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Sample records for black pepper

  1. Decontamination of Black Pepper (Pepper Negrum) in grains by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of irradiation with doses ranging between 3 and 10 kGy on the microbiological quality, on different chemical components and on the organoleptic quality of black pepper in grains was studied in this paper. The results showed the effectiveness of treatment in the decontamination of this spice. Piperin content, yield of essential oil and its composition as well as the organoleptic quality did not change with applied doses to black pepper in grains

  2. Decontamination of black pepper and red pepper by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, it has been studied the decontamination of two types of spices (black pepper and red pepper) by gamma radiation. The initial microbial population of spices not treated is about 10 (7) to 10 (8) per gram. The population decrease exponentially with irradiation dose. By this, it has been established that a dose of 6 kGy reduces the microbial flora low than 10 (3) per gram. A total elimination of moulds is obtained at dose of 8 kGy

  3. Causality between White Pepper and Black Pepper: Evidence from Six Markets in Sarawak

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, Evan; Puah, Chin-Hong; Oh, Swee-Ling; Lo, Yan-Ching

    2008-01-01

    The study of various spatial price relationships is indeed crucial and has been greatly sought after. Likewise, this study is rather a debatable topic these days especially towards the pricing activity and competitiveness within the pepper industry. Evidence from six markets within Sarawak had found that a long run relationship between the pepper markets does actually exist. And using the MWALD test though, findings revealed that the white pepper prices do Granger cause the black pepper price...

  4. PROSPECT OF INDONESIA BLACK AND WHITE PEPPERS EXPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavi Supriana

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis study analyzes the behavior of pepper exports, consisting of black pepper and white pepper, to various destination countries. The results of this study showed that black pepper exports affected by the destination country's gross domestic product (GDP, the price of white pepper, the population of the country of destination and the exchange rate against the dollar. Meanwhile, white pepper exports affected by the destination country's GDP, the population of the country of destination, the price of black pepper, white pepper prices and the exchange rate against the dollar. The results also showed that black pepper and white pepper are not mutually substituted.Keywords: pepper, exports, GDP, population, exchange rate JEL Classificaiton Numbers: F14, F19AbstrakPenelitian ini menganalisis perilaku ekspor lada, terdiri dari lada hitam dan lada putih, ke berbagai negara tujuan. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa ekspor lada hitam dipengaruhi oleh Pendapatan domestik bruto (PDB negara tujuan, harga lada putih, populasi negara tujuan dan nilai tukar rupiah terhadap dolar. Sementara itu, ekspor lada putih dipengaruhi oleh PDB negara tujuan, populasi negara tujuan, harga lada hitam, harga lada putih dan nilai tukar rupiah terhadap dolar. Hasil penelitian juga menunjukkan bahwa lada hitam dan lada putih tidak saling bersubstitusi.Keywords: Lada, ekspor, PDB, populasi, kursJEL Classificaiton Numbers: F14, F19

  5. Investigations of the surviving microflora in irradiated black pepper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sensitizing effect of irradiation on the microflora of ground black pepper was studied with respect to heat, reduced pH-value, salt and nitrite, and the possible relationship between the sensitizing effects of irradiation and the water activity of the spice. The change of the sensitizing effect of irradiation after irradiation during storage of the black pepper was also studied at different storage temperatures and under various conditions of humidity. The effectivity of irradiation depends to a much lesser extent on the conditions of humidity than that of ethylene-oxide treatment. Following decontamination, the remaining microflora of irradiated black pepper would be more sensitive to antimicrobial influences predominating during its use in the food industry than that of ethylene-oxide treated black pepper. The increased sensitivity of the remaining microflora of the irradiated black pepper remains unchanged for at least 6 months. (author)

  6. Mycoflora and mycotoxins in Brazilian black pepper, white pepper and Brazil nuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, F C; Kozakiewicz, Z; Paterson, R R

    2000-01-01

    A wide range of field and storage fungi were isolated from black pepper, white pepper and Brazil nut kernels from Amazonia. A total of 42 species were isolated from both peppers. Aspergillus flavus and A. niger were isolated more frequently from black than from white pepper. Other potential mycotoxigenic species isolated included: A. ochraceus, A. tamarii, A. versicolor, Emericella nidulans and Chaetomium globosum, Penicillium brevicompactum, P. citrinum, P. islandicum and P. glabrum. Species isolated from pepper for the first time were Acrogenospora sphaerocephala, Cylindrocarpon lichenicola, Lacellinopsis sacchari, Microascus cinereus, Petriella setifera and Sporormiella minima. Seventeen species were isolated from Brazil nut kernels. A. flavus was the dominant species followed by A. niger. P. citrinum and P. glabrum were the only penicillia isolated. Species isolated for the first time included Acremonium curvulum, Cunninghamella elegans, Exophiala sp., Fusarium oxysporum, Pseudoallescheria boydii, Rhizopus oryzae, Scopulariopsis sp., Thielavia terricola and Trichoderma citrinoviride. Considerably more metabolites were detected from black than white pepper in qualitative analyses. Chaetocin, penitrem A, and xanthocillin were identified only from black pepper, and tenuazonic acid was identified from both black and white pepper. Aflatoxin G2, chaetoglobosin C, and spinulosin were identified from poor quality brazil nuts. Aflatoxin B1 and B2 were also only detected in poor quality brazil nuts at concentrations of 27.1 micrograms kg-1 and 2.1 micrograms kg-1 respectively (total 29.2 micrograms kg-1). PMID:11229375

  7. ESR detection of black pepper using standard addition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ESR techniques for studying the detection of radicals induced in gamma ray irradiated pepper were studied. The representative ESR spectrum of the pepper composed of a sextet centered at g=2.0, a single at the same g-value and a singlet at g=4.0. This reflects the evidence of three independent radicals in the pepper before irradiation. Upon gamma ray irradiation, a new pair of signals appeared. Using standard addition method for solid sample technique we prepared the experimental samples containing 2.0 - 20.0 w/w % irradiated black pepper. The progressive saturation behavior (PSB) at various microwave power levels indicated quite different relaxation behaviors of those signals. For the evaluation of radiation-induced radicals and irradiation effects we proposed a new protocol using the standard addition method. This would be called an advanced protocol for the detection of irradiated black pepper. (author)

  8. High-throughput sequencing of black pepper root transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordo Sheila MC

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Black pepper (Piper nigrum L. is one of the most popular spices in the world. It is used in cooking and the preservation of food and even has medicinal properties. Losses in production from disease are a major limitation in the culture of this crop. The major diseases are root rot and foot rot, which are results of root infection by Fusarium solani and Phytophtora capsici, respectively. Understanding the molecular interaction between the pathogens and the host’s root region is important for obtaining resistant cultivars by biotechnological breeding. Genetic and molecular data for this species, though, are limited. In this paper, RNA-Seq technology has been employed, for the first time, to describe the root transcriptome of black pepper. Results The root transcriptome of black pepper was sequenced by the NGS SOLiD platform and assembled using the multiple-k method. Blast2Go and orthoMCL methods were used to annotate 10338 unigenes. The 4472 predicted proteins showed about 52% homology with the Arabidopsis proteome. Two root proteomes identified 615 proteins, which seem to define the plant’s root pattern. Simple-sequence repeats were identified that may be useful in studies of genetic diversity and may have applications in biotechnology and ecology. Conclusions This dataset of 10338 unigenes is crucially important for the biotechnological breeding of black pepper and the ecogenomics of the Magnoliids, a major group of basal angiosperms.

  9. A Sprinkle of Pepper: The State of Black Influence in White Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Frank W., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The influence of Blacks in white institutions of higher education is no more than a sprinkling of pepper. The article discusses some problems facing the Black students, Black faculty and Black administrators at these schools. (Author/HMV)

  10. Time series modelling and forecasting of Sarawak black pepper price

    OpenAIRE

    Liew, Venus Khim-Sen; Shitan, Mahendran; Hussain, Huzaimi

    2000-01-01

    Pepper is an important agriculture commodity especially for the state of Sarawak. It is important to forecast its price, as this could help the policy makers in coming up with production and marketing plan to improve the Sarawak’s economy as well as the farmers’welfare. In this paper, we take up time series modelling and forecasting of the Sarawak black pepper price. Our empirical results show that Autoregressive Moving Average (ARMA) time series models fit the price series well and they have...

  11. Relaxation behavior of radicals produced in irradiated black pepper under various moisture conditions by ESR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black pepper is easy to be contaminated by microorganism and often processed to γ-irradiation. ESR has been used for the detection of radicals induced in irradiated spices. Using ESR, we revealed the effects of moisture condition during storage of irradiated black pepper on the saturation behavior of ESR signal. The ESR spectrum of black pepper consists of a broad sextet centered at g=2.0, a singlet as same g-value and a singlet at g=4.0. The irradiation causes two new signals, one is the strong and sharp singlet signal at g=2.0 and the other is the side signal. We found that the signal intensity originated by the radicals of black pepper with and without radiation decayed in the high humidity condition during storage. The ESR signal intensity of irradiated black pepper decayed during storage and showed almost the same intensity level as that of non-irradiated black pepper during storage. (author)

  12. Tissue culture of black pepper (piper nigrum l.) in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) the 'King of Spices' is a universal table condiment. It is extensively used in Pakistani cuisines and herbal medicines and imported in bulk from neighboring countries. The black pepper vine is generally cultivated by seed because other vegetative propagation methods are slow and time consuming. Therefore the tissue culture technique is considered more efficient and reliable method for rapid and mass propagation of this economically important plant. The present study was initiated to develop protocol for micro-propagation of black pepper vine. The stem, leaf and shoot tip explants from mature vine were cultured on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of plant growth regulators (2,4-D, BA, IBA). Best callus was produced on MS medium with 1.5 mg/l BA by shoot tip explant. Shoot regeneration was excellent on MS medium with 0.5 mg/l BA. The plantlets formed were rooted best on 1.5 mg/l IBA. The rooted plants were transplanted in soil medium and acclimatized in growth room. The plants raised were test planted under the local conditions of Hattar. (author)

  13. EPR investigations of gamma-irradiated ground black pepper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polovka, Martin; Brezová, Vlasta; Staško, Andrej; Mazúr, Milan; Suhaj, Milan; Šimko, Peter

    2006-02-01

    The γ-radiation treatment of ground black pepper samples resulted in the production of three paramagnetic species ( GI- GIII) which arise from a different origin and have different thermal behavior and stability. The axially symmetric spectra can be characterized by the spin Hamiltonian parameters: GI ( g⊥=2.0060, g∥=2.0032; A⊥=0.85 mT, A∥=0.70 mT) and GII ( g⊥=2.0060, g∥=2.0050; A⊥=0.50 mT, A∥=0.40 mT) assigned to carbohydrate radical structures. The parameters of EPR signal GIII ( g⊥=2.0029, g∥=2.0014; A⊥=3.00 mT, A∥=1.80 mT) possessed features characteristic of cellulose radical species. The activation energies, evaluated by Arrhenius analysis, are in order Ea( GI)EPR measurements performed 20 weeks after radiation process confirmed that a temperature increase from 298 to 353 K, caused a significant decrease of integral EPR signal intensity for γ-irradiated samples (˜40%), compared to the reference (non-irradiated) ground black pepper, where a decrease of ˜13% was found. The influence of γ-radiation treatment on the radical-scavenging activities of aqueous and ethanol extracts of black pepper were investigated by both an EPR spin trapping technique and DPPH assay. No changes were detected in either the water or ethanol extracts for a γ-irradiation dose of 10 kGy.

  14. De Novo Assembly and Characterization of Fruit Transcriptome in Black Pepper (Piper nigrum)

    OpenAIRE

    Lisong Hu; Chaoyun Hao; Rui Fan; Baoduo Wu; Lehe Tan; Huasong Wu

    2015-01-01

    Black pepper is one of the most popular and oldest spices in the world and valued for its pungent constituent alkaloids. Pinerine is the main bioactive compound in pepper alkaloids, which perform unique physiological functions. However, the mechanisms of piperine synthesis are poorly understood. This study is the first to describe the fruit transcriptome of black pepper by sequencing on Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. A total of 56,281,710 raw reads were obtained and assembled. From these raw r...

  15. Studies on radiation induced radicals in irradiated black pepper after long-term storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using ESR the radiation induced radicals of black pepper after long-term storage were studied. Upon gamma ray irradiation, new signals were detected as twin peaks. It was revealed that these signals were very stable after the six month storage. We concluded that radiation induced new signals are very useful to know that the black pepper was irradiated or not. (author)

  16. Diversity and activity of biosurfactant-producing Pseudomonas in the rhizosphere of black pepper in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, H.; Kruijt, M.; Raaijmakers, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Aims: Phytophthora capsici is a major pathogen of black pepper and zoospores play an important role in the infection process. Fluorescent pseudomonads that produce biosurfactants with zoosporicidal activities were isolated from the black pepper rhizosphere in Vietnam, and their genotypic diversity a

  17. Influence of combinations of fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder on production traits of the broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kirubakaran

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the effects of combinations of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L., garlic (Allium sativum, and black pepper (Piper nigrum powder supplementation on production traits of broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: A total of 288 commercial broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 1-9 groups with 4 replicates each. An experiment was conducted in broilers with different feed formulations; control feed, with no added fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder; and 8 treatment groups receiving feed supplemented with different combinations of fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder. The individual broilers’ body weight and feed consumption were recorded and calculate the body weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR. Results: Broiler’s weight gain and FCR were significantly higher in groups receiving feed supplemented with garlic and black pepper powder combinations (p<0.01. Cumulative feed consumption was significantly higher in groups receiving feed supplemented with garlic and black pepper powder combinations (p<0.01. Conclusion: The combination of garlic and black pepper powder supplemented broiler feed fed groups showed higher production performance. The 5 g/kg garlic powder+1 g/kg black pepper powder and 10 g/kg garlic powder+2 g/kg black pepper powder significantly improved the weight gain and FCR.

  18. Use of black pepper (Piper nigrum as feed additive in broilers diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galib A. M. Al-Kassie,

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the performance of broilers fed diets with black pepper (Piper nigrum. A total of 250 (Rose 308 day old chicks were used in this study. Five levels of black pepper at the rate of 0.00%, 0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75% and 1% were incorporated into the basal diet of broilers for six weeks. The Results revealed that the inclusion of black pepper at the levels of 0.50%, 0.75% and 1% in the diets improved body weight gain, feed intake and conversion ratio. At the same time the black pepper of 0.50 %, 0.75% and 1% depressed the cholesterol, Hb, RBC and H/L ratio concentration. It was concluded that the use of black pepper as feed additive at 0.50%, 0.75% and 1% enhanced the overall performance of broiler chicks.

  19. EPR investigations of gamma-irradiated ground black pepper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polovka, Martin [Department of Chemical Technology of Wood, Pulp and Paper, Faculty of Chemical and Food Technology, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Radlinskeho 9, SK-812 37 Bratislava (Slovakia); Brezova, Vlasta [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical and Food Technology, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Radlinskeho 9, SK-812 37 Bratislava (Slovakia)]. E-mail: vlasta.brezova@stuba.sk; Stasko, Andrej [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical and Food Technology, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Radlinskeho 9, SK-812 37 Bratislava (Slovakia); Mazur, Milan [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical and Food Technology, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Radlinskeho 9, SK-812 37 Bratislava (Slovakia); Suhaj, Milan [Food Research Institute, Priemyselna 4, P.O. Box 25, SK-824 75 Bratislava (Slovakia); Simko, Peter [Food Research Institute, Priemyselna 4, P.O. Box 25, SK-824 75 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2006-02-15

    The {gamma}-radiation treatment of ground black pepper samples resulted in the production of three paramagnetic species (GI-GIII) which arise from a different origin and have different thermal behavior and stability. The axially symmetric spectra can be characterized by the spin Hamiltonian parameters: GI (g{sub -}bar =2.0060, g{sub -}bar =2.0032; A{sub -}bar =0.85mT, A{sub -}bar =0.70mT) and GII (g{sub -}bar =2.0060, g{sub -}bar =2.0050; A{sub -}bar =0.50mT, A{sub -}bar =0.40mT) assigned to carbohydrate radical structures. The parameters of EPR signal GIII (g{sub -}bar =2.0029, g{sub -}bar =2.0014; A{sub -}bar =3.00mT, A{sub -}bar =1.80mT) possessed features characteristic of cellulose radical species. The activation energies, evaluated by Arrhenius analysis, are in order E{sub a}(GI)black pepper, where a decrease of {approx}13% was found. The influence of {gamma}-radiation treatment on the radical-scavenging activities of aqueous and ethanol extracts of black pepper were investigated by both an EPR spin trapping technique and DPPH assay. No changes were detected in either the water or ethanol extracts for a {gamma}-irradiation dose of 10kGy.

  20. EPR investigations of gamma-irradiated ground black pepper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The γ-radiation treatment of ground black pepper samples resulted in the production of three paramagnetic species (GI-GIII) which arise from a different origin and have different thermal behavior and stability. The axially symmetric spectra can be characterized by the spin Hamiltonian parameters: GI (g-bar =2.0060, g-bar =2.0032; A-bar =0.85mT, A-bar =0.70mT) and GII (g-bar =2.0060, g-bar =2.0050; A-bar =0.50mT, A-bar =0.40mT) assigned to carbohydrate radical structures. The parameters of EPR signal GIII (g-bar =2.0029, g-bar =2.0014; A-bar =3.00mT, A-bar =1.80mT) possessed features characteristic of cellulose radical species. The activation energies, evaluated by Arrhenius analysis, are in order Ea(GI)a(GIII)a(GII). The EPR measurements performed 20 weeks after radiation process confirmed that a temperature increase from 298 to 353K, caused a significant decrease of integral EPR signal intensity for γ-irradiated samples (∼40%), compared to the reference (non-irradiated) ground black pepper, where a decrease of ∼13% was found. The influence of γ-radiation treatment on the radical-scavenging activities of aqueous and ethanol extracts of black pepper were investigated by both an EPR spin trapping technique and DPPH assay. No changes were detected in either the water or ethanol extracts for a γ-irradiation dose of 10kGy

  1. Aspergillus parasiticus growth and aflatoxin production on black and white pepper and the inhibitory action of their chemical constituents.

    OpenAIRE

    Madhyastha, M S; Bhat, R V

    1984-01-01

    Aspergillus parasiticus Speare NRRL 2999 growth and aflatoxin production in black and white pepper and the penetration of the fungus in black pepper corn over various incubation periods were studied. Also, the effects of piperine and pepper oil on growth and aflatoxin production were studied. Under laboratory conditions, black and white pepper supported aflatoxin production (62.5 and 44 ppb (ng/g), respectively) over 30 days of incubation. Fungal growth measured in terms of chitin was conside...

  2. Electron spin resonance characterization of radical components in irradiated black pepper skin and core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Characteristics of free radical components of irradiated black pepper fruit (skin) and the pepper seed (core) were analyzed using electron spin resonance. A weak signal near g=2.005 was observed in black pepper before irradiation. Complex spectra near g=2.005 with three lines (the skin) or seven lines (the core) were observed in irradiated black pepper (both end line width; ca. 6.8 mT). The spectral intensities decreased considerably at 30 days after irradiation, and continued to decrease steadily thereafter. The spectra simulated on the basis of the content and the stability of radical components derived from plant constituents, including fiber, starch, polyphenol, mono- and disaccharide, were in good agreement with the observed spectra. Analysis showed that the signal intensities derived from fiber in the skin for an absorbed dose were higher, and the rates of decrease were lower, than that in the core. In particular, the cellulose radical component in the skin was highly stable. - Highlights: → We identified the radical components in irradiated black pepper skin and core. → The ESR spectra near g=2.005 with 3-7 lines were emerged after irradiation. → Spectra simulated basing on the content and the stability of radical from the plant constituents. → Cellulose radical component in black pepper skin was highly stable. → Single signal near g=2.005 was the most stable in black pepper core.

  3. Thermoluminescent characteristics of inorganic dust from black pepper spice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furetta, C.; Cruz Z, E. [ICN-UNAM, A.P. 70-543, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Favalli, A. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for the Protection and Security of Citizen, TP800, Via E. Fermi 21020, Ispra VA (Italy)

    2007-07-01

    Full text: The irradiation of spices is normally used for its sterilization, allowing this procedure to extend the storage time ir different needs, i.e. transportation over large distances from the production places to distribution points for commercialization. The irradiated food allows studying the behaviour and the characteristics of its inorganic content, i.e. minerals. The aim of this work is to study the main thermoluminescent (TL) characteristics of the inorganic dust extracted from Black pepper spice. TL responses as a function of the delivered gamma dose, fading at room temperature, effect of W irradiation are reported. The thermoluminescent kinetic parameters of the glow curves have been accurately analysed using the Computerized Glow Curve Deconvolution (CGCD) method and results are discussed. (Author)

  4. Turmeric and black pepper spices decrease lipid peroxidation in meat patties during cooking

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yanjun; Henning, Susanne M.; Lee, Ru-po; Huang, Jianjun; Zerlin, Alona; Li, Zhaoping; Heber, David

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Spices are rich in natural antioxidants and have been shown to be potent inhibitors of lipid peroxidation during cooking of meat. Turmeric contains unique conjugated curcuminoids with strong antioxidant activity. Piperine, one of the main constituents of black pepper, is known to increase the bioavailability of curcuminoids in mouse and human studies when consumed with turmeric. We investigated whether adding black pepper to turmeric powder may further inhibit lipid peroxidation when...

  5. Influence of combinations of fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder on production traits of the broilers

    OpenAIRE

    A. Kirubakaran; Moorthy, M.; R. Chitra; G. Prabakar

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To study the effects of combinations of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), garlic (Allium sativum), and black pepper (Piper nigrum) powder supplementation on production traits of broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: A total of 288 commercial broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 1-9 groups with 4 replicates each. An experiment was conducted in broilers with different feed formulations; control feed, with no added fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder; and 8 treatmen...

  6. Comparison between apparent viscosity related to irradiation dose for corn starch and black pepper

    OpenAIRE

    Oprita N.; Ferdes O.S.; Casandroiu T.

    1999-01-01

    Dose-effect relationship was studied in the rheoviscometric behaviour of geliffied suspensions of irradiated corn starch and black pepper, as the variation of the apparent viscosity and the shear stress related to the dose. Irradiation has been performed up to 16 kGy. Black pepper was ground and sieved to three particle sizes to analyse also the influence of particle size on the apparent viscosity variation by dose. The rheoviscometric measu- rements have been carried out by a rotationary vis...

  7. Comparison between apparent viscosity related to irradiation dose for corn starch and black pepper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dose-effect relationship was studied in the rheoviscometric behaviour of geliffied suspensions of irradiated corn starch and black pepper, as the variation of the apparent viscosity and the shear stress related to the dose. Irradiation has been performed up to 16 kGy. Black pepper was ground and sieved to three particle sizes to analyse also the influence of particle size on the apparent viscosity variation by dose. The rheoviscometric measurements have been carried out by a rotationary viscometer on geliffied suspensions of starch and black pepper, into equivalent starch concentration and alkalinised suspensions for pepper. For starch, shear stress variation by dose is exponential, where the coefficients depend on the shear rate. For black pepper, the curves of apparent viscosity relation to dose also fit an exponential equation and the influence of particle size is discussed, too. Viscometric behaviour similar to irradiation of both corn starch and black pepper could be attributed to starch degradation at relatively high doses and should be used to develop an identification and control method for the ionizing treatment of starch-based food materials. (author)

  8. Microbiological and chemical studies on irradiated black pepper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bacterial count of 107-108/g present in pepper corn could be reduced to 103/g by a radiation dose of 7 kGy. The effect of ionizing radiation on piperine, starch, sugar and some volatile oils was investigated. In irradiated pepper quantitative changes were observed in the carbohydrates and some of the oil constituents. Qualitative changes were observed in piperine from irradiated pepper. (author)

  9. Collaborative study of viscosity measurement of black and white peppers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viscosity measurement has been reported to be a promising method for detecting irradiated peppers. Based on the results of previous studies, a protocol for determining the parameter values for detecting irradiated peppers by viscosity measurement was prepared and a collaborative study conducted to examine the usefulness of the viscometric method. (author)

  10. Studies on the interactions of Meloidogyne incognita, Radopholus similis and Fusarium solani on black pepper (Piper nigrum L.).

    OpenAIRE

    Mustika, I.

    1990-01-01

    This study on the interactions between various cultivars of the black pepper plant (Piper nigrum L. ) and three of its pathogens, Meloidogyne Incognita (Kofoid & White) , Radopholus similis (Cobb) , Thorne and Fusarium solani f. sp. piperi Albuquerque was initiated to search for a biological cause of "yellow disease" of black pepper.This disease was described already in 1932 by Van der Vecht as "geelziektel" and its symptoms on the aerial parts of the pepper plants were yellowing of the leave...

  11. Inhibitory effects of black pepper (Piper nigrum) extracts and compounds on human tumor cell proliferation, cyclooxygenase enzymes, lipid peroxidation and nuclear transcription factor-kappa-B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunbao; Yadev, Vivek R; Aggarwal, Bharat B; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2010-08-01

    Black pepper (Piper nigrum) and hot pepper (Capsicum spp.) are widely used in traditional medicines. Although hot Capsicum spp. extracts and its active principles, capsaicinoids, have been linked with anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities, whether black pepper and its active principle exhibit similar activities is not known. In this study, we have evaluated the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of extracts and compounds from black pepper by using proinflammatory transcription factor NF-kappaB, COX-1 and -2 enzymes, human tumor cell proliferation and lipid peroxidation (LPO). The capsaicinoids, the alkylamides, isolated from the hot pepper Scotch Bonnet were also used to compare the bioactivities of alkylamides and piperine from black pepper. All compounds derived from black pepper suppressed TNF-induced NF-kappaB activation, but alkyl amides, compound 4 from black pepper and 5 from hot pepper, were most effective. The human cancer cell proliferation inhibitory activities of piperine and alklyl amides in Capsicum and black pepper were dose dependant. The inhibitory concentrations 50% (IC50) of the alklylamides were in the range 13-200 microg/mL. The extracts of black pepper at 200 microg/mL and its compounds at 25 microg/mL inhibited LPO by 45-85%, COX enzymes by 31-80% and cancer cells proliferation by 3.5-86.8%. Overall, these results suggest that black pepper and its constituents like hot pepper, exhibit anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anticancer activities. PMID:20839630

  12. Lead, mercury and arsenic content in spices: Black, white and green pepper, black cumin and ginger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagojević Slavica M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the safety of selected commercial spices brands, concentration of lead, mercury and arsenic, as well as moisture and mineral contents were analyzed in samples of dried black and white pepper powders, black, white and green peppercorns, black cumin seeds and ginger powder. Lead (Pb, mercury (Hg and arsenic (As concentrations in spice samples purchased from local markets in Belgrade were determined, after a microwave digestion of the samples, by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS, using the graphite furnace AAS technique (Pb, cold vapor AAS technique (Hg and hydride generation AAS technique (As. Trace levels of Pb, Hg and As in the selected dried spices samples were in the range 0.10 ppm - 0.79 ppm, 0.01 ppm - 0.10 ppm and 0.01 ppm - 0.51 ppm, respectively. The maximum Pb concentration was determined in the sample of ginger and it was 0.79 ppm, the maximum concentration of Hg was 0.10 ppm, determined in green peppercorns samples, while the maximum concentration of As in powdered black pepper sample was 0.51 ppm. The moisture and mineral contents in the different analyzed spices were in the range 1.70-13.10% and 3.40-6.50%, respectively. According to the obtained results, the concentrations of the analyzed toxic elements, as well as the moisture and mineral content in selected spices, were below the maximum permissible limits declared by the national legislations deemed safe for human consumption. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172015

  13. A randomized, controlled trial to assess short-term black pepper consumption on 24-hour energy expenditure and substrate utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalouise O’Connor

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Thermogenic ingredients may play a role in weight management. In vitro and rodent work suggests that components of black pepper may impact energy expenditure, and in humans, other TPRV1 agonists e.g. capsaicin, augment EE. Objectives: To determine the impact of BP on 24-hour EE, respiratory quotient, and biochemical markers of metabolism and satiety, a randomized, controlled, cross-over study of black pepper (0.5mg/meal versus no pepper control was conducted in post-menopausal women. Subjects spent two 24-hour periods in a whole room indirect calorimeter. Results: Post-meal glucose, insulin, gut peptides and catecholamines were measured. Energy expenditure, respiratory quotient, or biochemical markers assessed did not differ significantly between the black pepper and no pepper control study days. Conclusions: Our findings do not support a role for black pepper in modulating energy expenditure in overweight postmenopausal women. Future work targeting alternative populations, administering black pepper in the fasted state, or in combination with other spices, may reveal the thermogenic effect of this spice.Trial registration: This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01729143.Key words: Black pepper, piperine, energy expenditure, metabolic chamber

  14. Comparison of fungal community in black pepper-vanilla and vanilla monoculture systems associated with vanilla Fusarium wilt disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qirong eShen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Long-term vanilla monocropping often results in the occurrence of vanilla Fusarium wilt disease, seriously affecting its production all over the world. In the present study, vanilla exhibited significantly less Fusarium wilt disease in the soil of a long-term continuously cropped black pepper orchard. The entire fungal communities of bulk and rhizosphere soils between the black pepper-vanilla system (i.e., vanilla cropped in the soil of a continuously cropped black pepper orchard and vanilla monoculture system were compared through the deep pyrosequencing. The results showed that the black pepper-vanilla system revealed a significantly higher fungal diversity than the vanilla monoculture system in both bulk and rhizosphere soils. The UniFrac-weighted PCoA analysis revealed significant differences in bulk soil fungal community structures between the two cropping systems, and fungal community structures were seriously affected by the vanilla root system. In summary, the black pepper-vanilla system harboured a lower abundance of F. oxysporum in the vanilla rhizosphere soil and increased the putatively plant-beneficial fungal groups such as Trichoderma and Penicillium genus, which could explain the healthy growth of vanilla in the soil of the long-term continuously cropped black pepper field. Thus, cropping vanilla in the soil of continuously cropped black pepper fields for maintaining the vanilla industry is executable and meaningful as an agro-ecological system.

  15. Gamma radiation effect on Bacillus cereus spores inoculated in black pepper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It had been analyzed 37 samples of worn out black pepper and in 85% of these samples was observed the presence of Bacillus cereus in numbers of up to 4,6 x 104 UFC/g. The population of aerobic mesofilis bacteria varied of 2,8 x 105 the 1,9 x 108 UFC/g. The black pepper used during the experiment was evaluated, evidencing the aerobic presence of one aerobic mesofilis microbiota of, approximately, 2,6 x 106 UFC/g, consisting, mainly, for species of the Bacillus sort. It was observed that the absence of B. cereus, coliforms, filamentous fungus and leavenings. The evaluation of the irradiation of the black pepper inoculated with 106 UFC/g of B. cereus spores of with doses of gamma radiation varying between 2 and 10 kGy evidenced that doses up to 5 kGy had been enough to reduce the counting of, approximately, 106 UFC/g of aerobic mesofilis organisms and 104 UFC/g of B. cereus spores the not detectable numbers by the used methodology. The dose of reduction decimal (D10) for the inoculated B. cereus spores in black pepper was of 1,78 kGy

  16. Effectiveness and safety of botanical pesticides applied in black pepper (Piper nigrum) plantations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiratno,

    2008-01-01

    Black pepper (Piper nigrum L) is an important commodity of Indonesia, which has been cultivated since the 6th century. The plant plays an important role in local economies since 95% of the plantations are cultivated by smallholder farmers. Because of this important economic value, proper plant produ

  17. Using Of Viscosity Property For Identification Of Irradiated Black Pepper And Cumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present investigation, the viscosity measurement was used for detecting irradiated black pepper and cumin during storage period. All samples under investigation were packed in polyethylene bags then irradiated at 3, 5, 7 and 10 kGy and stored for 12 months at room temperature then viscosity were measured under extremely alkaline condition (ph 13.8). The results indicated that irradiation treatment caused significant decrease in apparent viscosity values, where it decreased from 67.3 in control sample to 49.7, 42.3, 38.7 and 32.7 mpa.s in black pepper, while the viscosity of cumin was decreased from 74 mpa.s for control to 64.9, 41.7, 25.3 and 11.3 mpa.s for samples. The viscosity of black pepper and cumin were decreased significantly with increasing the radiation dose and during storage period. It was decreased from 67.3 for control to 67.0, 47.7, 32.3 and 17.7 mpa.s after 3, 6, 9 and 12 months, respectively, in black pepper while the viscosity of cumin samples was decreased significantly from 74 for control to 50.3, 17.1, 9.5 and 7.2 mpa.s after the same months. The data also showed that the moisture and carbohydrate contents were decreased by increasing the radiation dose. It could be concluded that the viscosity parameter can be used to identify of black pepper and cumin samples after irradiation and during 12 months of storage at ambient temperature.

  18. Black pepper powder microbiological quality improvement using DBD systems in atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Maciej; Hołub, Marcin; Balcerak, Michał; Kalisiak, Stanisław; Dąbrowski, Waldemar

    2015-07-01

    Preliminary results are given regarding black pepper powder decontamination using dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma in atmospheric pressure. Three different DBD reactor constructions were investigated, both packaged and unpackaged material was treated. Due to potential, industrial applications, in addition to microbiological results, water activity, loss of mass and the properties of packaging material, regarding barrier properties were investigated. Argon based treatment of packed pepper with DBD reactor configuration is proposed and satisfactory results are presented for treatment time of 5 min or less. Contribution to the topical issue "The 14th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (HAKONE XIV)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ronny Brandenburg and Lars Stollenwark

  19. Sequence diversity among badnavirus isolates infecting black pepper and related species in India

    OpenAIRE

    Bhat, A. I.; Sasi, Shina; Revathy, K. A.; Deeshma, K. P.; Saji, K. V.

    2014-01-01

    The badnavirus, piper yellow mottle virus (PYMoV) is known to infect black pepper (Piper nigrum), betelvine (P. betle) and Indian long pepper (P. longum) in India and other parts of the world. Occurrence of PYMoV or other badnaviruses in other species of Piper and its variability is not reported so far. We have analysed sequence variability in the conserved putative reverse transcriptase (RT)/ribonuclease H (RNase H) coding region of the virus using specific badnavirus primers from 13 virus i...

  20. De Novo Assembly and Characterization of Fruit Transcriptome in Black Pepper (Piper nigrum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lisong; Hao, Chaoyun; Fan, Rui; Wu, Baoduo; Tan, Lehe; Wu, Huasong

    2015-01-01

    Black pepper is one of the most popular and oldest spices in the world and valued for its pungent constituent alkaloids. Pinerine is the main bioactive compound in pepper alkaloids, which perform unique physiological functions. However, the mechanisms of piperine synthesis are poorly understood. This study is the first to describe the fruit transcriptome of black pepper by sequencing on Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. A total of 56,281,710 raw reads were obtained and assembled. From these raw reads, 44,061 unigenes with an average length of 1,345 nt were generated. During functional annotation, 40,537 unigenes were annotated in Gene Ontology categories, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways, Swiss-Prot database, and Nucleotide Collection (NR/NT) database. In addition, 8,196 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were detected. In a detailed analysis of the transcriptome, housekeeping genes for quantitative polymerase chain reaction internal control, polymorphic SSRs, and lysine/ornithine metabolism-related genes were identified. These results validated the availability of our database. Our study could provide useful data for further research on piperine synthesis in black pepper. PMID:26121657

  1. A randomized, controlled trial to assess short-term black pepper consumption on 24-hour energy expenditure and substrate utilization

    OpenAIRE

    Annalouise O’Connor; Corbin, Karen D.; Nieman, David C.; Swick, Andrew G.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACTBackground: Thermogenic ingredients may play a role in weight management. In vitro and rodent work suggests that components of black pepper may impact energy expenditure, and in humans, other TPRV1 agonists e.g. capsaicin, augment EE. Objectives: To determine the impact of BP on 24-hour EE, respiratory quotient, and biochemical markers of metabolism and satiety, a randomized, controlled, cross-over study of black pepper (0.5mg/meal) versus no pepper control was conducted in post-menop...

  2. In vitro investigation of the potential immunomodulatory and anti-cancer activities of black pepper (Piper nigrum) and cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdalawieh, Amin F; Carr, Ronald I

    2010-04-01

    Although the immunomodulatory effects of many herbs have been extensively studied, research related to possible immunomodulatory effects of various spices is relatively scarce. Here, the potential immunomodulatory effects of black pepper and cardamom are investigated. Our data show that black pepper and cardamom aqueous extracts significantly enhance splenocyte proliferation in a dose-dependent, synergistic fashion. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay experiments reveal that black pepper and cardamom significantly enhance and suppress, respectively, T helper (Th)1 cytokine release by splenocytes. Conversely, Th2 cytokine release by splenocytes is significantly suppressed and enhanced by black pepper and cardamom, respectively. Experimental evidence suggests that black pepper and cardamom extracts exert pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory roles, respectively. Consistently, nitric oxide production by macrophages is significantly augmented and reduced by black pepper and cardamom, respectively. Remarkably, it is evident that black pepper and cardamom extracts significantly enhance the cytotoxic activity of natural killer cells, indicating their potential anti-cancer effects. Our findings strongly suggest that black pepper and cardamom exert immunomodulatory roles and antitumor activities, and hence they manifest themselves as natural agents that can promote the maintenance of a healthy immune system. We anticipate that black pepper and cardamom constituents can be used as potential therapeutic tools to regulate inflammatory responses and prevent/attenuate carcinogenesis. PMID:20210607

  3. Comparative effects of gamma and microwave irradiation on the quality of black pepper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powdered black pepper from Egyptian markets, was irradiated with different recommended doses of gamma rays (5.0 and 10.0 kGy) and with microwaves for different periods (20, 40 and 75 s) to improve its hygienic quality. The most common bacterial isolates were of three genera Bacillus, Clostridium and Micrococcus (7.5x106), whereas the predominant fungi (7.8x104) were Aspergillus species, A.glaucus, A.flavus, A.niger and A.ochraceus. Doses of gamma irradiation used (5.0 and 10 kGy) were sufficient to decrease spore-forming bacteria (SFB) and to inhibit the fungal flora and coliforms which contaminated the black pepper powder. Microwave treatments for 40 s and 75 s were of the same effectiveness whereas treatment for 20 s was less so. GLC analysis proved the presence of 31 peaks, only 19 compounds were identified as monoterpene hydrocarbons (56.21%), the major one being β-phellandrene and limonene. Sesquiterpenes were also present, mainly β-caryollphyllene (3.69%) as well as oxygenated compounds such as terpenol, gerniol, Me-chavicol, eugenol and anisol. Gamma irradiation at 5 kGy and 10 kGy respectively decreased the numbers of identified compounds from 21 (86.58% concentration) in untreated pepper to 16 (59.22% concentration), 15 (54.06% concentration). In comparison, microwave treatments, particularly for 40 s and 75 s, increased the concentration of the same compounds. The results obtained indicate that microwave treatment, under these conditions, is a safe and suitable technique for decontamination of black pepper which does not result in a great loss of flavour compounds, as compared with recommended doses of gamma irradiation. (orig.)

  4. Sequence diversity among badnavirus isolates infecting black pepper and related species in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, A I; Sasi, Shina; Revathy, K A; Deeshma, K P; Saji, K V

    2014-01-01

    The badnavirus, piper yellow mottle virus (PYMoV) is known to infect black pepper (Piper nigrum), betelvine (P. betle) and Indian long pepper (P. longum) in India and other parts of the world. Occurrence of PYMoV or other badnaviruses in other species of Piper and its variability is not reported so far. We have analysed sequence variability in the conserved putative reverse transcriptase (RT)/ribonuclease H (RNase H) coding region of the virus using specific badnavirus primers from 13 virus isolates of black pepper collected from different cultivars and regions and one isolate each from 23 other species of Piper. Of these, four species failed to produce expected amplicon while amplicon from four other species showed more similarities to plant sequences than to badnaviruses. Of the remaining, isolates from black pepper, P. argyrophyllum, P. attenuatum, P. barberi, P. betle, P. colubrinum, P. galeatum, P. longum, P. ornatum, P. sarmentosum and P. trichostachyon showed an identity of >85 % at the nucleotide and >90 % at the amino acid level with PYMoV indicating that they are isolates of PYMoV. On the other hand high sequence variability of 21-43 % at nucleotide and 17-46 % at amino acid level compared to PYMoV was found among isolates infecting P. bababudani, P. chaba, P. peepuloides, P. mullesua and P. thomsonii suggesting the presence of new badnaviruses. Phylogenetic analyses showed close clustering of all PYMoV isolates that were well separated from other known badnaviruses. This is the first report of occurrence of PYMoV in eight Piper spp and likely occurrence of four new species in five Piper spp. PMID:25674613

  5. Study of the glow curve structure of the minerals separated from black pepper (Piper nigrum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, S.; Ruiz Gurrola, B.; Cruz-Zaragoza, E.; Tufiño, A.; Furetta, C.; Favalli, A.; Brown, F.

    2011-04-01

    The inorganic mineral fraction extracted from black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) has been analysed using a thermoluminescence (TL) method, investigating the glow curve structure, including an evaluation of the kinetic parameters. Different grain sizes, i.e. 10, 74, and 149 μm, were selected from commercial black pepper. The X-ray diffraction of the inorganic fraction shows that quartz is the main mineral present in it. The samples were exposed to 1-25 kGy doses by gamma rays of 60Co in order to analyse the thermally stimulated luminescence response as a function of the delivered dose. The glow curves show a complex structure for different grain sizes of the pepper mineral samples. The fading of the TL signal at room temperature was obtained after irradiation, and it was observed that the maximum peaks of the glow curves shift towards higher values of the temperature when the elapsed time from irradiation increases. It seems that the fading characteristic may be related to a continuous trap distribution responsible for the complex structure of the glow curve. Similar glow curves structure behaviour was found under ultraviolet irradiation of the samples. The activation energy and the frequency factor were determined from the glow curves of different grain sizes using a deconvolution programme because of the evident complexity of the structure.

  6. Analysis of relaxation times of radicals in irradiated black pepper using pulse-ESR and CW-ESR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We attempted measurement of radicals in irradiated black pepper using pulse-ESR and CW-ESR. Relaxation times (T1, T2) of radicals in black pepper were measured using pulse-ESR. T1 and T2 were also calculated theoretical analysis using CW-ESR parameter. We succeeded in measurement of the field swept echo of irradiated black pepper using pulse-ESR. Pulse-ESR and CW-ESR were able to calculate T1 and T2. T1 values were showed no dose dependence. T2 values showed increase according to irradiation. We revealed that T1 and T2 from pulse-ESR and CW-ESR were changed similarly before and after irradiation. (author)

  7. On the gamma-irradiated black pepper rheo-viscometric identification possibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the significance of rheological parameters in evidencing the gamma-ray treatment of the black pepper. It has been investigated the influence of granulation on the rheological properties of gamma- irradiated black pepper gelled suspensions prepared from powder grains of two sizes: φ1≤150 μm and φ2≤700 μm. Experimental data as well as the rheograms show a significant difference as function of particle size. Each shear stress τ diagram system, τ f(γ',D)/φ1≤ 150μm and τ = f(γ',D)/φ2≤ 700μm, where γ' is the shear rate, are resolutive enough for practical purpose, at least as screening method, from shear rate value γ'≥27 s-1 up to γ'≥437.4 s-1 and for two particle sizes. In fact, value of τ = f(γ',D)/φ2≤ 700μm 1≤ 150μm, where the shear rate values ranged from 3.0 s-1 to 437.4 s-1 and the irradiation doses, D, were 0, 4, 8, 10, 16, 20 kGy. As in recent developments on gamma-irradiation effects on starch, our findings suggest that variation in rheological behavior of powdered black pepper suspension occurs mainly as results of starch radio-depolymerization. In this respect, the particle size plays an important role in the identification method of gamma-ray treatment as result of its influence on the suspension behavior and gel formation process. (authors)

  8. Conservation by irradiation of vacuum packed spices (black pepper and curcuma)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work has been carried out to study the effectiveness of the irradiation gamma and its influence on the conservation of the black pepper and curcuma. The latter are used for culinary seasoning and conservation. Moreover, they have phytotherapic properties but remain very contaminated for a use without treatment. Accordingly, after packing them in vacuum plastic films, the powder of the black pepper and the one of curcuma are irradiated at a different doses (3, 6, 10 and 12 kGy). The results show that the irradiation is very effective from a microbiological point of view. indeed, from 10 kGy the spices became sterile. Admittedly, this dose radically inhibited the development of the micro-organisms which were present at very high rates in the non treated spices; and eliminated the agents of toxi-infections ( salmonella, staphylococcus aureus). Moreover, the irradiation doses not have a significant effect on the physicochemical and organoleptic parameters, except for the viscosity which decreased. Concerning the black pepper, it proved that the irradiation does have a significant effect on the piperine whose value is maintained almost stable. As for the curcuma the irradiation improves its color; it actually changed from dark yellow to bright yellow. For the packing the amounts used do not generate significant modification of polyethylene. Throughout the follow-up a significant proliferation of all the germs present in nontreated spices was observed. μIn contrast, there was no recontamination for spices treated with 10 kGy. At the end of storage the contents of piperine and curcuminoids decreased but they remain higher that their corresponding standards. Consequently, we conclude that the irradiation increases the shelf life. (Author)

  9. Aflatoxins and ochratoxin a reduction in black and white pepper by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation is an important means of decontamination of food commodities, especially spices. The aim of the current study was to investigate the efficacy of gamma radiation (60Co) for decontaminating ochratoxin A (OTA) and aflatoxins B1 (AFB1), B2 (AFB2), G1 (AFG1) and G2 (AFG2) residues in artificially contaminated black and white pepper samples. The moisture content of the pepper samples was set at 12% or 18%, and the applied gamma dose ranged from 5 to 30 kGy. Mycotoxin levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) after immunoaffinity column (IAC) chromatography. Both the gamma irradiation dose and moisture content showed significant effects (P<0.05) on mycotoxin reduction. The maximum toxin reductions, found at 18% moisture content and 30 kGy, were 55.2%, 50.6%, 39.2%, 47.7% and 42.9% for OTA, AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2, respectively. - Highlights: ► The effect of gamma ray on the reduction of AFs and OTA in pepper was investigated. ► The gamma dose and moisture showed significant effects on mycotoxin reduction. ► The maximum reduction was found at 18% moisture content and 30 kGy gamma ray. ► The method, even at 30 kGy and 18% moisture, failed to destroy total of mycotoxins.

  10. Studies on the interactions of Meloidogyne incognita, Radopholus similis and Fusarium solani on black pepper (Piper nigrum L.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mustika, I.

    1990-01-01

    This study on the interactions between various cultivars of the black pepper plant (Piper nigrum L. ) and three of its pathogens, Meloidogyne Incognita (Kofoid & White) , Radopholus similis (Cobb) , Thorne and Fusarium solani f. sp. piperi Albuquerque was initiated to search for a biological cause o

  11. Viscosity of alkaline suspensions of ground black and white pepper samples: an indication or an identification of high dose radiation treatment?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty-nine pepper samples were taken from retail food stores of different cities in Germany. Most of the black and all white pepper samples showed high viscosity values after jellification in alkaline solution. After irradiation with a γ-ray dose of 6 kGy, viscosity was largely reduced in each case. Some black pepper samples showed a low viscosity level already before irradiation. However, thermoluminescence analysis did not reveal any sign for irradiation treatment prior to examination. Furthermore, the low viscosity level of these samples could not be correlated with a low starch content. It is concluded that the viscosity levels of irradiated white pepper samples clearly reveal high dose irradiation treatment. In the case of black peppers it is judged that the method can be used to screen for irradiated samples since it is fast, easy and cheap. However, a positive result should be confirmed by another technique, e.g. thermoluminescence. (author)

  12. Viscosity of alkaline suspensions of ground black and white pepper samples: An indication or an identification of high dose radiation treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, G. A.; Leffke, A.; Mager, M.; Helle, N.; Bögl, K. W.

    1994-11-01

    Forty-nine pepper samples were taken from retail food stores of different cities in Germany. Most of the black and all white pepper samples showed high viscosity values after jellification in alkaline solution. After irradiation with a γ-ray dose of 6 kGy, viscosity was largely reduced in each case. Some black pepper samples showed a low viscosity level already before irradiation. However, thermoluminescence analysis did not reveal any sign for irradiation treatment prior to examination. Furthermore, the low viscosity level of these samples could not be correlated with a low starch content. It is concluded that the viscosity levels of irradiated white pepper samples clearly reveal high dose irradiation treatment. In case of black peppers it is judged that the method can be used to screen for irradiated samples since it is fast, easy and cheap. However, a positive result should be confirmed by another technique, e.g. thermoluminescence.

  13. Protocols for Improvement of Black Pepper (Piper nigrum L.) Utilizing Biotechnological Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmal Babu, K; Divakaran, Minoo; Yamuna, G; Ravindran, P N; Peter, K V

    2016-01-01

    Black pepper, Piper nigrum L., the "King of spices" is the most widely used spice growing in the South-Western region of India. The humid tropical evergreen forest bordering the Malabar Coast (Western Ghats is one of the hot spot areas of plant bio-diversity on earth) is its center of origin and diversity. However, the crop faces constraints like rampant fungal and viral diseases, lack of disease free planting material, hence biotechnological tools can be utilized to address these problems and strides have been made successfully. The standardization of micropropagation, somatic embryogenesis, in vitro conservation, protoplast isolation, and genetic transformation protocols are described here. The protocols could be utilized to achieve similar goals in the related species of Piper too. PMID:27108331

  14. Qualitative analysis of MDR-reversing Anastasia Black (Russian black sweet pepper, Capsicum annuum, Solanaceae) extracts and fractions by HPLC and LC-MS-MS methods

    OpenAIRE

    Schelz, Zsuzsanna; Molnar, Joseph; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Ferracane, Rosalia; Pernice, Rita; 白瀧, 義明; 本橋, 登

    2006-01-01

    In earlier experiments, the MDR (multidrug resistance)-reversal activities of Anastasia Black (Russian black sweet pepper) extracts had been analysed. Recently, the most effective MDR reversing extracts and fractions have been separated by HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography, for carotenoids) and LC-MS-MS (HPLC combined with mass spectrometry, for phenolic compounds) methods. As a result of the analytical studies, the following flavonoids had been identified: feruloyl glucopyranoside...

  15. Enzyme-assisted supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of black pepper oleoresin for enhanced yield of piperine-rich extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Sayantani; Bhattacharjee, Paramita

    2015-07-01

    Black pepper (Piper nigrum L.), the King of Spices is the most popular spice globally and its active ingredient, piperine, is reportedly known for its therapeutic potency. In this work, enzyme-assisted supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction of black pepper oleoresin was investigated using α-amylase (from Bacillus licheniformis) for enhanced yield of piperine-rich extract possessing good combination of phytochemical properties. Optimization of the extraction parameters (without enzyme), mainly temperature and pressure, was conducted in both batch and continuous modes and the optimized conditions that provided the maximum yield of piperine was in the batch mode, with a sample size of 20 g of black pepper powder (particle diameter 0.42 ± 0.02 mm) at 60 °C and 300 bar at 2 L/min of CO2 flow. Studies on activity of α-amylase were conducted under these optimized conditions in both batch and continuous modes, with varying amounts of lyophilized enzyme (2 mg, 5 mg and 10 mg) and time of exposure of the enzyme to SC-CO2 (2.25 h and 4.25 h). The specific activity of the enzyme increased by 2.13 times when treated in the continuous mode than in the batch mode (1.25 times increase). The structural changes of the treated enzymes were studied by (1)H NMR analyses. In case of α-amylase assisted extractions of black pepper, both batch and continuous modes significantly increased the yields and phytochemical properties of piperine-rich extracts; with higher increase in batch mode than in continuous. PMID:25617183

  16. A gaseous acetic acid treatment to disinfect fenugreek seeds and black pepper inoculated with pathogenic and spoilage bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nei, Daisuke; Enomoto, Katsuyoshi; Nakamura, Nobutaka

    2015-08-01

    Contamination of spices by pathogenic and/or spoilage bacteria can be deleterious to consumer's health and cause deterioration of foods, and inactivation of such bacteria is necessary for the food industry. The present study examined the effect of gaseous acetic acid treatment in reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Enteritidis and Bacillus subtilis populations inoculated on fenugreek seeds and black pepper. Treatment with gaseous acetic acid at 0.3 mmol/L, 0.6 mmol/L and 4.7 mmol/L for 1-3 h significantly reduced the populations of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Enteritidis on black pepper and fenugreek seeds at 55 °C (p 0.05). However, the gas treatment at 4.7 mmol/L significantly reduced B. subtilis spores (p 4.0 log CFU/g and 3.5 log CFU/g reductions on fenugreek seeds and black pepper, respectively, were obtained after 3 h of treatment. PMID:25846935

  17. Postharvest Processing and Benefits of Black Pepper, Coriander, Cinnamon, Fenugreek, and Turmeric Spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, S; Roselin, P; Singh, K K; Zachariah, John; Saxena, S N

    2016-07-26

    Spices are prime source for flavor, aroma, and taste in cuisines and play an active role as medicines due to their high antioxidant properties. As medicine or food, the importance of spices cannot be overemphasized. The medicinal values of spices are very well established in treating various ailments like cancer, fever, malaria, stomach offset, nausea, and many more. A spice may be available in several forms: fresh, whole dried, or pre-ground dried which requires further processing to be utilized in the form of value-added product. This review paper deals with the cultivation, postharvesting, chemical composition, uses, health, and medicinal benefits of the selected spice viz., black pepper, coriander, cinnamon, fenugreek, turmeric, and technological advances in processing of spices viz., super critical fluid extraction, cryogenic grinding, and microencapsulation etc. This paper also focuses on issues related to utilization of spices toward its high end-product development and characterization in pharmaceuticals and other medicinal purposes. The availability of different spices and their varietal differences and location have their pertinent characters, which are much demanding to refine postharvest and processing to assure its quality in the international market. PMID:25747463

  18. Effect of black pepper essential oil on the quality of fresh pork during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Wang, Ying; Pan, Dao-Dong; Cao, Jin-Xuan; Shao, Xing-Feng; Chen, Yin-Ji; Sun, Yang-Ying; Ou, Chang-Rong

    2016-07-01

    The effect of different concentrations (0, 0.1 and 0.5%, v/v) of black pepper essential oil (BPEO) on thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), meat color, the percentage of metmyoglobin (MetMb%), microbiological parameters and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) of pork loins stored at 4°C for 9days was evaluated. BPEO treatments showed lower TBARS, MetMb%, yellowness (b*) values, Pseudomonas spp. and Enterobacteriaceae count and TVB-N values and higher lightness (L*) and redness (a*) values than the control during storage; the effectiveness of BPEO was dose-dependent. The retardation of the formation of MetMb by adding BPEO ensured higher L* and a* values and lower b* values than the control at 6 and 9days; the MetMb content has a similar trend to the lipid oxidation. The lower TVB-N value of BPEO treatments than the control could be attributed to the inhibition of Pseudomonas spp. and Enterobacteriaceae. Gram-negative bacteria were more sensitive than Gram-positive bacteria to BPEO. PMID:26971309

  19. Piperine from black pepper inhibits activation-induced proliferation and effector function of T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucette, Carolyn D; Rodgers, Gemma; Liwski, Robert S; Hoskin, David W

    2015-11-01

    Piperine is a major alkaloid component of black pepper (Piper nigrum Linn), which is a widely consumed spice. Here, we investigated the effect of piperine on mouse T lymphocyte activation. Piperine inhibited polyclonal and antigen-specific T lymphocyte proliferation without affecting cell viability. Piperine also suppressed T lymphocyte entry into the S and G2 /M phases of the cell cycle, and decreased expression of G1 -associated cyclin D3, CDK4, and CDK6. In addition, piperine inhibited CD25 expression, synthesis of interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, and IL-17A, and the generation of cytotoxic effector cells. The inhibitory effect of piperine on T lymphocytes was associated with hypophosphorylation of Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and inhibitor of κBα, but not ZAP-70. The ability of piperine to inhibit several key signaling pathways involved in T lymphocyte activation and the acquisition of effector function suggests that piperine might be useful in the management of T lymphocyte-mediated autoimmune and chronic inflammatory disorders. PMID:25900378

  20. Root distribution pattern of bush - black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) employing radiotracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Root distribution pattern of four-year-old field planted bush pepper (Piper nigrum L.) was studied at Peruvannamuzhi farm of Indian Institute of Spices Research by radiotracer technique. The root zone, up to 30 cm radius and 40 cm depth was round to be the active root zone of bush pepper variety Karimunda grown in the field. (author)

  1. Common Problems Arising from and Key Practices for Successive Cropping of Black Pepper%胡椒连作常见问题及其栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑维全; 杨建峰; 郝朝运; 祖超; 李志刚; 鱼欢; 邬华松

    2012-01-01

    Problems arising from successive cropping of black pepper (Piper nigrum) were analyzed, such as weak growth vigor, low yield, deteriorated soil physic-chemical properties, serious attack of diseases and pests, etc. and some cultural practices for successive cropping of black pepper were put forward as technical reference for sustainable cultivation of black pepper.%结合作物连作障碍普遍因素,分析了胡椒连作生产出现的长势弱、产量低、土壤理化性状恶化等问题,提出了胡椒连作生产栽培技术,为胡椒产业可持续发展提供参考。

  2. In vitro antioxidant activity of pet ether extract of black pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Ramnik

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the in vitro antioxidant activity of different fractions (R1, R2 and R3 obtained from pet ether extract of black pepper fruits (Piper nigrum Linn. Materials and Methods: The fractions R1, R2 and R3 were eluted from pet ether and ethyl acetate in the ratio of 6:4, 5:5 and 4:6, respectively. 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH radical, superoxide anion radical, nitric oxide radical, and hydroxyl radical scavenging assays were carried out to evaluate the antioxidant potential of the extract. Results: The free radical scavenging activity of the different fractions of pet ether extract of P. nigrum (PEPN increased in a concentration dependent manner. The R3 and R2 fraction of PEPN in 500 µg/ml inhibited the peroxidation of a linoleic acid emulsion by 60.48±3.33% and 58.89±2.51%, respectively. In DPPH free radical scavenging assay, the activity of R3 and R2 were found to be almost similar. The R3 (100µg/ml fraction of PEPN inhibited 55.68±4.48% nitric oxide radicals generated from sodium nitroprusside, whereas curcumin in the same concentration inhibited 84.27±4.12%. Moreover, PEPN scavenged the superoxide radical generated by the Xanthine/Xanthine oxidase system. The fraction R2 and R3 in the doses of 1000µg/ml inhibited 61.04±5.11% and 63.56±4.17%, respectively. The hydroxyl radical was generated by Fenton′s reaction. The amounts of total phenolic compounds were determined and 56.98 µg pyrocatechol phenol equivalents were detected in one mg of R3. Conclusions: P. nigrum could be considered as a potential source of natural antioxidant.

