbohydrate content.But, no significant difference was found in total flavonoid content between compost and control treatments. The highest antioxidant activity and carbohydrate content were obtained in plants treated with10 ton ha-1 of compost. Fruit quality factors (pH, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid and fruit firmness were influenced by compost treatments. Total soluble solids, and fruit firmness significantly increased in response to compost treatments and the highest values were obtained from the most level of compost treatment (15 t ha-1. Thus, these results showed that compost has strong impact on fruit quality and antioxidant compounds of pepper plants under field conditions.

  7. Effects of capsaicin-containing red pepper sauce suspension on esophageal secondary peristalsis in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C L; Liu, T T; Yi, C H; Orr, W C

    2010-11-01

    Capsaicin-sensitive afferents have been implicated in the modulation of gastrointestinal sensorimotor functions. Secondary peristalsis is important for the clearance of retained refluxate or material from the esophagus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of capsaicin-containing red pepper sauce suspension on esophageal secondary peristalsis in healthy adults. After a baseline recording of esophageal motility, secondary peristalsis was generated by slow and rapid mid-esophageal injections of air in 10 healthy subjects. Two separate sessions with saline and capsaicin-containing red pepper sauce were randomly performed to test their effects on esophageal secondary peristalsis. Infusion of capsaicin significantly increased pressure wave amplitude during rapid (P = 0.002) and slow air infusions (P = 0.01). After capsaicin, the threshold volume to generate secondary peristalsis was significantly decreased during rapid (P peristalsis during rapid or slow air infusion. The administration of capsaicin was accompanied by the occurrence of heartburn in all subjects. The acute administration of capsaicin-containing red pepper sauce suspension enhances sensitivity to distension-induced secondary peristalsis and facilitates secondary peristaltic contractility. These data suggest the involvement of capsaicin-sensitive afferents in the modulation of esophageal distension-induced secondary peristalsis in humans. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Enterobacter cloacae, an Emerging Plant-Pathogenic Bacterium Affecting Chili Pepper Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanahiri García-González

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A previously unreported bacterial disease on chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L. seedlings affecting as many as 4% of seedlings was observed in greenhouses in Chihuahua, Mexico (Delicias and Meoqui counties. Initial lesions appeared as irregular small spots on leaves and brown necrosis at margins tips were observed. Later, the spots became necrotic with a chlorotic halo. Advanced disease was associated with defoliation. A Gram negative, rod-shaped bacterium was isolated from diseased chili pepper seedlings. Three inoculation methods revealed that isolated strains produce foliage symptoms, similar to those observed in naturally infected seedlings. Pathogenic strains that caused symptoms in inoculated seedlings were re-isolated and identified to fulfill koch’s postulate. Polyphasic approaches for identification including biochemical assays (API 20E and 50CH, carbon source utilization profiling (Biolog and 16S rDNA, hsp60 and rpoB sequence analysis were done. Enterobacter cloacae was identified as the causal agent of this outbreak on chili pepper seedlings.

  9. Biochemical and Molecular Analysis of Some Commercial Samples of Chilli Peppers from Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivonne Guadalupe Troconis-Torres

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Capsicum provides antioxidant compounds, such as phenolics and carotenoids, into the diet. In Mexico, there is a wide diversity of species and varieties of chilli peppers, a fruit which has local cultural and gastronomic importance. In the present study, the relationship of the carotenoid and phenolic profiles with the RAPD fingerprint of three different commercial cultivars of chilli peppers of seven regions of Mexico was investigated. Through RAPD, the species of chilli were differentiated by means of different primers (OPE-18, MFG-17, MFG-18, C51, and C52. The genetic distance found with OPE 18 was in the order of 2.6. The observed differences were maintained when the chromatographic profile of carotenoids, and the molecular markers were analyzed, which suggest a close relationship between carotenoids and the genetic profile. While the chromatographic profile of phenols and the molecular markers were unable to differentiate between genotypes of chilli peppers. In addition, by using infrared spectroscopy and statistical PCA, differences explained by geographic origin were found. Thus, this method could be an alternative for identification of chilli species with respect to their geographic origin.

  10. Detection and Host Range Study of Virus Associated with Pepper Yellow Leaf Curl Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRI SULANDARI

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available High incidence of Pepper yellow leaf curl virus (PepYLCV was observed in Indonesia since early 2000. Disease incidence in Yogyakarta, Central and West Java reached 100% on Capsicum frutescens, but only 10-35% on C. annuum. As an exception, the disease incidence on C. annuum cv. TM 999 was in the range of 70-100%. The causal agent of the disease, PepYLCV, was detected by polymerase chain reaction. Viral specific DNA fragment of the size ~1600 bp and ~550 bp was amplified from infected plants using two pairs of geminivirus universal primers pAL1v1978/pAL1c715, and pAv494/pAc1048, respectively. The PepYLCV has an intermediate host range including plants belonging to the family of Solanaceae, Leguminosae, and Compositae. The species belonging to the families of Cucurbitaceae, Malvaceae, Chenopodiaceae, and Amaranthaceae were resistant to the virus. Physalis floridana, is very prospective as a propagation host for the geminivirus infecting pepper. Nicotiana spp., cucumber, watermelon, cotton, and Sida sp. could be used as a differential host. Besides, Capsicum frutescens cv. Cakra, tomato, N. benthamiana, N. glutinosa, and Ageratum conyzoides could be used as indicator plants for the geminivirus infecting pepper.

  11. Performance Testing of Thermal Cutting Systems for Sweet Pepper Harvesting Robot in Greenhouse Horticulture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachche, Shivaji; Oka, Koichi

    2013-03-01

    This paper proposes design of end-effector and prototype of thermal cutting system for harvesting sweet peppers. The design consists of two parallel gripper bars mounted on a frame connected by specially designed notch plate and operated by servo motor. Based on voltage and current, two different types of thermal cutting system prototypes; electric arc and temperature arc respectively were developed and tested for performance. In electric arc, a special electric device was developed to obtain high voltage to perform cutting operation. At higher voltage, electrodes generate thermal arc which helps to cut stem of sweet pepper. In temperature arc, nichrome wire was mounted between two electrodes and current was provided directly to electrodes which results in generation of high temperature arc between two electrodes that help to perform cutting operation. In both prototypes, diameters of basic elements were varied and the effect of this variation on cutting operation was investigated. The temperature arc thermal system was found significantly suitable for cutting operation than electric arc thermal system. In temperature arc thermal cutting system, 0.5 mm nichrome wire shows significant results by accomplishing harvesting operation in 1.5 seconds. Also, thermal cutting system found suitable to increase shelf life of fruits by avoiding virus and fungal transformation during cutting process and sealing the fruit stem. The harvested sweet peppers by thermal cutting system can be preserved at normal room temperature for more than 15 days without any contamination.

  12. Evaluation of paclobutrazol application method on quality characteristics of ornamental pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane de Fátima Martins França

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of three paclobutrazol (PBZ application methods on ornamental characteristics of two pepper cultivars (‘Biquinho Vermelha’ and ‘Bode Amarela’ were evaluated. Plant growth regulator at 10 μM PBZ was added at transplanting by drenching 250 mL PBZ solution on the pot substrate, foliar spray of 10 mL PBZ solution or by submerging seedlings root + substrate for 10 seconds in the PBZ solution. Control plants were treated with tap water applied directly on the substrate. Plant height, canopy compactness, fruits and leaves number, and leaf chlorophyll content were evaluated when 50% of the plants had approximately 30% of mature fruits (commercial maturity. PBZ applied by drenching influenced positively the ornamental characteristics of ‘Bode Amarela’. Otherwise, the best PBZ application method for ‘Biquinho Vermelha’ was not established. The results suggest that search for suitable PBZ application method that no affects the pepper ornamental characteristics must be done specifically for each pepper cultivar.

  13. Isolation and Characterization of Pepper Genes Interacting with the CMV-P1 Helicase Domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoomi Choi

    Full Text Available Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV is a destructive pathogen affecting Capsicum annuum (pepper production. The pepper Cmr1 gene confers resistance to most CMV strains, but is overcome by CMV-P1 in a process dependent on the CMV-P1 RNA1 helicase domain (P1 helicase. Here, to identify host factors involved in CMV-P1 infection in pepper, a yeast two-hybrid library derived from a C. annuum 'Bukang' cDNA library was screened, producing a total of 76 potential clones interacting with the P1 helicase. Beta-galactosidase filter lift assay, PCR screening, and sequencing analysis narrowed the candidates to 10 genes putatively involved in virus infection. The candidate host genes were silenced in Nicotiana benthamiana plants that were then inoculated with CMV-P1 tagged with the green fluorescent protein (GFP. Plants silenced for seven of the genes showed development comparable to N. benthamiana wild type, whereas plants silenced for the other three genes showed developmental defects including stunting and severe distortion. Silencing formate dehydrogenase and calreticulin-3 precursor led to reduced virus accumulation. Formate dehydrogenase-silenced plants showed local infection in inoculated leaves, but not in upper (systemic leaves. In the calreticulin-3 precursor-silenced plants, infection was not observed in either the inoculated or the upper leaves. Our results demonstrate that formate dehydrogenase and calreticulin-3 precursor are required for CMV-P1 infection.

  14. Effectiveness of biological control of Phytophthora capsici in pepper by Trichoderma asperellum strain T34

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillem SEGARRA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Pepper (Capsicum annuum L., one of the most widely grown vegetables worldwide, is susceptible to root rot caused by Phytophthora capsici. Many biocides have recently been banned in Europe because of human health and environmental concerns. Integrated pest management is a European priority, where biological control together with other agronomic practices should replace pesticide management of plant diseases in the future. Application of different concentrations of the fungus Trichoderma asperellum strain T34 (the in T34 Biocontrol® on incidence of disease caused by P. capsici in pepper was studied. Different methods of application of the microbial control agent and inoculation of the pathogen were examined. T34 and etridiazole (Terrazole® were compared for their ability to suppress P. capsici. T34 reduced disease in most of the assayed situations (up to 71% disease reduction, while etridiazole was effective only when applied at the same time as the pathogen. The results obtained are discussed on the basis of the different modes of action of T34 and etridiazole. T34 is a useful biological alternative to chemicals for the control of P. capsici in pepper.

  15. Enhancing Salt-and-Pepper Noise Removal in Binary Images of Engineering Drawing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khaffaf, Hasan S. M.; Talib, Abdullah Z.; Salam, Rosalina Abdul

    Noise removal in engineering drawing is an important operation performed before other image analysis tasks. Many algorithms have been developed to remove salt-and-pepper noise from document images. Cleaning algorithms should remove noise while keeping the real part of the image unchanged. Some algorithms have disadvantages in cleaning operation that leads to removing of weak features such as short thin lines. Others leave the image with hairy noise attached to image objects. In this article a noise removal procedure called TrackAndMayDel (TAMD) is developed to enhance the noise removal of salt-and-pepper noise in binary images of engineering drawings. The procedure could be integrated with third party algorithms' logic to enhance their ability to remove noise by investigating the structure of pixels that are part of weak features. It can be integrated with other algorithms as a post-processing step to remove noise remaining in the image such as hairy noise attached with graphical elements. An algorithm is proposed by incorporating TAMD in a third party algorithm. Real scanned images from GREC'03 contest are used in the experiment. The images are corrupted by salt-and-pepper noise at 10%, 15%, and 20% levels. An objective performance measure that correlates with human vision as well as MSE and PSNR are used in this experiment. Performance evaluation of the introduced algorithm shows better-quality images compared to other algorithms.

  16. Bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity in scalded Jalapeño pepper industrial byproduct (Capsicum annuum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval-Castro, Claudia Jaqueline; Valdez-Morales, Maribel; Oomah, B Dave; Gutiérrez-Dorado, Roberto; Medina-Godoy, Sergio; Espinosa-Alonso, L Gabriela

    2017-06-01

    Bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity were evaluated from industrial Jalapeño pepper byproducts and simulated non processed byproducts from two Mexican states (Chihuahua and Sinaloa) to determine their value added potential as commercial food ingredients. Aqueous 80% ethanol produced about 13% of dry extract of polar compounds. Total phenolic content increased and capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin decreased on scalding samples (80 °C, 2 min) without affecting ascorbic acid. The major phenolic compounds, rutin, epicatechin and catechin comprised 90% of the total compounds detected by HPLC of each Jalapeño pepper byproducts. ORAC analysis showed that the origin and scalding process affected the antioxidant activity which correlated strongly with capsaicin content. Although scalding decreased capsaicinoids (up to 42%), phenolic content by (up to 16%), and the antioxidant activity (variable). Jalapeño pepper byproduct is a good source of compounds with antioxidant activity, and still an attractive ingredient to develop useful innovative products with potential food/non-food applications simultaneously reducing food loss and waste.

  17. Effects of different irrigation methods on pepper yield and soilborne diseases incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seral YÜCEL

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of different irrigation strategies and irrigation methods on yields and the incidence of wilt (Fusarium oxysporum and root rot (Fusarium solani and Macrophomina phaseolina diseases causing significant yield losses on field grown processing red pepper is determined. Experiments were carried out at Topçu Station of the Soil and Water Resources Research Institute of Tarsus in 2010 and 2011. Karaisalı processing pepper (Capsicum annuum L. was used in the experiments. Three furrows and five drip irrigation treatments were used in the study. The disease incidence rates were found 8.0-18.2% in furrow irrigation plots and 4.5-10.0% in drip irrigation plots in 2010, while it was 3.4-9.7% in furrow irrigation plots and 2.2-4.5% in drip irrigation plots in 2011. Pepper yields ranged from 3 416 to 4 417 kg da-1 and 3 376 to 4 779 kg da-1 in drip irrigated plots in 2010 and 2011, respectively. However, yields varied between 3 172-3 559 kg da-1 and 2 932-4 150 kg da-1 in furrow irrigated plots in 2010 and 2011 growing seasons.

  18. Use of fertigation and municipal solid waste compost for greenhouse pepper cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzortzakis, Nikos; Gouma, Sofia; Dagianta, Eleni; Saridakis, Christos; Papamichalaki, Maria; Goumas, Dimitrios; Manios, Thrassyvoulos

    2012-01-01

    Municipal solid waste compost (MSWC) and/or fertigation used in greenhouse pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) cultivation with five different substrates with soil (S) and/or MSWC mixtures (0-5-10-20-40%) used with or without fertigation. Plants growth increased in 10-20% MSWC and fertigation enhanced mainly the plant height. Fruit number increased in S : MSWC 80 : 20 without fertilizer. Plant biomass increased as MSWC content increased. There were no differences regarding leaf fluoresces and plant yield. The addition of MSWC increased nutritive value (N, K, P, organic matter) of the substrate resulting in increased EC. Fruit fresh weight decreased (up to 31%) as plants grown in higher MSWC content. Fruit size fluctuated when different MSWC content used into the soil and the effects were mainly in fruit diameter rather than in fruit length. Interestingly, the scale of marketable fruits reduced as MSWC content increased into the substrate but addition of fertilizer reversed this trend and maintained the fruit marketability. MSWC affected quality parameters and reduced fruit acidity, total phenols but increased fruit lightness. No differences observed in fruit dry matter content, fruit firmness, green colour, total soluble sugars and EC of peppers and bacteria (total coliform and E. coli) units. Low content of MSWC improved plant growth and maintained fruit fresh weight for greenhouse pepper without affecting plant yield, while fertigation acted beneficially.

  19. Increasing solubility of red bell pepper carotenoids by complexation with 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima Petito, Nicolly; da Silva Dias, Daiana; Costa, Valéria Gonçalves; Falcão, Deborah Quintanilha; de Lima Araujo, Kátia Gome

    2016-10-01

    Red bell pepper carotenoids were complexed with 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (2-HPβCD) in different mass ratios (1:4, 1:6, 1:8 and 1:10) through ultrasonic homogenization in order to increase carotenoid solubility and their use as natural pigment in food. Inclusion complexes, red bell pepper extract and physical mixtures were analyzed by DSC, FT-IR, (1)H NMR and DLS. Solubility assay was performed to identify the effect of complexation on the solubility of carotenoids. From characterization assays, results showed that inclusion process occurred for all tested ratios. Results for water solubility assays demonstrated clear differences between solubility index of inclusion complexes (8.06±2.59-16.55±4.40mg/mL) and physical mixtures (3.53±1.44-7.3±1.88mg/mL), while carotenoid extract was no water soluble, as expected. These results indicated that molecular inclusion of carotenoids in 2-HPβCD was efficient to enhance their solubility in water, enabling application of red bell pepper carotenoid as natural pigment and/or bioactive substances in food. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of three rootstocks on yield and commercial quality of "Italian Sweet" pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Doñas-Uclés

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pepper crops (Capsicum annuum L. represent a very important production sector in the Southeast of Spain. Specifically, in the province of Almería, approximately 7000 hectares are grown every year. Due to the economic importance that this crop has for the region and the withdrawal of soil fumigants from the market, agronomic techniques have been adopted with the aim of controlling some soil pathogens and increasing the yield and quality parameters of the fruits obtained. The use of grafted pepper plants is not, as yet, very well established in this region, due mainly to the lack of commercial rootstocks that satisfy the producers of this vegetable. In this experiment three pepper rootstocks were assessed. An experiment was designed with four treatments and three replications of each one (12 experimental plots, which were distributed in randomised blocks. Three of the treatments corresponded to grafted plants of the "Palermo" cultivar onto: "Oscos", "AR40" and "Tresor", using non-grafted "Palermo" cultivar as the control test. The average yield expressed in kg/plant, showed significant differences between grafted and non-grafted plants. The highest fruit weight was obtained in Palermo onto Tresor. The presence of Blossom end rot (BER in the assessed fruits also showed significant differences between the different treatments, with the fruits from plants grafted onto Tresor showing a higher proportion of BER and the fruits coming from plants grafted onto AR40 showing the lowest proportion.

