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Sample records for black cotton soils

  1. Stabilization of Black Cotton Soil Using Micro-fine Slag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Rajesh Prasad; Parihar, Niraj Singh

    2016-09-01

    This work presents the results of laboratory tests conducted on black cotton soil mixed with micro-fine slag. Different proportions of micro-fine slag, i.e., 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 % were mixed with the black cotton soil to improve soil characteristics. The improvement in the characteristics of stabilized soil was assessed by evaluating the changes in the physical and strength parameters of the soil, namely, the Atterberg limits, free swell, the California Bearing Ratio (CBR), compaction parameters and Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS). The mixing of micro-fine slag decreases the liquid limit, plasticity index and Optimum Moisture Contents (OMC) of the soil. Micro-fine slag significantly increases the plastic limit, UCS and CBR of the soil up to 6-7 % mixing, but mixing of more slag led to decrease in the UCS and CBR of the soil. The unsoaked CBR increased by a substantial amount unlike soaked CBR value. The swell potential of the soil is reduced from medium to very low. The optimum amount of micro-fine slag is found to be approximately 6-7 % by the weight of the soil.

  2. Analysis of Engineering Properties of Black Cotton Soil & Stabilization Using By Lime.

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    Kavish S. Mehta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing of population and the reduction of available land, more and more construction of buildings and other civil engineering structures have to be carried out on weak or soft soil. Owing to such soil of poor shear strength and high swelling & shrinkage, a great diversity of ground improvement techniques such as soil stabilization and reinforcement are employed to improve mechanical behavior of soil, thereby enhancing the reliability of construction. Black cotton soil is one of the major soil deposits of India. They exhibit high swelling and shrinking when exposed to changes in moisture content and hence have been found to be most troublesome from engineering considerations. Stabilization occurs when lime is added to black cotton soil and a pozzolanic reaction takes place. The hydrated lime reacts with the clay particles and permanently transforms them into a strong cementations matrix. Black cotton soil showing low to medium swelling potential from Rajkot Gujarat was used for determining the basic properties of the soil. Changes in various soil properties such as Liquid limit, Plastic Limit, Maximum Dry Density, Optimum Moisture Content, and California Bearing Ratio were studied. Keywords–

  3. Desiccation-Induced Volumetric Shrinkage of Compacted Metakaolin-Treated Black Cotton Soil for a Hydraulic Barriers System

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    Moses George

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Black cotton soil treated with up to 24% metakaolin (MCL content was prepared by molding water contents of −2, 0, 2, 4 and 6% of optimum moisture content (OMC and compacted with British Standard Light (BSL and West African Standard (WAS or ‘Intermediate’ energies. The specimens were extruded from the compaction molds and allowed to air dry in a laboratory in order to assess the effect of desiccation-induced shrinkage on the compacted mix for use as a hydraulic barrier in a waste containment application. The results recorded show that the volumetric shrinkage strain (VSS values were large within the first 10 days of drying; the VSS values increased with a higher molding of the water content, relative to the OMC. The VSS generally increased with a higher initial degree of saturation for the two compactive efforts, irrespective of the level of MCL treatment. Generally, the VSS decreased with an increasing MCL content. Only specimens treated with a minimum 20% MCL content and compacted with the WAS energy satisfied the regulatory maximum VSS of 4% for use as a hydraulic barrier.

  4. Desiccation-Induced Volumetric Shrinkage of Compacted Metakaolin-Treated Black Cotton Soil for a Hydraulic Barriers System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, George; Peter, Oriola F. O.; Osinubi, Kolawole J.

    2016-03-01

    Black cotton soil treated with up to 24% metakaolin (MCL) content was prepared by molding water contents of -2, 0, 2, 4 and 6% of optimum moisture content (OMC) and compacted with British Standard Light (BSL) and West African Standard (WAS) or `Intermediate' energies. The specimens were extruded from the compaction molds and allowed to air dry in a laboratory in order to assess the effect of desiccation-induced shrinkage on the compacted mix for use as a hydraulic barrier in a waste containment application. The results recorded show that the volumetric shrinkage strain (VSS) values were large within the first 10 days of drying; the VSS values increased with a higher molding of the water content, relative to the OMC. The VSS generally increased with a higher initial degree of saturation for the two compactive efforts, irrespective of the level of MCL treatment. Generally, the VSS decreased with an increasing MCL content. Only specimens treated with a minimum 20% MCL content and compacted with the WAS energy satisfied the regulatory maximum VSS of 4% for use as a hydraulic barrier.

  5. DECOMPOSITION OF BT COTTON AND NON BT COTTON RESIDUES UNDER VARIED SOIL TYPES

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    Sujata Kumari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Use of the insecticidal cry proteins from the bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt in cotton has raised a number of concerns, including the ecological impact on soil ecosystems.Greenhouse study was conducted during the 2011 wet season (March to August at the Institute of Agricultural Sciences of Banaras Hindu University. It was carried out on three different soil orders that includedentisol, inceptisol and alfisol. Bt cotton (var.NCS-138 and its non-transgenic isoline (var.NCS-138 were grown until maturity. A no crop pot was maintained for all the three soil orders. The highest rate of decomposition was found in alluvial soil compared to black and red soils in 50 days after incorporation (DAI. Thereafter the rate of decomposition was slowed downby100 DAI and the constant rate of decomposition was found in 150 DAI. The rate of decomposition was higher in non Bt than Bt crop residues.

  6. Zero Tillage cotton systems and soil quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landers, J. N.; de Freitas, P. L.

    2012-04-01

    Monocropping in cotton production systems negates the benefits of zero tillage. With cotton in a 3-year rotation including other summer and cover crops, such as soybeans and intensive-rooting Brachiaria spp., research on sandy soils in Bahia improved soil fertility, structure and biological activity. Cotton is a deep tap-rooted crop, sensitive to physical and chemical impediments to root development; this has engendered a paradigm of heavy soil preparation operations to remove these. But, ZT can overcome such obstacles, allowing the cotton crop to benefit from cost reductions and a number of other benefits, especially erosion control.. Soil quality has three principal dimensions. Maximum yields only occur when soil fertility, structure and biological activity are in balance. Under Zero Tillage management of Brazilian soils, the processes of nutrient availability, nutrient cycling and efficiency result from increasing SOM and higher CEC. ZT system fertility is also strongly influenced by total annual aerial and root biomass generation; C:N ratios of the biomass, changes in aeration in residue breakdown processes (for roots, dependent on internal drainage), reduced fixation of Phosphorus fertilizers, the possibility of surface application of P and K, use of deep-rooted cover crops to re-cycle nutrients and deleterious effects of over-liming. Soil physical parameters undergo a transformation : greater water holding capacity, a small increase in bulk density (ameliorated by a reversal of soil aggregate breakdown inherent to conventional tillage by the binding action of root exudates and fungal hyphae), enhanced particle aggregate size protects SOM from oxidation; old root holes create semi-permanent macro-pores which facilitate rooting, aeration and rainfall infiltration.. Soil life of all types benefits from ZT management and contributes to soil fertility and structural improvements, plus enhancing certain biological controls of pathogenic organisms and allelopathic

  7. Nutrient omission in Bt cotton affects soil organic carbon and nutrients status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aladakatti, Y. R.; Biradar, D. P.; Satyanarayana, T.; Majumdar, K.; Shivamurthy, D.

    2012-04-01

    Studies carried out at the University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, India, in medium black soils assessed the effect of nutrient omission in Bt cotton and its effect on the soil organic carbon (SOC) and available nutrients at the end of second consecutive year of nutrient omission. The study also assessed the extent of contribution of the macro and micronutrients towards seed cotton yield. The experiment consisting 11 treatments omitting a nutrient in each treatment including an absolute control without any nutrients was conducted in a Randomised Block Design with three replications. Cotton crop sufficiently fertilized with macro and micro nutrients (165 : 75 : 120 NPK kg ha-1 and 20 kg each of CaSO4, and MgSO4, 10 kg of S, 20 kg each of ZnSO4, FeSO4 and 0.1 per cent Boron twice as foliar spray) was taken as a standard check to assess the contribution of each nutrient in various nutrient omission treatments. Soils of each treatment were analysed initially and after each crop of cotton for SOC and available nutrient status. Results indicated that the SOC decreased after each crop of cotton in absolute control where no nutrients were applied (0.50 % to 0.38 %) and also in the N omission treatment (0.50 % to 0.35 %). But there was no significant impact of omission of P, K and other nutrients on soil organic carbon. Soil available N, P and K in the soil were reduced as compared to the initial soil status after first and second crop of cotton in the respective treatment where these nutrients were omitted. The soil available N, P and K were reduced to the extent of 61 kg ha-1, 7.1 kg ha-1 and 161.9 kg ha-1 in the respective nutrient omission treatment at end of second crop of cotton as compared to the initial status of these nutrients in the soil. This might be due to the mining of these nutrients from the soil nutrient pool with out addition of these nutrients extraneously. The nutrient status of N, P and K remained almost similar in omission of other nutrients

  8. Residue Determination and Degradation of Sulfoxaflor in Cotton and Soil

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    QIN Xu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available An analytical method with high performance liquid chromatography(HPLCwas established for determining sulfoxaflor residue in soil, cotton seeds and cotton leaves. The field residue decline study and final residue trials of sulfoxaflor in cotton in Tianjin City and Hangzhou City, were designed. The samples were extracted with acetonitrile, partitioned by n-hexane, purified using Florisil column, and de-termined by HPLC equipped with a variable wavelength detector(VWD. The results showed that when the spiked levels were 0.05 mg·kg-1 to 2.5 mg·kg-1, the average recovery of sulfoxaflor ranged from 76.81%to 94.43%with relative standard deviation (RSDof 0.54%to 7.20%;the limit of detection(LODof sulfoxaflor was 1 ng, and the limit of quantification(LOQwas 0.05 mg·kg-1 in soil, cotton seeds and cotton leaves. The degradation of sulfoxaflor in soil and cotton leaves could be described with an equation:Ct=C0e-kt. The half-life of sulfoxaflor were 1.36~5.10 d and 6.13~9.37 d in soil and cotton leaves, respectively. The wheat was sprayed with 50%water dispersible granule(WDGat dosage 0.6~0.9 g·30 m-2(2~3 timesat full-bloom stage, the interval period was 7 d, the final residues of sulfoxaflor were lower than LOQ in soil and cotton seeds.

  9. Impact of soil variability on irrigated and rainfed cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton is a vital component of the economies of Mid-South states. Producers and landowners are looking for ways to reduce the variability of irrigated yields and soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) is a readily obtained parameter that can indicate soil variability. A study was conducted in 2...