  3. Locations of radical species in black pepper seeds investigated by CW EPR and 9 GHz EPR imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Kouichi; Epel, Boris

    2014-10-01

    In this study, noninvasive 9 GHz electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)-imaging and continuous wave (CW) EPR were used to investigate the locations of paramagnetic species in black pepper seeds without further irradiation. First, lithium phthalocyanine (LiPC) phantom was used to examine 9 GHz EPR imaging capabilities. The 9 GHz EPR-imager easily resolved the LiPC samples at a distance of ∼2 mm. Then, commercially available black pepper seeds were measured. We observed signatures from three different radical species, which were assigned to stable organic radicals, Fe3+, and Mn2+ complexes. In addition, no EPR spectral change in the seed was observed after it was submerged in distilled H2O for 1 h. The EPR and spectral-spatial EPR imaging results suggested that the three paramagnetic species were mostly located at the seed surface. Fewer radicals were found inside the seed. We demonstrated that the CW EPR and 9 GHz EPR imaging were useful for the determination of the spatial distribution of paramagnetic species in various seeds.

  4. Antifungal activity and computational study of constituents from Piper divaricatum essential oil against Fusarium infection in black pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Joyce Kelly R; Silva, José Rogério A; Nascimento, Soelange B; da Luz, Shirlley F M; Meireles, Erisléia N; Alves, Cláudio N; Ramos, Alessandra R; Maia, José Guilherme S

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium disease causes considerable losses in the cultivation of Piper nigrum, the black pepper used in the culinary world. Brazil was the largest producer of black pepper, but in recent years has lost this hegemony, with a significant reduction in its production, due to the ravages produced by the Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis, the fungus which causes this disease. Scientific research seeks new alternatives for the control and the existence of other Piper species in the Brazilian Amazon, resistant to disease, are being considered in this context. The main constituents of the oil of Piper divaricatum are methyleugenol (75.0%) and eugenol (10.0%). The oil and these two main constituents were tested individually at concentrations of 0.25 to 2.5 mg/mL against F. solani f. sp. piperis, exhibiting strong antifungal index, from 18.0% to 100.0%. The 3D structure of the β-glucosidase from Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis, obtained by homology modeling, was used for molecular docking and molecular electrostatic potential calculations in order to determine the binding energy of the natural substrates glucose, methyleugenol and eugenol. The results showed that β-glucosidase (Asp45, Arg113, Lys146, Tyr193, Asp225, Trp226 and Leu99) residues play an important role in the interactions that occur between the protein-substrate and the engenol and methyleugenol inhibitors, justifying the antifungal action of these two phenylpropenes against Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis. PMID:25375334

  5. Antifungal Activity and Computational Study of Constituents from Piper divaricatum Essential Oil against Fusarium Infection in Black Pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Kelly R. da Silva

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium disease causes considerable losses in the cultivation of Piper nigrum, the black pepper used in the culinary world. Brazil was the largest producer of black pepper, but in recent years has lost this hegemony, with a significant reduction in its production, due to the ravages produced by the Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis, the fungus which causes this disease. Scientific research seeks new alternatives for the control and the existence of other Piper species in the Brazilian Amazon, resistant to disease, are being considered in this context. The main constituents of the oil of Piper divaricatum are methyleugenol (75.0% and eugenol (10.0%. The oil and these two main constituents were tested individually at concentrations of 0.25 to 2.5 mg/mL against F. solani f. sp. piperis, exhibiting strong antifungal index, from 18.0% to 100.0%. The 3D structure of the β-glucosidase from Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis, obtained by homology modeling, was used for molecular docking and molecular electrostatic potential calculations in order to determine the binding energy of the natural substrates glucose, methyleugenol and eugenol. The results showed that β-glucosidase (Asp45, Arg113, Lys146, Tyr193, Asp225, Trp226 and Leu99 residues play an important role in the interactions that occur between the protein-substrate and the engenol and methyleugenol inhibitors, justifying the antifungal action of these two phenylpropenes against Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis.

  6. Sterilization of black pepper by electron beam irradiation and identification of organic free radicals in irradiated sample by electron spin resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whole black pepper packed in multilayers of 1 cm thick (0.6 g/cm3) was irradiated with 5 MeV electron beam (EB) in a downward direction (surface dose, 15 kGy). The absorbed dose in the sample was maximal at a depth of 0.9 g/cm2 (120% of the surface dose) and decreased towards the deepest layer. The total amount of aerobic bacteria in the black pepper before irradiation was 2.1 x 107 per gram and spore-formation after irradiation was decreased to below 1.0 x 103 per gram within a depth of 1.5 g/cm2. After irradiation, the electron spin resonance (ESR) signal at g=2.004 accompanied satellites. Furthermore, we also found minor signals such as cellulose radicals in the irradiated black pepper. The amount of radicals induced by EB was dose-dependent. Satellites and minor signals remained detectable for over 9 months in black pepper that had been irradiated to the level of sterilization. (author)

  7. Transfer RNA Derived Small RNAs Targeting Defense Responsive Genes Are Induced during Phytophthora capsici Infection in Black Pepper (Piper nigrum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asha, Srinivasan; Soniya, Eppurath V

    2016-01-01

    Small RNAs derived from transfer RNAs were recently assigned as potential gene regulatory candidates for various stress responses in eukaryotes. In this study, we report on the cloning and identification of tRNA derived small RNAs from black pepper plants in response to the infection of the quick wilt pathogen, Phytophthora capsici. 5'tRFs cloned from black pepper were validated as highly expressed during P. capsici infection. A high-throughput systematic analysis of the small RNAome (sRNAome) revealed the predominance of 5'tRFs in the infected leaf and root. The abundance of 5'tRFs in the sRNAome and the defense responsive genes as their potential targets indicated their regulatory role during stress response in black pepper. The 5'Ala(CGC) tRF mediated cleavage was experimentally mapped at the tRF binding sites on the mRNA targets of Non-expresser of pathogenesis related protein (NPR1), which was down-regulated during pathogen infection. Comparative sRNAome further demonstrated sequence conservation of 5'Ala tRFs across the angiosperm plant groups, and many important genes in the defense response were identified in silico as their potential targets. Our findings uncovered the diversity, differential expression and stress responsive functional role of tRNA-derived small RNAs during Phytophthora infection in black pepper. PMID:27313593

  8. Consumer and farmer safety evaluation of application of botanical pesticides in black pepper crop protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez-Moreno, J.; Soffers, A.E.M.F.; Wiratno,; Falke, H.E.; Rietjens, I.; Murk, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a consumer and farmer safety evaluation on the use of four botanical pesticides in pepper berry crop protection. The pesticides evaluated include preparations from clove, tuba root, sweet flag and pyrethrum. Their safety evaluation was based on their active ingredients being euge

  9. PENENTUAN WAKTU KADALUARSA DAN MODEL SORPSI ISOTERMIS BIJI DAN BUBUK LADA HITAM (Piper ningrum L.) [Shelf Life Prediction and Isotherm Sorption Model of Dried Grain and Powdered Black Pepper (Piper ningrum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Erika Diah2); M. Arpah; Winiati P. Rahayu3)

    2005-01-01

    Black pepper is one of the most popular spice traded around the globe, either in dried grain form or in bulky powder. However, for retailing purpose both are usually packaged in plastic film. This research was conducted to predict the shelf life of packaged black pepper (both dried grain and powder) by applying isotherm sorption and Labuza models. Initial moisture content of dried grain was 12.17 % d.b and for the powder was 10.27 % d.b. The shelf life of black pepper calculated for the dried...

  10. Comparison of solid, slurry and solution sampling techniques for the determination of Pb and Cu in black and red pepper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Three sample introduction techniques namely solid, slurry and solution for the determination of Pb and Cu in black and red pepper by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry were compared. Finely grinded and dried samples were dissolved by microwave assisted digestion method using HNO3/ H2O2 mixture and directly pipetted into the graphite furnace. In slurry method, 0.1 to 0.5 g of sample was dispersed in 0.5 ml of 1% Triton X-100. After being vortexed for homogenization, the slurried samples were introduced into the furnace. Finally, the powdered samples were directly analyzed by solid sampling technique. The effects of modifier, pyrolysis temperature, atomization temperature, sample mass etc on the determination of the analytes were investigated. Aqueous standards were used for the three techniques. The methods were applied for determination of lead and copper in pepper samples acquired commercially available in Istanbul, Turkey and results were statistically compared. The advantages and disadvantages of the methods were discussed.

  11. Analytical studies into radiation-induced starch damage in black and white peppers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temperature dependence of the apparent viscosity of heat-generalized suspensions of untreated and irradiated pepper samples has been investigated. There was a close linear correlation between the logarithm of ''fluidity'' (reciprocal of the apparent viscosity) and the reciprocal absolute temperature of the measurement. The slope of the regression line (the temperature dependence of fluidity) increased with the radiation dose. Gelatinization thermograms of aqueous suspensions of ground pepper samples were obtained by differential scanning calorimetry. Temperature characteristics of heat-gelatinization endotherms showed no significant differences between untreated and irradiated samples. A calorimetric method for damaged starch, the estimation of reducing power, and the alcohol-induced turbidity of aqueous extracts showed statistically significant increases of starch damage at doses higher than 4 kGy. These indices of starch-depolymerization have been changed less dramatically by irradiation than the apparent viscosity of the heat-gelatinized suspensions. (author)

  12. Inhibition of intestinal chloride secretion by piperine as a cellular basis for the anti-secretory effect of black peppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongkorpsakol, Pawin; Wongkrasant, Preedajit; Kumpun, Saowanee; Chatsudthipong, Varanuj; Muanprasat, Chatchai

    2015-10-01

    Piperine is the principal alkaloid in black peppers (Piper nigrum L.), which is a commonly included spice in anti-diarrheal formulations. Piperine has antispasmodic activities, but its anti-secretory effect is not known. Therefore, this study investigated the anti-secretory effect of piperine and its underlying mechanism. Piperine inhibited cAMP-mediated Cl- secretion in human intestinal epithelial (T84) cells, similar to black pepper extract. Intraluminal administration of piperine (2 μg/loop) suppressed cholera toxin-induced intestinal fluid accumulation by ∼85% in mice. The anti-secretory mechanism of piperine was investigated by evaluating its effects on the activity of transport proteins involved in cAMP-mediated Cl- secretion. Notably, piperine inhibited CFTR Cl- channel activity (IC50#8'6#10 μM) without affecting intracellular cAMP levels. The mechanisms of piperine-induced CFTR inhibition did not involve MRP4-mediated cAMP efflux, AMPK or TRPV1. Piperine also inhibited cAMP-activated basolateral K+ channels, but it had no effect on Na+-K+-Cl- cotransporters or Na+-K+ ATPases. Piperine suppressed Ca2+-activated Cl- channels (CaCC) without affecting intracellular Ca2+ concentrations or Ca2+-activated basolateral K+ channels. Collectively, this study indicates that the anti-secretory effect of piperine involves the inhibition of CFTR, CaCC and cAMP-activated basolateral K+ channels. Piperine represents a novel class of drug candidates for the treatment of diarrheal diseases caused by the intestinal hypersecretion of Cl-. PMID:26297981

  13. The influence of radappertization upon some sensory properties of black pepper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radappertization may be used as an effective method for sterilization of spices. A possible influence of irradiation upon the sensoric qualities should be considered in this context. Therefore the objectives of the work were the determination of the influence of pepper irradiation on its sensoric quality, on the qualitative changes of volatile chemical substances and on the correlation between changes resulting from irradiation and the sensoric quality of pepper. The spice was irradiated with doses of 10, 0, 40 and 60 kGy. Thresholds of recognition and difference were determined. The quantity of the dose was related to the values of thresholds mentioned above. The larger the dose, the less intensive the flavor and the higher the thresholds. A significant influence of irradiation upon the decrease of the quantity of essential oils and carbohydrates was noticed. There was a relation between the results of sensoric assessments and the chemical characteristics (the content of volatile carbonyl, sulphuric and nitrogenic substances). Correlation between these factors was determined on the basic statistical analysis of the results obtained during investigation. (author)

  14. The effect of the combined treatment of gamma irradiation and heating on the aerobic bacterial load of white and black peppers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of combined heat-irradiation treatment on the aerobic bacterial load of black and white peppers were evaluated in comparison with that of heat or irradiation treatment only. The irradiation doses applied were 0 (control), 2, 4, 6 and 8 kGy and the heating temperatures were 28 (control), 50, 60, 70 and 80 deg C. Results indicated that gamma radiation of 7 kGy and 5 kGy were capable of reducing bacterial population from 3.6 x 106/g and 2.9 x 105/g to 3/g black and white peppers, respectively. Heating at drying temperature could only reduce the bacterial contaminants to 1/2 log cycle. Combined treatment of irradiation followed by heating is more effective in reducing the bacterial load, and the combined treatment of heating followed by irradiation showed similar effects as in irradiation treatment alone. (author)

  15. Evaluation of Antibacterial properties of the suspension of Ginger, Black Pepper, Vinegar, Honey and its application in Shelf life extension of Agaricus bisporus

    OpenAIRE

    Nitin Jain; Himanshu Karaiya; Kumari Amrita; Swapnil Tiwari; Vishakha Dubey; C. Ramalingam

    2013-01-01

    Suspensions of vinegar, honey, black pepper and ginger were examined for antibacterial activity against Salmonella sp., Pseudomonas sp. and E.coli by agar well diffusion technique. The prepared suspensions were applied on Agaricus bisporus to evaluate suspensions effect for increasing the shelf life of it. Vinegar suspension showed better antibacterial effect and good result on Agaricus bisporus to increase its shelf life as compared to honey suspension. Enzymatic spoilage of Agaricus bisporu...

  16. Effect of black pepper (piper nigrum) on body weight and some serum lipid fractions in whole body gamma irradiated albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two experiments were conducted to determine effect of sublethal body gamma irradiation (6.0 Gy as a single dose) on body weight and some serum lipid fractions in female and male rats. The beneficial efficacy of intragastric administration of black pepper (in two doses of 160 and 320 mg/kg bw) was also investigated. The results obtained revealed that the sublethal irradiated rats showed a drastic loss in body weight reached 39.5% less than the normal males and significant alterations in serum triglycerides, cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol) and low density lipoprotein (LDL-cholesterol) levels, 5 weeks post exposure to gamma irradiation in female and male rats. Black pepper showed a beneficial effect on these significant changes in lipid fractions in irradiated female and male rats. Treatment with the two doses of black pepper up to 14 weeks, 5 days/week, showed a slight effect on body gain and fluctuations in the lipid fractions at 5.10 and 14 weeks for both sexes

  17. Capsicum Annuum L. Lil' Pumpkin and Pepper Jack

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA, ARS announces the release of two new pepper cultivars 05C37-3 (trademarked as Lil’ Pumpkin) and 05C69-12 (trademarked as Pepper Jack). Lil’ Pumpkin and Pepper Jack are intended for ornamental applications. Lil’ Pumpkin’s unique black foliage and orange pumpkin-like fruit and Pepper Jack’s ...

  18. Differential expression of metallothionein type-2 homologues in leaves and roots of Black pepper (Piper nigrum L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M. Alex

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Black pepper (Piper nigrum L., member of the family Piperaceae is indigenous to India and is one of the most widely used spices in the world. In this paper we report the results of our attempts to identify a set of genes differentially expressed in the leaves of Piper nigrum, which could facilitate targeted engineering of this valuable crop. A PCR-based Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH technique was used to generate a leaf-specific subtracted cDNA library of Piper nigrum. A tester population of leaf cDNA was subtracted with a root derived driver cDNA. The efficiency of subtraction was confirmed by PCR analysis using the housekeeping gene actin. On sequence analysis, almost 30% of the clones showed homology to metallothionein type-2 gene. The predominance of metallothionein transcripts in the leaf was further confirmed using Real-Time PCR analyses and Northern blot. The possible role of metallothionein type-2 homologues in the leaf is discussed along with the feasibility of using SSH technique for identification of more number of tissue-specific genes from Piper nigrum.

  19. Identification of irradiated pepper by ESR measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of using electron spin resonance (ESR) for identification of irradiated black and white pepper was examined. The ESR spectra induced by irradiation with 10 kGy are clearly distinguishable from that of unirradiated samples. The intensity of signal induced by irradiation was markedly reduced during 2 weeks storage but it was slowly reduced on further storage. The difference of intensity between the irradiated and unirradiated samples can be distinguished after 13 weeks storage. In this experiment, ground black pepper, ground white pepper and whole white pepper can be identified after 13 weeks. On the other hand, whole black pepper cannot be identified after 8 weeks because of the variation of values. It suggests that the suitable method for sample preparation such as separation of pellicle of whole black pepper is required before ESR measurement. (author)

  20. Differential inheritance of pepper (capsicum annum) fruit pigments results in black to violet fruit color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Color and appearance of fruits and vegetables are critical determinants of product quality and may afford high-value market opportunities. Exploiting the rich genetic diversity in Capsicum, we characterized the inheritance of black and violet immature fruit color and chlorophyll, carotenoid and ant...

  1. Produtividade da pimenta-do-reino em função de doses de esterco bovino Yield of black pepper submitted to different levels of cattle manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademar P Oliveira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Embora o estado da Paraíba tenha mostrado certa aptidão para o cultivo da pimenta-do-reino, sendo possível recomendá-la como alternativa de diversificação agrícola, não existe qualquer recomendação de adubação para a espécie. Este trabalho foi realizado na UFPB, em Areia, PB, e teve como objetivo avaliar genótipos de pimenta-do-reino adubados com doses crescentes de esterco bovino, em delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, com os tratamentos dispostos no esquema fatorial 5 x 3, sendo o primeiro fator representado pelas doses de esterco (0; 4; 8; 12 e 16 kg planta-1 e o segundo pelos genótipos (Bragantina, Iaçará e Cingapura, com quatro repetições. A pimenta-do-reino respondeu positivamente ao emprego de esterco bovino, nas condições edafoclimáticas de Areia. As máximas produções de pimenta verde por planta, dos genótipos Bragantina (1012 g, Iaçará (1269 g e Cingapura (627 g, foram obtidas com as doses estimadas de 7,3; 8,6 e 7,0 kg planta-1 de esterco bovino, respectivamente. Para produção da pimenta seca, as doses estimadas em 6,5; 8,9 e 7,8 kg planta-1 de esterco bovino foram responsáveis pelas máximas produções correspondendo a 358, 793 e 204 g planta-1 para os genótipos Bragantina, Iaçará e Cingapura, respectivamente.Although Paraíba State, has shown aptitude for black pepper cultivation, being possible to recommend it as an alternative for agricultural diversification in that area, no recommendation for black pepper crop fertilization exists. This research was conducted at the Universidade Federal da Paraíba, in Areia, Paraíba State, Brazil, to evaluate black pepper genotypes submitted to increasing levels of cattle manure. The experimental design was of randomized blocks, with treatments in the factorial 5 x 3 scheme. The first factor was represented by cattle manure levels (0; 4; 8; 12; and 16 kg plant-1 and the second factor, by the black pepper genotypes (Iaçará, Cingapura and

  2. Analysis of gamma irradiated pepper constituents, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black pepper, white pepper, frozen green pepper and real pink pepper (kept in vinegar) were analyzed by reversed phase IIPLC. The extraction method and HPLC conditions were same as the first report, that is, the extraction from pepper was performed by Automatic Air Hammer and the extracted samples were separated on a reversed phase C8 column with a concave gradient from 0.1% trifluoro aceticacid (TFA) in water to 75% acetonitrile - 0.1% TFA in water for 60 minutes and detected at 210 nm, 280 nm. The different constituents were observed clearly on chromatogram between black pepper and white pepper. The different constituents were observed between different producing white peppers, and as the result that the analyzed pepper was distinguished its producing district by HPLC chromatogram. In order to investigate of effect of lyophilization on white pepper extracts, lyophilized extraction was analyzed by this HPLC method. Some peaks were decreased by lyophilization. The effect of heat on white pepper constituents was examined. White pepper was heated by electronic oven and thermostat. When the former method was used, decreased peak number (peak height was lower than without heat treatment) was more than latter method. These subtle change was able to be recognized by these HPLC chromatograms. (author)

  3. De novo transcriptome sequencing reveals a considerable bias in the incidence of simple sequence repeats towards the downstream of 'Pre-miRNAs' of black pepper.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Joy

    Full Text Available Next generation sequencing has an advantageon transformational development of species with limited available sequence data as it helps to decode the genome and transcriptome. We carried out the de novo sequencing using illuminaHiSeq™ 2000 to generate the first leaf transcriptome of black pepper (Piper nigrum L., an important spice variety native to South India and also grown in other tropical regions. Despite the economic and biochemical importance of pepper, a scientifically rigorous study at the molecular level is far from complete due to lack of sufficient sequence information and cytological complexity of its genome. The 55 million raw reads obtained, when assembled using Trinity program generated 2,23,386 contigs and 1,28,157 unigenes. Reports suggest that the repeat-rich genomic regions give rise to small non-coding functional RNAs. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are the most abundant type of non-coding regulatory RNAs. In spite of the widespread research on miRNAs, little is known about the hair-pin precursors of miRNAs bearing Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs. We used the array of transcripts generated, for the in silico prediction and detection of '43 pre-miRNA candidates bearing different types of SSR motifs'. The analysis identified 3913 different types of SSR motifs with an average of one SSR per 3.04 MB of thetranscriptome. About 0.033% of the transcriptome constituted 'pre-miRNA candidates bearing SSRs'. The abundance, type and distribution of SSR motifs studied across the hair-pin miRNA precursors, showed a significant bias in the position of SSRs towards the downstream of predicted 'pre-miRNA candidates'. The catalogue of transcripts identified, together with the demonstration of reliable existence of SSRs in the miRNA precursors, permits future opportunities for understanding the genetic mechanism of black pepper and likely functions of 'tandem repeats' in miRNAs.

  4. Evaluation of Antibacterial properties of the suspension of Ginger, Black Pepper, Vinegar, Honey and its application in Shelf life extension of Agaricus bisporus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Jain,

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Suspensions of vinegar, honey, black pepper and ginger were examined for antibacterial activity against Salmonella sp., Pseudomonas sp. and E.coli by agar well diffusion technique. The prepared suspensions were applied on Agaricus bisporus to evaluate suspensions effect for increasing the shelf life of it. Vinegar suspension showed better antibacterial effect and good result on Agaricus bisporus to increase its shelf life as compared to honey suspension. Enzymatic spoilage of Agaricus bisporus were studied by applying vinegar suspension on both blanched and unblanched Agaricus bisporus at 4oC and 27oC. Treated blanched Agaricus bisporus which were stored at 4oC showed least microbial load as compared to other blanched and unblanched Agaricus bisporus kept at 4oC and 27oC. Based on survey analysis minimal change was observed in sensory quality, color and texture on Agaricus bisporus due to applied suspension.

  5. Analysis of Chemical Constituents in the Supercritical CO2Extract of Black Pepper in Hainan by GC-MS%海南黑胡椒超临界萃取物中化学成分的GC-MS分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勇; 魏娜; 李洪福; 李永辉

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the chemical constituents in the supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) extract of fruits of Piper nigrum (black pepper) in Hainan.Method:The black pepper oil was extracted by supercritical fluid extraction and its chemical constituents were separated,determined and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry combined with computer retrieval in compound databases.The relative percentage content of each compound was calculated by peak area normalization method.Result:32 compounds were separated from black pepper oil and 24 of them were identified,which covered 86.86% of the total oil.The major constituents with higher relative content were piperine (39.47%),chrondriamide B (6.25%) and oleic acid (5.49%).Conclusion:Piperine is the major constituent in the black pepper oil.The research provided basis for the further research and exploitation of black pepper oil.%目的:研究海南黑胡椒超临界CO2萃取物中的化学成分.方法:采用超临界CO2流体萃取法提取海南黑胡椒油,并通过气相色谱-质谱联用技术对其成分进行测定,结合计算机检索技术对分离的化合物进行鉴定,同时采用峰面积归一化法确定各成分的相对百分含量.结果:从海南黑胡椒油中共分离出32个组分,鉴定了其中的24种成分,所鉴定的成分占总挥发油成分的86.86%,其中相对百分含量较高的有胡椒碱(39.47%),柳叶藻内酰胺B(6.25%)和油酸(5.49%)等.结论:海南黑胡椒超临界CO2萃取物中主要成分为胡椒碱,本研究为海南黑胡椒油的进一步开发利用提供了依据.

  6. The synthesis and characterisation of MDMA derived from a catalytic oxidation of material isolated from black pepper reveals potential route specific impurities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Christopher M; Breadon, Thomas W; Pearson, James R; Jones, Oliver A H

    2016-05-01

    This work examines the chemical synthesis of 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA) from piperonal prepared via a catalytic ruthenium tetroxide oxidation of piperine extracted from black pepper. A variety of oxidation conditions were experimented with including different solvent systems and co-oxidants. A sample of prepared piperonal was successfully converted into MDMA via 3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl-2-nitropropene (MDP2NP) and 3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl-2-propanone (MDP2P) and the impurities within each product characterised by GC-MS to give a contaminant profile of the synthetic pathway. Interestingly, it was discovered that a chlorinated analogue of piperonal (6-chloropiperonal) was created during the oxidation process by an as yet unknown mechanism. This impurity reacted alongside piperonal to give chlorinated analogues of each precursor, ultimately yielding 2-chloro-4,5-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (6-Cl-MDMA) as an impurity within the MDMA sample. The methodology developed is a simple way to synthesise a substantial amount of precursor material with easy to obtain reagents. The results also show that chlorinated MDMA analogues, previously thought to be deliberately included adulterants, may in fact be route specific impurities with potential application in determining the origin and synthesis method of seized illicit drugs. PMID:27162021

  7. SUPERAÇÃO DE DORMÊNCIA EM SEMENTES DE PIMENTA-DO-REINO (Piper nigrum L. DORMANCY OVERCOME IN BLACK PEPPER (Piper nigrum SEEDS

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    Marco Antônio Curado

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Com o objetivo de superar a dormência das sementes de pimenta-do-reino (Piper nigrum, levou-se a efeito um ensaio com sementes colhidas em outubro de 2000 no horto de plantas medicinais do Hospital de Medicina Alternativa em Goiânia (GO e conduzidas ao Laboratório de Análise de Sementes da Escola de Agronomia de Universidade Federal de Goiás. Os tratamentos empregados no ensaio foram: (1 testemunha (sementes com casca; (2 sementes sem casca; (3 sementes sem casca e lavadas em água corrente por cinco minutos; (4 sementes sem casca, lavadas em água corrente por cinco minutos, imersas em solução 50% de detergente (Alquilbenzeno sulfonato de sódio e lavadas em água corrente por dois minutos; (5 sementes sem casca, lavadas em água corrente por cinco minutos e imersas em hipoclorito de sódio a 20% por cinco minutos, e depois lavadas em água corrente por dois minutos. Depois de tratadas, as sementes foram submetidas ao teste-padrão de germinação. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Após o término do ensaio, aos 21 dias, observou-se que não houve germinação na testemunha. No tratamento 2 a germinação foi de 56%. Os tratamentos 3 e 5 apresentaram 58% e 60% de germinação, respectivamente, mas não foram diferentes, estatisticamente, do tratamento 2. A maior germinação (73% foi observada no tratamento 4, muito embora não tenha diferido estatisticamente dos tratamentos 3 e 5.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Sementes; dormência; pimenta-do-reino.

    The black pepper fruits are largely used in culinary for its aroma but also useful for cosmetics, insect control and for its medicinal properties. Grafting has been used for propagation due to the period (six months and irregular seed germination. To overcome the

  8. Short-term effects of black pepper (Piper nigrum) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis and Rosmarinus eriocalyx) on sustained attention and on energy and fatigue mood states in young adults with low energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindheimer, Jacob B; Loy, Bryan D; O'Connor, Patrick J

    2013-08-01

    The purpose was to test whether a single dose of black pepper or rosemary produced short-term enhancements in sustained attention, motivation to perform cognitive tasks, or feelings of mental energy and fatigue. Outcomes were measured in 40 young adults with below average feelings of energy before and twice after they orally consumed capsules containing either black pepper (2.0 g), rosemary (1.7 g), or a placebo (3.1 g rice flour). Sustained attention was measured using a 16-min dual task, in which, single-digit numbers were presented every second on a screen and the participant performed both a primary task [detection of three successive, different odd digits] and a secondary task [detection of the number 6]. Feelings of energy and fatigue were measured using the vigor and fatigue subscales of the Profile of Mood States and visual analog scales (VAS). Analysis of variance showed nonsignificant condition (spice versus placebo)×time (T1, T2, & T3) effects for motivation, measured with a VAS, and the intensity of energy and fatigue feelings. Unadjusted effect sizes revealed that rosemary induced small, transient reductions in false alarm errors (d=0.21) and mental fatigue (d=0.40) at isolated time periods. Time-varying analysis of covariance, controlling for motivation to perform cognitive tasks, showed no significant effects on the primary or secondary task outcomes of correct responses (hits), errors (false alarms, misses), speed of response (reaction time), and signal detection sensitivity. It is concluded that black pepper and rosemary, consumed in a capsule form, in the doses used and while wearing a nose clip to block olfactory effects, do not induce consistent short-term improvements in sustained attention, motivation to perform cognitive tasks, or feelings of mental energy and fatigue in young adults with low energy. PMID:23905652

  9. Toxigenic potentiality of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus strains isolated from black pepper assessed by an LC-MS/MS based multi-mycotoxin method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogendrarajah, Pratheeba; Devlieghere, Frank; Njumbe Ediage, Emmanuel; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; De Meulenaer, Bruno; De Saeger, Sarah

    2015-12-01

    A liquid chromatography triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated to determine mycotoxins, produced by fungal isolates grown on malt extract agar (MEA). All twenty metabolites produced by different fungal species were extracted using acetonitrile/1% formic acid. The developed method was applied to assess the toxigenic potentiality of Aspergillus flavus (n = 11) and Aspergillus parasiticus (n = 6) strains isolated from black peppers (Piper nigrum L.) following their growth at 22, 30 and 37 °C. Highest mean radial colony growth rates were observed at 30 °C for A. flavus (5.21 ± 0.68 mm/day) and A. parasiticus (4.97 ± 0.33 mm/day). All of the A. flavus isolates produced aflatoxin B1 and O-methyl sterigmatocystin (OMST) while 91% produced aflatoxin B2 (AFB2) and 82% of them produced sterigmatocystin (STERIG) at 30 °C. Except one, all the A. parasiticus isolates produced all the four aflatoxins, STERIG and OMST at 30 °C. Remarkably high AFB1 was produced by some A. flavus isolates at 22 °C (max 16-40 mg/kg). Production of mycotoxins followed a different trend than that of growth rate of both species. Notable correlations were found between different secondary metabolites of both species; R(2) 0.87 between AFB1 and AFB2 production. Occurrence of OMST could be used as a predictor for AFB1 production. PMID:26338134

  10. Endophytic bacteria from Piper tuberculatum Jacq.: isolation, molecular characterization, and in vitro screening for the control of Fusarium solani f. sp piperis, the causal agent of root rot disease in black pepper (Piper nigrum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, S B; Lima, A M; Borges, B N; de Souza, C R B

    2015-01-01

    Endophytic bacteria have been found to colonize internal tissues in many different plants, where they can have several beneficial effects, including defense against pathogens. In this study, we aimed to identify endophytic bacteria associated with roots of the tropical piperaceae Piper tuberculatum, which is known for its resistance to infection by Fusarium solani f. sp piperis, the causal agent of black pepper (Piper nigrum) root rot disease in the Amazon region. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, we isolated endophytes belonging to 13 genera: Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Rhizobium, Sinorhizobium, Agrobacterium, Ralstonia, Serratia, Cupriavidus, Mitsuaria, Pantoea, and Staphylococcus. The results showed that 56.52% of isolates were associated with the phylum Proteobacteria, which comprised α, β, and γ classes. Other bacteria were related to the phylum Firmicutes, including Bacillus, which was the most abundant genus among all isolates. Antagonistic assays revealed that Pt12 and Pt13 isolates, identified as Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas sp, respectively, were able to inhibit F. solani f. sp piperis growth in vitro. We describe, for the first time, the molecular identification of 23 endophytic bacteria from P. tuberculatum, among which two Pseudomonas species have the potential to control the pathogen responsible for root rot disease in black pepper in the Amazon region. PMID:26214435

  11. Diversidade e similaridade genéticas em clones de pimenta-do-reino Genetic diversity and similarity in clones of black pepper

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    José M.D. Gaia

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Setenta e oito clones de pimenta-do-reino (Piper nigrum L. foram analisados por meio de eletroforese de isozimas para os sistemas ACP, GOT, SKDH, ACO, G6PDH, PGI, 6PGDH e FUM, para avaliar a diversidade por meio da porcentagem de locos polimórficos, número médio de alelos por locos e heterozigosidade média. A similaridade genética foi obtida por meio do coeficiente de semelhança simples e foi resumida num fenograma de média de grupo. Foram detectados 14 locos e 35 alelos. Os locos que apresentaram maior diversidade foram: G6pdh-1, Acp-1 e Skdh-1. A porcentagem de locos polimórficos variou de 3,57% a 64,29%; o número médio de alelos variou de 0,04 a 1,64; e a heterozigosidade média variou de 0,036 a 0,321. Os baixos valores observados no intervalo de variação da heterozigosidade média são consistentes com a estreita base genética dos genótipos e a amplitude deste intervalo pode estar relacionada com o grau de hibridação (artificial ou natural de cada clone. A similaridade genética variou de 65% a 100%, sendo que 70 clones estiveram contidos na faixa de 85% e 100%, o que ratifica o estreitamento da base genética da espécie e conseqüente homogeneidade dos genomas cultivados.Seventy eight black pepper clones (Piper nigrum L. were analyzed by means of isozyme electrophoresis for the systems ACP, GOT, SKDH, ACO, G6PDH, PGI, 6PGDH and FUM, in order to evaluate the diversity through the percentage of polymorphic loci, mean number of alleles per locus and mean heterozigosity. Genetic similarity was calculated by simple matching coefficient and summarized in the group average phenogram. Fourteen loci and 35 alleles were detected. The loci that presented larger diversity were G6pdh-1, Acp-1 and Skdh-1. The percentage of polymorphic loci ranged from 3.57% to 64.29%; the mean number of alleles ranged from 0.04 to 1.64 and; the mean heterozigosity varied from 0.036 to 0.321. The lower values observed in the interval of variation of the

  12. Caracterização de acessos de pimenta-do-reino com base em sistemas enzimáticos Characterization of black pepper accessions using isozymes

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    José MD Gaia

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Setenta e oito acessos de pimenta-do-reino, incluindo algumas espécies silvestres foram submetidos à análise eletroforética de isoenzimas em gel de poliacrilamida, visando distinguir diferenças fenotípicas que auxiliem na discriminação e seleção dos acessos. Foram utilizados os sistemas enzimáticos SKDH, GOT, ACP, ACO, PGI, FUM, 6PGDH e G6PDH. O polimorfismo de isoenzimas foi avaliado pelo número de alozimas com diferentes mobilidades por sistema enzimático, pelas freqüências de alozimas dentro de cada sistema enzimático em relação ao total de bandas do sistema e pela análise da similaridade genética, com base na ausência e presença de bandas. Todos os sistemas enzimáticos utilizados tiveram boa resolução e definição de bandas, com ênfase para SKDH, 6PGDH, PGI e ACP. Em sua totalidade, os sistemas apresentaram polimorfismo capaz de caracterizar e identificar acessos ou grupos de pequeno número de acessos, sendo que o sistema GOT foi o que apresentou maior variabilidade de alozimas e de perfis; e o que apresentou menor variabilidade foi o sistema FUM, com três alozimas e quatro perfis. Cinqüenta e sete por cento das alozimas podem ser usadas para caracterizar e identificar clones ou grupos de clones. Cerca de 64% dos acessos analisados podem ser identificados por um a seis fenótipos individuais de sistemas enzimáticos. A análise da similaridade indicou os grupos G1, G2 e G3 como os mais divergentes da coleção, os quais são indicados para cruzamentos intraespecíficos e interespecíficos visando a obtenção de clones superiores.Seventy and eight accessions of black pepper, including some wild species, were analyzed through isozyme electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel, aiming to distinguish phenotypic differences to discriminate and select accessions. The enzymatic systems SKDH, GOT, ACO, ACP, PGI, FUM, 6PGDH and G6PDH were studied. The polymorphism of isozymes was evaluated based on number of alozymes with

  13. Detection of gamma irradiated pepper and papain by chemiluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattar, Abdus; Delincée, H.; Diehl, J. F.

    Chemiluminescence (CL) measurements of black pepper and of papain using luminol and lucigenin reactions were studied. Effects of grinding, irradiation (5-20 kGy) and particle size (750-140 μm) on CL of pepper, and of irradiation (10-30 kGy) on CL of papain, were investigated. All the tested treatments affected the luminescence response in both the luminol and lucigenin reactions; however, the pattern of changes in each case, was inconsistent. Optimum pepper size for maximum luminescence was 560 μm, and optimum irradiation doses were >15 kGy for pepper and >20 kGy for papain. Chemiluminescence may possibly be used as an indicator or irradiation treatment for pepper and papain at a dose of 10 kGy or higher, but further research is needed to establish the reliability of this method.

  14. Detection of gamma irradiated pepper and papain by chemiluminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemiluminescence (CL) measurements of black pepper and of papain using luminol and lucigenin reactions were studied. Effects of grinding, irradiation (5-20 kGy) and particle size (750-140 μm) on CL of pepper, and of irradiation (10-30 kGy) on CL of papain, were investigated. All the tested treatments affected the luminescence response in both the luminol and lucigenin reactions; however, the pattern of changes in each case, was inconsistent. Optimum pepper size for maximum luminescence was 560 μm, and optimum irradiation doses were > 15 kGy for pepper and > 20 kGy for papain. Chemiluminescence may possibly be used as an indicator or irradiation treatment for pepper and papain at a dose of 10 kGy or higher, but further research is needed to establish the reliability of this method. (author)

  15. Preliminary examination of induced radioactivity in pepper by 10 MeV electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    β-ray measurement was performed on 10 MeV electron-irradiated black pepper and white pepper with liquid scintillation counter in order to reconfirm the wholesomeness of irradiated foods and present unambiguous data to general consumers concerning about the induced radioactivity in the irradiated foods. In irradiated black pepper no radioactivity other than from natural source, un-irradiated one, was detected. But in irradiated white pepper, it was suggested that induced radioactivity might be detected if the detection method was more improved. (author)

  16. Irradiated pepper and ginger detected by viscosity and starch measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starch and rheological measurements of alkaline suspensions of white pepper, black pepper and ginger are a useful tool to distinguish not irradiated samples from the gamma-treated spices (dose gtoreq 2 kGy). In addition it is shown that starch is not the material which determines the different rheological behaviour of the alkaline suspensions of the spices. The differences in the viscosity data are rather due to irradiation damages of polymers which are enriched in the cell wall material of the pepper grains and the roots of the ginger

  17. Conditions of viscosity measurement for detecting irradiated peppers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viscosity of gelatinized suspensions of black and white peppers decreased depending upon dose. The viscosity was influenced by gelatinization and viscosity measurement conditions. The difference between unirradiated pepper and an irradiated one was larger at a higher pH and temperature for gelatinization. A viscosity parameter normalized with the starch content of pepper sample and the viscosity of a 5% suspension of corn starch could get rid of the influence of the conditions for viscosity measurement such as type of viscometer, shear rate and temperature. (author)

  18. Spacing Studies in Peppers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher plant stand densities usually result in greater pepper fruit yields. While the impact of stand density on yield has been studied for bell and non-bell peppers, but very little information exists regarding implications on pesticide efficacy. The objective of these studies was to determine th...

  19. Pepper, chili (Capsicum annuum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Jung; Shin, Sun Hee; Jeon, En Mi; Park, Jung Mi; Hyun, Ji Young; Harn, Chee Hark

    2015-01-01

    Pepper is a recalcitrant plant for Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. Several obstacles to genetic transformation remain such as extremely low transformation rates; the choice of correct genotype is critical; and there is a high frequency of false positives due to direct shoot formation. Here, we report a useful protocol with a suitable selection method. The most important aspect of the pepper transformation protocol is selecting shoots growing from the callus, which is referred to as callus-mediated shoot formation. This protocol is a reproducible and reliable system for pepper transformation. PMID:25300851

  20. Estimative of Black Pepper leaf area with basis on the leaf blade linear dimension Estimativa da área foliar de pimenta do reino a partir de dimensões lineares do limbo foliar

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    Fábio Luiz Partelli

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed at establishing regression equations to estimate black pepper (Piper nigrum leaf area based on linear leaf measures. Different black pepper varieties where growth on the field, four different size leaves were collected per plant with a total of 52 leaves to establish the regression equation and 28 to validate the equation for each variety (Bragantina, Laçará, Guajarina e Cingapura. Leaf midrib length (LML, maximum leaf broad width (MLBW and leaf area (LA were measured. Pearson's linear correlation coefficients were determined between observed and predicted measures with the observed LA, besides estimating the linear regression equation for each variety. The equations best-fitted to estimate LA based on circumscript rectangle were: 1 LA = 2.2689 + 0.6900 x LML x MLBW; 2 LA = 1.6402 + 0.6816 x LML x MLBW; 3 LA = 1.4942 + 0.6215 x LML x MLBW and 4 LA = 0.7467 + 0.6735 x LML x MLBW, for Bragantina, Laçará, Guajarina and Cingapura varieties respectively. For all equations predicted values had high correlation coefficient with observed values thus showing that these equations must be variety specific and that they are appropriate for black pepper leaf area estimative.O objetivo deste trabalho foi estabelecer equações de regressão para estimar a área foliar de diferentes variedades de pimenta-do-reino (Piper nigrum cultivadas no campo, a partir de medidas lineares de folhas. Foram coletadas quatro folhas por planta, de tamanhos diferentes, totalizando 52 folhas, para estabelecer a equação de regressão e 28 para validar a equação para cada variedade (Bragantina, Laçará, Guajarina e Cingapura. Procederam-se às medições do comprimento da nervura central (LML, da maior largura do limbo foliar (MLBW e da área foliar (LA. Determinaram-se os coeficientes de correlação linear de Pearson entre as medidas mensuráveis e preditas com a LA observada, além de estimarem-se as equações de regressão linear para cada

  1. Efeitos do alumínio em pimenteiras do reino (Piper nigrum, L.cultivadas em solução nutritiva Effect of aluminum on black pepper (Piper nigrum, L. grown in nutruent solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A.C. Veloso

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available A pimenteira do reino (Piper nigrum, L. vem sendo cultivada, em sua maior parte, em áreas com solos de baixa fertilidade natural, caracterizadas por baixa saturação por bases, alta saturação de alumínio e acidez elevada. Visando estudar os efeitos do alumínio sobre a cultura foi conduzido um experimento com a cultivar Guajarina em solução nutritiva. As doses de alumínio estudadas foram: 0; 5; 10; 15; 20 e 40 mg/L. O sintoma inicial de toxidez de alumínio foi caracterizado por um retardamento no crescimento radicular, com aumento no diâmetro das raízes. Observou-se efeito positivo do alumínio na produção de matéria seca com adição de até 15 mg/L na solução, o que correspondeu a maior absorção de P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe e AL Concluiu-se que a pimenteira é tolerante à presença de concentrações de Al inferiores a 20 mg/L no substrato. Doses superiores provocam distúrbios nutricionais com redução no crescimento da planta.Black pepper (Piper nigrum, L. is usually grown in soils of low natural fertility and high aluminum saturation. An experiment using young plants of the Guajarina cultivar grown in nutrient solution was carried out in order to verify the effects of aluminum on the growth and chemical composition and determine the concentration in the substrate which causes toxicity symptoms. Aluminum was added to the nutrient solution at the rates of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 40 mg/L. The initial symptom of Al toxicity was a slower development of the roots, which were thicker than those of the control. Dry weight increased when aluminum supply increased from 0 to 15 ppm Al; correspondingly there was a higher uptake of P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe and AL It appears that black pepper is tolerant to Al concentrations as high as 20 mg/L. Higher rates cause nutritional disturbances and reduction in growth.

  2. Resposta de cultivares de pimenta-do-reino aos nutrientes NPK em um Latossolo Amarelo da Amazônia Oriental Response of NPK fertilization by black pepper cultivars in an Eastern Amazonian Yellow Latosol

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    Carlos Alberto Costa Veloso

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido, com o objetivo de estabelecer curvas de resposta da pimenteira-do-reino a nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio, num Latossolo Amarelo distrófico (Oxisol, no município de Senador José Porfírio, km 35 da rodovia Transamazônica. As doses de nitrogênio, aplicadas manualmente a cada ano foram: (0; 40; 80; 120 e 160 kg ha-1 de N na forma de uréia, cinco doses de fósforo (0; 30; 60; 90 e 120 kg ha-1 P2O5 na forma de superfosfato triplo e cinco doses de potássio (0; 30; 60; 90 e 120 kg ha-1 K2O na forma de KCl. Utilizou-se o delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições, sendo os tratamentos dispostos em esquema fatorial incompleto.O espaçamento foi de 3,0 m entre linhas e 2,5 m entre plantas, com seis plantas úteis por parcela. Os resultados evidenciaram resposta positiva de nitrogênio com relação a produção de grãos de pimenta do reino com a aplicação de 72 e 78 kg ha-1 de N, para as cultivares Cingapura e Bragantina, respectivamente. Somente a cultivar Guajarina, respondeu à aplicação de fósforo. Doses crescentes de K2O, reduziu os teores de potássio presentes no tecido foliar das pimenteiras. A adição de potássio favoreceu o aumento da produção de grãos com a aplicação de 42, 13 e 22 kg ha-1 de K2O, para as cultivares Cingapura, Bragantina e Guajarina, respectivamente.The present work was developed with the objective of establishing response curves of black pepper to nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in an Oxisol (Yellow Latosol, dystrophic in Senador José Porfírio County, km 35 of the Transamazonian road, in Brazil. The levels of nitrogen, applied manually every year were (0; 40; 80; 120 and 160 kg ha-1 N in the urea form, five phosphorus levels (0; 30; 60; 90 and 120 kg ha-1 P2O5 in the form of triple superphosphate and five potassium levels (0; 30; 60; 90 and 120 kg ha-1 K2O in the form of potassium chloride. The experimental design consisted of blocks with three

  3. Identification of irradiated peppers by electron spin resonance, thermoluminescence and viscosity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White and black pepper purchased in local retailers were analysed by electron spin resonance (ESR), thermoluminescence (TL) and viscosimetry (VISC) in order to establish a viable method for identifying possibly irradiated peppers. Samples studied were non irradiated or irradiated in a cobalt-60 plant with the absorbed doses of 3, 5, 7 and 10 kGy. Confirming the data found in the literature TL was revealed by our results the best method to identify irradiated peppers. Nevertheless, the dose received by the samples could not be estimated. The ESR signal of irradiated peppers is similar to the spectrum of cellulose radical but very short lived at ambient temperature. The study on the alteration of viscosity of heat-treated alkaline pepper suspensions indicate that VISC is a very promising method for detection of irradiated peppers. (Author)

  4. Aroma Compounds of Black Pepper Powder Analyzed by Solid-phase Micro-extraction%固相微萃取分析海南地区黑胡椒粉风味成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏来; 刘红; 欧仕益; 谷风林; 谭乐和; 宗迎; 朱红英

    2012-01-01

    The headspace aroma compounds in black pepper powder (Piper nigrum L.) from Hainan island were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The headspace volatiles were sampled by solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME). The total ion chromatographic peak area normalization for quantitative analysis of the flavor components. A total of 15 volatile compounds were identified, the α-pinene, β-pinene, 3-carene, limonene, terpinolene and caryophyllene, were the main flavor components.%采用固相微萃取采集海南地区黑胡椒粉的挥发性成分,用气相色谱-质谱法分析鉴定,并用总离子流色谱峰的峰面积进行归一化定量分析其风味成分,共鉴定出α-蒎烯、β-蒎烯、3-蒈烯、柠檬烯、异松油烯和石竹烯等15种化合物。

  5. Detection of organic free radicals in irradiated pepper by electron spin resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, we revealed various free radicals in a Japanese commercially available black pepper before and after γ-irradiation. The representative ESR spectrum of the pepper is composed of a sextet centered at g=2.0, a singlet at the same g-value and a singlet at g=4.0. The first one is attributable to a signal with hyperfine interactions of Mn2+ ion (7.4 mT). The second one is due to an organic free radical. The third one may be originated from Fe3+ ion of the non-hem Fe in proteins. A pair of signals appeared in the black pepper after γ-irradiation. The progressive saturation behavior reconfirmed the signal identification for the radicals in the black pepper. (author)

  6. Alumínio e a absorção de cálcio por mudas de pimenta do reino Aluminum and calcium absorption by black pepper seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Costa Veloso

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento com solução nutritiva foi conduzido em casa de vegetação com o objetivo de verificar os efeitos da nutrição de cálcio na toxicidade de alumínio em mudas de pimenta do reino. Os tratamentos constituíram-se de três concentrações de cálcio (10; 40 e 160 mg L-1 adicionados como CaCl2 em combinação com três concentrações de alumínio (0; 10 e 20 mg L-1 adicionados como AlCl3.6H2O. A solução nutritiva continha as seguintes concentrações dos íons expressos em mg L-1: N-NO3 (80,5; N-NH4 (10,5; P(1,5; K(39,0; Mg(24,0; S-SO4(32,0; B(0,5; Cu(0,06; Fe(5,0; Mn(1,0; Mo(0,03 e Zn(0,10. Os tratamentos com alumínio retardaram o crescimento das mudas de pimenta do reino, induziram sintomas de toxicidade de alumínio na parte aérea e principalmente aumentaram o diâmetro das raízes. O acúmulo de cálcio aumentou com o incremento da concentração de cálcio na solução na ausência de alumínio, nas raízes o conteúdo de cálcio foi diminuído com o aumento da concentração de alumínio na solução. A absorção de alumínio diminuiu com o aumento da concentração de cálcio na solução.A nutrient solution experiment with was carried out in a greenhouse with the objective of verifying the specific effects of calcium and aluminum toxicity on black pepper seedlings. The treatments were set up in three concentrations of calcium (10; 40 and 160 mg L-1 added as CaCl2 in combination with three concentrations of aluminum (0; 10 and 20 mg L-1 added as AlCl3. 6 H2O. The nutrient solution contained the following ion concentrations in mg L-1: N-NO3 (80,5; N-NH4 (10,5; P(1,5; K(39,0; Mg(24,0; S-SO4(32,0; B(0,5; Cu(0,06; Fe(5,0; Mn(1,0; Mo(0,03 and Zn(0,10. The treatments with aluminum reduced black pepper growth and the diameter of roots increased. Calcium absorption increased with the increase of calcium concentration in the solution, in the absence of aluminum. Calcium absorption by roots decreased with the increase of the

  7. 海南典型胡椒园土壤化学肥力现状分析与评价%Analysis and Assessment of Soil Chemical Fertility in Typical Black Pepper Gardens in Hainan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建峰; 邢谷杨; 孙燕; 王华; 邬华松; 郑维全

    2009-01-01

    Top soil(0~20cm) samples collected from 30 gardens of Black Pepper (Piper nigrum) in Hainan Province were tested. The results showed that the soil pH of 50% soil samples was obviously lower(≤4.5); that soil organic matter of 13.33% soil samples was in low status; that total N and alkali hydrolysable N were abundant; that 23.33% and 30.00% of soil samples were deficient of available P and K respectively; that the soil samples were heavily deficient of available Ca, Mg and B but rich in available Fe, Zn and S; and that 10.00% of the soil samples were deficient of available Mn and Cu.%对海南各市县30个胡椒园中O~20 cm土层的土壤样品进行了测试分析.结果表明,有一半的土壤样品pH≤4.5;13.33%的土壤样品有机质含量偏低;土壤全N、碱解N丰富;23.33%的土壤样品缺少有效P;30.00%的土壤样品缺少有效K;交换性Ca、Mg严重缺乏;有效Fe、Zn、S丰富,有效B严重缺乏,10.00%的土壤样品均缺乏有效Mn、Cu.