  1. Making Blackness, Making Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Geller, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Too often the acknowledgment that race is a social construction ignores exactly how this construction occurs. By illuminating the way in which the category of blackness and black individuals are made, we can better see how race matters in America. Antidiscrimination policy, social science research, and the state's support of its citizens can all be improved by an accurate and concrete definition of blackness. Making Blackness, Making Policy argues that blackness and black people are literally...

  2. Black hole critical phenomena without black holes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Black holes; numerical relativity; nonlinear sigma. Abstract. Studying the threshold of black hole formation via numerical evolution has led to the discovery of fascinating nonlinear phenomena. ... Theoretical and Computational Studies Group, Southampton College, Long Island University, Southampton, NY 11968, USA ...

  3. Nitrogen utilization efficiencies and yield responses of drip-irrigated tomatoes and peppers as influenced by soil application and fertigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elinc, F.; Deviren, A.; Oeztuerk, A.

    1996-01-01

    These greenhouse studies conducted on a Mediterranean Terra Rose soil in an plastic greenhouse, were designed to investigate the response of drip-irrigated tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)grown as a spring production and peppers (Capsicum annuum) heated for anti frost to four nitrogen levels continually applied with the irrigation stream. Water containing 0,50,100 or 150 mgN/l for tomatoes, 0,70,140 or 210 mgN/l for peppers as NH 4 S 2 O 4 , and uniformly supplied with 60 and 180 mg/l of P and K respectively were applied two times a week. Three adjacent plants in each plot were fertigated with N labeled NH 4 S 2 O 4 (2% a.e. enrichment). These treatments were compared with banded application of NH 4 S 2 O 4 at the rate of 320 kgN/ha for tomatoe sand 350 kgN/ha for peppers that were equivalent to the 100 mgN/l and 140 mgN/l treatments. The total amount of water applied was 345 mm for tomatoes and 260 mm for peppers. The results obtained showed that the highest yield was achieved in 100 mgN/l for tomatoes and in 140 mgN/l for peppers. The percentage fertilizer N utilization and yield increase by tomatoes and peppers were significantly increased with applying the N fertilizer by the irrigation water, fertigation, relative to the soil application of N at the same level fertilization. Evidently, the nutrient uptake efficiency as indicated by the highest yield is higher with fertigation which is extend means more environmental friendly approach. These experiments demonstrated that the amount of N fertilizer by applying in the irrigation water is to be recommended 100 mgN/l for tomatoes and 140 mgN/l for peppers to obtain high yield

  4. Ochratoxin A Contamination of Red Chili Peppers from Chile, Bolivia and Peru, Countries with a High Incidence of Gallbladder Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikoma, Toshikazu; Tsuchiya, Yasuo; Asai, Takao; Okano, Kiyoshi; Ito, Naoko; Endoh, Kazuo; Yamamoto, Masaharu; Nakamura, Kazutoshi

    2015-01-01

    Our previous study detected aflatoxins in red chili peppers from Chile, Bolivia, and Peru, each of which have a high incidence of gallbladder cancer (GBC). Since the aflatoxin B1 concentration was not so high in these peppers, it is important to clarify the presence of other mycotoxins. Here we attempted to determine any associations between the concentrations of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A (OTA) in red chili peppers, and the corresponding GBC incidences. We collected red chili peppers from three areas in Peru: Trujillo (a high GBC incidence area), Cusco (an intermediate GBC incidence area), and Lima (a low GBC incidence rate), and from Chile and Bolivia. Aflatoxins and OTA were extracted with organic solvents. The concentrations of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2, and OTA were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The values obtained were compared with the incidence of GBC in each area or country. All of the red chili peppers from the three areas showed contamination with aflatoxins below the Commission of the European Communities (EC) recommended limits (5 μg/kg), but the OTA contamination of two samples was above the EC recommended limit (15 μg/kg). The mean concentrations of OTA in the peppers from Chile (mean 355 μg/kg, range Bolivia (mean 207 μg/kg, range 0.8-628 μg/kg), which has a high incidence of GBC, were higher than that in Peru (14 μg/kg, range Bolivia, and Peru was stronger than that of aflatoxins. Our data suggest that OTA in red chili peppers may be associated with the development of GBC.

  5. Growth, yield, and fruit quality of pepper plants amended with two sanitized sewage sludges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Immaculada; Azcona, Iñaki; Aguirreolea, Jone; Morales, Fermín; Corpas, Francisco Javier; Palma, José Manuel; Rellán-Alvarez, Rubén; Sánchez-Díaz, Manuel

    2010-06-09

    Organic wastes such as sewage sludge have been successfully used to increase crop productivity of horticultural soils. Nevertheless, considerations of the impact of sludges on vegetable and fruit quality have received little attention. Therefore, the objective of the present work was to investigate the impact of two sanitized sewage sludges, autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion (ATAD) and compost sludge, on the growth, yield, and fruit quality of pepper plants ( Capsicum annuum L. cv. Piquillo) grown in the greenhouse. Two doses of ATAD (15 and 30% v/v) and three of composted sludge (15, 30, and 45%) were applied to a peat-based potting mix. Unamended substrate was included as control. ATAD and composted sludge increased leaf, shoot, and root dry matter, as well as fruit yield, mainly due to a higher number of fruits per plant. There was no effect of sludge on fruit size (dry matter per fruit and diameter). The concentrations of Zn and Cu in fruit increased with the addition of sewage sludges. Nevertheless, the levels of these elements remained below toxic thresholds. Pepper fruits from sludge-amended plants maintained low concentrations of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin, thus indicating low pungency level, in accordance with the regulations prescribed by the Control Board of "Lodosa Piquillo peppers" Origin Denomination. The application of sludges did not modify the concentration of vitamin C (ASC) in fruit, whereas the highest doses of composted sludge tended to increase the content of reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione, without change in the GSH/GSSG ratio. There were no effects of sludge on the transcript levels of enzymes involved in the synthesis of vitamin C, l-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase (GLDH) or in the ascorbate-glutathione cycle, ascorbate peroxidase (APX), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDAR), and glutathione reductase (GR). Results suggest that the synthesis and degradation of ASC and GSH were compensated for in most of the

  6. Pick and Eat Crop Testing: Dwarf Tomato and Pepper as Candidate Space Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Massa, G. D.; Stutte, G. W.; Spencer, L. E.; Hummerick, M. E.; Sirmons, T.; Douglas, G. L.

    2016-01-01

    Several dwarf tomato and pepper varieties were evaluated under International Space Station (ISS)-simulated growth conditions (22 degrees Centigrade, 50 percent relative humidity, 1500 parts per million CO2, and 300 micromoles per square meter per second of light for 16 hours per day) with the goal of selecting those with the best growth, nutrition, and organoleptic potential for use in a pick and eat salad crop system on ISS and future exploration flights. Testing included six cultivars of tomato (Red Robin, Scarlet Sweet 'N' Neat, Tiny Tim, Mohamed, Patio Princess, and Tumbler) and six cultivars of pepper (Red Skin, Fruit Basket, Cajun Belle, Chablis, Sweet Pickle, and Pompeii). Plants were grown to an age sufficient to produce fruit (up to 106 days for tomato and 109 days for pepper) using Turface (arcillite) potting media with 18-6-8 control-release fertilizer and supplemental nutrient solution beginning around 60-days-age. Tomato fruits were harvested when they showed full red color, beginning around 70-days age and then at weekly intervals thereafter, while peppers were grown until fruits showed color and were harvested twice (first test) and just once at the end of the second test, with the final harvests including colored and green fruit. Plant sizes, yields, and nutritional attributes were measured and used to down-select to three cultivars for each species. In particular, we were interested in cultivars that were short (dwarf) but still produced high yields. Nutritional data included elemental (Ca, Mg, Fe, and K) content, vitamin K, phenolics, lycopene (for tomato), anthocyanin, lutein, and zeaxanthin. The three down-selected cultivars for each species were grown again and the harvested fruit sent to NASA's Johnson Space Center for sensory evaluation, which included overall acceptability, appearance, color intensity, aroma, flavor and texture. The combined data were compared and given weighting factors to rank the cultivars as candidates for testing in

  7. Black Urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Vakili

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A 2-year-old boy was born at term of healthy, non-consanguineous Iranian parents. His mother attended in the clinic with the history of sometimes discoloration of diapers after passing urine. She noticed that first at the age of one month with intensified in recent months. His Physical examination and growth parameters were normal. His mother denied taking any medication (sorbitol, nitrofurantoin, metronidazole, methocarbamol, sena and methyldopa (5. Qualitative urine examination showed dark black discoloration. By this history, alkaptonuria was the most clinical suspicious. A 24-hour-urine sample was collected and sent for quantitative measurements. The urine sample was highly positive for homogentisic acid and negative for porphyrin metabolites.

  8. Effect of gamma radiation from 60C in conservation and quality of pepper fresh and pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milagres, Regina Celia Rodrigues de Miranda

    2014-01-01

    Capsicum peppers are among the most used and most valued seasoning spices in the world. They are highly susceptible to post harvest decay, therefore the use of irradiation may contribute to conservation of this fruit which has significant nutritional, economic and social value. Were evaluated the effects of gamma radiation of 60 Co in increasing the shelf-life and preservation of quality of pepper 'Dedo-de-moca' (Capsicum baccatum var. Pendulum) fresh and pulp associated or not with another conservation methods. Gamma radiation doses were investigated of 0,25; 0,50; 0,75; 1,00; 1,25; 1,50; 2,00 e 3,00 kGy in fresh fruit and 1,50; 2,00; 3,00; 4,50 e 6,00 kGy in pepper pulp. The use of laboratory pasteurization (85°C/3min), the addition of citric acid (5%) and 5% NaCl were also investigated in the pepper pulp. The samples were stored at 5 °C and or 25 °C. Were performed analysis: visual (disease incidence, turgidity and color); bioactive compounds (carotenoids, capsaicinoids, antioxidant capacity and phenolic compounds); physicochemical (Weight loss, firmness, soluble solids (SS), pH, titratable acidity (TA), ratio, color and moisture); respiratory rate and ethylene production; proximate composition (moisture, soluble and insoluble fiber, ash, protein, ether extract, total and available carbohydrate); microbiological contamination (mesophilic aerobic microorganisms, coliforms at 45 °C, Salmonella spp. and yeasts and molds) and sensory (acceptance test, difference test and paired preference). Radiation doses between 0.25 and 3.00 kGy were not effective to increase shelf-life and maintain fresh pepper quality during storage. There was increased intensity of red color, of incidence of disease, decreased turgidity and changes in physical, chemical and nutritional parameters. In pulp, the doses of gamma radiation of 4.50 and 6.00 kGy and the addition of 5% NaCl no changing sensory attributes, physical-chemical and bioactive compounds. Only the antioxidant

  9. Development of dielectric barrier discharge for reducing microbial contamination in pepper (Piper nigrum) and sesame (Sesamum indicum Linn.) powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Promping, J.; Prakongsil, P.; Picha, R.; Traikool, T.

    2017-09-01

    This research is designed to determine the efficacy of DBD plasma to reduce the microbial contamination of pepper and sesame powder. The AC high voltage power supply was used with voltages of up to 20 kV and the frequency of 5.5 kHz was applied to the DBD. The gap of DBD electrodes was set at 5 mm. In raw initial samples, the total aerobic count of pepper (Piper nigrum) was found at quite a high level at 5.40 × 105 CFU/g. Coliform bacteria was also found in both the sesame (Sesamum indicum Linn.) powder and pepper (Piper nigrum) powder. Both kinds of samples were treated with plasma for 2, 4, 6 and 10 minutes. Results indicated that plasma treatment at 2-10 minutes reduced the total aerobic count of pepper allowed to achieve the acceptable microbial level for spices. The plasma treatment times in this experiment were also effective in reducing faecal coliform bacteria in both pepper and sesame powders (MPN/g <3) as indicated in the standard. Plasma from dielectric barrier charge can reduce Staphylococcus epidermidis in sesame powder which was artificially contaminated with 3.50 × 102 CFU/g resulting in 0.15-0.5 log cycle reductions of microbial load.

  10. Influence of Edible Coatings on Biochemical Fruit Quality and Storage Life of Bell Pepper cv. “Yolo Wonder”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abad Ullah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to investigate the influence of food grade coatings on fruit quality and storage life of bell pepper cv. “Yolo Wonder” at 8±1°C with 90–95% RH for 24 days. Coating treatments were given to bell pepper fruits by dipping in aqueous solutions of gum arabic (6, 9, and 12%, Aloe vera gel (4, 5, and 6%, and cinnamon oil (0.5, 0.75, and 1%. Physicochemical characteristics as well as quality of bell pepper fruits improved in all coating treatments. Results revealed that 12% gum arabic coating exhibited significantly reduced weight loss, membrane leakage, chilling injury, and decay incidence with less increase in pH, total soluble solids, and sugar percentage, whereas appealing fruit color (L⁎, a⁎, and b⁎ along with higher values of ascorbic acid (1.84 mg/100 g, titratable acidity (0.19%, and firmness (4 N was observed in cold storage environment. Our results clearly suggested that coating of bell pepper fruits with 12% gum arabic can maintain postharvest storage quality of bell pepper fruits.

  11. Functional study of hot pepper 26S proteasome subunit RPN7 induced by Tobacco mosaic virus from nuclear proteome analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Boo-Ja; Kwon, Sun Jae; Kim, Sung-Kyu; Kim, Ki-Jeong; Park, Chang-Jin; Kim, Young-Jin; Park, Ohkmae K.; Paek, Kyung-Hee

    2006-01-01

    Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) was applied for the screening of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)-induced hot pepper (Capsicum annuum cv. Bugang) nuclear proteins. From differentially expressed protein spots, we acquired the matched peptide mass fingerprint (PMF) data, analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS, from the non-redundant hot pepper EST protein FASTA database using the VEMS 2.0 software. Among six identified nuclear proteins, the hot pepper 26S proteasome subunit RPN7 (CaRPN7) was subjected to further study. The level of CaRPN7 mRNA was specifically increased during incompatible TMV-P 0 interaction, but not during compatible TMV-P 1.2 interaction. When CaRPN7::GFP fusion protein was targeted in onion cells, the nuclei had been broken into pieces. In the hot pepper leaves, cell death was exacerbated and genomic DNA laddering was induced by Agrobacterium-mediated transient overexpression of CaPRN7. Thus, this report presents that the TMV-induced CaRPN7 may be involved in programmed cell death (PCD) in the hot pepper plant

  12. Influence of Yellow Light-Emitting Diodes at 590 nm on Storage of Apple, Tomato and Bell Pepper Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Hribar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the eff ects of irradiation from light-emitting diodes (LEDs on several fruits during storage. To improve storage and increase the contents of some bioactive compounds, apple, tomato and red bell pepper fruits were exposed to yellow light emitted from the diodes at 590 nm. The contents of ascorbic acid, total phenolics, total flavonoids and several pigments were investigated, along with the antioxidant potential. The colour parameters (L*, a* and b* and firmness of the fruit were also determined. After 7 days of LED light irradiation, there was significantly higher total phenolic content and antioxidant potential in apple peel extracts. The irradiated fruit of tomato had significantly higher levels of total phenolic compounds, and the fruit of red bell pepper had significantly higher antioxidant potential. LED light had no effects on the colour parameters, although there was a tendency to accelerate colour development. Apple fruit irradiated with LED light was significantly less firm. Among twelve analysed pigments, significantly more β-carotene was detected in LED light-irradiated apple and bell pepper fruit, more α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol in bell pepper fruit, and more lutein in apple peel and bell pepper fruit. The applied LED light slightly accelerated the ripening of the studied fruit, and affected the synthesis of some of the secondary metabolites.

  13. Bell and banana pepper exhibit mature-plant resistance to tomato spotted wilt Tospovirus transmitted by Frankliniella fusca (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, A L P; Kahn, N D; Kennedy, G G

    2009-02-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Tospovirus, TSWV) causes annual economic losses in pepper, Capsicum annuum L., across the southern United States and is transmitted by several species of thrips, including the tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca (Hinds). Reduced virus transmission and symptom severity as plant age increases is known as mature-plant resistance. TSWV transmission to pepper plants was examined in three and four age classes in field and greenhouse trials, respectively. In the field trial, 'Camelot' bell pepper plants were exposed to potentially viruliferous F. fusca 37, 51, or 65 d postsowing. Two greenhouse trials of Camelot bell and one trial each of 'Bounty' and 'Pageant' banana pepper plants were exposed to potentially viruliferous F. fusca, 43, 57, 71, or 85; 48, 62, 75, or 90; 42, 56, 70, or 84; and 43, 57, 71, or 85 d postsowing, respectively. Linear and hyperbolic regressions of percentage of infected plants per block on days postsowing indicated mature-plant resistance in all trials. All models were significant, but hyperbolic curves better fit the data than linear models. Hyperbolic models were used to calculate the number of days posttransplant at which a 50% decrease from the predicted percentage of infected plants at transplant age (42 d postsowing) was expected. This was referred to as days posttransplant-50 (DPT50). DPRT50 occurred within 9 days posttransplant age for all trials, indicating that early TSWV management in pepper is critical.