  10. Persistence of dicofol residues in cotton lint seed, and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Beena; Duhan, Anil

    2011-11-01

    A supervised field trial was conducted at the CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar to assess the residues of dicofol on cotton, during Kharif season, 2008. Dicofol (Kelthane 18.5EC) was applied at 500 g a.i./ha (T(1)) and 1,000 g a.i./ha T(2)) after 105 days of sowing of cotton crop (Varity Cotton/H-1226). Soil samples were collected on 0 (1 h after treatment), 3, 7, 10, 15, 30, and 60 days after spray and cotton samples were collected at harvest. Samples were processed and residues were quantified by GC-ECD system equipped with capillary column. Limit of detection and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.001 and 0.010 mg kg( -1), respectively, for soil and LOQ for cotton lint and seed was 0.020 mg kg( -1). Initial residues of 0.588 and 1.182 mg kg( -1) in soil reached below detectable level (BDL) of 0.010 mg kg( -1) in T(1) and to the level of BDL (0.010 mg kg( -1)) in T(2) at harvest (60 days after treatment). In 60 days, residues dissipated almost completely (100 and >99%) in both the treatments. Half-life period was calculated as 8.57 days at single dose and 8.69 days at double dose in soil. Residues of dicofol were detected in cotton lint to the levels of 0.292 and 0.653 mg kg( -1) and in seed 0.051 and 0.090 mg kg( -1) in T(1) and T(2) doses, respectively at harvest. Residues in cotton seed were below MRL value of 0.01 mg kg( -1) in both the doses.

  11. Influence by physical properties of coal combustion residues (CCRs on dry root productivity of Withania somnifera grown in black cotton soil

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    Bhisham Yadav

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In India, presently ~40% Coal Combustion Residues (CCRs generated by burning of pulverized coal at Thermal Power Station is being used for cement, bricks, land reclamation etc. Now a day it has also been considered for agriculture applications. This study, an attempt was made to use of CCRs as soil modifier and micro fertilizer for cultivation of Withania somnifera under two cropping. Results revealed that production of dry root yields of Withania somnifera was found higher in T5 treatment (35.545g and 39.002g per plant as compared to control treatment (T1. It is showed significant (p<0.001% from all the treatments in both the years. The essential elements like Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn were found increasing trends in dry root of Withania somnifera with increase the concentration of CCRs application. This study is found the bulk utilization of CCRs for cultivation of Withania somnifera improved their root yield and chemical quality.

  12. [Effects of cotton stalk biochar on microbial community structure and function of continuous cropping cotton rhizosphere soil in Xinjiang, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Mei-ying; Tang, Guang-mu; Liu, Hong-liang; Li, Zhi-qiang; Liu, Xiao-wei; Xu, Wan-li

    2016-01-01

    In this study, field trials were conducted to examine the effects of cotton stalk biochar on microbial population, function and structural diversity of microorganisms in rhizosphere soil of continuous cotton cropping field in Xinjiang by plate count, Biolog and DGGE methods. The experiment was a factorial design with four treatments: 1) normal fertilization with cotton stalk removed (NPK); 2) normal fertilization with cotton stalk powdered and returned to field (NPKS); 3) normal fertilization plus cotton stalk biochar at 22.50 t · hm⁻² (NPKB₁); and 4) normal fertilization plus cotton stalk biochar at 45.00 t · hm⁻² (NPKB₂). The results showed that cotton stalk biochar application obviously increased the numbers of bacteria and actinomycetes in the rhizospheric soil. Compared with NPK treatment, the number of fungi was significantly increased in the NPKB₁treatment, but not in the NPKB₂ treatment. However, the number of fungi was generally lower in the biochar amended (NPKB₁, NPKB₂) than in the cotton stalk applied plots (NPKS). Application of cotton stalk biochar increased values of AWCD, and significantly improved microbial richness index, suggesting that the microbial ability of utilizing carbohydrates, amino acids and carboxylic acids, especially phenolic acids was enhanced. The number of DGGE bands of NPKB₂ treatment was the greatest, with some species of Gemmatimonadetes, Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria being enriched. UPGMC Cluster analysis pointed out that bacterial communities in the rhizospheric soil of NPKB₂ treatment were different from those in the NPK, NPKS and NPKB₁treatments, which belonged to the same cluster. These results indicated that application of cotton stalk biochar could significantly increase microbial diversity and change soil bacterial community structure in the cotton rhizosphere soil, thus improving the health of soil ecosystem.

  13. Strategies for soil-based precision agriculture in cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely, Haly L.; Morgan, Cristine L. S.; Stanislav, Scott; Rouze, Gregory; Shi, Yeyin; Thomasson, J. Alex; Valasek, John; Olsenholler, Jeff

    2016-05-01

    The goal of precision agriculture is to increase crop yield while maximizing the use efficiency of farm resources. In this application, UAV-based systems are presenting agricultural researchers with an opportunity to study crop response to environmental and management factors in real-time without disturbing the crop. The spatial variability soil properties, which drive crop yield and quality, cannot be changed and thus keen agronomic choices with soil variability in mind have the potential to increase profits. Additionally, measuring crop stress over time and in response to management and environmental conditions may enable agronomists and plant breeders to make more informed decisions about variety selection than the traditional end-of-season yield and quality measurements. In a previous study, seed-cotton yield was measured over 4 years and compared with soil variability as mapped by a proximal soil sensor. It was found that soil properties had a significant effect on seed-cotton yield and the effect was not consistent across years due to different precipitation conditions. However, when seed-cotton yield was compared to the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), as measured using a multispectral camera from a UAV, predictions improved. Further improvement was seen when soil-only pixels were removed from the analysis. On-going studies are using UAV-based data to uncover the thresholds for stress and yield potential. Long-term goals of this research include detecting stress before yield is reduced and selecting better adapted varieties.

  14. Improvement of colour strength and colourfastness properties of gamma irradiated cotton using reactive black-5

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    Ahmad Bhatti, Ijaz; Adeel, Shahid; Nadeem, Raziya; Asghar, Toheed

    2012-03-01

    The dyeing behaviour of gamma irradiated cotton fabric using Reactive Black-5 dye powder has been investigated. The mercerized, bleached and plain weaved cotton fabric was irradiated to different absorbed doses of 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 Gy using Co-60 gamma irradiator. Dyeing was performed using irradiated and un-irradiated cotton with dye solutions. The dyeing parameters such as temperature of dyeing, time of dyeing and pH of dyeing solutions were optimised. The colour strength values of dyed fabrics were evaluated by comparing irradiated and un-irradiated cotton in CIE Lab system using Spectra flash SF650. Methods suggested by International Standard Organisation (ISO) were employed to study the effect of gamma irradiation on the colourfastness properties of dyed fabric. It is found that gamma irradiated cotton dyed with Reactive Black-5 has not only improved the colour strength but also enhanced the rating of fastness properties.

  15. Impact of Bt-cotton on soil microbiological and biochemical attributes

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    Sanaullah Yasin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Transgenic Bt-cotton produces Bt-toxins (Cry proteins which may accumulate and persist in soil due to their binding ability on soil components. In the present study, the potential impacts of Bt- and non-Bt genotypes of cotton on soil microbial activity, substrate use efficiency, viable microbial population counts, and nutrient dynamics were studied. Two transgenic Bt-cotton genotypes (CIM-602 CIM-599 expressing cry1 Ac gene and two non-Bt cotton genotypes (CIM-573 and CIM-591 were used to evaluate their impact on biological and chemical properties of soil across the four locations in Punjab. Field trials were conducted at four locations (Central Cotton Research Institute-Multan, Naseer Pur, Kot Lal Shah, and Cotton Research Station-Bahawalpur of different agro-ecological zones of Punjab. Rhizosphere soil samples were collected by following standard procedure from these selected locations. Results reveled that Bt-cotton had no adverse effect on microbial population (viable counts and enzymatic activity of rhizosphere soil. Bacterial population was more in Bt-cotton rhizosphere than that of non-Bt cotton rhizosphere at all locations. Phosphatase, dehydrogenase, and oxidative metabolism of rhizosphere soil were more in Bt-cotton genotypes compared with non-Bt cotton genotypes. Cation exchange capacity, total nitrogen, extractable phosphorous, extractable potassium, active carbon, Fe and Zn contents were higher in rhizosphere of Bt-cotton genotypes compared with non-Bt cotton genotypes. It can be concluded from present study that the cultivation of Bt-cotton expressing cry1 Ac had apparently no negative effect on metabolic, microbiological activities, and nutrient dynamics of soils. Further work is needed to investigate the potential impacts of Bt-cotton on ecology of soil-dwelling insects and invertebrates before its recommendation for extensive cultivation.

  16. Soil Temperature Dependent Growth of Cotton Seedlings Before Emergence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Soil temperature is an important variable governing plant growth and development.Studies were conducted under laboratory conditions to determine the effect of soil temperature on root and shoot growth of cotton during emergence.Cotton seedlings were grown for 192 h at 20,32 and 38℃ in soil packed in 300 mm long and 50 mm diameter cylinders.The data indicated that the longest roots(173 ram)as well as shoots(152 mm)were recorded at 32 ℃ followed by 20 (130 mm root and 82 mm shoot)and 38℃(86 mm root and 50 mm shoot).Roots grown at 20 and 38 ℃ were 20% and 50% shorter,respectively,than those grown at 32℃ after 192 h.Roots and shoots exhibited the lowest length and dry biomass at 38℃.Shoot lengths grown at 20(74 ram)and 38℃(51 mm)were 44% and 61% shorter than those grown at 32℃(131 mm)after 180 h growth period,respectively.Growth at all three temperatures followed a similar pattern.Initially there was a linear growth phase followed by the reduction or cessation of growth.Time to cessation of growth varied with temperature and decreased faster at higher temperatures.Sowing of cotton should be accomlplished before seedbed reaches a soil temperature(≥38℃)detrimental for emergence.Further,the seedbeds should be capable of providing sufficient moisture and essential nutrients for emerging seedling before its seed reserves are exhausted to enhance seedling establishment in soil.

  17. Effects of transgenic Bt cotton on soil fertility and biology under field conditions in subtropical inceptisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Raman Jeet; Ahlawat, I P S; Singh, Surender

    2013-01-01

    Although there is large-scale adoption of Bt cotton by the farmers because of immediate financial gain, there is concern that Bt crops release Bt toxins into the soil environment which reduces soil chemical and biological activities. However, the majorities of such studies were mainly performed under pot experiments, relatively little research has examined the direct and indirect effects of associated cover crop of peanut with fertilization by combined application of organic and inorganic sources of nitrogen under field conditions. We compared soil chemical and biological parameters of Bt cotton with pure crop of peanut to arrive on a valid conclusion. Significantly higher dehydrogenase enzyme activity and KMnO(4)-N content of soil were observed in Bt cotton with cover crop of peanut over pure Bt cotton followed by pure peanut at all the crop growth stages. However, higher microbial population was maintained by pure peanut over intercropped Bt cotton, but these differences were related to the presence of high amount of KMnO(4)-N content of soil. By growing cover crop of peanut between Bt cotton rows, bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes population increased by 60%, 14%, and 10%, respectively, over Bt cotton alone. Bt cotton fertilized by combined application of urea and farm yard manure (FYM) maintained higher dehydrogenase enzyme activity, KMnO(4)-N content of soil and microbial population over urea alone. Significant positive correlations were observed for dry matter accumulation, dehydrogenase enzyme activity, KMnO(4)-N content, and microbial population of soil of Bt cotton, which indicates no harmful effects of Bt cotton on soil biological parameters and associated cover crop. Our results suggest that inclusion of cover crop of peanut and FYM in Bt cotton enhanced soil chemical and biological parameters which can mask any negative effect of the Bt toxin on microbial activity and thus on enzymatic activities.

