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Sample records for black glutinous rice

  1. Glutinous Rice in Pineapple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Ingredients: 50 grams glutinous rice, one pineapple, 20 grams dried fruits (raisins, walnuts. Chinese wolfberry, Chinese dates, lotus seeds, lily petals, kidney beans and peanuts) Seasonings: 5 grams rock sugar, 5 grams salad oil. Method:

  2. Glutinous Rice Cakes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    CELEBRATING Spring Festival includes making glutinous rice cakes, or niangao in Chinese. Traditional and new methods of making niangao vary in taste according to different areas. No matter poor or rich. niangao is a must for every family during Spring Festival as it symbolizes auspiciousness. In Beijing, both northern and southernstyle niangao are available. After the Beginning of Autumn (13th solar term), the

  3. Study on Fermented Glutinous Rice Fermentation Process Mixing with Glutinous Rice and Black Rice%糯米、黑米混合甜酒酿发酵工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄镭; 熊汉国

    2013-01-01

    Taking glutinous rice and black rice as materials,fermentde glutinous rice fermentation process through the single factor and orthogonal experiment in the control was optimized.The results showed that the best technological parameters of fermentation were as followsthe proportion of black rice and the glutinous rice was 1:4,distiller’s yeast dosage was 0.6%,fermentation temperature was 32℃and fermentation time was 60 h.Mix sweet wine had better sweet and sour flavor,fuller smell.%以糯米、黑米为主要原料,通过接种酒曲进行混合甜酒酿发酵,采用单因素和正交试验对混合甜酒酿的发酵工艺进行优化。结果表明:当黑米与糯米的比例为1:4,酒曲添加量为0.6%,发酵温度为32℃,发酵时间为60 h时,产品口感醇甜,色泽晶莹而黑亮,风味独特。

  4. Effect of cooking on functional properties of germinated black glutinous rice (KKU-ULR012

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    Thapanan Konwatchara

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the changes in functional properties of germinated black glutinous rice (KKU-ULR012 after cooking. Black glutinous rice grains were obtained from Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University, Thailand. The rough grains were soaked for 12 hrs, then germinated for 30 hrs at 35±2°C (95%RH, dried at 45±2°C for 8 hrs, dehusked and cooked either using a microwave oven or a pressure cooker. The cooked grains were dehydrated in two stages, 85±2°C for 1 hr and 45±2°C for 12 hrs until the final moisture content was 10±2%wb. The antioxidant activity, anthocyanins, GABA and -oryzanol contents, and the microstructure of the dehydrated grains were then characterized. Germination process induced a 2.55 fold increase in GABA content compared to non-germinated KKU-ULR012. The germinated KKU-ULR012 gave DPPH value, anthocyanins and -oryzanol contents of 33.74±0.15 mgTrolox/100gdb, 182.89±0.48 mg/100gdb and 37.72±0.16 mg/100gdb, respectively. Anthocyanins in cooked germinated KKU-ULR012 diminished almost 88-89% after cooking. The cooking methods employed strongly influenced the antioxidant activity and anthocyanins content that the pressure cooking tended to prevent loss of anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity. The GABA, -oryzanol and antho-cyanins contents and antioxidant activity of germinated grains cooked in the pressure cooker were higher than the samples cooked in the microwave oven (p<0.05. For pressure cooking, the cooked grains gave DPPH, ABTS, anthocyanins and -oryzanol contents of 9.89±0.35 mgTrolox/100gdb, 1.79±0.04 mgTrolox/100gdb, 21.60±0.14 mg/100gdb and 37.16±0.70 mg/100gdb, respectively. The rice grains cooked by pressure cooking were more moist and sticky than the grains cooked by microwave cooking. The microstructure examined by SEM showed that the center of the dehydrated cooked rice grain was smooth indicating starch gelatinization whereas the surface revealed

  5. Development of Health Vinegar Beverage with Black Glutinous Rice and Red Dates%黑糯米红枣保健醋饮料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王家东; 王荣荣

    2013-01-01

    结合传统食醋生产工艺,以黑糯米和红枣为发酵主料,配以银杏叶、苦养茶、枸杞等浸提液参与醋酸发酵,并采用α-淀粉酶、糖化酶作为糖化剂,安琪酿酒高活性干酵母进行酒精发酵和醋母进行醋酸发酵等工艺,生产出具有多种功能因子的新型保健醋饮料.%Combined with the traditional vinegar producing process,take red dates and black glutinous rice as main fermentation materials,mixed with leaves of ginkgo,bitter buckwheat tea,medlar and other extract liquid for acetic acid fermentation.Use α-amylase,saccharifying enzyme as saccharifying agents,angel active dry yeast for ethanol fermentation and mother for acetic fermentation to produce a new type of health vinegar with a variety of functional factors.

  6. Susceptibility of glutinous rice starch to digestive enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Li; Zhang, Juanjuan; Hu, Jian; Li, Xueling; Du, Xianfeng

    2015-09-05

    To understand the susceptibility of glutinous rice starch to digestive enzymes and its potential impact on glycemic response, enzyme kinetics and in vitro digestibility of the native and gelatinized starches were investigated. The results showed that the Km values of the native and gelatinized starch were 10.35 mg/mL and 9.92 mg/mL, respectively. The digestion rate coefficients k values of the native and gelatinized starches were 2.0 × 10(-3)min(-1) and 1.1 × 10(-2)min(-1), respectively. The contents of rapid digestible starch (RDS), slowly digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS) in native glutinous rice starch were 8.92%, 21.52% and 69.56%, respectively. After gelatinization, the amounts of RDS, SDS and RS were 18.47%, 29.75% and 51.78%, respectively. The native and gelatinized glutinous rice starches were 10.34% and 14.07% for hydrolysis index (HI), as well as 43.14% and 45.92% for glycemic index (GI), respectively. During the in vitro digestion, the crystallinity of native glutinous rice starch was increased from 34.7% to 35.8% and 38.4% after 20 and 120 min, respectively.

  7. Defined fungal starter granules for purple glutinous rice wine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngo Thi Phuong Dung, N.T.P.

    2004-01-01

    The Mekong Delta region ofSouth Vietnamis particularly known as a production area of purple glutinous rice wine ( RuouNepThan ). The latter differs from regular

  8. Defined fungal starter granules for purple glutinous rice wine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngo Thi Phuong Dung, N.T.P.

    2004-01-01

    The Mekong Delta region ofSouth Vietnamis particularly known as a production area of purple glutinous rice wine ( RuouNepThan ). The latter differs from regular ri

  9. Alleviation of Salt Stress in Seedlings of Black Glutinous Rice by Seed Priming with Spermidine and Gibberellic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumitahnun CHUNTHABUREE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to elucidate the spermidine (Spd and gibberellic acid (GA3 priming-induced physiological and biochemical changes responsible for induction of salinity tolerance in two rice (Oryza sativa L. cultivars, namely ‘Niewdam Gs. no. 00621’ (salt tolerant and ‘KKU-LLR-039’ (salt sensitive. The seeds of the two cultivars were primed separately with distilled water, 1 mM Spd or 0.43 mM GA3. Primed seeds were germinated and the resultant seedlings were hydroponically grown for 14 days before being exposed to salinity stress (150 mM NaCl for 10 days. Seed priming with Spd or GA3 slightly improved salt-induced reductions in growth, anthocyanin and chlorophyll contents of the seedlings. Salt stress induced pronounced increases in Na+/K+ ratio, proline and H2O2 contents, particularly in the sensitive cultivar. The levels of these salt-sensitivity physiological indicators tended to be mitigated by priming with Spd and GA3. Salt-stressed seedlings grown from seeds primed with these growth regulators also possessed higher phenolic contents and greater antioxidant capacity than the control seedlings. Based on all growth and physiological data, Spd tended to be more effective than A3 in improving salt tolerance in both rice cultivars.

  10. The retrogradation properties of glutinous rice and buckwheat starches as observed with FT-IR, 13C NMR and DSC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Xijun; Wang, Changjun; Zhang, Kunsheng; Li, Lin

    2014-03-01

    The experiment was conducted to study the retrogradation properties of glutinous rice and buckwheat starch with wavelengths of maximum absorbance, FT-IR, (13)C NMR, and DSC. The results show that the starches in retrograded glutinous rice starch and glutinous rice amylopectin could not form double helix. The IR results show that protein inhabits in glutinous rice and maize starches in a different way and appearance of C-H symmetric stretching vibration at 2852 cm(-1) in starch might be appearance of protein. Retrogradation untied the protein in glutinous amylopectin. Enthalpies of sweet potato and maize granules are higher than those of their retrograded starches. The (13)C NMR results show that retrogradation of those two starches leads to presence of β-anomers and retrogradation might decompose lipids in glutinous rice amylopectin into small molecules. Glutinous rice starch was more inclined to retrogradation than buckwheat starch. The DSC results show that the second peak temperatures for retrograded glutinous rice and buckwheat starches should be assigned to protein. The SEM results show that an obvious layer structure exists in retrograded glutinous rice amylopectin.

  11. STABILITAS EKSTRAK ANTOSIANIN BERAS KETAN (Oryza sativa var. glutinosa HITAM SELAMA PROSES PEMANASAN DAN PENYIMPANAN (Stability of Anthocyanins Extracted from Black Glutinous Rice (Oryza sativa var. glutinosa during Heating and Storage Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanik Suhartatik

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available anthocyanin pigments are responsible for the red, blue, and purple colour in crop produces such as fruits, vegetables, rice, and flowers. This bioactive compound has been developed for natural colorants in food products, especially functional foods. The aims of this research were to study the stability of anthocyanin and its colour during heating in various temperatures and during storage under different conditions. The results showed that the higher the heating temperature and the longer the heating time, the higher degradation of anthocyanin. Except for anthocyanin extract heated below 50 c for not more than 15 min, it has increased the anthocyanin stability. antioxidant activities (% RSa, radical scavenging activity and fRaP value, Ferrous Radical Activity Power decreased after the extract were heated at 70c. Extracts stored at room temperature with neutral solution (pH 7.0 have decreased their level of anthocyanin from 25 to 1.87 mg/100 mL. Storage at low temperature had not reduced significantly their anthocyanin concentration. Keywords: anthocyanin, black glutinous rice, antioxidant, heating, storage   ABSTRAK Antosianin sebagai senyawa yang menyebabkan timbulnya warna merah, biru, dan ungu pada padi, buah, sayuran, dan produk hortikultura lainnya, sangat berpotensi untuk dikembangkan sebagai bahan pewarna alami pada produk pangan fungsional. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mempelajari stabilitas dan warna ekstrak antosianin dari beras ketan hitam selama proses pemanasan dan penyimpanan. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa semakin tinggi suhu pemanasan dan semakin lama waktu pemanasan, menyebabkan kerusakan antosianin semakin banyak. Kecuali pada pemanasan <50 c tidak lebih dari 15 menit yang dapat meningkatkan kestabilan antosianin. aktivitas antioksidan (% RSa, radical scavenging activity dan nilai fRaP, Ferrous radical Activity Power mengalami penurunan setelah dipanaskan pada suhu 70 oc. Penyimpanan pada suhu kamar dan pH 7,0 dapat

  12. Reducing retrogradation and lipid oxidation of normal and glutinous rice flours by adding mango peel powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriamornpun, Sirithon; Tangkhawanit, Ekkarat; Kaewseejan, Niwat

    2016-06-15

    Green and ripe mango peel powders (MPP) were added to normal rice flour (NRF) and glutinous rice flour (GRF) at three levels (400, 800 and 1200 ppm) and their effects on physicochemical properties and lipid oxidation inhibition were investigated. Overall, MPP increased the breakdown viscosity and reduced the final viscosity in rice flours when compared to the control. Decreasing in retrogradation was observed in both NRF and GRF with MPP added of all levels. MPP addition also significantly inhibited the lipid oxidation of all flours during storage (30 days). Retrogradation values were strongly negatively correlated with total phenolic and flavonoid contents, but not with fiber content. The hydrogen bonds and hydrophilic interactions between phenolic compounds with amylopectin molecule may be involved the decrease of starch retrogradation, especially GRF. We suggest that the addition of MPP not only reduced the retrogradation but also inhibited the lipid oxidation of rice flour.

  13. Effect of alcohol-acid modification on physicochemical, rheological and morphological properties of glutinous rice starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gope, Sangeeta; Samyor, Duyi; Paul, Atanu Kumar; Das, Amit Baran

    2016-12-01

    In the present study chemical modification of glutinous rice starch was carried out using 1-Buatnol-hydrochloric acid with varying time and temperature. The changes in physico-chemical, dynamic rheological and morphological properties of starch during hydrolysis was investigated. There was a significant increase in water solubility of starch due to modification; however, swelling and sedimentation value decrease after modification. The peak, hold and final viscosity of modified starches were decreased significantly as compared to native starch. Thermal properties and dynamic rheological properties of rice starch were changed with the change in time and temperature during modification. The storage (G') modulus, loss (G″) modulus, dynamic viscosity (η') and complex viscosity (η*) of modified starches were varied significantly. Analysis of microstructure revealed that the hydrolysis altered morphology of starch granules. The hydrolysis was affected the surface properties and granule size of rice starch. These results suggested that 1-butanol-HCl hydrolysis of glutinous rice starch can be a preferred way of modification.

  14. Physicochemical and organoleptic characteristics of seasoned beef patties with added glutinous rice flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Hae Chang; Cho, Hyunnho; Hong, Jae Joon; Ryu, Rae Kyeong; Hwang, Keum Taek; Regenstein, Joe M

    2012-12-01

    This study was conducted to determine if glutinous rice flour (GRF) could be a functional food additive to potentially replace corn starch (CS), soy protein isolate (SPI) and/or sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) to improve the physicochemical and organoleptic characteristics of seasoned beef patties. GRF had a lower cook loss among the treatment groups due to an increase in fat and moisture retentions (p<0.05). GRF lowered texture profile values for hardness, gumminess, springiness, and chewiness (p<0.05) of the patties, which are generally beneficial for this product. The beef patties with GRF were juicier and more tender than the control and other treatments (p<0.05). Hedonic scores for juiciness, tenderness and overall acceptability were the highest for the beef patties with 1 and 3% GRFs, suggesting that GRF may be an effective functional ingredient to improve the textural quality of seasoned beef patties. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Extraction And Stability Of Natural Colorant From Red Glutinous Rice Bran (Oryza Sativa Glutinosa

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    Tirza Hanum

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Three extraction methods were studied to isolate natural colorant from red glutinous rice bran. Stability of extracts in relation to processing conditions and in the model beverages was determined at room temperature. Identifications of anthocyanidins was performed using reversed phase HPLC. Extraction method using acidified methanol solvent showed the highest yield (260,24+28,64 mg/100g. HPLC patern indicated the presence of six major anthocyanidins, two of them were identified as apigenidin and apigenin. Stability of anthocyanin colorant was higher in a lower acid condition and was reduced to the lowest value of 49,4, 65,4, 40,8 and 36,6% by high temperature, UV light, sunlight, and the presence of oxidator agent. respectively. Retention of antocyanin in tanin and ascorbic acid added into the model beverages was lower than in protein containing beverage or control.

  16. Moldable setting time evaluation between sodium alginate and bovine gelatine of glutinous rice mixture as dental putty materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takarini, V.; Hasratiningsih, Z.; Karlina, E.; Febrida, R.; Asri, L. A. T. W.; Purwasasmita, BS

    2017-02-01

    Putty elastomeric material is a viscous, moldable material that can be used as a dental impression to record and duplicate the tooth structure. Commercially available putty materials are hardly found in the Indonesian market. The aim of this work is to develop an alternative putty dental material from glutinous rice with two different gelling agents; sodium alginate and bovine gelatine. A commercially putty material was used as a control. The length of time required for the putty materials to set (setting time) was evaluated with compression set test. The result showed that sodium alginate and bovine gelatine gelling agents resulted in moldable putty materials that comparable to the commercial product. Glutinous rice mixed with sodium alginate gelling agent demonstrated longer setting time (more than 1 hours) compared to bovine gelatine (6 minutes). These may occur due to heat treatment applied to the bovine gelatine, while sodium alginate mixture has a chemical reaction since CaCl2 crosslink agent had been added to the mixture. Glutinous rice with bovine gelatine mixture is a promising candidate to be used as a dental putty material.

  17. Identification and characterization of filamentous fungi isolated from fermentation starters for Hong Qu glutinous rice wine brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xu-Cong; Huang, Zhi-Qing; Zhang, Wen; Rao, Ping-Fan; Ni, Li

    2012-01-01

    Hong Qu glutinous rice wine is one of the most popular traditional rice wines in China. Traditionally, this wine is brewed from glutinous rice with the addition of wine fermentation starters (Hong Qu (also called red yeast rice) and White Qu). The objective of this study was to investigate the variability of filamentous fungi associated with traditional fermentation starters through a traditional culture-dependent method and a molecular identification approach. In this study, forty-three filamentous fungi were separated by traditional culture-dependent means (macro- and microscopic characteristics) from 10 fermentation starters and classified into 16 different species based on morphological examination and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences analysis. It was observed that the genus Aspergillus had the highest number (14 isolates) of isolates followed by Rhizopus (11 isolates), Monascus (5 isolates) and Penicillium (4 isolates). The species R. oryzae, A. niger, A. flavus and M. purpureus were frequently found in wine starter samples, among which R. oryzae was the most frequent species. The enzyme-producing properties (glucoamylase, α-amylase and protease) of all fungal isolates from different starters were also evaluated. A. flavus, R. oryzae and M. purpureus were found to be better glucoamylase producers. A. flavus, R. oryzae and A.oryzae exhibited higher activity of α-amylase. A. flavus and A. oryzae had higher protease activity. However, some fungal isolates of the same species exhibited a significant variability in the production levels for all determined enzyme activity. This study is the first to identify filamentous fungi associated with the starter of Hong Qu glutinous rice wine using both traditional and molecular methods. The results enrich our knowledge of liquor-related micro-organisms, and can be used to promote the development of the traditional fermentation technology.

  18. Effect of repeated cycled crystallization on digestibility and molecular structure of glutinous Bora rice starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, Pallab Kumar; Deka, Sankar Chandra; Duary, Raj Kumar

    2017-05-15

    The effects of repeated cycled crystallization on the digestibility and molecular structure of glutinous Bora rice starch were investigated. Temperature cycle 4/45°C; cycle duration 5d; time interval of cycles 24h; and starch to water ratio 1:2 were found to be optimum for SDS (slow digestible starch) product development. The SDS content increased from 18.01±2.11% to 82.81±2.34%. An increase in the resistance to digestion, crystallinity, molecular weight, polydispersity and molecular order was observed in the optimal SDS product. Notably, the FT-IR peak at 947cm(-1) and XRD peaks at 2θ≈13° and 20° in the optimal SDS product indicated the formation of V-type complexes even without the presence of co-polymers. Birefringence studies showed a loss of typical Maltese cross in the SDS product and revealed a reorientation of crystalline structures within starch granules, suggestive of imperfect crystallite development.

  19. 芦荟糯米保健醋的研制%Study on aloe glutinous rice vinegar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈军; 赵晓燕; 李亚玲

    2012-01-01

    The aloe glutinous rice vinegar was prepared with aloe juice, glutinous rice, dry yeast and acetic acid bacteria. The ferment technique was studied by mono -factor experiment and ortbogonal experiment. The optimal combination was yeast inoculation amount 1.0% ( V/V), ratio of rice to aloe juice 3: 2( g/mL), added water amount was 1.5 times of aloe and glutinous rice, temperature 28 ℃. The optimal acetic acid fermentation was fermentation at 30 ℃ for 96 h with an acetic acid bacteria inoculation amount of 4% (V/V) and 10% alcohol (V/V). The concentration of the health vinegar with aloe and glutinous rice was 6.48 g/100 mL with unique flavor and taste pure.%以芦荟原汁、糯米、酿酒干酵母、醋酸菌为原料,通过单因素实验和正交试验,探索了芦荟糯米醋的发酵工艺。通过正交试验确定了最佳组合为酵母活化液接种量为1.0%(V/V)、糯米与芦荟汁混合比为3:2(g/mL),加水量为芦荟糯米混合量的1.5倍,发酵温度为28℃。芦荟糯米醋的最佳醋酸发酵条件为发酵温度30℃、酒精度10%(V/V)、接种量4%(V/V)、发酵时间96h,可获得6.48g/100mL芦荟糯米保健醋。酿制的芦荟糯米醋香味独特,品位纯正。

  20. Antioxidations and Their Correlations with Total Flavones and Anthocyanin Contents in Different Black Rice Varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The antioxidations and their correlations with total flavones and anthocyanin contents in different black rice varieties were studied. The results indicated that the great differences in total antioxidant capacity (TAC), scavenging free radical capacity (SFRC), total flavones and anthocyanin contents existed among 242 black rice varieties. Comparisons of TAC,SFRC, total flavones and anthocyanin contents of different black rice types showed that the differences between black rice and white rice, indica one and japonica one, and nonglutinous one and glutinous one were significant at 0.01 levels,respectively. This showed that the TAC, SFRC, total flavones and anthocyanin contents of japonica type were higher than those of indica one, and nonglutinous type were higher than glutinous one. According to the fast clustering procedure, 242 black rice varieties could be clustered into 10 clusters, 184 indica rice varieties into 10 clusters, and 58japonica rice varieties into 6 clusters. Most significant (P<0.01) correlations existed between TAC and total flavones and anthocyanin contents, and between SFRC and total flavones and anthocyanin contents of black rice, respectively. This showed that the antioxidation of black rice was closely correlated with its active compositions of flavones and anthocyanin.

  1. 黑龙江省主栽糯稻遗传背景研究%Research on Genetic Background of Main Cultivated Glutinous Rice in Heilongjiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宇强; 刘晴; 高世伟; 聂守军; 谢树鹏; 魏中华; 王翠玲; 刘立超

    2016-01-01

    选取黑龙江省近年审定的糯稻品种,对其遗传背景进行分析,试图挖掘其系谱中的骨干亲本,为糯稻品种的选育和改良提供理论依据。结果表明,大部分通过审定的糯稻品种都含有日本水稻的血缘;一些骨干亲本能够直接育成或衍生出糯稻品种,为优秀的糯稻品种选育奠定了基础。今后,应加强骨干亲本的筛选和利用,以为糯稻品种的选育和改良提供帮助。%The genetic backgrounds of main glutinous rice were analyzed in this study, which were approved in recent years in Hei-longjiang Province. The author tries to find out the mainstay parents in pedigree, provides theoretical basis for glutinous rice variety breeding and improvement. The results showed that most of the glutinous rice approved contain the consanguinity of Japanese rice, some mainstay parents can directly breed or derived glutinous rice varieties and lay the foundations for the breeding of glutinous rice. The authors suggested that future breeding program, emphysives on the selection and utilization of mainstay parents.

  2. Processing technology and packaging technology of fermented glutinous rice%醪糟加工工艺及其包装技术的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑战伟; 张宝善; 孙娟; 董婷婷

    2012-01-01

    The best processing technology of fermented glutinous rice was studied by single factor experiment and bottles,bags were sterilized in a water bath with high temperature to determine the optimum packaging technology parameters.Glutinous rice as raw materials by saccharification and fermentation has become fermented glutinous rice.The factors such as soaking time of rice,the types of adding yeast,fermentation temperature,fermentation time and fermentation environment were studied to obtain the best processing technology.And then the technology was used as the standard to get fermented glutinous rice.The research determined the best time and temperature of sterilization in saving fermented glutinous rice,as well as packaging material.%通过单因素实验研究了醪糟的最佳加工工艺和瓶装、袋装水浴高温杀菌确定最佳包装技术参数。实验以糯米为原料采用糖化发酵,通过对加工醪糟过程中糯米的浸泡时间、添加酒药的种类、发酵温度、发酵时间以及发酵环境等影响因素的研究,从而选取最佳加工工艺。然后再以该工艺为标准生产醪糟,研究确定了保存醪糟的最佳杀菌时间、温度及包装材料。

  3. Study on Yoghurt by Mixed Fermentation of Coix Seed and Glutinous Rice%薏米和糯米混合发酵酸奶研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚宏丽; 付莉

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] The aim was to develop a new nutritious and healthy yoghurt with special flavor by combining the nutritional characteristics of coix seed and glutinous rice. [ Method ] A new nutritional yoghurt was produced by the mixed fermentation of coix seed and glutinous rice. [ Result ] The best mixture ratio of coix seed mush ( 1∶ 6 of coix seed to water) to glutinous rice mush ( 1∶ 7 of glutinous rice to water) is 1∶ 2 with 6% of sucrose, 0.25% of citric acid, 0.10% of Xanthan gum, 0.12% of CMC-Na and 0.08% of sucrose ester. [ Conclusion] The study could provide references for the mixed development and application of coix seed and glutinous rice.%[目的]开发结合薏米和糯米本身营养特点、具有独特口味及营养丰富的一款新型功能健康发酵酸奶.[方法]以薏米和糯米为主要原料,通过混合发酵,得到一款营养丰富的功能性酸奶.[结果]薏米和糯米的最佳配比为:薏米乳(料水比1∶6) 和糯米浆(料水比1∶7) 之比为1∶2,蔗糖6.00%,柠檬酸0.25%,黄原胶 0.10%,CMC-Na 0.12%,蔗糖酯0.08%.[结论]该研究可为薏米和糯米的综合开发应用提供参考.

  4. 甜味糯米籺保鲜工艺研究%Fresh - keeping technology of sweet glutinous rice He

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙国勇; 左映平; 侯红瑞

    2016-01-01

    The sweet glutinous rice He(a kind of cake)was prepared with glutinous rice flour,rice flour and brown sugar. The process was formation with moulds,steam,cooling,vacuum packaging,and steri-lizing. The effect of cooking time,cooling time ,sterilization temperature and time on the fresh - keeping and sensory quality of the cake was analyzed. The optimal process was:cooking time 1. 5 h,cooling time 20 min,sterilization temperature 121 ℃ and sterilization time 15 min. The total number of colonies was 1 300 cfu / g in vacuum packaging cold storage(5 ~ 8 ℃)for 120 days,the number of coliforms less than 3 MPN/ g. The total number of colonies was 1 200 cfu / g in vacuum packed frozen storage (less than -12 ℃)for 180 days,the number of coliforms less than 3 MPN/ g. Pathogenic bacteria were not detected. The taste and flavor of glutinous rice He is still excellent after being stored. So glutinous rice He can be stored in a vacuum packaging at 5 ~ 8 ℃ for 120 days,at - 12 ℃ for 180 days.%以糯米粉、粳米粉、黄糖等为主要原料,经模具成型、蒸煮、冷却、真空包装、杀菌等工序生产甜味糯米籺,分析蒸煮时间、冷却时间、杀菌温度与杀菌时间对甜味糯米籺保鲜效果及感官品质的影响。得出最佳工艺:蒸煮时间为1.5 h,冷却时间为20 min,杀菌温度为121℃,杀菌时间为15 min。检测得甜味糯米籺真空包装冷藏(5~8℃)120 d,菌落总数为1300 cfu / g,大肠菌群数为<3 MPN/ g;真空包装冻藏(低于12℃)180 d,菌落总数1200 cfu / g,大肠菌群<3 MPN/ g;致病菌均未检出。糯米籺外观色泽较好,试吃后口感、风味仍优。甜味糯米?在真空包装下冷藏(5~8℃)可储藏120 d,冻藏(低于12℃)可储藏180 d。

  5. “蛋饼早餐”工艺研究%Glutinous Rice-Duck Egg and Duck Egg Pancake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张寅

    2016-01-01

    文章以咸鸭蛋为核心原料,一物二用,以其蛋黄为基础制作糯米鸭蛋,以其蛋清为基础制作鸭蛋煎饼。采用正交试验,优化糯米鸭蛋的调味料配比,选取生抽、黄酒、白糖、盐为影响因素,进行感官评价。结果表明,糯米鸭蛋的最佳配方为在1000g馅料中加入生抽15mL、黄酒30mL、白糖6g、盐1g。鸭蛋煎饼以口感为指标,考察和面时沸水及冷水的用量。结果表明,制作500g煎饼需预先100mL沸水和面,再加入100mL冷水,最后加入150g蛋清,这样制得的煎饼有较好的口感。%This research selects salted duck egg as major ingredients to develop two dishes. Yolk of salted duck egg is used to make Glutinous Rice-Duck Egg. Egg white of salted duck egg is used to make Duck Egg Pan-cakes. This paper employs orthogonal experiments to optimize the formulation of Glutinous Rice-Duck Egg, taking light soy sauce, yellow rice wine, sugar and salt as the four factors for sensory evaluation. The results show that the optimum formula is 1000g fillings, 15mL light soy sauce, 30mL yellow rice wine, 6g sugar and 1g salt. The dough mixing process of Duck Egg Pancake was studied by amounts of boiling water and cold wa-ter . The results of sensory evaluation show that adding boiling water of 100 mL first followed by 100 mL cold wa-ter and 150g egg white achieve pancakes with the best texture.

  6. A Study on the Quality of Fast Frozen Dough Made From Glutinous Rice Flour%速冻糯米粉团品质研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙福来; 鲁茂林; 王华; 戴飞

    2001-01-01

    研究发现冷藏过程糯米凝胶脱水收缩作用,能促使速冻糯米粉团冷藏后表面开裂,适当添加猪脂,有利于减缓这个现象发生。通过显微照片分析,发现在粉团中的凝胶脱水收缩后成网状结构。采用正交试验得出的配方为水分40%、凝胶30%、猪脂8.0%,速冻冷藏后糯米粉团表面基本能消除裂纹现象。%It found that the syneresis of glutinous rice in cold storage period would cause cracking in the surface of the fast frozen dough made from glutinous rice flour. However adding appropriate amount of lard in the dough can slow down this phenomenan. Analyzing the microphotograph, it showed that the gel in the dough would become net structure after syneresis cracking. With the formula(40% water, 30% gel, 8.0% lard) from the orthogonal tests, the cracking in the dough of glutinous rice flour can be basically eliminated after cold storage.

  7. Influence of nutrient composition and plant growth regulators on callus induction and plant regeneration in glutinous rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duangsee, K; Bunnag, S

    2014-01-01

    The potential for callus induction and regeneration depends on nutrient composition and plant growth regulators. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of nutrient composition and plant growth regulators on callus induction and plant regeneration in the glutinous rice cultivar Khunvang. The effect of 2,4-D concentrations (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 mg L(-1)) on callus induction and growth were investigated. The results revealed that the highest percentage of callus induction (97%) was observed in MS medium supplemented with 5 mg L(-1) 2,4-D under 16 h Photoperiod. The effects of casein hydrolysate concentrations of casein hydrolysate (0, 300, 500, 700 and 900 mg L(-1)) and proline (0, 300, 500, 700 and 900 mg L(-1)) on callus induction and growth of Khunvang were also observed. The results indicated that the increasing casein hydrolysate and proline concentrations did not show a significant effect on callus growth. However, proline concentration of 900 mg L(-1) yielded 85.67% of callus growth.

  8. Glutinous rice amylopectin can adjust the plasma gut-regulated peptide levels in rhubarb-induced spleen deficiency rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huijuan; Wang, Jing; Liu, Yingli; Sun, Baoguo

    2016-02-01

    The pharmacological effects of glutinous rice (GR) and GR amylopectin (GRA) on the gastrointestine were investigated in rhubarb-induced spleen deficiency rats by determining the levels of gastrointestinal hormones such as the peptides serum gastrin, amylase motilin, and somatostatin. GR and GRA were given by gavage at various doses of GR (7.5, 15, and 30 g per kg body weight) and GRA (3.8, 7.6, and 15 g per kg body weight) every day for 4 weeks, respectively. The results indicated that the final body weight of rats in the highest-dose GR (GRH) group and all the GRA groups significantly (P GRH and highest-dose GRA (GRAH) groups had significantly (P < 0.05) lower somatostatin contents compared with the MC group. Meanwhile, the somatostatin contents were negatively correlated with the motilin levels (r = -0.964, P < 0.01) and amylase contents (r = -0.981, P < 0.01). The GRAH treatment group had the highest final body weight, gastrin contents, motilin levels, and amylase contents and the lowest somatostatin contents, which demonstrated that GRA might play the most important role in the spleen-regulating activities of GR.

  9. 糯米酒制作凝固型酸奶的工艺研究%Production technology of set-style yogurt with glutinous rice wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘婧竟; 乔发东

    2011-01-01

    A kind of set-style yogurt was prepared with the addition of glutinous rice wine. The optimum sterilizafion conditions for glutinous rice wine were 95℃ and 5 min. The optimal total solids content of milk was 16%. The single factor experiments for sucrose content, rice wine content,fermentation temperature, fermentation time and inoculum size were conducted respectively. With sensory evaluation of rice-wine yogurt as indicator,the optimal production technology of rice-wine set yogurt was obtained by orthogonal experiment as follows: sucrose 7%, rice wine 18%, inoculum size 1%, fermentation temperature 42℃ and fermentation time 4h. The addition amount of rice wine had a significant effect on the quality of rice-wine yogurt.%试验利用糯米酒制作凝固型酸奶,米酒发酵液的最适灭菌条件为95℃、5min,原料奶总固体物最佳含量16%.对蔗糖添加量、米酒发酵液添加量、发酵温度、发酵时间和发酵剂添加量做单因素试验,以米酒酸奶的感官评价为指标,通过正交试验,得出凝固型米酒酸奶最佳工艺组合蔗糖添加量7%、米酒发酵液添加量18%、发酵剂添加量1%、发酵温度42℃、发酵时间4h.其中米酒发酵液添加量对米酒酸奶品质影响显著.

  10. 酶制剂对醪糟品质改良效果研究%Study of Enzyme Preparation on Improvement of Quality of Fermented Glutinous Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈书明

    2016-01-01

    The effects of a single enzyme and compound enzyme preparations for the sensory quailty of ferment-ed glutinous rice have been studied by taking the glutinous rice as raw material. The results indicated that single enzyme used, optimum amount of each enzyme were saccharifying enzyme 0.4 g/kg,α-amylase 1.5 g/kg, acid proteinase 0.8 g/kg, isoamylase 1.2 g/kg. Based on the usage of the optimal single enzyme preparations, the op-timal proportion of compound enzyme had been carried out by orthogonal test:saccharifying enzyme 0.3 g/kg,α-amylase 1.0 g/kg, acid proteinase 0.6 g/kg, isoamylase 0.6 g/kg. Under these conditions, the production of fermented glutinous rice was uniform texture, white, shiny, with a unique aroma of fermented glutinous rice, complex flavor, soft texture.%以糯米为原料,研究了单一酶制剂和多种酶制剂复合后对醪糟感官品质的影响。结果表明:使用单一酶制剂时,单一酶制剂最佳添加量分别为:糖化酶0.4 g/kg,α-淀粉酶为1.5 g/kg,酸性蛋白酶为0.8 g/kg,异淀粉酶为1.2 g/kg;在最佳单一酶制剂使用量的基础上,通过正交试验,进一步研究出多种酶共同使用时的最佳配比:糖化酶添加量为0.3 g/kg、α-淀粉酶为1.0 g/kg、酸性蛋白酶添加量为0.6 g/kg、异淀粉酶添加量为0.6 g/kg。该配比下生产的醪糟质地均一、白色、有光泽,具有醪糟特有的醇香,风味复杂,口感柔和。

  11. Breeding of New Hybrid Glutinous Rice Combination ( Oryza sativa L.ssp.Japonic) and Its Characteristics%水稻粳糯杂交新组合的选育及其特征特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新其; 林金元; 殷丽青; 沈革志

    2012-01-01

    选用综合农艺性状优良的粳型寒丰糯( HFwx),与同型的寒丰不育系(HFA)进行杂交、回交转育成粳型糯质新不育系寒丰糯A( HFwxA),与自主选育的粳型糯质恢复系糯恢2号配组育成了杂交粳型糯稻新组合糯杂2号.小区试验和生产示范结果表明,该组合具有高产、优质、抗性强等特点.介绍了糯杂2号的选育经过、产量表现和特征特性.%In this study, we had bred the new hybrid glutinous rice germplasm( Oryza saliva L ssp. Japonic) , named Nuoza No. 2, which was obtained by crossing between HFwxA, a japonica glutinous rice CMS which came from crossing and backcrossing between HFwx ( a japonica glutinous rice variety with good comprehensive charaters) and HFA ( a japonica rice CMS) , and a autonomously bred japonica glutinous restoring line. The results of spot experiment and demonstration trials indicated that the characters of the new combination were high - yielding. Good quality and strong resistance. The breeding and selecting process, yield performance and characteristics of Nuoza No. 2 were introduced.

  12. Raw materials and structure of ancient glutinous rice-lime mortar in China%中国传统糯米-石灰砂浆的原材料和结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨华山; 车玉君; 马小满

    2015-01-01

    Raw materials observed in ancient glutinous rice-lime mortar in China,such as glutinous rice,lime,brown sugar,fine aggre-gate,and clay etc. were investigated in this work. A model was proposed to simulate nonlinear structure in ancient glutinous rice-lime mortar. It was found that the key parameters involved in the model are bifurcation and deflection of fracture energy. The microstructure of glutinous rice-lime mortar were tested by scanning electron microscopic and X-ray diffraction analysis. It was observed that the morphology and size of calcium carbonate were modified by glutinous rice and brown sugar.%研究了中国传统糯米-石灰砂浆的原材料(糯米浆、石灰、红糖浆、河砂和黏土等),并提出了糯米-石灰砂浆的结构模型,该模型刻画了材料的非线性结构。该模型表明,糯米-石灰砂浆的的性能与其结构直接相关,断裂能在其中的分叉和偏转是其强韧化的两个最为关键的要素。糯米-石灰砂浆的微观结构采用SEM和XRD进行分析,测试结果表明:糯米浆和红糖浆对CH碳化反应有一定的影响,CaCO3的晶粒形貌改变和粒度的减小优化了糯米-石灰砂浆的微观结构。

  13. 老北京传统江米酒奶酪的工艺探讨%Investigation the Process of Traditional Old Beijing Glutinous Rice Wine Cheese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗秋水; 徐其华; 蔡菁菁; 汤凯洁

    2014-01-01

    Fresh milk was used as the main raw material by means of the traditional cheese process to pro-duce a glutinous rice wine cheese.The L9 (33 ) orthogonal method was adopted to study the fermentation pa-rameters.This paper describes the effects of different fermentation agents,amounts of sugar and skim milk pow-der on the color,taste,odor,structural status,water holding capacity and texture of glutinous rice wine cheese. The results showed that the optimum amounts of ingredients for the production of glutinous rice wine cheese were as follows:rice wine at 8%, sugar at 4%, and milk powder at 6%.The best quality of products resulted from fermentation at 45℃and incubation for 72h.The sensory evaluation score of this cheese was 97.9,and the water holding capacity was 90.41%.This cheese showed better structural states of flexibility, smoothness and exquisiteness.%以新鲜牛乳为主要原料,根据传统奶酪的工艺生产了江米酒奶酪。采用L9(33)正交实验的方法,研究了不同发酵剂的添加量、糖的添加量以及脱脂乳粉的添加量对江米酒奶酪色泽、滋气味、组织状态、持水力及质构的影响。结果表明:生产江米酒奶酪的最佳工艺条件为米酒添加量为8%,糖添加量为4%,奶粉添加量为6%,恒温45℃培养72 h产品质量最佳。此时奶酪感官评定评分为97.9,持水力为90.41%。组织状态弹性、滑爽性及细腻度都比较好。

  14. Optimization of Processing Technology of the Xinjiang Rose Pomegranate Glutinous Rice Wine%新疆玫瑰石榴糯米酒的酿制优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭焰

    2015-01-01

    以新疆玫瑰和石榴、糯米为原料,研究玫瑰石榴糯米酒的制备工艺。最佳酿造工艺条件为:玫瑰汁:石榴汁为2∶1,发酵温度30℃,发酵时间96 h,米酒曲的添加量为2%。玫瑰石榴糯米酒风味独特、酒香醇厚,其酒精度14.3%,总酸5.1 g/L,总糖138.7 g/L。%With roses and pomegranate in xinjiang , glutinous rice as raw material , study the preparation technology of roses pomegranate glutinous rice wine. Best brewing process condition is:rose juice:pomegranate juice add ratio 2∶1, fermentation temperature 30℃, fermentation time 96 h, mcould add the amount of 2%. Rose pomegranate glutinous rice wine with unique flavour,full-bodied, the alcohol content 14.3%, the total acid 5.1 g/L, total sugar 138.7 g/L.

  15. 螺旋藻甜酒酿的研制%Study on the progressing technology of spiruluna sweeten glutinous rice wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田亚红; 王巍杰; 刘辉

    2011-01-01

    Spiruluna was deodorized by the method of heating and shelter, the optimal deodorization technology was gained. Using the spirulina and sticky rice as the main materials,the spirulina sweeten glutinous rice wine was fermented by Rhizopus sp. and yeast. Two processing procedures were prepared. The optimum processing procedure and parameters were determined by contrast and orthogonal experiment. The results showed the best technological parameters of fermentation were as follows:the rate of sticky rice and spirulina 10:2, fermentation temperature 28℃, fermentation time 72 hours, the proportion of adding Koji 1.5%.The product had abundant nutrition,delicious flavour and healthcare function.%采用加热法和掩蔽法对螺旋藻进行脱腥处理实验,从而确定最佳脱腥工艺.以螺旋藻和糯米为主要原料,通过根霉、酵母糖化发酵,采用两种工艺流程,通过对比实验和正交实验分别确定出最佳工艺流程和工艺参数:糯米与螺旋藻的质量比10:2,发酵温度28℃.发酵时间72h,加曲量1.5%.在此工艺条件下,研制出了一种营养丰富、酒味鲜美并具有保健作用的螺旋藻甜酒酿.

  16. 微波热风两段式干燥法生产婴幼儿保健糯米粉%Production of infant health glutinous rice powder by two stages method of microwave and hot air drying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凤霞; 蒋欣欣; 陈守江; 于雷; 江铃

    2012-01-01

    In order to prevent the taste cold empty and abdominal distension diarrhea of infants,the edible traditional Chinese medicine poria cocos,dioscorea opposita thunb,lotus seed,and jujube were added into glutinous rice powder,and then the health glutinous rice powder was developed for infants.The curves of hot air and microwave drying were drawn based on a single factor experiment,and the best drying parameters were determined according to the orthogonal test under two dry optimal conditions,the best proportion of raw materials was determined by other orthogonal experiments.The results showed that the best parameters of dying were microwave 300W,1.5min,and then hot air drying 70℃,2h.The best ratio of raw material was 14g poria cocos and jujube,10g dioscorea opposita thunb,8g lotus seed were added into 100g glutinous rice,and 24% xylitol was added after being smashed.The combination drying method of hot-air drying with microwave drying could effectively keep raw natural composition and good sensory properties when health care glutinous rice powder was produced.%以糯米粉为基料,添加药食同源的中药茯苓、淮山药、莲子、红枣,开发一种能调理婴幼儿脾胃虚寒、腹胀腹泻的即食型糯米粉。依据单因素实验绘制热风和微波干燥曲线,并根据两种干燥的最适条件进行正交实验,确定最佳干燥参数;然后用正交实验对原辅料进行最佳配比实验。结果表明:原辅料最佳配比为100g基料中添加茯苓和红枣各14g,淮山药10g,莲子8g;先用300W微波干燥1.5min,后70℃热风干燥2h;粉碎后添加24%的木糖醇。采用微波热风联合干燥法生产即食型保健糯米粉可有效保持原料固有成分,且具有良好的感官性状。

  17. 模糊数学感官评价法优化糯米团制作工艺%The optimization of technology making glutinous rice ball by fuzzy mathematics sensory evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志超; 周显青; 张乃建; 张玉荣; 赵希雷

    2015-01-01

    为优化糯米团制作工艺获得品质良好的糯米团,采用单因素和正交试验对粳米粉添加量、加水量和蒸制时间等因素进行研究。用模糊数学评价法评价糯米团品质,对糯米团色泽、气味、外观结构和适口性感官评价权重进行分析,同时,采用仪器对样品的塌陷度和质构特性进行测定。结果表明:糯米团品质权重集 K =(色泽0.21,气味0.19,外观结构0.24,适口性0.36);模糊数学综合评价优化试验结果表明,影响糯米团感官品质因素主次顺序为粳米粉添加量>加水量>蒸制时间,最佳工艺条件为粳米粉添加量25%、加水量58%、蒸制时间20 min,与塌陷度和质构正交试验结果相同。模糊数学评价方法与仪器分析方法结果一致,验证了模糊数学感官评定方法优化糯米团制作工艺的可行性和准确性。%In order to optimize the processing conditions for making higher quality glutinous rice ball,the key processing factors such as the addition amount of rice flour and water and steaming time were investi-gated by the methods of single factor experiment and orthogonal experiment.The quality of glutinous rice ball was evaluated by the fuzzy mathematics comprehensive evaluation according to the weights analysis of sensory evaluation about color,smell,appearance structure and palatability of glutinous rice ball.Mean-while collapse degree and texture of the samples were both measured by instrument.The results showed that the quality weight sets was K =(color 0.21,smell 0.19,appearance structure 0.24,palatability 0.36).When glutinous rice ball was evaluated by the fuzzy mathematics comprehensive evaluation,it was turned out that the sensory quality was influenced in ascending order,i.e.addition amount of gluti-nous rice flour >addition amount of water >steaming time,and the optimal processing condition was 25%rice flour,58% water and steaming time 20min,which was

  18. Newly-designed Traditional Glutinous Rice-lime Mortar with Micron-nano-particles%微纳米复合掺和料对传统糯米-石灰砂浆强度的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨华山; 车玉君; 江华利; 林戈; 魏东

    2015-01-01

    Portland cement and polymers have low chemical and physical affinity for traditional building materials .This hinders the restoration of historical buildings .Glutinous rice-lime mortars (GLM ) used in construction since ancient times in China were recov‐ered ,and attempts were made to enhance their performances .Micron particles ,such as limestone ,fly ash and slag ,with silicon fume contained nano-particles were selected on the basis of their properties .Flexural strength and compressive strength of GLM with micron-nano-particles were measured .Test results show that the mechanical performances of newly-designed traditional GLM were improved .And they are compatible with ancient building materials in China ,so it can be used in the restoration of architectural heritage .%水泥基修补材料和高分子修补材料与古迹本体材料存在相容性问题,不利于古迹的修复工作。糯米-石灰砂浆是中国古代传统的一种建筑材料,拟挖掘并提升其性能用于古迹的修补。分别采用石灰石粉、粉煤灰和矿粉等微米级掺和料与硅灰复合,研究微纳米掺和料对糯米-石灰砂浆强度的影响。试验研究的结果表明,微纳米复合掺和料提高了糯米石灰砂浆的力学性能。这种材料与中国古代建筑材料相容,可用于古迹的修复工作。

  19. 超级黑糯玉米芯色素的抗肿瘤和体外抗氧化作用%Anti-Cancer Effect and Antioxidant Activity of Super Black Glutinous Corncob Pigment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冉颖霞; 宫坤; 周杨; 张庭廷

    2012-01-01

    In order to research the inhibitory effect on cancer cell and in vitro antioxidant activity of super black glutinous corncob pigment (SBCP). The growth inhibition of SBCP on human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line BEL-7402 and gastric cancer cell line SGC- 7901 in vitro were measured by MTT assay. In vitro chemical simulated systems, the abilities of SBCP to scavenge DPPH radical, hydroxyl radical, superoxide anion radical as well as reducing power were tested using colorimetric methods, and compared with ascorbic acid (Vc). Results showed that SBCP had significant inhibitory effect on proliferation of the BEL-7402 cells and SGC-7901 cells, and the inhibition increasing with the increase of SBCP concentration. IC50 of SBCP BEL - 7402 and SGC- 7901 were respective 4. 13mg/mL and 3. 83mg/mL. SBCP also had obviously antioxidant effect. Compared with the effects of Vc, the abilities to scavenge hydroxyl radical, superoxide anion radical as well as reducing power of SBCP were 1. 40, 1. 23 and 1. 77 times than that of Vc respectivily, only the ability of scavenge DPPH radical was lower than Vc. Conclusions SBCP has potentially application value in cancer prevent and therapy as well as health food. SBCP has good antioxidant activity in vitro.%为研究超级黑糯玉米芯色素(super black glutinous corncob pigment,SBCP)对肿瘤细胞的增殖抑制效应和体外抗氧化活性.采用MTT法检测了SBCP对人肝癌细胞系BEL-7402以及胃癌细胞系SGC-7901增殖的影响;在体外化学模拟的条件下,通过建立DPPH自由基、羟基自由基、超氧阴离子自由基、还原力试验,采用比色法测定对比了SBCP和抗坏血酸(Vc)对DPPH自由基、羟基自由基和超氧阴离子的清除作用以及还原能力.结果表明SBCP对BEL-7402细胞和SGC--7901细胞增殖有明显的抑制作用,且随药物浓度的增大而增强;SBCP对两种肿瘤细胞的半数抑制浓度(IC50)分别为4.13 mg/mL和3.83 mg/mL.SBCP还具有较好的抗氧化

  20. Separation, Purification and Identification of Antioxidant Compositions in Black Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ming-wei; GUo Bao-jiang; ZHANG Rui-fen; CHI Jian-wei; WEI Zhen-cheng; XU Zhi-hong; ZHANG Yan; TANG Xiao-jun

    2006-01-01

    To separate, purify and identify the antioxidative compositions of black rice, using total antioxidation capacity (TAC) as an activity-monitoring parameter, different fractions of black rice antioxidative extracts were obtained using solvents of different polarities such as petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and normal butyl alcohol. The main antioxidative components were separated from the strongest antioxidative fractions by using Sephadex LH-20 resin and the structures were analyzed by ultraviolet-vis, infra-red, ESI-MS, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectrums. Results showed that the water fraction and normal butyl alcohol antioxidative extract fraction of black rice had the strongest antioxidation capacities and their TACs reached 383 and 392 ku g-1, respectively. Four main antioxidative components were separated from the water fraction and their TACs reached 976, 878, 1 134 and 1087 ku g-1, respectively. The spectroscopy analysis indicated that the four active components of the antioxidative extract of black rice were four anthocyanin compounds of malvidin, pelargonidin3, 5-diglucoside, cyaniding-3-glucoside and cyaniding-3, 5-diglucoside. It is concluded that the anthocyanin compounds are the most important substantial foundations for antioxidation.

  1. The Potency of White Rice (Oryza sativa), Black Rice (Oryza sativa L. indica), and Red Rice (Oryza nivara) as Antioxidant and Tyrosinase Inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batubara, I.; Maharni, M.; Sadiah, S.

    2017-04-01

    Rice is known to have many beneficial biological activities and is often used as “bedak dingin”, a face powder. The content of vitamins, minerals, fiber, and several types of antioxidants, such as ferulic acid, phytic acid, tocopherol, and oryzanols [1-2] are predicted to be potential as a tyrosinase inhibitor. The purpose of this study is to determine the potency of extracts from there types of rice, namely white, red, and black rice as an antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitor. The rice was extracted with three different solvents, n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol. The results showed that the highest antioxidant activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl method was found in the methanol extract of black rice (IC50 290 μg/mL). Meanwhile, ethyl acetate extract of white rice has the highest antioxidant activity withphosphomolybdic acid method (41 mmol α-tocopherol equivalents/g sample). Thus, methanol extract of black rice and ethyl acetate extract of white rice are potential as an antioxidant. For tyrosinase inhibitor, n-hexane extract of red rice (IC50 3156 μg/mL) was the most active extract. The active component for radical scavenging is polar compound and for antioxidant by phosphomolybdate method is less polar compounds in black rice methanol extract based on TLC bioautogram. In conclusion, the black rice is the most potent in antioxidant while red rice is for tyrosinase inhibition.

  2. Physicochemical and antioxidative properties of black, brown and red rice varieties of northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noppawat Pengkumsri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Rice, the seed of Oryza species, is the major cereal crop in most of the developing countries. Nearly 95% of global rice production is done in Asian countries, and about half of the world’s population consumes it. Some speciality rices are not commonly consumed. Colored rice is one of such variety. In these varieties, high amounts of anthocyanin pigment are deposited in the rice coat to form its black (also known as purple, brown and red colors. Minimum studies are there to explain the properties of these rice varieties of Thailand. Thus, the current study was aimed to assess the physicochemical and antioxidative properties of three rice varieties (Chiang Mai Black rice, Mali Red rice and Suphanburi-1 Brown rice of different cultivars of northern Thailand. Rice bran extracts of these three cultivars were prepared with different solvents (polar and non-polar for the evaluation of total phytochemical content and anti-oxidant free-radical-scavenging properties. Chiang Mai Black rice contained higher concentration of phenolic acid, flavonoids, and anthocyanins (Cyanidin 3-glucoside, peonidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin chloride. Chiang Mai Black rice is richer in free-radical-scavenging compounds and activities than the other tested varieties. Polar extractions of rice bran are high in anti-oxidative compounds and activities than non-polar extractions.

  3. Detection, Occurrence, and Survey of Rice Stripe and Black-Streaked Dwarf Diseases in Zhejiang Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Heng-mu; WANG Hua-di; YANG Jian; Michael J. ADAMS; CHEN Jian-ping

    2013-01-01

    The major viral diseases that occur on rice plants in Zhejiang Province, eastern China, are stripe and rice black-streaked dwarf diseases. Rice stripe disease is only caused by rice stripe tenuivirus (RSV), while rice black-streaked dwarf disease can be caused by rice black-streaked dwarf fijivirus (RBSDV) and/or southern rice black-streaked dwarf fijivirus (SRBSDV). Here we review the characterization of these viruses, methods for their detection, and extensive surveys showing their occurrence and spread in the province.

  4. Conservation and utilization of rice genetic resources in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Rice genetic resources presents variably in China. There are land races and wild species. cultivated lowland rice and upland rice, indica (Hsien) and japonica (Keng) riee. early, middle, and late rice as well as glutinous and non-glutinous rice. Up to February 2000, a total of 76, 646 rice accessions were catalogued,and 67. 444 base accessions were stored in the National Crop Gene Bank in the Institute of Crop Genetic Resources (ICGR) of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China (Table 1). About 35,000 rice duplicates were stored in China National Rice Research Institute(CNRRI), Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province. China.

  5. 不同储藏期籼糯糙米制作的汤圆食用品质的变化%Changes of edible quality of sweet dumpling produced by milled long-grain glutinous brown rice in different storage periods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷凡; 田春庄; 王月慧

    2016-01-01

    利用质构仪检测籼糯糙米储藏后制成的速冻汤圆食用品质的变化,分成常规组(15、25、35℃)和气调储藏组(自然空气封入、N2 气体封入、CO2 气体封入、真空),整个储藏期为 1 8 0 d,每隔 3 0 d后制成速冻汤圆,检测其各项指标,并对产品进行感官评价.结果显示:各项指标受温度影响均较大,气调方式对其影响不明显;通过汤圆的感官评价发现,储藏前期温度和气调方式对汤圆的食用品质影响不大;在 35℃下 60 d时汤圆的食用品质开始下降,而气调储藏的汤圆食用品质尚佳;其他温度下 90 d后的汤圆食用品质开始下降,气调方式无显著影响.表明15℃低温条件下,气调储藏能更好地保持籼糯糙米制作的汤圆良好的食用品质,且温度越高,气调效果越明显.%The changes of edible quality of sweet dumpling produced by milled long-grain glutinous brown rice in different storage periods were determined using texture analyzer.In this experiment,the long-grain glutinous brown rice were stored in different temperature (15,25 and 35℃)and controlled atmosphere storage (air sealed,N2 sealed,CO2 sealed,vacuum sealed), for 180 d,and every 30 d,the brown rice were made frozen sweet dumpling,the various indexes and the sensory quality were measured.The experimental results showed that the indicators were extremely influenced by temperature,the controlled atmos-phere storage had no obvious influences.Through the sensory evaluations of sweet dumplings,we found that temperature and controlled atmosphere storage had little effects on the edible quality of the dumplings in the early period;at 35℃ the edible qual-ity of sweet dumplings declined after 60 d,but the dumplings in controlled atmosphere storage had no changes;the edible quality of sweet dumplings began to decline after 90 d under other temperature conditions,the controlled atmosphere storage had no ob-vious effects.It indicated that 1 5℃ low temperature

  6. Screening of Rice Genes Interacting with p5b of Rice Black-Streaked Dwarf Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Ying; YANG Jian; ZHANG Heng-mu; CHEN Jian-ping

    2013-01-01

    Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) is a recognized member of the genus Fijivirus,family Reoviridae.Its genome has ten double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) segments (S1-S10),in which the fifth genome segment (S5) contains two open reading frames (ORFs) with a partially overlapping region.The second ORF of RBSDV S5 encodes a viral nonstructural protein named p5b with unknown function.To reveal the function of p5b,its gene was ligated into the bait plasmid pGBKT7 and an expression library containing rice cDNAs was constructed using plasmid pGADT7 for yeast two-hybrid assay.The bait protein p5b was detected in yeast by western blot,and the result of an auto-activation test showed that p5b could not autonomously activate the expression of reporter genes in yeast.Then the bait protein p5b was used for screening the cDNA expression libraries of rice.Gene fragments of some pivotal enzymes involved in photosynthesis,respiration and other important metabolic processes,were identified to interact with p5b in yeast,suggesting that these interactions may play roles in symptom development in infected plants.