  14. Black Silicon Solar Cells with Black Ribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of mask-less reactive ion etch (RIE) texturing and blackened interconnecting ribbons as a method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon made by mask-less reactive ion etching has total, average...... reflectance below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon (Si) wafer. Black interconnecting ribbons were realized by oxidizing copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the visible wavelength range. Screen-printed Si solar cells were realized on 156x156 mm2 black Si substrates with resulting efficiencies...... in the range 15.7-16.3%. The KOH-textured reference cell had an efficiency of 17.9%. The combination of black Si and black interconnecting ribbons may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted silicon solar cells....

  15. Black Silicon Solar Cells with Black Ribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of mask-less reactive ion etch (RIE) texturing and blackened interconnecting ribbons as a method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon made by mask-less reactive ion etching has total, average...... in the range 15.7-16.3%. The KOH-textured reference cell had an efficiency of 17.9%. The combination of black Si and black interconnecting ribbons may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted silicon solar cells....... reflectance below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon (Si) wafer. Black interconnecting ribbons were realized by oxidizing copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the visible wavelength range. Screen-printed Si solar cells were realized on 156x156 mm2 black Si substrates with resulting efficiencies...

  16. Black holes. Chapter 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penrose, R.

    1980-01-01

    Conditions for the formation of a black hole are considered, and the properties of black holes. The possibility of Cygnus X-1 as a black hole is discussed. Einstein's theory of general relativity in relation to the formation of black holes is discussed. (U.K.)

  17. Black Eye: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Black eye Black eye: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff A black eye is caused by bleeding under the skin around the eye. Most injuries that cause a ... 13, 2018 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-black-eye/basics/ART-20056675 . Mayo ...

  18. Inhibition of monoamine oxidase by derivatives of piperine, an alkaloid from the pepper plant Piper nigrum, for possible use in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Baghdadi, Osamah B; Prater, Natalie I; Van der Schyf, Cornelis J; Geldenhuys, Werner J

    2012-12-01

    A series of compounds related to piperine and antiepilepsirine was screened in a monoamine oxidase A and B assay. Piperine is an alkaloid from the source plant of both black and white pepper grains, Piper nigrum. Piperine has been shown to have a wide range of activity, including MAO inhibitory activity. The z-factor for the screening assay was found to be greater than 0.8 for both assays. Notably, the compounds tested were selective towards MAO-B, with the most potent compound having an IC(50) of 498 nM. To estimate blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, we used a PAMPA assay, which suggested that the compounds are likely to penetrate the BBB. A fluorescent bovine serum albumin (BSA) high-throughput screening (HTS) binding assay showed an affinity of 8 μM for piperine, with more modest binding for other test compounds. Taken together, the data described here may be useful in gaining insight towards the design of selective MAO-B inhibitory compounds devoid of MAO-A activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of meadowsweet flower extract-pullulan coatings on rhizopus rot development and postharvest quality of cold-stored red peppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synowiec, Alicja; Gniewosz, Małgorzata; Kraśniewska, Karolina; Chlebowska-Śmigiel, Anna; Przybył, Jarosław L; Bączek, Katarzyna; Węglarz, Zenon

    2014-08-25

    The study involved an examination of the antifungal activity on red peppers of pullulan coating (P) and pullulan coating containing either water-ethanol (P + eEMF) or ethanol extract of meadowsweet flowers (P + eEMF). Pullulan was obtained from a culture of Aureobasidium pullulans B-1 mutant. Both non-inoculated peppers and those artificially inoculated with Rhizopus arrhizus were coated and incubated at 24 °C for 5 days. The intensity of the decay caused by Rhizopus arrhizus in the peppers with P and P + eEMF coatings was nearly 3-fold lower, and in the case of P + weEMF 5-fold lower, than that observed in the control peppers. Additionally, the P + weEMF coating decreased, almost two-fold the severity of pepper decay compared to other samples. The influence of coating of pepper postharvest quality was examined after 30 days of storage at 6 °C and 70%-75% RH. All coatings formed a thin and well-attached additional layer of an intensified gloss. During storage, color, total soluble solid content and weight loss of coated peppers were subject to lower changes in comparison with uncoated ones. The results indicate the possibility of the application of pullulan coatings containing MFEs as an alternative to the chemical fungicides used to combat pepper postharvest diseases.

  20. Effect of Meadowsweet Flower Extract-Pullulan Coatings on Rhizopus Rot Development and Postharvest Quality of Cold-Stored Red Peppers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Synowiec

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The study involved an examination of the antifungal activity on red peppers of pullulan coating (P and pullulan coating containing either water-ethanol (P + eEMF or ethanol extract of meadowsweet flowers (P + eEMF. Pullulan was obtained from a culture of Aureobasidium pullulans B-1 mutant. Both non-inoculated peppers and those artificially inoculated with Rhizopus arrhizus were coated and incubated at 24 °C for 5 days. The intensity of the decay caused by Rhizopus arrhizus in the peppers with P and P + eEMF coatings was nearly 3-fold lower, and in the case of P + weEMF 5-fold lower, than that observed in the control peppers. Additionally, the P + weEMF coating decreased, almost two-fold the severity of pepper decay compared to other samples. The influence of coating of pepper postharvest quality was examined after 30 days of storage at 6 °C and 70%–75% RH. All coatings formed a thin and well-attached additional layer of an intensified gloss. During storage, color, total soluble solid content and weight loss of coated peppers were subject to lower changes in comparison with uncoated ones. The results indicate the possibility of the application of pullulan coatings containing MFEs as an alternative to the chemical fungicides used to combat pepper postharvest diseases.

  1. New Korean isolates of Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) differ in symptom severity and subcellular localization of the 126 kDa protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two isolates of Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) were selected from a nationwide survey of pepper fields in South Korea in 2014 and 2015, in which Cucumber mosaic virus was also detected; the two PMMoV isolates, Sangcheong 47 (S-47, KX399390) and Jeongsong 76 (J-76, KX399389), share ~99% nucleotide ...

  2. Search for black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherepashchuk, Anatolii M

    2003-01-01

    Methods and results of searching for stellar mass black holes in binary systems and for supermassive black holes in galactic nuclei of different types are described. As of now (June 2002), a total of 100 black hole candidates are known. All the necessary conditions Einstein's General Relativity imposes on the observational properties of black holes are satisfied for candidate objects available, thus further assuring the existence of black holes in the Universe. Prospects for obtaining sufficient criteria for reliably distinguishing candidate black holes from real black holes are discussed. (reviews of topical problems)

  3. The influence of far-red light on attributes of green bell pepper fruits (Capsicum annuum l. during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca MIHALY COZMUTA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Green bell peppers fruits, stored for 1 month at 8oC and 455% relative humidity in Far-Red light (FRL and darkness respectively, were investigated in terms of physical, chemical and microbiological parameters. The exposure to FRL slows down the water loss from fruits by stimulating the surface wax biosynthesis into a higher specific amount and hydrophobic nature and reducing the apertures, diameters of the pericarp cells, intercellular walls and dermal layer thicknesses. The higher level of catalase enzyme in the FRL-exposed fruits resulted in lower chilling injury index in comparison with the one in fruits exposed to darkness. FRL has favorable effect on chlorophyll and carotenoids accumulation rates. The multiplication of yeasts and molds on the surface of FRL-exposed bell peppers was significantly delayed as compared to the multiplication on the surface of the darkness-exposed bell peppers.

  4. Effect of different ripening conditions on pigments of pepper for paprika production at green stage of maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevrešan, Žarko S; Mastilović, Jasna S; Mandić, Anamarija I; Torbica, Aleksandra M

    2013-09-25

    The content and composition of pigments and CIELab color properties in fruits ripened in the field were compared with those obtained in ground paprika produced from green pepper fruits after postharvest ripening for 15 days in a greenhouse under different conditions. Obtained data for pigment content, composition, and esterification rate have shown that the processes of pigment biosynthesis in fruits ripened under greenhouse conditions are different from those occurring in fruits naturally matured in the field: the red/yellow pigment ratio (3:1) in greenhouse-ripened fruits is much higher than in naturally ripened pepper in breaker (1:1) and also in faint red (2:1) ripening stages from the field. Additionally, during the postharvest ripening of green pepper in the greenhouse esterification processes are less expressed than during the ripening of the fruits in the field. Postharvest ripening under natural daylight resulted in higher content of red pigments, followed by higher ASTA value.

  5. Effect of growing conditions at greenhouse on vitamin E content in sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L. fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Horbowicz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The studies on effect of growing conditions on vitamin E content in fruits of two cultivars of sweet pepper (Bendigo F1 and Lamuyo F1 were carried out. The influence of growing substrate type (sphagnum peat or rockwool, Flormin, Poland, season of fruits harvesting (Summer or Autumn and dosages of mineral Iiquid nutrition were investigated. It was found that fruits of sweet pepper grown in rockwool contained more vitamin E than those from sphagnum peat substrate (ring culture, during Summer harvesting„ ln Autumn differences appeared too. but most of them were not statistically proved. The sweet pepper fruits harvested at Summer contained more vitamin E than fruits from Autumn. There were not significant differences among vitamin E level in fruits of the plants cultivated in rockwool at different dosages of fertilizers.

  6. Integrated plant nutrient system - with special emphasis on mineral nutriton and biofertilizers for Black pepper and cardamom - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K P, Sangeeth; R, Suseela Bhai

    2016-05-01

    Integrated Plant Nutrition System (IPNS) as a concept and farm management strategy embraces and transcends from single season crop fertilization efforts to planning and management of plant nutrients in crop rotations and farming systems on a long-term basis for enhanced productivity, profitability and sustainability. It is estimated that about two-thirds of the required increase in crop production in developing countries will have to come from yield increases from lands already under cultivation. IPNS enhances soil productivity through a balanced use of soil nutrients, chemical fertilizers, combined with organic sources of plant nutrients, including bio-inoculants and nutrient transfer through agro-forestry systems and has adaptation to farming systems in both irrigated and rainfed agriculture. Horticultural crops, mainly plantation crops, management practices include application of fertilizers and pesticides which become inevitable due to the depletion of soil organic matter and incidence of pests and diseases. The extensive use of chemical fertilizers in these crops deteriorated soil health that in turn affected the productivity. To revitalize soil health and to enhance productivity, it is inexorable to enrich the soil using microorganisms. The lacunae observed here is the lack of exploitation of indigenous microbes having the potential to fix atmospheric nitrogen (N) and to solubilize Phosphorus (P) and Potassium (K). The concept of biofertilizer application appears to be technically simple and financially feasible, but the task of developing biofertilizers with efficient strains in appropriate combinations in a consortia mode is not easier. More than developing consortia, a suitable delivery system to discharge the microbial inoculants warranted much effort. This review focuses on the integrated plant nutrition system incorporating biofertilizer with special emphasis on developing and formulating biofertilizer consortium.

  7. A facile and rapid method for the black pepper leaf mediated green synthesis of silver nanoparticles and the antimicrobial study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, Robin; Kalarikkal, Nandakumar; Thomas, Sabu

    2014-10-01

    Green synthesis of nanoparticles is widely accepted due to the less toxicity in comparison with chemical methods. But there are certain drawbacks like slow formation of nanoparticles, difficulty to control particle size and shape make them less convenient. Here we report a novel cost-effective and eco-friendly method for the rapid green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaf extracts of Piper nigrum. Our results suggest that this method can be used for obtaining silver nanoparticles with controllable size within a few minutes. The fabricated nanoparticles possessed excellent antibacterial property against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

  8. Effect of different in vitro culture extracts of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) on toxic metabolites-producing strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nisar; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Fazal, Hina

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, the effect of different in vitro cultures (callus, in vitro shoots) and commercially available peppercorn extract was investigated for its activity against toxic metabolite-producing strains (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Salmonella typhi, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans). These in vitro cultures were extracted with ethanol, hexane, and chloroform, and the antipathogenic activity was determined by well-diffusion method. Hexane extract of callus showed 22 mm zone of inhibition against B. cereus, 23 mm against S. aureus, while regenerated shoots and seeds have shown 24.3 and 26 mm zones of inhibition. The ethanolic extracts of regenerated Piper shoots have shown 25 mm activity against S. aureus, 21 mm against B. cereus, and 16 mm in the case of C. albicans in comparison with standard antibiotics. Peppercorn extracts in chloroform and ethanol had shown activities against B. cereus (23.6 mm) and B. subtilis (23.5 mm). During in vitro organogenesis and morphogenesis, cells and tissues produced a comparable phytochemicals profile like mother plant. Morphogenesis is critically controlled by the application of exogenous plant-growth regulators. Such addition alters the hormonal transduction pathways, and cells under in vitro conditions regenerate tissues, which are dependant on the physiological state of cells, and finally enhance the production of secondary metabolites. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to compare the antimicrobial potential of in vitro regenerated tissues and peppercorn with standard antibiotics. In conclusion, most of the extracts showed pronounced activities against all the pathogenic microbes. This is a preliminary work, and the minimum inhibitory concentration values needs to be further explored. Regenerated tissues of P. nigrum are a good source of biologically active metabolites for antimicrobial activities, and callus culture presented itself as a good candidate for such activities. © The Author(s) 2013.

  9. Management of chili pepper root rot and wilt (caused by Phytophthora nicotianae by grafting onto resistant rootstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourad SAADOUN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Root rot and plant wilting caused by Phytophthora nicotianae is a severe disease of chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L. in open fields and under greenhouse production in Tunisia. Chili pepper grafting for disease manage- ment is attracting increased interest in recent years. Using the tube grafting technique, different compatible scion/rootstock combinations were obtained with the wild-type pepper SCM334 and the local chili pepper cultivars ‘Beldi’ and ‘Baker’. SCM334 was resistant to P. nicotianae, while the cultivars Beldi and Baker were susceptible. Plant inoculations were performed with P. nicotianae zoospores, and severity of root rot was rated 30 days post- inoculation using a 0 (healthy plant to 5 (dead plant severity score. On SCM334 rootstock and with ‘Beldi’ or ‘Baker’ scions, the intensity of root rot was very low (mean score 0.1–0.2 and plants were healthy. However, with Baker or Beldi rootstocks and SCM334 scions, root rot was severe (mean score 3.1–4.6, leading to high numbers of wilting and dead plants. This severe root rot was similar to that observed on non-grafted plants of ‘Baker’ and ‘Beldi’ inoculated with the pathogen. Under greenhouse conditions, measurements of agronomic characters indicated non-consistent improvement of these features on the scion cultivar when SCM334 was the rootstock. Since plant foliage is not attacked by this pathogen, these results show that susceptible chili pepper scions grafted onto SCM334 rootstocks could be used for root rot management and improvement of pepper yields in P. nicotianae infested soils.

  10. Aflatoxin contamination of red chili pepper from Bolivia and Peru, countries with high gallbladder cancer incidence rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Takao; Tsuchiya, Yasuo; Okano, Kiyoshi; Piscoya, Alejandro; Nishi, Carlos Yoshito; Ikoma, Toshikazu; Oyama, Tomizo; Ikegami, Kikuo; Yamamoto, Masaharu

    2012-01-01

    Chilean red chili peppers contaminated with aflatoxins were reported in a previous study. If the development of gallbladder cancer (GBC) in Chile is associated with a high level of consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated red chili peppers, such peppers from other countries having a high GBC incidence rate may also be contaminated with aflatoxins. We aimed to determine whether this might be the case for red chili peppers from Bolivia and Peru. A total of 7 samples (3 from Bolivia, 4 from Peru) and 3 controls (2 from China, 1 from Japan) were evaluated. Aflatoxins were extracted with acetonitrile:water (9:1, v/v) and eluted through an immuno-affinity column. The concentrations of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and then the detected aflatoxins were identified using HPLC-mass spectrometry. In some but not all of the samples from Bolivia and Peru, aflatoxin B1 or aflatoxins B1 and B2 were detected. In particular, aflatoxin B1 or total aflatoxin concentrations in a Bolivian samples were above the maximum levels for aflatoxins in spices proposed by the European Commission. Red chili peppers from Bolivia and Peru consumed by populations having high GBC incidence rates would appear to be contaminated with aflatoxins. These data suggest the possibility that a high level of consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated red chili peppers is related to the development of GBC, and the association between the two should be confirmed by a case-control study.

  11. Gochujang (Korean red pepper paste: A Korean ethnic sauce, its role and history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae Young Kwon

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Gochujang (Korean fermented red pepper sauce, also written in Kochujang, along with kimchi, is an age-old ethnic food made with Korea's representative ingredient, red pepper. A typical Korean meal (Bapsang is composed of rice (Bap, from which calories are derived, soup (Kuk, which helps in the chewing and digesting of the rice, and side dishes (Banchan, which provide additional nutrition and flavor. To add even more variety to the taste, seasoning (Jang, Yangnyum is added. Gochujang has become the most fundamental of these kinds of food in Korea over thousands of years, functioning to make add flavor to rice taste better while aiding the digestive system. Gochujang also serves as a simple seasoning when making dishes such as braised spicy chicken, and provide additional nutrients. According to age-old documents, the development process used to manufacture Gochujang requires the basic ingredients of Meju (block made with cooked soy bean powder, rice or glutinous rice flour, and red pepper powder. Sunchang Gochujang is one variety known for its great taste that was often consumed by kings during the Chosun dynasty. The basic method for making Gochujang in the present is almost the same as it was in the past. Gochujangis not just used to season food; it is also known for its nutritional value For example, it is widely accepted among Koreans that when a person has a weak stomach (due to the poor functionality of the stomach and spleen, and cannot digest food well., Gochujang can be eaten alleviates the symptoms. Recently many studies have been done to prove the medical functions of Gochujang scientifically. Due improvements in science and technology in the area of biology, it has also been discovered that Gochujang has the ability to prevent obesity and diabetes.

