WorldWideScience

Sample records for black hole radiation

  1. Radiation from the LTB black hole

    OpenAIRE

    Firouzjaee, J. T.; Mansouri, Reza

    2011-01-01

    Does a dynamical black hole embedded in a cosmological FRW background emit Hawking radiation where a globally defined event horizon does not exist? What are the differences to the Schwarzschild black hole? What about the first law of black hole mechanics? We face these questions using the LTB cosmological black hole model recently published. Using the Hamilton-Jacobi and radial null geodesic-methods suitable for dynamical cases, we show that it is the apparent horizon which contributes to the...

  2. Rotating embedded black holes: Entropy and Hawking's radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Ibohal, Ng

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we derive a class of rotating embedded black holes. Then we study Hawking's radiation effects on these embedded black holes. The surface gravity, entropy and angular velocity are given for each of these black holes.

  3. Testing black hole candidates with electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambi, Cosimo

    2017-04-01

    Astrophysical black hole candidates are thought to be the Kerr black holes of general relativity, but there is not yet direct observational evidence that the spacetime geometry around these objects is described by the Kerr solution. The study of the properties of the electromagnetic radiation emitted by gas or stars orbiting these objects can potentially test the Kerr black hole hypothesis. This paper reviews the state of the art of this research field, describing the possible approaches to test the Kerr metric with current and future observational facilities and discussing current constraints.

  4. Spin One Hawking Radiation from Dirty Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Petarpa Boonserm; Tritos Ngampitipan; Matt Visser

    2013-01-01

    A “clean” black hole is a black hole in vacuum such as the Schwarzschild black hole. However in real physical systems, there are matter fields around a black hole. Such a black hole is called a “dirty black hole”. In this paper, the effect of matter fields on the black hole and the greybody factor is investigated. The results show that matter fields make a black hole smaller. They can increase the potential energy to a black hole to obstruct Hawking radiation to propagate. This causes the gre...

  5. Isotropic coordinates for Schwarzschild black hole radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fujun; Gui Yuanxing; Ma Chunrui

    2007-01-01

    The isotropic coordinate system of Schwarzschild spacetime has several attractive properties similar with the Painleve-Gullstrand coordinates. The purpose for us to choose the isotropic coordinates is to resolve the ambiguities of the tunneling picture in Hawking radiation. Based on energy conservation, we investigate Hawking radiation as massless particles tunneling across the event horizon of the Schwarzschild black hole in the isotropic coordinates. Because the amplitude for a black hole to emit particles is related to the amplitude for it to absorb, we must take into account the contribution of ingoing solution to the action, ImS=ImS out -ImS in . It will be shown that the imaginary part of action for ingoing particles is zero (ImS in =0) in the Painleve-Gullstrand coordinates, so the equation ImS=ImS out -ImS in is valid in both the isotropic coordinates and the Painleve-Gullstrand coordinates

  6. Cosmic microwave background radiation of black hole universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, T. X.

    2010-11-01

    Modifying slightly the big bang theory, the author has recently developed a new cosmological model called black hole universe. This new cosmological model is consistent with the Mach principle, Einsteinian general theory of relativity, and observations of the universe. The origin, structure, evolution, and expansion of the black hole universe have been presented in the recent sequence of American Astronomical Society (AAS) meetings and published recently in a scientific journal: Progress in Physics. This paper explains the observed 2.725 K cosmic microwave background radiation of the black hole universe, which grew from a star-like black hole with several solar masses through a supermassive black hole with billions of solar masses to the present universe with hundred billion-trillions of solar masses. According to the black hole universe model, the observed cosmic microwave background radiation can be explained as the black body radiation of the black hole universe, which can be considered as an ideal black body. When a hot and dense star-like black hole accretes its ambient materials and merges with other black holes, it expands and cools down. A governing equation that expresses the possible thermal history of the black hole universe is derived from the Planck law of black body radiation and radiation energy conservation. The result obtained by solving the governing equation indicates that the radiation temperature of the present universe can be ˜2.725 K if the universe originated from a hot star-like black hole, and is therefore consistent with the observation of the cosmic microwave background radiation. A smaller or younger black hole universe usually cools down faster. The characteristics of the original star-like or supermassive black hole are not critical to the physical properties of the black hole universe at present, because matter and radiation are mainly from the outside space, i.e., the mother universe.

  7. Hawking radiation and strong gravity black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qadir, A.; Sayed, W.A.

    1979-01-01

    It is shown that the strong gravity theory of Salam et al. places severe restrictions on black hole evaporation. Two major implications are that: mini blck holes (down to masses approximately 10 -16 kg) would be stable in the present epoch; and that some suggested mini black hole mechanisms to explain astrophysical phenomena would not work. The first result implies that f-gravity appears to make black holes much safer by removing the possibility of extremely violent black hole explosions suggested by Hawking. (Auth.)

  8. Casimir Effect and Black Hole Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbardehghan, S.

    2018-03-01

    The gravitational field of a black hole intrinsically creates a potential barrier consisted of two reflecting boundaries; the first one far from the hole and the second one in the vicinity of its horizon. With respect to this fact and assuming the boundaries as good conductors (in view of an observer near the horizon just outside the second boundary), in a series of papers, R.M. Nugayev by considering a conformally coupled massless scalar field and based on the calculations of Candelas and Deutsch (the accelerated-mirror results) has claimed that " ...the existence of the potential barrier is as crucial for Hawking evaporation as the existence of the horizon". In this paper, by taking the same assumptions, through straightforward reasonings, we explicitly show that contrary to this claim, the effects of the first boundary on the black hole radiation are quite negligible. Moreover, the inclusion of the second boundary makes the situation more complicated, because the induced Casimir energy-momentum tensor by this boundary in its vicinity is divergent of order δ ^{-4} ( δ is the distance to the boundary).

  9. Hawking radiation of a high-dimensional rotating black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Ren; Zhang, Lichun; Li, Huaifan; Wu, Yueqin [Shanxi Datong University, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, Datong (China)

    2010-01-15

    We extend the classical Damour-Ruffini method and discuss Hawking radiation spectrum of high-dimensional rotating black hole using Tortoise coordinate transformation defined by taking the reaction of the radiation to the spacetime into consideration. Under the condition that the energy and angular momentum are conservative, taking self-gravitation action into account, we derive Hawking radiation spectrums which satisfy unitary principle in quantum mechanics. It is shown that the process that the black hole radiates particles with energy {omega} is a continuous tunneling process. We provide a theoretical basis for further studying the physical mechanism of black-hole radiation. (orig.)

  10. Synchrotron radiation from spherically accreting black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ipser, J.R.; Price, R.H.

    1982-01-01

    Spherical accretion onto a Schwartzchild black hole, of gas with frozen-in magnetic field, is studied numerically and analytically for a range of hole masses and accretion rates in which synchrotron emission is the dominant radiative mechanism. At small radii the equipartition of magnetic, kinetic, and gravitational energy is assumed to apply, and the gas is heated by dissipation of infalling magnetic energy, turbulent energy, etc. The models can be classified into three types: (a) synchrotron cooling negligible, (b) synchrotron cooling important but synchrotron self-absorption negligible, (c) synchrotron cooling and self-absorption important. In the first case gas temperatures become very high near the horizon but luminosity efficiencies (luminosity/mass-energy accretion rate) are low. In cases (b) and (c) the gas flow near the horizon is essentially isothermal and luminosity efficiencies are fairly high. The analysis and results for the isothermal cases (b) and (c) are valid only for moderate dissipative heating and synchrotron self-absorption. If self-absorption is very strong or if dissipated energy is comparable to infall energy, Comptonization effects, not included in the analysis, become important

  11. Quantum black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Calmet, Xavier; Winstanley, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Written by foremost experts, this short book gives a clear description of the physics of quantum black holes. The reader will learn about quantum black holes in four and higher dimensions, primordial black holes, the production of black holes in high energy particle collisions, Hawking radiation, black holes in models of low scale quantum gravity and quantum gravitational aspects of black holes.

  12. The Black Hole Radiation in Massive Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Arraut

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We apply the Bogoliubov transformations in order to connect two different vacuums, one located at past infinity and another located at future infinity around a black hole inside the scenario of the nonlinear theory of massive gravity. The presence of the extra degrees of freedom changes the behavior of the logarithmic singularity and, as a consequence, the relation between the two Bogoliubov coefficients. This has an effect on the number of particles, or equivalently, on the black hole temperature perceived by observers defining the time arbitrarily.

  13. Black hole state evolution, final state and Hawking radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, D

    2012-01-01

    The effect of a black hole state evolution on the Hawking radiation is studied using the final state boundary condition. It is found that the thermodynamic or statistical mechanical properties of a black hole depend strongly on the unitary evolution operator S, which determines the black hole state evolution. When the operator S is random unitary or pseudo-random unitary, a black hole emits thermal radiation as predicted by Hawking three decades ago. In particular, when the black hole mass of the final state vanishes, Hawking’s original result is retrieved. On the other hand, it is found that the emission of the Hawking radiation could be suppressed when the evolution of a black hole state is determined by the generator of the coherent state. Such a case can occur for some primordial black holes with Planck scale mass formed by primordial density fluctuations through the process of squeezing the zero-point quantum fluctuation of a scalar field. Those primordial black holes can survive until the present time and can contribute to cold dark matter. (paper)

  14. Hawking radiation from dilatonic black holes via anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Qingquan; Cai Xu; Wu Shuangqing

    2007-01-01

    Recently, Hawking radiation from a Schwarzschild-type black hole via a gravitational anomaly at the horizon has been derived by Robinson and Wilczek. Their result shows that, in order to demand general coordinate covariance at the quantum level to hold in the effective theory, the flux of the energy-momentum tensor required to cancel the gravitational anomaly at the horizon of the black hole is exactly equal to that of (1+1)-dimensional blackbody radiation at the Hawking temperature. In this paper, we attempt to apply the analysis to derive Hawking radiation from the event horizons of static, spherically symmetric dilatonic black holes with arbitrary coupling constant α, and that from the rotating Kaluza-Klein (α=√(3)) as well as the Kerr-Sen (α=1) black holes via an anomalous point of view. Our results support Robinson and Wilczek's opinion. In addition, the properties of the obtained physical quantities near the extreme limit are qualitatively discussed

  15. Analogue Hawking radiation from astrophysical black-hole accretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Tapas K

    2004-01-01

    We show that spherical accretion onto astrophysical black holes can be considered as a natural example of an analogue system. We provide, for the first time, an exact analytical scheme for calculating the analogue Hawking temperature and surface gravity for general relativistic accretion onto astrophysical black holes. Our calculation may bridge the gap between the theory of transonic astrophysical accretion and the theory of analogue Hawking radiation. We show that the domination of the analogue Hawking temperature over the actual Hawking temperature may be a real astrophysical phenomenon, though observational tests of this fact will at best be difficult and at worst might prove to be impossible. We also discuss the possibilities of the emergence of analogue white holes around astrophysical black holes. Our calculation is general enough to accommodate accreting black holes with any mass

  16. Initial-State Graviton Radiation in Quantum Black Hole Production

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2262067

    2017-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulation of quantum black hole production in the ATLAS experiment that allows for graviton radiation in the initial state is discussed and studied. It is concluded that, using trapped surface calculations and graviton emission, a black hole signal would be significant for Planck scales up to 4.5 TeV given a proton-proton luminosity of 37 fb$^{-1}$ in the 13 TeV LHC configuration.

  17. Hawking radiation from black holes in de Sitter spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Qingquan

    2007-01-01

    Recently, Hawking radiation has been treated, by Robinson and Wilczek (2005 Phys. Rev. Lett. 95 011303), as a compensating flux of the energy-momentum tensor required to cancel a gravitational anomaly at the event horizon (EH) of a Schwarzschild-type black hole. In this paper, motivated by this work, Hawking radiation from the event horizon (EH) and the de Sitter cosmological horizon (CH) of black holes in de Sitter spaces, specifically including the purely de Sitter black hole and the static, spherically symmetric Schwarzschild-de Sitter black hole as well as the rotating Kerr-de Sitter black hole, have been studied by anomalies. The results show that the gauge-current and energy-momentum tensor fluxes, required to restore gauge invariance and general coordinate covariance at the EH and the CH, are precisely equal to those of Hawking radiation from the EH and the CH, respectively. It should be noted that gauge and gravitational anomalies taking place at the CH arise from the fact that the effective field theory is formulated inside the CH to integrate out the classically irrelevant outgoing modes at the CH, which are different from those at the black hole horizon

  18. Hawking radiation from extremal and nonextremal black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balbinot, R.; Fabbri, A.; Farese, S.; Parentani, R.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between Hawking radiation emitted by nonextremal and extremal Reissner-Nordstroem black holes is critically analyzed. A careful study of a series of regular collapsing geometries reveals that the stress energy tensor stays regular in the extremal limit and is smoothly connected to that of nonextremal black holes. The unexpected feature is that the late time transients which played little role in the nonextremal case are necessary to preserve the well-defined character of the flux in the extremal case. The known singular behavior of the static energy density of extremal black holes is recovered from our series by neglecting these transients, when performing what turns out to be an illegitimate late time limit. Although our results are derived in two-dimensional settings, we explain why they should also apply to higher dimensional black holes

  19. Black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feast, M.W.

    1981-01-01

    This article deals with two questions, namely whether it is possible for black holes to exist, and if the answer is yes, whether we have found any yet. In deciding whether black holes can exist or not the central role in the shaping of our universe played by the forse of gravity is discussed, and in deciding whether we are likely to find black holes in the universe the author looks at the way stars evolve, as well as white dwarfs and neutron stars. He also discusses the problem how to detect a black hole, possible black holes, a southern black hole, massive black holes, as well as why black holes are studied

  20. Hawking radiation from AdS black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubeny, Veronika E; Rangamani, Mukund; Marolf, Donald

    2010-01-01

    We study Hartle-Hawking-like states of quantum field theories on asymptotically AdS black hole backgrounds, with particular regard to the phase structure of interacting theories. By a suitable analytic continuation we show that the equilibrium dynamics of field theories on large asymptotically AdS black holes can be related to the low-temperature states of the same field theory on the AdS soliton (or pure AdS) background. This allows us to gain insight into Hartle-Hawking-like states on large-radius Schwarzschild- or rotating-AdS black holes. Furthermore, we exploit the AdS/CFT correspondence to explore the physics of strongly coupled large N theories on asymptotically AdS black holes. In particular, we exhibit a plausibly complete set of phases for the M2-brane world-volume superconformal field theory on a BTZ black hole background. Our analysis partially resolves puzzles previously raised in connection with Hawking radiation on large AdS black holes.

  1. Thermal radiation and nonthermal radiation of the slowly changing dynamic Kerr–Newman black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Qingmiao; Wang Shuai; Jiang Jijian; Deng Deli

    2008-01-01

    Using the related formula of dynamic black hole, we have calculated the instantaneous radiation energy density of the slowly changing dynamic Kerr–Newman black hole. It is found that the instantaneous radiation energy density of a black hole is always proportional to the quartic of the temperature of the event horizon in the same direction. By using the Hamilton–Jacobin equation of scalar particles in the curved spacetime, the spontaneous radiation of the slowly changing dynamic Kerr–Newman black hole is studied. The energy condition for the occurrence of the spontaneous radiation is obtained. (general)

  2. Comment on 'Hawking radiation from fluctuating black holes'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khavkine, I.

    2010-01-01

    Takahashi and Soda (2010 Class. Quantum Grav. 27 175008) have recently considered the effect (at lowest non-trivial order) of dynamical, quantized gravitational fluctuations on the spectrum of scalar Hawking radiation from a collapsing Schwarzschild black hole. However, due to an unfortunate choice

  3. Hawking Radiations from an Arbitrarily Accelerating Kerr Black Hole ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Introduction. In 1976, Damour & Ruffini (1976) presented a method proving Hawking radiation. Zhao et al. (1994) improved the method of Damour and Ruffini, and calculated the location of the event horizon and the temperature of the varying black holes at the same time. It is a pivotal step to introduce a tortoise coordinate ...

  4. Canonical Ensemble Model for Black Hole Radiation Jingyi Zhang

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, a canonical ensemble model for the black hole quantum tunnelling radiation is introduced. In this model the probability distribution function corresponding to the emission shell is calculated to second order. The formula of pressure and internal energy of the thermal system is modified, and the ...

  5. Hawking radiation from AdS black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemming, Samuli; Keski-Vakkuri, Esko

    2001-08-01

    We investigate Hawking radiation from black holes in (d+1)-dimensional anti-de Sitter space. We focus on s waves, make use of the geometrical optics approximation, and follow three approaches to analyze the radiation. First, we compute a Bogoliubov transformation between Kruskal and asymptotic coordinates and compare the different vacua. Second, following a method due to Kraus, Parikh, and Wilczek, we view Hawking radiation as a tunneling process across the horizon and compute the tunneling probability. This approach uses an anti-de Sitter version of a metric originally introduced by Painlevé for Schwarzschild black holes. From the tunneling probability one also finds a leading correction to the semiclassical emission rate arising from back reaction to the background geometry. Finally, we consider a spherically symmetric collapse geometry and the Bogoliubov transformation between the initial vacuum state and the vacuum of an asymptotic observer.

  6. Quantum tunneling radiation from self-dual black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, C.A.S., E-mail: calex@fisica.ufc.br [Instituto Federal de Educação Ciência e Tecnologia da Paraíba (IFPB), Campus Campina Grande, Rua Tranquilino Coelho Lemos, 671, Jardim Dinamérica I (Brazil); Brito, F.A., E-mail: fabrito@df.ufcg.edu.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Caixa Postal 10071, 58109-970 Campina Grande, Paraíba (Brazil)

    2013-10-01

    Black holes are considered as objects that can reveal quantum aspects of spacetime. Loop Quantum Gravity (LQG) is a theory that propose a way to model the quantum spacetime behavior revealed by a black hole. One recent prediction of this theory is the existence of sub-Planckian black holes, which have the interesting property of self-duality. This property removes the black hole singularity and replaces it with another asymptotically flat region. In this work, we obtain the thermodynamical properties of this kind of black holes, called self-dual black holes, using the Hamilton–Jacobi version of the tunneling formalism. Moreover, using the tools of the tunneling approach, we investigate the emission spectrum of self-dual black holes, and investigate if some information about the black hole initial state can be recovered during the evaporation process. Back-reaction effects are included.

  7. Radiative properties of optical board embedded with optical black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, J.; Liu, L.H.; Hsu, P.-F.

    2011-01-01

    Unique radiative properties, such as wavelength-selective transmission or absorption, have been intensively studied. Historically, geometries for wavelength-selective of light absorption were developed based on metallic periodical structures, which were only applied in the case of TM wave incidence due to the excitation of surface plasmons. In this paper, we develop an alternative approach to selective wavelength of light absorption (both TE and TM waves), based on an optical board periodical embedded with optical black holes. Numerical work was carried out to study such structure's radiative properties within the wavelength range of 1-100 μm. The electromagnetic wave transmission through such a structure is predicted by solving Maxwell's equations using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. Spectral absorptance varies with the period of optical black holes. When the incidence wavelength is much larger than the inner core radius, most of the light energy will be transmitted through the inner core. Otherwise, the energy will be mainly absorbed. Numerical results of the radiative properties of the optical board with different incidence wavelengths are also obtained. The effect of the oblique incidence wave is investigated. This study helps us gain a better understanding of the radiative properties of an optical board embedded with optical black holes and develop an alternative approach to selective light absorption.

  8. White holes and eternal black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Stephen D H

    2012-01-01

    We investigate isolated white holes surrounded by vacuum, which correspond to the time reversal of eternal black holes that do not evaporate. We show that isolated white holes produce quasi-thermal Hawking radiation. The time reversal of this radiation, incident on a black hole precursor, constitutes a special preparation that will cause the black hole to become eternal. (paper)

  9. Black hole multiplicity at particle colliders (Do black holes radiate mainly on the brane?)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavaglia, Marco

    2003-01-01

    If gravity becomes strong at the TeV scale, we may have the chance to produce black holes at particle colliders. In this Letter we revisit some phenomenological signatures of black hole production in TeV-gravity theories. We show that the bulk-to-brane ratio of black hole energy loss during the Hawking evaporation phase depends crucially on the black hole greybody factors and on the particle degrees of freedom. Since the greybody factors have not yet been calculated in the literature, and the particle content at trans-Planckian energies is not known, it is premature to claim that the black hole emits mainly on the brane. We also revisit the decay time and the multiplicity of the decay products of black hole evaporation. We give general formulae for black hole decay time and multiplicity. We find that the number of particles produced during the evaporation phase may be significantly lower than the average multiplicity which has been used in the past literature

  10. Sowing Black Hole Seeds: Forming Direct Collapse Black Holes With Realistic Lyman-Werner Radiation Fields in Cosmological Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Dunn, Glenna; Bellovary, Jillian M.; Christensen, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Luminous quasars detected at redshifts z > 6 require that the first black holes form early and grow to ~109 solar masses within one Gyr. Our work uses cosmological simulations to study the formation and early growth of direct collapse black holes. In the pre-reionization epoch, molecular hydrogen (H2) causes gas to fragment and form Population III stars, but Lyman-Werner radiation can suppress H2 formation and allow gas to collapse directly into a massive black hole. The critical flux required to inhibit H2 formation, Jcrit, is hotly debated, largely due to the uncertainties in the source radiation spectrum, H2 self-shielding, and collisional dissociation rates. Here, we test the power of the direct collapse model in a non-uniform Lyman-Werner radiation field, using an updated version of the SPH+N-body tree code Gasoline with H2 non-equilibrium abundance tracking, H2 cooling, and a modern SPH implementation. We vary Jcrit from 30 to 104 J21 to study the effect on seed black holes, focusing on black hole formation as a function of environment, halo mass, metallicity, and proximity of the Lyman-Werner source. We discuss the constraints on massive black hole occupation fraction in the quasar epoch, and implications for reionization, high-redshift X-ray background radiation, and gravitational waves.

  11. Quantum radiation from an evaporating nonsingular black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolov, Valeri P.; Zelnikov, Andrei

    2017-06-01

    In this paper we study quantum radiation from an evaporating spherically symmetric nonsingular black hole. We used a modified Hayward metric for a description of a nonsingular black hole interior. We assume that the mass parameter of this metric depends on the advanced time, and choose this dependence so that it properly reproduces both black hole formation and its subsequent evaporation. We consider a quantum massless scalar field propagating in this geometry and use two-dimensional approximation for the calculation of the quantum average of the stress-energy tensor in the initial vacuum state. For the calculation of this quantity it is sufficient to find a map between the Killing times u+ and u- at the future and past null infinities, established by the propagation of the radial null rays. In this formalism the quantum energy flux at the future null infinity can be expressed in terms of the function u+(u-) and its derivatives up to the third order. We developed a special formalism, which allows one to reduce the problem of the calculation of the quantum energy flux and other observables to a solution of a simple set of ordinary differential equations. We used this approach to study quantum effects in two cases: (i) with the trivial, α =1 , and (ii) the nontrivial, α ≠1 , redshift function. We demonstrated that in both cases there exists an outburst of the quantum energy radiation from the inner domain of the black hole, close to the inner part of its apparent horizon. For α =1 this outburst is exponentially large. Its appearance is a direct consequence of the so-called mass inflation effect. We also demonstrated that this severe problem can be solved by a proper choice of the redshift function. However, even in this case the emitted energy can be much larger than the initial mass of the evaporating black hole. This means that for a construction of a self-consistent model of a nonsingular evaporating black hole the backreaction effects are highly important.

  12. What happens to the horizon when a black hole radiates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    York, J.W. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The paper concerns a detailed study of the changes the horizon undergoes when a black hole emits energy. Horizons; evaporating metric; quantum ergosphere; proper acceleration and local temperature of the apparent horizon; Raychadhuri equation, surface gravity and mass; black holes and white holes; high temperature extrapolation; and low temperature limit; are all discussed. (U.K.)

  13. Quantum anomalies at horizon and Hawking radiations in Myers-Perry black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iso, Satoshi; Morita, Takeshi; Umetsu, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    A new method has been developed recently to derive Hawking radiations from black holes based on considerations of gravitational and gauge anomalies at the horizon. In this paper, we apply the method to Myers-Perry black holes with multiple angular momenta in various dimensions by using the dimensional reduction technique adopted in the case of four-dimensional rotating black holes

  14. Electromagnetic radiation accompanying gravitational waves from black hole binaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolgov, A. [Dept. of Physics, Novosibirsk State University, Pirogova 2, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Postnov, K., E-mail: dolgov@fe.infn.it, E-mail: kpostnov@gmail.com [Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Moscow M.V. Lomonosov State University, Universitetskij pr. 13, 119234 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-09-01

    The transition of powerful gravitational waves, created by the coalescence of massive black hole binaries, into electromagnetic radiation in external magnetic fields is considered. In contrast to the previous calculations of the similar effect we study the realistic case of the gravitational radiation frequency below the plasma frequency of the surrounding medium. The gravitational waves propagating in the plasma constantly create electromagnetic radiation dragging it with them, despite the low frequency. The plasma heating by the unattenuated electromagnetic wave may be significant in hot rarefied plasma with strong magnetic field and can lead to a noticeable burst of electromagnetic radiation with higher frequency. The graviton-to-photon conversion effect in plasma is discussed in the context of possible electromagnetic counterparts of GW150914 and GW170104.

  15. Thermal Hawking radiation of black hole with supertranslation field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iofa, Mikhail Z.

    2018-01-01

    Using the analytical solution for the Schwarzschild metric containing supertranslation field, we consider two main ingredients of calculation of the thermal Hawking black hole radiation: solution for eigenmodes of the d'Alambertian and solution of the geodesic equations for null geodesics. For calculation of Hawking radiation it is essential to determine the behavior of both the eigenmodes and geodesics in the vicinity of horizon. The equation for the eigenmodes is solved, first, perturbatively in the ratio O( C) /M of the supertranslation field to the mass of black hole, and, next, non-perturbatively in the near- horizon region. It is shown that in any order of perturbation theory solution for the eigenmodes in the metric containing supertranslation field differs from solution in the pure Schwarzschild metric by terms of order L 1/2 = (1 - 2 M/r)1/2. In the non-perturbative approach, solution for the eigenmodes differs from solution in the Schwarzschild metric by terms of order L 1/2 which vanish on horizon. Using the simplified form of geodesic equations in vicinity of horizon, it is shown that in vicinity of horizon the null geodesics have the same behavior as in the Schwarzschild metric. As a result, the density matrices of thermal radiation in both cases are the same.

  16. The upper bound of radiation energy in the Myers-Perry black hole collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwak, Bogeun; Lee, Bum-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated the upper bound of the radiation energy in the head-on collision of two Myers-Perry black holes. Initially, the two black holes are far away from each other, and they become one black hole after the collision. We have obtained the upper bound of the radiation energy thermodynamically allowed in the process. The upper bound of the radiation energy is obtained in general dimensions. The radiation bound depends on the alignments of rotating axes for a given initial condition due to spin-spin interaction. We have found that the collision may not be occurred for a initially ultra-spinning black hole.

  17. Analytic Black Hole Perturbation Approach to Gravitational Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Misao; Tagoshi, Hideyuki

    2003-01-01

    We review the analytic methods used to perform the post-Newtonian expansion of gravitational waves induced by a particle orbiting a massive, compact body, based on black hole perturbation theory. There exist two different methods of performing the post-Newtonian expansion. Both are based on the Teukolsky equation. In one method, the Teukolsky equation is transformed into a Regge-Wheeler type equation that reduces to the standard Klein Gordon equation in the flat-space limit, while in the other method (which was introduced by Mano, Suzuki, and Takasugi relatively recently, the Teukolsky equation is used directly in its original form. The former's advantage is that it is intuitively easy to understand how various curved space effects come into play. However, it becomes increasingly complicated when one goes to higher and higher post-Newtonian orders. In contrast, the latter's advantage is that a systematic calculation to higher post-Newtonian orders can be implemented relatively easily, but otherwise, it is so mathematical that it is hard to understand the interplay of higher order terms. In this paper, we review both methods so that their pros and cons may be seen clearly. We also review some results of calculations of gravitational radiation emitted by a particle orbiting a black hole.

  18. Horizons of radiating black holes in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, S. G.; Deshkar, D. W.

    2008-01-01

    A Vaidya-based model of a radiating black hole is studied in a 5-dimensional Einstein gravity with Gauss-Bonnet contribution of quadratic curvature terms. The structure and locations of the apparent and event horizons of the radiating black hole are determined

  19. $W_\\infty$ Algebras, Hawking Radiation and Information Retention by Stringy Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V

    2016-01-01

    We have argued previously, based on the analysis of two-dimensional stringy black holes, that information in stringy versions of four-dimensional Schwarzschild black holes (whose singular regions are represented by appropriate Wess-Zumino-Witten models) is retained by quantum $W$-symmetries when the horizon area is not preserved due to Hawking radiation. It is key that the exactly-marginal conformal world-sheet operator representing a massless stringy particle interacting with the black hole requires a contribution from $W_\\infty$ generators in its vertex function. The latter correspond to delocalised, non-propagating, string excitations that guarantee the transfer of information between the string black hole and external particles. When infalling matter crosses the horizon, these topological states are excited via a process: (Stringy black hole) + infalling matter $\\rightarrow $ (Stringy black hole)$^\\star$, where the black hole is viewed as a stringy state with a specific configuration of $W_\\infty$ charges...

  20. Galactic Black Hole Binaries: High-Energy Radiation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grove, J. E; Grindlay, J. E; Harmon, B. A; Hua, X. -M; Kazanas, D; McConnell, M

    1997-01-01

    Observations of galactic black hole candidates made by the instruments aboard the Compton GRO in the hard X-ray and gamma-ray bands have significantly enhanced our knowledge of the emission properties of these objects...

  1. Scattering of point particles by black holes: Gravitational radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Seth; Cardoso, Vitor

    2018-02-01

    Gravitational waves can teach us not only about sources and the environment where they were generated, but also about the gravitational interaction itself. Here we study the features of gravitational radiation produced during the scattering of a pointlike mass by a black hole. Our results are exact (to numerical error) at any order in a velocity expansion, and are compared against various approximations. At large impact parameter and relatively small velocities our results agree to within percent level with various post-Newtonian and weak-field results. Further, we find good agreement with scaling predictions in the weak-field/high-energy regime. Lastly, we achieve striking agreement with zero-frequency estimates.

  2. The Thermodynamics of Black Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wald Robert M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the present status of black hole thermodynamics. Our review includes discussion of classical black hole thermodynamics, Hawking radiation from black holes, the generalized second law, and the issue of entropy bounds. A brief survey also is given of approaches to the calculation of black hole entropy. We conclude with a discussion of some unresolved open issues.

  3. Hawking Radiation-Quasinormal Modes Correspondence for Large AdS Black Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dao-Quan Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well-known that the nonstrictly thermal character of the Hawking radiation spectrum generates a natural correspondence between Hawking radiation and black hole quasinormal modes. This main issue has been analyzed in the framework of Schwarzschild black holes, Kerr black holes, and nonextremal Reissner-Nordstrom black holes. In this paper, by introducing the effective temperature, we reanalyze the nonstrictly thermal character of large AdS black holes. The results show that the effective mass corresponding to the effective temperature is approximatively the average one in any dimension. And the other effective quantities can also be obtained. Based on the known forms of frequency in quasinormal modes, we reanalyze the asymptotic frequencies of the large AdS black hole in three and five dimensions. Then we get the formulas of the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy and the horizon’s area quantization with functions of the quantum “overtone” number n.

  4. Canonical Ensemble Model for Black Hole Radiation Jingyi Zhang

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    system is modified, and the fundamental equation of thermodynamics is also discussed. Key words. Canonical ensemble model—black hole—quantum tunnelling—fundamental equation of thermodynamics. The quantum tunnelling method, proposed by Parikh & Wilczek, is an effective method of investigating the black hole ...

  5. Hawking radiation from four-dimensional Schwarzschild black holes in M theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, S.R.; Mathur, S.D.; Ramadevi, P.

    1999-01-01

    Recently a method has been developed for relating four dimensional Schwarzschild black holes in M theory to near-extremal black holes in string theory with four charges, using suitably defined open-quotes boostsclose quotes and T dualities. We show that this method can be extended to obtain the emission rate of low energy massless scalars for the four dimensional Schwarzschild hole from the microscopic picture of radiation from the near extremal hole. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  6. Hawking radiation of five-dimensional charged black holes with scalar fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Gang Miao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the Hawking radiation cascade from the five-dimensional charged black hole with a scalar field coupled to higher-order Euler densities in a conformally invariant manner. We give the semi-analytic calculation of greybody factors for the Hawking radiation. Our analysis shows that the Hawking radiation cascade from this five-dimensional black hole is extremely sparse. The charge enhances the sparsity of the Hawking radiation, while the conformally coupled scalar field reduces this sparsity.

  7. Growth of Accreting Supermassive Black Hole Seeds and Neutrino Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagik Ter-Kazarian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of microscopic theory of black hole (MTBH, which explores the most important processes of rearrangement of vacuum state and spontaneous breaking of gravitation gauge symmetry at huge energies, we have undertaken a large series of numerical simulations with the goal to trace an evolution of the mass assembly history of 377 plausible accreting supermassive black hole seeds in active galactic nuclei (AGNs to the present time and examine the observable signatures today. Given the redshifts, masses, and luminosities of these black holes at present time collected from the literature, we compute the initial redshifts and masses of the corresponding seed black holes. For the present masses MBH/M⊙≃1.1×106 to 1.3×1010 of 377 black holes, the computed intermediate seed masses are ranging from MBHSeed/M⊙≃26.4 to 2.9×105. We also compute the fluxes of ultrahigh energy (UHE neutrinos produced via simple or modified URCA processes in superdense protomatter nuclei. The AGNs are favored as promising pure UHE neutrino sources, because the computed neutrino fluxes are highly beamed along the plane of accretion disk, peaked at high energies, and collimated in smaller opening angle (θ≪1.

  8. Hawking radiation in a d-dimensional static spherically symmetric black hole surrounded by quintessence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Songbai; Wang Bin; Su Rukeng

    2008-01-01

    We present a solution of Einstein equations with quintessential matter surrounding a d-dimensional black hole, whose asymptotic structures are determined by the state of the quintessential matter. We examine the thermodynamics of this black hole and find that the mass of the black hole depends on the equation of state of the quintessence, while the first law is universal. Investigating the Hawking radiation in this black hole background, we observe that the Hawking radiation dominates on the brane in the low-energy regime. For different asymptotic structures caused by the equation of state of the quintessential matter surrounding the black hole, we learn that the influences by the state parameter of the quintessence on Hawking radiation are different

  9. Hawking radiation from a spherical loop quantum gravity black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambini, Rodolfo; Pullin, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    We introduce quantum field theory on quantum space-times techniques to characterize the quantum vacua as a first step toward studying black hole evaporation in spherical symmetry in loop quantum gravity and compute the Hawking radiation. We use as quantum space-time the recently introduced exact solution of the quantum Einstein equations in vacuum with spherical symmetry and consider a spherically symmetric test scalar field propagating on it. The use of loop quantum gravity techniques in the background space-time naturally regularizes the matter content, solving one of the main obstacles to back-reaction calculations in more traditional treatments. The discreteness of area leads to modifications of the quantum vacua, eliminating the trans-Planckian modes close to the horizon, which in turn eliminates all singularities from physical quantities, like the expectation value of the stress–energy tensor. Apart from this, the Boulware, Hartle–Hawking and Unruh vacua differ little from the treatment on a classical space-time. The asymptotic modes near scri are reproduced very well. We show that the Hawking radiation can be computed, leading to an expression similar to the conventional one but with a high frequency cutoff. Since many of the conclusions concern asymptotic behavior, where the spherical mode of the field behaves in a similar way as higher multipole modes do, the results can be readily generalized to non spherically symmetric fields. (paper)

  10. Upper Limit of Radiation from Coalescence of Rotating Hayward Black Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwak Bogeun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the upper limit of the gravitational radiation thermally allowed under the collision of two rotating Hayward black holes. The upper limit is dependent on the gravitational spin interaction between black holes and is useful to determine one of the parameters for consistency with Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO data.

  11. Upper Limit of Radiation from Coalescence of Rotating Hayward Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwak, Bogeun

    2018-01-01

    We review the upper limit of the gravitational radiation thermally allowed under the collision of two rotating Hayward black holes. The upper limit is dependent on the gravitational spin interaction between black holes and is useful to determine one of the parameters for consistency with Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) data.

  12. Black hole astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blandford, R.D.; Thorne, K.S.

    1979-01-01

    Following an introductory section, the subject is discussed under the headings: on the character of research in black hole astrophysics; isolated holes produced by collapse of normal stars; black holes in binary systems; black holes in globular clusters; black holes in quasars and active galactic nuclei; primordial black holes; concluding remarks on the present state of research in black hole astrophysics. (U.K.)

  13. Covariance Method of the Tunneling Radiation from High Dimensional Rotating Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui-Ling; Han, Yi-Wen; Chen, Shuai-Ru; Ding, Cong

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, Angheben-Nadalini-Vanzo-Zerbini (ANVZ) covariance method is used to study the tunneling radiation from the Kerr-Gödel black hole and Myers-Perry black hole with two independent angular momentum. By solving the Hamilton-Jacobi equation and separating the variables, the radial motion equation of a tunneling particle is obtained. Using near horizon approximation and the distance of the proper pure space, we calculate the tunneling rate and the temperature of Hawking radiation. Thus, the method of ANVZ covariance is extended to the research of high dimensional black hole tunneling radiation.

  14. High energy radiation from black holes gamma rays, cosmic rays, and neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Dermer, Charles D

    2009-01-01

    Bright gamma-ray flares observed from sources far beyond our Milky Way Galaxy are best explained if enormous amounts of energy are liberated by black holes. The highest- energy particles in nature--the ultra-high-energy cosmic rays--cannot be confined by the Milky Way's magnetic field, and must originate from sources outside our Galaxy. Understanding these energetic radiations requires an extensive theoretical framework involving the radiation physics and strong-field gravity of black holes. In High Energy Radiation from Black Holes, Charles Dermer and Govind Menon present a systemat

  15. Covariance Method of the Tunneling Radiation from High Dimensional Rotating Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui-Ling; Han, Yi-Wen; Chen, Shuai-Ru; Ding, Cong

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, Angheben-Nadalini-Vanzo-Zerbini (ANVZ) covariance method is used to study the tunneling radiation from the Kerr-Gödel black hole and Myers-Perry black hole with two independent angular momentum. By solving the Hamilton-Jacobi equation and separating the variables, the radial motion equation of a tunneling particle is obtained. Using near horizon approximation and the distance of the proper pure space, we calculate the tunneling rate and the temperature of Hawking radiation. Thus, the method of ANVZ covariance is extended to the research of high dimensional black hole tunneling radiation.

  16. Bulk emission by higher-dimensional black holes: almost perfect blackbody radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hod, Shahar

    2011-01-01

    We study the Hawking radiation emitted into the bulk by (D + 1)-dimensional Schwarzschild black holes. It is well known that the black-hole spectrum departs from exact blackbody form due to the frequency dependence of the 'greybody' factors. For intermediate values of D (3 ≤ D ∼ > 1, the typical wavelengths in the black-hole spectrum are much shorter than the size of the black hole. In this regime, the greybody factors are well described by the geometric-optics approximation according to which they are almost frequency independent. Following this observation, we argue that for higher-dimensional black holes with D >> 1, the total power emitted into the bulk should be well approximated by the analytical formula for perfect blackbody radiation. We test the validity of this analytical prediction with numerical computations.

  17. ON THE MASS RADIATED BY COALESCING BLACK HOLE BINARIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barausse, E. [Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1 (Canada); Morozova, V.; Rezzolla, L. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert Einstein Institut, Potsdam, D-14476 Golm (Germany)

    2012-10-10

    We derive an analytic phenomenological expression that predicts the final mass of the black hole (BH) remnant resulting from the merger of a generic binary system of BHs on quasi-circular orbits. Besides recovering the correct test-particle limit for extreme mass-ratio binaries, our formula reproduces well the results of all the numerical-relativity simulations published so far, both when applied at separations of a few gravitational radii and when applied at separations of tens of thousands of gravitational radii. These validations make our formula a useful tool in a variety of contexts ranging from gravitational-wave (GW) physics to cosmology. As representative examples, we first illustrate how it can be used to decrease the phase error of the effective-one-body waveforms during the ringdown phase. Second, we show that, when combined with the recently computed self-force correction to the binding energy of nonspinning BH binaries, it provides an estimate of the energy emitted during the merger and ringdown. Finally, we use it to calculate the energy radiated in GWs by massive BH binaries as a function of redshift, using different models for the seeds of the BH population.

  18. Black holes are warm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravndal, F.

    1978-01-01

    Applying Einstein's theory of gravitation to black holes and their interactions with their surroundings leads to the conclusion that the sum of the surface areas of several black holes can never become less. This is shown to be analogous to entropy in thermodynamics, and the term entropy is also thus applied to black holes. Continuing, expressions are found for the temperature of a black hole and its luminosity. Thermal radiation is shown to lead to explosion of the black hole. Numerical examples are discussed involving the temperature, the mass, the luminosity and the lifetime of black mini-holes. It is pointed out that no explosions corresponding to the prediction have been observed. It is also shown that the principle of conservation of leptons and baryons is broken by hot black holes, but that this need not be a problem. The related concept of instantons is cited. It is thought that understanding of thermal radiation from black holes may be important for the development of a quantified gravitation theory. (JIW)

  19. Gravitational radiation from the radial infall of highly relativistic point particles into Kerr black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Vitor; Lemos, Jose P.S.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the gravitational radiation generated by the collision of highly relativistic particles with rotating Kerr black holes. We use the Sasaki-Nakamura formalism to compute the waveform, energy spectra, and total energy radiated during this process. We show that the gravitational spectrum for high-energy collisions has definite characteristic universal features, which are independent of the spin of the colliding objects. We also discuss the possible connections between these results and black-hole-black-hole collisions at the speed of light. Our results show that during the high-speed collision of a nonrotating hole with a rotating one, at most 35% of the total energy can get converted into gravitational waves. This 35% efficiency occurs only in the most optimistic situation, that of a zero impact parameter collision, along the equatorial plane, with an almost extreme Kerr black hole. In the general situation, the total gravitational energy radiated is expected to be much less, especially if the impact parameter increases. Thus, if one is able to produce black holes at the CERN Large Hadron Collider, at most 35% of the partons' energy should be emitted during the so-called balding phase. This energy will be missing, since we do not have gravitational wave detectors able to measure such amplitudes. The collision at the speed of light between one rotating black hole and a nonrotating one or two rotating black holes turns out to be the most efficient gravitational wave generator in the Universe

  20. The contribution of accreting black holes to the background radiation density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, B.J.

    1979-01-01

    Black holes could generate radiation as a result of accretion. The requirement that this radiation should not have a density exceeding the observed background density places an interesting limit on the number of black holes, depending on the wavelength at which the radiation is generated and the efficiency with which it is produced from accreted material. Consideration of the radiation produced in the present epoch already constrains the mass range in which black holes could have a significant cosmological density. For pregalactic black holes, which may have been accreting more rapidly in the past, the constraint could be even stronger. However, because pregalactic accretion will in general increase the matter temperature of the Universe, it is a self-limiting process. For this reason the pregalactic accretion limit is not as strong as one might naively expect and it is generally weaker than the present epoch limit. (author)

  1. Is it possible to recover information from the black-hole radiation?

    CERN Document Server

    Schiffer, M

    1993-01-01

    In the framework of communication theory, we analyse the gedanken experiment in which beams of quanta bearing information are flashed towards a black hole. We show that stimulated emission at the horizon provides a correlation between incoming and outgoing radiations consisting of bosons. For fermions, the mechanism responsible for the correlation is the Fermi exclusion principle. Each one of these mechanisms is responsible for the a partial transfer of the information originally coded in the incoming beam to the black--hole radiation. We show that this process is very efficient whenever stimulated emission overpowers spontaneous emission (bosons). Thus, black holes are not `ultimate waste baskets of information'.

  2. Low-energy electromagnetic radiation as an indirect probe of black-hole evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emelyanov, Slava

    2016-12-01

    We study the influence of black-hole evaporation on light propagation. The framework employed is based on the non-linear QED effective action at one-loop level. We show that the light-cone condition is modified for low-energy radiation due to black-hole evaporation. We discuss conditions under which the phase velocity of this low-energy radiation is greater than c. We also compute the modified light-deflection angle, which turns out to be significantly different from the standard GR value for black-hole masses in the range MPl ≪ M ≲1019MPl.

  3. Correction to Hawking radiation of the stationary axisymmetric NUT-Taub black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Huiling; Lin Rong; Cai Min; Qi Dejiang; Jiang Qingquan

    2007-01-01

    Adopting a new method of quantum radiation as tunnelling, and taking energy conservation into account, the tunnelling radiation characteristics of the stationary axial symmetric NUT-Taub black hole are studied. The result shows that the tunnelling rate of particles at the event horizon of the black hole is relevant to Bekenstein-Hawking entropy and the real spectrum is not precisely thermal at all

  4. Theory-Agnostic Constraints on Black-Hole Dipole Radiation with Multiband Gravitational-Wave Astrophysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barausse, Enrico; Yunes, Nicolás; Chamberlain, Katie

    2016-06-17

    The aLIGO detection of the black-hole binary GW150914 opens a new era for probing extreme gravity. Many gravity theories predict the emission of dipole gravitational radiation by binaries. This is excluded to high accuracy in binary pulsars, but entire classes of theories predict this effect predominantly (or only) in binaries involving black holes. Joint observations of GW150914-like systems by aLIGO and eLISA will improve bounds on dipole emission from black-hole binaries by 6 orders of magnitude relative to current constraints, provided that eLISA is not dramatically descoped.

  5. Black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, B.

    1980-01-01

    In years 1920 as a result of quantum mechanics principles governing the structure of ordinary matter, a sudden importance for a problem raised a long time ago by Laplace: what happens when a massive body becomes so dense that even light cannot escape from its gravitational field. It is difficult to conceive how could be avoided in the actual universe the accumulation of important masses of cold matter having been submitted to gravitational breaking down followed by the formation of what is called to day a black hole [fr

  6. Information-carrying Hawking radiation and the number of microstate for a black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Qing-yu, E-mail: qycai@wipm.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonances and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Sun, Chang-pu, E-mail: cpsun@csrc.ac.cn [Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); You, Li, E-mail: lyou@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Quantum Physics, Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing (China)

    2016-04-15

    We present a necessary and sufficient condition to falsify whether a Hawking radiation spectrum indicates unitary emission process or not from the perspective of information theory. With this condition, we show the precise values of Bekenstein–Hawking entropies for Schwarzschild black holes and Reissner–Nordström black holes can be calculated by counting the microstates of their Hawking radiations. In particular, for the extremal Reissner–Nordström black hole, its number of microstate and the corresponding entropy we obtain are found to be consistent with the string theory results. Our finding helps to refute the dispute about the Bekenstein–Hawking entropy of extremal black holes in the semiclassical limit.