  18. Effects of Soil Water Content on Cotton Root Growth and Distribution Under Mulched Drip Irrigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xiao-tang; CHEN Hu; WANG Jing; MENG Xiao-bin; CHEN Fu-hong

    2009-01-01

    The relation between soil water content and the growth of cotton root was studied for the scheme of field water and cotton yield under mulched drip irrigation.Based on the field experiments,three treatments of soil water content were conducted with 90%θf,75%θf,and 60%θf (θf is field water capacity).Cotton roots and root-shoot ratio were studied with digging method,and the soil moisture was observed with TDR (time domain reflector),and cotton yield was measured.The results indicated that the growth of cotton root accorded with Logistic growth curve in the three treatments,the cotton root grew quickly and its weight was very high under 75%θf because of the suitable soil water condition,while grew slowly and its weight was lower under 90%θf due to water moisture beyond the suitable condition,and the root weight was in between under 60%θf.For the three water treatments,the cotton root weight decreased with soil depth,and decreased more significantly in deeper soil layer with the soil moisture increasing.And the ratio of cotton root weight in 0-30 cm soil layer to the total root weight was the highest under 75%θf.The cotton root system was distributed mainly in the soil of narrow row and wide row mulched with plastic film,and little in the soil outside plastic film.The weight of cotton root was the highest in the soil of narrow row or wide row mulched with plastic film under 75%θf.Root-shoot ratio decreased with the soil moisture increasing.The soil water content affected cotton yields,and cotton yield was the highest under 75%θf.The higher soil moisture level is unfavorable to the growth of cotton root system and yield of cotton under mulched drip irrigation.

  19. Improved soil and water conservatory managements for cotton-maize rotation system in the western cotton area of Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Ouattara, Korodjouma

    2007-01-01

    Integrated soil fertility management combining additions of organic and mineral fertilizers and reduced ploughing frequencies is a prospective option for sustainable cropping systems. In the cotton cultivation area of Burkina Faso the agricultural land is gradually degrading due (at least in part) to increases in mechanization and the use of mineral fertilizers, herbicides and pesticides. The objective of the work underlying this thesis was to test soil management techniques to improve soil f...

  20. Effects of Soil Salinity on Sucrose Metabolism in Cotton Leaves.

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    Jun Peng

    Full Text Available This study investigated sucrose metabolism of the youngest fully expanded main-stem leaf (MSL and the subtending leaf of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. boll (LSCB of salt-tolerant (CCRI-79 and salt-sensitive (Simian 3 cultivars and its relationship to boll weight under low, medium and high soil salinity stress in Dafeng, China, in 2013 and 2014. The results showed that with increased soil salinity, 1 both the chlorophyll content and net photosynthetic rate (Pn decreased, while the internal CO2 concentration firstly declined, and then increased in the MSL and LSCB; 2 carbohydrate contents in the MSL reduced significantly, while sucrose and starch contents in the LSCB increased, as did the activities of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS and sucrose synthase (SuSy in both the MSL and LSCB; 3 but invertase activity in both the MSL and LSCB did not change significantly. Our study also showed that the LSCB was more sensitive to soil salinity than was the MSL. Of the measured physiological indices, higher SPS activity, mainly controlled by sps3, may contribute to adaption of the LSCB to soil salinity stress because SPS is beneficial for efficiently sucrose synthesis, reduction of cellular osmotic potential and combined actions of Pn, and sucrose transformation rate and SPS may contribute to the reduction in boll weight under soil salinity stress.

  1. Controlled release fungicide, soil amendments and biofumigation effects on cotton root rot suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cotton root rot pathogen (Phymatotrichopsis ominora) causes major losses in cotton produced in the Southwest. Granular controlled release formulations (CRF) of the fungicide, Propiconazole, developed to be soil applied at planting were studied at 1.0 and 3.0 lb a.i./ac. applications and with tw...

  2. STABILIZATION OF EXPANSIVE SOIL USING MILL SCALE

    OpenAIRE

    Y.I.Murthy

    2012-01-01

    The present paper deals with the evaluation of the mechanical properties of black cotton soil mixed with mill scale in varying proportions and comparing the same with the results of pure black cotton soil. The mechanical properties of mill scale and black cotton soil are individually determined first and then the two are combined in varying proportions. The properties like plastic limit, CBR and Permeability of the same are evaluated. It is found that mixing mill scale in varying proportions ...

  3. Dissipation of diethyl aminoethyl hexanoate (DA-6) residues in pakchoi, cotton crops and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yaping; Jiang, Yuting; He, Shun; Zhang, Heli; Pan, Canping

    2012-04-01

    QuEChERS procedure and acetonitrile extraction, oscillation and ultrasonic procedure followed by GC-MS and LC-MS/MS (QqQ) detections were established for determination of diethyl aminoethyl hexanoate (DA-6) residues in pakchoi, cotton leaf, cotton seed and soil. At concentration levels of 0.005-1 mg kg(-1), recoveries were in the range of 80.5%-103.3%, with a RSD less than 14.2%. The LOQs of methods were 0.005, 0.003, 0.005 and 0.001 mg kg(-1) for the pakchoi, cotton leaf, soil and cotton seed samples, respectively. DA-6 was applied in supervised field trials at GAP conditions to pakchoi and cotton. It was found that the dissipation half-lives of DA-6 were 5.4-8.2 days and 1.1-2.2 days and 1.5-1.9 days in cotton crop, pakchoi and soil respectively. At harvest, no detectable residues (cotton samples. However, residues was detected in pakchoi (0.007-0.013 mg/kg) in Beijing and soil (0.008-0.014 mg/kg) in Changsha in 2008.

  4. Effects of crop residue on soil and plant water evaporation in a dryland cotton system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lascano, R. J.; Baumhardt, R. L.

    1996-03-01

    Dryland agricultural cropping systems emphasize sustaining crop yields with limited use of fertilizer while conserving both rain water and the soil. Conservation of these resources may be achieved with management systems that retain residues at the soil surface simultaneously modifying both its energy and water balance. A conservation practice used with cotton grown on erodible soils of the Texas High Plains is to plant cotton into chemically terminated wheat residues. In this study, the partitioning of daily and seasonal evapotranspiration ( E t) into soil and plant water evaporation was compared for a conventional and a terminated-wheat cotton crop using the numerical model ENWATBAL. The model was configured to account for the effects of residue on the radiative fluxes and by introducing an additional resistance to latent and sensible heat fluxes derived from measurements of wind speed and vapor conductance from a soil covered with wheat-stubble. Our results showed that seasonal E t was similar in both systems and that cumulative soil water evaporation was 50% of E t in conventional cotton and 31% of E t in the wheat-stubble cotton. Calculated values of E t were in agreement with measured values. The main benefit of the wheat residues was to suppress soil water evaporation by intercepting irradiance early in the growing season when the crop leaf area index (LAI) was low. In semiarid regions LAI of dryland cotton seldom exceeds 2 and residues can improve water conservation. Measured soil temperatures showed that early in the season residues reduced temperature at 0.1 m depth by as much as 5°C and that differences between systems diminished with depth and over time. Residues increased lint yield per unit of E t while not modifying seasonal E t and reducing cumulative soil water evaporation.

  5. Conserved current for the Cotton tensor, black hole entropy and equivariant Pontryagin forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreiro Perez, Roberto, E-mail: roferreiro@ccee.ucm.e [Departamento de Economia Financiera y Contabilidad I Facultad de Ciencias Economicas y Empresariales, UCM Campus de Somosaguas, 28223-Pozuelo de Alarcon (Spain)

    2010-07-07

    The Chern-Simons Lagrangian density in the space of metrics of a three-dimensional manifold M is not invariant under the action of diffeomorphisms on M. However, its Euler-Lagrange operator can be identified with the Cotton tensor, which is invariant under diffeomorphims. As the Lagrangian is not invariant, the Noether theorem cannot be applied to obtain conserved currents. We show that it is possible to obtain an equivariant conserved current for the Cotton tensor by using the first equivariant Pontryagin form on the bundle of metrics. Finally we define a Hamiltonian current which gives the contribution of the Chern-Simons term to the black hole entropy, energy and angular momentum.

  6. Effects of Cotton Straw Incorporation on Soil Microbial Biomass Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Long-Term Continuous Cropping Cotton Field

    OpenAIRE

    GUO Cheng-zang; LI Lu-hua; Huang, Jin-Hua; LIU Jun; YANG Zhi-lan; Wei, Fei; Liu, Jian-guo

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the effect of straw incorporation on the content of soil microbial biomass carbon (SMBC), microbial biomass nitrogen (SMBN) and microbial biomass phosphorus(SMBP) in the continuous cropping cotton field. Results showed that cotton straw incorporation could increase the content of SMBC, SMBN and SMBP significantly in different soil layers. Besides, with the time of continuous cropping increasing, the content of SMBC, SMBN and SMBP were all remarkably raised in the straw inc...

  7. Water Use Efficiency in Saline Soils under Cotton Cultivation in the Tarim River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoning Zhao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Tarim River Basin, the largest area of Chinese cotton production, is receiving increased attention because of serious environmental problems. At two experimental stations (Korla and Aksu, we studied the influence of salinity on cotton yield. Soil chemical and physical properties, soil water content, soil total suction and matric suction, cotton yield and water use efficiency under plastic mulched drip irrigation in different saline soils was measured during cotton growth season. The salinity (mS·cm−1 were 17–25 (low at Aksu and Korla, 29–50 (middle at Aksu and 52–62 (high at Aksu for ECe (Electrical conductivity measured in saturation-paste extract of soil over the 100 cm soil profile. The soil water characteristic curves in different saline soils showed that the soil water content (15%–23% at top 40 cm soil, lower total suction power (below 3500 kPa and lower matric suction (below 30 kPa in low saline soil at Korla had the highest water use efficiency (10 kg·ha−1·mm−1 and highest irrigation water use efficiency (12 kg·ha−1·mm−1 and highest yield (6.64 t·ha−1. Higher water content below 30 cm in high saline soil increased the salinity risk and led to lower yield (2.39 t·ha−1. Compared to low saline soils at Aksu, the low saline soil at Korla saved 110 mm irrigation and 103 mm total water to reach 1 t·ha−1 yield and increased water use efficiency by 5 kg·ha−1·mm−1 and 7 kg·ha−1·mm−1 for water use efficiency (WUE and irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE respectively.