  12. Stability of Capsaicinoids and Antioxidants in Dry Hot Peppers under Different Packaging and Storage Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qumer Iqbal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The maintenance of the quality and storage life of perishable fruits and vegetables is a major challenge for the food industry. In this study, the effects of different temperatures, packaging materials and storage time on the stability of capsaicinoids and antioxidants, such as total carotenoids, ascorbic acid and total phenolic compounds, were studied in three commercially cultivated hot pepper hybrids, namely Sky Red, Maha and Wonder King. For this purpose, dry whole pods were packed in jute bags and low-density polyethylene bags (LDPE, stored for five months under controlled conditions at 20, 25 or 30 ○C and analyzed on Day 0 and at 50-day intervals until Day 150. The three hot pepper hybrids differed significantly with respect to their capsaicinoids and antioxidant concentrations, but the results indicated that with the increase in storage temperature and time, a gradual and steady decrease in these levels was equally observed for all hybrids. Overall, mean concentrations after five months were significantly reduced by 22.6% for ascorbic acid, 19.0% for phenolic compounds, 17% for carotenoids and 12.7% for capsaicinoids. The trends of capsaicinoids and antioxidants evolution were decreasing gradually during storage until Day 150, this effect being more pronounced at higher temperature. Furthermore, the disappearance rates of capsaicinoids and antioxidants were higher in peppers packed in jute bags than in those wrapped with LDPE. In conclusion, despite the sensitivity of capsaicinoids and antioxidants to oxygen, light and moisture, the packaging in natural jute or synthetic LDPE plastic bags, as well as the storage at ambient temperature preserved between 77.4% and 87.3% of the initial amounts of these health- and nutrition-promoting compounds during five months’ storage.

  13. The Use of Antioxidants to Control Root Rot and Wilt Diseases of Pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montaser Fawzy ABDEL-MONAIM

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Ten isolates of Fusarium spp were isolated from pepper plants collected from different locations in New Valley Governorate, Egypt. Fusarium solani isolate FP2 and F. oxysporum isolate FP4 were highly pathogenic isolates but the other isolates moderate or less pathogenic to pepper plants (cv. Anaheim-M. The four antioxidant compounds (coumaric acid, citric acid, propylgalate and salicylic acid each at 100 and 200 ppm were evaluated for their in vitro and in vivo agonist to Fusarium pathogenic isolates caused root rot and wilt diseases in pepper plants. All tested antioxidant compounds reduced damping-off, root rot/wilt and area under root rot/wilt progress curve when used as seed soaking, seedling soaking, and soil drench especially at 200 ppm under greenhouse and field conditions compared with untreated plants. All chemicals increased fresh and dry weight of seedling grown in soil drenching or seed treatment with any antioxidants. At the same time, all tested chemicals significantly increase plant growth parameters i.e plant length, plant branching, and total yield per plant in case of seedling soaking or soil drench. In general, propylgalate at 200 ppm was more efficient in reducing infection with damping-off, root rot and wilt diseases as well as increasing the seedling fresh weight, dry weight, plant length, plant branching, number of pod plant-1 and pod yield plant-1. On the other hand, all tested antioxidants had less or no effect on mycelial dry weight and mycelial leaner growth. On the contrary, all chemicals much reduced spore formation in both Fusarium species at 100 or 200 ppm and the inhibitory effect of antioxidants increased with increasing their concentrations.

  14. Beneficial Soil Bacterium Pseudomonas frederiksbergensis OS261 Augments Salt Tolerance and Promotes Red Pepper Plant Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poulami Chatterjee

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity, being a part of natural ecosystems, is an increasing problem in agricultural soils throughout the world. Pseudomonas frederiksbergensis OS261 has already been proved to be an effective bio-inoculant for enhancing cold stress tolerance in plants, however, its effect on salt stress tolerance is unknown. The main aim of the present study was to elucidate P. frederiksbergensis OS261 mediated salt stress tolerance in red pepper. The plants were exposed to a salt stress using NaCl at the concentrations of 50, 100, and 150 mM after 12 days of transplantation, while plant growth and enzyme activity were estimated 50 days after sowing. The height in P. frederiksbergensis OS261 inoculated plants was significantly increased by 19.05, 34.35, 57.25, and 61.07% compared to un-inoculated controls at 0, 50, 100, and 150 mM of NaCl concentrations, respectively, under greenhouse conditions. The dry biomass of the plants increased by 31.97, 37.47, 62.67, and 67.84% under 0, 50, 100, and 150 mM of NaCl concentrations, respectively. A high emission of ethylene was observed in un-inoculated red pepper plants under salinity stress. P. frederiksbergensis OS261 inoculation significantly reduced ethylene emission by 20.03, 18.01, and 20.07% at 50, 100, and 150 mM of NaCl concentrations, respectively. Furthermore, the activity of antioxidant enzymes (ascorbate peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase also varied in the inoculated red pepper plants. Salt stress resistance in the bacterized plants was evident from the improved antioxidant activity in leaf tissues and the decreased hydrogen ion concentration. Thus, we conclude that P. frederiksbergensis OS261 possesses stress mitigating property which can enhance plant growth under high soil salinity by reducing the emission of ethylene and regulating antioxidant enzymes.

  15. Gas exchange and photosynthetic pigments in bell pepper irrigated with saline water

    OpenAIRE

    Melo,Hidelblandi F. de; Souza,Edivan R. de; Duarte,Heitor H. F.; Cunha,Jailson C.; Santos,Hugo R. B.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The tools that evaluate the salinity effects on plants have great relevance as they contribute to understanding of the mechanisms of tolerance. This study aimed to evaluate gas exchanges and the contents of photosynthetic pigments in bell peppers cultivated with saline solutions (0, 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 dS m-1) prepared using two sources: NaCl and a mixture of Ca, Mg, K, Na and Cl salts, in randomized blocks with a 6 x 2 factorial scheme and 4 replicates, totaling 48 experimental plots. ...

  16. Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase Activity in Stem of Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Infected by Phytophthora capsici L.

    OpenAIRE

    KOC, Esra; USTUN, Ayşen Sulun

    2012-01-01

    In this study, PAL activity in stems of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) plants infected by the root rot pathogen Phytophthora capsici-22 in a resistant (PM-702) and two susceptible (Kahramanmaraş-Hot (KM-Hot) and Demre-8) cultivar were studied. The response of the PAL activity in the resistant cultivar was faster and higher than in the susceptible cultivars (p < 0.01). The increase in production of  PAL upon Phytophthora capsici-22 were higher in the infected plants compared to the non-in...

  17. Influence of Copigment derived from Tasmannia Pepper Leaves on Davidson’s Plum Anthocyanins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Busch; López-de-Dicastillo Bergamo, Carolina Ana; Payet, René Marc

    2011-01-01

    to evaluate the suitability of Davidson’s plum extract as a source of anthocyanin-based food colorant. The stability of the Davidson’s plum extract towards heat treatment at 95 °C was higher than that of commercial mulberry colorant, but inferior to colorants derived from red cabbage and purple sweetpotato...... in model soft drink solutions subjected to light irradiation and heat treatment. In both cases the addition of the copigment resulted in a lasting increase in color intensity. In conclusion, Davidson’s plum extract can successfully be utilized as a source of natural food color. Extract from Tasmania pepper...

  18. Mycotoxin production by isolates of Fusarium lactis from greenhouse sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y; Bouras, N; Yang, J; Howard, R J; Strelkov, S E

    2011-12-02

    Internal fruit rot, caused by Fusarium lactis, is an important disease of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) in Canadian greenhouses. Production of the mycotoxins fumonisin B₁ (FB₁), moniliformin (MON) and beauvericin (BEA) by F. lactis (17 isolates) and the related species F. proliferatum (three isolates) and F. verticillioides (one isolate), which are also associated with internal fruit rot, was evaluated on rice medium. All 21 isolates examined were found to produce BEA, at concentrations ranging from 13.28 to 1674.60 ppm, while 13 of 17 F. lactis isolates and two of three F. proliferatum isolates produced MON (0.23 to 181.85 ppm). Only one isolate of F. lactis produced detectable levels of FB₁ in culture, whereas all three F. proliferatum isolates and the F. verticilloides isolate produced this mycotoxin (0.28 to 314 ppm). Production of FB₁, MON and BEA was also evaluated in inoculated pepper fruits showing mild or severe symptoms of infection. FB₁ could be detected in both lightly and heavily diseased fruit tissue after inoculation with F. lactis, F. proliferatum or F. verticilloides, at concentrations ranging from 0.61 to 8.04 ppm. BEA was also detected in lightly and heavily diseased fruit tissue inoculated with F. lactis, as well as in heavily diseased tissue inoculated with F. proliferatum (3.00 to 19.43 ppm), but not in tissue inoculated with F. verticilloides. MON was detected in all tissues inoculated with F. proliferatum or F. verticilloides, and in heavily diseased tissue inoculated with F. lactis (0.03 to 0.27 ppm). The three mycotoxins were also found in naturally infected sweet pepper fruits exhibiting symptoms of internal fruit rot and collected from a commercial greenhouse. The production of MON, BEA and FB₁ alone or in combination by isolates of F. lactis suggests that development of internal fruit rot of sweet pepper is an important food safety concern, and that every effort should be made to cull infected fruit before it makes it to

  19. Conservation and Dispersion of Genes Conferring Resistance to Tomato Begomoviruses between Tomato and Pepper Genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Mangal

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present climate change scenario, controlling plant disease through exploitation of host plant resistance could contribute toward the sustainable crop production and global food security. In this respect, the identification of new sources of resistance and utilization of genetic diversity within the species may help in the generation of cultivars with improved disease resistance. Begomoviruses namely, Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV and Chilli leaf curl virus (ChLCV are known to cause major yield losses in several economically important crop plants of the family Solanaceae. Though co-occurrence, association and synergistic interactions among these viruses in the host plants is reported, whether orthologous genetic loci in related host plants could be responsible for conferring resistance to these viruses has not been investigated yet. Several loci including Ty1, Ty2, Ty3, Ty4, and ty5 have been reported to confer resistance to leaf curl viruses in tomato. Here, we examined the pepper orthologous markers, corresponding to these QTL regions, for polymorphism between ChLCV susceptible and resistant genotypes of pepper. Further, to examine if the polymorphic markers are segregating with the disease resistance, Bulk Segregant Analysis (BSA was performed on F2 population derived from crosses between resistant and susceptible lines. However, none of the markers showed polymorphism in BSA suggesting that the tested markers are not linked to genes/QTLs responsible for conferring resistance to ChLCV in the selected genotypes. In silico analysis was performed to study the synteny and collinearity of genes located within these QTL regions in tomato and pepper genomes, which revealed that more than 60% genes located in Ty2 and Ty4, 13.71% genes in Ty1, 23.07% in Ty3, and 44.77% genes located within ty5 QTL region in tomato are conserved in pepper genome. However, despite such a high conservation in gene content, the linkage relationship in these

  20. Determination of Economic Control Thresholds for Bacterial Spot on Red Pepper Caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Hee Kim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to develop the economic thresholds for the control of bacterial spot of red pepper. The correlation between diseased leaf rate and yield in field was Y = -0.724X + 281.58, R² = 0.78, r = -0.88**. The correlation between diseased leaf rate and yield loss in field was Y = 0.813X + 15.95, R² = 0.78, r = 0.88*. We found that control thresholds was below 30.3% diseased leaves rate per plant in field. The economic control thresholds for bacterial spot of red pepper was below 16.3%.

  1. Effect of pre-treatments and drying methods on quality attributes of sweet bell-pepper (Capsicum annum) powder

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Rakesh; Joshi, VK; Kaushal, M

    2014-01-01

    Pre-treatments and methods of drying for producing good quality dried bell pepper powder for use in the ready-to-eat (RTE) food products were optimized. Out of various pre-treatments used (blanching in boiling water, KMS, CA and combination of KMS + CA at different concentrations), soaking of bell pepper shreds in KMS@ 0.20 % + CA@ 0.50 % after blanching fasten the drying process (19.75 h) compared to control (22.60 h), when dried in mechanical dehydrator at 58 ± 2 °C. Blanching prior to dryi...

  2. Brane world black rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahay, Anurag; Sengupta, Gautam

    2007-01-01

    Five dimensional neutral rotating black rings are described from a Randall-Sundrum brane world perspective in the bulk black string framework. To this end we consider a rotating black string extension of a five dimensional black ring into the bulk of a six dimensional Randall-Sundrum brane world with a single four brane. The bulk solution intercepts the four brane in a five dimensional black ring with the usual curvature singularity on the brane. The bulk geodesics restricted to the plane of rotation of the black ring are constructed and their projections on the four brane match with the usual black ring geodesics restricted to the same plane. The asymptotic nature of the bulk geodesics are elucidated with reference to a bulk singularity at the AdS horizon. We further discuss the description of a brane world black ring as a limit of a boosted bulk black 2 brane with periodic identification

  3. Heritability and Genetic Advance among Chili Pepper Genotypes for Heat Tolerance and Morphophysiological Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magaji G. Usman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available High temperature tolerance is an important component of adaptation to arid and semiarid cropping environment in chili pepper. Two experiments were carried out to study the genetic variability among chili pepper for heat tolerance and morphophysiological traits and to estimate heritability and genetic advance expected from selection. There was a highly significant variation among the genotypes in response to high temperature (CMT, photosynthesis rate, plant height, disease incidence, fruit length, fruit weight, number of fruits, and yield per plant. At 5% selection intensity, high genetic advance as percent of the mean (>20% was observed for CMT, photosynthesis rate, fruit length, fruit weight, number of fruits, and yield per plant. Similarly, high heritability (>60% was also observed indicating the substantial effect of additive gene more than the environmental effect. Yield per plant showed strong to moderately positive correlations (r=0.23–0.56 at phenotypic level while at genotypic level correlation coefficient ranged from 0.16 to 0.72 for CMT, plant height, fruit length, and number of fruits. Cluster analysis revealed eight groups and Group VIII recorded the highest CMT and yield. Group IV recorded 13 genotypes while Groups II, VII, and VIII recorded one each. The results showed that the availability of genetic variance could be useful for exploitation through selection for further breeding purposes.

  4. Phytophthora capsici Epidemic Dispersion on Commercial Pepper Fields in Aguascalientes, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Zapata-Vázquez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chili pepper blight observed on pepper farms from north Aguascalientes was monitored for the presence of Phytophthora capsici during 2008–2010. Initially, ELISA tests were directed to plant samples from greenhouses and rustic nurseries, showing an 86% of positive samples. Later, samples of wilted plants from the farms during the first survey were tested with ELISA. The subsequent survey on soil samples included mycelia isolation and PCR amplification of a 560 bp fragment of ITS-specific DNA sequence of P. capsici. Data was analyzed according to four geographical areas defined by coordinates to ease the dispersal assessment. In general, one-third of the samples from surveyed fields contained P. capsici, inferring that this may be the pathogen responsible of the observed wilt. Nevertheless, only five sites from a total of 92 were consistently negative to P. capsici. The presence of this pathogen was detected through ELISA and confirmed through PCR. The other two-thirds of the negative samples may be attributable to Fusarium and Rhizoctonia, both isolated instead of Phytophthora in these areas. Due to these striking results, this information would be of interest for local plant protection committees and farmers to avoid further dispersal of pathogens to new lands.

  5. Characterization of the Nutraceutical Quality and Antioxidant Activity in Bell Pepper in Response to Grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Chávez-Mendoza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The grafting of fruits and vegetables influences fruit quality. The aim of the present work was to assess the effect of the rootstock and the scion on the antioxidant activity and the content in vitamin C, total phenols, lycopene and β-carotene of bell pepper. The cultivars Fascinato and Jeanette were used as scion and Terrano was used as rootstock. Four harvests in the production cycle of the vegetable were analyzed in a cultivation system under shading nets. The results indicate statistical differences in the content of these bioactive compounds between the varieties, between grafting and not grafting and between sampling dates (p ≤ 0.05. The vitamin C content, β-carotene, and antioxidant capacity proved significantly higher in Fascinato than in Janette. On average, grafting increased β-carotene and vitamin C concentrations and improved the antioxidant capacity, but had no influence on the total phenol or lycopene contents. It is concluded that grafting to the rootstock Terrano improves the nutritional quality of the fruit produced in both varieties of bell pepper studied.

  6. Utilization of Root-Colonizing Bacteria to Protect Hot-Pepper Against Tobacco Mosaic Tobamovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRI ASMIRA DAMAYANTI

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco Mosaic Tobamovirus (TMV is one of many important viruses infecting Solanaceous plants including hot pepper in Indonesia. To accomplish and improve the effectiveness of virus management, we used root-colonizing bacteria (rhizobacteria isolated from healthy hot pepper. Eight rhizobacteria isolates were selected and their capacity in enhancing plant growth and inducing systemic resistance (ISR against TMV in greenhouse trials were evaluated. The rhizobacteria was applied as seed treatment and soil drench. Bacterized-seedling showed a better growth vigor, fitness and a milder symptom than non-bacterized control plants. The protective effect of rhizobacteria was more pronounced after challenging inoculation by TMV, especially for plants treated by isolates I-6, I-16, and I-35. However, TMV accumulation was slightly affected by bacterial treatment. The rhizobacteria might improved ISR by increasing peroxidase enzyme activity but this depends on the species. Based on whole results, isolate I-35 was the potential plant growth promotion rhizobacteria (PGPR. The I-35 was identified as Bacillus cereus based on morphological characteristics and nucleotide sequences of 16S r-RNA.