  8. Influência do manganês sobre a nutrição mineral e crescimento da pimenteira do reino (Piper nigrum, L. Effect of manganese on mineral nutrition and growth of black pepper (Piper nigrum, L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A.C. Veloso

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available A pimenteira do reino (Piper nigrum, L. vem sendo cultivada em sua maior parte em solos com acidez elevada e balia saturação por bases. O manganês em condições de alta acidez pode provocar toxidez às plantas. Visando estudar os efeitos do manganês nessa cultura foi conduzido um experimento com a cultivar Guajarina em solução nutritiva, O manganês foi fornecido nas concentrações de 0; 10; 20; 30; 40 e 50 mg/L. Na ausência do elemento foram observados sintomas de deficiência e redução no crescimento. O excesso de manganês (30 mg/L na solução nutritiva reduziu o desenvolvimento das plantas e a absorção de P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe e ZN. Observaram-se sintomas de toxidez de manganês a partir da concentração de 20 mg/L, caracterizados por cloróse e pontos necróticos nas folhas.Black pepper (Piper nigrum, L. is usually grown in soils of low natural fertility and high acidity. Under such conditions manganese can cause toxicity to plants. An experiment using young plants of the cultivar Guajarina grown in nutrient solution was carried out in order to verify the effects of rates of manganese on this crop. The manganese was supplied at the concentrations of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mg/L. Excess of manganese (30 mg/L in the nutrient solution caused a reduction in growth and in the uptake of P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe and Zn. Toxicity symptoms were chlorosis and necrotic dots in the leaves, when the level of supply was 20 mg/L or higher.

  9. Influência da aplicação de fertilizantes, na concentração de nutrientes em folhas de pimenteira-do-reino The influence of applications of fertilizer on foliar concentrations of nutrients of black pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondino C Bataglia

    1976-07-01

    Full Text Available Procedeu-se à análise de folhas coletadas no verão, outono e inverno, num ensaio de adubação qualitativa instalado na Estação Experimental de Pariquera Açu, do Instituto Agronômico, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da aplicação de fertilizantes na absorção de nutrientes pela pimenteira-do-reino. A amostragem de verão revelou efeito dos tratamentos sobre os teores de fósforo, potássio e cobre, sendo por isso recomendada para fins de diagnose foliar. Apenas para potássio houve aumento de concentração nas folhas quando se compararam as médias dos tratamentos com e sem cada um dos nutrientes.A field trial was conducted since 1965 at the Pariquera Açu Experiment Station, State of São Paulo, to study the effects of the presence and absence of fertilizer on black pepper (Piper nigrum L.. In 1973, recently mature leaves were collected in summer, fall and winter in order to verify the effects of the treatments on the foliar concentration of macro and micronutrients. Summer sampling showed effect of fertilizer treatments on the concentration of phosphorus, potassium, and copper. Fall sampling showed effect only for potassium and no effect was observed in the winter. When the average contents of nutrients from fertilized and not fertilized treatments were compared, only potassium revealed differences by the Scheffé test.

  10. Applicability of viscosity measurement to the detection of irradiated peppers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starch is degraded by ionising radiation, resulting in a decrease in viscosity. The viscosities of black and white peppers which contain large amounts of starch are reduced by irradiation so, therefore, viscosity measurement has been proposed as a method to detect the irradiation treatment of these food products. Although detection of irradiated spices by thermoluminescence measurement has been established, it is useful to establish the viscosity measuring technique for detecting irradiated peppers, as this method is carried out widely in the laboratories of food controlling authorities and food processing companies. (author)

  11. The effect of gamma radiation and storage time on the volatile constituents, pirerine, piperettine and sensory quality of pepper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of gamma radiation in prolonging the storage life of black and white peppers is promising. Doses up to 9 kGy and storage period up to 6 months did not significantly change (P<0.05) the volatile constituents of the peppers. Besides the increase in piperine content of unirradiated pepper there was no change in piperettine and piperine contents of both pepper with respect to increase in dose and storage time. No sensory change was detected for the treatments used (author)

  12. Variabilidade espacial de cálcio, magnésio, fósforo, potássio no solo e produtividade da pimenta-do-reino Spatial variability of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium in soil and yield of black pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo O. de J. Santos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A pimenta-do-reino é uma importante fonte de renda para o produtor rural, razão por que é uma espécie predominantemente cultivada por pequenos produtores porém ainda é pouco conhecida a relação da variação espacial dos nutrientes e da produtividade da cultura. Objetivou-se, no presente trabalho, descrever a variabilidade espacial do Ca, Mg, K, P no solo e a produtividade de uma lavoura de pimenta-do-reino, cultivada em um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico. O experimento foi conduzido em uma lavoura de pimenta-do-reino, no município de São Mateus, ES, plantada no espaçamento 3,0 x 1,8 m. O projeto foi instalado em uma malha retangular de 100 x 120 m. Em cada ponto amostral foram coletadas amostras de solo, na profundidade de 0-0,20 m e determinada a produtividade, totalizando 126 pontos, com distância mínima de 5 m. Os dados foram submetidos à análise geoestatística. Observou-se estrutura de dependência espacial moderada e forte para os atributos químicos estudados. O estudo da variabilidade espacial dos atributos químicos do solo mostrou-se como ferramenta relevante na compreensão do comportamento dos nutrientes no solo podendo ser fundamental no auxílio à tomada de decisão que vise à maior produtividade da lavoura.The black pepper (Piper nigrum L. has a social importance and it is mainly cultivated by small farmers, however the relationship between the spatial variability of nutrients in soil and yield of black pepper is little known. Thus, the purpose of this study was to analyse the spatial variability of Ca, Mg, K, P in soil and black pepper yield, cultivated in a distrophic Red-Yellow Latosol. The study was carried out in a black pepper plantation, in São Mateus, in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. A 3 x 1,8 m spacing in a mesh of 100 x 120 m (total area 12.000 m2, with 126 sampling points was used. Soil samples at depth of 0-0.2 m were collected at each point of the grid, in order to evaluate the soil

  13. ABSORÇÃO E EXTRAÇÃO DE ALGUNS NUTRIENTES PELA CULTIVAR 'GUAJARINA' DE PIMENTA-DO-REINO NUTRIENT UPTAKE AND EXTRACTION BY BLACK PEPPER CULTIVAR 'GUAJARINA'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Costa Veloso

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O potencial econômico da cultura da pimenta do reino e a necessidade real de pesquisas que sustentem a sua exploração levaram a elaboração deste trabalho que teve por objetivo determinar a concentração e a distribuição dos nutrientes N, P, K, Ca e Mg, nas diversas partes da planta. O experimento foi conduzido em Belém, PA, em solo classificado como Latossolo Amarelo, textura média, com as seguintes características químicas: pH em H2O = 4,5; M.O = 17,5 g kg-1; P= 2,0 mg dm-3 e os cátions trocáveis, em mmolc.dm-3, K = 0,48; Ca2+= 4,0; Mg2+ =2,0; Al3+ = 13,0. As amostras foram constituídas de um grupo de seis plantas da cultivar Guajarina, coletadas aos 28 meses de idade, na época da produção. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que os nutrientes extraídos pela pimenta-do-reino obedecem à seguinte ordem: N > Ca > K > Mg > P. As quantidades de macronutrientes exportadas pelos frutos, na colheita em kg.ha-1 foram: N=11,22; K=6,15; Ca=3,84; Mg=1,18 e P=1,07.The economic importance of black pepper and the need for information of production sustainability justified this work, to determine the concentration and the distribution of nutrients N, P, K, Ca and Mg, in several parts of the plant. The experiment was carried out in Belém, Pará, in a soil classified as Yellow Latosol (Alic Haplustox, medium texture, with the following chemical characteristics: pH in H2O = 4.5; OM = 17.5 g kg-1; P = 2.0 mg .dm-3 and the exchangeable cations, in mmolc.dm-3, K = 0.48; Ca2+ = 4.0; Mg2+ =2,0; Al3+ = 13.0. The samples were composed of six plants of the cultivar 'Guajarina', collected at 28 months after planting, at the production period. The nutrients were extracted in the decreasing order: N> Ca> K> Mg> P. The amounts of macronutrients exported by the fruits, in kg.ha-1, are: N=11.22; K=6.15; Ca=3.84; Mg=1.18 and P=1.07.

  14. Mutation breeding in pepper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepper (Capsicum sp.) is an important vegetable and spice crop widely grown in tropical as well as in temperate regions. Until recently the improvement programmes were based mainly on using natural sources of germ plasma, crossbreeding and exploiting the heterosis of F1 hybrids. However, interest in using induced mutations is growing. A great number of agronomically useful mutants as well as mutants valuable for genetic, cytological and physiological studies have been induced and described. In this review information is presented about suitable mutagen treatment procedures with radiation as well as chemicals, M1 effects, handling the treated material in M1, M2 and subsequent generations, and mutant screening procedures. This is supplemented by a description of reported useful mutants and released cultivars. Finally, general advice is given on when and how to incorporate mutation induction in Capsicum improvement programmes. (author)

  15. Identification of irradiated pepper with the level of hydrogen gas as a probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel method to detect whether or not a particular pepper has been irradiated has been developed which is based on the fact that H2 is formed in organic substances irradiated with ionizing radiation. Following gamma irradiation, black and white peppers were ground to powder in a gastight ceramic mill. By gas-chromatographic analysis of the gas in the mill, we observed that H2 had been released from the irradiated pepper grains. Curves plotting the H2 content vs storage time at storage temperatures of 7, 22, and 30 degrees C showed that the higher the temperatures, the smaller the H2 content, and that identification of irradiated pepper was possible for 2-4 months after 10 kGy irradiation

  16. Potencialidade da casca de caranguejo na redução da incidência de fusariose e na promoção do crescimento de mudas de pimenteira-do-reino Potential of crab shell for reducing incidence of fusariosis and promoting growth of black pepper transplants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth L. Benchimol

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A casca de caranguejo-do-mangue (Ucides cordatus foi testada como aditivo ao solo para reduzir a incidência de fusariose (Fusarium solani f.sp. piperis e para promover o crescimento de mudas de pimenteira-do-reino (Piper nigrum. A pré-incubação da casca de caranguejo no solo (1,0% m/m; 15 dias antes do transplantio aumentou em 20% a sobrevivência da pimenteira-do-reino, cultivada em solo infestado com Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis, durante 90 dias. A produção de massa seca das plantas aumentou na presença de casca de caranguejo, independente da concentração e do tempo de incubação no solo. As plantas alocaram biomassa preferencialmente para a parte aérea, na presença de casca de caranguejo. A taxa de fotossíntese líquida das plantas tendeu a aumentar ou permaneceu inalterada na presença de casca de caranguejo. Conclui-se que a casca de caranguejo tem potencial para auxiliar na redução da incidência de fusariose e no desenvolvimento de mudas de pimenteira-do-reino.Crab shell of the mangrove crab (Ucides cordatus was tested as a soil amendment to reduce fusariosis and promote growth of black pepper (Piper nigrum transplants. Soil infested with Fusarium solani f. sp. piperis was amended or not amended with ground crab shell (1,0% m/m 15 days before pepper seedlings were transplanted into the soil. The crab shell amendment increased plant survival by 20% at 90 days after transplanting. The amendment increased the production of plant dry mass when applied at various concentrations and times before transplanting. The increased biomass of plants grown in amended soil was allocated preferentially to the aerial plant parts, mainly the leaves. Net photosynthesis increased or was unchanged in plants grown in the presence of 0.5 and 1.0% (m/m of crab shell. We conclude that ground crab shell has potential to reduce incidence of fusariosis and to promote the growth of black pepper.

  17. Preliminary examination of induced radio activity in pepper by 10 MeV electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    β-ray measurement was performed on 10 MeV electron-irradiated black pepper and white pepper in order to reconfirm the wholesomeness of irradiated food and present unambiguous data to general consumers concerning about the induced radioactivity in the irradiated foods. From elemental composition of the samples and investigation of photonuclear reactions, several β-emmitters were listed up. But no radioactivity other than from natural sources was detected in the irradiated sample by β-ray counting with 2 π gass flow counter, suggesting that the induced β-emmitters in the irradiated sample was below the detection limit of its induced radioactivity. (author)

  18. Anther Culture of Pepper: Morphological Characteristics of Fruits of Androgenetic Pepper Lines (Capsicum Annuum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Koleva Gudeva, Liljana; Trajkova, Fidanka

    2012-01-01

    The presented study describes the effectiveness of induced androgenesis in in vitro pepper anther culture. The aim of this study was the establishment of effective technology for induction of embryogenesis in pepper anther culture; development of the embryos into plantlets; successful adaptation and acclimatization of plantlets from sterile to greenhouse conditions, and the breeding process of obtained androgenetic pepper lines in the plastic tunnel conditions. From 19 pepper genotypes under ...

  19. Pepper weevil attraction to volatiles from host and nonhost plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addesso, Karla M; McAuslane, Heather J

    2009-02-01

    The location of wild and cultivated host plants by pepper weevil (Anthonomus eugenii Cano) may be aided by visual cues, the male-produced aggregation pheromone, herbivore-induced, or constitutive host plant volatiles. The attractiveness of constitutive plant volatiles to pioneer weevils is important in understanding, and perhaps controlling, dispersal of this insect between wild and cultivated hosts. Ten-day-old male and 2- and 10-day-old female weevils were tested in short-range Y-tube assays. Ten-day-old male and female weevils were attracted to the volatiles released by whole plants of three known oviposition hosts, 'Jalapeno' pepper, American black nightshade, and eggplant, as well as tomato, a congener, which supports feeding but not oviposition. Two-day-old females were attracted to all plants tested, including lima bean, an unrelated, nonhost plant. Fruit volatiles from all three hosts and flower volatiles from nightshade and eggplant were also attractive. In choice tests, weevils showed different preferences for the oviposition hosts, depending on age and sex. Upwind response of 10-day-old male and female weevils to host plant volatiles was also tested in long-range wind tunnel assays. Weevils responded to pepper, nightshade, and eggplant volatiles by moving upwind. There was no difference in the observed upwind response of the weevils to the three host plants under no-choice conditions. Reproductively mature pepper weevils can detect, orient to, and discriminate between the volatile plumes of host plants in the absence of visual cues, conspecific feeding damage, or the presence of their aggregation pheromone. PMID:19791617

  20. The Ocular Effects of Pepper Spray

    OpenAIRE

    Canan Aslı Utine; İsmet Durak

    2012-01-01

    Recently, pepper spray has been used by both civilians, as a non-lethal personal defense spray, and law enforcement agencies in population movements. People exposed to pepper spray experience panic and disorientation due to acute severe pain, blepharospasm, tearing and sometimes blurred vision and even temporary blindness. Having knowledge about the properties and mechanism of action of pepper spray and the different aspects of this exposure from other ocular chemical injuries is imp...

  1. Occurrence and distribution of pepper veinal mottle virus and cucumber mosaic virus in pepper in Ibadan, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Arogundade Olawale; Balogun Olusegun; Kareem Kehinde

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Viral diseases constitute obstacles to pepper production in the world. In Nigeria, pepper plants are primarily affected by pepper veinal mottle virus (PVMV), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Pepper leaf curl Virus (TLCV), Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), Pepper mottle virus (PMV) and a host of other viruses. The experiment was carried out with a diagnostic survey on the experimental field of the National Horticultural Research Institute, Ibadan, Nigeria and on pepper farms in six local govern...

  2. Mutation breeding in diffrent types of pepper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project was carried out under the collaboration of TAEK, SANAEM, and BATEM within 1999-2005 period. The aim of this project was to create new pepper varieties in Sera Demre 8 (green pepper) and ST59 (green pepper) cultivars which are important greenhouse cultivars by using mutation breeding methods. The Effective Mutagen Dose (ED50) was calculated by linear regression analyses. According to results, 166 Gy dose was found as ED50. At the end of the breeding cycle 14 new mutant lines were obtained from mutant population. These mutant lines are still using as genitor for F1 hybrid pepper breeding programs

  3. Solanum americanum: reservoir for Potato virus Y and Cucumber mosaic virus in sweet pepper crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Fecury Moura

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Weeds can act as important reservoirs for viruses. Solanum americanum (Black nightshade is a common weed in Brazil and samples showing mosaic were collected from sweet pepper crops to verify the presence of viruses. One sample showed mixed infection between Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV and Potato virus Y (PVY and one sample showed simple infection by PVY. Both virus species were transmitted by plant extract and caused mosaic in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Santa Clara, sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum cv. Magda, Nicotiana benthamiana and N. tabaccum TNN, and local lesions on Chenopodium quinoa, C. murale and C. amaranticolor. The coat protein sequences for CMV and PVY found in S. americanum are phylogenetically more related to isolates from tomato. We conclude that S. americanum can act as a reservoir for different viruses during and between sweet pepper crop seasons.

  4. Pepper EST database: comprehensive in silico tool for analyzing the chili pepper (Capsicum annuum transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Woo Taek

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is no dedicated database available for Expressed Sequence Tags (EST of the chili pepper (Capsicum annuum, although the interest in a chili pepper EST database is increasing internationally due to the nutritional, economic, and pharmaceutical value of the plant. Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing of the ESTs of chili pepper cv. Bukang have produced hundreds of thousands of complementary DNA (cDNA sequences. Therefore, a chili pepper EST database was designed and constructed to enable comprehensive analysis of chili pepper gene expression in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Results We built the Pepper EST database to mine the complexity of chili pepper ESTs. The database was built on 122,582 sequenced ESTs and 116,412 refined ESTs from 21 pepper EST libraries. The ESTs were clustered and assembled into virtual consensus cDNAs and the cDNAs were assigned to metabolic pathway, Gene Ontology (GO, and MIPS Functional Catalogue (FunCat. The Pepper EST database is designed to provide a workbench for (i identifying unigenes in pepper plants, (ii analyzing expression patterns in different developmental tissues and under conditions of stress, and (iii comparing the ESTs with those of other members of the Solanaceae family. The Pepper EST database is freely available at http://genepool.kribb.re.kr/pepper/. Conclusion The Pepper EST database is expected to provide a high-quality resource, which will contribute to gaining a systemic understanding of plant diseases and facilitate genetics-based population studies. The database is also expected to contribute to analysis of gene synteny as part of the chili pepper sequencing project by mapping ESTs to the genome.

  5. Visualizing Capsaicinoids: Colorimetric Analysis of Chili Peppers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Robert Q.; Chu, Christopher; Gent, Robin; Gould, Alexandra P.; Rios, Laura; Vertigan, Theresa M.

    2012-01-01

    A colorimetric method for total capsaicinoids in chili pepper ("Capsicum") fruit is described. The placental material of the pepper, containing 90% of the capsaicinoids, was physically separated from the colored materials in the pericarp and extracted twice with methanol, capturing 85% of the remaining capsaicinoids. The extract, evaporated and…

  6. Corneal abrasions associated with pepper spray exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, L; Takeuchi, D; Challoner, K

    2000-05-01

    Pepper spray containing oleoresin capsicum is used by law enforcement and the public as a form of nonlethal deterrent. Stimulated by the identification of a case of a corneal abrasion associated with pepper spray exposure, a descriptive retrospective review of a physician-maintained log of patients presenting to a jail ward emergency area over a 3-year period was performed. The objective was to give some quantification to the frequency with which an emergency physician could expect to see corneal abrasions associated with pepper spray exposure. Of 100 cases of pepper spray exposure identified, seven patients had sustained corneal abrasions. We conclude that corneal abrasions are not rare events when patients are exposed to pepper spray and that fluorescein staining and slit lamp or Wood's lamp examination should be performed on all exposed patients in whom corneal abrasions cannot be excluded on clinical grounds. PMID:10830682

  7. Vegetative and reproductive evaluation of hot peppers under different plastic mulches in poly/plastic tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the beginning of civilization, the man has developed technologies to increase the efficiency of food production. The use of plastic mulch in commercial vegetable production is one of these traditional techniques that have been used for centuries. Studies were conducted to assess the efficacy of plastic mulch on growth and yield of two hot pepper hybrids, viz. Sky Red and Maha in poly/plastic tunnel. The treatments were black plastic mulch, clear plastic mulch and bare soil as control. Both hot pepper hybrids mulched with black plastic showed significantly better vegetative growth (plant height, leaf area etc) and fruit yield. Clear plastic mulch significantly increased soil temperature and reduced the number of days to first flower than black plastic mulch and bare soil. However, fruit yield was higher by 39.56 and 36.49% respectively in both hybrids when they were grown on black and clear plastic mulch as compared to bare soil. Overall results indicated that the use of plastic mulch is an ideal option to maximize hot pepper productivity as well as to extend their production season in poly/plastic tunnels. (author)

  8. Method of detecting irradiated pepper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spices represented by pepper are generally contaminated by microorganisms, and for using them as foodstuffs, some sterilizing treatment is indispensable. However, heating is not suitable to spices, accordingly ethylene oxide gas sterilization has been inevitably carried out, but its carcinogenic property is a problem. Food irradiation is the technology for killing microorganisms and noxious insects which cause the rotting and spoiling of foods and preventing the germination, which is an energy-conserving method without the fear of residual chemicals, therefore, it is most suitable to the sterilization of spices. In the irradiation of lower than 10 kGy, the toxicity test is not required for any food, and the irradiation of spices is permitted in 20 countries. However, in order to establish the international distribution organization for irradiated foods, the PR to consumers and the development of the means of detecting irradiation are the important subjects. The authors used pepper, and examined whether the hydrogen generated by irradiation remains in seeds and it can be detected or not. The experimental method and the results are reported. From the samples without irradiation, hydrogen was scarcely detected. The quantity of hydrogen generated was proportional to dose. The measuring instrument is only a gas chromatograph. (K.I.)

  9. The Ocular Effects of Pepper Spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canan Aslı Utine

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, pepper spray has been used by both civilians, as a non-lethal personal defense spray, and law enforcement agencies in population movements. People exposed to pepper spray experience panic and disorientation due to acute severe pain, blepharospasm, tearing and sometimes blurred vision and even temporary blindness. Having knowledge about the properties and mechanism of action of pepper spray and the different aspects of this exposure from other ocular chemical injuries is important for timely and correct interventions and appropriate management of the condition by the ophthalmologists in emergency care. (Turk J Oph thal mol 2012; 42: 294-7

  10. Effects of Japanese pepper and red pepper on the microbial community during nukadoko fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Hiroshi; Nishio, Shoko; Tsurii, Jun; Kawamoto, Tetsuhiro; Sonomoto, Kenji; Nakayama, Jiro

    2015-01-01

    Nukadoko is a fermented rice bran bed traditionally used for pickling vegetables in Japan. To date, the production of both homemade and commercial nukadoko has depended on natural fermentation without using starter cultures. Spices, Japanese pepper, and red pepper, are added to nukadoko empirically, but the functions of spices in nukadoko have not been fully elucidated. To investigate the effects of Japanese pepper and red pepper on nukadoko fermentation, we compared the chemical and microbiological changes during 2 months of fermentation of a laboratory model nukadoko with or without spices. The successive pH values and colony counts in the first 10 days showed that the spices promoted lactic acid bacteria (LAB) growth and fermentation in the nukadoko niche. The successive bacterial communities during natural fermentation of nukadoko were carefully monitored by pyrotag 16S rRNA analysis, and the effect of spices on the development and maintenance of the nukadoko microbiota was investigated. It was shown that addition of Japanese peppers and red peppers shortened the pre-lactic acid fermentation phase, during which Staphylococcus saprophyticus grew dominantly, and promoted the development of a microbiota that LAB dominated. Notably, the growth of the dominant LAB, Pediococcus pentosaceus, was improved by adding either Japanese pepper or red pepper. The differences in the LAB species, which were associated with the differences in chemical composition of the nukadoko, were dependent on the type of pepper used. We conclude that the spices used can affect the bacterial community and modulate its metabolic profile in nukadoko. PMID:25625032

  11. Alteration of apparent viscosity of irradiated pepper - a tool for semi-quantitative estimation of irradiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of using apparent viscosity (ηa) as a method for detecting the occurrence of previous irradiation of pepper was studied. Apparent viscosity of heat-treated suspensions of white and black pepper, nonirradiated or irradiated with different doses of ionising radiation (γ), was measured under different 'shear rates'. Results of previous research were therefore expanded and their usefulness examined; low shear rate conditions were found to be preferable for the detection and semi-quantitative evaluation of irradiation doses. The experimental methodology for semi-quantitative estimation was developed and its scope and limitations are presented. (orig.)

  12. PUNGENT AND COLOUR COMPOUNDS OF RED PEPPERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çetin KADAKAL

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The capcaicinoid amount of red peppers from Solanacea family is used for the evaluation of quality and classification in many countries. Capsaicin is the major pungent principle (69 % of capsaicinoids. The others are dihidrocapsaicin (22 %, nordihidrocapsaicin (7 %, homocapsaicin (1 % and homodihidrocapsaicin (1 %. As in most foods, the carotenoids of red peppers are also important compounds. Carotenoids are typical colour pigments and some of them have vitamin A activity. Major carotenoids of ripe fruit of red peppers are capsanthin, capsorubin, ß-carotene and zeaxanthin. Capcaicinoid and carotenoid contents of red peppers grown in many different regions of the world, their properties and roles on the human health were given in this review.

  13. Ultrasound Assisted Extraction of capsaicinoids from peppers

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The development of a rapid, reproducible and simple method of extraction of the majority capsaicinoids (nordihydrocapsaicin, capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, homocapsaicin and homodihydrocapsaicin) present in hot peppers by the employment of ultrasound-assisted extraction is reported.

  14. Biology and Control of Pepper Anthracnose

    OpenAIRE

    Marvel, Josh K

    2003-01-01

    Anthracnose (caused by Colletotrichum capsici or C. gloeosporioides) of bell peppers (Capsicum annum) has become a serious problem in recent years on the Eastern Shore of Virginia. The purpose of this research was to characterize isolates of the fungus from the Eastern United States, to compare them with the type species from the American Type Culture Collection, and to evaluate fungicides for disease management. Two cultivars of pepper were inoculated with a conidial suspension, and held in...

  15. Quantitative analysis of capsaicinoids in fresh peppers, oleoresin capsicum and pepper spray products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, C A; Crouch, D J; Yost, G S

    2001-05-01

    Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to identify and quantify the predominant capsaicinoid analogues in extracts of fresh peppers, in oleoresin capsicum, and pepper sprays. The concentration of capsaicinoids in fresh peppers was variable. Variability was dependent upon the relative pungency of the pepper type and geographical origin of the pepper. Nonivamide was conclusively identified in the extracts of fresh peppers, despite numerous reports that nonivamide was not a natural product. In the oleoresin capsicum samples, the pungency was proportional to the total concentration of capsaicinoids and was related by a factor of approximately 15,000 Scoville Heat Units (SHU)/microg of total capsaicinoids. The principle analogues detected in oleoresin capsicum were capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin and appeared to be the analogues primarily responsible for the pungency of the sample. The analysis of selected samples of commercially available pepper spray products also demonstrated variability in the capsaicinoid concentrations. Variability was observed among products obtained from different manufacturers as well as from different product lots from the same manufacturer. These data indicate that commercial pepper products are not standardized for capsaicinoid content even though they are classified by SHU. Variability in the capsaicinoid concentrations in oleoresin capsicum-based self-defense weapons could alter potency and ultimately jeopardize the safety and health of users and assailants. PMID:11372985

  16. In the shadow of a pepper-centric historiography: Understanding the global diffusion of capsicums in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halikowski Smith, Stefan

    2015-06-01

    Historians of the Eurasian spice trade focus on the fortunes of black pepper (Piper Nigrum L.), largely because the trading companies of the Dutch and English which they study also did. Capsicum peppers are, however, the world׳s most consumed spice, and their story needs to be told in parallel. The five species of capsicum peppers spread across the world in less than two hundred years following their discovery by Europeans in South and Central America and proved both hardier than Piper nigrum and able to reproduce spontaneously. While the taste was similar but more pungent than black pepper, capsicums provided an important vitamin C and bioflavanoid supplement to poorer people in southern and eastern Europe far from the precepts of good taste as dictated from Paris, and rapidly became a mainstay of tropical cuisine across the world. This contribution seeks both to trace and to understand that diffusion and its principal vectors from historical research amongst a plethora of primary source materials in European and Asian languages. Medical and dietetic reaction is presented from a wide range of contemporary texts. The work proceeds according to deductive reasoning and in comparison to the diffusion of black pepper consumption. It reveals the very different strategies of import substitution and commercial embargo undertaken by Portuguese and Spanish authorities, a somewhat later date of arrival in China than previously thought, and three different, competing lines of entry into an important area of later cultivation, namely Central Europe. PMID:25446579

  17. Quality Characteristics of Stirred Yoghurt Added with Fermented Red Pepper

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Mi-Sang; Kim, Jeong-Mee; Lee, Chi-Ho; Son, Yoon-Jeong; Kim, Soo-Ki

    2014-01-01

    Pungency of hot pepper has limited its usage even though it shows various health beneficial effects. This study was conducted to develop the novel yoghurt containing hot pepper with diminishing pungency and aimed to examine the quality characteristics of yoghurt prepared with fermented red pepper. Hot pepper was first fermented with Bacillus licheniformis SK1230 to reduce the pungency of capsaicin. We then examined the quality, sensory characteristics, and antioxidant activity of yoghurt cont...

  18. Biological characteristics of different androgenic pepper lines (Capsicum annuum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Trajkova, Fidanka; Koleva Gudeva, Liljana

    2014-01-01

    The biology of pepper growth and development is strongly dependent on complex influence of environmental abiotic factors as light, temperature, air humidity and soil moisture. The presence and length of different pepper phenophases is variety characteristics, which they expressed as result of the development in specific agroecological conditions. In this study the vegetation period as earliness indicator of seven androgenic pepper lines derived from 3 different sweet pepper varieties was stud...

  19. Study on some chemical changes in irradiated pepper and parsley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of ionizing radiation on some water soluble components (carbohydrates, carbonyl compounds) of pepper and parsley, as well as on piperine in pepper and chlorophyll in parsley has been investigated. The irradiation of parsley with doses as high as 5 Mrad does not bring about any distinct qualitative and quantitative changes. In irradiated pepper qualitative changes were also not observed, but quantitative changes were measured even for doses lower than 1 Mrad. However, piperine in pepper is quite resistant against radiation. (author)

  20. Resistance of Pepper Accessions and Lines to Economically Important Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Stoimenova, Elisaveta; Bogatzevska, Nevena; Mitrev, Sasa; Daskalov, S.

    2006-01-01

    Macedonian and Bulgarian pepper accessions and lines were tested for resistance to cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), tomato mosaic virus (ToMV), paprika mild mottle virus (PMMoV) - (P1 pathotype), pepper mild mottle virus pMMoV - (P1.2 and P1.2.3. pathotype) and Xanthomonas vesicatoria pepper - tomato pathotype (XvPT).

  1. 7 CFR 319.56-32 - Peppers from New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Peppers from New Zealand. 319.56-32 Section 319.56-32... from New Zealand. Peppers (fruit) (Capsicum spp.) from New Zealand may be imported into the United... peppers must be grown in New Zealand in insect-proof greenhouses approved by the New Zealand Ministry...

  2. Analysis of gamma irradiated pepper constituents, 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma irradiated peppers (10 krad, 100 krad, 1 Mrad) were analyzed by HPLC. The extraction method and HPLC conditions were same as the first report, that is, the extraction from pepper was performed by Automatic Air Hammer and the extracted samples were separated on a reversed phase C8 column with a concave gradient from 0.1% trifluoro aceticacid (TFA) in water to 75% acetonitrile-0.1% TFA in water for 60 minutes and detected at 210 nm, 280 nm. It is difficult to compare with irradiated and unirradiated pepper constituents by their peak height or area. And the method of multi variant statistically analysis was introduced. The 'peak n area/peak n + 1 area' ratio was calculated by computer. Each peak area was accounted by integrator. The value of these ratio were called 'parameter'. Each chromatogram has 741 parameters calculated with 39 chromatographic peaks. And these parameters were abopted to the multi variant statiscally analysis. Comparison of constituents between irradiated pepper and unirradiated pepper was done by 741 parameters. The correlation of parameters between irradiated and unirradiated was investigated by use of computer. Some parameters of irradiated case were selected as which had no correlation with unirradiated case. That is to say these parameters were thought to be changed with gamma spectrum irradiation. By this method, Coumarin was identified as a changed component with gamma irradiation. (author)

  3. ESR analysis of irradiated red peppers and commercial red peppers in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ESR analysis of γ-ray irradiated and being treated with different processing red pepper was studied. All the red peppers were commercial expect irradiated one. Processing treatment of red pepper was sun drying, mechanical processing (heating sterilization and powdering treatment). All the samples were weighted and analyzed. The ESR spectrum of the red pepper is composed of a singlet at g=2.00. This signal was originated from organic free radical. It is suggested the effect of heating treatment on the radical formation is not so large and powdering treatment will promote the radical formation of red pepper. ESR singlet signal of the irradiated red pepper showed the large signal intensity and the dose-dependence. The singlet signal intensity of irradiated powder sample showed the almost same value as compared with that of the powder sample with heating treatment. Relaxation times (T1 and T2) of the singlet signal were calculated. The relaxation behavior and relaxation times of the irradiated sample were different from that of the non-irradiated sample. The value of T1, the spin lattice relaxation time, of irradiated sample was increased and T2, the spin-spin relaxation time, of irradiated sample was decreased. We concluded that the radical formation of the red pepper is mainly depended on the powdering treatment and irradiation. (author)

  4. Exploring Western Ghats microbial diversity for antagonistic microorganisms against fungal phytopathogens of pepper and chickpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.N. RAMKUMAR

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Newly isolated microbial cultures from Western Ghat soil samples of Kerala region in India were screened for antagonistic activity by well diffusion and dual culture plating against Phytophthora capsici and Rhizoctonia solani, infecting pepper and chickpea, respectively. Bioactive samples were made by varying solvent extraction of the culture broths of the potent isolates belongs to Actinomycetes, Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Trichoderma. The efficacy of the isolates to produce other potent antifungal metabolites such as cell wall degrading enzymes, HCN and volatile compounds were also checked. Treatment with antagonistic isolates in vivo under greenhouse conditions revealed significant reduction of the disease intensity of foot rot disease of black pepper and collar rot of chick pea.

  5. Characterization of Verticillium dahliae isolates and wilt epidemics of pepper

    OpenAIRE

    Bhat, R G; Smith, R F; Koike, S.T.; Wu, B M; Subbarao, K.V.

    2003-01-01

    Epidemics of Verticillium wilt in pepper fields of the central coast of California and isolates of Verticillium dahliae associated with these epidemics were characterized. The mean incidence of wilted plants per field ranged from 6.3 to 97.8% in fields with Anaheim, jalapeno, paprika, or bell peppers. In general, incidence of wilt in jalapeno and bell pepper crops was lower than in crops of other types of pepper. Inoculum density of V. dahliae in the surveyed pepper fields ranged from 2.7 to ...

  6. Anther culture of chili pepper (Capsicum spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Alejo, Neftalí

    2012-01-01

    Chili pepper (Capsicum spp.) is a very important horticultural crop around the world and is especially important for Mexicans because of its impact in the culture and the cuisine. Biotechnological tools such as tissue culture techniques and specifically anther culture may be applied successfully for plant breeding and genetic improvement in order to generate isogenic lines (100% homozygous) in a shorter time in comparison with the classic breeding methods. In this chapter, a protocol for efficient recovery of chili pepper haploid plants from in vitro cultured anthers is described. PMID:22610631

  7. Hybrid breeding in pepper (capsicum annuum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Male sterile forms of peppers with gene sterility were produced by ν- and X-irradiation of dry seeds of cv. Pazarjishka kapiya 794 and Zlaten medal and subsequent selection in M2. Male sterile lines suitable for developing hybrid cultivars intended for various kinds of production were obtained by backcrossing with lines and cultivars having valuable economic characters and high combining ability. The promising pepper Belasitsa, Prista, Lyulin and Strouma (all of them for early field production), and Izoumroud and Prevuzhoden (for glasshouse production) are described. (authors)

  8. MIDAS™ DEMONSTRATION PLOTS IN BELL PEPPER

    Science.gov (United States)

    A demonstration trial comparing MIDAS™ (methyl iodide:chloropicrin 50:50) to methyl bromide:chloropicrin (67:33) was conducted in Saint Lucie County, FL on a commercial bell pepper production farm. Methyl bromide:chloropicrin was shank injected into performed beds at 392 kg/ha using three 25 cm dee...

  9. Analysis of gamma irradiated pepper constituents, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extraction of pepper perfume by use of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) was investigated. Carbon dioxide was used as supercritical mobile phase. SFE was achieved by follow conditions, temperature was 40deg C, pressure was 200 kgf/cm2, 5 % methanol was added to mobile phase and the extraction time was 60 minutes. The extracted fraction by this method was yellow oily substance and was pepper perfume rich fraction, while the residue of extraction had not only perfume but also any pungency. And it seems that most part of pepper perfume was extracted by Supercritical fluid extraction. The perfume fraction was analyzed by two way method, that is, supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) and reversed phase HPLC. SFC conditions were same as SFE. HPLC conditions were described as the first report. By both methods, about 7 peaks were detected. According to their analysis of this fraction, the main component was identified as piperine. On the chromatogram of reversed phase HPLC of extract, most peaks were eluted later than piperine. And it is thought that most perfume components have high hydrophobicity more than piperine. The change of perfume of pepper was able to be discussed based on the extraction by SFE. (author)

  10. Irrigation frequency and timing influence pepper yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on how fertilizer and irrigation affect production of vegetables can help growers improve resource use efficiency and profitability. Fertilizer was applied at the recommended rate and twice the recommended rate to bell and non-pungent jalapeno peppers, both Capsicum annuum L., in 2009 a...

  11. Irrigation timing and fertilizer rate in peppers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excessive rain fall might leach nutrients from the soil or cause producers to not supply irrigation to pepper (Capsicum sp.). Fertilizer at 150 or 300 lb/acre of triple 17 NPK, the lower rate is the recommended rate, was supplied to either bell, cv. Jupiter, or non-pungent jalapeno, cv. Pace 105, pe...

  12. Effects of gamma irradiation on pepper's volatile compounds sensory qualities and pest infestation control. Part of a coordinated programme in the Asian Regional Cooperative Project of Food Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of gamma irradiation, packaging materials and storage time of black and white peppers on the infestation and reinfestation of microorganism and insects were evaluated. The samples were irradiated at the doses between 2 and 9 kGy. The packaging materials consisted of polypropylene woven bags laminated with thin polyethylene (PPE) and polyethylene bags (PE) of different thickness, 0.05, 01.2 and 0.17 mm. The jute bag was used as a control material. The changes of infestation and reinfestation status were observed for 6 months in Malaysia and for the next 2 months the changes were evaluated when the samples had reached Japan. Results obtained indicated that irradiation at a dose up to 9 kGy reduced the bacterial load of black pepper from 1.6x107/g to 2/g, while the dose of 6 kGy was required to reduce the population in white pepper from 2.3x104/g to 2/g. The original population of mould-yeast was relatively low (approx. 104/g) and could be reduced to 2/g at only 2 kGy. No problems and difficulties were faced with regard to the transportation of the peppers. However, prolonged storage time may encourage microbial growth, and 4 months of storage was a critical period for black pepper. Two species of Anobiidae infesting pepper had been identified, Lasioderma serricone (Fabricius) which made up 80% of the insect counts and Stegobium pamiceum (L.). However, at the doses applied and packaging materials used, there was no reinfestation for all but the material PPPE (no observation made for jute bags)

  13. New Insights on Eggplant/Tomato/Pepper Synteny and Identification of Eggplant and Pepper Orthologous QTL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Riccardo; Van Deynze, Allen; Portis, Ezio; Rotino, Giuseppe L; Toppino, Laura; Hill, Theresa; Ashrafi, Hamid; Barchi, Lorenzo; Lanteri, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Eggplant, pepper, and tomato are the most exploited berry-producing vegetables within the Solanaceae family. Their genomes differ in size, but each has 12 chromosomes which have undergone rearrangements causing a redistribution of loci. The genome sequences of all three species are available but differ in coverage, assembly quality and percentage of anchorage. Determining their syntenic relationship and QTL orthology will contribute to exploit genomic resources and genetic data for key agronomic traits. The syntenic analysis between tomato and pepper based on the alignment of 34,727 tomato CDS to the pepper genome sequence, identified 19,734 unique hits. The resulting synteny map confirmed the 14 inversions and 10 translocations previously documented, but also highlighted 3 new translocations and 4 major new inversions. Furthermore, each of the 12 chromosomes exhibited a number of rearrangements involving small regions of 0.5-0.7 Mbp. Due to high fragmentation of the publicly available eggplant genome sequence, physical localization of most eggplant QTL was not possible, thus, we compared the organization of the eggplant genetic map with the genome sequence of both tomato and pepper. The eggplant/tomato syntenic map confirmed all the 10 translocations but only 9 of the 14 known inversions; on the other hand, a newly detected inversion was recognized while another one was not confirmed. The eggplant/pepper syntenic map confirmed 10 translocations and 8 inversions already detected and suggested a putative new translocation. In order to perform the assessment of eggplant and pepper QTL orthology, the eggplant and pepper sequence-based markers located in their respective genetic map were aligned onto the pepper genome. GBrowse in pepper was used as reference platform for QTL positioning. A set of 151 pepper QTL were located as well as 212 eggplant QTL, including 76 major QTL (PVE ≥ 10%) affecting key agronomic traits. Most were confirmed to cluster in orthologous

  14. New Sources of Tobamoviruses, CMV and Bacterial Spot Resistance in Pepper

    OpenAIRE

    Stoimenova, Elisaveta; Mitrev, Sasa; Bogatzevska, Nevena

    2005-01-01

    The pepper cultivars Zlaten medal, Alfi and Zalfi, the six Macedonian pepper accessions and the five Bulgarian lines have been screening for the resistance to cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), tobamoviruses and Xanthomonas vesicatoria pepper - tomato pathotype (XvPT).

  15. Reevaluation of induced radioactivity in 10MeV electron-irradiated pepper for public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To examine whether or not radioactivity could be produced in black pepper and white pepper with 10MeV electrons, the sample was irradiated with 10MeV electrons from a linear accelerator and its radioactivity was measured by gamma-ray spectrometry and beta-ray counting. The patterns of gamma-ray spectra showed that there was no difference between the irradiated and the non-irradiated samples, suggesting that the induced radioactivity in the irradiated sample was below the detection limit of its induced radioactivity. For further estimation, elemental composition was analyzed and photonuclear reactions which could produce radioactivity in the sample were investigated based on the data already published. Some photonuclear target nuclides in the list were spiked to the sample, being checked in the same way. Although short lived photonuclear products were observed, these radioactivities were found to decrease below the detection limit in a week. It is concluded that the induced radioactivity in the 10MeV electron-irradiated pepper and, hence, its biological effect is far smaller than the natural radioactivity arising from 40K contained in the non-irradiated sample. (author)

  16. Black Holes: Physics and Astrophysics - Stellar-mass, supermassive and primordial black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Bekenstein, Jacob D.

    2004-01-01

    I present an elementary primer of black hole physics, including its general relativity basis, all peppered with astrophysical illustrations. Following a brief review of the process stellar collapse to a black hole, I discuss the gravitational redshift, particle trajectories in gravitational fields, the Schwarzschild and Kerr solutions to Einstein's equations, orbits in Schwarzschild and in Kerr geometry, and the dragging of inertial frames. I follow with a brief review of galactic X-ray binar...

  17. Research work to obtain pepper (Piper negrum l.) mutants resistant to Fusarium disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuttings of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) variety Singapore were irradiated at different doses (from 3.0-7.0 kR) of gamma radiation in the 60Co source. After two successive prunings of surviving M1 plants (from the irradiated cuttings), hundreds of vM3 cuttings were planted separately in pots and artificially inoculated with Fusarium solani f. piperi. The surviving vM3 plantlets were transplanted to an experimental field highly infested with this patogen. After two years in the infested field, only three UM3 plants continue to grow. (M.A.C.)

  18. Effect of irradiation and storage post-irradiation of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) on counts of microorganisms hygienic indicator using methods of conventional analysis and PETRIFILM{sup TM} plates; Efeito da irradiacao e do armazenamento pos-irradiacao da pimenta preta (Piper nigrum L.) na contagem de microorganismos indicadores de higiene usando metodos de analise convencionais e placas PETRIFILM{sup TM}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaimes, Marcial Ibo Silva

    1988-07-01

    Fifteen samples of ground black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) purchased in Sao Paulo local stores, were submitted to irradiation in doses of 3, 6 and 10 kGy. All irradiated samples, including non-irradiated controls, were submitted to counts of yeasts and molds, aerobes (APC), coliforms and mesophilic aerobic spore formers (MASC), using conventional plate count methods and PETRIFILM {sup TM} plates. For yeasts and molds count, acidified potato dextrose agar (PDA) an PETRIFILM {sup TM} PFYM plates were used. For aerobes, plate count agar (PCA) and PETRIFILM {sup TM} PFAC plates were used. Violet red bile agar (VRBA) and PETRIFILM {sup TM} PFEC plates were employed for enumeration of coliforms. Counts of these groups of microorganisms obtained through the traditional plating procedures did not differ significantly from those using the corresponding PETRIFILM {sup TM} plates. In samples submitted to irradiation, a dose of 10 kGy caused a decrease of the yeasts and molds count from 10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} to less than 10 cfu/g. The same dose caused a decrease of the aerobic counts from 10{sup 7}-10{sup 8} to 10{sup 2}-10{sup 3} cfu/g, of coliforms from 10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} to less than 10 cfu/g and MASC from 10{sup 6}-10{sup 7} cfu/g to 10-10{sup 2} cfu/g. The introduction of a injury repair step in the counting procedure resulted in a 32 to 89% increase in the number of coliforms. However, this additional step did not improve significantly the counts of MASC. After 270 days of storage of samples irradiated with 3 kGy, a decrease in the yeasts and molds population from 10{sup 3} to 20 cfu/g was observed. The APC population in these samples was reduced from 5,0x10{sup 6} to 2,4x10{sup 4} cfu/g; in those irradiated with 6 kGy the reduction was from 4,0x10{sup 4} to 5,0x10{sup 3} cfu/g and in those irradiated with 10 kGy the counts were reduced from 30 to less than 10 cfu/g. After the same time of storage, the coliform population in non irradiated samples decreased from 2,8x10{sup

  19. Identification of whitefly resistance in tomato and hot pepper

    OpenAIRE

    Firdaus, S.

    2012-01-01

    Key words: Capsicum, Bemisia tabaci, trichome density, cuticle thickness Whitefly is economically one of the most threatening pests of pepper worldwide, which is mainly caused by its ability to transmit many different viruses. In this research, we characterized pepper germplasm to identify whitefly-resistant accessions that will form the basis for future resistance breeding. Forty-four pepper accessions representing four species (Capsicum annuum, C. frutescens, C. chinense, C. baccatum) were ...

  20. Spicing Up India's Pepper Industry: An Economic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Koizumi, Satoshi

    1999-01-01

    This study examines whether India, a dominant producer of high-quality pepper, should consider the fast-growing, low~nd pepper market as the primary target for its exports in the next 20 years. The analysis concludes that it would be more advantageous for India to shift its primary target of pepper exports from the high~nd to the low~nd market by switching to the alternative intensive production system.

  1. An alternative method to screen for pepper spray residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, Trevor D; Kubic, Thomas A; De Forest, Peter R

    2003-01-01

    A method was developed to screen for pepper spray residue using instruments and methods other than those techniques commonly employed to analyze chemical residue (i.e.. gas chromatography mass spectrometry-GCMS or liquid chromatography mass spectrometry-LCMS). The method employed gas chromatography (GC), thin layer chromatography (TLC), and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) to screen for dried pepper spray stains. Pepper sprays from nine different manufacturers were investigated. Capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin were identified and unique IR reflectance spectra are presented. An additional five compounds were presumptively found. Results showed that a particular stain could be characterized as a pepper-based stain. PMID:12570209

  2. Taxonomy Icon Data: Chile pepper [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Chile pepper Capsicum annuum Capsicum_annuum_L.png Capsicum_annuum_NL.png Capsicum_annuum_S.png Capsicum..._annuum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Capsicum+annuum&t=L htt...p://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Capsicum+annuum&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Capsicum...+annuum&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Capsicum+annuum&t=NS ...

  3. Analysis of gamma irradiated pepper constituents, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reversed phase high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed for the analysis of many constituents of pepper at the same time. And a extraction method of ultraviolet absorbing constituents from pepper was developed for the HPLC analysis. The Ultraviolet absorbing constituents were extracted by precooled Automatic Air-Hammer from frozen pepper with 20% acetonitrile in water. The process of extraction was achieved under cooling by liquid nitrogen from start to end. The extracted constituents were separated on a reversed phase C8 (LiChrospher 300 RP - 8 10 μm 0.4 I.D. x 0.4 cm and LiChrosorb RP - 8 SelectB 0.4 I. D. x 25 cm) column with a concave gradient from 0.1% trifluoro acetic acid (TFA) in water to 75% acetonitrile and 0.1% TFA in water for 60 minutes. The eluted constituents were detected 210 nm and 280 nm. The present method permits the detection of about 50 peaks by 280 nm. (author)

  4. Emittance formula for slits and pepper-pot measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this note, a rigid formula for slits and pepper-pot emittance measurement is derived. The derivation is based on the one- dimensional slit measurement setup. A mathematical generalization of the slit emittance formula to the pepper-pot measurement is discussed

  5. Technology for Hybrid Pepper Seed Production in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    History of hybrid pepper seed production, the status of annually balanced production, and innovative techniques for the large-scale seed production in China are reviewed. Helped by the technological breakthroughs in these fields, China has been the largest base for hybrid pepper seed production in the world.

  6. Sodium fluxes in sweet pepper exposed to varying sodium concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom-Zandstra, M.; Vogelzang, S.A.; Veen, B.W.

    1998-01-01

    The sodium transport and distribution of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) under saline conditions were studied after transferring the plants to a sodium-free nutrient solution. Sodium stress up to 60 mM did not affect the growth of sweet pepper, as it appears able to counteract the unfavourable phy

  7. Toward Valid Measurement of Stephen Pepper's World Hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, John A.

    Two measures of the "world hypotheses" of Stephen Pepper were mailed to 100 sociobiologists, 87 behaviorists, 79 personality psychologists, and 45 human developmentalists. The World Hypothesis Scale (WHS) was designed to measure Pepper's four world views: (1) formism; (2) mechanism; (3) organicism; and (4) contextualism. The Organicism-Mechanism…

  8. Non-pungent jalapeno peppers: Weed control and yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unknown to most consumers, non-pungent jalapeno peppers are used for making commercial picante sauces (salsas). The non-pungent jalapeno peppers produce the required jalapeno flavor along with the appropriate texture necessary for picante sauce. Capsaicin is added during processing to produce the va...

  9. Thermal evolution process of organic free radicals in γ-ray irradiated pepper studied by electron spin resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An increase behavior of radicals in black pepper induced by the γ-ray irradiation was analyzed using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. A sharp signal at g=2.0, observed in the ESR spectrum of pepper due to organic free radicals produced by γ-ray irradiation, increased exponentially in the early stage of heating procedure and then leveled off at a certain value. The increase behavior was analyzed following to a first order differential equation, and obtained a general solution under the restrictions of initial and boundary conditions. Based on the general solution, we carried out the functional prediction using the nonlinear least squares method, and determined a rigorous solution for the time constant of the radical increase. (author)

  10. Antioxidants in hot pepper: variation among accessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonious, George F; Kochhar, Tejinder S; Jarret, Robert L; Snyder, John C

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) pepper (Capsicum spp.) germplasm collection contains several thousand members or accessions. Many of these species and cultivars have not been analyzed for their concentrations of ascorbic acid, capsaicin, and total phenolic compounds, which are important antioxidants having a number of benefits for human health. The objective of this investigation was to select candidate accessions of hot pepper having high concentrations of ascorbic acid, capsaicin, free sugars, and total phenols for use as parents in breeding for these compounds. Seventeen accessions of pepper from the core Capsicum germplasm collection (four accessions of Capsicum chinense; five accessions of C. baccatum; six accessions of C. annuum; and two of C. frutescens) were field grown and their mature fruits were analyzed for their antioxidant composition. Concentrations of these compounds tended to be higher in C. chinense and C. baccatum, than in C. annuum and C. frutescens. Across all accessions the concentration of total phenols was correlated with ascorbic acid (r = 0.97) and free sugars (r = 0.80). Concentrations of total phenols (1.4, 1.3, and 1.3 mg g-1 fruit) and ascorbic acid (1.6, 1.2, and 1.3 mg g-1 fruit) were significantly greater in PI-633757, PI-387833, and PI-633754, respectively, compared to other accessions analyzed. Total capsaicinoids concentrations were greatest (1.3 mg g-1 fruit) in PI-438622 and lowest (0.002 mg g-1 fruit) in Grif-9320. The great variability within and among Capsicum species for these phytochemicals suggests that these selected accessions may be useful as parents in hybridization programs to produce fruits with value-added traits. PMID:16923603

  11. 利用辣椒疫霉培养滤液体外筛选胡椒抗瘟病无性系研究%In vitro Selection of Black Pepper (Piper nigrum Linn.) Somaclones Resistant to Foot Rot Using Culture Filtrate of Phytophthora capsici

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘进平; 郑成木

    2004-01-01

    Based on shoot-tip multiplication technique, the application of in vitro selection of black pepper somaclones resistant to foot rot disease caused by fungus Phytophthora capsici was carried out using a large-leaf variety Daye (Lampong Type) which is widely cultivated in Hainan but highly susceptible to P. capsici as explant resources. The results demonstrated that sterilization methods significantly influenced on the toxicity of the culture filtrate of P. capsici. The fungal filtrate toxicity could be maintained using filtrate sterilization by addition of the fungal filtrate into selective medium instead of autoclave sterilization. The survival rate of shoot tips and multiple shoots decreased with the increasing concentrations of the fungal culture filtrate. Some cultures blackened and died finally, and some formed calli or remained dormant. After 2 subcultures onto the same selective medium,microshoots were rooted in vitro and transferred to the greenhouse conditions for screening the resistance to fungus P. capsici. The plants exhibited no external symptoms of the disease during three successive times of resistance assay once two weeks were considered to be resistant. As the concentrations of fungal culture filtrate increased, the total number of regenerated plants obtained declined but the frequencies of plants resistant to P. capsici increased. 1 (1.54%), 4 (20.00%) and 3 (42.86%) disease resistant somaclonal variants were obtained at concentration of 25%, 50% and 75% fungal culture filtrate as selective agents, respectively, with the total number of 8 plants resistant to P. capsici.%在胡椒(Piper nigrum Linn.)茎尖丛生增殖技术的基础上,以印尼大叶种"Lampong Type"无菌实生苗作外植体源,利用辣椒疫霉(Phytophthora capsici)培养滤液对胡椒茎尖及其增殖形成的丛生芽进行体外选择.辣椒疫霉培养滤液的不同灭菌方法对辣椒疫霉培养滤液的毒性影响显著,过滤灭菌方式可以保持辣椒疫霉

  12. Virulence of Meloidogyne incognita to expression of N gene in pepper

    OpenAIRE

    Thies, Judy A.

    2011-01-01

    Four pepper genotypes classified as resistant and four pepper genotypes classified as susceptible to several avirulent populations of M. incognita were compared for their reactions against a population of Meloidogyne incognita (Chitwood) Kofoid and White which had been shown to be virulent to resistant bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) in preliminary tests. The virulent population of M. incognita originated from a commercial bell pepper field in California. The resistant pepper genotypes used in ...