  8. Simulation Models of Leaf Area Index and Yield for Cotton Grown with Different Soil Conditioners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Su

    Full Text Available Simulation models of leaf area index (LAI and yield for cotton can provide a theoretical foundation for predicting future variations in yield. This paper analyses the increase in LAI and the relationships between LAI, dry matter, and yield for cotton under three soil conditioners near Korla, Xinjiang, China. Dynamic changes in cotton LAI were evaluated using modified logistic, Gaussian, modified Gaussian, log normal, and cubic polynomial models. Universal models for simulating the relative leaf area index (RLAI were established in which the application rate of soil conditioner was used to estimate the maximum LAI (LAIm. In addition, the relationships between LAIm and dry matter mass, yield, and the harvest index were investigated, and a simulation model for yield is proposed. A feasibility analysis of the models indicated that the cubic polynomial and Gaussian models were less accurate than the other three models for simulating increases in RLAI. Despite significant differences in LAIs under the type and amount of soil conditioner applied, LAIm could be described by aboveground dry matter using Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Moreover, the simulation model for cotton yield based on LAIm and the harvest index presented in this work provided important theoretical insights for improving water use efficiency in cotton cultivation and for identifying optimal application rates of soil conditioners.

  9. Mathematical Analyses for the Influence of Soil Conditions and Nutrient Interactions on Cotton Yields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGJIANHUI; HUCHANGQING; 等

    1996-01-01

    The influence of soil chemical properties and soil nutrition on cotton yields was studied by means of establishing mathematical models.The nultivarate quadratic regression equations developed by a stepwise regression method not only presented the single effect of soil factors but also displayed the interaction(synergistic or antagonistic) of soil nutrients.The effect of individual factor and the way of nutrient interaction were further analysed by the path analysis method.The results showed that among major factors affecting cotton yields,there existed the interactions between macronutrients(available P× available K),and between macronutrients and microelements(N×Zn,P×Mo,P×Cu,P×Zn,K×Mo)besides the single effect of soil pH,total P ,available Cu and available Zn.

  10. Contribution of Root Respiration to Total Soil Respiration in a Cotton Field of Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Zhi-Min; ZHAO Cheng-Yi; Y.YILIHAMU; LI Ju-Yan; LI Jun

    2013-01-01

    To measure the contribution of root respiration (Rr) to total soil respiration (Rt) in arid cotton fields,eighteen plots,nine for girdling and nine control,were built in an arid cotton field in the Aksu National Experimental Station of Oasis Farmland Ecosystem,Xinjiang of China.Given the difference of soil respiration between girdled plots and non-girdled control plots,the components of soil respiration,root respiration (Rr) and respiration originating from decomposition (Rd) were divided.The temperature sensitivities of Rr and Rd were analyzed,respectively.The results showed that the average contribution of Rr to Rt in arid cotton field was about 32% during the study period.The temperature-response curve of Rr differed from that of Rd.The dynamic variation of Rd was more related to the change of soil temperature as compared to Rr.Rr and Rd had different responses to the variation of environment,and thus new models capable of differentiating between Rr and Rd are needed for evaluating the different factors controlling these two components of soil respiration in arid cotton field.

  11. Cadmium (Cd) Localization in Tissues of Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), and Its Phytoremediation Potential for Cd-Contaminated Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhifan; Zhao, Ye; Fan, Lidong; Xing, Liteng; Yang, Yujie

    2015-12-01

    Phytoremediation using economically valuable, large biomass, non-edible plants is a promising method for metal-contaminated soils. This study investigated cotton's tolerance for Cd and remediation potential through analyzing Cd bioaccumulation and localization in plant organs under different soil Cd levels. Results showed cotton presents good tolerance when soil Cd concentration ≤20.26 mg kg(-1). Cotton had good Cd accumulation ability under low soil Cd levels (soil Cd, while roots and stems were the main compartments of Cd storage. Cd complexation to other organic constituents in root and stem cell sap could be a primary detoxifying strategy. Therefore, cotton is a potential candidate for phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated soils.

  12. Effect of Polylactic Acid-Degradable Film Mulch on Soil Temperature and Cotton Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Ni

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Concern on biodegradable plastic film is increasing because of pollution problems caused by the plastic films currently used. The objective of this field experiment is to evaluate the effect of two thicknesses of polyactic acid-degradable film on soil temperature and cotton yield. The results showed that small holes appeared in the polyactic acid-degradable film at 17~22 d after it was installed. Burst period appeared about 60 d after installation. Splits were observed in the polyactic acid-degradable film at 130 d after installation. Soil temperatures rose slowly under polyactic acid-degradable film during the cotton seedling stage. Daytime soil temperatures were 0.8℃ and 6.2℃ lower under 18μm and 15μm thick polyactic acid-degradable film than non-degradable plastic film(CK, respectively. Nighttime soil temperatures under the polyactic acid-degradable film were about 1℃ warmer than CK. There was no significant difference in cotton yields between the 18μm polyactic acid degradable film treatment and CK. In contrast, yields in the 15μm degradable plastic film treatment were 8.9% less than that in CK. This study indicated that 18μm polyactic acid degradable plastic film had good degradability and no negative effect on cotton growth. The 18μm polyactic acid degradable plastic film can replace ordinary plastic film in agricultural production.

  13. Soil microflora and enzyme activities in rhizosphere of Transgenic Bt cotton hybrid under different intercropping systems and plant protection schedules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biradar, D. P.; Alagawadi, A. R.; Basavanneppa, M. A.; Udikeri, S. S.

    2012-04-01

    Field experiments were conducted over three rainy seasons of 2005-06 to 2007-08 on a Vertisol at Dharwad, Karnataka, India to study the effect of intercropping and plant protection schedules on productivity, soil microflora and enzyme activities in the rhizosphere of transgenic Bt cotton hybrid. The experiment consisted of four intercropping systems namely, Bt cotton + okra, Bt cotton + chilli, Bt cotton + onion + chilli and Bt cotton + redgram with four plant protection schedules (zero protection, protection for Bt cotton, protection for intercrop and protection for both crops). Observations on microbial populations and enzyme activities were recorded at 45, 90, 135 and 185 (at harvest) days after sowing (DAS). Averaged over years, Bt cotton + okra intercropping had significantly higher total productivity than Bt cotton + chilli and Bt cotton + redgram intercropping system and was similar to Bt cotton + chilli + onion intercropping system. With respect to plant protection schedules for bollworms, protection for both cotton and intercrops recorded significantly higher yield than the rest of the treatments. Population of total bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, P-solubilizers, free-living N2 fixers as well as urease, phosphatase and dehydrogenase enzyme activities increased up to 135 days of crop growth followed by a decline. Among the intercropping systems, Bt cotton + chilli recorded significantly higher population of microorganisms and enzyme activities than other cropping systems. While Bt cotton with okra as intercrop recorded the least population of total bacteria and free-living N2 fixers as well as urease activity. Intercropping with redgram resulted in the least population of actinomycetes, fungi and P-solubilizers, whereas Bt cotton with chilli and onion recorded least activities of dehydrogenase and phosphatase. Among the plant protection schedules, zero protection recorded maximum population of microorganisms and enzyme activities. This was followed by the

  14. [Effect of plantation of transgenic Bt cotton on the amount of rhizospheric soil microorganism and bacterial diversity in the cotton region of Yellow River basin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Ri-Su; Yu, Hong; Yang, Dian-Lin; Zhao, Jian-Ning; Li, Gang; Na, Bu-Qi; Liu, Ling

    2011-01-01

    Traditional culture-dependent method and PCR-DGGE were adopted to investigate the amount of microorganism and bacterial diversity in rhizospheric soil of transgenic Bt cotton in four provinces of Yellow River basin at four growth stages, i.e., 30, 60, 90, and 120 days after sowing. In the same province and at the same growth stage, no significant difference was observed in the amount of microorganism in rhizospheric soils of transgenic and non-transgenic Bt cottons. Within the same province the amount of microorganism was mainly affected by growth stage; while in different provinces, it was greatly affected by regional conditions. In the four provinces, the bacterial diversity in rhizospheric soil of transgenic Bt cotton was abundant; and in the same province and at the same growth stage, there were no significant differences in the Shannon index, evenness, and richness of bacteria in rhizospheric soils of transgenic and non-transgenic Bt cottons. In different provinces, the bacterial diversity in rhizospheric soils was dependent on regional conditions, but the difference was rather small.

  15. The spatiotemporal characteristics of soil physio-chemical parameters and their influence on cotton growth under mulched drip irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, H.; Tian, F.; Zhang, Z.; Hu, H.

    2013-12-01

    The spatiotemporal characteristics of the physio-chemical parameters of soil and their impacts on crop growth are the key issues affecting precision agriculture. However, quantitative research in cotton fields under mulched drip irrigation is rare. One hundred experimental plots (6 m× 6 m) were set up for the above purpose in an agricultural experimental field in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China. Soil samples were collected to measure the soil texture, moisture and salinity at depths of 5, 10, 20, 30, 50 and 80 cm in the near-tape zone and the inter-film zone in each experimental plot in March, April, June and September of 2012. The number and height of the cotton plants in June and the yield of cotton in September were also surveyed in 3 sample units (75 cm × 75 cm) in each experimental plot. The results indicate that the soil composition of clay and silt was highest at a soil depth of 5 to 20 cm due to the cultivation practices, and the Cv (coefficient of variation) values of soil texture increased with depth. The spring flush led to an 8% decrease in soil salinity and reduced the Cv values of soil salinity, soil moisture and soil texture. The Cv values of soil salinity and soil moisture increased as mulched drip irrigation was applied. The Cv values of soil salinity and moisture under the near tape zone were higher than under the interfilm zone; the difference was up to twofold in September. The validity of a theoretical semivariogram model of soil moisture is greater than that of texture, soil salinity and crop trait when comparing the estimation of the theoretical semivariogram with measured values. The influence of soil physiochemical characteristics on the number of cotton plants is largest in April, and their influence on the height of cotton plants is greatest in June. However, the influence of soil physiochemical characteristics on cotton yield is smaller than that on cotton number and height in April and June. The soil salt under the near tape

  16. World Champion from the Black Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIRED; LIU

    1998-01-01

    TWENTY years ago, while working in the rich black soil of the northeast, I came to know a Mr. Li. He was the blacksmith with the production team I worked on, the Heilongjiang Production & Construction Corps.His daughter, Li Yemei, is now a student at Beijing University. She had been admitted to China’s most famous university because of her outstanding achievements in sports. A marathon runner, she had won 13 championships in national and international competitions. In China, any athlete who has broken a world record or performed outstandingly in any of the three most important international events—the Olympic Games, the World Championships, or the World Cup—is given access to a university education without taking the usual entrance examination. Yemei had dreamed of attending Beijing University since she was a little girl, and that’s the university she chose to attend when she retired from professional competitions.