  7. The use of induced mutation combined with crossing in high quality rice breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Do Huu At; Bui Huy Thuy; Nguyen Van Bich; Tran Duy Quy [Agricultural Genetics Institute, Division of Genetics and Hybrid Rice Technology, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Nguyen Minh Cong [Hanoi No. 1 Teacher Training Univ., Department of Genetics (Viet Nam)

    2001-03-01

    The high quality rice varieties: Tam thom mutant rice Var., DT17 rice Var, DT21 glutinous rice Var were formed by induced mutation combined with crossing. Tam thom mutant rice Var. lost photosensitivity, could be planted 2 crops/year. DT17 rice Var with high yielding capacity, suitable for growth on lowland in summer crop, is replacing step-by-step Moctuyen rice Var. in North Vietnam. DT21 glutinous rice Var. could be planted 2 crops/year and had short growth duration, average yield was 4.0-4.5 tons/ha. These three ones had good quality, soft and scent cooked rice, suitable for customers and export requirements. Tam thom mutant rice Var. DT17 rice Var., DT21 and glutinous rice Var. were adopted for regional production by Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development and allowed to be in trial production. (author)

  8. Low Alcohol Fermented Wine of Black Glutinous Rice%黑糯米低醇发酵酒生产工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋淑红; 申灵

    2010-01-01

    以黑糯米为原料,采用固态发酵工艺,通过正交试验,确定了黑糯米低醇发酵酒的最佳工艺条件:甜酒曲质量分数为1%,酒母质量分数为2%,发酵温度为15℃,发酵时间为48 h,可得营养丰富、口味鲜美的黑糯米酒.

  9. Ecological Fitness of Non-vector Planthopper Sogatella furcifera on Rice Plants Infected with Rice Black Streaked Dwarf Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Xiao-chan; XU Hong-xing; ZHENG Xu-song; YANG Ya-jun; GAO Guang-chun; PAN Jian-hong; LU Zhong-xian

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of rice black streak dwarf virus (RBSDV)-infested rice plants on the ecological parameters and its relevant defensive and detoxification enzymes of white-backed planthopper (WBPH) in laboratory for exploring the relationship between RBSDV and the non-vector planthopper.The results showed that nymph survival rate,female adult weight and fecundity,and egg hatchability of WBPH fed on RBSDV-infested rice plants did not markedly differ from those on healthy plants,whereas the female adult longevity and egg duration significantly shortened on diseased plants.Furthermore,significantly higher activities of defensive enzymes (dismutase,catalase and peroxidase) and detoxification enzymes (acetylcholinesterase,carboxylesterase and glutathione S-transferase) were found in WBPH adults fed on infected plants.Results implied that infestation by RBSDV increased the ecological fitness of non-vector planlhopper population.

  10. Thermal cooking changes the profile of phenolic compounds, but does not attenuate the anti-inflammatory activities of black rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sassy Bhawamai

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidence on biological activities of cooked black rice is limited. This study examined the effects of washing and cooking on the bioactive ingredients and biological activities of black rice. Methods: Cooked rice was prepared by washing 0–3 times followed by cooking in a rice cooker. The acidic methanol extracts of raw and cooked rice were used for the analyses. Results: Raw black rice, both washed and unwashed, had higher contents of polyphenols, anthocyanins, and cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G, but lower protocatechuic acid (PA, than did cooked samples. Similarly, raw rice extracts were higher in ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP activities than extracts of cooked samples. Nonetheless, extracts of raw and cooked rice showed similar inhibitory potencies on nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6 productions in lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages, whereas equivalent amounts of C3G and PA did not possess such inhibitory effects. Conclusions: Thermal cooking decreased total anthocyanin and C3G contents and the FRAP antioxidative capacity, but did not affect anti-inflammatory activities of black rice. Neither C3G nor PA contributed to the anti-inflammatory activity of black rice.

  11. Thermal cooking changes the profile of phenolic compounds, but does not attenuate the anti-inflammatory activities of black rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhawamai, Sassy; Lin, Shyh-Hsiang; Hou, Yuan-Yu; Chen, Yue-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Background Evidence on biological activities of cooked black rice is limited. This study examined the effects of washing and cooking on the bioactive ingredients and biological activities of black rice. Methods Cooked rice was prepared by washing 0–3 times followed by cooking in a rice cooker. The acidic methanol extracts of raw and cooked rice were used for the analyses. Results Raw black rice, both washed and unwashed, had higher contents of polyphenols, anthocyanins, and cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G), but lower protocatechuic acid (PA), than did cooked samples. Similarly, raw rice extracts were higher in ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) activities than extracts of cooked samples. Nonetheless, extracts of raw and cooked rice showed similar inhibitory potencies on nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6 productions in lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages, whereas equivalent amounts of C3G and PA did not possess such inhibitory effects. Conclusions Thermal cooking decreased total anthocyanin and C3G contents and the FRAP antioxidative capacity, but did not affect anti-inflammatory activities of black rice. Neither C3G nor PA contributed to the anti-inflammatory activity of black rice. PMID:27652685

  12. Special rice in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Xianggu Rice: The rice originated from Jiangyong County, Hunan Province. Its characteristics were: even in grain shape, white in color, special fragrant in taste, and sticky in quality. Handongzao: It was from Wannian County, Jiangxi Province. The rice had big, fertile, and white grain, which was soft with fragrant smell, and it had high head rice rate. So, the local peasants liked to plant it. It was one of the "Tribute rice " in old time. Shizhu "Imperial Rice": The rice was also called "Fragrant Rice", was from Siyuan Village, Yuelai Town, Shizhu County, Sichuan Province. It was the treasure among the rices. The grain was bright in color. When it was cooked, the smell was fragrant. It was said that the rice was from "Han Dynasty", and has become the "Tribute Rice " since then. Blood Glutinous Rice: Originated from Changshu City, Jiangsu Province, the rice has been cultivated more than one hundred years. It had high nutrition value. Among the people, the Blood Glutinous Rice was often used as health food for lying-in women and patients. Qufu Fragrant Rice: Its characteristics were: clean, bright, and translucent in grain color, sticky in quality. It was suitable for cooking gruel and was also called "Fragrant Rice" in the local due to its strong fragrance. It was one of the "Tribute Rice" in old time. Taihu Lake Fragrant Japonica: The rice was from the Region of Taihu Lake, Jiangsu Province. The characteristics were: even and big in grain shape, soft in quality, white in color, fragrant in taste. The local people liked to plant and eat it.□ (To be continued) Translated by CHEN Wenhua, From "China Rice",No.1,1994

  13. Effect of Various Types of Herbs on Sensory Properties and Blood Glucosa Response Adan Instant Black Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernatal Saragih

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE Management based on the carbohydrate diet is very important to do and not to be avoided but how diet and variations of carbohydrate consumed is set mainly the source of rice that does not fast respond to an increase in blood glucose. Therefore, Evaluation of nutritional and instant rice production that is the functional food and have a low glycemic index rice sourced locally as the East Kalimantan native rice black Adan will be very beneficial for health. The aim of this research was to evaluate of the nutritional and effect of various herbal on sensory properties and blood glucose response Adan instant black rice. Adan black rice has a protein content of 8.10%, Fe 3.61 mg/1000g and 3.33 g/100g total dietary fiber and includes a group of rice with low amylose. Organoleptic value of instant rice black Adan produced the most preferred by panellists also from the addition of ginger extract and pandan leaves , water, onion tiwai, tea and last turmeric. The digestibility of starch decreased 19.04 (mg/1000g after being a functional of instant rice black Adan. Difference in reduction of blood glucose levels in volunteers who consumed black Adan instant rice by 14.20 mg/dL, whereas the provision of a reference food (glucose of 71.50 mg/dL, this indicates of instant rice functional black Adan provide availability of glucose in the blood longer available.

  14. Protective effects of black rice bran against chemically-induced inflammation of mouse skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated the inhibitory effects of black rice (cv. LK1-3-6-12-1-1) bran against 12-O-tetradecanolylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced skin edema and 2,4-dinitroflurobenzene (DNFB)-induced allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in inflammatory mouse models. We also determined the effects of the bran...

  15. Effect of rice variety on the physicochemical properties of the modified rice powders and their derived mucoadhesive gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okonogi, Siriporn; Kaewpinta, Adchareeya; Khongkhunthian, Sakornrat; Yotsawimonwat, Songwut

    2015-06-01

    In the present study; the glutinous Niaw Sanpatong (NSP) and Niaw Koko-6 (NKK), and the non-glutinous Jasmine (JM) and Saohai (SH) were chemically modified. The difference of these rice varieties on the physicochemical characteristics of the modified rice powders and the properties of the derived gels were evaluated. X-ray diffractometer was used for crystalline structure investigation of the rice powders and gels. A parallel plate rheometer was used to measure the rheological property of the gels. It was found that the non-glutinous varieties produced gels with higher mucoadhesive properties than the glutinous rice. Rheological behavior of JM and SH gels was pseudoplastic without yield value whereas that of NSP and NKK gels was plastic with the yield values of 1077.4 ± 185.9 and 536.1 ± 45.8 millipascals-second (mPas), respectively. These different properties are considered to be due to the amylose content in different rice variety. The results suggest that the non-glutinous rice varieties with high amylose content are the most suitable for preparing gels as local delivery systems via the mucosal membrane.

  16. Effects of Aqueous Extract of Unpolished Dark Purple Glutinous Rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    days of treatment, memory was tested using passive avoidance (PA) and Morris water maze (MWM) tests. Results: ... people older than 65 years [1]. At present, the ... be a critical element in producing dementia [2] and the ... studying cognitive deficits in experimental animals [3]. ..... flavonoids may delay the development of.

  17. Elemental Content in Brown Rice by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy Reveals the Evolution of Asian Cultivated Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yawen Zeng; Luxiang Wang; Juan Du; Jiafu Liu; Shuming Yang; Xiaoying Pu; Fenghui Xiao

    2009-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationship for classification traits and eight mineral elements in brown rice (Oryza sativa L.) from Yunnan Province in China was carried out using microwave assisted digestion followed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, and the analytical procedures were carefully controlled and validated. In general, the results show that the mean levels of K, Ca, Mg, Fe and Cu in brown rice for 789 accessions of rice landraces was distinctly lower than that of improved cultivars. They further demonstrate that Ca plays an important role in the differentiation of subspecies indica-japonica, especially to enhance adaptation of cold stress, and that five mineral elements in brown rice enhance the eurytopicity from landrace to improved cultivar. Hierarchical cluster analysis, using average linkage from SPSS software based on eight mineral elements in brown rice, showed that Yunnan rice could be grouped into rice landrace and improved cultivar, with the rice landrace being further clustered into five subgroups, and that, interestingly, purple rice does not cluster with either of the groups. Our present data confirm that indica is the closest relative of late rice and white rice, and that they constitute rice landraces together, whereas japonica is the closest relatives of non-nuda, early-mid and glutinous rice. It is further shown that japonica, non-nuda, early-mid, glutinous, white and red rice might be more primitive than indica, nuda, late, non-glutinous and purple rice, respectively.

  18. iTRAQ-Based Quantitative Proteomics Analysis of Black Rice Grain Development Reveals Metabolic Pathways Associated with Anthocyanin Biosynthesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Linghua; Huang, Yining; Xu, Ming; Cheng, Zuxin; Zhang, Dasheng; Zheng, Jingui

    2016-01-01

    .... The aim of the present study was to determine changes in the metabolic pathways that are involved in the dynamic grain proteome during the development of black rice indica cultivar, (Oryza sativa L. indica var. SSP...

  19. Physiological and biochemical parameters for evaluation and clustering of rice cultivars differing in salt tolerance at seedling stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumitahnun Chunthaburee

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Salinity tolerance levels and physiological changes were evaluated for twelve rice cultivars, including four white rice and eight black glutinous rice cultivars, during their seedling stage in response to salinity stress at 100 mM NaCl. All the rice cultivars evaluated showed an apparent decrease in growth characteristics and chlorophyll accumulation under salinity stress. By contrast an increase in proline, hydrogen peroxide, peroxidase (POX activity and anthocyanins were observed for all cultivars. The K+/Na+ ratios evaluated for all rice cultivars were noted to be highly correlated with the salinity scores thus indicating that the K+/Na+ ratio serves as a reliable indicator of salt stress tolerance in rice. Principal component analysis (PCA based on physiological salt tolerance indexes could clearly distinguish rice cultivars into 4 salt tolerance clusters. Noteworthy, in comparison to the salt-sensitive ones, rice cultivars that possessed higher degrees of salt tolerance displayed more enhanced activity of catalase (CAT, a smaller increase in anthocyanin, hydrogen peroxide and proline content but a smaller drop in the K+/Na+ ratio and chlorophyll accumulation.

  20. Hairpin RNA Targeting Multiple Viral Genes Confers Strong Resistance to Rice Black-Streaked Dwarf Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangquan Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV belongs to the genus Fijivirus in the family of Reoviridae and causes severe yield loss in rice-producing areas in Asia. RNA silencing, as a natural defence mechanism against plant viruses, has been successfully exploited for engineering virus resistance in plants, including rice. In this study, we generated transgenic rice lines harbouring a hairpin RNA (hpRNA construct targeting four RBSDV genes, S1, S2, S6 and S10, encoding the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, the putative core protein, the RNA silencing suppressor and the outer capsid protein, respectively. Both field nursery and artificial inoculation assays of three generations of the transgenic lines showed that they had strong resistance to RBSDV infection. The RBSDV resistance in the segregating transgenic populations correlated perfectly with the presence of the hpRNA transgene. Furthermore, the hpRNA transgene was expressed in the highly resistant transgenic lines, giving rise to abundant levels of 21–24 nt small interfering RNA (siRNA. By small RNA deep sequencing, the RBSDV-resistant transgenic lines detected siRNAs from all four viral gene sequences in the hpRNA transgene, indicating that the whole chimeric fusion sequence can be efficiently processed by Dicer into siRNAs. Taken together, our results suggest that long hpRNA targeting multiple viral genes can be used to generate stable and durable virus resistance in rice, as well as other plant species.

  1. 黑米米粉条的研制%Research and manufacture of black rice noodles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴素萍

    2011-01-01

    Black rice is rich not only in protein, 17 kinds of amino acids, fat, vitamin, minerals, 14 kinds of elements, such as Fe, Zn and Cu, but also contains the dietary fiber, unsaturated fatty acids, procyanidins, flavonoids and physiologically active substances, such as alkaloids. The technological process and influencing factors of black rice noodles were discussed in this paper. The process conditions for black rice noodles were studied through single-factor test and orthogonal experiment, so the optimum process parameters were obtained, that are: by using the cooking way, grinding degree: 80 meshes; wheat flour addition: 3.5%; water addition: 55%; gelatinization time: 6min; gelatinization temperature: 95℃. The black rice noodles made in this way are tasty and refreshing, with low pistachio soup degree, low ratio of broken noodles and good toughness, which is more conducive to nutrients absorption of black rice.%黑米不仅含有丰富的蛋白质、17种氨基酸、脂肪、维生素、矿物质及Fe、Zn、Cu等14种元素,还含有膳食纤维、不饱和脂肪酸、花青素、黄酮、生物碱等生理活性物质.对黑米米粉条的工艺过程及影响因素进行探讨,通过单因素试验和正交试验研究黑米米粉条的工艺条件,得到最佳工艺参数,即:采用煮制的方式,粉碎粒度80目,小麦粉添加量3.5%,加水量55%,糊化时间6 min,糊化温度95℃.制作出的黑米米粉条口感爽滑,浑汤程度低,断条率低,韧性好,有利于对黑米营养成分的吸收.

  2. Two-line Hybrid Glutinous Sorghum Variety Xiangliangyou Nuoliang 1 and Its Processed Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Sorghum subspecies and varieties in China Chinese sorghum has two species according to their grain's glutinousness degree: the Jing subspecies (not glutinous) and glutinous subspecies. Most hybrid sorghum varieties in commercial production in the country at present belong to the Jing subspecies grown in the northern China which is highly yielding but without satisfactory marketing price because of their poor palatability and less satisfactory spirit making quality. In comparison to the Jing varieties,the glutinous mostly grown in the south are local cultivars which often have fine table quality but low grain yield,and thus,their cultivation can't be expanded wide in the country.

  3. Morphological and starch structural characteristics of the Japonica rice mutant variety Seolgaeng for dry-milled flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Producing fine, good quality rice flour is more difficult than wheat flour because the rice grain is harder. In this study, we analyzed the relationship between the morphology and starch of kernels from genetically different rice varieties that can be used to make dry-milled flour. The non-glutinous...

  4. 黑米酒的营养保健功效%Health Function of the Black Rice Wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑向华; 叶宁; 程朝平; 杨德卫; 叶新福

    2014-01-01

    论述了黑米酒的酿制工艺,着重阐述了其中的营养成分及其保健功效,并介绍了目前市场上较有代表性的新型保健黑米酒。%This paper discussed the black rice wine brewing process, emphatically elaborated the nutrition and health care effect, and finally introduced the market at present is representative of the new health care black rice wine.

  5. Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus: A new proposed Fijivirus species in the family Reoviridae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU GuoHui; WEN JingJung; CAI DeJiang; LI Peng; XU DongLin; ZHANG ShuGuang

    2008-01-01

    For the past several years, a novel dwarf disease has been observed on rice (Oryza sativa) in some regions of Guangdong Province and Hainan Province, southern China. Infected plants showed stunting,dark leaf and small enations on stem and leaf back. Typical Fijivirus viroplasma containing crystalline arrayed spherical virons approximately 70-75 nm in diameter and tubular structures were detected in ultrathin sections by an electron microscope in parenchyma phloem cells of the infected plants. The virus was transmitted to rice seedlings by white-backed planthoppers, Sogatella furcifera (Hemiptera:Delphacidae), collected in the diseased fields. Analysis of dsRNA extracts from infected plants revealed ten linear segments, which were similar to the electrophoretic profile of Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV). RT-PCR with a single primer which matched to a linker sequence ligated to both 3' ends of the viral genomic dsRNAs resulted in amplification of genome segments 9 (S9) and 10 (S10) cDNA products. The complete nucleotide sequences of S9 and S10 were obtained from clones of the RT-PCR amplicon exhibited characteristic properties of Fijivirus including low GC content (34.5% and 35.6%), genus conserved 5' and 3' termini sequences and similar genome organization. Blast searches indicated that the sequences of S9 and S10 shared 68.8%-74.9% and 67.1 %-77.4% nucleotide identities with those of viruses in the Fijivirus group 2, respectively. These values were similar to those among other viruses in the Fijivirus group 2 and considerably lower than those among RBSDV isolates. Phylogenetic trees based on S9 and S10 nucleotide sequences and their putative amino acid sequences showed that this virus represented a separate branch among other Fijiviruses. The virus was also detected by a nested RT-PCR assay in corn (Zea mays), barnyard grass (Echinochloa crusgalli), Juncellus serotinus and flaccidgrass (Pennisetum flaccidum) in and/or adjacent to the infected rice fields

  6. 一种快速鉴别黑米真伪的方法%A Rapid Identification Method of Authenticity of Black Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包娜; 谭红; 杨昌彪; 谢锋; 赵红波; 何锦林

    2011-01-01

    A rapid method to identify the authenticity of black rice is proposed in this paper based on the fact that the black rice pigment which is the characteristic component of black rice shows different colors at various pH values and its main component anthocyanin can form complexes with ferrous. The method is described as follows: drop the extracting solution of black rice on the blank qualitative filter paper and alkaline filter paper respectively, and observe the colour changes of the above filter paper with the naked eye. After a few seconds, drop ferrous sulfate solution on the above filter paper which has extracting solution of black rice, and observe the colour changes on the above filter paper. Black rice Pigment shows fuchsia spots on the blank filter paper and blue spots on the alkaline filter paper. When the ferrous sulfate solution is dropped on them, the above filter papers show black spots. The method is reliable, simple, convenient and rapid, which can be used to identify the authenticity of black rice rapidly.

  7. Development of defined mixed-culture fungal fermentation starter granulate for controlled production of rice wine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngo Thi Phuong Dung, N.T.P.; Rombouts, F.M.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2005-01-01

    As a first step in the development of defined fungal starter granules for controlled winemaking from purple glutinous rice, the interaction of moulds and yeasts isolated from Vietnamese rice wine starters and the effect of some representative oriental herbs on the growth of moulds and yeasts were ex

  8. iTRAQ-Based Quantitative Proteomics Analysis of Black Rice Grain Development Reveals Metabolic Pathways Associated with Anthocyanin Biosynthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linghua Chen

    Full Text Available Black rice (Oryza sativa L., whose pericarp is rich in anthocyanins (ACNs, is considered as a healthier alternative to white rice. Molecular species of ACNs in black rice have been well documented in previous studies; however, information about the metabolic mechanisms underlying ACN biosynthesis during black rice grain development is unclear.The aim of the present study was to determine changes in the metabolic pathways that are involved in the dynamic grain proteome during the development of black rice indica cultivar, (Oryza sativa L. indica var. SSP. Isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ MS/MS were employed to identify statistically significant alterations in the grain proteome. Approximately 928 proteins were detected, of which 230 were differentially expressed throughout 5 successive developmental stages, starting from 3 to 20 days after flowering (DAF. The greatest number of differentially expressed proteins was observed on 7 and 10 DAF, including 76 proteins that were upregulated and 39 that were downregulated. The biological process analysis of gene ontology revealed that the 230 differentially expressed proteins could be sorted into 14 functional groups. Proteins in the largest group were related to metabolic process, which could be integrated into multiple biochemical pathways. Specifically, proteins with a role in ACN biosynthesis, sugar synthesis, and the regulation of gene expression were upregulated, particularly from the onset of black rice grain development and during development. In contrast, the expression of proteins related to signal transduction, redox homeostasis, photosynthesis and N-metabolism decreased during grain maturation. Finally, 8 representative genes encoding different metabolic proteins were verified via quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR analysis, these genes had differed in transcriptional and translational expression during grain development.Expression analyses

  9. Screening anti-southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus drugs based on S7-1 gene expression in rice suspension cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dandan; Wang, Zhenchao; Liu, Jing; Lv, Mingming; Liu, Jiaju; Li, Xiangyang; Chen, Zhuo; Jin, Linghong; Hu, Deyu; Yang, Song; Song, Baoan

    2013-08-28

    Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) is a rice pathogen that had an outbreak in southern China in 2010 and caused significant crop losses. Therefore, screening for effective antiviral drugs against SRBSDV is very important. This study used rice suspension cells infected with SRBSDV by polyethylene glycol-mediated uptake for screening antiviral drugs. SRBSDV P7-1, which is coded by the S7-1 gene, has an intrinsic ability to self-interact to form tubules that play an important role in viral infection. Therefore, relative expression level of the SRBSDV S7-1 gene in infected rice suspension cells was assayed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction to evaluate the antiviral activities of various drugs. Dufulin displayed the highest inhibitory activity against SRBSDV S7-1 expression. In addition, changes in peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activities were determined in inoculated and noninoculated cells. The results showed that both POD and PPO activities increased upon dufulin treatment. Furthermore, the validity of this approach was confirmed in an in vivo experiment in which dufulin was found to effectively inhibit SRBSDV.

  10. Simultaneous determination of 15 phenolic constituents of Chinese black rice wine by HPLC-MS/MS with SPE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yutang; Liu, Yuanyuan; Xiao, Chunxia; Liu, Laping; Hao, Miao; Wang, Jianguo; Liu, Xuebo

    2014-06-01

    This study established a new method for quantitative and qualitative determination of certain components in black rice wine, a traditional Chinese brewed wine. Specifically, we combined solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (MS/MS) to determine 8 phenolic acids, 3 flavonols, and 4 anthocyanins in black rice wine. First, we clean samples with OASIS HLB cartridges and optimized extraction parameters. Next, we performed separation on a SHIM-PACK XR-ODS column (I.D. 3.0 mm × 75 mm, 2.2 μm particle size) with a gradient elution of 50% aqueous acetonitrile (V/V) and water, both containing 0.2% formic acid. We used multiple-reaction monitoring scanning for quantification, with switching electrospray ion source polarity between positive and negative modes in a single chromatographic run. We detected 15 phenolic compounds properly within 38 min under optimized conditions. Limits of detection ranged from 0.008 to 0.030 mg/L, and average recoveries ranged from 60.8 to 103.1% with relative standard deviation ≤8.6%. We validated the method and found it to be sensitive and reliable for quantifying phenolic compounds in rice wine matrices. This study developed a new, reliable HPLC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of 15 bioactive components in black rice wine. This method was validated and found to be sensitive and reliable for quantifying phenolic compounds in rice wine. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Extraction of anthocyanins and polyphenols from black rice (Oryza sativa L.) by modeling and assessing their reversibility and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro, Alessandra Cristina; Granato, Daniel; Rosso, Neiva Deliberali

    2016-01-15

    This study was aimed the extraction of total flavonoids, anthocyanins and phenolics, as well as the antioxidant activity of black rice (Oryza sativa) and to study the stability in relation to pH, light and copigmentation. Variations in temperature (10-50°C), time (20-80min), and solid-solvent ratio (1:15-1:45) were studied using a Box-Behnken design. The regression models were significant (Panthocyanins, 520.17mg 100g(-1) of phenolics and 46.50% inhibition of the DPPH radical. A decrease in the color intensity was observed when pH values were changed while anthocyanins were reversible in the process of protonation/deprotonation. The addition of glucose, phytic and gallic acids in the optimized extract exposed to light displayed an intermolecular copigmentation. The main anthocyanin identified in black rice was cyanidin-3-glucoside.

  12. Evaluation of sulfate resistance of cement mortars containing black rice husk ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatveera, B; Lertwattanaruk, P

    2009-03-01

    In this paper, black rice husk ashes (BRHAs), which are agrowastes from an electricity generating power plant and a rice mill, were ground and used as a partial cement replacement. The durability of mortars under sulfate attack including expansion and compressive strength loss were investigated. For parametric study, BRHA were used as a Portland cement Type 1 replacement at the levels of 0%, 10%, 30%, and 50% by weight of binder. The water-to-binder ratios were 0.55 and 0.65. For the durability of mortar exposed to sulfate attack, 5% sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) and magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) solutions were used. As a result, when increasing the percentage replacement of BRHA, the expansion and compressive strength loss of mortar decreased. At the replacement levels of 30% and 50% of BRHA, the expansion of the mortars was less than those mixed with sulfate-resistant cement. However, the expansion of the mortars exposed to Na2SO4 was more than those exposed to MgSO4. Increasing the replacement level of BRHA tends to reduce the compressive strength loss of mortars exposed to Na2SO4 attack. In contrary, under MgSO4 attack, when increasing the replacement level of BRHA, the compressive strength loss increases from 0% to 50% in comparison to Portland cement mortar. Results show that ground BRHA can be applied as a pozzolanic material to concrete and also improve resistance to sodium sulfate attack, but it can impair resistance to magnesium sulfate attack.

  13. Optimization of Processing Technology of Black Rice Wine%黑米酒酿造工艺的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林良魁; 权美平

    2011-01-01

    The processing technology of black rice wine was optimized by using orthogonal experimental design to provide data support and theoretical basis for industrial prodution of black rice wine. The results show that the degree of factors affecting processing technology was fermentation temperature>fermentation time>yeast concentration. The optimum technological conditions were 28℃,48 h and 4% yeast. The black rice wine made under the optimum technological conditions has peculiar aroma, mellow taste and high quality.%为给黑米酒的工业化生产提供数据支持和理论依据,采用正交试验设计对黑米酒酿造工艺进行优化.结果表明,各因素对黑米酒酿造的影响程度为发酵温度>发酵时间>酒曲浓度.最佳工艺条件为发酵温度28℃、发酵时间48h、酒曲浓度4%.在此工艺条件下,酿造出的黑米酒有黑米特有的香气,且酒质醇和、品质良好.

  14. THE PROPERTIES OF CHARCOAL FROM THE BLACK LIQUOR OF THE SODA PULPING OF RICE STRAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Jaya Wistara

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the present works was to determine chemical changes, thermal decomposition, and the content of moisture, ash, volatile, fixed carbon and calorific value of soda pulping black liquor of the rice straw. Neutralized black liquor was dried to a moisture content of 10% and then pyrolized at 106oC-750oC. It was found that calorific value, fixed carbon, volatile mater, and moisture content were in the range of 2782-4716 cal/g, 49.2-81.6%, 15.5-47.5%, and 0.2-3.5%, respectively. Ash content was not influenced by the temperature of pyrolysis and was thought to depend on its initial silicate content. The weight loss of pulp was higher than that of black liquor. Extreme weight loss has been found in the temperature of 200-400oC. Noticeable functional groups changes were found with the increasing temperature of pyrolysis. Hydroxyl group completely disappeared at 300oC and above. Carbonyl related groups were also disappeared at 300-500oC, but it was reformed at 650 and 750oC. It might be brought about by the deformation of chemical bonding of oxygen ring in lignin structures. SIFAT-SIFAT ARANG LINDI HITAM DARI PEMASAKAN JERAMI DENGAN LARUTAN SODA API. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan perubahan sifat kimia, dekomposisi termal dan kadar air, abu, zat terbang, karbon terikat serta nilai kalor arang lindi hitam pemasakan soda jerami padi. Dalam penelitian ini, lindi hitam netral dikeringkan (kadar air 10%, kemudian dipirolisis pada selang suhu 100-750oC di dalam reaktor berpengatur suhu. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa nilai kalor, karbon terikat, zat terbang dan kadar air masing-masing berselangdari 2782-4716 cal/g, 49,2-81,6%, 15,5-47,5%, dan 0,2-3,5%. Kadar abu tidak dipengaruhi oleh suhu pirolisis dan diduga bergantung pada kadar silika bahan bakunya. Nilai kalor meningkat dengan meningkatnya kadar karbon terikat. Perilaku kehilangan berat arang dari lindi hitam berbeda dengan perilaku kehilangan berat pulp jerami. Kehilangan

  15. Improvement of physical properties of gluten-free steamed cake based on black waxy rice flour using different hydrocolloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itthivadhanapong, Pimchada; Jantathai, Srinual; Schleining, Gerhard

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to compare the effects of 1 % addition of four selected hydrocolloids (xanthan, guar, hypdroxypropylmethylcellulose and carrageenan) on quality characteristics of batter and of black waxy rice steamed cake compared to a control without hydrocolloids. Dynamic frequency sweeps of the batters at 25 °C indicated that all formulations exhibited gel-like behaviour with storage moduli (G') higher than loss moduli (G″). Hydrocolloids increased the apparent viscosity and the thixotropic behaviour, depending on the type of hydrocolloids. Xanthan had the greatest effects on both moduli, whereas carrageenan had the smallest effects. During a storage period of 4 days the cakes with xanthan remained softer than control samples. The overall acceptability of cake with xanthan and guar were higher than control. This study is the first report on using black waxy rice flour as a main raw material in gluten free cake. The results of this study provided useful information for selection hydrocolloids as ingredients that can help to improve the physical properties of waxy rice steamed cake.

  16. 浅谈洋县黑米发展优势及利用%Development Advantages and Utilization of Black Rice in Yangxian County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗建华; 王继忠; 韩小丽

    2015-01-01

    Black rice is the ancient and precious rice in China. Yangxian black rice has good color, flavor, taste, nutrition and health care function, and gained “the king of world rice” reputation. Yangxian black rice has a long history of cultivation and application, there are six major advantages: human geography advantage of development of organic black rice; nutrition and health advantages, prominent advantages of the propaganda with space breeding;basic advantage of the development of black rice production;the advan-tage of better benefits; the advantages of development and utilization. Production and utilization of black rice products would not only improving the nutritional value of black rice, but also exponentially increasing the added value, and gain obvious economic benefits. Therefore, development and utilization of Yangxian black rice has a very broad market prospects.%黑米是中华古老而珍贵的稻米。洋县黑米集色、香、味、营养和保健于一身,有“世界米中之王”的美称。洋县黑米种植历史悠久,生产应用独居六大优势:一是具有发展有机黑米的人文地理优势;二是具有营养保健优势;三是太空育种具有突出的宣传优势;四是具有发展黑米生产的基础优势;五是具有很大的效益优势;六是具有开发利用优势。黑米产品的生产利用,既提高了黑米营养价值,又成倍增加了附加值,经济效益十分明显。因此,洋县黑米的开发利用,市场前景十分广阔。

  17. Study of black rice fermented milk and fermented beverage%黑米发酵乳和发酵饮料的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马先红; 许海侠; 孙丽卓

    2016-01-01

    The types and process formula of black rice fermented milk and fermented beverage were reviewed. The current situation and development prospect of black rice fermented milk and fermented beverages were also analyzed,in order to provide some theoretical reference for the research of black rice fermented milk and fermented beverage.%对国内黑米发酵乳和发酵饮料的种类和工艺配方进行了综述。对黑米发酵乳和发酵饮料目前的状况与发展前景进行了分析,以期为黑米发酵乳和发酵饮料的研究提供一些理论参考。

  18. Characterization of rice black-streaked dwarf virus- and rice stripe virus-derived siRNAs in singly and doubly infected insect vector Laodelphax striatellus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junmin Li

    Full Text Available Replication of RNA viruses in insect cells triggers an antiviral defense that is mediated by RNA interference (RNAi which generates viral-derived small interfering RNAs (siRNAs. However, it is not known whether an antiviral RNAi response is also induced in insects by reoviruses, whose double-stranded RNA genome replication is thought to occur within core particles. Deep sequencing of small RNAs showed that when the small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus was infected by Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV (Reoviridae; Fijivirus, more viral-derived siRNAs accumulated than when the vector insect was infected by Rice stripe virus (RSV, a negative single-stranded RNA virus. RBSDV siRNAs were predominantly 21 and 22 nucleotides long and there were almost equal numbers of positive and negative sense. RBSDV siRNAs were frequently generated from hotspots in the 5'- and 3'-terminal regions of viral genome segments but these hotspots were not associated with any predicted RNA secondary structures. Under laboratory condition, L. striatellus can be infected simultaneously with RBSDV and RSV. Double infection enhanced the accumulation of particular genome segments but not viral coat protein of RBSDV and correlated with an increase in the abundance of siRNAs derived from RBSDV. The results of this study suggest that reovirus replication in its insect vector potentially induces an RNAi-mediated antiviral response.

  19. Brewing technology of golden needle black rice wine%金针菇黑米酒的制作

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    班清

    2011-01-01

    Golden needle black rice wine was brewed of black rice, fresh golden needle mushroom, potato. The extraction of Lycium barbarum L., Radix Polygoni multiflori, Cordyceps sinensis, Chinese Yam and honey were added to produce a new type healthy wine. The health functions were: nourishing stomach, curing lung and spleen deficiency, anticancer, anti-fatigue and aging-delay.%金针菇黑米酒是以黑米、鲜金针菇、马铃薯、百合等为主料,采用传统发酵工艺酿造出低度酒后,再辅以枸杞子、何首乌、冬虫夏草、肉苁蓉,山药等多味中药的浸提汁以及蜂蜜,生产出的一种具有养肺虚、健脾养胃、抗癌、抗疲劳、延缓衰老等的新型保健酒。

  20. Optimization of conditions to achieve high content of gamma amino butyric acid in germinated black rice, and changes in bioactivities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaiyavat CHAIYASUT

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study estimated the optimum germination conditions to achieve high content of Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA and other phytochemicals in Thai black rice cultivar Kum Payao (BR. The Box–Behnken design of response surface methodology was employed to optimize the germination conditions. The changes in the GABA, phytochemical content, impact of salt, and temperature stress variation on phytochemical content, and stability of GABA were studied. The results showed that 12 h of soaking at pH 7, followed by 36 h of germination was the optimum condition to achieve maximum GABA content (0.2029 mg/g of germinated BR (GBR. The temperature (8 and 30 °C, and salt (50-200 mM NaCl content affected the phytochemicals of GBR, especially GABA, and anthocyanins. Obviously, the antioxidant capability, and enzyme (α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibiting nature of BR was significantly (P < 0.001 increased after germination. The storage of GBR at 4 °C significantly, preserved the GABA content (∼80% for 45 days. Primarily, the current study revealed the changes in phytochemical content, and bioactivity of Thai black rice cr. Kum Payao during germination. More studies should be carried out on pharmacological benefits of GABA-rich GBR.

  1. 使用粒径分析仪分析黑米乳稳定性%Using Particle Size Analyzer Analysis the Stability of Black Rice Milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟令洁; 苗君莅; 张锋华; 龚广予

    2012-01-01

    The stability of the different product was analyzed through laser particle size analyzer detected carrageenan. Xanthan gum, guar gum and gellan gum four stabilizers were used alone or complex pairs in black rice milk. The results showed that the stability of the three samples of black rice milk with 0.08% gellan gum+0.02% xanthan gum, 0.09% gellan gum+0.01% carrageenan, and 0.08% guar+0.02% carrageenan were ideal. The system of black rice milk was under better control and the floating oil was well suppressed. The gellan gum couldn't stabilize black rice milk alone.%通过激光粒径分析仪检测分析卡拉胶、黄原胶、瓜尔豆胶以及结冷胶这四类稳定剂单独或复配对黑米乳产品稳定性的影响。结果发现,0.08%结冷胶+0.02%黄原胶、0.09%结冷胶+0.01%卡拉胶、0.08%瓜尔豆胶+0.02%卡拉胶等黑米乳饮料稳定性较好,单独使用结冷胶效果一般。

  2. Special rice in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Shanxi black rice It was originally from Yang County, Hanzhong Region.This rice was a world-famous rice variety developed in 140 BC. It had pitch-black surface with the protein and oil contents being 6.8% and 20% higher than that of common rice, respectively. It had 15 kinds of amino acids and many kinds of vitamins. It was praised as" Black pearl" and "The king of the world riee".DongnianThe other names for Dongnian were "Yellow rice" and "Oil rice". It was grown in E City and Huangmei County,Hubei Province. It was characterized by its long-slim shape, milky yellow in color, oily, solid, and sticky quality, fragrant smell, and easiness for digestion.Guizhou black pearl rice

  3. Bread fortified with anthocyanin-rich extract from black rice as nutraceutical sources: Its quality attributes and in vitro digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Xiaonan; Zhang, Yan; Zhou, Weibiao

    2016-04-01

    Anthocyanin-rich black rice extract powder (ABREP) as a nutraceutical source was fortified into bread. The quality and digestibility behaviors of bread with ABREP were evaluated through instrumental and in vitro digestion studies. The quality of bread with 2% of ABREP was not significantly (p>0.05) different from the control bread; however, increasing the ABREP level to 4% caused less elasticity and higher density of bread. A mathematical model was further developed to systemically describe the trajectory of bread digestion. The digestion rates of bread with ABREP were found to be reduced by 12.8%, 14.1%, and 20.5% for bread with 1%, 2%, and 4% of ABREP, respectively. Results of the study suggest that the fortification of anthocyanins into bread could be an alternative way to produce functional bread with a lower digestion rate and extra health benefits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. cDNA cloning and sequence analysis of genome segments S8 from rice black-streaked dwarf virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张恒木; 陈剑平; 薛庆中; 雷娟利

    2002-01-01

    Genome segments S8 of two Chinese isolates of rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV), one from Zhejiang Province and another from Hebei Province, were amplified by RT-PCR and sequenced. Both segments consisted of 1936 nts in full length (EMBL accession numbers were AJ297431 and AJ297432, respectively) and contained only one big open reading frame which encoded a polypeptide with molecular weight of 68kD. The two Chinese isolates shared 94.0% and 96.5% identity at nucleotide and amino acid level, respectively. They shared 94.5-94.9% and 92.5-92.9% homology with S8 of RBSDV Japanese isolate at nucleotide and amino acid level, respectively; shared 85.1-87.6% and 91.7-91.9% homology with S7 of Italian MRDV (maize rough dwarf virus).

  5. Rice Brittleness Mutants: A Way to Open the 'Black Box' of Monocot Cell Wall Biosynthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baocai Zhang; Yihua Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Rice is a model organism for studying the mechanism of cell wall biosynthesis and remolding in Gramineae.Mechanical strength is an important agronomy trait of rice(Oryza sativa L.)plants that affects crop lodging and grain yield.As a prominent physical property of cell walls,mechanical strength reflects upon the structure of different wall polymers and how they interact.Studies on the mechanisms that regulate the mechanical strength therefore consequently results in uncovering the genes functioning in cell wall biosynthesis and remodeling.Our group focuses on the study of isolation of brittle culm(bc)mutants and characterization of their corresponding genes.To date,several bc mutants have been reported.The identified genes have covered several pathways of cell wall biosynthesis,revealing many secrets of monocot cell wall biosynthesis.Here,we review the progress achieved in this research field and also highlight the perspectives in expectancy.All of those lend new insights into mechanisms of cell wall formation and are helpful for harnessing the waste rice straws for biofuel production.

  6. High-yielding Cultivation Technology for Middle Rice- succeeded Black Fungus%中稻—袋料黑木耳高产栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴火金

    2015-01-01

    为充分利用土地闲置田的空间,种植一季水稻后,再放置黑木耳,既发挥土地资源,又提高经济效益,从而增加农民收入.主要阐述了浦城县种植一季中稻后袋料黑木耳的主要高产栽培技术,病虫发生与防治.%In this paper, to make full use of idle land field space, after the rice planting season, again to place black fungus, both play land resources, and improve the economic benefit, increasing farmers' income. In this paper, we mainly expounds middle rice planting season succeeded after black fungus main high-yield culti-vation techniques, the occurrence and prevention of diseases and pests.

  7. Changes in properties of starch isolated from whole rice grains with brown, black, and red pericarp after storage at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Valmor; Ferreira, Cristiano Dietrich; Goebel, Jorge Tiago Schwanz; El Halal, Shanise Lisie Mello; Santetti, Gabriela Soster; Gutkoski, Luiz Carlos; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa; Elias, Moacir Cardoso

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical, morphological, crystallinity, thermal, and pasting properties of starches isolated from rice grains with brown, black, and red pericarp. Starch was isolated from the rice grains at initial storage time, and after 6months of storage at different storage temperatures (16, 24, 32 and 40°C). Starch isolated from the grains stored for 6months at 40°C showed darker coloration, surface deformation of granules, and a significant reduction in the extraction yield, final viscosity, enthalpy, and crystallinity, independent of the grain pericarp coloration. The time and storage temperature not influence the swelling power and solubility of starch isolated from grains with brown pericarp, while for the grains with black and red pericarp there was reduction in swelling power and solubility of starches isolated of grains stored at 40°C. Grains stored at 16°C showed minimum changes in starch properties.

  8. Evaluation of nitric and acetic acid resistance of cement mortars containing high-volume black rice husk ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatveera, B; Lertwattanaruk, P

    2014-01-15

    This paper presents the performance of cement mortar containing black rice husk ash (BRHA) under nitric and acetic acid attacks. The BRHA, collected from an electrical generating power plant that uses rice husk as fuel, was ground using a grinding machine. The compressive strength loss, weight loss, and expansion of mortars under nitric and acetic acid attack were investigated. The test results of BRHA properties in accordance with the ASTM C 618 standard found that the optimal grinding time was 4 h as this achieved a Blaine fineness of 5370 cm(2)/g. For parametric study, BRHA were used as a Portland cement Type 1 replacement at the levels of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50% by weight of binder. The water-to-binder ratios were 0.55, 0.60, and 0.65. From test results, when the percentage replacements of BRHA in cement increased, it was observed that the strength loss and weight loss of mortars containing BRHA under acetic acid attack were higher than those of the mortars against nitric acid attack. It was found that, of the various BHRA mortars, the strength loss and weight loss due to nitric and acetic acid attacks were the lowest in the mortar with 10% BRHA replacement. For 10%, 20% and 30% BRHA replacements, the rate of expansion of the BRHA mortar decreased when compared with the control mortar. For the mortars with other percentage replacements of BRHA, the rate of expansion increased. Furthermore, the effective water-to-binder ratios of control and BRHA mortars were the primary factor for determining the durability of mortar mixed with BRHA.

  9. Study on radix puerariae,black beans,black rice and honey health steamed bread%葛根黑豆黑米蜂蜜保健馒头研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张首玉; 胡二坤

    2015-01-01

    Theoptimum parameters were studied through the single factor experiments andorthogonal teston radix puerariae,black beans,black rice andhoneyhealth steamed bread.The results showed that the best ratioof radix puerariae,black beans,black rice,honey,wheat powder were radix puerariae 15%,black bean 12%,black rice 10%,wheat flour 100% andhoney 6%.The bestconditionofmaking steamed bread were water 50%,fermentation temperatureof 38℃,humidity 88%,time 40min.After forming,under theconditionof temperature 38℃,humidity 88% the dough rested again for about 15 min and was steamed for 20min by boiled–water,then removed and letitcool to room temperature. Under theseconditions,the steamed breadhadgood quality andhigh nutritional value.%通过单因素试验及正交试验研究了葛根、黑豆、黑米、蜂蜜保健馒头的最佳工艺,结果表明,葛根、黑豆、黑米、蜂蜜、小麦粉混合的最佳配比是葛根粉添加量15%、黑豆粉添加量12%、黑米粉添加量10%、小麦粉添加量100%、蜂蜜添加量6%。馒头制作的最佳工艺条件为加水量50%、发酵温度38℃、湿度88%,发酵时间40 min,成型后在温度38℃、湿度88%条件下再次醒发15min,沸水蒸制20min,取出冷却到室温。此条件下生产的馒头具有较好的品质和较高的营养价值。

  10. [Effects of different rice farming systems on paddy field weed community].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dan; Min, Qing-Wen; Cheng, Sheng-Kui; Yang, Hai-Long; He, Lu; Jiao, Wen-Jun; Liu, Shan

    2010-06-01

    Taking the paddy fields planted with glutinous rice and hybrid rice in the traditional agricultural region in Congjiang County of Guizhou Province as the case, and by using semi-experiment combined with random sampling investigation, this paper studied the characteristics of weed community in the paddy fields under rice monoculture (R), rice-fish culture (R-F), and rice-fish-duck culture (R-F-D). Under the three rice farming systems, glutinous rice had higher capability in inhibiting weeds, compared with hybrid rice. Farming system R-F-D decreased the weed density significantly, with the control effect on Monochoia vaginalis and Rotala indica being 100%. The overall weed-inhibiting effect of R-F-D was significantly higher than that of the other farming systems. Under R-F-D, the species richness and Shannon diversity index of weed community decreased markedly, while the Pielou evenness index increased, indicating that the species composition of weed community changed greatly, and the occurrence of native dominant weed species decreased. It was concluded that R-F-D was a feasible farming system for the control of paddy field weed community.

  11. Rice black-streaked dwarf virus genome segment S5 is a bicistronic mRNA in infected plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian; Zhang, Heng-Mu; Ying, Lu; Li, Jing; Lv, Ming-Fang; Xie, Li; Li, Pei-Pei; Liu, Xiao-Ya; Liang-Ying, Dai; Chen, Jian-Ping

    2014-02-01

    Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) is a recognized member of the genus Fijivirus, family Reoviridae. Genome segment S5 has a putative second ORF partially overlapping the major ORF but in a different reading frame. This putative ORF is present in a published sequence and in two Chinese isolates now sequenced. Antibodies were raised against purified P5-1 and P5-2 fusion proteins expressed in a prokaryotic system. In western blots, these antibodies reacted with proteins of about 106 and 27 kDa, respectively, as predicted by sequence analysis. In immunoelectron microscopy, antibodies to P5-1 reacted with viroplasms, indicating that P5-1 is a component of viroplasms, but no labeling was observed with P5-2 antisera. Northern blot assays showed that the genome segment S5 was transcribed as a single mRNA with no subgenomic RNA. These results show that S5 is functionally bicistronic in infected plants. Possible translational mechanisms for P5-2 are discussed.

  12. Ecotoxicological analysis of fly ash and rice-straw black carbon on Microcystis aeruginosa using flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Liping; Yue, Qiankun; Liu, Feixiang; Chen, Fang; Hu, Baolan; Chen, Yingxu

    2013-06-01

    Black carbon (BC) has a strong affinity for hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs), and it is a potential material to control HOCs pollution in aquatic ecosystems. Here, flow cytometry (FCM) was used to evaluate the ecotoxicological effect of fly ash, rice-straw ash, and their acid-demineralised products on the growth of Microcystis aeruginosa. It was found that the BCs had little negative effect on cyanobacteria, when the content of BCs was not above 1mgml(-1). However, higher doses of BCs (>2mgml(-1)) had an obvious negative effect on cell density and esterase activity, especially for BCs with acid treatment, which greatly inhibited cell density caused by its high adsorptivity for cyanobacteria. The BCs had little impact on the fluorescence intensity, only with a slight stimulation in later period, so the fluorescence intensity was a less sensitive indicator than cell density and esterase activity. Considering ecotoxicological effect of BCs on the algae, the application concentration of BCs for HOCs pollution control as in situ remediation material would better not exceed 1mgml(-1).

  13. Mapping quantitative trait loci conferring resistance to rice black-streaked virus in maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Junwen; Wang, Fei; Li, Yujie; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Juren

    2012-08-01

    Maize rough dwarf disease (MRDD) is one of the most serious virus diseases of maize worldwide, and it causes great reduction of maize production. In China, the pathogen was shown to be rice black-streaked virus (RBSDV). Currently, MRDD has spread broadly and leads to significant loss in China. However, there has been little research devoted to this disease. Our aims were to identify the markers and loci underlying resistance to this virus disease. In this study, segregation populations were constructed from two maize elite lines '90110', which is highly resistant to MRDD and 'Ye478', which is highly susceptible to MRDD. The F(2) and BC(1) populations were used for bulk sergeant analysis (BSA) to identify resistance-related markers. One hundred and twenty F(7:9) RILs were used for quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping through the experiment of multiple environments over 3 years. Natural occurrence and artificial inoculation were both used and combined to determine the phenotype of plants. Five QTL, qMRD2, qMRD6, qMRD7, qMRD8 and qMRD10 were measured in the experiments. The qMRD8 on chromosome 8 was proved to be one major QTL conferring resistance to RBSDV disease in almost all traits and environments, which explained 12.0-28.9 % of the phenotypic variance for disease severity in this present study.

  14. 黑米对小鼠肠道菌群的影响%Effect of black rice on intestinal flora of mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵兰涛; 任玮; 张英; 张晖; 王立; 齐希光; 钱海峰

    2012-01-01

    Effects of black rice on intestinal flora of mice were investigated in this research. 24 KM mice were divided into four groups at random and fed with the regular food(group 1). mixed food(group 2, 70% regular food combined with 30% black rice), mixed food (group 3, 40% regular food combined with 60% black rice), and mixed food(group 4, 10% regular food combined with 90% black rice) respectively. Fecal moisture contents were determined everyday in the 6lh week, and serum total cholesterol(TC)and high density hpoprotein cholestero(HDL-C) were also determined at the end of 6,week. Intestinal Bifidohacterium , Lactobacillus , Enterococcus and Enterobactericaeae were numbered by plate count method. As compared to the group 1, the numbers of bifidohacterium and laclobacillus in other 3 group increased significantly by intake of black rice; the numbers of Enterobacteriuceae and Enterococcus decreased significantly. Serum HDL-C and HDL-C/TC levels were also increased significantly by intake of black rice. Results clearly indicated that intake of black rice can increase the number of intestinal pro-biotics in mice.%研究黑米对小鼠肠道菌群及其相关指标的影响.24只昆明(KM)小鼠随机分成4个组:组1(饲喂基础饲料)、组2(饲喂30%黑米和70%基础饲料的混合饲料)、组3(饲喂60%黑米和40%基础饲料的混合饲料)、组4(饲喂90%黑米和10%基础饲料的混合饲料).第6周收集小鼠粪便测定粪便含水率,第42天测定血清总胆固醇(TC)、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)以及肠道双歧杆菌、乳酸杆菌、肠球菌和肠杆菌数量.结果表明,与组1小鼠相比,摄入黑米后,试验组小鼠结肠双歧杆菌数和乳酸杆菌数显著上升(P<0.05),组2最高,其次是组3和组4;肠杆菌科数显著下降(P<0.05),组2最低,组4次之;组2和组4肠球菌数显著低于组1(P<0,05).试验组小鼠的血清HDL-C和HDL-C/TC都显著高于组1(P<0.05),组4的HDL-C最高,组2的HDL-C

  15. Molecular characterization of segments S7 to S10 of a southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus isolate from maize in northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiao; Xu, Fei-fei; Zheng, Fang-qiang; Li, Xiang-dong; Liu, Bao-shen; Zhang, Chun-qing

    2011-02-01

    Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) is a novel Fijivirus prevalent in rice in southern and central China, and northern Vietnam. Its genome has 10 segments of double-stranded RNA named S1 to S10 according to their size. An isolate of SRBSDV, JNi4, was obtained from naturally infected maize plants from Ji'ning, Shandong province, in the 2008 maize season. Segments S7 to S10 of JNi4 share nucleotide identities of 72.6%-73.1%, 72.3%-73%, 73.9%-74.5% and 77.3%-79%, respectively, with corresponding segments of Rice black-streaked dwarf virus isolates, and identities of 99.7%, 99.1%-99.7%, 98.9%-99.5%, and 98.6%-99.2% with those of SRBSDV isolates HN and GD. JNi4 forms a separate branch with GD and HN in the phylogenetic trees constructed with genomic sequences of S7 to S10. These results confirm the proposed taxonomic status of SRBSDV as a distinct species of the genus Fijivirus and indicate that JNi4 is an isolate of SRBSDV. Shandong is so far the northernmost region where SRBSDV is found in China.

  16. Traps as treats: a traditional sticky rice snack persisting in rapidly changing Asian kitchens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwallier, Rachel; de Boer, Hugo J; Visser, Natasja; van Vugt, Rogier R; Gravendeel, Barbara

    2015-03-24

    An accessory to modern developing economies includes a shift from traditional, laborious lifestyles and cuisine to more sedentary careers, recreation and convenience-based foodstuffs. Similar changes in the developed western world have led to harmful health consequences. Minimization of this effect in current transitional cultures could be met by placing value on the maintenance of heritage-rich food. Vitally important to this is the preservation and dissemination of knowledge of these traditional foods. Here, we investigate the history and functionality of a traditional rice snack cooked in Nepenthes pitchers, one of the most iconic and recognizable plants in the rapidly growing economic environment of Southeast Asia. Social media was combined with traditional ethnobotanical surveys to conduct investigations throughout Malaysian Borneo. Interviews were conducted with 25 market customers, vendors and participants from various ethnical groups with an in-depth knowledge of glutinous rice cooked in pitcher plants. The acidity of pitcher fluid was measured during experimental cooking to analyze possible chemical avenues that might contribute to rice stickiness. Participants identifying the snack were almost all (96%) from indigenous Bidayuh or Kadazandusun tribal decent. They prepare glutinous rice inside pitcher traps for tradition, vessel functionality and because they thought it added fragrance and taste to the rice. The pH and chemical activity of traps analyzed suggest there is no corresponding effect on rice consistency. Harvest of pitchers does not appear to decrease the number of plants in local populations. The tradition of cooking glutinous rice snacks in pitcher plants, or peruik kera in Malay, likely carries from a time when cooking vessels were more limited, and persists only faintly in tribal culture today because of value placed on maintaining cultural heritage. Social media proved a valuable tool in our research for locating research areas and in

  17. 黑米花青素提取与纯化工艺研究%Study on Extraction and Purification Technology of Anthocyanin from Black Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文佳; 张昊琛; 鲍康胜; 范广伟

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究黑米花青素的提取及纯化工艺.[方法]以黑米为原料,采用水提法提取黑米花青素,通过单因素试验和正交试验,确定花青素的最佳提取工艺;并采用D101大孔吸附树脂对花青素进行纯化.[结果]花青素的最佳提取工艺为料液比1∶8,提取温度50℃,pH 3.2,提取时间120 min;用体积分数为95%的乙醇洗脱,花青素的纯度最高,达95.48%.[结论]该研究为黑米的深加工和花青素的规模化生产提供了依据.%[ Objective] The aim was to study the extraction and purification technology of anthocyanin from black rice. [ Method] Anthocya-nin was obtained from black rice by water extraction. The optimum extraction technology of anthocyanin was determined by single factor experiment and orthogonal experiment. And then the anthocyanin was purified by D101 macroporous adsorption resin. [Result] The results showed that the optimum extraction conditions were as follows; solid-liquid ratio 1: 8, extraction temperature 50 ℃, pH value 3.2, extraction time 120 min . The highest purity reached 95.48% when anthocyanin eluted by 95% ethanol. [Conclusion] The study provided a basis for deep processing of black rice and scale production of anthocyanin.