  7. Aflatoxin B₁ and aflatoxins in ground red chilli pepper after drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkan, Ali; Bindak, Recep; Erkmen, Osman

    2015-01-01

    In this study, 180 red chilli pepper (RCP) berry samples were obtained from two different croplands of Gaziantep and Kahramanmaraş (Turkey) in August, September and October. RCP berry samples were dried under sunlight and grinded. Ground red chilli pepper (GRCP) samples were analysed for aflatoxins (AFs, sum of B1, B2, G1 and G2) and AFB1 contamination. According to the results, in 49 of 180 samples, AFB1 and in 37 samples, AFs were higher than legal limits. The lowest amounts of AFs and AFB1 were obtained in August and the highest amounts in October. χ(2) analysis showed that there were no significant differences (p > 0.05) between cities among 3 months according to number of samples with AFs and AFB1 above legal limits. According to the Duncan multiple-range test, there was no significant difference between all months. Strict measures are necessary to produce high-quality GRCP. RCP berry must be treated to reduce moulds before production of GRCP.

  8. Gas exchange and leaf contents in bell pepper under energized water and biofertilizer doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca R. M. Borges

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of energized water and bovine biofertilizer doses on the gas exchange and NPK contents in leaves of yellow bell pepper plants. The experiment was conducted at the experimental area of the Federal University of Ceará, in Fortaleza-CE, Brazil, from June to November 2011. The experiment was set in a randomized block design, in a split-plot scheme; the plots were composed of treatments with energized and non-energized water and the subplots of five doses of liquid biofertilizer (0, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 mL plant-1 week-1. The following variables were analyzed: transpiration, stomatal conductance, photosynthesis and leaf contents of nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and potassium (K. Water energization did not allow significant increases in the analyzed variables. The use of biofertilizer as the only source of fertilization was sufficient to provide the nutrients N, P and K at appropriate levels for the bell pepper crop.

  9. Impact of insecticides on parasitoids of the leafminer, Liriomyza trifolii, in pepper in south Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Ricardo; Harris, Marvin; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2011-01-01

    Liriomyza leafminers (Diptera: Agromyzidae) are cosmopolitan, polyphagous pests of horticultural plants and many are resistant to insecticides. Producers in South Texas rely on insecticides as the primary management tool for leafminers, and several compounds are available. The objective of this study is to address the efficacy of these compounds for controlling Liriomyza while minimizing their effects against natural enemies. Research plots were established at Texas AgriLife research center at Weslaco, Texas in fall 2007 and spring 2008 seasons, and peppers were used as a model crop. Plots were sprayed with novaluron, abamectin, spinetoram, lambda-cyhalothrin and water as treatments according to leafminer infestation; insecticide efficacy was monitored by collecting leaves and infested foliage. Plant phenology was also monitored. Novaluron was the most effective insecticide and lambda-cyhalothrin showed resurgence in leafminer density in fall 2007 and no reduction in spring 2008. Other compounds varied in efficacy. Novaluron showed the least number of parasitoids per leafminer larva and the lowest parasitoid diversity index among treatments followed by spinetoram. Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess) was the sole leafminer species on peppers, and 19 parasitoid species were found associated with this leafminer. Application of these insecticides for management of leafminers with conservation of natural enemies is discussed.

  10. Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling to Improve Natural Flow Rate and Sweet Pepper Productivity in Greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Limtrakarn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural flow rate and sweet peppers productivity in tropical greenhouse are improved by CFD simulation is the main objective of this research work. Most of the greenhouse types today are in the arch shape. To develop an improved greenhouse structure for the region, the arch type was built and used as the control model. Mae Sar Mai agriculture research station under the royal project foundation was selected as the field test site. Temperature sensors with data logger were installed to monitor variation of temperature inside the greenhouse. The measured temperature data were used as the boundary conditions for the CFD analysis. A new greenhouse model with two-step roof shape was designed and the air flow behavior was simulated by using CFD. Regarding CFD results the air flow rate of the new model is about 39% higher than that of old model. The maximum temperature of the new model is lower than that of the old one. The sweet paper growths in both greenhouse models were measured and compared. Results show that the new model obtains 4°C lower maximum temperature in day time, 97% in number and 90% in weight higher the first grade pepper productivity than the old one.

  11. Assessment of yield and yield stability of new perspective pepper breeding lines with conical shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panayotov Nikolay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the present study was to estimate new perspective Bulgarian conic lines pepper about yield and stability of the yield with purpose to be presented for Government variety testing and to been included in new breeding programs. Three years experiments were carried out in Experimental fields of Agricultural University, Plovdiv, Bulgaria with eight new perspective consolidated hybrids of sweet pepper. Typical Bulgarian variety Kurtovska kapia 1619 was used as a standard. The plants were grown according to the conventional technology for middle early field production for South Bulgarian condition. Four harvests were done - one of green fruits and three of red ripening fruits. The total yield, weight and length of fruit were determined. The stability of yield (Ysi by the methods Kang was calculated. The lines with the highest yield were Doux Marconi Rouge х Kapia 1300 F8 and Doux Marconi San Semences х Kalinkov 800/7 F7 with productivity of 5034.1 kg/da and 4881.3 kg/da respectively. The index of yield stability was highest 7+ about following breeding lines Doux Marconi San Semences х Kalinkov 800/7 F7 and Kapia 1300 х Doux d’Espagne F9. The lines Doux Marconi Rouge х Kapia 1300 F8, Doux Marconi San Semences х Kalinkov 800/7 F7 and Doux Marconi Rouge х Kapia 1300 F7 are suitable to be included in new selection programs for more successfully breeding.

  12. Evaluation of mutagenic activity in an extract of pepper tree stem bark (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Maria Cleide Ribeiro Dantas; Barca, Francisco Napoleão Túlio Varela; Agnez-Lima, Lucymara Fassarella; de Medeiros, Sílvia Regina Batistuzzo

    2003-01-01

    An extract (decoction) from pepper tree stem bark (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi) is widely used in Brazil as a topical antiinflammatory agent and to cicatrize wounds. The extract contains catechin, tannins, terpenes, flavonoids, and saponins; of these components, both mutagenic potential and antioxidant properties have been ascribed to flavonoids. The mutagenicity of some flavonoids is believed to be associated with the formation of reactive oxygen species and seems to depend on the number and position of hydroxyl groups. In the present study, we evaluated an extract of S. terebinthifolius in a series of cell-free and bacterial assays in order to determine its genotoxic potential. The extract was negative in a cell-free plasmid DNA test, indicating that it did not directly break DNA. Positive results, however, were obtained in the SOS chromotest, in a forward mutagenesis assay employing CC104 and CC104mutMmutY strains of Escherichia coli, and in the Salmonella reversion assay, using strains TA97, TA98, TA100, and TA102. All the bacterial tests were performed without exogenous metabolic activation due to the topical use of this preparation. The results indicate that pepper tree stem bark extract produces DNA damage and mutation in bacteria, and that oxidative damage may be responsible for the genotoxicity. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Novel Approaches to Extraction Methods in Recovery of Capsaicin from Habanero Pepper (CNPH 15.192)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Frederico S.; Borges, Leonardo L.; Ribeiro, Claudia S. C.; Reifschneider, Francisco J. B.; Conceição, Edemilson C.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The objective of this study was to compare three capsaicin extraction methods: Shoxlet, Ultrasound-assisted Extraction (UAE), and Shaker-assisted Extraction (SAE) from Habanero pepper, CNPH 15.192. Materials and Methods: The different parameters evaluated were alcohol degree, time extraction, and solid–solvent ratio using response surface methodology (RSM). Results: The three parameters found significant (p Soxhlet increased the extraction in 10–25%; however, long extraction times (45 minutes) degraded 2% capsaicin. Conclusion: The extraction of capsaicin was influenced by extraction method and by the operating conditions chosen. The optimized conditions provided savings of time, solvent, and herbal material. Prudent choice of the extraction method is essential to ensure optimal yield of extract, thereby making the study relevant and the knowledge gained useful for further exploitation and application of this resource. SUMMARY Habanero pepper, line CNPH 15.192, possess capsaicin in higher levels when compared with others speciesHigher levels of ethanolic strength are more suitable to obtain a higher levels of capsaicinBox-Behnken design indicates to be useful to explore the best conditions of ultrasound assisted extraction of capsaicin. Abbreviations used: Nomenclature UAE: Ultrasound-assisted Extraction; SAE: Shaker-assisted Extraction. PMID:28808409

  14. Development of ready-to-eat appetisers based on pepper and their quality evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadikar, Dadasaheb D; Nanjappa, C; Premavalli, K S; Bawa, Amrinder Singh

    2010-12-01

    Appetiser is a need based product for defence forces deployed at high altitudes. Ready to eat appetisers in the form of munches i.e. pepper munch and lemon munch were developed by using response surface methodology and central composite rotatable design with active ingredients as variables and quality parameters such as acidity, sugars and sensory acceptability score as responses. The ingredients like raisins and dates were pre-processed by frying in ghee (butter oil) while juice was extracted from pseudolemon and lemon. Pepper was pulverized to a fine powder prior to main processing. The optimized composition of ingredients was processed further by dehydration and concentration technique. The products had 8.7-9.8% fat, 6.5-7.9% protein and 72-73% carbohydrates supplying about 80 Kcals/20 g munch. The appetisers packed in metalized polyester pouches had a shelf-life of 9 months at room temperature (18-33 °C) as well as at 37 °C.

  15. Effects of poultry litter biochar on soil enzyme activities and tomato, pepper and lettuce plants growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhittin Onur Akça

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Biochar application to soils is being considered as a means to sequester carbon (C while concurrently improving soil functions. A greenhouse experiment was carried out to determine the effects of biochar from the pyrolysis poultry litter (PL on the soil enzyme activities, organic matter content and growth of tomato, pepper and lettuce plants. In the experiment, the combination of 15.15.15 composite fertilizer with 0, 200, 400 and 600kg/da doses of PL biochar were applied into the clay loam soil. Compared to the control and chemical fertilizer alone, the soil organic matter was significantly increased after biochar amendments. β-glucosidase, alkaline phosphatase, urease and arylsulphatase enzyme activities in soils were increased by the biochar applications significantly (P<0.05. Plant fresh and dry weight of tomato, pepper and lettuce plants were higher in 4kg/ha PL biochar treatment than in the other treatments. The results showed that PL biochar amendment to soils in the agricultural use increased yield of plants and enzyme activities with increasing soil organic matter content as well as improving soil properties.

  16. Biosorption of textile dye reactive blue 221 by capia pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürel, Levent

    2017-04-01

    Peppers are very important foodstuffs in the world for direct and indirect consumption, so they are extensively used. The seeds of these peppers are waste materials that are disposed of from houses and factories. To evaluate the performance of this biomass in the treatment of wastewaters, a study was conducted to remove a textile dye, reactive blue 221, which is commercially used in textile mills. Raw seed materials were used without any pre-treatment. The effects of contact time, initial concentration of dye, pH and dose of biosorbent were studied to determine the optimum conditions for this biomass on color removal from wastewaters. The optimum pH value for dye biosorption was found to be 2.0. At an initial dye concentration of 217 mg L -1 , treatment efficiency and biosorption capacity were 96.7% and 95.35 mg g -1 , respectively. A maximum biosorption capacity of 142.86 mg g -1 was also obtained. Equilibrium biosorption of dye by capia seeds was well described by the Langmuir isotherm with a correlation coefficient above 99%. The biosorption process was also successfully explained with the pseudo-second order kinetic model. This biomass was found to be effective in terms of textile dye removal from aqueous solutions.

  17. Growth, photosynthetic pigments and production of essential oil of long-pepper under different light conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Vandimilli A; Pacheco, Fernanda V; Avelar, Rafaella P; Alvarenga, Ivan C A; Pinto, José Eduardo B P; Alvarenga, Amauri A DE

    2017-01-01

    Piper hispidinervum C. DC. is popularly known as long-pepper and it owns a commercial value due to the essential oil it produces. Long-pepper oil is rich in safrole and eugenoln components that have insecticidal, fungicidal and bactericidal activity. It has been establish that to medicinal plants light influences not only growth but also essential oil production. The growth, the content of photosynthetic pigments and the essential oil production of Piper hispidinervum at greenhouses with different light conditions was evaluated. The treatments were characterized by cultivation of plants for 180 days under different light conditions, produced by shading greenhouses with 50% and 30% of natural incident irradiance, two colored shading nets red (RN) and blue (BN) both blocking 50% of the incident radiation and one treatment at full-sun (0% of shade). The results showed that the treatments of 50% shade and RN and BN were the ones which stimulated the greater growth. Blue and red light also had the best production of photosynthetic pigments. Essential oil yielded more under full sun therefore this is the most indicated condition to produce seedlings for the chemical and pharmaceutical industry.

  18. Flask sealing on in vitro seed germination and morphogenesis of two types of ornamental pepper explants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Silva Batista

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The influence of flask sealing and explant source on the in vitro morphogenesis of pepper, were evaluated in Capsicum annuum. Seeds were sterilized and inoculated in Murashige and Skoog media supplemented with vitamins, myo-inositol, sucrose, and agar. Gas exchange was evaluated in the germination stage by comparing 3 flask-sealing systems: rigid polypropylene lids (PLs without vents, PLs with 1 vent, and PLs with 2 vents covered with membranes. In the regeneration stage, cotyledon and hypocotyl segments were transferred to the organogenesis-inducing media, being the different sealing types also tested in a factorial scheme. Photosynthetic pigments, morphological and hystological analyses were conducted for each treatment. Plants maintained in glass flasks capped with vented lids showed more vigorous growth and differentiated anatomical structures. These treatments resulted in taller plants, higher numbers and more expanded leaves, higher fresh and dry weights, and an increase in photosynthetic pigments. Cultivation of C. annuum in flasks with reduced gas exchange was more effective on callus induction. During the regeneration stage, hypocotyls were more effective than cotyledons. Sealing type influenced the morphogenic responses of pepper, demonstrating that an increase in gas exchange has a positive effect on biomass production and acclimatization of the plantlets.

  19. Growth, photosynthetic pigments and production of essential oil of long-pepper under different light conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VANDIMILLI A. LIMA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Piper hispidinervum C. DC. is popularly known as long-pepper and it owns a commercial value due to the essential oil it produces. Long-pepper oil is rich in safrole and eugenoln components that have insecticidal, fungicidal and bactericidal activity. It has been establish that to medicinal plants light influences not only growth but also essential oil production. The growth, the content of photosynthetic pigments and the essential oil production of Piper hispidinervum at greenhouses with different light conditions was evaluated. The treatments were characterized by cultivation of plants for 180 days under different light conditions, produced by shading greenhouses with 50% and 30% of natural incident irradiance, two colored shading nets red (RN and blue (BN both blocking 50% of the incident radiation and one treatment at full-sun (0% of shade. The results showed that the treatments of 50% shade and RN and BN were the ones which stimulated the greater growth. Blue and red light also had the best production of photosynthetic pigments. Essential oil yielded more under full sun therefore this is the most indicated condition to produce seedlings for the chemical and pharmaceutical industry.

  20. Phytophthora capsici Epidemic Dispersion on Commercial Pepper Fields in Aguascalientes, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata-Vázquez, Adrián; Sánchez-Sánchez, Mario; del-Río-Robledo, Alicia; Silos-Espino, Héctor; Perales-Segovia, Catarino; Flores-Benítez, Silvia; González-Chavira, Mario Martín; Valera-Montero, Luis Lorenzo

    2012-01-01

    Chili pepper blight observed on pepper farms from north Aguascalientes was monitored for the presence of Phytophthora capsici during 2008–2010. Initially, ELISA tests were directed to plant samples from greenhouses and rustic nurseries, showing an 86% of positive samples. Later, samples of wilted plants from the farms during the first survey were tested with ELISA. The subsequent survey on soil samples included mycelia isolation and PCR amplification of a 560 bp fragment of ITS-specific DNA sequence of P. capsici. Data was analyzed according to four geographical areas defined by coordinates to ease the dispersal assessment. In general, one-third of the samples from surveyed fields contained P. capsici, inferring that this may be the pathogen responsible of the observed wilt. Nevertheless, only five sites from a total of 92 were consistently negative to P. capsici. The presence of this pathogen was detected through ELISA and confirmed through PCR. The other two-thirds of the negative samples may be attributable to Fusarium and Rhizoctonia, both isolated instead of Phytophthora in these areas. Due to these striking results, this information would be of interest for local plant protection committees and farmers to avoid further dispersal of pathogens to new lands. PMID:22629131

  1. Genotypic character relationship and phenotypic path coefficient analysis in chili pepper genotypes grown under tropical condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Magaji G; Rafii, Mohd Y; Martini, Mohammad Y; Oladosu, Yusuff; Kashiani, Pedram

    2017-03-01

    Studies on genotypic and phenotypic correlations among characters of crop plants are useful in planning, evaluating and setting selection criteria for the desired characters in a breeding program. The present study aimed to estimate the phenotypic correlation coefficients among yield and yield attributed characters and to work out the direct and indirect effects of yield-related characters on yield per plant using path coefficient analysis. Twenty-six genotypes of chili pepper were laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Yield per plant showed positive and highly significant (P ≤ 0.01) correlations with most of the characters studied at both the phenotypic and genotypic levels. By contrast, disease incidence and days to flowering showed a significant negative association with yield. Fruit weight and number of fruits exerted positive direct effect on yield and also had a positive and significant (P ≤ 0.01) correlation with yield per plant. However, fruit length showed a low negative direct effect with a strong and positive indirect effect through fruit weight on yield and had a positive and significant association with yield. Longer fruits, heavy fruits and a high number of fruits are variables that are related to higher yields of chili pepper under tropical conditions and hence could be used as a reliable indicator in indirect selection for yield. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Black hole hair removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Nabamita; Mandal, Ipsita; Sen, Ashoke

    2009-01-01

    Macroscopic entropy of an extremal black hole is expected to be determined completely by its near horizon geometry. Thus two black holes with identical near horizon geometries should have identical macroscopic entropy, and the expected equality between macroscopic and microscopic entropies will then imply that they have identical degeneracies of microstates. An apparent counterexample is provided by the 4D-5D lift relating BMPV black hole to a four dimensional black hole. The two black holes have identical near horizon geometries but different microscopic spectrum. We suggest that this discrepancy can be accounted for by black hole hair - degrees of freedom living outside the horizon and contributing to the degeneracies. We identify these degrees of freedom for both the four and the five dimensional black holes and show that after their contributions are removed from the microscopic degeneracies of the respective systems, the result for the four and five dimensional black holes match exactly.