  17. Effect of soil salinity on physiological characteristics of functional leaves of cotton plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Guowei; Wang, Youhua; Zhou, Zhiguo; Meng, Yali; Chen, Binglin

    2013-03-01

    This study analyzes the effects of soil salinity on fatty acid composition, antioxidative enzyme activity, lipid peroxidation, and photosynthesis in functional leaves during the flowering and boll-forming stages of two cotton cultivars, namely, CCRI-44 (salt-tolerant) and Sumian 12 (salt-sensitive), grown under different soil salinity conditions. Saturated (C16:0 and C18:0) and unsaturated fatty acid (FA) contents (C18:1), as well as superoxide dismutase activity increased, whereas high-unsaturated FA (C18:2 and C18:3) decreased, with the increase in soil salinity. The production of malondialdehyde increased with increasing lipoxygenase (LOX) activity, indicating that LOX catalyzed FA peroxidation under salt stress. Soil salinity had no significant effect on catalase (CAT) and peroxidases (POD) activity in the salt-sensitive cultivar Sumian 12, but significantly increased CAT and POD activities in the salt-tolerant cultivar CCRI-44. Net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance of the cotton cultivars decreased in response to salt stress; however, CCRI-44 showed a smaller reduction in photosynthesis than Sumian 12. The results indicated that stomatal apparatus limited leaf photosynthetic capacity in the salinity-treated plants of both cultivars. The net photosynthetic rate, maximum photochemical efficiency, and photochemical quantum yield of the cotton functional leaves showed positive correlation with double-bond index (DBI). These results suggested that salt stress caused DBI reduction and decreased the photochemical conversion efficiency of solar radiation and, thereby resulting in lower net photosynthetic rates.

  18. Effects of Changing Cultivation System on Soil Carbon Dynamics in Cotton Field of Northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z.; Wang, X.; Tian, C.

    2010-12-01

    There has being a change in cotton cultivative practice in the northwestern China, i.e., from the traditional cultivation (TF) of no mulching with flood-irrigation to the modern cultivation (PM) of plastic film mulching with drip-irrigation. Little is known how this change affects soil carbon dynamics. This paper presents a field study that includes comparisons of soil organic carbon (SOC), soil CO2 concentration and soil surface CO2 efflux during cotton growing season. At the initial growing stage, SOC content was similar between TF and PM, showing a clear decreasing trend over depth (i.e., ~9 g/kg, ~7.5 g/kg and ~3 g/kg at 0-20 cm, 20-30 cm and 30-70 cm, respectively). After five months, SOC generally decreased at 0-20 cm but increased below 30 cm. Overal, SOC was higher in the surface soil in the PM than in the TF, particularly at 20-30 cm where SOC reached ~9 g/kg in the PM. In general, CO2 concentration in soil profile was higher in the PM (3107 - 9212 ppmv) than in the TF (1275 - 8994 ppmv). However, rate of CO2 efflux was lower in the PM than in the TF, primarily owing to plastic film covering. For the whole cotton growing season, accumulated rates of CO2 efflux were 300 g C m-2 and 394 g C m-2 in the PM and the TF, respectively. Fig. 1. Soil organic carbon (SOC) in (a) May (b) August and (c) October between plastic film mulching cultivation (PM) and traditional flooding cultivation (TF). Table 1. Soil surface CO2 efflux during different growing stages in different systems ADR: averaged daily rate during each stage; AE: accumulative efflux for each stage.

  19. The impact of cotton growing practices on soil microbiology and its relation to plant and soil health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereg, Lily

    2013-04-01

    Crop production and agricultural practices heavily impact the soil microbial communities, which differ among varying types of soils and environmental conditions. Soil-borne microbial communities in cotton production systems, as in every other cropping system, consist of microbial populations that may either be pathogenic, beneficial or neutral with respect to the cotton crop. Crop production practices have major roles in determining the composition of microbial communities and function of microbial populations in soils. The structure and function of any given microbial community is determined by various factors, including those that are influenced by farming and those not controlled by farming activities. Examples of the latter are environmental conditions such as soil type, temperature, daylight length and UV radiation, air humidity, atmospheric pressure and some abiotic features of the soil. On the other hand, crop production practices may determine other abiotic soil properties, such as water content, density, oxygen levels, mineral and elemental nutrient levels and the load of other crop-related soil amendments. Moreover, crop production highly influences the biotic properties of the soil and has a major role in determining the fate of soil-borne microbial communities associated with the crop plant. Various microbial strains react differently to the presence of certain plants and plant exudates. Therefore, the type of plant and crop rotations are important factors determining microbial communities. In addition, practice management, e.g. soil cultivation versus crop stubble retention, have a major effect on the soil conditions and, thus, on microbial community structure and function. All of the above-mentioned factors can lead to preferential selection of certain microbial population over others. It may affect not only the composition of microbial communities (diversity and abundance of microbial members) but also the function of the community (the ability of

  20. Effect of dehydrogenase, phosphatase and urease activity in cotton soil after applying thiamethoxam as seed treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyot, Gagan; Mandal, Kousik; Singh, Balwinder

    2015-05-01

    Soil enzymes are indicators of microbial activities in soil and are often considered as an indicator of soil health and fertility. They are very sensitive to the agricultural practices, pH of the soil, nutrients, inhibitors and weather conditions. To understand the effect of an insecticide, thiamethoxam, on different soil enzyme activities, the experiments were conducted at cotton experimental fields of Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana. The results here were presented to understand the impact of thiamethoxam on soil enzyme activities. Thiamethoxam was applied as seed treatment to control the pest. Soil from three localities, i.e. soil in which seed was treated with recommended dose at 2.1 g a.i. kg(-1), soil in which seed was treated with four times recommended dose at 8.4 g a.i. kg(-1) and from the control field, were tested for different enzyme activities. Phosphatase and dehydrogenase activities were high in control soil in comparison to control soil while no effect of this insecticide on urease activity. Thiamethoxam had inhibitory effects on dehydrogenase and phosphatase activities. Therefore, it can be attributed that agricultural practices, weather conditions and use of thiamethoxam might be responsible for the different level of enzyme activities in soil.

  1. Influence of Soil Temperature on Meloidogyne incognita Resistant and Susceptible Cotton, Gossypium hirsutum

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, William W.

    1982-01-01

    The degree of resistance by a cotton plant to Meloidogyne incognita is affected by soil temperature, particularly in moderately resistant cultivars, The total number of nematodes in the resistant and moderately resistant rools at 35 C was equal to, or greater than, the number in susceptible roots at 20, 25, or 30 C. A shift in numbers to developing and egg-bearing forms of nematodes in the susceptible cultivar as tentperature increased indicates development was affected by temperature rather ...

  2. Distribution of Heavy Metals in the Soils Associated with the Commonly Used Pesticides in Cotton Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadia Rashid Tariq

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural soils contain both heavy metals and pesticides originating from various agricultural practices. It is quite important to study the relationships between these two classes of compounds. To accomplish this, 52 soil samples were collected from cotton fields and analyzed for their metal contents (Ni, Cu, Co, Pb, Cr, and Cd and levels of most commonly used pesticides (imidacloprid, acetamiprid, and emamectin. FAAS was used for metal estimation and the pesticides were determined by HPLC equipped with UV detector. The results of the study revealed slightly enhanced levels of Ni and Cd in these samples while the rest of the metals were present within tolerable range. Acetamiprid residues in soil were strongly positively correlated with Cu and negatively correlated with Cr. Similarly, imidacloprid in soil was negatively correlated with Ni. Thus it was evidenced that Cu stabilizes acetamiprid while Cr and Ni facilitate the degradation of acetamiprid and imidacloprid in the soil.

  3. IMPACT OF SOIL MANAGEMENT ON COTTON RHIZOSPHERE BACTERIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil dwelling bacteria and fungi are responsible for a number of ecosystem services critical to agriculture. In particular, bacteria living in the rhizosphere (portion of soil directly influenced by plant roots) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi have been shown to improve nutrient and water uptake an...

  4. Quantitative Analysis of Moisture Effect on Black Soil Reflectance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Huan-Jun; ZHANG Yuan-Zhi; ZHANG Xin-Le; ZHANG Bai; SONG Kai-Shan; WANG Zong-Ming; TANG Na

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that soil reflectance decreases with increasing soil moisture content,or increases when the soil moisture reaches a certain content;however,there are few analyses on the quantitative relationship between soil reflectance and its moisture,especially in the case of black soils in northeast China.A new moisture adjusting method was developed to obtain soil reflectance with a smaller moisture interval to describe the quantitative relationship between soil reflectance and moisture.For the soil samples with moisture contents ranging from air-dry to saturated,the changes in soil reflectance with soil moisture can be depicted using a cubic equation.Both moisture threshold (MT) and moisture inflexion (MI) of soil reflectance can also be determined by the equation.When the moisture range was smaller than MT,soil reflectance can be simulated with a linear model.However,for samples with different soil organic matter (OM),the parameters of the linear model varied regularly with the OM content.Based on their relationship,the soil moisture can be estimated from soil reflectance in the black soil region.

  5. Effects of Cotton Straw Incorporation on Soil Microbial Biomass Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Long-Term Continuous Cropping Cotton Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUO Cheng-zang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the effect of straw incorporation on the content of soil microbial biomass carbon (SMBC, microbial biomass nitrogen (SMBN and microbial biomass phosphorus(SMBP in the continuous cropping cotton field. Results showed that cotton straw incorporation could increase the content of SMBC, SMBN and SMBP significantly in different soil layers. Besides, with the time of continuous cropping increasing, the content of SMBC, SMBN and SMBP were all remarkably raised in the straw incorporation treatment. However, with the time of continuous cropping increasing, the content of SMBC, SMBN and SMBP were all remarkably declined in the straw removal treatment. In 0~20 cm soil layer, compared with the straw removal, both SMBC content and SMBN content with 5, 10, 15 years continuous cropping treatments in the straw incorporation treatment were increased by 20.8%, 67.2%, 70.4% and 22.2%, 81.2%, 85.4%, respectively, and the SMBP content in the straw incorporation treatment was increased by 22.3%, 81.2%, 85.3%, respectively. Under the cotton straw incorporation, in 0~20 cm soil layer, compared with the 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 years continuous cropping, both SMBC content and SMBN content in 30 years were increased by 116.6%, 86.2%, 101.6%, 28.9%, 8.99% and 114.1%, 82.1%, 99.65%, 27.8%, 7.15%, respectively, and the SMBP content in 30 years was increased by 65.7%, 6.9%, 34.2%, 1.4%, 2.2%, respectively. The content of SMBC, SMBN, SMBP in different soil layers decreased in the order as 0~20 cm> 20~40 cm> 40~60 cm. Consequently, cotton straw incorporation could significantly increase the the content of soil microbial biomass carbon, microbial biomass nitrogen and microbial biomass phosphorus in the long-term continuous cropping cotton field, besides it could alleviate the negative impact of cotton continuous cropping, so that it would be beneficial to improve the soil quality and soil fertility.