  18. Analysis on Mineral Element Contents in Associated with Varietal Type in Core Collection of Yunnan Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENGYa-wen; LIUJia-fu; WANGLu-xiang; SHENShi-quan; LIZi-chao; WANGXiangkun; WENGuo-song; YANGZhong-yi

    2004-01-01

    Eight-element contents of 653 unpolished rice samples harvested from Xingping experiment farm, Yunnan Province under thc same ecological conditions were analyzed by ICP-AES method. The mineral elements content were closely related to low diversity, high-yielding, and multi-resistance breeding; The K, Mg, Ca and Mn content in high-yielding and resistant varieties were high, and other nutrients such as P, Fe, Zn and Cu were low, which was connected with the heredity and physiological mechanism of mineral nutrients. There is zonal distribution of mineral elements content from Yunnan rice, especially for P, Fe, Zn and Cu co-related with the diversity center, paddy versus upland, glutinous and non-glutinous, glumc-hair versus nuda, rice color, rice flavor, soft rice versus non-soft rice, but it did not find any association with indica-japonica types. The results supported the ecological variety group view of 5-grade taxonomic system "species-subspecies-ccological groups-ecological variety groups - varietal types" .

  19. A ferrocene-mediated anti-interfering glucose biosensor based on glutin and cellulose acetate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Baoyan; Li Jing; Shi Haibin; Huang Jiadong; Anzai Jun-ichi; Osa Tetsuo; Chen Qiang

    2006-01-01

    A ferrocene-mediated glucose biosensor removing interference of ascorbic acid and uric acid was developed by coating of ferrocene, glutin and cellulose acetate on screen-printed gold electrode surface. The results show that it can detect glucose sensitively in the presence of uric acid and ascorbic acid, and also suppress the leakage velocity of ferrocene. Compared to the currents of the pretreated electrode, it decreases the current of uric acid and ascorbic acid by 99.4% and 98.8% at 400 mV, respectively, with a dynamic range of 0~30 mM for glucose, sensitivity of 30.73 nA/mM, response time of 10s, and correlation coefficient of 0.998 8.

  20. Research Progress on Pharmacological Effects of Black Rice Anthocyanins%黑米花青苷药理学作用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳龙; 陈进; 韩豪; 李新生; 黄重; 张选明; 沙志鸿

    2016-01-01

    黑米花青苷是一类重要的生物活性物质,具有多种重要生理功能和独特的营养特性,可广泛应用于食品、保健品、化妆品、医药等行业。本文对黑米花青苷的结构和组分进行了研究,并对黑米花青苷的抗氧化、保肝护肝、抗血脂、抗癌、减肥等药理学作用进行了论述,最后对黑米花青苷的研究和应用发展趋势进行了评述。%Black rice anthocyanins are a group of important bioactive compounds with many beneficial physiological effects and distinc-tive nutritional properties.They can be widely applied to food,health care products,cosmetics,and medicine etc.This paper describes the structure and components of anthocyanins;and also illustrates their pharmacological effects such as antioxidant property,liver protec-tive effect,lowering blood lipids,anti-tumor activities,and weight loss effect.Finally,this article reviews the progresses on the research and application of black rice anthocyanins.

  1. Overexpression of rice black-streaked dwarf virus p7-1 in Arabidopsis results in male sterility due to non-dehiscent anthers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Sun

    Full Text Available Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV, a member of the genus Fijivirus in the family Reoviridae, is propagatively transmitted by the small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus Fallén. RBSDV causes rice black-streaked dwarf and maize rough dwarf diseases, which lead to severe yield losses in crops in China. Although several RBSDV proteins have been studied in detail, the functions of the nonstructural protein P7-1 are still largely unknown. To investigate the role of the P7-1 protein in virus pathogenicity, transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants were generated in which the P7-1 gene was expressed under the control of the 35S promoter. The RBSDV P7-1-transgenic Arabidopsis plants (named P7-1-OE were male sterility. Flowers and pollen from P7-1-transgenic plants were of normal size and shape, and anthers developed to the normal size but failed to dehisce. The non-dehiscent anthers observed in P7-1-OE were attributed to decreased lignin content in the anthers. Furthermore, the reactive oxygen species levels were quite low in the transgenic plants compared with the wild type. These results indicate that ectopic expression of the RBSDV P7-1 protein in A. thaliana causes male sterility, possibly through the disruption of the lignin biosynthesis and H2O2-dependent polymerization pathways.

  2. A polysaccharide isolated from the liquid culture of Lentinus edodes (shiitake) mushroom mycelia containing black rice bran protects mice against Salmonellosis through up-regulation of the Th1 immune reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study investigated the antibacterial effect of a bioprocessed polysaccharide (BPP) isolated from Lentinus edodes liquid mycelial culture supplemented with black rice bran against murine salmonellosis. BPP was not bactericidal in vitro, but did, however stimulate uptake of the bacteria i...

  3. Two virus-encoded RNA silencing suppressors, P14 of Beet necrotic yellow vein virus and S6 of Rice black streak dwarf virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lingdi; WANG Zhaohui; WANG Xianbing; LI Dawei; HAN Chenggui; ZHAI Yafeng; YU Jialin

    2005-01-01

    Functional analysis for gene silencing suppressor of P14 gene of Beet necrotic yellow vein virus and S6 gene of Rice black streak dwarf virus was carried out by agro- infiltration with recombinant vectors of Potato virus X. The phenotype observation of green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression and Northern blot showed that the gene silencing of gfp transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana induced by homologous sequence was strongly suppressed by the immixture infiltration of either the P14 or the S6. In the suppressed plants, the gfp mRNA accumulation was higher than that in the non-suppressed controls and the symptoms caused by PVX infection became more severe, especially the gfp DNA methylation of plant genome was significantly inhabited when co-infiltrated with RBSDV S6 gene. These results suggested that these two virus genes were potentially to encode for proteins as RNA silencing suppressors.

  4. Detection and assignment of proteins encoded by rice black streaked dwarf fijivirus S7, S8, S9 and S10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isogai, M; Uyeda, I; Lee, B C

    1998-06-01

    The proteins encoded by rice black streaked dwarf fijivirus (RBSDV) genomic segments 7-10 (S7-S10) were characterized. Open reading frames (ORFs) from these segments were expressed as fusion proteins in Escherichia coli. Antibodies raised against the expressed products were used as probes to determine whether the viral ORFs encode structural proteins. In Western blots, antibodies to the expressed S8 and S10 products reacted with a core capsid (65 kDa) and a major outer capsid (56 kDa) protein, respectively, while none of the antibodies to S7 and S9 products reacted with structural proteins. Antisera to RBSDV S7 ORF1 and S9 ORF1 each detected a single protein of the predicted size in total protein extracts from infected rice plants and viruliferous Laodelphax striatellus. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed that antibodies to RBSDV S7 ORF1 and RBSDV S9 ORF1 reacted with tubular structures and viroplasm, respectively, in sections of both infected maize plants and viruliferous L. striatellus. Antisera to ORF2 of S7 and S9 failed to detect any proteins in the infected tissue using either Western blotting or immuno-electron microscopic techniques.

  5. Interaction Research on the Antiviral Molecule Dufulin Targeting on Southern Rice Black Streaked Dwarf Virus P9-1 Nonstructural Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenchao Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ern rice black streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV causes severe harm to rice production. Unfortunately, studies on effective antiviral drugs against SRBSDV and interaction mechanism of antiviral molecule targeting on SRBSDV have not been reported. This study found dufulin (DFL, an ideal anti-SRBSDV molecule, and investigated the interactions of DFL targeting on the nonstructural protein P9-1. The biological sequence information and bonding characterization of DFL to four kinds of P9-1 protein were described with fluorescence titration (FT and microscale thermophoresis (MST assays. The sequence analysis indicated that P9-1 had highly-conserved C- and N-terminal amino acid residues and a hypervariable region that differed from 131 aa to 160 aa. Consequently, wild-type (WT-His-P9-1, 23 C-terminal residues truncated (TR-ΔC23-His-P9-1, 6 N-terminal residues truncated (TR-ΔN6-His-P9-1, and Ser138 site-directed (MU-138-His-P9-1 mutant proteins were expressed. The FT and MST assay results indicated that DFL bounded to WT-His-P9-1 with micromole affinity and the 23 C-terminal amino acids were the potential targeting site. This system, which combines a complete sequence analysis, mutant protein expression, and binding action evaluating system, could further advance the understanding of the interaction abilities between antiviral drugs and their targets.

  6. Synthesis of Nanoporous TiO2 and Its Potential Applicability for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Using Antocyanine Black Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Yuliarto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoporous mesostructure TiO2 powders were synthesized by sol-gel method, with TiCl4 as a precursor in methanol solution. The Pluronic PE 6200 of block copolymer was used as the pores template. It was found from XRD measurements, both at 400∘C and 450∘C calcination temperatures, that the sol-gel technique yielded the nanoporous TiO2 with anatase phase. Based on N2 adsorption characterization using BET method, the TiO2 samples have surface area of 108 m2/g and 88 m2/g for calcination temperatures of 400∘C and of 450∘C, respectively. From small-angle neutron scattering (SANS patterns, TiO2 samples were observed to have nanoporous structures with pore sizes between 22–24 nm. The TiO2 also have order degree which depends on the calcination temperature. The potential applicability of the resulting TiO2 is confirmed for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC, composed of nanoporous anatase TiO2 and natural dye from antocyanine black rice. UV-Vis measurement of dye extracted from the black rice indicated that the antocyanine chelate can propagate into the TiO2 nanoporous network. The short circuit photocurrent density (Jsc under 100 mWcm−2 reached 1.287 mAcm−2 with open circuit photovoltage (Voc of 550 mV and the fill factor of 33.4%. The results show that the hybrid organic-inorganic structures are very attractive for future low-cost devices.

  7. 黑米发酵乳饮料配方的响应面法优化%Optimization of formula of black rice fermented milk beverages by response surface methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卞春; 季澜洋

    2016-01-01

    With black rice and skimmed milk powder as the main materials,the black rice was gelatinized and liquefied,and then mixed with skimmed milk powder,sugar and pectin. After fermented by the lactic acid bacteria,the milk beverages with living bacteria was made. The formula of black rice fermented milk beverages was optimized by Box–Behnken design based on single factor experiment. The optimal values of the above parameters were obtained as followed:skimmed milk powder content was 5.39 g/100mL,sugar content was 8.16 g/100mL and pectin content was 3.88 mL/100mL. Under these optimal conditions,the black rice fermented milk beverages with superior quality was obtained.%以新鲜黑米和脱脂乳粉为主要原料,黑米经糊化、液化后添加脱脂乳粉、白砂糖和果胶,经乳酸菌发酵后制得含有活菌的乳饮料。在单因素试验的基础上,利用Design–Expert软件进行三因素三水平的Box–Behnken试验设计,并对黑米发酵乳饮料的配方进行优化分析。通过响应面法分析确定黑米发酵乳饮料的最佳配方为脱脂乳粉5.39 g/100mL、白砂糖8.16 g/100mL、果胶3.88 mL/100mL。在此条件下,制备的黑米发酵乳饮料的口感、色泽和质地良好。

  8. Roosevelt Island Climate Evolution Project (RICE): A 65 Kyr ice core record of black carbon aerosol deposition to the Ross Ice Shelf, West Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Ross; Bertler, Nancy; Tuohy, Andrea; Neff, Peter; Proemse, Bernedette; Feiteng, Wang; Goodwin, Ian; Hogan, Chad

    2015-04-01

    Emitted by fires, black carbon aerosols (rBC) perturb the atmosphere's physical and chemical properties and are climatically active. Sedimentary charcoal and other paleo-fire records suggest that rBC emissions have varied significantly in the past due to human activity and climate variability. However, few paleo rBC records exist to constrain reconstructions of the past rBC atmospheric distribution and its climate interaction. As part of the international Roosevelt Island Climate Evolution (RICE) project, we have developed an Antarctic rBC ice core record spanning the past ~65 Kyr. The RICE deep ice core was drilled from the Roosevelt Island ice dome in West Antarctica from 2011 to 2013. The high depth resolution (~ 1 cm) record was developed using a single particle intracavity laser-induced incandescence soot photometer (SP2) coupled to an ice core melter system. The rBC record displays sub-annual variability consistent with both austral dry-season and summer biomass burning. The record exhibits significant decadal to millennial-scale variability consistent with known changes in climate. Glacial rBC concentrations were much lower than Holocene concentrations with the exception of several periods of abrupt increases in rBC. The transition from glacial to interglacial rBC concentrations occurred over a much longer time relative to other ice core climate proxies such as water isotopes and suggests . The protracted increase in rBC during the transition may reflected Southern hemisphere ecosystem / fire regime changes in response to hydroclimate and human activity.

  9. Preparing Wine with Glutinous Rice and Mung Bean%绿豆糯米酒的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳秋; 王红; 高晓旭

    2015-01-01

    以绿豆[Vigna radiata (Linn.) Wilczek]和糯米为原料,研制一种新型的具有特殊风味的绿豆糯米酒.采用单因素试验和正交试验,通过感官评定及理化指标确定绿豆糯米酒的最佳配方.结果表明,绿豆糯米酒最佳配方为酒曲添加量0.5%、绿豆添加量25%、发酵时间92 h、发酵温度30℃.利用此配方研制的绿豆糯米酒产品呈浅绿色,具有淡淡的绿豆风味,口感较甜,具有酒香味,酒精度较低.

  10. Wastewater Treatment in Glutinous Rice Wine Brewage%黄酒酿制米浆废水的处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁玉龙; 祁华宝

    2002-01-01

    针对高浓度酿酒米浆废水COD Cr达30000 mg/L、BOD 5达1800O mg/L、废水易生化的特点,采用酸化、UASB厌氧、SBR好氧联合处理工艺,处理后出水COD Cr≤1000mg/L、B0D 5≤600mg/L,符合排入当地城市污水处理厂的要求.

  11. Identification and profiling of conserved and novel microRNAs in Laodelphax striatellus in response to rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Min Li

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small non-coding endogenous RNA molecules that play important roles in various biological processes. This study examined microRNA profiles of Laodelphax striatellus using the small RNA libraries derived from virus free (VF and rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV infected (RB insects. A total of 59 mature miRNAs (46 miRNA families were identified as conserved insect miRNAs in both VF and RB libraries. Among these conserved miRNAs, 24 were derived from the two arms of 12 miRNA precursors. Nine conserved L. striatellus miRNAs were up-regulated and 12 were down-regulated in response to RBSDV infection. In addition, a total of 20 potential novel miRNA candidates were predicted in the VF and RB libraries. The miRNA transcriptome profiles and the identification of L. striatellus miRNAs differentially expressed in response to RBSDV infection will contribute to future studies to elucidate the complex miRNA-mediated regulatory network activated by pathogen challenge in insect vectors.

  12. Black rice (Oryza sativa L. extract attenuates hepatic steatosis in C57BL/6 J mice fed a high-fat diet via fatty acid oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang Hwan-Hee

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two major risk factors for the onset of fatty liver disease are excessive alcohol intake and obesity, the latter being associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of black rice extract (BRE on hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance in high-fat diet-fed mice, providing a model of NAFLD. Methods Twenty-four mice were randomly divided into three groups (n = 8 in each group: normal fat diet (ND, high fat diet (HF, and high fat diet supplemented with 1% (w/w BRE (HF +1% BRE. The experimental diets were fed for seven weeks. Results A HF induced hepatic steatosis with significant increases in the serum levels of free fatty acids (FFAs, triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, and insulin. By contrast, supplementary BRE (10 g/kg of diet included in the HF alleviated hepatic steatosis and significantly decreased serum TG and TC levels (p Conclusions Dietary BRE supplementation improved serum lipid profiles and significantly enhanced mRNA expression levels of fatty acid metabolism-related genes, primarily via β-oxidation and ω-oxidation in the liver. Taken together, these findings suggest that a BRE-supplemented diet could be useful in reducing the risks of hepatic steatosis and related disorders, including hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia.

  13. Influence of rice whole-crop silage diet on growth performance, carcass and meat characteristics and muscle-related gene expression in Japanese Black steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Masahiro; Hikino, Yasuko; Imanari, Mai; Matsumoto, Kazunori; Yamamoto, Naoyuki

    2016-07-01

    The present study investigated the influence of a diet largely comprising rice whole-crop silage (rWCS) on growth performance, carcass and meat characteristics, and expression of genes involved in muscle growth of Japanese Black steers. Steers were randomly separated into rWCS-fed (rWCS ad libitum and restricted feeding of concentrate) and concentrate-fed groups. Total digestible nutrient intake and daily gain (DG) decreased in rWCS-fed steers in comparison with concentrate-fed steers, whereas dressed carcass weight and final body weight did not significantly differ between the groups. Decreases in drip loss in the muscle of rWCS-fed steers may be caused by α-tocopherol and β-carotene in muscle. Feeding large amounts of rWCS to steers may maintain quantitative productivity of beef steers equally to a concentrate-based diet, and improve the qualitative productivity. Results of gene expression suggest that activation of skeletal muscle growth in rWCS-fed steers may occur at the late fattening period owing to a decrease in myostatin and increase in myosin heavy chain gene expression. Preadipocyte factor-1 and myostatin genes may be strongly involved in the control of lipid accumulation. This rearing system would allow beef production to switch to rWCS-based diets from concentrate-based diets. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  14. 益生菌固态发酵黑米糠抗氧化发酵条件研究%Solid-State Fermented Condition on Antioxidative Activities of Black Rice Bran by Probiotics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓文辉

    2013-01-01

    Fresh black rice bran as experimental materials,solid-state fermented condition of black rice bran were studied by single and mixed probiotics. Conclusions show that the optimal probiotic combination were Bacillus natto and Lactobacillus brevis, inoculation ratio was 1∶1, means of inoculation was that Lactobacillus brevis continue fer-mented for two days after Bacillus natto fermented for three days. Experimental results for logarithmic value of the probiotics is 17.11. The half of total number of logarithmic value and DPPH·clearance rates of the probiotics as icri-terion, solid-state fermented condition on antioxidative activities of black rice bran were studied by single factor re-search and orthogonal test. Conclusions show that inoculated quantity was 8%, fermented temperature was 37℃, supplement water capacity was 0.28mL/g. Verific-ation experiment results were logarithmic value of the probiotics was 17.15, DPPH·clearance rates was 73%, composite score was 45.75. Further through the fermented and unfermented black rice bran DPPH·clearance rates experiments,conclusions show that the probiotics fermentation increased antiox-idant activity of black rice bran. The conclusions of this study show that Bacillus natto and Lactobacillus brevis mixed bacterial solid state fermentation black rice bran is a feasible way to develop high oxidation resistance black rice bran health food.%  以新鲜黑米糠为原料,通过单菌和混合菌发酵实验,确定了固态发酵黑米糠的最适菌株组合为纳豆芽孢杆菌和短乳杆菌,接种比例为1∶1,接种方式为先接入纳豆芽孢杆菌3d后接入短乳杆菌继续发酵2d,测得两菌株组合菌群数的对数值为17.11。设计单因素和正交实验,以菌群数的对数值和DPPH·清除率各占50%的综合评分为指标,确定纳豆芽孢杆菌和短乳杆菌固态发酵黑米糠的最优抗氧化发酵条件为:接种量8%,发酵温度37℃、加水量0.28mL/g。该条

  15. Genetic Characterization of Indigenous Rice Varieties in Eastern Himalayan Region of Northeast India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baharul Islam CHOUDHURY; Mohammed Latif KHAN; Selvadurai DAYANANDAN

    2014-01-01

    The eastern Himalayan region of Northeast (NE) India is home to a large number of indigenous rice varieties, which are traditionally classified as Oryza sativa subspecies indica, japonica or intermediate types. The classification based on traditional Cheng’s index is often inconclusive due to phenotypic plasticity of morphological characters, which are influenced by environmental conditions. We used molecular markers specific for indica and japonica subspecies to assess the degree of genetic relatedness of indigenous rice varieties in NE India. The results revealed that majority of upland (jum) and glutinous rice varieties, traditionally considered as japonica, were genetically close to the subspecies indica. All varieties of boro ecotype were found to be indica type, and only a few varieties cultivated in lowland and upland areas were japonica type. Some of the lowland varieties of the sali ecotype were intermediate between indica and japonica, and they showed a closer genetic affinity to O. rufipogon.

  16. Polishing and parboiling effect on the nutritional and technological properties of pigmented rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Flávia Fernandes; Vanier, Nathan Levien; Berrios, Jose De J; Pinto, Vânia Zanella; Wood, Delilah; Williams, Tina; Pan, James; Elias, Moacir Cardoso

    2016-01-15

    This study aims to evaluate the effects of polishing and parboiling on proximate composition, structure, phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, cooking time and hardness of IAC-600 black rice cultivar and MPB-10 red rice lineage. Proximate analysis and light micrographs revealed higher migration of red rice proteins than black rice proteins to the endosperm as a result of parboiling. Parboiling reduced the ash content of red rice while no difference was determined in black rice. Gelatinized starch granules from both genotypes showed similar appearance. There was a decrease in relative crystallinity on both black and red rice subjected to parboiling, which was an indicative of crystallites disruption. Polishing removed more than 90% of free phenolics for both genotypes, while parboiling allowed the partial preservation of free phenolics content in polished rice. Parboiling induced an increase in the cooking time of red rice, but a decrease in the cooking time of black rice.

  17. Genetic structure and diversity of indigenous rice (Oryza sativa) varieties in the Eastern Himalayan region of Northeast India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Baharul; Khan, Mohamed Latif; Dayanandan, Selvadurai

    2013-12-01

    The Eastern Himalayan region of Northeast (NE) India is home to a large number of indigenous rice varieties, which may serve as a valuable genetic resource for future crop improvement to meet the ever-increasing demand for food production. However, these varieties are rapidly being lost due to changes in land-use and agricultural practices, which favor agronomically improved varieties. A detailed understanding of the genetic structure and diversity of indigenous rice varieties is crucial for efficient utilization of rice genetic resources and for developing suitable conservation strategies. To explore the genetic structure and diversity of rice varieties in NE India, we genotyped 300 individuals of 24 indigenous rice varieties representing sali, boro, jum and glutinous types, 5 agronomically improved varieties, and one wild rice species (O. rufipogon) using seven SSR markers. A total of 85 alleles and a very high level of gene diversity (0.776) were detected among the indigenous rice varieties of the region. Considerable level of genetic variation was found within indigenous varieties whereas improved varieties were monoporphic across all loci. The comparison of genetic diversity among different types of rice revealed that sali type possessed the highest gene diversity (0.747) followed by jum (0.627), glutinous (0.602) and boro (0.596) types of indigenous rice varieties, while the lowest diversity was detected in agronomically improved varieties (0.459). The AMOVA results showed that 66% of the variation was distributed among varieties indicating a very high level of genetic differentiation in rice varieties in the region. Two major genetically defined clusters corresponding to indica and japonica groups were detected in rice varieties of the region. Overall, traditionally cultivated indigenous rice varieties in NE India showed high levels of genetic diversity comparable to levels of genetic diversity reported from wild rice populations in various parts of the

  18. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of antioxidants of black rice%超声波辅助提取黑米中抗氧化物质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志辉; 于国萍

    2011-01-01

    Ethanol was used for extracting antioxidants of black rice under ultrasound assistance. Based on the anthocyanin content,DPPH free radical clearance rate,total antioxidant capacity(TAC),the single factor method was used for the optimization of ultrasonic extraction. The extracted result was reflected by three different aspects indicators. Results showed that:extraction time was reduced by ultrasonic-assisted. The results showed that the optimal extraction conditions were:ultrasonic power 280W,extraction time 20min,70% ethanol concentration,liquid- solid ratio(mL/mg)20∶ 1,extraction temperature 50℃. Then the anthocyanin content was 12. 56mg/g,DPPH free radical clearance rate was 54. 41%,TAC was 52. 38u/mL.%在乙醇提取的基础上,用超声波辅助提取黑米中的抗氧化物质。以花色苷含量、DPPH自由基清除率、总抗氧化能力(TAC)为指标进行单因素实验对条件优化。通过三个不同方面的指标来反映提取的效果。实验结果表明:超声波作用下缩短了提取时间。最佳的单因素指标为:超声功率280W、提取时间20min、乙醇浓度70%、液固比(mL/mg)20∶1、提取温度50℃,此时的花色苷含量为12.56mg/g,DPPH自由基清除率为54.41%,TAC为52.38u/mL。

  19. 葵花粕分离蛋白对黑米面包面团粉质特性的影响%Effect of Sunflower Meal Isolated Protein on the Farinograph Characteristics of Black Rice Bread Dough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李云玲; 朱效兵; 郭淑文; 石晶红

    2016-01-01

    研究添加葵花粕分离蛋白对黑米面包混粉面团粉质特性的影响,为葵花粕分离蛋白作为功能性材料开发功能性食品提供理论依据。以面包粉和黑米粉为原料,添加一定比例葵花粕分离蛋白,利用布拉本德(Brabender)粉质仪测定面团吸水率、形成时间、稳定时间和弱化度。面包粉中添加30%黑米粉、4%谷朊粉、1%~5%的葵花粕分离蛋白后,混粉面团的吸水率增加,形成时间和稳定时间先增加后减少,弱化度先下降后上升。添加1%~3%的葵花粕分离蛋白,可以改善黑米面包混粉的粉质特性,进而改变其加工特性。%The effect of adding sunflower meal isolated protein on the farinograph characteristics of black rice bread dough were studied,it provided a theoretical basis for sunflower meal isolated protein as a functional mate-rial to develop functional foods. Bread flour and black rice flour as raw materials,adding the right amount of sunflower meal isolated protein,Brabender farinograph was used to determination dough water absorption,devel-opment time,stability time,softening degree of mixed dough. Adding 30%black rice flour,4%gluten flour, 1 %-5%sunflower meal isolated protein in the bread flour,the water absorption of mixed dough increased,the development time and the stability time increased first and then decreased,the softening degree decreased first and then increased. Adding 1%-3%sunflower meal isolated protein could improve the farinograph properties of black rice bread mixed dough,and then change the processing characteristics.

  20. The Outlines of Glutinous Food Culture in Maduoyixiazhai,Hekou,Yunnan%云南河口马多依下寨壮族糯食文化略述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄禾雨

    2011-01-01

    The Zhuang ethnic group has developed its own glutinous food production and consumption cultural conventions,which,in turn,give birth to the Zhuang ethnic glutinous food culture.In light of field research on Maduoyixiazhai,Hekou,Yunnan,and the academic studies on nationalities in border areas,the article discusses the Zhuang ethnic glutinous food in Yunnan,in terms of varieties,production process and consumption customs.%在历史过程中,壮族形成了自己的糯米生产和消费的文化习俗,进而造就了独具风格的壮族糯食文化。通过对云南省河口县马多依下寨的田野调查成果和学界对于边疆民族糯食文化的研究成果,就云南省壮族的糯食品种、制作工艺、糯食消费和进食习俗做一初步的论述。

  1. TiO2/Chitosan-NH4I(+I2-BMII-Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with Anthocyanin Dyes Extracted from Black Rice and Red Cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Buraidah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs were fabricated using anthocyanin dye and polymer electrolyte with ammonium iodide (NH4I salt. The study was designed to focus on increasing the efficiency of the DSSC. DSSC using 26.9 wt. % chitosan-22 wt. % NH4I(+2.2 wt.% I2-48.9 wt. % IL solid electrolyte, black rice anthocyanin with Pt counter electrode showed Jsc of 172 μA cm−2 and Voc of 195 mV. The performance of the cell with Pt electrode was further improved by coating a blocking layer on the indium tin oxide (ITO substrate. The black rice DSSC using 11 wt. % (chitosan:PEO, wt. ratio 30:70-9 wt. % NH4I-80 wt. % BMII gel electrolyte exhibited Jsc of 1213 μA cm−2, Voc of 400 mV, FF of 0.47, and η of 0.23%. The red cabbage anthocyanin DSSC containing (phthaloyl chitosan-PEO-NH4I-BMII gel electrolyte using tartaric acid to adjust the pH of anthocyanin solution showed the best performance with the fill factor of 0.39, Jsc of 3503 μA cm−2, Voc of 340 mV, and an overall conversion efficiency of 0.46%.

  2. Study on the Effect of Sunflower Meal Protein Isolate on Extensograph Properties of Black Rice Bread Dough%葵花粕分离蛋白对黑米面包面团拉伸特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李云玲; 孙世锴; 朱效兵; 石晶红

    2016-01-01

    以面包专用粉为对照,研究黑米粉、谷朊粉及葵花粕分离蛋白与面包专用粉不同配比混粉面团的拉伸特性,并对各混粉面团的理化指标与拉伸参数进行相关性分析,结果表明,当添加黑米粉的添加量为30%时,添加2%~4%的谷朊粉,1%~3%的葵花粕分离蛋白,能明显改善混粉面团的拉伸特性。%Taking the bread special flour as the contrast,the extensograph properties were studied on bread spe-cial flour dough mixed with different ratio of black rice flour, gluten flour and sunflower meal protein isolate, the correlation analysis of the physical and chemical indexes and extensograph parameters of the mixed flour was carried out, and the results showed that the addition of black rice flour was 30%, added 2%-4%of gluten powder and 1%-3%of sunflower meal protein isolate, could significantly improve the extensograph properties of mixed flour dough.

  3. Development of New Craft Rice Wine%新工艺米酒的研发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘新益; 何松贵; 徐岩

    2012-01-01

    采用精糯米作原料和九江酒曲3号为曲,利用现代机械化生产低杂醇油、微量成分较多的米酒。利用该新工艺生产的米酒具有清香和蜜香复合的清雅香气、入口绵甜柔软、落口爽净甘滑、回味清爽怡畅的感官特点。%New craft rice wine with low fusel oil content and high trace elements content was produced with fine glutinous rice as raw materials and Jiujiang No.3 starter as yeast through modern automated manufacturing.Such wine had sensory characteristics including elegant aroma combining honey aroma and Fen-flavor,soft and clean taste,and enjoyable aftertaste.

  4. Chemometric classification of pigmented rice varieties based on antioxidative properties in relation to color

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phaiwan Pramai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The pigmented Thai rice varieties including red and black color and non-pigmented rice (white collected from different growth sites in the north of Thailand and were determined for color and antioxidant properties. Anthocyanins were the major compound in group of black rice (21.15-441.96 mg/100 g rice. Total phenolic, flavonoid, and -tocopherol contents were highest in the black rice followed by red rice and antioxidant capacities were predominant in pigmented varieties. Black rice grown in mountainous area presented the highest antioxidant activity compared to the other growing locations. The color parameters, especially L* value presented the negative correlations with antioxidant parameters, while the antioxidant contents, excepted -oryzanol content had significant correlation with antioxidant capacities. Pigmented rice varieties could be clearly classified into 4 groups using PCA and HCA, which provided a good indicator to classify pigmented rice varieties based on color and antioxidative properties.

  5. Diversity in the Content of Some Nutritional Components in Husked Seeds of Three Wild Rice Species and Rice Varieties in Yunnan Province of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zai-Quan CHENG; Xing-Qi HUANG; Yi-Zheng ZHANG; Jun QIAN; Ming-Zhi YANG; Cheng-Jun WU; Jia-Fu LIU

    2005-01-01

    In addition to rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars, there are three wild rice species, namely O.rufipogon Griff, O. officinalis Wall and O. granulata Baill, in Yunnan Province, China. Each species has different subtypes and ecological distributions. Yunnan wild rice species are excellent genetic resources for developing new rice cultivars. The nutritional components of the husked seeds of wild rice have not been investigated thus far. Herein, we report on the contents of total protein, starch, amylose, 17 amino acids, and five macro and five trace mineral elements in husked seeds from three wild rice species and six O. sativa cultivars. The mean (± SD) protein content in the husked rice of O. rufipogon, O. officinalis, and O. granulata was (14.5 ± 0.6)%, (16.3 ± 1. 1)%, and (15.3 ± 0.5)%, respectively. O. officinalis Ⅲ originating from Gengma had the highest protein content (19.3%). In contrast, the average protein content of six O. sativa cultivars was only 9.15%. The total content of 17 amino acids of three wild rice species was 30%-50% higher than that of the six cultivars. Tyrosine, lysine, and valine content in the three wild rice species was 34%-209% higher than that of the cultivars. However, the difference in total starch content among different O. sativa varieties or types of wild rice species was very small. The average amylose content of O. rufipogon, O. officinalis,and O. granulata was 12.0%, 9.7%, and 11.3%, respectively, much lower than that of the indica and japonica varieties (14.37%-17.17%) but much higher than that of the glutinous rice cultivars (3.89%). The sulfur, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, and ferrite content in the three wild rice species was 30%-158% higher than that of the six cultivars. The considerable difference in some nutritional components among wild rice species and O. sativa cultivars represents a wide biodiversity of Yunnan Oryza species. Based on the results of the present study, it is predicted that some good genetic traits

  6. Genetic diversity analysis of glutinous maize landraces by using SRAP molecular markers%SRAP分子标记分析广西糯玉米地方品种的遗传多样性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兵伟; 覃永嫒; 覃嘉明; 黄安霞; 秦洪波; 时成俏

    2013-01-01

    [目的]研究广西糯玉米地方品种的遗传多样性,初步划分类群,为其改良和创新利用提供参考.[方法]利用SRAP分子标记技术对广西49个糯玉米地方品种进行遗传多样性分析及杂种优势群划分.[结果]49份糯玉米地方品种被划分为5个类群,广西特别是广西西部和北部糯玉米地方品种具有丰富的遗传多样性;百色和河池地区大部分地方品种被划分在同一类群,这些糯玉米地方品种具有较强的区域性,即同一地区大部分糯玉米地方品种亲缘关系较近,且相邻的百色和河池地区的大部分糯玉米地方品种亲缘关系也较近.[结论]广西糯玉米地方品种具有较丰富的遗传多样性,且这些地方品种的遗传类群与地理来源和地理环境有较大关系.%[Objective]In this research, the genetic diversity of Guangxi glutinous maize landraces was studied and the preliminary taxa classification was conducted in order to provide reference for the improvement and innovation of glutinous maize germplasm. [Method]Utilizing the SRAP molecular markers technology, the genetic diversity and heterosis group divisions of 49 glutinous maize landraces in Guangxi were analyzed. [ Result ]The 49 glutinous maize landraces were divided into 5 groups, in which Guangxi, Western and Northern Guangxi areas in particular, had an abundant genetic diversity of glutinous maize landraces. Varieties in most parts of Baise and Hechi region were divided into the same group since these glutinous maize landraces had strong regional characteristics, that is, these glutinous maize landraces from the same area were closely related genetically. Also, the glutinous maize landraces in the neighboring Baise and Hechi areas exhibited strong phylogenetic relationship. [Conclusion]The Guangxi glutinous maize landraces displayed rich genetic diversity, and the geographic origin and geographical environment had significant relationship on these genetically

  7. Effect of gamma irradiation on starch viscosity and physicochemical properties of different rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Dianxing E-mail: dianxingwu@hotmail.com; Shu Qingyao; Wang Zhonghua; Xia Yingwu

    2002-08-01

    Three types of rice cultivars (indica, japonica and hybrid rice) with similar intermediate apparent amylose content (AAC) as well as early indica rice cultivars with different amounts of AAC were selected for studying the effects of gamma irradiation on starch viscosity, physicochemical properties and starch granule structure. Four major parameters of RVA profile, that was determined by a rapid visco analyser (RVA, Model-3D), peak viscosity, hot pasting viscosity, cool pasting viscosity, and setback viscosity, were considerably decreased with increasing dose levels. Gamma irradiation reduced the amylose contents in the cultivars with low AAC, intermediate AAC, and glutinous rice, but had no effects on the high AAC cultivar. No visible changes in gelatinization temperature were detected after irradiation, but the peak time was reduced with the dose levels. Gel consistency was significantly increased in the tested cultivars, especially in the high AAC indica rice. The starch granules were somewhat deformed by gamma irradiation. These results suggested that it is promising to use gamma irradiation to improve rice eating or cooking quality.

  8. RICE CROSSES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spikelet sterility is the greatest barrier to rice hybridization. ... sterility, Hybridization, Duplicate recessive epis- tasis ' ... hybrid fertility of intra-subspecific crosses, i.e., indica by ..... 'Germ 59(1) 293$ ' ' male sterility and fertility restoration in rice.

  9. Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Rice Bran Oils Produced from Colored Rice Using Different Extraction Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingyai, Sukanya; Kettawan, Aikkarach; Srikaeo, Khongsak; Singanusong, Riantong

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of rice bran oil (RBO) produced from the bran of three rice varities; Khao Dawk Mali 105 (white rice), Red Jasmine rice (red rice) and Hom-nin rice (black rice) using three extraction methods including cold-press extraction (CPE), solvent extraction (SE) and supercritical CO2 extraction (SC-CO2). Yields, color, acid value (AV), free fatty acid (FFA), peroxide value (PV), iodine value (IV), total phenolic compound (TPC), γ-oryzanol, α-tocopherol and fatty acid profile were analyzed. It was found that the yields obtained from SE, SC-CO2 and CPE extractions were 17.35-20.19%, 14.76-18.16% and 3.22-6.22%, respectively. The RBO from the bran of red and black rice samples exhibited high antioxidant activities. They also contained higher amount of γ-oryzanol and α-tocopherol than those of white rice sample. In terms of extraction methods, SC-CO2 provided better qualities of RBO as evidenced by their physicochemical and antioxidant properties. This study found that RBO produced from the bran of black rice samples using SC-CO2 extraction method showed the best physicochemical and antioxidant properties.

  10. Occurring characteristics and controlling strategy of Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV)%南方水稻黑条矮缩病发生现状及防控对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘万才; 刘宇; 郭荣

    2010-01-01

    @@ 南方水稻黑条矮缩病毒(Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus,SRBSDV)是由我国科学工作者首先发现,并经华南农业大学周国辉教授等人鉴定和命名的为害农作物的病毒新种,属呼肠孤病毒科(Reoviridae)斐济病毒属(Fijivirus).需引起我们高度重视的是该病以在我国水稻主产区广泛发生的迁飞性害虫白背飞虱为介体高效传毒而发生和流行.

  11. Occurring trend and control strategy of southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus%钦州市南方水稻黑条矮缩病发生发展态势及防控对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小燕; 邓钦阳; 陈军; 刘维文; 尹奇勋; 杨利平

    2011-01-01

    @@ 南方水稻黑条矮缩病于2001年在广东省阳西县晚稻上首次发现,2008年由华南农业大学周国辉教授等人将其命名为南方水稻黑条矮缩病(Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus,SRBSDV)[1].2009年鉴定,该病已在钦州市的灵山、浦北、钦南、钦北等县区发生,发病面积4185.47ha,绝收面积275.07ha,损失2328.15t稻谷.

  12. Study on Compound Fresh-keeping Technology of Purple Glutinous Maize%紫糯玉米复合保鲜工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宇; 尹露; 刘晓燕; 田碧英; 李艳艳

    2014-01-01

    With fresh purple glutinous maize as material, fresh-keeping technology was studied with chitosan, potassium sorbate, sodium pyrosulfite, VC, citric acid as compound preservative, and the influence on blanching and preservative were analyzed, the best fresh-keeping technology of purple glutinous maize was got by orthogonal test. The results showed that:precooked 5 minutes at 60℃;Preservative formula:amount of chitosan 0.8%, amount of potassium sorbate 0.02%, amount of s sodium pyrosulfite 0.08%,amount of vitamin C 0.10%, amount of citric acid 0.20%;vacuum packing, sterilization 10 minutes in water at 110℃, preserved at room temperature, the purple glutinous maize could guarantee the quality by at least half a year, realize purple glutinous maize annual supply basically.%以新鲜紫糯玉米为原料,采用壳聚糖、山梨酸钾、焦亚硫酸钠、VC、柠檬酸作为复合保鲜剂,对其进行护色保鲜,并分析预煮工艺和保鲜剂对保鲜效果的影响,通过正交试验得出紫糯玉米的最佳护色保鲜工艺。研究结果表明:紫糯玉米60℃下预煮5 min;保鲜液配方为:壳聚糖添加量0.8%,山梨酸钾添加量0.02%,焦亚硫酸钠添加量0.08%,VC添加量0.10%,柠檬酸添加量0.20%;真空包装,110℃水杀菌10 min,室温保存,可使紫糯玉米保质期达到半年以上,基本实现紫糯玉米的全年供应。

  13. Selection Under Domestication: Evidence for a Sweep in the Rice Waxy Genomic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Kenneth M.; Caicedo, Ana L.; Polato, Nicholas; McClung, Anna; McCouch, Susan; Purugganan, Michael D.

    2006-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) was cultivated by Asian Neolithic farmers >11,000 years ago, and different cultures have selected for divergent starch qualities in the rice grain during and after the domestication process. An intron 1 splice donor site mutation of the Waxy gene is responsible for the absence of amylose in glutinous rice varieties. This mutation appears to have also played an important role in the origin of low amylose, nonglutinous temperate japonica rice varieties, which form a primary component of Northeast Asian cuisines. Waxy DNA sequence analyses indicate that the splice donor mutation is prevalent in temperate japonica rice varieties, but rare or absent in tropical japonica, indica, aus, and aromatic varieties. Sequence analysis across a 500-kb genomic region centered on Waxy reveals patterns consistent with a selective sweep in the temperate japonicas associated with the mutation. The size of the selective sweep (>250 kb) indicates very strong selection in this region, with an inferred selection coefficient that is higher than similar estimates from maize domestication genes or wild species. These findings demonstrate that selection pressures associated with crop domestication regimes can exceed by one to two orders of magnitude those observed for genes under even strong selection in natural systems. PMID:16547098

  14. Study On The Brewing Rice Koji Qing Shuang Type Chinese Rice Wine%用米曲酿制清爽型黄酒的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛青钟

    2014-01-01

    Using orthogonal test trials of the three levels of the four factors of glutinous rice, water, yeast and koji dosage, The results show that:Koji brewed without wheat Qu taste and no enzyme preparations taste so refreshing, the taste good Semi qing shuang type chinese rice wine is feasible, Qing shuang type chinese rice wine instead of wheat koji koji system, Reduce the use of starter 10%, Improve liquor yield;Feeding glutinous rice 100%, The amount of water is 192.0%, Plus yeast starter 10.6%, The Garmisch Qu amount to 15.4%in the most appropriate; Koji traditional craft brewed Qing shuang type chinese rice wine while exploring the impact of its fermentation. Provide a scientific basis for the Qing shuang type chinese rice wine production process improvements.%运用正交试验法对糯米、水、酒母和米曲加量四个因子三个水平的试验研究。结果表明:用米曲酿制成无麦曲味和无酶制剂味等的清爽、口感好的半干清爽型黄酒是可行的,用米曲代替麦曲制清爽型黄酒,减少用曲量10%,提高出酒率;以投料糯米100%计,则加水量为192.0%,加酒母量为10.6%,加米曲量为15.4%最适宜;同时探索了用米曲传统工艺酿制清爽型黄酒对其发酵的影响规律,为清爽型黄酒生产工艺的改进提供科学依据。

  15. Study on the cause of serious occurrence of southern rice black - streaked dwarf virus in middle - season rice in Sanjiang county and its control strategy%2010年三江县中稻南方水稻

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯松德

    2011-01-01

    @@ 南方水稻黑条矮缩病(Southern rice blackstreaked dwarf virus,SRBSDV)是近年来在我国新发现的水稻病毒病,迁飞性害虫白背飞虱为主要传毒媒介.2009年该病在越南北部及我国华南和长江中游稻区多个省发生并局部造成稻谷损失.

  16. Effectiveness of Rice Agricultural Waste, Microbes and Wetland Plants in the Removal of Reactive Black-5 Azo Dye in Microcosm Constructed Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Beenish; Jabeen, Madeeha; Khalid, Azeem; Aziz, Irfan; Christy, Ann D

    2015-01-01

    Azo dyes are commonly generated as effluent pollutants by dye using industries, causing contamination of surface and ground water. Various strategies are employed to treat such wastewater; however, a multi-faceted treatment strategy could be more effective for complete removal of azo dyes from industrial effluent than any single treatment. In the present study, rice husk material was used as a substratum in two constructed wetlands (CWs) and augmented with microorganisms in the presence of wetland plants to effectively treat dye-polluted water. To evaluate the efficiency of each process the study was divided into three levels, i.e., adsorption of dye onto the substratum, phytoremediation within the CW and then bioremediation along with the previous two processes in the augmented CW. The adsorption process was helpful in removing 50% dye in presence of rice husk while 80% in presence of rice husk biocahr. Augmentation of microorganisms in CW systems has improved dye removal efficiency to 90%. Similarly presence of microorganisms enhanced removal of total nitrogen (68% 0 and Total phosphorus (75%). A significant improvement in plant growth was also observed by measuring plant height, number of leaves and leave area. These findings suggest the use of agricultural waste as part of a CW substratum can provide enhanced removal of textile dyes.

  17. 雪菊米酒的研制%Development of Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt Rice Wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓菊; 金英姿

    2016-01-01

    With the Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt, glutinous rice as the main raw materials,develop a new rice wine-Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt rice wine. Through single factor experiments and orthogonal test to determine the optimum process conditions were:Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt extract addition 20%,the swet song addition 1.0%, yeast addition 0.08%,fermentation time 5 days. Under the conditions , the Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt rice wine had a delicate taste and unique flavor , and had the functions of nutrintion value and health effects.%以雪菊、糯米为主要原料,研制新型米酒———雪菊米酒。通过单因素试验和正交试验确定最佳工艺条件是:雪菊提取液添加量20%、甜酒曲添加量1.0%、酿酒酵母添加量0.08%、发酵时间5 d。在此条件下制备的雪菊米酒口感细腻、风味独特,兼有雪菊和米酒的营养价值和保健作用。

  18. 鲜食紫糯玉米护色保鲜工艺研究%Study on Color Fixation and Fresh-keeping Technology of Purple Glutinous Maize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘江; 李宇; 孙钟雷; 袁娅

    2012-01-01

    Fresh purple glutinous maize was focused on in order to choose the best way to help the purple glutinous maize staying in the most appropriate color and its fresh-keeping with citric acid, sodium sulfite deoxidization, sodium tripolyphosphate and vitamin C. The effection of the pre-cooking time, cooling method and the illumination on product quality was studied, which also included the best production technology of color fixation and fresh- keeping. The results showed that: the amount of citric acid 0.20%, the amount of sodium sulfite deoxidization 0.06%, the amount of sodium tripolyphosphate 0.11%, the amount of vitamin C 0.06%. And the pre-cooking time of purple glutinous maize was 10 min, the cooling method selected natural cooling, stored in the dark and vacuum packaged and sterilized those could make the purple plutinous maize' color fixation and fresh-keeping better effect.%以新鲜紫糯玉米为原料,用柠檬酸、亚硫酸钠、维生素c、三聚磷酸钠保鲜剂对其进行护色保鲜,并分析预煮时间、冷却方法和光照对保鲜效果的影响,通过正交试验得出紫糯玉米的最佳护色保鲜工艺。研究结果表明:柠檬酸添加量0.20%、亚硫酸钠添加量0.06%、三聚磷酸钠添加量0.11%、维生素C添加量0.06%;紫糯玉米预煮时间l0min,冷却方法选取自然冷却,真空包装灭菌后采用避光保存可使紫糯玉米的护色保鲜效果达到最好。

  19. 出口速冻粽子HACCP体系的研究%An investigation on the HACCP system of the exporting deepfreeze glutinous rice dumpling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洪卫; 高云; 张振祥; 冯智

    2004-01-01

    进入二十世纪90年代,HACCP从创立发展阶段进入了普及应用阶段。HACCP体系已在世界各国得到了广泛的应用和发展。美国、加拿大、澳大利亚、日本、英国和其他欧盟国家分别制定了本国的HACCP法规。如美国对其进口的肉、禽、水产品、果蔬汁饮料提出了HACCP体系认证的要求,并计划将来陆续扩大到其它食品。

  20. Postprandial Glycemic Response and Satiety Evaluation of Glutinous Rice Foods%糯性加工食品餐后血糖及饱腹感评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘海坤; 王淑颖; 范志红

    2016-01-01

    为了研究糯性加工食品餐后生理反应,选择以粳糯米和籼糯米为原料制成的米饭、年糕、油饭、油糕为研究对象,测定各糯性加工食品餐后120 min的血糖和饱腹感反应,计算血糖生成指数(glycemic index,GI)与饱腹感指数(satiety index,SI).结果表明:各样品的GI值为:粳糯米饭94.42、籼糯米饭84.47、粳糯年糕125.47、籼糯年糕110.87、粳糯油饭89.66、籼糯油饭80.13、粳糯油糕112.34、籼糯油糕99.10,即全部糯性加工食品均为高GI食物.对于同品种糯米,米粉加工食品年糕、油糕GI值分别高于对应整粒加工食品米饭、油饭;加入猪油制成的油饭、油糕的血糖反应较米饭、年糕略微降低;对于同种糯性加工食品,粳糯比籼糯具有更高的血糖反应;各糯性加工食品SI值为0.99~1.15,样品间无显著性差异,数值与参比粳米相近;与未添加猪油的样品相比,添加猪油并未增加餐后饱腹感,等能量比较时饱腹感反而更低.由此说明不同糯米品种、粒度以及脂肪的添加都会影响糯性加工食品的餐后血糖反应.但整体看来糯性加工食品血糖反应较高,不适合控制血糖者食用.

  1. Microbial diversity in a continuous system based on rice husks for biodegradation of the azo dyes Reactive Red 2 and Reactive Black 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forss, Jörgen; Pinhassi, Jarone; Lindh, Markus; Welander, Ulrika

    2013-02-01

    In the present study the degradation of two common azo dyes used in dye houses today, Reactive Black 5 and Reactive Red 2 was evaluated in biofilters. In two experiments, bioreactors performed over 80% decolorization at a hydraulic retention time of only 28.4h with little production of metabolites. Molecular analyses showed a diverse and dynamic bacterial community composition in the bioreactors, including members of the Bacteroidetes, Acinetobacter (Gammaproteobacteria) and Clostridium (Firmicutes) that possess the capacity to reduce azo dyes. Collectively, the results indicate that the development of mixed bacterial communities from natural biomaterials contributes to an efficient and robust degradation performance in bioreactors even at high concentration of dyes.

  2. Anti-oxidative analysis, and identification and quantification of anthocyanin pigments in different coloured rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao Qiong; Nagao, Norio; Itani, Tomio; Irifune, Kohei

    2012-12-15

    Anthocyanin pigments in coloured rice cultivars were isolated and identified using high-performance liquid chromatography techniques. Two black rice cultivars (Asamurasaki, Okunomurasaki) contained three major anthocyanins: cyanidin-3-glucoside, peonidin-3-glucoside and malvidin. Chinakuromai (black) rice additionally contained a fourth anthocyanin, petunidin-3-glucoside. Four red rice cultivars contained only malvidin. The total anthocyanin content varied greatly among black rice cultivars (79.5-473.7 mg/100g), but was lower in red rice (7.9-34.4 mg/100g). Total phenolic content was similar between red (460.32-725.69 mg/100g) and black (417.11-687.24 mg/100g) rice. The oxygen radical absorbing capacity was ranked as follows: red (69.91-130.32 μmol Trolox/g)>black (55.49-64.85 μmol Trolox/g)>green (35.32 μmol Trolox/g)>white (21.81 μmol Trolox/g) rice. The antioxidant capacity resulted mainly from the seed capsule, not the endosperm. The anthocyanin pigments contributed little to the total antioxidant capacity of red (0.03-0.1%) and black (0.5-2.5%) rice cultivars. Hence, the antioxidant capacity is derived mainly from other phenolic compounds.

  3. Sweet Rice Wine Brewed with Purple-fleshed Sweet Potato%紫心甘薯酿制甜米酒

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤瑾; 李金生

    2009-01-01

    紫心甘薯含有大量的花青素,有一定的保健作用.以紫心甘薯为原料与糯米混合糖化发酵酿制的紫薯甜米酒,色泽深红透亮,口味鲜甜,酒香浓郁,该种深红色米酒为米酒类产品增添了新品种,同时为紫心甘薯的综合利用提供了新途径.%Purple-fleshed sweet potato contains plenty of anthocyanin,which promotes health in a certain way.The purple sweet potato rice wine is brewed from the fermented mixture of saccharified purple-fleshed sweet potato and glutinous rice.As the wine has a crystal carmine color,a fresh taste and fragrant odor,the burgundy-colored rice wine has added a new variety to the rice wine family,which provides a new way for the comprehensive use of purple-fleshed sweet potato.

  4. Analysis of black soil environment based on Arduino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Zhang, Y. F.; Wu, C. H.; Wang, J. F.

    2017-05-01

    As everyone knows, the black soil of Heilongjiang bred rice is famous in the world. How to use networking technology to detection the growth environment of Heilongjiang rice, and expands it to the local planting environment to our country is the most important topic. However, the growth environment of rice is complex. In current research, some importnat factors such as carbon dioxide, oxygen, temperature and humidity, pH value and microbial content in black soil that affect the growth of plants are selected, and a kind of black land based on data acquisition and transmission system based on the Arduino development environment and the mechanism construction of Kingview has been realized. The collected data was employed to establish the simulation environment for the growth of rice in Heilongjiang. It can be applied to stimulate the rice growing environment of Heilongjiang province, and gives a improvement of rice quality in other areas. Keywords: Arduino; Kingview; living environment

  5. Tocopherol and tocotrienol contents of different varieties of rice in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shammugasamy, Balakrishnan; Ramakrishnan, Yogeshini; Ghazali, Hasanah M; Muhammad, Kharidah

    2015-03-15

    The present study examined the contents of tocopherols and tocotrienols and their distribution in 58 different varieties of whole rice cultivated in Malaysia. The analytical method used was saponification of samples followed by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The total vitamin E contents of different varieties of whole rice ranged between 19.36 and 63.29 mg kg⁻¹. Contents of vitamin E isomers varied among rice varieties both within and between grain color groups. Black-pigmented rice showed significantly higher mean contents of α-tocopherol, β-tocopherol and α-tocotrienol than non-pigmented rice and red-pigmented rice. Red-pigmented rice had significantly lower mean contents of γ-tocotrienol and total vitamin E than non-pigmented rice. The mean contents of δ-tocotrienol and total vitamin E in non-pigmented rice, however, were similar to those in black-pigmented rice. γ-Tocotrienol was the predominant form of vitamin E isomer in all analyzed varieties. The Pearson correlations among vitamin E isomers and total vitamin E content of whole rice were also studied. This study provides information on vitamin E content of different rice varieties that would be beneficial for decision making in genetic breeding of bioactive compound-rich rice varieties. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Surveillance and Integrated Control Technology of Southern Rice Black­streaked Dwarf Virus Disease in Huazhou City%广东化州市南方水稻黑条矮缩病监测与综合防治技术规程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁少玉; 黄闻桢; 梁盛铭; 陈观浩

    2015-01-01

    According to the rules of southern rice black­streaked dwarf virus disease occurrence and the forecast and prevention practice of the epidemic, the scope of control technology, the principle of prevention, the disease surveillance, the forecasting methods and the integrated control technology were studied. Furthermore, specific rules and technical specifications of the comprehensive prevention and control processes were illustrated, which provided technical basis for the control standardization and green prevention of southern rice black­streaked dwarf virus disease.%根据南方水稻黑条矮缩病发生流行规律和测报防治实践,研究化州市南方水稻黑条矮缩病防治技术规程的适用范围、防治原则、病情监测、预报方法及综合防治技术,阐明综合防治技术规程的具体细则和技术指标,为南方水稻黑条矮缩病防治规范化、标准化和绿色防控提供技术依据。

  7. 植物乳杆菌发酵对大米淀粉理化性质的影响%Effect of fermentation by Lactobacillus plantarum on the physicochemical properties of rice starch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周显青; 张玉荣; 李亚军

    2011-01-01

    Early long-grain non-glutinous rice was fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum and then rice starch was extracted by protease protein removal method.The physicochemical properties of rice starch during fermentation were studied.The results showed that the transparency of starch paste after fermentation was reduced and the retrogradation was increased.The solubility of fermented rice starch was increased, while the swelling power was decreased in high-temperature phase, but the polarization cross of rice starch was not affected.%以早籼米为原料,利用植物乳杆菌发酵大米,采用酶法提取大米淀粉,研究发酵对大米淀粉理化性质的影响.结果表明:发酵后淀粉糊的透明度降低,凝沉性增强.淀粉的溶解度增加,而膨润力在高温阶段还有所降低,但发酵未影响大米淀粉的偏光十字.