  3. The Black Studies Boondoggle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Richard A.

    1970-01-01

    Indicates tendencies dangerous to the basic purpose of Black Studies, and identifies four external challeges--imperialism, paternalism, nihilism, and materialism. An internal challenge is considered to be the use of European and Establishment constructs to analyze black reality. (DM)

  4. Black-Body Radiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Black-body radiation; thermal radiation; heat; electromagnetic radiation; Stefan's Law; Stefan–Boltzmann Law; Wien's Law; Rayleigh–Jeans Law; black-body spectrum; ultraviolet catastrophe; zero point energy; photon.

  5. Dynamics of black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Hayward, Sean A.

    2008-01-01

    This is a review of current theory of black-hole dynamics, concentrating on the framework in terms of trapping horizons. Summaries are given of the history, the classical theory of black holes, the defining ideas of dynamical black holes, the basic laws, conservation laws for energy and angular momentum, other physical quantities and the limit of local equilibrium. Some new material concerns how processes such as black-hole evaporation and coalescence might be described by a single trapping h...

  6. Black holes are hot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, G.

    1976-01-01

    Recent work, which has been investigating the use of the concept of entropy with respect to gravitating systems, black holes and the universe as a whole, is discussed. The resulting theory of black holes assigns a finite temperature to them -about 10 -7 K for ordinary black holes of stellar mass -which is in complete agreement with thermodynamical concepts. It is also shown that black holes must continuously emit particles just like ordinary bodies which have a certain temperature. (U.K.)

  7. Toward an optimal control strategy for sweet pepper production 2. optimization of the yield pattern and energy efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henten, van E.J.; Buwalda, F.; Zwart, de H.F.; Gelder, de A.; Hemming, J.

    2006-01-01

    Sweet pepper production is characterized by large fluctuations in fruit yield in time. These fluctuations have a detrimental effect on the operational planning of labor at nursery level as well as on the efficiency of the supply chain. At the same time, the dependence of temperate zone greenhouse

  8. Plant-plant-microbe mechanisms involved in soil-borne disease suppression on a maize and pepper intercropping system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intercropping systems could increase crop diversity and avoid vulnerability to biotic stresses. Most studies have shown that intercropping can provide relief to crops against wind-dispersed pathogens. However, there was limited data on how the practice of intercropping help crops against soil-borne Phytophthora disease. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Compared to pepper monoculture, a large scale intercropping study of maize grown between pepper rows reduced disease levels of the soil-borne pepper Phytophthora blight. These reduced disease levels of Phytophthora in the intercropping system were correlated with the ability of maize plants to form a "root wall" that restricted the movement of Phytophthora capsici across rows. Experimentally, it was found that maize roots attracted the zoospores of P. capsici and then inhibited their growth. When maize plants were grown in close proximity to each other, the roots produced and secreted larger quantities of 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H-one (DIMBOA and 6-methoxy-2-benzoxazolinone (MBOA. Furthermore, MBOA, benzothiazole (BZO, and 2-(methylthio-benzothiazole (MBZO were identified in root exudates of maize and showed antimicrobial activity against P. capsici. CONCLUSIONS: Maize could form a "root wall" to restrict the spread of P. capsici across rows in maize and pepper intercropping systems. Antimicrobe compounds secreted by maize root were one of the factors that resulted in the inhibition of P. capsici. These results provide new insights into plant-plant-microbe mechanisms involved in intercropping systems.

  9. Stir-fried white pepper can treat diarrhea in infants and children efficiently: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Cheng-Qiang; Jia, Yan-Xia; Dong, Hai-Xin; Zhou, Jian-Wei; Sun, Guang-Fei; Zhang, Yu-Yan; Zhao, Qing; Zheng, Bi-Ying

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacy and safety of stir-fried white pepper in the treatment of infant and children diarrhea. This was a randomized trial conducted in the pediatric emergency department of the hospital affiliated to Jining Medical College. One hundred seventy four patients were selected from outpatients from 2011 to 2012. Participants were randomly assigned to treatment with stir-fried white pepper (n = 88) or montmorillonite powder (n = 86). The proportions of chronic diarrhea patients (n = 52) showing success of treatment were similar for both groups. There were great differences between the two groups in acute diarrhea (n = 62) and persistent diarrhea (n = 60), and the cure rate of stir-fried white pepper was higher than montmorillonite powder in both groups. The prescription of stir-fried white pepper significantly decreased the frequency of diarrhea in infants and children under 2.5 years with diarrhea compared to treatment with montmorillonite powder, especially for the patients with acute diarrhea or persistent diarrhea.

  10. The effect of substrates with compost and nitrogenous fertilization on photosynthesis, precocity and pepper (Capsicum annuum) yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grazia, de J.; Tittonell, P.A.; Chiesa, A.

    2007-01-01

    Fast-growing seedlings have larger immediate nutrient demands as compared with adult plants. A tray experiment was conducted to evaluate the fertilization of sweet pepper transplants growing on different substrates [Control (60% Sphagnum peat + 40% perlite), Mix I (45% Sphagnum peat + 30% perlite +

  11. 76 FR 78231 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Peppers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... 319.56-1 through 319.56-54). Under these regulations, peppers from Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala... certificate. We are asking the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) to approve our use of these information... public (as well as affected agencies) concerning our information collection. These comments will help us...

  12. Innovation-oriented Analysis of Critical Control Points (IACCP): Sho Wishes to Solve Sweet Pepper Yield Oscillations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, H.E.; Kromdijk, W.; Kooten, van O.

    2006-01-01

    A generic program for mathematical model-supported innovation profiling in fresh food supply chains is presented. Building on top of a crop growth model, strategies to address the problem of sweet pepper yield oscillations (flushes) are analysed quantitatively from both isolated or combined

  13. Antibacterial activity, chemical composition, and cytotoxicity of leaf's essential oil from brazilian pepper tree (schinus terebinthifolius, raddi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A B; Silva, T; Franco, E S; Rabelo, S A; Lima, E R; Mota, R A; da Câmara, C A G; Pontes-Filho, N T; Lima-Filho, J V

    2010-01-01

    The antibacterial potential of leaf's essential oil (EO) from Brazilian pepper tree (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi) against staphylococcal isolates from dogs with otitis externa was evaluated. The minimum inhibitory concentration of EO ranged from 78.1 to 1,250 μg/mL. The oil was analyzed by GC and GC/MS and cytotoxicity tests were carried out with laboratory animals.

  14. [Effects of soil covering on solar greenhouse pepper water use efficiency and soil nitrate N and available phosphorus contents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mao-juan; Liang, Yin-li; Chen, Jia-rui; Xiong, Ya-mei; Wei, Ze-xiu

    2007-06-01

    A greenhouse study on the effects of soil covering on pepper (Capsicum anmuum L.) water use efficiency and soil nitrate and available phosphorus contents showed that straw mulch + plastic film mulch could get the highest pepper yield water use efficiency (33.04 kg . m(-3)) and economic water use efficiency (50.22 yuan . m(-3)), followed by plastic film mulch, with the two parameters being 18.81 kg . m(-3) and 28.57 yuan . m(-3), respectively. Significant differences of nitrate N content in 0-20 cm soil layer were observed among different treatments. The control had the highest nitrate N content (50.33 mg . kg(-1)), followed by straw mulch (31.98 mg . kg(-1)) and straw + plastic film mulch (31.96 mg . kg(-1)), and plastic film mulch and applying water preserving agent. Compared with the control, soil covering could increase the nitrate N use efficiency of pepper, and decrease the accumulation of nitrate N in plough layer. In 0-20 cm soil layer, treatment plastic film mulch had the lowest available phosphorus content (0.72 mg . kg(-3)), and the second (0. 92 mg . kg(-1)) was the treatment straw + plastic film mulch. Treatments straw + plastic film mulch and plastic film mulch could increase pepper fruit yield and fertilizer use efficiency, and decrease fertilizer loss.

  15. Evaluation of crucial factors for implementing shed-microspore culture of Indonesian hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Supena, E.D.J.; Muswita, W.; Suharsono, S.; Custers, J.B.M.

    2006-01-01

    A shed-microspore culture protocol was developed in Wageningen for producing doubled haploid plants in several genotypes of Indonesian hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). For transfer of technology to Indonesia, three factors were studied that appeared crucial for successful implementation in practice.

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of a Biocontrol Rhizobacterium, Chryseobacterium kwangjuense Strain KJ1R5, Isolated from Pepper (Capsicum annuum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jin-Ju; Park, Hongjae; Park, Byeong Hyeok; Mannaa, Mohamed; Sang, Mee Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Strain KJ1R5 of the rhizobacterium Chryseobacterium kwangjuense is an effective biocontrol agent against Phytophthora blight of pepper caused by a destructive soilborne oomycete, Phytophthora capsici. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of strain KJ1R5, which contains genes related to biocontrol, plant growth promotion, and environmental stress adaptation. PMID:27103726

  17. Successful development of a shed-microspore culture protocol for doubled haploid production in Indonesian hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Supena, E.D.J.; Suharsono, S.; Jacobsen, E.; Custers, J.B.M.

    2006-01-01

    Various systems of anther and microspore cultures were studied to establish an efficient doubled haploid production method for Indonesian hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). A shed-microspore culture protocol was developed which outperformed all the previously reported methods of haploid production in

  18. Assessment of root-associated paenibacillus polymyxa groups on growth promotion and induced systemic resistance in pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phi, Quyet-Tien; Park, Yu-Mi; Seul, Keyung-Jo; Ryu, Choong-Min; Park, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Jong-Guk; Ghim, Sa-Youl

    2010-12-01

    Twenty-nine P. polymyxa strains isolated from rhizospheres of various crops were clustered into five genotypic groups on the basis of BOX-PCR analysis. The characteristics of several plant growth-promoting factors among the isolates revealed the distinct attributes in each allocated group. Under gnotobiotic conditions, inoculation of pepper roots with P. polymyxa isolates significantly increased the biomass in 17 of total 29 treated plants with untreated plants. Experiments on induced systemic resistance (ISR) against bacterial spot pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria in pepper by P. polymyxa strains were conducted and only one isolate (KNUC265) was selected. Further studies into ISR mediation by the KNUC265 strain against the soft-rot pathogen Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora in tobacco demonstrated that the tobacco seedlings exposed to either bacterial volatiles or diffusible metabolites exhibited a reduction in disease severity. In conclusion, ISR and plant growth promotion triggered by P. polymyxa isolates were systemically investigated on pepper for the first time. The P. polymyxa KNUC265 strain, which elicited both ISR and plant growth promotion, could be potentially used in improving the yield of pepper and possibly of other crops.

  19. Mining secreted proteins that function in pepper fruit development and ripening using a yeast secretion trap (YST)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Je Min, E-mail: jemin@knu.ac.kr [Department of Plant Science, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Horticultural Science, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang-Jik [Biotechnology Institute, Nongwoo Bio Co, Ltd, Yeoju (Korea, Republic of); Department of Plant Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Rose, Jocelyn K.C. [Department of Plant Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Yeam, Inhwa [Department of Horticulture and Breeding, Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byung-Dong [Department of Plant Science, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • Yeast secretion trap (YST) is a valuable tool for mining secretome. • A total of 80 secreted proteins are newly identified via YST in pepper fruits. • The secreted proteins are differentially regulated during pepper development and ripening. • Transient GFP-fusion assay and in planta secretion trap can effectively validate the secretion of proteins. - Abstract: Plant cells secrete diverse sets of constitutively- and conditionally-expressed proteins under various environmental and developmental states. Secreted protein populations, or secretomes have multiple functions, including defense responses, signaling, metabolic processes, and developmental regulation. To identify genes encoding secreted proteins that function in fruit development and ripening, a yeast secretion trap (YST) screen was employed using pepper (Capsicum annuum) fruit cDNAs. The YST screen revealed 80 pepper fruit-related genes (CaPFRs) encoding secreted proteins including cell wall proteins, several of which have not been previously described. Transient GFP-fusion assay and an in planta secretion trap were used to validate the secretion of proteins encoded by selected YST clones. In addition, RNA gel blot analyses provided further insights into their expression and regulation during fruit development and ripening. Integrating our data, we conclude that the YST provides a valuable functional genomics tool for the identification of substantial numbers of novel secreted plant proteins that are associated with biological processes, including fruit development and ripening.

  20. MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS OF CHILLI PEPPER (Capsicum frutescens L. AS INFLUENCED BY SODIUM AZIDE AT GENERATIVE STAGE OF M1 GENERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Agung Eka Saraswati

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens L. is one vegetable crop that has high economic value.  There are several problems in cultivation of chili pepper, for examples limited land, bad weather, and pests and diseases, which result in low production. These problems can be solved by developing new cultivar which has superior quality.  New cultivars of chili pepper plants can be obtained through induced mutation using chemical mutagen. In this research sodium azide (NaN3 was used as mutagen in chili pepper in order to obtain genetic variations that are useful in  increasing its  production.  The research was designed in  randomized  block  design. The observations were made on the response of plant morphology at generative stage, including plant height, number of branch, number of leaf, leaf length and leaf width.  The results showed that sodium azide increased plant height, branch number, leaf number and leaf length.  Sodium azide at concentrations of 2 mM and 5 mM were most effective in increasing plant height, number of leaves and number of branches. Keywords: Capsicum frutescens L., morphology, mutation, sodium azide

  1. Genome-wide Identification and Expression of ARF Gene Family during Adventitious Root Development in Hot Pepper (Capsicum annuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanxin ZHANG

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Auxin response factors (ARFs are transcription factors that activate or repress the expression of primary/early auxin response genes by binding to auxin-responsive elements (AuxREs in their promoter regions. The ARFs play important roles in diverse developmental processes. To explore the ARF gene family in hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L., we performed a genome-wide identification and expression analysis. In this study, 19 pepper ARF genes (CaARFs clustered into three phylogenetic groups (I, II, and III were comprehensively analyzed. Conserved domain analysis showed that all CaARFs contained a B3 DNA-binding domain and a middle domain, but two members lacked the carboxy-terminal dimerization (CTD domain. The number of introns in CaARF genes ranged from 1 to 13 and the gene structure was similar among genes in the same phylogenetic group. Additionally, prediction of CaARFs promoter elements and putative targets for microRNAs suggested that the regulation of CaARFs may occur at both transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. Most CaARFs were expressed in more than one tested tissue, and most CaARFs were identified as being responsive to exogenous auxin. Moreover, time-course transcription profiles of CaARFs revealed their roles in adventitious rooting of hypocotyl cuttings from pepper seedlings. Therefore, our results will provide a foundation for better understanding the regulatory mechanisms and molecular functions of CaARFs in hot pepper.

  2. Monopole black hole skyrmions

    OpenAIRE

    Moss, I.G.; Shiiki, N.; Winstanley, E.

    2000-01-01

    Charged black hole solutions with pion hair are discussed. These can be\\ud used to study monopole black hole catalysis of proton decay.\\ud There also exist\\ud multi-black hole skyrmion solutions with BPS monopole behaviour.

  3. Alcoholism and Blacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosley, Bertha; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Notes that in America, knowledge base concerning alcoholism is concentrated on drinking patterns of Whites, and that Black Americans often differ in their drinking behavior, resulting in a need to clarify issues regarding alcoholism and Blacks. Provides theoretical information useful in better discerning drinking behavior of Blacks. (Author/NB)

  4. What is black hole?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. What is black hole? Possible end phase of a star: A star is a massive, luminous ball of plasma having continuous nuclear burning. Star exhausts nuclear fuel →. White Dwarf, Neutron Star, Black Hole. Black hole's gravitational field is so powerful that even ...

  5. Genocide and Black Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnette, Calvin H.

    1972-01-01

    Contends that the survival of black people is in serious jeopardy as is evidenced in contemporary discussions on the worldwide plight of black people, and that an exhaustive study of the problem in its many dimensions is seriously lacking; the moral and ethical issues of genocide require examination from a black perspective. (JW)

  6. The influence of ethephon applied before harvesting on vitamin C, reducing sugars, protein total, and carotenoids content in the fruits of sweet pepper PCR (Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Perucka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes were examined in vitamin C, protein total, reducing sugars, and carotenoids content in fruits of sweet pepper treated with ethephon (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid before harvesting the fruits. The obtained results show that epplying ethephon caused an increase in vitamin C and carotenoids total content in fruits of pepper harvested 35 days after spraying. With an increase of xantophyll concentration (capsanthin + capsorubin effected by ethephon, a decrease in ß-carotene occurred, and with an increase in the amount of ß-carotene a decrease in the amount of red carotenoids in pepper fruits was found.