  13. Pepper EST database: comprehensive in silico tool for analyzing the chili pepper (Capsicum annuum) transcriptome

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Woo Taek; Cho Hye-Sun; Lee Bong-Woo; Kim JungEun; Lee Seung-Won; Baek Kwang-Hyun; Kim Hyun-Jin; Choi Doil; Hur Cheol-Goo

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background There is no dedicated database available for Expressed Sequence Tags (EST) of the chili pepper (Capsicum annuum), although the interest in a chili pepper EST database is increasing internationally due to the nutritional, economic, and pharmaceutical value of the plant. Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing of the ESTs of chili pepper cv. Bukang have produced hundreds of thousands of complementary DNA (cDNA) sequences. Therefore, a chili pepper EST database was desi...

  14. Essential Oils in Ginger, Hops, Cloves, and Pepper Flavored Beverages-A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameh, Sunday J; Ibekwe, Nneka N; Ebeshi, Benjamin U

    2014-08-28

    ABSTRACT In the West, sugar-based, ginger flavored beverages may contain hops, other flavorings, fruit juices, and varying levels of ethanol. Ginger ales contain 0.5%v/v; ginger beers >0.5%; and alcoholic ginger beers 0.5 ≤ 11%. Ales are carbonated by pressurized CO2, while beers and alcoholic beers are carbonated by yeast or ginger beer plant (GBP). In Africa, grain-based beverages include "fura da nono," "kunu," and "akamu," which are spiced with one or more flavorings including ginger, black pepper, clove, chili pepper, or Aframomum alligator peppers. Spices have flavor because they contain essential oils (EOs), which are composed of aroma-active compounds (AACs). The benefits and toxicities of spices are ascribed to their EOs/AACs contents. Aim: Given the toxic potentials of EOs/AACs vis-à-vis their benefits, this review aimed to investigate the means by which the levels of EOs/AACs in spiced beverages are regulated. Methodology: The benefits and liabilities of key EOs/AACs of spices were identified and described. The methods for assaying them in raw materials and beverages were also identified. Results: There was a dearth of data on the levels of EOs/AACs in both raw and finished goods. Moreover, their assay methods were found to be tedious and costly. The implications of these findings on regulation are discussed. Conclusions: Owing to the practical difficulties in assaying flavors in beverages, both manufacturers and regulators should focus on: (i) the wholesomeness of raw materials; and (ii) good manufacturing practice (GMP). However, studies aimed at developing more robust methods for flavor should continue. PMID:25166889

  15. Hot Chili Peppers: Extraction, Cleanup, and Measurement of Capsaicin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiping; Mabury, Scott A.; Sagebiel, John C.

    2000-12-01

    Capsaicin, the pungent ingredient of the red pepper or Capsicum annuum, is widely used in food preparation. The purpose of this experiment was to acquaint students with the active ingredients of hot chili pepper (capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin), the extraction, cleanup, and analysis of these chemicals, as a fun and informative analytical exercise. Fresh peppers were prepared and extracted with acetonitrile, removing plant co-extractives by addition to a C-18 solid-phase extraction cartridge. Elution of the capsaicinoids was accomplished with a methanol-acetic acid solution. Analysis was completed by reverse-phase HPLC with diode-array or variable wavelength detection and calibration with external standards. Levels of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin were typically found to correlate with literature values for a specific hot pepper variety. Students particularly enjoyed relating concentrations of capsaicinoids to their perceived valuation of "hotness".

  16. Characterization of Xanthomonas euvesicatoria strains pathogens of pepper in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Maja Ignjatov; MIlan Ivanović; Milan Šević; Katarina Gašić; Aleksa Obradović; Mirjana Milošević

    2010-01-01

    During spring and summer of 2008, 101 bacterial strains was isolated from the diseased pepper leaves collected from different pepper growing areas in the Republic of Serbia. The aim of this research was to characterize the isolated strains and determine their taxonomic position according to the most recent nomenclature. Pathogenic, biochemical and physiological characteristics of isolated bacteria were tested using standard bacteriological tests. The pathogen races were determined according t...

  17. Anther culture in pepper(Capsicum annuum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Koleva Gudeva, Liljana

    2003-01-01

    Somatic embryogenesis has been defined as the developmental process producing a perfect embryo from a single cell, which achieves bipolar at as a stage as occurs in zygotic embryogenesis. The main achievement of these examination was to establish in vitro effective technology for haploid and diploid plant regenerants; induction of embryogenesis from microspores in pepper anther culture as well as micropropagation in vitro of pepper regenerants. Induction of somatic embryogenesis from anth...

  18. Identification of irradiated pepper with comet assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The treatment of foods with ionizing radiations is a technological process utilized in order to increase the hygienic quality and the storage time of the foods. Several methods of detection of irradiated foods have been recommended. The comet assay of DNA is one fast and economical technique for the qualitative identification of irradiated foods. The objective of the present paper was to identify with the comet assay technique the modifications of the DNA molecule of irradiated pepper storage at environment and refrigeration temperatures and different post-irradiation times for different absorbed dose values, (0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 kGy). It was demonstrated that for the high absorbed dose values was observed a greater break into fragments of the DNA molecule, which shows the application of this technique for the identification of irradiated foods. (author)

  19. Identification of irradiated pepper with comet assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prieto Miranda, Enrique Fco.; Moreno Alvarez, Damaris L.; Carro Palacio, Sandra [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Desarrollo Nuclear. (CEADEN), Ciudad de La Habana (Cuba)]. E-mail: efprieto@ceaden.edu.cu; damaris@ceaden.edu.cu; Iglesia Enriquez, Isora [Instituto de Investigacion para la Industria Alimenticia (IIIA), Ciudad de La Habana (Cuba)

    2007-07-01

    The treatment of foods with ionizing radiations is a technological process utilized in order to increase the hygienic quality and the storage time of the foods. Several methods of detection of irradiated foods have been recommended. The comet assay of DNA is one fast and economical technique for the qualitative identification of irradiated foods. The objective of the present paper was to identify with the comet assay technique the modifications of the DNA molecule of irradiated pepper storage at environment and refrigeration temperatures and different post-irradiation times for different absorbed dose values, (0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 kGy). It was demonstrated that for the high absorbed dose values was observed a greater break into fragments of the DNA molecule, which shows the application of this technique for the identification of irradiated foods. (author)

  20. Drying hot red pepper using solar tunnel drier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A solar tunnel drier was used to dry red hot pepper under the tropical weather conditions of Bangladesh in order to investigate its performance and the quality of the drier product. The drier comprises a plastic sheet-covered flat plate collector and a drying tunnel. The drier is arranged to supply hot air to the drying tunnel using two small fans powered by a 40 watt PV module. Fresh red pepper was water blanched before drying. In each drying batch in the solar tunnel drier, 20 kg of dried red pepper with 4 to 6% moisture content (wb) was obtained from 80 kg of fresh red pepper with initial moisture content of 73 to 75% (wb) in 20 to 22 hours of drying while it took 32 to 34 hours to bring down the moisture content of similar sample to 8 to 10% (wb) in sun drying methods. The pepper dried in the solar tunnel drier was completely protected from dust, dirt, rain, insects, birds, rodents and microorganisms and it was a quality-dried product in term of colour and pungency. The solar tunnel drier is recommended for drying of pepper as well as vegetables and fruits in developing countries especially in Bangladesh

  1. Black to Black

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Michael Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Pop musicians performing in black stage costume take advantage of cultural traditions relating to matters black. Stylistically, black is a paradoxical color: although a symbol of melancholy, pessimism, and renunciation, black also expresses minimalist modernity and signifies exclusivity (as...... is hinted by Rudyard Kipling’s illustration of ‘The [Black] Cat That Walked by Himself’ in his classic children’s tale). It was well understood by uniformed Anarchists, Fascists and the SS that there is an assertive presence connected with the black-clad figure. The paradox of black’s abstract elegance......-styled references to, among other things, the culturally and ideologically effervescent interwar-period have made me curious as to what alternative possibilities – for instance ‘emancipation’ – a comparative analysis might disclose concerning the visual rhetoric of black. Thus, in conclusion, it is briefly...

  2. Technological innovation of induced breeding of space and selection of new variety on pepper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New pepper variety Yujiao No.1 and new pepper lines with different horticultural characters are obtained by new breeding technique: combination of space inducement and regular breeding, field selection and inherited marker

  3. Exposing police to pepper spray in training: Inciting injury or enhancing officer safety?

    OpenAIRE

    McLaughlin, Shane

    2007-01-01

    Occupational health and safety regulations in British Columbia prohibit the practice of exposing police to pepper spray in training. Previous research indicates that pepper spray exposure does not cause serious health problems; that traditional training methods are inadequate; and that exposing police to pepper spray in training enhances officer safety in the field. This study explored how exposure to pepper spray in training affects officer safety. To accomplish this, patrol and traffic pers...

  4. Garlic exerts allelopathic effects on pepper physiology in a hydroponic co-culture system

    OpenAIRE

    Haiyan Ding; Zhihui Cheng; Menglong Liu; Sikandar Hayat; Han Feng

    2016-01-01

    A hydroponic co-culture system was adopted to determine the allelopathic potential of garlic on the growth of pepper plants. Different numbers of garlic plants (0, 2, 4, 8 and 12) were hydroponically co-cultured with two pepper plants to investigate allelopathic effects on the growth attributes and antioxidative defense system of the test pepper plants. The responses of the pepper plants depended on the number of garlic plants included in the co-culture system, indicating an association of pe...

  5. Induction of Drought Stress Resistance by Multi-Functional PGPR Bacillus licheniformis K11 in Pepper

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Jong-Hui; Kim, Sang-Dal

    2013-01-01

    Drought stress is one of the major yield affecting factor for pepper plant. The effects of PGPRs were analyzed in relation with drought resistance. The PGPRs inoculated pepper plants tolerate the drought stress and survived as compared to non-inoculated pepper plants that died after 15 days of drought stress. Variations in protein and RNA accumulation patterns of inoculated and non-inoculated pepper plants subjected to drought conditions for 10 days were confirmed by two dimensional polyacryl...

  6. Garlic exerts allelopathic effects on pepper physiology in a hydroponic co-culture system

    OpenAIRE

    Haiyan Ding; Zhihui Cheng; Menglong Liu; Sikandar Hayat; Han Feng

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A hydroponic co-culture system was adopted to determine the allelopathic potential of garlic on the growth of pepper plants. Different numbers of garlic plants (0, 2, 4, 8 and 12) were hydroponically co-cultured with two pepper plants to investigate allelopathic effects on the growth attributes and antioxidative defense system of the test pepper plants. The responses of the pepper plants depended on the number of garlic plants included in the co-culture system, indicating an associat...

  7. Processed Chili Peppers for Export Markets: A Capital Budgeting Study on the AgroFood Company

    OpenAIRE

    Shelaby, Ayman A.; Semida, Wael M.; Warnock, Daniel F.; Hahn, David E.

    2011-01-01

    The AgroFood Company, which currently exports fresh chili peppers to European clients, desires to expand the product mix offered. The company, as it expands its production of fresh peppers for export, has an increasing supply of grade 2 peppers that are unmarketable in Egypt. However, an attractive market for processed frozen chili peppers exists in Europe. To expand their client base, capitalize on a value added product, and minimize product waste, the AgroFood Company desires to develop pro...

  8. Authentication of bell peppers using boron and strontium isotope compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, Martin; Pritzkow, Wolfgang; Vogl, Jochen; Voerkelius, Susanne

    2010-05-01

    The wrong declaration of food in terms of geographical origin and production method is a major problem for the individual consumer and public regulatory authorities. The authentication of food matrices using H-C-N-O-S isotopic compositions is already well established. However, specific questions require additional isotopic systems, which are more diagonstic for the source reservoires involved or production methods used. Here we present B and Sr isotopic compositions of bell peppers from Europe (Germany, Austria, Netherlands, Spain) and Israel to verfiy their origin. The bell peppers' B isotopic compositions between different locations are highly variable (d11BNISTSRM951 -8 to +35 ‰), whereas the 87Sr/86Sr ratios are all close to modern seawater Sr isotopic composition of about 0.7092 (0.7078 to 0.7107), but still can reliably be distinguished. Distinct isotopically heavy and light B isotopic fingerprints are obtained for bell peppers from Israel and the Netherlands. Samples from Germany, Austria, and Spain display overlapping d11B values between 0 and +12 ‰. Bell peppers from Israel show high d11B values (+28 to +35 ‰) combined with 87Sr/86Sr ratios slightly more unradiogenic than modern seawater (ca 0.7079). Bell peppers from the Netherlands, however, show low d11B values (-8 ‰) combinded with 87Sr/86Sr ratios of modern seawater (approx. 0.7085). Mainly based on diagnostic B isotopic compositions bell peppers from Israel and the Netherlands can be related to a specific geographical growing environment (Israel) or production method (Netherlands). The isotope fingerprints of bell peppers from the Netherlands are consistent with growing conditions in greenhouses typical for the Netherlands vegetable farming. Using optimized production methods crops in greenhouses were supplied with nutritients by liquid fertilizers on artificial substrates. As most fertilizers derive from non-marine salt deposits, fertilization typically imprints invariant d11B values close

  9. Garlic exerts allelopathic effects on pepper physiology in a hydroponic co-culture system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Ding

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A hydroponic co-culture system was adopted to determine the allelopathic potential of garlic on the growth of pepper plants. Different numbers of garlic plants (0, 2, 4, 8 and 12 were hydroponically co-cultured with two pepper plants to investigate allelopathic effects on the growth attributes and antioxidative defense system of the test pepper plants. The responses of the pepper plants depended on the number of garlic plants included in the co-culture system, indicating an association of pepper growth with the garlic root exudate concentration. When grown at a pepper/garlic ratio of 1:1 or 1:2, the pepper plant height, chlorophyll content, and peroxidase (POD, catalase (CAT and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL activities were significantly increased after 30 days of co-culture; in contrast, reduction in methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA content was observed. However, when the pepper/garlic ratio was 1:4 or higher, these morphological indices and protective enzyme activities were significantly inhibited, whereas MDA levels in the pepper leaves were significantly increased due to severe membrane lipid peroxidation. The results indicate that although low concentrations of garlic root exudates appear to induce protective enzyme systems and promote pepper growth, high concentrations have deleterious effects. These findings suggest that further investigations should optimize the co-culture pepper/garlic ratio to reduce continuous cropping obstacles in pepper production.

  10. Mini- and Heirloom Sweet Pepper Variety Performance in High Tunnels, 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Maynard, Elizabeth; Calsoyas, Israel S.

    2016-01-01

    Trials on mini sweet peppers and other specialty sweet peppers in the Midwest have not recently been reported. We undertook this project to compare yield and fruit characteristics of hybrid and heirloom peppers grown in high tunnels using organic and conventional production methods.

  11. Electronic Nose Based Alternative Method for the Determination of Capsaicin in Hot Chili Pepper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, E. I.; Andreoli, A.; Martinelli, E.; Candeloro, N.; Mantini, A.; di Natale, C.; de Lorenzo, A.

    2000-12-01

    The aim of the present study is to examine the EN aptitude to evaluate different pepper brands' freshness by repeated measurements of chosen pepper samples. This, in addition to study the possibility of differentiation and classification of Bell, Thai and Scotch Bonnet pepper brands, available in the Italian market.

  12. Complete Genome Sequence of a Bell Pepper Endornavirus Isolate from Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Bin; Bernards, Mark; Wang, Aiming

    2015-01-01

    Bell pepper endornavirus (BPEV) is a double-stranded RNA virus infecting economically important crops, such as peppers. Next-generation sequencing of small RNAs extracted from the leaves of a pepper plant showing mild viral symptoms, along with subsequent analysis, identified BPEV. The complete genome of this isolate was cloned and sequenced.

  13. 7 CFR 319.56-40 - Peppers from certain Central American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) For peppers of the species Capsicum annuum, Capsicum frutescens, Capsicum baccatum, and Capsicum... annuum, Capsicum frutescens, Capsicum baccatum, Capsicum chinense, and Capsicum pubescens from areas in... Vegetables § 319.56-40 Peppers from certain Central American countries. Fresh peppers (Capsicum spp.) may...

  14. Garlic exerts allelopathic effects on pepper physiology in a hydroponic co-culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Haiyan; Cheng, Zhihui; Liu, Menglong; Hayat, Sikandar; Feng, Han

    2016-01-01

    A hydroponic co-culture system was adopted to determine the allelopathic potential of garlic on the growth of pepper plants. Different numbers of garlic plants (0, 2, 4, 8 and 12) were hydroponically co-cultured with two pepper plants to investigate allelopathic effects on the growth attributes and antioxidative defense system of the test pepper plants. The responses of the pepper plants depended on the number of garlic plants included in the co-culture system, indicating an association of pepper growth with the garlic root exudate concentration. When grown at a pepper/garlic ratio of 1:1 or 1:2, the pepper plant height, chlorophyll content, and peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activities were significantly increased after 30 days of co-culture; in contrast, reduction in methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA) content was observed. However, when the pepper/garlic ratio was 1:4 or higher, these morphological indices and protective enzyme activities were significantly inhibited, whereas MDA levels in the pepper leaves were significantly increased due to severe membrane lipid peroxidation. The results indicate that although low concentrations of garlic root exudates appear to induce protective enzyme systems and promote pepper growth, high concentrations have deleterious effects. These findings suggest that further investigations should optimize the co-culture pepper/garlic ratio to reduce continuous cropping obstacles in pepper production. PMID:27095440

  15. Visualization and LC/MS analysis of colorless pepper sprays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavett, Valerie; Waninger, Eileen M; Krutak, James J; Eckenrode, Brian A

    2004-05-01

    Pepper sprays are used in a variety of circumstances, including criminal activity, self-defense, and law enforcement. As such, the presence or absence of pepper sprays on evidentiary materials is often important when determining the facts of an incident. When no visible stains are present on evidentiary materials, ascertaining the presence or absence of pepper spray can be a challenge to the forensic analyst. A method, based on a chemical derivatization of capsaicinoids using a diazonium salt, has been developed for the visualization of colorless, ultraviolet (UV) activated fluorescent dye-free pepper sprays on textiles. Identification of both the capsaicinoids and their derivatives is confirmed via extraction of the derivatized capsaicinoids followed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analysis. LC/MS analysis is conducted using a YMC Basic column and elution of the compounds using a gradient of 10 mM ammonium formate, pH 4.2 and methanol at 0.35 mL/min. Full-scan MS data are collected for the full 6.5 min LC analysis. Although this method is qualitative in nature, visual detection of as little as 50 microL of a 0.2% pepper spray (equivalent to approximately 0.1 mg) on a variety of garments is possible, and more than adequate signal-to-noise is obtained for reconstructed ion chromatograms on LC/MS analysis at these levels. PMID:15171161

  16. Irradiation of hot peppers to improve their hygienic quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation of hot peppers (Capsicum) was carried out in a facility with a double plaque 60Co source. The dose distribution was reasonably uniform and symmetrical, with a Dmax:Dmin ratio of 1.266. Bacteriological examination showed that the total number of microorganisms was reduced by several orders of magnitude and that the majority of moulds and coliforms was killed by a medium dose of 5 kGy, with no loss of capsaicin content. The variation in concentration of free radicals measured by electron spin resonance in the irradiated and the non-irradiated hot peppers did not deviate from the same order of magnitude, ranging from 2.4x1014 to 4.0x1014 spin quantum number per gram. However, the concentration increased with dose, reaching a peak at 8 kGy. The life-span of the free radicals appeared to increase after irradiation. No insect larvae or spoiled hot peppers were found after irradiation and 9 months of storage under ambient conditions. The organoleptic properties remained unchanged; consequently, the peppers received good evaluation from the consumers. It is thus evident that the irradiated, dried hot peppers are of good quality, are acceptable to a wide variety of consumers and meet international trade standards, and that the technology will be of social and economic benefit to the province. (author). 12 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  17. Oleoresin capsicum (pepper) spray and "in-custody deaths".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffee, C H; Lantz, P E; Flannagan, L M; Thompson, R L; Jason, D R

    1995-09-01

    Increasing use of oleoresin capsicum (OC) spray devices (i.e., pepper spray, pepper mace, OC, capsaicin) by law enforcement agencies as a means of sublethal force to control suspects has brought into question whether exposure to this noxious irritant (capsaicin) can cause or contribute to unexpected in-custody deaths. Capsaicin stimulates nociceptors in exposed mucous membranes to produce intense pain, particularly involving the conjunctiva, and generates systemic physiologic and behavioral responses consonant with such extreme discomfort. We describe two cases of in-custody death, both associated temporally with the use of pepper spray, to illustrate salient investigative considerations. As with any other in-custody death, a thorough autopsy and toxicologic analysis, coupled with evaluation of the premortem chain of events, postexposure symptomatology, and the extent of natural disease processes, will help to reveal the role of oleoresin capsicum spray as unrelated, contributory, or causative. PMID:7495257

  18. Metabolomics Provides Quality Characterization of Commercial Gochujang (Fermented Pepper Paste).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gyu Min; Suh, Dong Ho; Jung, Eun Sung; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2016-01-01

    To identify the major factors contributing to the quality of commercial gochujang (fermented red pepper paste), metabolites were profiled by mass spectrometry. In principal component analysis, cereal type (wheat, brown rice, and white rice) and species of hot pepper (Capsicum annuum, C. annuum cv. Chung-yang, and C. frutescens) affected clustering patterns. Relative amino acid and citric acid levels were significantly higher in wheat gochujang than in rice gochujang. Sucrose, linoleic acid, oleic acid, and lysophospholipid levels were high in brown-rice gochujang, whereas glucose, maltose, and γ-aminobutyric acid levels were high in white-rice gochujang. The relative capsaicinoid and luteolin derivative contents in gochujang were affected by the hot pepper species used. Gochujang containing C. annuum cv. Chung-yang and C. frutescens showed high capsaicinoid levels. The luteolin derivative level was high in gochujang containing C. frutescens. These metabolite variations in commercial gochujang may be related to different physicochemical phenotypes and antioxidant activity. PMID:27428946

  19. Characterization of a new potyvirus infecting pepper crops in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzac, Bérenger; Fabre, Marie-Françoise; Palloix, Alain; Moury, Benoît

    2008-01-01

    Sequencing 2,951 nucleotides of the 3' proximal region of the genome of a potyvirus isolate collected from Capsicum pubescens (rocoto) pepper in Ecuador revealed that this was the first representative of a new species tentatively named Ecuadorian rocoto virus (ERV). Phylogeny reconstruction showed that this isolate clustered with potato virus V (PVV), Peru tomato virus and wild potato mosaic virus into a monophyletic group, and was closest to PVV. The isolate was shown to be infectious in tobacco, tomato and, contrary to PVV, in pepper. The pvr2(1), pvr2(2), and Pvr4 genes present in many pepper cultivars conferred resistance toward this isolate and could help control ERV. PMID:18553171

  20. The Paleobiolinguistics of Domesticated Chili Pepper (Capsicum spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecil H. Brown

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Paleobiolinguistics employs the comparative method of historical linguistics to reconstruct the biodiversity known to human groups of the remote, unrecorded past. Comparison of words for biological species from languages of the same language family facilitates reconstruction of the biological vocabulary of the family’s ancient proto-language. This study uses paleobiolinguistics to establish where and when chili peppers (Capsicum spp. developed significance for different prehistoric Native American groups. This entails mapping in both time and geographic space proto-languages for which words for chili pepper reconstruct. Maps show the broad distribution of Capsicum through Mesoamerica and South America mirroring its likely independent domestication in these regions. Proto-language dates indicate that human interest in chili pepper had developed in most of Latin America at least a millennium before a village-farming way of life became widespread.

  1. Safety assessment for genetically modified sweet pepper and tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coat protein (CP) gene of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) was cloned from a Chinese CMV isolate, the CaMV promoter and NOS terminator added and the gene construct was transformed into both sweet pepper and tomato plants to confer resistance to CMV. Safety assessments of these genetically modified (GM) plants were conducted. It was found that these two GM products showed no genotoxicity either in vitro or in vivo by the micronucleus test, sperm aberration test and Ames test. Animal feeding studies showed no significant differences in growth, body weight gain, food consumption, hematology, blood biochemical indices, organ weights and histopathology between rats or mice of either sex fed with either GM sweet pepper or tomato diets compared with those with non-GM diets. These results demonstrate that the CMV-resistant sweet pepper and tomato are comparable to the non-GM counterparts in terms of food safety

  2. Metabolomics Provides Quality Characterization of Commercial Gochujang (Fermented Pepper Paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyu Min Lee

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To identify the major factors contributing to the quality of commercial gochujang (fermented red pepper paste, metabolites were profiled by mass spectrometry. In principal component analysis, cereal type (wheat, brown rice, and white rice and species of hot pepper (Capsicum annuum, C. annuum cv. Chung-yang, and C. frutescens affected clustering patterns. Relative amino acid and citric acid levels were significantly higher in wheat gochujang than in rice gochujang. Sucrose, linoleic acid, oleic acid, and lysophospholipid levels were high in brown-rice gochujang, whereas glucose, maltose, and γ-aminobutyric acid levels were high in white-rice gochujang. The relative capsaicinoid and luteolin derivative contents in gochujang were affected by the hot pepper species used. Gochujang containing C. annuum cv. Chung-yang and C. frutescens showed high capsaicinoid levels. The luteolin derivative level was high in gochujang containing C. frutescens. These metabolite variations in commercial gochujang may be related to different physicochemical phenotypes and antioxidant activity.

  3. Investigating radiostimulation effects of tomatoes, pepper and aubergines productivity improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents results of a study on the stimulating effect of ionizing radiation with low doses on tomatoes, pepper, and eggplants with a view to determining optimal radiation doses and possible practical applications of this method. The tomato varieties used were those most common in Bulgaria. It was found that (a) presowing irradiation of tomato, pepper, and eggplant seeds (graded by moisture content) with low doses of gamma rays from Co60 had a strong stimulating effect; (b) radiation did not cause any changes in chemical composition or palatability; (c) irradiated variants produced more fruits per plant; and (d) the optimal doses are 1500-2500 r for tomatoes, 1200-1800 r for pepper, and 1500-3000 r for eggplants. (E.T.)

  4. Chemical constituents of pungent spice pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) from Macedonian origin

    OpenAIRE

    Rafajlovska, Vesna; Slaveska-Raicki, Renata; Koleva Gudeva, Liljana; Mitrev, Sasa; Srbinoska, Marija

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the chemical constituents of the pungent spice pepper Capsicum annuum L.ssp. Microcarpum from Macedonian origin are estimated. Content of moisture, proteins and soluble sugar is 9.60% and 20.33%, respectively. Color capacity of the pungent spice pepper is 5.60g capsanthin/kg pepper dry matter. The influence of organic solvents on the pepper oleoresin extraction and contents of colored components and capsaicin content in it is also studied. The highest quantity of pepper oleor...

  5. Virus diseases of peppers (Capsicum spp.) and their control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Lawrence; Kumar, Sanjeet; Tsai, Wen-Shi; Hughes, Jacqueline d'A

    2014-01-01

    The number of virus species infecting pepper (Capsicum spp.) crops and their incidences has increased considerably over the past 30 years, particularly in tropical and subtropical pepper production systems. This is probably due to a combination of factors, including the expansion and intensification of pepper cultivation in these regions, the increased volume and speed of global trade of fresh produce (including peppers) carrying viruses and vectors to new locations, and perhaps climate change expanding the geographic range suitable for the viruses and vectors. With the increased incidences of diverse virus species comes increased incidences of coinfection with two or more virus species in the same plant. There is then greater chance of synergistic interactions between virus species, increasing symptom severity and weakening host resistance, as well as the opportunity for genetic recombination and component exchange and a possible increase in aggressiveness, virulence, and transmissibility. The main virus groups infecting peppers are transmitted by aphids, whiteflies, or thrips, and a feature of many populations of these vector groups is that they can develop resistance to some of the commonly used insecticides relatively quickly. This, coupled with the increasing concern over the impact of over- or misuse of insecticides on the environment, growers, and consumers, means that there should be less reliance on insecticides to control the vectors of viruses infecting pepper crops. To improve the durability of pepper crop protection measures, there should be a shift away from the broadscale use of insecticides and the use of single, major gene resistance to viruses. Instead, integrated and pragmatic virus control measures should be sought that combine (1) cultural practices that reduce sources of virus inoculum and decrease the rate of spread of viruliferous vectors into the pepper crop, (2) synthetic insecticides, which should be used judiciously and only when the

  6. Competition Between Weeds and Pepper in Southern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Stella Lovelli; Teodoro Di Tommaso; Mariana Amato; Maria Valerio; Michele Perniola

    2010-01-01

    In arid areas drought conditions and warmer temperatures will alter the competitive balance between crops and some weed species. The objective of this study was to study water competition and its effect on canopy relationship of a C4 weed (pigweed) and a C3 weed (bindweed) towards a C3 crop (pepper) in a Mediterranean area. The experiment was carried out in 2008 in Matera, Southern Italy. Pigweed and bindweed were studied within a naturally occurring weed population in a bell pepper field whe...

  7. Ascorbic Acid Contents in Chili Peppers (Capsicum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Owk ANIEL KUMAR; Sape SUBBA TATA

    2009-01-01

    The genus Capsicum commonly known as chili pepper is a major spice crop and is almost cosmopolitan in distribution. The nutritive value of chili pepper is largely determined by ascorbic acid content. The fruits at five ripening stages viz., (M1, M2, M3, M4 and M5) from seventeen cultivars of Capsicum annuum L and one cultivar of Capsicum frutescens L were analyzed for ascorbic acid content. Among eighteen genotypes the C. annuum var. IC: 119262(CA2) showed higher ascorbic acid content (mg/100...

  8. Dynamics of the chili pepper transcriptome during fruit development

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-López, Luis A; Ochoa-Alejo, Neftalí; Martínez, Octavio

    2014-01-01

    Background The set of all mRNA molecules present in a cell constitute the transcriptome. The transcriptome varies depending on cell type as well as in response to internal and external stimuli during development. Here we present a study of the changes that occur in the transcriptome of chili pepper fruit during development and ripening. Results RNA-Seq was used to obtain transcriptomes of whole Serrano-type chili pepper fruits (Capsicum annuum L.; ‘Tampiqueño 74’) collected at 10, 20, 40 and ...

  9. Comparative analysis of pepper and tomato reveals euchromatin expansion of pepper genome caused by differential accumulation of Ty3/Gypsy-like elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahn Jong Hwa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among the Solanaceae plants, the pepper genome is three times larger than that of tomato. Although the gene repertoire and gene order of both species are well conserved, the cause of the genome-size difference is not known. To determine the causes for the expansion of pepper euchromatic regions, we compared the pepper genome to that of tomato. Results For sequence-level analysis, we generated 35.6 Mb of pepper genomic sequences from euchromatin enriched 1,245 pepper BAC clones. The comparative analysis of orthologous gene-rich regions between both species revealed insertion of transposons exclusively in the pepper sequences, maintaining the gene order and content. The most common type of the transposon found was the LTR retrotransposon. Phylogenetic comparison of the LTR retrotransposons revealed that two groups of Ty3/Gypsy-like elements (Tat and Athila were overly accumulated in the pepper genome. The FISH analysis of the pepper Tat elements showed a random distribution in heterochromatic and euchromatic regions, whereas the tomato Tat elements showed heterochromatin-preferential accumulation. Conclusions Compared to tomato pepper euchromatin doubled its size by differential accumulation of a specific group of Ty3/Gypsy-like elements. Our results could provide an insight on the mechanism of genome evolution in the Solanaceae family.

  10. Pepper Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Preferences for Specific Pepper Cultivars, Plant Parts, Fruit Colors, Fruit Sizes, and Timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Dakshina R; Martin, Cliff G

    2016-01-01

    Peppers (Capsicum spp.) are an important crop in the USA, with about 32,000 ha cultivated in 2007, which resulted in $588 million in farm revenue. The pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is the most troublesome insect pest of peppers in the southern United States. It is therefore urgent to find different vulnerabilities of pepper cultivars, fruit and plants parts, fruit colors and sizes, and timing to infestation by A. eugenii. Also relevant is testing whether fruit length and infestation state affect fruit numbers, weights, and proportions of fruit that are infested. Counts of A. eugenii adults and marks from oviposition and feeding suggested that C. chinense Jacquin "Habanero" was least susceptible, and C. annuum L. cultivars "SY" and "SR" were most susceptible. Comparison of plant parts and fruit sizes revealed that A. eugenii preferred the peduncle, calyx, and top of pepper fruits over the middle, bottom, leaves, or remainder of flowers. Anthonomus eugenii does not discriminate between green or yellow fruit color nor vary diurnally in numbers. Based on adult counts, medium to extra-large fruits (≥1.5 cm long) attracted more weevils than small fruits (<1.5 cm). However based on proportions of fruit numbers or fruit weights that were infested, there were no differences between large and small fruits. Choice of pepper cultivar can thus be an important part of an IPM cultural control program designed to combat A. eugenii by reduced susceptibility or by synchronous fruit drop of infested fruits. Our results are potentially helpful in developing scouting programs including paying particular attention to the preferred locations of adults and their sites of feeding and oviposition on the fruit. The results also suggested the potential value of spraying when the fruits are still immature to prevent and control infestation. PMID:26959066

  11. Black rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A black ring is a five-dimensional black hole with an event horizon of topology S1 x S2. We provide an introduction to the description of black rings in general relativity and string theory. Novel aspects of the presentation include a new approach to constructing black ring coordinates and a critical review of black ring microscopics. (topical review)

  12. Chemical control of pepper mildew Phytophthora capsici (Leon, on early peppers in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moens, M.

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available Peper mildew, caused by Phytophthora capsici, is a serious problem in the intensive early cultures of the Tunisian Nebhana region. In experiments done in very severe conditions of contamination, the best control was obtained by a weekly soil drench (100 ml per plant with the commercial metalaxyl + maneb mixture (40 g + 192g. hh1. The protection continued up to 5 weeks after the end of the treatment. The action of foliar sprayings was slower and not remanant. The effectiveness of captafol and phosethylaluminium soil drenches (0.2g and 0.4 g per plant was poor. An improvement of the control was obtained by diluting a dose of 0, 4g captafol per plant in a greater quantity of water (500 ml. Phytotoxic symptoms appeared on the leaves ofthe pepper plants after all metalaxyl + maneb treatments, but not after the other fungicide applications.

  13. Localization, growth, and inactivation of Salmonella Saintpaul on jalapeno peppers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumption of Salmonella-contaminated jalapeño peppers has been implicated in one of the largest foodborne illness outbreaks in the summer of 2008. The objective of this study was to investigate representative groups of native microflora and the distribution, growth, and inactivation of experiment...

  14. Breeding for pepper fruit quality: a genitical metabolomics approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahyuni, Y.

    2014-01-01

      A diverse collection of 32 pepper accessions was analysed for variation in health-related metabolites, such as carotenoids, capsaicinoids, flavonoids and vitamins C and E. For each of the metabolites analysed, there was a lot of variation among the accessions and it was possible to identify

  15. Post-directed weed control in bell peppers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) producers need appropriate herbicides that can effectively provide post-emergent weed control. Research was conducted in southeast Oklahoma (Atoka County, Lane, OK) to determine the impact of a potential organic herbicide on weed control efficacy, crop injury, an...

  16. Capturing flavors from Capsicum baccatum by introgression in sweet pepper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggink, P.M.; Tikunov, Y.M.; Maliepaard, C.A.; Haanstra, J.P.W.; Rooij, de H.; Vogelaar, A.; Gutteling, E.W.; Freymark, G.; Bovy, A.G.; Visser, R.G.F.

    2014-01-01

    The species Capsicum baccatum includes the most common hot peppers of the Andean cuisine, known for their rich variation in flavors and aromas. So far the C. baccatum genetic variation remained merely concealed for Capsicum annuum breeding, due to post-fertilization genetic barriers encountered in i

  17. I'm Not a Chili Pepper: Are You?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franciosi, Rob

    2006-01-01

    RateMyProfessors.com helps students rank their professors using a five-point rating scale in three areas, namely, helpfulness, clarity, and easiness. A college professor finds himself addicted to the site, which is rather low on substance and rates professors with a smiley face to indicate "good quality" and a red hot chili pepper to indicate the…

  18. Toxic carriers in pepper sprays may cause corneal erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holopainen, Juha M; Moilanen, Jukka A O; Hack, Tapani; Tervo, Timo M T

    2003-02-01

    We describe four patients who developed corneal erosion after an exposure to a pepper spray containing toxic carriers. Two of these patients were exposed to a pepper gas containing 5% oleoresin capsicum (OC) as an irritant and 92% trichlorethylene or unknown amount of dichloromethane as a carrier. One patient was exposed to a mock (containing 92% trichlorethylene as a carrier) training pepper gas without OC. The fourth patient was exposed to an unidentified Russian pepper gas spray. Two of the patients were examined by in vivo confocal microscopy to demonstrate the depth and quality of the stromal damage. To test the toxicity of the commercial tear spray, it was analyzed and test sprayed on a soft contact lens and into a plastic cup. Visual acuity was measured and the eyes were examined with a slit-lamp up to 5 months. Physical damage to a soft contact lens was visually acquired. All patients showed a long-lasting, deep corneal and conjuctival erosion, which resolved partly with medical therapy during the following weeks/months. Confocal microscopy revealed corneal nerve damage, and keratocyte activation reaching two-thirds of stroma for one patient. The spray caused serious damage to both the soft contact lens and the plastic cup. The safety of the commercially available pepper sprays should be assessed before marketing, and a list of acceptable ingredients created. The sprays should also have instructions on the use of the compound as well as on the first aid measures after the exposure. Solvents known to be toxic should not be used. PMID:12620368

  19. Competition Between Weeds and Pepper in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Lovelli

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In arid areas drought conditions and warmer temperatures will alter the competitive balance between crops and some weed species. The objective of this study was to study water competition and its effect on canopy relationship of a C4 weed (pigweed and a C3 weed (bindweed towards a C3 crop (pepper in a Mediterranean area. The experiment was carried out in 2008 in Matera, Southern Italy. Pigweed and bindweed were studied within a naturally occurring weed population in a bell pepper field where a rainfed treatment (V0 was compared to a full irrigated one (V100, the latter corresponding to the restoration of 100% of the maximum crop evapotranspiration, (ETc. Soil water content was measured periodically; leaf water potential, net assimilation rate (A, stomatal conductance (gs, transpiration rate (T, Ci (intercellular CO2 concentration and A/Ci curves were also determined on pigweed, bindweed and pepper leaves. All gas exchange parameters differed between irrigated and rainfed treatments and between the three species.Water use efficiency was higher in pigweed than in pepper and bindweed. Between the considered weeds, pigweed competed for water with pepper significantly since, unlike bindweed, pigweed began to reduce stomatal conductance only when its leaf water potential achieved very negative values, lower than -2.00 MPa. Unlike C4 crops already saturated for CO2, pigweed photosynthesis is not completely saturated for CO2. Consequently, since atmospheric CO2 is increasing, when pigweed is grown in mixed stands where competition occurs, it can further limit other slow-growing species, both crops and weeds.

  20. Effects of red pepper powder on microbial communities and metabolites during kimchi fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Sang Hyeon; Lee, Hyo Jung; Jung, Ji Young; Lee, Se Hee; Seo, Hye-Young; Park, Wan-Soo; Jeon, Che Ok

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effects of red pepper powder on kimchi fermentation, Baechu (Chinese cabbage) and Mu (radish) kimchi, with and without red pepper powder, were prepared and their characteristics, including pH, colony-forming units (CFU), microbial communities, and metabolites, were periodically monitored for 40days. Measurements of pH and CFU showed that the lag phases of kimchi fermentation were clearly extended by the addition of red pepper powder. Microbial community analysis using a barcoded pyrosequencing analysis showed that the bacterial diversities in kimchi with red pepper powder decreased more slowly than kimchi without red pepper powder as kimchi fermentation progressed. The kimchi microbial communities were represented mainly by the genera Leuconostoc and Lactobacillus in all kimchi, and the abundance of Weissella was negligible in kimchi without red pepper powder. However, interestingly, kimchi with red pepper powder contained much higher proportions of Weissella than kimchi without red pepper powder, while the proportions of Leuconostoc and Lactobacillus were evidently lower in kimchi with red pepper powder compared to kimchi without red pepper powder. Metabolite analysis using a (1)H NMR technique also showed that the fermentation of kimchi with red pepper powder progressed a little more slowly than that of kimchi without red pepper powder. Principle component analysis using microbial communities and metabolites supported the finding that the addition of red pepper powder into kimchi resulted in the slowing of the kimchi fermentation process, especially during the early fermentation period and influenced the microbial succession and metabolite production during the kimchi fermentation processes. PMID:23290232

  1. The effects of Hot Pepper Extract and Capsaicin on Adipocyte Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching Sheng, Chu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of hot pepper extract and capsaicin on the adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells, lipolysis in rat epididymal adipocytes and histological changes in porcine adipose tissue. Methods : Inhibiton of preadipocyte differentiation and/or stimulation of lipolysis play important roles in reducing obesity. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were differentiated with adipogenic reagents by incubating for 3 days in the absence or presence of hot pepper extract or capsaicin ranging from 0.01 to 1㎎/㎖. The effects of hot pepper extract and capsaicin on adipogenesis were examined by measuring GPDH activity and by Oil Red O staining. Mature adipocytes from rat epididymal fat pad was incubated with hot pepper extract or capsaicin ranging from 0.01 to 1㎎/㎖ for 3 hrs. The effects of hot pepper extract and capsaicin on lipolysis were examined by measuring free glycerol released. Fat tissue from pig skin was injected with hot pepper extract or capsaicinCFP ranging from 0.1 to 10㎎/㎖ to examine the effects of hot pepper extract and capsaicin on histological changes under light microscopy. Results : The following results were obtained from present study on adipogenesis of preadipocytes, lipolysis of adipocytes and histological changes in fat tissue. 1. Hot pepper extract and capsaicin inhibited adipogenic differentiation at the concentration of 0.1 and 0.01㎎/㎖, respectively, indicating that capsaicin was more effective in inhibiting adipogenesis than hot pepper extract. 2. Hot pepper extract and capsaicin decreased the activity of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase(GPDH at the concentration of 0.1 and 0.01㎎/㎖, respectively, indicating that capsaicin was more effective in inhibiting adipogenic differentiation than hot pepper extract. 3. Hot pepper extract and capsaicin increased glycerol release at the concentration of 0.1㎎/㎖. There was no difference in lipolytic activity between hot pepper extract and

  2. Black Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hraba, Joseph; Siegman, Jack

    1974-01-01

    Black militancy is treated as an instance of class consciousness with criteria and scales developed to measure black consciousness and "self-placement" into black consciousness. These dimensions are then investigated with respect to the social and symbolic participation in the ideology of the black movement on the part of a sample of black…

  3. Biochemical contents of pepper seedlings inoculated with phytophthora infestans and arbuscular mycorrhiza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odebode A.C.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of interactions between Arbuscular Glomus etunicatum and fungus Phytophthora infestans on biochemical contents of pepper plants was investigated in a greenhouse experiment. The sugar contents (i.e. Glucose fructose and sucrose were higher in the control and mycorrhizal inoculated pepper seedlings and the lowest in pathogen inoculated seedlings. Free amino acids were the highest in the simultaneously inoculated pepper seedlings while total phenol was found to be the highest in pepper seedlings inoculated with P. infestans. The levels of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium varied in the inoculated pepper seedlings without any significant difference in the treatment. The results obtained suggest protective influence of mycorrhiza by enhancing the nutritional status of the inoculated pepper seedlings.

  4. Improvement of hygienic quality and long-term storage of dried red pepper by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dried-red pepper, whole and powdered types, was subjected to a storage-study by investigation the effects of packaging methods (polycloth & polyethylene/polycloth, whole dried-red pepper; nylon/polyethylene-lam-inated film, red pepper powder), temperature and gamma irradiation doses (0-10 kGy). After 6 months storage in polyclith sack at ambient temperature, all whole dried-red pepper showed quality deterioration, such as weight change, insect infestation, discoloration and chemical changes, After 2 years storage in combined packaging with polyethylene/polycloth sack of 5-7.5 kGy irradiated whole dried-red pepper at ambient temperature, however, quality deterioration was not observed. Gamma-irradiated red pepper powder (7.5-10kGy) showed a good quality in hygienic, physicochemical and organoleptic evaluation after 2 years of storage at ambient temperature

  5. Efficient sweet pepper transformation mediated by the BABY BOOM transcription factor

    OpenAIRE

    Heidmann, I.; Lange; Lambalk, J.; Angenent, G.C.; Boutilier, K.

    2011-01-01

    Pepper (Capsicum L.) is a nutritionally and economically important crop that is cultivated throughout the world as a vegetable, condiment, and food additive. Genetic transformation using Agrobacterium tumefaciens (agrobacterium) is a powerful biotechnology tool that could be used in pepper to develop community-based functional genomics resources and to introduce important agronomic traits. However, pepper is considered to be highly recalcitrant for agrobacterium-mediated transformation, and c...

  6. Assessment of Salt Tolerance in Pepper Using Chlorophyll Fluorescence and Mineral Compositions

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reza Zare Bavani; Gholamali Peyvast; Mahmoud Ghasemnezhad; Akbar Forghani

    2016-01-01

    In this study, leaf chlorophyll fluorescence and mineral compositions was used to compare pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) cultivars response to salt stress. Twentysix pepper cultivars were exposed to salt stress (100 mM NaCl) during two weeks. Thereafter, chlorophyll fluorescence components, stress tolerance index (STI), sodium, potassium and calcium content were measured. The results showed that a significant difference has been found among pepper cultivars for all studied characteristics....

  7. Selection of a salt tolerant Tunisian cultivar of chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens)

    OpenAIRE

    Kaouther Zhani; Mohamed Aymen Elouer; Hassan Aloui; Cherif Hannachi

    2012-01-01

    Background: Salinity affects germination and seedling growth and yield of several crop species, such as pepper. That is why this study was carried to evaluate the effects of NaCl on seed germination, seedling growth and ionic balance of three Tunisian chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens) cv: Tebourba, Korba and Awlad Haffouz. Materials and Methods: The percentage of germination, the growth and the mineral contents were measured in the three Tunisian chili pepper cv watered with water contain...

  8. The effect of harpin on shelf life of peppers inoculated with Botrytis cinerea

    OpenAIRE

    TEZCAN, Himmet; Akbudak, Nuray; Akbudak, Bulent

    2011-01-01

    The preservation methods as an alternative to chemical control to prevent postharvest quality losses of peppers were examined. The efficacy of harpin treatments on peppers (Capsicum annuum L. cvs. ‘Demre’, ‘Yalova Charleston’ and ‘Sari Sivri’) was tested in the same conditions in two different years. Peppers grown in greenhouse were applied with four treatments consisting of harpin, Botrytis cinerea, harpin+B. cinerea and control. The harpin in B. cinerea treatments reduced the percentage of ...

  9. Detection of irradiated peppers by viscosity measurement at extremely high pH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The viscosities of aqueous suspensions of irradiated peppers determined after heat gelatinization were influenced by the pH of the suspension to a greater degree than those of unirradiated ones. Viscosity measurement under an extremely alkaline condition (pH 13.8) resulted in a significant different between irradiated peppers and unirradiated ones, irrespective of the planting locality and storage period. All of the pepper samples irradiated at 5 kGy showed viscosity values significantly lower than unirradiated ones. (Author)

  10. Characterization of bacterial strains of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae isolated from pepper leaf spot in Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrev, Sasa; Gardan, Louis; Samson, Regine

    2000-01-01

    A new bacterial leaf spot disease on pepper seedlings (Capsicum annuum cv. ‘Kurtovska kapija’) was observed in 1995 in Macedonia. Pseudomonas bacteria were isolated, belonging to LOPAT group Ia. Symptoms similar to natural symptoms were reproduced following inoculation on pepper seedlings. Some isolates produced syringomycin and none of them were pathogenic to lilac. In a numerical taxonomic study of five pepper isolates in comparison with 58 pathovars of P. syringa...

  11. Biochemical contents of pepper seedlings inoculated with phytophthora infestans and arbuscular mycorrhiza

    OpenAIRE

    Odebode A.C.; Salami A.O.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of interactions between Arbuscular Glomus etunicatum and fungus Phytophthora infestans on biochemical contents of pepper plants was investigated in a greenhouse experiment. The sugar contents (i.e. Glucose fructose and sucrose) were higher in the control and mycorrhizal inoculated pepper seedlings and the lowest in pathogen inoculated seedlings. Free amino acids were the highest in the simultaneously inoculated pepper seedlings while total phenol was found to be the highest in pepp...

  12. Levels of nitrates and nitrites in chili pepper and ventricina salami

    OpenAIRE

    Giampaolo Colavita; Michele Piccirilli; Luigi Iafigliola; Carmela Amadoro

    2014-01-01

    Ventricina is a traditional sausage made from pork meat produced in the Abruzzi and Molise regions. The aim of this study was to detect the content of nitrates and nitrites in local cultivars of chilli pepper, and their concentration in ventricina samples spiced with the same chilli pepper. Furthermore, it was examined whether, in the samples of ventricina with nitrate addition, the spicing with chilli pepper could exceed the maximum added dose. The concentration of nitrates and nitrites in t...

  13. Influence of the heat treatment on the color of ground pepper (Capsicum annuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vračar Ljubo O.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Red pepper (Capsicum annuum L. is one of the most important vegetables in the world. The main ground pepper quality attributes are extractable color, surface color, qualitative and quantitative carotenoid content. In this work, the influence of heat treatment on ground pepper quality was investigated. Microbiological status was examined in non-sterilized and sterilized ground pepper. Color changes were assessed by measuring the extractable color (ASTA and surface color, using a photocolorimeter. The obtained results showed that at the end of experiment, non-sterilized samples had higher color values in comparison to the sterilized ones. Also, color deterioration was heightened at room temperature.

  14. Detection and molecular characterization of Pepper mild mottle virus in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Milošević Dragana; Stanković Ivana; Bulajić Aleksandra; Ignjatov Maja; Nikolić Zorica; Petrović Gordana; Krstić Branka

    2015-01-01

    During 2009 and 2010, a survey was conducted in pepper crops to detect the possible presence of Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) in Serbia. A total of 239 pepper samples from 39 crops at 26 localities were collected and analyzed for the presence of PMMoV, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Potato virus Y (PVY), and Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), using DAS-ELISA test. Although it was detected in a small percentage, PMMoV could pose a threat to pepper production in Se...

  15. Storage stability and irradiation effect of red pepper powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To improve the storage stability of Korea red pepper (Capsicum annuum), the equilibrium moisture content of the powder and effects of irradiation on the capsicin, capsanthin and microorganisms were investigated during its storage. The equilibrium moisture contents of the powder at 25 0C and relative humidities of 43.7, 53.3, 64.4, 75.4, and 84.3% were 13, 18, 25, 28, and 37%, respectively, and the larger the particle size was, the lower the equilibrium moisture content was under the same storage conditions. Cobalt-60 gamma irradiation degraded partly the capsaicin in red pepper or in solution at dose levels above 500 krad, but did not affect the moisture and capsanthin contents during its storage. Total visible cell count of the powder was around 108 per gram and D10 value for the mixed organisms was 210 krad. (author)

  16. Isolation of microorganisms from red pepper powder and their radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From samples of red pepper powder sold in Korea were isolated and identified 13 species of molds (Aspergillus amsteodami, Asp. chevalieri, Asp. clavatus, Asp. Flavus, Asp. janus var. effusus, Asp. oryzae, Asp. oryzae var. brevis, Asp. repens, Asp. sydowi, Asp. thomii, Asp. tubingensis, Penicillium thomii, Scopulariopsis brevicaulis) and 5 species of bacteria (Bacillus pumilus, Bac. subtilis, Micrococus luteus, M. varians, Staphylococcus aureus). Radiosensitivity of these microorganisms was examined to give D10 values of 14-41 krad for molds, 11-24 krad for bacterial vegetative cells and 190-250 krad for bacterial spores. The red pepper powder was contaminated with 2-3x102 mold counts/g and 3-6x107 bacterial counts/g, which would be sufficiently destroyed by irradiating 200 krad r-rays. (Author)

  17. Subcutaneous Emphysema and Pneumomediastinum after Inhaling Pepper Spray

    OpenAIRE

    Woussen, Sofie; Lemmerling, Marc; Verstraeten, André

    2016-01-01

    A 25-year-old police officer presented to the emergency department with shortness of breath developed after multiple exposures to pepper spray during training exercises. Physical examination revealed crepitus on palpation and auscultation in the neck, face and thorax, consistent with subcutaneous emphysema. The patient was hemodynamically stable. Blood tests showed no abnormalities. The anteroposterior (AP) chest radiograph (Fig. A) demonstrated diffuse subcutaneous emphysema (solid white arr...

  18. Use of Capsicum Peppers in the Batanes Islands, Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    YAMAMOTO, Sota; ヤマモト, ソウタ; 山本, 宗立

    2010-01-01

    Capsicum peppers are native to tropical and temperate regions of the Americas, and was introduced into Asia before the sixteenth century. Local nomenclatures and detailed usage of Capsicum in the Batanes Islands have not been reported, although they may have original information on the genus Capsicum, which may be helpful in discussing dispersal routes of Capsicum. In this study, Capsicum culture in the Batanes Islands was studied indetail — linguistically, botanically, and ethnically. C. ann...

  19. Use of Capsicum Peppers in the Batanes Islands, Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    YAMAMOTO, Sota; ヤマモト, ソウタ; 山本, 宗立

    2010-01-01

    Capsicum peppers are native to tropical and temperate regions of the Americas, and was introduced into Asia before the sixteenth century. Local nomenclatures and detailed usage of Capsicum in the Batanes Islands have not been reported, although they may have original information on the genus Capsicum, which may be helpful in discussing dispersal routes of Capsicum. In this study, Capsicum culture in the Batanes Islands was studied in detail — linguistically, botanically, and ethnically. C....

  20. The Paleobiolinguistics of domesticated chili pepper (Capsicum spp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Cecil H.; Charles R. Clement; Patience Epps; Eike Luedeling; Søren Wichmann

    2013-01-01

    Paleobiolinguistics employs the comparative method of historical linguistics to reconstruct the biodiversity known to human groups of the remote, unrecorded past. Comparison of words for biological species from languages of the same language family facilitates reconstruction of the biological vocabulary of the family’s ancient proto-language. This study uses paleobiolinguistics to establish where and when chili peppers (Capsicum spp.) developed significance for different prehistoric Native Am...

  1. Prehispanic Use of Chili Peppers in Chiapas, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Powis, Terry G.; Gallaga Murrieta, Emiliano; Lesure, Richard; Lopez Bravo, Roberto; Grivetti, Louis; Kucera, Heidi; Gaikwad, Nilesh W.

    2013-01-01

    The genus Capsicum is New World in origin and represents a complex of a wide variety of both wild and domesticated taxa. Peppers or fruits of Capsicum species rarely have been identified in the paleoethnobotanical record in either Meso- or South America. We report here confirmation of Capsicum sp. residues from pottery samples excavated at Chiapa de Corzo in southern Mexico dated from Middle to Late Preclassic periods (400 BCE to 300 CE). Residues from 13 different pottery types were collecte...