  8. Rice antioxidants: phenolic acids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, tocopherols, tocotrienols, γ-oryzanol, and phytic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goufo, Piebiep; Trindade, Henrique

    2014-03-01

    Epidemiological studies suggested that the low incidence of certain chronic diseases in rice-consuming regions of the world might be associated with the antioxidant compound contents of rice. The molecules with antioxidant activity contained in rice include phenolic acids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, tocopherols, tocotrienols, γ-oryzanol, and phytic acid. This review provides information on the contents of these compounds in rice using a food composition database built from compiling data from 316 papers. The database provides access to information that would have otherwise remained hidden in the literature. For example, among the four types of rice ranked by color, black rice varieties emerged as those exhibiting the highest antioxidant activities, followed by purple, red, and brown rice varieties. Furthermore, insoluble compounds appear to constitute the major fraction of phenolic acids and proanthocyanidins in rice, but not of flavonoids and anthocyanins. It is clear that to maximize the intake of antioxidant compounds, rice should be preferentially consumed in the form of bran or as whole grain. With respect to breeding, japonica rice varieties were found to be richer in antioxidant compounds compared with indica rice varieties. Overall, rice grain fractions appear to be rich sources of antioxidant compounds. However, on a whole grain basis and with the exception of γ-oryzanol and anthocyanins, the contents of antioxidants in other cereals appear to be higher than those in rice.

  9. The World of Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VALERIE SARTOR

    2010-01-01

    @@ Pilafs, risottos, soups, snacks, paellas,stuffing, vinegars, wines and desserts-rice is used all over the world in myriad ways as food and drink.Although rice is one of the world's most ancient foods and it is impossible to know exactly where and when cultivation of this marvelous grain began, China is popularly acknowledged as the homeland of rice. Chinese people have many legends about rice. Some describe a benevolent goddess in silk robes whose gown accidentally picked up stray rice grains, which she dropped from the heavens to humans below. It's also said that Shennong, the Divine Farmer in Chinese myth, sowed the first rice on earth.

  10. Interaction between four rice proteins and P7-2, an unstructural viral protein encoded by Rice black streaked dwarf virus S7%四种水稻蛋白与水稻黑条矮缩病毒编码非结构蛋白 P7-2的互作分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张上林; 孙丽英; 陈剑平

    2013-01-01

    Rice black streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV), a member of the genus Fijivirus, infects maize and rice plants and causes significant yield losses in Asia .RBSDV has a genome of 10 dsRNAs and encodes 12 proteins.Six of these proteins (P1, P2, P3, P4, P8 and P10) are structural components of the viral particle .There are six non-structural proteins, P5, P6, P7-1, P7-2, P9-1, and P9-2.Among those non-structural proteins, P5, P6 and P9-1 have been shown to involve in viroplasm formation and P 7-1 has been identified to form the cytoplasmic tubular-like structures that serve as a conduit for virion movement between cells .The function of P7-2 and P9-2 is still unknow . In this study , we utilized protein Pull-Down assay and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry ( LC-MS/MS) techniques to identify the proteins from rice ( Oryza sativa) that interact with P7-2.Four proteins were found to bind P7-2 by Pull-Down assay.Two of them are transcription-associated proteins, one is an aminotransferase and the other one is a putative chaperonin 60 beta precursor .Using real-time quantitative PCR , the transcript expression lev-els of transcription-associated protein and putative chaperonin 60 beta precursor were up-regulated by RBSDV infec-tion.In contrast , the transcript expression of aminotransferase protein was suppressed by RBSDV infection .%水稻黑条矮缩病毒( RBSDV)是斐济病毒属的成员之一,可侵染玉米和水稻等作物,给亚洲地区的田间生产带来严重的损失。 RBSDV有10条双链RNA(double strand RNA, dsRNA)基因组,编码12个蛋白。其中6个蛋白是病毒粒子的结构成分(P1,P2,P3,P4,P8,P10),6个非结构蛋白分别为P5,P6,P7-1,P7-2,P9-1, P9-2。在非结构蛋白中,P5,P6和P9-1已被证实参与形成毒质结构,P7-1被认为可在细胞质中形成类似管状的结构作为病毒胞间扩散的通道,P7-2和P9-2的功能目前尚不明确。

  11. Polishing and parboiling effect on the nutritional and technological properties of pigmented rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study aims to evaluate the effects of polishing and parboiling on proximate composition, structure, phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, cooking time and hardness of IAC-600 black rice cultivar and MPB-10 red rice lineage. Proximate analysis and light micrographs revealed higher migration ...

  12. 基于人工神经网络的黑米花色苷提取的研究%Artificial neural network-based optimization of extraction of anthocyanins in black rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯召华; 张宇; 金春爱; 赵昌德; 崔松焕

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To get the optimal parameters of anthocyanins of black rice, artificial neural network (ANN) model of extracting anthocyanins was founded. Method: Based on the training of artificial neural networks using orthogonal arrays, a model for the productivity of anthocyanins as the output of the input consisting of five technological parameters for extraction was developed and validated for reliability using selected specimens. The further optimization of optimal values of these parameters obtained using orthogonal array design was conducted based on the AAN model by means of small-step search. Result: The optimal parameters for extraction were ethanol/water/hydrochloric acid 55/45/0.5, temperature 50℃, solid-liquid ratio of 1:10, the extraction time is 1 h, times of extraction is 4. Conclusion: AAN- based optimization gave a productivity of anthocyanins of 3.942%, higher than the value of 3.740% from orthogonal array optimization. More optimized technological parameters and higher optimization efficiency can be obtained using combined ANNs and orthogonal array design than using orthogonal array design alone.%目的:建立黑米花色苷提取的人工神经网络模型,得到最佳提取工艺参数。方法:正交实验与人工神经网络相结合,利用正交实验获得的数据作为神经网络的训练样本,建立输入为实验因素参数,输出为花色苷提取率的神经网络模型;采用人工神经网络模拟和预测黑米花色苷提取的最佳条件和提取率。结果:黑米花色苷最佳提取条件,提取液乙醇/水/盐酸体积比为55:45:0.5,温度50℃,固液比为1:10(g/mL),提取时间为1h,提取次数为4次。结论:人工神经网络模型准确预测花色苷提取率,且得到最佳提取条件下花色苷提取率为3.944%,高于正交实验的3.740%,将神经网络与正交实验结合用于实验条件优化可以缩短优化实验参数的

  13. Special rice in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Mingshui Rice: It originated from Zhangqiu County, Shandong Province. The characteristics of Mingshui Rice were: absorbing more water, swelling up greatly after being soaked, and being sticky and smelling fragrant after cooked.

  14. Rice Price under Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xinwen

    2008-01-01

    @@ Early in April, the FOB (Free on Board) value of rice exported from Bangkok, Thailand, the biggest rice exporter of the world, surged to a new high of US$730per ton, representing an increase of 70 percent in recent years, and setting a new record over the past 34 years of Thailand rice exports.

  15. Bioactive compounds and antioxidative activity of colored rice bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ping Huang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The profiles of bioactive compounds (including phenolics and flavonoids in free and bound fractions, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, vitamin E, and γ-oryzanol of outer and inner rice bran from six colored rice samples collected from local markets were investigated. Proanthocyanidins could only be detected in red rice bran but not in black rice bran. The free fraction of the extracts dominated the total phenolics (72–92% and the total flavonoids (72–96% of colored rice bran. Most of the phenolic acids (83–97% in colored rice bran were present in the bound form. Protocatechualdehyde was identified for the first time in the bound fraction of red rice bran by high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The antioxidative activities of the free fraction of the colored rice bran were attributed to the proanthocyanidins in red colored rice and anthocyanins in black rice, while that of the bound fraction was mainly due to the phenolic acids.

  16. Rice peasants and rice research in Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijkers, P.A.N.M.

    1983-01-01

    Rice has been grown as a food crop in Latin America from early colonial times. In Colombia rice became a prominent subsistence crop especially on the north coast where it has been grown since the 17th century, sometimes also as a commercial crop. During the last twenty years there has been a sharp i

  17. Rice peasants and rice research in Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijkers, P.A.N.M.

    1983-01-01

    Rice has been grown as a food crop in Latin America from early colonial times. In Colombia rice became a prominent subsistence crop especially on the north coast where it has been grown since the 17th century, sometimes also as a commercial crop. During the last twenty years there has been a sharp

  18. Optimization of Extraction Process for Lycopene from Rhodotorula glutins%红酵母番茄红素提取工艺优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海兵; 吴晓英; 刘世龙; 徐莹莹

    2011-01-01

    从破壁方法、浸提溶剂及提取条件等方面对黏红酵母番茄红素提取工艺进行优化研究。采用单因素试验对破壁方法及浸提溶剂进行选择,结果表明热酸法是黏红酵母破壁提取番茄红素的最佳方法,丙酮-乙酸乙酯(1:1)混合液是理想的提取溶剂。采用正交试验方法对液料比、提取温度和提取时间等番茄红素提取条件进行优化,得到适宜的提取条件为丙酮-乙酸乙酯(1:1)溶剂添加量60mL/g、提取温度30℃、提取时间3h。在此提取工艺下,得到红酵母番茄红素提取量为4.55mg/g,比未优化时的3.22mg/g增加了41.30%。%Cell wall disruption followed by organic solvent extraction was used to extract lycopene from Rhodotorula glutins.The optimal cell wall disruption method and extraction solvent were found to be hot acid treatment and acetone-ethyl acetate(1:1),respectively.Three extraction conditions such as material-to-liquid ratio,temperature and time were optimized by orthogonal array design to be 1:60(g/mL),30 ℃ and 3 h,respectively.Under these conditions,the extraction rate of lycopene was 4.55 mg/g,41.30% higher than before optimization.

  19. Molecular Structure and Physicochemical Properties of Starches from Rice with Different Amylose Contents Resulting from Modification of OsGBSSI Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Changquan; Chen, Shengjie; Ren, Xinyu; Lu, Yan; Liu, Derui; Cai, Xiuling; Li, Qianfeng; Gao, Jiping; Liu, Qiaoquan

    2017-03-15

    OsGBSSI, encoded by the Waxy (Wx) gene, is the key enzyme in the synthesis of amylose chains. Transgenic rice lines with various GBSSI activities were previously developed via site-directed mutagenesis of the Wx gene in the glutinous cultivar Guanglingxiangnuo (GLXN). In this study, grain morphology, molecular structure, and physicochemical properties were investigated in four transgenic lines with modified OsGBSSI activity and differences in amylose content. A milky opaque appearance was observed in low- and non-amylose rice grains due to air spaces in the starch granules. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and high-performance anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC) analyses showed that although OsGBSSI can synthesize intermediate and extra-long amylopectin chains, it is mainly responsible for the longer amylose chains. Amylose content was positively correlated with trough viscosity, final viscosity, setback viscosity, pasting time, pasting temperature, and gelatinization temperature and negatively with gel consistency, breakdown viscosity, gelatinization enthalpy, and crystallinity. Overall, the findings suggest that OsGBSSI may be also involved in amylopectin biosynthesis, in turn affecting grain appearance, thermal and pasting properties, and the crystalline structure of starches in the rice endosperm.

  20. Special rice in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Wushan Rice: It grew in hilly land around Wu Mountain in Wang City, Hunan Province. Its grain is bright and transparent, and the cooked rice is soft, sticky, fragrant, and sweet in taste. It was a "Tribute Rice" in old time. Indian Indica: Growing in Wuchang City, Hubei Province, it was also called" Red Flower Rice" . It was characterized by its thin pericarp and soft, sticky, and oily quality. Its taste was delicious. Fragrant Rice 1: It was from Xinxiang and Hui counties, Henan Province. Its characteristics were: long-round in grain shape, white in color, soft and sticky in quality, and agreeable to the taste. It was usually used as a gift in the local. Baiyutang Rice: It originated from Gaozhuang Village, Beijing suburban district. It had good quality due to the irrigation of the spring water. The rice had even grain shape, white color, hard enough quality to be cooked, fragrant and sweet taste. It was one of the "Tribute Rice" in old time. Tian′e Indica Rice: Xianning and Wuchang counties, Hubei Province were its growing area. It also called "Double Grain" because of its big grain. The hull was red, while the grain was white. When cooked, it needed more water than normal rice, and the rice was agreeable to the taste. Baiyan Rice: It originated from Jishou County, Hunan Province. The grain was even in shape, white in color, and sticky in quality. The rice was easy to be cooked and was fragrant and sweet in taste. It was also a " Tribute Rice" in old time. □ (To be continued) Translated by CHEN Wenhua, From "China Rice", No. 1, 1994

  1. Effect of Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. leaf pigment on the thermal, pasting, and textural properties and microstructure characterization of rice starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuan; Fan, Mingcong; Zhou, Sumei; Wang, Li; Qian, Haifeng; Zhang, Hui; Qi, Xiguang

    2017-08-01

    In this study, the thermal, pasting and gel textural properties of japonica rice starch (JRS) and glutinous rice starch (GRS) fortified with Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. leaf pigment (VBTLP) were investigated. The results showed that VBTLP facilitated the gelatinization of JRS and GRS with earlier onsets of onset temperature (To), peak temperature (Tp), conclusion temperature (Tc), and lower values of gelatinization enthalpy (ΔHg), and retrogradation enthalpy (ΔHr), as the VBTLP level increased. For JRS, VBTLP increased the peak viscosity and breakdown, reduced the final viscosity and setback, but for GRS it increased the peak viscosity, final viscosity, breakdown and setback. VBTLP also reduced the hardness and adhesiveness of the JRS gel. The values of lightness (L(∗)) for JRS and GRS with VBTLP decreased by 47.60 and 49.56%, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that VBTLP caused looser matrices in dried JRS and GRS gels which had lower crystallinities compared with the control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. 烧酒曲中扣囊复膜酵母的分离及鉴定%Isolation and identification of Saccharomycopsis fibuligera isolated from rice wine starter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    应玲云; 伍时华; 赵东玲; 何启刚; 刘光鹏; 黄翠姬; 易弋

    2013-01-01

    Yeast strain YW12 with amylolytic activity was isolated from rice wine solid starter diluted and spread on starch-degrading plate ( YPS agar) to make pure culture starter for rice wine. Based on morphological, cultural and physiological tests and phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences, YW12 was identified as Saccharomycopsis fibuligera. Detected with the modified Yoo method, amylase activity of crude enzyme solution from YW12 in YPS broth for 4 days at 28 ℃ was 49. 8 U/mL. The strain YW12 cultured in saccharification mash with 170 g/L glucose from glutinous rice for 3 days at 28 ℃ gave 5. 63 % ( v/v) of ethanol content. Because of its ability of starch-degrading and ethanol fermentation, the strain YW12 maybe have a potential to be used in making defined fungal starter for glutinous rice wine.%为了筛选1株可用于纯菌种酿造糯米酒的酵母菌,将烧酒曲稀释涂布在淀粉培养基(YPS)平板上培养,得到1株产淀粉酶酵母菌(YWI2).通过形态学、生理生化特征和18S rDNA、ITS区序列分析鉴定,YW12为扣囊复膜酵母(Saccharomycopsis fibuligera).YW12在YPS液体培养基中28℃培养4d,用Yoo改良法测其粗酶液的淀粉酶活力为49.8 U/mL.YW12在糯米糖化液(含175 g/L葡萄糖)中28℃发酵3d的酒精度为5.63%(v/v).YW12既能同化淀粉又能发酵产生酒精,具有用于纯菌种酿造糯米酒的潜力.

  3. Bean and rice meals reduce postprandial glycemic response in adults with type 2 diabetes: a cross-over study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson Sharon V

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Around the world, beans and rice are commonly consumed together as a meal. With type 2 diabetes increasing, the effect of this traditional diet pattern on glycemic response has not been studied fully. Methods We evaluated the glycemic response of bean and rice traditional meals compared to rice alone in adults with type 2 diabetes. Seventeen men and women with type 2 diabetes controlled by metformin (n = 14 or diet/exercise (n = 3 aged 35–70 years participated in the randomized 4 × 4 crossover trial. The white long grain rice control, pinto beans/rice, black beans/rice, red kidney beans/rice test meals, matched for 50 grams of available carbohydrate, were consumed at breakfast after a 12 hour fast. Capillary blood glucose concentrations at baseline and at 30 minute intervals up to 180 minutes postprandial were collected. MANOVA for repeated measures established glucose differences between treatments. Paired t tests identified differences between bean types and the rice control following a significant MANOVA. Results Postprandial net glucose values were significantly lower for the three bean/rice treatments in contrast to the rice control at 90, 120 and 150 minutes. Incremental area under the curve values were significantly lower for the pinto and black bean/rice meals compared to rice alone, but not for kidney beans. Conclusions Pinto, dark red kidney and black beans with rice attenuate the glycemic response compared to rice alone. Promotion of traditional foods may provide non-pharmaceutical management of type 2 diabetes and improve dietary adherence with cultural groups. Trial registration Clinical Trials number NCT01241253

  4. Functional analysis of the rice rubisco activase promoter in transgenic Arabidopsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zhipan; Lu, Qingtao; Wen, Xiaogang [Key Laboratory of Photobiology, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093 (China); Chen, Fan [Key Laboratory of Molecular and Developmental Biology, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Lu, Congming, E-mail: lucm@ibcas.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Photobiology, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093 (China)

    2012-02-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rice rubisco activase promoter was analyzed in transgenic Arabidopsis system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Region conferring tissue specific and light inducible expression of Rca was identified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer -58 to +43 bp region mediates tissue-specific expression of rice Rca. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Light inducible expression of rice Rca is mediated by -297 to -58 bp region. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rice nuclear proteins bind specifically with the light inducible region. -- Abstract: To gain a better understanding of the regulatory mechanism of the rice rubisco activase (Rca) gene, variants of the Rca gene promoter (one full-length and four deletion mutants) fused to the coding region of the bacterial reporter gene {beta}-glucuronidase (GUS) were introduced into Arabidopsis via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Our results show that a 340 bp fragment spanning from -297 to +43 bp relative to the transcription initiation site is enough to promote tissue-specific and light-inducible expression of the rice Rca gene as done by the full-length promoter (-1428 to +43 bp). Further deletion analysis indicated that the region conferring tissue-specificity of Rca expression is localized within a 105 bp fragment from -58 to +43 bp, while light-inducible expression of Rca is mediated by the region from -297 to -58 bp. Gel shift assays and competition experiments demonstrated that rice nuclear proteins bind specifically with the fragment conferring light responsiveness at more than one binding site. This implies that multiple cis-elements may be involved in light-induced expression of the rice Rca gene. These works provide a useful reference for understanding transcriptional regulation mechanism of the rice Rca gene, and lay a strong foundation for further detection of related cis-elements and trans-factors.

  5. Rice that Filipinos Grow and Eat

    OpenAIRE

    de Leon, John C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces rice to the reader and analyzes the changes it has gone through these past 100 years in the shaping hands of varietal improvement science. Here, the richness of the crop as a genetic material and resource is revealed. Landrace rice, pureline selection rice, crossbred rice, semidwarf rice, hybrid rice, new plant type rice, designer rice - from the traditional to modern to futuristic - rice becomes all of these while traversing time in the Philippines. There is rice for th...

  6. Machine vision inspection of rice seed based on Hough transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成芳; 应义斌

    2004-01-01

    A machine vision system was developed to inspect the quality of rice seeds. Five varieties of Jinyou402, Shanyou10, Zhongyou207, Jiayou and IIyou were evaluated. The images of both sides of rice seed with black background and white background were acquired with the image processing system for identifying external features of rice seeds. Five image sets consisting of 600 original images each were obtained. Then a digital image processing algorithm based on Hough transform was developed to inspect the rice seeds with incompletely closed glumes. The algorithm was implemented with all image sets using a Matlab 6.5 procedure. The results showed that the algorithm achieved an average accuracy of 96% for normal seeds, 92% for seeds with fine fissure and 87% for seeds with incompletely closed glumes. The algorithm was proved to be applicable to different seed varieties and insensitive to the color of the background.

  7. Machine vision inspection of rice seed based on Hough transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成芳; 应义斌

    2004-01-01

    A machine vision system was developed to inspect the quality of rice seeds. Five varieties of Jinyou402,Shanyou 10, Zhongyou207, Jiayou and Ilyou were evaluated. The images of both sides of rice seed with black background and white background were acquired with the image processing system for identifying external features of rice seeds. Five image sets consisting of 600 original images each were obtained. Then a digital image processing algorithm based on Hough transform was developed to inspect the rice seeds with incompletely closed glumes. The algorithm was implemented with all image sets using a Matlab 6.5 procedure. The results showed that the algorithm achieved an average accuracy of 96% for normal seeds, 92% for seeds with fine fissure and 87% for seeds with incompletely closed glumes. The algorithm was proved to be applicable to different seed varieties and insensitive to the color of the background.

  8. Experimental study on process used for producing Bifidobacterium coconut rice wine%双歧椰汁米酒实验室生产工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱辉; 张德纯; 刘明方; 王春耀; 刘胜男

    2011-01-01

    目的 以优质糯米和椰汁为原料,通过双歧杆菌和酿酒酵母共生发酵研制出一种功能性的米酒.方法 采用正交试验设计的方法得到了双歧杆菌和酿酒酵母最佳的共生发酵条件.结果 最佳的共生发酵条件是:发酵温度35℃、双歧杆菌接种量3%、酿酒酵母接种量2%、发酵时间16 h,再通过添加30%酿酒酵母单独发酵产物之后,研制出双歧椰汁米酒.结论 采用此工艺生产的功能性米酒既有椰汁的果香味又有米酒的醇香味,口感柔和,易于接受.%Objective Using high quality glutinous rice and coconut juice as raw material to develop a functional rice wine through Bifidobacterium and 5. Cerevisiae symbiotic fermentation. Method We selected orthogonal design method to get optimal symbiotic fermentation conditions of Bifidobacterium and S. cerevisiae and then added separate fermented pro-ducte by S. cerevisiae, eventually getting the process used for producing Bifidobacterium coconut rice wine. Result The best symbiotic fermentation conditions were as follows: fermentation temperature 35 t, inoculation amount of Bifidobacterium 3% , inoculation amount of 5. Cerevisiae 2% , and fermentation time 16 h. Then 30% fermented product, by S. cerevisiae alone was added to get Bifidobacterium coconut juice. Conclusion This functional rice wine produced by the said process has not only coconut juice fruit fragrance, but also rice wine's mellow taste, which tastes soft and easily acceqtable.

  9. Research on Local Glutinous Millet Planting Density in Shibing Qiandongnan%贵州黔东南地方种施秉糯谷子栽培密度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙九洲; 李云珍; 李星; 伍名龙; 王飞; 余彬情; 王胜兰

    2014-01-01

    In order to explore the proper planting density of millet in Qingdongnan ,the glutinous millet which came from Shibing Qiandongnan would be tesked by the different density tests.The results showed that the optimum destity of Qiandongnan millte in Guizhou was 600 thousands plants per hectare,so as to provide the scientific information for the millet production.%为探索黔东南州谷子合理种植密度,以黔东南地方种“施秉糯谷子”为供试品种,开展密度试验,结果表明:贵州黔东南谷子栽培的最佳密度为60万株/hm2,为谷子的规范生产提供科学依据。

  10. Application of Non-TNT Glutinous Granular ANFO in Hard Rock Mining%无梯粘性粒状铵油炸药在硬岩采矿中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈际经

    2011-01-01

    无梯粘性粒状铵油炸药由多孔粒状硝铵、柴油、乳胶基体、改性铵油炸药混制而成.该新型炸药加工和使用安全可靠,接近零氧平衡,所产生的有毒有害气体少,炸药能量利用率高,适应风动机械装药的流散性好,返粉率低,防潮性能强、爆破效果好.无梯粘性粒状铵油炸药通过在柿竹园硬岩采矿中的应用表明,在采矿工艺和爆破参数不变的条件下,完全能够取代含梯炸药.%The non-TNT glutinous granular ANFO is mixed with four materials, porous granular ammonium nitrate, diesel, emulsion substance and modified ANFO. The new type explosive is reliable and safe to be processed and used. because of reaching near-zero oxygen balance,so the toxic and harmful gases is less and the utilization of explosive energy is high,and the rate of return powder is low,which can adapt wind-motive mechanical loading,and has fine flow performance and strong moisture resistant, as well as excellent blasting effect. The application of non-TNT glutinous granular ANFO in Shizhuyuan hard rock mining illustrate that the new type explosive can completely to replace with TNT contained explosives under the same conditions of mining technology and blasting parameters.

  11. Black Droplets

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Jorge E

    2014-01-01

    Black droplets and black funnels are gravitational duals to states of a large N, strongly coupled CFT on a fixed black hole background. We numerically construct black droplets corresponding to a CFT on a Schwarzchild background with finite asymptotic temperature. We find two branches of such droplet solutions which meet at a turning point. Our results suggest that the equilibrium black droplet solution does not exist, which would imply that the Hartle-Hawking state in this system is dual to the black funnel constructed in \\cite{Santos:2012he}. We also compute the holographic stress energy tensor and match its asymptotic behaviour to perturbation theory.

  12. Effects of Rice Bran Dietary Fiber Particle Size and Addition Dosage on the Pasting Properties of Rice Starch%米糠膳食纤维对大米淀粉糊化特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effect of the particle size and addition dosage of rice bran dietary fiber on the pasting properties of rice starch,rapid viscosity analyzer system ( RVA) was employed to monitoring the pas-ting properties of the rice starch.The results demonstrated that different varieties of rice starch had different pasting characteristic values.When the dietary fiber content increased from 0%to 15%,the peak viscosity,set-back and breakdown values of the Japonica rice starch group decreased by 50.78%,30.36%and 73.11%,the peak time delayed for 1.66 min,the trough viscosity and final viscosity increased by 95.20%and 7.25%re-spectively.As for the Indica rice starch group,the peak viscosity,setback and breakdown values decreased by 18.37%,29.05%and 54.48%,the peak time delayed for 0.74 min,the trough viscosity and final viscosity in-creased by 23.96%and 7.61%respectively.The addition of the rice bran dietary fiber had no effect on the pas-ting properties of the Glutinous rice starch group( P>0.05) .The effects of pasting properties of rice bran dietary fiber particle size( Less than 80 meshes) on Japonica rice starch,Indica rice starch and Glutinous rice starch were not significant ( P>0.05) .The addition dosage(0%-15%) of rice bran dietary fiber in Japonica rice starch and Indica rice starch had a positive correlation with the peak viscosity( P<0.05) ,setback and breakdown val-ues,and had a negative correlation with trough viscosity,pasting temperature and peak time( P<0.05) .No sig-nificant correlation existed between the rice bran dietary fiber particle size and the pasting properties of the three kinds of rice starch in the work.%采用快速粘度分析仪( RVA)测定不同米糠膳食纤维颗粒大小和添加量对稻米淀粉糊化特性的影响。结果表明,籼米淀粉、粳米淀粉和糯米淀粉等3种稻米淀粉的糊化特征值存在着差异;当米糠膳食纤维添加量由0%增加到15%时,粳米淀粉糊化时的峰值粘度

  13. Determinants for grading Malaysian rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ChePa, Noraziah; Yusoff, Nooraini; Ahmad, Norhayati

    2016-08-01

    Due to un-uniformity of rice grading practices in Malaysia, zones which actively producing rice in Malaysia are using their own way of grading rice. Rice grading is important in determining rice quality and its subsequent price in the market. It is an important process applied in the rice production industry with the purpose of ensuring that the rice produced for the market meets the quality requirements of consumer. Two important aspects that need to be considered in determining rice grades are grading technique and determinants to be used for grading (usually referred as rice attributes). This article proposes the list of determinants to be used in grading Malaysian rice. Determinants were explored through combination of extensive literature review and series of interview with the domain experts and practitioners. The proposed determinants are believed to be beneficial to BERNAS in improving the current Malaysian rice grading process.

  14. 丁硫克百威对白背飞虱和南方水稻黑条矮缩病的防治研究%Effect of Carbosulfan on White -back Pianthopper and Sowthern Black -streaked Dwarf Virus of Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何忠雪; 罗全丽; 陆金鹏

    2016-01-01

    为明确丁硫克百威拌种剂对水稻白背飞虱和南方水稻黑条矮缩病的防治效果及其对天敌的影响,选择不同剂量的35%丁硫克百威种子处理干粉剂进行拌种。结果表明:剂量是30 g/kg 种子拌种可有效防治白背飞虱,在播种后32 d、43 d、50 d 和57 d 的防效分别为:90.6%、78.4%、67.9%和61.1%;同时通过防治白背飞虱减少传毒媒介,能有效控制南方水稻黑条矮缩病的危害,防效为76.9%。%In order to define the effect carbosuifan bud on white -backed planthopper and rice dwarf virus disease prevention of rice, choose different doses of 35% carbosulfan.The results showed that the dose of 30 g/kg could can be effective prevention of white -backed planthopper,32 d after sowing,43 d,50 d and the control effect of 57 d respectively:90.6%,78.4%,67.9% and 78.4%;At the same time through the prevention and control of white -backed planthopper reduce the toxic medium,can effectively control the harm of south dwarf virus disease black of rie,control effect is 76.9%.

  15. Black psyllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black psyllium is a weed that grows aggressively throughout the world. The plant was spread with the ... to make medicine. Be careful not to confuse black psyllium with other forms of psyllium including blond ...

  16. Rice (Oryza) hemoglobins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemoglobins (Hbs) corresponding to non-symbiotic (nsHb) and truncated (tHb) Hbs have been identified in rice (Oryza). This review discusses the major findings from the current studies on rice Hbs. At the molecular level, a family of the nshb genes, consisting of hb1, hb2, hb3, hb4 and hb5, and a sin...

  17. Super Rice Breeding in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@I. Demand for super high yield rice in China   Rice is one of the main staple food in China. The performance of rice sector in production and yield had been very impressive in the last four decades. However, rice production and yield has stagnated since 1990.

  18. Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luminet, Jean-Pierre

    1992-09-01

    Foreword to the French edition; Foreword to the English edition; Acknowledgements; Part I. Gravitation and Light: 1. First fruits; 2. Relativity; 3. Curved space-time; Part II. Exquisite Corpses: 4. Chronicle of the twilight years; 5. Ashes and diamonds; 6. Supernovae; 7. Pulsars; 8. Gravitation triumphant; Part III. Light Assassinated: 9. The far horizon; 10. Illuminations; 11. A descent into the maelstrom; 12. Map games; 13. The black hole machine; 14. The quantum black hole; Part IV. Light Regained: 15. Primordial black holes; 16. The zoo of X-ray stars; 17. Giant black holes; 18. Gravitational light; 19. The black hole Universe; Appendices; Bibliography; Name index; Subject index.

  19. Rice Germplasm Resources in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YINGCunshan

    1994-01-01

    China is one of the origin countries in Asia of cultiv ated rice (O. sativaL.), and rice is one of the aged-long food crops in the country. The results of the 14C evaluation on the carbonified rice grains unearthed from Hemudu in Yuyao County and Luojiajiao in Tongxiang County of Zhejiang Province indicated that rice in these area has been planted more than 7,000 yrs and indica (hsien) and japonica (keng) rices coexisted with each other.

  20. Study on the Formula of Extruded and Expanding Foods with Compound Rice Flour%复合米粉挤压膨化制品配方的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康竹君; 陈恺; 李焕荣; 马明; 张志兴

    2012-01-01

    以大米为基料,面粉、糯米粉、玉米淀粉、马铃著淀粉为辅料,采用挤压膨化工艺制作膨化制品,研完了大米粉进料颗粒度、各辅料添加量对膨化制品L值、b值、吸水性、水溶性、容重、硬度等品质指标的影响,筛选出了大米粉最佳进料颗粒度为60目。在此基础上设计正交试验,优选出最佳配方为以大米粉为基准(计为1OO),辅料配比为面粉25%、糯米粉20%、玉米淀粉15%、马铃薯淀粉15%;利用该配方制得产品的L值为59.69、b值为12.96、水溶性指数为30.95%、吸水性指数为5.08g/g、容重为126.72g/L、硬度为617.5g,产品感官品质优良。%Rice flour as the base material, wheat flour, glutinous rice flour, corn starch, potato starch as excipients, the extrusion process was adopted to making extruded products. The effect of rice flour feed particles of various accessories and adding quantity on the L value, b value, water absorption, water soluble, bulk density, and hardness of extruded products was studied. The optimal option was the most suitable mesh for extrusion of the particle size was 60. On base of above results, an orthogonal erperimental design was designed, and the results showed that the optimal formula were the wheat flour content 25%, glutinous rice flour 20%, corn l 5 % and potato starch 15%. Using the formula of products, the L value was 59.69, b value was 12.96, water solubility index was 30.95%, water absorption index was 5.08 g / g, bulk density was 126.72 g/L, hardness was 617.3 g, and product senses were of good quality.

  1. Impact of parboiling conditions on Maillard precursors and indicators in long-grain rice cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberts, Lieve; Rombouts, Ine; Brijs, Kristof; Gebruers, Kurt; Delcour, Jan A

    2008-10-15

    The effect of steaming conditions (mild, intermediate and severe) during parboiling of five different long-grain rice cultivars (brown rice cultivars Puntal, Cocodrie, XL8 and Jacinto, and a red rice) on rice colour, and Maillard precursors and indicators was investigated. Rice colour increased with severity of parboiling conditions. Redness increased more than yellowness when parboiling brown rice. Parboiling turned red rice black. It changed the levels of glucose, fructose, sucrose, and maltose. Losses of the non-reducing sugar, sucrose were caused by both leaching into the soaking water and enzymic conversion, rather than by thermal degradation during steaming. Concentrations of the reducing sugars, glucose and fructose, in intermediately parboiled rice were higher than those of mildly parboiled rice. After severe parboiling, glucose levels were lower than those of intermediately parboiled rice, while fructose levels were higher. These changes were ascribed to the sum of losses in the Maillard reaction (MR), formations as a result of starch degradation and isomerisation of glucose into fructose. It was clear that the ε-amino group of protein-bound lysine was more affected by parboiling conditions and loss in MRs, than that of free lysine. Low values of the MR indicators furosine and free 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (HMF) in processed brown and red rices were related to mild parboiling, whereas high furosine and low free HMF levels were indicative of rices being subjected to intermediate processing conditions. High furosine and high free HMF contents corresponded to severe hydrothermal treatments. The strong correlation (r=0.89) between the free HMF levels and the increase in redness of parboiled brown rices suggested that Maillard browning was reflected more in the red than in the yellow colour.

  2. Migration of rice planthoppers and their vectored re-emerging and novel rice viruses in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira eOtuka

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This review examines recent studies of the migration of three rice planthoppers, Laodelphax striatellus, Sogatella furcifera, and Nilaparvata lugens, in East Asia. Laodelphax striatellus has recently broken out in Jiangsu province, eastern China. The population density in the province started to increase in the early 2000s and peaked in 2004. In 2005, Rice stripe virus (RSV viruliferous rate of L. striatellus peaked at 31.3%. Since then, rice stripe disease spread severely across the whole province. Due to the migration of the RSV vectors, the rice stripe disease spread to neighboring countries Japan and Korea. An overseas migration of L. striatellus that occurred in 2008 was analyzed, when a slow-moving cold vortex, a type of low pressure system, reached western Japan from Jiangsu, carrying the insects into Japan. Subsequently the rice stripe diseases struck these areas in Japan severely. In Korea, similar situations occurred in 2009, 2011, and 2012. Their migration sources were also estimated to be in Jiangsu by backward trajectory analysis. Rice black-streaked dwarf virus, whose vector is L. striatellus, has recently re-emerged in eastern China, and the evidence for overseas migrations of the virus, just like the RSV’s migrations, has been given. A method of predicting the overseas migration of L. striatellus has been developed by Japanese, Chinese, and Korean institutes. An evaluation of the prediction showed that this method properly predicted migration events that occurred in East Asia from 2008 to 2011. Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV was first found in Guangdong province. Its vector is S. furcifera. An outbreak of SRBSDV occurred in southern China in 2009 and spread to Vietnam the same year. This disease and virus were also found in Japan in 2010. The epidemic triggered many migration studies to investigate concrete spring-summer migration routes in China, and the addition of migration sources for early arrivals in

  3. 重庆糯小米米糠的理化成分分析及营养评价%Physical and chemical composition analysis and nutritional evaluation of Chongqing glutinous millet bran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小燕; 何运; 梁叶星; 钟耕

    2014-01-01

    Objective The nutritional components of Chongqing glutinous millet bran were detected to evaluate the nutritional quality of millet bran. Methods The chemical properties of glutinous millet bran from Chongqing were investigated, including the crude fiber, moisture, starch, protein, fat, ash, and reducing sugar by using routine analysis, DNS colorimetry, and Soxhlet extraction methods. The dietary fiber, amino acids, and fat acids were also tested by enzymatic-gravimetric method, amino acid analyzer, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and their nutritional values were evaluated, too. Results The contents were 34.45%±0.31%, 10.39%±0.14%, 12.36%±0.79, 12.93%±0.57%, 24.67%±0.51%, 8.71%±0.03%, and 7.24%± 0.05%, respectively. Saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids were 28.71% and 71.29%respectively. There were 11 kinds of saturated fatty acids and 8 kinds of unsaturated fatty acids. The ratio of the contents of the saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid were 3:2:5. The essential amino acid index (EAAI), amino acid ratio coefficient (RC) were 0.964 and 1.002. EAA/TAA=34%, EAA/NEAA=54%. This is close to the FAO/WHO standard mode recommended. Conclusion Chongqing glutinous millet bran is an excellent source of dietary fiber and grain protein resources.%目的:对重庆糯小米米糠的营养成分进行测定,并以此来评价该小米米糠的营养品质。方法以重庆糯小米米糠为研究对象,应用常规分析、DNS比色法、索氏抽提、气相色谱-质谱法(GC-MS)等方法,对其粗纤维、水分、淀粉、蛋白质、脂肪、灰分和还原糖成分进行测定,并且对膳食纤维、脂肪酸及氨基酸营养进行评价。结果上述指标含量分别为34.45%±0.31%、10.39%±0.14%、12.36%±0.79%、12.93%±0.57%、24.67%±0.51%、8.71%±0.03%、7.24%±0.05%。饱和脂肪酸与不饱和脂肪酸分别为28.71%、71.29%,饱和脂肪酸11种,不饱和脂肪酸8种。

  4. Black Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Khristin Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united.  The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape from poverty of enslavement and to establish a way of life through tradition. A way of personal freedoms was through getting a good education that lead to a better foundation and a better way of life.

  5. ECONOMICS OF RICE PRODUCTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fertilizer was the only variable that significantly influenced rice yields on ... cultural production in Ghana (MOFA, 2002), [n 2002, the agricultural sector em- ..... The rapid growth of the population has culminated in undue pressure on agricultural.

  6. Simultaneous determination of triazine herbicides in rice by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution and high mass accuracy hybrid linear ion trap-orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Ren-Xiang; Chen, Ming-Xue; Cao, Zhao-Yun; Zhu, Zhi-Wei

    2011-11-07

    A method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 10 triazine herbicides (cyanazine, simazine, simetryn, metribuzin, atrazine, ametryn, terbuthylazine, prometryn, terbutryn, and dimethametryn) in rice samples by high resolution and high mass accuracy hybrid linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometer. After extraction with acetonitrile and evaporation, the herbicides were redissolved in n-hexane and purified on a Florisil solid-phase extraction column. All compounds were separated within 12 min, producing more than 11 data points for each herbicide and high mass accuracy quantified ions which the mass errors of absolute value were less than 1.9 ppm in pure solution and 2.1 ppm in the matrix-matched standards solution. The method was validated in terms of the limits of detection and the limits of quantification. The linearity was satisfactory, with a correlation coefficient of >0.9975. Precision and recovery studies were evaluated at three concentration levels for Japonica, Indica, and Glutinous rice matrix. The mean recoveries obtained for all analytes in spiked Xiushui 03, Liangyoupeijiu, and Taihunuo rice samples were 83.3-99.0%, 82.0-99.7%, and 84.2-99.4%, respectively, with relative standard deviation in range 1.7-10.6%, 1.2-10.7%, and 1.9-11.6% for spiked rice samples, respectively. The intra-day precision (n=5) for the 10 herbicides in rice samples spiked at an intermediate level was between 2.8% and 7.9%, and the inter-day precision over 10 days (n=10) was between 5.5% and 15.9%.

  7. Studies on weed diversity and its associated phytosociology under direct dry seeded rice systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mantosh Kumar Sinha; Arnab Banerjee

    2016-01-01

    Chhattisgarh is commonly known as Bowl of rice where rice is grown as monocrop in the entire state whether soil is bhata, matasi, kanhar or black soil. Present study is based on the study of biodiversity of weeds under Direct Dry Seeded Rice Systems in Koria District (C.G.) Study was conducted to assess the phytosociological studies of weed species in paddy field at Baikunthpur, Koriya district, Chattisgarh. A total of 43 genera and 9 families of Dicotyledonae and 3 families of monocots and...

  8. PLANTING, FOOD MAKING AND SACRIFICE GIVING WITH GLUTINOUS RICE AMONG ETHNIC GROUPS OF THE ZHUANGDONG LINGUISTIC FAMILY IN CHINA%中国壮侗语族群的糯稻、糯食与糯祭文化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄桂秋

    2016-01-01

    中国壮侗语族的祖先古越人是农耕稻作文化的开创者,也是糯稻最早的种植者.自古至今,壮侗语族群在糯稻种植、糯米饮食、糯祭礼仪等方面,已经形成全面系统、独具特色的文化链,是中国稻米饮食文化的重要组成部分,其文化内涵和学术价值有待挖掘.

  9. Rheological properties of rice-blackgram batter while replacing white rice with brown rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manickavasagan, Annamalai; Al-Marhubi, Insaaf Mohd; Dev, Satyanarayan

    2014-06-01

    Rice-blackgram batter is a raw material for many traditional convenience foods in Asia. Reformulation of traditional convenience food by replacing white rice with whole rice (brown rice) is a novel method to reduce the consumption of refined grain and increase the intake of whole grain in our diet. In this study, rheological properties of rice-blackgram batter was investigated while replacing white rice with brown rice at five levels (T1--0% replacement (control), T2--25% replacement, T3--50% replacement, T4--75% replacement, and T5--100% replacement). The shear stress versus shear rate plot indicates that the rice-blackgram batter exhibited non-Newtonian fluid behavior (shear thinning property) even after 100% replacement of white rice with brown rice. The rheological characteristics of rice-blackgram batters fitted reasonably well in Cassan (r2 = 0.8521-0.9856) and power law (r2 = 0.8042-0.9823) models. Brown rice replacement at all levels did not affect the flow behavior index, yield stress, consistency coefficient, and apparent viscosity of batter at 25 degrees C. However, at higher temperature, the viscosity was greater for T4 and T5 (no difference between them) than T1, T2, and T3 (no difference between them) batters. Further research is required to determine the sensory attributes and acceptability of the cooked products with brown rice-blended batter.

  10. Combined Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolite Profiling of Different Pigmented Rice (Oryza sativa L. Seeds and Correlation with Antioxidant Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ga Ryun Kim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Nine varieties of pigmented rice (Oryza sativa L. seeds that were black, red, or white were used to perform metabolite profiling by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS and gas chromatography (GC TOF-MS, to measure antioxidant activities. Clear grouping patterns determined by the color of the rice seeds were identified in principle component analysis (PCA derived from UPLC-Q-TOF-MS. Cyanidin-3-glucoside, peonidin-3-glucoside, proanthocyanidin dimer, proanthocyanidin trimer, apigenin-6-C-glugosyl-8-C-arabiboside, tricin-O-rhamnoside-O-hexoside, and lipids were identified as significantly different secondary metabolites. In PCA score plots derived from GC-TOF-MS, Jakwangdo (JKD and Ilpoom (IP species were discriminated from the other rice seeds by PC1 and PC2. Valine, phenylalanine, adenosine, pyruvate, nicotinic acid, succinic acid, maleic acid, malonic acid, gluconic acid, xylose, fructose, glucose, maltose, and myo-inositol were significantly different primary metabolites in JKD species, while GABA, asparagine, xylitol, and sucrose were significantly distributed in IP species. Analysis of antioxidant activities revealed that black and red rice seeds had higher activity than white rice seeds. Cyanidin-3-glucoside, peonidin-3-glucoside, proanthocyanidin dimers, proanthocyanidin trimers, and catechin were highly correlated with antioxidant activities, and were more plentiful in black and red rice seeds. These results are expected to provide valuable information that could help improve and develop rice-breeding techniques.

  11. Tracking the source regions of Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV)occurred in Wuyi county, Zhejiang province, China in 2009, transmitted by Sogatella furcifera(Horváth)(Homoptera: Delphacidae)%浙江武义2009年南方水稻黑条矮缩病的毒源地分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵悦; 吴璀献; 朱旭东; 蒋学辉; 张孝羲; 翟保平

    2011-01-01

    2009年,浙江省境内首次出现南方水稻黑条矮缩病毒(Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus,SRBSDV),且仅武义县有发病现象.因为该病毒病是一种虫媒病毒,且白背飞虱Sogatella furcifera(Horváth)是主要传毒介体,所以本文通过白背飞虱灯下诱虫情况调查、迁飞轨迹模拟、天气学背景分析以及毒源地分析,阐释了2009年浙江省武义县发现的南方水稻黑条矮缩病的供毒源地分布情况,以及白背飞虱携毒的传递路径,并讨论了轨迹模拟中各生物学参数的设定方法,从而为剖析该病毒的宏观流行规律奠定科学基础.结果显示:(1)通过对白背飞虱迁入武义的主要虫源地与经鉴定的南方水稻黑条矮缩病发病区域的叠加分析,明确了浙江武义的可能毒源地分布于两广、闽南、赣南四省区境内;(2)西南低空急流及偏南气流是白背飞虱将我国南方的病毒远距离传送到武义县境内的动力源;(3)白背飞虱随下沉气流和降雨在武义境内的集中降落是南方水稻黑条矮缩病在当地暴发的触发条件.%In 2009, Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) appeared first time in Zhejiang province, while only in Wuyi county morbidity phenomenon occurred. Since this virus is a kind of arbovirus, and the white-backed planthopper, Sogatella fwrcifera (Horvdth) (WBPH), is its main transmitted vector, we used light trap catch data, migration trajectory simulation, synoptic meteorological background and virus infection to study the pathways of WBPH in Wuyi, Zhejiang, 2009. In this way, the possible source regions of SRBSDV transmitted by its vector WBPH were analyzed, and the biological parameters for trajectory analysis were determined based on the numerical simulation. This research aims to establish scientific basis for the macro-epidemic researching of SRBSDV. The results illustrated that:(1) through the overlapping analysis of the virus incidence area and the

  12. Black tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... combination.Talk with your health provider.Birth control pills (Contraceptive drugs)Black tea contains caffeine. The body breaks down caffeine to get rid of it. Birth control pills can decrease how quickly the body breaks down ...

  13. Genetic Polymorphism of Wx Gene and Its Correlation with Main Grain Quality Characteristics in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-xiu WAN

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The allelic variation of the Wx gene in 50 non-glutinous rice varieties (lines was analyzed by using the microsatellite marker RM190 [for (CTn simple sequence repeat (SSR] and cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence(CAPS marker 484/W2R-ACC?[for G/T single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP]. Six homozygous (CTn types, namely (CT20, (CT19, (CT18, (CT17, (CT16, (CT14, (CT11 and (CT10, and a heterozygous genotype (CT11/(CT18 were detected for RM190, of which (CT11 and (CT18 were predominant. Two homozygous Wx genotypes (G/G and T/T and one heterozygous (G/T were detected using 484/W2R-ACC?. Most of the materials with a RM190 of (CT11 were G/G for SNP of 484/W2R-ACC I, while T/T for SNP was predominantly appeared in materials with (CT18. The materials tested could be grouped into 10 categories using the two markers together. Results indicated that 59.3% variance of amylose content was attributed to the polymorphism of Wx gene revealed by RM190, while 56.1% and 24.6% of the variances in amylose content and gel consistency were respectively to the polymorphism of Wx gene revealed by 484/W2R-ACC I. Furthermore, with both SSR and CAPS markers, 72.4% of the variance in amylose content could be explained. In addition, the application prospects of the two markers in breeding were also discussed.

  14. Rice Quality Improvement in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ 1. Demand for high quality rice in China Rice is the leading cereal crop that contributes about 40% of the national grain production in China. The total output and areas rank the first and the second position in the world, respectively. In recent years, rice production grows steadily, but the quality improvement has been lagged and the quality becomes a limiting factor. As the grain supply exceeding the demand and the grain price plummeted, the State Council put forward expanding China′ s ongoing reform of the grain distribution system in 1998. Along with the foodstuff circulating system reform and market driving, the structure of rice production is adjusted,the planting acreage of early indica rice with poor quality decreased, and that of japonica rice in north China with good quality increased. With the challenge of China joining the WTO, Chinese government starts to pay premium on good quality rice.

  15. Workshop on hybrid rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANZhijun

    1994-01-01

    FAO, in collaboration with FEDEARROZ in Colombia and EMBRAPA / CNPAF in Brail, organized a workshop on the Establishment of a Coorperative Research Network on Hybrid Rice in Latin America and the Caribbean held from Mar 16 to 18, 1994 at EMBRAPA/CNPAF in Brazil. Dr MAO Changxiang,

  16. Exploring Japan through Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtan, Linda S.

    1998-01-01

    Explores the role of rice in Japanese culture by presenting historical background and teaching activities in a variety of categories, such as language, sociology, history, and contemporary politics. Suggests teachers create cross-cultural comparisons; for example, the role of corn in the United States. Provides a list of teacher resources. (CMK)

  17. Black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Chrúsciel, P T

    2002-01-01

    This paper is concerned with several not-quantum aspects of black holes, with emphasis on theoretical and mathematical issues related to numerical modeling of black hole space-times. Part of the material has a review character, but some new results or proposals are also presented. We review the experimental evidence for existence of black holes. We propose a definition of black hole region for any theory governed by a symmetric hyperbolic system of equations. Our definition reproduces the usual one for gravity, and leads to the one associated with the Unruh metric in the case of Euler equations. We review the global conditions which have been used in the Scri-based definition of a black hole and point out the deficiencies of the Scri approach. Various results on the structure of horizons and apparent horizons are presented, and a new proof of semi-convexity of horizons based on a variational principle is given. Recent results on the classification of stationary singularity-free vacuum solutions are reviewed. ...

  18. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â...) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF... classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice...

  19. Study on red rice%赤米考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞为洁

    2005-01-01

    'The red rice grain' recorded in the Chinese ancient books is neither a kind of good rice variety nor old rice grain or rotten rice grain, they are some rice varieties which have red-color grains and poor taste.

  20. 烹饪用香菇醪糟汁的研制%Study of Production Process of Mushroom GIutinous Rice Wine for Cooking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄和升; 王海平

    2015-01-01

    Mushroom and glutinous rice as the main materials are fermented to produce the cooking wines,on the basis of single factor experiments,process condition is optimizated through orthogonal test.The results show that the optimal process parameters are as follows: inoculums size of 0.4 g/100 g,fermentation time of 6 days,temperature of 24 ℃ and mushroom of 30 g/100 g.%以香菇和糯米为主要原料,采用发酵法研制烹饪用香菇醪糟汁,通过单因素试验确定香菇添加量、药酒添加量、接种量、发酵温度为影响因素,以感官评分为评价指标,采用正交试验对工艺条件进行优化。结果表明:烹饪用香菇醪糟汁最佳工艺条件为酒曲添加量0.4 g/100 g、发酵时间6天、发酵温度24℃、香菇添加量30 g/100 g。

  1. Successfully introduce maize DNA fragments into rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGKaizhi

    1994-01-01

    The maize DNA fragments was successfully incorporated into rice by Associate Prof WAN Wenju's research team at Hunan Agricultural College, Changsha, China. The new gene transferring rice is named Genetic Engineered Rice (GER) line.

  2. Study of Rice Marketing System in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Feizabadi, Yaser

    2011-01-01

    Rice comes second after wheat in Iran`s food consumption economy. Rising population and recent growth in GDP has made Iran one of the greatest rice importer countries all over the world. That is why rice marketing has always been a controversial issue in Iran`s agricultural economics. To study rice marketing system in Iran, this paper aims to calculate rice marketing margin, market efficiency and marketing cost coefficient in seaside Mazandaran province( where 70 percent of domestic rice prod...

  3. 云南传统栽培稻品种waxy基因序列分析%Sequence Analysis of waxy Gene of Yunnan Rice Landrace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李枝桦; 陆春明; 卢宝荣; 王云月

    2011-01-01

    栽培稻是全球最重要的粮食作物之一,waxy基因对栽培稻的品质改良研究具有重要意义.云南是亚洲栽培稻多样性分布中心之一,传统品种丰富.本研究依据云南不同稻区、不同海拔选取99份传统栽培稻品种,对waxy基因序列进行分析.结果显示,供试品种中waxy基因序列包含36个单倍型,其中52个品种存在23 bp碱基的插入,而47个品种存在23 bp碱基的缺失;糯稻waxy基因第一内含子5’端既有G也有T碱基,剪切位点以T为主,粘稻剪切位点以G为主.7个糯稻地方品种的第一内含子5'端为G,同时第二外显子存在23 bp碱基的缺失,与前人的研究结果有所不同,表明云南栽培稻waxy基因单核苷酸多态性高,单倍型多,稻种资源丰富,为挖掘和利用优异糯性基因及品质改良提供了宝贵材料,为云南传统栽培稻种质资源的利用与保护提供了理论依据.%Rice (Oryza saliva L.) is the major staple food of the world's population, waxy gene is the key gene that determines the starch composition, which is very important of the quality improvement of rice. Yunnan province is one the center of diversity of Asian cultivated rice and many traditional rice varieties were found in Yunnan province. DNA sequence analysis of the 99 Yunnan rice landrace varieties from different attitude and rice planting area. The sequence characterization confirmed that 36 haplotypes of the waxy gene found in the 99 varieties. 52 varieties contain a "23 bp" insertion in the waxy gene, but 47 varieties have a "23 bp" deletion. There are seven glutinous rice varieties that have G/T mutation and the "23 bp" deletion. Yunnan rice varieties had rich SNPs and haploids, which provided valuable rice resource for waxy gene utilization and rice quality improvement. This study provided the scientific basis for conservation of Yunnan rice landrace resources.

  4. Selenium reduces cadmium uptake and mitigates cadmium toxicity in rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Li; Zhou, Weihui; Dai, Huaxin; Cao, Fangbin; Zhang, Guoping [Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zijingang Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058 (China); Wu, Feibo, E-mail: wufeibo@zju.edu.cn [Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zijingang Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058 (China)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Se alleviated Cd-toxicity, reduced Cd content and O{sub 2}{center_dot}{sup -}, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, MDA in rice plants. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Se counteracted Cd-induced alterations of antioxidant enzymes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Se suppressed Cd-induced increase in SOD, APX, but elevated depressed CAT activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Se markedly increased H{sup +}-ATPase, Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase activities in roots under Cd exposure. - Abstract: Hydroponic experiments were performed to investigate physiological mechanisms of selenium (Se) mitigation of Cd toxicity in rice. Exogenous Se markedly reduced Cd concentration in leaves, roots, and stems. Addition or pretreatment of 3 {mu}M Se in 50 {mu}M Cd solution significantly addressed Cd-induced growth inhibition, recovered root cell viability, and dramatically depressed O{sub 2}{center_dot}{sup -}, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, and malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation. Supplemental Se counteracted 50 {mu}M Cd-induced alterations of certain antioxidant enzymes, and uptake of nutrients, e.g. depressed Cd-induced increase in leaf and root superoxide dismutase (SOD) and leaf peroxidase (POD) activities, but elevated depressed catalase (CAT) activity; decreased Cd-induced high S and Cu concentrations in both leaves and roots. External Se counteracted the pattern of alterations in ATPase activities induced by Cd, e.g. significantly elevated the depressed root H{sup +}- and Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase activities, but decreased the ascent root Na{sup +}K{sup +}-ATP activity. Results indicate that alleviated Cd toxicity by Se application is related to reduced Cd uptake and ROS accumulation, balanced nutrients, and increased H{sup +}- and Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase activities in rice.