  7. Preliminary study on peroxidase isoenzyme detection and RAPD molecular verification for sweet pepper 87-2 carried by a recoverable satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Min; Li Jinguo; Wang Yalin; Zhang Zan; Xue Huai; Zhang Chunhua; Li Sherong

    1999-01-01

    The detection technology of peroxidase isoenzyme pattern and RAPD (Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA) analysis were used to space-flown sweet pepper variety of 87-2 carried by a recoverable satellite, and its correspondent ground control Longjiao-2. Determination of peroxidase isoenzyme revealed that the physiological activities of space-flown sweet pepper were significantly higher than those of its ground control. To detect the polymorphism of gene sequence and the difference in molecular level. 42 primers were used, among them, 38 primers amplified polymorphic products, and the amplified products from 5 primers of sweet pepper 87-2 differed from those of ground control

  8. Black holes in binary stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, R.A.M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Introduction Distinguishing neutron stars and black holes Optical companions and dynamical masses X-ray signatures of the nature of a compact object Structure and evolution of black-hole binaries High-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black holes Formation of black holes

  9. Microbiological profile and incidence of Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes on hydroponic bell peppers and greenhouse cultivation environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Vega, Dulce E; Alvarez-Mayorga, Beatriz; Arvizu-Medrano, Sofía M; Pacheco-Aguilar, Ramiro; Martínez-Peniche, Ramón; Hernández-Iturriaga, Montserrat

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to generate information regarding the microbiological profile, including Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes incidence, of hydroponically grown bell peppers and materials associated with their production in greenhouses located in Mexico. Samples of coconut fiber (24), knives (30), drippers (20), conveyor belts (161), pepper transportation wagons (30), air (178), water (16), nutrient solution for plant irrigation (78), and bell pepper fruits (528) were collected during one cycle of production (2009 to 2010) for the quantification of microbial indicators (aerobic plate counts [APC], molds, coliforms, and Escherichia coli) and the detection of Salmonella and L. monocytogenes. With regard to surfaces (conveyor belts and wagons) and utensils (knives and drippers), the APC, coliform, and mold counts ranged from 3.0 to 6.0, from 1.4 to 6.3, and from 3.6 to 5.2 log CFU/100 cm(2) or per utensil, respectively. The air in the greenhouse contained low median levels of APC (1.2 to 1.4 log CFU/100 liters) and molds (2.2 to 2.5 log CFU/100 liters). The median content of APC and coliforms in water were 0.5 log CFU/ml and 0.3 log MPN/100 ml, respectively. The median content of coliforms in nutrient solution ranged from 1.8 to 2.4 log MPN/100 ml, and E. coli was detected in 18 samples (range, fruit, respectively; E. coli was detected in 5.1% of the samples (range, 0.23 to 1.4 log MPN per fruit). Salmonella was isolated from only one sample (1.6%) of conveyor belt located at the packing area and in four bell pepper samples (3%). L. monocytogenes was not detected. This information could help producers to establish effective control measures to prevent the presence of foodborne pathogens in bell peppers based on a scientific approach.

  10. Effect of Gamma Irradiation, Organic and Mineral Fertilizers on Growth, Yield and Fruit Quality of Sweet Pepper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fath El-Bab, T.Sh.

    2014-01-01

    Field experiment was carried out for two successive seasons 2011 and 2012, on sweet pepper ( Capsicum annuum L. ) cv. California wonder in the Research Station of Atomic Energy Authority at Inshas, Egypt. This research aimed to evaluate response of sweet pepper to chemical and organic manure (poultry or sheep) fertilizers. Organic manures were treated with gamma rays at the dose of 10 KGy to keep it free from pathogenic organism pests and weed seeds. Growth characters such as plant height, num - ber of leaves, number of stems and dry weight per plant in the two seasons were significantly respond to tested factors. The highest vegetative growth characters were induced by 100% mineral fertilizer. Meanwhile, the lowest vegetative growth characters were recorded by using 100% organic manure as compared to mineral fertilizer. On the other hand dry weight of plants treated with organic manure treatment significantly decreased as compared to mineral fertilizer in the two seasons. Furthermore, using organic manure had enhanced or improved the quality of sweet pepper fruits. In conclusion, mineral fertilizers combined with organic fertilizers were the best treatment resulted in the highest vegetative growth, yield and fruit quality of sweet pepper. This treatment resulted in not only higher total chlorophyll in leave content compared to control plants, but also the highest chemical properties values of fruits, total soluble solids, acidity, vitamin C. and carotenoids in the two seasons. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content non significantly increased with all treatments except that of 100% chemical fertilizer. The improvement of plant growth and production recorded with the irradiated organic manure as compared to the unirradiated one. All parameters were higher in sweet pepper fertilized with poultry manure as compared to that fertilized with sheep manure. Although the treatment of organic manure only gave to some extent, less total yield, it has great impact on the

  11. Functional roles of the pepper RING finger protein gene, CaRING1, in abscisic acid signaling and dehydration tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chae Woo; Hwang, Byung Kook; Lee, Sung Chul

    2015-09-01

    Plants are constantly exposed to a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses, which include pathogens and conditions of high salinity, low temperature, and drought. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a major plant hormone involved in signal transduction pathways that mediate the defense response of plants to abiotic stress. Previously, we isolated Ring finger protein gene (CaRING1) from pepper (Capsicum annuum), which is associated with resistance to bacterial pathogens, accompanied by hypersensitive cell death. Here, we report a new function of the CaRING1 gene product in the ABA-mediated defense responses of plants to dehydration stress. The expression of the CaRING1 gene was induced in pepper leaves treated with ABA or exposed to dehydration or NaCl. Virus-induced gene silencing of CaRING1 in pepper plants exhibited low degree of ABA-induced stomatal closure and high levels of transpirational water loss in dehydrated leaves. These led to be more vulnerable to dehydration stress in CaRING1-silenced pepper than in the control pepper, accompanied by reduction of ABA-regulated gene expression and low accumulation of ABA and H2O2. In contrast, CaRING1-overexpressing transgenic plants showed enhanced sensitivity to ABA during the seedling growth and establishment. These plants were also more tolerant to dehydration stress than the wild-type plants because of high ABA accumulation, enhanced stomatal closure and increased expression of stress-responsive genes. Together, these results suggest that the CaRING1 acts as positive factor for dehydration tolerance in Arabidopsis by modulating ABA biosynthesis and ABA-mediated stomatal closing and gene expression.

  12. Curcuma longa extract associated with white pepper lessens high fat diet-induced inflammation in subcutaneous adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyrinck, Audrey M; Alligier, Maud; Memvanga, Patrick B; Névraumont, Elodie; Larondelle, Yvan; Préat, Véronique; Cani, Patrice D; Delzenne, Nathalie M

    2013-01-01

    Supra-nutritional doses of curcumin, derived from the spice Curcuma longa, have been proposed as a potential treatment of inflammation and metabolic disorders related to obesity. The aim of the present study was to test whether Curcuma longa extract rich in curcumin and associated with white pepper (Curcuma-P®), at doses compatible with human use, could modulate systemic inflammation in diet-induced obese mice. We questioned the potential relevance of changes in adiposity and gut microbiota in the effect of Curcuma-P® in obesity. Mice were fed either a control diet (CT), a high fat (HF) diet or a HF diet containing Curcuma longa extract (0.1 % of curcumin in the HF diet) associated with white pepper (0.01 %) for four weeks. Curcumin has been usually combined with white pepper, which contain piperine, in order to improve its bioavailability. This combination did not significantly modify body weight gain, glycemia, insulinemia, serum lipids and intestinal inflammatory markers. Tetrahydrocurcumin, but not curcumin accumulated in the subcutaneous adipose tissue. Importantly, the co-supplementation in curcuma extract and white pepper decreased HF-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines expression in the subcutaneous adipose tissue, an effect independent of adiposity, immune cells recruitment, angiogenesis, or modulation of gut bacteria controlling inflammation. These findings support that nutritional doses of Curcuma longa, associated with white pepper, is able to decrease inflammatory cytokines expression in the adipose tissue and this effect could be rather linked to a direct effect of bioactive metabolites reaching the adipose tissue, than from changes in the gut microbiota composition.

  13. Black hole levitron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsiwalla, Xerxes D.; Verlinde, Erik P.

    2010-01-01

    We study the problem of spatially stabilizing four dimensional extremal black holes in background electric/magnetic fields. Whilst looking for stationary stable solutions describing black holes placed in external fields we find that taking a continuum limit of Denef et al.'s multicenter supersymmetric black hole solutions provides a supergravity description of such backgrounds within which a black hole can be trapped within a confined volume. This construction is realized by solving for a levitating black hole over a magnetic dipole base. We comment on how such a construction is akin to a mechanical levitron.

  14. A taste of sweet pepper: Volatile and non-volatile chemical composition of fresh sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) in relation to sensory evaluation of taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggink, P M; Maliepaard, C; Tikunov, Y; Haanstra, J P W; Bovy, A G; Visser, R G F

    2012-05-01

    In this study volatile and non-volatile compounds, as well as some breeding parameters, were measured in mature fruits of elite sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) lines and hybrids from a commercial breeding program, several cultivated genotypes and one gene bank accession. In addition, all genotypes were evaluated for taste by a trained descriptive sensory expert panel. Metabolic contrasts between genotypes were caused by clusters of volatile and non-volatile compounds, which could be related to metabolic pathways and common biochemical precursors. Clusters of phenolic derivatives, higher alkanes, sesquiterpenes and lipid derived volatiles formed the major determinants of the genotypic differences. Flavour was described with the use of 14 taste attributes, of which the texture related attributes and the sweet-sour contrast were the most discriminatory factors. The attributes juiciness, toughness, crunchiness, stickiness, sweetness, aroma, sourness and fruity/apple taste could be significantly predicted with combined volatile and non-volatile data. Fructose and (E)-2-hexen-1-ol were highly correlated with aroma, fruity/apple taste and sweetness. New relations were found for fruity/apple taste and sweetness with the compounds p-menth-1-en-9-al, (E)-β-ocimene, (Z)-2-penten-1-ol and (E)-geranylacetone. Based on the overall biochemical and sensory results, the perspectives for flavour improvement by breeding are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Study on the technology of irradiation on hot pepper to inhibit Aspergllens flavus. Final report for the period 15 May 1987 - 15 May 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Qixun

    1988-01-01

    The effectiveness of irradiation on the sterilization of microorganisms and insects in dry hot pepper, as well as the changes in chemical composition and free radicals at different radiation doses, have been investigated

  16. Effect of curing time on the physicochemical and sensory properties of beef jerky replaced salt with soy sauce, red pepper paste and soybean paste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, H J; Kim, G D; Jung, E Y; Seo, H W; Joo, S T; Jin, S K; Yang, H S

    2014-08-01

    This study was done to investigate the quality properties of beef jerky with soy sauce, red pepper paste, and soybean paste replacing salt. Sliced beef samples were cured in salt (control), soy sauce, red pepper paste, and soybean paste for 24 or 48 h and then dried at 70°C for 8 h. Treatments showed higher final moisture content and lower Na(+) concentration than the control after drying for 8 h. The lightness and shear force values were lower in all treatment samples than in the control during 48 h of curing time. In particular, lower lipid oxidation was found in the jerky cured with red pepper paste than in the control. Sensory evaluation showed that color, flavor, and tenderness of jerky samples were improved by replacing salt with soy sauce, red pepper paste and soybean paste, and higher likeability scores of the beef jerky were obtained among those treatments after 48 h of curing time.

  17. Effect of Curing Time on the Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Beef Jerky Replaced Salt with Soy Sauce, Red Pepper Paste and Soybean Paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Lim

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was done to investigate the quality properties of beef jerky with soy sauce, red pepper paste, and soybean paste replacing salt. Sliced beef samples were cured in salt (control, soy sauce, red pepper paste, and soybean paste for 24 or 48 h and then dried at 70°C for 8 h. Treatments showed higher final moisture content and lower Na+ concentration than the control after drying for 8 h. The lightness and shear force values were lower in all treatment samples than in the control during 48 h of curing time. In particular, lower lipid oxidation was found in the jerky cured with red pepper paste than in the control. Sensory evaluation showed that color, flavor, and tenderness of jerky samples were improved by replacing salt with soy sauce, red pepper paste and soybean paste, and higher likeability scores of the beef jerky were obtained among those treatments after 48 h of curing time.

  18. An Experimental Test of a Biodynamic Method of Weed Suppression: The Biodynamic Seed Peppers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Kenneth Kirchoff

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available An experimental test of a biodynamic agriculture method of weed suppression was carried out in growth chambers to establish the feasibility of the method as a preliminary to field trials. Four generations of Brassica rapa plants were used in a randomized block design. Treated flats received ashed seeds prepared according to biodynamic indications. Seed weight and counts were measured at the end of each generation, and germination of the control and experimental seed was investigated at the end of generation four. The biodynamic seed peppers, created and applied as described here, had no effect on seed production or viability, and did not effectively inhibit reproduction of the targeted species over the course of four consecutive treatments.

  19. Dynamic plant uptake model applied for drip irrigation of an insecticide to pepper fruit plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legind, Charlotte Nielsen; Kennedy, C. M.; Rein, Arno

    2011-01-01

    irrigation, its application for a soil-applied insecticide and a sensitivity analysis of the model parameters. RESULTS: The model predicted the measured increase and decline of residues following two soil applications of an insecticide to peppers, with an absolute error between model and measurement ranging......BACKGROUND: Drip application of insecticides is an effective way to deliver the chemical to the plant that avoids off-site movement via spray drift and minimizes applicator exposure. The aim of this paper is to present a cascade model for the uptake of pesticide into plants following drip....... CONCLUSION: Repeated simulations of pulse inputs with the cascade model adequately describe soil pesticide applications to an actual cropped system and reasonably mimic it. The model has the potential to be used for the optimization of practical features, such as application rates and waiting times between...

  20. Artificial neural networks employment in the prediction of evapotranspiration of greenhouse-grown sweet pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héliton Pandorfi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to investigate the applicability of artificial neural networks (ANNs in the prediction of evapotranspiration of sweet pepper cultivated in a greenhouse. The used data encompass the second crop cycle, from September 2013 to February 2014, constituting 135 days of daily meteorological data, referring to the following variables: temperature and relative air humidity, wind speed and solar radiation (input variables, as well as evapotranspiration (output variable, determined using data obtained by load-cell weighing lysimeter. The recorded data were divided into three sets for training, testing and validation. The ANN learning model recognized the evapotranspiration patterns with acceptable accuracy, with mean square error of 0.005, in comparison to the data recorded in the lysimeter, with coefficient of determination of 0.87, demonstrating the best approximation for the 4-21-1 network architecture, with multilayers, error back-propagation learning algorithm and learning rate of 0.01.

  1. The influence of red pepper powder on the density of Weissella koreensis during kimchi fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Bo Kyoung; Cho, Min Seok; Ahn, Tae-Young; Lee, Eui Seok; Park, Dong Suk

    2015-10-26

    Weissella koreensis is a psychrophilic bacterium that is the dominant species found in kimchi and exhibits anti-obesity effects via its production of ornithine. In this study, we mined the genome of W. koreensis KACC15510 to identify species-specific genes that can serve as new targets for the detection and quantification of W. koreensis in kimchi. A specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primer set for the membrane protein-encoding gene of W. koreensis KACC15510 was designed and investigated to quantify its sensitivity and specificity for detecting the bacterium in kimchi. The specificity of the primer set was evaluated using genomic DNA from eight isolates of W. koreensis, 11 different species of Weissella and 13 other reference lactic acid bacterium (LAB) strains. In addition, red pepper powder was observed to strongly influence the density of W. koreensis during kimchi fermentation.

  2. SDS-Page Seed Storage Protein Profiles in Chili Peppers (Capsicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owk ANIEL KUMAR

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Seed protein banding patterns (SDS-PAGE were studied from eighteen genotypes of chili pepper (Capsicum L. A total of 21 protein polypeptide bands with molecular weight ranging from 18.6 to 72.0 kD were recorded. Among the genotypes CA18, CA21 and CA27 represented maximum number of protein bands (12. Band no. (11 and (5,12 are exclusive to C. annuum L. and C. frutescens L. genotypes respectively. Average percent similarity was highest (100% between CA2 and CA8 genotypes and the UPGMA dendrogram represented low genetic diversity. The study revealed that considerable intra and inter-specific differences were found in the genotypes. The variability of protein profiles in the genotypes suggested that these selected genotypes can be a good source for crop improvement through hybridization programs.

  3. Preliminary Study of Water Repellent Properties of Red Pepper Seed Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawan, F.; Madurani, K. A.; Wahyulis, N. C.

    2017-03-01

    The water-repellent properties of red pepper seed oil (capsicol) have been studied. The oil was coated on the glass surface by spray technique. Water repellent properties were performed by measuring the contact angle of water droplets. The measurement was conducted by varying the drying time of the oil coating at room temperature. The optimum contact angle of the droplets on the glass with capsicol coating is 46.77°, which can be achieved in 30 min of drying time. It also obtained the smallest diameter of the droplets (0.47 cm). The longer drying time decrease the contact angles and increases the diameter. The results were compared with the bare glass and commercial water repellent. The contact angle of the droplets on the glass surface with capsicol coating is higher than bare glass, but lower than glass with commercial water repellent coating. It means that capsicol has the water-repellent properties.

  4. Effect of seed treatment with low-potency laser in peppers plants (Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Álvarez Fonseca,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of seed treatment with low-potency laser radiation on some physiological parameters and yield of peppers plants, California Wonder variety, was studied. The seeds were irradiated with a laser He- Ne, 25 mW powers, at different exposure periods 5, 10, 20, 30 and 60 seconds, using untreated seeds as controls. We evaluated plant height (mm, root length (mm, stem diameter (mm, polar average diameter (mm equatorial mean diameter (mm, mean fruit mass (g and yield per plant (kg.plant-1. The results showed a significant increase (p?0.001 in the indicators of plants height (50 %, root length (13 %, stem diameter (17 %, equatorial mean diameter (7 %, mean fruit mass (13 % and yield per plant (67 %, compared to control.