  7. Information-carrying Hawking radiation and the number of microstate for a black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Qing-yu; Sun, Chang-pu; You, Li

    2016-01-01

    We present a necessary and sufficient condition to falsify whether a Hawking radiation spectrum indicates unitary emission process or not from the perspective of information theory. With this condition, we show the precise values of Bekenstein–Hawking entropies for Schwarzschild black holes and Reissner–Nordström black holes can be calculated by counting the microstates of their Hawking radiations. In particular, for the extremal Reissner–Nordström black hole, its number of microstate and the corresponding entropy we obtain are found to be consistent with the string theory results. Our finding helps to refute the dispute about the Bekenstein–Hawking entropy of extremal black holes in the semiclassical limit.

  8. Information-carrying Hawking radiation and the number of microstate for a black hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-yu Cai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a necessary and sufficient condition to falsify whether a Hawking radiation spectrum indicates unitary emission process or not from the perspective of information theory. With this condition, we show the precise values of Bekenstein–Hawking entropies for Schwarzschild black holes and Reissner–Nordström black holes can be calculated by counting the microstates of their Hawking radiations. In particular, for the extremal Reissner–Nordström black hole, its number of microstate and the corresponding entropy we obtain are found to be consistent with the string theory results. Our finding helps to refute the dispute about the Bekenstein–Hawking entropy of extremal black holes in the semiclassical limit.

  9. Entropy is conserved in Hawking radiation as tunneling: A revisit of the black hole information loss paradox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Baocheng; Cai Qingyu; Zhan Mingsheng; You Li

    2011-01-01

    Research Highlights: → Information is found to be encoded and carried away by Hawking radiations. → Entropy is conserved in Hawking radiation. → We thus conclude no information is lost. → The dynamics of black hole may be unitary. - Abstract: We revisit in detail the paradox of black hole information loss due to Hawking radiation as tunneling. We compute the amount of information encoded in correlations among Hawking radiations for a variety of black holes, including the Schwarzchild black hole, the Reissner-Nordstroem black hole, the Kerr black hole, and the Kerr-Newman black hole. The special case of tunneling through a quantum horizon is also considered. Within a phenomenological treatment based on the accepted emission probability spectrum from a black hole, we find that information is leaked out hidden in the correlations of Hawking radiation. The recovery of this previously unaccounted for information helps to conserve the total entropy of a system composed of a black hole plus its radiations. We thus conclude, irrespective of the microscopic picture for black hole collapsing, the associated radiation process: Hawking radiation as tunneling, is consistent with unitarity as required by quantum mechanics.

  10. Radiation from a class of string theoretic black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Alwis, S.P.; Sato, K.

    1997-01-01

    The emission of a scalar with low energy ω, from a D- (4≤D≤8) dimensional black hole with n charges, is studied in both string and semiclassical calculations. In the lowest order in ω, the weak coupling string and semiclassical calculations agree provided that the Bekenstein-Hawking formula is valid and the effective central charge c eff =6 for any D. When the next order in ω is considered, however, there is no agreement between the two schemes unless D=5, n=3 or D=4, n=4. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  11. Hawking radiation from an acoustic black hole on an ion ring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstmann, B; Reznik, B; Fagnocchi, S; Cirac, J I

    2010-06-25

    In this Letter we propose to simulate acoustic black holes with ions in rings. If the ions are rotating with a stationary and inhomogeneous velocity profile, regions can appear where the ion velocity exceeds the group velocity of the phonons. In these regions phonons are trapped like light in black holes, even though we have a discrete field theory and a nonlinear dispersion relation. We study the appearance of Hawking radiation in this setup and propose a scheme to detect it.

  12. Growth of Primordial Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Tomohiro

    Primordial black holes have important observational implications through Hawking evaporation and gravitational radiation as well as being a candidate for cold dark matter. Those black holes are assumed to have formed in the early universe typically with the mass scale contained within the Hubble horizon at the formation epoch and subsequently accreted mass surrounding them. Numerical relativity simulation shows that primordial black holes of different masses do not accrete much, which contrasts with a simplistic Newtonian argument. We see that primordial black holes larger than the 'super-horizon' primordial black holes have decreasing energy and worm-hole like struture, suggesting the formation through quamtum processes.

  13. Characterizing Black Hole Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John; Boggs, William Darian; Kelly, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Binary black hole mergers are a promising source of gravitational waves for interferometric gravitational wave detectors. Recent advances in numerical relativity have revealed the predictions of General Relativity for the strong burst of radiation generated in the final moments of binary coalescence. We explore features in the merger radiation which characterize the final moments of merger and ringdown. Interpreting the waveforms in terms of an rotating implicit radiation source allows a unified phenomenological description of the system from inspiral through ringdown. Common features in the waveforms allow quantitative description of the merger signal which may provide insights for observations large-mass black hole binaries.

  14. Quantum aspects of black holes

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Beginning with an overview of the theory of black holes by the editor, this book presents a collection of ten chapters by leading physicists dealing with the variety of quantum mechanical and quantum gravitational effects pertinent to black holes. The contributions address topics such as Hawking radiation, the thermodynamics of black holes, the information paradox and firewalls, Monsters, primordial black holes, self-gravitating Bose-Einstein condensates, the formation of small black holes in high energetic collisions of particles, minimal length effects in black holes and small black holes at the Large Hadron Collider. Viewed as a whole the collection provides stimulating reading for researchers and graduate students seeking a summary of the quantum features of black holes.

  15. Accretion, primordial black holes and standard cosmology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Primordial black holes evaporate due to Hawking radiation. We find that the evaporation times of primordial black holes increase when accretion of radiation is included. Thus, depending on accretion efficiency, more primordial black holes are existing today, which strengthens the conjecture that the primordial black holes ...

  16. Black hole critical phenomena without black holes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Black holes; numerical relativity; nonlinear sigma. Abstract. Studying the threshold of black hole formation via numerical evolution has led to the discovery of fascinating nonlinear phenomena. ... Theoretical and Computational Studies Group, Southampton College, Long Island University, Southampton, NY 11968, USA ...

  17. Hawking Radiations from an Arbitrarily Accelerating Kerr Black Hole ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    dimension is correct. 2. Hawking effect. The line element of an arbitrarily accelerating Kerr black hole (Jing et al. 1992) is ds2 = −(1 − C)dv2 + 2dvdr − 2fρ2dvdθ − 2 sin2 θ(CA + ρ2g)dvdϕ. − 2A sin2 θdrdϕ + ρ2dθ2 + 2Afρ2 sin2 θdθdϕ. + sin2 θ[(A2C + 2gAρ2) sin. 2 θ + A2 + r2]dϕ2,. (1) where f = −a sin θ + b sin ϕ + c cos ϕ, ...

  18. Quantum radiation of Maxwell’s electromagnetic field in nonstationary Kerr-de Sitter black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibungochouba Singh, T.; Ablu Meitei, I.; Yugindro Singh, K.

    2016-03-01

    Quantum radiation properties of nonstationary Kerr-de Sitter (KdS) black hole is investigated using the method of generalized tortoise coordinate transformation. The locations of horizons and the temperature of the thermal radiation as well as the maximum energy of the nonthermal radiation are derived. It is found that the surface gravity and the Hawking temperature depend on both time and different angles. An extra coupling effect is obtained in the thermal radiation spectrum of Maxwell’s electromagnetic field equations which is absent in the thermal radiation spectrum of scalar particles. Further, the chemical potential derived from the thermal radiation spectrum of scalar particle has been found to be equal to the highest energy of the negative energy state of the scalar particle in the nonthermal radiation for KdS black hole. It is also shown that the generalized tortoise coordinate transformation produces a constant term in the expression of the surface gravity and Hawking temperature.

  19. The close environments of accreting massive black holes are shaped by radiative feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Claudio; Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Koss, Michael J; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Schawinski, Kevin; Oh, Kyuseok; Lamperti, Isabella; Mushotzky, Richard; Treister, Ezequiel; Ho, Luis C; Weigel, Anna; Bauer, Franz E; Paltani, Stephane; Fabian, Andrew C; Xie, Yanxia; Gehrels, Neil

    2017-09-27

    The majority of the accreting supermassive black holes in the Universe are obscured by large columns of gas and dust. The location and evolution of this obscuring material have been the subject of intense research in the past decades, and are still debated. A decrease in the covering factor of the circumnuclear material with increasing accretion rates has been found by studies across the electromagnetic spectrum. The origin of this trend may be driven by the increase in the inner radius of the obscuring material with incident luminosity, which arises from the sublimation of dust; by the gravitational potential of the black hole; by radiative feedback; or by the interplay between outflows and inflows. However, the lack of a large, unbiased and complete sample of accreting black holes, with reliable information on gas column density, luminosity and mass, has left the main physical mechanism that regulates obscuration unclear. Here we report a systematic multi-wavelength survey of hard-X-ray-selected black holes that reveals that radiative feedback on dusty gas is the main physical mechanism that regulates the distribution of the circumnuclear material. Our results imply that the bulk of the obscuring dust and gas is located within a few to tens of parsecs of the accreting supermassive black hole (within the sphere of influence of the black hole), and that it can be swept away even at low radiative output rates. The main physical driver of the differences between obscured and unobscured accreting black holes is therefore their mass-normalized accretion rate.

  20. Generalized uncertainty principle impact onto the black holes information flux and the sparsity of Hawking radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Serrano, Ana; DÄ browski, Mariusz P.; Gohar, Hussain

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) corrections to the entropy content and the information flux of black holes, as well as the corrections to the sparsity of the Hawking radiation at the late stages of evaporation. We find that due to these quantum gravity motivated corrections, the entropy flow per particle reduces its value on the approach to the Planck scale due to a better accuracy in counting the number of microstates. We also show that the radiation flow is no longer sparse when the mass of a black hole approaches Planck mass which is not the case for non-GUP calculations.

  1. Black holes and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    instance, the UK's research councils have yet to put any real money behind these ideas. Black holes are best described by the general theory of relativity. However, general relativity is a classical theory of gravity, and although its predictions have been verified in many experiments, a quantum theory of gravity remains one of the holy grails of physics. One of the first physicists to make real progress in this quest to reconcile general relativity and quantum mechanics was Stephen Hawking. In 1974 Hawking calculated what would happen if a quantum fluctuation occurred near an event horizon. He concluded that the black hole would radiate, and that the amount of radiation would be inversely proportional to the mass of the black hole. However, black holes tend to be very heavy, so their output of Hawking radiation would be too low to detect experimentally. One intriguing exception could be much smaller primordial black holes created in the big bang: these should radiate observable amounts of gamma rays, but they have not been detected yet. This whole body of work - in which thermodynamic concepts such as temperature and entropy are also associated with the black hole - is Hawking's major achievement in physics. The detection of Hawking radiation is the ultimate goal of experiments on artificial black holes, although a lot of theoretical and experimental work has to be done first. The successful experiment is likely to involve a flowing Bose-Einstein condensate or a medium in which the speed of light can be reduced to zero. After years of groundwork, physicists have recently made rapid progress in both these fields. Meanwhile, the recent observation of neutrons in discrete quantum states in a gravitational potential shows that quantum gravity effects can be seen in the laboratory. All that is needed now is an act of faith. (U.K.)

  2. Hawking radiation as tunneling from the Kerr and Kerr-Newman black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Qingqan; Wu Shuangqing; Cai Xu

    2006-01-01

    Recent work, which treats the Hawking radiation as a semiclassical tunneling process at the horizon of the Schwarzschild and Reissner-Nordstroem spacetimes, indicates that the exact radiant spectrum is no longer pure thermal after considering the black hole background as dynamical and the conservation of energy. In this paper, we extend the method to investigate Hawking radiation as massless particles tunneling across the event horizon of the Kerr black hole and that of charged particles from the Kerr-Newman black hole by taking into account the energy conservation, the angular momentum conservation, and the electric charge conservation. Our results show that when self-gravitation is considered, the tunneling rate is related to the change of Bekenstein-Hawking entropy and the derived emission spectrum deviates from the pure thermal spectrum, but is consistent with an underlying unitary theory

  3. Black holes. Chapter 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penrose, R.

    1980-01-01

    Conditions for the formation of a black hole are considered, and the properties of black holes. The possibility of Cygnus X-1 as a black hole is discussed. Einstein's theory of general relativity in relation to the formation of black holes is discussed. (U.K.)

  4. Precessing Black Hole Binaries and Their Gravitational Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    László Á. Gergely

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The first and second observational runs of Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO have marked the first direct detections of gravitational waves, either from black hole binaries or, in one case, from coalescing neutron stars. These observations opened up the era of gravitational wave astronomy, but also of gravitational wave cosmology, in the form of an independent derivation of the Hubble constant. They were equally important to prove false a plethora of modified gravity theories predicting gravitational wave propagation speed different from that of light. For a continued and improved testing of general relativity, the precise description of compact binary dynamics, not only in the final coalescence phase but also earlier, when precessional effects dominate, are required. We report on the derivation of the full secular dynamics for compact binaries, valid over the precessional time-scale, in the form of an autonomous closed system of differential equations for the set of spin angles and periastron. The system can be applied for mapping the parameter space for the occurrence of the spin flip-flop effect and for more accurately analyzing the spin-flip effect, which could explain the formation of X-shaped radio galaxies.

  5. Search for black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherepashchuk, Anatolii M

    2003-01-01

    Methods and results of searching for stellar mass black holes in binary systems and for supermassive black holes in galactic nuclei of different types are described. As of now (June 2002), a total of 100 black hole candidates are known. All the necessary conditions Einstein's General Relativity imposes on the observational properties of black holes are satisfied for candidate objects available, thus further assuring the existence of black holes in the Universe. Prospects for obtaining sufficient criteria for reliably distinguishing candidate black holes from real black holes are discussed. (reviews of topical problems)

  6. Hawking radiation as tunneling from charged black holes in 0A string theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hongbin

    2011-09-01

    There has been much work on explaining Hawking radiation as a quantum tunneling process through horizons. Basically, this intuitive picture requires the calculation of the imaginary part of the action for outgoing particle. And two ways are known for achieving this goal: the null-geodesic method and the Hamilton-Jacobi method. We apply these methods to the charged black holes in 2D dilaton gravity which is originated from the low energy effective theory of type 0A string theory. We derive the correct Hawking temperature of the black holes including the effect of the back reaction of the radiation, and obtain the entropy by using the 1st law of black hole thermodynamics. For fixed-charge ensemble, the 0A black holes are free of phase transition and thermodynamically stable regardless of mass-charge ratio. We show this by interpreting the back reaction term as the inverse of the heat capacity of the black holes. Finally, the possibility of the phase transition in the fixed-potential ensemble is discussed.

  7. Statistical black-hole thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekenstein, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    Traditional methods from statistical thermodynamics, with appropriate modifications, are used to study several problems in black-hole thermodynamics. Jaynes's maximum-uncertainty method for computing probabilities is used to show that the earlier-formulated generalized second law is respected in statistically averaged form in the process of spontaneous radiation by a Kerr black hole discovered by Hawking, and also in the case of a Schwarzschild hole immersed in a bath of black-body radiation, however cold. The generalized second law is used to motivate a maximum-entropy principle for determining the equilibrium probability distribution for a system containing a black hole. As an application we derive the distribution for the radiation in equilibrium with a Kerr hole (it is found to agree with what would be expected from Hawking's results) and the form of the associated distribution among Kerr black-hole solution states of definite mass. The same results are shown to follow from a statistical interpretation of the concept of black-hole entropy as the natural logarithm of the number of possible interior configurations that are compatible with the given exterior black-hole state. We also formulate a Jaynes-type maximum-uncertainty principle for black holes, and apply it to obtain the probability distribution among Kerr solution states for an isolated radiating Kerr hole

  8. Quantum effects in black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, V.P.

    1979-01-01

    A strict definition of black holes is presented and some properties with regard to their mass are enumerated. The Hawking quantum effect - the effect of vacuum instability in the black hole gravitational field, as a result of shich the black hole radiates as a heated body is analyzed. It is shown that in order to obtain results on the black hole radiation it is sufficient to predetermine the in-vacuum state at a time moment in the past, when the collapsing body has a large size, and its gravitational field can be neglected. The causes and the place of particle production by the black hole, and also the space-time inside the black hole, are considered

  9. Radiation from early black holes - I. Effects on the neutral intergalactic medium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ripamonti, E.; Mapelli, M.; Zaroubi, S.

    2008-01-01

    In the pre-reionization Universe, the regions of the intergalactic medium (IGM) which are far from luminous sources are the last to undergo reionization. Until then, they should be scarcely affected by stellar radiation; instead, the X-ray emission from an early black hole (BH) population can have

  10. The effects of massive graviton on the equilibrium between the black hole and radiation gas in an isolated box

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Peng Hu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the black hole can have temperature and radiate the particles with black body spectrum, i.e. Hawking radiation. Therefore, if the black hole is surrounded by an isolated box, there is a thermal equilibrium between the black hole and radiation gas. A simple case considering the thermal equilibrium between the Schwarzschild black hole and radiation gas in an isolated box has been well investigated previously in detail, i.e. taking the conservation of energy and principle of maximal entropy for the isolated system into account. In this paper, following the above spirit, the effects of massive graviton on the thermal equilibrium will be investigated. For the gravity with massive graviton, we will use the de Rham–Gabadadze–Tolley (dRGT massive gravity which has been proven to be ghost free. Because the graviton mass depends on two parameters in the dRGT massive gravity, here we just investigate two simple cases related to the two parameters, respectively. Our results show that in the first case the massive graviton can suppress or increase the condensation of black hole in the radiation gas although the T–E diagram is similar as the Schwarzschild black hole case. For the second case, a new T–E diagram has been obtained. Moreover, an interesting and important prediction is that the condensation of black hole just increases from the zero radius of horizon in this case, which is very different from the Schwarzschild black hole case.

  11. Hawking radiation screening and Penrose process shielding in the Kerr black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mc Caughey, Eamon [Dublin Institute of Technology, School of Mathematical Sciences, Dublin 8 (Ireland)

    2016-04-15

    The radial motion of massive particles in the equatorial plane of a Kerr black hole is considered. Screening of the Hawking radiation and shielding of the Penrose process are examined (both inside and outside the ergosphere) and their effect on the evaporation of the black hole is studied. In particular, the locus and width of a classically forbidden region and their dependence on the particle's angular momentum and energy is analysed. Tunneling of particles between the boundaries of this region is considered and the transmission coefficient determined. (orig.)

  12. Pulsation of black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Changjun; Lu, Youjun; Shen, You-Gen; Faraoni, Valerio

    2018-01-01

    The Hawking-Penrose singularity theorem states that a singularity forms inside a black hole in general relativity. To remove this singularity one must resort to a more fundamental theory. Using a corrected dynamical equation arising in loop quantum cosmology and braneworld models, we study the gravitational collapse of a perfect fluid sphere with a rather general equation of state. In the frame of an observer comoving with this fluid, the sphere pulsates between a maximum and a minimum size, avoiding the singularity. The exterior geometry is also constructed. There are usually an outer and an inner apparent horizon, resembling the Reissner-Nordström situation. For a distant observer the horizon crossing occurs in an infinite time and the pulsations of the black hole quantum "beating heart" are completely unobservable. However, it may be observable if the black hole is not spherical symmetric and radiates gravitational wave due to the quadrupole moment, if any.

  13. Quantum Radiation Properties of Dirac Particles in General Nonstationary Black Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Chen Hua

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum radiation properties of Dirac particles in general nonstationary black holes in the general case are investigated by both using the method of generalized tortoise coordinate transformation and considering simultaneously the asymptotic behaviors of the first-order and second-order forms of Dirac equation near the event horizon. It is generally shown that the temperature and the shape of the event horizon of this kind of black holes depend on both the time and different angles. Further, we give a general expression of the new extra coupling effect in thermal radiation spectrum of Dirac particles which is absent from the thermal radiation spectrum of scalar particles. Also, we reveal a relationship that is ignored before between thermal radiation and nonthermal radiation in the case of scalar particles, which is that the chemical potential in thermal radiation spectrum is equal to the highest energy of the negative energy state of scalar particles in nonthermal radiation for general nonstationary black holes.

  14. Dirac equation of spin particles and tunneling radiation from a Kinnersly black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Guo-Ping; Zu, Xiao-Tao [University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, School of Physical Electronics, Chengdu (China); Feng, Zhong-Wen [University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, School of Physical Electronics, Chengdu (China); China West Normal University, College of Physics and Space Science, Nanchong (China); Li, Hui-Ling [University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, School of Physical Electronics, Chengdu (China); Shenyang Normal University, College of Physics Science and Technology, Shenyang (China)

    2017-04-15

    In curved space-time, the Hamilton-Jacobi equation is a semi-classical particle equation of motion, which plays an important role in the research of black hole physics. In this paper, starting from the Dirac equation of spin 1/2 fermions and the Rarita-Schwinger equation of spin 3/2 fermions, respectively, we derive a Hamilton-Jacobi equation for the non-stationary spherically symmetric gravitational field background. Furthermore, the quantum tunneling of a charged spherically symmetric Kinnersly black hole is investigated by using the Hamilton-Jacobi equation. The result shows that the Hamilton-Jacobi equation is helpful to understand the thermodynamic properties and the radiation characteristics of a black hole. (orig.)

  15. Hawking radiation from acoustic black holes, short distance and back reaction effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balbinot, R.; Fabbri, A.; Parentani, R.

    2004-01-01

    Using the action principle we first review how linear density perturbations (sound waves) in an Eulerian fluid obey a relativistic equation: the d'Alembert equation. This analogy between propagation of sound and that of a massless scalar field in a Lorentzian metric also applies to non-homogeneous flows. In these cases, sound waves effectively propagate in a curved four-dimensional acoustic metric whose properties are determined by the flow. Using this analogy, we consider regular flows which become supersonic, and show that the acoustic metric behaves like that of a black hole. The analogy is so good that, when considering quantum mechanics, acoustic black holes should produce a thermal flux of Hawking phonons. We then focus on two interesting questions related to Hawking radiation which are not fully understood in the context of gravitational black holes due to the lack of a theory of quantum gravity. The first concerns the calculation of the modifications of Hawking radiation which are induced by dispersive effects at short distances, approaching the atomic scale when considering sound. We generalize existing treatments and calculate the modifications caused by the propagation near the black-hole horizon. The second question concerns back reaction effects. We return to the Eulerian action, compute second-order effects, and show that the back reaction of sound waves on the fluid's flow can be expressed in terms of their stress-energy tensor. Using this result in the context of Hawking radiation, we compute the secular effect on the background flow

  16. Universality, maximum radiation, and absorption in high-energy collisions of black holes with spin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperhake, Ulrich; Berti, Emanuele; Cardoso, Vitor; Pretorius, Frans

    2013-07-26

    We explore the impact of black hole spins on the dynamics of high-energy black hole collisions. We report results from numerical simulations with γ factors up to 2.49 and dimensionless spin parameter χ=+0.85, +0.6, 0, -0.6, -0.85. We find that the scattering threshold becomes independent of spin at large center-of-mass energies, confirming previous conjectures that structure does not matter in ultrarelativistic collisions. It has further been argued that in this limit all of the kinetic energy of the system may be radiated by fine tuning the impact parameter to threshold. On the contrary, we find that only about 60% of the kinetic energy is radiated for γ=2.49. By monitoring apparent horizons before and after scattering events we show that the "missing energy" is absorbed by the individual black holes in the encounter, and moreover the individual black-hole spins change significantly. We support this conclusion with perturbative calculations. An extrapolation of our results to the limit γ→∞ suggests that about half of the center-of-mass energy of the system can be emitted in gravitational radiation, while the rest must be converted into rest-mass and spin energy.

  17. Black-hole bremsstrahlung and the efficiency of mass-energy radiative transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, H. P. de; Soares, I. Damiao; Tonini, E. V.

    2008-01-01

    We present results from numerical evolution of a boosted black hole, perturbed nonlinearly by an axisymmetric distribution of matter in the realm of Robinson-Trautman spacetimes. Characteristic initial data for the system were constructed and the Robinson-Trautmann equation was integrated for these data using a numerical code based on the Galerkin-collocation method. The emission of gravitational waves by the system is typical of bremsstrahlung at early times, a consequence of the deceleration of the black hole as it interacts with the perturbation; part of the perturbation is radiated away and another part is absorbed into the hole. The angular pattern evolves to the quadrupole form for later times. The final configuration is a black hole in motion with larger (Bondi) rest mass and smaller boost parameter. The efficiency Δ of mass-energy extraction by gravitational wave emission was also computed. The relation of Δ to the mass of the remnant black hole satisfies a nonextensive thermostatistics distribution with entropic index q≅1/2. The result extends analytical evaluations based on the linearized theory of gravitational wave emission. For each initial boost parameter, there always exists a (large) value of the perturbation parameter A 0 for which the momentum of the remnant black hole has opposite sign to that of the unperturbed black hole, due to the strong deceleration during the process of gravitational wave emission. The temporal wave form is that of an initial burst and we evaluate that for a large range of A 0 the process corresponds to a high power output in the initial dominant pulse.

  18. On black hole horizon fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuchin, K.L.

    1999-01-01

    A study of the high angular momentum particles 'atmosphere' near the Schwarzschild black hole horizon suggested that strong gravitational interactions occur at invariant distance of the order of 3 √M [2]. We present a generalization of this result to the Kerr-Newman black hole case. It is shown that the larger charge and angular momentum black hole bears, the larger invariant distance at which strong gravitational interactions occur becomes. This invariant distance is of order 3 √((r + 2 )/((r + - r - ))). This implies that the Planckian structure of the Hawking radiation of extreme black holes is completely broken

  19. Thermodynamics of Accelerating Black Holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appels, Michael; Gregory, Ruth; Kubizňák, David

    2016-09-23

    We address a long-standing problem of describing the thermodynamics of an accelerating black hole. We derive a standard first law of black hole thermodynamics, with the usual identification of entropy proportional to the area of the event horizon-even though the event horizon contains a conical singularity. This result not only extends the applicability of black hole thermodynamics to realms previously not anticipated, it also opens a possibility for studying novel properties of an important class of exact radiative solutions of Einstein equations describing accelerated objects. We discuss the thermodynamic volume, stability, and phase structure of these black holes.

  20. Black Hole's 1/N Hair

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2013-01-01

    According to the standard view classically black holes carry no hair, whereas quantum hair is at best exponentially weak. We show that suppression of hair is an artifact of the semi-classical treatment and that in the quantum picture hair appears as an inverse mass-square effect. Such hair is predicted in the microscopic quantum description in which a black hole represents a self-sustained leaky Bose-condensate of N soft gravitons. In this picture the Hawking radiation is the quantum depletion of the condensate. Within this picture we show that quantum black hole physics is fully compatible with continuous global symmetries and that global hair appears with the strength B/N, where B is the global charge swallowed by the black hole. For large charge this hair has dramatic effect on black hole dynamics. Our findings can have interesting astrophysical consequences, such as existence of black holes with large detectable baryonic and leptonic numbers.

  1. The tunneling radiation of a black hole with a f( R) global monopole under generalized uncertainty principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lingshen; Cheng, Hongbo

    2018-03-01

    The Parikh-Kraus-Wilczeck tunneling radiation of black hole involving a f( R) global monopole is considered based on the generalized uncertainty principle. The influences from global monopole, f( R) gravity and the corrections to the uncertainty appear in the expression of black hole entropy difference. It is found that the global monopole and the revision of general relativity both hinder the black hole from emitting the photons. The two parts as corrections to the uncertainty make the entropy difference of this kind of black hole larger or smaller respectively.

  2. Black hole hair removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Nabamita; Mandal, Ipsita; Sen, Ashoke

    2009-01-01

    Macroscopic entropy of an extremal black hole is expected to be determined completely by its near horizon geometry. Thus two black holes with identical near horizon geometries should have identical macroscopic entropy, and the expected equality between macroscopic and microscopic entropies will then imply that they have identical degeneracies of microstates. An apparent counterexample is provided by the 4D-5D lift relating BMPV black hole to a four dimensional black hole. The two black holes have identical near horizon geometries but different microscopic spectrum. We suggest that this discrepancy can be accounted for by black hole hair - degrees of freedom living outside the horizon and contributing to the degeneracies. We identify these degrees of freedom for both the four and the five dimensional black holes and show that after their contributions are removed from the microscopic degeneracies of the respective systems, the result for the four and five dimensional black holes match exactly.

  3. Dynamics of black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Hayward, Sean A.

    2008-01-01

    This is a review of current theory of black-hole dynamics, concentrating on the framework in terms of trapping horizons. Summaries are given of the history, the classical theory of black holes, the defining ideas of dynamical black holes, the basic laws, conservation laws for energy and angular momentum, other physical quantities and the limit of local equilibrium. Some new material concerns how processes such as black-hole evaporation and coalescence might be described by a single trapping h...

  4. Black holes are hot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, G.

    1976-01-01

    Recent work, which has been investigating the use of the concept of entropy with respect to gravitating systems, black holes and the universe as a whole, is discussed. The resulting theory of black holes assigns a finite temperature to them -about 10 -7 K for ordinary black holes of stellar mass -which is in complete agreement with thermodynamical concepts. It is also shown that black holes must continuously emit particles just like ordinary bodies which have a certain temperature. (U.K.)

  5. The search for black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torn, K.

    1976-01-01

    Conceivable experimental investigations to prove the existence of black holes are discussed. Double system with a black hole turning around a star-satellite are in the spotlight. X-radiation emmited by such systems and resulting from accretion of the stellar gas by a black hole, and the gas heating when falling on the black hole might prove the model suggested. A source of strong X-radiation observed in the Cygnus star cluster and referred to as Cygnus X-1 may be thus identified as a black hole. Direct registration of short X-ray pulses with msec intervals might prove the suggestion. The lack of appropriate astrophysic facilities is pointed out to be the major difficulty on the way of experimental verifications

  6. Accretion, primordial black holes and standard cosmology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Primordial black holes evaporate due to Hawking radiation. We find that the evaporation times of primordial black holes increase when accretion of radiation is included. Thus, depending on accretion efficiency, more primordial black holes are existing today, which strengthens the con- jecture that the primordial ...

  7. Monopole black hole skyrmions

    OpenAIRE

    Moss, I.G.; Shiiki, N.; Winstanley, E.

    2000-01-01

    Charged black hole solutions with pion hair are discussed. These can be\\ud used to study monopole black hole catalysis of proton decay.\\ud There also exist\\ud multi-black hole skyrmion solutions with BPS monopole behaviour.

  8. What is black hole?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. What is black hole? Possible end phase of a star: A star is a massive, luminous ball of plasma having continuous nuclear burning. Star exhausts nuclear fuel →. White Dwarf, Neutron Star, Black Hole. Black hole's gravitational field is so powerful that even ...

  9. Spherical domain wall formed by field dynamics of Hawking radiation and spontaneous charging-up of black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagatani, Yukinori

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the Hawking radiation in the gauge Higgs-Yukawa theory. The ballistic model is proposed as an effective description of the system. We find that a spherical domain wall around the black hole is formed by field dynamics rather than thermal phase transition. The formation is a general property of the black hole whose Hawking temperature is equal to or greater than the energy scale of the theory. The formation of the electroweak wall and that of the GUT wall are shown. We also find a phenomenon of the spontaneous charging-up of the black hole by the wall. The Hawking radiation drives a mechanism of the charge transportation into the black hole when C- and CP-violation are assumed. The mechanism can strongly transport the hyper-charge into a black hole of the electroweak scale

  10. Extracting Information about the Initial State from the Black Hole Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochan, Kinjalk; Padmanabhan, T

    2016-02-05

    The crux of the black hole information paradox is related to the fact that the complete information about the initial state of a quantum field in a collapsing spacetime is not available to future asymptotic observers, belying the expectations from a unitary quantum theory. We study the imprints of the initial quantum state contained in a specific class of distortions of the black hole radiation and identify the classes of in states that can be partially or fully reconstructed from the information contained within. Even for the general in state, we can uncover some specific information. These results suggest that a classical collapse scenario ignores this richness of information in the resulting spectrum and a consistent quantum treatment of the entire collapse process might allow us to retrieve much more information from the spectrum of the final radiation.

  11. Anomalies and Hawking radiation from the Reissner-Nordstroem black hole with a global monopole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Shuangqing; Peng Junjin

    2007-01-01

    We extend the work by Iso, Umetsu and Wilczek (2006 Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 151302) to derive the Hawking flux via gauge and gravitational anomalies of a most general two-dimensional non-extremal black hole spacetime with the determinant of its diagonal metric differing from unity √ (-g)1) ≠ 1 and use it to investigate Hawking radiation from the Reissner-Nordstroem black hole with a global monopole by requiring the cancellation of anomalies at the horizon. It is shown that the compensating energy-momentum and gauge fluxes required to cancel gravitational and gauge anomalies at the horizon are precisely equivalent to the (1 + 1)-dimensional thermal fluxes associated with Hawking radiation emanating from the horizon at the Hawking temperature. These fluxes are universally determined by the value of anomalies at the horizon

  12. Quasinormal modes of BTZ black hole and Hawking-like radiation in graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandemir, B.S.; Ertem, Uemit [Department of Physics, Ankara University, Faculty of Sciences, 06100, Tandogan-Ankara (Turkey)

    2017-04-15

    The Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole model corresponds to a solution of (2+1)-dimensional Einstein gravity with negative cosmological constant, and by a conformal rescaling its metric can be mapped onto the hyperbolic pseudosphere surface (Beltrami trumpet) with negative curvature. Beltrami trumpet shaped graphene sheets have been predicted to emit Hawking radiation that is experimentally detectable by a scanning tunnelling microscope. Here, for the first time we present an analytical algorithm that allows variational solutions to the Dirac Hamiltonian of graphene pseudoparticles in BTZ black hole gravitational field by using an approach based on the formalism of pseudo-Hermitian Hamiltonians within a discrete-basis-set method. We show that our model not only reproduces the exact results for the real part of quasinormal mode frequencies of (2+1)-dimensional spinless BTZ black hole, but also provides analytical results for the real part of quasinormal modes of spinning BTZ black hole, and also offers some predictions for the observable effects with a view to gravity-like phenomena in a curved graphene sheet. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Hawking radiation temperatures in non-stationary Kerr black holes with different tortoise coordinate transformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lan, X.G. [Southwest Jiaotong University, Quantum Optoelectronics Laboratory, Chengdu (China); China West Normal University, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Nanchong (China); Jiang, Q.Q. [China West Normal University, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Nanchong (China); Wei, L.F. [Southwest Jiaotong University, Quantum Optoelectronics Laboratory, Chengdu (China); Sun Yat-Sen University, State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Physics and Engineering, Guangzhou (China)

    2012-04-15

    We apply the Damour-Ruffini-Sannan method to study the Hawking radiations of scalar and Dirac particles in non-stationary Kerr black holes under different tortoise coordinate transformations. We found that all the relevant Hawking radiation spectra show still the blackbody ones, while the Hawking temperatures are strongly related to the used tortoise coordinate transformations. The properties of these dependences are discussed analytically and numerically. Our results imply that proper selections of tortoise coordinate transformations should be important in the studies of Hawking radiations and the correct selection would be given by the experimental observations in the future. (orig.)

  14. Hawking radiation temperatures in non-stationary Kerr black holes with different tortoise coordinate transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, X. G.; Jiang, Q. Q.; Wei, L. F.

    2012-04-01

    We apply the Damour-Ruffini-Sannan method to study the Hawking radiations of scalar and Dirac particles in non-stationary Kerr black holes under different tortoise coordinate transformations. We found that all the relevant Hawking radiation spectra show still the blackbody ones, while the Hawking temperatures are strongly related to the used tortoise coordinate transformations. The properties of these dependences are discussed analytically and numerically. Our results imply that proper selections of tortoise coordinate transformations should be important in the studies of Hawking radiations and the correct selection would be given by the experimental observations in the future.

  15. A Monte Carlo Code for Relativistic Radiation Transport Around Kerr Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnittman, Jeremy David; Krolik, Julian H.

    2013-01-01

    We present a new code for radiation transport around Kerr black holes, including arbitrary emission and absorption mechanisms, as well as electron scattering and polarization. The code is particularly useful for analyzing accretion flows made up of optically thick disks and optically thin coronae. We give a detailed description of the methods employed in the code and also present results from a number of numerical tests to assess its accuracy and convergence.

  16. Black holes in binary stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, R.A.M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Introduction Distinguishing neutron stars and black holes Optical companions and dynamical masses X-ray signatures of the nature of a compact object Structure and evolution of black-hole binaries High-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black holes Formation of black holes

  17. Black hole radiation with modified dispersion relation in tunneling paradigm: Static frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Tao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available To study possible deviations from the Hawking's prediction, we assume that the dispersion relations of matter fields are modified at high energies and use the Hamilton–Jacobi method to investigate the corresponding effects on the Hawking radiation in this paper. The preferred frame is the static frame of the black hole. The dispersion relation adopted agrees with the relativistic one at low energies but is modified near the Planck mass mp. We calculate the corrections to the Hawking temperature for massive and charged particles to O(mp−2 and massless and neutral particles to all orders. Our results suggest that the thermal spectrum of radiations near horizon is robust, e.g. corrections to the Hawking temperature are suppressed by mp. After the spectrum of radiations near the horizon is obtained, we use the brick wall model to compute the thermal entropy of a massless scalar field near the horizon of a 4D spherically symmetric black hole. We find that the subleading logarithmic term of the entropy does not depend on how the dispersion relations of matter fields are modified. Finally, the luminosities of black holes are computed by using the geometric optics approximation.

  18. Black hole levitron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsiwalla, Xerxes D.; Verlinde, Erik P.

    2010-01-01

    We study the problem of spatially stabilizing four dimensional extremal black holes in background electric/magnetic fields. Whilst looking for stationary stable solutions describing black holes placed in external fields we find that taking a continuum limit of Denef et al.'s multicenter supersymmetric black hole solutions provides a supergravity description of such backgrounds within which a black hole can be trapped within a confined volume. This construction is realized by solving for a levitating black hole over a magnetic dipole base. We comment on how such a construction is akin to a mechanical levitron.

  19. Hawking radiation of Kerr-Newman black hole in different tortoise coordinate transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibungochouba Singh, T.

    2013-10-01

    Hawking radiation effect of Maxwell’s electromagnetic fields in the Kerr-Newman black hole space-time is investigated using two different tortoise coordinate transformations. It has been shown that the new tortoise coordinate transformation produces constant term ξ in the expression of surface gravity and Hawking temperature. If ξ is set to zero, the surface gravity and Hawking temperature will be equal to those obtained from the old tortoise coordinate transformation. This indicates that new transformation is more reliable and accurate. The black body radiant spectrum of photon displays a new spin-rotation coupling effect.

  20. Hawking Radiation of Dirac Particles from a General Dynamical Spherically Symmetrical Black Hole Using a New Tortoise Coordinate Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jun; Zhang, Fang-Hui; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Jing

    2014-01-01

    By utilizing the improved Damour-Ruffini method with a new tortoise transformation, we study the Hawking radiation of Dirac particles from a general dynamical spherically symmetric black hole. In the improved Damour-Ruffini method, the position of the event horizon of the black hole is an undetermined function, and the temperature parameter κ is an undetermined constant. By requiring the Dirac equation to be the standard wave equation near the event horizon of the black hole, κ can be determined automatically. Therefore, the Hawking temperature can be obtained. The result is consistent with that of the Hawking radiation of scalar particles.

  1. Hawking Radiation and Entropy of a Dynamic Dilaton-Maxwell Black Hole with a New Tortoise Coordinate Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Xiao-Gang

    2013-05-01

    By introducing a new tortoise coordinate transformation, we apply Damour-Ruffini-Sannan method to study the Hawking radiation of massive scalar particles in a dynamic Dilaton-Maxwell black hole. We find that Hawking radiation spectrum shows still the blackbody one, while the Hawking temperature is significantly changed. Additionally, by adopting the thin film method, we calculate the entropy of a dynamic Dilaton-Maxwell black hole. The result indicates that the entropy for such a black hole is still in proportional to the area of its event horizon.

  2. Interacting black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Miguel S.; Perry, Malcolm J.

    2000-01-01

    We revisit the geometry representing l collinear Schwarzschild black holes. It is seen that the black holes' horizons are deformed by their mutual gravitational attraction. The geometry has a string like conical singularity that connects the holes but has nevertheless a well defined action. Using standard gravitational thermodynamics techniques we determine the free energy for two black holes at fixed temperature and distance, their entropy and mutual force. When the black holes are far apart the results agree with Newtonian gravity expectations. This analyses is generalized to the case of charged black holes. Then we consider black holes embedded in string/M-theory as bound states of branes. Using the effective string description of these bound states and for large separation we reproduce exactly the semi-classical result for the entropy, including the correction associated with the interaction between the holes

  3. Backreaction of Hawking radiation on a gravitationally collapsing star I: Black holes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mersini-Houghton, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Particle creation leading to Hawking radiation is produced by the changing gravitational field of the collapsing star. The two main initial conditions in the far past placed on the quantum field from which particles arise, are the Hartle–Hawking vacuum and the Unruh vacuum. The former leads to a time-symmetric thermal bath of radiation, while the latter to a flux of radiation coming out of the collapsing star. The energy of Hawking radiation in the interior of the collapsing star is negative and equal in magnitude to its value at future infinity. This work investigates the backreaction of Hawking radiation on the interior of a gravitationally collapsing star, in a Hartle–Hawking initial vacuum. It shows that due to the negative energy Hawking radiation in the interior, the collapse of the star stops at a finite radius, before the singularity and the event horizon of a black hole have a chance to form. That is, the star bounces instead of collapsing to a black hole. A trapped surface near the last stage of the star's collapse to its minimum size may still exist temporarily. Its formation depends on the details of collapse. Results for the case of Hawking flux of radiation with the Unruh initial state, will be given in a companion paper II

  4. Backreaction of Hawking radiation on a gravitationally collapsing star I: Black holes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Mersini-Houghton

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Particle creation leading to Hawking radiation is produced by the changing gravitational field of the collapsing star. The two main initial conditions in the far past placed on the quantum field from which particles arise, are the Hartle–Hawking vacuum and the Unruh vacuum. The former leads to a time-symmetric thermal bath of radiation, while the latter to a flux of radiation coming out of the collapsing star. The energy of Hawking radiation in the interior of the collapsing star is negative and equal in magnitude to its value at future infinity. This work investigates the backreaction of Hawking radiation on the interior of a gravitationally collapsing star, in a Hartle–Hawking initial vacuum. It shows that due to the negative energy Hawking radiation in the interior, the collapse of the star stops at a finite radius, before the singularity and the event horizon of a black hole have a chance to form. That is, the star bounces instead of collapsing to a black hole. A trapped surface near the last stage of the star's collapse to its minimum size may still exist temporarily. Its formation depends on the details of collapse. Results for the case of Hawking flux of radiation with the Unruh initial state, will be given in a companion paper II.

  5. Hawking radiation of Dirac particles from the Myers-Perry black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Pu-Jian; Jia, Lin-Yu; Li, Ran; Ren, Ji-Rong

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we apply the quantum anomaly cancelation method and the effective action approach as well as the method of Damour-Ruffini-Sannan to derive Hawking radiation of Dirac particles from the Myers-Perry black hole. Using the dimensional reduction technique, we find that the fermionic field in the background of the Myers-Perry black hole can be treated as an infinite collection of quantum fields in (1+1)-dimensional background coupled with the dilaton field and the U(1) gauge field near the horizon. Thus Hawking temperature and fluxes are found. The Hawking temperature obtained agrees with the surface gravity formula while the Hawking fluxes derived from the anomaly cancelation method and the effective action approach are in complete agreement with the ones obtained from integrating the Planck distribution. (orig.)

  6. Accretion, primordial black holes and standard cosmology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    loops [8]. In 1974, Hawking discovered that the black holes emit thermal radiation due to quantum effects [9]. So the black holes get evaporated depending upon their masses. Smaller the masses of the PBHs, quicker they evaporate. But the density of a black hole varies inversely with its mass. So high density is needed for ...

  7. Astrophysical black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gorini, Vittorio; Moschella, Ugo; Treves, Aldo; Colpi, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Based on graduate school lectures in contemporary relativity and gravitational physics, this book gives a complete and unified picture of the present status of theoretical and observational properties of astrophysical black holes. The chapters are written by internationally recognized specialists. They cover general theoretical aspects of black hole astrophysics, the theory of accretion and ejection of gas and jets, stellar-sized black holes observed in the Milky Way, the formation and evolution of supermassive black holes in galactic centers and quasars as well as their influence on the dynamics in galactic nuclei. The final chapter addresses analytical relativity of black holes supporting theoretical understanding of the coalescence of black holes as well as being of great relevance in identifying gravitational wave signals. With its introductory chapters the book is aimed at advanced graduate and post-graduate students, but it will also be useful for specialists.

  8. Black holes and holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, Samir D

    2012-01-01

    The idea of holography in gravity arose from the fact that the entropy of black holes is given by their surface area. The holography encountered in gauge/gravity duality has no such relation however; the boundary surface can be placed at an arbitrary location in AdS space and its area does not give the entropy of the bulk. The essential issues are also different between the two cases: in black holes we get Hawking radiation from the 'holographic surface' which leads to the information issue, while in gauge/gravity duality there is no such radiation. To resolve the information paradox we need to show that there are real degrees of freedom at the horizon of the hole; this is achieved by the fuzzball construction. In gauge/gravity duality we have instead a field theory defined on an abstract dual space; there are no gravitational degrees of freedom at the holographic boundary. It is important to understand the relations and differences between these two notions of holography to get a full understanding of the lessons from the information paradox.

  9. Naked black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, G.T.; Ross, S.F.

    1997-01-01

    It is shown that there are large static black holes for which all curvature invariants are small near the event horizon, yet any object which falls in experiences enormous tidal forces outside the horizon. These black holes are charged and near extremality, and exist in a wide class of theories including string theory. The implications for cosmic censorship and the black hole information puzzle are discussed. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  10. Nonextremal stringy black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, K.

    1997-01-01

    We construct a four-dimensional BPS saturated heterotic string solution from the Taub-NUT solution. It is a nonextremal black hole solution since its Euler number is nonzero. We evaluate its black hole entropy semiclassically. We discuss the relation between the black hole entropy and the degeneracy of string states. The entropy of our string solution can be understood as the microscopic entropy which counts the elementary string states without any complications. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  11. Hawking radiation of charged Einstein-aether black holes at both Killing and universal horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Chikun; Wang, Anzhong; Wang, Xinwen; Zhu, Tao

    2016-12-01

    We study analytically quantum tunneling of relativistic and non-relativistic particles at both Killing and universal horizons of Einstein-Maxwell-aether black holes, after high-order curvature corrections are taken into account, for which the dispersion relation of the particles becomes nonlinear. Our results at the Killing horizons confirm the previous ones, i.e., at high frequencies the corresponding radiation remains thermal and the nonlinearity of the dispersion does not alter the Hawking radiation significantly. In contrary, non-relativistic particles are created at universal horizons and are radiated out to infinity. The radiation also has a thermal spectrum, and the corresponding temperature takes the form, TUHz = 2κUH (z - 1) / (2 πz), where z (z ≥ 2) denotes the power of the leading term in the nonlinear dispersion relation, κUH is the surface gravity of the universal horizon, defined by peering behavior of ray trajectories at the universal horizon. We also study the Smarr formula by assuming that: (a) the entropy is proportional to the area of the universal horizon, and (b) the first law of black hole thermodynamics holds, whereby we derive the Smarr mass, which in general is different from the total mass obtained at infinity. This indicates that one or both of these assumptions must be modified.