  6. Toxaphene residues from cotton fields in soils and in the coastal environment of Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, F P; Montenegro-Guillén, S; Villeneuve, J P; Cattini, C; Tolosa, I; Bartocci, J; Lacayo-Romero, M; Cruz-Granja, A

    2003-11-01

    Toxaphene (camphechlor) was intensively used in the cotton growing fields of Nicaragua for decades with application rates as high as 31 kg ha(-1) in 1985. Although the use of this compound has recently been discontinued in the country, its intensive use in the past and its long persistence in soil allowed for the build up of large reservoirs of toxaphene in agriculture soils and a wide dispersal of residues in the environment. Measurements of toxaphene in coastal areas on the coast of the Pacific Ocean show that environmental concentrations are particularly high in the district of Chinandega, the traditional cotton growing region. Toxaphene residues measured in soils attained 44 microg g(-1) (dry weight) while concentrations in lagoon sediments attained 6.9 microg g(-1) (dry weight) near the mouth of the rivers flowing across the agricultural region. Measurements in aquatic biota showed concentrations as high as 1.6 microg g(-1) (dry weight) in the soft tissues of clams. The toxaphene reservoir in soils combined with the obvious persistence of this compound in soils and lagoon sediments allows predicting that toxaphene will remain in the coastal ecosystem at relatively high concentrations for many years. Toxic effects in lagoon fauna are likely to be observed especially in benthic species that may recycle this compound from sediments. Consumption of seafood, in particular of clams (Anadara spp.) from the more contaminated areas, may expose the population to unacceptably high intake of toxaphene, 30 microg d(-1) per person, with the diet.

  7. Soil Biochemical Changes Induced by Poultry Litter Application and Conservation Tillage under Cotton Production Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seshadri Sajjala

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Problems arising from conventional tillage (CT systems (such as soil erosion, decrease of organic matter, environmental damage etc. have led many farmers to the adoption of no-till (NT systems that are more effective in improving soil physical, chemical and microbial properties. Results from this study clearly indicated that NT, mulch tillage (MT, and winter rye cover cropping systems increased the activity of phosphatase, β-glucosidase and arylsulfatase at a 0–10 cm soil depth but decreased the activity of these enzymes at 10–20 cm. The increase in enzyme activity was a good indicator of intensive soil microbial activity in different soil management practices. Poultry litter (PL application under NT, MT, and rye cropping system could be considered as effective management practices due to the improvement in carbon (C content and the biochemical quality at the soil surface. The activities of the studied enzymes were highly correlated with soil total nitrogen (STN soil organic carbon (SOC at the 0–10 cm soil depth, except for acid phosphatase where no correlation was observed. This study revealed that agricultural practices such as tillage, PL, and cover crop cropping system have a noticeable positive effect on soil biochemical activities under cotton production.

  8. Sewage Sludge Usage in Cotton Crop:I.Influence on Soil Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.D.TSADILAN; D.G.DIMOYIANNIS; 等

    1999-01-01

    A field experiment with cotton was conducted on a well drained,calcareous,clay loamy Typic Xerochreph to investigate the utility of sewage sludge as a partial substitute for fertilizers and the influence of tis application on the basic soil properties and heavy metal concentrations.The experimental design was completely randomized blocks with five treatments replicated four times each.Sewage sludge came from the treatment plant of the municipality of Volos,Central Greece,with the following characteristics:organic matter content 36.6%,pH(H2O1:5)6.89,CaCO3 53.4g kg-1,total N 265.g kg-1,ttal P33.5g kg-1,and total K 968mg kg-1 soil.Heavy metal concentrations were Cd 5.24,Pb 442,Ni38,Cu 224,Zn1812,and Mn 260mgkg-1 dry weight,respectively.The soil was high in potassium(K)and poor in available phosphorus(P).The results showed that sewage sludge application increased cotton yield and K and P concentrations in cotton leaves,Soil pH was reduced in the case of higher sewage sludge rate.Electrical conductivity,organic matter content,totalN,and avaiable P were significantly increased.Total concentrations of Zn,Pb,and Cu were slightly increased.DTPA-extractable Zn,Cu,and Mn were also significantly increased.Available forms of all heavy metals,except Cd,were significantly correlated with organic matter content in a positive way and negatively with soil pH.

  9. Effect of maize canopy and water repellency on moisture patterns in a Dutch black plaggen soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, L.W.; Ritsema, C.J.

    1997-01-01

    Man-made raised sandy soils in the Netherlands are classified as `brown' or `black' plaggen soils. When dry, the brown soils are wettable, but the black soils are water repellent. For one growing season, transects were sampled in a maize cropped black plaggen soil at the Heino experimental farm. Due

  10. Maize (Zea mays L.) and Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) Straw Decomposition in Soil: Effect of Straw Placement, Mineral Nitrogen and Tillage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    With the present understanding that decomposing straw may not only affect soil properties, but pos-sibly greenhouse gas emissions as well, focus among environmental researchers has gradually expanded toinclude understanding of decomposition rate and stability of straw of different plants in different soils underdifferent management conditions. Against such a background, a short-term (60 days) greenhouse simulationexperiment was carried out to study the effects of straw placement, external mineral N source and tillageon straw decomposition of maize and cotton in two contrasting soils, a red soil (Ferrasol) and a black soil(Acrisol). The treatments included straw addition only (T1); straw addition + mineral N (T2); and strawaddition + tillage (T3). Straw was either buried in the soil or placed on the surface. Sampling was doneevery 15 days. Placement, addition of external mineral N sources (urea, 46% N), straw type, soil type andexposure duration (15, 30, 45 and 60 days) affected straw decomposition. Decomposition was more in buriedstraw than in surface-placed straw at all sampling dates in red soil. The addition of an external N sourcesignificantly increased decomposition. The study could not, however, fully account for the effect of tillageon straw decomposition because of the limited effect of our tillage method due to the artificial barrier tomechanical interference supplied by the mesh bags.

  11. Mobile nickel content in calcareous black soils of Rajac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Aleksandar R.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A description of mobile Ni contents in various subtypes of calcareous black soils from the area of the mountain massif of Rajac, is given in the present paper. A hundred soil samples were analysed in all, originating from four subtypes of calcareous black soil (organogenic, organo-mineral, brownized and loessivized black soils. The extraction of mobile Ni was carried out with 1.0 N HCl and its content was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The obtained results indicate that mobile Ni content in the investigated soils varies within a wide range, from 5.0 to 251.3 mg/kg that it is very seldom (only in 3% of the investigated samples within the range from 5 to 7 mg/kg, that in over 90% of the 100 investigated samples it is higher than 10 mg/kg, and in almost 3/5 of the samples it is higher than 20 mg/kg. Calcareous black soils of Rajac massif have much higher mobile Ni content than previously investigated black soils from calcareous massif of Rtanj, which is, by all means, only partly due to their more severe dealkalization and acidification. In addition, here is undoubtedly apparent the influence of the geological substrate, i.e. of serpentine rocks that border the calcareous massif of Rajac.

  12. A Black (White) Hole in the Global Spread of GM Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkitbayeva, Saule; Qaim, Matin; Swinnen, Johan

    2016-04-01

    Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) cotton has been widely adopted, notably by smallholder farmers in developing countries. However, it has not been used in Central Asia, an important cotton-producing region. We discuss possible reasons and hypothesize that the most likely explanation is limited local demand for Bt owing to low levels of pest infestation. This would imply that global Bt cotton adoption rates may already be close to 100% when considering real demand for insect-resistant varieties.

  13. Integrated Prevention and Control System for Soil Erosion in Typical Black Soil Region of Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Li-ying; CAI Qiang-guo; CHEN Sheng-yong; HE Ji-jun

    2012-01-01

    The black soil region of Northeast China is one of the most important food production bases and commodity grain bases in China. However, the continual loss and degradation of precious black soil resources has led to direct threats to national food security and regional sustainable development. Therefore, it is necessary to summarize integrated prevention and control experience of small watersheds in black soil region of Northeast China. Tongshuang small watershed, a typical watershed in rolling hills of typical black soil areas in Northeast China, is selected as the study area. Based on nearly 50 years’ experience in prevention and control of soil and water loss, the structures and overall benefits of an integrated prevention and control system for soil and water loss are investigated. Then, the ’three defense lines’ tri-dimensional protection system with reasonable allocation of different types of soil and water control measures from the hill top to gully is systematically analyzed. The first line on the top hill can weaken and block uphill runoff and sediment, hold water resources and improve soil property. The second line on the hill can truncate slope length, slow down the runoff velocity and reduce erosion energy. The third line in the gully is mainly composed of waterfall engineering, which can inhibit soil erosion and restore land resources. The ’three defense lines’ system is feasible for soil and water loss control of small watersheds in the typical black soil region of Northeast China. Through the application of the in Tongshuang small watershed, There are effective improvements in ecological conditions in Tongshuang small watershed after the application of ’three defense lines’ soil and water control system. Moreover, the integrated treatment paradigm for soil and water loss in typical black soil region is compared with that in loess region. The results of this study could offer references and experiences for other small watersheds in

  14. Effects of Soil Salinity on the Expression of Bt Toxin (Cry1Ac) and the Control Efficiency of Helicoverpa armigera in Field-Grown Transgenic Bt Cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jun-Yu; Zhang, Shuai; Peng, Jun; Zhu, Xiang-Zhen; Lv, Li-Min; Wang, Chun-Yi; Li, Chun-Hua; Zhou, Zhi-Guo; Cui, Jin-Jie

    2017-01-01

    An increasing area of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton is being planted in saline-alkaline soil in China. The Bt protein level in transgenic cotton plants and its control efficiency can be affected by abiotic stress, including high temperature, water deficiency and other factors. However, how soil salinity affects the expression of Bt protein, thus influencing the control efficiency of Bt cotton against the cotton bollworm (CBW) Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) in the field, is poorly understood. Our objective in the present study was to investigate the effects of soil salinity on the expression of Bt toxin (Cry1Ac) and the control efficiency of Helicoverpa armigera in field-grown transgenic Bt cotton using three natural saline levels (1.15 dS m-1 [low soil-salinity], 6.00 dS m-1 [medium soil-salinity] and 11.46 dS m-1 [high soil-salinity]). We found that the Bt protein content in the transgenic Bt cotton leaves and the insecticidal activity of Bt cotton against CBW decreased with the increasing soil salinity in laboratory experiments during the growing season. The Bt protein content of Bt cotton leaves in the laboratory were negatively correlated with the salinity level. The CBW populations were highest on the Bt cotton grown in medium-salinity soil instead of the high-salinity soil in field conditions. A possible mechanism may be that the relatively high-salinity soil changed the plant nutritional quality or other plant defensive traits. The results from this study may help to identify more appropriate practices to control CBW in Bt cotton fields with different soil salinity levels. PMID:28099508

  15. Distribution and source apportionment studies of heavy metals in soil of cotton/wheat fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafique, Nazia; Tariq, Saadia R

    2016-05-01

    Heavy metals enriched agricultural soils have been the subject of great concern because these metals have potential to be transferred to the soil solution and afterward accumulated in food chain. To study the trace metal persistence in crop soil, 90 representative soil samples were collected and analyzed for heavy metal (As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) and anions (chloride, nitrates, phosphates and sulfates). Cluster and factor analysis techniques were used for the source identification of these excessive heavy metal levels and ecological risk was determined with potential ecological risk assessment. The degree of enrichment of eight studied heavy metals in comparison with the corresponding background levels decreased in order: Cd > Pb > Fe > Ni > Mn > As > Cu ~ Zn. Arsenic and cadmium exhibited 1.30- and 1.64-fold exceeded levels than threshold limits set by National environment quality standards, respectively. Cd in cotton field's soil may lead to higher potential risk than other heavy metals. On overall basis, the cumulative mean potential ecological risk for the district (207.75) corresponded to moderate risk level with higher contributions from As and Pb especially from Cd. Cadmium formed strong positive correlation with phosphate content of soil at p < 0.01. Cluster analysis indicated that Cluster 1 (extremely polluted) probably originated from anthropogenic inputs of phosphate fertilizer and past usage of arsenical pesticides.