  5. Characterization of phenolic compounds in Brazilian pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi) exocarp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuereisen, Michelle M; Hoppe, Julia; Zimmermann, Benno F; Weber, Fabian; Schulze-Kaysers, Nadine; Schieber, Andreas

    2014-07-02

    The objective of this study was to characterize the phenolic composition of Brazilian pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi) exocarp extract. Using UHPLC-DAD-MS/MS analysis, four anthocyanins, three biflavonoids, gallic acid, and two types of hydrolyzable tannins (galloyl glucoses, galloyl shikimic acids) were tentatively identified. The structure of the so far unknown 7-O-methylpelargonidin 3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside was elucidated by 2D NMR. Within the group of gallotannins, galloyl shikimic acids with uncommon degrees of galloylation (tetra- to hexagalloyl shikimic acids) were detected. Among the biflavonoids, I3',II8-biapigenin (amentoflavone), I6,II8-biapigenin (agathisflavone), and II-2,3-dihydro-I3',II8-biapigenin were identified, which have already been described for Anacardiaceae. From the results of the present study together with previous findings on the phenolic profile of other Anacardiaceae plants, it is concluded that 7-methoxylated flavonoids are a chemotaxonomic trait frequently found in this family.

  6. Interaction of capsaicinoids with cell membrane models does not correlate with pungency of peppers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraldo, Vananélia P. N.; Ziglio, Analine C.; Gonçalves, Débora; Oliveira, Osvaldo N.

    2017-04-01

    Mixed monolayers were prepared using phospholipids in order to mimic cell membranes and fractions of capsaicinoids (extracted from Malagueta, Caps-M, and Bhut Jolokia, Caps-B, peppers). According to their surface-pressure isotherms and polarization-modulated infrared reflection absorption spectra (PM-IRRAS), weak molecular-level interactions were observed between Caps and phospholipids. Both Caps-M and Caps-B penetrated into the alkyl tail region of the monolayer, interacted with the phosphate group of the phospholipids and affected hydration of their Cdbnd O groups. Since the physiological activity of Caps is not governed solely by interaction with cell membranes, it should require participation of a neuronal membrane receptor, e.g. vanilloid receptor (TRPV1).

  7. Ground red hot pepper agar in the isolation and presumptive identification of Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanović, S; Vuković, D; Radonjić, I; Dimitrijević, V; Svabić-Vlahović, M

    2002-11-01

    The study compared ground red hot pepper agar (GRHP) and Guizotia abyssinica creatinine agar (GACA), a medium routinely used for isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans. In order to confirm the capacity of GRHP to support the Cr. neoformans growth and pigment production, 15 strains were inoculated onto GRHP and GACA. No significant differences in the growth and pigmentation of the tested strains on the two media were noted. As heavily contaminated specimens, 50 samples of pigeon droppings were examined by plating on GRHP and GACA, which resulted in the isolation of 14 and nine Cr. neoformans strains, respectively. The results indicate that GRHP, as a result of its superior selectivity and significant reduction of contaminant growth, provides better conditions than GACA for isolation and presumptive identification of Cr. neoformans from heavily contaminated specimens.

  8. Does the essential oil of Lippia sidoides Cham. (pepper-rosmarin) affect its endophytic microbial community?

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Thais Freitas; Vollú, Renata Estebanez; Jurelevicius, Diogo; Alviano, Daniela Sales; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Seldin, Lucy

    2013-02-07

    Lippia sidoides Cham., also known as pepper-rosmarin, produces an essential oil in its leaves that is currently used by the pharmaceutical, perfumery and cosmetic industries for its antimicrobial and aromatic properties. Because of the antimicrobial compounds (mainly thymol and carvacrol) found in the essential oil, we believe that the endophytic microorganisms found in L. sidoides are selected to live in different parts of the plant. In this study, the endophytic microbial communities from the stems and leaves of four L. sidoides genotypes were determined using cultivation-dependent and cultivation-independent approaches. In total, 145 endophytic bacterial strains were isolated and further grouped using either ERIC-PCR or BOX-PCR, resulting in 76 groups composed of different genera predominantly belonging to the Gammaproteobacteria. The endophytic microbial diversity was also analyzed by PCR-DGGE using 16S rRNA-based universal and group-specific primers for total bacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria and 18S rRNA-based primers for fungi. PCR-DGGE profile analysis and principal component analysis showed that the total bacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria and fungi were influenced not only by the location within the plant (leaf vs. stem) but also by the presence of the main components of the L. sidoides essential oil (thymol and/or carvacrol) in the leaves. However, the same could not be observed within the Actinobacteria. The data presented here are the first step to begin shedding light on the impact of the essential oil in the endophytic microorganisms in pepper-rosmarin.

  9. Radical kinetics and characterization of the free radicals in gamma irradiated red pepper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korkmaz, M. E-mail: polat@hacettepe.edu.tr; Polat, M

    2001-12-01

    Kinetic behaviors and characterization of the natural and {gamma}-induced radicals in irradiated red pepper have been investigated by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy to explore the possibility of using this technique in detecting irradiated red pepper and to evaluate the eventual dosimetric features of this widely used food. Unirradiated samples exhibited a single resonance line centered at g=2.0050{+-}0.0005. Photo-exposure of the samples was found to increase the signal intensity. An increase in temperature created a drastic decrease in the concentration of natural radicals responsible for the single resonance line. Irradiation was observed to induce increases in the intensity of single resonance line (signal I) and a radiation specific doublet and/or triplet (signal II) also centered at g=2.0050 but detectable only at high spectrometer gains. The intensities of both signals increased with increasing radiation dose. The signals I and II were found to decay with different rates depending on the temperature. The results of a fitting procedure applied to the experimental signal decay curves and those obtained from room temperature spectra simulation calculations were used together to determine radical species and their spectral characteristics giving rise to the observed experimental spectra. Four radical species, three carbohydrate and one semiquinone radical assigned as radicals A, B, C and D, respectively, were found to best explain the experimental results. All the radicals show large g and hyperfine splitting anisotropies varying between g=2.0028-2.0062 and 1.07-2.58 mT, respectively. The half lives of the radicals were found to depend strongly on temperature. The activation energy calculated using temperature dependent half-life data were the highest for radical A (33.68 kcal/mol) and smallest for radical C (11.83 kcal/mol)

  10. A Three-Year Field Validation Study to Improve the Integrated Pest Management of Hot Pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hoon Kim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To improve the integrated pest management (IPM of hot pepper, field study was conducted in Hwasung from 2010 to 2012 and an IPM system was developed to help growers decide when to apply pesticides to control anthracnose, tobacco budworm, Phytophthora blight, bacterial wilt, and bacterial leaf spot. The three field treatments consisted of IPM sprays following the forecast model advisory, a periodic spray at 7-to-10-day intervals, and no spray (control. The number of annual pesticide applications for the IPM treatment ranged from six to eight, whereas the plots subjected to the periodic treatment received pesticide 11 or 12 times annually for three years. Compared to the former strategy, our improved IPM strategy features more intense pest management, with frequent spraying for anthracnose and mixed spraying for tobacco budworm or Phytophthora blight. The incidences for no pesticide control in 2010, 2011, and 2012 were 91, 97.6, and 41.4%, respectively. Conversely, the incidences for the IPM treatment for those years were 7.6, 62.6, and 2%, and the yields from IPM-treated plots were 48.6 kg, 12.1 kg, and 48.8 kg. The incidence and yield in the IPM-treated plots were almost the same as those of the periodic treatment except in 2011, in which no unnecessary sprays were given, meaning that the IPM control was quite successful. From reviewing eight years of field work, sophisticated forecasts that optimize pesticide spray timing reveal that reliance on pesticides can be reduced without compromising yield. Eco-friendly strategies can be implemented in the pest management of hot pepper.

  11. Diallel analyses and estimation of genetic parameters of hot pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa João Alencar de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The degree of heterosis in the genus Capsicum spp. is considered high; however, most of the studies refer to the species Capsicum annuum L. In spite of the potential use of F1 hybrids in pungent peppers of the species Capsicum chinense, few studies are available which assess the magnitude of heterosis in this species . This study was carried out to assess heterosis and its components in F1 hybrids from a diallel cross between hot pepper lines (Capsicum chinense and to obtain data on the allelic interaction between the parents involved in the crosses. Trials were made in Rio Branco-Acre, Brazil, from March through October 1997. A randomized complete block design with fifteen treatments and three replications was used. The treatments were five C. chinense accessions (from the Vegetable Germplasm Bank of the Universidade Federal de Viçosa - BGH/UFV and 10 F1 hybrids derived from single crosses between them (reciprocals excluded. Diallel analyses were performed for total yield, fruit length/diameter ratio, fruit dry matter per plant, Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria incidence, capsaicin yield per plant and number of seeds per fruit. Non-additive genetic effects were larger than additive effects for all the traits assessed. Epistasis was detected for fruit dry matter per plant, capsaicin yield per plant and number of seeds per fruit. In these cases, epistasis seemed to be largely responsible for heterosis expression. Dominant gene action, ranging from incomplete dominance to probable overdominance, was responsible for heterosis in those traits where no epistatic genetic action was detected.

  12. Agrobacterium rhizogenes-dependent production of transformed roots from foliar explants of pepper (Capsicum annuum): a new and efficient tool for functional analysis of genes

    OpenAIRE

    Aarrouf, Jawad; Mallard, Stephanie; Caromel, Bernard; Lizzi, Y.; Lefebvre, Véronique

    2012-01-01

    Pepper is known to be a recalcitrant species to genetic transformation via Agrobacterium tumefaciens. A. rhizogenes-mediated transformation offers an alternative and rapid possibility to study gene functions in roots. In our study, we developed a new and efficient system for A. rhizogenes transformation of the cultivated species Capsicum annuum. Hypocotyls and foliar organs (true leaves and cotyledons) of Yolo Wonder (YW) and Criollo de Morelos 334 (CM334) pepper cultivars were inoculated wit...

  13. Analysis Of Factors Affecting Demand Red Chili Pepper Capsicum Annum L In Solok And Effort Fulfillment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfitriyana

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Research on the analysis of the factors that influence the demand for red chilli Capsicum annuum L in Solok and compliance efforts implemented in March s.d April 2016. The purpose of this study consisted of 1 analyze the factors affecting the demand for red chili in Solok 2 analyze the elasticity of demand for red chili in Solok 3 know the effort that can be done to meet the demand of red chilli in Solok. To achieve the objectives of the first and second use secondary data for 15 fifteen years and to achieve the objectives the third used primary data. The method used is descriptive analytical method a method that is used to describe phenomena that exist which takes place in the present or past. The variables were observed in this study is the X1 price of red chilli X2 the price of green chili X3 onion prices X4 population X5 income and Y the number of requests red chili which is then analyzed by multiple linear regression elasticity of demand and SWOT. The results of that research addressing the factors that influence the demand for red chili in Solok is the price of red chilli itself the price of green chili as a substitute goods the number of population and income while onion prices affect the amount of red chili demand in Solok. But simultaneously variable X1 red chili prices X2 the price of green chili X3 onion prices X4 population and X5 income strongly influence demand red chili in Solok where the F test results show that F count F table 212.262 3600 with a significance level 0.000 0.010 and the most influential variable is the variable X4 population with the greatest value of beta Coefficients is 1100. Based on analysis of the elasticity of demand is known that red chili pepper is a normal good is inelastic to price elasticity coefficient value amp603p of -0.120. Green chili is substituting goods and shallots are complements of red chili with cross elasticity coefficient amp603px1 and amp603px2 respectively by 0293 and -0.635. While the

  14. Soil Bacterial Community Was Changed after Brassicaceous Seed Meal Application for Suppression of Fusarium Wilt on Pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaidi Ren

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Application of Brassicaceous seed meal (BSM is a promising biologically based disease-control practice but BSM could directly and indirectly also affect the non-target bacterial communities, including the beneficial populations. Understanding the bacterial response to BSM at the community level is of great significance for directing plant disease management through the manipulation of resident bacterial communities. Fusarium wilt is a devastating disease on pepper. However, little is known about the response of bacterial communities, especially the rhizosphere bacterial community, to BSM application to soil heavily infested with Fusarium wilt pathogen and cropped with peppers. In this study, a 25-day microcosm incubation of a natural Fusarium wilt pathogen-infested soil supplemented with three BSMs, i.e., Camelina sativa ‘Crantz’ (CAME, Brassica juncea ‘Pacific Gold’ (PG, and a mixture of PG and Sinapis alba cv. ‘IdaGold’ (IG (PG+IG, 1:1 ratio, was performed. Then, a further 35-day pot experiment was established with pepper plants growing in the BSM treated soils. The changes in the bacterial community in the soil after 25 days of incubation and changes in the rhizosphere after an additional 35 days of pepper growth were investigated by 454 pyrosequencing technique. The results show that the application of PG and PG+IG reduced the disease index by 100% and 72.8%, respectively, after 35 days of pepper growth, while the application of CAME did not have an evident suppressive effect. All BSM treatments altered the bacterial community structure and decreased the bacterial richness and diversity after 25 days of incubation, although this effect was weakened after an additional 35 days of pepper growth. At the phylum/class and the genus levels, the changes in specific bacterial populations resulting from the PG and PG+IG treatments, especially the significant increase in Actinobacteria-affiliated Streptomyces and an unclassified genus and

  15. Next-Generation Sequencing Approaches in Genome-Wide Discovery of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Markers Associated with Pungency and Disease Resistance in Pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abinaya Manivannan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Pepper is an economically important horticultural plant that has been widely used for its pungency and spicy taste in worldwide cuisines. Therefore, the domestication of pepper has been carried out since antiquity. Owing to meet the growing demand for pepper with high quality, organoleptic property, nutraceutical contents, and disease tolerance, genomics assisted breeding techniques can be incorporated to develop novel pepper varieties with desired traits. The application of next-generation sequencing (NGS approaches has reformed the plant breeding technology especially in the area of molecular marker assisted breeding. The availability of genomic information aids in the deeper understanding of several molecular mechanisms behind the vital physiological processes. In addition, the NGS methods facilitate the genome-wide discovery of DNA based markers linked to key genes involved in important biological phenomenon. Among the molecular markers, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP indulges various benefits in comparison with other existing DNA based markers. The present review concentrates on the impact of NGS approaches in the discovery of useful SNP markers associated with pungency and disease resistance in pepper. The information provided in the current endeavor can be utilized for the betterment of pepper breeding in future.

  16. Interacting black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Miguel S.; Perry, Malcolm J.

    2000-01-01

    We revisit the geometry representing l collinear Schwarzschild black holes. It is seen that the black holes' horizons are deformed by their mutual gravitational attraction. The geometry has a string like conical singularity that connects the holes but has nevertheless a well defined action. Using standard gravitational thermodynamics techniques we determine the free energy for two black holes at fixed temperature and distance, their entropy and mutual force. When the black holes are far apart the results agree with Newtonian gravity expectations. This analyses is generalized to the case of charged black holes. Then we consider black holes embedded in string/M-theory as bound states of branes. Using the effective string description of these bound states and for large separation we reproduce exactly the semi-classical result for the entropy, including the correction associated with the interaction between the holes

  17. Black silicon integrated aperture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianbo; Dickensheets, David L.

    2017-10-01

    This paper describes the incorporation of nanotextured black silicon as an optical absorbing material into silicon-based micro-optoelectromechanical systems devices to reduce stray light and increase optical contrast during imaging. Black silicon is created through a maskless dry etch process and characterized for two different etch conditions, a cold etch performed at 0°C and a cryogenic etch performed at -110°C. We measure specular reflection at visible wavelengths to be black velvet paint used to coat optical baffles and compare favorably with other methods to produce black surfaces from nanotextured silicon or using carbon nanotubes. We illustrate the use of this material by integrating a black silicon aperture around the perimeter of a deformable focus-control mirror. Imaging results show a significant improvement in contrast and image fidelity due to the effective reduction in stray light achieved with the self-aligned black aperture.

  18. Astrophysical black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gorini, Vittorio; Moschella, Ugo; Treves, Aldo; Colpi, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Based on graduate school lectures in contemporary relativity and gravitational physics, this book gives a complete and unified picture of the present status of theoretical and observational properties of astrophysical black holes. The chapters are written by internationally recognized specialists. They cover general theoretical aspects of black hole astrophysics, the theory of accretion and ejection of gas and jets, stellar-sized black holes observed in the Milky Way, the formation and evolution of supermassive black holes in galactic centers and quasars as well as their influence on the dynamics in galactic nuclei. The final chapter addresses analytical relativity of black holes supporting theoretical understanding of the coalescence of black holes as well as being of great relevance in identifying gravitational wave signals. With its introductory chapters the book is aimed at advanced graduate and post-graduate students, but it will also be useful for specialists.

  19. Black branes as piezoelectrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Jay; Gath, Jakob; Obers, Niels A

    2012-12-14

    We find a realization of linear electroelasticity theory in gravitational physics by uncovering a new response coefficient of charged black branes, exhibiting their piezoelectric behavior. Taking charged dilatonic black strings as an example and using the blackfold approach we measure their elastic and piezolectric moduli. We also use our results to draw predictions about the equilibrium condition of charged dilatonic black rings in dimensions higher than six.

  20. Naked black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, G.T.; Ross, S.F.

    1997-01-01

    It is shown that there are large static black holes for which all curvature invariants are small near the event horizon, yet any object which falls in experiences enormous tidal forces outside the horizon. These black holes are charged and near extremality, and exist in a wide class of theories including string theory. The implications for cosmic censorship and the black hole information puzzle are discussed. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society