  5. Nicaragua - Rice and Banana Farmers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — This report is an impact evaluation of two components of the Rural Business Development Program (RBD) in Nicaragua, specifically the components benefitting rice and...

  6. Small RNA in rice genome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凯; 朱小蓬; 钟兰; 陈润生

    2002-01-01

    Rice has many characteristics of a model plant. The recent completion of the draft of the rice genome represents an important advance in our knowledge of plant biology and also has an important contribution to the understanding of general genomic evolution. Besides the rice genome finishing map, the next urgent step for rice researchers is to annotate the genes and noncoding functional sequences. The recent work shows that noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) play significant roles in biological systems. We have explored all the known small RNAs (a kind of ncRNA) within rice genome and other six species sequences, including Arabidopsis, maize, yeast, worm, mouse and pig. As a result we find 160 out of 552 small RNAs (sRNAs) in database have homologs in 108 rice scaffolds, and almost all of them (99.41%) locate in intron regions of rice by gene predication. 19 sRNAs only appear in rice. More importantly, we find two special U14 sRNAs: one is located in a set of sRNA ZMU14SNR9(s) which only appears in three plants, 86% sequences of them can be compared as the same sequence in rice, Arabidopsis and maize; the other conserved sRNA XLHS7CU14 has a segment which appears in almost all these species from plants to animals. All these results indicate that sRNA do not have evident borderline between plants and animals.

  7. Evaluation of Black Tea Polyphenol Extract Against the Retrogradation of Starches from Various Plant Sources

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The effects of black tea polyphenol extract (BTPE) on the retrogradation of starches from different plant sources were studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). DSC analysis shows that the gelatinization temperature of maize starch and starches from different rice varieties increased with increasing BTPE level. After storage at 4 °C, BTPE at a concentration of 15% markedly retarded the retrogradation of maize starch and starches from different rice var...

  8. Breeding and High-Yield Cultivation Technology of Good Quality Cross Combination Waxy Hybrid Rice (Oryza sativa L.ssp.japonic)%优质粳型杂交糯稻新组合选育及高产栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新其; 邱美良; 郭萱昊; 殷丽青; 李茂柏; 卢有林; 沈革志

    2012-01-01

    为了快速培育高产、优质、抗性强的杂交粳型糯稻新种质,选用综合农艺性状优良的粳型寒丰糯(HFwx),将其与同型的寒丰不育系(HFA)进行育性转换,获得了粳型糯质新不育系寒丰糯(HFwxA),并与自主选育的粳型糯质恢复系配组育成了杂交粳型糯稻新组合(HFwxA/N2R).小区和示范试验结果表明,选育获得的杂交糯稻新组合具有高产、优质、抗性强等特点,具有生产应用前景.杂交糯稻新组合的生育特征特性和高产栽培技术的试验总结,对杂交糯稻的推广应用和产业化发展都具有十分重要的参考意义.%In order to quick breed a new high yield,high quality and strong resistance hybrid glutinous rice germplasm (Oryza sativa L. Ssp. Japonic) ,japonica rice (HFwxB) with good comprehensive agronomic was obtained and translated into HFwxA by using it's the same type of CMS (HFA), a new hybrid glutinous rice germplasm was gotten and named Nuoza 2 (HFwxA/N2R). The small field test and demonstration trials indicated that the new combination of Oryza sativa L. Ssp. Japonic was high-yield, good quality and strong resistance, which could be applied and extended. The high-yield cultivation techniques and breeding characters of the hybrid new combination are very useful for its application and industrialization development.

  9. The Haitian Rice Tariff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Lundahl

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Se ha argumentado que los problemas agríco-las de Haití derivan de la tarifa del arroz de a mediados de los años noventa. Antes, supues-tamente, Haití fue autosuficiente, abastecida por su producción doméstica. Después de la reducción, el mercado haitiano se inundó en importaciones de arroz barato de los EEUU, lo cual despojó a los campesinos de sus fincas, convirtiendolos en migrantes internos, hacia los empleos de bajo pago de las ciudades. El artículo rechaza ese argumento y demuestra que es falso. La malnutrición fue un fenómeno extendido en Haití mucho antes de la reducción de la tarifa del arroz, la cual tampoco tuvo un gran impacto en la importación y la producción doméstica del arroz. Lo que sí impulsó el aumento de las importaciones fue el crecimiento de la población. También el artículo argumenta que un aumento de la tarifa del arroz no solucionará el problema de la alimentación que sufre Haití. English: It has been argued that Haiti’s agricultural problems derive from the reduction of the rice tariff in the mid-1990s. Before that Haiti was allegedly able to meet its food needs by domestic production. After the reduction the Haitian market was swamped by imports of cheap American rice which drove the farmers off their lands and forced them to migrate to low-wage industrial jobs in the cities. The article demonstrates that the argument is false. Malnutrition was widespread in Haiti long before the rice tariff reduction, and the latter did not have much of an impact on rice imports and domestic production. Instead, the main driving force behind imports appears to be population growth. It is also shown that an increase of the rice tariff will not solve Haiti’s food problem.

  10. Study on Response Surface Optimization Purple Potato Rice Wine Fermentation%响应面法优化紫薯糯米酒发酵研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹德玉

    2015-01-01

    In this experiment, we partially replaced purple sweet potato with glutinous rice, mixed them together and fermented, through which a new and nutritious rice wine with a unique color could be created. Eveluated with a standard of sweetness, acidity, alcohol content of fermented sweet wine as well as sensory index, Box-Behnken experiment to determine the best formula for the added amount of purple potato (X1) 25%by single factor and response surface, add the amount of koji (X2) was 1.26%and fermentation time (X3) for 70 h. At this point the wine has a rich, sweet, sweet and refreshing taste of alcohol, nutrient-rich.%将紫薯替代部分糯米混合后,经发酵制得一种具有独特色泽、营养价值高的新型甜米酒。以发酵后甜酒的糖度,酸度,酒精度及感官指标为标准,通过单因素和响应面中Box-Behnken试验确定最佳配方为紫薯添加量(X1)25%,酒曲添加量(X2)为1.26%和发酵时间(X3)为70 h。此时的米酒具有浓郁的甜香,口感醇甜爽口,营养丰富。

  11. Calculation of Safe Moisture and Isosteric Heat of Sorption in Rice Grains%大米安全水分和吸着等热计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张元娣; 秦文; 李兴军

    2011-01-01

    对静态称重法测定的5个大米样品吸着等温线数据,分别采用Brunauer - Emmett - Teller (BET)、CAE、修正Chung - Pfost (MCPE)、修正Guggenhein - Anderson - de Boer( MGAB)、修正Henderson、修正Oswin及Strohman - Yoerger 7个方程进行拟合,MCPE被判定为大米最佳吸着等温线方程.以M=f(hr,t)形式表达的平均解吸等温线方程MCPE的3个参数C1、C2及C3各是492.539、39.846及0.176,在RH 70%下,对应的10、15、20、25、30、35℃条件下大米样品平均解吸值,分别是15.88%、15.49%、15.13%、14.80%、14.50%及14.21%.3个粳米(方正香米、东北普通米、松花江米)在25℃的安全水分是14.92% ~ 15.39%,低于15.5%;2个籼米(泰国香米和江苏米)安全水分则是13.88%~14.43%,低于14.5%,与GB 1354-2009大米限量水分一致.大米吸着等热在含水率<20%干基条件下,随着米粒含水率增加而快速减少,在高于20%干基含水率则随含水率增加而缓慢减少.在含水率<22.5%干基条件下,较低温度下的大米吸附等热与解吸等热均高于较高温度;大米解吸等热高于吸附等热,但是随着含水率增加则差异减少.%The sorption isotherm data of 5 rice samples determined by the static weighting method were respectively fitted with 7 equations as Brunauer - Emmett - Teller (BET), CAE, Modified Chung - Pfost (MCPE ) , Modified Guggenhein - Anderson - de Boer ( MGAB), Modified Henderson, Modified Oswin and Strohman - Yoerger, and MCPE was determined as the optimum sorption isotherm equation for the rice. In M =f(hr,t) average sorption isotherm equation ,3 MCPE parameters of C1, C2 and C3 are respectively 492.539,39.846 and 0.176. Under RH 70% , the average sorption values under corresponding 10,15,20,25,30 and 35 ℃ were respectively 15.88% ,15.49% , 15.13% , 14. 80% , 14.50% and 14.21 %. The safe moistures of 3 non - glutinous rice samples ( Fangzheng japonica rice, Northeast common rice and

  12. Impact of volunteer rice infestation on yield and grain quality of rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vijay; Burgos, Nilda R; Singh, Shilpa; Gealy, David R; Gbur, Edward E; Caicedo, Ana L

    2017-03-01

    Volunteer rice (Oryza sativa L.) grains may differ in physicochemical traits from cultivated rice, which may reduce the quality of harvested rice grain. To evaluate the effect of volunteer rice on cultivated rice, fields were surveyed in Arkansas in 2012. Cropping history that included hybrid cultivars in the previous two years (2010 and 2011) had higher volunteer rice infestation (20%) compared with fields planted previously with inbred rice (5.5%). The total grain yield of rice was reduced by 0.4% for every 1% increase in volunteer rice density. The grain quality did not change in fields planted with the same cultivar for three years. Volunteer rice density of at least 7.6% negatively impacted the head rice and when infestation reached 17.7%, it also reduced the rice grain yield. The protein and amylose contents of rice were not affected until volunteer rice infestation exceeded 30%. Crop rotation systems that include hybrid rice are expected to have higher volunteer rice infestation than systems without hybrid rice. It is predicted that, at 8% infestation, volunteer rice will start to impact head rice yield and will reduce total yield at 18% infestation. It could alter the chemical quality of rice grain at >30% infestation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. black cat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜铁梅

    2016-01-01

    The black cat is a masterpiece of short fiction of Poe. He successfully solved the problem of creating of the horror effect by using scene description, symbol, repetition and first-person narrative methods. And created a complete and unified mysterious terror, achieved the effect of shocking. This paper aims to discuss the mystery in-depth and to enrich the research system in Poe’s novels.

  14. Water-wise Rice Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, B.A.M.; Hengsdijk, H.; Hardy, B.; Bindraban, P.S.; Tuong, T.P.; Ladha, J.K.

    2002-01-01

    Rice is a profligate user of water. It takes 3,000–5,000 liters to produce 1 kilogram of rice, which is about 2 to 3 times more than to produce 1 kilogram of other cereals such as wheat or maize. Until recently, this amount of water has been taken for granted. Now, however, the water crisis

  15. Hybrid Rice for Dry Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Luo Lijun, director of the Shanghai Agrobiological Gene Center, recently announced that Hanyou No. 3 - a genetically modified rice capable of producing high yields in dry areas - has been developed at the center.The hybrid yields 7,571 kilograms per hectare, about the same as ordinary rice.

  16. Morphological Variation of Six Pigmented Rice Local Varieties Grown in Organic Rice Field in Sengguruh Village, Kepanjen District, Malang Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is the third richest country for pigmented rice source such as Wojalaka black rice of East Nusa Tenggara (NTT, Manggarai of NTT, Toraja of South Sulawesi, Cempo Ireng of Central Java and red rice of Aek Sibundong (leading variety and Baubau of Southeast Sulawesi. However, the morphological character of pigmented rice in Indonesia is less reported. The objective of research was to compare the morphological variation of root, stem, leaf, panicle, floret and the colour of milk mature grain and mature grain by observing the vegetative and generative parts of six local rice varieties. Research had been conducted from February 2012 to February 2014 in Sengguruh Village, Kepanjen District, Malang Regency. This study type was quasi-experiment with eleven replications. Group Random Design was used. The observation was given upon vegetative, reproductive and maturity phases as groups. Independent variables in this study were six rice varieties, while the dependent variable was morphological variation (root, stem, leaf, panicle, floret, milk mature grain and mature grain. The analysis of multivariate data in cluster and bip lot was carried out with PAST. The result of the study indicated that there was morphological difference on stem, leaf, panicle, floret, milk mature grain and mature grain. The colour of the stem in Aek Sibundong variety was purple, while that of other varieties was green. Toraja and Manggarai varieties had the highest height with 163-168 cm, followed by Cempo Ireng with 139 cm, Wojalaka and Baubau with 110-112 cm. Aek Sibundong Variety had the lowest height with 99 cm. Aek Sibundong and Wojalaka varieties had 6-7 internodes which were the greatest number of internode, while other varieties only had 4-5 internodes. Some varieties, such as Aek Sibundong, Wojalaka and Baubau had short and small leaf. The leaflet angle of Aek Sibundong and Baubau were 14o and it might be said as upright, while that of Wojalaka was 43o or moderate

  17. 21 CFR 137.350 - Enriched rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched rice. 137.350 Section 137.350 Food and... Related Products § 137.350 Enriched rice. (a) The foods for which definitions and standards of identity are prescribed by this section are forms of milled rice (except rice coated with talc and glucose...

  18. Development of hybrid rice in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Longping; Wu Xiaojin

    2004-01-01

    @@ Introduction The success achieved in development of hybrid rice isa great breakthrough in rice breeding which provides aneffective way to markedly enhance rice yield on a largescale. China is the first country in the world to exploit riceheterosis commercially. Research on hybrid rice was initiatedin 1964.

  19. Arsenic uptake in organic rice production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic in rice is known to be a problem in some rice-producing countries that have high levels of inorganic arsenic naturally occurring in water resources. However, it was never considered an issue for USA produced rice until international market surveys were published, indicating some USA rice sam...

  20. The Chinese Market and Thai Fragrant Jasmine Rice: Why does China, the world's largest rice producer, import rice from Thailand? (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    Miyata, Toshiyuki

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, the world experienced a sharp increase in rice prices due to destabilization of international rice demand and supply. Under these circumstances, rice exports from Thailand—the world's top rice exporter—and Thai rice export prices increased dramatically, but the amount of high-quality fragrant Jasmine rice exported to China decreased by some 30% over the previous year. This paper examines why, amidst increasing world rice prices and expansion of the Thai rice export market overall, th...

  1. The Puzzle of Rice Domestication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Sang; Song Ge

    2007-01-01

    The origin of cultivated rice has puzzled plant biologists for decades. This is due, at least in part, to the complex evolutionary dynamics in rice cultivars and wild progenitors, particularly rapid adaptive differentiation and continuous gene flow within and between cultivated and wild rice. The long-standing controversy over single versus multiple and annual versus perennial origins of cultivated rice has been brought into shaper focus with the rapid accumulation of genetic and phylogenetic data. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed ancient genomic differentiation between rice cultivars, suggesting that they were domesticated from divergent wild populations. However, the recently cloned domestication gene sh4, responsible for the reduction of grain shattering from wild to cultivated rice, seems to have originated only once. Herein, we propose two models to reconcile apparently conflicting evidence regarding rice domestication. The snow-balling model considers a single origin of cultivated rice. In this model, a core of critical domestication alleles was fixed in the founding cultivar and then acted to increase the genetic diversity of cultivars through hybridization with wild populations. The combination model considers multiple origins of cultivated rice. In this model, initial cultivars were domesticated from divergent wild populations and fixed different sets of domestication alleles. Subsequent crosses among these semi-domesticated cultivars resulted in the fixation of a similar set of critical domestication alleles in the contemporary cultivars. In both models, introgression has played an important role in rice domestication. Recent and future introgression of beneficial genes from the wild gene pool through conventional and molecular breeding programs can be viewed as the continuation of domestication.

  2. Uruguayan rice (Oritza sativa L.) oils characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Cecilia Rodríguez; Grabiela Subúru; Marina Torres; Laura Olazabal; Alejandra Torre

    2011-01-01

    The rice crop is one of the most developed agricultural activities in Uruguay, having become the third item of export. Although the main product of the rice chain is the elaborated rice, in the recent years several industries have begun to produce co-products of rice: crude rice oil and refined oil, rice flour and cookies. The production of crude oil begins with ground, peeled and polished rice grain. This product can be used in animal nourishment or in oil extraction. Refinement from the cru...

  3. Rice industrial economy and its development strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Xianguo

    2003-01-01

    On the basis of the analysis of the present situation of food grain and rice production in China,countering the beginning tendency to neglect rice production because of rice grain structural surplus and low market price after China's agriculture entering the new development stage,this paper putsforward the concept of rice industrial economy,explains its attribute,connotation,key factors,etc,forms the basic idea of developing the rice industrial economy,and suggests some strategic measures such as regionalized layout of rice production,etc.to develop the rice industrial economy.

  4. Rice-Map: a new-generation rice genome browser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Jingchu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The concurrent release of rice genome sequences for two subspecies (Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica and Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica facilitates rice studies at the whole genome level. Since the advent of high-throughput analysis, huge amounts of functional genomics data have been delivered rapidly, making an integrated online genome browser indispensable for scientists to visualize and analyze these data. Based on next-generation web technologies and high-throughput experimental data, we have developed Rice-Map, a novel genome browser for researchers to navigate, analyze and annotate rice genome interactively. Description More than one hundred annotation tracks (81 for japonica and 82 for indica have been compiled and loaded into Rice-Map. These pre-computed annotations cover gene models, transcript evidences, expression profiling, epigenetic modifications, inter-species and intra-species homologies, genetic markers and other genomic features. In addition to these pre-computed tracks, registered users can interactively add comments and research notes to Rice-Map as User-Defined Annotation entries. By smoothly scrolling, dragging and zooming, users can browse various genomic features simultaneously at multiple scales. On-the-fly analysis for selected entries could be performed through dedicated bioinformatic analysis platforms such as WebLab and Galaxy. Furthermore, a BioMart-powered data warehouse "Rice Mart" is offered for advanced users to fetch bulk datasets based on complex criteria. Conclusions Rice-Map delivers abundant up-to-date japonica and indica annotations, providing a valuable resource for both computational and bench biologists. Rice-Map is publicly accessible at http://www.ricemap.org/, with all data available for free downloading.

  5. Amylose content of rice marketed in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Amylose content is considered to be the most important parameter of cooking quality in rice. Presently, rice cultivars are categorized according to amylose content into three groups: low, medium and high amylose content cultivars. The specific objective of this work is to evaluate the grain amylose content of 77 cultivars, which cover Índica and Japónica subspecies, and different types of commercial rice like, aromatic (basmati and thay), wild rice, medium rice (carlose and risotto), glutinou...

  6. Sensory evaluation of rice fortified with iron

    OpenAIRE

    Beinner,Mark Anthony; Soares,Anne Danieli Nascimento; Barros,Ana Laura Antunes; Monteiro,Marlene Azevedo Magalhães

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine sensory differences between conventional rice and iron-fortified Ultra Rice rice (UR) and determine consumer acceptance. Differences between both types of rice were analyzed using the Duo-Trio Test on 37 non-trained judges. The Acceptance Test evaluated general rice appearance, color, aroma and taste by 43 non-trained judges, using a 7-point hedonic scale with extremes ranging from "really disliked" and "really liked." There were no significant diffe...

  7. Black gold

    CERN Document Server

    Fletcher, MW

    2016-01-01

    Following the Yom Kippur war of October 1973, OPEC raises the price of oil by 70% along with a 5% reduction in oil production. Len Saunders a highly skilled and knowledgeable British engineer for Jaguar motors, is approached by the UK energy commission in the January of 1974 to create a new propulsion system; using a secret document from a German WW2 scientist, that they have come into possession of. Len Saunders sets to work on creating the holy grail of energy. Seven years later 1981, Haidar Farooq the Kuwait oil minister working at OPEC and head of a secret organisation named Black Gold bec

  8. The 3,000 rice genomes project: new opportunities and challenges for future rice research

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jia-Yang; Wang, Jun; Zeigler, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Rice is the world’s most important staple grown by millions of small-holder farmers. Sustaining rice production relies on the intelligent use of rice diversity. The 3,000 Rice Genomes Project is a giga-dataset of publically available genome sequences (averaging 14× depth of coverage) derived from 3,000 accessions of rice with global representation of genetic and functional diversity. The seed of these accessions is available from the International Rice Genebank Collection. Together, they are ...

  9. Separation, Purification, and Purity Identification of Cd-Binding Protein from Rice%大米镉结合蛋白的分离纯化及纯度鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈露; 陈季旺; 蔡俊; 丁文平; 吴永宁

    2016-01-01

    采用石墨炉原子吸收光谱法(graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry,GFAAS)测定不同品种、不同加工精度大米及大米4种蛋白质中的镉含量。选用镉含量较高的大米为实验原料,采用Osborne分级法提取大米中的4种蛋白质(清蛋白、球蛋白、醇溶蛋白和谷蛋白),以及超滤、离子交换色谱从镉含量较高的大米蛋白中分离纯化出均一纯度的大米镉结合蛋白(rice Cd-binding protein,RCBP),十二烷基硫酸钠-聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳(sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis,SDS-PAGE)鉴定RCBP的纯度及测定分子质量。结果表明:籼米中镉含量高于糯米及粳米;随着加工精度的增加,同种大米中的镉含量依次降低。4种大米蛋白中的镉含量分别为0.66、0.31、0.63、0.23μg/g,清蛋白中镉含量最高。超滤分离大米清蛋白(rice albumin,RA)得到大米超滤清蛋白(rice ultrafiltration albumin,RUA),离子交换色谱纯化RUA得到目标镉结合蛋白(组分c), SDS-PAGE鉴定组分c为单一条带,分子质量为14 kD。%A graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) method was used to determine the cadmium content in rice grains from different varieties and at milling levels, as well as in four rice seed storage proteins (albumin, globulin, prolamin and glutelin) obtained through the Osborne sequential extraction method. Moreover, rice cadmium-binding protein (RCBP) was separated and purified to homogeneity by using ultrafiltration and ion exchange chromatography. The purity and molecular mass of RCBP were identified. The results showed that the cadmium content in indica rice was higher than that in glutinous rice and japonica rice and the cadmium content in rice decreased with the increase of milling level. The cadmium contents of rice albumin, globulin, prolamin, and glutelin were 0.66, 0.31, 0.63 and 0.23μg/g, respectively. RCBP

  10. 石墨炉原子吸收法测定武汉市售大米中镉含量的研究%Determination of cadmium content in rice from Wuhan market using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈露; 陈季旺; 刘珊珊; 黄迪; 王慧平; 丁文平

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究石墨炉原子吸收光谱法测定大米中镉含量,并对武汉市售大米中镉含量进行测定分析。方法采用湿法消解对样品进行前处理,测定大米中镉含量的检出限、重复性、回收率和精密度。结果较佳消化条件为大米质量1 g、消化剂包括10 mL硝酸和2 mL过氧化氢、时间12 h。在该试验条件下,石墨炉原子吸收光谱法测定大米中镉含量的检出限为0.051μg/kg,加标回收率为98.85%。大米中镉含量随产区和品种的不同差异显著,湖南、湖北、江西等中南地区的大米镉含量较高,吉林、黑龙江等东北地区的大米镉含量较低;籼米的镉含量高于粳米和糯米,糯米的镉含量高于粳米。结论该方法测定大米中的镉含量准确、试验误差小,重复性好,可以用于大米中镉含量的测定。%ABSTRACT:Objective To investigate the method of graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) to determine the cadmium content in rice, and its application in rice from Wuhan market.Methods Rice was digested by wet digestion for sample pretreatment, the detection limits, precision, repeatability, and recovery rate of GFAAS method were determined under preferred conditions.Results The detection limit of GFAAS method to determine the cadmium content in rice was 0.051μg/kg and the recovery rate was 98.85% under the preferred sample pretreatment conditions, including 1 g rice, 10 mL nitric acid digestion reagent, 2 mL hydrogen peroxide, and 12 h of digestion time. The cadmium content of indica rice was higher than that of japonica rice, and the cadmium content of glutinous rice was higher than that of japonica rice. The cadmium content of rice produced in Hunan, Hubei, and Jiangxi province was higher than that in Jilin and Heilongjiang province.Conclusion This method to determine the cadmium content in rice is accurate and has lower test error and better repeatability under the preferred sample pretreatment

  11. Absorption and Cooked Rice Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LinJialianetal

    2001-01-01

    Abstract: Using glucono-8-1actone, sodiumcyclodextrin and proteinase as mainrice under different conditions and theadditivepolyphosphate, emulsifier, 13-the water-absorbing quality ofmethods to improve the edible quality ofcooked rice are systematically investigated. The experimental result indicatesthat the water-absorbing ability of rice at room temperature can be increasedsignificantly by soaking it in a 1:2 mixture of sodium polyphosphate andglucono-8-1actone. The cooked rice quality can be apparently improved bysoaking in a mixture of sodium polyphosphate, glucono-8-1actone, emulsifier, 13-cyclodextrin and protease.

  12. Agromorphological characterization of some rice species in the main ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences ... of the samples of the prospection-collection from October 2005 to Mars 2006 revealed the existence of three types of rice in the zone: wild rice, adventitious rice and cultivated rice.

  13. Determinants of rice output among ADP contact farmers in mining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determinants of rice output among ADP contact farmers in mining and non mining ... The sample size was 120 rice farmers (60 mining area rice farmers and 60 non ... contacts significantly affected rice output at given levels of probability.

  14. The Use of Rice Varietal Diversity for Rice Blast Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU You-yong; LI Zuo-shen; LU Bao-rong; CHEN Hai-ru; FAN Jing-hua; WANG Yun-yue; LI Yan; FAN Jin-xiang; YANG Shi-sheng; MA Guan-liang; CHEN Jian-bin

    2003-01-01

    Field experiments of mixed- (intercropping) and pure-planting (monoculture) of four rice vari-eties, representing improved hybrid varieties (Shanyou63 and Shanyou22) and high-quality traditional varie-ties (Huangkenuo and Zigu) from Yunnan Province, were conducted based on their differences in genetic back-ground and agro-economical characteristics. The results demonstrated that the mixed-planting of the hybridrice and high-quality traditional rice varieties had a significantly greater effect on controlling rice blast diseasethan the monocuiture of these varieties, particularly the traditional ones. It is evident for the highly suscepti-ble traditional varieties in mixed-planting to achieve disease control, with significant decreases in blast inci-dences and severity indexes. The blast control efficiency reached up to 83 - 98 % under such planting model.This suggests that an appropriate mixed-planting of rice varieties with diverse genetic background and agro-e-conomical characteristics is an effective approach for rice blast control. In addition, resistance of the tradi-tional rice varieties to lodging was considerably increased in the plots with mixed-planting, compared with theplots with monoculture. The average rate of grain-yield increase ranged from 6.5 to 9.7 % in the plots withmixed-planting.

  15. Soil Incorporation of Silica-Rich Rice Husk Decreases Inorganic Arsenic in Rice Grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfferth, Angelia L; Morris, Andrew H; Gill, Rattandeep; Kearns, Kelli A; Mann, Jessica N; Paukett, Michelle; Leskanic, Corey

    2016-05-18

    Arsenic decreases rice yield, and inorganic grain As threatens human health; thus, strategies to decrease rice As are critically needed. Increased plant-available silica (Si) can decrease rice As, yet the source of Si matters. Rice husk, an underutilized and Si-rich byproduct of rice production that contains less labile C and an order of magnitude less As than rice straw, may be an economically viable Si resource to decrease rice As, yet the impact of rice husk incorporation on As in the rice-soil nexus has not been reported. This proof-of-concept study shows that rice husk incorporation to soil (1% w/w) decreases inorganic grain As by 25-50% without negatively affecting grain Cd, yield, or dissolved CH4 levels. Rice husk is a critical yet perhaps overlooked resource to improve soil quality through enhanced nutrient availability and attenuate human health risks through consumption of As-laden grain.

  16. Nanocarbon materials obtained of coniferous trees in the composition of black powder

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Obtained black powders from coniferous wood. The carbon content of up to 90% can be used in warfare, pyrotechnics and industries. In the Republic of Kazakhstan does not produce gunpowder. In the energy-intensive materials laboratory, developed industrial black powders (ordinary), composed of components produced in the republic of Kazakhstan. Sulfur, activated carbon, based on apricot seeds and rice husks, softwood sawdust, which have lower costs than their foreign counterparts.

  17. Nanocarbon materials obtained of coniferous trees in the composition of black powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkhair Mansurov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Obtained black powders from coniferous wood. The carbon content of up to 90% can be used in warfare, pyrotechnics and industries. In the Republic of Kazakhstan does not produce gunpowder. In the energy-intensive materials laboratory, developed industrial black powders (ordinary, composed of components produced in the republic of Kazakhstan. Sulfur, activated carbon, based on apricot seeds and rice husks, softwood sawdust, which have lower costs than their foreign counterparts.

  18. Rice vaikib salavanglaist / Tõnis Erilaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erilaid, Tõnis, 1943-

    2005-01-01

    Euroopasse visiidile sõitev USA välisminister Condoleezza Rice külastab Saksamaad, Rumeeniat, Ukrainat ja Belgiat. Süüdistusi CIA lennukite maandumiste ja salavanglate kohta ei olevat tal kavas kommenteerida

  19. Rice vaikib salavanglaist / Tõnis Erilaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erilaid, Tõnis, 1943-

    2005-01-01

    Euroopasse visiidile sõitev USA välisminister Condoleezza Rice külastab Saksamaad, Rumeeniat, Ukrainat ja Belgiat. Süüdistusi CIA lennukite maandumiste ja salavanglate kohta ei olevat tal kavas kommenteerida

  20. Black Urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Vakili

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A 2-year-old boy was born at term of healthy, non-consanguineous Iranian parents. His mother attended in the clinic with the history of sometimes discoloration of diapers after passing urine. She noticed that first at the age of one month with intensified in recent months. His Physical examination and growth parameters were normal. His mother denied taking any medication (sorbitol, nitrofurantoin, metronidazole, methocarbamol, sena and methyldopa (5. Qualitative urine examination showed dark black discoloration. By this history, alkaptonuria was the most clinical suspicious. A 24-hour-urine sample was collected and sent for quantitative measurements. The urine sample was highly positive for homogentisic acid and negative for porphyrin metabolites.

  1. Gibberellin Signal Transduction in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu-Min Fan; Xiaoyan Feng; Yu Wang; Xing Wang Deng

    2007-01-01

    In the past decade, significant knowledge has accumulated regarding gibberellin (GA) signal transduction in rice as a result of studies using multiple approaches, particularly molecular genetics. The present review highlights the recent developments in the identification of GA signaling pathway components, the discovery of GA-induced destruction of GA signaling represser (DELLA protein), and the possible mechanism underlying the regulation of GA-responsive gene expression in rice.

  2. Evaluation of sugar content and composition in commonly consumed Korean vegetables, fruits, cereals, seed plants, and leaves by HPLC-ELSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugavelan, Poovan; Kim, Su Yeon; Kim, Jung Bong; Kim, Heon Woong; Cho, Soo Muk; Kim, Se Na; Kim, So Young; Cho, Young Sook; Kim, Haeng Ran

    2013-10-18

    In the present investigation, evaluation of sugars viz. fructose, galactose, glucose, sucrose, lactose, maltose, and raffinose in commonly consumed raw Korean vegetables, fruits, cereals, seed plants, and leaves has been analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography with evaporative light scattering detection (HPLC-ELSD). Of the 58 samples analyzed, Onion showed the highest content of fructose (27.74g/100g) and glucose (31.80g/100g) and Chestnuts showed the highest content of sucrose (21.82g/100g). On the other hand, Glutinous sorghum (polished grain), Green tea leaves, and Paddy rice (well-polished rice) showed the lowest content of fructose (0.20g/100g), glucose (0.68g/100g) and sucrose (0.23g/100g), respectively. Glutinous barley (Hopimbori-whole grain) and Green tea leaves showed 0.17g/100g and 0.57g/100g of galactose and lactose respectively. Glutinous barley (Seodunchalbori-polished grain) and Black soybeans (Cheongjaho, dried) showed the highest content of maltose (0.51g/100g) and raffinose (1.82g/100g), respectively. In few samples, galactose, maltose, lactose, and raffinose were detected in trace quantities. A partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was also performed to discriminate the analyzed samples.

  3. Increasing rice plant growth by Trichoderma sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doni, Febri; Isahak, Anizan; Zain, Che Radziah Che Mohd; Sulaiman, Norela; Fathurahman, F.; Zain, Wan Nur Syazana Wan Mohd.; Kadhimi, Ahsan A.; Alhasnawi, Arshad Naji; Anhar, Azwir; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar Wan

    2016-11-01

    Trichoderma sp. is a plant growth promoting fungi in many crops. Initial observation on the ability to enhance rice germination and vigor have been reported. In this study, the effectiveness of a local isolate Trichoderma asprellum SL2 to enhance rice seedling growth was assessed experimentally under greenhouse condition using a completely randomized design. Results showed that inoculation of rice plants with Trichoderma asprellum SL2 significantly increase rice plants height, root length, wet weight, leaf number and biomass compared to untreated rice plants (control). The result of this study can serve as a reference for further work on the application of beneficial microorganisms to enhance rice production.

  4. Preparation and Properties of Cereal-Metal Complex Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Various kinds of biodegradable polymer materials have been researched[1]. In our previous papers,cereals such as wheat,buckwheat,glutinous rice and nonglutinous rice were polycondenced with citric acid and polysilicic acid to prepare copolymer films respectively[2,3].These copolymer fims have relatively good mechanical properties but the water proofness is not so good.Recently,some cereals such as wheat,glutinous rice,nonglutinous rice,kaoliang,millet and maize were reacted with copper chlorid...

  5. Dissonant Black Droplets and Black Funnels

    CERN Document Server

    Fischetti, Sebastian; Way, Benson

    2016-01-01

    A holographic field theory on a fixed black hole background has a gravitational dual represented by a black funnel or a black droplet. These states are "detuned" when the temperature of the field theory near the horizon does not match the temperature of the background black hole. In particular, the gravitational dual to the Boulware state must be a detuned solution. We construct detuned droplets and funnels dual to a Schwarzschild background and show that the Boulware phase is represented by a droplet. We also construct hairy black droplets associated to a low-temperature scalar condensation instability and show that they are thermodynamically preferred to their hairless counterparts.

  6. 75 FR 56911 - Request for Public Comment on the United States Standards for Rough Rice, Brown Rice for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ..., Brown Rice for Processing, and Milled Rice standards were last revised in 1993 (58 FR 68015) and appear... Comment on the United States Standards for Rough Rice, Brown Rice for Processing, and Milled Rice AGENCY... Administration (GIPSA) is reviewing the United States Standards and grading procedures for Rough Rice, Brown...

  7. 7 CFR 319.55a - Administrative instructions relating to entry of rice straw and rice hulls into Guam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... straw and rice hulls into Guam. 319.55a Section 319.55a Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... QUARANTINE NOTICES Rice Quarantine § 319.55a Administrative instructions relating to entry of rice straw and rice hulls into Guam. Rice straw and rice hulls may be imported into Guam without further permit,...

  8. Soil tillage, rice straw and flooded irrigated rice yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amauri Nelson Beutler

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was evaluate the effect of management systems and straw in flooded irrigated rice yield. The experimental design was a completely randomized with three experiments and, 10 replications in experiment 1 and 2 and, 6 replications in experiment 3. The experiments were: E1 – no-till system (E1PD and conventional system with two harrowings at 0.0–0.07 m layer and leveling with remaplam (E1PC, after three years of sowing rice, after fallow of rice tillage, with sowing of rye grass in winter and grazing; E2 – no-till system (E2PD and conventional system after native field (E2PC; E3 – no-till without straw on soil surface (E30P, current straw on soil surface of 3,726 kg ha-1 (E31P, two times current straw of 7,452 kg ha-1 (E32P and three times current straw of 11,178 kg ha-1 (E33P. In soil, were evaluated the average geometric diameter of aggregates, soil bulk density, soil porosity, macro and microporosity, in 0.0-0.05 and 0.05-0.10 m layer. In harvest were evaluated the panicles number in 0,25 m2 area, number of filled, empty an total grains in 10 panicles, mass of one thousand seeds and rice grains yield in 2 m2. The conventional system presented greater macroporosity and total porosity, compared with no-till system, however, does not result in differences in production components and rice grains yield. Soil tillage in no-till, with rice straw on soil surface up to 11,178 kg ha-1, before sowing, not reduces flooded irrigated rice grains yield.

  9. Black Silicon Solar Cells with Black Ribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of mask-less reactive ion etch (RIE) texturing and blackened interconnecting ribbons as a method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon made by mask-less reactive ion etching has total, average...... in the range 15.7-16.3%. The KOH-textured reference cell had an efficiency of 17.9%. The combination of black Si and black interconnecting ribbons may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted silicon solar cells....... reflectance below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon (Si) wafer. Black interconnecting ribbons were realized by oxidizing copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the visible wavelength range. Screen-printed Si solar cells were realized on 156x156 mm2 black Si substrates with resulting efficiencies...

  10. Molecular dynamics of interactions of rice with rice blast and sheath blight pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an effort to develop the molecular strategies to control rice (Oryzae sativa) diseases, molecular interactions of rice with rice blast [Magnaporthe oryzae, formerly (Magnaporthe grisea] and sheath blight (Rhizoctonia solani) fungi were analyzed. The interaction of rice with M. oryzae follows a b...

  11. Genetic diversity of rice sheath blight isolates (Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA) from different rice cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Rhizoctonia solani AG 1 IA, the non specific, soil borne, and plant casual agent of rice sheath blight, occurring world widely in rice fields, has become a major disease to rice. In this study,relationships among R. solani AG 1 IA isolates, collected from different rice cultivars were reported.

  12. Molecular identification of yeast species associated with 'Hamei'--a traditional starter used for rice wine production in Manipur, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyaram, K; Singh, W Mohendro; Capece, Angela; Romano, Patrizia

    2008-05-31

    In Manipur state of North-Eastern India, wine from glutinous rice using traditional solid state starter called 'Hamei' is particularly interesting because of its unique flavour. A total of 163 yeast isolates were obtained from fifty four 'Hamei' samples collected from household rice wine preparations in tribal villages of Manipur. Molecular identification of yeast species was carried out by analysis of the restriction digestion pattern generated from PCR amplified internal transcribed spacer region along with 5.8S rRNA gene (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2). Seventeen different restriction profiles were obtained from the size of PCR products and the restriction analysis with three endonucleases (Hae III, Cfo I and Hinf I). Nine groups were identified as S. cerevisiae, Pichia anomala, Trichosporon sp., Candida tropicalis, Pichia guilliermondi, Candida parapsilosis, Torulaspora delbrueckii, Pichia fabianii and Candida montana by comparing this ITS-RFLP profile with type strains of common wine yeasts, published data and insilico analysis of ITS sequence data available in CBS yeast database. ITS-RFLP profile of eight groups was not matching with available database of 288 common wine yeast species. The most frequent yeast species associated with 'Hamei' were S. cerevisiae (32.5%), P. anomala (41.7%) and Trichosporon sp. (8%). The identity of major groups was confirmed by additional restriction digestion of ITS region with Hind III, EcoRI, Dde I and Msp I. The genetic diversity of industrially important S. cerevisiae group was investigated using Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Although most of the 53 strains of S. cerevisiae examined were exhibited a common species specific pattern, a distinct degree of chromosomal length polymorphism and variable number of chromosomal DNA fragments were observed with in the species. Cluster analysis showed seven major karyotypes (K1-K7) with more than 83% similarity. The karyotype pattern K1 was the most frequent (67.9%) among the strains from

  13. Cuore e autoimmunità glutine dipendente

    OpenAIRE

    Quaglia, Sara

    1981-01-01

    La cardiomiopatia dilatativa (DCM) nel 70% dei casi è di causa ignota e viene quindi definita idiopatica ma circa la metà di questi casi potrebbe essere ricondotta ad una disregolazione di tipo immune. La presenza di autoanticorpi, infatti, diretti contro auto-antigeni più o meno cuore specifici è stata accertata in molti soggetti con DCM. In particolar modo lavori pubblicati hanno dimostrato come anticorpi contro la miosina e contro il recettore β1adrenergico possano essere coinvolti nella p...

  14. Can the co-cultivation of rice and fish help sustain rice production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liangliang; Zhang, Jian; Ren, Weizheng; Guo, Liang; Cheng, Yongxu; Li, Jiayao; Li, Kexin; Zhu, Zewen; Zhang, Jiaen; Luo, Shiming; Cheng, Lei; Tang, Jianjun; Chen, Xin

    2016-06-28

    Because rice feeds half of the world's population, a secure global food supply depends on sustainable rice production. Here we test whether the co-cultivation of rice and fish into one "rice-fish system" (RFS; fish refers to aquatic animals in this article) could help sustain rice production. We examined intensive and traditional RFSs that have been widely practiced in China. We found that rice yields did not decrease when fish yield was below a threshold value in each intensive RFS. Below the thresholds, moreover, fish yields in intensive RFSs can be substantially higher than those in traditional RFS without reducing rice yield. Relative to rice monoculture, the use of fertilizer-nitrogen and pesticides decreased, and the farmers' net income increased in RFSs. The results suggest that RFSs can help sustain rice production, and suggest that development of co-culture technologies (i.e. proper field configuration for fish and rice) is necessary to achieve the sustainability.

  15. Organic Upland Rice Seed Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raumjit Nokkoul

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The upland rice is popular for growing in southern Thailand because this area is the lowland and less area than other sectors. Upland rice is grown as alternative crops of farmers for household consumption which using organic farming method because organic rice seed can be produced by self-production in farmhouse. However, the upland rice is grown under organic farming system. The seeds must originate from plants being grown in compliance with the organic farming rules for at least one generation. There are many factors involving the production of seeds under organic farming system, making the yield low. Thus, the objective of this study on appropriate methods of upland rice seed production under organic farming system in southern Thailand. The results showed that in producing organic seeds, suitable varieties should be selected to suit each area with regular high yield quality. It can be grown in low fertile soil, resist pests and diseases and compete with weeds. The suitable season should be selected for the seed production and the growing areas ought to be in an ecological zone with at least 14-20 mm of 5-day rainfall during the growing cycle. Soil fertility: crop rotation, green manure plants, compost of rice straw and organic manures. For control of disease and insect pests use of resistant or tolerant varieties, plant extracts, natural enemies. The organic seed production of upland rice in southern Thailand, Samduen variety had suitability for recommendation to seed producer in this area because it can provide high growth, yield and seed quality.

  16. Elemental composition of Malawian rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, Edward J M; Louise Ander, E; Broadley, Martin R; Young, Scott D; Chilimba, Allan D C; Hamilton, Elliott M; Watts, Michael J

    2016-07-20

    Widespread potential dietary deficiencies of calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), iodine (I), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) have been identified in Malawi. Several deficiencies are likely to be compounded by high phytic acid (PA) consumption. Rice (Oryza sativa) is commonly consumed in some Malawian populations, and its mineral micronutrient content is important for food security. The considerable irrigation requirements and flooded conditions of paddy soils can also introduce or mobilise potentially toxic elements including arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb). The aim of this study was to determine the mineral composition of rice sampled from farmers' fields and markets in Malawi. Rice was sampled from 18 extension planning areas across Malawi with 21 white (i.e. polished) and 33 brown samples collected. Elemental composition was determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Arsenic speciation was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-ICP-MS. Concentration of PA was determined using a PA-total phosphorus assay. Median total concentrations (mg kg(-1), dry weight) of elements important for human nutrition in brown and white rice, respectively, were: Ca = 66.5 and 37.8; Cu = 3.65 and 2.49; Fe = 22.1 and 7.2; I = 0.006 and Biofortification strategies could significantly increase Se and Zn concentrations and require further investigation. Concentrations of Fe in rice grain varied greatly, and this was likely due to contamination of rice samples with soil. Risk of As, Cd or Pb toxicity due to rice consumption in Malawi appears to be minimal.

  17. Stuies on histological changing rice during aging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian haifeng; Houyiming; Yao huiyuan

    2001-01-01

    The changing of rice endosperm cell during aging was inspected and analyzed by tissue section method in this paper, which was considered as the main causation of the descending of the eating quality of aged rice. A new effective method of improving the eating quality of aged rice was also carried out through enzymatic treatment which was based on the changing of histological structure of aged rice.

  18. IRRI/ADB Project on hybrid rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng; Jiming

    2006-01-01

    @@ Hybrid rice technology has made a significant progress in recent years in more than twenty rice-growing countries. The Asian Development Bank (ADB) provided funds for International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) to support the project of Sustaining Food Security in Asia through Development of Hybrid Rice Technology 2002-2004 mainly practiced in nine countries, such as Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Korea, Myanmar, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vietnam.

  19. Perspective Rice 2020:A Call For An I nternational Coordinated Effort In Rice Fu nctional Genomics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qifa Zhang; Jiayang Li; Yongbiao Xue; Bin Han; Xing Wang Deng

    2008-01-01

    We describe a call for an international coordinated effort in rice functional genomics in the form of a project named RICE2020.The mission of the project will be:to determine the function of every gene in the rice genome by the year 2020,to identify functional diversity of alleles for agriculturally useful genes from the primary gene pool of rice,and to apply the findings of functional genomics research to rice genetic improvement.

  20. GM RICE COMMERCIALIZATION AND ITS IMPACT ON THE GLOBAL RICE ECONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    Durand-Morat, Alvaro; Chavez, Eddie; Wailes, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Genetically-modified (GM) rice is an important technology surrounded with controversy and uncertainty, hence it warrants more in-depth analysis. While GM rice is considered by its supporters as having promising potential, many still remain passionately against its use. This study assesses the impacts of GM rice commercialization on the global rice market. We use the Arkansas Global Rice Model (AGRM) and the RICEFLOW model to provide stochastic and dynamic analyses. Scenarios of adoption, diff...

  1. Studies on the Stable Rice Flavoring Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MaoJinsheng; YaoHuiyuan; 等

    2000-01-01

    The reaction flavor as the stabilized rice flavor enhancer,whice is in initial stage at home presently,was made by studying the essence of forming aromatic rice scented and imitating ways to form process flavor in natural foods.The steam volatile of flavoring rice was determined by sensory evaluation and GC-MS analysis.

  2. Studies on the Stable Rice Flavoring Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao Jinsheng; Yao Huiyuan; Zhang Hui

    2000-01-01

    The reaction flavor as the stabilized rice flavor enhancer, whice is in initial stage at home presently, was made by studying the essence of forming aromatic rice scented and imitating ways to form process flavor in natural foods .The steam volatile of flavoring rice was determined by sensory evaluation and GC-MS analysis.

  3. Studies on Nutritive Food from Rice Bran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChenZhengxing; YaoHuiyuan

    2000-01-01

    Rice bran has high nutritive value and good prospects on developing new foods from it.The paper described preparation of a new functional food from stabilized rice bran and provided new technical ways to utillize rice bran in the area of healthy foods.

  4. Studies on Nutritive Food from Rice Bran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Zhengxing; Yao Huiyuan

    2000-01-01

    Rice bran has high nutritive value and good prospects on developing new foods from it .The paper described preparation of a new functional food from stabilized rice bran and provided new technical ways to utilize rice bran in the area of healthy foods.

  5. Impact of bio-processing on rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANCA NICOLAU

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The usual way of preparing rice is boiling, thermal process that gives it a lower digestibility as compared to instantiation, extrusion or expandation. Having in view this fact, the possibility to biotechnologically improve the boiled rice digestibility was investigated in a laboratory study. In this respect, boiled rice wassolid state fermented using a strain of Saccharomycopsis fibuligera, an amylase producing yeast originating from ragi. Fermented rice was then analyzed from the point of view of its content in easily assimilable sugars, protein, amino-acids, phosphorus and vitamins from B group. Biochemical analyses revealed that the fermented rice has a ten times higher content of reducing sugars than boiled rice, due to starch hydrolysis, while chromatographic studies proved that the fermented rice contains glucose, maltose, maltotriose and maltotetrose that are easily assimilable carbohydrates.Fermented rice has a protein content that is two times higher than that of boiled rice because it contains the yeast biomass, and is enriched in vitamins from B group (B1, B2, and B6 that are synthesized by the yeast. Inorganic phosphorus present in rice doubles its concentration in fermented rice, which means thatphosphorus bioavailability is increased.The sensorial profile of boiled rice is also improved by fermentation.This study proves the possibility to have a processing method which is relatively cheap, practical and of which the resulting product has good nutritive qualities and does not pose safety problems due to pure culture utilization as starter.

  6. Whole Genome Fine Map of Rice Completed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Rice is a staple crop for more than half of the world's population, and it was hoped that the availability of its genome sequence might enable scientists to develop more productive and environment friendly rice strains.Furthermore, the rice genome might provide the key to understanding the genetics of other major cereal crops,as all of them have much larger genomes.

  7. Consumer preference mapping for rice product concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suwannaporn, P.; Linnemann, A.R.; Chaveesuk, R.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - Rice consumption per capita in many Asian countries is decreasing constantly, but American and European citizens are eating more rice nowadays. A preference study among consumers was carried out with the aim of determining new rice product characteristics in order to support export of Thai

  8. The Black Black Woman and the Black Middle Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffers, Trellie

    1981-01-01

    Reprint of a 1973 article that describes the discrimination that particularly dark-skinned Black women suffer, especially at the hands of a color-conscious Black middle class. Calls for dark women to look to the African appearance and working-class roots as sources of pride and strength. (GC)

  9. Development and validation of an alternative to conventional pretreatment methods for residue analysis of butachlor in water, soil, and rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jiaying; Jiang, Wenqing; Liu, Fengmao; Zhao, Huiyu; Wang, Suli; Peng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    A rapid and effective alternative analytical method for residues of butachlor in water, soil, and rice was established. The operating variables affecting performance of this method, including different extraction conditions and cleanup adsorbents, were evaluated. The determination of butachlor residues in soil, straw, rice hull, and husked rice was performed using GC/MS after extraction with n-hexane and cleanup with graphite carbon black. The average recoveries ranged from 81.5 to 102.7%, with RSDs of 0.6-7.7% for all of the matrixes investigated. The limits of quantitation were 0.05 mg/kg in water and rice plant, and 0.01 mg/kg in soil, straw, rice hull, and husked rice. A comparison among this proposed method, the conventional liquid-liquid extraction, the Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe method, and Soxhlet extraction indicated that this method was more suitable for analyzing butachlor in rice samples. The further validation of the proposed method was carried out by Soxhlet extraction for the determination of butachlor residues in the husked rice samples, and the residue results showed there was no obvious difference obtained from these two methods. Samples from a rice field were found to contain butachlor residues below the maximum residue limits set by China (0.5 mg/kg) and Japan (0.1 mg/kg). The proposed method has a strong potential for application in routine screening and processing of large numbers of samples. This study developed a more effective alternative to the conventional analytical methods for analyzing butachlor residues in various matrixes.

  10. Red Yeast Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thu; Karl, Mitchell; Santini, Antonello

    2017-01-01

    Red yeast rice (RYR), produced by the fermentation of the Monascus purpureus mold, has been used for a long time in Asian cuisine and traditional medicine. It consists of multiple bioactive substances, including monacolins, which potentially can be used as a nutraceutical. Monacolin K, which is chemically identical to lovastatin, has been recognized as responsible for the cholesterol-reducing effect of this compound. While the European Food Safety Authority maintains that the use of monacolin K from RYR preparations of at least 10 mg can produce a normal blood cholesterol level, the United States Food and Drug Administration considers monacolin K, due to its similarity with lovastatin, an unapproved drug, and therefore marketing of products that label the monacolin content is prohibited. This mini-review summarizes the benefit of RYR in hyperlipidemia, maintains RYR use as a food, and addresses the importance of regulation regarding RYR and the need for clinical data and clear label information for consumers with reference to a toxin-free, non-augmented, standardized amount of monacolins. PMID:28257063

  11. Red Yeast Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thu Nguyen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Red yeast rice (RYR, produced by the fermentation of the Monascus purpureus mold, has been used for a long time in Asian cuisine and traditional medicine. It consists of multiple bioactive substances, including monacolins, which potentially can be used as a nutraceutical. Monacolin K, which is chemically identical to lovastatin, has been recognized as responsible for the cholesterolreducing effect of this compound. While the European Food Safety Authority maintains that the use of monacolin K from RYR preparations of at least 10 mg can produce a normal blood cholesterol level, the United States Food and Drug Administration considers monacolin K, due to its similarity with lovastatin, an unapproved drug, and therefore marketing of products that label the monacolin content is prohibited. This mini-review summarizes the benefit of RYR in hyperlipidemia, maintains RYR use as a food, and addresses the importance of regulation regarding RYR and the need for clinical data and clear label information for consumers with reference to a toxin-free, nonaugmented, standardized amount of monacolins.

  12. Black Silicon Solar Cells with Black Ribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of mask-less reactive ion etch (RIE) texturing and blackened interconnecting ribbons as a method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon made by mask-less reactive ion etching has total, average reflecta......We present the combination of mask-less reactive ion etch (RIE) texturing and blackened interconnecting ribbons as a method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon made by mask-less reactive ion etching has total, average...... reflectance below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon (Si) wafer. Black interconnecting ribbons were realized by oxidizing copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the visible wavelength range. Screen-printed Si solar cells were realized on 156x156 mm2 black Si substrates with resulting efficiencies...... in the range 15.7-16.3%. The KOH-textured reference cell had an efficiency of 17.9%. The combination of black Si and black interconnecting ribbons may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted silicon solar cells....

  13. Utilization Of Rice Husk Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Nagrale

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available India is a major rice producing country, and the husk generated during milling is mostly used as a fuel in the boilers for processing paddy, producing energy through direct combustion and / or by gasification. About 20 million tones of Rice Husk Ash (RHA is produced annually. This RHA is a great environment threat causing damage to the land and the surrounding area in which it is dumped. Lots of ways are being thought of for disposing them by making commercial use of this RHA. RHA can be used as a replacement for concrete (15 to 25%.This paper evaluates how different contents of Rice Husk Ash added to concrete may influence its physical and mechanical properties. Sample Cubes were tested with different percentage of RHA and different w/c ratio, replacing in mass the cement. Properties like Compressive strength, Water absorption and Slump retention were evaluated.

  14. Tillering and panicle branching genes in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wei-hong; Shang, Fei; Lin, Qun-ting; Lou, Chen; Zhang, Jing

    2014-03-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most important staple food crops in the world, and rice tillering and panicle branching are important traits determining grain yield. Since the gene MONOCULM 1 (MOC 1) was first characterized as a key regulator in controlling rice tillering and branching, great progress has been achieved in identifying important genes associated with grain yield, elucidating the genetic basis of yield-related traits. Some of these important genes were shown to be applicable for molecular breeding of high-yielding rice. This review focuses on recent advances, with emphasis on rice tillering and panicle branching genes, and their regulatory networks.

  15. Iron biofortification of Myanmar rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May Sann Aung

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Iron (Fe deficiency causes elevates human mortality rates, especially in developing countries. In Myanmar, the prevalence of Fe-deficient anemia in children and pregnant women are 75% and 71%, respectively. Myanmar people have one of the highest per capita rice consumption rates globally. Consequently, production of Fe-biofortified rice would likely contribute to solving the Fe-deficiency problem in this human population. To produce Fe-biofortified Myanmar rice by transgenic methods, we first analyzed callus induction and regeneration efficiencies in 15 varieties that are presently popular because of their high yields and/or qualities. Callus formation and regeneration efficiency in each variety was strongly influenced by types of culture media containing a range of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid concentrations. The Paw San Yin variety, which has a high Fe content in polished seeds, performed well in callus induction and regeneration trials. Thus, we transformed this variety using a gene expression cassette that enhanced Fe transport within rice plants through overexpression of the nicotianamine synthase gene HvNAS1, Fe flow to the endosperm through the Fe(II-nicotianamine transporter gene OsYSL2, and Fe accumulation in endosperm by the Fe storage protein gene SoyferH2. A line with a transgene insertion was successfully obtained. Enhanced expressions of the introduced genes OsYSL2, HvNAS1, and SoyferH2 occurred in immature T2 seeds. The transformants accumulated 3.4-fold higher Fe concentrations, and also 1.3-fold higher zinc concentrations in T2 polished seeds compared to levels in non-transgenic rice. This Fe-biofortified rice has the potential to reduce Fe-deficiency anemia in millions of Myanmar people without changing food habits and without introducing additional costs.