  16. Remote sensing in dryland cotton: relation to yield potential and soil properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, John J.; Iqbal, Javed; Thomasson, John A.; Willers, Jeffrey L.; Jenkins, Johnie N.

    2004-01-01

    The use of soil and topography information to explain crop yield variation across fields is often applied for crop management purposes. Remote sensed data is a potential source of information for site-specific crop management, providing both spatial and temporal information about soil and crop condition. Studies were conducted in a 104-acre (42-hectare) dryland cotton field in 2001 and 2002 in order to (1) qualitatively assess the spatial variability of soil physical properties from kriged estimates, (2) compare actual yields with normalized difference vegetation reflectance indices (NDVI) obtained from multispectral imagery and from in situ radiometer data, and (3) predict site-specific cotton yields using a crop simulation model, GOSSYM. An NDVI map of soybean in 2000 obtained from a multispectral image was used to establish four sites in each low, medium and high NDVI class. These 12 sites were studied in 2001 and 12 more sites selected at random were studied in 2002 (n = 24). Site-specific measurements included leaf area index (LAI), canopy hyperspectral reflectance, and three-band multispectral image data for green, red, and near-infrared reflectance wavebands at spatial resolutions of 2 m in 2001 and 0.5 m in 2002. Imagery was imported into the image analysis software Imagine (ERDAS, v. 8.5) for georegistration and image analysis. A 6x6 pixels (144 m2) area of interest was established on top of each field plot site and digital numbers (DN) from reflectance imagery were extracted from each band for derivation of NDVI maps for each of four sampling dates. Lint yield from each plot site was collected by hand and also by a cotton picker equipped with AgLeader yield monitor and OmniStar differential global positioning system. We found plant height, leaf area index, and lint yield were closely associated with NDVI maps and with NIR band values acquired from either an aircraft or handheld (GER-1500) sensor during peak bloom in mid July. Results indicate NDVI and NIR

  17. Black Carbon Contribution to Organic Carbon Stocks in Urban Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edmondson, Jill L.; Stott, Iain; Potter, Jonathan;

    2015-01-01

    Soil holds 75% of the total organic carbon (TOC) stock in terrestrial ecosystems. This comprises ecosystem-derived organic carbon (OC) and black carbon (BC), a recalcitrant product of the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and biomass. Urban topsoils are often enriched in BC from historical...... increased with soil depth, and was enriched in topsoil under trees when compared to grassland. Our findings establish the importance of urban ecosystems in storing large amounts of OC in soils and that these soils also capture a large proportion of BC particulates emitted within urban areas....

  18. Influence of Soil Temperature on Meloidogyne incognita Resistant and Susceptible Cotton, Gossypium hirsutum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, W W

    1982-07-01

    The degree of resistance by a cotton plant to Meloidogyne incognita is affected by soil temperature, particularly in moderately resistant cultivars, The total number of nematodes in the resistant and moderately resistant rools at 35 C was equal to, or greater than, the number in susceptible roots at 20, 25, or 30 C. A shift in numbers to developing and egg-bearing forms of nematodes in the susceptible cultivar as tentperature increased indicates development was affected by temperature rather than by genetic resistance mechanisms. However, the nematode resistant cultivar did not support maturation of nematodes until a soil tempurature of 35 C was attained. This indicated that resistance mechanisms are partially repressed at 35 C and differences in nematode development cannot be explained in terms of accumulated heat units. The moderately resistant cultivar was significantly more sensitive to the effects of high temperature than was the resistant cultivar.

  19. Rapid development of enhanced atrazine degradation in a Dundee silt loam soil under continuous corn and in rotation with cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zablotowicz, Robert M; Krutz, L Jason; Reddy, Krishna N; Weaver, Mark A; Koger, Clifford H; Locke, Martin A

    2007-02-07

    Mississippi Delta cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) production in rotation with corn (Zea mays L.) was evaluated in field experiments from 2000 to 2005 at Stoneville, Mississippi. Plots maintained under minimum tillage were established in 2000 on a Dundee silt loam with treatments including continuous cotton or corn and alternate cotton-corn rotations. Mineralization and dissipation of 14C [ring]-labeled atrazine were evaluated in the laboratory on soils collected prior to herbicide application in the first, second, third, and sixth years of the study. In soils collected in 2000, a maximum of 10% of the atrazine was mineralized after 30 days. After 1 year of herbicide application, atrazine-treated soils mineralized 52-57% of the radiolabeled atrazine in 30 days. By the sixth year of the study, greater than 59% of the atrazine was mineralized after 7 days in soils treated with atrazine, while soils from plots with no atrazine treatment mineralized less than 36%. The data also indicated rapid development of enhanced atrazine degradation in soils following 1 year of corn production with atrazine use. Atrazine mineralization was as rapid in soils under a rotation receiving biannual atrazine applications as in soils under continuous corn receiving annual applications of atrazine. Cumulative mineralization kinetics parameters derived from the Gompertz model (k and ti) were highly correlated with a history of atrazine application and total soil carbon content. Changes in the soil microbial community assessed by total fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis indicated significant interactions of cropping system and sampling date, with FAME indicators for soil bacteria responsible for differences in community structure. Autoclaved soil lost all ability to mineralize atrazine, and atrazine-mineralizing bacteria were isolated from these plots, confirming the biological basis for atrazine mineralization. These results indicate that changes in degradative potential of a soil can

  20. Effects of soil moisture on cotton root length density and yield under drip irrigation with plastic mulch in Aksu Oasis farmland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yilihamu; Yimamu

    2010-01-01

    Effects of soil moisture on cotton root length density (total root length per unit soil volume) and yield under drip irrigation with plastic mulch were studied through field experiments. The results indicate that spatial distributions of root length density of cotton under various water treatments were basically similar. Horizontally, both root length densities of cotton in wide and narrow rows were similar, and higher than that between mulches. Vertically, root length density of cotton decreased with increasing soil depth. The distribution of root length density is different under different irrigation treatments. In conditions of over-irrigation, the root length density of cotton between mulches would increase. However, it would decrease in both the wide rows and narrow rows. The mean root length density of cotton increased with increasing irrigation water. Water stress caused the root length density to increase in lower soil layers. There is a significant correlation between root length density and yields of cotton at the flower-boll and wadding stages. The regression between irrigation amount and yield of cotton can be expressed as y = -0.0026x2+18.015x-24845 (R2 = 0.959). It showed that the irrigation volume of 3,464.4 m3/hm2 led to op-timal root length density. The yield of cotton was 6,360 .8 kg/hm2 under that amount of irrigation.

  1. Cotton Rats (Sigmodon hispidus and Black Rats (Rattus rattus as Possible Reservoirs of Leishmania spp. in Lara State, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Lima Hector

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 519 wild animals belonging to eleven species were collected during a two year study in a cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic area in Venezuela (La Matica, Lara State. The animals were captured in home-made Tomahawk-like traps baited with maize, bananas or other available local fruits, and parasites were isolated from 27 specimens. Two different species were found naturally infected with flagellates, i.e., cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus and black rats (Rattus rattus. Characterization of the parasites using PCR, kDNA restriction pattern and hybridization with species-specific probes revealed the presence of Leishmania (L. mexicana in three of the black rats and Leishmania (V. braziliensis in two others. The latter species was also identified in the single positive specimen of S. hispidus. The results suggested both species of animals as possible reservoirs of Leishmania sp.

  2. Effect of Shading on Gas Exchange of Cotton Leaves Under Conditions of Different Soil Water Contents1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Effect of different shading levels (no-shading, 80% shading, and 40% shading) on photosynthetic and stomatal responses in cotton leaves were investigated under onditions of different soil water contents in summer midday. All cotton leaves exhibited similar basic responses to shading, including decreased netphotosynthetic rates, a tendency to decrease in transpiration rates, and increased stomatal conductance and intercellular CO2 concentration. The leaf conductance of 80% shaded and 40% shaded plants increased by 28% and 16.7% compared with no-shaded plants at high water, respectively, but the net photosynthetic rates of 80% shaded and 40% shaded plants declined by 50% and 14.73%, respectively. Results showed that combined effect of soil moisture and shading on photosynthetic and stomatal responses in cotton leaves was very remarkable.

  3. The Effects of Organic Wastes on Soil and Cotton Quality with respect to the Risk of Boron and Heavy Metal Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müzeyyen Seçer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects on soil and cotton quality of organic wastes from medicinal and aromatic plant factories were investigated with regard to the risks of boron and heavy metal pollution. Oily cumin, oregano, oilless oregano wastes, and mineral fertilizers were applied to cotton in two field experiments performed in the years 2003 and 2006. The Pb content of the soil differed significantly in the 2003 experiment and oregano wastes had significantly decreasing effect. Boron of soil to which oily cumin wastes had been applied reached a toxic limit value in 2006. Boron in soil adversely affected long fibres; B in leaves had a positive effect on the fineness of fibres in 2006. Soil Ni adversely affected plant height in 2006 and seed cotton yield in 2003. Leaf Ni had an adverse effect on fibre elasticity in 2006. Soil Co increased ginning out-turn and Cr decreased the fibre fineness of cotton in 2003.