  12. Magnetic fields around black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, David A. G.

    Active Galactic Nuclei are the most powerful long-lived objects in the universe. They are thought to harbor supermassive black holes that range from 1 million solar masses to 1000 times that value and possibly greater. Theory and observation are converging on a model for these objects that involves the conversion of gravitational potential energy of accreting gas to radiation as well as Poynting flux produced by the interaction of the rotating spacetime and the electromagnetic fields originating in the ionized accretion flow. The presence of black holes in astrophysics is taking center stage, with the output from AGN in various forms such as winds and jets influencing the formation and evolution of the host galaxy. This dissertation addresses some of the basic unanswered questions that plague our current understanding of how rotating black holes interact with their surrounding magnetized accretion disks to produce the enormous observed energy. Two magnetic configurations are examined. The first involves magnetic fields connecting the black hole with the inner accretion disk and the other involves large scale magnetic fields threading the disk and the hole. We study the effects of the former type by establishing the consequences that magnetic torques between the black hole and the inner accretion disk have on the energy dissipation profile. We attempt a plausible explanation to the observed "Deep Minimum" state in the Seyfert galaxy MCG-6- 30-15. For the latter type of magnetic geometry, we study the effects of the strength of the magnetic field threading the black hole within the context of the cherished Blandford & Znajek mechanism for black hole spin energy extraction. We begin by addressing the problem in the non-relativistic regime where we find that the black hole-threading magnetic field is stronger for greater disk thickness, larger magnetic Prandtl number, and for a larger accretion disk. We then study the problem in full relativity where we show that our

  13. Hawking Tunneling Radiation of Black Holes in Deformed Horava-Lifshitz Gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Xiaoxiong; Li Ling

    2011-01-01

    Tunneling of scalar particles and Dirac particles from a black hole in the deformed Horava-Lifshitz gravity is discussed in this paper. We consider the case that the dynamical coupling constant λ =1, when it reduces to Einstein's General Relativity at large scales and the black hole behaves like the Reissner-Nordstroem black hole. The result shows that though the black hole entropy bears logarithmic correction, the tunneling probability is still related to its differences for the scalar particles and Dirac particles. (geophysics, astronomy, and astrophysics)

  14. A nonsingular rotating black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Sushant G.

    2015-01-01

    The spacetime singularities in classical general relativity are inevitable, as predicated by the celebrated singularity theorems. However, it is a general belief that singularities do not exist in Nature and that they are the limitations of the general relativity. In the absence of a welldefined quantum gravity, models of regular black holes have been studied. We employ a probability distribution inspired mass function m(r) to replace the Kerr black hole mass M to represent a nonsingular rotating black hole that is identified asymptotically (r >> k, k > 0 constant) exactly as the Kerr-Newman black hole, and as the Kerr black hole when k = 0. The radiating counterpart renders a nonsingular generalization of Carmeli's spacetime as well as Vaidya's spacetime, in the appropriate limits. The exponential correction factor changing the geometry of the classical black hole to remove the curvature singularity can also be motivated by quantum arguments. The regular rotating spacetime can also be understood as a black hole of general relativity coupled to nonlinear electrodynamics. (orig.)

  15. Traversable Wormholes and Black Hole Complementarity

    OpenAIRE

    Gottesman, Daniel

    1994-01-01

    Black hole complementarity is incompatible with the existence of traversable wormholes. In fact, traversable wormholes cause problems for any theory where information comes out in the Hawking radiation.

  16. Radiative evolution of the Carter constant for generic orbits around a Kerr black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ori, Amos

    1997-03-01

    Recently, we proposed a new approach for the radiative evolution of generic orbits around a Kerr black hole. This involves the calculation of the evolution rate of all three constants of motion: The energy E, the azimuthal angular momentum Lz, and the Carter constant Q. In a previous paper we presented the general approach, and outlined its application to a scalar-field radiation reaction. In the present paper, we give the full details of the scalar-field calculations: We first derive the explicit expressions for Edo;, Ldotz, and Qdot. Then, we compare our results for Edot and Ldotz to those obtained from the standard method, and show that they are in full agreement. In addition, we outline the application of our method to the electromagnetic and gravitational radiation-reaction problem.

  17. Black hole candidates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Black hole candidates. In the case of X-ray sources such as Cyg X-1, the mass of the compact object inferred from combined optical and X-ray data, suggest M_compact object > 3.4 M_sun => Black Hole! A remarkable discovery!! Thus X-ray emitting binary systems ...

  18. Black hole Berry phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, J.; Papadodimas, K.; Verlinde, E.

    2009-01-01

    Supersymmetric black holes are characterized by a large number of degenerate ground states. We argue that these black holes, like other quantum mechanical systems with such a degeneracy, are subject to a phenomenon which is called the geometric or Berry’s phase: under adiabatic variations of the

  19. Black holes matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Helge Stjernholm

    2016-01-01

    Review essay, Marcia Bartusiak, Black Hole: How an Idea Abandoned by Newtonians, Hated by Einstein, and Gambled On by Hawking Became Loved (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015).......Review essay, Marcia Bartusiak, Black Hole: How an Idea Abandoned by Newtonians, Hated by Einstein, and Gambled On by Hawking Became Loved (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015)....

  20. Black hole levitron

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arsiwalla, X.D.; Verlinde, E.P.

    2010-01-01

    We study the problem of spatially stabilizing four dimensional extremal black holes in background electric/magnetic fields. Whilst looking for stationary stable solutions describing black holes placed in external fields we find that taking a continuum limit of Denef et al.’s multicenter

  1. Black Hole Dynamic Potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... In the following paper, certain black hole dynamic potentials have been developed definitively on the lines of classical thermodynamics. These potentials have been refined in view of the small differences in the equations of the laws of black hole dynamics as given by Bekenstein and those of ...

  2. Lifshitz topological black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, R.B.

    2009-01-01

    I find a class of black hole solutions to a (3+1) dimensional theory gravity coupled to abelian gauge fields with negative cosmological constant that has been proposed as the dual theory to a Lifshitz theory describing critical phenomena in (2+1) dimensions. These black holes are all asymptotic to a Lifshitz fixed point geometry and depend on a single parameter that determines both their area (or size) and their charge. Most of the solutions are obtained numerically, but an exact solution is also obtained for a particular value of this parameter. The thermodynamic behaviour of large black holes is almost the same regardless of genus, but differs considerably for small black holes. Screening behaviour is exhibited in the dual theory for any genus, but the critical length at which it sets in is genus-dependent for small black holes.

  3. Bulk and brane decay of a (4+n)-dimensional Schwarzschild-de Sitter black hole: Scalar radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanti, P.; Grain, J.; Barrau, A.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we extend the idea that the spectrum of Hawking radiation can reveal valuable information on a number of parameters that characterize a particular black hole background--such as the dimensionality of spacetime and the value of coupling constants--to gain information on another important aspect: the curvature of spacetime. We investigate the emission of Hawking radiation from a D-dimensional Schwarzschild-de Sitter black hole emitted in the form of scalar fields, and employ both analytical and numerical techniques to calculate greybody factors and differential energy emission rates on the brane and in the bulk. The energy emission rate of the black hole is significantly enhanced in the high-energy regime with the number of spacelike dimensions. On the other hand, in the low-energy part of the spectrum, it is the cosmological constant that leaves a clear footprint, through a characteristic, constant emission rate of ultrasoft quanta determined by the values of black hole and cosmological horizons. Our results are applicable to 'small' black holes arising in theories with an arbitrary number and size of extra dimensions, as well as to pure 4-dimensional primordial black holes, embedded in a de Sitter spacetime

  4. Thermal BEC Black Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Casadio

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We review some features of Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC models of black holes obtained by means of the horizon wave function formalism. We consider the Klein–Gordon equation for a toy graviton field coupled to a static matter current in a spherically-symmetric setup. The classical field reproduces the Newtonian potential generated by the matter source, while the corresponding quantum state is given by a coherent superposition of scalar modes with a continuous occupation number. An attractive self-interaction is needed for bound states to form, the case in which one finds that (approximately one mode is allowed, and the system of N bosons can be self-confined in a volume of the size of the Schwarzschild radius. The horizon wave function formalism is then used to show that the radius of such a system corresponds to a proper horizon. The uncertainty in the size of the horizon is related to the typical energy of Hawking modes: it decreases with the increasing of the black hole mass (larger number of gravitons, resulting in agreement with the semiclassical calculations and which does not hold for a single very massive particle. The spectrum of these systems has two components: a discrete ground state of energy m (the bosons forming the black hole and a continuous spectrum with energy ω > m (representing the Hawking radiation and modeled with a Planckian distribution at the expected Hawking temperature. Assuming the main effect of the internal scatterings is the Hawking radiation, the N-particle state can be collectively described by a single-particle wave-function given by a superposition of a total ground state with energy M = Nm and Entropy 2015, 17 6894 a Planckian distribution for E > M at the same Hawking temperature. This can be used to compute the partition function and to find the usual area law for the entropy, with a logarithmic correction related to the Hawking component. The backreaction of modes with ω > m is also shown to reduce

  5. Black hole critical phenomena without black holes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    as a star or dispersing altogether. Were we engineers with advanced technology, we might attempt to find that critical amount of energy necessary to form a black hole. However, despite some fears to the contrary, such technology does not exist, so instead we investigate this critical regime numerically. The first step is to pick ...

  6. Black hole critical phenomena without black holes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    denotes the partial derivatives of . The construction of a numerical method with which ... which configurations form black holes and which disperse (the only two options in this model). The problem in picturing such a space is that it is infinite ..... 4.1 The future: Less symmetry. The work described above all assumes spherical ...

  7. The black hole quantum atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Ramit; Liberati, Stefano; Pranzetti, Daniele

    2017-11-01

    Ever since the discovery of black hole evaporation, the region of origin of the radiated quanta has been a topic of debate. Recently it was argued by Giddings that the Hawking quanta originate from a region well outside the black hole horizon by calculating the effective radius of a radiating body via the Stefan-Boltzmann law. In this paper we try to further explore this issue and end up corroborating this claim, using both a heuristic argument and a detailed study of the stress energy tensor. We show that the Hawking quanta originate from what might be called a quantum atmosphere around the black hole with energy density and fluxes of particles peaked at about 4 MG, running contrary to the popular belief that these originate from the ultra high energy excitations very close to the horizon. This long distance origin of Hawking radiation could have a profound impact on our understanding of the information and transplanckian problems.

  8. The black hole quantum atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramit Dey

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ever since the discovery of black hole evaporation, the region of origin of the radiated quanta has been a topic of debate. Recently it was argued by Giddings that the Hawking quanta originate from a region well outside the black hole horizon by calculating the effective radius of a radiating body via the Stefan–Boltzmann law. In this paper we try to further explore this issue and end up corroborating this claim, using both a heuristic argument and a detailed study of the stress energy tensor. We show that the Hawking quanta originate from what might be called a quantum atmosphere around the black hole with energy density and fluxes of particles peaked at about 4MG, running contrary to the popular belief that these originate from the ultra high energy excitations very close to the horizon. This long distance origin of Hawking radiation could have a profound impact on our understanding of the information and transplanckian problems.

  9. Modified dispersion relations and black hole physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling Yi; Li Xiang; Hu Bo

    2006-01-01

    A modified formulation of the energy-momentum relation is proposed in the context of doubly special relativity. We investigate its impact on black hole physics. It turns out that such a modification will give corrections to both the temperature and the entropy of black holes. In particular, this modified dispersion relation also changes the picture of Hawking radiation greatly when the size of black holes approaches the Planck scale. It can prevent black holes from total evaporation, as a result providing a plausible mechanism to treat the remnant of black holes as a candidate for dark matter

  10. Neutrino constraints that transform black holes into grey holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruderfer, M.

    1982-01-01

    Existing black hole theory is found to be defective in its neglect of the physical properties of matter and radiation at superhigh densities. Nongravitational neutrino effects are shown to be physically relevant to the evolution of astronomical black holes and their equations of state. Gravitational collapse to supernovae combined with the Davis and Ray vacuum solution for neutrinos limit attainment of a singularity and require black holes to evolve into ''grey holes''. These allow a better justification than do black holes for explaining the unique existence of galactic masses. (Auth.)

  11. Quantum black hole: What is that?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezin, Victor

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we are trying to explain our point of view on what a quantum black hole is. The ideas are based on the previous works by the author and his collaborators where the concrete models of quantum black holes were constructed. It is argued that the main feature of quantum black holes that would allow us to distinguish them from other quantum object is some specific quantum radiation. Such a radiation in the quasiclassical limit is just the Hawking evaporation if the change in the black hole mass due to radiation can be neglected

  12. ULTRAMASSIVE BLACK HOLE COALESCENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Fazeel Mahmood; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Berczik, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Although supermassive black holes (SMBHs) correlate well with their host galaxies, there is an emerging view that outliers exist. Henize 2-10, NGC 4889, and NGC 1277 are examples of SMBHs at least an order of magnitude more massive than their host galaxy suggests. The dynamical effects of such ultramassive central black holes is unclear. Here, we perform direct N-body simulations of mergers of galactic nuclei where one black hole is ultramassive to study the evolution of the remnant and the black hole dynamics in this extreme regime. We find that the merger remnant is axisymmetric near the center, while near the large SMBH influence radius, the galaxy is triaxial. The SMBH separation shrinks rapidly due to dynamical friction, and quickly forms a binary black hole; if we scale our model to the most massive estimate for the NGC 1277 black hole, for example, the timescale for the SMBH separation to shrink from nearly a kiloparsec to less than a parsec is roughly 10 Myr. By the time the SMBHs form a hard binary, gravitational wave emission dominates, and the black holes coalesce in a mere few Myr. Curiously, these extremely massive binaries appear to nearly bypass the three-body scattering evolutionary phase. Our study suggests that in this extreme case, SMBH coalescence is governed by dynamical friction followed nearly directly by gravitational wave emission, resulting in a rapid and efficient SMBH coalescence timescale. We discuss the implications for gravitational wave event rates and hypervelocity star production

  13. Black holes new horizons

    CERN Document Server

    Hayward, Sean Alan

    2013-01-01

    Black holes, once just fascinating theoretical predictions of how gravity warps space-time according to Einstein's theory, are now generally accepted as astrophysical realities, formed by post-supernova collapse, or as supermassive black holes mysteriously found at the cores of most galaxies, powering active galactic nuclei, the most powerful objects in the universe. Theoretical understanding has progressed in recent decades with a wider realization that local concepts should characterize black holes, rather than the global concepts found in textbooks. In particular, notions such as trapping h

  14. Scalarized hairy black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleihaus, Burkhard, E-mail: b.kleihaus@uni-oldenburg.de [Institut für Physik, Universität Oldenburg, Postfach 2503, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Kunz, Jutta [Institut für Physik, Universität Oldenburg, Postfach 2503, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Yazadjiev, Stoytcho [Department of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, Sofia University, Sofia 1164 (Bulgaria)

    2015-05-11

    In the presence of a complex scalar field scalar–tensor theory allows for scalarized rotating hairy black holes. We exhibit the domain of existence for these scalarized black holes, which is bounded by scalarized rotating boson stars and hairy black holes of General Relativity. We discuss the global properties of these solutions. Like their counterparts in general relativity, their angular momentum may exceed the Kerr bound, and their ergosurfaces may consist of a sphere and a ring, i.e., form an ergo-Saturn.

  15. Black hole radiation in the brane world and the recoil effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, Valeri; Stojkovic, Dejan

    2002-01-01

    A black hole attached to a brane in a higher-dimensional space emitting quanta into the bulk may leave the brane as a result of a recoil. We study this effect. We consider black holes which have a size much smaller than the characteristic size of extra dimensions. Such a black hole can be effectively described as a massive particle with internal degrees of freedom. We consider an interaction of such particles with a scalar massless field and prove that for a special choice of the coupling constant describing the transition of the particle to a state with smaller mass the probability of massless quanta emission takes the form identical to the probability of the black hole emission. Using this model we calculate the probability for a black hole to leave the brane and study its properties. The discussed recoil effect implies that, for black holes which might be created in the interaction of high energy particles in colliders, the thermal emission of the formed black hole could be terminated and the energy nonconservation can be observed in brane experiments

  16. Confluent Heun functions and the physics of black holes: Resonant frequencies, Hawking radiation and scattering of scalar waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, H.S., E-mail: horacio.santana.vieira@hotmail.com [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Caixa Postal 5008, CEP 58051-970, João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Centro de Ciências, Tecnologia e Saúde, Universidade Estadual da Paraíba, CEP 58233-000, Araruna, PB (Brazil); Bezerra, V.B., E-mail: valdir@fisica.ufpb.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Caixa Postal 5008, CEP 58051-970, João Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2016-10-15

    We apply the confluent Heun functions to study the resonant frequencies (quasispectrum), the Hawking radiation and the scattering process of scalar waves, in a class of spacetimes, namely, the ones generated by a Kerr–Newman–Kasuya spacetime (dyon black hole) and a Reissner–Nordström black hole surrounded by a magnetic field (Ernst spacetime). In both spacetimes, the solutions for the angular and radial parts of the corresponding Klein–Gordon equations are obtained exactly, for massive and massless fields, respectively. The special cases of Kerr and Schwarzschild black holes are analyzed and the solutions obtained, as well as in the case of a Schwarzschild black hole surrounded by a magnetic field. In all these special situations, the resonant frequencies, Hawking radiation and scattering are studied. - Highlights: • Charged massive scalar field in the dyon black hole and massless scalar field in the Ernst spacetime are analyzed. • The confluent Heun functions are applied to obtain the solution of the Klein–Gordon equation. • The resonant frequencies are obtained. • The Hawking radiation and the scattering process of scalar waves are examined.

  17. Hawking radiation for non-asymptotically flat dilatonic black holes using gravitational anomaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabris, J.C. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Departamento de Fisica, Vitoria, Espirito Santo (Brazil); Marques, G.T. [Universidade Federal Rural da Amazonia-Brazil, ICIBE-LASIC, Belem, Para (Brazil)

    2012-12-15

    The d-dimensional scalar field action may be reduced, in the background geometry of a black hole, to a two-dimensional effective action. In the near-horizon region, it appears a gravitational anomaly: the energy-momentum tensor of the scalar field is not conserved anymore. This anomaly is removed by introducing a term related to the Hawking temperature of the black hole. Even if the temperature term introduced is not covariant, a gauge transformation may restore the covariance. We apply this method to compute the temperature of the dilatonic non-asymptotically flat black holes. We compare the results with those obtained through other methods. (orig.)

  18. Erratic Black Hole Regulates Itself

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    New results from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have made a major advance in explaining how a special class of black holes may shut off the high-speed jets they produce. These results suggest that these black holes have a mechanism for regulating the rate at which they grow. Black holes come in many sizes: the supermassive ones, including those in quasars, which weigh in at millions to billions of times the mass of the Sun, and the much smaller stellar-mass black holes which have measured masses in the range of about 7 to 25 times the Sun's mass. Some stellar-mass black holes launch powerful jets of particles and radiation, like seen in quasars, and are called "micro-quasars". The new study looks at a famous micro-quasar in our own Galaxy, and regions close to its event horizon, or point of no return. This system, GRS 1915+105 (GRS 1915 for short), contains a black hole about 14 times the mass of the Sun that is feeding off material from a nearby companion star. As the material swirls toward the black hole, an accretion disk forms. This system shows remarkably unpredictable and complicated variability ranging from timescales of seconds to months, including 14 different patterns of variation. These variations are caused by a poorly understood connection between the disk and the radio jet seen in GRS 1915. Chandra, with its spectrograph, has observed GRS 1915 eleven times since its launch in 1999. These studies reveal that the jet in GRS 1915 may be periodically choked off when a hot wind, seen in X-rays, is driven off the accretion disk around the black hole. The wind is believed to shut down the jet by depriving it of matter that would have otherwise fueled it. Conversely, once the wind dies down, the jet can re-emerge. "We think the jet and wind around this black hole are in a sort of tug of war," said Joseph Neilsen, Harvard graduate student and lead author of the paper appearing in the journal Nature. "Sometimes one is winning and then, for reasons we don

  19. Quantum information erasure inside black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, David A.; Thorlacius, Larus

    2015-01-01

    An effective field theory for infalling observers in the vicinity of a quasi-static black hole is given in terms of a freely falling lattice discretization. The lattice model successfully reproduces the thermal spectrum of outgoing Hawking radiation, as was shown by Corley and Jacobson, but can also be used to model observations made by a typical low-energy observer who enters the black hole in free fall at a prescribed time. The explicit short distance cutoff ensures that, from the viewpoint of the infalling observer, any quantum information that entered the black hole more than a scrambling time earlier has been erased by the black hole singularity. This property, combined with the requirement that outside observers need at least of order the scrambling time to extract quantum information from the black hole, ensures that a typical infalling observer does not encounter drama upon crossing the black hole horizon in a theory where black hole information is preserved for asymptotic observers.

  20. Quantum information erasure inside black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, David A. [Department of Physics, Brown University,Providence, RI, 02912 (United States); Thorlacius, Larus [University of Iceland, Science Institute,Dunhaga 3, IS-107 Reykjavik (Iceland); The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics, Department of Physics,Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Centre, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-12-15

    An effective field theory for infalling observers in the vicinity of a quasi-static black hole is given in terms of a freely falling lattice discretization. The lattice model successfully reproduces the thermal spectrum of outgoing Hawking radiation, as was shown by Corley and Jacobson, but can also be used to model observations made by a typical low-energy observer who enters the black hole in free fall at a prescribed time. The explicit short distance cutoff ensures that, from the viewpoint of the infalling observer, any quantum information that entered the black hole more than a scrambling time earlier has been erased by the black hole singularity. This property, combined with the requirement that outside observers need at least of order the scrambling time to extract quantum information from the black hole, ensures that a typical infalling observer does not encounter drama upon crossing the black hole horizon in a theory where black hole information is preserved for asymptotic observers.

  1. Introducing the Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffini, Remo; Wheeler, John A.

    1971-01-01

    discusses the cosmology theory of a black hole, a region where an object loses its identity, but mass, charge, and momentum are conserved. Include are three possible formation processes, theorized properties, and three way they might eventually be detected. (DS)

  2. Colliding black hole solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Mainuddin

    2005-01-01

    A new solution of Einstein equation in general relativity is found. This solution solves an outstanding problem of thermodynamics and black hole physics. Also this work appears to conclude the interpretation of NUT spacetime. (author)

  3. Illuminating black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Ian A.; Bull, Anne; O'Brien, Eileen; Drillsma-Milgrom, Katy A.; Milgrom, Lionel R.

    2016-07-01

    Two-dimensional shadows formed by illuminating vortices are shown to be visually analogous to the gravitational action of black holes on light and surrounding matter. They could be useful teaching aids demonstrating some of the consequences of general relativity.

  4. Black holes with halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monten, Ruben; Toldo, Chiara

    2018-02-01

    We present new AdS4 black hole solutions in N =2 gauged supergravity coupled to vector and hypermultiplets. We focus on a particular consistent truncation of M-theory on the homogeneous Sasaki–Einstein seven-manifold M 111, characterized by the presence of one Betti vector multiplet. We numerically construct static and spherically symmetric black holes with electric and magnetic charges, corresponding to M2 and M5 branes wrapping non-contractible cycles of the internal manifold. The novel feature characterizing these nonzero temperature configurations is the presence of a massive vector field halo. Moreover, we verify the first law of black hole mechanics and we study the thermodynamics in the canonical ensemble. We analyze the behavior of the massive vector field condensate across the small-large black hole phase transition and we interpret the process in the dual field theory.

  5. Quantum black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    't Hooft, G.

    1987-01-01

    No particle theory can be complete without gravity. Einstein's theory of gravity is of the Euler-Lagrange form, but standard quantization procedure fails. In quantum gravity the higher order interactions have a dimensionality different form the fundamental ones, because Newton's constant G has dimensions and the renormalization procedure fails. Another problem with quantum gravity is even more mysterious. Suppose that we had regularized the gravitational forces at the small distance end in the way that the weak intermediate vector boson regularized the fundamental 4-fermion interaction vertex of the weak interactions. Then what we discover is that the gravitational forces are unstable. Given sufficiently large amount of matter, it can collapse under its own weight. Classical general relativity tells us what will happen: a black hole is formed. But how is this formulated in quantum theory. S. Hawking observed that when a field theory is quantized in the background metric of a black hole, the black hole actually emits particles in a completely random thermal way. Apparently black holes are just another form of matter unstable against Hawking decay. Unfortunately this picture cannot be complete. The problem is that the quantum version of black holes has infinite phase space, and other symptoms of a run-away solution. Black holes are the heaviest and most compact forms of matter that can be imagined. A complete particle theory can have nothing but a spectrum of black-hole like objects at it high-energy end. This is why it is believed that a resolution of the black hole problem will in time disclose the complete small-distance structure of our world. 6 references

  6. Black hole as a point radiator and recoil effect on the brane world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolov, Valeri; Stojković, Dejan

    2002-10-07

    A small black hole attached to a brane in a higher-dimensional space emitting quanta into the bulk may leave the brane as a result of a recoil. We construct a field theory model in which such a black hole is described as a massive scalar particle with internal degrees of freedom. In this model, the probability of transition between the different internal levels is identical to the probability of thermal emission calculated for the Schwarzschild black hole. The discussed recoil effect implies that the thermal emission of the black holes, which might be created by interaction of high energy particles in colliders, could be terminated and the energy nonconservation can be observed in the brane experiments.

  7. Newborn Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Scientists using NASA's Swift satellite say they have found newborn black holes, just seconds old, in a confused state of existence. The holes are consuming material falling into them while somehow propelling other material away at great speeds. "First comes a blast of gamma rays followed by intense pulses of x-rays. The energies involved are much…

  8. Charged Galileon black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babichev, Eugeny; Charmousis, Christos; Hassaine, Mokhtar

    2015-01-01

    We consider an Abelian gauge field coupled to a particular truncation of Horndeski theory. The Galileon field has translation symmetry and couples non minimally both to the metric and the gauge field. When the gauge-scalar coupling is zero the gauge field reduces to a standard Maxwell field. By taking into account the symmetries of the action, we construct charged black hole solutions. Allowing the scalar field to softly break symmetries of spacetime we construct black holes where the scalar field is regular on the black hole event horizon. Some of these solutions can be interpreted as the equivalent of Reissner-Nordstrom black holes of scalar tensor theories with a non trivial scalar field. A self tuning black hole solution found previously is extended to the presence of dyonic charge without affecting whatsoever the self tuning of a large positive cosmological constant. Finally, for a general shift invariant scalar tensor theory we demonstrate that the scalar field Ansatz and method we employ are mathematically compatible with the field equations. This opens up the possibility for novel searches of hairy black holes in a far more general setting of Horndeski theory

  9. Tidal interactions with Kerr black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiscock, W.A.

    1977-01-01

    The tidal deformation of an extended test body falling with zero angular momentum into a Kerr black hole is calculated. Numerical results for infall along the symmetry axis and in the equatorial plane of the black hole are presented for a range of values of a, the specific angular momentum of the black hole. Estimates of the tidal contribution to the gravitational radiation are also given. The tidal contribution in equatorial infall into a maximally rotating Kerr black hole may be of the same order as the center-of-mass contribution to the gravitational radiation

  10. Do black holes really evaporate thermally

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tipler, F.J.

    1980-01-01

    The Raychaudhuri equation is used to analyze the effect of the Hawking radiation back reaction upon a black-hole event horizon. It is found that if the effective stress-energy tensor of the Hawking radiation has negative energy density as expected, then an evaporating black hole initially a solar mass in size must disappear in less than a second. This implies that either the evaporation process, if it occurs at all, must be quite different from what is commonly supposed, or else black-hole event horizons: and hence black holes: do not exist

  11. Lifetime of a black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlitz, R.D.; Willey, R.S.

    1987-01-01

    We study the constraints placed by quantum mechanics upon the lifetime of a black hole. In the context of a moving-mirror analog model for the Hawking radiation process, we conclude that the period of Hawking radiation must be followed by a much longer period during which the remnant mass (of order m/sub P/) may be radiated away. We are able to place a lower bound on the time required for this radiation process, which translates into a lower bound for the lifetime of the black hole. Particles which are emitted during the decay of the remnant, like the particles which comprise the Hawking flux, may be uncorrelated with each other. But each particle emitted from the decaying remnant is correlated with one particle emitted as Hawking radiation. The state which results after the remnant has evaporated is one which locally appears to be thermal, but which on a much larger scale is marked by extensive correlations

  12. Hawking radiation from small black holes at strong coupling and large N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Nidal

    2013-10-01

    In a previous work an approximate static metric was found of a test black string that stretches from the boundary to the horizon of the planar Schwarzschild-AdS5 geometry. This is the gravity dual of the Unruh state for {N}=4, SU(N) super Yang-Mills theory on a four-dimensional Schwarzschild background, at large N and large ’tHooft coupling. We compute the holographic stress tensor of the gravitational solution and it turns out to possess many essential features of the Unruh state for weakly coupled Hawking radiation, such as the appearance of a negative energy density near the black hole horizon and a positive energy density at infinity. It also confirms recent results that at leading order in N, the expectation value of the stress tensor in the Unruh state is finite on both the future and past horizons, and that at this order there are no flux terms as is expected in the black droplet phase.

  13. Plasma horizons of a charged black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanni, R.S.

    1977-01-01

    The most promising way of detecting black holes seems to be through electromagnetic radiation emitted by nearby charged particles. The nature of this radiation depends strongly on the local electromagnetic field, which varies with the charge of the black hole. It has often been purported that a black hole with significant charge will not be observed, because, the dominance of the Coulomb interaction forces its neutralization through selective accretion. This paper shows that it is possible to balance the electric attraction of particles whose charge is opposite that of the black hole with magnetic forces and (assuming an axisymmetric, stationary solution) covariantly define the regions in which this is possible. A Kerr-Newman hole in an asymptotically uniform magnetic field and a current ring centered about a Reissner-Nordstroem hole are used as examples, because of their relevance to processes through which black holes may be observed. (Auth.)

  14. Black hole mergers in the universe

    OpenAIRE

    Zwart, Simon Portegies; McMillan, Stephen

    1999-01-01

    Mergers of black-hole binaries are expected to release large amounts of energy in the form of gravitational radiation. However, binary evolution models predict merger rates too low to be of observational interest. In this paper we explore the possibility that black holes become members of close binaries via dynamical interactions with other stars in dense stellar systems. In star clusters, black holes become the most massive objects within a few tens of millions of years; dynamical relaxation...

  15. Black holes and galaxy formation

    CERN Document Server

    Propst, Raphael J

    2010-01-01

    Galaxies are the basic unit of cosmology. The study of galaxy formation is concerned with the processes that formed a heterogeneous universe from a homogeneous beginning. The physics of galaxy formation is complicated because it deals with the dynamics of stars, thermodynamics of gas and energy production of stars. A black hole is a massive object whose gravitational field is so intense that it prevents any form of matter or radiation to escape. It is hypothesized that the most massive galaxies in the universe- "elliptical galaxies"- grow simultaneously with the supermassive black holes at their centers, giving us much stronger evidence that black holes control galaxy formation. This book reviews new evidence in the field.

  16. Merging Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centrella, Joan

    2012-01-01

    The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest source of gravitational waves for both ground-based detectors such as LIGO and VIRGO, as well as future. space-based detectors. Since the merger takes place in the regime of strong dynamical gravity, computing the resulting gravitational waveforms requires solving the full Einstein equations of general relativity on a computer. For many years, numerical codes designed to simulate black hole mergers were plagued by a host of instabilities. However, recent breakthroughs have conquered these instabilities and opened up this field dramatically. This talk will focus on.the resulting 'gold rush' of new results that is revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics

  17. Turbulent black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Zimmerman, Aaron; Lehner, Luis

    2015-02-27

    We demonstrate that rapidly spinning black holes can display a new type of nonlinear parametric instability-which is triggered above a certain perturbation amplitude threshold-akin to the onset of turbulence, with possibly observable consequences. This instability transfers from higher temporal and azimuthal spatial frequencies to lower frequencies-a phenomenon reminiscent of the inverse cascade displayed by (2+1)-dimensional fluids. Our finding provides evidence for the onset of transitory turbulence in astrophysical black holes and predicts observable signatures in black hole binaries with high spins. Furthermore, it gives a gravitational description of this behavior which, through the fluid-gravity duality, can potentially shed new light on the remarkable phenomena of turbulence in fluids.

  18. Bringing Black Holes Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furmann, John M.

    2003-03-01

    Black holes are difficult to study because they emit no light. To overcome this obstacle, scientists are trying to recreate a black hole in the laboratory. The article gives an overview of the theories of Einstein and Hawking as they pertain to the construction of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) near Geneva, Switzerland, scheduled for completion in 2006. The LHC will create two beams of protons traveling in opposing directions that will collide and create a plethora of scattered elementary particles. Protons traveling in opposite directions at very high velocities may create particles that come close enough to each other to feel their compacted higher dimensions and create a mega force of gravity that can create tiny laboratory-sized black holes for fractions of a second. The experiments carried out with LHC will be used to test modern string theory and relativity.

  19. Black hole gravitohydromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Punsly, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Black hole gravitohydromagnetics (GHM) is developed from the rudiments to the frontiers of research in this book. GHM describes plasma interactions that combine the effects of gravity and a strong magnetic field, in the vicinity (ergosphere) of a rapidly rotating black hole. This topic was created in response to the astrophysical quest to understand the central engines of radio loud extragalactic radio sources. The theory describes a "torsional tug of war" between rotating ergospheric plasma and the distant asymptotic plasma that extracts the rotational inertia of the black hole. The recoil from the struggle between electromagnetic and gravitational forces near the event horizon is manifested as a powerful pair of magnetized particle beams (jets) that are ejected at nearly the speed of light. These bipolar jets feed large-scale magnetized plasmoids on scales as large as millions of light years (the radio lobes of extragalactic radio sources). This interaction can initiate jets that transport energy fluxes exc...

  20. Nonisolated dynamic black holes and white holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClure, M. L.; Anderson, Kaem; Bardahl, Kirk

    2008-01-01

    Modifying the Kerr-Schild transformation used to generate black and white hole spacetimes, new dynamic black and white holes are obtained using a time-dependent Kerr-Schild scalar field. Physical solutions are found for black holes that shrink with time and for white holes that expand with time. The black hole spacetimes are physical only in the vicinity of the black hole, with the physical region increasing in radius with time. The white hole spacetimes are physical throughout. Unlike the standard Schwarzschild solution the singularities are nonisolated, since the time dependence introduces a mass-energy distribution. The surfaces in the metrics where g tt =g rr =0 are dynamic, moving inward with time for the black holes and outward for the white holes, which leads to a question of whether these spacetimes truly have event horizons--a problem shared with Vaidya's cosmological black hole spacetimes. By finding a surface that shrinks or expands at the same rate as the null geodesics move, and within which null geodesics move inward or outward faster than the surfaces shrink or expand, respectively, it is verified that these do in fact behave like black and white holes

  1. On the thermodynamics of hairy black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anabalón, Andrés [Departamento de Ciencias, Facultad de Artes Liberales y Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Viña del Mar (Chile); Astefanesei, Dumitru [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Casilla 4059, Valparaíso (Chile); Choque, David, E-mail: brst1010123@gmail.com [Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Av. España 1680, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2015-04-09

    We investigate the thermodynamics of a general class of exact 4-dimensional asymptotically Anti-de Sitter hairy black hole solutions and show that, for a fixed temperature, there are small and large hairy black holes similar to the Schwarzschild–AdS black hole. The large black holes have positive specific heat and so they can be in equilibrium with a thermal bath of radiation at the Hawking temperature. The relevant thermodynamic quantities are computed by using the Hamiltonian formalism and counterterm method. We explicitly show that there are first order phase transitions similar to the Hawking–Page phase transition.

  2. Black hole evaporation in conformal gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bambi, Cosimo; Rachwał, Lesław [Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics and Department of Physics, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, 200433 Shanghai (China); Modesto, Leonardo [Department of Physics, Southern University of Science and Technology, 1088 Xueyuan Road, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Porey, Shiladitya, E-mail: bambi@fudan.edu.cn, E-mail: lmodesto@sustc.edu.cn, E-mail: shilp@iitk.ac.in, E-mail: rachwal@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, 208016 Kanpur (India)

    2017-09-01

    We study the formation and the evaporation of a spherically symmetric black hole in conformal gravity. From the collapse of a spherically symmetric thin shell of radiation, we find a singularity-free non-rotating black hole. This black hole has the same Hawking temperature as a Schwarzschild black hole with the same mass, and it completely evaporates either in a finite or in an infinite time, depending on the ensemble. We consider the analysis both in the canonical and in the micro-canonical statistical ensembles. Last, we discuss the corresponding Penrose diagram of this physical process.

  3. Destroying black holes with test bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, Ted [Center for Fundamental Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-4111 (United States); Sotiriou, Thomas P, E-mail: jacobson@umd.ed, E-mail: T.Sotiriou@damtp.cam.ac.u [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-01

    If a black hole can accrete a body whose spin or charge would send the black hole parameters over the extremal limit, then a naked singularity would presumably form, in violation of the cosmic censorship conjecture. We review some previous results on testing cosmic censorship in this way using the test body approximation, focusing mostly on the case of neutral black holes. Under certain conditions a black hole can indeed be over-spun or over-charged in this approximation, hence radiative and self-force effects must be taken into account to further test cosmic censorship.

  4. Entropy evaporated by a black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zurek, W.H.

    1982-01-01

    It is shown that the entropy of the radiation evaporated by an uncharged, nonrotating black hole into vacuum in the course of its lifetime is approximately (4/3) times the initial entropy of this black hole. Also considered is a thermodynamically reversible process in which an increase of black-hole entropy is equal to the decrease of the entropy of its surroundings. Implications of these results for the generalized second law of thermodynamics and for the interpretation of black-hole entropy are pointed out

  5. Violent flickering in Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    Unique observations of the flickering light from the surroundings of two black holes provide new insights into the colossal energy that flows at their hearts. By mapping out how well the variations in visible light match those in X-rays on very short timescales, astronomers have shown that magnetic fields must play a crucial role in the way black holes swallow matter. Flickering black hole ESO PR Photo 36/08 Flickering black hole Like the flame from a candle, light coming from the surroundings of a black hole is not constant -- it flares, sputters and sparkles. "The rapid flickering of light from a black hole is most commonly observed at X-ray wavelengths," says Poshak Gandhi, who led the international team that reports these results. "This new study is one of only a handful to date that also explore the fast variations in visible light, and, most importantly how these fluctuations relate to those in X-rays." The observations tracked the shimmering of the black holes simultaneously using two different instruments, one on the ground and one in space. The X-ray data were taken using NASA's Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer satellite. The visible light was collected with the high speed camera ULTRACAM, a visiting instrument at ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT), recording up to 20 images a second. ULTRACAM was developed by team members Vik Dhillon and Tom Marsh. "These are among the fastest observations of a black hole ever obtained with a large optical telescope," says Dhillon. To their surprise, astronomers discovered that the brightness fluctuations in the visible light were even more rapid than those seen in X-rays. In addition, the visible-light and X-ray variations were found not to be simultaneous, but to follow a repeated and remarkable pattern: just before an X-ray flare the visible light dims, and then surges to a bright flash for a tiny fraction of a second before rapidly decreasing again. None of this radiation emerges directly from the black hole, but from the

  6. Slowly balding black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyutikov, Maxim; McKinney, Jonathan C.

    2011-01-01

    The 'no-hair' theorem, a key result in general relativity, states that an isolated black hole is defined by only three parameters: mass, angular momentum, and electric charge; this asymptotic state is reached on a light-crossing time scale. We find that the no-hair theorem is not formally applicable for black holes formed from the collapse of a rotating neutron star. Rotating neutron stars can self-produce particles via vacuum breakdown forming a highly conducting plasma magnetosphere such that magnetic field lines are effectively ''frozen in'' the star both before and during collapse. In the limit of no resistivity, this introduces a topological constraint which prohibits the magnetic field from sliding off the newly-formed event horizon. As a result, during collapse of a neutron star into a black hole, the latter conserves the number of magnetic flux tubes N B =eΦ ∞ /(πc(ℎ/2π)), where Φ ∞ ≅2π 2 B NS R NS 3 /(P NS c) is the initial magnetic flux through the hemispheres of the progenitor and out to infinity. We test this theoretical result via 3-dimensional general relativistic plasma simulations of rotating black holes that start with a neutron star dipole magnetic field with no currents initially present outside the event horizon. The black hole's magnetosphere subsequently relaxes to the split-monopole magnetic field geometry with self-generated currents outside the event horizon. The dissipation of the resulting equatorial current sheet leads to a slow loss of the anchored flux tubes, a process that balds the black hole on long resistive time scales rather than the short light-crossing time scales expected from the vacuum no-hair theorem.

  7. Escape of Black Holes from the Brane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flachi, Antonino; Tanaka, Takahiro

    2005-01-01

    TeV-scale gravity theories allow the possibility of producing small black holes at energies that soon will be explored at the CERN LHC or at the Auger observatory. One of the expected signatures is the detection of Hawking radiation that might eventually terminate if the black hole, once perturbed, leaves the brane. Here, we study how the 'black hole plus brane' system evolves once the black hole is given an initial velocity that mimics, for instance, the recoil due to the emission of a graviton. The results of our dynamical analysis show that the brane bends around the black hole, suggesting that the black hole eventually escapes into the extra dimensions once two portions of the brane come in contact and reconnect. This gives a dynamical mechanism for the creation of baby branes

  8. What does a black hole look like?

    CERN Document Server

    Bailyn, Charles D

    2014-01-01

    Emitting no radiation or any other kind of information, black holes mark the edge of the universe--both physically and in our scientific understanding. Yet astronomers have found clear evidence for the existence of black holes, employing the same tools and techniques used to explore other celestial objects. In this sophisticated introduction, leading astronomer Charles Bailyn goes behind the theory and physics of black holes to describe how astronomers are observing these enigmatic objects and developing a remarkably detailed picture of what they look like and how they interact with their surroundings. Accessible to undergraduates and others with some knowledge of introductory college-level physics, this book presents the techniques used to identify and measure the mass and spin of celestial black holes. These key measurements demonstrate the existence of two kinds of black holes, those with masses a few times that of a typical star, and those with masses comparable to whole galaxies--supermassive black holes...

  9. ATLAS: Black hole production and decay

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    This track is an example of simulated data modelled for the ATLAS detector on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, which will begin taking data in 2008. These tracks would be produced if a miniature black hole was produced in the proton-proton collision. Such a small black hole would decay instantly to various particles via a process known as Hawking radiation.

  10. Superfluid Black Holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennigar, Robie A; Mann, Robert B; Tjoa, Erickson

    2017-01-13

    We present what we believe is the first example of a "λ-line" phase transition in black hole thermodynamics. This is a line of (continuous) second order phase transitions which in the case of liquid ^{4}He marks the onset of superfluidity. The phase transition occurs for a class of asymptotically anti-de Sitter hairy black holes in Lovelock gravity where a real scalar field is conformally coupled to gravity. We discuss the origin of this phase transition and outline the circumstances under which it (or generalizations of it) could occur.

  11. Are black holes springlike?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Michael R. R.; Ong, Yen Chin

    2015-02-01

    A (3 +1 )-dimensional asymptotically flat Kerr black hole angular speed Ω+ can be used to define an effective spring constant, k =m Ω+2. Its maximum value is the Schwarzschild surface gravity, k =κ , which rapidly weakens as the black hole spins down and the temperature increases. The Hawking temperature is expressed in terms of the spring constant: 2 π T =κ -k . Hooke's law, in the extremal limit, provides the force F =1 /4 , which is consistent with the conjecture of maximum force in general relativity.

  12. Virtual Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Hawking, Stephen W.

    1995-01-01

    One would expect spacetime to have a foam-like structure on the Planck scale with a very high topology. If spacetime is simply connected (which is assumed in this paper), the non-trivial homology occurs in dimension two, and spacetime can be regarded as being essentially the topological sum of $S^2\\times S^2$ and $K3$ bubbles. Comparison with the instantons for pair creation of black holes shows that the $S^2\\times S^2$ bubbles can be interpreted as closed loops of virtual black holes. It is ...

  13. Partons and black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susskind, L.; Griffin, P.

    1994-01-01

    A light-front renormalization group analysis is applied to study matter which falls into massive black holes, and the related problem of matter with transplankian energies. One finds that the rate of matter spreading over the black hole's horizon unexpectedly saturates the causality bound. This is related to the transverse growth behavior of transplankian particles as their longitudinal momentum increases. This growth behavior suggests a natural mechanism to implement 't Hooft's scenario that the universe is an image of data stored on a 2 + 1 dimensional hologram-like projection

  14. The third order correction on Hawking radiation and entropy conservation during black hole evaporation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Hao-Peng; Liu, Wen-Biao, E-mail: wbliu@bnu.edu.cn

    2016-08-10

    Using Parikh–Wilczek tunneling framework, we calculate the tunneling rate from a Schwarzschild black hole under the third order WKB approximation, and then obtain the expressions for emission spectrum and black hole entropy to the third order correction. The entropy contains four terms including the Bekenstein–Hawking entropy, the logarithmic term, the inverse area term, and the square of inverse area term. In addition, we analyse the correlation between sequential emissions under this approximation. It is shown that the entropy is conserved during the process of black hole evaporation, which consists with the request of quantum mechanics and implies the information is conserved during this process. We also compare the above result with that of pure thermal spectrum case, and find that the non-thermal correction played an important role.

  15. High energy radiation precursors to the collapse of black holes binaries based on resonating plasma modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppi, B.

    2018-05-01

    The presence of well organized plasma structures around binary systems of collapsed objects [1,2] (black holes and neutron stars) is proposed in which processes can develop [3] leading to high energy electromagnetic radiation emission immediately before the binary collapse. The formulated theoretical model supporting this argument shows that resonating plasma collective modes can be excited in the relevant magnetized plasma structure. Accordingly, the collapse of the binary approaches, with the loss of angular momentum by emission of gravitational waves [2], the resonance conditions with vertically standing plasma density and magnetic field oscillations are met. Then, secondary plasma modes propagating along the magnetic field are envisioned to be sustained with mode-particle interactions producing the particle populations responsible for the observable electromagnetic radiation emission. Weak evidence for a precursor to the binary collapse reported in Ref. [2], has been offered by the Agile X-γ-ray observatory [4] while the August 17 (2017) event, identified first by the LIGO-Virgo detection of gravitational waves and featuring the inferred collapse of a neutron star binary, improves the evidence of such a precursor. A new set of experimental observations is needed to reassess the presented theory.