  2. Characterization of Xanthomonas euvesicatoria Strains Pathogens of Pepper in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Ignjatov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available During spring and summer of 2008, 101 bacterial strains was isolated from the diseasedpepper leaves collected from different pepper growing areas in the Republic of Serbia. Theaim of this research was to characterize the isolated strains and determine their taxonomicposition according to the most recent nomenclature.Pathogenic, biochemical and physiological characteristics of isolated bacteria weretested using standard bacteriological tests. The pathogen races were determined accordingto the reaction of differential varieties of Early Calwonder (ECW, their isogenic lines(ECW-10R, ECW-20R, ECW-30R and Capsicum pubescens. The sensitivity of strains to bactericideswas studied in vitro by culturing bacteria on sucrose pepton agar (SPA plates, amendedwith filter-sterilized aqueous solution of streptomycin and kasugamycin (50, 100, 200ppm or copper-sulphate (100, 200 ppm.Based on pathogenic, biochemical and physiological characteristics, the investigatedstrains belonged to Xanthomonas euvesicatoria. The reaction of pepper differential varietiesindicated that these strains belonged to pepper races P1, P3, P7, P8. Streptomycin resistantstrains were not detected, but 6 strains were resistant to kasugamycin (50 ppm and 13strains to copper-sulphate (200 ppm, indicating bacterial resistance development.

  3. Asthma exacerbation related with inhalation of hot peppers extract (capsaicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Ceylan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In this study we aimed to prospectively investigate,asthma provoking factors and among thesefactors the place of Hot pepper (Isot during August-Septembermonths which are time period for processing isot.Methods: In this study, 73 female patients with exacerbationof asthma who applied to Chest Diseases OutpatientClinic and emergency department in the period of August-September (2010 were evaluated prospectively.Results: Seventy-three asthmatic female patients, meansage 34.7±6.1 (22-43 years were included. Patients withexacerbation of asthma provoking factors are; inhalationof isot pepper 28.8%, infections 23.3%, irregular use ofdrugs 16.4%, exposure to biomass and cigarette smoke13.7%, allergens 9.6%, emotional factors 5%, and gastroesophagealreflux 2.7%, physical exercise 1.4%.Conclusion: We observed that the most important asthmaprovoking factor was the inhalation of isot extract inasthmatic female patients in August-September (2010period in Sanliurfa. J Clin Exp Invest 2013; 4 (3: 331-334Key words: Asthma, hot pepper, Isot, capsaicin, Sanliurfa

  4. Influence of agricultural practices on fruit quality of bell pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Zahra, T R

    2011-09-15

    An experiment was carried out under plastic house conditions to compare the effect of four fermented organic matter sources (cattle, poultry and sheep manure in addition to 1:1:1 mixture of the three organic matter sources) in which 4 kg organic matter m(-2) were used, with that of the conventional agriculture (chemical fertilizers) treatments on Marvello red pepper fruit quality, by using a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replicates. Pepper fruits characteristics cultivated in soil supplemented with manure were generally better than those from plants grown in soil only. Addition of animal manure increased bell pepper fruit content of soluble solids, ascorbic acid, total phenols, crude fibre and intensity of red color as compare with conventional agriculture that produced fruits with higher titratable acidity, water content, lycopene and bigger fruit size. In most cases of animal manure treatments, best results were obtained by the sheep manure treatment that produced the highest TSS, while the worst results were obtained by the poultry manure treatment that produced the smallest fruit and lowest fruit lycopene content. PMID:22518928

  5. Reaction of sweet pepper to the potato virus y (PVYm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Echer Márcia de Moraes

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional sweet pepper cultivars showing susceptibility to the Potato virus Y (PVY are being replaced by resistant hybrids with higher commercial value. Despite of much information about resistance source reaction and their inheritance, there is no knowledge about the genetic background of commercial resistant hybrids. Reaction of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L. hybrids to the Potato virus Y (PVYm such as Acuario, Magali R, Nathalie and their respective generations F2 and F3 as well as hybrids Amanda, Corteso W208, CPC-6272, Dagmar, Elisa, Magali, Margarita, Monteiro, Quantum, Vivo W205 was evaluated. Reaction to PVYm was evaluated as resistant or susceptible. Magali R and Nathalie hybrid did not show any mosaic symptoms. Magali R and Nathalie hybrids resistance is due to a single dominant gene indicating resistant versus susceptible parental lines crossing pedigree. Amanda, Acuario, Corteso W208, Dagmar, Elisa, Margarita, Monteiro, Quantum and Vivo W205, considered resistant to PVY, were highly susceptibility to PVY strain m. Hybrids, claimed as resistant to the Pepper mottle virus (PepMoV, were also resistant to PVYm.

  6. Black Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eyesight if not treated. If both eyes are black after a head injury, it could signify a skull fracture or other serious injury. Next Black Eye Symptoms Related Ask an Ophthalmologist Answers How ...

  7. Black tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diuretic to increase urine flow. Some people use black tea for preventing tooth decay and kidney stones. In combination with various other products, black tea is used for weight loss. In foods, ...

  8. The industrial melanism mutation in British peppered moths is a transposable element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van't Hof, Arjen E; Campagne, Pascal; Rigden, Daniel J; Yung, Carl J; Lingley, Jessica; Quail, Michael A; Hall, Neil; Darby, Alistair C; Saccheri, Ilik J

    2016-06-01

    Discovering the mutational events that fuel adaptation to environmental change remains an important challenge for evolutionary biology. The classroom example of a visible evolutionary response is industrial melanism in the peppered moth (Biston betularia): the replacement, during the Industrial Revolution, of the common pale typica form by a previously unknown black (carbonaria) form, driven by the interaction between bird predation and coal pollution. The carbonaria locus has been coarsely localized to a 200-kilobase region, but the specific identity and nature of the sequence difference controlling the carbonaria-typica polymorphism, and the gene it influences, are unknown. Here we show that the mutation event giving rise to industrial melanism in Britain was the insertion of a large, tandemly repeated, transposable element into the first intron of the gene cortex. Statistical inference based on the distribution of recombined carbonaria haplotypes indicates that this transposition event occurred around 1819, consistent with the historical record. We have begun to dissect the mode of action of the carbonaria transposable element by showing that it increases the abundance of a cortex transcript, the protein product of which plays an important role in cell-cycle regulation, during early wing disc development. Our findings fill a substantial knowledge gap in the iconic example of microevolutionary change, adding a further layer of insight into the mechanism of adaptation in response to natural selection. The discovery that the mutation itself is a transposable element will stimulate further debate about the importance of 'jumping genes' as a source of major phenotypic novelty. PMID:27251284

  9. 76 FR 78231 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Peppers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... Collection; Importation of Peppers From Certain Central American Countries AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... collection associated with regulations for the importation of peppers from certain Central American countries... INFORMATION CONTACT: For information on regulations for the importation of peppers from certain...

  10. The epidemiology of pepper spray exposures reported in Texas in 1998-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Mathias B; Stanley, Sharilyn K

    2003-12-01

    Pepper spray is used as an incapacitant agent. Although now available for general use in the US, the health consequences of pepper spray exposures are poorly understood. This study used data from human exposure calls to poison centers in Texas to investigate the epidemiology of pepper spray exposures. During 1998-2002 there were 1,531 human exposures to pepper spray identified by the Texas poison centers. Pepper spray reports declined during the 5-y period of the study. The majority of exposures were unintentional (84%), occurred at home (68%), involved males (56%), and comprised children and adolescents (64%). Risk factors for pepper spray exposure varied by patient age. Although 85% of the pepper spray exposures were managed outside of health care facilities, 97% of exposures involved at least minimal notable clinical effects. Given the level of detectable clinical effects of this intervention and the widespread availability of these agents, there is a need for better education of the public regarding the proper use of pepper spray and the effects of its use. PMID:14640489

  11. Fruit cuticle lipid composition and water loss in a diverse collection of pepper (capsicum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper (Capsicum spp.) fruits are covered by a relatively thick coating of cuticle that limits fruit water loss, a trait previously associated with maintenance of post-harvest fruit quality during commercial marketing. We’ve examined the fruit cuticles from 50 diverse pepper genotypes from a world c...

  12. 7 CFR 457.148 - Fresh market pepper crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... pepper (of the capsicum annum species, grossum group), widely cultivated for its large, crisp, edible... against any loss of production due to: (1) Disease or insect infestation, unless no effective control measure exists for such disease or insect infestation; or (2) Failure to market the peppers, unless...

  13. 7 CFR 319.56-24 - Lettuce and peppers from Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lettuce and peppers from Israel. 319.56-24 Section 319... Lettuce and peppers from Israel. (a) Lettuce may be imported into the United States from Israel without... applicable provisions of this subpart. (1) Growing conditions. (i) The lettuce must be grown in...

  14. Enzymatic firming of processed red pepper by means of exogenous pectinesterase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, M.; Petersen, B.R.; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to demonstrate that the firmness of a commercial vegetable product, diced and frozen red pepper (Capsicum annum var. Sendt), could be improved by the use of exogenous pectinesterase in an industrially relevant process. The diced pepper pieces 10 x 10 x 7 mm(3...

  15. Integrated crop management of hot pepper (Capsicum spp.) in tropical lowlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, J.G.M.

    1994-01-01

    Hot pepper ( Capsicum spp.) is the most important low elevation vegetable commodity in Indonesia. Yields are low, in part due to crop health problems. Farmers' practices were surveyed by means of exploratory surveys. Hot pepper pests and diseases were identified and described. Components of integrat

  16. First Complete Genome Sequence of Pepper vein yellows virus from Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, Solomon; Edwards, Owain R; Jones, Roger A C

    2016-01-01

    We present here the first complete genomic RNA sequence of the polerovirus Pepper vein yellows virus (PeVYV) obtained from a pepper plant in Australia. We compare it with complete PeVYV genomes from Japan and China. The Australian genome was more closely related to the Japanese than the Chinese genome. PMID:27231375

  17. Genetic Diversity of pathogenic and nonpathogenic populations of Phytophthora capsici from pepper plants and soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirty-six Phytophthora capsici strains and one Phytophthora parasitica strain were evaluated for pathogenicity and disease severity on pepper (Capsicum annuum) plants. The strains represent a range of geographic locations and were collected primarily from pepper stems or roots of plants with sympto...

  18. Yield in nonpungent jalapeno pepper established at different in-row spacings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doubling the plant density in transplanted non-pungent jalapeno peppers (Capsicum annuum Mill.) improves yield. However, it is not known how other spacings affect yield. In-row plant spacing was examined to determine how it affects development of these peppers. Transplants of a non-pungent jalapen...

  19. 大棚辣椒栽培技术%Cultivation techniques of pepper in greenhouse condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴文清

    2012-01-01

    根据辣椒的特征特性,介绍大棚设施栽培辣椒的适宜品种及栽培管理要点。%According to the characteristics of pepper, the suitable cuhivars of pepper in greenhouse condition, key points of cultivation and management techniques were summarized in this paper.

  20. Effects of Nitrogenous Fertilizer on Pungency of Hot Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The response of pungency of hot pepper fruits nitrogenous fertilizer on was invesigated. The results indicated that nitrogenous fertilizer had a significant effect on the capsaicin content of hot pepper fruits at 35 and 42 days after flowering;capsaicin content gradually decreased, while peroxidase activity increased with nitrogenous fertilizer increasing.

  1. First Complete Genome Sequence of Pepper vein yellows virus from Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, Solomon; Edwards, Owain R.

    2016-01-01

    We present here the first complete genomic RNA sequence of the polerovirus Pepper vein yellows virus (PeVYV) obtained from a pepper plant in Australia. We compare it with complete PeVYV genomes from Japan and China. The Australian genome was more closely related to the Japanese than the Chinese genome. PMID:27231375

  2. A seasonal model of contracts between a monopsonistic processor and smallholder pepper producers in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sáenz Segura, F.; Haese, D' M.F.C.; Schipper, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    We model the contractual arrangements between smallholder pepper (Piper nigrum L.) producers and a single processor in Costa Rica. Producers in the El Roble settlement sell their pepper to only one processing firm, which exerts its monopsonistic bargaining power by setting the purchase price of fres

  3. Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luminet, Jean-Pierre

    1992-09-01

    Foreword to the French edition; Foreword to the English edition; Acknowledgements; Part I. Gravitation and Light: 1. First fruits; 2. Relativity; 3. Curved space-time; Part II. Exquisite Corpses: 4. Chronicle of the twilight years; 5. Ashes and diamonds; 6. Supernovae; 7. Pulsars; 8. Gravitation triumphant; Part III. Light Assassinated: 9. The far horizon; 10. Illuminations; 11. A descent into the maelstrom; 12. Map games; 13. The black hole machine; 14. The quantum black hole; Part IV. Light Regained: 15. Primordial black holes; 16. The zoo of X-ray stars; 17. Giant black holes; 18. Gravitational light; 19. The black hole Universe; Appendices; Bibliography; Name index; Subject index.

  4. Economics of Peppers and Salad Cucumbers Production on an Open Land and in a Protected Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Pozderec

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The research is based on the economic analysis of growing peppers (Capsicum annum L. and salad cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L. in an open land and in a protected space. For this purpose the simulation models were developed for the growing of the peppers and salad cucumbers that were based on the technological-economic input data for two growing systems, in the open and in the protected space. The results of the economic analysis show that the growing of peppers and salad cucumbers in the protected space is more profi table than growing them in the open land. The growing of salad cucumbers in the protected space has proven to be more reasonable than growing peppers, as the coefficient of economics (Ce of growing salad cucumbers reached the value Ce = 1.4, while the value in growing peppers was Ce = 1.1. This was also confirmed with two scenarios that were analysed using the sensitivity analysis.

  5. Production of methanol from heat-stressed pepper and corn leaf disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, J.A. (Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States). Dept. of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture)

    1994-05-01

    Early Calwonder'' pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and Jubilee'' corn (Zea mays L.) leaf disks exposed to high temperature stress produced ethylene, ethane, methanol, acetaldehyde, and ethanol based on comparison of retention times during gas chromatography to authentic standards. Methanol, ethanol, and acetaldehyde were also identified by mass spectroscopy. Corn leaf disks produced lower levels of ethylene, ethane, and methanol, but more acetaldehyde and ethanol than pepper. Production of ethane, a by-product of lipid peroxidation, coincided with an increase in electrolyte leakage (EL) in pepper but not in corn. Compared with controls, pepper leaf disks infiltrated with linolenic acid evolved significantly greater amounts of ethane, acetaldehyde, and methanol and similar levels of ethanol. EL and volatile hydrocarbon production were not affected by fatty acid infiltration in corn. Infiltration of pepper leaves with buffers increasing in pH from 5.5 to 9.5 increased methanol production.

  6. Economics of Peppers and Salad Cucumbers Production on an Open Land and in a Protected Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Pozderec

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The research is based on the economic analysis of growing peppers (Capsicum annum L. and salad cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L. in an open land and in a protected space. For this purpose the simulation models were developed for the growing of the peppers and salad cucumbers that were based on the technological-economic input data for two growing systems, in the open and in the protected space. The results of the economic analysis show that the growing of peppers and salad cucumbers in the protected space is more profi table than growing them in the open land. The growing of salad cucumbers in the protected space has proven to be more reasonable than growing peppers, as the coefficient of economics (Ce of growing salad cucumbers reached the value Ce = 1.4, while the value in growing peppers was Ce = 1.1. This was also confirmed with two scenarios that were analysed using the sensitivity analysis.

  7. Sources of resistance against the Pepper yellow mosaic virus in chili pepper Fontes de resistência ao Mosaico Amarelo do Pimentão em pimentas

    OpenAIRE

    Cíntia dos S Bento; Rosana Rodrigues; Francisco Murilo Zerbini Júnior; Cláudia P Sudré

    2009-01-01

    The Pepper yellow mosaic virus (PepYMV) naturally infects chili and sweet pepper, as well as tomato plants in Brazil, leading to severe losses. This work reports the reaction to the PepYMV of 127 Capsicum spp. accessions, aiming at identifying resistance sources useful in breeding programs. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design, with eight replications, in greenhouse conditions. Plants were protected with an insect-proof screen to avoid virus dissemination by aphids...

  8. Evaluation of microbial contamination of tomatoes and peppers at retail markets in Monterrey, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, Carmen; Molina, Karina; Heredia, Norma; García, Santos

    2013-08-01

    The source of a large outbreak of foodborne disease related to Salmonella-contaminated jalapeño peppers has been traced to Nuevo Leon, Mexico. The objective of this work was to evaluate the microbiological quality of tomatoes and jalapeño peppers from markets and supermarkets from the metropolitan area of Monterrey, Nuevo León, Mexico. One hundred sixty samples (40 bola tomatoes, 40 saladette [Roma] tomatoes, 40 serrano peppers, and 40 jalapeño peppers) were purchased. Stems from peppers were removed and analyzed separately. Samples were analyzed for indicator organisms and Salmonella, following the Mexican Official Methods. The results showed that the presence of indicator organisms varied among samples and origins, and levels were relatively high in peppers (average 4.4 to 4.7 log CFU/g for total mesophilic, 3.25 to 3.73 log CFU/g for total coliforms, and 1.69 log CFU/g for fecal coliforms). Saladette tomatoes and serrano peppers showed the greatest microorganism levels (∼1 log CFU/g higher) in comparison with the other varieties. Pepper stems typically had indicator microbial levels ∼1 to 2 log CFU/g higher than levels in smooth flesh. Only one tomato and one jalapeño sample were positive for Salmonella. However, in the case of the pepper, the contamination was found in the stem. Although the microbiological quality of tomatoes and peppers sampled was similar to that found in markets from developed countries, the presence of pathogens causes a risk of infection for consumers. PMID:23905810

  9. Genetics of Fertility Restoration in Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Pepper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Pepper hybrid seeds production using male sterility could lower cost by reducing time and labour, and increase the genetic purity of the F1 seeds. To investigate the genetics of fertility restoration of the Peterson cytoplasmic sterility in pepper, a doubled haploid population of 115 pepper lines obtained from anther culture of the F1 hybrid between Yolo Wonder (sterility maintainer line) and Perennial (fertility restorer line) and the parental lines were test-crossed by 77013A (a strict cytoplasmic-genic male sterile line). The fertility of the test-crossed lines was assessed in greenhouse and open field with the following three criteria: pollen index (PI, visual estimation of pollen amount per flower), pollen number (PN, pollen counting under microscope), and seed number (SN, the number of seeds per fruit in open pollination). Correlations between the each couple of criteria within, as well as between the cultivation methods ranged from 0.55 to 0.84. Analysis of variance showed that the genotype (DH line) and environment were the significant sources of variation of the fertility.Narrow sense of heritance of fertility restoration ranged from 0.38 to 0.92, depending on the criteria and environment. The distribution of the progeny was continuous between the parental genotypes indicating the quantitative inheritance of fertility restoration. Inferred from segregation according to Snape et al.(1984), the number of segregating genes was estimated to be that three to four genetic factors were involved in pollen traits (PI and PN) and five to eight genetic factors in seed production (SN). The heredity analysis of the CMS will be helpful for understanding of the genetic mechanism of the fertility restoration and the exploitation of the CMS in hybrid seed production.

  10. Prehispanic use of chili peppers in Chiapas, Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry G Powis

    Full Text Available The genus Capsicum is New World in origin and represents a complex of a wide variety of both wild and domesticated taxa. Peppers or fruits of Capsicum species rarely have been identified in the paleoethnobotanical record in either Meso- or South America. We report here confirmation of Capsicum sp. residues from pottery samples excavated at Chiapa de Corzo in southern Mexico dated from Middle to Late Preclassic periods (400 BCE to 300 CE. Residues from 13 different pottery types were collected and extracted using standard techniques. Presence of Capsicum was confirmed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC/MS-MS Analysis. Five pottery types exhibited chemical peaks for Capsicum when compared to the standard (dihydrocapsaicin. No peaks were observed in the remaining eight samples. Results of the chemical extractions provide conclusive evidence for Capsicum use at Chiapas de Corzo during a 700 year period (400 BCE-300 CE. Presence of Capsicum in different types of culinary-associated pottery raises questions how chili pepper could have been used during this early time period. As Pre-Columbian cacao products sometimes were flavored using Capsicum, the same pottery sample set was tested for evidence of cacao using a theobromine marker: these results were negative. As each vessel that tested positive for Capsicum had a culinary use we suggest here the possibility that chili residues from the Chiapas de Corzo pottery samples reflect either paste or beverage preparations for religious, festival, or every day culinary use. Alternatively, some vessels that tested positive merely could have been used to store peppers. Most interesting from an archaeological context was the presence of Capsicum residue obtained from a spouted jar, a pottery type previously thought only to be used for pouring liquids.

  11. Prehispanic use of chili peppers in Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powis, Terry G; Gallaga Murrieta, Emiliano; Lesure, Richard; Lopez Bravo, Roberto; Grivetti, Louis; Kucera, Heidi; Gaikwad, Nilesh W

    2013-01-01

    The genus Capsicum is New World in origin and represents a complex of a wide variety of both wild and domesticated taxa. Peppers or fruits of Capsicum species rarely have been identified in the paleoethnobotanical record in either Meso- or South America. We report here confirmation of Capsicum sp. residues from pottery samples excavated at Chiapa de Corzo in southern Mexico dated from Middle to Late Preclassic periods (400 BCE to 300 CE). Residues from 13 different pottery types were collected and extracted using standard techniques. Presence of Capsicum was confirmed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)/MS-MS Analysis. Five pottery types exhibited chemical peaks for Capsicum when compared to the standard (dihydrocapsaicin). No peaks were observed in the remaining eight samples. Results of the chemical extractions provide conclusive evidence for Capsicum use at Chiapas de Corzo during a 700 year period (400 BCE-300 CE). Presence of Capsicum in different types of culinary-associated pottery raises questions how chili pepper could have been used during this early time period. As Pre-Columbian cacao products sometimes were flavored using Capsicum, the same pottery sample set was tested for evidence of cacao using a theobromine marker: these results were negative. As each vessel that tested positive for Capsicum had a culinary use we suggest here the possibility that chili residues from the Chiapas de Corzo pottery samples reflect either paste or beverage preparations for religious, festival, or every day culinary use. Alternatively, some vessels that tested positive merely could have been used to store peppers. Most interesting from an archaeological context was the presence of Capsicum residue obtained from a spouted jar, a pottery type previously thought only to be used for pouring liquids. PMID:24236083

  12. Commercial preservation of dried anchovy and red pepper by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boiled-dried anchovies can be maintained in a sanitary condition for more than one year at refrigerated temperature, instead of freezing by using laminated-film packaging and gamma-irradiation below 5 kGy. Application of this treatment would contribute to the stabilization of demand and supply for boiled-dried anchovies. In the case of red-pepper a combination of polycloth sack and air-tight packaging film inhibited weight loss, insect infestation, discoloration, and chemical changes. With regard to powdering a microbial-decontamination of dried-red pepper prior to marketing, pre-packaged pepper powder exhibited high quality i.e. physicochemcial and organoleptic characteristics after one year of storage at ambient conditions and significantly improved hygienic quality due to irradiation. In regard to perception and attitude towards food irradiation technology, males, well-educated, and older respondents showed a higher understanding and more positive attitude toward this technology. In future purchasing of processed foods, many respondents preferred irradiated food (34.8%) rather than chemically treated food (12.9%). However 51% of consumer sample showed a suspicious attitude toward the wholesomeness of irradiated foods. The survey indicated that the majority of respondents (70.9%) had insufficient information and an incorrect understanding of food irradiation. The survey results explain the delay in commercial utilization of this technology. Therefore, a nationwide education programme on the benefits and safety of food irradiation technology is required to increase public understanding and acceptance of irradiated food. (author). 16 refs, 11 figs, 24 tabs

  13. Degradation of maneb to ethylenethiourea in large pepper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large pepper was field cultivated and sprayed three times with 14C-maneb at weekly intervals. Samples of fruits were collected after each application and samples of leaves and stems were collected 1-2 days and 1-2-3-4 weeks after the last application. Appreciable quantities of maneb and maneb-derived residues were found in stems, leaves and fruits. The latter contained only trace quantities of ETU, which are unlikely to present any hazard to consumers. (author). 2 refs, 4 tabs

  14. Pathotypes of Bacterial Spot Pathogen Infecting Capsicum Peppers in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Wai, Khin Pa Pa; Siddique, Muhammad Irfan; Mo, Hwang-Sung; Yoo, Hee Ju; Byeon, Si-Eun; Jegal, Yoonhyuk; Mekuriaw, Alebel A.; Kim, Byung-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Sixty-seven isolates of bacterial spot pathogen (Xanthomonas spp.) collected from six provinces of Korea were tested for the identification of their pathotypes and determination of their distribution throughout Korea in an effort to genetically manage the disease. Near isogenic lines of Early Calwonder (Capsicum annuum) pepper plants carrying Bs1 , Bs2 and Bs3 , and PI235047 (C. pubescens) were used as differential hosts. Race P1 was found to be predominant, followed by race P7, and races P3 ...

  15. In vitro answer of Bulgarian pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Rodeva Velichka; Grozeva Stanislava; Todorova Velichka

    2006-01-01

    Callusogenesis and regeneration ability of cotyledon and hypocotyl explants from three Bulgarian pepper varieties in MS basal medium supplemented with l-3mg/l BAP. l.0mg/1 IAA and 0.5mg/l GA3 was studied. In the different variants of culture medium was registered high level of callusogenesis and organogenesis in both type of explants from the all varieties. The highest percentage of plant-regenerants is established in cotyledon explants (from 3.3 to 18.3) in variant 3 of the culture medium co...

  16. Black Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Khristin Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united.  The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape from poverty of enslavement and to establish a way of life through tradition. A way of personal freedoms was through getting a good education that lead to a better foundation and a better way of life. 

  17. Development of longer pepper resistant lines to Potato Virus Y (PVY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim ÇELİK

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pepper (Capsicum annuum L., is one of the most important vegetable species produced both in the world and in Turkey. Turkey is in third place in pepper production in the world. There are many viruses affecting and limiting pepper production. Potato Y virus (PVY, a member of the genus potyvirus, is one of the most common viruses infecting pepper crops. Improving resistant pepper varieties against the disease is more advantageous and easy way to control disease in production area. There are 4 races such as PVY0, PVY1 and PVY1-2 in the world. The dominant Pvr4 resistance gene in wild type SCM 334 pepper confers a complete resistance to the three pathotypes of potato virus. In this study, resistant genotype SCM 334 and susceptible long pepper inbred line were crossed to improve resistance in breeding lines. To eliminate the undesirable characteristics of the resistant genotypes, resistant line was backcrossed three times with susceptible genotypes. Mechanical inoculation and molecular methods were used to determine the reaction of backcross progenies to the disease. The dominant CAPS markers were used to determine resistant and susceptible plants and results from the mechanical inoculation method were verified with the CAPS marker. This study is a part of “Improvement of F1 Hybrid Vegetable Varieties and Qualified Lines in Turkey” basic project and financed by Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK-KAMAG 109G029.

  18. In vitro assessment of the bioaccessibility of carotenoids from sun-dried chilli peppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliese, Alessandro; O'Callaghan, Yvonne; Tundis, Rosa; Galvin, Karen; Menichini, Francesco; O'Brien, Nora; Loizzo, Monica R

    2014-03-01

    Chilli peppers have been recognized as an excellent source of antioxidants as they are rich in bioactive phytochemicals such as carotenoids which are known to exert various beneficial effects in vivo. Absorption is an important factor in the determination of the potential biological effects of carotenoids. The bioaccessibility of a food constituent such as a carotenoid represents its potential to be absorbed in humans. There is very limited information in the literature regarding the content and bioaccessibility of carotenoids from dried peppers. Therefore, the objectives of the present study were: first, to determine the carotenoid content of 20 varieties of red, orange or yellow coloured sun-dried chilli peppers belonging to either of four Capsicum species (annuum, baccatum, chinense and chacoense); and second, to quantify the carotenoid micellarization (bioaccessibility) following an in vitro digestion procedure. Red peppers had a higher carotenoid content and bioaccessibility than either the orange peppers or yellow pepper. Xanthophylls showed greater bioaccessibility than carotenes. Our findings confirm that dried chilli peppers are a good source of carotenoids. PMID:24272195

  19. Detection and molecular characterization of Pepper mild mottle virus in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Dragana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available During 2009 and 2010, a survey was conducted in pepper crops to detect the possible presence of Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV in Serbia. A total of 239 pepper samples from 39 crops at 26 localities were collected and analyzed for the presence of PMMoV, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, Potato virus Y (PVY, and Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV, using DAS-ELISA test. Although it was detected in a small percentage, PMMoV could pose a threat to pepper production in Serbia due to its rapid seed-borne spread. Presence of PMMoV was confirmed by serological and biological detection, followed by conventional reverse transcription RT-PCR, using primers specific for the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp and the coat protein (CP genes. Molecular identification confirmed that the Serbian isolates belong to PMMoV pathotypes P1,2 which do not break the resistance gene L3. Reconstructed phylogenetic tree confirmed the allocation of the Serbian isolates together with the majority of PMMoV isolates which belong to pathotypes P1,2. This study represents the first serological and molecular characterization of PMMoV infection of pepper in Serbia, and provides important data on the population structure. The obtained data could have great influence on pepper production in Serbia as well as future pepper resistance breeding in the country. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31030 i br. III-43001

  20. Microbiological and Physicochemical Quality Characterization of Commercial Red Pepper Powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten commercially available red pepper powders were investigated for their hygienic quality (total aerobic count, yeasts and molds, and coliforms) and physicochemical properties (moisture content, pH, Hunters color values, American Spice Trade Association (ASTA) color and particle size). Microbial analysis resulted in 103-106 CFU/g of total aerobic count and same of yeasts and molds, where 2 samples were positive (103 CFU/g) for coliforms. The moisture contents (7.25% to 12.73%) were with in the range as described in the Korean Food Standards Codex. Noteworthy variations were observed in pH (4.97 to 5.15), Hunters E values (47.19 to 58.04) and ASTA color values (89.31 to 98.61). Although the color differences were evident among the samples, but the Hunter values were not in good correlations with ASTA color values. The average particle sizes of the all samples were comparable ranging from 605 μm to 1251 μm with few exceptions. There was a great variation in the key quality attributes of commercially available red pepper powders that should be considered for their various uses in food products. (author)

  1. Ascorbic Acid Contents in Chili Peppers (Capsicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owk ANIEL KUMAR

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Capsicum commonly known as chili pepper is a major spice crop and is almost cosmopolitan in distribution. The nutritive value of chili pepper is largely determined by ascorbic acid content. The fruits at five ripening stages viz., (M1, M2, M3, M4 and M5 from seventeen cultivars of Capsicum annuum L and one cultivar of Capsicum frutescens L were analyzed for ascorbic acid content. Among eighteen genotypes the C. annuum var. IC: 119262(CA2 showed higher ascorbic acid content (mg/100g FW i.e., 208.0�0.68 (M1, 231.0�0.66 (M2, 280.0�0.31 (M3, 253.0�0.34 (M4 and 173.7�0.27 (M5. The study revealed that the gradual increase in ascorbic acid content from green to red and subsequently declined in the lateral stages (red partially dried and red fully dried fruits. The variability of ascorbic acid content in the genotypes suggests that these selected genotypes may be use full as parents in hybridization programs to produce fruits with good nutritional values.

  2. Radiation sterilization of red chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of radapertization using 60Co gamma radiation on the chemical and organoleptic properties of ground and whole dry pungent red pepper has been investigated. The fungal population was eliminated with a dose of 7.5 kGy and a dose of 10 kGy was required to radapertize the samples. Irradiation up to 10 kGy did not produce any significant (P 0.05) changes in the contents of capsaicin and carbohydrate. Oleoresin content was significantly (P 0.05) increased from 24.45 to 31.61% and lipid from 16.80 to 19.30%. The observed effect on apparent oleoresin and lipid contents was due to enhanced extractability. Storage time had no effect on the sensory properties of the spice but rather enhanced microbial load reduction in the medium dose (5.0 and 7.5 kGy) treated samples. A dose of 10 kGy has been certified to pose no health hazard to humans; hence decontamination of red pepper with up to 10 kGy gamma radiation does not require any further toxicological study and is therefore recommended

  3. Evaluation of antioxidant potential of pepper sauce (Capsicum frutescens L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Freire de Moura Pereira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Functional properties of substances present in in natura foods such as fruits and vegetables are well documented; however, the activity that remains after processing needs more research. The present study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant potential in fruit processed as sauce and quantify the compounds able to contribute to such activity. Three different treatments were developed varying only the concentration of pepper Capsicum frutescens L., with treatment ratios (fruit: water: vinegar: salt being: treatment 1 (0.5: 1: 0.5: 0.33, 2 (1: 1: 0.5: 0.33, and 3 (2: 1: 0.5: 0.33. By the DPPH method, the values found for EC50 (g g DPPH−1 from 3726.9 to 5425.9 for the alcoholic extract were the most significant. The content of total phenols did not vary between the three treatments. While the content of carotenoids found was significantly different in the treatment with lower content of the fruit in natura, when compared to the treatment with higher content (44.02 and 56.09 μg of β-carotene 100 g−1, respectively and the content of ascorbic acid varied between 10.95 and 21.59 mg 100−1 g. Therefore, the pepper sauce was presented as an alternative to the consumption of bioactive compounds that may have antioxidant potential.

  4. Can COO Labeling be a Means of Pepper Differentiation: Quality Expectation and Taste Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Kloeckner, Heike; Langen, Nina; Hartmann, Monika

    2011-01-01

    Country of Origin (COO) labeling has been shown in several studies to be an important extrinsic cue for consumers in their quality evaluation of food products such as olive oil. COO has not been discussed in the context of pepper; a spice which’s quality is highly dependant on its heritage. This is the first study that combines face-to-face interviews regarding attitudes, image and knowledge with a bind tasting of pepper and an investigation of consumer's WTP for pepper from different origins...

  5. X-band ESR study on evaluation of radicals induced in pasteurized pepper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radical properties of pasteurized pepper were investigated by means of X-band ESR spectroscopy. Pasteurization process was done by irradiation or steam. There were three radicals in the specimens before and after pasteurization. Upon irradiation a new radical was found. ESR peak intensity of specimen before and after parturition with steam was almost same level. Peak intensity of radiated pepper showed almost 4 times as compare with that of non treated pepper. Radical activity of the specimens after pasteurization showed almost same value. We concluded that radicals were induced by irradiation. But the radical activity was not changed before and after pasteurization. (author)

  6. Yield, compatibility and phenology of sweet pepper on different rootstocks in organic crop

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiana Cruz Costa; Regina Lúcia Félix Ferreira; Sebastião Elviro de Araújo Neto; Williane Maria de Oliveira Martins; Caroliny Izabel Araújo Freitas

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different rootstocks on yield, compatibility and phenology of sweet pepper in organic crop. The experiment was conducted at the ecological farm Seridó in Rio Branco - Acre. The experimental design was randomized blocks with five treatments and 15 replications. As rootstock was used three kinds of peppers (Doce comprida, Cheiro Luna and Cayenne dedo de moça), and sweet pepper Casca dura Ikeda cultivar. In this study, the fixation of s...

  7. Screening of pepper accessions for resistance against two thrips species (Frankliniella occidentalis and Thrips parvispinus)

    OpenAIRE

    Maharijaya, A.; Vosman, B.; Steenhuis-Broers, M.M.; Harpenas, Asep; Purwito, A.; Visser, R. G. F.; Voorrips, R.E.

    2011-01-01

    Thrips are damaging pests in pepper worldwide. They can cause damage directly by feeding on leaves, fruits or flowers, and also indirectly by transferring viruses, especially tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). Although thrips are among the most damaging pests in pepper, until now there is no commercial variety with a useful level of resistance to thrips. This is at least partly due to the lack of knowledge on resistance levels in pepper germplasm of QTLs and/or genes for resistance, and of inf...

  8. Economics of Peppers and Salad Cucumbers Production on an Open Land and in a Protected Space

    OpenAIRE

    Silvio Pozderec; Karmen Pažek; Martina Bavec

    2010-01-01

    The research is based on the economic analysis of growing peppers (Capsicum annum L.) and salad cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.) in an open land and in a protected space. For this purpose the simulation models were developed for the growing of the peppers and salad cucumbers that were based on the technological-economic input data for two growing systems, in the open and in the protected space. The results of the economic analysis show that the growing of peppers and salad cucumbers in t...

  9. Are black holes totally black?

    CERN Document Server

    Grib, A A

    2014-01-01

    Geodesic completeness needs existence near the horizon of the black hole of "white hole" geodesics coming from the region inside of the horizon. Here we give the classification of all such geodesics with the energies $E/m \\le 1$ for the Schwarzschild and Kerr's black hole. The collisions of particles moving along the "white hole" geodesics with those moving along "black hole" geodesics are considered. Formulas for the increase of the energy of collision in the centre of mass frame are obtained and the possibility of observation of high energy particles arriving from the black hole to the Earth is discussed.

  10. Variability in capsaicinoid content and Scoville heat ratings of commercially grown Jalapeño, Habanero and Bhut Jolokia peppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweat, Ken G; Broatch, Jennifer; Borror, Connie; Hagan, Kyle; Cahill, Thomas M

    2016-11-01

    The variability of capsaicinoid content of three common, commercially-available hot pepper varieties, namely Jalapeño, Habanero and Bhut Jolokia, was investigated. For each variety tested, ten peppers were acquired from each of ten different suppliers resulting in 100 peppers per variety that were individually analyzed. The results showed that different pepper varieties had different distribution types. The Habanero peppers showed a normal distribution; the Bhut Jolokia showed a skewed distribution and the Jalapeño peppers showed a very skewed distribution. The source of variability was also different; the Habaneros were very consistent within a given pepper supplier so most of the overall variation resulted from differences between suppliers. The Jalapeño peppers were the exact opposite with a very high degree of variability within a given supplier and relatively low variation between suppliers. A bootstrap statistical simulation was conducted on the data to suggest a minimum number of peppers to analyze to characterize the variation in a population. The simulations indicated that small sample sizes are effective at estimating the mean concentrations, but a sample size of ten or more is necessary to describe the population and capture the high-end tail of the distributions, which are the very hottest peppers. PMID:27211688

  11. The hot pepper (Capsicum annuum microRNA transcriptome reveals novel and conserved targets: a foundation for understanding MicroRNA functional roles in hot pepper.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Gyu Hwang

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of non-coding RNAs approximately 21 nt in length which play important roles in regulating gene expression in plants. Although many miRNA studies have focused on a few model plants, miRNAs and their target genes remain largely unknown in hot pepper (Capsicum annuum, one of the most important crops cultivated worldwide. Here, we employed high-throughput sequencing technology to identify miRNAs in pepper extensively from 10 different libraries, including leaf, stem, root, flower, and six developmental stage fruits. Based on a bioinformatics pipeline, we successfully identified 29 and 35 families of conserved and novel miRNAs, respectively. Northern blot analysis was used to validate further the expression of representative miRNAs and to analyze their tissue-specific or developmental stage-specific expression patterns. Moreover, we computationally predicted miRNA targets, many of which were experimentally confirmed using 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends analysis. One of the validated novel targets of miR-396 was a domain rearranged methyltransferase, the major de novo methylation enzyme, involved in RNA-directed DNA methylation in plants. This work provides the first reliable draft of the pepper miRNA transcriptome. It offers an expanded picture of pepper miRNAs in relation to other plants, providing a basis for understanding the functional roles of miRNAs in pepper.

  12. Comparative genomics reveals diversity among xanthomonads infecting tomato and pepper

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Potnis, Neha

    2011-03-11

    Abstract Background Bacterial spot of tomato and pepper is caused by four Xanthomonas species and is a major plant disease in warm humid climates. The four species are distinct from each other based on physiological and molecular characteristics. The genome sequence of strain 85-10, a member of one of the species, Xanthomonas euvesicatoria (Xcv) has been previously reported. To determine the relationship of the four species at the genome level and to investigate the molecular basis of their virulence and differing host ranges, draft genomic sequences of members of the other three species were determined and compared to strain 85-10. Results We sequenced the genomes of X. vesicatoria (Xv) strain 1111 (ATCC 35937), X. perforans (Xp) strain 91-118 and X. gardneri (Xg) strain 101 (ATCC 19865). The genomes were compared with each other and with the previously sequenced Xcv strain 85-10. In addition, the molecular features were predicted that may be required for pathogenicity including the type III secretion apparatus, type III effectors, other secretion systems, quorum sensing systems, adhesins, extracellular polysaccharide, and lipopolysaccharide determinants. Several novel type III effectors from Xg strain 101 and Xv strain 1111 genomes were computationally identified and their translocation was validated using a reporter gene assay. A homolog to Ax21, the elicitor of XA21-mediated resistance in rice, and a functional Ax21 sulfation system were identified in Xcv. Genes encoding proteins with functions mediated by type II and type IV secretion systems have also been compared, including enzymes involved in cell wall deconstruction, as contributors to pathogenicity. Conclusions Comparative genomic analyses revealed considerable diversity among bacterial spot pathogens, providing new insights into differences and similarities that may explain the diverse nature of these strains. Genes specific to pepper pathogens, such as the O-antigen of the lipopolysaccharide cluster

  13. Comparative genomics reveals diversity among xanthomonads infecting tomato and pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koebnik Ralf

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial spot of tomato and pepper is caused by four Xanthomonas species and is a major plant disease in warm humid climates. The four species are distinct from each other based on physiological and molecular characteristics. The genome sequence of strain 85-10, a member of one of the species, Xanthomonas euvesicatoria (Xcv has been previously reported. To determine the relationship of the four species at the genome level and to investigate the molecular basis of their virulence and differing host ranges, draft genomic sequences of members of the other three species were determined and compared to strain 85-10. Results We sequenced the genomes of X. vesicatoria (Xv strain 1111 (ATCC 35937, X. perforans (Xp strain 91-118 and X. gardneri (Xg strain 101 (ATCC 19865. The genomes were compared with each other and with the previously sequenced Xcv strain 85-10. In addition, the molecular features were predicted that may be required for pathogenicity including the type III secretion apparatus, type III effectors, other secretion systems, quorum sensing systems, adhesins, extracellular polysaccharide, and lipopolysaccharide determinants. Several novel type III effectors from Xg strain 101 and Xv strain 1111 genomes were computationally identified and their translocation was validated using a reporter gene assay. A homolog to Ax21, the elicitor of XA21-mediated resistance in rice, and a functional Ax21 sulfation system were identified in Xcv. Genes encoding proteins with functions mediated by type II and type IV secretion systems have also been compared, including enzymes involved in cell wall deconstruction, as contributors to pathogenicity. Conclusions Comparative genomic analyses revealed considerable diversity among bacterial spot pathogens, providing new insights into differences and similarities that may explain the diverse nature of these strains. Genes specific to pepper pathogens, such as the O-antigen of the

  14. Deficiency symptoms of nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium and sulphur in pepper (Capsicum spp) cv malagueta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pepper (Capsium spp) was cultivated in sand and nutritive solution to describe the deficiency symptoms of N, P, Ca and S. The deficiency symptoms and the first lack signals were clear to P and N nutrient. (author)

  15. Capsaicinoids in the hottest pepper Bhut Jolokia and its antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunbao; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2010-01-01

    Hot peppers are known for medicinally important capsaicinoids. Bhut Jolokia, Capsicum chinense/Capsicum frutescens, is the hottest pepper in the world. However, its bioactivity and quantity of heat principles are not reported. We have now quantified capsaicin (C) and dihydrocapsaicin (DHC) in Bhut Jolokia and compared it with commonly consumed hot peppers, Jalapeno (Capsicum annuum) and Scotch Bonnet (Capsicum chinense). The concentration of C and DHC in Bhut Jolokia was 5.36%, which is about 338 and 18 times greater than in Scotch Bonnet and Jalapeno, respectively. We have also isolated capsaicin (C) and dihydrocapsaicin (DHC) in pure form and determined lipid peroxidation (LPO) and cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and -2) enzymes inhibitory concentrations. This is the first report of the quantification of C and DHC in Bhut Jolokia, comparison of capsaicinoids content in Bhut Jolokia with Jalapeno and Scotch Bonnet hot peppers and the COX and LPO inhibitory activities of C and DHC. PMID:20184029

  16. Effect of sweet pepper cultivation on the content of phytotoxic phenolic compounds in substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Politycka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the conducted study was to determine to what extent the cultivation of sweet pepper lowers the phytotoxicity of a substrate. The examined material was a highly phytotoxic substrate due to repeated cucumber growing on it. This substrate was a mixture of pine and beech bark, low peat and sawdust. Five sweet pepper cultivars: Amador, Bell Boy, Culinar, Poznańska Słodka and WSE 2/82 were planted. During vegetation of the sweet pepper phytotoxicity and phenolics levels were determined in the substrate. It was found that cultivation of sweet pepper had a significant effect on lowering phytotoxicity and phenolics content in the substrate. Among the five tested cultivars, the highest detoxicating ability was exhibited by Amador, Culinar and WSE 2/82 while the Poznańska Słodka did not show such abilities.

  17. Black market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One way for states and subnational groups to acquire material, knowledge and equipment necessary to build a nuclear weapon or device are illegal transactions. These were singular in the past and did not cause the development of a nuclear black market. But all necessary components of a functioning black market exist. Therefore the further spread and extension of the use of nuclear power would enhance the threat of a nuclear black market, if the trade and use of specific nuclear material is not abandoned worldwide. (orig.)

  18. Growth enhancement of black pepper (Piper nigrum) by a newly isolated Bacillus tequilensis NII-0943

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dastager, S.G.; Deepa, C.K.; Pandey, A.

    like to thank CSIR for providing the financial support. References Ahmad F., Ahmad I. & Khan M.S. 2008. Screening of free-living rhizospheric bacteria for their multiple plant growth-promoting activities. Microbiol. Res. 163:173–181. Altschul S...: Azospirillum, Azotobacter, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Serratia and Streptomyces (Baudoin et al. 2009, Biari et al. 2008, Ahmad et al.2008). In the present study we reporting on a potential isolate of bacillus sp isolated from Western ghat dense forest...

  19. Piperine, an active ingredient of black pepper attenuates acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Evan Prince Sabina; Annie Deborah Harris Souriyan; Deborah Jackline; Mahaboob Khan Rasool

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of piperine against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Methods: In mice, hepatotoxicity was induced by a single dose of acetaminophen (900 mg/kg b.w. i.p.). Piperine (25 mg/kg b.w. i.p.) and standard drug silymarin (25 mg/kg b.w. i.p.) were given to mice, 30 min after the single injection of acetaminophen. After 4 h, the mice were decapitated. Activities of liver marker enzymes [(aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)] and inflammatory mediator tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were estimated in serum, while lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-s-transferase and glutathione) were determined in liver homogenate of control and experimental mice. Results: Acetaminophen induction (900 mg/kg b.w. i.p.) significantly increased the levels of liver marker enzymes, TNF-α, and lipid peroxidation, and caused the depletion of antioxidant status. Piperine and silymarin treatment to acetaminophen challenged mice resulted in decreased liver marker enzymes activity, TNF-α and lipid peroxidation levels with increase in antioxidant status. Conclusions: The results clearly demonstrate that piperine shows promising hepatoprotective effect as comparable to standard drug silymarin.

  20. Rhizogenic behavior of black pepper cultivars to indole-3-butyric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welington Secundino

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Little information is available regarding vegetative propagation of the species Piper nigrum L. to generate technical recommendations for the production of seedlings on a commercial scale. The purpose of this study was to investigate the rhizogenic behavior of cultivars of this species regarding indol-3-butyric acid (IBA. The experiment was performed at a vegetation house equipped with an intermittent nebulization irrigation system. The experimental site was located in the University Center of Northern Espírito Santo (CEUNES of the Federal University of Espírito Santo (UFES, Brazil. The experimental design consisted of randomized blocks arranged in a 3 x 5 factorial scheme: three cultivars (Bragantina, Iaçará and Guajarina x five IBA concentrations (0; 1,500; 3,000; 4,500 and 6,000 mg kg-1, with four repetitions of 16 cuttings each. Total immersion of the cuttings in IBA is recommended for the Iaçará and Guajarina cultivars, and immersion of only the basal region is recommended for cv. Bragantina. The recommended IBA concentration for these cultivars is 4,000 mg kg-1.

  1. Biological role of Piper nigrum L. (Black pepper):A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nisar Ahmad; Hina Fazal; Bilal Haider Abbasi; Shahid Farooq; Mohammad Ali; Mubarak Ali Khan

    2012-01-01

    Piper nigrum L. is considered the king of spices throughout the world due to its pungent principle piperine. Peppercorn of Piper nigrum as a whole or its active components are used in most of the food items. Different parts of Piper nigrum including secondary metabolites are also used as drug, preservative, insecticidal and larvicidal control agents. Biologically Piper nigrum is very important specie. The biological role of this specie is explained in different experiments that peppercorn and secondary metabolites of Piper nigrum can be used as Antiapoptotic, Antibacterial, Anti-Colon toxin, Antidepressant, Antifungal, Antidiarrhoeal, Anti-inflammatory, Antimutagenic, Anti-metastatic activity, Antioxidative, Antiriyretic, Antispasmodic, Antispermatogenic, Antitumor, Antithyroid, Ciprofloxacin potentiator, Cold extremities, Gastric ailments, Hepatoprotective, Insecticidal activity, Intermittent fever and Larvisidal activity. Other roles of this specie includes protection against diabetes induced oxidative stress; Piperine protect oxidation of various chemicals, decreased mitochondrial lipid peroxidation, inhibition of aryl hydroxylation, increased bioavailability of vaccine and sparteine, increase the bioavailability of active compounds, delayed elimination of antiepileptic drug, increased orocecal transit time, piperine influenced and activate the biomembrane to absorb variety of active agents, increased serum concentration, reducing mutational events, tumour inhibitory activity, Piperine inhibite mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, growth stimulatory activity and chemopreventive effect. This review based on the biological role of Piper nigrum can provide that the peppercorn or other parts can be used as crude drug for various diseases while the secondary metabolites such as piperine can be used for specific diseases.

  2. Pepper spray injury severity: ten-year case experience of a poison control system.

    OpenAIRE

    Kearney, T; Hiatt, P.; Birdsall, E; Smollin, C

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pepper spray is a common lacrimator used by law enforcement and the public to subdue individuals and for self-defense. The risk factors for severe injury due to pepper spray exposure are not well documented and there is a lack of guidelines to identify patients that require transport and medical evaluation in an emergency department. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of and circumstances associated with symptoms suggestive of tissue injury beyond tra...

  3. Spain-Phase-out of Methyl Bromide in pepper production in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Bello Pérez, Antonio; Piedra Buena, A.; Díez-Rojo, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    Non-chemical alternatives to MB for soil disinfection in pepper crops have been evaluated and are being increasingly adopted in Spain. They show that integrating practices like biofumigation with fresh pepper crop residues, chicken manure and sheep manure, biosolarisation, and grafting on resistant rootstocks, can be as effective as MB for controlling plant parasitic nematodes and fungi. MB consumption in Spain has been reduced by 96% since 1997.9

  4. Effectiveness of androgenesis induced in anther culture of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Koleva Gudeva, Liljana; Trajkova, Fidanka; Spasenoski, Mirko

    2007-01-01

    The frequency of obtained androgenic plants de pends highly on the genotype; there fore the low rate of haploid recovery limits the utility of anther culture in pepper breeding. In the present study the effectiveness of induced androgenesis in in vivo anther culture of 19 pep per genotypes was investigated and established. The aim of this study was establishment of effective in vitro technology for study of haploid and diploid plant regenerants; induction of embryogenesis in pepper anth...

  5. Overexpression of a Defensin Enhances Resistance to a Fruit-Specific Anthracnose Fungus in Pepper

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Hyo-Hyoun; Park, Sangkyu; Park, Soomin; Oh, Byung-Jun; Back, Kyoungwhan; Han, Oksoo; Kim, Jeong-Il; Kim, Young Soon

    2014-01-01

    Functional characterization of a defensin, J1-1, was conducted to evaluate its biotechnological potentiality in transgenic pepper plants against the causal agent of anthracnose disease, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. To determine antifungal activity, J1-1 recombinant protein was generated and tested for the activity against C. gloeosporioides, resulting in 50% inhibition of fungal growth at a protein concentration of 0.1 mg·mL−1. To develop transgenic pepper plants resistant to anthracnose d...

  6. The Use of Antioxidants to Control Root Rot and Wilt Diseases of Pepper

    OpenAIRE

    Montaser Fawzy ABDEL-MONAIM; Mamdoh Ewis ISMAIL

    2010-01-01

    Ten isolates of Fusarium spp were isolated from pepper plants collected from different locations in New Valley Governorate, Egypt. Fusarium solani isolate FP2 and F. oxysporum isolate FP4 were highly pathogenic isolates but the other isolates moderate or less pathogenic to pepper plants (cv. Anaheim-M). The four antioxidant compounds (coumaric acid, citric acid, propylgalate and salicylic acid each at 100 and 200 ppm) were evaluated for their in vitro and in vivo agonist to Fusarium pathogeni...

  7. Phytophthora capsici Epidemic Dispersion on Commercial Pepper Fields in Aguascalientes, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Adrián Zapata-Vázquez; Mario Sánchez-Sánchez; Alicia del-Río-Robledo; Héctor Silos-Espino; Catarino Perales-Segovia; Silvia Flores-Benítez; Mario Martín González-Chavira; Luis Lorenzo Valera-Montero

    2012-01-01

    Chili pepper blight observed on pepper farms from north Aguascalientes was monitored for the presence of Phytophthora capsici during 2008–2010. Initially, ELISA tests were directed to plant samples from greenhouses and rustic nurseries, showing an 86% of positive samples. Later, samples of wilted plants from the farms during the first survey were tested with ELISA. The subsequent survey on soil samples included mycelia isolation and PCR amplification of a 560 bp fragment of ITS-specific DNA s...

  8. Capsaicin and Dihydrocapsaicin Determination in Chili Pepper Genotypes Using Ultra-Fast Liquid Chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Usman, Magaji G.; Mohd Y. Rafii; Ismail, Mohd R.; Md Abdul Malek; Mohammad Abdul Latif

    2014-01-01

    Research was carried out to estimate the levels of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin that may be found in some heat tolerant chili pepper genotypes and to determine the degree of pungency as well as percentage capsaicin content of each of the analyzed peppers. A sensitive, precise, and specific ultra fast liquid chromatographic (UFLC) system was used for the separation, identification and quantitation of the capsaicinoids and the extraction solvent was acetonitrile. The method validation paramet...

  9. Heritability and Genetic Advance among Chili Pepper Genotypes for Heat Tolerance and Morphophysiological Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    High temperature tolerance is an important component of adaptation to arid and semiarid cropping environment in chili pepper. Two experiments were carried out to study the genetic variability among chili pepper for heat tolerance and morphophysiological traits and to estimate heritability and genetic advance expected from selection. There was a highly significant variation among the genotypes in response to high temperature (CMT), photosynthesis rate, plant height, disease incidence, fruit le...

  10. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Chili Peppers (Capsicum spp.)

    OpenAIRE

    María del Rocío Gómez-García; Neftalí Ochoa-Alejo

    2013-01-01

    Capsicum species produce fruits that synthesize and accumulate carotenoid pigments, which are responsible for the fruits’ yellow, orange and red colors. Chili peppers have been used as an experimental model for studying the biochemical and molecular aspects of carotenoid biosynthesis. Most reports refer to the characterization of carotenoids and content determination in chili pepper fruits from different species, cultivars, varieties or genotypes. The types and levels of carotenoids differ be...

  11. Pepper Rootstock Graft Compatibility and Response to Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita

    OpenAIRE

    OKA, Yuji; Offenbach, Rivka; Pivonia, Shimon

    2004-01-01

    Resistance of pepper species (Capsicum annuum, C. baccatum, C. chinense, C. chacoense, and C. frutescens), cultivars and accessions to the root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne incognita race 2 and M. javanica, and their graft compatibility with commercial pepper varieties as rootstocks were evaluated in growth chamber and greenhouse experiments. Most of the plants tested were highly resistant to M. javanica but susceptible to M. incognita. Capsicum annuum AR-96023 and C. frutescens accessions as r...