  16. Potential of rice stubble as a reservoir of bradyrhizobial inoculum in rice-legume crop rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piromyou, Pongdet; Greetatorn, Teerana; Teamtisong, Kamonluck; Tittabutr, Panlada; Boonkerd, Nantakorn; Teaumroong, Neung

    2017-09-15

    Bradyrhizobium encompasses a variety of bacteria that can live in symbiotic and endophytic associations with leguminous and non-leguminous plants such as rice. Therefore, it can be expected that rice endophytic bradyrhizobia can be applied in the rice-legume crop rotation system. Some endophytic bradyrhizobial strains were isolated from rice (Oryza sativa L.) tissues. The rice biomass could be enhanced when supplying KNO3, NH4NO3, or urea with bradyrhizobial strain inoculation, especially strain SUTN9-2. In contrast, the strains which suppressed rice growth were photosynthetic bradyrhizobia and also found to produce nitric oxide (NO) in the rice root. The expression of genes involved in NO production was conducted using qRT-PCR technique. The nirK gene expression level of SUT-PR48 with nitrate was higher than that of norB gene. In contrast, the inoculation of SUTN9-2 resulted in a lower expression of nirK gene when compared with norB gene. These results suggest that SUT-PR48 may accumulate NO more than SUTN9-2 does. Furthermore, the nifH expression of SUTN9-2 was induced in treatment without nitrogen supplementation in endophytic association with rice. The IAA and ACC deaminase produced in planta by SUTN9-2 were also detected. Enumeration of rice endophytic bradyrhizobia from rice tissues revealed that SUTN9-2 still persisted in rice tissues until rice-harvesting season. The mung bean (Vigna radiata) can be nodulated after rice stubbles were decomposed. Therefore, it is possible that rice stubbles can be used as inoculum in the rice-legume crop rotation system under both low- and high-organic matter soil condition.Importance This study shows that some rice endophytic bradyrhizobia could perform IAA production, and ACC deaminase activity together with nitrogen fixation ability during symbiosis inside rice tissues. These characteristics may play an important role in rice growth promotion by endophytic bradyrhizobium. However, the NO producing strains should be of

  17. The Glycemic Index of Rice and Rice Products: A Review, and Table of GI Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Bhupinder; Ranawana, Viren; Henry, Jeyakumar

    2016-01-01

    Rice is the principle staple and energy source for nearly half the world's population and therefore has significant nutrition and health implications. Rice is generally considered a high glycemic index (GI) food, however, this depends on varietal, compositional, processing, and accompaniment factors. Being a major contributor to the glycemic load in rice eating populations, there is increasing concern that the rising prevalence of insulin resistance is as a result of the consumption of large amounts of rice. Devising ways and means of reducing the glycemic impact of rice is therefore imperative. This review gathers studies examining the GI of rice and rice products and provides a critical overview of the current state of the art. A table collating published GI values for rice and rice products is also included.

  18. Biological control of banana black Sigatoka disease with Trichoderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poholl Adan Sagratzki Cavero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Black Sigatoka disease caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis is the most severe banana disease worldwide. The pathogen is in an invasive phase in Brazil and is already present in most States of the country. The potential of 29 isolates of Trichoderma spp. was studied for the control of black Sigatoka disease under field conditions. Four isolates were able to significantly reduce disease severity and were further tested in a second field experiment. Isolate 2.047 showed the best results in both field experiments and was selected for fungicide sensitivity tests and mass production. This isolate was identified as Trichoderma atroviride by sequencing fragments of the ITS region of the rDNA and tef-1α of the RNA polymerase. Trichoderma atroviride was as effective as the fungicide Azoxystrobin, which is recommended for controlling black Sigatoka. This biocontrol agent has potential to control the disease and may be scaled-up for field applications on rice-based solid fermentation

  19. Weedy (red) rice: an emerging constraint to global rice production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ziska, L.H.; Gealy, D.R.; Burgos, N.; Caicedo, A.L.; Gressel, J.; Lawton-Rauh, A.L.; Avila, L.A.; Theisen, G.; Norsworthy, J.; Ferrero, A.; Vidotto, F.; Johnson, D.E.; Ferreira, F.G.; Marchesan, E.; Menezes, V.; Cohn, M.A.; Linscombe, S.; Carmona, L.; Tang, R.; Merotto, A.

    2015-01-01

    Ongoing increases in the human population necessitate that rice will continue to be a critical aspect of food security for the twenty-first century. While production must increase in the coming decades to meet demand, such increases will be accompanied by diminished natural resources and rising

  20. Genetic diversity of the black gram [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper] gene pool as revealed by SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewwongwal, Anochar; Kongjaimun, Alisa; Somta, Prakit; Chankaew, Sompong; Yimram, Tarikar; Srinives, Peerasak

    2015-03-01

    In this study, 520 cultivated and 14 wild accessions of black gram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper) were assessed for diversity using 22 SSR markers. Totally, 199 alleles were detected with a mean of 9.05 alleles per locus. Wild black gram showed higher gene diversity than cultivated black gram. Gene diversity of cultivated accessions among regions was comparable, while allelic richness of South Asia was higher than that of other regions. 78.67% of the wild gene diversity presented in cultivated accessions, indicating that the domestication bottleneck effect in black gram is relatively low. Genetic distance analysis revealed that cultivated black gram was more closely related to wild black gram from South Asia than that from Southeast Asia. STRUCTURE, principal coordinate and neighbor-joining analyses consistently revealed that 534 black gram accessions were grouped into three major subpopulations. The analyses also revealed that cultivated black gram from South Asia was genetically distinct from that from West Asia. Comparison by SSR analysis with other closely related Vigna species, including mungbean, azuki bean, and rice bean, revealed that level of gene diversity of black gram is comparable to that of mungbean and rice bean but lower than that of azuki bean.

  1. Higher spin black holes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gutperle, Michael; Kraus, Per

    2011-01-01

    .... We find solutions that generalize the BTZ black hole and carry spin-3 charge. The black hole entropy formula yields a result for the asymptotic growth of the partition function at finite spin-3 chemical potential...

  2. Black widow spider (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a black widow spider. Note the red "hour glass" on the abdomen. The bite of the black widow can produce severe symptoms but is seldom fatal, except in young children and older adults. (Image courtesy ...

  3. Black hole hair removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Nabamita; Mandal, Ipsita; Sen, Ashoke

    2009-07-01

    Macroscopic entropy of an extremal black hole is expected to be determined completely by its near horizon geometry. Thus two black holes with identical near horizon geometries should have identical macroscopic entropy, and the expected equality between macroscopic and microscopic entropies will then imply that they have identical degeneracies of microstates. An apparent counterexample is provided by the 4D-5D lift relating BMPV black hole to a four dimensional black hole. The two black holes have identical near horizon geometries but different microscopic spectrum. We suggest that this discrepancy can be accounted for by black hole hair — degrees of freedom living outside the horizon and contributing to the degeneracies. We identify these degrees of freedom for both the four and the five dimensional black holes and show that after their contributions are removed from the microscopic degeneracies of the respective systems, the result for the four and five dimensional black holes match exactly.

  4. Black Hole Hair Removal

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Nabamita; Sen, Ashoke

    2009-01-01

    Macroscopic entropy of an extremal black hole is expected to be determined completely by its near horizon geometry. Thus two black holes with identical near horizon geometries should have identical macroscopic entropy, and the expected equality between macroscopic and microscopic entropies will then imply that they have identical degeneracies of microstates. An apparent counterexample is provided by the 4D-5D lift relating BMPV black hole to a four dimensional black hole. The two black holes have identical near horizon geometries but different microscopic spectrum. We suggest that this discrepancy can be accounted for by black hole hair, -- degrees of freedom living outside the horizon and contributing to the degeneracies. We identify these degrees of freedom for both the four and the five dimensional black holes and show that after their contributions are removed from the microscopic degeneracies of the respective systems, the result for the four and five dimensional black holes match exactly.

  5. Counseling Black Adolescent Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Gwendolyn C.

    1974-01-01

    Black adolescent parents need counsel from social workers who are able to intervene with a discerning knowledge of concepts, such as neocolonialism, survival, and liberation, that are important to them and to the black community. (Author)

  6. Empowering Rhetoric: Black Students Writing Black Panthers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pough, Gwendolyn D.

    2002-01-01

    Examines Black student responses to Black Panther Party documents and how those documents moved the students toward change. Maintains that by allowing the classroom to function as a public space which students can discuss the issues that matter to them, teachers can help to foster and encourage student activism and ultimately their empowerment.…

  7. Analysis on Rice Production and International Trade in Vietnam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RUAN Liu-qing; JIANG Yun-zhu; LU Li-xiang; LIN Hai; PANG Qian-lin

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces Vietnam’s climate condition,main rice production regions and analyses the expansion of rice planting area,rice cropping system during the last decades.The result from the change of rice production,planting area,yield,and rice trade indicates that the economic reforms in Vietnam from 1986 have contributed to a spectacular rise in rice production and exports.However,there are still problems and opportunities for rice production and export in Vietnam.The paper suggests that Vietnam should make the most use of the advanced international rice cultivars and technology to improve irrigation and water conservancy facilities to benefit rice farmer and consolidate Vietnam to be the major exporter of rice in the world market.%This paper introduces Vietnam's climate condition,main rice production regions and analyses the expansion of rice planting area,rice cropping system during the last decades.The result from the change of rice production,planting area,yield,and rice trade indicates that the economic reforms in Vietnam from 1986 have contributed to a spectacular rise in rice production and exports.However,there are still problems and opportunities for rice production and export in Vietnam.The paper suggests that Vietnam should make the most use of the advanced international rice cultivars and technology to improve irrigation and water conservancy facilities to benefit rice farmer and consolidate Vietnam to be the major exporter of rice in the world market.

  8. Charged Lifshitz Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Dehghani, M. H.; Pourhasan, R.; Mann, R. B.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate modifications of the Lifshitz black hole solutions due to the presence of Maxwell charge in higher dimensions for arbitrary $z$ and any topology. We find that the behaviour of large black holes is insensitive to the topology of the solutions, whereas for small black holes significant differences emerge. We generalize a relation previously obtained for neutral Lifshitz black branes, and study more generally the thermodynamic relationship between energy, entropy, and chemical pot...

  9. Life inside black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Dokuchaev, V I

    2012-01-01

    We consider test planet and photon orbits of the third kind inside a black hole, which are stable, periodic and neither come out of the black hole nor terminate at the singularity. Interiors of supermassive black holes may be inhabited by advanced civilizations living on planets with the third-kind orbits. In principle, one can get information from the interiors of black holes by observing their white hole counterparts.

  10. Noncommutative black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-DomInguez, J C [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico); Obregon, O [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico); RamIrez, C [Facultad de Ciencias FIsico Matematicas, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, PO Box 1364, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Sabido, M [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    We study noncommutative black holes, by using a diffeomorphism between the Schwarzschild black hole and the Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model, which is generalized to noncommutative minisuperspace. Through the use of the Feynman-Hibbs procedure we are able to study the thermodynamics of the black hole, in particular, we calculate Hawking's temperature and entropy for the 'noncommutative' Schwarzschild black hole.

  11. Black Hole Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Werner

    This chapter reviews the conceptual developments on black hole thermodynamics and the attempts to determine the origin of black hole entropy in terms of their horizon area. The brick wall model and an operational approach are discussed. An attempt to understand at the microlevel how the quantum black hole acquires its thermal properties is included. The chapter concludes with some remarks on the extension of these techniques to describing the dynamical process of black hole evaporation.

  12. Monopole black hole skyrmions

    OpenAIRE

    Moss, I. G.; Shiiki, N.; Winstanley, E.

    2000-01-01

    Charged black hole solutions with pion hair are discussed. These can be\\ud used to study monopole black hole catalysis of proton decay.\\ud There also exist\\ud multi-black hole skyrmion solutions with BPS monopole behaviour.

  13. Marketing for Black Alums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Tracy A.

    1994-01-01

    Considers need for colleges and universities to develop effective marketing plan for recruitment of black students. Highlights advantages of designing marketing plan for recruitment of black alumni to assist in recruitment and retention of black students. Identifies key indicators that often hinder institutions in their recruitment of black…

  14. Monopole Black Hole Skyrmions

    OpenAIRE

    Moss, I. G.; Shiiki, N.; Winstanley, E.

    2000-01-01

    Charged black hole solutions with pion hair are discussed. These can be\\ud used to study monopole black hole catalysis of proton decay.\\ud There also exist\\ud multi-black hole skyrmion solutions with BPS monopole behaviour.

  15. Black holes in binary stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, R.A.M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Introduction Distinguishing neutron stars and black holes Optical companions and dynamical masses X-ray signatures of the nature of a compact object Structure and evolution of black-hole binaries High-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black holes Formation of black holes

  16. Trace Element Management in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abin Sebastian

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Trace elements (TEs are vital for the operation of metabolic pathways that promote growth and structural integrity. Paddy soils are often prone to TE limitation due to intensive cultivation and irrigation practices. Apart from this, rice paddies are potentially contaminated with transition metals such as Cd, which are often referred to as toxic TEs. Deficiency of TEs in the soil not only delays plant growth but also causes exposure of plant roots to toxic TEs. Fine-tuning of nutrient cycling in the rice field is a practical solution to cope with TEs deficiency. Adjustment of soil physicochemical properties, biological process such as microbial activities, and fertilization helps to control TEs mobilization in soil. Modifications in root architecture, metal transporters activity, and physiological processes are also promising approaches to enhance TEs accumulation in grains. Through genetic manipulation, these modifications help to increase TE mining capacity of rice plants as well as transport and trafficking of TEs into the grains. The present review summarizes that regulation of TE mobilization in soil, and the genetic improvement of TE acquisition traits help to boost essential TE content in rice grain.

  17. Eight-Treosure Rice Pudding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Legend has it that at a banquet celebrating the success of King Wu of Zhou’s expedition against the tyrant King of the State of Shang during 1 B.C., a chef prepared Eight-Treasure Rice Pudding to symbolize the eight warriors who had performed great feats.Soft,sweet and bright in color,preparation is simple. Ingredients:

  18. Negative phototropism of rice root

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@It is often believed that the stem of higher plants has characteristics of positive phototropism, and the root shows no phototropism or no sensitivity to light though the root of Arabdopsis was reported possessing characteristics of negative phototropism. In this study, a distinct negative phototropism of the root system of rice seedlings was observed.

  19. A comparative study of competitiveness between different genotypes of weedy rice (Oryza sativa) and cultivated rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lei; Dai, Weimin; Song, Xiaoling; Lu, Baorong; Qiang, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Competition from weedy rice can cause serious yield losses to cultivated rice. However, key traits that facilitate competitiveness are still not well understood. To explore the mechanisms behind the strong growth and competitive ability, replacement series experiments were established with six genotypes of weedy rice from different regions and one cultivated rice cultivar. (1) Weedy rice from southern China had the greatest impact on growth and yield of cultivated rice throughout the entire growing season. Weedy rice from the northeast was very competitive during the early vegetative stage while the competitive effects of eastern weedy rice were more detrimental at later crop-growth stages. (2) As the proportion of weedy rice increased, plant height, tillers, above-ground biomass, and yield of cultivated rice significantly declined; the crop always being at disadvantage regardless of proportion. (3) Weedy biotypes with greater diversity as estimated by their Shannon indexes were more detrimental to the growth and yield of cultivated rice. Geographic origin (latitude) of weedy rice biotype, its mixture proportion under competition with the crop and its genetic diversity are determinant factors of the outcome of competition and the associated decline in the rice crop yield. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. RiceDB: A Web-Based Integrated Database for Annotating Rice Microarray

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Fei; SHI Qing-yun; CHEN Ming; WU Ping

    2007-01-01

    RiceDB, a web-based integrated database to annotate rice microarray in various biological contexts was developed. It is composed of eight modules. RiceMap module archives the process of Affymetrix probe sets mapping to different databases about rice, and aims to the genes represented by a microarray set by retrieving annotation information via the identifier or accession number of every database; RiceGO module indicates the association between a microarray set and gene ontology (GO) categories; RiceKO module is used to annotate a microarray set based on the KEGG biochemical pathways; RiceDO module indicates the information of domain associated with a microarray set; RiceUP module is used to obtain promoter sequences for all genes represented by a microarray set; RiceMR module lists potential microRNA which regulated the genes represented by a microarray set; RiceCD and RiceGF are used to annotate the genes represented by a microarray set in the context of chromosome distribution and rice paralogous family distribution. The results of automatic annotation are mostly consistent with manual annotation. Biological interpretation of the microarray data is quickened by the help of RiceDB.

  1. Rice domestication: histories and mysteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Briana L

    2012-09-01

    Domesticated rice (Oryza sativa) is one of the world's most important food crops, culturally, nutritionally and economically (Khush 1997). Thus, it is no surprise that there is intense curiosity about its genetic and geographical origins, its response to selection under domestication, and the genetic structure of its wild relative, Oryza rufipogon. Studies of Oryza attempting to answer these questions have accompanied each stage of the development of molecular markers, starting with allozymes and continuing to genome sequencing. While many of these studies have been restricted to small sample sizes, in terms of either the number of markers used or the number and distribution of the accessions, costs are now low enough that researchers are including large numbers of molecular markers and accessions. How will these studies relate to previous findings and long-held assumptions about rice domestication and evolution? If the paper in this issue of Molecular Ecology (Huang et al. 2012) is any indication, there will be some considerable surprises in store. In this study, a geographically and genomically thorough sampling of O. rufipogon and O. sativa revealed two genetically distinct groups of wild rice and also indicated that only one of these groups appears to be related to domesticated rice. While this fits well with previous studies indicating that there are genetic subdivisions within O. rufipogon, it stands in contrast to previous findings that the two major varieties of O. sativa (indica and japonica) were domesticated from two (or more) subpopulations of wild rice.

  2. Aerobic rice mechanization: techniques for crop establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khusairy, K. M.; Ayob, H.; Chan, C. S.; Fauzi, M. I. Mohamed; Mohamad Fakhrul, Z. O.; Shahril Shah, G. S. M.; Azlan, O.; Rasad, M. A.; Hashim, A. M.; Arshad, Z.; E, E. Ibrahim; Saifulizan, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    Rice being the staple food crops, hundreds of land races in it makes the diversity of rice crops. Aerobic rice production was introduced which requires much less water input to safeguard and sustain the rice production and conserve water due to decreasing water resources, climatic changes and competition from urban and industrial users. Mechanization system plays an important role for the success of aerobic rice cultivation. All farming activities for aerobic rice production are run on aerobic soil conditions. Row seeder mechanization system is developed to replace conventional seeding technique on the aerobic rice field. It is targeted for small and the large scale aerobic rice farmers. The aero - seeder machine is used for the small scale aerobic rice field, while the accord - seeder is used for the large scale aerobic rice field. The use of this mechanization machine can eliminate the tedious and inaccurate seeding operations reduce labour costs and increases work rate. The machine is easy to operate and it can increase crop establishment rate. It reduce missing hill, increasing planting and crop with high yield can be produce. This machine is designed for low costs maintenance and it is easy to dismantle and assemble during maintenance and it is safe to be used.

  3. [Major domestication traits in Asian rice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Shu-Jun; Wang, Hong-Ru; Chu, Cheng-Cai

    2012-11-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an excellent model plant in elucidation of cereal domestication. Loss of seed shattering, weakened dormancy, and changes in plant architecture were thought to be three key events in the rice domestication and creating the high-yield, uniform-germinating, and densely-planting modern rice. Loss of shattering is considered to be the direct morphological evidence for identifying domesticated rice. Two major shattering QTLs, Sh4 and qSH1, have displayed different domestication histories. Weakened seed dormancy is essential for synchronous germination in agricultural production. Genes Sdr4, qSD7-1, and qSD12 impose a global and complementary adaptation strategies in controlling seed dormancy. The prostate growth habit of wild rice is an adaptation to disturbed habitats, while the erect growth habit of rice cultivars meet the needs of compact planting, and such a plant architecture is mainly controlled by PROG1. The outcrossing habit of wild rice promotes propagation of domestication genes among different populations, while the self-pollinating habit of cultivated rice facilitates fixation of domestication genes. Currently, the researches on rice domestication mainly focus on individual genes or multiple neutral markers, and much less attention has been paid to the evolution of network controlling domestication traits. With the progress in functional genomics research, the molecular mechanism of domestication traits is emerging. Rice domestication researches based on network will be more comprehensive and better reflect rice domestica-tion process. Here, we reviewed most progresses in molecular mechanisms of rice domestication traits, in order to provide the new insights for rice domestication and molecular breeding.

  4. Review and prospect of transgenic rice research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hao; LIN YongJun; ZHANG QiFa

    2009-01-01

    Rice is one of the most important crops as the staple food for more than half of the world's population.Rice improvement has achieved remarkable success in the past half-century,with the yield doubled in most parts of the world and even tripled in certain regions,which has contributed greatly to food security globally.Rapid population growth and economic development pose a constantly increased food requirement.However,rice yield has been hovering in the past decade,which is mainly caused by the absence of novel breeding technologies,reduction of genetic diversity of rice cultivars,and serious yield loss due to increasingly severe occurrences of insects,diseases,and abiotic stresses.To address these challenges,Chinese scientists proposed a novel rice breeding goal of developing Green Super Rice to improve rice varieties and realize the sustainable development of agriculture,by focusing on the following 5 classes of traits:insect and disease resistance,drought-tolerance,nutrient-use efficiency,quality and yield potential.As a modern breeding approach,transgenic strategy will play an important role in realizing the goal of Green Super Rice.Presently,many transgenic studies of rice have been conducted,and most of target traits are consistent with the goal of Green Super Rice.In this paper,we firstly review technical advances of rice transformation,and then outline the main progress in transgenic rice research with respect to the most important traits:insect and disease-resistance,drought-tolerance,nutrient-use efficiency,quality,yield potential and herbicide-tolerance.The prospects of developing transgenic rice are also discussed.

  5. Isoflavone content and profile comparisons of cooked soybean-rice mixtures: electric rice cooker versus electric pressure rice cooker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ill-Min; Yu, Bo-Ra; Park, Inmyoung; Kim, Seung-Hyun

    2014-12-10

    This study examined the effects of heat and pressure on the isoflavone content and profiles of soybeans and rice cooked together using an electric rice cooker (ERC) and an electric pressure rice cooker (EPRC). The total isoflavone content of the soybean-rice mixture after ERC and EPRC cooking relative to that before cooking was ∼90% in soybeans and 14-15% in rice. Malonylglucosides decreased by an additional ∼20% in EPRC-cooked soybeans compared to those cooked using the ERC, whereas glucosides increased by an additional ∼15% in EPRC-cooked soybeans compared to those in ERC-cooked soybeans. In particular, malonylgenistin was highly susceptible to isoflavone conversion during soybean-rice cooking. Total genistein and total glycitein contents decreased in soybeans after ERC and EPRC cooking, whereas total daidzein content increased in EPRC-cooked soybeans (p soybeans.

  6. Adoption of recommended rice production practices among women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adoption of recommended rice production practices among women rice farmers in Nasarawa State, ... Journal of Agricultural Extension ... Also, buy-back arrangement should be introduced in order to ensure good pricing for rice producers.

  7. On Accelerated Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Letelier, P S; Letelier, Patricio S.; Oliveira, Samuel R.

    1998-01-01

    The C-metric is revisited and global interpretation of some associated spacetimes are studied in some detail. Specially those with two event horizons, one for the black hole and another for the acceleration. We found that the spacetime fo an accelerated Schwarzschild black hole is plagued by either conical singularities or lack of smoothness and compactness of the black hole horizon. By using standard black hole thermodynamics we show that accelerated black holes have higher Hawking temperature than Unruh temperature. We also show that the usual upper bound on the product of the mass and acceleration parameters (<1/sqrt(27)) is just a coordinate artifact. The main results are extended to accelerated Kerr black holes. We found that they are not changed by the black hole rotation.

  8. Effect of Interplanting with Zero Tillage and Straw Manure on Rice Growth and Rice Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The interplanting with zero-tillage of rice, i.e. directsowing rice 10-20 days before wheat harvesting, and remaining about 30-cm high stubble after cutting wheat or rice with no tillage, is a new cultivation technology in wheat-rice rotation system. To study the effects of interplanting with zero tillage and straw manure on rice growth and quality, an experiment was conducted in a wheat-rotation rotation system. Four treatments, i.e. ZIS (Zero-tillage, straw manure and rice interplanting), ZI (Zero-tillage, no straw manure and rice interplanting), PTS (Plowing tillage, straw manure and rice transplanting), and PT (Plowing tillage, no straw manure and rice transplanting), were used. ZIS reduced plant height, leaf area per plant and the biomass of rice plants, but the biomass accumulation of rice at the late stage was quicker than that under conventional transplanting cultivation. In the first year (2002), there was no significant difference in rice yield among the four treatments. However, rice yield decreased in interplanting with zero-tillage in the second year (2003). Compared with the transplanting treatments, the number of filled grains per panicle decreased but 1000-grain weight increased in interplanting with zero-tillage, which were the main factors resulting in higher yield. Interplanting with zero-tillage improved the milling and appearance qualities of rice. The rates of milled and head rice increased while chalky rice rate and chalkiness decreased in interplanting with zero-tillage. Zero-tillage and interplanting also affected rice nutritional and cooking qualities. In 2002, ZIS showed raised protein content, decreased amylose content, softer gel consistency, resulting in improved rice quality. In 2003, zero-tillage and interplanting decreased protein content and showed similar amylose content as compared with transplanting treatments. Moreover, protein content in PTS was obviously increased in comparison with the other three treatments. The rice in

  9. A Markov Random Field Model for Image Segmentation of Rice Planthopper in Rice Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Hongwei Yue; Ken Cai; Hanhui Lin; Hong Man; Zhaofeng Zeng

    2016-01-01

    It is meaningful to develop the automation segmentation of rice planthopper pests based on imaging technology in precision agriculture. However, rice planthopper images affected by light and complicated backgrounds in open rice fields make the segmentation difficult. This study proposed a segmentation approach of rice planthopper images based on the Markov random field to conduct effective segmentation. First, fractional order differential was introduced into the extraction proces...

  10. STARCH RETROGRADATION AND PRODUCTION OF RESISTANT STARCH IN COOKED RICE

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    After rice cooking, retrogradation of starch in a cooked rice progresses quickly at under gelatinization temperature. Cold rice (aging rice) is tasteless, firm and digested slowly. My aim in this report is explained the relationship between cold rice tasteless and indexes of starch retrogradation. Starch gelatinization degree, starch whiteness index and resistant starch content that were indexes of starch retrogradation did not change remarkably of cold and aging rice that were very firm and ...

  11. Novel transgenic rice-based vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azegami, Tatsuhiko; Itoh, Hiroshi; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Yuki, Yoshikazu

    2015-04-01

    Oral vaccination can induce both systemic and mucosal antigen-specific immune responses. To control rampant mucosal infectious diseases, the development of new effective oral vaccines is needed. Plant-based vaccines are new candidates for oral vaccines, and have some advantages over the traditional vaccines in cost, safety, and scalability. Rice seeds are attractive for vaccine production because of their stability and resistance to digestion in the stomach. The efficacy of some rice-based vaccines for infectious, autoimmune, and other diseases has been already demonstrated in animal models. We reported the efficacy in mice, safety, and stability of a rice-based cholera toxin B subunit vaccine called MucoRice-CTB. To advance MucoRice-CTB for use in humans, we also examined its efficacy and safety in primates. The potential of transgenic rice production as a new mucosal vaccine delivery system is reviewed from the perspective of future development of effective oral vaccines.

  12. The role of momilactones in rice allelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Peters, Reuben J

    2013-02-01

    Large field screening programs and laboratory experiments in many countries have indicated that rice is allelopathic and releases allelochemical(s) into its environment. A number of compounds, such as phenolic acids, fatty acids, phenylalkanoic acids, hydroxamic acids, terpenes, and indoles, have been identified as potential rice allelochemicals. However, the studies reviewed here demonstrate that the labdane-related diterpenoid momilactones are the most important, with momilactone B playing a particularly critical role. Rice plants secrete momilactone B from their roots into the neighboring environments over their entire life cycle at phytotoxic levels, and momilactone B seems to account for the majority of the observed rice allelopathy. In addition, genetic studies have shown that selective removal of the momilactones only from the complex mixture found in rice root exudates significantly reduces allelopathy, demonstrating that these serve as allelochemicals, the importance of which is reflected in the presence of a dedicated momilactone biosynthetic gene cluster in the rice genome.

  13. 76 FR 62503 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List the Black...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... occupation and activities (Rice and Kenyon 1962b, pp. 366-367; Naughton et al. 2007, p. 6). The likely... approximately 67,215 breeding pairs (ACAP 2010, p. 4; Flint 2011a, pers. comm.). Based on a Leslie matrix model... et al. (2009) also used matrix models to examine population data for the black-footed albatross over...

  14. Obtaining transgenic rice resistant to rice fungal blast disease by controlled cell death strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Shengji; GU Hongya; QU Lijia; CHEN Zhangliang

    2003-01-01

    The strategy of the two-component system, composed of Barnase and Barstar which encode RNase and a specific inhibitor to the RNase respectively, is adopted to obtain transgenic rice resistant to rice fungal blast disease. In this study, two chimeric promoters, induced by rice blast fungus pathogen (Magnaporthe grisea), are fused with Barnase respectively to construct two plant expression vectors, pWBNBS and pPBNBS together with the Barstar driven by CaMV 35S promoter. The resistance of the transgenic rice lines to rice blast fungus disease and rice blight disease are evaluated. The results show that (1) the expression of Barnase is induced in rice leaves when inoculated with the spores of Magnaporthe grisea; (2) the induced expression level of Barnase surpasses the level of Barstar, which elicits a similar hypersensitive response (HR) in the leaves, and the transgenic plant shows high resistance to the rice fungal blast disease; and (3) transgenic rice plants also show obvious resistance to rice bacterial blight disease. Taken together, these results suggest that the transgenic rice plants harboring this two-component system acquire relatively broad spectrum resistance against pathogens, especially high resistance to rice fungal pathogen.

  15. DETERMINATION OF SPATIAL INTEGRATION AND SUBSTITUTION OF FOREIGN RICE FOR LOCAL RICE IN GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Kofi ADOM

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study tested for spatial integration in the rice market and the substitution of imported rice for local rice in Ghana. It is established that the markets for domestic imported rice are well-integrated, but not complete. The imperfect spatial integration of domestic foreign rice markets implies that the market provides opportunities for arbitrage. Price leadership roles are found to be determined by the kind of sub-inter-regional-trade network defined. However, in all, the Accra market emerged as a dominant market leader in the domestic foreign rice market. There is evidence of significant regional substitution of foreign rice for local rice in the long run, but the result is mixed in the short run. The result that local rice is not a perfect substitute for imported rice implies that price disincentive measures such as increasing the import tariffs on foreign rice will only produce a mild effect on increasing the producer price faced by local rice farmers, but aggravate the burden on households’ budget.

  16. Characterizing irrigation water requirements for rice production from the Arkansas Rice Research Verification Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated rice irrigation water use in the University of Arkansas Rice Research Verification Program between the years of 2003 and 2011. Irrigation water use averaged 747 mm (29.4 inches) over the nine years. A significant 40% water savings was reported for rice grown under a zero gr...

  17. Effects of rice harvest moisture on kernel damage and milled rice surface free fatty acid levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Amanda M; Proctor, Andrew; Eason, Robert L; Jain, Vishal

    2007-01-01

    Surface free fatty acid (FFA) on milled rice is a key factor in determining rice quality and acceptability to the brewing industry. Rice FFA oxidizes, causing off-flavors and odors to develop, compromising the brewing quality of milled rice. The effect of harvest moisture (13%, 16%, and 20%), harvester type (1688 Case and 9500 John Deere), and rice variety (Cocodrie and Bengal) on harvest damaged rough rice and milled rice surface FFA after drying to 12% moisture and 6 mo rough rice storage was examined. The Case harvester produced more damaged kernels than the John Deere harvester, but this was not reflected in surface FFA development. There were no significant FFA differences in variety or harvester type. Rice harvested at a higher moisture content (20%) produced significantly greater FFA values, with a peak near 0.1%, than rice harvested at lower moisture contents (13% and 16%), which had FFA values near 0.08%. Retention of bran by damaged kernels at high harvest moisture probably was responsible for promoting surface FFA development, but if bran was lost at lower harvest moistures, surface FFA, development was limited. Harvest moisture affected milled rice FFA, although rough rice was dried to 12% immediately after harvesting.

  18. Methane emission from wetland rice fields.

    OpenAIRE

    H.A.C. Denier van der Gon

    1996-01-01

    Methane (CH 4 ) is an important greenhouse gas and plays a key role in tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry. Wetland rice fields are an important source of methane, accounting for approximately 20% of the global anthropogenic methane emission. Methane fluxes from wetland rice fields in the Philippines were monitored with a closed chamber technique in close cooperation with the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI). The field studies were complemented by laboratory and greenhouse ex...

  19. The roots of future rice harvests

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadi, Nourollah; Audebert, Alain; Bennett, Malcolm J; Bishopp, Anthony; Oliveira,Antonio Costa de; Courtois, Brigitte; Diedhiou, Abdala; Diévart, Anne; Gantet, Pascal; Ghesquière, Alain; Guiderdoni, Emmanuel; Henry, Amelia; Inukai, Yoshiaki; Kochian, Leon; Laplaze, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Rice production faces the challenge to be enhanced by 50% by year 2030 to meet the growth of the population in rice-eating countries. Whereas yield of cereal crops tend to reach plateaus and a yield is likely to be deeply affected by climate instability and resource scarcity in the coming decades, building rice cultivars harboring root systems that can maintain performance by capturing water and nutrient resources unevenly distributed is a major breeding target. Taking advantage of gathering ...

  20. Mycotoxin Contamination of Rice in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiang Dong; Su, Ping; Shan, Hong

    2017-03-01

    Mycotoxin contamination in rice is generally lower than in other cereals such as corn or wheat. However, over 65% of the population in China consumes rice as a staple food. Due to the diversity of the climate across China, the southern region is characterized by high temperatures and humidities, especially in rainy season. Such conditions are optimal for the growth of fungi. The accumulative and transferrable characteristics of fungi mycotoxins pose a great potential threat as confirmed by high incidences of liver cancer in the Yangtze delta region. Major mycotoxins identified in China are aflatoxins and ochratoxin A, as well as fumonisins. The contents of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ) in rice are varied among different provinces and regions and generally less than 5 μg/kg. Although high incidences of positive aflatoxins samples have widely been detected, few samples were detected as exceeding the national's maximum residue limit (10 μg/kg). Limited information is available on risk assessment of human health hazards of mycotoxins in rice, children should be paid more attention to due to their having the highest mycotoxins exposure level, although the risks are generally at low levels from rice. Mycotoxins are mainly distributed in the outer layer of the paddy rice (also called rough rice, referring to whole rice grain with the hulls), and the AFB1 content in bran is 8.4 times greater than that in brown rice (hulled rice). Further investigation should focus on isolation and identification of mycotoxins-producing fungal strains, especially unknown mycotoxigenic fungal strains determination. Infection resistant rice breeding of mycotoxigenic fungal species may be a fundamental approach to guaranteeing rice safety in China. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  1. Demand analyses of rice in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Tey, (John) Yeong-Sheng; Shamsudin, Mad Nasir; Mohamed, Zainalabidin; Abdullah, Amin Mahir; Radam, Alias

    2008-01-01

    As a typical developing Asian county, the growth in per capita income generally brings to diversification in Malaysians food basket. The most significant observation is the falling in per capita consumption of rice with continuous growth of demand for wheat based products. The objective of this study is to estimate the demand elasticities of rice in Malaysia, focusing whether rice is an inferior good. By using data from Household Expenditure Survey 2004/2005, this study obtains demand elastic...

  2. Advances in Researches of Functional Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingjun; YU; Min; XIANG; Hechun; HUANG

    2016-01-01

    Functional rice has functions of adjusting human physiological functions of and preventing diseases. At present,there are researches both at home and abroad about the relationship between nutritional quality and physiological active substances of rice and human physiological activities. Through conventional breeding,gene mutation technology,and molecular-assisted selection( MAS) technology,it is feasible to select and breed new rice varieties and plants with certain health care functions.

  3. Rice production in relation to soil quality under different rice-based cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran Ba, Linh; Sleutel, Steven; Nguyen Van, Qui; Thi, Guong Vo; Le Van, Khoa; Cornelis, Wim

    2016-04-01

    Soil quality of shallow paddy soils may be improved by introducing upland crops and thus a more diverse crop cultivation pattern. Yet, the causal relationship between crop performance and enhanced soil traits in rice-upland crop rotations remains elusive. The objectives of this study were to (i) find correlations among soil properties under different rice-upland crop systems and link selected soil properties to rice growth and yield, (ii) present appropriate values of soil parameters for sustainable rice productivity in heavy clay soil, (iii) evaluate the effect of rotating rice with upland crops on rice yield and economic benefit in a long-term experiment. A rice-upland crop rotational field experiment in the Vietnamese Mekong delta was conducted for 10 years using a randomized complete block design with four treatments and four replications. Treatments were: (i) rice-rice-rice (control - conventional system as farmers' practice), (ii) rice-maize-rice, (iii) rice-mung bean-rice, and (iv) rice-mung bean-maize. Soil and plant sampling were performed after harvest of the rice crop at the end of the final winter-spring cropping season (i.e. year 10). Results show differences in rice growth and yield, and economic benefit as an effect of the crop rotation system. These differences were linked with changes in bulk density, soil porosity, soil aggregate stability index, soil penetration resistance, soil macro-porosity, soil organic carbon, acid hydrolysable soil C and soil nutrient elements, especially at soil depth of 20-30 cm. This is evidenced by the strong correlation (P soil properties such as bulk density, porosity, penetration resistance, soil organic carbon and Chydrolysable. It turned out that good rice root growth and rice yield corresponded to bulk density values lower than 1.3 Mg m-3, soil porosity higher than 50%, penetration resistance below 1.0 MPa, and soil organic carbon above 25 g kg-1. The optimal soil depth without restriction for rice root elongation

  4. Genome-wide analysis of Dongxiang wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) to investigate lost/acquired genes during rice domestication

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Fantao; Xu, Tao; Mao, Linyong; Yan, Shuangyong; Chen, Xiwen; Wu, Zhenfeng; Chen, Rui; Luo, Xiangdong; Xie, Jiankun; Gao, Shan

    2016-01-01

    Background It is widely accepted that cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) was domesticated from common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.). Compared to other studies which concentrate on rice origin, this study is to genetically elucidate the substantially phenotypic and physiological changes from wild rice to cultivated rice at the whole genome level. Results Instead of comparing two assembled genomes, this study directly compared the Dongxiang wild rice (DXWR) Illumina sequencing reads with th...

  5. Structural and functional analysis of rice genome

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Akhilesh K. Tyagi; Jitendra P. Khurana; Paramjit Khurana; Saurabh Raghuvanshi; Anupama Gaur; Anita Kapur; Vikrant Gupta; Dibyendu Kumar; V. Ravi; Shubha Vij; Parul Khurana; Sulabha Sharma

    2004-04-01

    Rice is an excellent system for plant genomics as it represents a modest size genome of 430 Mb. It feeds more than half the population of the world. Draft sequences of the rice genome, derived by whole-genome shotgun approach at relatively low coverage (4–6 X), were published and the International Rice Genome Sequencing Project (IRGSP) declared high quality (>10 X), genetically anchored, phase 2 level sequence in 2002. In addition, phase 3 level finished sequence of chromosomes 1, 4 and 10 (out of 12 chromosomes of rice) has already been reported by scientists from IRGSP consortium. Various estimates of genes in rice place the number at > 50,000. Already, over 28,000 full-length cDNAs have been sequenced, most of which map to genetically anchored genome sequence. Such information is very useful in revealing novel features of macro- and micro-level synteny of rice genome with other cereals. Microarray analysis is unraveling the identity of rice genes expressing in temporal and spatial manner and should help target candidate genes useful for improving traits of agronomic importance. Simultaneously, functional analysis of rice genome has been initiated by marker-based characterization of useful genes and employing functional knock-outs created by mutation or gene tagging. Integration of this enormous information is expected to catalyze tremendous activity on basic and applied aspects of rice genomics.

  6. Dissipation of pencycuron in rice plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAL R.; CHAKRABARTI K.; CHAKRABORTY A.; CHOWDHURY A.

    2005-01-01

    Pencycuron is a non-systemic protective fungicide for controlling sheath blight of rice. However, information on the fate of pencycuron in rice plant is lacking. The degradation of pencycuron in waterlogged tropic rice field was investigated.Pencycuron was applied at recommended field dose (187.5 g a.i./ha) and double recommended dose to cropped plots for three consecutive years. Pencycuron was rapidly degraded in rice plant at all doses of pencycuron application with first order half-lives of 1.57~2.77 d. The study revealed that pencycuron is safe from the human and environmental contamination point of view.

  7. Bioethanol production from rice straw residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belal, Elsayed B

    2013-01-01

    A rice straw - cellulose utilizing mold was isolated from rotted rice straw residues. The efficient rice straw degrading microorganism was identified as Trichoderma reesei. The results showed that different carbon sources in liquid culture such as rice straw, carboxymethyl cellulose, filter paper, sugar cane bagasse, cotton stalk and banana stalk induced T. reesei cellulase production whereas glucose or Potato Dextrose repressed the synthesis of cellulase. T. reesei cellulase was produced by the solid state culture on rice straw medium. The optimal pH and temperature for T. reesei cellulase production were 6 and 25 °C, respectively. Rice straw exhibited different susceptibilities towards cellulase to their conversion to reducing sugars. The present study showed also that, the general trend of rice straw bioconversion with cellulase was more than the general trend by T. reesei. This enzyme effectively led to enzymatic conversion of acid, alkali and ultrasonic pretreated cellulose from rice straw into glucose, followed by fermentation into ethanol. The combined method of acid pretreatment with ultrasound and subsequent enzyme treatment resulted the highest conversion of lignocellulose in rice straw to sugar and consequently, highest ethanol concentration after 7 days fermentation with S. cerevisae yeast. The ethanol yield in this study was about 10 and 11 g.L(-1).

  8. Arsenic in rice: A cause for concern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hojsak, Iva; Braegger, Christian; Bronsky, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic intake is likely to affect long-term health. High concentrations are found in some rice-based foods and drinks widely used in infants and young children. In order to reduce exposure we recommend avoidance of rice drinks for infants and young children. For all rice products, strict...... regulation should be enforced regarding arsenic content. Moreover, infants and young children should consume a balanced diet including a variety of grains as carbohydrate sources. While rice protein based infant formulas are an option for infants with cows' milk protein allergy, the inorganic arsenic content...

  9. Epigenomic Modification and Epigenetic Regulation in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Zhao; Dao-Xiu Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Epigenomes including genome-wide histone modification and DNA methylation profiles are important for genome activity and for defining gene expression patterns of plant development and responses to various environmental conditions.Rice is the most important crop plant and serves as a model for cereal genomics.Rice epigenomic landscape is emerging and the function of chromatin modification regulators in gene expression,transposon repression and plant development is being characterized.Epigenomic variation that gives rise to stable or transgenerational heritable epialleles related to variation of important agronomical traits or stress responses is being characterized in rice.Implication of epigenomic variation in rice heterosis is being exploited.

  10. Induced resistance in rice against insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karban, R; Chen, Y

    2007-08-01

    Vaccinations are the mainstay of western preventive medicine, and they have been used to protect some crops against disease and insect pests. We consider rice as a model for protection using induced resistance since it is one of the most important staple crops and there have been significant new developments in: cross-resistance among rice insects, chemical pathways involved in induced resistance, sequencing the rice genome and expression of genes conferring resistance against rice insect pests. Insect attack has been found to cause lesions that kill planthopper eggs and early stages of gall midges. Damaged plants released volatiles that made them less likely to be chosen by planthoppers and more attractive to parasitoids. Chemical elicitors have been developed for dicotyledonous plants and these can induce resistance in rice, although rice does not fit models developed to explain signalling in dicots. For example, salicylic acid did not increase in rice after infection by pathogens and did not appear to be the mobile signal for induced resistance against pathogens although it was involved in induced responses to phloem-feeding insects. Jasmonic acid acted as a signal in some induced responses to pathogens as well as chewing insects. Many of the genes associated with induced resistance in rice have recently been mapped, and techniques are being developed to incorporate them into the genome of cultivated varieties. Attempts to control insect pests of rice will affect interactions with pathogens, predators and parasites, and other organisms in this agroecosystem.

  11. Composition and Development Prospects of Scented Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiankai SHEN; Zhenyu XIE; Zhizhou HE; Qiyun LIN; Ming YIN

    2016-01-01

    Containing higher aromatic composition,scented rice is better than ordinary rice varieties in taste and nutrition. Major composition of scented rice is 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline( 2-AP). Different scented rice varieties have different content of 2-AP. The content of 2-AP is not only influenced by genetic factors,but also closely connected with types and content of nutrition elements in soil,soil moisture management,environmental temperature,and storage. 2-AP synthesis and regulation are possibly connected with Proline and enzyme.

  12. Bioethanol production from rice straw residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsayed B. Belal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A rice straw -cellulose utilizing mold was isolated from rotted rice straw residues. The efficient rice straw degrading microorganism was identified as Trichoderma reesei. The results showed that different carbon sources in liquid culture such as rice straw, carboxymethyl cellulose, filter paper, sugar cane bagasse, cotton stalk and banana stalk induced T. reesei cellulase production whereas glucose or Potato Dextrose repressed the synthesis of cellulase. T. reesei cellulase was produced by the solid state culture on rice straw medium. The optimal pH and temperature for T. reesei cellulase production were 6 and 25 ºC, respectively. Rice straw exhibited different susceptibilities towards cellulase to their conversion to reducing sugars. The present study showed also that, the general trend of rice straw bioconversion with cellulase was more than the general trend by T. reesei. This enzyme effectively led to enzymatic conversion of acid, alkali and ultrasonic pretreated cellulose from rice straw into glucose, followed by fermentation into ethanol. The combined method of acid pretreatment with ultrasound and subsequent enzyme treatment resulted the highest conversion of lignocellulose in rice straw to sugar and consequently, highest ethanol concentration after 7 days fermentation with S. cerevisae yeast. The ethanol yield in this study was about 10 and 11 g.L-1.

  13. Information Commons for Rice (IC4R).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Lili; Zhang, Huiyong; Zhang, Zhang; Hu, Songnian; Xue, Yu

    2016-01-04

    Rice is the most important staple food for a large part of the world's human population and also a key model organism for plant research. Here, we present Information Commons for Rice (IC4R; http://ic4r.org), a rice knowledgebase featuring adoption of an extensible and sustainable architecture that integrates multiple omics data through community-contributed modules. Each module is developed and maintained by different committed groups, deals with data collection, processing and visualization, and delivers data on-demand via web services. In the current version, IC4R incorporates a variety of rice data through multiple committed modules, including genome-wide expression profiles derived entirely from RNA-Seq data, resequencing-based genomic variations obtained from re-sequencing data of thousands of rice varieties, plant homologous genes covering multiple diverse plant species, post-translational modifications, rice-related literatures and gene annotations contributed by the rice research community. Unlike extant related databases, IC4R is designed for scalability and sustainability and thus also features collaborative integration of rice data and low costs for database update and maintenance. Future directions of IC4R include incorporation of other omics data and association of multiple omics data with agronomically important traits, dedicating to build IC4R into a valuable knowledgebase for both basic and translational researches in rice. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  14. Study of rice. gamma. -irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lien, J.J.; Chau, R.S.; Chen, S.C.; Chu, S.L.; Fu, Y.K.; Fang, C.K.; Fu, Y.H.

    1981-03-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to investigate whether the /sup 60/Co gamma-irradiated milled rice packed in economic and practical sealed bags could be preserved in common granaries in Taiwan for more than one year rather than slightly over one month without quality deterioration. As a result of this experiment we found that during the preservation of over a period of 18 months, the contents, such as moisture, ash, protein and fiber, of Tainan-5 Bon-Lai (Japonica Type) rice irradiated with 20 and 40 krad doses were quite stable, whereas reducing sugar showed slight fluctuations but did not vary significantly either. The fat, vitamin B/sub 1/ and niacin contents were found being reduced, while the increase in fatty acid content was an inevitable phenomenon along with the proceeding of the preservation.

  15. Studies on weed diversity and its associated phytosociology under direct dry seeded rice systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantosh Kumar Sinha

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Chhattisgarh is commonly known as Bowl of rice where rice is grown as monocrop in the entire state whether soil is bhata, matasi, kanhar or black soil. Present study is based on the study of biodiversity of weeds under Direct Dry Seeded Rice Systems in Koria District (C.G. Study was conducted to assess the phytosociological studies of weed species in paddy field at Baikunthpur, Koriya district, Chattisgarh. A total of 43 genera and 9 families of Dicotyledonae and 3 families of monocots and 1 Pteridophytes was also observed and 43 weed species were identified Ratio of Sedges: (Grasses:Broad-leaved weeds was calculated as 9:12:18 Ratio under direct dry seeded rice systems. The results obtained indicated that Echinochloa colona, Cyperus iria and Cynodon dactylon were the most frequent in 2007; E. colona and C. iria were the most frequent in 2008 and 2009. The importance value index (IVI revealed that the most important weeds within the community were Poaceae and Cyperaceae. Out of 12 angiosperm families the predominance was shown by monocot families Cyperaceae and Poaceae having and weed species, respectively. The pteridophyta family Marsileaceae was represented by 1 weed species.

  16. Description of Aphelenchoides besseyi from Abnormal Rice with 'Small Grains and Erect Panicles' Symptom in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Mao-song; DING Xiao-fan; WANG Zi-ming; ZHOU Feng-ming; LIN Na

    2005-01-01

    The abnormal rice with small grains and erect panicles were found on a large scale in China, which showed shortend rice panicle and decreased number of grains in comparison with normal rice, and the grain was small and black-brown, and some of them were distorted, while the flag leaf was normal. A kind of nematode of Aphelenchoides was isolated from the grains of rice variety and up to 74 in single grain, 92 percent of the grains tested had nematodes in the infested panicles. The diagnosis characters of nematode include lateral fields about one-fourth as wide as body, with 4 incisures. The terminus bears a mucro of diverse shape with 3-4 pointed processes. The female post-vulval uterine sac extends less than 50% of distance from vulva to anus, no sperm in it.Oocytes usually arrange in 2-4 rows. The male spicules have a moderately developed rostrum. Morphological measurements showed it to be conspecific with Aphelenchoides besseyi Christie, 1942.

  17. The influence of extraction methods on composition and antioxidant properties of rice bran oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noppawat Pengkumsri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe current study was employed to assess the influence of the different extraction methods on total tocols, γ-oryzanol content, and antioxidant properties of Chiang Mai Black rice, Mali Red rice, and Suphanburi-1 Brown rice bran oil. Rice bran oil (RBO was extracted by Hexane, Hot pressed, Cold pressed, and Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFe methods. High yield of RBO was extracted by hexane and SFe methods. Total and subgroups of tocols, and γ-oryzanol content were determined by HPLC. The hexane extracted sample accounts for high content of γ-oryzanol and tocols. Besides, all of RBO extracts contain a significantly high amount of γ-tocotrienol. In vitro antioxidant assay results indicated that superior quality of oil was recovered by hexane extraction. The temperature in the extraction process also affects the value of the oil. Superior quality of oil was recovered by hexane extraction, in terms of phytochemical contents and antioxidant properties compared to other tested extraction methods. Further, thorough study of factors compromising the quality and quantity of RBO recovery is required for the development of enhanced functional foods and other related products.

  18. Rice's Salt Tolerance Gene Cloned

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ In cooperation with US colleagues, CAS researchers have made significant progress in their studies into functional genes for key agronomic traits by cloning SKC1, a salt-tolerant functional gene of rice and making clear its biological functions and mechanisms. This pioneering work,which was reported in the Oct. issue of Nature Genetics (37:1141-1146), is believed to hold promise to increase the output of the crop plant in this country.

  19. Braneworld Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Whisker, Richard

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis we investigate black holes in the Randall-Sundrum braneworld scenario. We begin with an overview of extra-dimensional physics, from the original proposal of Kaluza and Klein up to the modern braneworld picture of extra dimensions. A detailed description of braneworld gravity is given, with particular emphasis on its compatibility with experimental tests of gravity. We then move on to a discussion of static, spherically symmetric braneworld black hole solutions. Assuming an equation of state for the ``Weyl term'', which encodes the effects of the extra dimension, we are able to classify the general behaviour of these solutions. We then use the strong field limit approach to investigate the gravitational lensing properties of some candidate braneworld black hole solutions. It is found that braneworld black holes could have significantly different observational signatures to the Schwarzschild black hole of standard general relativity. Rotating braneworld black hole solutions are also discussed, an...

  20. Astrophysical black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gorini, Vittorio; Moschella, Ugo; Treves, Aldo; Colpi, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Based on graduate school lectures in contemporary relativity and gravitational physics, this book gives a complete and unified picture of the present status of theoretical and observational properties of astrophysical black holes. The chapters are written by internationally recognized specialists. They cover general theoretical aspects of black hole astrophysics, the theory of accretion and ejection of gas and jets, stellar-sized black holes observed in the Milky Way, the formation and evolution of supermassive black holes in galactic centers and quasars as well as their influence on the dynamics in galactic nuclei. The final chapter addresses analytical relativity of black holes supporting theoretical understanding of the coalescence of black holes as well as being of great relevance in identifying gravitational wave signals. With its introductory chapters the book is aimed at advanced graduate and post-graduate students, but it will also be useful for specialists.

  1. Extremal Hairy Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez, P A; Saavedra, Joel; Vasquez, Yerko

    2014-01-01

    We consider a gravitating system consisting of a scalar field minimally coupled to gravity with a self-interacting potential and an U(1) electromagnetic field. Solving the coupled Einstein-Maxwell-scalar system we find exact hairy charged black hole solutions with the scalar field regular everywhere. We go to the zero temperature limit and we study the effect of the scalar field on the near horizon geometry of an extremal black hole. We find that except a critical value of the charge of the black hole there is also a critical value of the charge of the scalar field beyond of which the extremal black hole is destabilized. We study the thermodynamics of these solutions and we find that if the space is flat then at low temperature the Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black hole is thermodynamically preferred, while if the space is AdS the hairy charged black hole is thermodynamically preferred at low temperature.

  2. [Extraction and purification method of rice DNA from rice powder containing Konjak flour].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minematsu, Kazuhiko; Nakamura, Kosuke; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Harikai, Naoki; Nakajima, Osamu; Kitta, Kazumi; Teshima, Reiko; Iizuka, Tayoshi

    2010-01-01

    Rice powder containing Konjak flour made with tuberous roots of Amorphophallus konjac is imported as a rice-processed product from China to Japan. An improved DNA purification method for the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of rice in such products is necessary, since Konjak flour constituents absorb the DNA purification buffer to form a gel, and cause problems in the subsequent purification steps. Here, we present a simple preparative system for isolation of the rice and a purification method of the rice DNA from the product. The purified DNA was confirmed to be a good template for both PCR and real-time PCR.

  3. On-farm trials with rice fish cultivation in the west Kano rice irrigation scheme, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Rasowo, J.; Auma, E.O.

    2006-01-01

    The viability of integrating rice farming with fish culture was studied in ten (10) rice plots. The on-farm research was done during one rice-growing season starting May 2003. The rice variety used was IR 2793-80-1 while the fish species was the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. The fish culture period lasted 77 days. An average fish production of 132.4 kg/ha was obtained. The mean recovery rate of tilapia was 43 per cent. Total rice yield from the fields stocked with fish was lower than f...

  4. Perturbations around black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, B

    2005-01-01

    Perturbations around black holes have been an intriguing topic in the last few decades. They are particularly important today, since they relate to the gravitational wave observations which may provide the unique fingerprint of black holes' existence. Besides the astrophysical interest, theoretically perturbations around black holes can be used as testing grounds to examine the proposed AdS/CFT and dS/CFT correspondence.

  5. Physics of black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Thorne, Kip S.

    1982-01-01

    The activity at the galactic center might be fuelled by energy release near a large black hole. In this talk I describe some relativistic effects which may be relevant to this process. I use Newtonian language so far as possible and illustrate the effects with simple  analogies. Specifically, I describe the gravitational field near a black hole, Lens‐Thirring and geodetic precession, electro‐magnetic energy extraction of the spin energy of a black hole and the structure of accretion tori arou...