  16. Lidov–Kozai Cycles with Gravitational Radiation: Merging Black Holes in Isolated Triple Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silsbee, Kedron [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Tremaine, Scott, E-mail: ksilsbee@astro.princeton.edu, E-mail: tremaine@ias.edu [Institute for Advanced Study, 1 Einstein Drive Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2017-02-10

    We show that a black-hole binary with an external companion can undergo Lidov–Kozai cycles that cause a close pericenter passage, leading to a rapid merger due to gravitational-wave emission. This scenario occurs most often for systems in which the companion has a mass comparable to the reduced mass of the binary and the companion orbit has a semimajor axis within a factor of ∼10 of the binary semimajor axis. Using a simple population-synthesis model and three-body simulations, we estimate the rate of mergers in triple black-hole systems in the field to be about six per Gpc{sup 3} per year in the absence of natal kicks during black-hole formation. This value is within the low end of the 90% credible interval for the total black hole–black hole merger rate inferred from the current LIGO results. There are many uncertainties in these calculations, the largest of which is the unknown distribution of natal kicks. Even modest natal kicks of 40 km s{sup −1} will reduce the merger rate by a factor of 40. A few percent of these systems will have eccentricity greater than 0.999 when they first enter the frequency band detectable by aLIGO (above 10 Hz).

  17. Lidov–Kozai Cycles with Gravitational Radiation: Merging Black Holes in Isolated Triple Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silsbee, Kedron; Tremaine, Scott

    2017-01-01

    We show that a black-hole binary with an external companion can undergo Lidov–Kozai cycles that cause a close pericenter passage, leading to a rapid merger due to gravitational-wave emission. This scenario occurs most often for systems in which the companion has a mass comparable to the reduced mass of the binary and the companion orbit has a semimajor axis within a factor of ∼10 of the binary semimajor axis. Using a simple population-synthesis model and three-body simulations, we estimate the rate of mergers in triple black-hole systems in the field to be about six per Gpc 3 per year in the absence of natal kicks during black-hole formation. This value is within the low end of the 90% credible interval for the total black hole–black hole merger rate inferred from the current LIGO results. There are many uncertainties in these calculations, the largest of which is the unknown distribution of natal kicks. Even modest natal kicks of 40 km s −1 will reduce the merger rate by a factor of 40. A few percent of these systems will have eccentricity greater than 0.999 when they first enter the frequency band detectable by aLIGO (above 10 Hz).

  18. Aspects of hairy black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anabalón, Andrés, E-mail: andres.anabalon-at@uai.cl [Departamento de Ciencias, Facultad de Artes Liberales y Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Viña del Mar (Chile); Astefanesei, Dumitru [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Casilla 4059, Valparaíso (Chile)

    2015-03-26

    We review the existence of exact hairy black holes in asymptotically flat, anti-de Sitter and de Sitter space-times. We briefly discuss the issue of stability and the charging of the black holes with a Maxwell field.

  19. Over spinning a black hole?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouhmadi-Lopez, Mariam; Cardoso, Vitor; Nerozzi, Andrea; Rocha, Jorge V, E-mail: mariam.bouhmadi@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: vitor.cardoso@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: andrea.nerozzi@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: jorge.v.rocha@ist.utl.pt [CENTRA, Department de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2011-09-22

    A possible process to destroy a black hole consists on throwing point particles with sufficiently large angular momentum into the black hole. In the case of Kerr black holes, it was shown by Wald that particles with dangerously large angular momentum are simply not captured by the hole, and thus the event horizon is not destroyed. Here we reconsider this gedanken experiment for black holes in higher dimensions. We show that this particular way of destroying a black hole does not succeed and that Cosmic Censorship is preserved.

  20. When Black Holes Collide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John

    2010-01-01

    Among the fascinating phenomena predicted by General Relativity, Einstein's theory of gravity, black holes and gravitational waves, are particularly important in astronomy. Though once viewed as a mathematical oddity, black holes are now recognized as the central engines of many of astronomy's most energetic cataclysms. Gravitational waves, though weakly interacting with ordinary matter, may be observed with new gravitational wave telescopes, opening a new window to the universe. These observations promise a direct view of the strong gravitational dynamics involving dense, often dark objects, such as black holes. The most powerful of these events may be merger of two colliding black holes. Though dark, these mergers may briefly release more energy that all the stars in the visible universe, in gravitational waves. General relativity makes precise predictions for the gravitational-wave signatures of these events, predictions which we can now calculate with the aid of supercomputer simulations. These results provide a foundation for interpreting expect observations in the emerging field of gravitational wave astronomy.

  1. Twistors and Black Holes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neitzke, A.; Pioline, B.; Vandoren, S.

    2007-01-01

    Motivated by black hole physics in N = 2,D = 4 supergravity, we study the geometry of quaternionic-K¨ahler manifolds Mobtained by the c-map construction from projective special Kähler manifolds Ms. Improving on earlier treatments, we compute the Käahler potentials on the twistor space Z and Swann

  2. Black Holes and Entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsten, L.

    2011-01-01

    An unexpected interplay between the seemingly disparate fields of M-theory and Quantum Information has recently come to light. We summarise these developments, culminating in a classification of 4-qubit entanglement from the physics of STU black holes. Based on work done in collaboration with D. Dahanayake, M. J. Duff, H. Ebrahim, A. Marrani and W. Rubens.

  3. Black Holes and Entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsten, L.

    2011-07-01

    An unexpected interplay between the seemingly disparate fields of M-theory and Quantum Information has recently come to light. We summarise these developments, culminating in a classification of 4-qubit entanglement from the physics of STU black holes. Based on work done in collaboration with D. Dahanayake, M. J. Duff, H. Ebrahim, A. Marrani and W. Rubens.

  4. Black Hole Blows Big Bubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Combining observations made with ESO's Very Large Telescope and NASA's Chandra X-ray telescope, astronomers have uncovered the most powerful pair of jets ever seen from a stellar black hole. This object, also known as a microquasar, blows a huge bubble of hot gas, 1000 light-years across, twice as large and tens of times more powerful than other known microquasars. The discovery is reported this week in the journal Nature. "We have been astonished by how much energy is injected into the gas by the black hole," says lead author Manfred Pakull. "This black hole is just a few solar masses, but is a real miniature version of the most powerful quasars and radio galaxies, which contain black holes with masses of a few million times that of the Sun." Black holes are known to release a prodigious amount of energy when they swallow matter. It was thought that most of the energy came out in the form of radiation, predominantly X-rays. However, the new findings show that some black holes can release at least as much energy, and perhaps much more, in the form of collimated jets of fast moving particles. The fast jets slam into the surrounding interstellar gas, heating it and triggering an expansion. The inflating bubble contains a mixture of hot gas and ultra-fast particles at different temperatures. Observations in several energy bands (optical, radio, X-rays) help astronomers calculate the total rate at which the black hole is heating its surroundings. The astronomers could observe the spots where the jets smash into the interstellar gas located around the black hole, and reveal that the bubble of hot gas is inflating at a speed of almost one million kilometres per hour. "The length of the jets in NGC 7793 is amazing, compared to the size of the black hole from which they are launched," says co-author Robert Soria [1]. "If the black hole were shrunk to the size of a soccer ball, each jet would extend from the Earth to beyond the orbit of Pluto." This research will help

  5. Particle creation rate for dynamical black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firouzjaee, Javad T. [School of Astronomy, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); University of Oxford, Department of Physics (Astrophysics), Oxford (United Kingdom); Ellis, George F.R. [University of Cape Town, Mathematics and Applied Mathematics Department, Rondebosch (South Africa)

    2016-11-15

    We present the particle creation probability rate around a general black hole as an outcome of quantum fluctuations. Using the uncertainty principle for these fluctuation, we derive a new ultraviolet frequency cutoff for the radiation spectrum of a dynamical black hole. Using this frequency cutoff, we define the probability creation rate function for such black holes. We consider a dynamical Vaidya model and calculate the probability creation rate for this case when its horizon is in a slowly evolving phase. Our results show that one can expect the usual Hawking radiation emission process in the case of a dynamical black hole when it has a slowly evolving horizon. Moreover, calculating the probability rate for a dynamical black hole gives a measure of when Hawking radiation can be killed off by an incoming flux of matter or radiation. Our result strictly suggests that we have to revise the Hawking radiation expectation for primordial black holes that have grown substantially since they were created in the early universe. We also infer that this frequency cut off can be a parameter that shows the primordial black hole growth at the emission moment. (orig.)

  6. Particle creation rate for dynamical black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firouzjaee, Javad T.; Ellis, George F.R.

    2016-01-01

    We present the particle creation probability rate around a general black hole as an outcome of quantum fluctuations. Using the uncertainty principle for these fluctuation, we derive a new ultraviolet frequency cutoff for the radiation spectrum of a dynamical black hole. Using this frequency cutoff, we define the probability creation rate function for such black holes. We consider a dynamical Vaidya model and calculate the probability creation rate for this case when its horizon is in a slowly evolving phase. Our results show that one can expect the usual Hawking radiation emission process in the case of a dynamical black hole when it has a slowly evolving horizon. Moreover, calculating the probability rate for a dynamical black hole gives a measure of when Hawking radiation can be killed off by an incoming flux of matter or radiation. Our result strictly suggests that we have to revise the Hawking radiation expectation for primordial black holes that have grown substantially since they were created in the early universe. We also infer that this frequency cut off can be a parameter that shows the primordial black hole growth at the emission moment. (orig.)

  7. Particle creation rate for dynamical black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firouzjaee, Javad T.; Ellis, George F. R.

    2016-11-01

    We present the particle creation probability rate around a general black hole as an outcome of quantum fluctuations. Using the uncertainty principle for these fluctuation, we derive a new ultraviolet frequency cutoff for the radiation spectrum of a dynamical black hole. Using this frequency cutoff, we define the probability creation rate function for such black holes. We consider a dynamical Vaidya model and calculate the probability creation rate for this case when its horizon is in a slowly evolving phase. Our results show that one can expect the usual Hawking radiation emission process in the case of a dynamical black hole when it has a slowly evolving horizon. Moreover, calculating the probability rate for a dynamical black hole gives a measure of when Hawking radiation can be killed off by an incoming flux of matter or radiation. Our result strictly suggests that we have to revise the Hawking radiation expectation for primordial black holes that have grown substantially since they were created in the early universe. We also infer that this frequency cut off can be a parameter that shows the primordial black hole growth at the emission moment.

  8. Scalar radiation from a radially infalling source into a Schwarzschild black hole in the framework of quantum field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Leandro A.; Crispino, Luís C. B.; Higuchi, Atsushi

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the radiation to infinity of a massless scalar field from a source falling radially towards a Schwarzschild black hole using the framework of the quantum field theory at tree level. When the source falls from infinity, the monopole radiation is dominant for low initial velocities. Higher multipoles become dominant at high initial velocities. It is found that, as in the electromagnetic and gravitational cases, at high initial velocities the energy spectrum for each multipole with l ≥ 1 approximately is constant up to the fundamental quasinormal frequency and then drops to zero. We also investigate the case where the source falls from rest at a finite distance from the black hole. It is found that the monopole and dipole contributions in this case are dominant. This case needs to be carefully distinguished from the unphysical process where the source abruptly appears at rest and starts falling, which would result in radiation of an infinite amount of energy. We also investigate the radiation of a massless scalar field to the horizon of the black hole, finding some features similar to the gravitational case.

  9. Black hole with quantum potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Ahmed Farag, E-mail: ahmed.ali@fsc.bu.edu.eg [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Benha University, Benha 13518 (Egypt); Khalil, Mohammed M., E-mail: moh.m.khalil@gmail.com [Department of Electrical Engineering, Alexandria University, Alexandria 12544 (Egypt)

    2016-08-15

    In this work, we investigate black hole (BH) physics in the context of quantum corrections. These quantum corrections were introduced recently by replacing classical geodesics with quantal (Bohmian) trajectories and hence form a quantum Raychaudhuri equation (QRE). From the QRE, we derive a modified Schwarzschild metric, and use that metric to investigate BH singularity and thermodynamics. We find that these quantum corrections change the picture of Hawking radiation greatly when the size of BH approaches the Planck scale. They prevent the BH from total evaporation, predicting the existence of a quantum BH remnant, which may introduce a possible resolution for the catastrophic behavior of Hawking radiation as the BH mass approaches zero. Those corrections also turn the spacelike singularity of the black hole to be timelike, and hence this may ameliorate the information loss problem.

  10. Black hole with quantum potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Farag Ali

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we investigate black hole (BH physics in the context of quantum corrections. These quantum corrections were introduced recently by replacing classical geodesics with quantal (Bohmian trajectories and hence form a quantum Raychaudhuri equation (QRE. From the QRE, we derive a modified Schwarzschild metric, and use that metric to investigate BH singularity and thermodynamics. We find that these quantum corrections change the picture of Hawking radiation greatly when the size of BH approaches the Planck scale. They prevent the BH from total evaporation, predicting the existence of a quantum BH remnant, which may introduce a possible resolution for the catastrophic behavior of Hawking radiation as the BH mass approaches zero. Those corrections also turn the spacelike singularity of the black hole to be timelike, and hence this may ameliorate the information loss problem.

  11. Warped products and black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Soon-Tae

    2005-01-01

    We apply the warped product space-time scheme to the Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black holes and the Reissner-Nordstroem-anti-de Sitter black hole to investigate their interior solutions in terms of warped products. It is shown that there exist no discontinuities of the Ricci and Einstein curvatures across event horizons of these black holes

  12. Quantum capacity of quantum black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adami, Chris; Bradler, Kamil

    2014-03-01

    The fate of quantum entanglement interacting with a black hole has been an enduring mystery, not the least because standard curved space field theory does not address the interaction of black holes with matter. We discuss an effective Hamiltonian of matter interacting with a black hole that has a precise analogue in quantum optics and correctly reproduces both spontaneous and stimulated Hawking radiation with grey-body factors. We calculate the quantum capacity of this channel in the limit of perfect absorption, as well as in the limit of a perfectly reflecting black hole (a white hole). We find that the white hole is an optimal quantum cloner, and is isomorphic to the Unruh channel with positive quantum capacity. The complementary channel (across the horizon) is entanglement-breaking with zero capacity, avoiding a violation of the quantum no-cloning theorem. The black hole channel on the contrary has vanishing capacity, while its complement has positive capacity instead. Thus, quantum states can be reconstructed faithfully behind the black hole horizon, but not outside. This work sheds new light on black hole complementarity because it shows that black holes can both reflect and absorb quantum states without violating the no-cloning theorem, and makes quantum firewalls obsolete.

  13. Black Hole Universe Model and Dark Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianxi

    2011-01-01

    Considering black hole as spacetime and slightly modifying the big bang theory, the author has recently developed a new cosmological model called black hole universe, which is consistent with Mach principle and Einsteinian general relativity and self consistently explains various observations of the universe without difficulties. According to this model, the universe originated from a hot star-like black hole and gradually grew through a supermassive black hole to the present universe by accreting ambient material and merging with other black holes. The entire space is infinitely and hierarchically layered and evolves iteratively. The innermost three layers are the universe that we lives, the outside space called mother universe, and the inside star-like and supermassive black holes called child universes. The outermost layer has an infinite radius and zero limits for both the mass density and absolute temperature. All layers or universes are governed by the same physics, the Einstein general relativity with the Robertson-Walker metric of spacetime, and tend to expand outward physically. When one universe expands out, a new similar universe grows up from its inside black holes. The origin, structure, evolution, expansion, and cosmic microwave background radiation of black hole universe have been presented in the recent sequence of American Astronomical Society (AAS) meetings and published in peer-review journals. This study will show how this new model explains the acceleration of the universe and why dark energy is not required. We will also compare the black hole universe model with the big bang cosmology.

  14. Emergent horizon, Hawking radiation and chaos in the collapsed polymer model of a black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brustein, Ram [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Medved, A.J.M. [Department of Physics and Electronics, Rhodes University, Grahamstown (South Africa); National Institute for Theoretical Physics (NITheP), Western Cape (South Africa)

    2017-02-15

    We have proposed that the interior of a macroscopic Schwarzschild black hole (BH) consists of highly excited, long, closed, interacting strings and, as such, can be modeled as a collapsed polymer. It was previously shown that the scaling relations of the collapsed-polymer model agree with those of the BH. The current paper further substantiates this proposal with an investigation into some of its dynamical consequences. In particular, we show that the model predicts, without relying on gravitational effects, an emergent horizon. We further show that the horizon fluctuates quantum mechanically as it should and that the strength of the fluctuations is inversely proportional to the BH entropy. It is then demonstrated that the emission of Hawking radiation is realized microscopically by the quantum-induced escape of small pieces of string, with the rate of escape and the energy per emitted piece both parametrically matching the Hawking temperature. We also show, using standard methods from statistical mechanics and chaos theory, how our model accounts for some other known properties of BHs. These include the accepted results for the scrambling time and the viscosity-to-entropy ratio, which in our model apply not only at the horizon but throughout the BH interior. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Emergent horizon, Hawking radiation and chaos in the collapsed polymer model of a black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brustein, Ram; Medved, A.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    We have proposed that the interior of a macroscopic Schwarzschild black hole (BH) consists of highly excited, long, closed, interacting strings and, as such, can be modeled as a collapsed polymer. It was previously shown that the scaling relations of the collapsed-polymer model agree with those of the BH. The current paper further substantiates this proposal with an investigation into some of its dynamical consequences. In particular, we show that the model predicts, without relying on gravitational effects, an emergent horizon. We further show that the horizon fluctuates quantum mechanically as it should and that the strength of the fluctuations is inversely proportional to the BH entropy. It is then demonstrated that the emission of Hawking radiation is realized microscopically by the quantum-induced escape of small pieces of string, with the rate of escape and the energy per emitted piece both parametrically matching the Hawking temperature. We also show, using standard methods from statistical mechanics and chaos theory, how our model accounts for some other known properties of BHs. These include the accepted results for the scrambling time and the viscosity-to-entropy ratio, which in our model apply not only at the horizon but throughout the BH interior. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Black Hole - Neutron Star Binary Mergers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Gravitational radiation waveforms for black hole-neutron star coalescence calculations. The physical input is Newtonian physics, an ideal gas equation of state with...

  17. Magnonic Black Holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán-Molina, A; Nunez, Alvaro S; Duine, R A

    2017-02-10

    We show that the interaction between the spin-polarized current and the magnetization dynamics can be used to implement black-hole and white-hole horizons for magnons-the quanta of oscillations in the magnetization direction in magnets. We consider three different systems: easy-plane ferromagnetic metals, isotropic antiferromagnetic metals, and easy-plane magnetic insulators. Based on available experimental data, we estimate that the Hawking temperature can be as large as 1 K. We comment on the implications of magnonic horizons for spin-wave scattering and transport experiments, and for magnon entanglement.

  18. Statistical mechanics of black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harms, B.; Leblanc, Y.

    1992-01-01

    We analyze the statistical mechanics of a gas of neutral and charged black holes. The microcanonical ensemble is the only possible approach to this system, and the equilibrium configuration is the one for which most of the energy is carried by a single black hole. Schwarzschild black holes are found to obey the statistical bootstrap condition. In all cases, the microcanonical temperature is identical to the Hawking temperature of the most massive black hole in the gas. U(1) charges in general break the bootstrap property. The problems of black-hole decay and of quantum coherence are also addressed

  19. f(R) Black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Moon, Taeyoon; Myung, Yun Soo; Son, Edwin J.

    2011-01-01

    We study the $f(R)$-Maxwell black hole imposed by constant curvature and its all thermodynamic quantities, which may lead to the Reissner-Nordstr\\"om-AdS black hole by redefining Newtonian constant and charge. Further, we obtain the $f(R)$-Yang-Mills black hole imposed by constant curvature, which is related to the Einstein-Yang-Mills black hole in AdS space. Since there is no analytic black hole solution in the presence of Yang-Mills field, we obtain asymptotic solutions. Then, we confirm th...

  20. Black hole evaporation in an expanding universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saida, Hiromi; Harada, Tomohiro; Maeda, Hideki

    2007-01-01

    We calculate the quantum radiation power of black holes which are asymptotic to the Einstein-de Sitter universe at spatial and null infinities. We consider two limiting mass accretion scenarios, no accretion and significant accretion. We find that the radiation power strongly depends on not only the asymptotic condition but also the mass accretion scenario. For the no accretion case, we consider the Einstein-Straus solution, where a black hole of constant mass resides in the dust Friedmann universe. We find negative cosmological correction besides the expected redshift factor. This is given in terms of the cubic root of ratio in size of the black hole to the cosmological horizon, so that it is currently of order 10 -5 (M/10 6 M o-dot ) 1/3 (t/14Gyr) -1/3 but could have been significant at the formation epoch of primordial black holes. Due to the cosmological effects, this black hole has not settled down to an equilibrium state. This cosmological correction may be interpreted in an analogy with the radiation from a moving mirror in a flat spacetime. For the significant accretion case, we consider the Sultana-Dyer solution, where a black hole tends to increase its mass in proportion to the cosmological scale factor. In this model, we find that the radiation power is apparently the same as the Hawking radiation from the Schwarzschild black hole of which mass is that of the growing mass at each moment. Hence, the energy loss rate decreases and tends to vanish as time proceeds. Consequently, the energy loss due to evaporation is insignificant compared to huge mass accretion onto the black hole. Based on this model, we propose a definition of quasi-equilibrium temperature for general conformal stationary black holes

  1. Rotating black hole and quintessence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Sushant G.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss spherically symmetric exact solutions of the Einstein equations for quintessential matter surrounding a black hole, which has an additional parameter (ω) due to the quintessential matter, apart from the mass (M). In turn, we employ the Newman-Janis complex transformation to this spherical quintessence black hole solution and present a rotating counterpart that is identified, for α = -e 2 ≠ 0 and ω = 1/3, exactly as the Kerr-Newman black hole, and as the Kerr black hole when α = 0. Interestingly, for a given value of parameter ω, there exists a critical rotation parameter (a = a E ), which corresponds to an extremal black hole with degenerate horizons, while for a < a E , it describes a nonextremal black hole with Cauchy and event horizons, and no black hole for a > a E . We find that the extremal value a E is also influenced by the parameter ω and so is the ergoregion. (orig.)

  2. Internal structure of black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cvetic, Mirjam

    2013-01-01

    Full text: We review recent progress that sheds light on the internal structure of general black holes. We first summarize properties of general multi-charged rotating black holes both in four and five dimensions. We show that the asymptotic boundary conditions of these general asymptotically flat black holes can be modified such that a conformal symmetry emerges. These subtracted geometries preserve the thermodynamic properties of the original black holes and are of the Lifshitz type, thus describing 'a black hole in the asymptotically conical box'. Recent efforts employ solution generating techniques to construct interpolating geometries between the original black hole and their subtracted geometries. Upon lift to one dimension higher, these geometries lift to AdS 3 times a sphere, and thus provide a microscopic interpretation of the black hole entropy in terms of dual two-dimensional conformal field theory. (author)

  3. Black Holes and Firewalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polchinski, Joseph

    2015-04-01

    Our modern understanding of space, time, matter, and even reality itself arose from the three great revolutions of the early twentieth century: special relativity, general relativity, and quantum mechanics. But a century later, this work is unfinished. Many deep connections have been discovered, but the full form of a unified theory incorporating all three principles is not known. Thought experiments and paradoxes have often played a key role in figuring out how to fit theories together. For the unification of general relativity and quantum mechanics, black holes have been an important arena. I will talk about the quantum mechanics of black holes, the information paradox, and the latest version of this paradox, the firewall. The firewall points to a conflict between our current theories of spacetime and of quantum mechanics. It may lead to a new understanding of how these are connected, perhaps based on quantum entanglement.

  4. Beyond the black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boslough, J.

    1985-01-01

    This book is about the life and work of Stephen Hawking. It traces the development of his theories about the universe and particularly black holes, in a biographical context. Hawking's lecture 'Is the end in sight for theoretical physics' is presented as an appendix. In this, he discusses the possibility of achieving a complete, consistent and unified theory of the physical interactions which would describe all possible observations. (U.K.)

  5. Discrete quantum spectrum of black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lochan, Kinjalk, E-mail: kinjalk@iucaa.in; Chakraborty, Sumanta, E-mail: sumanta@iucaa.in

    2016-04-10

    The quantum genesis of Hawking radiation is a long-standing puzzle in black hole physics. Semi-classically one can argue that the spectrum of radiation emitted by a black hole look very much sparse unlike what is expected from a thermal object. It was demonstrated through a simple quantum model that a quantum black hole will retain a discrete profile, at least in the weak energy regime. However, it was suggested that this discreteness might be an artifact of the simplicity of eigen-spectrum of the model considered. Different quantum theories can, in principle, give rise to different complicated spectra and make the radiation from black hole dense enough in transition lines, to make them look continuous in profile. We show that such a hope from a geometry-quantized black hole is not realized as long as large enough black holes are dubbed with a classical mass area relation in any gravity theory ranging from GR, Lanczos–Lovelock to f(R) gravity. We show that the smallest frequency of emission from black hole in any quantum description, is bounded from below, to be of the order of its inverse mass. That leaves the emission with only two possibilities. It can either be non-thermal, or it can be thermal only with the temperature being much larger than 1/M.

  6. Discrete quantum spectrum of black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochan, Kinjalk; Chakraborty, Sumanta

    2016-01-01

    The quantum genesis of Hawking radiation is a long-standing puzzle in black hole physics. Semi-classically one can argue that the spectrum of radiation emitted by a black hole look very much sparse unlike what is expected from a thermal object. It was demonstrated through a simple quantum model that a quantum black hole will retain a discrete profile, at least in the weak energy regime. However, it was suggested that this discreteness might be an artifact of the simplicity of eigen-spectrum of the model considered. Different quantum theories can, in principle, give rise to different complicated spectra and make the radiation from black hole dense enough in transition lines, to make them look continuous in profile. We show that such a hope from a geometry-quantized black hole is not realized as long as large enough black holes are dubbed with a classical mass area relation in any gravity theory ranging from GR, Lanczos–Lovelock to f(R) gravity. We show that the smallest frequency of emission from black hole in any quantum description, is bounded from below, to be of the order of its inverse mass. That leaves the emission with only two possibilities. It can either be non-thermal, or it can be thermal only with the temperature being much larger than 1/M.

  7. Discrete quantum spectrum of black holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinjalk Lochan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The quantum genesis of Hawking radiation is a long-standing puzzle in black hole physics. Semi-classically one can argue that the spectrum of radiation emitted by a black hole look very much sparse unlike what is expected from a thermal object. It was demonstrated through a simple quantum model that a quantum black hole will retain a discrete profile, at least in the weak energy regime. However, it was suggested that this discreteness might be an artifact of the simplicity of eigen-spectrum of the model considered. Different quantum theories can, in principle, give rise to different complicated spectra and make the radiation from black hole dense enough in transition lines, to make them look continuous in profile. We show that such a hope from a geometry-quantized black hole is not realized as long as large enough black holes are dubbed with a classical mass area relation in any gravity theory ranging from GR, Lanczos–Lovelock to f(R gravity. We show that the smallest frequency of emission from black hole in any quantum description, is bounded from below, to be of the order of its inverse mass. That leaves the emission with only two possibilities. It can either be non-thermal, or it can be thermal only with the temperature being much larger than 1/M.

  8. Bumpy black holes from spontaneous Lorentz violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubovsky, Sergei; Tinyakov, Peter; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2007-01-01

    We consider black holes in Lorentz violating theories of massive gravity. We argue that in these theories black hole solutions are no longer universal and exhibit a large number of hairs. If they exist, these hairs probe the singularity inside the black hole providing a window into quantum gravity. The existence of these hairs can be tested by future gravitational wave observatories. We generically expect that the effects we discuss will be larger for the more massive black holes. In the simplest models the strength of the hairs is controlled by the same parameter that sets the mass of the graviton (tensor modes). Then the upper limit on this mass coming from the inferred gravitational radiation emitted by binary pulsars implies that hairs are likely to be suppressed for almost the entire mass range of the super-massive black holes in the centers of galaxies

  9. Primordial black hole formation by vacuum bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Heling; Vilenkin, Alexander

    2017-12-01

    Vacuum bubbles may nucleate during the inflationary epoch and expand, reaching relativistic speeds. After inflation ends, the bubbles are quickly slowed down, transferring their momentum to a shock wave that propagates outwards in the radiation background. The ultimate fate of the bubble depends on its size. Bubbles smaller than certain critical size collapse to ordinary black holes, while in the supercritical case the bubble interior inflates, forming a baby universe, which is connected to the exterior region by a wormhole. The wormhole then closes up, turning into two black holes at its two mouths. We use numerical simulations to find the masses of black holes formed in this scenario, both in subcritical and supercritical regime. The resulting mass spectrum is extremely broad, ranging over many orders of magnitude. For some parameter values, these black holes can serve as seeds for supermassive black holes and may account for LIGO observations.

  10. Supermassive Black Holes and Galaxy Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, D.

    2004-01-01

    Supermassive black holes appear to be generic components of galactic nuclei. The formation and growth of black holes is intimately connected with the evolution of galaxies on a wide range of scales. For instance, mergers between galaxies containing nuclear black holes would produce supermassive binaries which eventually coalesce via the emission of gravitational radiation. The formation and decay of these binaries is expected to produce a number of observable signatures in the stellar distribution. Black holes can also affect the large-scale structure of galaxies by perturbing the orbits of stars that pass through the nucleus. Large-scale N-body simulations are beginning to generate testable predictions about these processes which will allow us to draw inferences about the formation history of supermassive black holes.

  11. Black Holes in Higher Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reall Harvey S.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available We review black-hole solutions of higher-dimensional vacuum gravity and higher-dimensional supergravity theories. The discussion of vacuum gravity is pedagogical, with detailed reviews of Myers–Perry solutions, black rings, and solution-generating techniques. We discuss black-hole solutions of maximal supergravity theories, including black holes in anti-de Sitter space. General results and open problems are discussed throughout.

  12. Black hole quantum spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corda, Christian

    2013-12-01

    Introducing a black hole (BH) effective temperature, which takes into account both the non-strictly thermal character of Hawking radiation and the countable behavior of emissions of subsequent Hawking quanta, we recently re-analysed BH quasi-normal modes (QNMs) and interpreted them naturally in terms of quantum levels. In this work we improve such an analysis removing some approximations that have been implicitly used in our previous works and obtaining the corrected expressions for the formulas of the horizon's area quantization and the number of quanta of area and hence also for Bekenstein-Hawking entropy, its subleading corrections and the number of micro-states, i.e. quantities which are fundamental to realize the underlying quantum gravity theory, like functions of the QNMs quantum "overtone" number n and, in turn, of the BH quantum excited level. An approximation concerning the maximum value of n is also corrected. On the other hand, our previous results were strictly corrected only for scalar and gravitational perturbations. Here we show that the discussion holds also for vector perturbations. The analysis is totally consistent with the general conviction that BHs result in highly excited states representing both the "hydrogen atom" and the "quasi-thermal emission" in quantum gravity. Our BH model is somewhat similar to the semi-classical Bohr's model of the structure of a hydrogen atom. The thermal approximation of previous results in the literature is consistent with the results in this paper. In principle, such results could also have important implications for the BH information paradox.

  13. Hawking radiation, entanglement, and teleportation in the background of an asymptotically flat static black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Qiyuan; Jing Jiliang

    2008-01-01

    The effect of the Hawking temperature on the entanglement and teleportation for the scalar field in a most general, static, and asymptotically flat black hole with spherical symmetry has been investigated. It has been shown that the same 'initial entanglement' for the state parameter α and its 'normalized partners'√(1-α 2 ) will be degraded by the Hawking effect with increasing Hawking temperature along two different trajectories except for the maximally entangled state. In the infinite Hawking temperature limit, corresponding to the case of the black hole evaporating completely, the state no longer has distillable entanglement for any α. It is interesting to note that the mutual information in this limit is equal to just half of the 'initially mutual information'. It has also been demonstrated that the fidelity of teleportation decreases as the Hawking temperature increases, which indicates the degradation of entanglement.

  14. Static and radiating p-form black holes in the higher dimensional Robinson-Trautman class

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ortaggio, Marcello; Podolský, J.; Žofka, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 2015, č. 2 (2015), 045 ISSN 1029-8479 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-37086G Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Einstein-Maxwell spacetimes * classical theories of gravity * black holes Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 6.023, year: 2015 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/JHEP02%282015%29045

  15. Analytic solutions in the dyon black hole with a cosmic string: Scalar fields, Hawking radiation and energy flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, H.S., E-mail: horacio.santana.vieira@hotmail.com [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Caixa Postal 5008, CEP 58051-970, João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Centro de Ciências, Tecnologia e Saúde, Universidade Estadual da Paraíba, CEP 58233-000, Araruna, PB (Brazil); Bezerra, V.B., E-mail: valdir@fisica.ufpb.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Caixa Postal 5008, CEP 58051-970, João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Silva, G.V., E-mail: gislainevs@hotmail.com [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Caixa Postal 5008, CEP 58051-970, João Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2015-11-15

    Charged massive scalar fields are considered in the gravitational and electromagnetic field produced by a dyonic black hole with a cosmic string along its axis of symmetry. Exact solutions of both angular and radial parts of the covariant Klein–Gordon equation in this background are obtained, and are given in terms of the confluent Heun functions. The role of the presence of the cosmic string in these solutions is showed up. From the radial solution, we obtain the exact wave solutions near the exterior horizon of the black hole, and discuss the Hawking radiation spectrum and the energy flux. -- Highlights: •A cosmic string is introduced along the axis of symmetry of the dyonic black hole. •The covariant Klein–Gordon equation for a charged massive scalar field in this background is analyzed. •Both angular and radial parts are transformed to a confluent Heun equation. •The resulting Hawking radiation spectrum and the energy flux are obtained.

  16. Black hole as a wormhole factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Won Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There have been lots of debates about the final fate of an evaporating black hole and the singularity hidden by an event horizon in quantum gravity. However, on general grounds, one may argue that a black hole stops radiation at the Planck mass (ħc/G1/2∼10−5 g, where the radiated energy is comparable to the black hole's mass. And also, it has been argued that there would be a wormhole-like structure, known as “spacetime foam”, due to large fluctuations below the Planck length (ħG/c31/2∼10−33 cm. In this paper, as an explicit example, we consider an exact classical solution which represents nicely those two properties in a recently proposed quantum gravity model based on different scaling dimensions between space and time coordinates. The solution, called “Black Wormhole”, consists of two different states, depending on its mass parameter M and an IR parameter ω: For the black hole state (with ωM2>1/2, a non-traversable wormhole occupies the interior region of the black hole around the singularity at the origin, whereas for the wormhole state (with ωM2<1/2, the interior wormhole is exposed to an outside observer as the black hole horizon is disappearing from evaporation. The black hole state becomes thermodynamically stable as it approaches the merging point where the interior wormhole throat and the black hole horizon merges, and the Hawking temperature vanishes at the exact merge point (with ωM2=1/2. This solution suggests the “Generalized Cosmic Censorship” by the existence of a wormhole-like structure which protects the naked singularity even after the black hole evaporation. One could understand the would-be wormhole inside the black hole horizon as the result of microscopic wormholes created by “negative” energy quanta which have entered the black hole horizon in Hawking radiation process; the quantum black hole could be a wormhole factory! It is found that this speculative picture may be consistent with the

  17. Radiating black holes in Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory and cosmic censorship violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aniceto, Pedro [CENTRA, Departamento de Física, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa,Avenida Rovisco Pais 1, 1049 Lisboa (Portugal); Pani, Paolo [Dipartimento di Fisica, “Sapienza” Università di Roma & Sezione INFN Roma 1,Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Roma (Italy); CENTRA, Departamento de Física, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa,Avenida Rovisco Pais 1, 1049 Lisboa (Portugal); Rocha, Jorge V. [Departament de Física Fonamental, Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB),Universitat de Barcelona,Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-05-19

    We construct exact, time-dependent, black hole solutions of Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory with arbitrary dilaton coupling, a. For a=1 this theory arises as the four-dimensional low-energy effective description of heterotic string theory. These solutions represent electrically charged, spherically symmetric black holes emitting or absorbing charged null fluids and generalize the Vaidya and Bonnor-Vaidya solutions of general relativity and of Einstein-Maxwell theory, respectively. The a=1 case stands out as special, in the sense that it is the only choice of the coupling that allows for a time-dependent dilaton field in this class of solutions. As a by-product, when a=1 we show that an electrically charged black hole in this theory can be overcharged by bombarding it with a stream of electrically charged null fluid, resulting in the formation of a naked singularity. This provides an example of cosmic censorship violation in an exact dynamical solution to low-energy effective string theory and in a case in which the total stress-energy tensor satisfies all energy conditions. When a≠1, our solutions necessarily have a time-independent scalar field and consequently cannot be overcharged.

  18. Radiating black holes in Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory and cosmic censorship violation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aniceto, Pedro; Pani, Paolo; Rocha, Jorge V.

    2016-05-01

    We construct exact, time-dependent, black hole solutions of Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory with arbitrary dilaton coupling, a. For a = 1 this theory arises as the four-dimensional low-energy effective description of heterotic string theory. These solutions represent electrically charged, spherically symmetric black holes emitting or absorbing charged null fluids and generalize the Vaidya and Bonnor-Vaidya solutions of general relativity and of Einstein-Maxwell theory, respectively. The a = 1 case stands out as special, in the sense that it is the only choice of the coupling that allows for a time-dependent dilaton field in this class of solutions. As a by-product, when a = 1 we show that an electrically charged black hole in this theory can be overcharged by bombarding it with a stream of electrically charged null fluid, resulting in the formation of a naked singularity. This provides an example of cosmic censorship violation in an exact dynamical solution to low-energy effective string theory and in a case in which the total stress-energy tensor satisfies all energy conditions. When a ≠ 1, our solutions necessarily have a time-independent scalar field and consequently cannot be overcharged.

  19. Low density, radiatively inefficient rotating-accretion flow onto a black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inayoshi, Kohei; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Haiman, Zoltán; Kuiper, Rolf

    2018-02-01

    We study low-density axisymmetric accretion flows onto black holes (BHs) with two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations, adopting the α-viscosity prescription. When the gas angular momentum is low enough to form a rotationally supported disk within the Bondi radius (RB), we find a global steady accretion solution. The solution consists of a rotational equilibrium distribution around r ˜ RB, where the density follows ρ∝(1 + RB/r)3/2, surrounding a geometrically thick and optically thin accretion disk at the centrifugal radius RC( energy generated by viscosity is transported via convection. Physical properties of the inner solution agree with those expected in convection-dominated accretion flows (CDAF; ρ∝r-1/2). In the inner solution, the gas inflow rate decreases towards the center due to convection (\\dot{M}∝ r), and the net accretion rate (including both inflows and outflows) is strongly suppressed by several orders of magnitude from the Bondi accretion rate \\dot{M}_B. The net accretion rate depends on the viscous strength, following \\dot{M}/\\dot{M}_B∝ (α /0.01)^{0.6}. This solution holds for low accretion rates of \\dot{M}_B/\\dot{M}_Edd≲ 10^{-3} having minimal radiation cooling, where \\dot{M}_Edd is the Eddington accretion rate. In a hot plasma at the bottom (r energy flux. Since suppression of the accretion by convection ceases, the final BH feeding rate is found to be \\dot{M}/\\dot{M}_B˜ 10^{-3}-10^{-2}. This rate is as low as \\dot{M}/\\dot{M}_Edd˜ 10^{-7}-10^{-6} inferred for SgrA* and the nuclear BHs in M31 and M87, and can explain their low luminosities, without invoking any feedback mechanism.

  20. Hawking effect and quantum nonthermal radiation of an arbitrarily accelerating charged black hole using a new tortoise coordinate transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Wei-Zhen; Yang Xue-Jun; Xie Zhi-Kun

    2011-01-01

    Using a new tortoise coordinate transformation, this paper investigates the Hawking effect from an arbitrarily accelerating charged black hole by the improved Damour—Ruffini method. After the tortoise coordinate transformation, the Klein—Gordon equation can be written as the standard form at the event horizon. Then extending the outgoing wave from outside to inside of the horizon analytically, the surface gravity and Hawking temperature can be obtained automatically. It is found that the Hawking temperatures of different points on the surface are different. The quantum nonthermal radiation characteristics of a black hole near the event horizon is also discussed by studying the Hamilton—Jacobi equation in curved spacetime and the maximum overlap of the positive and negative energy levels near the event horizon is given. There is a dimensional problem in the standard tortoise coordinate and the present results may be more reasonable. (geophysics, astronomy, and astrophysics)

  1. Hawking effect and quantum nonthermal radiation of an arbitrarily accelerating charged black hole using a new tortoise coordinate transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wei-Zhen; Yang, Xue-Jun; Xie, Zhi-Kun

    2011-04-01

    Using a new tortoise coordinate transformation, this paper investigates the Hawking effect from an arbitrarily accelerating charged black hole by the improved Damour—Ruffini method. After the tortoise coordinate transformation, the Klein—Gordon equation can be written as the standard form at the event horizon. Then extending the outgoing wave from outside to inside of the horizon analytically, the surface gravity and Hawking temperature can be obtained automatically. It is found that the Hawking temperatures of different points on the surface are different. The quantum nonthermal radiation characteristics of a black hole near the event horizon is also discussed by studying the Hamilton—Jacobi equation in curved spacetime and the maximum overlap of the positive and negative energy levels near the event horizon is given. There is a dimensional problem in the standard tortoise coordinate and the present results may be more reasonable.

  2. NASA Observatory Confirms Black Hole Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-02-01

    time, the ones in between have been counted properly. Growth of the Biggest Black Holes Illustrated Growth of the Biggest Black Holes Illustrated "We need to have an accurate head count over time of all growing black holes if we ever hope to understand their habits, so to speak," co-author Richard Mushotzky of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md. Supermassive black holes themselves are invisible, but heated gas around them -- some of which will eventually fall into the black hole - produces copious amounts of radiation in the centers of galaxies as the black holes grow. Growth of the Biggest Black Holes Illustrated Growth of Smaller Black Holes Illustrated This study relied on the deepest X-ray images ever obtained, the Chandra Deep Fields North and South, plus a key wider-area survey of an area called the "Lockman Hole". The distances to the X-ray sources were determined by optical spectroscopic follow-up at the Keck 10-meter telescope on Mauna Kea in Hawaii, and show the black holes range from less than a billion to 12 billion light years away. Since X-rays can penetrate the gas and dust that block optical and ultraviolet emission, the very long-exposure X-ray images are crucial to find black holes that otherwise would go unnoticed. Black Hole Animation Black Hole Animation Chandra found that many of the black holes smaller than about 100 million Suns are buried under large amounts of dust and gas, which prevents detection of the optical light from the heated material near the black hole. The X-rays are more energetic and are able to burrow through this dust and gas. However, the largest of the black holes show little sign of obscuration by dust or gas. In a form of weight self-control, powerful winds generated by the black hole's feeding frenzy may have cleared out the remaining dust and gas. Other aspects of black hole growth were uncovered. For example, the typical size of the galaxies undergoing supermassive black hole formation reduces with

  3. Black Holes in Our Universe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    most sensitive scientific instrument ever ... sion, expelling a lot of the mass, but leaving behind a black hole that is at least ... hole, and indeed such a phenomenon may explain the disappear- ance of a star in the galaxy N6946 [21]. The collapse of stars into black holes might account for some of the extraordinarily powerful ...

  4. Black hole formation in a contracting universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintin, Jerome; Brandenberger, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    We study the evolution of cosmological perturbations in a contracting universe. We aim to determine under which conditions density perturbations grow to form large inhomogeneities and collapse into black holes. Our method consists in solving the cosmological perturbation equations in complete generality for a hydrodynamical fluid. We then describe the evolution of the fluctuations over the different length scales of interest and as a function of the equation of state for the fluid, and we explore two different types of initial conditions: quantum vacuum and thermal fluctuations. We also derive a general requirement for black hole collapse on sub-Hubble scales, and we use the Press-Schechter formalism to describe the black hole formation probability. For a fluid with a small sound speed (e.g., dust), we find that both quantum and thermal initial fluctuations grow in a contracting universe, and the largest inhomogeneities that first collapse into black holes are of Hubble size and the collapse occurs well before reaching the Planck scale. For a radiation-dominated fluid, we find that no black hole can form before reaching the Planck scale. In the context of matter bounce cosmology, it thus appears that only models in which a radiation-dominated era begins early in the cosmological evolution are robust against the formation of black holes. Yet, the formation of black holes might be an interesting feature for other models. We comment on a number of possible alternative early universe scenarios that could take advantage of this feature.

  5. Black Hole Mergers in the Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portegies Zwart SF; McMillan

    2000-01-01

    Mergers of black hole binaries are expected to release large amounts of energy in the form of gravitational radiation. However, binary evolution models predict merger rates that are too low to be of observational interest. In this Letter, we explore the possibility that black holes become members of close binaries via dynamical interactions with other stars in dense stellar systems. In star clusters, black holes become the most massive objects within a few tens of millions of years; dynamical relaxation then causes them to sink to the cluster core, where they form binaries. These black hole binaries become more tightly bound by superelastic encounters with other cluster members and are ultimately ejected from the cluster. The majority of escaping black hole binaries have orbital periods short enough and eccentricities high enough that the emission of gravitational radiation causes them to coalesce within a few billion years. We predict a black hole merger rate of about 1.6x10-7 yr-1 Mpc-3, implying gravity-wave detection rates substantially greater than the corresponding rates from neutron star mergers. For the first-generation Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO-I), we expect about one detection during the first 2 years of operation. For its successor LIGO-II, the rate rises to roughly one detection per day. The uncertainties in these numbers are large. Event rates may drop by about an order of magnitude if the most massive clusters eject their black hole binaries early in their evolution.

  6. Particle creation by charged black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khriplovich, I. B.

    1999-10-01

    A simple derivation is given for the leading term (n = 1) in the Schwinger formula for the pair creation by a constant electric field. The same approach is applied then to the charged particle production by a charged black hole. In this case, as distinct from that of a constant electric field, the probability of the charged particle production depends essentially on the particle energy. The production rate by black holes is found in the nonrelativistic and ultrarelativistic limits. The range of values for the mass and charge of a black hole is indicated where the discussed mechanism of radiation dominates the Hawking one.