  12. Morphological and molecular characterization of 11 varieties of native chilli peppers of the Peruvian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Perry Davila, Goldis

    2013-01-01

    Peruvian Amazonia is one of the most diverse ecosystem of the world. With its specific location and climatic conditions forms a habitat for more than 50% species and represents origin of many plant species with high economic, cultural and medicinal importance. Among these species are native chilli peppers (Capsicum sp.). Till today there isn’t complete information about diversity of Amazonian chilli peppers although its importance is increasing. For present research were chosen and collected ...

  13. Comparison of eco-physiological characteristics of pepper in hydroponic and aquaponic systems

    OpenAIRE

    A. R. Sajjadinia; A. Ershadi; H.R. Roosta

    2010-01-01

    Aquaponics is one of the recirculating aquaculture systems in which plant grows without soil. Considering the lack of information about aquaponic culture for main crops like pepper and the absence of comparison of plant conditions in soilless culture, in this experiment eco-physiological characteristics of pepper in hydroponics and aquaponics were investigated. After starting the plants to flowering, eco-physiological parameters were measured using potable far-red gas analyzer LCA-4, ADC. The...

  14. Nutritional status of greenhouse cucumber and bell pepper in Isfahan province

    OpenAIRE

    F. Aghili; A. H. Khoshgoftarmanesh; M. Afyuni; M. Mobli; M. Pirzadeh; A. Sanaei Ostovar

    2011-01-01

    Despite of increasing request for greenhouse vegetables, there is quite limited information on their nutritional quality. This study was carried out to investigate nutritional status of macronutrients (Ca, Mg, P and K) and micronutrients (Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn) in greenhouse cucumber and bell pepper in Isfahan province. After selecting 25 greenhouses, the concentration of macronutrients and micronutrients was measured in soil and edible parts of cucumbers and bell peppers. The results showed that...

  15. IMPROVEMENT OF SHELF LIFE QUALITY OF GREEN BELL PEPPERS USING EDIBLE COATING FORMULATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Emilio Ochoa-Reyes; Gabriela Martínez-Vazquez; Saul Saucedo-Pompa; Julio Montañez; Romeo Rojas-Molina; Miguel A. de Leon-Zapata; Raúl Rodríguez-Herrera; Cristóbal N. Aguilar

    2013-01-01

    In Latin-America, there are countries with high production levels of green bell peppers, which requires of new strategies of conservation for their international trade. Traditional techniques of preservations do not guarantee to prolong the shelf life of these kinds of fruits, for this reason, in the present study, the Influence of different edible coating formulations on shelf-life quality of green bell peppers was studied. Three different biopolymers (pectin, arabic, and xanthan gums) were ...

  16. INFLUENCE OF PHOSPHORUS AND ZINC APPLICATION ON SOIL NEMATODE COMMUNITY IN HOT PEPPER (CAPSICUM ANNUUM L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Mirjana Brmež; Ivana Varga; Teuta Benković-Lačić; Zdenko Lončarić

    2014-01-01

    This research studied nematode communities in the soil during hot pepper cultivation and under influence of Zn and P fertilizer application. The aim of this study was to determine changes in soil nematode communities during the cultivation of hot pepper under the influence of P, Zn and their combination (P+Zn) application. The study included the examination of changes in nematodes structure in soil, their total abundance, the total number of genera and analysis of trophic groups. Changes in n...

  17. Constraints and potential of Sweet Pepper cultivation in plastic houses in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Gunadi, N.; Everaarts, A.P.; Adiyoga, W.; Moekasan, T.

    2007-01-01

    At the start of a research project on the improvement of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) cultivation in plastic houses in Indonesia, an inventory of the present cultivation methods and constraints was made, together with an analysis of production costs and benefits. The inventory was carried out in the highlands around Bandung, the capital of West Java Province, Indonesia. A purposive method was used to select three large and fourteen small sweet pepper growers, for an interview about their pr...

  18. Effect of explants, hormonal combination and genotype on micropropagation of pepper

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Moheb Mohamadi; M. Talebi; B.E. Sayed-Tabatabaei; G. Khaksar

    2014-01-01

    Pepper (Capsicum annuum) is generally propagated from seeds. In Iran, imported hybrid seeds are used for this purpose. Germination of the greenhouse pepper seeds and stabilization of their seedlings takes a long time. But, tissue culture technique could rapidly propagate this plant with a homogeneous genetic structure in a large scale. An attempt was made in this study to evaluate the effects of different genotypes, explants and growth regulators on callus production and regeneration and intr...

  19. The effects of Hot Pepper Extract and Capsaicin on Adipocyte Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Ching Sheng, Chu; Ki Rok, Kwon; Tae Jin, Rhim; Dong Heui, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Objectives : The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of hot pepper extract and capsaicin on the adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells, lipolysis in rat epididymal adipocytes and histological changes in porcine adipose tissue. Methods : Inhibiton of preadipocyte differentiation and/or stimulation of lipolysis play important roles in reducing obesity. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were differentiated with adipogenic reagents by incubating for 3 days in the absence or presence of hot pepper ...

  20. Pathotypes of Bacterial Spot Pathogen Infecting Capsicum Peppers in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wai, Khin Pa Pa; Siddique, Muhammad Irfan; Mo, Hwang-Sung; Yoo, Hee Ju; Byeon, Si-Eun; Jegal, Yoonhyuk; Mekuriaw, Alebel A; Kim, Byung-Soo

    2015-12-01

    Sixty-seven isolates of bacterial spot pathogen (Xanthomonas spp.) collected from six provinces of Korea were tested for the identification of their pathotypes and determination of their distribution throughout Korea in an effort to genetically manage the disease. Near isogenic lines of Early Calwonder (Capsicum annuum) pepper plants carrying Bs1 , Bs2 and Bs3 , and PI235047 (C. pubescens) were used as differential hosts. Race P1 was found to be predominant, followed by race P7, and races P3 and P8 were also observed. This is the first report of races P7 and P8 in Korea. The races P7 and P8 were differentiated from the former races P1 and P3, respectively, on the basis of their ability to elicit hypersensitive reactions to PI235047. PMID:26674555

  1. Pathotypes of Bacterial Spot Pathogen Infecting Capsicum Peppers in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khin Pa Pa Wai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sixty-seven isolates of bacterial spot pathogen (Xanthomonas spp. collected from six provinces of Korea were tested for the identification of their pathotypes and determination of their distribution throughout Korea in an effort to genetically manage the disease. Near isogenic lines of Early Calwonder (Capsicum annuum pepper plants carrying Bs₁, Bs₂ and Bs₃, and PI235047 (C. pubescens were used as differential hosts. Race P1 was found to be predominant, followed by race P7, and races P3 and P8 were also observed. This is the first report of races P7 and P8 in Korea. The races P7 and P8 were differentiated from the former races P1 and P3, respectively, on the basis of their ability to elicit hypersensitive reactions to PI235047.

  2. Water stress before harvest of pepper-rosmarin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Caldeira Almeida Alvarenga

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess the effect of different periods of water stress before harvest of pepper-rosmarin (Lippia sidoides on the contents of essential oil and flavonoids. The experiment was carried out during 270 days of cultivation, with drainage lysimeters, in a completely randomized block design with five treatments: 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 days of water suppression before harvest, with four replicates. Fresh and dry matter yield, essential oil content, total flavonoids content, and water potential and temperature of leaves were determined. There was a decrease of approximately 50% in oil content and of 60% in total flavonoid content with the reduction of leaf water potential in 0.3 MPa. Essential oil is more sensitive to water stress than total flavonoids.

  3. Dissipation and residue of metalaxyl and cymoxanil in pepper and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangyun; Yang, Yan; Cui, Ying; Zhu, Huijun; Li, Xiong; Li, Zhining; Zhang, Kankan; Hu, Deyu

    2014-08-01

    A simple and accurate method of determining metalaxyl and cymoxanil in pepper and soil was developed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection. The limits of detection were 0.015 mg/kg for metalaxyl and 0.003 mg/kg for cymoxanil. The limits of quantification were 0.05 mg/kg for metalaxyl in pepper and soil as well as 0.01 mg/kg for cymoxanil in pepper and soil. Recoveries of pepper and soil were investigated at three spiking levels and ranged within 77.52 to 102.05 % for metalaxyl and 87.15 to 103.21 % for cymoxanil, with relative standard deviations below 9.30 %. For field experiments, the half-lives of metalaxyl were 3.2 to 3.9 days in pepper and 4.4 to 9.5 days in soil at the three experimental locations in China. At harvest, pepper samples were found to contain metalaxyl and cymoxanil well below the maximum residue limit MRLs of the European Union (EU) following the recommended dosage and the interval of 21 days after last application. PMID:24791955

  4. Factors Affecting Pheromone Production by the Pepper Weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae and Collection Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred J. Eller

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Several factors affecting pheromone production by male pepper weevils, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae as well as collection efficiency were investigated. Factors studied included: porous polymer adsorbents (Tenax versus Super Q, male age, time of day, male density, and male diet. Super Q was found to be a superior adsorbent for the male-produced alcohols and geranic acid as well as the plant-produced E-β-ocimene. Pheromone production increased with male age up to about age 15 days old and then tapered off. Male pepper weevils produced the highest amount of pheromone between noon and 2 pm (i.e., 4 to 6 h after “lights on” and were producing ca. 800 ng/h during this period. Thereafter, pheromone production decreased and was extremely low during the scotophase (i.e., ca. 12 ng/h. Male pepper weevil density had a significant effect on both release rate and pheromone composition. Pheromone production on a per male basis was highest for individual males and the percentage of geranic acid in the blend was lowest for individual males. Male pepper weevils produced only extremely low amounts of pheromone when feeding on artificial diet; however, they produced very high amounts when on fresh peppers. Together, this information will be useful in designing better attractant lures for pepper weevils.

  5. The effect of irradiation in the preservation of pink pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Adriana Régia Marques; Arthur, Valter; Nogueira, Danielle Pires

    2012-08-01

    Pink peppers, also known as "pimenta-rosa" and "poivre rose", are the fruit of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, a species of pepper cultivated in Brazil, and have great potential for the exploration of uses. In efforts to lengthen the shelf life of this pepper, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different doses of radiation on its physical composition and color. The pink pepper samples were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 kGy, and the moisture, ash and lipid contents, pH and color were analyzed. The moisture content, lipid content and pH analysis indicated effects due to the irradiation (p>0.05) in which the higher doses resulted in decreases in the attribute. In contrast, there were no significant differences for the ash analysis (p<0.05) among the studied doses. The color of the pink peppers were affected by the irradiation: the parameters a* and b* were the most affected by the intermediate doses (0.2 and 0.8 kGy), which induced their elevation, enhancing the reddish and yellowish colors. Based on the presented data, irradiation is as an alternative preservation process for pink peppers.

  6. Biochemistry and molecular biology of carotenoid biosynthesis in chili peppers (Capsicum spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-García, María del Rocío; Ochoa-Alejo, Neftalí

    2013-01-01

    Capsicum species produce fruits that synthesize and accumulate carotenoid pigments, which are responsible for the fruits' yellow, orange and red colors. Chili peppers have been used as an experimental model for studying the biochemical and molecular aspects of carotenoid biosynthesis. Most reports refer to the characterization of carotenoids and content determination in chili pepper fruits from different species, cultivars, varieties or genotypes. The types and levels of carotenoids differ between different chili pepper fruits, and they are also influenced by environmental conditions. Yellow-orange colors of chili pepper fruits are mainly due to the accumulation of α- and β-carotene, zeaxanthin, lutein and β-cryptoxanthin. Carotenoids such as capsanthin, capsorubin and capsanthin-5,6-epoxide confer the red colors. Chromoplasts are the sites of carotenoid pigment synthesis and storage. According to the most accepted theory, the synthesis of carotenoids in chili peppers is controlled by three loci: c1, c2 and y. Several enzymes participating in carotenoid biosynthesis in chili pepper fruits have been isolated and characterized, and the corresponding gene sequences have been reported. However, there is currently limited information on the molecular mechanisms that regulate this biosynthetic pathway. Approaches to gain more knowledge of the regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis are discussed. PMID:24065101

  7. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Chili Peppers (Capsicum spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Rocío Gómez-García

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Capsicum species produce fruits that synthesize and accumulate carotenoid pigments, which are responsible for the fruits’ yellow, orange and red colors. Chili peppers have been used as an experimental model for studying the biochemical and molecular aspects of carotenoid biosynthesis. Most reports refer to the characterization of carotenoids and content determination in chili pepper fruits from different species, cultivars, varieties or genotypes. The types and levels of carotenoids differ between different chili pepper fruits, and they are also influenced by environmental conditions. Yellow-orange colors of chili pepper fruits are mainly due to the accumulation of α- and β-carotene, zeaxanthin, lutein and β-cryptoxanthin. Carotenoids such as capsanthin, capsorubin and capsanthin-5,6-epoxide confer the red colors. Chromoplasts are the sites of carotenoid pigment synthesis and storage. According to the most accepted theory, the synthesis of carotenoids in chili peppers is controlled by three loci: c1, c2 and y. Several enzymes participating in carotenoid biosynthesis in chili pepper fruits have been isolated and characterized, and the corresponding gene sequences have been reported. However, there is currently limited information on the molecular mechanisms that regulate this biosynthetic pathway. Approaches to gain more knowledge of the regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis are discussed.

  8. Napropamide residues in runoff and infiltration water from pepper production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonious, George F; Patterson, Matthew A

    2005-01-01

    A field study was conducted on a Lowell silty loam soil of 2.7% organic matter at the Kentucky State University Research Farm, Franklin County, Kentucky. Eighteen universal soil loss equation (USLE) standard plots (22 x 3.7 m each) were established on a 10% slope. Three soil management practices were used: (i) class-A biosolids (sewage sludge), (ii) yard waste compost, each mixed with native soil at a rate of 50 ton acre(-1) on a dry-weight basis, and (iii) a no-mulch (NM) treatment (rototilled bare soil), used for comparison purposes. Devrinol 50-DF "napropamide" [N,N-diethyl-2-(1-naphthyloxy) propionamide] was applied as a preemergent herbicide, incorporated into the soil surface, and the plots were planted with 60-day-old sweet bell pepper seedlings. Napropamide residues one hour following spraying averaged 0.8, 0.4, and 0.3 microg g(-1) dry soil in sewage sludge, yard waste compost, and no-mulch treatments, respectively. Surface runoff water, runoff sediment, and napropamide residues in runoff were significantly reduced by the compost and biosolid treatments. Yard waste compost treatments increased water infiltration and napropamide residues in the vadose zone compared to sewage sludge and NM treatments. Total pepper yields from yard waste compost amended soils (9187 lbs acre(-1)) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than yield from either the soil amended with class-A biosolids (6984 lbs acre(-1)) or the no-mulch soil (7162 lbs acre(-1)). PMID:15913012

  9. Black tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... product containing black tea extract plus green tea extract, asparagus, guarana, kidney bean, and mate along with a combination of kidney bean pods, garcinia, and chromium yeast for 12 weeks does not reduce body weight ...

  10. Effect of diets supplemented with Ethiopian pepper [Xylopia aethiopica (Dun.) A. Rich (Annonaceae)] and Ashanti pepper [Piper guineense Schumach. et Thonn (Piperaceae)] on some biochemical parameters in normal rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adefegha SA; Oboh G

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate and compare the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant capacity of Ethiopian pepper [Xylopia aethiopica (Dun.) A. Rich (Annonaceae)] and seeds of Ashanti pepper [Piper guineense Schumach. et Thonn (Piperaceae)]. Methods: Both spices were each extracted with methanol and 1M HCl (1:1, w/v) mixture to give the phenolic-rich extracts, which were used for the in vitro analyses [total phenol, total flavonoid and antioxidant properties (reducing properties, 1,1 diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2-azinobis-3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonate (ABTS*) radical scavenging abilities]. Thereafter, thirty male albino rats were divided into five groups of six. Group I represented control group; Group II & III were fed diet containing 2%Ethiopian pepper & 4% XA while Group IV & V ate diet supplemented with 2% and 4% Ashanti pepper. Results: The results suggest that diet supplemented with 2% and 4% Ethiopian pepper and Ashanti pepper could enhance some in vivo antioxidant status, maintain membrane integrity and protect the liver against oxidative stress. Conclusions: This could be attributed to the phenolic contents and the in vitro antioxidant properties of the Ethiopian pepper and Ashanti pepper. However, dietary supplementation with 4% Ethiopian pepper showed the most promising protective potentials.

  11. Application of Silver Nanoparticles for the Control of Colletotrichum Species In Vitro and Pepper Anthracnose Disease in Field

    OpenAIRE

    Lamsal, Kabir; Kim, Sang Woo; Jung, Jin Hee; Kim, Yun Seok; Kim, Kyong Su; Lee, Youn Su

    2011-01-01

    Pepper anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum species is one of the most important limiting factors for pepper production in Korea, its management being strongly dependent on chemicals. The aim of this work was to evaluate the possibilities of using silver nanoparticles instead of commercial fungicides. In this study, we evaluated the effect of silver nanoparticles against pepper anthracnose under different culture conditions. Silver nanoparticles (WA-PR-WB13R) were applied at various concentra...

  12. "Obtaining haploids in anther culture of pepper (C. annuum L.) and their inclusion in the breeding process"

    OpenAIRE

    Koleva Gudeva, Liljana

    2006-01-01

    The aim of research in this project was directed towards examining the regenerative potential of several different genotypes of pepper Capsicum annuum L., especially the ability for androgenesis and creation of haploid and diploid pepper fund. The subject of research was to expand knowledge about androgenesis in pepper and to examine the morphogenesis and the role of plant growth regulators (especially auxins and cytokinins) on the development of regenerants under in vitro conditions.

  13. The Efffect of Intercropping With Different Vegetables ©n Yield and Quality ttf Pepper (Capsicum anmmm L.)

    OpenAIRE

    KAYMAK, H.Çağlar; ECE, Ali

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the ^effects of intercr-qppmg with jfflferent vegetables on yield and quality of pepper {Capsicum cmnuum L.) in Tokat £colc®ieal -conditions. This study was earned out in Tokat 1999.11 different vegetable species were used in (his study. Pepper was used mam-species; squash, celery root, cucumber, iceberg, onion, parsley, .catfoage, hroad-bean. bean and pea were used for helper species. The highest yield ®f -pepper was obtained irom pepper+bean {0,506 t/da...

  14. Aflatoxin Contamination of Red Chili Pepper From Bolivia and Peru, Countries with High Gallbladder Cancer Incidence Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Takao Asai; Yasuo Tsuchiya; Kiyoshi Okano; Alejandro Piscoya; Carlos Yoshito Nishi; Toshikazu Ikoma; Tomizo Oyama; Kikuo Ikegami; Masaharu Yamamoto

    2015-01-01

    Chilean red chili peppers contaminated with aflatoxins were reported in a previous study. If the development of gallbladder cancer (GBC) in Chile is associated with a high level of consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated red chili peppers, such peppers from other countries having a high GBC incidence rate may also be contaminated with aflatoxins. We aimed to determine whether this might be the case for red chili peppers from Bolivia and Peru. A total of 7 samples (3 from Bolivia, 4 from Peru) a...

  15. Effects of biochar amendment on relieving cadmium stress and reducing cadmium accumulation in pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dongyu; Zhao, Ye; Zhou, Huaidong; Gao, Bo

    2016-06-01

    Biochar is widely used in agricultural soils or heavy metal-polluted soils to improve the quality of the soils, which would affect the growth of the plant. However, the information of biochars' effect on the plant growth was still lacking, especially for the physiological response of the plant. Pot experiments were used to examine the effect of willow-derived biochars at two temperatures (450 and 600 °C) on cadmium (Cd) accumulation in pepper and to reveal the response of physiological parameters to exogenous Cd stress (1 and 5 mg/kg). The results showed that the accumulation of Cd in pepper roots was higher than that in pepper shoots. For low level of Cd treatments, high additional rates of the biochars could obviously reduce the accumulation of Cd in the pepper roots. Moreover, there was a negative correlation between the C content of the biochar-amended soils and the Cd content of the pepper root, suggesting that the application of biochar to the soil decreased the Cd accumulation in the root. A positive relationship between the H/C ratios of biochar-amended soils and their corresponding Cd concentrations in pepper root indicated that low thermal temperature-derived biochar could play an important role in immobilizing Cd in the soil. Furthermore, on the condition of low Cd level of treatments, the malondialdehyde content decreased in biochar-amended soils, especially at high biochar application rate. The chlorophyll content increased with increasing the rates of the biochar application. The physiological parameters indirectly proved that the application of biochar did not always alleviate the toxic effects of Cd on pepper leaves at high Cd concentration. PMID:26976015

  16. A taste of sweet pepper: Volatile and non-volatile chemical composition of fresh sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) in relation to sensory evaluation of taste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggink, P.M.; Maliepaard, C.A.; Tikunov, Y.M.; Haanstra, J.P.W.; Bovy, A.G.; Visser, R.G.F.

    2012-01-01

    In this study volatile and non-volatile compounds, as well as some breeding parameters, were measured in mature fruits of elite sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) lines and hybrids from a commercial breeding program, several cultivated genotypes and one gene bank accession. In addition, all genotypes we

  17. Biological and Chemical Control of Fruit Rot in Greenhouse Sweet Peppers (Capsicum annum L.) Caused by Fusarium subglutinans

    OpenAIRE

    R.S. Utkhede; Mathur, S.

    2005-01-01

    Experiments were conducted for two years to evaluate biologicals and chemicals for control of internal fruit rot of peppers caused by Fusarium subglutinans under greenhouse conditions. Fusarium subglutinans inoculum was pipetted on flowers of sweet peppers cv. Sympathy one day after applications of chemical and biological treatments. Pepper fruits were assessed for disease incidence and fruit weight sixty days after inoculation of flowers. Pepper fruits in PreStop�, Rovral� , BASF-516 and Qu...

  18. A study on the comparison of antioxidant effects between hot pepper extract and capsaicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon Min Gang

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The objective of this study was to compare the antioxidant effects of hot pepper extract and capsaicin. Methods : In vitro, antioxidant activities were examined by DPPH radical scavenging activity, total antioxidant capacity(TAC, oxygen radical scavenging capacity(ORAC, inhibition of induced lipid peroxidation using liver mitochonria and total phenolic contents. Results : 1. DPPH free radical scavenging actiivities at the concentrations of both 1 and 10㎎/㎖ were 1.2 to 1.9 times higher in capsaicin than in hot pepper extract. The concentration of capsaicin required for 50% radical scavenging was lower than that of hot pepper extract(3.9 vs 5.9㎎/㎖, indicating that capsaicin had higher DPPH radical scavenging activity than hot pepper extract. 2. Total antioxidant capacities of capsaicin at the concentrations of 0.1 and 1mg/ml(13.8 and 41.3 nmol Trolox equivalent were not significantly different from those at the concentrations of 1 and 10㎎/㎖(11.4 and 41.2nmol Trolox equivalent, indicating that capsaicin showed 10 times higher ABTS radical scavenging activity compared to hot pepper extract. 3. ORAC of capsaicin at the concentrations of 1, 5, 10 and 100 mg/ml were 0.04, 0.17, 0.29 and 1.74nmol gallic acid equivalent, respectively. On the other hand, ORAC of hot pepper extract at the concentrations of 1, 5, 10 and 100㎍/㎖ were 0.15, 0.44, 0.75 and 2.49nmol gallic acid equivalent, respectively, indicating that capsaicin showed higher peroxyl radical scavenging activity than hot pepper extract. 4. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation caused by hot pepper extract at the concentrations of 1 and 10mg/㎖ were 12.2 and 61.4%, respectively. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation caused by capsaicin at the concentrations of 1 and 10㎎/㎖l were 64.0 and 96.8%, respectively. Thus capsaicin showed 10 times stronger effect in inhibiton of lipid peroxidation than hot pepper extract. 5. Total phenolic contents of hot pepper extract at the

  19. Efficient sweet pepper transformation mediated by the BABY BOOM transcription factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidmann, Iris; de Lange, Brenda; Lambalk, Joep; Angenent, Gerco C; Boutilier, Kim

    2011-06-01

    Pepper (Capsicum L.) is a nutritionally and economically important crop that is cultivated throughout the world as a vegetable, condiment, and food additive. Genetic transformation using Agrobacterium tumefaciens (agrobacterium) is a powerful biotechnology tool that could be used in pepper to develop community-based functional genomics resources and to introduce important agronomic traits. However, pepper is considered to be highly recalcitrant for agrobacterium-mediated transformation, and current transformation protocols are either inefficient, cumbersome or highly genotype dependent. The main bottleneck in pepper transformation is the inability to generate cells that are competent for both regeneration and transformation. Here, we report that ectopic expression of the Brassica napus BABY BOOM AP2/ERF transcription factor overcomes this bottleneck and can be used to efficiently regenerate transgenic plants from otherwise recalcitrant sweet pepper (C. annuum) varieties. Transient activation of BABY BOOM in the progeny plants induced prolific cell regeneration and was used to produce a large number of somatic embryos that could be converted readily to seedlings. The data highlight the utility of combining biotechnology and classical plant tissue culture approaches to develop an efficient transformation and regeneration system for a highly recalcitrant vegetable crop. PMID:21305301

  20. Biocontrol of Phytophthora Blight and Anthracnose in Pepper by Sequentially Selected Antagonistic Rhizobacteria against Phytophthora capsici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Mee Kyung; Shrestha, Anupama; Kim, Du-Yeon; Park, Kyungseok; Pak, Chun Ho; Kim, Ki Deok

    2013-06-01

    We previously developed a sequential screening procedure to select antagonistic bacterial strains against Phytophthora capsici in pepper plants. In this study, we used a modified screening procedure to select effective biocontrol strains against P. capsici; we evaluated the effect of selected strains on Phytophthora blight and anthracnose occurrence and fruit yield in pepper plants under field and plastic house conditions from 2007 to 2009. We selected four potential biocontrol strains (Pseudomonas otitidis YJR27, P. putida YJR92, Tsukamurella tyrosinosolvens YJR102, and Novosphingobium capsulatum YJR107) among 239 bacterial strains. In the 3-year field tests, all the selected strains significantly (P metalaxyl treatment in the 2007 and 2009 tests, but not in the 2008 test. In the 2-year plastic house tests, all the selected strains significantly (P < 0.05) reduced anthracnose incidence in at least one of the test years, but their biocontrol activities were variable. In addition, strains YJR27, YJR92, and YJR102, in certain harvests, increased pepper fruit numbers in field tests and red fruit weights in plastic house tests. Taken together, these results indicate that the screening procedure is rapid and reliable for the selection of potential biocontrol strains against P. capsici in pepper plants. In addition, these selected strains exhibited biocontrol activities against anthracnose, and some of the strains showed plant growth-promotion activities on pepper fruit. PMID:25288942

  1. Effect of explants, hormonal combination and genotype on micropropagation of pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Moheb Mohamadi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Pepper (Capsicum annuum is generally propagated from seeds. In Iran, imported hybrid seeds are used for this purpose. Germination of the greenhouse pepper seeds and stabilization of their seedlings takes a long time. But, tissue culture technique could rapidly propagate this plant with a homogeneous genetic structure in a large scale. An attempt was made in this study to evaluate the effects of different genotypes, explants and growth regulators on callus production and regeneration and introduce the appropriate protocol for micropropagation of commercial varieties of pepper in Iran. Analysis of variance indicated that effect of different genotypes, interaction of various explants and combination of hormones and interaction between genotypes, explants and hormones were significant on the evaluated traits at 1% level. Based on the results, for micropropagation of pepper with leaves and cotyledons, combination of 1 mg/l IAA and 5 mg/l BAP was selected. It seems that using leaf explants for micropropagation of pepper in large scale in greenhouses would be suitable.

  2. IMPROVEMENT OF SHELF LIFE QUALITY OF GREEN BELL PEPPERS USING EDIBLE COATING FORMULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Ochoa-Reyes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In Latin-America, there are countries with high production levels of green bell peppers, which requires of new strategies of conservation for their international trade. Traditional techniques of preservations do not guarantee to prolong the shelf life of these kinds of fruits, for this reason, in the present study, the Influence of different edible coating formulations on shelf-life quality of green bell peppers was studied. Three different biopolymers (pectin, arabic, and xanthan gums were evaluated in mixtures with candelilla wax as hydrophobic phase, jojoba oil as plasticizer and a crude extract of polyphenols as source of bioactive compounds. Green bell peppers were immersion-treated and then stored at room temperature. Response variables were: weight loss, color, appearance, pH, total soluble solids and firmness changes which were kinetically determined. All peppers treated with edible-coating showed a significant difference (Tukey, p≤0.05 in weight loss compared to control treatment (without edible coating, while a lower level of deterioration was observed in fruits treated with edible coating formulated with arabic gum, but appearance remained similar among fruits treated with different edible coatings. Use of mixtures of biopolymers, candelilla wax, jojoba oil and polyphenols to develop edible and functionalized coatings significantly extended shelf life of green bell pepper.

  3. Characterization of polyphenolic constituents and radical scavenging ability of ripe tomato and red pepper fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seun F. Akomolafe

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Characterization of polyphenolic contents and the inhibitory effects of aqueous extracts of ripe tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum and red pepper (Capsicum annuum fruits on the sodium nitroprusside (SNP and iron(II (Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver were examined in this study. Methods: Various experimental models such as the ABTS and #8226; (2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid scavenging ability and ferric reducing power were used to characterize the antioxidant activity of the extracts. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used to determine the phenolic content of the extracts. Malondialdehyde (MDA was used as a measure of oxidative stress in the rat and #8217;s liver tissue. Results: The ABTS and #8226; scavenging ability and ferric reducing power of the aqueous extract of ripe red pepper were significantly higher than that of ripe tomato. Ripe red pepper and tomato fruits extracts inhibited NO and #8226; in a concentration dependent manner. Furthermore, the introduction of extracts of ripe red pepper and tomato caused a significant concentration-dependent decrease in the MDA content of the SNP and Fe2+-stressed liver homogenates. In addition, HPLC analyses of the extracts revealed the presence of different phenolic compounds. Conclusion: With respect to the results of the current study, ripe tomato and red pepper could be considered to be potential sources of natural antioxidants. [J Exp Integr Med 2015; 5(1.000: 61-67

  4. Development Strategies of Qin Pepper Industry in Shaanxi Province in Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Yun-ke; XIN Xin

    2012-01-01

    Qin pepper,a famous local agricultural product of Shaanxi Province,has grown in Guanzhong Area for several hundred years.In recent years,Qin pepper industry has already made considerable progresses,but it also faces many challenges.To ensure a stable planting area of over 100 000 hm 2,a total output of 1.85 million tons and a ratio of 1:2:2 among freshly used peppers,dried peppers and processed peppers in 2015,on the basis of full investigation,expert argumentation as well as research and analysis,industrialization modes of " leading enterprise + agricultural department + base"," leading enterprise + agricultural company" and " leading enterprise + specialized cooperative" are presented herein,on the principle of " appropriate centralization,scale development,company operation,and plate promotion" and in accordance with the general idea of " stabilizing area,optimizing layout;relying on technology,highlighting superior quality;leading by enterprises,and improving efficiency".Some development strategies including " optimizing layout to facilitate plate promotion;increasing science and technology input to improve industrial competitiveness;supporting leading enterprises to accelerate industrialization process;promoting industrial certification to make well-known brands" are also put forward herein.

  5. Exposure to ozone reduces postharvest quality loss in red and green chilli peppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacz, Marcin; Rees, Deborah

    2016-11-01

    The effect of continuous exposure to ozone at 0.45, 0.9 and 2μmolmol(-1) on quality changes during the storage of red and green chilli peppers at 10°C was investigated. Ozone at 0.45 and 0.9μmolmol(-1) reduced disease incidence in red peppers, with no further benefits at 2μmolmol(-1). Ozone at 0.9μmolmol(-1) reduced weight loss during storage and improved firmness maintenance. Skin colour was bleached in red peppers exposed to ozone at 2μmolmol(-1), and in green ones at all tested doses. Total phenolic content was not affected by ozone but antioxidant activity was reduced in green chilli peppers exposed to ozone at 2μmolmol(-1), due to lower ascorbic acid content in those samples. Ozone at 0.9μmolmol(-1) extended the shelf-life of chilli peppers. PMID:27211651

  6. Complete genome sequence of a novel endornavirus isolated from hot pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seungmo; Kim, Kil Hyun; Zhao, Fumei; Yoo, Ran Hee; Igori, Davaajargal; Lee, Su-Heon; Moon, Jae Sun

    2015-12-01

    The complete genome of a putative new endornavirus infecting hot peppers (Capsicum annuum) was determined to be 14,729 nt in size, including 12 cytosines at the 3' end. The hot pepper-infecting virus has the highest nucleotide sequence similarity (94% query cover and 72% identity) to bell pepper endornavirus (BPEV) isolated from the cultivar Yolo Wonder in the USA (GenBank accession no. JN019858). The putative single, large open reading frame encodes a 4,884-amino-acid-long polyprotein that contains four putative functional domains: a viral methyltransferase, a viral RNA helicase, a glycosyltransferase, and an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. A phylogenetic tree based on whole polyprotein sequences confirmed the close evolutionary relationship of the studied endornavirus to BPEV. The hot pepper-infecting virus also has a nick at nt position 975. Taken together, these results suggest that this virus belongs to a new species in the genus Endornavirus (family Endornaviridae), for which the name hot pepper endornavirus (HPEV) is proposed. PMID:26424198

  7. Pepper (Capsicum annuum) Is a Dead-End Host for Tomato yellow leaf curl virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morilla, G; Janssen, D; García-Andrés, S; Moriones, E; Cuadrado, I M; Bejarano, E R

    2005-09-01

    ABSTRACT Tomato yellow leaf curl (TYLC) is one of the most devastating pathogens affecting tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) worldwide. The disease is caused by a complex of begomovirus species, two of which, Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) and Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), are responsible for epidemics in Southern Spain. TYLCV also has been reported to cause severe damage to common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) crops. Pepper (Capsicum annuum) plants collected from commercial crops were found to be infected by isolates of two TYLCV strains: TYLCV-Mld[ES01/99], an isolate of the mild strain similar to other TYLCVs isolated from tomato crops in Spain, and TYLCV-[Alm], an isolate of the more virulent TYLCV type strain, not previously reported in the Iberian Peninsula. In this work, pepper, Nicotiana benthamiana, common bean, and tomato were tested for susceptibility to TYLCV-Mld[ES01/99]and TYLCV-[Alm] by Agrobacterium tumefaciens infiltration, biolistic bombardment, or Bemisia tabaci inoculation. Results indicate that both strains are able to infect plants of these species, including pepper. This is the first time that infection of pepper plants with TYLCV clones has been shown. Implications of pepper infection for the epidemiology of TYLCV are discussed. PMID:18943307

  8. The effect of irradiation in the preservation of pink pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pink peppers, also known as “pimenta-rosa” and “poivre rose”, are the fruit of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, a species of pepper cultivated in Brazil, and have great potential for the exploration of uses. In efforts to lengthen the shelf life of this pepper, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different doses of radiation on its physical composition and color. The pink pepper samples were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 kGy, and the moisture, ash and lipid contents, pH and color were analyzed. The moisture content, lipid content and pH analysis indicated effects due to the irradiation (p>0.05) in which the higher doses resulted in decreases in the attribute. In contrast, there were no significant differences for the ash analysis (p⁎ and b⁎ were the most affected by the intermediate doses (0.2 and 0.8 kGy), which induced their elevation, enhancing the reddish and yellowish colors. Based on the presented data, irradiation is as an alternative preservation process for pink peppers.

  9. Investigating the Traits of Green Pepper in the Three Substrates in Hydroponic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razieh Ebrahimi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the properties of pepper fruit at different substrates as a factorial experiment in completely randomized design with four replications. The experiment was carried out in the Islamic Azad University, Jiroft branch, Iran, in 2011. Treatments included three green pepper cultivars (Sereno, LiricaRZ and Figaro and three substrates of vermiculite + sand, peat + perlite and rock wool. Result showed that the most yield and average of fruit weight was 2003.91 and 129.14 g, respectively and number of fruit with average of 15.5, fruit length with 10.85 cm were obtained from substrate of peat + perlite. LiricaRZ had the most yield and average of fruit weight 1498.97 and 122.41 g, respectively than two other green peppers. There was significant interaction effect between green pepper and substrate in fruit's weight at 5% and fruit's length at 1%. It was known that the best substrate was peat + perlite and the best green pepper cultivar was LiricaRZ in hydroponic cultivation.

  10. Study on the Resistance Induced by Salicylic Acid Against Phytophthora capsici in Pepper (Capsicum annuum)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Ai-jun; WANG Yong-jian; FENG Lan-xiang; GENG San-sheng; XU Yong

    2005-01-01

    Pepper Phytophthora blight caused by Phytophthora capsici L. is the most destructive disease for reducing pepper yields in the world. Building up varietal resistance and induced resistance to the disease are of agricultural importance. In this paper, the disease resistance induced by salicylic acid (SA) against P. capsici were studied by using four hot pepper lines with different resistant abilities and one P. capsici strain with middle pathogenicity. Results show that SA could induce significantly the resistance of pepper seedlings to P. capsici, but CaC12, KH2PO4 and VAM couldn't. SA at a relative low concentration from 0.15 to 0.3 g L-1 had no antifungal activity in vitro against P. capsici. That means the disease resistant enhancement of the plants treated with SA is due to the induction effect, but not the antifungal effect of SA. About 1 to 5 days internal between SA-treatment and challenge inoculation was sufficient to induce the disease resistance of hot pepper. The resistance could remain more than 20 days after treatment with SA.

  11. Fischer Black

    OpenAIRE

    Robert C. Merton; Myron S. Scholes

    2013-01-01

    ReprintThis article was originally published by Wiley for the American Finance Association (Merton RC, Scholes MS. 1995. Fischer Black. J. Finance 50(5):1359–70). It is reprinted with permission from John Wiley and Sons © 1995. Reference formatting was updated to facilitate linking.

  12. Effect of 1-methylcyclopropene and modified atmosphere packaging on chilling injury, and antioxidative defensive mechanism of sweet pepper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) are chilling sensitive vegetable, and develop injury when stored at temperatures less than 7 C. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) (650 ppb) and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on chilling injuries of sweet pepper...

  13. Notice of Release of PA-559, a Root-knot Nematode Resistant, Red-fruited, Habanero-type Pepper

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA has developed a new Habanero-type pepper designated PA-559. The new breeding line is the product of a backcross/pedigree breeding procedure to incorporate a dominant root-knot nematode resistance gene from the Scotch Bonnet-type accession PA-426 into a red-fruited Habanero-type pepper. PA...

  14. Effect of drying temperature on the nutritional and antioxidant qualities of cumari peppers from Pará (Capsicum chinense Jacqui)

    OpenAIRE

    Reis, R. C.; V. C. Castro; I. A. Devilla; C.A. Oliveira; Barbosa, L. S.; R. Rodovalho

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the proximate components, concentration of total polyphenols, antioxidant activity, and capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in the Cumari chili pepper from Pará, Brazil (Capsicum chinense Jacqui) both fresh and after subjected to three different drying temperatures. The results showed that the contents of ash and vitamin C for the dried pepper differed significantly (P

  15. Development of virulence to Meloidogyne incognita on resistant pepper rootstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ros-Ibanez, C.; Robertson, L.; Martinez-Lluch, M. C.; Cano-Garcia, A.; Lacasa-Plasencia, A.

    2014-06-01

    The root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne incognita is a major soil parasite of pepper crops in greenhouses in Southeast Spain. Due to the limitations of the use of soil fumigants, grafting plants on resistant rootstocks (R-rootstocks) has become an important alternative to chemical nematicides. The repeated use of R-rootstocks can bring about the selection of virulent populations capable of overcoming resistance. We carried out a six-year investigation on resistant rootstocks in a naturally M. incognita infested greenhouse, and found that two successive years of growing plants grafted on R-rootstocks Atlante (ATL) were sufficient to overcome resistance (galling index 1.5 and 5.6 in the first and second years respectively). A large variability was observed between several R-rootstocks. Two R-rootstocks (C19 and Snooker) behaved like ATL while two others (Terrano and DRO 8801) were not infected by RKN. Laboratory studies with the same R-rootstocks, inoculated with two nematode isolates (avirulent and virulent against ATL) confirmed the greenhouse results, indicating that some rootstocks may be infested by virulent populations and others may not. It suggests that different R-genes, which are differentially overcome by RKN, have been introgressed into the rootstocks. This may have consequences for the management of resistant rootstocks in the field. (Author)

  16. ENZYMATIC DIGESTIBILITY OF TOMATO, PEPPER, AND EGGPLANT STALKS MIXTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalçın Çöpür,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Turkey annually produces 26 million tons of vegetables and is the third-biggest vegetable producer. After harvest, the waste of vegetable stalks lacking of economic value is burnt or left in the fields, causing environmental pollution. The aim of this study was to examine bioethanol production of a mixture of tomato, pepper, and eggplant stalks using an alternative chemical, sodium borohydrate (NaBH4 in a chemical pretreatment step. Both steam-exploded (SE and dry-milled (DM stalks were chemically pretreated and enzymatically hydrolyzed in this study. Results showed that SE stalks had better enzymatic digestibility compared to DM. NaOH treatment removed the highest amount of lignin (17.1%; SE, 2%, 90 min but also glucose (21.5%; SE, 2%, 90 min from the structure. On the other hand, NaBH4 removed the highest lignin in proportion to glucose for both SE and DM samples. Enzymatically hydrolyzed stalks gave the highest sugar yields of 30.1% (o.d.-dry matter for the SE sample when it was pretreated with 2% NaOH for 30 min.

  17. Effect of drying temperature on the nutritional and antioxidant qualities of cumari peppers from Pará (Capsicum chinense Jacqui

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Reis

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the proximate components, concentration of total polyphenols, antioxidant activity, and capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in the Cumari chili pepper from Pará, Brazil (Capsicum chinense Jacqui both fresh and after subjected to three different drying temperatures. The results showed that the contents of ash and vitamin C for the dried pepper differed significantly (P <0.05 compared with the fresh pepper. There was a significant difference in concentrations of total phenolics, antioxidant activity and capsaicinoids between the fresh pepper and those submitted to the drying treatments. It was concluded that higher temperatures increase shelf life and decrease the volume of the product, preserve macronutrients and degrade micronutrients, antioxidants and the spicy hotness of the Cumari pepper.

  18. Analysis of the degradation of biodegradable mulches in a pepper crop under organic management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Carmen; González, Sara; Villena, Jaime; Meco, Ramón; María Moreno, Marta

    2016-04-01

    The use of biodegradable mulch materials (biopolymers and papers) as an alternative to polyethylene is increasing nowadays, particularly in organic farming, due to environmental factors. It is necessary to test their functionality under field conditions by identifying, for example, the undesirable early degradation which commonly takes place in some of these biodegradable materials. In this sense, it is quite common and easy to apply the use of visual scales to estimate the level of deterioration of mulches, which can be subjective. Therefore, the objectives of this work are: i) To study the degradation of different mulch materials under field conditions by measuring the soil surface they covered. ii) To compare these soil surface values with the overall assessment of their functionality obtained by visual scales. The trial was performed in an organically grown pepper crop in Ciudad Real (Central Spain) in the 2014 spring-summer season. The mulch materials used were: 1) black polyethylene (15 μm); black biopolymers (15 μm): 2) Mater-Bi® (corn starch based), 3) Sphere 4® (potato starch based), 4) Sphere 6® (potato starch based), 5) Bioflex® (polylactic acid based), 6) Ecovio® (polylactic acid based), 7) Mimgreen® (black paper, 85 g/m2). A randomized complete block design with four replications was adopted. The crop was drip irrigated following the water demand of each treatment. To assess the evolution of the soil surface covered by the mulches, a total of 560 photographs of the superficial (exposed) part and 196 photographs of the buried part of the materials (1415x2831 pixels, 28 pixels/cm) were analyzed by using Adobe Photoshop CS at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90,120, 145 days after transplanting. Additionally, four experts evaluated the functionality of these materials based on the photographs according to a scale from 1 (completely deteriorated material) to 9 (intact material). The results show: i) The superficial part corresponding to the polyethylene and the

  19. BABA and Phytophthora nicotianae Induce Resistance to Phytophthora capsici in Chile Pepper (Capsicum annuum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamler, Rio A; Holguin, Omar; Dungan, Barry; Schaub, Tanner; Sanogo, Soumaila; Goldberg, Natalie; Randall, Jennifer J

    2015-01-01

    Induced resistance in plants is a systemic response to certain microorganisms or chemicals that enhances basal defense responses during subsequent plant infection by pathogens. Inoculation of chile pepper with zoospores of non-host Phytophthora nicotianae or the chemical elicitor beta-aminobutyric acid (BABA) significantly inhibited foliar blight caused by Phytophthora capsici. Tissue extract analyses by GC/MS identified conserved change in certain metabolite concentrations following P. nicotianae or BABA treatment. Induced chile pepper plants had reduced concentrations of sucrose and TCA cycle intermediates and increased concentrations of specific hexose-phosphates, hexose-disaccharides and amino acids. Galactose, which increased significantly in induced chile pepper plants, was shown to inhibit growth of P. capsici in a plate assay. PMID:26020237

  20. Sanity of bell pepper fruit fertigated with wastewater from hog production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Rodrigues de Souza

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the microbiological quality of bell pepper fruits produced with swine wastewater (SW, after preliminary treatment, pepper seedlings of variety Casca Dura Elquida were grown and fertigated with different levels of this wastewater providing 100 and 200% of the amount of the nitrogen needed for cultivation, with and without supplementation of fertilization. The fruits were analyzed for the presence of thermo-tolerant and total coliforms, and of Salmonella sp. The results showed that fertigation with SW, by trickle irrigation system, resulted in bell pepper fruits uncontaminated by fecal coliform and Salmonella spp., in accordance with the microbiological standards required by RDC n°12 02/01/2001.

  1. Dynamic plant uptake model applied for drip irrigation of an insecticide to pepper fruit plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legind, Charlotte Nielsen; Kennedy, C. M.; Rein, Arno;

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Drip application of insecticides is an effective way to deliver the chemical to the plant that avoids off-site movement via spray drift and minimizes applicator exposure. The aim of this paper is to present a cascade model for the uptake of pesticide into plants following drip...... irrigation, its application for a soil-applied insecticide and a sensitivity analysis of the model parameters. RESULTS: The model predicted the measured increase and decline of residues following two soil applications of an insecticide to peppers, with an absolute error between model and measurement ranging...... from 0.002 to 0.034 mg kg fw—1. Maximum measured concentrations in pepper fruit were approximately 0.22 mg kg fw—1. Temperature was the most sensitive component for predicting the peak and final concentration in pepper fruit, through its influence on soil and plant degradation rates...

  2. Viscosity of pepper, calamusroot and linseed as an indication of irradiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On pepper-, calamusroot- and linseed samples it is exemplarily shown that the measurement of viscosity is one method to identify irradiated spices and medical drugs. The viscosity of these samples is changing during irradiation due to breakage of polymer compounds. High contents of polymers enable an unequivocal detection of pepper irradiated with 5 kGy and 10 kGy. Also calamusroot- and linseed samples irradiated with 10 kGy could be clearly discriminated from unirradiated controls. A dependence of viscosity from storage time could not be shown. The determination of viscosity is an easy and unexpensive method to support results obtained by other methods like thermoluminescence. For pepper this method is suitable for screening. (orig.)

  3. Comparison of eco-physiological characteristics of pepper in hydroponic and aquaponic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Sajjadinia

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Aquaponics is one of the recirculating aquaculture systems in which plant grows without soil. Considering the lack of information about aquaponic culture for main crops like pepper and the absence of comparison of plant conditions in soilless culture, in this experiment eco-physiological characteristics of pepper in hydroponics and aquaponics were investigated. After starting the plants to flowering, eco-physiological parameters were measured using potable far-red gas analyzer LCA-4, ADC. The results showed that photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, transpiration, photosynthesis active radiation (PAR and water use efficiency were higher in aquaponics compared to hydroponics, while, stomatal resistance and leaf surface temperature were higher in hydroponics. However, there was no significant difference in leaf surface temperature in hydroponics and aquaponics. It seems that due to better eco-physiological characteristics of pepper in aquaponics, its growth and development will be better in this system.

  4. A Qualitative Study to Explore the Supply Chain Management in the Indonesia Pepper Industry: Case Study of Black and White Pepper

    OpenAIRE

    Kusuma, Fikar Ramadhan

    2009-01-01

    In today’s business, supply chain management is considered as the key business objective which creates they way managers perceive on the company’s supply chain. Application on supply chain management has to bring added value and business benefit for the company, such as increase process efficiency, customers’ satisfaction, responsiveness, eliminate waste, lower inventory that meets demand, and reduce the need of working capital. Hence, companies can distinguish itself within the virtue of the...

  5. Biocontrol activity and primed systemic resistance by compost water extracts against anthracnoses of pepper and cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Mee Kyung; Kim, Ki Deok

    2011-06-01

    We investigated direct and indirect effects of compost water extracts (CWEs) from Iljuk-3, Iljuk-7, Shinong-8, and Shinong-9 for the control of anthracnoses caused by Colletotrichum coccodes on pepper and C. orbiculare on cucumber. All tested CWEs significantly (P anthracnose severities; Iljuk-3, Shinong-9, and BABA for pepper and Iljuk-7 for cucumber had more protective activities than curative activities. In addition, root treatment of CWEs suppressed anthracnoses on the plants by the pathogens; however, CWE treatment on lower leaves failed to reduce the diseases on the upper leaves of the plants. The CWE root treatments enhanced not only the expression of the pathogenesis-related (PR) genes CABPR1, CABGLU, CAChi2, CaPR-4, CAPO1, and CaPR-10 in pepper and PR1-1a, PR-2, PR-3, and APOX in cucumber but also the activity of β-1,3-glucanase, chitinase, and peroxidase and the generation of hydrogen peroxide in pepper and cucumber under pathogen-inoculated conditions. However, the CWE treatments failed to induce the plant responses under pathogen-free conditions. These results indicated that the CWEs had direct effects, reducing anthracnoses by C. coccodes on pepper leaves and C. orbiculare on cucumber leaves through protective and curative effects. In addition, CWE root treatments could induce systemic resistance in the primed state against pathogens on plant leaves that enhanced PR gene expression, defense-related enzyme production, and hydrogen peroxide generation rapidly and effectively immediately after pathogen infection. Thus, the CWEs might suppress anthracnoses on leaves of both pepper and cucumber through primed (priming-mediated) systemic resistance. PMID:21281115

  6. Levels of nitrates and nitrites in chili pepper and ventricina salami

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giampaolo Colavita

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ventricina is a traditional sausage made from pork meat produced in the Abruzzi and Molise regions. The aim of this study was to detect the content of nitrates and nitrites in local cultivars of chilli pepper, and their concentration in ventricina samples spiced with the same chilli pepper. Furthermore, it was examined whether, in the samples of ventricina with nitrate addition, the spicing with chilli pepper could exceed the maximum added dose. The concentration of nitrates and nitrites in the organic chilli pepper was 531.0±94.6 mg/kg and less than 5.0 mg, respectively, in the traditional chilli pepper it was 394.0±39.6 and less than 5.0 mg, while in the commercial it was 325.0±115.0 and less than 5.0 mg. The determination of nitrites and nitrates was carried out by high performance ion chromatography. In ventricina samples produced without added sodium nitrate, nitrates and nitrites were below 5.0 mg/kg at the case-filling time (t0 and after 50 days of aging (t50. In the samples of ventricina with added sodium nitrate, nitrate concentration values were 134.0±20.9 mg/kg at t0 and 129.0±15.4 mg/kg at t50, while the nitrites were below 5.0 mg/kg at t0 and 28.8±15.8 mg/kg at t50. Although in ventricina the amount of chilli pepper is quite relevant, it did not lead to a detectable concentration of nitrates. The maximum allowed amount was never exceeded.

  7. INFLUENCE OF Ca-FOLIAR APPLICATION ON YIELD AND QUALITY OF SWEET PEPPER IN GLASSHOUSE CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Parađiković

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Calcium is an extremely important nutrient in highly productive fruit growing such as glasshousegrown sweet pepper. Good bioavailibility of calcium can be achieved by calcisation, but in many cases owing to its high prices, long-term effects, along with a delayed initial effect, as well as problems that appear due to radical change in availability of other nutrients in soil, its application is restricted. This paper deals with research on effects of foliar applications of the commercial chemical named "Calciogreen", as a supplement to the standard fertilization in greenhouse growing, on yield and quality of pepper fruits of the Cecil cultivar in the region of East Croatia.

  8. Anatomical features of leaves of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) fed with calcium using foliar nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska; Zenia Michałojć

    2012-01-01

    The effect of three foliar-applied Ca-containing preparations on the anatomical features of leaves of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) was studied. The following preparations were used: Ca(NO3)2, Librel Ca and Wapnowit, applied at the respective concentrations of 0.5%, 1%, 1%, which corresponded to a content of 2000 mg Ca × dm-3. Light and scanning electron microscopy were used in the study. It was demonstrated that in amphistomatic bifacial pepper leaves numerous specialised cells occurred ...

  9. Effect of hot treatment by antioxidants on the shelf life and quality of sweet pepper

    OpenAIRE

    Прісс, Олеся Петрівна; Калитка, Валентина Василівна

    2014-01-01

    In order to prolong shelf life of sweet pepper and maintain its high quality heat treatment solution by integrated antioxidant is proposed in the article.This treatment involves dipping the fruit in a solution of antioxidant complex with ionol, lecithin and horseradish root extract at a temperature of 45 .C for 15 min. The use of this treatment allows to extend the duration of pepper fruits storage for 2 weeks. The level of chilling injury can be reduced in 7 ... 9 times, the chilling severit...

  10. In Vitro Shoot Bud Differentiation from Hypocotyl Explants of Chili Peppers (Capsicum annuum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Owk ANIEL KUMAR; Sape SUBBA TATA

    2010-01-01

    Chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is an economically important spice crop in tropical and subtropical countries. In vitro plant regeneration was obtained from 15th day old hypocotyl explants of three chili pepper cultivars (Capsicum annuum L., var. �X-235�, var. �PC-1� and var. �Pusa Jwala�). Among the genotypes of Capsicum L. var. �X-235� responded better than the var. �PC-1� and var. �Pusa Jwala�. MS medium containing BAP (4.0 mg/l) and IAA (0.5 mg/l) was found to be the best medium for the...

  11. Molecular detection of genomic dna variation induced by space environment in sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study effects of space environment on genomic DNA variation in the offsprings of sweet pepper, the 4th offspring and its ground control were used as materials. The genomic DNA variation was detected by random amplified polymprphic DNA (RAPD), parts of the different fragments were sequenced. The results showed that the genomic DNA of SP4 after space mutation changed compared to the ground control. Eight polymorphic bands were detected. Four polymorphic bands were amplified in the ground control and variant separately. Two special fragments were sequenced and sequence homology was 97%. So space environment could induce the changes of the genomic DNA in the offsprings of sweet pepper. (authors)

  12. Rheological behaviour of white pepper gels - a new method for studying the effect of irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ground white pepper was treated by gamma radiation at average doses of 5, 10 and 15 kGy and the alterations in the rheological properties of its aqueous suspensions were used to study the radiation effects. Amylose and amylopectin suspensions were used as model systems. Ground pepper gels presented decreased strength expressed by a decrease of G' and G'' values and smaller limiting viscosity (η0), as the irradiation dose increased. A similar behaviour was shown by the amylopectin gels. For the amylose gels, in opposition, irradiation induced a higher level of gel structure

  13. Effect of osmotic pretreatment on air drying characteristics and colour of pepper (Capsicum spp) cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Falade, Kolawole Olumuyiwa; Oyedele, Olaniyi O.