  6. Black Branes as Piezoelectrics

    CERN Document Server

    Armas, Jay; Obers, Niels A

    2012-01-01

    We find a realization of linear electroelasticity theory in gravitational physics by uncovering a new response coefficient of charged black branes, exhibiting their piezoelectric behavior. Taking charged dilatonic black strings as an example and using the blackfold approach we measure their elastic and piezolectric moduli. We also use our results to draw predictions about the equilibrium condition of charged dilatonic black rings in dimensions higher than six.

  7. Black branes as piezoelectrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Jay; Gath, Jakob; Obers, Niels A

    2012-12-14

    We find a realization of linear electroelasticity theory in gravitational physics by uncovering a new response coefficient of charged black branes, exhibiting their piezoelectric behavior. Taking charged dilatonic black strings as an example and using the blackfold approach we measure their elastic and piezolectric moduli. We also use our results to draw predictions about the equilibrium condition of charged dilatonic black rings in dimensions higher than six.

  8. Origin, dispersal, cultivation and variation of rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khush, G S

    1997-09-01

    There are two cultivated and twenty-one wild species of genus Oryza. O. sativa, the Asian cultivated rice is grown all over the world. The African cultivated rice, O. glaberrima is grown on a small scale in West Africa. The genus Oryza probably originated about 130 million years ago in Gondwanaland and different species got distributed into different continents with the breakup of Gondwanaland. The cultivated species originated from a common ancestor with AA genome. Perennial and annual ancestors of O. sativa are O. rufipogon and O. nivara and those of O. glaberrima are O. longistaminata, O. breviligulata and O. glaberrima probably domesticated in Niger river delta. Varieties of O. sativa are classified into six groups on the basis of genetic affinity. Widely known indica rices correspond to group I and japonicas to group VI. The so called javanica rices also belong to group VI and are designated as tropical japonicas in contrast to temperate japonicas grown in temperate climate. Indica and japonica rices had a polyphyletic origin. Indicas were probably domesticated in the foothills of Himalayas in Eastern India and japonicas somewhere in South China. The indica rices dispersed throughout the tropics and subtropics from India. The japonica rices moved northward from South China and became the temperate ecotype. They also moved southward to Southeast Asia and from there to West Africa and Brazil and became tropical ecotype. Rice is now grown between 55 degrees N and 36 degrees S latitudes. It is grown under diverse growing conditions such as irrigated, rainfed lowland, rainfed upland and floodprone ecosystems. Human selection and adaptation to diverse environments has resulted in numerous cultivars. It is estimated that about 120,000 varieties of rice exist in the world. After the establishment of International Rice Research Institute in 1960, rice varietal improvement was intensified and high yielding varieties were developed. These varieties are now planted to 70

  9. Asymptotic black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Pei-Ming

    2017-04-01

    Following earlier works on the KMY model of black-hole formation and evaporation, we construct the metric for a matter sphere in gravitational collapse, with the back-reaction of pre-Hawking radiation taken into consideration. The mass distribution and collapsing velocity of the matter sphere are allowed to have an arbitrary radial dependence. We find that a generic gravitational collapse asymptote to a universal configuration which resembles a black hole but without horizon. This approach clarifies several misunderstandings about black-hole formation and evaporation, and provides a new model for black-hole-like objects in the universe.

  10. Asymptotic Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, Pei-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Following earlier works on the KMY model of black-hole formation and evaporation, we construct the metric for a matter sphere in gravitational collapse, with the back-reaction of pre-Hawking radiation taken into consideration. The mass distribution and collapsing velocity of the matter sphere are allowed to have an arbitrary radial dependence. We find that a generic gravitational collapse asymptote to a universal configuration which resembles a black hole but without horizon. This approach clarifies several misunderstandings about black-hole formation and evaporation, and provides a new model for black-hole-like objects in the universe.

  11. Ten shades of black

    CERN Document Server

    Hod, Shahar

    2015-01-01

    The holographic principle has taught us that, as far as their entropy content is concerned, black holes in $(3+1)$-dimensional curved spacetimes behave as ordinary thermodynamic systems in flat $(2+1)$-dimensional spacetimes. In this essay we point out that the opposite behavior can also be observed in black-hole physics. To show this we study the quantum Hawking evaporation of near-extremal Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black holes. We first point out that the black-hole radiation spectrum departs from the familiar radiation spectrum of genuine $(3+1)$-dimensional perfect black-body emitters. In particular, the would be black-body thermal spectrum is distorted by the curvature potential which surrounds the black hole and effectively blocks the emission of low-energy quanta. Taking into account the energy-dependent gray-body factors which quantify the imprint of passage of the emitted radiation quanta through the black-hole curvature potential, we reveal that the $(3+1)$-dimensional black holes effectively behave as p...

  12. Black Hole Thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Carlip, S

    2014-01-01

    The discovery in the early 1970s that black holes radiate as black bodies has radically affected our understanding of general relativity, and offered us some early hints about the nature of quantum gravity. In this chapter I will review the discovery of black hole thermodynamics and summarize the many independent ways of obtaining the thermodynamic and (perhaps) statistical mechanical properties of black holes. I will then describe some of the remaining puzzles, including the nature of the quantum microstates, the problem of universality, and the information loss paradox.

  13. Benthic macroinvertebrates in Italian rice fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Lupi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Rice fields can be considered man-managed temporary wetlands. Five rice fields handled with different management strategies, their adjacent channels, and a spring were analysed by their benthic macroinvertebrate community to i evaluate the role of rice agroe- cosystem in biodiversity conservation; ii find indicator species which can be used to compare the ecological status of natural wetlands with rice agroecosystems; and iii find the influence of environmental variables on biodiversity. Different methods of data analysis with increasing degree of complexity – from diversity index up to sophisticated multivariate analysis – were used. The investigation provided a picture of benthic macroinvertebrates inhabiting rice agroecosystems where 173 taxa were identified, 89 of which detected in rice paddies. Among them, 4 phyla (Mollusca, Annelida, Nematomorpha, and Arthropoda, 8 classes (Bivalvia, Gastropoda, Oligochaeta, Hirudinea, Gordioida, Insecta, Branchiopoda, and Malacostraca, 24 orders, 68 families, 127 genera and 159 species have been found. Ten threatened and 3 invasive species were detected in the habitats examined. The information obtained by the different methods of data analysis allowed a more comprehensive view on the value of the components of rice agroecosystems. Data analyses highlighted significant differences between habitats (feeding channel and rice field, with higher diversity observed in channels, and emphasised the role of the water chemical-physical parameters. The period of water permanence in rice fields resulted to be only one of the factors influencing the community of benthic macroinvertebrates. The presence of rare/endangered species allowed characterising some stations, but it was less informative about management strategies in rice paddies because most of these species were absent in rice fields.

  14. Rice Yield Estimation by Integrating Remote Sensing with Rice Growth Simulation Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    O. ABOU-ISMAIL; HUANG Jing-Feng; WANG Ren-Chao

    2004-01-01

    Since remote sensing can provide information on the actual status of an agricultural crop, the integration between remote sensing data and crop growth simulation models has become an important trend for yield estimation and prediction.The main objective of this research was to combine a rice growth simulation model with remote sensing data to estimate rice grain yield for different growing seasons leading to an assessment of rice yield at regional levels. Integration between NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) data and the rice growth simulation model ORYZA1 to develop a new software, which was named as Rice-SRS Model, resulted in accurate estimates for rice yield in Shaoxing, China, with an estimation error reduced to 1.03% and 0.79% over-estimation and 0.79% under-estimation for early, single and late season rice, respectively. Selecting suitable dates for remote sensing images was an important factor which could influence estimation accuracy. Thus, given the different growing periods for each rice season, four images were needed for early and late rice, while five images were preferable for single season rice.Estimating rice yield using two or three images was possible, however, if images were obtained during the panicle initiation and heading stages.

  15. A New Mehod to Cook Rice Food,An infant of new Rice Cooker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Hanyou

    2002-01-01

    Objective:In order to enhance the rice food nutritional quality and the human quality of life.Method:Summarize my lifeexperiences and my cooking rice experience with present Chinese food cookers but in different way to reach the high quality ricefood. Result:The steaming rice method is easy to do and the rice is tasteful and nutritional,comparing with the previous old generationsfood cookers. Conclusions:(1)This cooking method is worth and easy to be adapted by the rice taking people.(2)Through furtherresearch,the new rice cooker of modem generation can be developed according to these principles.This kind of cooker may well bemarketed and used by the rice taking people.

  16. Survey on Contamination of Fusarium Mycotoxins in 2011-harvested Rice and Its By-products from Rice Processing Complexes in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soohyung Lee

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To investigate Fusarium mycotoxin contamination in rice samples from rice processing complexes (RPCs, paddy rice and rice-milling products such as husks, brown rice, blue-tinged rice, broken rice, rice bran, discolored rice, and polished rice were collected from nationwide in 2012. Three hundred seventy one samples of rice and its by-products were analyzed for three trichothethenes including nivalenol (NIV, deoxynivalenol (DON, and zearalenone (ZEA by LC/MS. Discolored rice samples were found to have the highest contamination of DON, NIV or ZEA, followed by broken rice. Polished rice samples were largely free from mycotoxins, except three samples which were contaminated with NIV or DON at safety level. The rice byproduct samples were contaminated at higher level and frequencies than polished rice samples.

  17. 7 CFR 1412.49 - Apportionment of long and medium grain rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apportionment of long and medium grain rice. 1412.49... and Peanuts 2008 through 2012 § 1412.49 Apportionment of long and medium grain rice. (a) Rice base...) Medium grain rice. Medium grain rice includes short grain rice. (c) Owners on a farm will elect rice base...

  18. Australian wild rice reveals pre-domestication origin of polymorphism deserts in rice genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopala Krishnan S

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rice is a major source of human food with a predominantly Asian production base. Domestication involved selection of traits that are desirable for agriculture and to human consumers. Wild relatives of crop plants are a source of useful variation which is of immense value for crop improvement. Australian wild rices have been isolated from the impacts of domestication in Asia and represents a source of novel diversity for global rice improvement. Oryza rufipogon is a perennial wild progenitor of cultivated rice. Oryza meridionalis is a related annual species in Australia. RESULTS: We have examined the sequence of the genomes of AA genome wild rices from Australia that are close relatives of cultivated rice through whole genome re-sequencing. Assembly of the resequencing data to the O. sativa ssp. japonica cv. Nipponbare shows that Australian wild rices possess 2.5 times more single nucleotide polymorphisms than in the Asian wild rice and cultivated O. sativa ssp. indica. Analysis of the genome of domesticated rice reveals regions of low diversity that show very little variation (polymorphism deserts. Both the perennial and annual wild rice from Australia show a high degree of conservation of sequence with that found in cultivated rice in the same 4.58 Mbp region on chromosome 5, which suggests that some of the 'polymorphism deserts' in this and other parts of the rice genome may have originated prior to domestication due to natural selection. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of genes in the 'polymorphism deserts' indicates that this selection may have been due to biotic or abiotic stress in the environment of early rice relatives. Despite having closely related sequences in these genome regions, the Australian wild populations represent an invaluable source of diversity supporting rice food security.

  19. Low oil-uptake rice batters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice starch and flour are popular for use in foods, because they are known to be nutritious, gluten-free, and hypoallergenic – properties which make them particularly desirable for use in infant foods, and in products for people with celiac disease (gluten intolerance). One application for rice sta...

  20. Soil quality assessment in rice production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues de Lima, A.C.

    2007-01-01

    In the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, rice production is one of the most important regional activities. Farmers are concerned that the land use practices for rice production in the Camaquã region may not be sustainable because of detrimental effects on soil quality. The study presented in this

  1. Rice aroma and flavor: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descriptive sensory analysis has identified over a dozen different aromas and flavors in rice. Instrumental analyses have found over 200 volatile compounds present in rice. However, after over 30 years of research, little is known about the relationships between the numerous volatile compounds and a...

  2. FLUORIDE LEVELS IN COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE RICE IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    2013-05-05

    May 5, 2013 ... There are several studies reporting the dietary intake of fluoride from water, ..... fluoride in rice samples showed the trend BR > ERR > NERICA > JR > RR > EWR. .... in cooked rice in Iran ranged from 0.2-1.6 mg F/kg [2].

  3. Allelopathic potential of selected rice varieties

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl10

    2012-11-01

    Nov 1, 2012 ... chemical compounds that escape into the environment. (Rice ..... Biochemical interactions among plants. Symp ... of grassy weeds of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) on the germination ... Allelopathic effects of rice genotypes on the growth of. Echinochloa crusgalli L. PhD Thesis submitted to the Department of.

  4. Progress and Prospect of Functional Rice Researches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    With the rapid development of economy and the increase of people's living standards, functional foods are being gradually embraced by consumers and have a great growth potential. Rice is the main staple food in China. It plays an important role in promoting people's health and in improving public nutrition, and therefore there is an ever-increasing consumer demand for rice for its functional quality. This study introduces the concept of functional rice and summarizes the current research progress on this topic and the application of breeding strategies including traditional breeding, induced mutagenesis, molecular marker-assisted selection and transgenic engineering in the research of a new generation of functional rice that posses health benefits, therapeutic values, bioreactor properties, and other unique functions. We then point out the prospect of functional rice from the point of view of social development, germplasm innovation,breeding of functional rice by biological technology and the test of active material related functional rice. We conclude that developing and marketing of functional rice is becoming a subject of great importance for research and is to be the focus of research in future.

  5. Soil quality assessment in rice production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues de Lima, A.C.

    2007-01-01

    In the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, rice production is one of the most important regional activities. Farmers are concerned that the land use practices for rice production in the Camaquã region may not be sustainable because of detrimental effects on soil quality. The study presented in this

  6. Land Titles and Rice Production in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Den Broeck, Katleen; Newman, Carol; Tarp, Finn

    analysis of plot level rice yields that land titles are indeed important. Only exclusively held titles have the expected positive effects, and the positive effect on yields is found in male headed households. Furthermore, a household level rice yield function reveals that exclusive user rights...

  7. 33 CFR 117.324 - Rice Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rice Creek. 117.324 Section 117.324 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.324 Rice Creek. The CSX Railroad Swingbridge,...

  8. Functional genomics strategies with transposons in rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greco, R.

    2003-01-01

    Rice is a major staple food crop and a recognizedmonocotylenedousmodel plant from which gene function discovery is projected to contribute to improvements in a variety of cereals like wheat and maize. The recent release of rough drafts of the rice genome sequence for public

  9. Grain Unloading Of Arsenic Species In Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is the staple food for over half the world's population yet may represent a significant dietary source of inorganic arsenic (As), a nonthreshold, class 1 human carcinogen. Rice grain As is dominated by the inorganic species, and the organic species dim...

  10. Novel gene expression tools for rice biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biotechnology is an effective and important method of improving both quality and agronomic traits in rice. We are developing novel molecular tools for genetic engineering, with a focus on developing novel transgene expression control elements (i.e. promoters) for rice. A suite of monocot grass promo...

  11. IMPLICATIONS FOR SMALLHOLDER RICE PRODUCTION IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    discusses trade liberalization policy effects on rice imports in. Ghana and the ... global capital where a country's access to international finance is largely determined by ... ml by subscribing to appropriate" macroeconomic and structural adjustment policies .... output, price, income and profitability of rice farmers. To discover ...

  12. Geochemical Modeling of Zinc Bioavailability for Rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, X.; Schröder, T.J.; Hoffland, E.; Zou, C.; Zhang, F.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.

    2010-01-01

    The transition from anaerobic to aerobic rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivation has been reported to decrease Zn bioavailability. To determine and understand the differences in plant Zn uptake between anaerobic and aerobic rice cultivation systems, a field plot experiment was conducted with direct-seede

  13. Rice mutant resources for gene discovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirochika, H.; Guiderdoni, E.; An, G.; Hsing, Y.I.; Eun, M.Y.; Han, C.D.; Upadhyaya, N.; Ramachandran, S.; Zhang, Q.F.; Pereira, A.B.; Sundaresan, V.; Leung, H.

    2004-01-01

    With the completion of genomic sequencing of rice, rice has been firmly established as a model organism for both basic and applied research. The next challenge is to uncover the functions of genes predicted by sequence analysis. Considering the amount of effort and the diversity of disciplines requi

  14. Virus-mediated chemical changes in rice plants impact the relationship between non-vector planthopper Nilaparvata lugens Stål and its egg parasitoid Anagrus nilaparvatae Pang et Wang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaochan; Xu, Hongxing; Gao, Guanchun; Zhou, Xiaojun; Zheng, Xusong; Sun, Yujian; Yang, Yajun; Tian, Junce; Lu, Zhongxian

    2014-01-01

    In order to clarify the impacts of southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) infection on rice plants, rice planthoppers and natural enemies, differences in nutrients and volatile secondary metabolites between infected and healthy rice plants were examined. Furthermore, the impacts of virus-mediated changes in plants on the population growth of non-vector brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens, and the selectivity and parasitic capability of planthopper egg parasitoid Anagrus nilaparvatae were studied. The results showed that rice plants had no significant changes in amino acid and soluble sugar contents after SRBSDV infection, and SRBSDV-infected plants had no significant effect on population growth of non-vector BPH. A. nilaparvatae preferred BPH eggs both in infected and healthy rice plants, and tended to parasitize eggs on infected plants, but it had no significant preference for infected plants or healthy plants. GC-MS analysis showed that tridecylic aldehyde occurred only in rice plants infected with SRBSDV, whereas octanal, undecane, methyl salicylate and hexadecane occurred only in healthy rice plants. However, in tests of behavioral responses to these five volatile substances using a Y-tube olfactometer, A. nilaparvatae did not show obvious selectivity between single volatile substances at different concentrations and liquid paraffin in the control group. The parasitic capability of A. nilaparvatae did not differ between SRBSDV-infected plants and healthy plant seedlings. The results suggested that SRBSDV-infected plants have no significant impacts on the non-vector planthopper and its egg parasitoid, A. nilaparvatae.

  15. Surveys of rice sold in Canada for aflatoxins, ochratoxin A and fumonisins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, J.; Pantazopoulos, P.; Tam, J.; Cavlovic, P.; Kwong, K.; Turcotte, A.-M.; Lau, B.P.-Y.; Scott, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 200 samples of rice (including white, brown, red, black, basmati and jasmine, as well as wild rice) from several different countries, including the United States, Canada, Pakistan, India and Thailand, were analysed for aflatoxins, ochratoxin A (OTA) and fumonisins by separate liquid Chromatographic methods in two different years. The mean concentrations for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) were 0.19 and 0.17 ng g−1 with respective positive incidences of 56% and 43% (≥ the limit of detection (LOD) of 0.002 ng g−1). Twenty-three samples analysed in the second year also contained aflatoxin B2 (AFB2) at levels ≥LOD of 0.002 ng g−1 The five most contaminated samples in each year contained 1.44–7.14 ng AFB1 g−1 (year 1) and 1.45–3.48 ng AFB1 g−1 (year 2); they were mostly basmati rice from India and Pakistan and black and red rice from Thailand. The average concentrations of ochratoxin A (OTA) were 0.05 and 0.005 ng g−1 in year 1 and year 2, respectively; incidences of samples containing ≥LOD of 0.05 ng g−1 were 43% and 1%, respectively, in the 2 years. All positive OTA results were confirmed by LC-MS/MS. For fumonisins, concentrations of fumonisin B1 (FB1) averaged 4.5 ng g−1 in 15 positive samples (≥0.7 ng g−1) from year 1 (n = 99); fumonisin B2 (FB2) and fumonisin B3 (FB3) were also present (≥1 ng g−1). In the second year there was only one positive sample (14 ng g−1 FB1) out of 100 analysed. All positive FB1 results were confirmed by LC-MS/MS. PMID:21623501

  16. Factors Affecting Methane Emission from Rice Paddies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于心科; 王卫东; 等

    1995-01-01

    A comparative study of rice paddies and the uncovered water field in Taoyuan(Hunan) showed that methane emission from rice-vegetated paddy fields in 1993 was different from that in 1992(I,e,lower in rates and irregular in pattern).Climate has obvious influence on methane emission .And ebullition made a considerable contribution to the total flux of methane emission from rice paddies (45%).This implies that the intensification of paddy cultivation of rice might not be,as was proposed,the main con-tributor to the observed gradual increasing of atmospheric methane.24-hour automatic measurements of atmospheric temperature,air temperature and methane concentration in the static sampling boxes revealed that temperature,in addition to fertilization and irrigation style,is one of the most important factors that control the emission of methane from rice paddies.

  17. Rice epigenomics and epigenetics: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangsong; Zhou, Dao-Xiu

    2013-05-01

    During recent years rice genome-wide epigenomic information such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, which are important for genome activity has been accumulated. The function of a number of rice epigenetic regulators has been studied, many of which are found to be involved in a diverse range of developmental and stress-responsive pathways. Analysis of epigenetic variations among different rice varieties indicates that epigenetic modification may lead to inheritable phenotypic variation. Characterizing phenotypic consequences of rice epigenomic variations and the underlining chromatin mechanism and identifying epialleles related to important agronomic traits may provide novel strategies to enhance agronomically favorable traits and grain productivity in rice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Elucidation of molecular dynamics of invasive species of rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cultivated rice fields are aggressively invaded by weedy rice in the U.S. and worldwide. Weedy rice results in loss of yield and seed contamination. The molecular dynamics of the evolutionary adaptive traits of weedy rice are not fully understood. To understand the molecular basis and identify the i...

  19. 7 CFR 868.301 - Definition of milled rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of milled rice. 868.301 Section 868.301... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Milled Rice Terms Defined § 868.301 Definition of milled rice. Whole or broken kernels of rice (Oryza sativa L.) from which the hulls and...

  20. 7 CFR 868.201 - Definition of rough rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of rough rice. 868.201 Section 868.201... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Rough Rice Terms Defined § 868.201 Definition of rough rice. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) which consists of 50 percent or more of paddy kernels...

  1. Rice blast research: improving our arsenal and using it

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice blast disease is a constant threat to U.S. rice production, and there have been sporadic outbreaks of the disease for many decades. However, the U.S. southern rice growing area has been fortunate because the pathogen population has been relatively stable compared to other rice producing areas i...

  2. Golden Rice is an effective source for vitamin A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetically engineered "Golden Rice" contains up to 35 ug Beta-carotene per gram of rice. It is important to determine the vitamin A equivalency of Golden Rice Beta-carotene to project the potential effect of this biofortified grain in rice-consuming populations that commonly exhibit low vitamin A s...

  3. Identification of Some Degradation Products of Golden Rice Beta- carotene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden Rice (GR2) is genetically modified rice, which can contain as high as 37 ug of beta-carotene per g of dry rice. It was developed to combat vitamin A deficiency (VAD), a major malnutrition problem in many parts of the developing world, especially in South and South Eastern Asia, where rice is ...

  4. The economic power of the Golden Rice opposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesseler, J.H.H.; Zilberman, D.

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin A enriched rice (Golden Rice) is a cost-efficient solution that can substantially reduce health costs. Despite Golden Rice being available since early 2000, this rice has not been introduced in any country. Governments must perceive additional costs that overcompensate the benefits of the

  5. Black Hole Dynamic Potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Koustubh Ajit Kabe

    2012-09-01

    In the following paper, certain black hole dynamic potentials have been developed definitively on the lines of classical thermodynamics. These potentials have been refined in view of the small differences in the equations of the laws of black hole dynamics as given by Bekenstein and those of thermodynamics. Nine fundamental black hole dynamical relations have been developed akin to the four fundamental thermodynamic relations of Maxwell. The specific heats , and , have been defined. For a black hole, these quantities are negative. The d equation has been obtained as an application of these fundamental relations. Time reversible processes observing constancy of surface gravity are considered and an equation connecting the internal energy of the black hole , the additional available energy defined as the first free energy function , and the surface gravity , has been obtained. Finally as a further application of the fundamental relations, it has been proved for a homogeneous gravitational field in black hole space times or a de Sitter black hole that $C_{\\Omega,\\Phi}-C_{J,Q}=\\kappa \\left[\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial J}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{\\Omega,\\Phi}\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial \\Omega}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{J,Q}+\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial Q}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{\\Omega,\\Phi}\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial\\Phi}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{J,Q}\\right]$. This is dubbed as the homogeneous fluid approximation in context of the black holes.

  6. Black holes matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Helge Stjernholm

    2016-01-01

    Review essay, Marcia Bartusiak, Black Hole: How an Idea Abandoned by Newtonians, Hated by Einstein, and Gambled On by Hawking Became Loved (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015).......Review essay, Marcia Bartusiak, Black Hole: How an Idea Abandoned by Newtonians, Hated by Einstein, and Gambled On by Hawking Became Loved (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015)....

  7. Perturbing supersymmetric black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Onozawa, H; Mishima, T; Ishihara, H; Onozawa, Hisashi; Okamura, Takashi; Mishima, Takashi; Ishihara, Hideki

    1996-01-01

    An investigation of the perturbations of the Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m black hole in the N=2 supergravity is presented. In the extreme case, the black hole responds to the perturbation of each field in the same manner. This is possibly because we can match the modes of the graviton, gravitino, and photon using supersymmetry transformations.

  8. Black hole levitron

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arsiwalla, X.D.; Verlinde, E.P.

    2010-01-01

    We study the problem of spatially stabilizing four dimensional extremal black holes in background electric/magnetic fields. Whilst looking for stationary stable solutions describing black holes placed in external fields we find that taking a continuum limit of Denef et al.’s multicenter

  9. Blacks and Trade Unionism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashenfelter, Orley

    1975-01-01

    This testimony, before a public hearing of the New York City Commission on Human Rights in May 1974, focuses on two issues: (1) the effect of the presence of trade unionism on the position of black workers in the labor market relative to white workers; and (2) the effect of federal government efforts to increase the position of black workers…

  10. Arbitrators, Blacks and Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Kenneth

    1975-01-01

    A discussion of the handling of disciplinary problems of black employees concludes that management should be concerned because of the effect that grievance resolution may have on the company's overall employee discipline program and the additional appeal alternatives available to the black employee. (Author/EA)

  11. Scattering by Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, N

    2000-01-01

    This is a chapter on Black-hole Scattering that was commissioned for an Encyclopaedia on Scattering edited by Pike and Sabatier, to be published by Academic Press. The chapter surveys wave propagation in black-hole spacetimes, diffraction effects in wave scattering, resonances, quasinormal modes and related topics.

  12. Fifty shades of black

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Jon

    2015-11-01

    Creating dark materials that prevent reflections has become hot competition recently, with Guinness World Records having to keep revising the darkest substance yet created. But depending on who's asking, the best black may not be the blackest black, as Jon Cartwright discovers.

  13. Lifshitz Topological Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Mann, R B

    2009-01-01

    I find a class of black hole solutions to a (3+1) dimensional theory gravity coupled to abelian gauge fields with negative cosmological constant that has been proposed as the dual theory to a Lifshitz theory describing critical phenomena in (2+1) dimensions. These black holes are all asymptotic to a Lifshitz fixed point geometry and depend on a single parameter that determines both their area (or size) and their charge. Most of the solutions are obtained numerically, but an exact solution is also obtained for a particular value of this parameter. The thermodynamic behaviour of large black holes is almost the same regardless of genus, but differs considerably for small black holes. Screening behaviour is exhibited in the dual theory for any genus, but the critical length at which it sets in is genus-dependent for small black holes.

  14. Cosmological Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Stornaiolo, C

    2002-01-01

    In this letter we propose the existence of low density black holes and discuss its compatibility with the cosmological observations. The origin of these black holes can be traced back to the collapse of long wavelength cosmological perturbations during the matter dominated era, when the densities are low enough to neglect any internal and thermal pressure. By introducing a threshold density $\\hat{\\rho}$ above which pressure and non-gravitational interactions become effective, we find the highest wavelength for the perturbations that can reach an equilibrium state instead of collapsing to a black hole. The low density black holes introduced here, if they exist, can be observed through weak and strong gravitational lensing effects. Finally we observe that we obtained here a cosmological model which is capable to explain in a qualitative way the void formation together with the value $\\Omega=1$. But we remark that it needs to be improved by considering non spherical symmetric black holes.

  15. Primordial Black Hole Baryogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Baumann, D; Turok, N G; Baumann, Daniel; Steinhardt, Paul J.; Turok, Neil

    2007-01-01

    We reconsider the possibility that the observed baryon asymmetry was generated by the evaporation of primordial black holes that dominated the early universe. We present a simple derivation showing that the baryon asymmetry is insensitive to the initial black hole density and the cosmological model but is sensitive to the temperature-dependence of the CP and baryon-violating (or lepton-violating) interactions. We also consider the possibility that black holes stop evaporating and form Planck-mass remnants that act as dark matter. We show that primordial black holes cannot simultaneously account for both the observed baryon asymmetry and the (remnant) dark matter density unless the magnitude of CP violation is much greater than expected from most particle physics models. Finally, we apply these results to ekpyrotic/cyclic models, in which primordial black holes may form when branes collide. We find that obtaining the observed baryon asymmetry is compatible with the other known constraints on parameters.

  16. Utilization of black liquor as concrete admixture and set retarder aid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samar A. El-Mekkawi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of black liquor, produced by the pulp and paper industry in Egypt, as a workability aid and set retarder admixture has been investigated. This approach may help eliminate the environmentally polluting black liquor waste. It also provides a low cost by-product, which can be widely used in the construction industry. The properties of black liquor and its performance on concrete at two different ratios of water to cement have been studied. The results revealed that black liquor from rice straw pulp increases concrete workability, improves compaction, and reduces honeycombing. Moreover, it retards the initial and final set time and enhances uniform compaction. The effect of incorporating small portions of silica fume has been investigated. The ageing effect of this material over a period of one year, to determine its safe storage period, has been studied. Finally, this admixture was found to comply with the relevant Egyptian standards.

  17. Changes in rice allelopathy and rhizosphere microflora by inhibiting rice phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Changxun; Zhuang, Yuee; Xu, Tiecheng; Li, Yingzhe; Li, Yue; Lin, Wenxiong

    2013-02-01

    Gene expression of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) in allelopathic rice PI312777 was inhibited by RNA interference (RNAi). Transgenic rice showed lower levels of PAL gene expression and PAL activity than wild type rice (WT). The concentrations of phenolic compounds were lower in the root tissues and root exudates of transgenic rice than in those of wild type plants. When barndyardgrass (BYG) was used as the receiver plant, the allelopathic potential of transgenic rice was reduced. The sizes of the bacterial and fungal populations in rice rhizospheric soil at the 3-, 5-, and 7-leaf stages were estimated by using quantitative PCR (qPCR), which showed a decrease in both populations at all stages of leaf development analyzed. However, PI312777 had a larger microbial population than transgenic rice. In addition, in T-RFLP studies, 14 different groups of bacteria were detected in WT and only 6 were detected in transgenic rice. This indicates that there was less rhizospheric bacterial diversity associated with transgenic rice than with WT. These findings collectively suggest that PAL functions as a positive regulator of rice allelopathic potential.

  18. Characteristics of Growth and Yield Formation of Rice in Rice-Fish Farming System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yong; ZHANG Hong-cheng; HU Xiao-jun; DAI Qi-gen; ZHANG Yong-jiang

    2006-01-01

    By using single rice cultivation as a control, the effect of rice-fish culture on growth dynamic, plant type and yield formation of rice was studied. The results showed as follows: rice-fish culture improved the physical-chemical properties of arable layer soil of paddy field, extended growth period of rice, increased dry matter and LAI of different growth stages,improved three top leaves area, deterred the degeneration of leaves function, increased the diameter of stem, promoted the growth of roots and the formation of roots in the extended stem. At the same time, rice-fish culture extended the length of basal internodes, increased the number of internodes, uplifted the gravity of plant, and depressed the root vigor. For the grain yield and yield structure of rice, rice-fish culture decreased ear/tillering ratio, spikelet/panicle and seed set percentage,increased grain weight. If variety choice and cultivation technology were controlled appropriately, rice-fish culture could increase the effective panicles and improve grain yield of rice.

  19. Can the co-cultivation of rice and fish help sustain rice production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liangliang; Zhang, Jian; Ren, Weizheng; Guo, Liang; Cheng, Yongxu; Li, Jiayao; Li, Kexin; Zhu, Zewen; Zhang, Jiaen; Luo, Shiming; Cheng, Lei; Tang, Jianjun; Chen, Xin

    2016-06-01

    Because rice feeds half of the world’s population, a secure global food supply depends on sustainable rice production. Here we test whether the co-cultivation of rice and fish into one “rice-fish system” (RFS; fish refers to aquatic animals in this article) could help sustain rice production. We examined intensive and traditional RFSs that have been widely practiced in China. We found that rice yields did not decrease when fish yield was below a threshold value in each intensive RFS. Below the thresholds, moreover, fish yields in intensive RFSs can be substantially higher than those in traditional RFS without reducing rice yield. Relative to rice monoculture, the use of fertilizer-nitrogen and pesticides decreased, and the farmers’ net income increased in RFSs. The results suggest that RFSs can help sustain rice production, and suggest that development of co-culture technologies (i.e. proper field configuration for fish and rice) is necessary to achieve the sustainability.

  20. Estimate of CH4 Emissions from Year-Round Flooded Rice Fields During Rice Growing Season in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Zu-Cong; KANG Guo-Ding; H. TSURUTA; A. MOSIER

    2005-01-01

    A special kind of rice field exists in China that is flooded year-round. These rice fields have substantially large CH4emissions during the rice-growing season and emit CH4 continuously in the non-rice growing season. CH4 emission factors were used to estimate the CH4 emissions from year-round flooded rice fields during the rice-growing season in China.The CH4 emissions for the year-round flooded rice fields in China for the rice growing season over a total area of 2.66Mha were estimated to be 2.44 Tg CH4 year-1. The uncertainties of these estimations are discussed as well. However,the emissions during the non-rice growing season could not be estimated because of limited available data. Nevertheless,methane emissions from rice fields that were flooded year-round could be several times higher than those from the rice fields drained in the non-rice-growing season. Thus, the classification of "continuously flooded rice fields" in the IPCC(International Panel on Climate Change) Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories is suggested to be revised and divided into "continuously flooded rice fields during the rice growing season" and "year-round flooded rice fields".

  1. Consumer Preferences and Buying Criteria in Rice: A Study to Identify Market Strategy for Thailand Jasmine Rice Export

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suwannaporn, P.; Linnemann, A.R.

    2008-01-01

    Rice consumption per capita in many Asian countries decreased, but it is consumed more in non-rice-eating countries. This study aimed to investigate consumer preferences and attitudes toward Jasmine rice among consumers in target rice export countries to identify opportunities and strategic implicat

  2. Proteomics of Rice Seed Germination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongli He; Chao Han; Xiaojian Yin; Hui Zhang; Pingfang Yang

    2012-01-01

    Seed germination is a complex physiological which starts from the uptake of water by the dry seeds and ends at the protrusion of the radicle.In order to elucidate the mechanism of rice seed germination,we have conducted a systematic proteomic analyses combining with 1-D via LC MS/MS,comparative 2-DE and iTRAQ techniques using the whole seed or dissected embryos and endosperm.During rice seed germination,the embryo and endosperm played different roles.The seed weight increased and complied by a triphasic model.Phase I accompanied with rapid seed water-up-take,the embryo produced gibberellic acid (GA) and diffused to aleurone and then prepared to initiate a signaling cascade to drive the reserves degradation in the starchy endosperm.Phase II is the most important stage for metabolic reactions reactivation,the reserves mobilization,cell construction respiration,cell wall loosening and coleoptile elongation,most of the metabolism related proteins sorted to different pathways were identified at 24 h after imbibition,but the metabolism of nucleotides was not active at this stage for few related proteins have been involved.The degradation of seed maturation and desiccation-associated proteins seemed to be earlier than that of the storage proteins and starch.The glycolysis was the main pathway for energy and substance providing.Phase III is another rapid water-uptake stage accompanying with TCA and aerobic respiration strengthening,cell division initiation and the radical protrusion.Interesting,both biosynthesis and degradation of the same macromolecule were concurrence even in the dry seed,which implied the sequentially matabolic and regulatory events triggered by water uptake during rice seed germination have been programmed during seed maturation.

  3. Use AMMI model to analyze adaptability of rice varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENXihang; WANGLei; YANGShihua; XIEFuxian

    1998-01-01

    The adaptability of rice varieties is one of the most concerned questions to rice breeders. In rice breeding, combined variety test and regional trials which included multiple genotypes and environments were conducted to identify the adaptability of new rice varieties. In most regional trials, interaction between genotype and environment is significant, so it is important to analyze the interaction for estimating the adaptability of rice varieties.

  4. Research on the development of weed-suppressing rice varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaochuan ZHOU; Decheng LU; Hong LI; Daoqiang HUANG; Ruowei MIAO

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to develop weed-suppressing rice varieties in a weed-suppressing nursery by specific secondary metabolite markers of allelopathic potential. Weed-suppressing rice variety Feng-Hua-Zhan was screened out by a specific secondary metabolite marker of allelopathic potential. Weed-suppressing rice No. 1, a new rice line with good quality, was also developed using this method. The genetic backgrounds and research directions of weed-suppressing rice varieties are discussed in this paper.

  5. Black Hole Critical Phenomena Without Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Liebling, S L

    2000-01-01

    Studying the threshold of black hole formation via numerical evolution has led to the discovery of fascinating nonlinear phenomena. Power-law mass scaling, aspects of universality, and self-similarity have now been found for a large variety of models. However, questions remain. Here I briefly review critical phenomena, discuss some recent results, and describe a model which demonstrates similar phenomena without gravity.

  6. Evaluation of Heavy Metals Contamination from Environment to Food Matrix by TXRF: The Case of Rice and Rice Husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabjola Bilo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the chemical analysis of contaminated soils of India and the rice grown in the same area. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy is a well-established technique for elemental chemical analysis of environmental samples, and it can be a useful tool to assess food safety. Metals uptake in rice crop grown in soils from different areas was studied. In this work soil, rice husk and rice samples were analyzed after complete solubilization of samples by microwave acid digestion. Heavy metals concentration detected in rice samples decreases in the following order: Mn > Zn > Cu > Ni > Pb > Cr. The metal content in rice husk was higher than in rice. This study suggests, for the first time, a possible role of heavy metals filter played by rice husk. The knowledge of metals sequestration capability of rice husk may promote some new management practices for rice cultivation to preserve it from pollution.

  7. Identification of Thai Hom Mali rice using a refractometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumriddetchkajorn, Sarun; Suwansukho, Kajpanya; Buranasiri, Prathan

    2009-05-01

    Because Thai Hom Mali, also known as Thai Dawk Mali (KDML105), rice is very popular and its price is high compared to other Thai rice varieties, there is an increase in mixing KDML105 milled and unmilled rice grains with other rice varieties, leading to unqualified KDML105 milled rice products for export and unqualified KDML105 unmilled rice seeds for next plants. Instead of using traditional time- and energy- consuming procedures such as alkaline spreading value and pasting property tests, this paper proposes a fast refractometry-based method to analyze ground milled rice grains dissolved in an alkaline solution. Our idea comes from the fact that due to differences in the amount of amylose content in each rice variety, the refractive index of the milled rice powder dissolved in an alkaline solution can be used to distinguish the desired KDML105 rice from others. In our approach, only 0.1 grams of milled rice powder is ground, it is then dissolved in a 10% potassium hydroxide, and its refractive index is investigated. Our experiment using a temperature-controlled optical refractometer and four Thai rice varieties (KDML105, Pathumthani1, Chainat1, and a Thai sticky rice) shows that the milled KDML105 rice can be distinguished from the remaining three rice varieties with a total false error rate of 6.7% and the required measurement time of < 20 seconds. Key advantages include simplicity, moderate accuracy, and less waste produced.

  8. On the Charter Question: Black Marxism and Black Nationalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Mark; Hussain, Khuram

    2015-01-01

    This article brings two black intellectual traditions to bear on the question of charter schools: black Marxism and black nationalism. The authors examine the theoretical and rhetorical devices used to talk about charters schools by focusing on how notions of "black liberation" are deployed by the charter movement, and to what end. The…

  9. Rice allergenic protein and molecular-genetic approach for hypoallergenic rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, R; Matsuda, T

    1996-08-01

    Allergenic proteins with a molecular mass of about 14 to 16 kDa were isolated from a rice salt-soluble fraction based on the reactivity with IgE antibodies from patients allergic to rice. cDNA clones encoding these allergenic proteins were isolated from a cDNA library of maturing rice seeds, and the deduced amino acid sequences showed considerable similarity to wheat and barley alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitors, which have recently been identified as major allergens associated with baker's asthma. An antisense RNA strategy was applied to repress the allergen gene expression in maturing rice seeds. Immunoblotting and ELISA analyses of the seeds using a monoclonal antibody to a 16-kDa allergen showed that allergen content of seeds from several transgenic rice plants was markedly lower than that of the seeds from parental wild type rice.

  10. Arsenic Transport in Rice and Biological Solutions to Reduce Arsenic Risk from Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanshan; Han, Yong-He; Cao, Yue; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Rathinasabapathi, Bala; Ma, Lena Q.

    2017-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) feeds ∼3 billion people. Due to the wide occurrence of arsenic (As) pollution in paddy soils and its efficient plant uptake, As in rice grains presents health risks. Genetic manipulation may offer an effective approach to reduce As accumulation in rice grains. The genetics of As uptake and metabolism have been elucidated and target genes have been identified for genetic engineering to reduce As accumulation in grains. Key processes controlling As in grains include As uptake, arsenite (AsIII) efflux, arsenate (AsV) reduction and AsIII sequestration, and As methylation and volatilization. Recent advances, including characterization of AsV uptake transporter OsPT8, AsV reductase OsHAC1;1 and OsHAC1;2, rice glutaredoxins, and rice ABC transporter OsABCC1, make many possibilities to develop low-arsenic rice. PMID:28298917

  11. Using rice straw to manufacture ceramic bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbunov German Ivanovich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the co-authors offer their advanced and efficient methodologies for the recycling of the rice straw, as well as the novel approaches to the ceramic brick quality improvement through the application of the rice straw as the combustible additive and through the formation of amorphous silica in the course of the rice straw combustion. The co-authors provide characteristics of the raw materials, production techniques used to manufacture ceramic bricks, and their basic properties in the article. The co-authors describe the simulated process of formation of amorphous silica. The process in question has two independent steps (or options: 1 rice straw combustion and ash formation outside the oven (in the oxidizing medium, and further application of ash as the additive in the process of burning clay mixtures; 2 adding pre-treated rice straw as the combustible additive into the clay mixture, and its further burning in compliance with the pre-set temperature mode. The findings have proven that the most rational pre-requisite of the rice straw application in the manufacturing of ceramic bricks consists in feeding milled straw into the clay mixture to be followed by molding, drying and burning. Brick samples are highly porous, and they also demonstrate sufficient compressive strength. The co-authors have also identified optimal values of rice straw and ash content in the mixtures under research.

  12. Response of aerobic rice to Piriformospora indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Joy; Ramesh, K V; Maithri, U; Mutangana, D; Suresh, C K

    2014-03-01

    Rice cultivation under aerobic condition not only saves water but also opens up a splendid scope for effective application of beneficial root symbionts in rice crop unlike conventional puddled rice cultivation where water logged condition acts as constraint for easy proliferation of various beneficial soil microorganisms like arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Keeping these in view, an in silico investigation were carried out to explore the interaction of hydrogen phosphate with phosphate transporter protein (PTP) from P. indica. This was followed by greenhouse investigation to study the response of aerobic rice to Glomusfasciculatum, a conventional P biofertilizer and P. indica, an alternative to AM fungi. Computational studies using ClustalW tool revealed several conserved motifs between the phosphate transporters from Piriformospora indica and 8 other Glomus species. The 3D model of PTP from P. indica resembling "Mayan temple" was successfully docked onto hydrogen phosphate, indicating the affinity of this protein for inorganic phosphorus. Greenhouse studies revealed inoculation of aerobic rice either with P. indica, G. fasciculatum or both significantly enhanced the plant growth, biomass and yield with higher NPK, chlorophyll and sugar compared to uninoculated ones, P. indica inoculated plants being superior. A significantly enhanced activity of acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase were noticed in the rhizosphere soil of rice plants inoculated either with P. indica, G. fasciculatum or both, contributing to higher P uptake. Further, inoculation of aerobic rice plants with P. indica proved to be a better choice as a potential biofertilizer over mycorrhiza.

  13. Evaluation of Black Tea Polyphenol Extract Against the Retrogradation of Starches from Various Plant Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengxiang Yu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of black tea polyphenol extract (BTPE on the retrogradation of starches from different plant sources were studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and X-ray diffraction (XRD. DSC analysis shows that the gelatinization temperature of maize starch and starches from different rice varieties increased with increasing BTPE level. After storage at 4 °C, BTPE at a concentration of 15% markedly retarded the retrogradation of maize starch and starches from different rice varieties. Native maize starch and starches from different rice varieties showed typical A-type X-ray diffraction patterns, while native potato starch showed a typical B-type X-ray diffraction pattern. Adding BTPE significantly affected the crystalline region and intensities of X-ray diffraction peaks of maize and rice starch granules. It is concluded that adding BTPE markedly inhibits the retrogradation of maize starch and starches from different rice varieties, but has no significant influence on the gelatinization and retrogradation characteristics of potato starch.

  14. Evaluation of black tea polyphenol extract against the retrogradation of starches from various plant sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Huaxi; Lin, Qinlu; Liu, Gao-Qiang; Yu, Fengxiang

    2012-07-06

    The effects of black tea polyphenol extract (BTPE) on the retrogradation of starches from different plant sources were studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). DSC analysis shows that the gelatinization temperature of maize starch and starches from different rice varieties increased with increasing BTPE level. After storage at 4 °C, BTPE at a concentration of 15% markedly retarded the retrogradation of maize starch and starches from different rice varieties. Native maize starch and starches from different rice varieties showed typical A-type X-ray diffraction patterns, while native potato starch showed a typical B-type X-ray diffraction pattern. Adding BTPE significantly affected the crystalline region and intensities of X-ray diffraction peaks of maize and rice starch granules. It is concluded that adding BTPE markedly inhibits the retrogradation of maize starch and starches from different rice varieties, but has no significant influence on the gelatinization and retrogradation characteristics of potato starch.

  15. Scalarized Hairy Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Kleihaus, Burkhard; Yazadjiev, Stoytcho

    2015-01-01

    In the presence of a complex scalar field scalar-tensor theory allows for scalarized rotating hairy black holes. We exhibit the domain of existence for these scalarized black holes, which is bounded by scalarized rotating boson stars and ordinary hairy black holes. We discuss the global properties of these solutions. Like their counterparts in general relativity, their angular momentum may exceed the Kerr bound, and their ergosurfaces may consist of a sphere and a ring, i.e., form an ergo-Saturn.

  16. Primordial Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    MacGibbon, Jane H; Linnemann, J T; Marinelli, S S; Stump, D; Tollefson, K

    2015-01-01

    Primordial Black Holes (PBHs) are of interest in many cosmological contexts. PBHs lighter than about 1012 kg are predicted to be directly detectable by their Hawking radiation. This radiation should produce both a diffuse extragalactic gamma-ray background from the cosmologically-averaged distribution of PBHs and gamma-ray burst signals from individual light black holes. The Fermi, Milagro, Veritas, HESS and HAWC observatories, in combination with new burst recognition methodologies, offer the greatest sensitivity for the detection of such black holes or placing limits on their existence.

  17. Black Hole Entropy

    OpenAIRE

    P. Mitra

    1994-01-01

    In the talk different definitions of the black hole entropy are discussed and compared. It is shown that the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy $S^{BH}$ (defined by the response of the free energy of a system containing a black hole on the change of the temperature) differs from the statistical- mechanical entropy $S^{SM}=-\\mbox{Tr}(\\hat{\\rho}\\ln \\hat{\\rho})$ (defined by counting internal degrees of freedom of a black hole). A simple explanation of the universality of the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy (...

  18. Black hole entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Frolov, V

    1994-01-01

    In the talk different definitions of the black hole entropy are discussed and compared. It is shown that the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy S^{BH} (defined by the response of the free energy of a system containing a black hole on the change of the temperature) differs from the statistical- mechanical entropy S^{SM}=-\\mbox{Tr}(\\hat{\\rho}\\ln \\hat{\\rho}) (defined by counting internal degrees of freedom of a black hole). A simple explanation of the universality of the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy (i.e. its independence of the number and properties of the fields which might contribute to S^{SM}) is given.

  19. Scalarized hairy black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleihaus, Burkhard, E-mail: b.kleihaus@uni-oldenburg.de [Institut für Physik, Universität Oldenburg, Postfach 2503, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Kunz, Jutta [Institut für Physik, Universität Oldenburg, Postfach 2503, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Yazadjiev, Stoytcho [Department of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, Sofia University, Sofia 1164 (Bulgaria)

    2015-05-11

    In the presence of a complex scalar field scalar–tensor theory allows for scalarized rotating hairy black holes. We exhibit the domain of existence for these scalarized black holes, which is bounded by scalarized rotating boson stars and hairy black holes of General Relativity. We discuss the global properties of these solutions. Like their counterparts in general relativity, their angular momentum may exceed the Kerr bound, and their ergosurfaces may consist of a sphere and a ring, i.e., form an ergo-Saturn.

  20. Scalarized hairy black holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkhard Kleihaus

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the presence of a complex scalar field scalar–tensor theory allows for scalarized rotating hairy black holes. We exhibit the domain of existence for these scalarized black holes, which is bounded by scalarized rotating boson stars and hairy black holes of General Relativity. We discuss the global properties of these solutions. Like their counterparts in general relativity, their angular momentum may exceed the Kerr bound, and their ergosurfaces may consist of a sphere and a ring, i.e., form an ergo-Saturn.

  1. Black holes new horizons

    CERN Document Server

    Hayward, Sean Alan

    2013-01-01

    Black holes, once just fascinating theoretical predictions of how gravity warps space-time according to Einstein's theory, are now generally accepted as astrophysical realities, formed by post-supernova collapse, or as supermassive black holes mysteriously found at the cores of most galaxies, powering active galactic nuclei, the most powerful objects in the universe. Theoretical understanding has progressed in recent decades with a wider realization that local concepts should characterize black holes, rather than the global concepts found in textbooks. In particular, notions such as trapping h

  2. Endosperm Development in Autotetraploid Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lan; LIU Xiang-dong; LU Yong-gen; FENG Jiu-huan; XU Xue-bin; XU Shi-xiong (S.Y.Zee)

    2005-01-01

    By using the laser scanning confocal microscope and plastic (Leica 7022 historesin embedding kit) semi-thin sectioningtechnique, comparative studies on the development of endosperm were carried out between autotetraploid and diploid rices. Aboutone third of the ovaries in the autotetraploid showed normal endosperm development as those in the diploid. In these ovaries, one ofthe polar nuclei would fuse with the sperm nucleus, and the primary endosperm nucleus formed and underwent the first division in 4hours after pollination; the anticlinal wall began to grow centripetally between the free nuclei starting from the wall ingrowths of theembryo sac near the micropylar end, and some of the phragmoplasts formed transformed into periclinal walls. In addition, some of thecell wall situated in the middle of the endosperm appeared to originate from phragmoplasts, whereas others seemed to developrandomly without the obvious formation of phragmoplasts. Cellulose began to accumulate in the wall of aleurone cell layer at 6 daysafter pollination. The cellulose wall of the cells of the aleurone cell layer appeared to have completely formed within 7 to 8 days afterpollination. On the other hand, about two thirds of the ovaries in the autotetraploid showed abnormality in endosperm developmentwith various types, such as non-fertilization, abnormal fertilization, endosperm development-delay and non-synchronization in thedevelopment of cellulose wall of cells of the aleurone layer. These abnormalities usually resulted in decreased seed setting inautotetraploid rice.

  3. Influences of the Paddy Rices with Different Moistures on the Head Rice Recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A major component rice variety of Xiangwanxian 9 (a late lndica variety) with 13.1%, 15.6% and 18. 3% of the moisture was respectively mixed with three ad ditive varieties in 13% of moisture at ration of 7:3 for processing assorted rices. Head rice recovery of the treatments was determined 24 hours later. Analysis indicated sig nificant differences exist in the effects produced by the component varieties, their moistures and the component variety moisture.

  4. Estimating Rice Yield under Changing Weather Conditions in Kenya Using CERES Rice Model

    OpenAIRE

    W. O. Nyang’au; Mati, B. M.; Kalamwa, K.; Wanjogu, R. K.; L. K. Kiplagat

    2014-01-01

    Effects of change in weather conditions on the yields of Basmati 370 and IR 2793-80-1 cultivated under System of Rice Intensification (SRI) in Mwea and Western Kenya irrigation schemes were assessed through sensitivity analysis using the Ceres rice model v 4.5 of the DSSAT modeling system. Genetic coefficients were determined using 2010 experimental data. The model was validated using rice growth and development data during the 2011 cropping season. Two SRI farmers were selected randomly from...

  5. A convenient method for rapid determination of proteins in rices and rice products

    OpenAIRE

    光永, 俊郎; 安藤, ひとみ

    1990-01-01

    [Author abstract]In the biuret determination of protein in rices and rice products, starch and lipids extractable with an alkaline solution such as biuret reagent were found to interfere with the biuret method. Comparative evaluation of their effects revealed that starch, a major component of rice, has the most significant effect on the biuret method. In the presence of starch, the correlation between Kjeldahl protein and the optical density of biuret was poor. It was found that several perha...

  6. Study on Extrusion Technological Parametersof Brown Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhuYongyi; ZhouXianqing; LingLizhong

    2001-01-01

    Abstract: Extrusion is an efficient measure to improve the texture and physic-chemical properties of brown rice. The polynomial degree two model of extrusiontechnological parameters and gelatinized degree, water absorption index, water solubleindex and moisture content of extruded matter was obtained by methods of single factorand response surface methodology, R2=0.9649, 0.8745, 0.9079, 0.8677. The optimaltechnoiogica! parameters of brown rice extrusion were figured out as follows:moisturecontent of brown rice, 11.42%, speed of screw, 30rpm, feeding speed, and 20rpm.

  7. Hydrocolloid sour taste control in pasteurized rice

    OpenAIRE

    Azanza, Maria Patricia V.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of kappa (κ)-carrageenan and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) in controlling the sourness intensity perception of added acetic, citric, and tartaric acids in solutions for steeping and cooking of rice intended for pasteurization were determined. The rank order of added acids (0.10 and 0.20 % w/v, pH 4.00) in the initial development of acidified hydrocolloid solutions was: acetic > citric > tartaric. The final rice acidification protocols included steeping and cooking of Japonica rice...

  8. The Price of "Black Dominance."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoberman, John

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the harmful effects of stereotyping black males as athletes, noting that over-identification with athletes and the world of physical performance limits black children's development by discouraging academic achievement. Examines the negative influence of mass media focus on black athletes, rappers, and stylized ghetto blackness. Discusses…

  9. Feminism and Black Women's Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooks, Bell

    1989-01-01

    Women's studies programs have largely ignored Black women. Until Black women's studies courses are developed, feminist scholarship on Black women will not advance, and the contributions of Black women to women's rights movements and African American literature and scholarship may be neglected. (DM)

  10. The Rice Genome Knowledgebase (RGKbase): an annotation database for rice comparative genomics and evolutionary biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dapeng; Xia, Yan; Li, Xinna; Hou, Lixia; Yu, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, genomes of cultivated rice cultivars and their wild counterparts have been sequenced although most efforts are focused on genome assembly and annotation of two major cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) subspecies, 93-11 (indica) and Nipponbare (japonica). To integrate information from genome assemblies and annotations for better analysis and application, we now introduce a comparative rice genome database, the Rice Genome Knowledgebase (RGKbase, http://rgkbase.big.ac.cn/RGKbase/). RGKbase is built to have three major components: (i) integrated data curation for rice genomics and molecular biology, which includes genome sequence assemblies, transcriptomic and epigenomic data, genetic variations, quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and the relevant literature; (ii) User-friendly viewers, such as Gbrowse, GeneBrowse and Circos, for genome annotations and evolutionary dynamics and (iii) Bioinformatic tools for compositional and synteny analyses, gene family classifications, gene ontology terms and pathways and gene co-expression networks. RGKbase current includes data from five rice cultivars and species: Nipponbare (japonica), 93-11 (indica), PA64s (indica), the African rice (Oryza glaberrima) and a wild rice species (Oryza brachyantha). We are also constantly introducing new datasets from variety of public efforts, such as two recent releases-sequence data from ∼1000 rice varieties, which are mapped into the reference genome, yielding ample high-quality single-nucleotide polymorphisms and insertions-deletions.