  7. Black hole dynamics at large D

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that the classical dynamics of black holes can be reformulated as a dynamical problem of a codimension one membrane moving in flat space. This membrane - roughly the black hole event horizon - carries a conserved charge current and stress tensor which source radiation. This `membrane paradigm' may be viewed as a simplification of the equations of general relativity at large D, and suggests the possibility of using 1/D as a useful expansion parameter in the analysis of complicated four dimensional solutions of general relativity, for instance the collision between two black holes.

  8. Particle creation by black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawking, S.W.

    1975-01-01

    In the classical theory black holes can only absorb and not emit particles. However it is shown that quantum mechanical effects cause black holes to create and emit particles. This thermal emission leads to a slow decrease in the mass of the black hole and to its eventual disappearance: any primordial black hole of mass less than about 10 15 g would have evaporated by now. Although these quantum effects violate the classical law that the area of the event horizon of a black hole cannot decrease, there remains a Generalized Second Law: S + 1/4 A never decreases where S is the entropy of matter outside black holes and A is the sum of the surface areas of the event horizons. This shows that gravitational collapse converts the baryons and leptons in the collapsing body into entropy. It is tempting to speculate that this might be the reason why the Universe contains so much entropy per baryon. (orig.) [de

  9. Origin of supermassive black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Dokuchaev, V. I.; Eroshenko, Yu. N.; Rubin, S. G.

    2007-01-01

    The origin of supermassive black holes in the galactic nuclei is quite uncertain in spite of extensive set of observational data. We review the known scenarios of galactic and cosmological formation of supermassive black holes. The common drawback of galactic scenarios is a lack of time and shortage of matter supply for building the supermassive black holes in all galaxies by means of accretion and merging. The cosmological scenarios are only fragmentarily developed but propose and pretend to...

  10. Destroying extremal magnetized black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahaan, Haryanto M.

    2017-07-01

    The gedanken experiment by Wald to destroy a black hole using a test particle in the equatorial plane is adapted to the case of extremal magnetized black holes. We find that the presence of external magnetic fields resulting from the "Ernst magnetization" permits a test particle to have strong enough energy to destroy the black hole. However, the corresponding effective potentials show that such particles would never reach the horizon.

  11. Gauge theory description of D-brane black holes: emergence of the effective SCFT and Hawking radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, S.F.; Wadia, S.R.

    1998-02-01

    We study the hypermultiplet moduli space of an N=4, U(Q 1 ) x U(Q 5 ) gauge theory in 1 + 1 dimensions to extract the effective SCFT description of near extremal 5-dimensional black holes modelled by a collection D1- and D5-branes. On the moduli space, excitations with fractional momenta arise due to a residual discrete gauge invariance. It is argued that, in the infra-red, the lowest energy excitations are described by an effective c = 6, N = 4 SCFT on T 4 , also valid in the large black hole regime. The ''effective string tension'' is obtained using T-duality covariance. While at the microscopic level, minimal scalars do not couple to (1,5) strings, in the effective theory a coupling is induced by (1,1) and (5,5) strings, leading to Hawking radiation. These considerations imply that, at least for such black holes, the calculation of the Hawking decay rate for minimal scalars has a sound foundation in string theory and statistical mechanics and, hence, there is no information loss. (author)

  12. Probing the Magnetic Field Structure in Sgr A* on Black Hole Horizon Scales with Polarized Radiative Transfer Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gold, Roman; McKinney, Jonathan C. [Department of Physics and Joint Space-Science Institute, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Johnson, Michael D.; Doeleman, Sheperd S. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2017-03-10

    Magnetic fields are believed to drive accretion and relativistic jets in black hole accretion systems, but the magnetic field structure that controls these phenomena remains uncertain. We perform general relativistic (GR) polarized radiative transfer of time-dependent three-dimensional GR magnetohydrodynamical simulations to model thermal synchrotron emission from the Galactic Center source Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*). We compare our results to new polarimetry measurements by the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) and show how polarization in the visibility (Fourier) domain distinguishes and constrains accretion flow models with different magnetic field structures. These include models with small-scale fields in disks driven by the magnetorotational instability as well as models with large-scale ordered fields in magnetically arrested disks. We also consider different electron temperature and jet mass-loading prescriptions that control the brightness of the disk, funnel-wall jet, and Blandford–Znajek-driven funnel jet. Our comparisons between the simulations and observations favor models with ordered magnetic fields near the black hole event horizon in Sgr A*, though both disk- and jet-dominated emission can satisfactorily explain most of the current EHT data. We also discuss how the black hole shadow can be filled-in by jet emission or mimicked by the absence of funnel jet emission. We show that stronger model constraints should be possible with upcoming circular polarization and higher frequency (349 GHz) measurements.

  13. Probing the Magnetic Field Structure in Sgr A* on Black Hole Horizon Scales with Polarized Radiative Transfer Simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, Roman; McKinney, Jonathan C.; Johnson, Michael D.; Doeleman, Sheperd S.

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic fields are believed to drive accretion and relativistic jets in black hole accretion systems, but the magnetic field structure that controls these phenomena remains uncertain. We perform general relativistic (GR) polarized radiative transfer of time-dependent three-dimensional GR magnetohydrodynamical simulations to model thermal synchrotron emission from the Galactic Center source Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*). We compare our results to new polarimetry measurements by the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) and show how polarization in the visibility (Fourier) domain distinguishes and constrains accretion flow models with different magnetic field structures. These include models with small-scale fields in disks driven by the magnetorotational instability as well as models with large-scale ordered fields in magnetically arrested disks. We also consider different electron temperature and jet mass-loading prescriptions that control the brightness of the disk, funnel-wall jet, and Blandford–Znajek-driven funnel jet. Our comparisons between the simulations and observations favor models with ordered magnetic fields near the black hole event horizon in Sgr A*, though both disk- and jet-dominated emission can satisfactorily explain most of the current EHT data. We also discuss how the black hole shadow can be filled-in by jet emission or mimicked by the absence of funnel jet emission. We show that stronger model constraints should be possible with upcoming circular polarization and higher frequency (349 GHz) measurements.

  14. Artificial black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Visser, Matt; Volovik, Grigory E

    2009-01-01

    Physicists are pondering on the possibility of simulating black holes in the laboratory by means of various "analog models". These analog models, typically based on condensed matter physics, can be used to help us understand general relativity (Einstein's gravity); conversely, abstract techniques developed in general relativity can sometimes be used to help us understand certain aspects of condensed matter physics. This book contains 13 chapters - written by experts in general relativity, particle physics, and condensed matter physics - that explore various aspects of this two-way traffic.

  15. Asymmetric black dyonic holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Cabrera-Munguia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A 6-parametric asymptotically flat exact solution, describing a two-body system of asymmetric black dyons, is studied. The system consists of two unequal counterrotating Kerr–Newman black holes, endowed with electric and magnetic charges which are equal but opposite in sign, separated by a massless strut. The Smarr formula is generalized in order to take into account their contribution to the mass. The expressions for the horizon half-length parameters σ1 and σ2, as functions of the Komar parameters and of the coordinate distance, are displayed, and the thermodynamic properties of the two-body system are studied. Furthermore, the seven physical parameters satisfy a simple algebraic relation which can be understood as a dynamical scenario, in which the physical properties of one body are affected by the ones of the other body.

  16. Statistical Hair on Black Holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strominger, A.

    1996-01-01

    The Bekenstein-Hawking entropy for certain BPS-saturated black holes in string theory has recently been derived by counting internal black hole microstates at weak coupling. We argue that the black hole microstate can be measured by interference experiments even in the strong coupling region where there is clearly an event horizon. Extracting information which is naively behind the event horizon is possible due to the existence of statistical quantum hair carried by the black hole. This quantum hair arises from the arbitrarily large number of discrete gauge symmetries present in string theory. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  17. Black holes and the multiverse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garriga, Jaume [Departament de Fisica Fonamental i Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1, Barcelona, 08028 Spain (Spain); Vilenkin, Alexander; Zhang, Jun, E-mail: jaume.garriga@ub.edu, E-mail: vilenkin@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu, E-mail: jun.zhang@tufts.edu [Institute of Cosmology, Tufts University, 574 Boston Ave, Medford, MA, 02155 (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Vacuum bubbles may nucleate and expand during the inflationary epoch in the early universe. After inflation ends, the bubbles quickly dissipate their kinetic energy; they come to rest with respect to the Hubble flow and eventually form black holes. The fate of the bubble itself depends on the resulting black hole mass. If the mass is smaller than a certain critical value, the bubble collapses to a singularity. Otherwise, the bubble interior inflates, forming a baby universe, which is connected to the exterior FRW region by a wormhole. A similar black hole formation mechanism operates for spherical domain walls nucleating during inflation. As an illustrative example, we studied the black hole mass spectrum in the domain wall scenario, assuming that domain walls interact with matter only gravitationally. Our results indicate that, depending on the model parameters, black holes produced in this scenario can have significant astrophysical effects and can even serve as dark matter or as seeds for supermassive black holes. The mechanism of black hole formation described in this paper is very generic and has important implications for the global structure of the universe. Baby universes inside super-critical black holes inflate eternally and nucleate bubbles of all vacua allowed by the underlying particle physics. The resulting multiverse has a very non-trivial spacetime structure, with a multitude of eternally inflating regions connected by wormholes. If a black hole population with the predicted mass spectrum is discovered, it could be regarded as evidence for inflation and for the existence of a multiverse.

  18. Braneworld Black Hole Gravitational Lensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Jun

    2017-01-01

    A class of braneworld black holes, which I called as Bronnikov–Melnikov–Dehen (BMD) black holes, are studied as gravitational lenses. I obtain the deflection angle in the strong deflection limit, and further calculate the angular positions and magnifications of relativistic images as well as the time delay between different relativistic images. I also compare the results with those obtained for Schwarzschild and two braneworld black holes, i.e., the tidal Reissner-Nordström (R-N) and the Casadio–Fabbri–Mazzacurati (CFM) black holes. (paper)

  19. How black holes saved relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescod-Weinstein, Chanda

    2016-02-01

    While there have been many popular-science books on the historical and scientific legacy of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity, a gap exists in the literature for a definitive, accessible history of the theory's most famous offshoot: black holes. In Black Hole, the science writer Marcia Bartusiak aims for a discursive middle ground, writing solely about black holes at a level suitable for both high-school students and more mature readers while also giving some broader scientific context for black-hole research.

  20. Nariai black holes with quintessence

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando, Sharmanthie

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study the properties of Schwarzschild black hole surrounded by quintessence matter. The main objective of the paper is to show the existence of Nariai type black hole for special values of the parameters in the theory. The Nariai black hole with the quintessence has the topology $dS_2 \\times S_2$ with $dS_2$ with a different scalar curvature than what would be expected for the Schwarzschild-de Sitter degenerate black hole. Temperature and the entropy for the Schwarzschild-de ...

  1. Caged black holes: Black holes in compactified spacetimes. I. Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kol, Barak; Sorkin, Evgeny; Piran, Tsvi

    2004-01-01

    In backgrounds with compact dimensions there may exist several phases of black objects including a black hole and a black string. The phase transition between them raises questions and touches on fundamental issues such as topology change, uniqueness, and cosmic censorship. No analytic solution is known for the black hole, and moreover one can expect approximate solutions only for very small black holes, while phase transition physics happens when the black hole is large. Hence we turn to numerical solutions. Here some theoretical background to the numerical analysis is given, while the results will appear in a subsequent paper. The goals for a numerical analysis are set. The scalar charge and tension along the compact dimension are defined and used as improved order parameters which put both the black hole and the black string at finite values on the phase diagram. The predictions for small black holes are presented. The differential and the integrated forms of the first law are derived, and the latter (Smarr's formula) can be used to estimate the 'overall numerical error'. Field asymptotics and expressions for physical quantities in terms of the numerical values are supplied. The techniques include the 'method of equivalent charges', free energy, dimensional reduction, and analytic perturbation for small black holes

  2. Quantum tunneling from three-dimensional black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ejaz, Asiya; Gohar, H.; Lin, Hai; Saifullah, K.; Yau, Shing-Tung

    2013-01-01

    We study Hawking radiation from three-dimensional black holes. For this purpose the emission of charged scalar and charged fermionic particles is investigated from charged BTZ black holes, with and without rotation. We use the quantum tunneling approach incorporating WKB approximation and spacetime symmetries. Another class of black holes which is asymptotic to a Sol three-manifold has also been investigated. This procedure gives us the tunneling probability of outgoing particles, and we compute the temperature of the radiation for these black holes. We also consider the quantum tunneling of particles from black hole asymptotic to Sol geometry

  3. Rapid evaluation of radiation boundary kernels for time-domain wave propagation on black holes: implementation and numerical tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, Stephen R

    2004-01-01

    For scalar, electromagnetic, or gravitational wave propagation on a fixed Schwarzschild black hole background, we consider the exact nonlocal radiation outer boundary conditions (ROBC) appropriate for a spherical outer boundary of finite radius enclosing the black hole. Such boundary conditions feature temporal integral convolution between each spherical harmonic mode of the wave field and a time-domain radiation kernel (TDRK). For each orbital angular integer l the associated TDRK is the inverse Laplace transform of a frequency-domain radiation kernel (FDRK). Drawing upon theory and numerical methods developed in a previous article, we numerically implement the ROBC via a rapid algorithm involving approximation of the FDRK by a rational function. Such an approximation is tailored to have relative error ε uniformly along the axis of imaginary Laplace frequency. Theoretically, ε is also a long-time bound on the relative convolution error. Via study of one-dimensional radial evolutions, we demonstrate that the ROBC capture the phenomena of quasinormal ringing and decay tails. We also consider a three-dimensional evolution based on a spectral code, one showing that the ROBC yield accurate results for the scenario of a wave packet striking the boundary at an angle. Our work is a partial generalization to Schwarzschild wave propagation and Heun functions of the methods developed for flatspace wave propagation and Bessel functions by Alpert, Greengard, and Hagstrom

  4. Relativistic three-body effects in black hole coalescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campanelli, Manuela; Dettwyler, Miranda; Lousto, Carlos O.; Hannam, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Three-body interactions are expected to be common in globular clusters and in galactic cores hosting supermassive black holes. We consider an equal-mass binary black hole system in the presence of a third black hole. Using numerically generated binary black hole initial data sets, and first and second-order post-Newtonian (1PN and 2PN) techniques, we find that the presence of the third black hole has non-negligible relativistic effects on the location of the binary's innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO), and that these effects arise at 2PN order. For a stellar-mass black hole binary in orbit about a supermassive black hole, the massive black hole has stabilizing effects on the orbiting binary, leading to an increase in merger time and a decrease of the terminal orbital frequency, and an amplification of the gravitational radiation emitted from the binary system by up to 6%

  5. Black Holes in Our Universe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    was discovered in the constellation Cygnus; a bright X-ray emit- ter associated with a twin-star system, and christened Cygnus X-. 1. It has a massive star and a black hole orbiting each other. With an optical telescope it is the companion star of the black hole which is visible, which produces stellar winds blowing away from.

  6. Black holes and quantum mechanics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    t Hooft, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074127888

    2010-01-01

    After a brief review of quantum black hole physics, it is shown how the dynamical properties of a quantum black hole may be deduced to a large extent from Standard Model Physics, extended to scales near the Planck length, and combined with results from perturbative quantum gravity. Together, these

  7. Black-Hole Mass Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne

    2004-01-01

    The applicability and apparent uncertainties of the techniques currently available for measuring or estimating black-hole masses in AGNs are briefly summarized.......The applicability and apparent uncertainties of the techniques currently available for measuring or estimating black-hole masses in AGNs are briefly summarized....

  8. ATLAS simulated black hole event

    CERN Multimedia

    Pequenão, J

    2008-01-01

    The simulated collision event shown is viewed along the beampipe. The event is one in which a microscopic-black-hole was produced in the collision of two protons (not shown). The microscopic-black-hole decayed immediately into many particles. The colors of the tracks show different types of particles emerging from the collision (at the center).

  9. What, no black hole evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajicek, P.; Israel, W.

    1980-01-01

    Tipler has claimed that the inward flux of negative energy across the horizon which (according to the semi-classical approximation) accompanies the evaporation of a black hole would cause a solar mass black hole to evaporate in less than a second. It is shown that this claim is in error. (orig.)

  10. Can Black Hole Relax Unitarily?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solodukhin, S. N.

    2005-03-01

    We review the way the BTZ black hole relaxes back to thermal equilibrium after a small perturbation and how it is seen in the boundary (finite volume) CFT. The unitarity requires the relaxation to be quasi-periodic. It is preserved in the CFT but is not obvious in the case of the semiclassical black hole the relaxation of which is driven by complex quasi-normal modes. We discuss two ways of modifying the semiclassical black hole geometry to maintain unitarity: the (fractal) brick wall and the worm-hole modification. In the latter case the entropy comes out correctly as well.

  11. Black hole evaporation rates without spacetime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunstein, Samuel L; Patra, Manas K

    2011-08-12

    Verlinde recently suggested that gravity, inertia, and even spacetime may be emergent properties of an underlying thermodynamic theory. This vision was motivated in part by Jacobson's 1995 surprise result that the Einstein equations of gravity follow from the thermodynamic properties of event horizons. Taking a first tentative step in such a program, we derive the evaporation rate (or radiation spectrum) from black hole event horizons in a spacetime-free manner. Our result relies on a Hilbert space description of black hole evaporation, symmetries therein which follow from the inherent high dimensionality of black holes, global conservation of the no-hair quantities, and the existence of Penrose processes. Our analysis is not wedded to standard general relativity and so should apply to extended gravity theories where we find that the black hole area must be replaced by some other property in any generalized area theorem.

  12. Area spectrum of slowly rotating black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Myung, Yun Soo

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the area spectrum for rotating black holes which are Kerr and BTZ black holes. For slowly rotating black holes, we use the Maggiore's idea combined with Kunstatter's method to derive their area spectra, which are equally spaced.

  13. String-Corrected Black Holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubeny, V.

    2005-01-12

    We investigate the geometry of four dimensional black hole solutions in the presence of stringy higher curvature corrections to the low energy effective action. For certain supersymmetric two charge black holes these corrections drastically alter the causal structure of the solution, converting seemingly pathological null singularities into timelike singularities hidden behind a finite area horizon. We establish, analytically and numerically, that the string-corrected two-charge black hole metric has the same Penrose diagram as the extremal four-charge black hole. The higher derivative terms lead to another dramatic effect--the gravitational force exerted by a black hole on an inertial observer is no longer purely attractive. The magnitude of this effect is related to the size of the compactification manifold.

  14. Compressibility of rotating black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, Brian P.

    2011-01-01

    Interpreting the cosmological constant as a pressure, whose thermodynamically conjugate variable is a volume, modifies the first law of black hole thermodynamics. Properties of the resulting thermodynamic volume are investigated: the compressibility and the speed of sound of the black hole are derived in the case of nonpositive cosmological constant. The adiabatic compressibility vanishes for a nonrotating black hole and is maximal in the extremal case--comparable with, but still less than, that of a cold neutron star. A speed of sound v s is associated with the adiabatic compressibility, which is equal to c for a nonrotating black hole and decreases as the angular momentum is increased. An extremal black hole has v s 2 =0.9 c 2 when the cosmological constant vanishes, and more generally v s is bounded below by c/√(2).

  15. Thermodynamics phase transition and Hawking radiation of the Schwarzschild black hole with quintessence-like matter and a deficit solid angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigue, Kamiko Kouemeni Jean; Saleh, Mahamat; Thomas, Bouetou Bouetou; Kofane, Timoleon Crepin

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we investigate the thermodynamics and Hawking radiation of Schwarzschild black hole with quintessence-like matter and deficit solid angle. From the metric of the black hole, we derive the expressions of temperature and specific heat using the laws of black hole thermodynamics. Using the null geodesics method and Parikh-Wilczeck tunneling method, we derive the expressions of Boltzmann factor and the change of Bekenstein-Hawking entropy for the black hole. The behaviors of the temperature, specific heat, Boltzmann factor and the change of Bekenstein entropy versus the deficit solid angle (ɛ 2) and the density of static spherically symmetric quintessence-like matter (ρ 0) were explicitly plotted. The results show that, when the deficit solid angle (ɛ 2) and the density of static spherically symmetric quintessence-like matter at r=1 (ρ 0) vanish (ρ 0=ɛ =0), these four thermodynamics quantities are reduced to those obtained for the simple case of Schwarzschild black hole. For low entropies, the presence of quintessence-like matter induces a first order phase transition of the black hole and for the higher values of the entropies, we observe the second order phase transition. When increasing ρ 0, the transition points are shifted to lower entropies. The same thing is observed when increasing ɛ 2. In the absence of quintessence-like matter (ρ 0=0), these transition phenomena disappear. Moreover the rate of radiation decreases when increasing ρ 0 or (ɛ ^2).

  16. Regular phantom black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronnikov, K A; Fabris, J C

    2006-06-30

    We study self-gravitating, static, spherically symmetric phantom scalar fields with arbitrary potentials (favored by cosmological observations) and single out 16 classes of possible regular configurations with flat, de Sitter, and anti-de Sitter asymptotics. Among them are traversable wormholes, bouncing Kantowski-Sachs (KS) cosmologies, and asymptotically flat black holes (BHs). A regular BH has a Schwarzschild-like causal structure, but the singularity is replaced by a de Sitter infinity, giving a hypothetic BH explorer a chance to survive. It also looks possible that our Universe has originated in a phantom-dominated collapse in another universe, with KS expansion and isotropization after crossing the horizon. Explicit examples of regular solutions are built and discussed. Possible generalizations include k-essence type scalar fields (with a potential) and scalar-tensor gravity.

  17. Black hole decay as geodesic motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Kumar S.; Sen, Siddhartha

    2003-01-01

    We show that a formalism for analyzing the near-horizon conformal symmetry of Schwarzschild black holes using a scalar field probe is capable of describing black hole decay. The equation governing black hole decay can be identified as the geodesic equation in the space of black hole masses. This provides a novel geometric interpretation for the decay of black holes. Moreover, this approach predicts a precise correction term to the usual expression for the decay rate of black holes

  18. Black holes and quantum processes in them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, V.P.

    1976-01-01

    The latest achievements in the physics of black holes are reviewed. The problem of quantum production in a strong gravitational field of black holes is considered. Another parallel discovered during investigation of interactions between black holes and between black holes and surrounding media, is also drawn with thermodynamics. A gravitational field of rotating black holes is considered. Some cosmological aspects of evaporation of small black holes are discussed as well as possibilities to observe them

  19. Are LIGO's Black Holes Made From Smaller Black Holes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-05-01

    The recent successes of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) has raised hopes that several long-standing questions in black-hole physics will soon be answerable. Besides revealing how the black-hole binary pairs are built, could detections with LIGO also reveal how the black holes themselves form?Isolation or HierarchyThe first detection of gravitational waves, GW150914, was surprising for a number of reasons. One unexpected result was the mass of the two black holes that LIGO saw merging: they were a whopping 29 and 36 solar masses.On the left of this schematic, two first-generation (direct-collapse) black holes form a merging binary. The right illustrates a second-generation hierarchical merger: each black hole in the final merging binary was formed by the merger of two smaller black holes. [Adapted fromGerosa et al., a simultaneously published paper that also explores the problem of hierarchical mergers and reaches similar conclusions]How do black holes of this size form? One possibility is that they form in isolation from the collapse of a single massive star. In an alternative model, they are created through the hierarchical merger of smaller black holes, gradually building up to the size we observed.A team of scientists led by Maya Fishbach (University of Chicago) suggests that we may soon be able to tell whether or not black holes observed by LIGO formed hierarchically. Fishbach and collaborators argue that hierarchical formation leaves a distinctive signature on the spins of the final black holes and that as soon as we have enough merger detections from LIGO, we can use spin measurements to statistically determine if LIGO black holes were formed hierarchically.Spins from Major MergersWhen two black holes merge, both their original spins and the angular momentum of the pair contribute to the spin of the final black hole that results. Fishbach and collaborators calculate the expected distribution of these final spins assuming that

  20. Better late than never: information retrieval from black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunstein, Samuel L; Pirandola, Stefano; Życzkowski, Karol

    2013-03-08

    We show that, in order to preserve the equivalence principle until late times in unitarily evaporating black holes, the thermodynamic entropy of a black hole must be primarily entropy of entanglement across the event horizon. For such black holes, we show that the information entering a black hole becomes encoded in correlations within a tripartite quantum state, the quantum analogue of a one-time pad, and is only decoded into the outgoing radiation very late in the evaporation. This behavior generically describes the unitary evaporation of highly entangled black holes and requires no specially designed evolution. Our work suggests the existence of a matter-field sum rule for any fundamental theory.

  1. Grand unification scale primordial black holes: consequences and constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantua, Richard; Easther, Richard; Giblin, John T

    2009-09-11

    A population of very light primordial black holes which evaporate before nucleosynthesis begins is unconstrained unless the decaying black holes leave stable relics. We show that gravitons Hawking radiated from these black holes would source a substantial stochastic background of high frequency gravititational waves (10(12) Hz or more) in the present Universe. These black holes may lead to a transient period of matter-dominated expansion. In this case the primordial Universe could be temporarily dominated by large clusters of "Hawking stars" and the resulting gravitational wave spectrum is independent of the initial number density of primordial black holes.

  2. A Lovelock black hole bestiary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camanho, Xián O; Edelstein, José D

    2013-01-01

    We revisit the study of (A)dS black holes in Lovelock theories. We present a new tool that allows to attack this problem in full generality. In analyzing maximally symmetric Lovelock black holes with non-planar horizon topologies, many distinctive and interesting features are observed. Among them, the existence of maximally symmetric vacua does not support black holes in vast regions of the space of gravitational couplings, multi-horizon black holes and branches of solutions that suggest the existence of a rich diagram of phase transitions. The appearance of naked singularities seems unavoidable in some cases, raising the question about the fate of the cosmic censorship conjecture in these theories. There is a preferred branch of solutions for planar black holes, as well as for non-planar black holes with high enough mass or temperature. Our study clarifies the role of all branches of solutions, including asymptotically dS black holes, and whether they should be considered when studying these theories in the context of AdS/CFT. (paper)

  3. Universality of black hole quantum computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvali, Gia [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); New York Univ., NY (United States). Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics; Gomez, Cesar [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics; Univ. Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Fisica Teorica UAM-CSIC; Luest, Dieter [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Omar, Yasser [Instituto de Telecomunicacoes (Portugal). Physics of Information and Quantum Technologies Group; Lisboa Univ. (Portugal). Inst. Superior Tecnico; Richter, Benedikt [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics; Instituto de Telecomunicacoes (Portugal). Physics of Information and Quantum Technologies Group; Lisboa Univ. (Portugal). Inst. Superior Tecnico

    2017-01-15

    By analyzing the key properties of black holes from the point of view of quantum information, we derive a model-independent picture of black hole quantum computing. It has been noticed that this picture exhibits striking similarities with quantum critical condensates, allowing the use of a common language to describe quantum computing in both systems. We analyze such quantum computing by allowing coupling to external modes, under the condition that the external influence must be soft-enough in order not to offset the basic properties of the system. We derive model-independent bounds on some crucial time-scales, such as the times of gate operation, decoherence, maximal entanglement and total scrambling. We show that for black hole type quantum computers all these time-scales are of the order of the black hole half-life time. Furthermore, we construct explicitly a set of Hamiltonians that generates a universal set of quantum gates for the black hole type computer. We find that the gates work at maximal energy efficiency. Furthermore, we establish a fundamental bound on the complexity of quantum circuits encoded on these systems, and characterize the unitary operations that are implementable. It becomes apparent that the computational power is very limited due to the fact that the black hole life-time is of the same order of the gate operation time. As a consequence, it is impossible to retrieve its information, within the life-time of a black hole, by externally coupling to the black hole qubits. However, we show that, in principle, coupling to some of the internal degrees of freedom allows acquiring knowledge about the micro-state. Still, due to the trivial complexity of operations that can be performed, there is no time advantage over the collection of Hawking radiation and subsequent decoding. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Quantum Mechanics of Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witten, Edward

    2012-08-01

    The popular conception of black holes reflects the behavior of the massive black holes found by astronomers and described by classical general relativity. These objects swallow up whatever comes near and emit nothing. Physicists who have tried to understand the behavior of black holes from a quantum mechanical point of view, however, have arrived at quite a different picture. The difference is analogous to the difference between thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. The thermodynamic description is a good approximation for a macroscopic system, but statistical mechanics describes what one will see if one looks more closely.

  5. Tunnelling from Goedel black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerner, Ryan; Mann, R. B.

    2007-01-01

    We consider the spacetime structure of Kerr-Goedel black holes, analyzing their parameter space in detail. We apply the tunnelling method to compute their temperature and compare the results to previous calculations obtained via other methods. We claim that it is not possible to have the closed timelike curve (CTC) horizon in between the two black hole horizons and include a discussion of issues that occur when the radius of the CTC horizon is smaller than the radius of both black hole horizons

  6. Black Holes: A Traveler's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickover, Clifford A.

    1998-03-01

    BLACK HOLES A TRAVELER'S GUIDE Clifford Pickover's inventive and entertaining excursion beyond the curves of space and time. "I've enjoyed Clifford Pickover's earlier books . . . now he has ventured into the exploration of black holes. All would-be tourists are strongly advised to read his traveler's guide." -Arthur C. Clarke. "Many books have been written about black holes, but none surpass this one in arousing emotions of awe and wonder towards the mysterious structure of the universe." -Martin Gardner. "Bucky Fuller thought big. Arthur C. Clarke thinks big, but Cliff Pickover outdoes them both." -Wired. "The book is fun, zany, in-your-face, and refreshingly addictive." -Times Higher Education Supplement.

  7. Orbital resonances around black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Jeandrew; Geyer, Marisa; Hinderer, Tanja

    2015-02-27

    We compute the length and time scales associated with resonant orbits around Kerr black holes for all orbital and spin parameters. Resonance-induced effects are potentially observable when the Event Horizon Telescope resolves the inner structure of Sgr A*, when space-based gravitational wave detectors record phase shifts in the waveform during the resonant passage of a compact object spiraling into the black hole, or in the frequencies of quasiperiodic oscillations for accreting black holes. The onset of geodesic chaos for non-Kerr spacetimes should occur at the resonance locations quantified here.

  8. Quantum mechanics of black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witten, Edward

    2012-08-03

    The popular conception of black holes reflects the behavior of the massive black holes found by astronomers and described by classical general relativity. These objects swallow up whatever comes near and emit nothing. Physicists who have tried to understand the behavior of black holes from a quantum mechanical point of view, however, have arrived at quite a different picture. The difference is analogous to the difference between thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. The thermodynamic description is a good approximation for a macroscopic system, but statistical mechanics describes what one will see if one looks more closely.

  9. Vacuum metastability with black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burda, Philipp; Gregory, Ruth; Moss, Ian G. annd

    2015-01-01

    We consider the possibility that small black holes can act as nucleation seeds for the decay of a metastable vacuum, focussing particularly on the Higgs potential. Using a thin-wall bubble approximation for the nucleation process, which is possible when generic quantum gravity corrections are added to the Higgs potential, we show that primordial black holes can stimulate vacuum decay. We demonstrate that for suitable parameter ranges, the vacuum decay process dominates over the Hawking evaporation process. Finally, we comment on the application of these results to vacuum decay seeded by black holes produced in particle collisions.

  10. Gravitational polarizability of black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damour, Thibault; Lecian, Orchidea Maria

    2009-01-01

    The gravitational polarizability properties of black holes are compared and contrasted with their electromagnetic polarizability properties. The 'shape' or 'height' multipolar Love numbers h l of a black hole are defined and computed. They are then compared to their electromagnetic analogs h l EM . The Love numbers h l give the height of the lth multipolar 'tidal bulge' raised on the horizon of a black hole by faraway masses. We also discuss the shape of the tidal bulge raised by a test-mass m, in the limit where m gets very close to the horizon.

  11. Black holes and Higgs stability

    CERN Document Server

    Tetradis, Nikolaos

    2016-09-20

    We study the effect of primordial black holes on the classical rate of nucleation of AdS regions within the standard electroweak vacuum. We find that the energy barrier for transitions to the new vacuum, which characterizes the exponential suppression of the nucleation rate, can be reduced significantly in the black-hole background. A precise analysis is required in order to determine whether the the existence of primordial black holes is compatible with the form of the Higgs potential at high temperature or density in the Standard Model or its extensions.

  12. Gravitating discs around black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karas, V; Hure, J-M; Semerak, O

    2004-01-01

    Fluid discs and tori around black holes are discussed within different approaches and with the emphasis on the role of disc gravity. First reviewed are the prospects of investigating the gravitational field of a black hole-disc system using analytical solutions of stationary, axially symmetric Einstein equations. Then, more detailed considerations are focused to the middle and outer parts of extended disc-like configurations where relativistic effects are small and the Newtonian description is adequate. Within general relativity, only a static case has been analysed in detail. Results are often very inspiring. However, simplifying assumptions must be imposed: ad hoc profiles of the disc density are commonly assumed and the effects of frame-dragging are completely lacking. Astrophysical discs (e.g. accretion discs in active galactic nuclei) typically extend far beyond the relativistic domain and are fairly diluted. However, self-gravity is still essential for their structure and evolution, as well as for their radiation emission and the impact on the surrounding environment. For example, a nuclear star cluster in a galactic centre may bear various imprints of mutual star-disc interactions, which can be recognized in observational properties, such as the relation between the central mass and stellar velocity dispersion. (topical review)

  13. Quantum criticality and black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdev, Subir; Müller, Markus

    2009-04-22

    Many condensed matter experiments explore the finite temperature dynamics of systems near quantum critical points. Often, there are no well-defined quasiparticle excitations, and so quantum kinetic equations do not describe the transport properties completely. The theory shows that the transport coefficients are not proportional to a mean free scattering time (as is the case in the Boltzmann theory of quasiparticles), but are completely determined by the absolute temperature and by equilibrium thermodynamic observables. Recently, explicit solutions of this quantum critical dynamics have become possible via the anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory duality discovered in string theory. This shows that the quantum critical theory provides a holographic description of the quantum theory of black holes in a negatively curved anti-de Sitter space, and relates its transport coefficients to properties of the Hawking radiation from the black hole. We review how insights from this connection have led to new results for experimental systems: (i) the vicinity of the superfluid-insulator transition in the presence of an applied magnetic field, and its possible application to measurements of the Nernst effect in the cuprates, (ii) the magnetohydrodynamics of the plasma of Dirac electrons in graphene and the prediction of a hydrodynamic cyclotron resonance.

  14. Phase transition for black holes with scalar hair and topological black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Myung, Yun Soo

    2008-01-01

    We study phase transitions between black holes with scalar hair and topological black holes in asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetimes. As the ground state solutions, we introduce the non-rotating BTZ black hole in three dimensions and topological black hole with hyperbolic horizon in four dimensions. For the temperature matching only, we show that the phase transition between black hole with scalar hair (Martinez-Troncoso-Zanelli black hole) and topological black hole is second-order by usi...

  15. Black holes as mirrors: quantum information in random subsystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayden, Patrick; Preskill, John

    2007-01-01

    We study information retrieval from evaporating black holes, assuming that the internal dynamics of a black hole is unitary and rapidly mixing, and assuming that the retriever has unlimited control over the emitted Hawking radiation. If the evaporation of the black hole has already proceeded past the ''half-way'' point, where half of the initial entropy has been radiated away, then additional quantum information deposited in the black hole is revealed in the Hawking radiation very rapidly. Information deposited prior to the half-way point remains concealed until the half-way point, and then emerges quickly. These conclusions hold because typical local quantum circuits are efficient encoders for quantum error-correcting codes that nearly achieve the capacity of the quantum erasure channel. Our estimate of a black hole's information retention time, based on speculative dynamical assumptions, is just barely compatible with the black hole complementarity hypothesis

  16. Dirac Particles Emission from An Elliptical Black Hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuant Tiandho

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the general theory of relativiy, a black hole is defined as a region of spacetime with super-strong gravitational effects and there is nothing can escape from it. So in the classical theory of relativity, it is safe to say that black hole is a "dead" thermodynamical object. However, by using quantum mechanics theory, Hawking has shown that a black hole may emit particles. In this paper, calculation of temperature of an elliptical black hole when emitting the Dirac particles was presented. By using the complexpath method, radiation can be described as emission process in the tunneling pictures. According to relationship between probability of outgoing particle with the spectrum of black body radiation for fermion particles, temperature of the elliptical black hole can be obtained and it depend on the azimuthal angle. This result also showed that condition on the surface of elliptical black hole is not in thermal equilibrium.

  17. Black holes in astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayan, Ramesh

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews the current status of black hole (BH) astrophysics, focusing on topics of interest to a physics audience. Astronomers have discovered dozens of compact objects with masses greater than 3M o-dot , the likely maximum mass of a neutron star. These objects are identified as BH candidates. Some of the candidates have masses ∼5M o-dot -20M o-dot and are found in x-ray binaries, while the rest have masses ∼10 6 M o-dot -10 9.5 M o-dot and are found in galactic nuclei. A variety of methods are being tried to estimate the spin parameters of the candidate BHs. There is strong circumstantial evidence that many of the objects have event horizons, so there is good reason to believe that the candidates are true BHs. Recent MHD simulations of magnetized plasma accreting on rotating BHs seem to hint that relativistic jets may be produced by a magnetic analogue of the Penrose process

  18. THE MOST MASSIVE ACTIVE BLACK HOLES AT z ∼ 1.5-3.5 HAVE HIGH SPINS AND RADIATIVE EFFICIENCIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trakhtenbrot, Benny

    2014-01-01

    The radiative efficiencies (η) of 72 luminous unobscured active galactic nuclei at z ∼ 1.5-3.5, powered by some of the most massive black holes (BHs), are constrained. The analysis is based on accretion disk (AD) models, which link the continuum luminosity at rest-frame optical wavelengths and the BH mass (M BH ) to the accretion rate through the AD, M-dot AD . The data are gathered from several literature samples with detailed measurements of the Hβ emission line complex, observed at near-infrared bands. When coupled with standard estimates of bolometric luminosities (L bol ), the analysis suggests high radiative efficiencies, with most of the sources showing η > 0.2, that is, higher than the commonly assumed value of 0.1, and the expected value for non-spinning BHs (η = 0.057). Even under more conservative assumptions regarding L bol (i.e., L bol = 3 × L 5100 ), most of the extremely massive BHs in the sample (i.e., M BH ≳ 3 × 10 9 M ☉ ) show radiative efficiencies which correspond to very high BH spins (a * ), with typical values well above a * ≅ 0.7. These results stand in contrast to the predictions of a ''spin-down'' scenario, in which a series of randomly oriented accretion episodes leads to a * ∼ 0. Instead, the analysis presented here strongly supports a ''spin-up'' scenario, which is driven by either prolonged accretion or a series of anisotropically oriented accretion episodes. Considering the fact that these extreme BHs require long-duration or continuous accretion to account for their high masses, it is argued that the most probable scenario for the super-massive black holes under study is that of an almost continuous sequence of randomly yet not isotropically oriented accretion episodes

  19. The Formation of Supermassive Black Holes in the First Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleicher, Dominik R. G.; Banerjee, Robi; Sur, Sharanya; Glover, Simon C. O.; Spaans, Marco; Klessen, Ralf S.

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the formation of supermassive black holes in the early universe, and how to probe their subsequent evolution with the upcoming mm/sub-mm telescope ALMA. We first focus on the chemical and radiative conditions for black hole formation, in particular considering radiation trapping and

  20. Canonical entropy of three-dimensional BTZ black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Ren; Zhang Shengli

    2006-01-01

    Recently, Hawking radiation of the black hole has been studied using the tunnel effect method. It is found that the radiation spectrum of the black hole is not a strictly pure thermal spectrum. How does the departure from pure thermal spectrum affect the entropy? This is a very interesting problem. In this Letter, we calculate the partition function by energy spectrum obtained from tunnel effect. Using the partition function, we compute the black hole entropy and derive the expression of the black hole entropy after considering the radiation. And we derive the entropy of charged black hole. In our calculation, we consider not only the correction to the black hole entropy due to fluctuation of energy but also the effect of the change of the black hole charges on entropy. There is no other hypothesis. Our result is more reasonable. According to the fact that the black hole entropy is not divergent, we obtain the lower limit of Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black hole energy. That is, the least energy of Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black hole, which satisfies the stationary condition in thermodynamics

  1. Black holes and quantum mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooft, G. ' t, E-mail: g.thooft@uu.n [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Utrecht University and Spinoza Institute, P.O. Box 80.195, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2010-07-15

    After a brief review of quantum black hole physics, it is shown how the dynamical properties of a quantum black hole may be deduced to a large extent from Standard Model Physics, extended to scales near the Planck length, and combined with results from perturbative quantum gravity. Together, these interactions generate a Hilbert space of states on the black hole horizon, which can be investigated, displaying interesting systematics by themselves. To make such approaches more powerful, a study is made of the black hole complementarity principle, from which one may deduce the existence of a hidden form of local conformal invariance. Finally, the question is raised whether the principles underlying Quantum Mechanics are to be sharpened in this domain of physics as well. There are intriguing possibilities.

  2. Black hole evaporation: a paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashtekar, Abhay; Bojowald, Martin

    2005-01-01

    A paradigm describing black hole evaporation in non-perturbative quantum gravity is developed by combining two sets of detailed results: (i) resolution of the Schwarzschild singularity using quantum geometry methods and (ii) time evolution of black holes in the trapping and dynamical horizon frameworks. Quantum geometry effects introduce a major modification in the traditional spacetime diagram of black hole evaporation, providing a possible mechanism for recovery of information that is classically lost in the process of black hole formation. The paradigm is developed directly in the Lorentzian regime and necessary conditions for its viability are discussed. If these conditions are met, much of the tension between expectations based on spacetime geometry and structure of quantum theory would be resolved

  3. Black Hole Complementary Principle and Noncommutative Membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Ren

    2006-01-01

    In the spirit of black hole complementary principle, we have found the noncommutative membrane of Scharzchild black holes. In this paper we extend our results to Kerr black hole and see the same story. Also we make a conjecture that spacetimes are noncommutative on the stretched membrane of the more general Kerr-Newman black hole.

  4. Black holes from extended inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, S.D.H.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA

    1990-01-01

    It is argued that models of extended inflation, in which modified Einstein gravity allows a graceful exit from the false vacuum, lead to copious production of black holes. The critical temperature of the inflationary phase transition must be >10 8 GeV in order to avoid severe cosmological problems in a universe dominated by black holes. We speculate on the possibility that the interiors of false vacuum regions evolve into baby universes. (orig.)

  5. Black Holes as Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Frampton, Paul H.

    2009-01-01

    While the energy of the universe has been established to be about 0.04 baryons, 0.24 dark matter and 0.72 dark energy, the cosmological entropy is almost entirely, about $(1 - 10^{-15})$, from black holes and only $10^{-15}$ from everything else. This identification of all dark matter as black holes is natural in statistical mechanics. Cosmological history of dark matter is discussed.

  6. Black holes from fluid mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, Subhaneil

    2009-12-01

    We use the AdS/CFT correspondence in a regime where the field theory is well described by fluid mechanics to study large black holes in asymptotically locally anti de Sitter spaces. In particular, we use the fluid description to study the thermodynamics of the black holes and the existence of exotic horizon topologies in higher dimensions. First we test this method by comparing large rotating black holes in global AdSD spaces to stationary solutions of the relativistic Navier-Stokes equations on SD-2. Reading off the equation of state of this fluid from the thermodynamics of non-rotating black holes, we proceed to construct the nonlinear spinning solutions of fluid mechanics that are dual to rotating black holes. In all known examples, the thermodynamics and the local stress tensor of our solutions are in precise agreement with the thermodynamics and boundary stress tensor of the spinning black holes. Our results yield predictions for the thermodynamics of all large black holes in all theories of gravity on AdS spaces, for example, IIB string theory on AdS5 x S 5 and M theory on AdS4 x S7 and AdS7 x S 4. We then construct solutions to the relativistic Navier-Stokes equations that describe the long wavelength collective dynamics of the deconfined plasma phase of N = 4 Yang Mills theory compactified down to d = 3 on a Scherk-Schwarz circle. Our solutions are stationary, axially symmetric spinning balls and rings of plasma. These solutions, which are dual to (yet to be constructed) rotating black holes and black rings in Scherk-Schwarz compactified AdS 5, and have properties that are qualitatively similar to those of black holes and black rings in flat five dimensional gravity. We also study the stability of these solutions to small fluctuations, which provides an indirect method for studying Gregory-Laflamme instabilities. We also extend the construction to higher dimensions, allowing one to study the existence of new black hole topologies and their phase diagram.

  7. Black holes: the membrane paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorne, K.S.; Price, R.H.; Macdonald, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    The physics of black holes is explored in terms of a membrane paradigm which treats the event horizon as a two-dimensional membrane embedded in three-dimensional space. A 3+1 formalism is used to split Schwarzschild space-time and the laws of physics outside a nonrotating hole, which permits treatment of the atmosphere in terms of the physical properties of thin slices. The model is applied to perturbed slowly or rapidly rotating and nonrotating holes, and to quantify the electric and magnetic fields and eddy currents passing through a membrane surface which represents a stretched horizon. Features of tidal gravitational fields in the vicinity of the horizon, quasars and active galalctic nuclei, the alignment of jets perpendicular to accretion disks, and the effects of black holes at the center of ellipsoidal star clusters are investigated. Attention is also given to a black hole in a binary system and the interactions of black holes with matter that is either near or very far from the event horizon. Finally, a statistical mechanics treatment is used to derive a second law of thermodynamics for a perfectly thermal atmosphere of a black hole

  8. Black holes in the universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camenzind, M.

    2005-01-01

    While physicists have been grappling with the theory of black holes (BH), as shown by the many contributions to the Einstein year, astronomers have been successfully searching for real black holes in the Universe. Black hole astrophysics began in the 1960s with the discovery of quasars and other active galactic nuclei (AGN) in distant galaxies. Already in the 1960s it became clear that the most natural explanation for the quasar activity is the release of gravitational energy through accretion of gas onto supermassive black holes. The remnants of this activity have now been found in the centers of about 50 nearby galaxies. BH astrophysics received a new twist in the 1970s with the discovery of the X-ray binary (XRB) Cygnus X-1. The X-ray emitting compact object was too massive to be explained by a neutron star. Today, about 20 excellent BH candidates are known in XRBs. On the extragalactic scale, more than 100.000 quasars have been found in large galaxy surveys. At the redshift of the most distant ones, the Universe was younger than one billion year. The most enigmatic black hole candidates identified in the last years are the compact objects behind the Gamma-Ray Bursters. The formation of all these types of black holes is accompanied by extensive emission of gravitational waves. The detection of these strong gravity events is one of the biggest challenges for physicists in the near future. (author)

  9. Black Hole Spin Measurement Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvesen, Greg; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    2018-01-01

    Angular momentum, or spin, is one of only two fundamental properties of astrophysical black holes, and measuring its value has numerous applications. For instance, obtaining reliable spin measurements could constrain the growth history of supermassive black holes and reveal whether relativistic jets are powered by tapping into the black hole spin reservoir. The two well-established techniques for measuring black hole spin can both be applied to X-ray binaries, but are in disagreement for cases of non-maximal spin. This discrepancy must be resolved if either technique is to be deemed robust. We show that the technique based on disc continuum fitting is sensitive to uncertainties regarding the disc atmosphere, which are observationally unconstrained. By incorporating reasonable uncertainties into black hole spin probability density functions, we demonstrate that the spin measured by disc continuum fitting can become highly uncertain. Future work toward understanding how the observed disc continuum is altered by atmospheric physics, particularly magnetic fields, will further strengthen black hole spin measurement techniques.