    2010-01-01

    Air-drying characteristics of fresh and osmotically pretreated (40°B, 50°B and 60°B sucrose solutions for 9 h) four pepper cultivars namely, Rodo (Capsicum annuum), Shombo (Capsicum frutescens), Bawa (Capsicum frutenscens) and Tatashe (Capsicum annuum), and CIE L*a*b* parameters of air-dried (50, 60, 70 and 80 °C) peppers were investigated. Moisture diffusivity and activation energy (Ea) were calculated from Fick’s law and analogous Arrhenius equation, respectively. Colour difference, chroma ...

  14. Resistance breaking tomato spotted wilt virus isolates on resistant pepper varieties in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescenzi, A; Viggiano, A; Fanigliulo, A

    2013-01-01

    In spring 2012, resistance breaking (RB) isolates of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) that overcome the resistance conferred by the Tsw gene in different pepper hybrids have been recovered in different locations in southern Italy (Campania and Apulia regions) in protected cultivation, about one month after transplant. The percentage of symptomatic plants was 5-10% and, only in particular cases of advanced stage of cultivation, it reached 30-50% at the end of cycle. All TSWV isolates induced similar systemic symptoms in all resistant infected pepper hybrids: yellowing or browning of apical leaves, which later become necrotic, long necrotic streakson stems, extending to the terminal shoots, complete necrosis of younger fruits and large necrotic streaks and spots on fruits formed after infection. On ripe fruits, yellow spots with concentric rings or necrotic streaks could be observed. Leaf extracts of these samples were tested in ELISA for the detection of TSWV, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV), Impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV), Potato virus Y (PVY), Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) and Pepper Mottle Virus (PepMoV). Only TSWV was detected in all the field samples tested. The correspondent virus isolates were inoculated mechanically and by Frankliniella occidentalis on to a set of different pepper and tomato hybrids, as well as on some herbaceous test plants, in order to investigate for their ability to overcome the resistance genes Tsw and Sw5, respectively. Tomato hybrids carrying the Sw5 gene were uninfected by all RB isolates, whereas all resistant pepper hybrids became systemically infected. RB isolates did not differ noticeably in transmission efficiency when they were tested with the thrips F. occidentalis. Obtained results demonstrate that evolved strains of TSWV have emerged, that they are able to overcome the Tsw resistance gene in pepper plants experimentally inoculated both

  15. Effects of CH-19 Sweet, a non-pungent cultivar of red pepper, on sympathetic nervous activity, body temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachiya, Sachiko; Kawabata, Fuminori; Ohnuki, Koichiro; Inoue, Naohiko; Yoneda, Hirotsugu; Yazawa, Susumu; Fushiki, Tohru

    2007-03-01

    We investigated the changes in autonomic nervous activity, body temperature, blood pressure (BP), and heart rate (HR) after intake of the non-pungent pepper CH-19 Sweet and of hot red pepper in humans to elucidate the mechanisms of diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) due to CH-19 Sweet. We found that CH-19 Sweet activates the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and enhances thermogenesis as effectively as hot red pepper, ant that the heat loss effect due to CH-19 Sweet is weaker than that due to hot red pepper. Furthermore, we found that intake of CH-19 Sweet does not affect systolic BP or HR, while hot red pepper transiently elevates them. These results indicate that DIT due to CH-19 Sweet can be induced via the activation of SNS as well as hot red pepper, but that the changes in BP, HR, and heat loss effect are different between these peppers. PMID:17341828

  16. A HapMap leads to a Capsicum annuum SNP infinium array: a new tool for pepper breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulse-Kemp, Amanda M; Ashrafi, Hamid; Plieske, Joerg; Lemm, Jana; Stoffel, Kevin; Hill, Theresa; Luerssen, Hartmut; Pethiyagoda, Charit L; Lawley, Cindy T; Ganal, Martin W; Van Deynze, Allen

    2016-01-01

    The Capsicum genus (Pepper) is a part of the Solanacae family. It has been important in many cultures worldwide for its key nutritional components and uses as spices, medicines, ornamentals and vegetables. Worldwide population growth is associated with demand for more nutritionally valuable vegetables while contending with decreasing resources and available land. These conditions require increased efficiency in pepper breeding to deal with these imminent challenges. Through resequencing of inbred lines we have completed a valuable haplotype map (HapMap) for the pepper genome based on single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). The identified SNPs were annotated and classified based on their gene annotation in the pepper draft genome sequence and phenotype of the sequenced inbred lines. A selection of one marker per gene model was utilized to create the PepperSNP16K array, which simultaneously genotyped 16 405 SNPs, of which 90.7% were found to be informative. A set of 84 inbred and hybrid lines and a mapping population of 90 interspecific F2 individuals were utilized to validate the array. Diversity analysis of the inbred lines shows a distinct separation of bell versus chile/hot pepper types and separates them into five distinct germplasm groups. The interspecific population created between Tabasco (C. frutescens chile type) and P4 (C. annuum blocky type) produced a linkage map with 5546 markers separated into 1361 bins on twelve 12 linkage groups representing 1392.3 cM. This publically available genotyping platform can be used to rapidly assess a large number of markers in a reproducible high-throughput manner for pepper. As a standardized tool for genetic analyses, the PepperSNP16K can be used worldwide to share findings and analyze QTLs for important traits leading to continued improvement of pepper for consumers. Data and information on the array are available through the Solanaceae Genomics Network. PMID:27602231

  17. Microflora of the red pepper and its viability in the gamma radiation field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work reports the studies of microbiological state of red pepper collected from six different sources. Bacterial strains found has been isolated. The influence of the ionizing radiation on these bacterial cultures has been determined. Parameters of kinetic model describing decay of bacterial population have been calculated. Results are applicable for design of food sterilization protocols

  18. Effects of furfural on nematode populations and galling on tomato and pepper

    Science.gov (United States)

    A commercial formulation of furfural (Multiguard® Protect) was evaluated in greenhouse trials over three seasons for effects on parasitic and beneficial nematode populations in roots and soil, plant growth, and galling on tomato and bell pepper caused by Meloidogyne incognita. ‘Tiny Tim’ tomato (So...

  19. Is the pepper spray a triggering factor in myocardial infarction? A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cil, H; Atilgan, Z A; Islamoğlu, Y; Tekbaş, E O; Dostbil, Z

    2012-03-01

    Forty-year-old man was admitted to emergency department with complains of chest pain and dispnea after exposure the pepper gas that sprayed to environment during a social event. Physical examination and electrocardiogram was revealed acute myocardial infarction. PMID:22582490

  20. Greenhouse evaluation of capsicum rootstocks for management of meloidogyne incognita on grafted bell pepper

    Science.gov (United States)

    The growth, development, and nematode susceptibility of various rootstock genotypes grafted to a commercial bell pepper variety scion were evaluated in a series of greenhouse experiments. Nine rootstocks including ‘Caribbean Red Habanero’, ‘ PA-136’ , ‘Keystone Resistant Giant’, ‘Yolo Wonder’, ‘Car...

  1. Involvement of a universal amino acid synthesis impediment in cytoplasmic male sterility in pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xianping; Fu, Hong-Fei; Gong, Zhen-Hui; Chai, Wei-Guo

    2016-01-01

    To explore the mechanisms of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), we studied the different maturation processes of sterile and fertile pepper anthers. A paraffin section analysis of the sterile anthers indicated an abnormality of the tapetal layer and an over-vacuolization of the cells. The quantitative proteomics results showed that the expression of histidinol dehydrogenase (HDH), dihydroxy-acid dehydratase (DAD), aspartate aminotransferase (ATAAT), cysteine synthase (CS), delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase (P5CS), and glutamate synthetase (GS) in the amino acid synthesis pathway decreased by more than 1.5-fold. Furthermore, the mRNA and protein expression levels of DAD, ATAAT, CS and P5CS showed a 2- to 16-fold increase in the maintainer line anthers. We also found that most of the amino acid content levels decreased to varying degrees during the anther tapetum period of the sterile line, whereas these levels increased in the maintainer line. The results of our study indicate that during pepper anther development, changes in amino acid synthesis are significant and accompany abnormal tapetum maturity, which is most likely an important cause of male sterility in pepper. PMID:26987793

  2. Influence of Copigment derived from Tasmannia Pepper Leaves on Davidson’s Plum Anthocyanins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Busch; López-de-Dicastillo Bergamo, Carolina Ana; Payet, René Marc;

    2011-01-01

    in model soft drink solutions subjected to light irradiation and heat treatment. In both cases the addition of the copigment resulted in a lasting increase in color intensity. In conclusion, Davidson’s plum extract can successfully be utilized as a source of natural food color. Extract from Tasmania pepper...

  3. Aphidius gifuensis: a promising parasitoid for biological control of two important aphid species in sweet pepper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Messelink, G.J.; Bloemhard, C.M.J.; Hoogerbrugge, H.; Schelt, van J.

    2011-01-01

    The parasitoid Aphidius gifuensis is able to parasitize both the green peach aphid Myzus persicae and the foxglove aphid Aulacorthum solani in sweet pepper. In a greenhouse experiment we showed that rates of parasitism on green peach aphids alone were equal to the commonly used Aphidius colemani, bu

  4. Tomato necrotic ring virus (TNRV), a recently described tospovirus species infecting tomato and pepper in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehraban, A.; Cheewachaiwit, S.; Relevante, C.; Kormelink, R.J.M.; Peters, D.

    2011-01-01

    Two tospovirus isolates collected from tomato and bell pepper in Thailand were studied. The isolates induced severe necrotic mottling and/or necrotic spots and rings on the leaves and fruits of the respective plants as confirmed by back-inoculation. A polyclonal antiserum raised against its nucleoca

  5. Development of a pungency measuring system for red-pepper powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capsaicinoids are the main components that determine the spiciness level of red-pepper powders. Current pungency measurement is mostly dependent on HPLC measurement technique, which is a sample-destructive, labor-intensive, time-consuming, and expensive method. In this research, a nondestructive on-...

  6. Interactions of Phytophthora capsici with Resistant and Susceptible Pepper Roots and Stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Amara R; Smart, Christine D

    2015-10-01

    Using host resistance is an important strategy for managing pepper root and crown rot caused by Phytophthora capsici. An isolate of P. capsici constitutively expressing a gene for green fluorescent protein was used to investigate pathogen interactions with roots, crowns, and stems of Phytophthora-susceptible bell pepper 'Red Knight', Phytophthora-resistant bell pepper 'Paladin', and Phytophthora-resistant landrace Criollos de Morelos 334 (CM-334). In this study, the same number of zoospores attached to and germinated on roots of all cultivars 30 and 120 min postinoculation (pi), respectively. At 3 days pi, significantly more secondary roots had necrotic lesions on Red Knight than on Paladin and CM-334 plants. By 4 days pi, necrotic lesions had formed on the taproot of Red Knight but not Paladin or CM-334 plants. Although hyphae were visible in the crowns and stems of all Red Knight plants observed at 4 days pi, hyphae were observed in crowns of only a few Paladin and in no CM-334 plants, and never in stems of either resistant cultivar at 4 days pi. These results improve our understanding of how P. capsici infects plants and may contribute to the use of resistant pepper cultivars for disease management and the development of new cultivars. PMID:26010399

  7. 7 CFR 319.56-42 - Peppers from the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Peppers from the Republic of Korea. 319.56-42 Section 319.56-42 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... accordance with the conditions in 7 CFR 319.56-42 and were inspected and found free from Agrotis...

  8. Application of Volatile Antifungal Plant Essential Oils for Controlling Pepper Fruit Anthracnose by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeum Kyu Hong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides has been destructive during pepper fruit production in outdoor fields in Korea. In vitro antifungal activities of 15 different plant essential oils or its components were evaluated during conidial germination and mycelial growth of C. gloeosporioides. In vitro conidial germination was most drastically inhibited by vapour treatments with carvacrol, cinnamon oil, trans-cinnamaldehyde, citral, p-cymene and linalool. Inhibition of the mycelial growth by indirect vapour treatment with essential oils was also demonstrated compared with untreated control. Carvacrol, cinnamon oil, trans-cinnamaldehyde, citral and eugenol were among the most inhibitory plant essential oils by the indirect antifungal efficacies. Plant protection efficacies of the plant essential oils were demonstrated by reduced lesion diameter on the C. gloeosporioides-inoculated immature green pepper fruits compared to the inoculated control fruits without any plant essential oil treatment. In planta test showed that all plant essential oils tested in this study demonstrated plant protection efficacies against pepper fruit anthracnose with similar levels. Thus, application of different plant essential oils can be used for eco-friendly disease management of anthracnose during pepper fruit production.

  9. Identification of Novel Pesticides for Use against Glasshouse Invertebrate Pests in UK Tomatoes and Peppers

    OpenAIRE

    George, David R; Jennifer A. Banfield-Zanin; Collier, Rosemary; Cross, Jerry; Birch, A. Nicholas E.; Gwynn, Roma; O’Neill, Tim

    2015-01-01

    To inform current and future pesticide availability to glasshouse vegetable growers, the current project trialled more than twenty products, including existing industry standards, against four key pests of glasshouse tomatoes and bell peppers. These included experimental conventional chemical pesticides as well as alternative biopesticide and biorational products based on phytochemicals, microbials and physically-acting substances. The results suggest that certain biopesticide products, parti...

  10. Post-directed application of a potential organic herbicide for bell peppers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) producers need appropriate herbicides that can effectively provide post-emergent weed control. Research was conducted in southeast Oklahoma (Atoka County, Lane, OK) to determine the impact of a potential organic herbicide on weed control efficacy, crop injury, an...

  11. PA-559: A New, Root-knot Nematode Resistant, Red-fruited, Habanero-type Pepper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efforts to develop a root-knot nematode resistant, red-fruited, Habanero-type pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) were completed with the official release of PA-559 on September 18, 2008. The new breeding line is the product of a backcross/pedigree breeding procedure to incorporate a dominant root-kno...

  12. Volatile profile and sensory quality of new varieties of Capsicum chinense pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah dos Santos Garruti

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the sensory quality and the volatile compound profile of new varieties of Capsicum chinense pepper (CNPH 4080 a strain of'Cumari-do-Pará' and BRS Seriema with a known commercial variety (Biquinho. Volatiles were isolated from the headspace of fresh fruit by SPME and identified by GC-MS. Pickled peppers were produced for sensory evaluation. Aroma descriptors were evaluated by Check-All-That-Apply (CATA method, and the frequency data were submitted to Correspondence Analysis. Flavor acceptance was assessed by hedonic scale and analyzed by ANOVA. BRS Seriema showed the richest volatile profile, with 55 identified compounds, and up to 40% were compounds with sweet aroma notes. CNPH 4080 showed similar volatile profile to that of Biquinho pepper, but it had higher amounts of pepper-like and green-note compounds. The samples did not differ in terms of flavor acceptance, but they showed differences in aroma quality confirming the differences found in the volatile profiles. The C. chinense varieties developed by Embrapa proved to be more aromatic than Biquinho variety, and were well accepted by the judges.

  13. Application of Volatile Antifungal Plant Essential Oils for Controlling Pepper Fruit Anthracnose by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jeum Kyu; Yang, Hye Ji; Jung, Heesoo; Yoon, Dong June; Sang, Mee Kyung; Jeun, Yong-Chull

    2015-09-01

    Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides has been destructive during pepper fruit production in outdoor fields in Korea. In vitro antifungal activities of 15 different plant essential oils or its components were evaluated during conidial germination and mycelial growth of C. gloeosporioides. In vitro conidial germination was most drastically inhibited by vapour treatments with carvacrol, cinnamon oil, trans-cinnamaldehyde, citral, p-cymene and linalool. Inhibition of the mycelial growth by indirect vapour treatment with essential oils was also demonstrated compared with untreated control. Carvacrol, cinnamon oil, trans-cinnamaldehyde, citral and eugenol were among the most inhibitory plant essential oils by the indirect antifungal efficacies. Plant protection efficacies of the plant essential oils were demonstrated by reduced lesion diameter on the C. gloeosporioides-inoculated immature green pepper fruits compared to the inoculated control fruits without any plant essential oil treatment. In planta test showed that all plant essential oils tested in this study demonstrated plant protection efficacies against pepper fruit anthracnose with similar levels. Thus, application of different plant essential oils can be used for eco-friendly disease management of anthracnose during pepper fruit production. PMID:26361475

  14. Chitosan controls postharvest anthracnose in bell pepper by activating defense-related enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edirisinghe, Madushani; Ali, Asgar; Maqbool, Mehdi; Alderson, Peter G

    2014-12-01

    Anthracnose, a postharvest disease caused by the fungus Colletotrichum capsici is the most devastating disease of bell pepper that causes great economic losses especially in tropical climates. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the antifungal properties of chitosan (low molecular weight from crab shell, Mw: 50 kDa and 75-85 % deacetylated) against anthracnose by inducing defense-related enzymes. The concentrations of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 % chitosan were used to control the fungus in vitro and postharvest. There was a reduction in C. capsici mycelial growth and the highest chitosan concentration (2.0 %) reduced the growth by 70 % after 7 days incubation. In germination test, the concentration of 1.5 and 2.0 % chitosan reduced spore germination in C. capsici between 80 % and 84 %, respectively. In postharvest trial the concentration of 1.5 % decreased the anthracnose severity in pepper fruit by approximately 76 % after 28 days of storage (10 ± 1 °C; 80 % RH). For enzymatic activities, the concentration of 1.5 and 2.0 % chitosan increased the polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POD) and total phenolics in inoculated bell pepper during storage. Based on these results, the chitosan presents antifungal properties against C. capsici, as well as potential to induce resistance on bell pepper. PMID:25477684

  15. PA-560, A Southern Root-knot Nematode Resistant, Yellow-fruited, Habanero-type Pepper

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA has developed a yellow-fruited, Habanero-type pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) that is highly resistant to root-knot nematodes. The new breeding line, designated PA-560, is the product of a backcross/pedigree breeding procedure to incorporate a root-knot nematode resistance gene from the S...

  16. Changes in Vitamin C and Color during Cooking Of Green Peppers (Capsicum Annuum L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francia E. Quipo-Muñoz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The quality of pepper is mainly valued for flavor, color, and vitamin C. This study explored the effect of cooking on the physicochemical characteristics of the fruits of green pepper. Weighed 150 g, cut to size of 2.2 cm long and 1.3 cm wide and subjected to heat treatment (steam and water for 5 min, and 760 W microwave for 2 min, and quenched proceeded to determine the pH and acidity, vitamin C concentration by the indophenol method, total chlorophyll content by spectrophotometry at 652 nm and the surface color coordinates. After heat treatment the concentration of vitamin C, chlorophyll content and acidity significant differences (p <0.05, in contrast pH, L *, a *, b *, C * and h ° not statistically affected. Vitamin C ranged from 147.84 ± 4.36 and 79.31 ± 5.44 mg ascorbic acid/100 g fresh weight. The total chlorophyll ranged from 4.44 ± 0.04 and 2.61 ± 0.04 mg/ 100 of pepper. In the acidity values were between 0.10 ± 0.005 and 0.07 ± 0.001% citric acid. The microwave cooking method obtains the highest level of retention of vitamin C, and the surface color of green pepper is not affected by the different cooking methods evaluated in this study.

  17. Effects of Vegetable Oils on The Quality Parameters of Red Pepper During Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Inanc

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower, cottonseed, hazelnut, soybean and sesame oils at the concentration of 0, 2, 4 or 6 g/100g red pepper were added into red pepper to determine the effects of the oils on color and oxidative stability during 12-month storage at room temperature. The changes in color, free fatty acid content and peroxide value were determined in 2 month intervals. Initial colors of samples were ranged between 75.26 and 79.95 (ASTA unit, and decreased as the amount of the added vegetable oils increased. Color losses were increased by increasing time for all samples while the color of the soybean oil added samples was more stable. Free fatty acid content and peroxide value of red pepper extracted oils increased significantly as the storage time increased. At the end of storage, free fatty acid content of sesame oil added red pepper was higher than that of others and the lower peroxide value was observed in the control.

  18. Mapping Brazilian Pepper Infestations in South Texas with Spatial Information Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazilian pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius), an evergreen shrub or tree indigenous to Brazil, Paraguay, and Argentina, was introduced into the United States as an ornamental. This plant has an aggressive growth habit that allows it to establish, spread, and displace native vegetation, resulting in ...

  19. Genetic Compositions of Broad bean wilt virus 2 Infecting Red Pepper in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Ryun Kwak

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of Broad bean wilt virus 2 (BBWV2 on red pepper was investigated using the samples obtained from 24 areas of 8 provinces in Korea. Two hundred and five samples (79% out of 260 collected samples were found to be infected with BBWV2. While the single infection rate of BBWV2 was 21.5%, the co-infection rate of BBWV2 with Cucumber mosaic virus, Pepper mottle virus, Pepper mild mottle virus and/or Potato virus Y was 78.5%. To characterize the genetic diversity of BBWV2 Korean isolates, 7 isolates were fully sequenced and analyzed. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that BBWV2 isolates could be divided largely into two groups as Group I and Group II. Based on the partial sequence analyses, 153 selected BBWV2 isolates were subgrouped into GS-I (21.6%, GS-II (3.9% and GS-III (56.9%. BBWV2 GS-III, which was predominant in Korea, appears to be a new combination between Group I RNA-1 and Group II RNA-2. Viral disease incidence of BBWV2 on red pepper was under 2% before 2004. However, the incidence was increased abruptly to 41.3% in 2005, 58.2% in 2006 and 79% in 2007. These rapid increases might be related with the emergence of new combinations between BBWV2 groups.

  20. The evolution of chili peppers (Capsicum-Solanaceae): a cytogenetic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capsicum (chili peppers) is a New World genus with five crop species of great economic importance for food and spices. An up-to-date summary of the karyotypic knowledge is presented, including data on classical staining (chromosome number, size and morphology), silver impregnation (number and positi...

  1. Pepper seed extract suppresses invasion and migration of human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyeon-A; Kim, Min-Sook; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Yoo Kyeong

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the antimetastatic activities of chili pepper seed on human breast cancer cells. The water extract of chili pepper seeds was prepared and it contained a substantial amount of phenols (131.12 mg%) and no capsaicinoids. Pepper seed extract (PSE) suppressed the proliferation of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells at the concentration of 10, 25, and 50 μg/ml (MDA-MB-231: IC50 = 20.1 μg/ml, MCF-7: IC50 = 14.7 μg/ml). PSE increased the expression level of E-cadherin up to 1.2-fold of the control in MCF-7 cells. PSE also decreased the secretion of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells at the concentration of 25 and 50 μg/ml. PSE treatment significantly suppressed the invasion of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The motility of cancer cells was apparently retarded in the wound healing assay by the PSE treatment. Although our data collectively demonstrate that PSE inhibits invasion and migration of breast cancer cells, further study is needed to identify specific mechanisms and bioactive components contributing to antimetastatic effects of chili pepper seed. PMID:24341783

  2. Bell pepper endornavirus: molecular and biological properties, and occurrence in the genus Capsicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Ryo; Kiyota, Eri; Sabanadzovic, Sead; Moriyama, Hiromitsu; Fukuhara, Toshiyuki; Saha, Prasenjit; Roossinck, Marilyn J; Severin, Ake; Valverde, Rodrigo A

    2011-11-01

    Bell peppers (Capsicum annuum) harbour a large dsRNA virus. The linear genome (14.7 kbp) of two isolates from Japanese and USA bell pepper cultivars were completely sequenced and compared. They shared extensive sequence identity and contained a single, long ORF encoding a 4815 aa protein. This polyprotein contained conserved motifs of putative viral methyltransferase (MTR), helicase 1 (Hel-1), UDP-glycosyltransferase and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. This unique arrangement of conserved domains has not been reported in any of the known endornaviruses. Hence this virus, for which the name Bell pepper endornavirus (BPEV) is proposed, is a distinct species in the genus Endornavirus (family Endornaviridae). The BPEV-encoded polyprotein contains a cysteine-rich region between the MTR and Hel-1 domains, with conserved CXCC motifs shared among several endornaviruses, suggesting an additional functional domain. In agreement with general endornavirus features, BPEV contains a nick in the positive-strand RNA molecule. The virus was detected in all bell pepper cultivars tested and transmitted through seed but not by graft inoculations. Analysis of dsRNA patterns and RT-PCR using degenerate primers revealed putative variants of BPEV, or closely related species, infecting other C. annuum genotypes and three other Capsicum species (C. baccatum, C. chinense and C. frutescens). PMID:21775578

  3. Nutritional status of greenhouse cucumber and bell pepper in Isfahan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Aghili

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite of increasing request for greenhouse vegetables, there is quite limited information on their nutritional quality. This study was carried out to investigate nutritional status of macronutrients (Ca, Mg, P and K and micronutrients (Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn in greenhouse cucumber and bell pepper in Isfahan province. After selecting 25 greenhouses, the concentration of macronutrients and micronutrients was measured in soil and edible parts of cucumbers and bell peppers. The results showed that mean concentration of P and K in the soils was much higher than their critical deficiency level. Mean concentration of DTPA-extractable Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn of the soils was 12.0, 4.9, 1.9, and 14.5 mg kg-1. Mean fruit Mg, P and K concentrations in the cucumber and bell pepper were greater than their sufficiency level, while more than 75% of the greenhouse cucumbers were Ca deficient. Also more than half of the greenhouse cucumbers and about 20% of greenhouse bell peppers had Mn deficiency. Also more than 60% of greenhouse cucumbers were Fe and Zn deficient. According to the results, high concentration of some macronutrients such as P and K, and widespread deficiency of Ca and micronutrients in greenhouse production, is probably due to nutritional mismanagement, unbalanced fertilizer application, unstable greenhouse conditions and environmental pollution risks.

  4. First report of Tomato chlorosis virus infecting sweet pepper in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    In September 2008, a survey of whiteflies and whitefly-borne viruses was performed in greenhouses in the province of Cartago, Costa Rica. During this survey, sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum cv. Nataly) plants showing interveinal chlorosis, enations, necrosis, and mild upward leaf curling were observed...

  5. Employing airborne multispectral digital imagery to map Brazilian pepper infestation in south Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted in south Texas to determine the feasibility of using airborne multispectral digital imagery for differentiating the invasive plant Brazilian pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius) from other cover types. Imagery obtained in the visible, near infrared, and mid infrared regions of th...

  6. Reading "Salt and Pepper": Social Practices, Unfinished Narratives, and Critical Interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Diane Downer

    2008-01-01

    In "Reading "Salt and Pepper"" Anderson examines a story written by three third grade girls and their insights about that story as they re-read it during its production and retrospectively, eight years later. Using a frame for understanding children's writing as social practice, the children's interviews, showing their multiple and sometimes…

  7. Factors affecting oviposition of Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in sweet pepper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bemisia tabaci (Gen.) biotype B is considered a pest of economical importance for several vegetables. The oviposition behaviour of the while fly was evaluated in sweet pepper plants. The trials were carried out under greenhouse condition and in the Laboratory of Entomology of DEFERS/ UNESP, Campus of Ilha Solteira-SP, with the sweet pepper Magali-R genotype. The effect of plant age on the whitefly oviposition was evaluated in free-choice tests, in plants, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45- day-old, as egg distribution in the plant and on the leaf blade was evaluated in 35-days-old plants. In a no-choice tests, 35-day-old plants were used to evaluate the effect of the densities of 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 adults per plant on the number of eggs laid by insects. The silver leaf whitefly preferred to oviposition the third to sixth leaflets, of the medium and superior part of plants of sweet pepper; the leaf blade areas, located in the lobes right and left close the base of the leaf were the preferential site for whitefly oviposition. Older plants, 40- and 45-day-old, were preferentially used for oviposition, and 200 and 250 adults per plant were both enough to lay a number of eggs that allowed to differentiate among sweet pepper genotypes with different whitefly resistance levels. (author)

  8. An electron spin resonance study of γ-ray irradiated pepper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, we revealed four radical species in the irradiated pepper. The representative ESR spectrum of the pepper is composed of a sextet centered at g=2.0, a singlet at the same g-value, a singlet at g=4.0 and side peaks near g=2.0. The first one is attributable to a signal with hyperfine (hf) interactions of Mn2+ ion (hf constant=7.4 mT). The second one is due to an organic free radical that may be induced by the (γ-ray irradiation. The third one may be originated from Fe3+ ion in the non-hem proteins. Those three signals were found in the pepper sample before irradiation. The fourth signals were found at the symmetric position of the organic free radical, i.e., the second signal. The progressive saturation method of the ESR microwave power indicated quite different relaxation behaviors of those radicals. The method reflects four independent radical species in the irradiated pepper. Relaxation time for the singlet signal centered at g=2.0 revealed that the signal is due to the typical organic free radical. (author)

  9. Development of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolated from green pepper in different culture media, temperatures, and light regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mello Alexandre Furtado Silveira

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Control of anthracnose in green pepper involves the use of resistant varieties and/or fungicides. The selection of varieties and efficient products demands great amounts of conidia as inoculum. It is thus necessary to optimize the production of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides conidia in the laboratory, establishing the best conditions for fungus development. The present study aimed at determining the most favorable culture media, temperature, and light conditions for the production of fungus inoculum. The fungus was isolated from green pepper fruits (Capsicum annuum L. and transferred to four culture media (PDA, oat, filtered pepper extract, and autoclaved pepper extract, under different temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30, and 35ºC and light conditions (24h dark, and 24h light. Colony growth was evaluated after 7 and 12 days of incubation. No differences were found between the culture media. However, the greatest number of conidia was obtained from colonies grown in oat medium at 25ºC. Temperatures of 20 and 25ºC were the most favorable for colony growth and sporulation. Higher sporulation was obtained under incubation in constant light. Cultivation of C. gloeosporioides in oat medium, at 25ºC, and constant light is recommended.

  10. Multiple lines of evidence for the origin of domesticated chili pepper, Capsicum annuum, in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    KRAFT, KH; Brown, CH; Nabhan, GP; Luedeling, E.; De Jesús Luna Ruiz, J; D'Eeckenbrugge, GC; Hijmans, RJ; Gepts, P.

    2014-01-01

    The study of crop origins has traditionally involved identifying geographic areas of high morphological diversity, sampling populations of wild progenitor species, and the archaeological retrieval of macroremains. Recent investigations have added identification of plant microremains (phytoliths, pollen, and starch grains), biochemical and molecular genetic approaches, and dating through 14C accelerator mass spectrometry. We investigate the origin of domesticated chili pepper, Capsicum annuum,...

  11. An investigation of a defensive chitinase against Fusarium oxysporum in pepper leaf tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khemika S. Lomthaisong

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant chitinase is classified as a PR-protein involved in a defense mechanism against a pathogen. This research aims to investigate a specific type of chitinase which is produced by pepper in response to an early defense against Fusarium oxysporum, which causes wilt disease. The changes of chitinase isozyme patterns in the inter- and intracellular fluids in the leaf of four cultivars of pepper (Capsicum annuum L. at day 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 from fungal inoculation were analysed using SDS-PAGE in polyacrylamide gel supplemented with glycol chitin as a substrate. The levels of disease severity in the four varieties of pepper were also compared with the isozyme patterns. The results showed that the resistance of pepper to F. oxysporum attack corresponded to the expression of ~70 kDa chitinase band (Chi-3 in the intercellular fluid. Therefore, such chitinase could possibly be used as a protein marker to identify the tolerant line and as a springboard for further study of wilt disease control.

  12. Structure and genetic diversity of natural Brazilian pepper populations (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvares-Carvalho, S V; Duarte, J F; Santos, T C; Santos, R M; Silva-Mann, R; Carvalho, D

    2016-01-01

    In the face of a possible loss of genetic diversity in plants due the environmental changes, actions to ensure the genetic variability are an urgent necessity. The extraction of Brazilian pepper fruits is a cause of concern because it results in the lack of seeds in soil, hindering its distribution in space and time. It is important to address this concern and explore the species, used by riparian communities and agro-factories without considering the need for keeping the seeds for natural seed banks and for species sustainability. The objective of this study was to evaluate the structure and the genetic diversity in natural Brazilian pepper populations (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi). Twenty-two alleles in 223 individuals were identified from eight forest remnants located in the states of Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo, and Sergipe. All populations presented loci in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium deviation. Four populations presented six combinations of loci in linkage disequilibrium. Six exclusive alleles were detected in four populations. Analysis of molecular variance showed the absence of diversity between regions and that between the populations (GST) was 41%. Genetic diversity was structured in seven clusters (ΔK7). Brazilian pepper populations were not structured in a pattern of isolation by distance and present genetic bottleneck. The populations São Mateus, Canastra, Barbacena, and Ilha das Flores were identified as management units and may support conservation projects, ecological restoration and in implementation of management plans for Brazilian pepper in the State of Sergipe. PMID:27323193

  13. Toward an optimal control strategy for sweet pepper cultivation : a dynamic crop model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buwalda, F.; Henten, van E.J.; Gelder, de A.; Bontsema, J.; Hemming, J.

    2006-01-01

    Sweet pepper production is characterized by large fluctuations in fruit yield per week. Synchronization of yield patterns between nurseries in response to weather conditions leads to variations in market supply and affects price formation. In order to improve supply chain efficiency, auctions and wh

  14. Effect of vermicompost on the growth and production of amashito pepper, interactions with earthworms and rhizobacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huerta, E.; Vidal, O.; Jarquin, A.; Geissen, V.; Gomez, R.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing yield is one of the goals in the tropics. Traditional farming is replaced in many cases by agroindustrial production which often leads to environmental pollution due to the marked use of pesticides and fertilizers. In Tabasco, Amashito pepper (Capsicum annum var. glabriusculcum) is cultiv

  15. Evaluation of mirid predatory bugs and release strategy for aphid control in sweet pepper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Messelink, G.J.; Bloemhard, C.M.J.; Hoogerbrugge, H.; Schelt, van J.; Ingegno, B.L.; Tavella, L.

    2015-01-01

    Zoophytophagous predators of the family Miridae (Heteroptera), which feed both on plant and prey, often maintain a close relationship with certain host plants. In this study, we aimed to select a suitable mirid predatory bug for aphid control in sweet pepper. Four species were compared: Macrolophus

  16. Complete Nucleotide Sequences and Genome Organization of Two Pepper Mild Mottle Virus Isolates from Capsicum annuum in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung-Kook; Choi, Gug-Seoun; Kwon, Sun-Jung; Yoon, Ju-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    The complete genome sequences of pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV)-P2 and -P3 were determined by the Sanger sequencing method. Although PMMoV-P2 and PMMoV-P3 have different pathogenicity in some pepper cultivars, the complete genome sequences of PMMoV-P2 and -P3 are composed of 6,356 nucleotides (nt). In this study, we report the complete genome sequences and genome organization of PMMoV-P2 and -P3 isolates from pepper species in South Korea. PMID:27198033

  17. MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS OF CHILLI PEPPER (Capsicum frutescens L.) AS INFLUENCED BY SODIUM AZIDE AT GENERATIVE STAGE OF M1 GENERATION

    OpenAIRE

    I Gusti Agung Eka Saraswati; Made Pharmawati; I Ketut Junitha

    2013-01-01

    Chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.) is one vegetable crop that has high economic value.  There are several problems in cultivation of chili pepper, for examples limited land, bad weather, and pests and diseases, which result in low production. These problems can be solved by developing new cultivar which has superior quality.  New cultivars of chili pepper plants can be obtained through induced mutation using chemical mutagen. In this research sodium azide (NaN3) was used as mutagen in chi...

  18. Effectiveness and Public Acceptance Rate of Powder Pepper (Piper nigrum L.) to Decrease Density of Anopheles spp larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Andri Ruliansyah; Fauziani Octoriani

    2012-01-01

    Pepper fruit (Piper nigrum L.) is one of several pesticides from plant that can be used as insecticide. The purpose of this study was to identify the effectiveness and public acceptance of pepper fruit powder (Piper nigrum L.) on reducing Anopheles spp. larvae density. The experiment was a quasi-experimental study which includes a pre-post test design with both treatment group and a control group. Pepper powder with a dose of 0.75 g in one litre of water kills 59.91% larvae in average through...

  19. National outbreak of Salmonella serotype saintpaul infections: importance of Texas restaurant investigations in implicating jalapeno peppers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajal K Mody

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In May 2008, PulseNet detected a multistate outbreak of Salmonella enterica serotype Saintpaul infections. Initial investigations identified an epidemiologic association between illness and consumption of raw tomatoes, yet cases continued. In mid-June, we investigated two clusters of outbreak strain infections in Texas among patrons of Restaurant A and two establishments of Restaurant Chain B to determine the outbreak's source. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted independent case-control studies of Restaurant A and B patrons. Patients were matched to well controls by meal date. We conducted restaurant environmental investigations and traced the origin of implicated products. Forty-seven case-patients and 40 controls were enrolled in the Restaurant A study. Thirty case-patients and 31 controls were enrolled in the Restaurant Chain B study. In both studies, illness was independently associated with only one menu item, fresh salsa (Restaurant A: matched odds ratio [mOR], 37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7.2-386; Restaurant B: mOR, 13; 95% CI 1.3-infinity. The only ingredient in common between the two salsas was raw jalapeño peppers. Cultures of jalapeño peppers collected from an importer that supplied Restaurant Chain B and serrano peppers and irrigation water from a Mexican farm that supplied that importer with jalapeño and serrano peppers grew the outbreak strain. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Jalapeño peppers, contaminated before arrival at the restaurants and served in uncooked fresh salsas, were the source of these infections. Our investigations, critical in understanding the broader multistate outbreak, exemplify an effective approach to investigating large foodborne outbreaks. Additional measures are needed to reduce produce contamination.

  20. After-Ripening of Red Pepper (Capsicum Annuum) as Affected by Ionizing Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The direct effect of X-rays on freshly picked, sweet red pepper at dose levels of between 0 and 800 krad, and on the after-ripening of red pepper at dose levels of between 0 and 100 krad, was investigated. As an effect of the irradiation of between 400 and 800 krad, the pericarps softened; the carotenoid content, however, was not substantially reduced, even at a dose of 800 krad. During the nine weeks' storage period at room temperature, subsequent to irradiation, an increase of about 90% of the total pigment content, expressed as capsanthin, was observed in the samples not treated. The formation of the carotenoid pigments was accelerated, to some extent, by 80 rad, and substantially accelerated by treatment of 2 krad. The samples treated at the 2-krad level reached the same pigment content in three weeks as the control samples in eight weeks. In the radiation-treated samples, however, the pigment content decreased after the fourth to fifth week of storage. Dose levels above 10 krad slowed down or inhibited the formation of carotenoids during storage (after ripening). The reducing sugar content and the rate of drying were not affected by 0 to 100-krad doses. Since the several hundred kilorad irradiation doses needed to destroy, or substantially inhibit, the growth of moulds causing the deterioration of red pepper of high moisture content have a deleterious effect, the application of irradiation to decrease storage losses in fresh, picked red pepper does not seem to be advisable. The application, however, of the very low doses stimulating carotenoid formation does seem to be promising in view of shortening the after-ripening period and increasing the pigment content. Further investigations are needed to establish the most suitable storage conditions for the after-ripening of red peppers and the causes responsible for decrease in the carotenoid content of irradiated fruits in the second half of the storage period. (author)

  1. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) as bio protector agents against wilt induced by Verticillium spp. in pepper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goicoechea, N.; Garmendia, I.; Sanchez-Diaz, M.; Aguirreolea, J.

    2010-07-01

    Verticillium dahliae Kleb. is a vascular pathogen that alters water status and growth of pepper plants and causes drastic reductions in yield. Its control is difficult because it can survive in field soil for several years. The application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) as bio protector agents against V. dahliae is an alternative to the use of chemicals which, in addition, is more respectful with the environment. The establishment of the mutualistic association of plant roots and AMF involves a continuous cellular and molecular dialogue between both symbionts that includes the pre activation of plant defense responses that may enhance the resistance or tolerance of mycorrhizal plants to soil-borne pathogens. Some AMF can improve the resistance of Capsicum annuum L. against V. dahliae. This is especially relevant for pepper cultivars (i.e. cv. Piquillo) that exhibit high susceptibility to this pathogen. Compared with non-mycorrhizal plants, mycorrhizal pepper can exhibit more balanced antioxidant metabolism in leaves along the first month after pathogen inoculation, which may contribute to delay both the development of disease symptoms and the decrease of photosynthesis in Verticillium-inoculated plants with the subsequent benefit for yield. In stems, mycorrhizal pepper show earlier and higher deposition of lignin in xylem vessels than non mycorrhizal plants, even in absence of the pathogen. Moreover, AMF can induce new isoforms of acidic chitinases and superoxide dismutase in roots. Mycorrhizal-specific induction of these enzymatic activities together with enhanced peroxidase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in roots may also be involved in the bio protection of Verticillium-induced wilt in pepper by AMF. (Author) 81 refs.

  2. Radionic nonuniform black strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, Takashi; Kanno, Sugumi; Soda, Jiro

    2004-01-01

    Nonuniform black strings in the two-brane system are investigated using the effective action approach. It is shown that the radion acts as a nontrivial hair of the black strings. From the brane point of view, the black string appears as the deformed dilatonic black hole which becomes a dilatonic black hole in the single brane limit and reduces to the Reissner-Nordström black hole in the close limit of two-branes. The stability of solutions is demonstrated using catastrophe theory. From the bulk point of view, the black strings are proved to be nonuniform. Nevertheless, the zeroth law of black hole thermodynamics still holds.

  3. Toxicologic evaluation of pepper spray as a possible weapon for the Dutch police force: risk assessment and efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busker, R W; van Helden, H P

    1998-12-01

    The efficacy and possible health risks of pepper spray were evaluated. In a number of countries, pepper spray is being used by police forces to aid in arresting aggressive individuals. Pepper spray is commercially available as a canister filled with Capsicum extract, which contains capsaicin as the active component. When applied in the form of a spray, it causes an acute inflammation, and humans involuntarily close their eyes, experience a burning feeling on the skin, and are usually rapidly incapacitated. Use by the U.S. police was successful in subduing aggressive individuals in 90% of cases, and a reduction of injury to both police and arrested individuals was noted. In general, pepper spray appeared to be a relatively safe weapon with small risk of causing acute physical harm. Despite this evidence, a number of fatalities were reported in the United States following the use of pepper spray. However, it was concluded that it was not the pepper spray but rather other factors such as drugs and hog-tying that contributed to the cause of death. In only 1 case, that of an asthmatic man, was it concluded that the use of pepper spray contributed to the cause of death. Much attention has been paid to possible genotoxic effects of Capsicum extract such as mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. It was concluded that the risk of long-term health effects is negligible. Because pepper spray may induce bronchoconstriction, people suffering from chronic obstructive lung disease may be hypersensitive to it. Although the results of one study indicate that asthmatics do not develop additional bronchoconstriction following inhalation of capsaicin, the number of experimental data are too few to draw sound conclusions. PMID:9885922

  4. The Chemical and Genetic Characteristics of Szechuan Pepper (Zanthoxylum bungeanum and Z. armatum) Cultivars and Their Suitable Habitat

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang, Li; Liu, Yue; Xie, Caixiang; Li, Xiwen; Yu, Yadong; Ye, Meng; Chen, Shilin

    2016-01-01

    Szechuan peppers, famous for their unique sensation and flavor, are widely used as a food additive and traditional herbal medicine. Zanthoxylum bungeanum and Z. armatum are both commonly recognized as Szechuan peppers, but they have different tastes and effects. The chemical components, genetic characteristics, and suitable habitat of six cultivars were analyzed in this study. The results indicated that Z. armatum contained a larger proportion of volatile oil, whereas Z. bungeanum produced a ...

  5. The chemical and genetic characteristics of Szechuan pepper (Zanthoxylum bungeanum and Z. armatum) cultivars and their suitable habitat

    OpenAIRE

    Li eXiang; Yue eLiu; Caixiang eXie; Xiwen eLi; Yadong eYu; Meng eYe; Shilin eChen

    2016-01-01

    Szechuan peppers, famous for their unique sensation and flavor, are widely used as a food additive and traditional herbal medicine. Zanthoxylum bungeanum and Z. armatum are both commonly recognized as Szechuan peppers, but they have different tastes and effects. The chemical components, genetic characteristics, and suitable habitat of six cultivars were analyzed in this study. The results indicated that Z. armatum contained a larger proportion of volatile oil, whereas Z. bungeanum produced a ...

  6. Effects of chitin and salicylic acid on biological control activity of Pseudomonas spp. against damping off of pepper

    OpenAIRE

    M.Rajkumar; Lee, K. J.; Freitas, H.

    2008-01-01

    Fluorescent pseudomonads (SE21 and RD41) and resistance inducers (chitin and salicylic acid) were examined for plant growth promotion and biological control of damping off of pepper caused by Rhizoctonia solani. The antagonists SE21 and RD41 isolated from the rhizosphere of pepper were found to be effective in inhibiting the mycelial growth of R. solani in a dual culture assay and increasing the seedling vigour in a roll towel assay. Both antagonists were further characterized for biocontrol ...

  7. De Novo Transcriptome Assembly in Chili Pepper (Capsicum frutescens) to Identify Genes Involved in the Biosynthesis of Capsaicinoids

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Shaoqun; Li, Wanshun; Wu, Yimin; Chen, Changming; Lei, Jianjun

    2013-01-01

    The capsaicinoids are a group of compounds produced by chili pepper fruits and are used widely in many fields, especially in medical purposes. The capsaicinoid biosynthetic pathway has not yet been established clearly. To understand more knowledge in biosynthesis of capsaicinoids, we applied RNA-seq for the mixture of placenta and pericarp of pungent pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.). We have assessed the effect of various assembly parameters using different assembly software, and obtained one ...

  8. Red pepper (Capsicum annuum) carotenoids as a source of natural food colors: analysis and stability—a review

    OpenAIRE

    Arimboor, Ranjith; Natarajan, Ramesh Babu; Menon, K. Ramakrishna; Chandrasekhar, Lekshmi P.; Moorkoth, Vidya

    2014-01-01

    Carotenoids are increasingly drawing the attention of researchers as a major natural food color due to their inherent nutritional characteristics and the implicated possible role in prevention and protection against degenerative diseases. In this report, we review the role of red pepper as a source for natural carotenoids. The composition of the carotenoids in red pepper and the application of different methodologies for their analysis were discussed in this report. The stability of red peppe...

  9. Black Silicon Solar Cells with Black Ribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io;

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of mask-less reactive ion etch (RIE) texturing and blackened interconnecting ribbons as a method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon made by mask-less reactive ion etching has total, average...... range 15.7-16.3%. The KOH-textured reference cell had an efficiency of 17.9%. The combination of black Si and black interconnecting ribbons may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted silicon solar cells....... reflectance below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon (Si) wafer. Black interconnecting ribbons were realized by oxidizing copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the visible wavelength range. Screen-printed Si solar cells were realized on 156x156 mm2 black Si substrates with resulting efficiencies in the...

  10. Noncommutative black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study noncommutative black holes, by using a diffeomorphism between the Schwarzschild black hole and the Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model, which is generalized to noncommutative minisuperspace. Through the use of the Feynman-Hibbs procedure we are able to study the thermodynamics of the black hole, in particular, we calculate Hawking's temperature and entropy for the 'noncommutative' Schwarzschild black hole

  11. Black Entrepreneurship in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Shelley; Pryde, Paul

    The economic condition of black Americans is discussed, proceeding from the assumption that black economic progress does not depend on a renewed struggle for unobtained civil rights, but rather on the creative response of black Americans to economic opportunity and problems. In the long run, black economic development must rely on the…

  12. Age of seedling at transplanting influenced growth and fruit yield of sweet pepper (Capsicum annum L. cv. Rodo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Ibrahim

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted at the teaching and research farm of the University of Agriculture, Abeokuta to evaluate the effect of variations in the age of nursery seedlings on growth and fruit yield of sweet pepper. The seedlings were transplanted at different ages viz. 8, 10, 12 or 14 weeks after nursery sowing (WAS. The seedlings were arranged according to their respective ages in a randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replicates. Result of the experiment showed that the variation in the ages of the sweet pepper seedlings had significant (p < 0.05 effect on the subsequent plant height, leaf area, number of leaves and number of branches per plant. Pepper seedlings transplanted at 8 and 10 WAS produced larger leaves, greater number of leaves, more branches per plant, and also grew taller than the seedlings transplanted at 12 or 14 WAS. Variation in the seedling-transplanting age had no statistical significant difference on the fresh fruit yield (kg/ha. However, pepper seedlings transplanted at 8 and 10 weeks produced more fruits and higher fresh fruit yield per hectare than those seedlings transplanted at 12 and 14 WAS. Similarly, pepper seedlings transplanted at 12 and 14 WAS reached 50% flowering earlier than those transplanted at 8 and 10 WAS, thus gave better growth vigor and fresh fruit yield. It is recommended that pepper seedlings should not be left beyond 10 weeks in nursery before transplanting for optimum performance.

  13. Effectiveness and Public Acceptance Rate of Powder Pepper (Piper nigrum L. to Decrease Density of Anopheles spp larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andri Ruliansyah

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Pepper fruit (Piper nigrum L. is one of several pesticides from plant that can be used as insecticide. The purpose of this study was to identify the effectiveness and public acceptance of pepper fruit powder (Piper nigrum L. on reducing Anopheles spp. larvae density. The experiment was a quasi-experimental study which includes a pre-post test design with both treatment group and a control group. Pepper powder with a dose of 0.75 g in one litre of water kills 59.91% larvae in average through 24 hours treatment. Wilcoxon test results obtained from the pepper powder treatment was proved effective in decreasing the density of Anopheles spp. larvae since there was significant difference between before and after treatment. The result of public acceptance for pepper powder out of 20 respondents are 75% respondents accepted it well, 15% respondents accepted it fairly well, and 10% respondents accepted it poorly. These results showed pepper fruit powder potency as a good and accepted larvacide.

  14. Transcriptome analysis of symptomatic and recovered leaves of geminivirus-infected pepper (Capsicum annuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Góngora-Castillo Elsa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geminiviruses are a large and important family of plant viruses that infect a wide range of crops throughout the world. The Begomovirus genus contains species that are transmitted by whiteflies and are distributed worldwide causing disease on an array of horticultural crops. Symptom remission, in which newly developed leaves of systemically infected plants exhibit a reduction in symptom severity (recovery, has been observed on pepper (Capsicum annuum plants infected with Pepper golden mosaic virus (PepGMV. Previous studies have shown that transcriptional and post-transcriptional gene silencing mechanisms are involved in the reduction of viral nucleic acid concentration in recovered tissue. In this study, we employed deep transcriptome sequencing methods to assess transcriptional variation in healthy (mock, symptomatic, and recovered pepper leaves following PepGMV infection. Results Differential expression analyses of the pepper leaf transcriptome from symptomatic and recovered stages revealed a total of 309 differentially expressed genes between healthy (mock and symptomatic or recovered tissues. Computational prediction of differential expression was validated using quantitative reverse-transcription PCR confirming the robustness of our bioinformatic methods. Within the set of differentially expressed genes associated with the recovery process were genes involved in defense responses including pathogenesis-related proteins, reactive oxygen species, systemic acquired resistance, jasmonic acid biosynthesis, and ethylene signaling. No major differences were found when compared the differentially expressed genes in symptomatic and recovered tissues. On the other hand, a set of genes with novel roles in defense responses was identified including genes involved in histone modification. This latter result suggested that post-transcriptional and transcriptional gene silencing may be one of the major mechanisms involved in the

  15. Yield Traits and Water and Nitrogen Use Efficiencies of Bell Pepper Grown in Plastic-Greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rita Rivelli

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We report the results of a two-year study assessing the effects of nitrogen fertilization and irrigation regimes on yield traits and on water and nitrogen use efficiency of greenhouse-grown bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.. The trials involved the combination of four N doses (0, 100, 200, 300 kg ha-1 with two irrigation regimes (100% restitution of ETc; repeated cycles of water stress starting from fruit set. In the second year, the crop was transplanted one month earlier than in the first year and was mulched with plastic sheeting. The highest yield in both years was obtained by associating 100% restitution of ETc and the N dose of 200 kg ha-1. The marketable yields were 37 and 72 t ha-1 in 1998 and 1999, respectively. Doubling of the yield in the second year was probably due to the earlier transplantation and mulching, confirming the numerous benefits of the latter technique. The water deficit imposed during the late flowering-early fruit set phase had negative effects on the crop, with declines of the marketable yield of up to 44% due to the reduced number and weight of the fruit and the increased waste, mainly peppers with blossom-end rot, cracking, sun-burn and malformations. The peppers grown under water stress were richer in dry matter and soluble solids. The yield declines due to water deficit varied in relation to the N dose, as confirmed by the numerous interactions recorded between irrigation regime and nitrogen level.Without nitrogen fertilization, the quantity and quality of the fruits remained unchanged, while the maximum dose (300 kg ha-1 enhanced the negative effects of the water deficit on the number (-52% and weight (-161% of marketable peppers. Moreover, the waste peppers reached 31% of the total production (by weight, with over 21% affected by blossom-end rot. Water stress led to a drastic reduction of the total above-ground dry biomass (40% and a significant decrease of nitrogen absorption by the plant (54% with preferential

  16. The Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus (AMF) and Humic Acid on the Growth of Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Plant and Root Rot Disease Caused by Phytophthora capsici Leonian

    OpenAIRE

    ASLANPAY, Burcu; Semra DEMİR

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the effects of singular and double combinations of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) and humic acid (HA) were investigated on the growth of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and rot root disease caused by Phytophthora capsici Leonian which has been known as an important problem of pepper cultivation and leading yield losses. Under controlled conditions, four F1 pepper cultivars (Ergenekon, Bafra, Sirena and Yıldız) were inoculated with three different AMF strains (Glomus intraradice...

  17. Distinction of Green Sweet Peppers by Using Various Color Space Models and Computation of 3 Dimensional Location Coordinates of Recognized Green Sweet Peppers Based on Parallel Stereovision System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachche, Shivaji; Oka, Koichi

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents the comparative study of various color space models to determine the suitable color space model for detection of green sweet peppers. The images were captured by using CCD cameras and infrared cameras and processed by using Halcon image processing software. The LED ring around the camera neck was used as an artificial lighting to enhance the feature parameters. For color images, CieLab, YIQ, YUV, HSI and HSV whereas for infrared images, grayscale color space models were selected for image processing. In case of color images, HSV color space model was found more significant with high percentage of green sweet pepper detection followed by HSI color space model as both provides information in terms of hue/lightness/chroma or hue/lightness/saturation which are often more relevant to discriminate the fruit from image at specific threshold value. The overlapped fruits or fruits covered by leaves can be detected in better way by using HSV color space model as the reflection feature from fruits had higher histogram than reflection feature from leaves. The IR 80 optical filter failed to distinguish fruits from images as filter blocks useful information on features. Computation of 3D coordinates of recognized green sweet peppers was also conducted in which Halcon image processing software provides location and orientation of the fruits accurately. The depth accuracy of Z axis was examined in which 500 to 600 mm distance between cameras and fruits was found significant to compute the depth distance precisely when distance between two cameras maintained to 100 mm.