  11. Current progress on genetic interactions of rice with rice blast and sheath blight fungi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yulin JIA; Guangjie LIU; Stefano COSTANZO; Seonghee LEE; Yuntao DAI

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of genetic interactions between rice and its pathogenic fungi Magnaporthe oryzae and Rhizoctonia solani should lead to a better understanding of molecular mechanisms of host resistance, and the improvement of strategies to manage rice blast and sheath blight diseases. Currently, dozens office resistance (R) genes against specific races of the blast fungus have been described. Among them, ten were molecularly characterized and some were widely used for breeding for genetic resistance. The Pi-ta gene was one of the best characterized rice R genes. Following the elucidation of its molecular structure, interaction, distribution, and evolution, user friendly DNA markers were developed from portions of the cloned genes to facilitate the incorporations of the Pi-ta mediated resistance into improved rice varieties using marker assisted selection (MAS). However, rice blast is still a major threat for stable rice production because of race change mutations occurring in rice fields, which often overcome added resistance based on single R genes, and these virulent races of M. oryzae pose a continued challenge for blast control. For sheath blight, progress has been made on the exploration of novel sources of resistance from wild rice relatives and indica rice cultivars. A major quantitative trait locus (QTL), named qSB9-2, was recently verified in several mapping populations with different phenotyping methods, including greenhouse methods. The ability to identify qSB9-2 using greenhouse methods should accelerate the efforts on the qSB9-2 fine mapping and positional cloning.

  12. Invastigation influence of Additives to RiceWater Absorption and cooked rice quaitity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Jialian; Yang Ronghua

    2001-01-01

    Using glucono-δ-lactone, sodium polyphosphate, emulsifier, 3- cyclodextrin and proteinase as main additive, the water-absorbing quality of rice under different conditions and the methods to improve the edible quality of cooked rice are systematically investigated. The experimental result indicates that the water-absorbing ability of rice at room temperature can be increased significantly by soaking it in a 1:2 mixture of sodium polyphosphate and glucono-δ-lactone. The cooked rice quality can be apparently improved by soaking in a mixture of sodium polyphosphate, glucono-δ-lactone, emulsifier, β -cyclodextrin and protease.

  13. Characterization of Volatile Flavor Compounds in Chinese Rice Wine Fermented from Enzymatic Extruded Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Enbo; Long, Jie; Wu, Zhengzong; Li, Hongyan; Wang, Fang; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu; Jiao, Aiquan

    2015-07-01

    Enzymatic extrusion, instead of traditional steam cooking, to treat rice is an efficient and alternative pretreatment for Chinese rice wine fermentation. In order to determine the formation of volatiles in enzymatic extrusion-processed rice wine (EE), and to confirm its characteristic flavor compounds, headspace solid-phase micro-extraction followed by GC-MS was used. A total of 66 volatile compounds were identified in EE. During fermentation, most volatiles generated from enzymatic extruded rice had the similar trends with those from steam-cooked rice, but the differences in the concentration of volatiles indicated a changed balance of flavors release caused by enzymatic extrusion. Besides, the concentrations and sorts of volatiles in EEs fermented from different rice particle sizes, were not dramatically different. By principal component analysis, EE could be distinctly separated from other traditional Chinese rice wines according to its characteristic volatiles, namely, 2-heptanol, 1-octen-3-ol, ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate, methylpentyl 2-propenoate, γ-hexalactone, and 4-vinylguaiacol. Enzymatic extrusion liquefaction has been a popular thermal treatment for cereals, and gradually being applied in fermentation and liquor-making industry all over the world. The characterization of volatile flavor compounds in Chinese rice wine processed by enzymatic extrusion liquefaction pretreatment, might be made use not only for a better understanding of this new-type rice wine, but for the further utilization of enzymatic extrusion in other wine or alcohol production as well. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Black Teenage Pregnancy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Loretta I. Winters; Paul C. Winters

    2012-01-01

    .... No difference between Blacks and Whites was found during better economic times. During 2003-2004, the period of greatest economic stress, race was determined to be the only predictor of teenage pregnancy...

  15. Black Friday = Broget Branding?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    Black Friday er et godt eksempel på, hvordan ikke kun produktbrands og corporate brands rejser på tværs af landegrænser, men også traditioner som Halloween, Valentines Day og i dette tilfælde den ultimative tilbuds-fredag, som i USA går under navnet Black Friday. Men hvad er Black Friday i Danmark......? Essensen ved Black Friday er lave priser, og det er der ved første øjekast ikke mange brandingmuligheder forbundet ved, hvis man forstår branding som en måde at skabe ekstra værdi omkring sit produkt eller sin virksomhed. Som brand bliver man dog alligevel nødt til at forholde sig til konceptet, da det er...

  16. Janus black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Dongsu; Gutperle, Michael; Janik, Romuald A.

    2011-10-01

    In this paper Janus black holes in A dS 3 are considered. These are static solutions of an Einstein-scalar system with broken translation symmetry along the horizon. These solutions are dual to interface conformal field theories at finite temperature. An approximate solution is first constructed using perturbation theory around a planar BTZ blackhole. Numerical and exact solutions valid for all sets of parameters are then found and compared. Using the exact solution the thermodynamics of the system is analyzed. The entropy associated with the Janus black hole is calculated and it is found that the entropy of the black Janus is the sum of the undeformed black hole entropy and the entanglement entropy associated with the defect.

  17. Black hole quantum spectrum

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Corda, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Introducing a black hole (BH) effective temperature, which takes into account both the non-strictly thermal character of Hawking radiation and the countable behavior of emissions of subsequent Hawking quanta, we recently re...

  18. Holographic black hole chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karch, Andreas; Robinson, Brandon

    2015-01-01

    Thermodynamic quantities associated with black holes in Anti-de Sitter space obey an interesting identity when the cosmological constant is included as one of the dynamical variables, the generalized Smarr relation...

  19. Black Teenage Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loretta I. Winters

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the relative importance of race and socioeconomic status (SES in determining whether Black and White teenagers report having ever been pregnant. Data gathered from 1999 to 2006 by the National Center for Health Statistics of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention included 1,580 Black and White females aged 15 to 19 years. Results supported the effects of race and SES, with SES having the stronger effect. However, the effects of race and SES differ when controlling for the state of the economy. No difference between Blacks and Whites was found during better economic times. During 2003-2004, the period of greatest economic stress, race was determined to be the only predictor of teenage pregnancy. In particular, during 2005-2006, the reduction in pregnancy rates for Black minors (15-17 fell below those for White minors within their respective SES categories. Policy implications are discussed in light of these findings.

  20. Black Rail Pilot Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Aural surveys using tape recorded calls proved to be an efficient and effective way to survey large expanses of shallow marsh for black rails (Laterallus...

  1. Effects of aleurone layer on rice cooking: A histological investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianyong; Chen, Jun; Liu, Wei; Liu, Chengmei; Zhong, Yejun; Luo, Dawen; Li, Zhongqiang; Guo, Xiaojuan

    2016-01-15

    Understanding how aleurone layer (AL) affects rice cooking behaviour is important for rice processing. Individual effects of AL on rice cooking behaviour were evaluated and histological characters of AL before and after cooking were investigated. AL slightly affected rice cooking quality (optimum cooking time, water absorption, volume expansion ratio and total solids loss) while remarkably affected rice texture (hardness and adhesiveness) and peak viscosity. Histological investigation showed that channels were formed in AL during cooking. The channels facilitated the penetration of water, which could explain why AL exhibited slight effects on rice cooking quality. In addition, thick cell walls and thermally stable aleurone grains were widely distributed in AL. Leached components accumulated on them and formed a reinforced coated film on rice surface during cooking, which may be a possible mechanism accounting for the remarkable effect of AL on rice texture. Histological characters of AL are closely related with rice cooking behaviour.

  2. Braneworld black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gregory, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    In these lectures, I give an introduction to and overview of braneworlds and black holes in the context of warped compactifications. I first describe the general paradigm of braneworlds, and introduce the Randall-Sundrum model. I discuss braneworld gravity, both using perturbation theory, and also non perturbative results. I then discuss black holes on the brane, the obstructions to finding exact solutions, and ways of tackling these difficulties. I describe some known solutions, and conclude with some open questions and controversies.

  3. Black Is Cool!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dorine; Houston

    1997-01-01

    Do you remember the colors the college freshmen dyed their hair when you were here? Turquoise, orange, bright yellow.... Things have changed. Black has (?)ome the color of choice among the young people. Young men and women alike dye their hair coal black. The women let their hair grow very long. and it hangs straight and stringy down their backs. The young men leave it long on

  4. Modelling quantum black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Govindarajan, T R

    2016-01-01

    Novel bound states are obtained for manifolds with singular potentials. These singular potentials require proper boundary conditions across boundaries. The number of bound states match nicely with what we would expect for black holes. Also they serve to model membrane mechanism for the black hole horizons in simpler contexts. The singular potentials can also mimic expanding boundaries elegantly, there by obtaining appropriately tuned radiation rates.

  5. Hydrodynamics and black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Oz, Yaron

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes how the AdS/CFT correspondence (the Holographic Principle) relates field theory hydrodynamics to perturbations of black hole (brane) gravitational backgrounds. The hydrodynamics framework is first presented from the field theory point of view, after which the dual gravitational description is outlined, first for relativistic fluids and then for the nonrelativistic case. Further details of the fluid/gravity correspondence are then discussed, including the bulk geometry and the dynamics of the black hole horizon.

  6. Black hole geometrothermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevedo, Hernando

    2017-03-01

    We review the main aspects of geometrothermodynamics which is a geometric formalism to describe thermodynamic systems, taking into account the invariance of classical thermodynamics with respect to Legendre transformations. We focus on the particular case of black holes, and present a Riemannian metric which describes the corresponding space of equilibrium states. We show that this metric can be used to describe the stability properties and phase transition structure of black holes in different gravity theories.

  7. Helical superconducting black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donos, Aristomenis; Gauntlett, Jerome P

    2012-05-25

    We construct novel static, asymptotically five-dimensional anti-de Sitter black hole solutions with Bianchi type-VII(0) symmetry that are holographically dual to superconducting phases in four spacetime dimensions with a helical p-wave order. We calculate the precise temperature dependence of the pitch of the helical order. At zero temperature the black holes have a vanishing entropy and approach domain wall solutions that reveal homogenous, nonisotropic dual ground states with an emergent scaling symmetry.

  8. Black Hole Induced Ejections

    OpenAIRE

    Pelletier, G.

    2004-01-01

    Black Holes generate a particular kind of environments dominated by an accretion flow which concentrates a magnetic field. The interplay of gravity and magnetism creates this paradoxical situation where relativistic ejection is allowed and consequently high energy phenomena take place. Therefore Black Holes, which are very likely at the origin of powerfull astrophysical phenomena such as AGNs, micro- quasars and GRBs where relativistic ejections are observed, are at the heart of high energy a...

  9. Cosmic censorship inside black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Thorlacius, L

    2006-01-01

    A simple argument is given that a traversable Cauchy horizon inside a black hole is incompatible with unitary black hole evolution. The argument assumes the validity of black hole complementarity and applies to a generic black hole carrying angular momentum and/or charge. In the second part of the paper we review recent work on the semiclassical geometry of two-dimensional charged black holes.

  10. Genetic shift in local rice populations during rice breeding programs in the northern limit of rice cultivation in the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujino, Kenji; Obara, Mari; Ikegaya, Tomohito; Tamura, Kenichi

    2015-09-01

    The rapid accumulation of pre-existing mutations may play major roles in the establishment and shaping of adaptability for local regions in current rice breeding programs. The cultivated rice, Oryza sativa L., which originated from tropical regions, is now grown worldwide due to the concerted efforts of breeding programs. However, the process of establishing local populations and their origins remain unclear. In the present study, we characterized DNA polymorphisms in the rice variety KITAAKE from Hokkaido, one of the northern limits of rice cultivation in the world. Indel polymorphisms were attributed to transposable element-like insertions, tandem duplications, and non-TE deletions as the original mutation events in the NIPPONBARE and KITAAKE genomes. The allele frequencies of the KITAAKE alleles markedly shifted to the current variety types among the local population from Hokkaido in the last two decades. The KITAAKE alleles widely distributed throughout wild rice and cultivated rice over the world. These have accumulated in the local population from Hokkaido via Japanese landraces as the ancestral population of Hokkaido. These results strongly suggested that combinations of pre-existing mutations played a role in the establishment of adaptability. This approach using the re-sequencing of local varieties in unique environmental conditions will be useful as a genetic resource in plant breeding programs in local regions.

  11. Black hole critical phenomena without black holes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Steven L Liebling

    2000-10-01

    Studying the threshold of black hole formation via numerical evolution has led to the discovery of fascinating nonlinear phenomena. Power-law mass scaling, aspects of universality, and self-similarity have now been found for a large variety of models. However, questions remain. Here I briefly review critical phenomena, discuss some recent results, and describe a model which demonstrates similar phenomena without gravity.

  12. Charged Galileon black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babichev, Eugeny; Charmousis, Christos; Hassaine, Mokhtar

    2015-05-01

    We consider an Abelian gauge field coupled to a particular truncation of Horndeski theory. The Galileon field has translation symmetry and couples non minimally both to the metric and the gauge field. When the gauge-scalar coupling is zero the gauge field reduces to a standard Maxwell field. By taking into account the symmetries of the action, we construct charged black hole solutions. Allowing the scalar field to softly break symmetries of spacetime we construct black holes where the scalar field is regular on the black hole event horizon. Some of these solutions can be interpreted as the equivalent of Reissner-Nordstrom black holes of scalar tensor theories with a non trivial scalar field. A self tuning black hole solution found previously is extended to the presence of dyonic charge without affecting whatsoever the self tuning of a large positive cosmological constant. Finally, for a general shift invariant scalar tensor theory we demonstrate that the scalar field Ansatz and method we employ are mathematically compatible with the field equations. This opens up the possibility for novel searches of hairy black holes in a far more general setting of Horndeski theory.

  13. Ultramassive Black Hole Coalescence

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Fazeel; Berczik, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Although supermassive black holes (SMBHs) correlate well with their host galaxies, there is an emerging view that outliers exist. Henize 2-10, NGC 4889, and NGC1277 are examples of SMBHs at least an order of magnitude more massive than their host galaxy suggests. The dynamical effects of such ultramassive central black holes is unclear. Here, we perform direct N-body simulations of mergers of galactic nuclei where one black hole is ultramassive to study the evolution of the remnant and the black hole dynamics in this extreme regime. We find that the merger remnant is axisymmetric near the center, while near the large SMBH influence radius, the galaxy is triaxial. The SMBH separation shrinks rapidly due to dynamical friction, and quickly forms a binary black hole; if we scale our model to the most massive estimate for the NGC1277 black hole, for example, the timescale for the SMBH separation to shrink from nearly a kiloparsec to less than a parsec is roughly 10 Myr. By the time the SMBHs form a hard binary, gr...

  14. USING RICE BRAN IN LAYING HEN DIETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H ERSIN SAMLI

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice bran is an energy and protein rich ingredient used in poultry feeding. To balance energy and protein requirements. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of rice bran on performance and egg quality during peak production of a commercial White laying strain of 22 week of age. Dietary treatments were consisted by inclusion of rice bran at 0, 5, 10 and 15% levels. Each treatment had 6 reps in which 12 birds were randomly assigned in wired fl oor battery cages equipped with nipple drinkers and through feeders. Layers accessed to feed and water freely. Lighting regimen was adjusted to 16h light/8h dark. The experiment lasted for 10 weeks. Overall results of the present experiment indicated that rice bran could be included up to 10% without any adverse affect on laying performance, egg quality and digestive organs.

  15. Rice saabus Euroopat taltsutama / Tõnu Prei

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Prei, Tõnu, 1950-

    2005-01-01

    USA välisminister Condolezza Rice alustas ringreisi Euroopas, eesmärgiks anda vastulöök USA-d tabanud kriitikale sõjavangide kohtlemise ja teistes riikides oma luuretalituse salavanglate pidamise pärast

  16. Rapid Determination of Silicon Content in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Wei-min; ZHANG Ke-qin; DUAN Bin-wu; SUN Cheng-xiao; ZHENG Kang-le; CAI Run; ZHUANG Jie-yun

    2005-01-01

    A method for rapid determination of silicon content in rice was introduced. The reliability of this method was verified byusing a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of rice cross Zhenshan 97B / Milyang 46. Two hundred and forty-nine RILs weretransplanted in two replications. Simple correlation coefficients on the silicon content in the hull, flag leaf and stem in rice betweenduplicate samples of 498 rice materials were 0.97954, 0.97026 and 0.98848, respectively. Ten representative samples wereselected for measurement using the high-temperature alkaline fusion method. Simple correlation coefficient between the siliconcontents determined by the high-temperature alkaline fusion method and by the present method is 0.9993.

  17. Insect Vectors of Rice Yellow Mottle Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustin Koudamiloro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV is the major viral constraint to rice production in Africa. RYMV was first identified in 1966 in Kenya and then later in most African countries where rice is grown. Several studies have been conducted so far on its evolution, pathogenicity, resistance genes, and especially its dissemination by insects. Many of these studies showed that, among RYMV vectors, insects especially leaf-feeders found in rice fields are the major source of virus transmission. Many studies have shown that the virus is vectored by several insect species in a process of a first ingestion of leaf material and subsequent transmission in following feedings. About forty insect species were identified as vectors of RYMV since 1970 up to now. They were essentially the beetles, grasshoppers, and the leafhoppers. For this review, we presented the chronology of their identification. Also, the biology, ecology, host range, distribution, and caused damage of these insects were briefly summarized.

  18. The Origin of Flooded Rice Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi IKEHASHI

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Rice cultivation has long been considered to have originated from seeding of annual types of wild rice somewhere in subtropics, tropics or in the Yangtze River basin. That idea, however, contains a fatally weak point, when we consider the tremendous difficulty for primitive human to seed any cereal crop in the warm and humid climate, where weed thrives all year round. Instead of the accepted theory, we have to see a reality that vegetative propagation of edible plants is a dominant form of agriculture in such regions. The possibility is discussed that Job's tears and rice, two cereal crops unique to the region, might have been developed via vegetative propagation to obtain materials for medicine or herb tea in backyard gardens prior to cereal production. This idea is supported by the fact that rice in temperate regions is still perennial in its growth habit and that such backyard gardens with transplanted taro can still be seen from Yunnan Province of China to Laos. Thanks to detailed survey of wild rice throughout China for 1970–1980, it is now confirmed that a set of clones of wild rice exist in shallow swamps in Jiangxi Province, an area with severe winter cold. In early summer ancient farmers may have divided the sprouting buds and spread them by transplanting into flooded shallow marsh. Such way of propagation might have faster improved less productive rice through a better genetic potential for response to human interference than quick fixation in seed propagation, because vegetative parts are heterogeneous. Obviously, such a primitive manner of rice cultivation did include the essential parts of rice farming, i.e., nursery bed, transplanting in flooded field of shallow marsh like. Transfer from the primitive nursery to true nursery by seed may have later allowed rice cultivation to be extended to northern regions. In thus devised flooded cultivation there were a series of unique advantages, i.e.; continuous cropping of rice in a same

  19. Rice saabus Euroopat taltsutama / Tõnu Prei

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Prei, Tõnu, 1950-

    2005-01-01

    USA välisminister Condolezza Rice alustas ringreisi Euroopas, eesmärgiks anda vastulöök USA-d tabanud kriitikale sõjavangide kohtlemise ja teistes riikides oma luuretalituse salavanglate pidamise pärast

  20. Hunting Plan : Rice Lake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objectives of this hunting plan for Rice Lake NWR are to: provide a method of removing white-tailed deer from the area population to maintain the general health...

  1. Using rice straw to manufacture ceramic bricks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gorbunov, G. I; Rasulov, O. R

    2014-01-01

    In the article, the co-authors offer their advanced and efficient methodologies for the recycling of the rice straw, as well as the novel approaches to the ceramic brick quality improvement through...

  2. Stamen specification and anther development in rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG DaBing; WILSON Zoe A

    2009-01-01

    Male reproductive development is a complex biological process which includes the formation of the stamen with differentiated anther tissues, in which microspores/pollens are generated, then anther dehiscence and subsequently pollination. Stamen specification and anther development involve a number of extraordinary events such as meristem transition, cell division and differentiation, cell to cell communication, etc., which need the cooperative interaction of sporophytic and gametophytic genes. The advent of various tools for rice functional gene identification, such as complete genome sequence, genome-wide microarrays, collections of mutants, has greatly facilitated our understanding of mechanisms of rice stamen specification and anther development. Male sterile lines are critical for hybrid rice breeding, therefore understanding these processes will not only contribute greatly to the basic knowledge of crop developmental biology, but also to the development of new varieties for hybrid rice breeding in the future.

  3. Characterization of paralogous protein families in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Wei

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High gene numbers in plant genomes reflect polyploidy and major gene duplication events. Oryza sativa, cultivated rice, is a diploid monocotyledonous species with a ~390 Mb genome that has undergone segmental duplication of a substantial portion of its genome. This, coupled with other genetic events such as tandem duplications, has resulted in a substantial number of its genes, and resulting proteins, occurring in paralogous families. Results Using a computational pipeline that utilizes Pfam and novel protein domains, we characterized paralogous families in rice and compared these with paralogous families in the model dicotyledonous diploid species, Arabidopsis thaliana. Arabidopsis, which has undergone genome duplication as well, has a substantially smaller genome (~120 Mb and gene complement compared to rice. Overall, 53% and 68% of the non-transposable element-related rice and Arabidopsis proteins could be classified into paralogous protein families, respectively. Singleton and paralogous family genes differed substantially in their likelihood of encoding a protein of known or putative function; 26% and 66% of singleton genes compared to 73% and 96% of the paralogous family genes encode a known or putative protein in rice and Arabidopsis, respectively. Furthermore, a major skew in the distribution of specific gene function was observed; a total of 17 Gene Ontology categories in both rice and Arabidopsis were statistically significant in their differential distribution between paralogous family and singleton proteins. In contrast to mammalian organisms, we found that duplicated genes in rice and Arabidopsis tend to have more alternative splice forms. Using data from Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing, we show that a significant portion of the duplicated genes in rice show divergent expression although a correlation between sequence divergence and correlation of expression could be seen in very young genes. Conclusion

  4. Mycotoxin production on rice, pulses and oilseeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Fouzia; Samajpati, N.

    Mycotoxin-producing fungi were isolated from contaminated grains of rice, pulses and oilseeds sold in the local markets of Calcutta for human consumption. It was found that aflatoxin B1 was produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, aflatoxin G1 by A. flavus, ochratoxin by Aspergillus ochraceous, sterigmatocystin by Aspergillus japonicus and citrinin by Penicillium citrinum. Aflatoxin B1 (333-10416μg/kg) was produced by Aspergillus spp. in rice, pulses and oilseeds.

  5. The world market of fragrant rice, main issues and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Giraud, Georges

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide rice production totaled 481 million metric tons in 2011, including 7.1% in trade. Fragrant rice is estimated to account for 15-18% of the rice trade procuring the highest prices on the world market. Some new players are interested in entering this premium segment, including the US, Vietnam, and other rice growers and traders. The fragrant rice commodity chain is deciphered through a meta-analysis of data on rice cropping and trading. We conclude on a possible split between fragrant ...

  6. 稻文化的再思考(11):古今科技--煮饭:从万家炊烟到一键按下饭来香%Rice Culture Rethinking(11)---Ancient and Modern Sci-techniques:Rice Cooking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞乾林; 林海; 王志刚

    2015-01-01

    回顾了从万家炊烟的传统煮饭到一键按下饭来香的现代电饭煲煮饭的发展,包括煮饭蒸饭用的锅从釜到钢精锅到现代的高压锅、电饭煲、电压力锅,灶从柴灶到煤炉再到现代的燃气灶、电磁炉,火(热源)从木柴到煤、煤气、天然气再到电的发展,介绍了养生养体的饭粥和几种特色饭如扬州炒饭、乌米饭和社饭。%The development of rice cooking from traditional cooking by fire to modern cooking by electric rice cooker are reviewed, including pot from reactor to aluminium pot, to modern pressure cooker, rice cooker, electric pressure cooker;stove from tandir to coal stove, to modern fuel gas stove, induction cooker;fire (heat source) from wood to coal, to fuel gas, to modern electricity. Some cooked rice and gruel such as Yangzhou fried egg rice, black rice, shefan, are described in the paper.

  7. Drought Monitoring for Rice Production in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyda Chhinh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice production underpins the national economy and the most rural livelihoods in Cambodia, but it is negatively impacted by repeated droughts. The research reported on in this paper focuses on relationships between drought occurrences in Cambodia’s most drought-prone province (Kampong Speu and (i damage to the annual rice harvest between 1994 and 2011, and (ii the Niño 3.4 index. Droughts were identified using the Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI. In seven of the years between 1994 and 2006 droughts damaged >1000 ha of rice in the Kampong Speu province. Furthermore, in 11 years >200 ha of rice were damaged. A critical success index of 0.66 obtained for an analysis of SPI-defined drought and area rice damage in the province indicates a strong statistical relationship. A statistically significant correlation (r = −0.455 was achieved between Niño 3.4 and 12-month SPI values lagged by three months, this indicates the importance of ENSO linkages in explaining drought in this region. Late season droughts lead to greater rice damage than early- and mid-season droughts.

  8. Fungicide and insecticide residues in rice grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Mack Teló

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyse residues of fungicides and insecticides in rice grains that were subjected to different forms of processing. Field work was conducted during three crop seasons, and fungicides and insecticides were applied at different crop growth stages on the aerial portion of the rice plants. Azoxystrobin, difenoconazole, propiconazole, tebuconazole, and trifloxystrobin fungicides were sprayed only once at the R2 growth stage or twice at the R2 and R4 growth stages; cypermethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, permethrin, and thiamethoxam insecticides were sprayed at the R2 growth stage; and permethrin was sprayed at 5-day intervals from the R4 growth stage up to one day prior to harvest. Pesticide residues were analysed in uncooked, cooked, parboiled, polished and brown rice grains as well as rice hulls during the three crop seasons, for a total of 1458 samples. The samples were analysed by gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD using modified QuEChERS as the extraction method. No fungicide or insecticide residues were detected in rice grain samples; however, azoxystrobin and cypermethrin residues were detected in rice hull samples.

  9. Hydrocolloid sour taste control in pasteurized rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azanza, Maria Patricia V

    2014-12-01

    The effects of kappa (κ)-carrageenan and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) in controlling the sourness intensity perception of added acetic, citric, and tartaric acids in solutions for steeping and cooking of rice intended for pasteurization were determined. The rank order of added acids (0.10 and 0.20 % w/v, pH 4.00) in the initial development of acidified hydrocolloid solutions was: acetic > citric > tartaric. The final rice acidification protocols included steeping and cooking of Japonica rice cultivar Kanto in tartaric-acidified hydrocolloid solutions of κ-carrageenan and CMC (0.30 % w/v, 50 ± 2 °C for 1 h) at pH 2.75 and 2.90, respectively. The acidified cooked rice in pouches were pasteurized in boiling water (100 °C) to reach 95 °C for 5 min. The pasteurized products were categorized under acidified foods with final Aw < 0.85 and pH < 4.00. No perceivable sour tastes from 1 to 12 week storage at 28 ± 2 °C were noted in the pasteurized rice products. The shelf-stable pasteurized products were described as white, translucent, with distinct natural rice aroma and flavor, firm, and slightly elastic mouth and hand feel.

  10. Black holes and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    Belief in the existence of black holes is the ultimate act of faith for a physicist. First suggested by the English clergyman John Michell in the year 1784, the gravitational pull of a black hole is so strong that nothing - not even light - can escape. Gravity might be the weakest of the fundamental forces but black-hole physics is not for the faint-hearted. Black holes present obvious problems for would-be observers because they cannot, by definition, be seen with conventional telescopes - although before the end of the decade gravitational-wave detectors should be able to study collisions between black holes. Until then astronomers can only infer the existence of a black hole from its gravitational influence on other matter, or from the X-rays emitted by gas and dust as they are dragged into the black hole. However, once this material passes through the 'event horizon' that surrounds the black hole, we will never see it again - not even with X-ray specs. Despite these observational problems, most physicists and astronomers believe that black holes do exist. Small black holes a few kilometres across are thought to form when stars weighing more than about two solar masses collapse under the weight of their own gravity, while supermassive black holes weighing millions of solar masses appear to be present at the centre of most galaxies. Moreover, some brave physicists have proposed ways to make black holes - or at least event horizons - in the laboratory. The basic idea behind these 'artificial black holes' is not to compress a large amount of mass into a small volume, but to reduce the speed of light in a moving medium to less than the speed of the medium and so create an event horizon. The parallels with real black holes are not exact but the experiments could shed new light on a variety of phenomena. The first challenge, however, is to get money for the research. One year on from a high-profile meeting on artificial black holes in London, for

  11. Selection of Thai starter components for ethanol production utilizing malted rice from waste paddy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirilux Chaijamrus

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of mixed herbs in Thai rice wine starter (Loog-pang were investigated in order to directly maintain theefficiency of the microbial community (Saccharomycopsis fibuligera, Amylomyces sp., Gluconobacter sp. and Pediocccuspentosaceus. The optimum formula was galanga, garlic, long pepper, licorice, and black pepper at the ratio of 0.5:8:1:4:1,respectively. Previously, waste paddy has been used directly as a renewable resource for fuel ethanol production using solidstate fermentation (SSF with Loog-pang. In this study, hydrolyzed malted rice starch was used as the sole nutrient source insubmerged fermentation (SmF to enhance the process yield. The maximum ethanol productivity (4.08 g/kg waste paddy h-1and the highest ethanol concentration (149±7.0 g/kg waste paddy were obtained after 48 hrs of incubation. The resultsindicated that starch saccharification provided a higher ethanol yield (48.38 g/100g sugar consumed than SSF. In addition,the efficiency of ethanol fermentation was 67% which is similar to that of the malted rice made from normal paddy (68%.This result suggests that waste paddy could be used as an alternative raw material for ethanol production.

  12. The Origin of Flooded Rice Cultivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Rice cultivation has long been considered to have originated from seeding of annual types of wild ricesomewhere in subtropics, tropics or in the Yangtze River basin. That idea, however, contains a fatally weak point, when we consider the tremendous difficulty for primitive human to seed any cereal crop in the warm and humid climate, where weed thrives all year round. Instead of the accepted theory, we have to see a reality that vegetative propagation of edible plants is a dominant form of agriculture in such regions. The possibility is discussed that Job's tears and rice, two cereal crops unique to the region, might have been developed via vegetative propagation to obtain materials for medicine or herb tea in backyard gardens prior to cereal production. This idea is supported by the fact that rice in temperate regions is still perennial in its growth habit and that such backyard gardens with transplanted taro can still be seen from Yunnan Province of China to Laos. Thanks to detailed survey of wild rice throughout China for 1970-1980, it is now confirmed that a set of clones of wild rice exist in shallow swamps in Jiangxi Province, an area with severe winter cold. In early summer ancient farmers may have divided the sprouting buds and spread them by transplanting into flooded shallow marsh. Such way of propagation might have faster improved less productive rice through a better genetic potential for response to human interference than quick fixation in seed propagation, because vegetative parts are heterogeneous. Obviously, such a primitive manner of rice cultivation did include the essential parts of rice farming, i.e., nursery bed, transplanting in flooded field of shallow marsh like. Transfer from the primitive nursery to true nursery by seed may have later allowed rice cultivation to be extended to northern regions. In thus devised flooded cultivation there were a series of unique advantages, i.e.; continuous cropping of rice in a same plot, no soil erosion

  13. Thermodynamic black di-rings

    CERN Document Server

    Iguchi, Hideo

    2010-01-01

    Previously the five dimensional $S^1$-rotating black rings have been superposed in concentric way by some solitonic methods and regular systems of two $S^1$-rotating black rings were constructed by the authors and then Evslin and Krishnan (we called these solutions black di-rings). In this place we show some characteristics of the solutions of five dimensional black di-rings, especially in thermodynamic equilibrium. After the summary of the di-ring expressions and their physical quantities, first we comment on the equivalence of the two different solution-sets of the black di-rings. Then the existence of thermodynamic black di-rings are shown, in which both iso-thermality and iso-rotation between the inner black ring and the outer black ring are realized. We also give detailed analysis of peculiar properties of the thermodynamic black di-ring including discussion about a certain kind of thermodynamic stability (instability) of the system.

  14. Transporters of arsenite in rice and their role in arsenic accumulation in rice grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian Feng; Yamaji, Naoki; Mitani, Namiki; Xu, Xiao-Yan; Su, Yu-Hong; McGrath, Steve P; Zhao, Fang-Jie

    2008-07-22

    Arsenic poisoning affects millions of people worldwide. Human arsenic intake from rice consumption can be substantial because rice is particularly efficient in assimilating arsenic from paddy soils, although the mechanism has not been elucidated. Here we report that two different types of transporters mediate transport of arsenite, the predominant form of arsenic in paddy soil, from the external medium to the xylem. Transporters belonging to the NIP subfamily of aquaporins in rice are permeable to arsenite but not to arsenate. Mutation in OsNIP2;1 (Lsi1, a silicon influx transporter) significantly decreases arsenite uptake. Furthermore, in the rice mutants defective in the silicon efflux transporter Lsi2, arsenite transport to the xylem and accumulation in shoots and grain decreased greatly. Mutation in Lsi2 had a much greater impact on arsenic accumulation in shoots and grain in field-grown rice than Lsi1. Arsenite transport in rice roots therefore shares the same highly efficient pathway as silicon, which explains why rice is efficient in arsenic accumulation. Our results provide insight into the uptake mechanism of arsenite in rice and strategies for reducing arsenic accumulation in grain for enhanced food safety.

  15. Effect of red rice interference in fourth densities of commercial rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge García de la Osa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Field trials were carried out in The Regional Research Grain Station “Sur del Jíbaro”, Sancti Spíritus, in order to study the infestation effect of 0, 12, 25, 50, 100 and 200 red rice plants per square meter (m2 on growth and yields of commercial variety J-104, seeded at 50, 100, 200 and 300 plants/m². Yield of J-104 rice variety decreased with the increase in red rice density. Crop yield decrease in the dry season ranged from 10.7 to 94.8% with infestations of 12 and 200 red rice plants /m², respectively; while in the wet season changed from 11.4 to 91.5 % with similar level in infestations. In both seasons 12 red rice plants were enough to cause a significant reduction in commercial rice yields in relation to the control treatment (without red rice infestation. The lost in crop yield was due to the decreased in panicles/ m² and filled grains per panicle, caused by the interference with red rice.

  16. Simultaneous rough rice drying and rice bran stabilization using infrared radiation heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to develop a new rice drying method by using IR heating followed by tempering. Freshly harvested medium grain rice (M206) samples with different initial moisture contents (IMCs) were used in this study. The samples were dried for one- and two-passes by using a catalyt...

  17. Genomic dissection of small RNAs in wild rice (Oryza rufipogon): lessons for rice domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Bai, Xuefei; Yan, Chenghai; Gui, Yiejie; Wei, Xinghua; Zhu, Qian-Hao; Guo, Longbiao; Fan, Longjiang

    2012-11-01

    The lack of a MIRNA set and genome sequence of wild rice (Oryza rufipogon) has prevented us from determining the role of MIRNA genes in rice domestication. In this study, a genome, three small RNA populations and a degradome of O. rufipogon were sequenced by Illumina platform and the expression levels of microRNAs (miRNAs) were investigated by miRNA chips. A de novo O. rufipogon genome was assembled using c. 55× coverage of raw sequencing data and a total of 387 MIRNAs were identified in the O. rufipogon genome based on c. 5.2 million unique small RNA reads from three different tissues of O. rufipogon. Of these, O. rufipogon MIRNAs, 259 were not found in the cultivated rice, suggesting a loss of these MIRNAs in the cultivated rice. We also found that 48 MIRNAs were novel in the cultivated rice, suggesting that they were potential targets of domestication selection. Some miRNAs showed significant expression differences between wild and cultivated rice, suggesting that expression of miRNA could also be a target of domestication, as demonstrated for the miR164 family. Our results illustrated that MIRNA genes, like protein-coding genes, might have been significantly shaped during rice domestication and could be one of the driving forces that contributed to rice domestication.

  18. Characteristics of Resistance to Rice Sheath Blight of Zhongda 2, a Transgenic Rice Line as Modified by Gene "RC24"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Hong-xu; XU Xin-ping; ZHANG Jian-zhong; GUO Jian-fu; LI Bao-jian

    2004-01-01

    The transgenic rice, Zhongda 2, which was genetically modified from an indica rice line Zhuxian B by rice chitinase gene (RC24), had high resistance to rice sheath blight (Rhizoctonia solani) in laboratory and a two-year field experiment. The pathogen could invade sheath of Zhongda 2 and induce symptoms of the disease. No difference was noted in time of penetration or incubation period between Zhongda 2 and non-transgenic rice control, Zhuxian B, but the hyphae lysate could be observed earlier five non-transgenic rice lines showed higher resistance than donor non-transgenic parents, but the resistance was different along with the different maternal parents.

  19. Exploring the possibility of using digital image processing technique to detect diseases of rice leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H Peyman

    2016-04-01

    the required images were obtained from each sample.The images of infected leaves were then introduced to image processing toolbox of MATLAB software. The RGB images were converted to gray-scale. Using a suitable threshold, the leaf surface was segmented from image background and the first binary image was achieved. Leaf image with zero background pixels was obtained after multiplying the black-and-white image to original color image. The resulting image was transformed to HSV color space and the Hue color component was extracted. The final binary image was created by applying an appropriate threshold on the image that obtained from Hue color component. As there was a high color similarity between the symptoms of two diseases, it was not possible to use Hue color component to distinguish between them. Therefore the shape processing was applied. Four dimensionless morphological features such as Roundness, Aspect Ratio, Compactness and Area Ratio were extracted from stain areas and based on these features, disease type diagnosis was performed. Results and Discussion: Results showed that the proposed algorithm successfully diagnosed the diseases stains on the rice leaves. A detection accuracy of 97.4±1.4 % was achieved. Regarding the results of t-test, among the extracted shape characteristics, only in the case of Area Ratio, there was no significant difference between two disease symptoms. While in the case of Roundness, Aspect Ratio and Compactness, a highly significant difference (P<0.01 was discovered and revealed between rice blast and rice brown spot stains. The developed algorithm was capable of distinguishing between disease symptoms with an exactness of over 96.6%. This means that of the 60 samples (30 samples rice blast and 30 samples of rice brown spot; only two were placed in the wrong category. Conclusions: It was concluded from this study that image processing technique can not only accurately determine whether the rice is healthy or infected but also can

  20. 糯米淀粉为基质的脂肪替代品对冰淇淋流变学性质的影响%Effect of Glutinous Rice Starch Based Fat Substitutes on Reological Properties of Ice-cream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周原; 丁文平

    2011-01-01

    实验选取籼糯和粳糯两个品种的糯米淀粉,研究了糯米淀粉为基质的脂肪替代品替代冰淇淋中不同脂肪含量对冰淇淋流变性质的影响.结果表明:随着冰淇淋配方中脂肪替代品含量增加或脂肪含量减少,冰淇淋浆料的黏度逐渐增加、硬度逐渐降低、黏性和弹性均逐渐增加.感官评定表明,加入2%籼糯淀粉的低脂冰淇淋感官指标与中脂冰淇淋最接近.

  1. Evidence for Non-Transmission of Rice Yellow Mottle Virus (RYMV through Rice Seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sy, AA.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An indexing of the organs (radicle and plumule and components (husk, endosperm and embryo of rice seeds using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA was carried out to detect Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV and establish the exact location of the virus in the rice seed. RYMV was detected only in the husk (seed coat but not in the endosperm, plumule, radicle, nor embryo. None of the seedlings raised from the seeds expressed RYMV symptoms. No virus particle was detected by the ELISA test in the leaves of the screenhouse-reared plants obtained from seeds of infected plants. The results indicate that RYMV is apparently not transmitted through rice seed probably because the virus is seed-borne in the husk (seed coat of mature rice seeds.

  2. Comparison of Ileal Digested Production of Parental Rice and Rice Genetically Modified With Cowpeas Trypsin Inhibitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective To compare the ileal digestibility of protein and amino acids in parental rice and rice genetically modified with sck gene. Methods Six experimental swines were surgically fixed with a simple T-cannula at the terminal ileum and fed with parental rice and rice genetically modified with sck gene alternately. The ileum digesta were collected and analyzed for determination of apparent and true digestibility of protein and amino acids. Results The apparent and true digestibility of protein was similar in these two types of rice. Except for the apparent digestibility of lysine, there was no difference in the apparent and true digestibility of the other 17 amino acids. Conclusion The digestibility of protein and amino acids is not changed by the insertion of foreign gene, so it can meet the request of "substantial equivalence" in digestibility of protein and amino acids.

  3. Effect of Temperature on Chinese Rice Wine Brewing with High Concentration Presteamed Whole Sticky Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dengfeng Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of high quality Chinese rice wine largely depends on fermentation temperature. However, there is no report on the ethanol, sugars, and acids kinetics in the fermentation mash of Chinese rice wine treated at various temperatures. The effects of fermentation temperatures on Chinese rice wine quality were investigated. The compositions and concentrations of ethanol, sugars, glycerol, and organic acids in the mash of Chinese rice wine samples were determined by HPLC method. The highest ethanol concentration and the highest glycerol concentration both were attained at the fermentation mash treated at 23°C. The highest peak value of maltose (90 g/L was obtained at 18°C. Lactic acid and acetic acid both achieved maximum values at 33°C. The experimental results indicated that temperature contributed significantly to the ethanol production, acid flavor contents, and sugar contents in the fermentation broth of the Chinese rice wines.

  4. Expressing the maize anthocyanin regulatory gene Lc increased flavonoid content in the seed of white pericarp rice and purple pericarp rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y E; Wang, X; Shen, Z W; Xu, Y; Li, J Y

    2013-11-01

    The colour of red, purple, brown and white occurs in pericarp of rice. Here, the maize anthocyanin regulatory gene Lc under control of the promoter of the rice glutelin gene Gt1 was introduced in the white pericarp rice "Chao2-10" and purple pericarp rice "Qingjiaozidao". The results demonstrated that some transgenic "Chao2-10" rice pericarps became brown, and the total flavonoid contents in the unpolished rice of the two transgenic rices increased significantly compared with their respective controls. Unpolished rice kernel thickness and weight in the two transgenic rices decreased slightly.

  5. Charged Galileon black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Babichev, Eugeny; Hassaine, Mokhtar

    2015-01-01

    We consider an Abelian gauge field coupled to a particular truncation of Horndeski theory. The Galileon field has translation symmetry and couples non minimally both to the metric and the gauge field. When the gauge-scalar coupling is zero the gauge field reduces to a standard Maxwell field. By taking into account the symmetries of the action, we construct charged black hole solutions. Allowing the scalar field to softly break symmetries of spacetime we construct black holes where the scalar field is regular on the black hole event horizon. Some of these solutions can be interpreted as the equivalent of Reissner-Nordstrom black holes of scalar tensor theories with a non trivial scalar field. A self tuning black hole solution found previously is extended to the presence of dyonic charge without affecting whatsoever the self tuning of a large positive cosmological constant. Finally, for a general shift invariant scalar tensor theory we demonstrate that the scalar field Ansatz and method we employ are mathematic...

  6. Merging Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centrella, Joan

    2009-05-01

    The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest gravitational wave source for ground-based interferometers such as LIGO, VIRGO, and GEO600, as well as the space-based LISA. Observing these sources with gravitational wave detectors requires that we know the radiation waveforms they emit. And, when the black holes merge in the presence of gas and magnetic fields, various types of electromagnetic signals may also be produced. Since these mergers take place in regions of extreme gravity, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute black hole mergers using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Within the past few years, however, this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of remarkable breakthroughs. This talk will focus on new simulations that are revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics.

  7. Uruguayan rice (Oritza sativa L. oils characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Rodríguez

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The rice crop is one of the most developed agricultural activities in Uruguay, having become the third item of export. Although the main product of the rice chain is the elaborated rice, in the recent years several industries have begun to produce co-products of rice: crude rice oil and refined oil, rice flour and cookies. The production of crude oil begins with ground, peeled and polished rice grain. This product can be used in animal nourishment or in oil extraction. Refinement from the crude rice oil takes the same steps than any other vegetable oil. As any other vegetable oil, rice oil is very prone to oxidation, this is due to the high percentage of polyinsaturated acids, despite the vitamin E content and its role of antioxidant. Therefore, sometimes additional stabilization is needed. The main purpose of this work is to characterize the Uruguayan Rice Oils by determining the following parameters: profile of fatty acids, alpha tocopherol, Iodine Index, Refraction Index, Saponification Index, Unsaponifiable Matter and Density at 20ºC. The Norm used as reference was the American Oil Chemistry Society. In this condition the statistical analysis performed shows that there is not a model that could explain the variability of the studied factors nor reduce the number of factors that must be taken into consideration. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, performed according to Lillieford correction to verify normality, showed that distribution of fluctuations that correspond to the three most abundant fatty acids studied (16:0, 18:1 and 18:2 can be considered as normal. The obtained values for the insaturated fatty acids were from15.6 to18.2 for 16:0, from 42.1 to 43.8 for 18:1 and from 34.8 to 37.4 for 18:2. These results obtained were correlated with the high values of the Iodine Index: 100.6 - 101.8. Results of vitamin E expressed as alpha tocopherol are between 7 and 35 mg/100g, but in 75% of the cases the results oscillated between 18 and 26 mg/100g

  8. Black Afrikaans: An alternative use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna P. Maritz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a first look at the nature of the alternative functions of Black Afrikaans. These functions realise when Black Afrikaans is imitated by Afrikaans mother-tongue speakers. The functions of the alternative use of Black Afrikaans centre on: the social nature of the variety, sensitivity as a deciding role-player, identity, humour, inclusivity and exclusivity, language repertoire and similar variety. Furthermore, because of the direct relationship between Black Afrikaans, Pidginised Afrikaans and the imitation of Black Afrikaans, these varieties are compared to establish a starting point description for the imitation of Black Afrikaans, as the variety has not yet been described.

  9. Development of Ozone Technology Rice Storage Systems (OTRISS) for Quality Improvement of Rice Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur, M.; Kusdiyantini, E.; Wuryanti, W.; Winarni, T. A.; Widyanto, S. A.; Muharam, H.

    2015-06-01

    This research has been carried out by using ozone to address the rapidly declining quality of rice in storage. In the first year, research has focused on the rice storage with ozone technology for small capacity (e.g., household) and the medium capacity (e.g., dormitories, hospitals). Ozone was produced by an ozone generator with Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma (DBDP). Ozone technology rice storage system (OTRISS) is using ozone charateristic which is a strong oxidizer. Ozone have a short endurance of existence and then decompose, as a result produce oxygen and radicals of oxygen. These characteristics could kill microorganisms and pests, reduce air humidity and enrich oxygen. All components used in SPBTO assembled using raw materials available in the big cities in Indonesia. Provider of high voltage (High Voltage Power Supply, 40-70 kV, 23 KH, AC) is one of components that have been assembled and tested. Ozone generator is assembled with 7 reactors of Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma (DBDP). Rice container that have been prepared for OTRISS have adjusted so can be integrated with generator, power supply and blower to blow air. OTRISS with a capacity of 75 kg and 100 kg have been made and tested. The ability of ozone to eliminate bacteria and fungi have been tested and resulted in a decrease of microorganisms at 3 log CFU/g. Testing in food chemistry showed that ozone treatment of rice had not changed the chemical content that still meet the standard of chemical content and nutritional applicable to ISO standard milled rice. The results of this study are very likely to be used as an alternative to rice storage systems in warehouse. Test and scale-up is being carried out in a mini warehouse whose condition is mimicked to rice in National Rice Storage of Indonesia (Bulog) to ensure quality. Next adaptations would be installed in the rice storage system in the Bulog.

  10. Integrated rice-duck farming mitigates the global warming potential in rice season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guochun; Liu, Xin; Wang, Qiangsheng; Yu, Xichen; Hang, Yuhao

    2017-01-01

    Integrated rice-duck farming (IRDF), as a mode of ecological agriculture, is an important way to realize sustainable development of agriculture. A 2-year split-plot field experiment was performed to evaluate the effects of IRDF on methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and its ecological mechanism in rice season. This experiment was conducted with two rice farming systems (FS) of IRDF and conventional farming (CF) under four paddy-upland rotation systems (PUR): rice-fallow (RF), annual straw incorporating in rice-wheat rotation system (RWS), annual straw-based biogas residues incorporating in rice-wheat rotation system (RWB), and rice-green manure (RGM). During the rice growing seasons, IRDF decreased the CH4 emission by 8.80-16.68%, while increased the N2O emission by 4.23-15.20%, when compared to CF. Given that CH4 emission contributed to 85.83-96.22% of global warming potential (GWP), the strong reduction in CH4 emission led to a significantly lower GWP of IRDF as compared to CF. The reason for this trend was because IRDF has significant effect on dissolved oxygen (DO) and soil redox potential (Eh), which were two pivotal factors for CH4 and N2O emissions in this study. The IRDF not only mitigates the GWP, but also increases the rice yield by 0.76-2.43% compared to CF. Moreover, compared to RWS system, RF, RWB and RGM systems significantly reduced CH4 emission by 50.17%, 44.89% and 39.51%, respectively, while increased N2O emission by 10.58%, 14.60% and 23.90%, respectively. And RWS system had the highest GWP. These findings suggest that mitigating GWP and improving rice yield could be simultaneously achieved by the IRDF, and employing suitable PUR would benefit for relieving greenhouse effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluating Welfare Effects of Rice Import Quota in Japan: Based on Measuring Non-Tariff Barriers of SBS Rice Imports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianhui Gao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The principal objective of this study is to analyze welfare effects of Japan’s rice import quota focusing on the simultaneous buy and sell (SBS of the rice importation minimum access (MA policy. Based on the utility function specified in this study, the constructed model is adopted to measure consumption patterns through estimating elasticity of substitution between imported rice and Japan’s domestic rice, and consumers’ preference parameters for different kinds of rice. The results showed that Japanese households prefer domestic rice to the imported rice. Besides, three scenarios of adjusting rice quota volumes were carried out to examine the changes in consumer prices of imported rice and Japanese consumers’ welfares. The results revealed that tariff equivalents of the SBS import quota almost doubled the scale of the mark-up, and the intervention by the Ministry of Agriculture of Japan did cause non-tariff barriers to trade (NTBs. Finally, if the SBS rice quota quantity was fixed at or larger than 180 thousand tons every fiscal year, the consumer prices of imported rice in Japan’s market would decrease to be less than the prices of Japan’s domestic rice, and therefore the imported rice would have more price advantages in this scenario.

  12. Cytoplasmic-genetic male sterility gene provides direct evidence for some hybrid rice recently evolving into weedy rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingxu; Lu, Zuomei; Dai, Weimin; Song, Xiaoling; Peng, Yufa; Valverde, Bernal E; Qiang, Sheng

    2015-05-27

    Weedy rice infests paddy fields worldwide at an alarmingly increasing rate. There is substantial evidence indicating that many weedy rice forms originated from or are closely related to cultivated rice. There is suspicion that the outbreak of weedy rice in China may be related to widely grown hybrid rice due to its heterosis and the diversity of its progeny, but this notion remains unsupported by direct evidence. We screened weedy rice accessions by both genetic and molecular marker tests for the cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) genes (Wild abortive, WA, and Boro type, BT) most widely used in the production of indica and japonica three-line hybrid rice as a diagnostic trait of direct parenthood. Sixteen weedy rice accessions of the 358 tested (4.5%) contained the CMS-WA gene; none contained the CMS-BT gene. These 16 accessions represent weedy rices recently evolved from maternal hybrid rice derivatives, given the primarily maternal inheritance of this trait. Our results provide key direct evidence that hybrid rice can be involved in the evolution of some weedy rice accessions, but is not a primary factor in the recent outbreak of weedy rice in China.

  13. Silicon-mediated resistance in a susceptible rice variety to the rice leaf folder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Guenee (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqiang Han

    Full Text Available The rice leaf folder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée, is one of the most destructive rice pests in Asian countries. Rice varieties resistant to the rice leaf folder are generally characterized by high silicon content. In this study, silicon amendment, at 0.16 and 0.32 g Si/kg soil, enhanced resistance of a susceptible rice variety to the rice leaf folder. Silicon addition to rice plants at both the low and high rates significantly extended larval development and reduced larval survival rate and pupation rate in the rice leaf folder. When applied at the high rate, silicon amendment reduced third-instars' weight gain and pupal weight. Altogether, intrinsic rate of increase, finite rate of increase and net reproduction rate of the rice leaf folder population were all reduced at both the low and high silicon addition rates. Although the third instars consumed more in silicon-amended treatments, C:N ratio in rice leaves was significantly increased and food conversion efficiencies were reduced due to increased silicon concentration in rice leaves. Our results indicate that reduced food quality and food conversion efficiencies resulted from silicon addition account for the enhanced resistance in the susceptible rice variety to the rice leaf folder.

  14. Genetic variation of 12 rice cultivars grown in Brunei Darussalam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dell

    2015-03-25

    Mar 25, 2015 ... Genetic variations of 12 different rice cultivars in Brunei Darussalam were studied using 15 different. SSR markers ..... Principles of plant breeding: John Wiley & Sons Inc.,. New York .... and reproductive development of rice.

  15. Improving Drought Tolerance of Rice by Designed QTL Pyramiding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z.K. Li; Y. Sun; L.H. Zhu; D. Dwivedi; Y.M. Gao; T.Q. Zheng; R. Lafitte; J.L. Xu; D. Mackill; B.Y. Fu; J.Domingo

    2007-01-01

    @@ Drought is the most important factor limiting rice yields in the rainfed areas of Asia. To overcome the problem, we developed a new strategy 'designed QTL pyramiding' to more efficiently develop drought tolerant (DT)rice cultivars.

  16. Fisheries Management Plan: Rice Lake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Rice Lake National Wildlife Refuge provides a sport fishery on three of the four refuge lakes. Fishing is restricted to designated areas. Rice Lake, though not open...

  17. Socio-Economic Factors Affecting Upland Rice ( Oryza sativa L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From the analysis, it was observed that majority (80%) of the upland rice ... marital status, and household size were positively signed and significant at 1% as ... of new varieties of rice, poor market information, lack of government incentives, ...

  18. NEWS:Introduction of Brazil upland rice in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LINantian

    1998-01-01

    In 1992, the government of Brazil presented nine crop varieties to China. One of them is Brazil upland rice IAPAR9. It was evaluated for commercial usage in China by China National Rice Research Institute (CNRRI).

  19. Neolithic rice paddy from the Zhaojiazhuang site, Shandong, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To identify and study the Neolithic rice paddy in Shandong, eastern China, is not only an important issue in the development of Chinese rice agriculture, but also a key part of the study on rice spread in East Asia. Due to the limitation of archaeological materials and the research methods, there have been no discoveries about the Neolithic rice paddy in Shandong Province for a long time. Based on the identification of possible rice paddy by archaeological excavation, phytolith analysis of soil samples from this "paddy" has been systematically carried out and the results have shown a 4600-4300 years old rice paddy preserved at the Zhaojiazhuang site. This is the first examination and study of the rice paddy in North China by systematic phytolith analysis, which is very important for the Neolithic archaeological research and the study of the eastward spread of rice agricultural techniques in East Asia.

  20. Screening for Rice Germplasms with Specially-Elongated Mesocotyl

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ming-guo; ZHANG Guang-heng; LIN Jian-rong; CHENG Shi-hua

    2005-01-01

    The lengths of mesocotyl in the seedlings of 84 lowland rice varieties and 12 upland rice varieties were measured following the treatments of daylight and darkness during germination. The elongation of mesocotyl in the varieties tested was inhibited under daylight condition, and the mesocotyl of all the varieties elongated variably under darkness condition. The elongated lengths of the mesocotyl in upland rice, ranging from 0.36 cm to 1.61 cm with an average of 0.81 cm, was obviously longer than those in lowland rice, ranging from 0.12 cm to 1.56 cm with an average of 0.42 cm. Among 14 rice varieties with over 1 cm of mesocotyl length, five belonged to upland rice, and nine to lowland rice. The possible utilization of the elongated-mesocotyl rice germplasm in varietal improvement, direct-seeded planting and seed purity testing were discussed.