  10. Atomic structure in black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagatani, Yukinori

    2006-01-01

    We propose that any black hole has atomic structure in its inside and has no horizon as a model of black holes. Our proposal is founded on a mean field approximation of gravity. The structure of our model consists of a (charged) singularity at the center and quantum fluctuations of fields around the singularity, namely, it is quite similar to that of atoms. Any properties of black holes, e.g. entropy, can be explained by the model. The model naturally quantizes black holes. In particular, we find the minimum black hole, whose structure is similar to that of the hydrogen atom and whose Schwarzschild radius is approximately 1.1287 times the Planck length. Our approach is conceptually similar to Bohr's model of the atomic structure, and the concept of the minimum Schwarzschild radius is similar to that of the Bohr radius. The model predicts that black holes carry baryon number, and the baryon number is rapidly violated. This baryon number violation can be used as verification of the model. (author)

  11. Hawking Temperature of Acoustic Black Hole

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Abstract. Using a new tortoise coordinate transformation, the Hawking radiation of the acoustic black hole was discussed by studying the Klein–Gordon equation of scalar particles in the curve space-time. It was found that the Hawking temperature is connected with time and position on the event horizon.

  12. The irreversible thermodynamics of black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candelas, P.; Sciama, D.W.

    1978-01-01

    The action of quantum fluctuations of the gravitational field may be regarded as the origin of the dissipative processes associated with Hawking radiation. In this picture the black hole possesses internal coherence by virtue of the localization of its mass. The cumulative effect of the quantum fluctuations in the geometry is that this coherence is corrupted and the mass is sapped away. (author)

  13. Regular black hole in three dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Myung, Yun Soo; Yoon, Myungseok

    2008-01-01

    We find a new black hole in three dimensional anti-de Sitter space by introducing an anisotropic perfect fluid inspired by the noncommutative black hole. This is a regular black hole with two horizons. We compare thermodynamics of this black hole with that of non-rotating BTZ black hole. The first-law of thermodynamics is not compatible with the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy.

  14. Thermodynamics of Horava-Lifshitz black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myung, Yun Soo; Kim, Yong-Wan

    2010-01-01

    We study black holes in the Horava-Lifshitz gravity with a parameter λ. For 1/3≤λ 3, the black holes behave the Reissner-Nordstroem type black hole in asymptotically flat spacetimes. Hence, these all are quite different from the Schwarzschild-AdS black hole of Einstein gravity. The temperature, mass, entropy, and heat capacity are derived for investigating thermodynamic properties of these black holes. (orig.)

  15. Detecting Black Hole Binaries by Gaia

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaguchi, Masaki S.; Kawanaka, Norita; Bulik, Tomasz; Piran, Tsvi

    2017-01-01

    We study the prospect of the Gaia satellite to identify black hole binary systems by detecting the orbital motion of the companion stars. Taking into account the initial mass function, mass transfer, common envelope phase, interstellar absorption and identifiability of black holes, we estimate the number of black hole binaries detected by Gaia and their distributions with respect to the black hole mass for several models with different parameters. We find that $\\sim 300-6000$ black hole binar...

  16. Regimes of mini black hole abandoned to accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Biplab

    2018-01-01

    Being inspired by the Eddington’s idea, along with other auxiliary arguments, it is unveiled that there exist regimes of a black hole that would prohibit accretion of ordinary energy. In explicit words, there exists a lower bound to black hole mass below which matter accretion process does not run for black holes. Not merely the baryonic matter, but, in regimes, also the massless photons could get prohibited from rushing into a black hole. However, unlike the baryon accretion abandoned black hole regime, the mass-regime of a black hole prohibiting accretion of radiation could vary along with its ambient temperature. For example, we discuss that earlier to 10‑8 s after the big-bang, as the cosmological temperature of the Universe grew above ˜ 1014 K, the mass range of black hole designating the radiation accretion abandoned regime, had to be in varying state being connected with the instantaneous age of the evolving Universe by an “one half” power law. It happens to be a fact that a black hole holding regimes prohibiting accretion of energy is gigantic by its size in comparison to the Planck length-scale. Hence the emergence of these regimes demands mini black holes for not being viable as profound suckers of energy. Consideration of accretion abandoned regimes could be crucial for constraining or judging the evolution of primordial black holes over the age of the Universe.

  17. The theory of optical black hole lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaona-Reyes, José L., E-mail: jgaona@fis.cinvestav.mx; Bermudez, David, E-mail: dbermudez@fis.cinvestav.mx

    2017-05-15

    The event horizon of black holes and white holes can be achieved in the context of analogue gravity. It was proven for a sonic case that if these two horizons are close to each other their dynamics resemble a laser, a black hole laser, where the analogue of Hawking radiation is trapped and amplified. Optical analogues are also very successful and a similar system can be achieved there. In this work we develop the theory of optical black hole lasers and prove that the amplification is also possible. Then, we study the optical system by determining the forward propagation of modes, obtaining an approximation for the phase difference which governs the amplification, and performing numerical simulations of the pulse propagation of our system. - Highlights: • We develop the conditions to obtain the kinematics of the optical black hole laser. • We prove the amplification of Hawking radiation for the optical case. • We derive the forward propagation of modes and check the result of the backward case. • A model is proposed to calculate the phase difference and the amplification rate. • We perform numerical simulations of a pulse between two solitons forming a cavity.

  18. Black hole feedback in the luminous quasar PDS 456

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nardini, E.; Reeves, J. N.; Gofford, J.

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of galaxies is connected to the growth of supermassive black holes in their centers. During the quasar phase, a huge luminosity is released as matter falls onto the black hole, and radiation-driven winds can transfer most of this energy back to the host galaxy. Over five different...... gas. The outflow’s kinetic power larger than 1046 ergs per second is enough to provide the feedback required by models of black hole and host galaxy coevolution....

  19. Asteroseismology of neutron stars and black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schutz, B F

    2008-01-01

    One of the goals of the large gravitational wave detectors is eventually to observe radiation from oscillations of neutron stars and black holes. These objects have characteristic frequencies of what are called 'quasi-normal' mode oscillations, and these frequencies reveal important information about the source. The frequency spectrum of black holes is very different from that of any stars, so if one or more modes are observed then one can conclusively identify the source as a black hole. For neutron stars the spectrum is similar to that of main-sequence stars, but observing a single mode is enough to put strong constraints on the nuclear-matter equation of state, something which is still highly uncertain. Current detectors could make these observations only if the source were exceptionally close. But planned upgrades could make the first relativistic asteroseismological observations; in particular the GEO600 detector will be optimised for these observations by 2010.

  20. Black holes, qubits and octonions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsten, L.; Dahanayake, D.; Duff, M.J.; Ebrahim, H.; Rubens, W.

    2009-01-01

    We review the recently established relationships between black hole entropy in string theory and the quantum entanglement of qubits and qutrits in quantum information theory. The first example is provided by the measure of the tripartite entanglement of three qubits (Alice, Bob and Charlie), known as the 3-tangle, and the entropy of the 8-charge STU black hole of N=2 supergravity, both of which are given by the [SL(2)] 3 invariant hyperdeterminant, a quantity first introduced by Cayley in 1845. Moreover the classification of three-qubit entanglements is related to the classification of N=2 supersymmetric STU black holes. There are further relationships between the attractor mechanism and local distillation protocols and between supersymmetry and the suppression of bit flip errors. At the microscopic level, the black holes are described by intersecting D3-branes whose wrapping around the six compact dimensions T 6 provides the string-theoretic interpretation of the charges and we associate the three-qubit basis vectors, |ABC>(A,B,C=0 or 1), with the corresponding 8 wrapping cycles. The black hole/qubit correspondence extends to the 56 charge N=8 black holes and the tripartite entanglement of seven qubits where the measure is provided by Cartan's E 7 contains [SL(2)] 7 invariant. The qubits are naturally described by the seven vertices ABCDEFG of the Fano plane, which provides the multiplication table of the seven imaginary octonions, reflecting the fact that E 7 has a natural structure of an O-graded algebra. This in turn provides a novel imaginary octonionic interpretation of the 56=7x8 charges of N=8: the 24=3x8 NS-NS charges correspond to the three imaginary quaternions and the 32=4x8 R-R to the four complementary imaginary octonions. We contrast this approach with that based on Jordan algebras and the Freudenthal triple system. N=8 black holes (or black strings) in five dimensions are also related to the bipartite entanglement of three qutrits (3-state systems

  1. Fermionic greybody factors in dilaton black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abedi, Jahed; Arfaei, Hessamaddin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the question of the emission of fermions in the process of dilaton black hole evolution and its characteristics for different dilaton coupling constants α are studied. The main quantity of interest, the greybody factors, are calculated both numerically and in analytical approximation. The dependence of the rates of evaporation and behaviour on the dilaton coupling constant is analysed. Having calculated the greybody factors, we are able to address the question of the final fate of the dilaton black hole. For that we also need to perform dynamical treatment of the solution by considering the backreaction, which will show a crucial effect on the final result. We find a transition line in the (Q/M,α) plane that separates the two regimes for the fate of the black hole, decay regime and extremal regime. In the decay regime the black hole completely evaporates, while in the extremal regime the black hole approaches the extremal limit by radiation and becomes stable. (paper)

  2. Black hole scattering via pseudospectral methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemente, Paula C.M.; Oliveira, Henrique P. de; Rodrigues, Eduardo L. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: We have considered the problem which refers to scattering and absorption of perturbations from a black hole. These perturbations can be scalar, electromagnetic or gravitational waves and satisfy a Schrodinger-type equation, where the potential is specified by the black hole under consideration. Unfortunately, this problem can not be solved by a standard pseudospectral method, the reason is that does not exist a infinite interval basis set, capable of modelling the ingoing and outgoing waves. By using the rational Chebyshev functions and, adding to it, special functions called 'radiation functions' we are able to compute with high precision the transmission and reflection coefficients. These difficulties emerge, because the rational Chebyshev functions can not correctly represent the asymptotic sine waves present in the work. In order to introduce the various concepts involved in the study of wave scattering by black holes, we have assumed in this work, the easiest relativistic case, where scalar waves are scattered by a potential generated by a static and spherically symmetric Schwarzschild black hole. We have adapted and modified the pseudospectral method devised by Boyd, (Computer in Physics, 83 (1990)) which consists in a potential barrier problem in one dimension, the concept of numerical implementation remains the same. The extension of the code for the wave scattering by other black holes is, also, discussed. (author)

  3. Black holes: a slanted overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vishveshwara, C.V.

    1988-01-01

    The black hole saga spanning some seventy years may be broadly divided into four phases, namely, (a) the dark ages when little was known about black holes even though they had come into existence quite early through the Schwarzschild solution, (b) the age of enlightenment bringing in deep and prolific discoveries, (c) the age of fantasy that cast black holes in all sorts of extraordinary roles, and (d) the golden age of relativistic astrophysics - to some extent similar to Dirac's characterisation of the development of quantum theory - in which black holes have been extensively used to elucidate a number of astrophysical phenomena. It is impossible to give here even the briefest outline of the major developments in this vast area. We shall only attempt to present a few aspects of black hole physics which have been actively pursued in the recent past. Some details are given in the case of those topics that have not found their way into text books or review articles. (author)

  4. Cosmology with primordial black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindley, D.

    1981-09-01

    Cosmologies containing a substantial amount of matter in the form of evaporating primordial black holes are investigated. A review of constraints on the numbers of such black holes, including an analysis of a new limit found by looking at the destruction of deuterium by high energy photons, shows that there must be a negligible population of small black holes from the era of cosmological nucleosynthesis onwards, but that there are no strong constraints before this time. The major part of the work is based on the construction of detailed, self-consistent cosmological models in which black holes are continually forming and evaporating The interest in these models centres on the question of baryon generation, which occurs via the asymmetric decay of a new type of particle which appears as a consequence of the recently developed Grand Unified Theories of elementary particles. Unfortunately, there is so much uncertainty in the models that firm conclusions are difficult to reach; however, it seems feasible in principle that primordial black holes could be responsible for a significant part of the present matter density of the Universe. (author)

  5. Massive Black Holes and Galaxies

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Evidence has been accumulating for several decades that many galaxies harbor central mass concentrations that may be in the form of black holes with masses between a few million to a few billion time the mass of the Sun. I will discuss measurements over the last two decades, employing adaptive optics imaging and spectroscopy on large ground-based telescopes that prove the existence of such a massive black hole in the Center of our Milky Way, beyond any reasonable doubt. These data also provide key insights into its properties and environment. Most recently, a tidally disrupting cloud of gas has been discovered on an almost radial orbit that reached its peri-distance of ~2000 Schwarzschild radii in 2014, promising to be a valuable tool for exploring the innermost accretion zone. Future interferometric studies of the Galactic Center Black hole promise to be able to test gravity in its strong field limit.

  6. Low-scale gravity black holes at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Regos, E; Gamsizkan, H; Trocsanyi, Z

    2009-01-01

    We search for extra dimensions by looking for black holes at LHC. Theoretical investigations provide the basis for the collider experiments. We use black hole generators to simulate the experimental signatures (colour, charge, spectrum of emitted particles, missing transverse energy) of black holes at LHC in models with TeV scale quantum gravity, rotation, fermion splitting, brane tension and Hawking radiation. We implement the extra-dimensional simulations at the CMS data analysis and test further beyond standard models of black holes too.

  7. Excluding black hole firewalls with extreme cosmic censorship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, Don N., E-mail: profdonpage@gmail.com [Department of Physics, 4-183 CCIS, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E1 (Canada)

    2014-06-01

    The AMPS argument for black hole firewalls seems to arise not only from the assumption of local effective field theory outside the stretched horizon but also from an overcounting of internal black hole states that include states that are singular in the past. Here I propose to exclude such singular states by Extreme Cosmic Censorship (the conjectured principle that the universe is entirely nonsingular, except for transient singularities inside black and/or white holes). I argue that the remaining set of nonsingular realistic states do not have firewalls but yet preserve information in Hawking radiation from black holes that form from nonsingular initial states.

  8. Black holes a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Blundell, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Black holes are a constant source of fascination to many due to their mysterious nature. Black Holes: A Very Short Introduction addresses a variety of questions, including what a black hole actually is, how they are characterized and discovered, and what would happen if you came too close to one. It explains how black holes form and grow—by stealing material that belongs to stars—as well as how many there may be in the Universe. It also explores the large black holes found in the centres of galaxies, and how black holes power quasars and lie behind other spectacular phenomena in the cosmos.

  9. Hybrid Black-Hole Binary Initial Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundim, Bruno C.; Kelly, Bernard J.; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Zlochower, Yosef; Campanelli, Manuela

    2010-01-01

    "Traditional black-hole binary puncture initial data is conformally flat. This unphysical assumption is coupled with a lack of radiation signature from the binary's past life. As a result, waveforms extracted from evolutions of this data display an abrupt jump. In Kelly et al. [Class. Quantum Grav. 27:114005 (2010)], a new binary black-hole initial data with radiation contents derived in the post-Newtonian (PN) calculations was adapted to puncture evolutions in numerical relativity. This data satisfies the constraint equations to the 2.5PN order, and contains a transverse-traceless "wavy" metric contribution, violating the standard assumption of conformal flatness. Although the evolution contained less spurious radiation, there were undesired features; the unphysical horizon mass loss and the large initial orbital eccentricity. Introducing a hybrid approach to the initial data evaluation, we significantly reduce these undesired features."

  10. Black Hole Astrophysics The Engine Paradigm

    CERN Document Server

    Meier, David L

    2012-01-01

    As a result of significant research over the past 20 years, black holes are now linked to some of the most spectacular and exciting phenomena in the Universe, ranging in size from those that have the same mass as stars to the super-massive objects that lie at the heart of most galaxies, including our own Milky Way. This book first introduces the properties of simple isolated holes, then adds in complications like rotation, accretion, radiation, and magnetic fields, finally arriving at a basic understanding of how these immense engines work. Black Hole Astrophysics • reviews our current knowledge of cosmic black holes and how they generate the most powerful observed pheonomena in the Universe; • highlights the latest, most up-to-date theories and discoveries in this very active area of astrophysical research; • demonstrates why we believe that black holes are responsible for important phenomena such as quasars, microquasars and gammaray bursts; • explains to the reader the nature of the violent and spe...

  11. Thermal stability of black holes with arbitrary hairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Aloke Kumar

    2018-02-01

    We have derived the criteria for thermal stability of charged rotating black holes, for horizon areas that are large relative to the Planck area (in these dimensions). In this paper, we generalized it for black holes with arbitrary hairs. The derivation uses results of loop quantum gravity and equilibrium statistical mechanics of the grand canonical ensemble and there is no explicit use of classical spacetime geometry at all in this analysis. The assumption is that the mass of the black hole is a function of its horizon area and all the hairs. Our stability criteria are then tested in detail against some specific black holes, whose metrics provide us with explicit relations for the dependence of the mass on the area and other hairs of the black holes. This enables us to predict which of these black holes are expected to be thermally unstable under Hawking radiation.

  12. Black hole dynamics in Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschmann, Eric W.; Lehner, Luis; Liebling, Steven L.; Palenzuela, Carlos

    2018-03-01

    We consider the properties and dynamics of black holes within a family of alternative theories of gravity, namely Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory. We analyze the dynamical evolution of individual black holes as well as the merger of binary black hole systems. We do this for a wide range of parameter values for the family of Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theories, investigating, in the process, the stability of these black holes. We examine radiative degrees of freedom, explore the impact of the scalar field on the dynamics of merger, and compare with other scalar-tensor theories. We argue that the dilaton can largely be discounted in understanding merging binary systems and that the end states essentially interpolate between charged and uncharged, rotating black holes. For the relatively small charge values considered here, we conclude that these black hole systems will be difficult to distinguish from their analogs within General Relativity.

  13. Black hole's 1/N hair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvali, Gia, E-mail: georgi.dvali@cern.ch [Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics, Department für Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Theresienstr. 37, 80333 München (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); CERN, Theory Department, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Gomez, Cesar, E-mail: cesar.gomez@uam.es [Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics, Department für Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Theresienstr. 37, 80333 München (Germany); Instituto de Física Teórica UAM-CSIC, C-XVI, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-02-26

    According to the standard view classically black holes carry no hair, whereas quantum hair is at best exponentially weak. We show that suppression of hair is an artifact of the semi-classical treatment and that in the quantum picture hair appears as an inverse mass-square effect. Such hair is predicted in the microscopic quantum description in which a black hole represents a self-sustained leaky Bose-condensate of N soft gravitons. In this picture the Hawking radiation is the quantum depletion of the condensate. Within this picture we show that quantum black hole physics is fully compatible with continuous global symmetries and that global hair appears with the strength B/N, where B is the global charge swallowed by the black hole. For large charge this hair has dramatic effect on black hole dynamics. Our findings can have interesting astrophysical consequences, such as existence of black holes with large detectable baryonic and leptonic numbers.

  14. Observing higher-dimensional black holes at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Sekmen, Sezen

    2005-01-01

    A new approach to spacetime proposing the existence of n compactified large extra dimensions predicts the creation of higher-dimensional black holes at the LHC of CERN. In case they form, signatures of such black holes at accelerators would be quite significant and black hole decay products would carry valuable information for particle physics and cosmology. In this study we first make a short theoretical introduction, then present the results of an analysis made on a Monte Carlo simulation modeling black hole production and decay at the LHC. This analysis includes the examination of the lepton case in black hole to Higgs decay channels, reconstruction of the black hole masses, a calculation of the Hawking temperature and a determination of the radiated jets/leptons multiplicity ratio.

  15. Hawking Temperature of an Arbitrarily Accelerating Black Hole Wei ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Introduction. In 1974, Hawking (1974) made a striking discovery that black holes could produce thermal radiation. In this paper, we will obtain Hawking temperature of an arbitrarily accelerating black hole based on the Klein–Gordon equation, which is identical to the one obtained by the Hamilton–Jacobi equation under the ...

  16. Canonical Ensemble Model for Black Hole Horizon of Schwarzschild ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, we use the canonical ensemble model to discuss the radiation of a Schwarzschild–de Sitter black hole on the black hole horizon. Using this model, we calculate the probability distribution from function of the emission shell. And the statistical meaning which compare with the distribution function is ...

  17. Simulated production of a black hole in ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    This track is an example of simulated data modelled for the ATLAS detector on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, which will begin taking data in 2008. These tracks would be produced if a miniature black hole was created in the proton-proton collision. Such a small black hole would decay instantly to various particles via a process known as Hawking radiation.

  18. Anomalies of the Achucarro-Ortiz black hole

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Kui; Liu, Wenbiao; Zhang, Hongbao

    2007-01-01

    Considering anomalies of quantum field in the (1+1)-dimensional Achucarro-Ortiz black hole background, the stress tensor near and out of the horizon is calculated, meanwhile, the relationship between anomalies and Hawking radiation of the black hole is discussed.

  19. Canonical Ensemble Model for Black Hole Horizon of Schwarzschild ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we use the canonical ensemble model to discuss the radiation of a Schwarzschild–de Sitter black hole on the black hole horizon. Using this model, we calculate the probability distribution from function of the emission shell. And the statistical meaning which compare with the distribution function is used to ...

  20. Geometric inequalities for black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dain, Sergio [Universidad Nacional de Cordoba (Argentina)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: A geometric inequality in General Relativity relates quantities that have both a physical interpretation and a geometrical definition. It is well known that the parameters that characterize the Kerr-Newman black hole satisfy several important geometric inequalities. Remarkably enough, some of these inequalities also hold for dynamical black holes. This kind of inequalities, which are valid in the dynamical and strong field regime, play an important role in the characterization of the gravitational collapse. They are closed related with the cosmic censorship conjecture. In this talk I will review recent results in this subject. (author)

  1. Geometric inequalities for black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dain, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Full text: A geometric inequality in General Relativity relates quantities that have both a physical interpretation and a geometrical definition. It is well known that the parameters that characterize the Kerr-Newman black hole satisfy several important geometric inequalities. Remarkably enough, some of these inequalities also hold for dynamical black holes. This kind of inequalities, which are valid in the dynamical and strong field regime, play an important role in the characterization of the gravitational collapse. They are closed related with the cosmic censorship conjecture. In this talk I will review recent results in this subject. (author)

  2. Hangup effect in unequal mass binary black hole mergers and further studies of their gravitational radiation and remnant properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, James; Lousto, Carlos O.

    2018-04-01

    We present the results of 74 new simulations of nonprecessing spinning black hole binaries with mass ratios q =m1/m2 in the range 1 /7 ≤q ≤1 and individual spins covering the parameter space -0.95 ≤α1 ,2≤0.95 . We supplement those runs with 107 previous simulations to study the hangup effect in black hole mergers, i.e. the delay or prompt merger of spinning holes with respect to nonspinning binaries. We perform the numerical evolution for typically the last ten orbits before the merger and down to the formation of the final remnant black hole. This allows us to study the hangup effect for unequal mass binaries leading us to identify the spin variable that controls the number of orbits before merger as S→ hu.L ^ , where S→ hu=(1 +1/2 m/2 m1 )S→ 1+(1 +1/2 m/1 m2 )S→ 2 . We also combine the total results of those 181 simulations to obtain improved fitting formulas for the remnant final black hole mass, spin and recoil velocity as well as for the peak luminosity and peak frequency of the gravitational strain, and find new correlations among them. This accurate new set of simulations enhances the number of available numerical relativity waveforms available for parameter estimation of gravitational wave observations.

  3. Interior structure of rotating black holes. III. Charged black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, Andrew J. S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper extends to the case of charged rotating black holes the conformally stationary, axisymmetric, conformally separable solutions presented for uncharged rotating black holes in a companion paper. In the present paper, the collisionless fluid accreted by the black hole may be charged. The charge of the black hole is determined self-consistently by the charge accretion rate. As in the uncharged case, hyper-relativistic counterstreaming between ingoing and outgoing streams drives inflation at (just above) the inner horizon, followed by collapse. If both ingoing and outgoing streams are charged, then conformal separability holds during early inflation, but fails as inflation develops. If conformal separability is imposed throughout inflation and collapse, then only one of the ingoing and outgoing streams can be charged: the other must be neutral. Conformal separability prescribes a hierarchy of boundary conditions on the ingoing and outgoing streams incident on the inner horizon. The dominant radial boundary conditions require that the incident ingoing and outgoing number densities be uniform with latitude, but the charge per particle must vary with latitude such that the incident charge densities vary in proportion to the radial electric field. The subdominant angular boundary conditions require specific forms of the incident number- and charge-weighted angular motions. If the streams fall freely from outside the horizon, then the prescribed angular conditions can be achieved by the charged stream, but not by the neutral stream. Thus, as in the case of an uncharged black hole, the neutral stream must be considered to be delivered ad hoc to just above the inner horizon.

  4. Black hole entropy, curved space and monsters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Stephen D.H.; Reeb, David

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the microscopic origin of black hole entropy, in particular the gap between the maximum entropy of ordinary matter and that of black holes. Using curved space, we construct configurations with entropy greater than the area A of a black hole of equal mass. These configurations have pathological properties and we refer to them as monsters. When monsters are excluded we recover the entropy bound on ordinary matter S 3/4 . This bound implies that essentially all of the microstates of a semiclassical black hole are associated with the growth of a slightly smaller black hole which absorbs some additional energy. Our results suggest that the area entropy of black holes is the logarithm of the number of distinct ways in which one can form the black hole from ordinary matter and smaller black holes, but only after the exclusion of monster states

  5. Entropy of black holes with multiple horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yun; Ma, Meng-Sen; Zhao, Ren

    2018-05-01

    We examine the entropy of black holes in de Sitter space and black holes surrounded by quintessence. These black holes have multiple horizons, including at least the black hole event horizon and a horizon outside it (cosmological horizon for de Sitter black holes and "quintessence horizon" for the black holes surrounded by quintessence). Based on the consideration that the two horizons are not independent each other, we conjecture that the total entropy of these black holes should not be simply the sum of entropies of the two horizons, but should have an extra term coming from the correlations between the two horizons. Different from our previous works, in this paper we consider the cosmological constant as the variable and employ an effective method to derive the explicit form of the entropy. We also try to discuss the thermodynamic stabilities of these black holes according to the entropy and the effective temperature.

  6. Andreev reflections and the quantum physics of black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikandan, Sreenath K.; Jordan, Andrew N.

    2017-12-01

    We establish an analogy between superconductor-metal interfaces and the quantum physics of a black hole, using the proximity effect. We show that the metal-superconductor interface can be thought of as an event horizon and Andreev reflection from the interface is analogous to the Hawking radiation in black holes. We describe quantum information transfer in Andreev reflection with a final state projection model similar to the Horowitz-Maldacena model for black hole evaporation. We also propose the Andreev reflection analogue of Hayden and Preskill's description of a black hole final state, where the black hole is described as an information mirror. The analogy between crossed Andreev reflections and Einstein-Rosen bridges is discussed: our proposal gives a precise mechanism for the apparent loss of quantum information in a black hole by the process of nonlocal Andreev reflection, transferring the quantum information through a wormhole and into another universe. Given these established connections, we conjecture that the final quantum state of a black hole is exactly the same as the ground state wave function of the superconductor/superfluid in the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory of superconductivity; in particular, the infalling matter and the infalling Hawking quanta, described in the Horowitz-Maldacena model, forms a Cooper pairlike singlet state inside the black hole. A black hole evaporating and shrinking in size can be thought of as the analogue of Andreev reflection by a hole where the superconductor loses a Cooper pair. Our model does not suffer from the black hole information problem since Andreev reflection is unitary. We also relate the thermodynamic properties of a black hole to that of a superconductor, and propose an experiment which can demonstrate the negative specific heat feature of black holes in a growing/evaporating condensate.

  7. Model problems for gravitationally perturbed black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.H.; Thorne, K.S.; Macdonald, D.A.; Crowley, R.J.; Redmount, I.H.

    1986-01-01

    The membrane formalism is applied to various types of gravitational perturbations of a black hole. Attention is given to the disturbance of the horizon of a black hole by compact masses lowered toward a nonrotating hole and the deformations experienced by a rotating hole. Nonaxisymmetric gravitational tidal fields in rigid motion about a rotating hole are considered, along with the behavior of massive particle moving along the equator of a rotating hole, and the spindown of a rotating hole in an external tidal field. The extraction of rotational energy from a black hole by orbiting bodies is examined, as are superradiant scattering of gravitational waves and the quasi-normal modes of a black hole. The perturbations imparted to a black hole by a compact body plunging into the membrane (a stretched horizon) at a velocity close to the local light speed and by a radially accelerated particle above the horizon of a nonrotating hole are also explored

  8. Dancing around the Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-08-01

    ISAAC Finds "Cool" Young Stellar Systems at the Centres of Active Galaxies Summary Supermassive Black Holes are present at the centres of many galaxies, some weighing hundreds of millions times more than the Sun. These extremely dense objects cannot be observed directly, but violently moving gas clouds and stars in their strong gravitational fields are responsible for the emission of energetic radiation from such "active galaxy nuclei" (AGN) . A heavy Black Hole feeds agressively on its surroundings . When the neighbouring gas and stars finally spiral into the Black Hole, a substantial fraction of the infalling mass is transformed into pure energy. However, it is not yet well understood how, long before this dramatic event takes place, all that material is moved from the outer regions of the galaxy towards the central region. So how is the food for the central Black Hole delivered to the table in the first place? To cast more light on this central question, a team of French and Swiss astronomers [1] has carried out a series of trailblazing observations with the VLT Infrared Spectrometer And Array Camera (ISAAC) on the VLT 8.2-m ANTU telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory. The ISAAC instrument is particularly well suited to this type of observations. Visible light cannot penetrate the thick clouds of dust and gas in the innermost regions of active galaxies, but by recording the infrared light from the stars close to the Black Hole , their motions can be studied. By charting those motions in the central regions of three active galaxies (NGC 1097, NGC 1808 and NGC 5728), the astronomers were able to confirm the presence of "nuclear bars" in all three. These are dynamical structures that "open a road" for the flow of material towards the innermost region. Moreover, the team was surprised to discover signs of a young stellar population near the centres of these galaxies - stars that have apparently formed quite recently in a central gas disk. Such a system is unstable

  9. Black Holes in Our Universe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Current technologies have enabled glimpses at the many facetsof black holes, which we know to be plentiful in our cosmos.A panoramic view of the evidence for them is presented hereacross the large range of masses that they span. Author Affiliations. Prajval Shastri. Resonance – Journal of Science Education.

  10. 'Black holes': escaping the void.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Sharn

    2013-02-01

    The 'black hole' is a metaphor for a reality in the psyche of many individuals who have experienced complex trauma in infancy and early childhood. The 'black hole' has been created by an absence of the object, the (m)other, so there is no internalized object, no (m)other in the psyche. Rather, there is a 'black hole' where the object should be, but the infant is drawn to it, trapped by it because of an intrinsic, instinctive need for a 'real object', an internalized (m)other. Without this, the infant cannot develop. It is only the presence of a real object that can generate the essential gravity necessary to draw the core of the self that is still in an undeveloped state from deep within the abyss. It is the moving towards a real object, a (m)other, that relativizes the absolute power of the black hole and begins a reformation of its essence within the psyche. © 2013, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  11. Stellar dynamics and black holes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stellar dynamics and black holes. DAVID MERRITT. Department of Physics, Rochester Institute of Technology, 78 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester,. NY 14623, USA. E-mail: merritt@astro.rit.edu. Abstract. Chandrasekhar's most important contribution to stellar dynamics was the concept of dynamical friction. I briefly review ...

  12. From Pinholes to Black Holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenimore, Edward E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-10-06

    Pinhole photography has made major contributions to astrophysics through the use of “coded apertures”. Coded apertures were instrumental in locating gamma-ray bursts and proving that they originate in faraway galaxies, some from the birth of black holes from the first stars that formed just after the big bang.

  13. Black Holes and Exotic Spinors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Hoff da Silva

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Exotic spin structures are non-trivial liftings, of the orthogonal bundle to the spin bundle, on orientable manifolds that admit spin structures according to the celebrated Geroch theorem. Exotic spin structures play a role of paramount importance in different areas of physics, from quantum field theory, in particular at Planck length scales, to gravity, and in cosmological scales. Here, we introduce an in-depth panorama in this field, providing black hole physics as the fount of spacetime exoticness. Black holes are then studied as the generators of a non-trivial topology that also can correspond to some inequivalent spin structure. Moreover, we investigate exotic spinor fields in this context and the way exotic spinor fields branch new physics. We also calculate the tunneling probability of exotic fermions across a Kerr-Sen black hole, showing that the exotic term does affect the tunneling probability, altering the black hole evaporation rate. Finally we show that it complies with the Hawking temperature universal law.

  14. Black Hole Macro-Quantumness

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2014-01-01

    It is a common wisdom that properties of macroscopic bodies are well described by (semi)classical physics. As we have suggested this wisdom is not applicable to black holes. Despite being macroscopic, black holes are quantum objects. They represent Bose-Einstein condensates of N-soft gravitons at the quantum critical point, where N Bogoliubov modes become gapless. As a result, physics governing arbitrarily-large black holes (e.g., of galactic size) is a quantum physics of the collective Bogoiliubov modes. This fact introduces a new intrinsically-quantum corrections in form of 1/N, as opposed to exp(-N). These corrections are unaccounted by the usual semiclassical expansion in h and cannot be recast in form of a quantum back-reaction to classical metric. Instead the metric itself becomes an approximate entity. These 1/N corrections abolish the presumed properties of black holes, such as non existence of hair, and are the key to nullifying the so-called information paradox.

  15. Black Holes: A Selected Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraknoi, Andrew

    1991-01-01

    Offers a selected bibliography pertaining to black holes with the following categories: introductory books; introductory articles; somewhat more advanced articles; readings about Einstein's general theory of relativity; books on the death of stars; articles on the death of stars; specific articles about Supernova 1987A; relevant science fiction…

  16. A Black Hole Spectral Signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titarchuk, Lev; Laurent, Philippe

    2000-03-01

    An accreting black hole is, by definition, characterized by the drain. Namely, the matter falls into a black hole much the same way as water disappears down a drain matter goes in and nothing comes out. As this can only happen in a black hole, it provides a way to see ``a black hole'', an unique observational signature. The accretion proceeds almost in a free-fall manner close to the black hole horizon, where the strong gravitational field dominates the pressure forces. In this paper we present analytical calculations and Monte-Carlo simulations of the specific features of X-ray spectra formed as a result of upscattering of the soft (disk) photons in the converging inflow (CI) into the black hole. The full relativistic treatment has been implemented to reproduce these spectra. We show that spectra in the soft state of black hole systems (BHS) can be described as the sum of a thermal (disk) component and the convolution of some fraction of this component with the CI upscattering spread (Greens) function. The latter boosted photon component is seen as an extended power-law at energies much higher than the characteristic energy of the soft photons. We demonstrate the stability of the power spectral index over a wide range of the plasma temperature 0 - 10 keV and mass accretion rates (higher than 2 in Eddington units). We also demonstrate that the sharp high energy cutoff occurs at energies of 200-400 keV which are related to the average energy of electrons mec2 impinging upon the event horizon. The spectrum is practically identical to the standard thermal Comptonization spectrum when the CI plasma temperature is getting of order of 50 keV (the typical ones for the hard state of BHS). In this case one can see the effect of the bulk motion only at high energies where there is an excess in the CI spectrum with respect to the pure thermal one. Furthermore we demonstrate that the change of spectral shapes from the soft X-ray state to the hard X-ray state is clearly to be

  17. Bosonic instability of charged black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaina, A.B.; Ternov, I.M.

    1986-01-01

    The processes of spontaneous and induced production and accumulation of charged bosons on quasibound superradiant levels in the field of Kerr-Newman black hole is analysed. It is shown that bosonic instability may be caused exclusively by the rotation of the black hole. Particulary, the Reissner-Nordstrom configuration is stable. In the case of rotating and charged black hole the bosonic instability may cause an increase of charge of the black hole

  18. Black hole holography and mean field evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, David A.; Thorlacius, Larus

    2018-01-01

    Holographic theories representing black holes are expected to exhibit quantum chaos. We argue if the laws of quantum mechanics are expected to hold for observers inside such black holes, then such holographic theories must have a mean field approximation valid for typical black hole states, and for timescales approaching the scrambling time. Using simple spin models as examples, we examine the predictions of such an approach for observers inside black holes, and more speculatively inside cosmological horizons.

  19. Black holes and traversible wormholes: a synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Hayward, Sean A.

    2002-01-01

    A unified framework for black holes and traversible wormholes is described, where both are locally defined by outer trapping horizons, two-way traversible for wormholes and one-way traversible for black or white holes. In a two-dimensional dilaton gravity model, examples are given of: construction of wormholes from black holes; operation of wormholes for transport, including back-reaction; maintenance of an operating wormhole; and collapse of wormholes to black holes. In spherically symmetric...

  20. Will black holes eventually engulf the Universe?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin-Moruno, Prado; Jimenez Madrid, Jose A.; Gonzalez-Diaz, Pedro F.

    2006-01-01

    The Babichev-Dokuchaev-Eroshenko model for the accretion of dark energy onto black holes has been extended to deal with black holes with non-static metrics. The possibility that for an asymptotic observer a black hole with large mass will rapidly increase and eventually engulf the Universe at a finite time in the future has been studied by using reasonable values for astronomical parameters. It is concluded that such a phenomenon is forbidden for all black holes in quintessential cosmological models

  1. Building blocks of a black hole

    OpenAIRE

    Bekenstein, Jacob D.; Gour, Gilad

    2002-01-01

    What is the nature of the energy spectrum of a black hole ? The algebraic approach to black hole quantization requires the horizon area eigenvalues to be equally spaced. As stressed long ago by by Mukhanov, such eigenvalues must be exponentially degenerate with respect to the area quantum number if one is to understand black hole entropy as reflecting degeneracy of the observable states. Here we construct the black hole states by means of a pair of "creation operators" subject to a particular...

  2. How the Hawking radiation affect quantum Fisher information of Dirac particles in the background of a Schwarzschild black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, ChunYu; Ma, Wen-chao; Wang, Dong; Ye, Liu

    2018-01-01

    In this work, the effect of Hawking radiation on the quantum Fisher information (QFI) of Dirac particles is investigated in the background of a Schwarzschild black hole. Interestingly, it has been verified that the QFI with respect to the weight parameter θ of a target state is always independent of the Hawking temperature T. This implies that if we encode the information on the weight parameter, then we can affirm that the corresponding accuracy of the parameter estimation will be immune to the Hawking effect. Besides, it reveals that the QFI with respect to the phase parameter φ exhibits a decay behavior with the increase in the Hawking temperature T and converges to a nonzero value in the limit of infinite Hawking temperature T. Remarkably, it turns out that the function F_φ on θ =π \\big /4 symmetry was broken by the influence of the Hawking radiation. Finally, we generalize the case of a three-qubit system to a case of a N-qubit system, i.e., |ψ > _{1,2,3,\\ldots ,N} =(cos θ | 0 > ^{⊗ N}+sin θ e^{iφ }| 1 > ^{⊗ N}) and obtain an interesting result: the number of particles in the initial state does not affect the QFI F_θ , nor the QFI F_φ . However, with the increasing number of particles located near the event horizon, F_φ will be affected by Hawking radiation to a large extent, while F_θ is still free from disturbance resulting from the Hawking effects.

  3. Black holes, bandwidths and Beethoven

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempf, Achim

    2000-04-01

    It is usually believed that a function φ(t) whose Fourier spectrum is bounded can vary at most as fast as its highest frequency component ωmax. This is, in fact, not the case, as Aharonov, Berry, and others drastically demonstrated with explicit counterexamples, so-called superoscillations. It has been claimed that even the recording of an entire Beethoven symphony can occur as part of a signal with a 1 Hz bandwidth. Bandlimited functions also occur as ultraviolet regularized fields. Their superoscillations have been suggested, for example, to resolve the trans-Planckian frequencies problem of black hole radiation. Here, we give an exact proof for generic superoscillations. Namely, we show that for every fixed bandwidth there exist functions that pass through any finite number of arbitrarily prespecified points. Further, we show that, in spite of the presence of superoscillations, the behavior of bandlimited functions can be characterized reliably, namely through an uncertainty relation: The standard deviation ΔT of samples φ(tn) taken at the Nyquist rate obeys ΔT>=1/4ωmax. This uncertainty relation generalizes to variable bandwidths. For ultraviolet regularized fields we identify the bandwidth as the in general spatially variable finite local density of degrees of freedom.

  4. Formation and evaporation of nonsingular black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Sean A

    2006-01-27

    Regular (nonsingular) space-times are given that describe the formation of a (locally defined) black hole from an initial vacuum region, its quiescence as a static region, and its subsequent evaporation to a vacuum region. The static region is Bardeen-like, supported by finite density and pressures, vanishing rapidly at large radius and behaving as a cosmological constant at small radius. The dynamic regions are Vaidya-like, with ingoing radiation of positive-energy flux during collapse and negative-energy flux during evaporation, the latter balanced by outgoing radiation of positive-energy flux and a surface pressure at a pair creation surface. The black hole consists of a compact space-time region of trapped surfaces, with inner and outer boundaries that join circularly as a single smooth trapping horizon.

  5. Black holes as parts of entangled systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basini, G.; Capozziello, S.; Longo, G.

    A possible link between EPR-type quantum phenomena and astrophysical objects like black holes, under a new general definition of entanglement, is established. A new approach, involving backward time evolution and topology changes, is presented bringing to a definition of the system black hole-worm hole-white hole as an entangled system.

  6. On black holes and gravitational waves

    CERN Document Server

    Loinger, Angelo

    2002-01-01

    Black holes and gravitational waves are theoretical entities of today astrophysics. Various observed phenomena have been associated with the concept of black hole ; until now, nobody has detected gravitational waves. The essays contained in this book aim at showing that the concept of black holes arises from a misinterpretation of general relativity and that gravitational waves cannot exist.

  7. Compensating Scientism through "The Black Hole."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Lane

    The focal image of the film "The Black Hole" functions as a visual metaphor for the sacred, order, unity, and eternal time. The black hole is a symbol that unites the antinomic pairs of conscious/unconscious, water/fire, immersion/emersion, death/rebirth, and hell/heaven. The black hole is further associated with the quest for…

  8. Area spectra of near extremal black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Deyou; Yang, Haitang; Zu, Xiaotao

    2010-01-01

    Motivated by Maggiore's new interpretation of quasinormal modes, we investigate area spectra of a near extremal Schwarzschild-de Sitter black hole and a higher-dimensional near extremal Reissner-Nordstrom-de Sitter black hole. The result shows that the area spectra are equally spaced and irrelevant to the parameters of the black holes. (orig.)

  9. Extremal black holes in N=2 supergravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katmadas, S.

    2011-01-01

    An explanation for the entropy of black holes has been an outstanding problem in recent decades. A special case where this is possible is that of extremal black holes in N=2 supergravity in four and five dimensions. The best developed case is for black holes preserving some supersymmetry (BPS),

  10. On Quantum Contributions to Black Hole Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaans, M.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of Wheeler’s quantum foam on black hole growth are explored from an astrophysical per- spective. Quantum fluctuations in the form of mini (10−5 g) black holes can couple to macroscopic black holes and allow the latter to grow exponentially in mass on a time scale of 109 years.

  11. Black Hole Monodromy and Conformal Field Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro, A.; Lapan, J.M.; Maloney, A.; Rodriguez, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    The analytic structure of solutions to the Klein-Gordon equation in a black hole background, as represented by monodromy data, is intimately related to black hole thermodynamics. It encodes the "hidden conformal symmetry" of a nonextremal black hole, and it explains why features of the inner event

  12. Black holes under external influence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In particular we pay attention to the effect of the expulsion of the flux of external fields across charged and rotating black holes which are approaching extremal states. Recently this effect has been shown to occur for black hole solutions in string theory. We also discuss black holes surrounded by rings and disks and rotating ...

  13. The fuzzball proposal for black holes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skenderis, K.; Taylor, M.

    2008-01-01

    The fuzzball proposal states that associated with a black hole of entropy S, there are expS horizon-free non-singular solutions that asymptotically look like the black hole but generically differ from the black hole up to the horizon scale. These solutions, the fuzzballs, are considered to be the

  14. Shapes and Positions of Black Hole Shadows in Accretion Disks and Spin Parameters of Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Rohta

    2004-01-01

    Can we determine a spin parameter of a black hole by observation of a black hole shadow in an accretion disk? In order to answer this question, we make a qualitative analysis and a quantitative analysis of a shape and a position of a black hole shadow casted by a rotating black hole on an optically thick accretion disk and its dependence on an angular momentum of a black hole. We have found black hole shadows with a quite similar size and a shape for largely different black hole spin paramete...

  15. Learning about Black-Hole Formation from Gravitational Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesden, Michael H.

    2017-01-01

    The first observing run of the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) discovered gravitational waves from two binary black-hole mergers. Although astrophysical black holes are simple objects fully characterized by their masses and spins, key features of binary black-hole formation such as mass transfer, natal kicks, and common-envelope evolution can misalign black-hole spins with the orbital angular momentum of the binary. These misaligned spins will precess as gravitational-wave emission causes the black holes to inspiral to separations at which the waves are detectable by observatories like LIGO. Spin precession modulates the amplitude and frequency of the gravitational waves observed by LIGO, allowing it to not only test general relativity but also reveal the secrets of black-hole formation. This talk will briefly describe those elements of binary black-hole formation responsible for initial spin misalignments, how spin precession and radiation reaction in general relativity determine how spins evolve from formation until the black holes enter LIGO’s sensitivity band, and how spin-induced gravitational-wave modulation in band can be used as a diagnostic of black-hole formation.