  18. Effects of boarding return satellite on antioxidant enzyme activities during germination of hot pepper seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of boarding return satellite on antioxidant enzyme activities during germination of hot pepper seed was studied. The results showed that the germination potentiality and germination rate of hot pepper seed after boarding return satellite were increased by 3.5% and 5.3%, respectively. During seed germination, soluble protein and MDA contents decreased, however, the SOD activities increased. SOD activity of treated seeds was higher than that of the control especially during the initial period of germination, while the content of soluble and MDA contents were much lower than those of control. The activities of SOD, G-POD, APX and CAT in 13d seedlings of treated seeds were increased by 14.29%, 25.23%, 1.84% and 21.52%, respectively. It was concluded that space flight enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities of seeds and seedlings, which were very important to prevent membrane lipid superoxide. (authors)

  19. RESEARCH REGARDING THE WATER CONSUMPTION OF TOMATOES, GREEN PEPPER AND CUCUMBERS CULTIVATED IN SOLARIUMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M DIRJA

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In such conditions, saving water represents a very important aspect, both economically and socially. But in horticulture saving water must consider another very important aspect, that of providing food for a continuously growing population. So horticultors have the difficult task of obtaining big productions as well as saving water. Our research come to support the cultivators who grow tomatoes, green peppers and cucumbers in solariums. Determining precisely the water consumption of this species will create the possibility of avoiding both the excess and the lack of water of the tomatoes, green peppers and cucumbers grown in solariums, each of them having negative effects on production. Establishing the best water regime of this crop will lead to the application of optimum water quantities, at the right time and by the most efficient irrigation methods. This way, the cultivators will have the possibility of obtaining high productions, of superior quality, justified economically.

  20. Chemical control trials against Phytophthora capsici (Leon on pepper cultivations in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pussemier, L.

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical control trials against Phytophthora capsici (Leon on pepper cultivations in Morocco. Pepper protection trials against collar and root rot have been undertaken under laboratory and culture conditions using Aliette (80 % of phosethylaluminium and Ridomil M 58 (10 % of metalaxyl associated to 48 % of maneb. It has been proved that, contrary to Ridomil M 58, Aliette does not protect the hostplant when the Phytophthora capsici (Leon zoospores are used as inoculum. But both fongicides are active when inoculating with a mycelian suspension. Trials undertaken under plastic glasshouses confirmed the laboratory results both with an artificial inoculation and with a natural one on contaminated soil. Only Ridomil M 58 provides satisfactory protection during the first weeks after the treatment. When disease propagation conditions are particularly favorable (permanent presence of an active inoculum source, the protection given by repeated Ridomil M 58 applications gradually disappears after a few weeks.

  1. Changes in structure of red pepper (Capsicum annuum L. seedlings shoots under aluminum stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Konarska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The seedlings of the red pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Trapez grown in water culture for a period of 14 days with Al (0, 10, 20 and 40 mg·dm-3 AlCl3·6 H2O. Some morphological and anatomical features of red pepper shoots were analyzed. Reduction in height and diameter of stems as well as decrease in fresh mass of shoots were observed after Al-treatment. In the hypocotyl the thickness of cortex parenchyma layer and the size of their cells were reduced. The aluminum treatment resulted in the increased in thickness of the epidermis outer cell wall. Under Al stress in the cotrex and the central cylinder parenchyma cells were present numerous enlarge plastids which contained large grains of starch and dark little bodies which were possible aluminum deposits. They weren`t observed in control seedlings.

  2. Inheritance of resistance to Pepper yellow mosaic virus in Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, C S; Rodrigues, R; Gonçalves, L S A; Oliveira, H S; Santos, M H; Pontes, M C; Sudré, C P

    2013-01-01

    We investigated inheritance of resistance to Pepper yellow mosaic virus (PepYMV) in Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum accessions UENF 1616 (susceptible) crossed with UENF 1732 (resistant). Plants from generations P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1:1, and BC1:2 were inoculated and the symptoms were evaluated for 25 days. Subsequently, an area under the disease progress curve was calculated and subjected to generation means analysis. Only the average and epistatic effects were significant. The broad and narrow sense heritability estimates were 35.52 and 21.79%, respectively. The estimate of the minimum number of genes that control resistance was 7, indicating that resistance is polygenic and complex. Thus, methods to produce segregant populations that advocate selection in more advanced generations would be the most appropriate to produce chili pepper cultivars resistant to PepYMV. PMID:23661433

  3. Viability estimation of pepper seeds using time-resolved photothermal signal characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ghiseok; Kim, Geon-Hee; Lohumi, Santosh; Kang, Jum-Soon; Cho, Byoung-Kwan

    2014-11-01

    We used infrared thermal signal measurement system and photothermal signal and image reconstruction techniques for viability estimation of pepper seeds. Photothermal signals from healthy and aged seeds were measured for seven periods (24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, and 168 h) using an infrared camera and analyzed by a regression method. The photothermal signals were regressed using a two-term exponential decay curve with two amplitudes and two time variables (lifetime) as regression coefficients. The regression coefficients of the fitted curve showed significant differences for each seed groups, depending on the aging times. In addition, the viability of a single seed was estimated by imaging of its regression coefficient, which was reconstructed from the measured photothermal signals. The time-resolved photothermal characteristics, along with the regression coefficient images, can be used to discriminate the aged or dead pepper seeds from the healthy seeds.

  4. Benefits of inoculation with azotobacter in the growth and production of tomato and peppers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarak Mirjana N.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the effects of Azotobacter chroococcum in tomato and pepper growth and production by using two types of inoculation - seed inoculation and seedling inoculation. The effect of inoculation was observed thirty days after sowing, thirty days after transplanting, and in the phase of technological maturity. The following were measured: height of the plants, dry matter of the plants and number and the weight of the fruits. Inoculation had a positive effect on these in both plants. With tomato, better results were achieved when seedlings were inoculated. With pepper, the length of the plant and the dry matter were greater with seedling inoculation, whereas the number and the weight of the fruits were greater with seed inoculation.

  5. Characters of tomato and pepper bred by space mutation in glasshouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plant growth and yield of tomato and pepper bred by space mutation and materials carried by aero-craft 'Shenzhou' No.4 and its parent variety as control were studied in glasshouse. The results show that all varieties grew vigorously in glasshouse and the average fruit weight was about 221 g for tomato variety 641 and 648 and material HT10-3-2 and HT10-2. Accumulated yield for variety 648 was 2847.5 g, which was 9.9% higher than variety 641, indicating that they are suitable for glasshouse cultivation. Average fruit weight for pepper variety 616 was about 76 g, potential with accumulated yield of 440.9 g, indicating that it can be used for glasshouse cultivation. There was no significant difference between the Aero-craft carried materials and but the yield range change of among and its the carried materials 7.5%-8.0%

  6. Vegetative and reproductive performances of pepper following laser irradiation at various fertilizer rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of laser irradiation of seeds on the vegetative and reproductive performances of pepper cv. Zlaten medal 7 grown in controlled conditions was studied. Two laser exposures were tested at blanket treatment of two fertilizer levels (100 mg N/1000 g soil and combined 500 g N2P2O5 and K2O/1000 g soil in a 1:1:1 ratio). The effect of laser irradiation on the growth performances (development of vegetative mass - stems and leaves), the yield, the mineral composition of the vegetative mass and the assimilation of nutrient substances from 100 plants was assessed. The conditions of mineral nutrition have to be taken into account in the studies concerning the effect of treatment in a laser field on pepper growth, development and productivity

  7. Removal of High Density Salt and Pepper Noise Through Super Mean Filter for Natural Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Lal

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A super-mean filter (SUMF is proposed to remove high density salt pepper noise from digital images. The proposed filter works in two stages, in the first stage the noisy pixels are detected and in the second stage each noisy pixel is replaced by the mean value of noise free pixel of 22 matrix. Extensive simulation and experimental results shows that the proposed filter works well consistently for suppressing the salt pepper noise. The performance of proposed filter is compared with the other existing filters, standard median filter(SMF, centre weighted median filter (CWMF, progressive switching median filter (PSMF, open-close sequence filter (OCSF, decision based algorithm (DBA, modified decision based unsymmetric trimmed median filter (MDBUTMF. The proposed filter shows better performance as compared to above mentioned filters for noise removal from different gray scale images.

  8. The impact of Trichoderma harzianum on sprouting and early development of pepper until thinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galonja-Coghill Tamara A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the study on the analysis of the stimulative and biopesticide effects of the fungus Trichoderma harzianum T-22 on germination, sprouting and early development of two pepper varieties (Amfora and Buketna 1 in organic production. The results show the significant effect of the applied T-22 strain on ger­mination, sprouting, growth and early development of both aboveground and underground parts of plants, either used as soil or seed inoculum, in comparison to controls. It was concluded that T. harzianum T-22 proved its efficiency in promoting growth and development of pepper, and preventing the development of mycoses. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31031: Promotion of sustainability and competitiveness in organic plant and stock production using new technologies and inputs

  9. Efficacy of Selected Insecticides and Application Methods in Controlling Aleurodicus dispersus (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) on Pepper Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Nasruddin, Andi

    2014-01-01

    Spiraling whitefly, Aleurodicus dispersus Russell (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) was detected for the first time causing serious damages on pepper in South Sulawesi Province of Indonesia in 2012. Farmers rely mainly on insecticide for its control; however, this effort apparently failed to provide satisfactory control. The failure probably stemmed from inappropriate insecticide choice and application method. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to evaluate the efficacy of commercially availabl...

  10. Phytotoxic effects of fungicides, insecticides and nonpesticidal components on pepper depending on water quality

    OpenAIRE

    Slavica Vuković; Dušanka Inđić; Sonja Gvozdenac

    2014-01-01

    Modern agriculture relies on simultaneous application of fungicides, insecticides, fertilizers and adjuvants. The selection of compounds for tank-mixes has been rarely studied and it presents a risk in the application of pesticides but the quality of water should also be considered. The aim of this study was to assess the phytotoxic effects of several fungicides, insecticides, a complex fertilizer, an adjuvant and their mixtures on pepper (Capsicum annuum L...

  11. A Three-Year Field Validation Study to Improve the Integrated Pest Management of Hot Pepper

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ji-Hoon; Yun, Sung-Chul

    2013-01-01

    To improve the integrated pest management (IPM) of hot pepper, field study was conducted in Hwasung from 2010 to 2012 and an IPM system was developed to help growers decide when to apply pesticides to control anthracnose, tobacco budworm, Phytophthora blight, bacterial wilt, and bacterial leaf spot. The three field treatments consisted of IPM sprays following the forecast model advisory, a periodic spray at 7-to-10-day intervals, and no spray (control). The number of annual pesticide applicat...

  12. RESEARCH REGARDING THE WATER CONSUMPTION OF TOMATOES, GREEN PEPPER AND CUCUMBERS CULTIVATED IN SOLARIUMS

    OpenAIRE

    DIRJA, M.; V BUDIU; I. PĂCURAR; M JURIAN

    2003-01-01

    In such conditions, saving water represents a very important aspect, both economically and socially. But in horticulture saving water must consider another very important aspect, that of providing food for a continuously growing population. So horticultors have the difficult task of obtaining big productions as well as saving water. Our research come to support the cultivators who grow tomatoes, green peppers and cucumbers in solariums. Determining precisely the water consumption of this spec...

  13. In vivo and in vitro content of capsaicin in pepper(Capsicum annuum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Koleva Gudeva, Liljana; Spasenoski, Mirko; Rafajlovska, Vesna

    2004-01-01

    From all groups of biological active-secondary metabolites, in the species of genus Capsicum the most importance have the alkaloids capsaicinoides, which are present only in the cultivars of genus Capsicum, and only they are responsible for the pungent of pepper. From all capsaicinoides only two compounds with 80-90% are responsible for the pungent of papper, and they are capsaicin and dihidrocapsaicin.

  14. Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling to Improve Natural Flow Rate and Sweet Pepper Productivity in Greenhouse

    OpenAIRE

    Limtrakarn, W.; Boonmongkol, P.; Chompupoung, A.; K. Rungprateepthaworn; J. Kruenate; Dechaumphai, P.

    2012-01-01

    Natural flow rate and sweet peppers productivity in tropical greenhouse are improved by CFD simulation is the main objective of this research work. Most of the greenhouse types today are in the arch shape. To develop an improved greenhouse structure for the region, the arch type was built and used as the control model. Mae Sar Mai agriculture research station under the royal project foundation was selected as the field test site. Temperature sensors with data logger were installed to monitor ...

  15. COST OF FRESH MARKET SWEET BELL PEPPER PRODUCTION IN MACOMB COUNTY, MICHIGAN

    OpenAIRE

    Dartt, Barbara; Black, J. Roy; Stevens, Hannah; Morrone, Vicki

    2002-01-01

    This bulletin represents a tool that can help producers, consultants, educators, and agribusinesses working with producers estimate costs of production and expected profit based on "typical" sweet bell pepper management strategies found in Macomb County, Michigan. The tools and techniques these producers use do not vary substantially from typical practices found in other regions of the state. The budget included in this bulletin will allow users to revise inputs based on their management stra...

  16. Toxicity and repellency of hot pepper extracts to spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonious, George F; Meyer, Janet E; Snyder, John C

    2006-01-01

    Increasing concern about persistence and environmental impact of synthetic pesticide residues require development of biodegradable and environmentally safe alternatives. The potential of using fruit extracts of hot pepper as alternatives to synthetic acaricides for controlling the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, is explored in this study. Twenty-four Capsicum accessions (Solanaceae) were screened for their toxicity and repellency to the spider mites. Crude extracts from fruits of C. chinense, C. frutescens, C. baccatum, C. annuum, and C. pubescens were prepared in methanol and tested for their acaricidal properties. Spider mite mortality was greatest (45%) when fruit extract of accession Grif-9169 (C. annuum) was used. Results from diving board bioassays indicated that mites avoided filter paper strips treated with hot pepper extracts from accessions PI-596057 (C. baccatum), PI-195299 (C. annuum), and Grif- 9270 (C. annuum). This investigation suggests that methanolic extracts of these three accessions may have a great potential for repelling spider mites and should be field-tested on a large-scale to assess their value in managing populations of spider mites, which could reduce reliance on synthetic acaricides. An attempt was made to correlate repellency with chemical constituents of fruit extracts of the most repellent accessions to identify chemical sources of repellency. Capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin, the pungent components of pepper fruit, were not correlated with toxicity or repellency, indicating that these are not likely related to the toxicity or repellency of the pepper fruit extracts. Other, unidentified chemicals are likely responsible for toxicity and repellency to the two-spotted spider mite. PMID:17090499

  17. Integrated Management of Wilt Complex Disease in Bell Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Tariq R. Rather; V. K. Razdan; Tewari, A. K.; Efath Shanaz; Z.A. Bhat; Mir G. Hassan; T. A. Wani

    2012-01-01

    Effect of various disease management tools on seedling emergence, wilt incidence and yield of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Var. California Wonder was studied as part of integrated management strategies under both glass house and field conditions. Different fungicides were tested against the four wilt pathogens viz, Fusarium oxysporum, Phytopthora capsici, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium rolfsii under in- vitro conditions. The fungicides viz, Captan, Carbendazim, Metalaxyl and Carboxin w...

  18. Influence of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza on Some Physiological Growth Parameters of Pepper

    OpenAIRE

    DEMİR, Semra

    2004-01-01

    Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (AM) is a symbiotic association between plant roots and certain soil fungi. Mycorrhiza establishment is known to modify several aspects of plant physiology such as mineral nutrient composition, hormonal balance, and C allocation patterns. In this study, the effect of the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices Schenck & Smith on the physiological growth parameters of pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv Cetinel-150) plants was investigated. To explain the physiolo...

  19. A study on non-destructive method for detecting Toxin in pepper using Neural networks

    OpenAIRE

    M. Rajalakshmi; Subashini, P.

    2012-01-01

    Mycotoxin contamination in certain agricultural systems have been a serious concern for human and animal health. Mycotoxins are toxic substances produced mostly as secondary metabolites by fungi that grow on seeds and feed in the field, or in storage. The food-borne Mycotoxins likely to be of greatest significance for human health in tropical developing countries are Aflatoxins and Fumonisins. Chili pepper is also prone to Aflatoxin contamination during harvesting, production and ...

  20. Emerging Insights on Brazilian Pepper Tree (Schinus terebinthifolius) Invasion: The Potential Role of Soil Microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Dawkins, Karim; Esiobu, Nwadiuto

    2016-01-01

    Invasive plant species constitute a major ecological and economic problem worldwide, often distorting trophic levels and ecosystem balance. Numerous studies implicate factors ranging from environmental plasticity, competition for nutrient and space, and allelopathy in the success of invasive species in general. The Brazilian Pepper tree (BP) was introduced to the United States in the 1800s and has since become a category one invasive plant in Florida. It has aggressively spread to about 3000 ...

  1. Emerging insights on Brazilian Pepper tree (Schinus terebinthifolius) invasion : the potential role of soil microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Karim eDawkins; Nwadiuto eEsiobu

    2016-01-01

    Invasive plant species constitute a major ecological and economic problem worldwide, often distorting trophic levels and ecosystem balance. Numerous studies implicate factors ranging from environmental plasticity, competition for nutrient and space, and allelopathy in the success of invasive species in general. The Brazilian Pepper tree (BP) was introduced to the United States in the 1800s and has since become a category one invasive plant in Florida. It has aggressively spread to about 3000 ...

  2. Overexpression of a defensin enhances resistance to a fruit-specific anthracnose fungus in pepper.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo-Hyoun Seo

    Full Text Available Functional characterization of a defensin, J1-1, was conducted to evaluate its biotechnological potentiality in transgenic pepper plants against the causal agent of anthracnose disease, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. To determine antifungal activity, J1-1 recombinant protein was generated and tested for the activity against C. gloeosporioides, resulting in 50% inhibition of fungal growth at a protein concentration of 0.1 mg·mL-1. To develop transgenic pepper plants resistant to anthracnose disease, J1-1 cDNA under the control of 35S promoter was introduced into pepper via Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation method. Southern and Northern blot analyses confirmed that a single copy of the transgene in selected transgenic plants was normally expressed and also stably transmitted to subsequent generations. The insertion of T-DNA was further analyzed in three independent homozygous lines using inverse PCR, and confirmed the integration of transgene in non-coding region of genomic DNA. Immunoblot results showed that the level of J1-1 proteins, which was not normally accumulated in unripe fruits, accumulated high in transgenic plants but appeared to differ among transgenic lines. Moreover, the expression of jasmonic acid-biosynthetic genes and pathogenesis-related genes were up-regulated in the transgenic lines, which is co-related with the resistance of J1-1 transgenic plants to anthracnose disease. Consequently, the constitutive expression of J1-1 in transgenic pepper plants provided strong resistance to the anthracnose fungus that was associated with highly reduced lesion formation and fungal colonization. These results implied the significance of the antifungal protein, J1-1, as a useful agronomic trait to control fungal disease.

  3. Application of Volatile Antifungal Plant Essential Oils for Controlling Pepper Fruit Anthracnose by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Jeum Kyu; Yang, Hye Ji; Jung, Heesoo; Yoon, Dong June; Sang, Mee Kyung; Jeun, Yong-Chull

    2015-01-01

    Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides has been destructive during pepper fruit production in outdoor fields in Korea. In vitro antifungal activities of 15 different plant essential oils or its components were evaluated during conidial germination and mycelial growth of C. gloeosporioides. In vitro conidial germination was most drastically inhibited by vapour treatments with carvacrol, cinnamon oil, trans-cinnamaldehyde, citral, p-cymene and linalool. Inhibition of the mycelial ...

  4. Overexpression of a defensin enhances resistance to a fruit-specific anthracnose fungus in pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hyo-Hyoun; Park, Sangkyu; Park, Soomin; Oh, Byung-Jun; Back, Kyoungwhan; Han, Oksoo; Kim, Jeong-Il; Kim, Young Soon

    2014-01-01

    Functional characterization of a defensin, J1-1, was conducted to evaluate its biotechnological potentiality in transgenic pepper plants against the causal agent of anthracnose disease, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. To determine antifungal activity, J1-1 recombinant protein was generated and tested for the activity against C. gloeosporioides, resulting in 50% inhibition of fungal growth at a protein concentration of 0.1 mg·mL-1. To develop transgenic pepper plants resistant to anthracnose disease, J1-1 cDNA under the control of 35S promoter was introduced into pepper via Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation method. Southern and Northern blot analyses confirmed that a single copy of the transgene in selected transgenic plants was normally expressed and also stably transmitted to subsequent generations. The insertion of T-DNA was further analyzed in three independent homozygous lines using inverse PCR, and confirmed the integration of transgene in non-coding region of genomic DNA. Immunoblot results showed that the level of J1-1 proteins, which was not normally accumulated in unripe fruits, accumulated high in transgenic plants but appeared to differ among transgenic lines. Moreover, the expression of jasmonic acid-biosynthetic genes and pathogenesis-related genes were up-regulated in the transgenic lines, which is co-related with the resistance of J1-1 transgenic plants to anthracnose disease. Consequently, the constitutive expression of J1-1 in transgenic pepper plants provided strong resistance to the anthracnose fungus that was associated with highly reduced lesion formation and fungal colonization. These results implied the significance of the antifungal protein, J1-1, as a useful agronomic trait to control fungal disease. PMID:24848280

  5. Multiple lines of evidence for the origin of domesticated chili pepper, Capsicum annuum, in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Kraig H; Brown, Cecil H; Nabhan, Gary P; Luedeling, Eike; Luna Ruiz, José de Jesús; Coppens d'Eeckenbrugge, Geo; Hijmans, Robert J; Gepts, Paul

    2014-04-29

    The study of crop origins has traditionally involved identifying geographic areas of high morphological diversity, sampling populations of wild progenitor species, and the archaeological retrieval of macroremains. Recent investigations have added identification of plant microremains (phytoliths, pollen, and starch grains), biochemical and molecular genetic approaches, and dating through (14)C accelerator mass spectrometry. We investigate the origin of domesticated chili pepper, Capsicum annuum, by combining two approaches, species distribution modeling and paleobiolinguistics, with microsatellite genetic data and archaeobotanical data. The combination of these four lines of evidence yields consensus models indicating that domestication of C. annuum could have occurred in one or both of two areas of Mexico: northeastern Mexico and central-east Mexico. Genetic evidence shows more support for the more northern location, but jointly all four lines of evidence support central-east Mexico, where preceramic macroremains of chili pepper have been recovered in the Valley of Tehuacán. Located just to the east of this valley is the center of phylogenetic diversity of Proto-Otomanguean, a language spoken in mid-Holocene times and the oldest protolanguage for which a word for chili pepper reconstructs based on historical linguistics. For many crops, especially those that do not have a strong archaeobotanical record or phylogeographic pattern, it is difficult to precisely identify the time and place of their origin. Our results for chili pepper show that expressing all data in similar distance terms allows for combining contrasting lines of evidence and locating the region(s) where cultivation and domestication of a crop began. PMID:24753581

  6. New Records of Endophytic Paecilomyces inflatus and Bionectria ochroleuca from Chili Pepper Plants in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Narayan Chandra; Deng, Jian Xin; Lee, Ji Hye; Yu, Seung Hun

    2013-01-01

    Two new species of endophytic fungi were encountered during a diversity study of healthy tissues of chili pepper plants in Korea. The species were identified as Paecilomyces inflatus and Bionectria ochroleuca based on molecular and morphological analyses. Morphological descriptions of these endophytic isolates matched well with their molecular analysis. In the present study, detailed descriptions of internal transcribed spacer regions and morphological observations of these two fungi are pres...

  7. New Records of Endophytic Paecilomyces inflatus and Bionectria ochroleuca from Chili Pepper Plants in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Narayan Chandra; Deng, Jian Xin; Lee, Ji Hye; Yu, Seung Hun

    2013-03-01

    Two new species of endophytic fungi were encountered during a diversity study of healthy tissues of chili pepper plants in Korea. The species were identified as Paecilomyces inflatus and Bionectria ochroleuca based on molecular and morphological analyses. Morphological descriptions of these endophytic isolates matched well with their molecular analysis. In the present study, detailed descriptions of internal transcribed spacer regions and morphological observations of these two fungi are presented. PMID:23610535

  8. Growth and Yield of Chili Pepper as Affected by Weed Based Organic Compost and Nitrogen Fertilizer

    OpenAIRE

    Nanik Setyowati; Zainal Muktamar; Bani Suriyanti; Marulak Simarmata

    2014-01-01

    Fertility improvement of Ultisol is inevitable to increase growth and yield of chili pepper since the nutrient availability and organic matter of this soil is relatively low. Application of organic fertilizer will enhance microorganism activity in soil, thereafter will improve the availability of nutrients as well as other chemical, physical, biological properties of the soil. Most of manure releases nutrient quite slowly; therefore, addition of nitrogen to soil is expected to speed up the av...

  9. Metabolomics and molecular marker analysis to explore pepper (Capsicum sp.) biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    Wahyuni, Yuni; Ballester, Ana-Rosa; Tikunov, Yury; de Vos, Ric C. H.; Pelgrom, Koen T. B.; Maharijaya, Awang; Sudarmonowati, Enny; Bino, Raoul J.; Arnaud G. Bovy

    2012-01-01

    An overview of the metabolic diversity in ripe fruits of a collection of 32 diverse pepper (Capsicum sp.) accessions was obtained by measuring the composition of both semi-polar and volatile metabolites in fruit pericarp, using untargeted LC–MS and headspace GC–MS platforms, respectively. Accessions represented C. annuum, C. chinense, C. frutescens and C. baccatum species, which were selected based on variation in morphological characters, pungency and geographic origin. Genotypic analysis us...

  10. Metabolomics and molecular marker analysis to explore pepper (Capsicum sp.) biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyuni, Yuni; Ballester, Ana-Rosa; Tikunov, Yury; de Vos, Ric C H; Pelgrom, Koen T B; Maharijaya, Awang; Sudarmonowati, Enny; Bino, Raoul J; Bovy, Arnaud G

    2013-02-01

    An overview of the metabolic diversity in ripe fruits of a collection of 32 diverse pepper (Capsicum sp.) accessions was obtained by measuring the composition of both semi-polar and volatile metabolites in fruit pericarp, using untargeted LC-MS and headspace GC-MS platforms, respectively. Accessions represented C. annuum, C. chinense, C. frutescens and C. baccatum species, which were selected based on variation in morphological characters, pungency and geographic origin. Genotypic analysis using AFLP markers confirmed the phylogenetic clustering of accessions according to Capsicum species and separated C. baccatum from the C. annuum-C. chinense-C. frutescens complex. Species-specific clustering was also observed when accessions were grouped based on their semi-polar metabolite profiles. In total 88 semi-polar metabolites could be putatively identified. A large proportion of these metabolites represented conjugates of the main pepper flavonoids (quercetin, apigenin and luteolin) decorated with different sugar groups at different positions along the aglycone. In addition, a large group of acyclic diterpenoid glycosides, called capsianosides, was found to be highly abundant in all C. annuum genotypes. In contrast to the variation in semi-polar metabolites, the variation in volatiles corresponded well to the differences in pungency between the accessions. This was particularly true for branched fatty acid esters present in pungent accessions, which may reflect the activity through the acyl branch of the metabolic pathway leading to capsaicinoids. In addition, large genetic variation was observed for many well-established pepper aroma compounds. These profiling data can be used in breeding programs aimed at improving metabolite-based quality traits such as flavour and health-related metabolites in pepper fruits. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11306-012-0432-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to

  11. Genetic Diversity of Colletotrichum spp. an Endophytic Fungi in a Medicinal Plant, Brazilian Pepper Tree

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, J. S.; Figueiredo, J. G.; Gomes, R. G.; Stringari, D.; Goulin, E. H.; Adamoski, D.; Kava-Cordeiro, V.; Galli-Terasawa, L. V.; Glienke, C.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we reported thirty-nine endophytic fungi identified as Colletotrichum spp. associated with Brazilian pepper tree or aroeira (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi. Anacardiaceae) in Paraná state, Brazil. These endophytes were identified by morphological and molecular methods, using PCR taxon-specific with CaInt/ITS4, CgInt/ITS4, and Col1/ITS4 primers, which amplify specific bands in C. acutatum, C. gloeosporioides lato sensu, and Colletotrichum boninensis, respectively, and by DNA seq...

  12. Determination of physical, mechanical, and structural seed properties of pepper cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibas, Ilknur; Koksal, Nezihe

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine various physical, mechanical, and structural characteristics of seed of pepper cultivars Yağlık Kapya, Demre Sivri, Yalova Carliston, Kandil Dolma, and Cin Sus Yediveren, which are grown extensively in Turkey, with initial moisture content ranging between 7.03 and 7.21% (w.b.). Width, length, and thickness were found to be in the range of 3.00-3.72, 3.43-4.40, and 0.66-0.82 mm, respectively. It was revealed that sphericity of the seeds of Yağlık Kapya, Demre Sivri, Yalova Carliston, Kandil Dolma, and Cin Sus Yediveren were 51, 57, 56, 51 and 57%, respectively. In terms of the roundness which ranges between 76 and 85% depending on pepper cultivars. The aspect ratio of Yağlık Kapya, Demre Sivri, Yalova Carliston, Kandil Dolma, and Cin Sus Yediveren were determined to be 84.60, 88.04, 94.43, 85.55, and 87.67%, respectively. It was also noted that the porosity of the pepper seeds was in the range of 44.94-49.61%. Besides, we found that as the weight of pepper seeds increased, their terminal velocity increased accordingly, and thus terminal velocities were found to be 2.87-4.66 m s-1. In the current study, the static friction angle and coefficients of the cultivars were determined by means of six different plates including aluminium, stainless steel, galvanized iron, rubber, glass, and plywood. The plywood plate was found to be the least slippery; consequently, the static friction angle and coefficient were determined to be the highest for the plywood plate.

  13. Genomic Characterization of the Chili Peppers (Capsicum Solanaceae) Germplasm by Classical and Molecular Cytogenetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the framework of the IAEA coordinated research project entitled 'Physical mapping technologies for the identification and characterization of mutated genes contributing to crop quality' we carried out genomic characterization of wild and cultivated samples of chilli peppers (genus Capsicum) by classical chromosome staining methods (AgNOR and fluorescent chromosome banding) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). For the first approach, fluorochromes with affinity for specific chromosome regions were used, i.e. chromomycin A3 (CMA) and diamidino-phenyl-indole (DAPI) which have preference for GC-rich and AT-rich regions, respectively. In addition, Ag-staining to detect active nucleolus organizing regions was applied. The heterochromatin could be characterized in respect to type, amount and distribution in the different accessions examined. On the other hand, the number and position of active NORs could be determined. Using FISH, different DNA probes were used in order to map specific sequences in the chromosomes, i.e. 45S and 5S rDNA, telomeric sequences and cloned restriction fragments of repetitive nature. As an example of the work done, we present the results obtained on a sample of Capsicum annuum var. annum (cultivar NMCA 10272), the most broadly exploited cultivar of chilli pepper. The results allowed us to characterize the Capsicum species and accessions and the possible evolutionary pathways for chilli peppers was deduced based on the available cytogenetic data. It is worth mentioning that the research work done under this CRP is part of work being done within an exsting network of chilli pepper research of this important plant group utilized by man and among one of the first cultivated plants in the history of humanity. (author)

  14. Radiosensitivity of California Wonder pepper variety to Co-60 gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeds of California wonder pepper variety were irradiated with dosages among 100-800 Gy, to intervals of 100 Gy, in a source of Co 60 gamma rays, with the objective of determining its radiosensitivity and to establish the adequate interval of dosage for the mutation breeding. A decrease of the growing indicators, productivity and plant fertility was observed with the increasing of irradiation dosages and the interval among 130-460 Gy was established as the most adequate

  15. Cultivation techniques of pepper in greenhouse%大棚辣椒栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周秀琴

    2015-01-01

    总结大棚辣椒栽培技术,主要包括选种育苗、定植、田间管理、病虫害防治等方面内容。%This paper summarized cultivation techniques of pepper in greenhouse including variety selection,raising seed-lings,field planting,field management,and control of diseases and pests.

  16. EFFECT OF SPACING ON THE GROWTH AND YIELD OF SWEET PEPPER (Capsicum annuum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Monirul; Satyaranjan SAHA; AKAND, Hasanuzzaman; RAHIM, Abdur

    2011-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out at the Horticultural farm of the Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI), Joydebpur, Gazipur, during September 2006 to April 2007 to investigate growth and yield of sweet pepper as influenced by spacing. There were three levels of spacing viz. 50×50 cm, 50×40 cm, 50×30 cm. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. Data were recorded on various parameters and subjected to statistical analysis. ...

  17. Development of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolated from green pepper in different culture media, temperatures, and light regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Mello Alexandre Furtado Silveira; Machado Andressa Cristina Zamboni; Bedendo Ivan Paulo

    2004-01-01

    Control of anthracnose in green pepper involves the use of resistant varieties and/or fungicides. The selection of varieties and efficient products demands great amounts of conidia as inoculum. It is thus necessary to optimize the production of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides conidia in the laboratory, establishing the best conditions for fungus development. The present study aimed at determining the most favorable culture media, temperature, and light conditions for the production of fungus i...

  18. Light Intensity Affects Pungency of Hot Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LV Chang-shan; WANG Jin-ling; YU Guang-jian

    2005-01-01

    This study was carried out both laboratory and field experiment to research the effects of three different light intensity on capsaicin content of hot pepper fruits during the growing stage, the varieties in the study were in different hot levels named No.4 Xiangyan (mid-hot) and No.3 Jingjianjiao (very hot). The study showed that capsaicin content increased accompanied with light intensity weakening. There was an inverse relationship between capsaicin content and peroxidase activity.

  19. Effect of Vitamin C, Red Pepper and Oak Leaves on Physiological and Productive Performance of Quail

    OpenAIRE

    ABDUL-RAHMAN, Saeb Younis; SIDEEQ, Narin Nidhamaddin; Ihsan T. Tayeb

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The current study was conducted on the animal production college of agriculture and forestry-University of Duhok, in order to investigate the effect of ration supplementation with vitamin C, red pepper (RP) and oak leaves (OL) on some physiological, reproductive and productive parameters of quail. Four hundred eighty quail birds (7 days) were divided into four groups with three replicates / group (40 birds/replicate, the groups were treated from the age of 7 days till the age of 49 ...

  20. Microstructural analysis of fresh-cut red bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) for postharvest quality optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca, Susana C.; Silva, Cristina L.; Malcata, F. Xavier

    2005-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to evaluate the microstructure of fresh-cut red bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) after cutting, when maintained (for 0,4 and 7 d) under refrigerated storage (2°C). In order to assess the microstructure of the product, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was applied; however, to improve this technique, preparation procedures and quantitative image analysis were specifically developed. Since sample preparation affects deeply image quality, three sample p...

  1. Growth, yield, and fruit quality of pepper plants amended with two sanitized sewage sludges.

    OpenAIRE

    Pascual Elizalde, Inmaculada; Azcona, Iñaki; Aguirreolea, Jone; Morales Iribas, Fermín; Corpas, Francisco Javier; Palma, José Manuel; Rellán-Álvarez, Rubén; Sánchez-Díaz, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Organic wastes such as sewage sludge have been successfully used to increase crop productivity of horticultural soils. Nevertheless, considerations of the impact of sludges on vegetable and fruit quality have received little attention. Therefore, the objective of the present work was to investigate the impact of two sanitized sewage sludges, autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion (ATAD) and compost sludge, on the growth, yield, and fruit quality of pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Pi...

  2. Biocontrol Activity of Myxococcus sp. KYC 1126 against Phytophthora Blight on Hot Pepper

    OpenAIRE

    Sung Chul Yun; Sung Taek Kim

    2011-01-01

    Bacteriolytic myxobacteria have been known to secrete various antifungal metabolites against several soilborne phytopathogens including Phytophthora. Among the three isolates of Myxococcus spp., KYC 1126 and KYC 1136 perfectly inhibited the mycelial growth of Phytophtora capsici in vitro. In order to show the biocontrol activity on Phytophthora blight of hot pepper, we tried to find the best way of application of myxobacterial isolate. Although KYC 1126 fruiting body was easily grown on the c...

  3. Photosynthetic response of pepper plants to wilt induced by Verticillium dahliae and soil water deficit.

    OpenAIRE

    Pascual Elizalde, Inmaculada; Azcona, Iñaki; Morales Iribas, Fermín; Aguirreolea, Jone; Sánchez-Díaz, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Greenhouse experiments were conducted to compare stress effects caused by Verticillium dahliae and drought on gas exchange, chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence and photosynthetic pigments of pepper plants. Three treatments were compared: Verticillium inoculated plants (+V), non-inoculated well-watered plants (−V) and non-inoculated plants subjected to progressive drought (D). Gas exchange, fluorescence and photosynthetic pigments were measured and represented along a gradient of relative water con...

  4. Collaborative study of a method for the extraction of light filth from crushed red peppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, J J

    1975-05-01

    A new method was developed for the extraction of light filth from crushed red peppers. The method utilizes an isoprapanol defatting of the product followed by separation of light filth elements with mineral oil and n-heptane (85+15) in a 2 L trap flask. Collaborative studies resulted in good recoveries of light filth spike elements and clean extration papers. The method has been adopted as official first action. PMID:1170161

  5. Growth and Yield of Chili Pepper as Affected by Weed Based Organic Compost and Nitrogen Fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanik Setyowati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fertility improvement of Ultisol is inevitable to increase growth and yield of chili pepper since the nutrient availability and organic matter of this soil is relatively low. Application of organic fertilizer will enhance microorganism activity in soil, thereafter will improve the availability of nutrients as well as other chemical, physical, biological properties of the soil. Most of manure releases nutrient quite slowly; therefore, addition of nitrogen to soil is expected to speed up the availability of nutrient to plant. Weed based organic fertilizers from Wedelia (Wedelia trilobata and Siam weed (Chromolaena odorata biomass have potential to substitute inorganic fertilizer. The objective of the experiment was to compare the effects of weed based organic compost and dry leaves compost with or without addition of nitrogen fertilizer on growth and yield of chili pepper. The experiment was carried out using Completely Randomized Design (CRD with treatments of 200 kg urea ha-1; Wedelia compost (WDC 20 ton ha-1; WDC 15, 10, and 5 ton ha-1 with addition of 200 kg urea ha-1 respectively; Siam weed compost (SWC 20 ton ha-1, SWC 15, 10, and 5 ton ha-1 with addition of  200 kg urea ha-1 respectively; and dry leaves compost (DLC 20 ton ha-1, DLC 15, 10, and 5 ton ha-1 with addition of 200 kg urea ha-1 respectively. The result revealed that composts with or without addition of nitrogen fertilizer had similar responses on the growth of chili pepper. Wedelia and Siam weeds compost at 20 ton ha-1 tended to give better yield of chili pepper as compared to application of urea alone. This result indicated that weed based organic fertilizers could substitute nitrogen fertilizer.

  6. Does the essential oil of Lippia sidoides Cham. (pepper-rosmarin) affect its endophytic microbial community?

    OpenAIRE

    da Silva, Thais Freitas; Vollú, Renata Estebanez; Jurelevicius, Diogo; Alviano, Daniela Sales; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Seldin, Lucy

    2013-01-01

    Background Lippia sidoides Cham., also known as pepper-rosmarin, produces an essential oil in its leaves that is currently used by the pharmaceutical, perfumery and cosmetic industries for its antimicrobial and aromatic properties. Because of the antimicrobial compounds (mainly thymol and carvacrol) found in the essential oil, we believe that the endophytic microorganisms found in L. sidoides are selected to live in different parts of the plant. Results In this study, the endophytic microbial...

  7. Is Bactra bactrana (Kennel, 1901) a novel pest of sweet peppers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roditakis, E; Morin, S; Baixeras, J

    2016-04-01

    This is the first report of Bactra bactrana (Kennel, 1901) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) attacking a major solanaceous crop, sweet pepper Capsicum annuum L. The infestation was detected in two greenhouses at the area of Tympaki (Southern Crete, Greece). The moth larvae caused typical symptoms of a fruit borer with numerous small holes on the surface of the peppers and extensive damage on the inside of the fruit as a result of the feeding activity. Unknown factors facilitated this major shift in host range since B. bactrana is typically a stem borer of sedges. In addition, the pest status of B. bactrana is currently under question, as in both cases the infestations by the moth were associated with significant yield losses. B. bactrana was moderately controlled with chemicals registered for Lepidoptera management in sweet pepper due to the boring nature of the infestation. Some comparative taxonomic notes are provided to facilitate accurate pest discrimination of related Bactra species. Finally, biological attributes of the species are summarized and are discussed from pest control and ecological perspectives. Because Bactra species have been used in augmentative releases for the control of sage, the implications of our findings on the release of biocontrol agents are placed in perspective. PMID:26696371

  8. Effect of polyethylene coated calcium carbide on physiology, photosynthesis, growth and yield of sweet pepper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyethylene coated calcium carbide (PCC) is a potent and continuous slowly releasing source of acetylene and ethylene. It potentially improves plant growth by affecting physiology of plant. A pot study was conducted to investigate comparative effects of different rates of PCC on growth and yield attributes of sweet pepper. PCC performed better when applied with soil applied fertilizers. Results revealed that hormonal properties of calcium carbide significantly influenced physiological nutrient use efficiency and vegetative growth by affecting photosynthetic and physiological parameters of sweet pepper. Application of 20 mg PCC kg/sup -1/ soil with soil applied recommended dose of NPK fertilizers significantly improved the net photosynthetic rate by 32%, stomatal conductance by 11%, transpiration rate by 14%, carboxylation efficiency by 47%, physiological water use efficiency by 13%, physiological nitrogen use efficiency by 29% over the control treatment. This improvement in physiological attributes resulted in increase in leaf area by 20%, leaf area index by 78%, total plant dry weight by 35%, flower and fruits by 29% and fruit yield by 24% compared to the treatment of alone recommended dose of NPK fertilizers. Present study suggests that application of PCC particularly at the rate of 20mg PCC kg/sup -1/ soil plus recommended dose of NPK fertilizers improved about 25% sweet pepper production compared to its production in the alone recommended fertilizer treatment. (author)

  9. Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Different Grafted Varieties of Bell Pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Chávez-Mendoza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Grafting favors the presence of bioactive compounds in the bell pepper, but many species and varieties have not yet been analyzed in this sense, including commonly grafted varieties. The aim of the present study is to characterize the content in β-carotenes, vitamin C, lycopene, total phenols, and the antioxidant activity of bell pepper (Capsicum annum L. using the cultivar/rootstock combinations: Jeanette/Terrano (yellow, Sweet/Robusto (green, Fascinato/Robusto (red, Orangela/Terrano (orange, and Fascinato/Terrano (red. The plants were grown in a net-shading system and harvested on three sampling dates of the same crop cycle. The results show statistical differences (p ≤ 0.05 between cultivar/rootstock combinations and sampling dates for the content in bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity. Fascinato/Robusto presented the highest concentration of lycopene and total phenols as well as the greatest antioxidant activity of all cultivar/rootstock combinations evaluated. In addition, it was found that the best sampling time for the peppers to have the highest concentrations of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity was September.

  10. Aflatoxin contaminated chili pepper detection by hyperspectral imaging and machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atas, Musa; Yardimci, Yasemin; Temizel, Alptekin

    2011-06-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by fungi. They have been demonstrated to cause various health problems in humans, including immunosuppression and cancer. A class of mycotoxins, aflatoxins, has been studied extensively because they have caused many deaths particularly in developing countries. Chili pepper is also prone to aflatoxin contamination during harvesting, production and storage periods. Chemical methods to detect aflatoxins are quite accurate but expensive and destructive in nature. Hyperspectral and multispectral imaging are becoming increasingly important for rapid and nondestructive testing for the presence of such contaminants. We propose a compact machine vision system based on hyperspectral imaging and machine learning for detection of aflatoxin contaminated chili peppers. We used the difference images of consecutive spectral bands along with individual band energies to classify chili peppers into aflatoxin contaminated and uncontaminated classes. Both UV and halogen illumination sources were used in the experiments. The significant bands that provide better discrimination were selected based on their neural network connection weights. Higher classification rates were achieved with fewer numbers of spectral bands. This selection scheme was compared with an information-theoretic approach and it demonstrated robust performance with higher classification accuracy.

  11. Influence of three rootstocks on yield and commercial quality of "Italian Sweet" pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Doñas-Uclés

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pepper crops (Capsicum annuum L. represent a very important production sector in the Southeast of Spain. Specifically, in the province of Almería, approximately 7000 hectares are grown every year. Due to the economic importance that this crop has for the region and the withdrawal of soil fumigants from the market, agronomic techniques have been adopted with the aim of controlling some soil pathogens and increasing the yield and quality parameters of the fruits obtained. The use of grafted pepper plants is not, as yet, very well established in this region, due mainly to the lack of commercial rootstocks that satisfy the producers of this vegetable. In this experiment three pepper rootstocks were assessed. An experiment was designed with four treatments and three replications of each one (12 experimental plots, which were distributed in randomised blocks. Three of the treatments corresponded to grafted plants of the "Palermo" cultivar onto: "Oscos", "AR40" and "Tresor", using non-grafted "Palermo" cultivar as the control test. The average yield expressed in kg/plant, showed significant differences between grafted and non-grafted plants. The highest fruit weight was obtained in Palermo onto Tresor. The presence of Blossom end rot (BER in the assessed fruits also showed significant differences between the different treatments, with the fruits from plants grafted onto Tresor showing a higher proportion of BER and the fruits coming from plants grafted onto AR40 showing the lowest proportion.

  12. Biochemical and Molecular Analysis of Some Commercial Samples of Chilli Peppers from Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivonne Guadalupe Troconis-Torres

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Capsicum provides antioxidant compounds, such as phenolics and carotenoids, into the diet. In Mexico, there is a wide diversity of species and varieties of chilli peppers, a fruit which has local cultural and gastronomic importance. In the present study, the relationship of the carotenoid and phenolic profiles with the RAPD fingerprint of three different commercial cultivars of chilli peppers of seven regions of Mexico was investigated. Through RAPD, the species of chilli were differentiated by means of different primers (OPE-18, MFG-17, MFG-18, C51, and C52. The genetic distance found with OPE 18 was in the order of 2.6. The observed differences were maintained when the chromatographic profile of carotenoids, and the molecular markers were analyzed, which suggest a close relationship between carotenoids and the genetic profile. While the chromatographic profile of phenols and the molecular markers were unable to differentiate between genotypes of chilli peppers. In addition, by using infrared spectroscopy and statistical PCA, differences explained by geographic origin were found. Thus, this method could be an alternative for identification of chilli species with respect to their geographic origin.

  13. Selection of a salt tolerant Tunisian cultivar of chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaouther Zhani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Salinity affects germination and seedling growth and yield of several crop species, such as pepper. That is why this study was carried to evaluate the effects of NaCl on seed germination, seedling growth and ionic balance of three Tunisian chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens cv: Tebourba, Korba and Awlad Haffouz. Materials and Methods: The percentage of germination, the growth and the mineral contents were measured in the three Tunisian chili pepper cv watered with water containing 0, 2, 4, 6 or 8 g L-1 NaCl. Results: Results showed that different salinity stress levels had significant effect on germination percentage and germination time. In pot experiment, increasing NaCl concentration, for all cv, induced a significant decrease on plant height, root length, leaves number, leaf area and chlorophyll amount. The fresh and dry weights are also affected. In addition, salinity increased Na+ and Cl– levels but decreased K+ level in roots and shoots. Conclusions: Awlad Haffouz cv had the highest K+/Na+ ratio compared to cv Korba and Tebourba and it has showed the best response under salt stress during germination and growth stage which lets it to be the most tolerant cv.

  14. In Vitro Shoot Bud Differentiation from Hypocotyl Explants of Chili Peppers (Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owk ANIEL KUMAR

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L. is an economically important spice crop in tropical and subtropical countries. In vitro plant regeneration was obtained from 15th day old hypocotyl explants of three chili pepper cultivars (Capsicum annuum L., var. �X-235�, var. �PC-1� and var. �Pusa Jwala�. Among the genotypes of Capsicum L. var. �X-235� responded better than the var. �PC-1� and var. �Pusa Jwala�. MS medium containing BAP (4.0 mg/l and IAA (0.5 mg/l was found to be the best medium for the production of maximum number of shoot buds in all the genotypes of chili pepper i.e., 6.80�0.16 (var. �X-235�, 5.00�0.19 (var. �PC-1� and 4.80�0.12 (var. �Pusa Jwala�. The shoots were rooted on MS medium fortified with IBA (0.5 mg/l. Rooted plants were hardened and transplanted to the soil. The plants showed 80-90% survival during transplantation.

  15. Capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin determination in chili pepper genotypes using ultra-fast liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Magaji G; Rafii, Mohd Y; Ismail, Mohd R; Malek, Md Abdul; Latif, Mohammad Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Research was carried out to estimate the levels of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin that may be found in some heat tolerant chili pepper genotypes and to determine the degree of pungency as well as percentage capsaicin content of each of the analyzed peppers. A sensitive, precise, and specific ultra fast liquid chromatographic (UFLC) system was used for the separation, identification and quantitation of the capsaicinoids and the extraction solvent was acetonitrile. The method validation parameters, including linearity, precision, accuracy and recovery, yielded good results. Thus, the limit of detection was 0.045 µg/kg and 0.151 µg/kg for capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin, respectively, whereas the limit of quantitation was 0.11 µg/kg and 0.368 µg/kg for capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin. The calibration graph was linear from 0.05 to 0.50 µg/g for UFLC analysis. The inter- and intra-day precisions (relative standard deviation) were chili peppers studied except AVPP9703, AVPP0512, AVPP0307, AVPP0803 and AVPP0102 could serve as potential sources of capsaicin. On the other hand, only genotypes AVPP0506, AVPP0104, AVPP0002, C05573 and AVPP0805 gave a % capsaicin content that falls within the pungency limit that could make them recommendable as potential sources of capsaicin for the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:24853712

  16. Pepper Rootstock Graft Compatibility and Response to Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Yuji; Offenbach, Rivka; Pivonia, Shimon

    2004-06-01

    Resistance of pepper species (Capsicum annuum, C. baccatum, C. chinense, C. chacoense, and C. frutescens), cultivars and accessions to the root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne incognita race 2 and M. javanica, and their graft compatibility with commercial pepper varieties as rootstocks were evaluated in growth chamber and greenhouse experiments. Most of the plants tested were highly resistant to M. javanica but susceptible to M. incognita. Capsicum annuum AR-96023 and C. frutescens accessions as rootstocks showed moderate and relatively high resistance to M. incognita, respectively. In M. incognita-infested soil in a greenhouse, AR-96023 supported approximately 6-fold less nematode eggs per gram root and produced about 2-fold greater yield compared to a nongrafted commercial variety. The commercial variety grafted on AR-96023 produced a yield as great as the non-grafted variety in the root-knot nematode-free greenhouse. Some resistant varieties and accessions used as rootstocks produced lower yields (P < 0.01) than that of the non-grafted variety in the noninfested greenhouse. Use of rootstocks with nematode-resistance and graft compatibility may be effective for control of root-knot nematodes on susceptible pepper. PMID:19262798

  17. Detection and Host Range Study of Virus Associated with Pepper Yellow Leaf Curl Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRI SULANDARI

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available High incidence of Pepper yellow leaf curl virus (PepYLCV was observed in Indonesia since early 2000. Disease incidence in Yogyakarta, Central and West Java reached 100% on Capsicum frutescens, but only 10-35% on C. annuum. As an exception, the disease incidence on C. annuum cv. TM 999 was in the range of 70-100%. The causal agent of the disease, PepYLCV, was detected by polymerase chain reaction. Viral specific DNA fragment of the size ~1600 bp and ~550 bp was amplified from infected plants using two pairs of geminivirus universal primers pAL1v1978/pAL1c715, and pAv494/pAc1048, respectively. The PepYLCV has an intermediate host range including plants belonging to the family of Solanaceae, Leguminosae, and Compositae. The species belonging to the families of Cucurbitaceae, Malvaceae, Chenopodiaceae, and Amaranthaceae were resistant to the virus. Physalis floridana, is very prospective as a propagation host for the geminivirus infecting pepper. Nicotiana spp., cucumber, watermelon, cotton, and Sida sp. could be used as a differential host. Besides, Capsicum frutescens cv. Cakra, tomato, N. benthamiana, N. glutinosa, and Ageratum conyzoides could be used as indicator plants for the geminivirus infecting pepper.

  18. Developmentally regulated sesquiterpene production confers resistance to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in ripe pepper fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sangkyu; Park, Ae Ran; Im, Soonduk; Han, Yun-Jeong; Lee, Sungbeom; Back, Kyoungwhan; Kim, Jeong-Il; Kim, Young Soon

    2014-01-01

    Sesquiterpenoid capsidiol, exhibiting antifungal activity against pathogenic fungus, is accumulated in infected ripe pepper fruits. In this study, we found a negative relation between the capsidiol level and lesion size in fruits infected with Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, depending on the stage of ripening. To understand the developmental regulation of capsidiol biosynthesis, fungal-induced gene expressions in the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathways were examined in unripe and ripe pepper fruits. The sterol biosynthetic pathway was almost shut down in healthy ripe fruits, showing very low expression of hydroxymethyl glutaryl CoA reductase (HMGR) and squalene synthase (SS) genes. In contrast, genes in the carotenoid pathway were highly expressed in ripe fruits. In the sesquiterpene pathway, 5-epi-aristolochene synthase (EAS), belonging to a sesquiterpene cyclase (STC) family, was significantly induced in the ripe fruits upon fungal infection. Immunoblot and enzyme activity analyses showed that the STCs were induced both in the infected unripe and ripe fruits, while capsidiol was synthesized discriminatively in the ripe fruits, implying diverse enzymatic specificity of multiple STCs. Thereby, to divert sterol biosynthesis into sesquiterpene production, infected fruits were pretreated with an SS inhibitor, zaragozic acid (ZA), resulting in increased levels of capsidiol by more than 2-fold in the ripe fruits, with concurrent reduction of phytosterols. Taken together, the present results suggest that the enhanced expression and activity of EAS in the ripe fruits play an important role in capsidiol production, contributing to the incompatibility between the anthracnose fungus and the ripe pepper fruits. PMID:25286411

  19. Increasing solubility of red bell pepper carotenoids by complexation with 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima Petito, Nicolly; da Silva Dias, Daiana; Costa, Valéria Gonçalves; Falcão, Deborah Quintanilha; de Lima Araujo, Kátia Gome

    2016-10-01

    Red bell pepper carotenoids were complexed with 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (2-HPβCD) in different mass ratios (1:4, 1:6, 1:8 and 1:10) through ultrasonic homogenization in order to increase carotenoid solubility and their use as natural pigment in food. Inclusion complexes, red bell pepper extract and physical mixtures were analyzed by DSC, FT-IR, (1)H NMR and DLS. Solubility assay was performed to identify the effect of complexation on the solubility of carotenoids. From characterization assays, results showed that inclusion process occurred for all tested ratios. Results for water solubility assays demonstrated clear differences between solubility index of inclusion complexes (8.06±2.59-16.55±4.40mg/mL) and physical mixtures (3.53±1.44-7.3±1.88mg/mL), while carotenoid extract was no water soluble, as expected. These results indicated that molecular inclusion of carotenoids in 2-HPβCD was efficient to enhance their solubility in water, enabling application of red bell pepper carotenoid as natural pigment and/or bioactive substances in food. PMID:27132832

  20. Absorption and distribution of different form of nitrogen in sweet pepper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The absorption and utilization of different form of nitrogen in sweet pepper were studied. The result showed that NH4+-N was favourable to growth of sweet pepper at seedling period and plant developing period and NO3--N was favourable at fruiting period. The utilization of the same form of nitrogen was quite different when N applied in different period. The utilization rate of nitrogen fertilizer dressed at fruiting was the highest (41.8%-45.8%), while that of the basal manure was the lowest (33.6%-36.7%). 75% of the nitrogen up taken from basal manure and fertilizer dressed in plant developing period was distributed in stems and leaves, more than 60% of nitrogen dressed in fruiting period was distributed in fruit. The analysis of fertilizer-N and soil-N in sweet pepper plant indicated that about 60% of plant-N was derived from soil-N and about 40% of plant-N was derived from fertilizer-N