  16. Black holes, qubits and octonions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borsten, L. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: leron.borsten@imperial.ac.uk; Dahanayake, D. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: duminda.dahanayake@imperial.ac.uk; Duff, M.J. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: m.duff@imperial.ac.uk; Ebrahim, H. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Theory Group, Martin Fisher School of Physics, Brandeis University, MS057, 415 South Street, Waltham, MA 02454 (United States)], E-mail: hebrahim@brandeis.edu; Rubens, W. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: william.rubens06@imperial.ac.uk

    2009-02-15

    We review the recently established relationships between black hole entropy in string theory and the quantum entanglement of qubits and qutrits in quantum information theory. The first example is provided by the measure of the tripartite entanglement of three qubits (Alice, Bob and Charlie), known as the 3-tangle, and the entropy of the 8-charge STU black hole of N=2 supergravity, both of which are given by the [SL(2)]{sup 3} invariant hyperdeterminant, a quantity first introduced by Cayley in 1845. Moreover the classification of three-qubit entanglements is related to the classification of N=2 supersymmetric STU black holes. There are further relationships between the attractor mechanism and local distillation protocols and between supersymmetry and the suppression of bit flip errors. At the microscopic level, the black holes are described by intersecting D3-branes whose wrapping around the six compact dimensions T{sup 6} provides the string-theoretic interpretation of the charges and we associate the three-qubit basis vectors, |ABC>(A,B,C=0 or 1), with the corresponding 8 wrapping cycles. The black hole/qubit correspondence extends to the 56 charge N=8 black holes and the tripartite entanglement of seven qubits where the measure is provided by Cartan's E{sub 7} contains [SL(2)]{sup 7} invariant. The qubits are naturally described by the seven vertices ABCDEFG of the Fano plane, which provides the multiplication table of the seven imaginary octonions, reflecting the fact that E{sub 7} has a natural structure of an O-graded algebra. This in turn provides a novel imaginary octonionic interpretation of the 56=7x8 charges of N=8: the 24=3x8 NS-NS charges correspond to the three imaginary quaternions and the 32=4x8 R-R to the four complementary imaginary octonions. We contrast this approach with that based on Jordan algebras and the Freudenthal triple system. N=8 black holes (or black strings) in five dimensions are also related to the bipartite entanglement of

  17. Phase transition for black holes with scalar hair and topological black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myung, Yun Soo

    2008-01-01

    We study phase transitions between black holes with scalar hair and topological black holes in asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetimes. As the ground state solutions, we introduce the non-rotating BTZ black hole in three dimensions and topological black hole with hyperbolic horizon in four dimensions. For the temperature matching only, we show that the phase transition between black hole with scalar hair (Martinez-Troncoso-Zanelli black hole) and topological black hole is second-order by using differences between two free energies. However, we do not identify what order of the phase transition between scalar and non-rotating BTZ black holes occurs in three dimensions, although there exists a possible decay of scalar black hole to non-rotating BTZ black hole

  18. Black hole feedback on the first galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Myoungwon; Pawlik, Andreas H.; Greif, Thomas H.; Glover, Simon C. O.; Bromm, Volker; Milosavljević, Miloš; Klessen, Ralf S.

    2012-09-01

    We study how the first galaxies were assembled under feedback from the accretion onto a central black hole (BH) that is left behind by the first generation of metal-free stars through selfconsistent, cosmological simulations. X-ray radiation fromthe accretion of gas onto BH remnants of Population III (Pop III) stars, or from high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs), again involving Pop III stars, influences the mode of second generation star formation. We track the evolution of the black hole accretion rate and the associated X-ray feedback startingwith the death of the Pop III progenitor star inside a minihalo and following the subsequent evolution of the black hole as the minihalo grows to become an atomically cooling galaxy. We find that X-ray photoionization heating from a stellar-mass BH is able to quench further star formation in the host halo at all times before the halo enters the atomic cooling phase. X-ray radiation from a HMXB, assuming a luminosity close to the Eddington value, exerts an even stronger, and more diverse, feedback on star formation. It photoheats the gas inside the host halo, but also promotes the formation of molecular hydrogen and cooling of gas in the intergalactic medium and in nearby minihalos, leading to a net increase in the number of stars formed at early times. Our simulations further show that the radiative feedback from the first BHs may strongly suppress early BH growth, thus constraining models for the formation of supermassive BHs.

  19. Chandra Catches "Piranha" Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Supermassive black holes have been discovered to grow more rapidly in young galaxy clusters, according to new results from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. These "fast-track" supermassive black holes can have a big influence on the galaxies and clusters that they live in. Using Chandra, scientists surveyed a sample of clusters and counted the fraction of galaxies with rapidly growing supermassive black holes, known as active galactic nuclei (or AGN). The data show, for the first time, that younger, more distant galaxy clusters contained far more AGN than older, nearby ones. Galaxy clusters are some of the largest structures in the Universe, consisting of many individual galaxies, a few of which contain AGN. Earlier in the history of the universe, these galaxies contained a lot more gas for star formation and black hole growth than galaxies in clusters do today. This fuel allows the young cluster black holes to grow much more rapidly than their counterparts in nearby clusters. Illustration of Active Galactic Nucleus Illustration of Active Galactic Nucleus "The black holes in these early clusters are like piranha in a very well-fed aquarium," said Jason Eastman of Ohio State University (OSU) and first author of this study. "It's not that they beat out each other for food, rather there was so much that all of the piranha were able to really thrive and grow quickly." The team used Chandra to determine the fraction of AGN in four different galaxy clusters at large distances, when the Universe was about 58% of its current age. Then they compared this value to the fraction found in more nearby clusters, those about 82% of the Universe's current age. The result was the more distant clusters contained about 20 times more AGN than the less distant sample. AGN outside clusters are also more common when the Universe is younger, but only by factors of two or three over the same age span. "It's been predicted that there would be fast-track black holes in clusters, but we never

  20. Capture of particles from plunge orbits by a black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, P.J.

    1976-01-01

    Photon and ''parabolic'' particle orbits around a Kerr-Newman black hole are considered, both for uncharged particles moving along geodesics and for charged particles under the influence of the Lorentz force (neglecting radiative processes). Investigation of the radial equation of motion gives conditions under which a photon or particle is captured from a ''plunge'' orbit when incident from a large distance; the cross sections and accreted angular momenta are calculated for various fluxes of particles incident on the black hole. For example, the cross section of an extreme Kerr (a = 1) black hole to an isotropic flux of particles is 0.90 of that for a Schwarzschild hole, and the accreted angular momentum per unit mass of swallowed flux is -0.828 leading to rapid spin-down of the hole. The periastra of ''escape'' orbits are considered, and also the minimum periastron corresponding to the unstable spherical orbit that divides plunge and escape orbits. The evolution of the spin and charge of a black hole accreting particles and photons is discussed, including that of primordial black holes. It is shown that such black holes may be of the Schwarzschild type having spun-down due to consumption of radiation and particles at early times and subsequent neutralization in an ionized intergalactic medium. The statistics of proton and electron capture by the smallest surviving primordial black holes, M = 10 15 g, suggests that they are most likely to be found possessing a single quantum of positive charge

  1. Bounding the greybody factors for the Reissner-Nordström black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngampitipan, Tritos; Boonserm, Petarpa

    2013-01-01

    A black hole can emit radiation called Hawking radiation. Such radiation seen by an observer outside the black hole differs from the original radiation near the horizon of the black hole by the so-called g reybody factor . In this paper, the bounds of the greybody factors for the Reissner-Nordström black holes are obtained. These bounds can be derived by using the 2 × 2 transfer matrices. It is found that the charges of black holes act as good barriers.

  2. Tensor network models of unitary black hole evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leutheusser, Samuel; Van Raamsdonk, Mark

    2017-08-01

    We introduce a general class of toy models to study the quantum information-theoretic properties of black hole radiation. The models are governed by a set of isometries that specify how microstates of the black hole at a given energy evolve to entangled states of a tensor product black-hole/radiation Hilbert space. The final state of the black hole radiation is conveniently summarized by a tensor network built from these isometries. We introduce a set of quantities generalizing the Renyi entropies that provide a complete set of bipartite/multipartite entanglement measures, and give a general formula for the average of these over initial black hole states in terms of the isometries defining the model. For models where the dimension of the final tensor product radiation Hilbert space is the same as that of the space of initial black hole microstates, the entanglement structure is universal, independent of the choice of isometries. In the more general case, we find that models which best capture the "information-free" property of black hole horizons are those whose isometries are tensors corresponding to states of tripartite systems with maximally mixed subsystems.

  3. Dyonic black hole in heterotic string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jatkar, D.P.; Mukherji, S.

    1997-01-01

    We study some features of the dyonic black hole solution in heterotic string theory on a six-torus. This solution has 58 parameters. Of these, 28 parameters denote the electric charge of the black hole, another 28 correspond to the magnetic charge, and the other two parameters are the mass and the angular momentum of the black hole. We discuss the extremal limit and show that in various limits it reduces to the known black hole solutions. The solutions saturating the Bogomolnyi bound are identified. An explicit solution is presented for the non-rotating dyonic black hole. (orig.)

  4. Black-hole creation in quantum cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong Chao, Wu [Rome, Univ. `La Sapienza` (Italy). International Center for Relativistic Astrophysics]|[Specola Vaticana, Vatican City State (Vatican City State, Holy See)

    1997-11-01

    It is proven that the probability of a black hole created from the de Sitter space-time background, at the Wkb level, is the exponential of one quarter of the sum of the black hole and cosmological horizon areas, or the total entropy of the universe. This is true not only for the spherically symmetric cases of the Schwarzschild or Reissner-Nordstroem black holes, but also for the rotating cases of the Kerr black hole and the rotating charged case of the Newman black hole. The de Sitter metric is the most probable evolution at the Planckian era of the universe.

  5. Black hole entropy and quantum information

    CERN Document Server

    Duff, M J

    2006-01-01

    We review some recently established connections between the mathematics of black hole entropy in string theory and that of multipartite entanglement in quantum information theory. In the case of N=2 black holes and the entanglement of three qubits, the quartic [SL(2)]^3 invariant, Cayley's hyperdeterminant, provides both the black hole entropy and the measure of tripartite entanglement. In the case of N=8 black holes and the entanglement of seven qubits, the quartic E_7 invariant of Cartan provides both the black hole entropy and the measure of a particular tripartite entanglement encoded in the Fano plane.

  6. Eternal and Evanescent Black Holes: It's All Done With Mirrors

    OpenAIRE

    Good, Michael R. R.; Linder, Eric V.

    2017-01-01

    The analogy between black hole radiation and accelerating mirror radiation (the dynamical Casimir effect) is particularly strong for mirror trajectories giving rise to a constant thermal flux of particles. We present new ways to achieve such thermal plateaus, and customize their finite, semi-infinite, and eternal presence, corresponding to forming/collapsing, complete-evaporation/remnants, and eternal black holes. We find simple expressions for the energy flux in terms of the mirror rapidity ...

  7. Quasar Formation and Energy Emission in Black Hole Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang T. X.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Formation and energy emission of quasars are investigated in accord with the black hole universe, a new cosmological model recently developed by Zhang. According to this new cosmological model, the universe originated from a star-like black hole and grew through a supermassive black hole to the present universe by accreting ambient matter and merging with other black holes. The origin, structure, evolution, expansion, and cosmic microwave background radiation of the black hole universe have been fully ex- plained in Paper I and II. This study as Paper III explains how a quasar forms, ignites and releases energy as an amount of that emitted by dozens of galaxies. A main sequence star, after its fuel supply runs out, will, in terms of its mass, form a dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole. A normal galaxy, after its most stars have run out of their fuels and formed dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes, will eventually shrink its size and collapse towards the center by gravity to form a supermassive black hole with billions of solar masses. This collapse leads to that extremely hot stellar black holes merge each other and further into the massive black hole at the center and meantime release a huge amount of radiation energy that can be as great as that of a quasar. Therefore, when the stellar black holes of a galaxy collapse and merge into a supermassive black hole, the galaxy is activated and a quasar is born. In the black hole universe, the observed dis- tant quasars powered by supermassive black holes can be understood as donuts from the mother universe. They were actually formed in the mother universe and then swallowed into our universe. The nearby galaxies are still very young and thus quiet at the present time. They will be activated and further evolve into quasars after billions of years. At that time, they will enter the universe formed by the currently observed distant quasars as similar to the distant quasars entered our universe

  8. Black Holes Shed Light on Galaxy Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This videotape is comprised of several segments of animations on black holes and galaxy formation, and several segments of an interview with Dr. John Kormendy. The animation segments are: (1) a super massive black hole, (2) Centarus A active black hole found in a collision, (3) galaxy NGC-4261 (active black hole and jet model), (4) galaxy M-32 (orbits of stars are effected by the gravity of the black hole), (5) galaxy M-37 (motion of stars increases as mass of black hole increases), (6) Birth of active galactic nuclei, (7) the collision of two galaxy leads to merger of the black holes, (8) Centarus A and simulation of the collision of 2 galaxies. There are also several segments of an interview with John Kormendy. In these segments he discusses the two most important aspects of his recent black hole work: (1) the correlations between galaxies speed and the mass of the black holes, and (2) the existence of black holes and galactic formation. He also discusses the importance of the Hubble Space Telescope and the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph to the study of black holes. He also shows the methodology of processing images from the spectrograph in his office.

  9. The stable problem of the black-hole connected region in the Schwarzschild black hole

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Guihua

    2005-01-01

    The stability of the Schwarzschild black hole is studied. Using the Painlev\\'{e} coordinate, our region can be defined as the black-hole-connected region(r>2m, see text) of the Schwarzschild black hole or the white-hole-connected region(r>2m, see text) of the Schwarzschild black hole. We study the stable problems of the black-hole-connected region. The conclusions are: (1) in the black-hole-connected region, the initially regular perturbation fields must have real frequency or complex frequen...

  10. Slow relaxation of rapidly rotating black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hod, Shahar

    2008-01-01

    We study analytically the relaxation phase of perturbed, rapidly rotating black holes. In particular, we derive a simple formula for the fundamental quasinormal resonances of near-extremal Kerr black holes. The formula is expressed in terms of the black hole physical parameters: ω=mΩ-i2πT BH (n+(1/2)), where T BH and Ω are the temperature and angular velocity of the black hole, and m is the azimuthal harmonic index of a corotating equatorial mode. This formula implies that the relaxation period τ∼1/ω of the black hole becomes extremely long as the extremal limit T BH →0 is approached. The analytically derived formula is shown to agree with direct numerical computations of the black hole resonances. We use our results to demonstrate analytically the fact that near-extremal Kerr black holes saturate the recently proposed universal relaxation bound.

  11. From Black Holes to Quivers

    CERN Document Server

    Manschot, Jan; Sen, Ashoke

    2012-01-01

    Middle cohomology states on the Higgs branch of supersymmetric quiver quantum mechanics - also known as pure Higgs states - have recently emerged as possible microscopic candidates for single-centered black hole micro-states, as they carry zero angular momentum and appear to be robust under wall-crossing. Using the connection between quiver quantum mechanics on the Coulomb branch and the quantum mechanics of multi-centered black holes, we propose a general algorithm for reconstructing the full moduli-dependent cohomology of the moduli space of an arbitrary quiver, in terms of the BPS invariants of the pure Higgs states. We analyze many examples of quivers with loops, including all cyclic Abelian quivers and several examples with two loops or non-Abelian gauge groups, and provide supporting evidence for this proposal. We also develop methods to count pure Higgs states directly.

  12. Black holes in magnetic monopoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kimyeong; Nair, V. P.; Weinberg, Erick J.

    1991-01-01

    We study magnetically charged classical solutions of a spontaneously broken gauge theory interacting with gravity. We show that nonsingular monopole solutions exist only if the Higgs field vacuum expectation value v is less than or equal to a critical value v sub cr, which is of the order of the Planck mass. In the limiting case, the monopole becomes a black hole, with the region outside the horizon described by the critical Reissner-Nordstrom solution. For v less than v sub cr, we find additional solutions which are singular at f = 0, but which have this singularity hidden within a horizon. These have nontrivial matter fields outside the horizon, and may be interpreted as small black holes lying within a magnetic monopole. The nature of these solutions as a function of v and of the total mass M and their relation to the Reissner-Nordstrom solutions is discussed.

  13. Accelerating and rotating black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, J B; Podolsky, J

    2005-01-01

    An exact solution of Einstein's equations which represents a pair of accelerating and rotating black holes (a generalized form of the spinning C-metric) is presented. The starting point is a form of the Plebanski-Demianski metric which, in addition to the usual parameters, explicitly includes parameters which describe the acceleration and angular velocity of the sources. This is transformed to a form which explicitly contains the known special cases for either rotating or accelerating black holes. Electromagnetic charges and a NUT parameter are included, the relation between the NUT parameter l and the Plebanski-Demianski parameter n is given, and the physical meaning of all parameters is clarified. The possibility of finding an accelerating NUT solution is also discussed

  14. Dance of Two Monster Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-03-01

    This past December, researchers all over the world watched an outburst from the enormous black hole in OJ 287 an outburst that had been predicted years ago using the general theory of relativity.Outbursts from Black-Hole OrbitsOJ 287 is one of the largest supermassive black holes known, weighing in at 18 billion solar masses. Located about 3.5 billion light-years away, this monster quasar is bright enough that it was first observed as early as the 1890s. What makes OJ 287 especially interesting, however, is that its light curve exhibits prominent outbursts roughly every 12 years.Diagram illustrating the orbit of the secondary black hole (shown in blue) in OJ 287 from 2000 to 2023. We see outbursts (the yellow bubbles) every time the secondary black hole crosses the accretion disk (shown in red, ina side view) surrounding the primary (the black circle). [Valtonen et al. 2016]What causes the outbursts? Astronomers think that there is a second supermassive black hole, ~100 times smaller, inspiraling as it orbits the central monster and set to merge within the next 10,000 years. In this model, the primary black hole of OJ 287 is surrounded by a hot accretion disk. As the secondary black hole orbits the primary, it regularly punches through this accretion disk, heating the material and causing the release of expanding bubbles of hot gas pulled from the disk. This gas then radiates thermally, causing the outbursts we see.Attempts to model this scenario using Newtonian orbits all fail; the timing of the secondary black holes crossings through the accretion disk (as measured by when we see the outbursts) can only be explained by a model incorporating general-relativistic effects on the orbit. Careful observations and precise timing of these outbursts therefore provide an excellent test of general relativity.Watching a Predicted CrossingThe model of OJ 287 predicted another disk crossing in December 2015, so professional and amateur astronomers around the world readied more

  15. A black-hole cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debney, G.; Farnsworth, D.

    1983-01-01

    Motivated by the fact that 2m/r is of the order of magnitude unity for the observable universe, we explore the possibility that a Schwarzschild or black hole cosmological model is appropriate. Luminosity distance and frequency shifts of freely-falling, standard, monochromatic objects are viewed by a freely-falling observer. The observer is inside r=2m. The observer in such a world does not see the same universe as do astronomers. (author)

  16. Gravitating discs around black holes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karas, Vladimír; Huré, J.-M.; Semerák, O.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 7 (2004), R1-R5 ISSN 0264-9381 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/03/0902; GA AV ČR KSK1048102 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : black holes * accretion discs * general relativity Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 2.941, year: 2004

  17. Van der Waals black hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna Rajagopal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the context of extended phase space, where the negative cosmological constant is treated as a thermodynamic pressure in the first law of black hole thermodynamics, we find an asymptotically AdS metric whose thermodynamics matches exactly that of the Van der Waals fluid. We show that as a solution of Einstein's equations, the corresponding stress energy tensor obeys (at least for certain range of metric parameters all three weak, strong, and dominant energy conditions.

  18. Soft Hair on Black Holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawking, Stephen W; Perry, Malcolm J; Strominger, Andrew

    2016-06-10

    It has recently been shown that Bondi-van der Burg-Metzner-Sachs supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft (i.e., zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This Letter gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that complete information about their quantum state is stored on a holographic plate at the future boundary of the horizon. Charge conservation is used to give an infinite number of exact relations between the evaporation products of black holes which have different soft hair but are otherwise identical. It is further argued that soft hair which is spatially localized to much less than a Planck length cannot be excited in a physically realizable process, giving an effective number of soft degrees of freedom proportional to the horizon area in Planck units.

  19. Entanglement Entropy of Black Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey N. Solodukhin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The entanglement entropy is a fundamental quantity, which characterizes the correlations between sub-systems in a larger quantum-mechanical system. For two sub-systems separated by a surface the entanglement entropy is proportional to the area of the surface and depends on the UV cutoff, which regulates the short-distance correlations. The geometrical nature of entanglement-entropy calculation is particularly intriguing when applied to black holes when the entangling surface is the black-hole horizon. I review a variety of aspects of this calculation: the useful mathematical tools such as the geometry of spaces with conical singularities and the heat kernel method, the UV divergences in the entropy and their renormalization, the logarithmic terms in the entanglement entropy in four and six dimensions and their relation to the conformal anomalies. The focus in the review is on the systematic use of the conical singularity method. The relations to other known approaches such as ’t Hooft’s brick-wall model and the Euclidean path integral in the optical metric are discussed in detail. The puzzling behavior of the entanglement entropy due to fields, which non-minimally couple to gravity, is emphasized. The holographic description of the entanglement entropy of the black-hole horizon is illustrated on the two- and four-dimensional examples. Finally, I examine the possibility to interpret the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy entirely as the entanglement entropy.

  20. Glory scattering by black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matzner, R.A.; DeWitte-Morette, C.; Nelson, B.; Zhang, T.

    1985-01-01

    We present a physically motivated derivation of the JWKB backward glory-scattering cross section of massless waves by Schwarzschild black holes. The angular dependence of the cross section is identical with the one derived by path integration, namely, dsigma/dΩ = 4π 2 lambda -1 B/sub g/ 2 (dB mWπ, where lambda is the wavelength, B(theta) is the inverse of the classical deflection function CTHETA(B), B/sub g/ is the glory impact parameter, s is the helicity of the scattered wave, and J/sub 2s/ is the Bessel function of order 2s. The glory rings formed by scalar waves are bright at the center; those formed by polarized waves are dark at the center. For scattering of massless particles by a spherical black hole of mass M, B(theta)/Mapprox.3 √3 + 3.48 exp(-theta), theta > owigπ. The numerical values of dsigma/dΩ for this deflection function are found to agree with earlier computer calculations of glory cross sections from black holes

  1. Black Hole Kicks as New Gravitational Wave Observables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerosa, Davide; Moore, Christopher J

    2016-07-01

    Generic black hole binaries radiate gravitational waves anisotropically, imparting a recoil, or kick, velocity to the merger remnant. If a component of the kick along the line of sight is present, gravitational waves emitted during the final orbits and merger will be gradually Doppler shifted as the kick builds up. We develop a simple prescription to capture this effect in existing waveform models, showing that future gravitational wave experiments will be able to perform direct measurements, not only of the black hole kick velocity, but also of its accumulation profile. In particular, the eLISA space mission will measure supermassive black hole kick velocities as low as ∼500  km s^{-1}, which are expected to be a common outcome of black hole binary coalescence following galaxy mergers. Black hole kicks thus constitute a promising new observable in the growing field of gravitational wave astronomy.

  2. Black holes and structure in an oscillating universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saslaw, W.C.

    1991-01-01

    If black holes exist in the contracting phase of a closed universe, they will give rise to a pressure and entropy catastrophe. First, the black holes absorb all the radiation; then their apparent horizons merge, and coalesce with the cosmological apparent horizon. All external observers become internal observers. It is possible that the internal metric of some of the merging black holes will be contracting, and others expanding. I suggest here that the resulting violent inhomogeneities can lead to a re-expansion in a significant portion of the universe. Global re-expansion, prompted by the merging of black holes, may thus begin in a semi-classical rather than fully quantum gravitational era, at densities greater than those at which nucleosynthesis occurs. Surviving black holes and inhomogeneities could initiate the formation of structures such as galaxies in the 'new' universe. The behaviour of such an oscillating universe would differ in detail from cycle to cycle. (author)

  3. Thermal stability of charged rotating quantum black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Aloke Kumar; Majumdar, Parthasarathi

    2017-12-01

    Criteria for thermal stability of charged rotating black holes of any dimension are derived for horizon areas that are large relative to the Planck area (in these dimensions). The derivation is based on generic assumptions of quantum geometry, supported by some results of loop quantum gravity, and equilibrium statistical mechanics of the Grand Canonical ensemble. There is no explicit use of classical spacetime geometry in this analysis. The only assumption is that the mass of the black hole is a function of its horizon area, charge and angular momentum. Our stability criteria are then tested in detail against specific classical black holes in spacetime dimensions 4 and 5, whose metrics provide us with explicit relations for the dependence of the mass on the charge and angular momentum of the black holes. This enables us to predict which of these black holes are expected to be thermally unstable under Hawking radiation.

  4. Thermodynamic phase transition of a black hole in rainbow gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-Wen Feng

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this letter, using the rainbow functions that were proposed by Magueijo and Smolin, we investigate the thermodynamics and the phase transition of rainbow Schwarzschild black hole. First, we calculate the rainbow gravity corrected Hawking temperature. From this modification, we then derive the local temperature, free energy, and other thermodynamic quantities in an isothermal cavity. Finally, we analyze the critical behavior, thermodynamic stability, and phase transition of the rainbow Schwarzschild black hole. The results show that the rainbow gravity can stop the Hawking radiation in the final stages of black holes' evolution and lead to the remnants of black holes. Furthermore, one can observe that the rainbow Schwarzschild black hole has one first-order phase transition, two second-order phase transitions, and three Hawking–Page-type phase transitions in the framework of rainbow gravity theory.

  5. Primordial black hole evolution in two-fluid cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, E. M.; Vieyro, F. L.; Romero, G. E.

    2018-02-01

    Several processes in the early Universe might lead to the formation of primordial black holes with different masses. These black holes would interact with the cosmic plasma through accretion and emission processes. Such interactions might have affected the dynamics of the Universe and generated a considerable amount of entropy. In this paper, we investigate the effects of the presence of primordial black holes on the evolution of the early Universe. We adopt a two-fluid cosmological model with radiation and a primordial black hole gas. The latter is modelled with different initial mass functions taking into account the available constraints over the initial primordial black hole abundances. We find that certain populations with narrow initial mass functions are capable to produce significant changes in the scalefactor and the entropy.

  6. Black Holes, the Brightest Objects in the Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKinney, Jonathan (Stanford University)

    2009-04-28

    Black holes are everywhere in the Universe. They form when massive stars end their life in a simultaneous violent collapse and energetic explosion. Galaxies end up littered with small black holes, each roughly the mass of ten Suns. Nearly every galaxy center ends up with a single huge black hole, with the mass of a million to a billion Suns. During their lifetimes, black holes chew up their surroundings and spew out ultra-energetic beams of radiation and matter that are visible from across the Universe. In this lecture, I will discuss how black holes form, outline how we detect them, and show movies that illustrate how they work according to Einstein and state-of-the-art computer simulations. We will see that these blackest of all objects in the Universe actually shine the brightest.

  7. SHRINKING THE BRANEWORLD: BLACK HOLE IN A GLOBULAR CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnedin, Oleg Y.; Maccarone, Thomas J.; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Zepf, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    Large extra dimensions have been proposed as a possible solution to the hierarchy problem in physics. In one of the suggested models, the RS2 braneworld model, black holes may evaporate by Hawking radiation faster than in general relativity, on a timescale that depends on the black hole mass and on the asymptotic radius of curvature of the extra dimensions. Thus the size of the extra dimensions can be constrained by astrophysical observations. Here we point out that the black hole, recently discovered in an extragalactic globular cluster, places the strongest upper limit on the size of the extra dimensions in the RS2 model, L ∼< 0.003 mm. This black hole has the virtues of old age and relatively small mass. The derived upper limit is within an order of magnitude of the absolute limit afforded by astrophysical observations of black holes.

  8. Thermodynamic phase transition of a black hole in rainbow gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhong-Wen; Yang, Shu-Zheng

    2017-09-01

    In this letter, using the rainbow functions that were proposed by Magueijo and Smolin, we investigate the thermodynamics and the phase transition of rainbow Schwarzschild black hole. First, we calculate the rainbow gravity corrected Hawking temperature. From this modification, we then derive the local temperature, free energy, and other thermodynamic quantities in an isothermal cavity. Finally, we analyze the critical behavior, thermodynamic stability, and phase transition of the rainbow Schwarzschild black hole. The results show that the rainbow gravity can stop the Hawking radiation in the final stages of black holes' evolution and lead to the remnants of black holes. Furthermore, one can observe that the rainbow Schwarzschild black hole has one first-order phase transition, two second-order phase transitions, and three Hawking-Page-type phase transitions in the framework of rainbow gravity theory.

  9. Black Holes, Worm Holes, and Future Space Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barret, Chris

    2000-01-01

    NASA has begun examining the technologies needed for an Interstellar Mission. In 1998, a NASA Interstellar Mission Workshop was held at the California Institute of Technology to examine the technologies required. Since then, a spectrum of research efforts to support such a mission has been underway, including many advanced and futuristic space propulsion concepts which are being explored. The study of black holes and wormholes may provide some of the breakthrough physics needed to travel to the stars. The first black hole, CYGXI, was discovered in 1972 in the constellation Cygnus X-1. In 1993, a black hole was found in the center of our Milky Way Galaxy. In 1994, the black hole GRO J1655-40 was discovered by the NASA Marshall Space Flight center using the Gamma Ray Observatory. Today, we believe we have found evidence to support the existence of 19 black holes, but our universe may contain several thousands. This paper discusses the dead star states - - both stable and unstable, white dwarfs, neutron stars, pulsars, quasars, the basic features and types of black holes: nonspinning, nonspinning with charge, spinning, and Hawking's mini black holes. The search for black holes, gravitational waves, and Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO) are reviewed. Finally, concepts of black hole powered space vehicles and wormhole concepts for rapid interstellar travel are discussed in relation to the NASA Interstellar Mission.

  10. The CASTER Black Hole Finder Probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, M. L.; Bloser, P. F.; Macri, J. R.; Ryan, J. M.; Case, G. L.; Stacy, J. G.; Cherry, M. L.; Guzik, T. G.; Schaefer, B.; Wefel, J. P.; Cravens, J.; Hurley, K.; Kippen, R. M.; Vestrand, W. T.; Miller, R. S.; Paciesas, W.

    2006-01-01

    The primary scientific mission of the Black Hole Finder Probe (BHFP), part of the NASA Beyond Einstein program, is to survey the local Universe for black holes over a wide range of mass and accretion rate. One approach to such a survey is a hard X-ray coded-aperture imaging mission operating in the 10-600 keV energy band. The development of new inorganic scintillator materials provides improved performance that is well suited to the BHFP science requirements. Detection planes formed with these materials coupled with a new generation of readout devices represent a major advancement in the performance capabilities of scintillator-based gamma cameras. Here, we discuss the Coded Aperture Survey Telescope for Energetic Radiation (CASTER), a concept that represents a BHFP based on the use of the latest scintillator technology

  11. Black hole portal into hidden valleys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubovsky, Sergei; Gorbenko, Victor

    2011-01-01

    Superradiant instability turns rotating astrophysical black holes into unique probes of light axions. We consider what happens when a light axion is coupled to a strongly coupled hidden gauge sector. In this case superradiance results in an adiabatic increase of a hidden sector CP-violating θ parameter in a near horizon region. This may trigger a first order phase transition in the gauge sector. As a result a significant fraction of a black hole mass is released as a cloud of hidden mesons and can be later converted into electromagnetic radiation. This results in a violent electromagnetic burst. The characteristic frequency of such bursts may range from ∼100 eV to ∼100 MeV.

  12. New Tortoise Coordinate and Hawking Radiation of Dirac Particles in a Non-stationary Kerr-Newman Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Xiao-Gang

    2012-04-01

    The Hawking effect of Dirac particles in a non-stationary Kerr-Newman black hole is investigated using an improved Damour-Ruffini method with a new tortoise coordinate transformation. In contrast with the old tortoise coordinate, the new one satisfies the dimensional requirement. It is interesting to note that the Hawking emission spectrum remains a blackbody one with a correction term ξ existing in the Hawking temperature. Compared with the old tortoise coordinate transformation, our results appears more accurate and reliable.

  13. Black hole in a waveguide: Hawking radiation or self-phase modulation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolyaninov, Igor I

    2015-01-01

    Recently it was suggested that Hawking radiation may be observed in a nonlinear electromagnetic waveguide upon propagation of an optical pulse. We show that the spectral characteristics of the Hawking effect in such a waveguide are indistinguishable from the well-known effect of frequency broadening of an optical pulse due to self-phase modulation. Furthermore, we derive an estimate on the critical optical power at which Hawking effect is dominated by the self-phase modulation. It appears that optical experiments reported so far are clearly dominated by self-phase modulation. (paper)

  14. Black-Body Radiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Black-body radiation; thermal radiation; heat; electromagnetic radiation; Stefan's Law; Stefan–Boltzmann Law; Wien's Law; Rayleigh–Jeans Law; black-body spectrum; ultraviolet catastrophe; zero point energy; photon.

  15. Black-hole bomb and superradiant instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Vitor; Dias, Oscar J.C.; Lemos, Jose P.S.; Yoshida, Shijun

    2004-01-01

    A wave impinging on a Kerr black hole can be amplified as it scatters off the hole if certain conditions are satisfied, giving rise to superradiant scattering. By placing a mirror around the black hole one can make the system unstable. This is the black-hole bomb of Press and Teukolsky. We investigate in detail this process and compute the growing time scales and oscillation frequencies as a function of the mirror's location. It is found that in order for the system black hole plus mirror to become unstable there is a minimum distance at which the mirror must be located. We also give an explicit example showing that such a bomb can be built. In addition, our arguments enable us to justify why large Kerr-AdS black holes are stable and small Kerr-AdS black holes should be unstable

  16. Black-hole thermodynamics and Riemann surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnov, Kirill

    2003-01-01

    We use the analytic continuation procedure proposed in our earlier works to study the thermodynamics of black holes in 2 + 1 dimensions. A general black hole in 2 + 1 dimensions has g handles hidden behind h horizons. The result of the analytic continuation of a black-hole spacetime is a hyperbolic 3-manifold having the topology of a handlebody. The boundary of this handlebody is a compact Riemann surface of genus G = 2g + h - 1. Conformal moduli of this surface encode in a simple way the physical characteristics of the black hole. The moduli space of black holes of a given type (g, h) is then the Schottky space at genus G. The (logarithm of the) thermodynamic partition function of the hole is the Kaehler potential for the Weil-Peterson metric on the Schottky space. The Bekenstein bound on the black-hole entropy leads us to conjecture a new strong bound on this Kaehler potential

  17. Black Hole Dynamic Potentials Koustubh Ajit Kabe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the following paper, certain black hole dynamic potentials have been ... the equations of the laws of black hole dynamics as given by Bekenstein and those ..... work. This makes K, the energy which is available for work in time-reversible pro- cesses (white holes) observing constancy of surface gravity. Since the area of the.

  18. Charged spinning black holes as particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Shaowen; Liu Yuxiao; Guo Heng; Fu Chune

    2010-01-01

    It has recently been pointed out that the spinning Kerr black hole with maximal spin could act as a particle collider with arbitrarily high center-of-mass energy. In this paper, we will extend the result to the charged spinning black hole, the Kerr-Newman black hole. The center-of-mass energy of collision for two uncharged particles falling freely from rest at infinity depends not only on the spin a but also on the charge Q of the black hole. We find that an unlimited center-of-mass energy can be approached with the conditions: (1) the collision takes place at the horizon of an extremal black hole; (2) one of the colliding particles has critical angular momentum; (3) the spin a of the extremal black hole satisfies (1/√(3))≤(a/M)≤1, where M is the mass of the Kerr-Newman black hole. The third condition implies that to obtain an arbitrarily high energy, the extremal Kerr-Newman black hole must have a large value of spin, which is a significant difference between the Kerr and Kerr-Newman black holes. Furthermore, we also show that, for a near-extremal black hole, there always exists a finite upper bound for center-of-mass energy, which decreases with the increase of the charge Q.

  19. A Black Hole in Our Galactic Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    An introductory approach to black holes is presented along with astronomical observational data pertaining to the presence of a supermassive black hole at the center of our galaxy. Concepts of conservation of energy and Kepler's third law are employed so students can apply formulas from their physics class to determine the mass of the black hole…

  20. BSW process of the slowly evaporating charged black hole

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Liancheng; He, Feng; Fu, Xiangyun

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study the BSW process of the slowly evaporating charged black hole. It can be found that the BSW process will also arise near black hole horizon when the evaporation of charged black hole is very slow. But now the background black hole does not have to be an extremal black hole, and it will be approximately an extremal black hole unless it is nearly a huge stationary black hole.

  1. Quantum black holes as holograms in Ads braneworlds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emparan, Roberto; Fabbri, Alessandro; Kaloper, Nemanja

    2002-01-01

    We propose a new approach for using the AdS/CFT correspondence to study quantum black hole physics. The black holes on a brane in an AdS D+1 braneworld that solve the classical bulk equations are interpreted as duals of quantum-corrected D-dimensional black holes, rather than classical ones, of a conformal field theory coupled to gravity. We check this explicitly in D=3 and D=4. In D=3 we reinterpret the existing exact solutions on a flat membrane as states of the dual 2+1 CFT. We show that states with a sufficiently large mass really are 2+1 black holes where the quantum corrections dress the classical conical singularity with a horizon and censor it from the outside. On a negatively curved membrane, we reinterpret the classical bulk solutions as quantum-corrected BTZ black holes. In D=4 we argue that the bulk solution for the brane black hole should include a radiation component in order to describe a quantum-corrected black hole in the 3+1 dual. Hawking radiation of the conformal field is then dual to classical gravitational bremsstrahlung in the AdS 5 bulk. (author)

  2. Spectral properties of the accretion discs around rotating black holes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Samir Mandal

    2018-02-10

    Feb 10, 2018 ... Abstract. We study the radiation properties of an accretion disc around a rotating black hole. We solve the hydrodynamic equations and calculate the transonic solutions of accretion disc in the presence of shocks. Then we use these solutions to generate the radiation spectrum in the presence of radiative ...

  3. Black holes, quasars, and the universe /2nd edition/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipman, H. L.

    1980-01-01

    Topics of astronomy are discussed in terms of black holes, galaxies, quasars, and models of the universe. Black holes are approached through consideration of stellar evolution, white dwarfs, supernovae, neutron stars, pulsars, the event horizon, Cygnus X-1, white holes, and worm holes. Attention is also given to radio waves from high speed electrons, the radiation emitted by quasars, active galaxies, galactic energy sources, and interpretations of the redshift. Finally, the life cycle of the universe is deliberated, along with the cosmic time scale, evidence for the Big Bang, and the future of the universe.

  4. Infinite volume of noncommutative black hole wrapped by finite surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Baocheng, E-mail: zhangbc.zhang@yahoo.com [School of Mathematics and Physics, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); You, Li, E-mail: lyou@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Quantum Physics, Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2017-02-10

    The volume of a black hole under noncommutative spacetime background is found to be infinite, in contradiction with the surface area of a black hole, or its Bekenstein–Hawking (BH) entropy, which is well-known to be finite. Our result rules out the possibility of interpreting the entropy of a black hole by counting the number of modes wrapped inside its surface if the final evaporation stage can be properly treated. It implies the statistical interpretation for the BH entropy can be independent of the volume, provided spacetime is noncommutative. The effect of radiation back reaction is found to be small and doesn't influence the above conclusion.

  5. On Black Hole Detection with the OWL/Airwatch Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, S I; Sarcevic, I; Dutta, Sharada Iyer; Reno, Mary Hall; Sarcevic, Ina

    2002-01-01

    In scenarios with large extra dimensions and TeV scale gravity ultrahigh energy neutrinos produce black holes in their interactions with the nucleons. We show that ICECUBE and OWL may observe large number of black hole events and provide valuable information about the fundamental Planck scale and the number of extra dimensions. OWL is especially well suited to observe black hole events produced by neutrinos from the interactions of cosmic rays with the 3 K background radiation. Depending on the parameters of the scenario of large extra dimensions and on the flux model, as many as 28 events per year are expected for a Planck scale of 3 TeV.

  6. Quantum effects in acoustic black holes: The backreaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balbinot, R.; Fagnocchi, S.; Fabbri, A.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the backreaction equations for an acoustic black hole formed in a Laval nozzle under the assumption that the motion of the fluid is one-dimensional. The solution in the near-horizon region shows that as phonons are (thermally) radiated the sonic horizon shrinks and the temperature decreases. This contrasts with the behavior of Schwarzschild black holes, and is similar to what happens in the evaporation of (near-extremal) Reissner-Nordstroem black holes (i.e., infinite evaporation time). Finally, by appropriate boundary conditions the solution is extended in both the asymptotic regions of the nozzle

  7. Numerical evolution of the collision of two black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eppley, K.R.

    1975-01-01

    The methods used to evolve numerically the initial data corresponding to two black holes at rest are described. The evolution is found to be unstable. A similar instability occurs in the evolution of the t = constant slicing of a Schwarzschild black hole. This instability is advective in nature and can be removed by changing the differencing scheme. Similar methods improve the stability of the two black hole evolutions. A method of solving the Hamiltonian constraint numerically by a conformal mapping is described. This technique is another way of controlling the instability and, combined with York's transverse traceless decomposition, is a way of eventually generating new initial data sets. A shift vector to minimize coordinate shear is described. The shift vector is applied to the maximal slicing of one black hole. Geodesic, initially maximal, and maximal slicings are given for the two black holes. With the maximal slicing the initial data for two black holes separated by 4M are evolved until they merge to form a single black hole, as indicated by the behavior of the lapse function. The behavior of the Bel-Robinson gravitational ''Poynting'' vector suggests that some gravitational radiation has been generated by the merging of the horizons. However, it is emitted so close to the hole that much of it may not be able to escape to infinity

  8. Boosting jet power in black hole spacetimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilsen, David; Lehner, Luis; Palenzuela, Carlos; Hirschmann, Eric W; Liebling, Steven L; Motl, Patrick M; Garrett, Travis

    2011-08-02

    The extraction of rotational energy from a spinning black hole via the Blandford-Znajek mechanism has long been understood as an important component in models to explain energetic jets from compact astrophysical sources. Here we show more generally that the kinetic energy of the black hole, both rotational and translational, can be tapped, thereby producing even more luminous jets powered by the interaction of the black hole with its surrounding plasma. We study the resulting Poynting jet that arises from single boosted black holes and binary black hole systems. In the latter case, we find that increasing the orbital angular momenta of the system and/or the spins of the individual black holes results in an enhanced Poynting flux.

  9. Hidden conformal symmetry of extremal black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Bin; Long Jiang; Zhang Jiaju

    2010-01-01

    We study the hidden conformal symmetry of extremal black holes. We introduce a new set of conformal coordinates to write the SL(2,R) generators. We find that the Laplacian of the scalar field in many extremal black holes, including Kerr(-Newman), Reissner-Nordstrom, warped AdS 3 , and null warped black holes, could be written in terms of the SL(2,R) quadratic Casimir. This suggests that there exist dual conformal field theory (CFT) descriptions of these black holes. From the conformal coordinates, the temperatures of the dual CFTs could be read directly. For the extremal black hole, the Hawking temperature is vanishing. Correspondingly, only the left (right) temperature of the dual CFT is nonvanishing, and the excitations of the other sector are suppressed. In the probe limit, we compute the scattering amplitudes of the scalar off the extremal black holes and find perfect agreement with the CFT prediction.

  10. Information Retention by Stringy Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John

    2015-01-01

    Building upon our previous work on two-dimensional stringy black holes and its extension to spherically-symmetric four-dimensional stringy black holes, we show how the latter retain information. A key r\\^ole is played by an infinite-dimensional $W_\\infty$ symmetry that preserves the area of an isolated black-hole horizon and hence its entropy. The exactly-marginal conformal world-sheet operator representing a massless stringy particle interacting with the black hole necessarily includes a contribution from $W_\\infty$ generators in its vertex function. This admixture manifests the transfer of information between the string black hole and external particles. We discuss different manifestations of $W_\\infty$ symmetry in black-hole physics and the connections between them.

  11. Seeding black holes in cosmological simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, P.; Kobayashi, C.

    2014-08-01

    We present a new model for the formation of black holes in cosmological simulations, motivated by the first star formation. Black holes form from high density peaks of primordial gas, and grow via both gas accretion and mergers. Massive black holes heat the surrounding material, suppressing star formation at the centres of galaxies, and driving galactic winds. We perform an investigation into the physical effects of the model parameters, and obtain a `best' set of these parameters by comparing the outcome of simulations to observations. With this best set, we successfully reproduce the cosmic star formation rate history, black hole mass-velocity dispersion relation, and the size-velocity dispersion relation of galaxies. The black hole seed mass is ˜103 M⊙, which is orders of magnitude smaller than that which has been used in previous cosmological simulations with active galactic nuclei, but suggests that the origin of the seed black holes is the death of Population III stars.

  12. Charged topological black hole pair creation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, R.B.

    1998-01-01

    I examine the pair creation of black holes in space-times with a cosmological constant of either sign. I consider cosmological C-metrics and show that the conical singularities in this metric vanish only for three distinct classes of black hole metric, two of which have compact event horizons on each spatial slice. One class is a generalization of the Reissner-Nordstroem (anti-)de Sitter black holes in which the event horizons are the direct product of a null line with a 2-surface with topology of genus g. The other class consists of neutral black holes whose event horizons are the direct product of a null conoid with a circle. In the presence of a domain wall, black hole pairs of all possible types will be pair created for a wide range of mass and charge, including even negative mass black holes. I determine the relevant instantons and Euclidean actions for each case. (orig.)

  13. Reversible Carnot cycle outside a black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi-Hao, Deng; Si-Jie, Gao

    2009-01-01

    A Carnot cycle outside a Schwarzschild black hole is investigated in detail. We propose a reversible Carnot cycle with a black hole being the cold reservoir. In our model, a Carnot engine operates between a hot reservoir with temperature T 1 and a black hole with Hawking temperature T H . By naturally extending the ordinary Carnot cycle to the black hole system, we show that the thermal efficiency for a reversible process can reach the maximal efficiency 1 – T H /T 1 . Consequently, black holes can be used to determine the thermodynamic temperature by means of the Carnot cycle. The role of the atmosphere around the black hole is discussed. We show that the thermal atmosphere provides a necessary mechanism to make the process reversible. (general)

  14. Hawking temperature of constant curvature black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Ronggen; Myung, Yun Soo

    2011-01-01

    The constant curvature (CC) black holes are higher dimensional generalizations of Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black holes. It is known that these black holes have the unusual topology of M D-1 xS 1 , where D is the spacetime dimension and M D-1 stands for a conformal Minkowski spacetime in D-1 dimensions. The unusual topology and time-dependence for the exterior of these black holes cause some difficulties to derive their thermodynamic quantities. In this work, by using a globally embedding approach, we obtain the Hawking temperature of the CC black holes. We find that the Hawking temperature takes the same form when using both the static and global coordinates. Also, it is identical to the Gibbons-Hawking temperature of the boundary de Sitter spaces of these CC black holes.

  15. Tensile strength and the mining of black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Adam R

    2013-11-22

    There are a number of important thought experiments that involve raising and lowering boxes full of radiation in the vicinity of black hole horizons. This Letter looks at the limitations placed on these thought experiments by the null energy condition, which imposes a fundamental bound on the tensile-strength-to-weight ratio of the materials involved, makes it impossible to build a box near the horizon that is wider than a single wavelength of the Hawking quanta, and puts a severe constraint on the operation of "space elevators" near black holes. In particular, it is shown that proposals for mining black holes by lowering boxes near the horizon, collecting some Hawking radiation, and dragging it out to infinity cannot proceed nearly as rapidly as has previously been claimed. As a consequence of this limitation, the boxes and all the moving parts are superfluous and black holes can be destroyed equally rapidly by threading the horizon with strings.

  16. Black-hole galactic nuclei: a high-energy perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Boldt, E; Loewenstein, M

    2002-01-01

    The gravitational radiation signals to be anticipated from events involving black-hole galactic nuclei depend on the spin of the underlying object. To obtain evidence about the spin of Seyfert AGN black holes, we can rely on future ultra-high resolution spectral/spatial x-ray studies of iron K line fluorescence from the innermost regions of accreting matter. Normal galaxies present more of a challenge. To account for the highest energy cosmic rays, we propose that ultra-relativistic particle acceleration can occur near the event horizons of spun-up supermassive black-holes at the non-active nuclei of giant elliptical galaxies. This conjecture about the black hole spin associated with such nuclei is subject to verification via the characteristic TeV curvature radiation expected to be detected with upcoming gamma-ray observatories.

  17. Superradiance by mini black holes with mirror

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jong-Phil

    2011-01-01

    The superradiant scattering of massive scalar particles by a rotating mini black hole is investigated. Imposing the mirror boundary condition, the system becomes the so called black-hole bomb where the rotation energy of the black hole is transferred to the scattered particle exponentially with time. Bulk emissions as well as brane emissions are considered altogether. It is found that the largest effects are expected for the brane emission of lower angular modes with lighter mass and larger a...

  18. Geometrothermodynamics of higher dimensional black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravetti, Alessandro; Momeni, Davood; Myrzakulov, Ratbay; Quevedo, Hernando

    2013-08-01

    We study the thermodynamics and geometrothermodynamics of different black hole configurations in more than four spacetime dimensions. We use the response functions to find the conditions under which second order phase transitions occur in higher-dimensional static Reissner-Nordström and stationary Kerr black holes. Our results indicate that the equilibrium manifold of all these black hole configurations is in general curved and that curvature singularities appear exactly at those places where second order phase transitions occur.

  19. Effective Stringy Description of Schwarzschild Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Krasnov , Kirill; Solodukhin , Sergey N.

    2004-01-01

    We start by pointing out that certain Riemann surfaces appear rather naturally in the context of wave equations in the black hole background. For a given black hole there are two closely related surfaces. One is the Riemann surface of complexified ``tortoise'' coordinate. The other Riemann surface appears when the radial wave equation is interpreted as the Fuchsian differential equation. We study these surfaces in detail for the BTZ and Schwarzschild black holes in four and higher dimensions....

  20. Observability of Quantum State of Black Hole

    CERN Document Server

    David, J R; Mandal, G; Wadia, S R; David, Justin R.; Dhar, Avinash; Mandal, Gautam; Wadia, Spenta R.

    1997-01-01

    We analyze terms subleading to Rutherford in the $S$-matrix between black hole and probes of successively high energies. We show that by an appropriate choice of the probe one can read off the quantum state of the black hole from the S-matrix, staying asymptotically far from the BH all the time. We interpret the scattering experiment as scattering off classical stringy backgrounds which explicitly depend on the internal quantum numbers of the black hole.

  1. A New Model of Black Hole Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thayer G. D.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The formation of a black hole and its event horizon are described. Conclusions, which are the result of a thought experiment, show that Schwarzschild [1] was correct: A singularity develops at the event horizon of a newly-formed black hole. The intense gravitational field that forms near the event horizon results in the mass-energy of the black hole accumulating in a layer just inside the event horizon, rather than collapsing into a central singularity.

  2. Gravitational lensing by a Horndeski black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badia, Javier [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Eiroa, Ernesto F. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria Pabellon I, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2017-11-15

    In this article we study gravitational lensing by non-rotating and asymptotically flat black holes in Horndeski theory. By adopting the strong deflection limit, we calculate the deflection angle, from which we obtain the positions and the magnifications of the relativistic images. We compare our results with those corresponding to black holes in General Relativity. We analyze the astrophysical consequences in the case of the nearest supermassive black holes. (orig.)

  3. Unified geometric description of black hole thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, Jose L.; Quevedo, Hernando; Sanchez, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    In the space of thermodynamic equilibrium states we introduce a Legendre invariant metric which contains all the information about the thermodynamics of black holes. The curvature of this thermodynamic metric becomes singular at those points where, according to the analysis of the heat capacities, phase transitions occur. This result is valid for the Kerr-Newman black hole and all its special cases and, therefore, provides a unified description of black hole phase transitions in terms of curvature singularities.

  4. Measuring the spins of accreting black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClintock, Jeffrey E; Narayan, Ramesh; Gou, Lijun; Kulkarni, Akshay; Penna, Robert F; Steiner, James F; Davis, Shane W; Orosz, Jerome A; Remillard, Ronald A

    2011-01-01

    A typical galaxy is thought to contain tens of millions of stellar-mass black holes, the collapsed remnants of once massive stars, and a single nuclear supermassive black hole. Both classes of black holes accrete gas from their environments. The accreting gas forms a flattened orbiting structure known as an accretion disk. During the past several years, it has become possible to obtain measurements of the spins of the two classes of black holes by modeling the x-ray emission from their accretion disks. Two methods are employed, both of which depend upon identifying the inner radius of the accretion disk with the innermost stable circular orbit, whose radius depends only on the mass and spin of the black hole. In the Fe Kα method, which applies to both classes of black holes, one models the profile of the relativistically broadened iron line with a special focus on the gravitationally redshifted red wing of the line. In the continuum-fitting (CF) method, which has so far only been applied to stellar-mass black holes, one models the thermal x-ray continuum spectrum of the accretion disk. We discuss both methods, with a strong emphasis on the CF method and its application to stellar-mass black holes. Spin results for eight stellar-mass black holes are summarized. These data are used to argue that the high spins of at least some of these black holes are natal, and that the presence or absence of relativistic jets in accreting black holes is not entirely determined by the spin of the black hole.

  5. Shaping Globular Clusters with Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-03-01

    How many black holes lurk within the dense environments of globular clusters, and how do these powerful objects shape the properties of the cluster around them? One such cluster, NGC 3201, is now helping us to answer these questions.Hunting Stellar-Mass Black HolesSince the detection of merging black-hole binaries by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO), the dense environments of globular clusters have received increasing attention as potential birthplaces of these compact binary systems.The central region of the globular star cluster NGC 3201, as viewed by Hubble. The black hole is in orbit with the star marked by the blue circle. [NASA/ESA]In addition, more and more stellar-mass black-hole candidates have been observed within globular clusters, lurking in binary pairs with luminous, non-compact companions. The most recent of these detections, found in the globular cluster NGC 3201, stands alone as the first stellar-mass black hole candidate discovered via radial velocity observations: the black holes main-sequence companion gave away its presence via a telltale wobble.Now a team of scientists led by Kyle Kremer (CIERA and Northwestern University) is using models of this system to better understand the impact that black holes might have on their host clusters.A Model ClusterThe relationship between black holes and their host clusters is complicated. Though the cluster environment can determine the dynamical evolution of the black holes, the retention rate of black holes in a globular cluster (i.e., how many remain in the cluster when they are born as supernovae, rather than being kicked out during the explosion) influences how the host cluster evolves.Kremer and collaborators track this complex relationship by modeling the evolution of a cluster similar to NGC 3201 with a Monte Carlo code. The code incorporates physics relevant to the evolution of black holes and black-hole binaries in globular clusters, such as two-body relaxation

  6. Extremal Black Holes and Attractors

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, S

    2010-01-01

    These lectures give an elementary introduction to the subject of four dimensional black holes (BHs) in supergravity and the Attractor Mechanism in the extremal case. Some thermodynamical properties are discussed and some relevant formula for the critical points of the BH effective potential are given. The case of Maxwell-Einstein-axion-dilaton (super)gravity is discussed in detail. Analogies among BH entropy and multipartite entanglement of qubits in quantum information theory, as well moduli spaces of extremal BH attractors, are also discussed.

  7. BOOK REVIEW: Introduction to Black Hole Physics Introduction to Black Hole Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Takahiro

    2012-07-01

    Introduction to Black Hole Physics is a large volume (504 pages), and yet despite this it is still really an introductory text. The book gives an introduction to general relativity, but most of the text is dedicated to attracting the reader's attention to the interesting world of black hole physics. In this sense, the book is very distinct from other textbooks on general relativity. We are told that it was based on the lectures given by Professor Frolov, one of the authors, over the last 30 years. One can obtain the basic ideas about black holes, and also the necessary tips to understand general relativity at a very basic level. For example, in the discussion about particle motion in curved space, the authors start with a brief review on analytical mechanics. The book does not require its readers to have a great deal of knowledge in advance. If you are familiar with such a basic subject, you can simply omit that section. The reason why I especially picked up on this topic as an example is that the book devotes a significant number of pages to geodesic motions in black hole spacetime. One of the main motivations to study black holes is related to how they will actually be observed, once we develop the ability to observe them clearly. The book does explain such discoveries as, for instance, how the motion of a particle is related to a beautiful mathematical structure arising from the hidden symmetry of spacetime, which became transparent via the recent progress in the exploration of black holes in higher dimensions; a concise introduction to this latest topic is deferred to Appendix D, so as not to distract the reader with its mathematical complexities. It should be also mentioned that the book is not limited to general relativistic aspects: quantum fields on a black hole background and Hawking radiation are also covered. Also included are current hot topics, for instance the gravitational waves from a system including black holes, whose first direct detection is

  8. Low-mass black holes as the remnants of primordial black hole formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Jenny E

    2012-01-01

    Bridging the gap between the approximately ten solar mass 'stellar mass' black holes and the 'supermassive' black holes of millions to billions of solar masses are the elusive 'intermediate-mass' black holes. Their discovery is key to understanding whether supermassive black holes can grow from stellar-mass black holes or whether a more exotic process accelerated their growth soon after the Big Bang. Currently, tentative evidence suggests that the progenitors of supermassive black holes were formed as ∼10(4)-10(5) M(⊙) black holes via the direct collapse of gas. Ongoing searches for intermediate-mass black holes at galaxy centres will help shed light on this formation mechanism.

  9. Reconstruction of black hole metric perturbations from the Weyl curvature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lousto, Carlos O.; Whiting, Bernard F.

    2002-01-01

    Perturbation theory of rotating black holes is usually described in terms of Weyl scalars ψ 4 and ψ 0 , which each satisfy Teukolsky's complex master wave equation and respectively represent outgoing and ingoing radiation. On the other hand metric perturbations of a Kerr hole can be described in terms of (Hertz-like) potentials Ψ in outgoing or ingoing radiation gauges. In this paper we relate these potentials to what one actually computes in perturbation theory, i.e. ψ 4 and ψ 0 . We explicitly construct these relations in the nonrotating limit, preparatory to devising a corresponding approach for building up the perturbed spacetime of a rotating black hole. We discuss the application of our procedure to second order perturbation theory and to the study of radiation reaction effects for a particle orbiting a massive black hole

  10. Soft black hole absorption rates as conservation laws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avery, Steven G. [Brown University, Department of Physics,182 Hope St, Providence, RI, 02912 (United States); Michigan State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy,East Lansing, MI, 48824 (United States); Schwab, Burkhard UniversityW. [Harvard University, Center for Mathematical Science and Applications,1 Oxford St, Cambridge, MA, 02138 (United States)

    2017-04-10

    The absorption rate of low-energy, or soft, electromagnetic radiation by spherically symmetric black holes in arbitrary dimensions is shown to be fixed by conservation of energy and large gauge transformations. We interpret this result as the explicit realization of the Hawking-Perry-Strominger Ward identity for large gauge transformations in the background of a non-evaporating black hole. Along the way we rederive and extend previous analytic results regarding the absorption rate for the minimal scalar and the photon.

  11. Testing Hawking Particle Creation by Black Holes Through Correlation Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbinot, R.; Carusotto, I.; Fabbri, A.; Recati, A.

    Hawking's prediction of thermal radiation by black holes has been shown by Unruh to be expected also in condensed matter systems. We show here that in a black hole-like configuration realized in a BEC this particle-creation does indeed take place and can be unambiguously identified via a characteristic pattern in the density-density correlations. This opens the concrete possibility of the experimental verification of this effect.

  12. Micro black holes and the democratic transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvali, Gia; Pujolas, Oriol

    2009-01-01

    Unitarity implies that the evaporation of microscopic quasiclassical black holes cannot be universal in different particle species. This creates a puzzle, since it conflicts with the thermal nature of quasiclassical black holes, according to which all of the species should see the same horizon and be produced with the same Hawking temperatures. We resolve this puzzle by showing that for the microscopic black holes, on top of the usual quantum evaporation time, there is a new time scale which characterizes a purely classical process during which the black hole loses the ability to differentiate among the species and becomes democratic. We demonstrate this phenomenon in a well-understood framework of large extra dimensions, with a number of parallel branes. An initially nondemocratic black hole is the one localized on one of the branes, with its high-dimensional Schwarzschild radius being much shorter than the interbrane distance. Such a black hole seemingly cannot evaporate into the species localized on the other branes that are beyond its reach. We demonstrate that in reality the system evolves classically in time, in such a way that the black hole accretes the neighboring branes. The end result is a completely democratic static configuration, in which all of the branes share the same black hole and all of the species are produced with the same Hawking temperature. Thus, just like their macroscopic counterparts, the microscopic black holes are universal bridges to the hidden sector physics.

  13. Charged black holes in phantom cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamil, Mubasher; Qadir, Asghar; Rashid, Muneer Ahmad [National University of Sciences and Technology, Center for Advanced Mathematics and Physics, Rawalpindi (Pakistan)

    2008-11-15

    In the classical relativistic regime, the accretion of phantom-like dark energy onto a stationary black hole reduces the mass of the black hole. We have investigated the accretion of phantom energy onto a stationary charged black hole and have determined the condition under which this accretion is possible. This condition restricts the mass-to-charge ratio in a narrow range. This condition also challenges the validity of the cosmic-censorship conjecture since a naked singularity is eventually produced due to accretion of phantom energy onto black hole. (orig.)

  14. Light geodesics near an evaporating black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerreiro, Thiago, E-mail: thiago.barbosa@unige.ch; Monteiro, Fernando, E-mail: fernando.monteiro@unige.ch

    2015-10-16

    Quantum effects imply that an infalling observer cannot cross the event horizon of an evaporating black hole, even in her proper time. The Penrose diagram of an evaporating black hole is different from the one usually reported in the literature. We show that before the observer can cross the horizon the black hole disappears. Possible observational consequences are discussed. - Highlights: • We calculate the in-falling light geodesics in an evaporating black hole. • For our calculation we use a non-static metric called Vaydia metric. • We show that in-falling light cannot cross the event horizon. • In this case there is no information paradox.

  15. Noncommutative Black Holes at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villhauer, Elena Michelle

    2017-12-01

    Based on the latest public results, 13 TeV data from the Large Hadron Collider at CERN has not indicated any evidence of hitherto tested models of quantum black holes, semiclassical black holes, or string balls. Such models have predicted signatures of particles with high transverse momenta. Noncommutative black holes remain an untested model of TeV-scale gravity that offers the starkly different signature of particles with relatively low transverse momenta. Considerations for a search for charged noncommutative black holes using the ATLAS detector will be discussed.

  16. Particle accelerators inside spinning black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Kayll

    2010-05-28

    On the basis of the Kerr metric as a model for a spinning black hole accreting test particles from rest at infinity, I show that the center-of-mass energy for a pair of colliding particles is generically divergent at the inner horizon. This shows not only that classical black holes are internally unstable, but also that Planck-scale physics is a characteristic feature within black holes at scales much larger that the Planck length. The novel feature of the divergence discussed here is that the phenomenon is present only for black holes with rotation, and in this sense it is distinct from the well-known Cauchy horizon instability.

  17. Schwarzschild black holes can wear scalar wigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barranco, Juan; Bernal, Argelia; Degollado, Juan Carlos; Diez-Tejedor, Alberto; Megevand, Miguel; Alcubierre, Miguel; Núñez, Darío; Sarbach, Olivier

    2012-08-24

    We study the evolution of a massive scalar field surrounding a Schwarzschild black hole and find configurations that can survive for arbitrarily long times, provided the black hole or the scalar field mass is small enough. In particular, both ultralight scalar field dark matter around supermassive black holes and axionlike scalar fields around primordial black holes can survive for cosmological times. Moreover, these results are quite generic in the sense that fairly arbitrary initial data evolve, at late times, as a combination of those long-lived configurations.

  18. Rotating black holes and Coriolis effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Chia-Jui, E-mail: agoodmanjerry.ep02g@nctu.edu.tw [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wu, Xiaoning, E-mail: wuxn@amss.ac.cn [Institute of Mathematics, Academy of Mathematics and System Science, CAS, Beijing, 100190 (China); Yang, Yi, E-mail: yiyang@mail.nctu.edu.tw [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, ROC (China); Yuan, Pei-Hung, E-mail: phyuan.py00g@nctu.edu.tw [Institute of Physics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2016-10-10

    In this work, we consider the fluid/gravity correspondence for general rotating black holes. By using the suitable boundary condition in near horizon limit, we study the correspondence between gravitational perturbation and fluid equation. We find that the dual fluid equation for rotating black holes contains a Coriolis force term, which is closely related to the angular velocity of the black hole horizon. This can be seen as a dual effect for the frame-dragging effect of rotating black hole under the holographic picture.

  19. Rotating black holes and Coriolis effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Jui Chou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we consider the fluid/gravity correspondence for general rotating black holes. By using the suitable boundary condition in near horizon limit, we study the correspondence between gravitational perturbation and fluid equation. We find that the dual fluid equation for rotating black holes contains a Coriolis force term, which is closely related to the angular velocity of the black hole horizon. This can be seen as a dual effect for the frame-dragging effect of rotating black hole under the holographic picture.

  20. Planar domain walls in black hole spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficek, Filip; Mach, Patryk

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the behavior of low-mass, planar domain walls in the so-called ϕ4 model of the scalar field on the Schwarzschild and Kerr backgrounds. We focus on a transit of a domain wall through a black hole and solve numerically the equations of motion for a range of parameters of the domain wall and the black hole. We observe a behavior resembling an occurrence of ringing modes. Perturbations of domain walls vanish during latter evolution, suggesting their stability against a passage through the black hole. The results obtained for Kerr and Reissner-Nordström black holes are also compared.

  1. Black hole thermodynamics from Euclidean horizon constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlip, S

    2007-07-13

    To explain black hole thermodynamics in quantum gravity, one must introduce constraints to ensure that a black hole is actually present. I show that for a large class of black holes, such "horizon constraints" allow the use of conformal field theory techniques to compute the density of states, reproducing the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy in a nearly model-independent manner. One standard string theory approach to black hole entropy arises as a special case, lending support to the claim that the mechanism may be "universal." I argue that the relevant degrees of freedom are Goldstone-boson-like excitations arising from the weak breaking of symmetry by the constraints.

  2. On algebraically special perturbations of black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekhar, S.

    1984-01-01

    Algebraically special perturbations of black holes excite gravitational waves that are either purely ingoing or purely outgoing. Solutions, appropriate to such perturbations of the Kerr, the Schwarzschild, and the Reissner-Nordstroem black-holes, are obtained in explicit forms by different methods. The different methods illustrate the remarkable inner relations among different facets of the mathematical theory. In the context of the Kerr black-hole they derive from the different ways in which the explicit value of the Starobinsky constant emerges, and in the context of the Schwarzschild and the Reissner-Nordstroem black-holes they derive from the potential barriers surrounding them belonging to a special class. (author)

  3. Surface geometry of 5D black holes and black rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, Valeri P.; Goswami, Rituparno

    2007-01-01

    We discuss geometrical properties of the horizon surface of five-dimensional rotating black holes and black rings. Geometrical invariants characterizing these 3D geometries are calculated. We obtain a global embedding of the 5D rotating black horizon surface into a flat space. We also describe the Kaluza-Klein reduction of the black ring solution (along the direction of its rotation) which, though it is nakedly singular, relates this solution to the 4D metric of a static black hole distorted by the presence of external scalar (dilaton) and vector ('electromagnetic') fields. The properties of the reduced black hole horizon and its embedding in E 3 are briefly discussed

  4. Continuous creation of matter across the black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manjunath, R

    2006-01-01

    The mass distribution in a galaxy that gets evolved around a black hole exhibits a certain degree of deterministic abstraction. The present work is based on the outcome of this abstraction. A black hole or a neutron star at the centre of a galaxy emits radiation when the edge of the galaxy gets disintegrated by getting absorbed in to another black hole or becomes a member of another galactic distribution. This is necessary for the existence of the black hole to counter for the surrounding structure with its own internal formation. The radiation is emitted as self similar pulses that exactly resemble the pattern of absorption of the rim of the galaxy. This concept is based on information geometry. An additional term that accounts for the feedback energy is appended to the energy momentum tensor. It has been shown that the mass around the black hole is distributed in bands that exhibit multiple resolutions. This translates on to self similarity in the emission pattern from the black hole. The recent emission of radiation from a neutron star is interpreted as one such phenomenon

  5. Quantum and thermodynamical aspects of black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sande e Lemos, J.P. de.

    1982-08-01

    The collapse of a spherically symmetric matter distribution resulting in Schwarzschild's black holes (BH) is discussed. Using Kerr metric, some dynamical results envolving test particles orbiting around BH with rotation are obtained. Quantum field theory is used to discuss the results obtained by Hawking in which one BH can emit a stationary flux of particles working a BH in a given temperature. Then, thermodynamics is introduced, some properties are verified and some phenomena of BH-radiation and BH-BH interaction are studied. (L.C.) [pt

  6. Superluminality, black holes and EFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goon, Garrett [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics,Cambridge University, Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Hinterbichler, Kurt [CERCA, Department of Physics, Case Western Reserve University,10900 Euclid Ave, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States)

    2017-02-27

    Under the assumption that a UV theory does not display superluminal behavior, we ask what constraints on superluminality are satisfied in the effective field theory (EFT). We study two examples of effective theories: quantum electrodynamics (QED) coupled to gravity after the electron is integrated out, and the flat-space galileon. The first is realized in nature, the second is more speculative, but they both exhibit apparent superluminality around non-trivial backgrounds. In the QED case, we attempt, and fail, to find backgrounds for which the superluminal signal advance can be made larger than the putative resolving power of the EFT. In contrast, in the galileon case it is easy to find such backgrounds, indicating that if the UV completion of the galileon is (sub)luminal, quantum corrections must become important at distance scales of order the Vainshtein radius of the background configuration, much larger than the naive EFT strong coupling distance scale. Such corrections would be reminiscent of the non-perturbative Schwarzschild scale quantum effects that are expected to resolve the black hole information problem. Finally, a byproduct of our analysis is a calculation of how perturbative quantum effects alter charged Reissner-Nordstrom black holes.

  7. Black holes are almost optimal quantum cloners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adami, Christoph; Ver Steeg, Greg

    2015-06-01

    If black holes were able to clone quantum states, a number of paradoxes in black hole physics would disappear. However, the linearity of quantum mechanics forbids exact cloning of quantum states. Here we show that black holes indeed clone incoming quantum states with a fidelity that depends on the black hole’s absorption coefficient, without violating the no-cloning theorem because the clones are only approximate. Perfectly reflecting black holes are optimal universal ‘quantum cloning machines’ and operate on the principle of stimulated emission, exactly as their quantum optical counterparts. In the limit of perfect absorption, the fidelity of clones is only equal to what can be obtained via quantum state estimation methods. But for any absorption probability less than one, the cloning fidelity is nearly optimal as long as ω /T≥slant 10, a common parameter for modest-sized black holes.

  8. Charged black holes with scalar hair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Zhong-Ying; Lü, H. [Center for Advanced Quantum Studies, Department of Physics,Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2015-09-10

    We consider a class of Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton theories, in which the dilaton coupling to the Maxwell field is not the usual single exponential function, but one with a stationary point. The theories admit two charged black holes: one is the Reissner-Nordstrøm (RN) black hole and the other has a varying dilaton. For a given charge, the new black hole in the extremal limit has the same AdS{sub 2}×Sphere near-horizon geometry as the RN black hole, but it carries larger mass. We then introduce some scalar potentials and obtain exact charged AdS black holes. We also generalize the results to black p-branes with scalar hair.

  9. From Rindler horizon to mini black holes at LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghaffary, Tooraj [Islamic Azad University, Department of Science, Shiraz Branch, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    Recently researchers (A. Sepehri et al., Astrophys. Space Sci. 344, 79 (2013)) have considered the signature of superstring balls near mini black holes at LHC and calculate the information loss for these types of strings. Motivated by their work, we consider the evolution of events in high energy experiments from lower energies for which the Rindler horizon is formed to higher energies in which mini black holes and string balls are emerged. Extending the Gottesman and Preskill method to string theory, we find the information loss for excited strings ''string balls'' in mini black holes at LHC and calculate the information transformation from the collapsing matter to the state of outgoing Hawking radiation for strings. We come to the conclusion that information transformation for high energy strings is complete. Then the thermal distribution of excited strings near mini black holes at LHC is calculated. In order to obtain the total string cross section near black holes produced in proton-proton collision, we multiply the black hole production cross section by the thermal distribution of strings. It is observed that many high energy excited strings are produced near the event horizon of TeV black holes. These excited strings evaporate to standard model particles like Higgs boson and top quark at Hagedorn temperature. We derive the production cross section for these particles due to string ball decay at LHC and consider their decay to light particles like bottom quarks and gluons. (orig.)

  10. Strings, black holes, and quantum information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallosh, Renata; Linde, Andrei

    2006-01-01

    We find multiple relations between extremal black holes in string theory and 2- and 3-qubit systems in quantum information theory. We show that the entropy of the axion-dilaton extremal black hole is related to the concurrence of a 2-qubit state, whereas the entropy of the STU black holes, Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) as well as non-BPS, is related to the 3-tangle of a 3-qubit state. We relate the 3-qubit states with the string theory states with some number of D-branes. We identify a set of large black holes with the maximally entangled Greenberger, Horne, Zeilinger (GHZ) class of states and small black holes with separable, bipartite, and W states. We sort out the relation between 3-qubit states, twistors, octonions, and black holes. We give a simple expression for the entropy and the area of stretched horizon of small black holes in terms of a norm and 2-tangles of a 3-qubit system. Finally, we show that the most general expression for the black hole and black ring entropy in N=8 supergravity/M theory, which is given by the famous quartic Cartan E 7(7) invariant, can be reduced to Cayley's hyperdeterminant describing the 3-tangle of a 3-qubit state

  11. Spacetime and orbits of bumpy black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigeland, Sarah J.; Hughes, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    Our Universe contains a great number of extremely compact and massive objects which are generally accepted to be black holes. Precise observations of orbital motion near candidate black holes have the potential to determine if they have the spacetime structure that general relativity demands. As a means of formulating measurements to test the black hole nature of these objects, Collins and Hughes introduced ''bumpy black holes'': objects that are almost, but not quite, general relativity's black holes. The spacetimes of these objects have multipoles that deviate slightly from the black hole solution, reducing to black holes when the deviation is zero. In this paper, we extend this work in two ways. First, we show how to introduce bumps which are smoother and lead to better behaved orbits than those in the original presentation. Second, we show how to make bumpy Kerr black holes--objects which reduce to the Kerr solution when the deviation goes to zero. This greatly extends the astrophysical applicability of bumpy black holes. Using Hamilton-Jacobi techniques, we show how a spacetime's bumps are imprinted on orbital frequencies, and thus can be determined by measurements which coherently track the orbital phase of a small orbiting body. We find that in the weak field, orbits of bumpy black holes are modified exactly as expected from a Newtonian analysis of a body with a prescribed multipolar structure, reproducing well-known results from the celestial mechanics literature. The impact of bumps on strong-field orbits is many times greater than would be predicted from a Newtonian analysis, suggesting that this framework will allow observations to set robust limits on the extent to which a spacetime's multipoles deviate from the black hole expectation.

  12. Can accretion disk properties distinguish gravastars from black holes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harko, Tiberiu; Kovacs, Zoltan; Lobo, Francisco S N

    2009-01-01

    Gravastars, hypothetic astrophysical objects, consisting of a dark energy condensate surrounded by a strongly correlated thin shell of anisotropic matter, have been proposed as an alternative to the standard black hole picture of general relativity. Observationally distinguishing between astrophysical black holes and gravastars is a major challenge for this latter theoretical model. This is due to the fact that in static gravastars large stability regions (of the transition layer of these configurations) exist that are sufficiently close to the expected position of the event horizon, so that it would be difficult to distinguish the exterior geometry of gravastars from an astrophysical black hole. However, in the context of stationary and axially symmetrical geometries, a possibility of distinguishing gravastars from black holes is through the comparative study of thin accretion disks around rotating gravastars and Kerr-type black holes, respectively. In the present paper, we consider accretion disks around slowly rotating gravastars, with all the metric tensor components estimated up to the second order in the angular velocity. Due to the differences in the exterior geometry, the thermodynamic and electromagnetic properties of the disks (energy flux, temperature distribution and equilibrium radiation spectrum) are different for these two classes of compact objects, consequently giving clear observational signatures. In addition to this, it is also shown that the conversion efficiency of the accreting mass into radiation is always smaller than the conversion efficiency for black holes, i.e. gravastars provide a less efficient mechanism for converting mass to radiation than black holes. Thus, these observational signatures provide the possibility of clearly distinguishing rotating gravastars from Kerr-type black holes.

  13. Qubit transport model for unitary black hole evaporation without firewalls*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuga, Kento; Page, Don N.

    2018-03-01

    We give an explicit toy qubit transport model for transferring information from the gravitational field of a black hole to the Hawking radiation by a continuous unitary transformation of the outgoing radiation and the black hole gravitational field. The model has no firewalls or other drama at the event horizon, and it avoids a counterargument that has been raised for subsystem transfer models as resolutions of the firewall paradox. Furthermore, it fits the set of six physical constraints that Giddings has proposed for models of black hole evaporation. It does utilize nonlocal qubits for the gravitational field but assumes that the radiation interacts locally with these nonlocal qubits, so in some sense the nonlocality is confined to the gravitational sector. Although the qubit model is too crude to be quantitatively correct for the detailed spectrum of Hawking radiation, it fits qualitatively with what is expected.

  14. Ghost Remains After Black Hole Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has found a cosmic "ghost" lurking around a distant supermassive black hole. This is the first detection of such a high-energy apparition, and scientists think it is evidence of a huge eruption produced by the black hole. This discovery presents astronomers with a valuable opportunity to observe phenomena that occurred when the Universe was very young. The X-ray ghost, so-called because a diffuse X-ray source has remained after other radiation from the outburst has died away, is in the Chandra Deep Field-North, one of the deepest X-ray images ever taken. The source, a.k.a. HDF 130, is over 10 billion light years away and existed at a time 3 billion years after the Big Bang, when galaxies and black holes were forming at a high rate. "We'd seen this fuzzy object a few years ago, but didn't realize until now that we were seeing a ghost", said Andy Fabian of the Cambridge University in the United Kingdom. "It's not out there to haunt us, rather it's telling us something - in this case what was happening in this galaxy billions of year ago." Fabian and colleagues think the X-ray glow from HDF 130 is evidence for a powerful outburst from its central black hole in the form of jets of energetic particles traveling at almost the speed of light. When the eruption was ongoing, it produced prodigious amounts of radio and X-radiation, but after several million years, the radio signal faded from view as the electrons radiated away their energy. HDF 130 Chandra X-ray Image of HDF 130 However, less energetic electrons can still produce X-rays by interacting with the pervasive sea of photons remaining from the Big Bang - the cosmic background radiation. Collisions between these electrons and the background photons can impart enough energy to the photons to boost them into the X-ray energy band. This process produces an extended X-ray source that lasts for another 30 million years or so. "This ghost tells us about the black hole's eruption long after

  15. Hawking radiation of black rings from anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Bin; He Wei

    2008-01-01

    We derive Hawking radiation of five-dimensional black rings from gauge and gravitational anomalies using the method proposed by Robinson and Wilczek. We find, as in the black hole case, that the problem could reduce to a (1+1)-dimensional field theory and the anomalies result in correct Hawking temperature for neutral, dipole and charged black rings

  16. Low-mass black holes as the remnants of primordial black hole formation

    OpenAIRE

    Greene, Jenny E.

    2012-01-01

    This article documents our ongoing search for the elusive "intermediate-mass" black holes. These would bridge the gap between the approximately ten solar mass "stellar-mass" black holes that are the end-product of the life of a massive star, and the "supermassive" black holes with masses of millions to billions of solar masses found at the centers of massive galaxies. The discovery of black holes with intermediate mass is the key to understanding whether supermassive black holes can grow from...

  17. Rholography, black holes and Scherk-Schwarz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaddam, Nava; Gnecchi, Alessandra; Vandoren, Stefan; Varela, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    We present a construction of a class of near-extremal asymptotically flat black hole solutions in four (or five) dimensional gauged supergravity with R-symmetry gaugings obtained from Scherk-Schwarz reductions on a circle. The entropy of these black holes is counted holographically by the well known

  18. Measuring the black hole parameters from space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharov, A.; De Paolis, F.; Ingrosso, G.; Nucita, A.

    2006-01-01

    Recently Holz and Wheeler considered a very attracting possibility to detect retro-MACHOs, i.e., retro-images of the Sun by a Schwarzschild black hole. In this paper we discuss glories (mirages) formed near rapidly rotating Kerr black hole horizons and propose a procedure to measure masses and rotation parameters analyzing these forms of mirages. In some sense that is a manifestation of gravitational lens effect in the strong gravitational field near black hole horizon and a generalization of the retro-gravitational lens phenomenon. We analyze the case of a Kerr black hole rotating at arbitrary speed for some selected positions of a distant observer with respect to the equatorial plane of a Kerr black hole. Some time ago suggested to search shadows at the Galactic Center. In this paper we present the boundaries for shadows. We also propose to use future radio interferometer RADIOASTRON facilities to measure shapes of mirages (glories) and to evaluate the black hole spin as a function of the position angle of a distant observer. We propose also a procedure to measure a black hole charge with future space missions. Keywords: black hole physics, gravitational lenses, microlensing. (authors)

  19. Do stringy corrections stabilize colored black holes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanti, P.; Winstanley, E.

    2000-01-01

    We consider hairy black hole solutions of Einstein-Yang-Mills-dilaton theory, coupled to a Gauss-Bonnet curvature term, and we study their stability under small, spacetime-dependent perturbations. We demonstrate that stringy corrections do not remove the sphaleronic instabilities of colored black holes with the number of unstable modes being equal to the number of nodes of the background gauge function. In the gravitational sector and in the limit of an infinitely large horizon, colored black holes are also found to be unstable. Similar behavior is exhibited by magnetically charged black holes while the bulk of neutral black holes are proved to be stable under small, gauge-dependent perturbations. Finally, electrically charged black holes are found to be characterized only by the existence of a gravitational sector of perturbations. As in the case of neutral black holes, we demonstrate that for the bulk of electrically charged black holes no unstable modes arise in this sector. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  20. Estimating Black Hole Masses of Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Estimating black hole masses of blazars is still a big challenge. Because of the contamination of jets, using the previously suggested size–continuum luminosity relation can overestimate the broad line region (BLR) size and black hole mass for radio-loud AGNs, including blazars. We propose a new relation ...

  1. Mass inflation in the loop black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Eric G.; Mann, Robert; Modesto, Leonardo

    2011-01-01

    In classical general relativity the Cauchy horizon within a two-horizon black hole is unstable via a phenomenon known as mass inflation, in which the mass parameter (and the spacetime curvature) of the black hole diverges at the Cauchy horizon. Here we study this effect for loop black holes - quantum gravitationally corrected black holes from loop quantum gravity - whose construction alleviates the r=0 singularity present in their classical counterparts. We use a simplified model of mass inflation, which makes use of the generalized Dray-'t Hooft relation, to conclude that the Cauchy horizon of loop black holes indeed results in a curvature singularity similar to that found in classical black holes. The Dray-'t Hooft relation is of particular utility in the loop black hole because it does not directly rely upon Einstein's field equations. We elucidate some of the interesting and counterintuitive properties of the loop black hole, and corroborate our results using an alternate model of mass inflation due to Ori.

  2. Black Hole Dynamic Potentials Koustubh Ajit Kabe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In the following paper, certain black hole dynamic potentials have been developed definitively on the lines of classical thermodynam- ics. These potentials have been refined in view of the small differences in the equations of the laws of black hole dynamics as given by Bekenstein and those of thermodynamics.

  3. Black holes under external influence £

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    KTF MFF UK

    Abstract. The work on black holes immersed in external fields is reviewed in both test-field ap- proximation and within exact solutions. In particular we pay attention to the effect of the expulsion of the flux of external fields across charged and rotating black holes which are approaching extremal states. Recently this effect has ...

  4. Black Hole Entanglement and Quantum Error Correction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlinde, E.; Verlinde, H.

    2013-01-01

    It was recently argued in [1] that black hole complementarity strains the basic rules of quantum information theory, such as monogamy of entanglement. Motivated by this argument, we develop a practical framework for describing black hole evaporation via unitary time evolution, based on a holographic

  5. Black hole masses in active galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Barth, Aaron J.

    2004-01-01

    This contribution reviews two topics of current interest in the study of black hole demographics in active galaxies: Can the stellar velocity dispersions of quasar host galaxies be measured? And can we constrain the black hole mass function below 10^6 M_⊙?

  6. Black Hole Interior in Quantum Gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Yasunori; Sanches, Fabio; Weinberg, Sean J

    2015-05-22

    We discuss the interior of a black hole in quantum gravity, in which black holes form and evaporate unitarily. The interior spacetime appears in the sense of complementarity because of special features revealed by the microscopic degrees of freedom when viewed from a semiclassical standpoint. The relation between quantum mechanics and the equivalence principle is subtle, but they are still consistent.

  7. Partition functions for supersymmetric black holes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manschot, J.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis presents a number of results on partition functions for four-dimensional supersymmetric black holes. These partition functions are important tools to explain the entropy of black holes from a microscopic point of view. Such a microscopic explanation was desired after the association of a

  8. Black hole complementarity: The inside view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Lowe

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of black hole complementarity, a proposal is made for an approximate interior effective field theory description. For generic correlators of local operators on generic black hole states, it agrees with the exact exterior description in a region of overlapping validity, up to corrections that are too small to be measured by typical infalling observers.

  9. Black hole dynamics in general relativity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Black hole dynamics in general relativity ... Basic features of dynamical black holes in full, non-linear general relativity are summarized in a pedagogical fashion. ... Institute for Gravitational Physics and Geometry, Physics Department, Penn State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA; Institute for Theoretical Physics, ...

  10. Nonthermal nature of extremal Kerr black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Rothman, Tony

    2000-01-01

    Liberati, Rothman and Sonego have recently showed that objects collapsing into extremal Reissner-Nordstrom black holes do not behave as thermal objects at any time in their history. In particular, a temperature, and hence thermodynamic entropy, are undefined for them. I demonstrate that the analysis goes through essentially unchanged for Kerr black holes.

  11. Spin and Relativistic Phenomena Around Black Holes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brenneman, L.; Miller, J.; Nantra, P.; Volonteri, M.; Cappi, M.; Matt, G.; Kitamoto, S.; Paerels, F.; Mendez, M.; Smith, R.; Nowak, M.; Garcia, M.; Watson, M.; Weisskopf, M.; Terashima, Y.; Ueda, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Since the seminal work of Penrose (1969) and Blandford & Znajek (1977), it has been realized that black hole spin may be an important energy source in astrophysics. The radio-loud/radio-quiet dichotomy in the AGN population is usually attributed to differences in black hole spin, with correlations

  12. Primordial braneworld black holes: significant enhancement of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The Randall-Sundrum (RS-II) braneworld cosmological model with a frac- tion of the total energy density in primordial black holes is considered. Due to their 5d geometry, these black holes undergo modified Hawking evaporation. It is shown that dur- ing the high-energy regime, accretion from the surrounding ...

  13. Quantum aspects of black hole entropy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. This survey intends to cover recent approaches to black hole entropy which attempt to go beyond the standard semiclassical perspective. Quantum corrections to the semiclassical Bekenstein–. Hawking area law for black hole entropy, obtained within the quantum geometry framework, are treated in some detail.

  14. Lifshitz black holes in IIA supergravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barclay, Luke; Gregory, Ruth; Parameswaran, Susha; Tasinato, Gianmassimo; Zavala, Ivonne

    We compute string theoretic black hole solutions having Lifshitz asymptotics with a general dynamical exponent z > 1. We start by constructing solutions in a flux compactification of six dimensional supergravity, then uplift them to massive type HA supergravity. Alongside the Lifshitz black holes we

  15. How the change in horizon area drives black hole evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massar, S.; Parentani, R.

    2000-01-01

    We rephrase the derivation of black hole radiation so as to take into account, at the level of transition amplitudes, the change of the geometry induced by the emission process. This enlarged description reveals that the dynamical variables which govern the emission are the horizon area and its conjugate time variable. Their conjugation is established through the boundary term at the horizon which must be added to the canonical action of general relativity in order to obtain a well defined action principle when the area varies. These coordinates have already been used by Teitelboim and collaborators to compute the partition function of a black hole. We use them to show that the probability to emit a particle is given by e -ΔA/4 , where ΔA is the decrease in horizon area induced by the emission. This expression improves Hawking result which is governed by a temperature (given by the surface gravity) in that the specific heat of the black hole is no longer neglected. The present derivation of quantum black hole radiation is based on the same principles which are used to derive the first law of classical black hole thermodynamics. Moreover, it also applies to quantum processes associated with cosmological or acceleration horizons. These two results indicate that not only black holes but all event horizons possess an entropy which governs processes according to quantum statistical thermodynamics

  16. Black hole remnants and the information loss paradox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, P.; Ong, Y.C.; Yeom, D.-H.

    2015-01-01

    Forty years after the discovery of Hawking radiation, its exact nature remains elusive. If Hawking radiation does not carry any information out from the ever shrinking black hole, it seems that unitarity is violated once the black hole completely evaporates. On the other hand, attempts to recover information via quantum entanglement lead to the firewall controversy. Amid the confusions, the possibility that black hole evaporation stops with a “remnant” has remained unpopular and is often dismissed due to some “undesired properties” of such an object. Nevertheless, as in any scientific debate, the pros and cons of any proposal must be carefully scrutinized. We fill in the void of the literature by providing a timely review of various types of black hole remnants, and provide some new thoughts regarding the challenges that black hole remnants face in the context of the information loss paradox and its latest incarnation, namely the firewall controversy. The importance of understanding the role of curvature singularity is also emphasized, after all there remains a possibility that the singularity cannot be cured even by quantum gravity. In this context a black hole remnant conveniently serves as a cosmic censor. We conclude that a remnant remains a possible end state of Hawking evaporation, and if it contains large interior geometry, may help to ameliorate the information loss paradox and the firewall controversy. We hope that this will raise some interests in the community to investigate remnants more critically but also more thoroughly.

  17. Black hole remnants and the information loss paradox

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, P., E-mail: pisinchen@phys.ntu.edu.tw [Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Astrophysics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, CA 94305 (United States); Ong, Y.C., E-mail: yenchin.ong@nordita.org [Nordita, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University, Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Yeom, D.-H., E-mail: innocent.yeom@gmail.com [Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2015-11-22

    Forty years after the discovery of Hawking radiation, its exact nature remains elusive. If Hawking radiation does not carry any information out from the ever shrinking black hole, it seems that unitarity is violated once the black hole completely evaporates. On the other hand, attempts to recover information via quantum entanglement lead to the firewall controversy. Amid the confusions, the possibility that black hole evaporation stops with a “remnant” has remained unpopular and is often dismissed due to some “undesired properties” of such an object. Nevertheless, as in any scientific debate, the pros and cons of any proposal must be carefully scrutinized. We fill in the void of the literature by providing a timely review of various types of black hole remnants, and provide some new thoughts regarding the challenges that black hole remnants face in the context of the information loss paradox and its latest incarnation, namely the firewall controversy. The importance of understanding the role of curvature singularity is also emphasized, after all there remains a possibility that the singularity cannot be cured even by quantum gravity. In this context a black hole remnant conveniently serves as a cosmic censor. We conclude that a remnant remains a possible end state of Hawking evaporation, and if it contains large interior geometry, may help to ameliorate the information loss paradox and the firewall controversy. We hope that this will raise some interests in the community to investigate remnants more critically but also more thoroughly.

  18. Black-hole Merger Simulations for LISA Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Bernard J.; Baker, John G.; vanMeter, James R.; Boggs, William D.; Centrella, Joan M.; McWilliams, Sean T.

    2009-01-01

    The strongest expected sources of gravitational waves in the LISA band are the mergers of massive black holes. LISA may observe these systems to high redshift, z>10, to uncover details of the origin of massive black holes, and of the relationship between black holes and their host structures, and structure formation itself. These signals arise from the final stage in the development of a massive black-hole binary emitting strong gravitational radiation that accelerates the system's inspiral toward merger. The strongest part of the signal, at the point of merger, carries much information about the system and provides a probe of extreme gravitational physics. Theoretical predictions for these merger signals rely on supercomputer simulations to solve Einstein's equations. We discuss recent numerical results and their impact on LISA science expectations.

  19. Holographic description of a quantum black hole on a computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanada, Masanori; Hyakutake, Yoshifumi; Ishiki, Goro; Nishimura, Jun

    2014-05-23

    Black holes have been predicted to radiate particles and eventually evaporate, which has led to the information loss paradox and implies that the fundamental laws of quantum mechanics may be violated. Superstring theory, a consistent theory of quantum gravity, provides a possible solution to the paradox if evaporating black holes can actually be described in terms of standard quantum mechanical systems, as conjectured from the theory. Here, we test this conjecture by calculating the mass of a black hole in the corresponding quantum mechanical system numerically. Our results agree well with the prediction from gravity theory, including the leading quantum gravity correction. Our ability to simulate black holes offers the potential to further explore the yet mysterious nature of quantum gravity through well-established quantum mechanics. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  20. Destroying charged black holes in higher dimensions with test particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin; Liu, Weiyang; Tang, Hao; Yue, Rui-Hong

    2017-07-01

    A possible way to destroy the Tangherlini Reissner-Nordström black hole is discussed in the spirit of Wald’s gedanken experiment. By neglecting radiation and self force effects, the absorbing condition and destruction condition of the test point particle which is capable of destroying the black hole are obtained. We find that it is impossible to challenge the weak cosmic censorship for an initially extremal black hole in all dimensions. Instead, it is shown that the near extremal black hole will turn into a naked singularity in this particular process, in which case the allowed range of the particle’s energy is very narrow. The result indicates that the self-force effects may well change the outcome of the calculation.