  4. Centennial black carbon turnover observed in a Russian steppe soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hammes

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Black carbon (BC, from incomplete combustion of fuels and biomass, has been considered highly recalcitrant and a substantial sink for carbon dioxide. Recent studies have shown that BC can be degraded. We use soils sampled 100 years apart in a Russian steppe preserve to generate the first whole-profile estimate of BC stocks and turnover in the field. BC stocks (initially 2.5 kg m-2 decreased 25% with cessation of biomass burning. BC turnover in the soil was 293 y (best estimate; range 212–541 y, much faster than inert/passive carbon in soil models. Such results provide a new constraint on theories of soil carbon stabilization. Most importantly, BC cannot be assumed chemically recalcitrant in all soils; other explanations for very old soil carbon are needed.

  5. Effectiveness of vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides L. Nash) for phytoremediation of endosulfan in two cotton soils from Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaga, Norbert Ondo Zue; Dousset, Sylvie; Munier-Lamy, Colette; Billet, David

    2014-01-01

    The influence of vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) on the fate of endosulfan was studied using a vertisol and a lixisol soils from cotton-growing areas of Burkina Faso. Endosulfan adsorption isotherms were prepared for planted and unplanted soils. Pot experiments were then conducted for six months. For both soils, endosulfan adsorption was higher on planted soils (K(f) = 6.53-9.73 mg(l-n) L(n) kg(-1)) than on unplanted soils (6.27-7.24 mg(l-n) L(n) kg(-1)). In unplanted soils, vertisol adsorbed more endosulfan than lixisol. From the pot experiments, the estimated half-lives of endosulfan in unplanted soils (40.6 to 43.1 days) were higher than in planted soils (34.5 to 40.6 days) containing a greater number of endosulfan-degrading microorganisms. Six months after treatment, endosulfan was not detected in soils. The effectiveness of vetiver in promoting adsorption and the disappearance of endosulfan in both studied soils should be validated on the cotton plot scale in Burkina Faso.

  6. Study on the Method of Soil Productivity Assessment in Black Soil Region of Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Xing-wu; XIE Yun; FENG Yan-jie; YIN Shui-qing

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate a simple and practical method for soil productivity assessment in the black soil region of Northeast China.Firstly,eight kinds of physicochemical properties for each of 120 soil samples collected from 25 black soil profiles were analyzed using cluster and correlation analysis.Subsequently,parameter indices were calculated using physicochemical properties.Finally,a modified productivity index(MPI)model were developed and validated.The results showed that the suitable parameters for soil productivity assessment in black soil region of Northeast China were soil available water,soil pH,clay content,and organic matter content.Compared with original productivity index(PI)model,MPI model added clay content and organic matter content in parameters while omitted bulk density.Simulation results of original PI model and MPI model were compared using crop yield of land block where investigated soil profiles were located.MPI model was proven to perform better with a higher significant correlation with maize yield.The correlation equation between MPI and yield was:Y=3.2002Ln(MP/)+10.056,R2=0.7564.The results showed that MPI model was an effective and practical method to assess soil productivity in the research area.

  7. Sequence composition of BAC clones and SSR markers mapped to Upland cotton chromosomes 11 and 21 targeting resistance to soil-borne pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic and physical framework mapping in cotton (Gossypium spp.) were used to discover putative gene sequences involved in resistance to common soil-borne pathogens. Chromosome (Chr) 11 and its homoeologous Chr 21 of Upland cotton (G. hirsutum) is a focus for discovery of resistance (R) or pathoge...

  8. Residue cover effects on soil erosion and the infiltration in black soil under simulated rainfall experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Yan; Xie, Yun; Liu, Yuxin; Liu, Hongyuan; Ren, Xiaoyu

    2016-12-01

    Residue cover is widely used in the Northeastern China Black Soil Region for soil erosion control due to the large annual production of crop residues. Quantitative evaluations of the residue cover effects on preventing soil loss and on the cumulative infiltration amount are thus desirable. Herein, rainfall simulation experiments were conducted using simulators and soil flumes to study the effects of residue cover on soil erosion and infiltration under various rainfall events. Laboratory experiments were designed utilizing five levels of residue cover (bare, 15%, 35%, 55% and 75%), four rainfall intensities (30 mm/h, 60 mm/h, 90 mm/h and 120 mm/h), two soil moistures (dry and wet run) and a fixed slope of 7%. The results indicated that residue cover strongly affects runoff, soil loss and infiltration. Equations for predicting the soil loss ratio and infiltration ratio (the ratio of residue cover soil to bare soil) are herein proposed based on nonlinear curve regression. An empirical approach presented as the infiltration ratios multiplied Philip's equation derived from bare soil was established for estimating the cumulative infiltration amounts under various residue covers. The equation was demonstrated to be suitable for infiltration prediction for black soil by the root mean square error value and 1:1 line method. In addition, the relationship between the residue cover and biomass of corn residues was provided in order to enable accurate measurement of the residue coverage. These derived equations could be used for soil erosion and infiltration prediction under no-till and residue cover management conditions in the black soil region.

  9. Black Carbon Contribution to Organic Carbon Stocks in Urban Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, Jill L; Stott, Iain; Potter, Jonathan; Lopez-Capel, Elisa; Manning, David A C; Gaston, Kevin J; Leake, Jonathan R

    2015-07-21

    Soil holds 75% of the total organic carbon (TOC) stock in terrestrial ecosystems. This comprises ecosystem-derived organic carbon (OC) and black carbon (BC), a recalcitrant product of the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and biomass. Urban topsoils are often enriched in BC from historical emissions of soot and have high TOC concentrations, but the contribution of BC to TOC throughout the urban soil profile, at a regional scale is unknown. We sampled 55 urban soil profiles across the North East of England, a region with a history of coal burning and heavy industry. Through combined elemental and thermogravimetic analyses, we found very large total soil OC stocks (31-65 kg m(-2) to 1 m), exceeding typical values reported for UK woodland soils. BC contributed 28-39% of the TOC stocks, up to 23 kg C m(-2) to 1 m, and was affected by soil texture. The proportional contribution of the BC-rich fraction to TOC increased with soil depth, and was enriched in topsoil under trees when compared to grassland. Our findings establish the importance of urban ecosystems in storing large amounts of OC in soils and that these soils also capture a large proportion of BC particulates emitted within urban areas.

  10. Trace organic contaminants, including toxaphene and trifluralin, in cotton field soils from Georgia and South Carolina, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, K; Battula, S; Loganathan, B G; Hong, C S; Lam, W H; Villeneuve, D L; Sajwan, K; Giesy, J P; Aldous, K M

    2003-07-01

    Residues of organic contaminants--including toxaphene, DDT, trifluralin, hexachlorocyclohexanes, polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nonylphenol--were measured in 32 cotton field soils collected from South Carolina and Georgia in 1999. Toxaphene, trifluralin, DDT and PAHs were the major contaminants found in these soils. The maximum concentration of toxaphene measured was 2,500 ng/g dry weight. Trifluralin was detected in all the soils at concentrations ranging from 1 to 548 ng/g dry weight. Pesticide residues were not proportional to soil organic carbon content, indicating that their concentrations were a reflection of application history and dissipation rates rather than air-soil equilibrium. Soil extracts were also subjected to in vitro bioassays to assess dioxinlike, estrogenic, and androgenic/glucocorticoid potencies. Relatively more polar fractions of the soils elicited estrogenic and androgenic/glucocorticoid activities, but the magnitude of response was much less than those found in coastal marine sediments from industrialized locations.

  11. Biological control agent of larger black flour beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae): a nuisance pest developing in cotton gin trash piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nansen, Christian; Stokes, Bryan; James, Jacob; Porter, Patrick; Shields, Eilson J; Wheeler, Terry; Meikle, William G

    2013-04-01

    The larger black flour beetles, Cynaeus angustus (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), feeds on saprophytic fungi found in gin trash piles and occasionally becomes a nuisance pest in adjacent homes and businesses. The potential of Steinernema carpocapsae 'NY 001,' as a potential control agent of larger black flour beetle under experimental conditions was examined with particular reference to the importance of soil moisture content. Without prospects of insecticides being labeled for control of larger black flour beetle in gin trash, the data presented here support further research into applications of entomopathogenic nematodes underneath gin trash piles as a way to minimize risk of larger black flour beetle populations causing nuisance to nearby homes and businesses.

  12. Adubação verde e sistemas de manejo do solo na produtividade do algodoeiro Green manure and soil management systems on cotton yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Camillo de Carvalho

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A adoção de sistemas de manejo conservacionistas e a sucessão de culturas com adubos verdes são práticas que visam preservar a qualidade do solo e do ambiente, sem prescindir da obtenção de produtividade elevada das culturas de interesse econômico. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de sistemas de manejo do solo e adubos verdes na produtividade do algodoeiro (Gossypium hirsutum L.. O experimento foi realizado num Latossolo Vermelho distrófico, originalmente sob vegetação de Cerrado. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, em esquema de parcela subdividida e quatro repetições. Nas parcelas, utilizaram-se quatro adubos verdes: mucuna-preta, guandu, crotalária e milheto, e área de pousio (vegetação espontânea. Nas subparcelas foram adotados dois sistemas de manejo do solo: plantio direto e preparo convencional (uma gradagem pesada + duas gradagens leves. Os sistemas de manejo do solo não interferiram na produtividade do algodoeiro. O algodoeiro apresentou produtividade semelhante quando cultivado em sucessão a diferentes espécies de adubos verdes, no sistema de plantio direto e convencional de preparo do solo.The adoption of conservation management system and succession of crops after green manures aim at preserving the environment and soil quality, without dispensing the largest cash crop yield. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of soil management systems and green manures on cotton yield (Gossypium hirsutum L.. The experiment was carried out in a Typic Hapludox, covered by Savannah vegetation. The experimental design used was that of randomized blocks, in a split plot scheme, with four replications. In plots, four green manures were used: black velvet bean, pigeon pea, sunn hemp, millet and fallow area (spontaneous vegetation. In subplots, two managament soil systems were used: no-tillage and conventional tillage (one disk harrow + two levelling harrow. Soil management systems do

  13. Isolation, evaluation and characterization of Bacillus subtilis from cotton rhizospheric soil with biocontrol activity against Fusarium oxysporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajbhiye, Archana; Rai, Alok R; Meshram, Sudhir U; Dongre, A B

    2010-07-01

    Present investigation is based on the isolation of Bacillus subtilis from cotton rhizosphere and their evaluation as biocontrol agent against Fusarium oxysporum. The production of extracellular hydrolytic enzyme was studied for determining the antagonism. 43% of 21 isolates were identified under the B. subtilis group on the basis of biochemical characterization. 38% isolates showed competitive activity against Fusarium oxysporum and exhibit more than 50% mycelial inhibition in dual culture bioassay. The pot assay of cotton by seed treatment and soil amendment technique under green house condition showed the competent activity of the isolates in preventing the wilting of cotton seedlings due to F. oxysporum infection. SVI values of 30 day old seedlings indicated that the soil inoculation with B. subtilis BP-2 and seed treatment with B. subtilis BP-9 significantly promoted the growth of cotton seedlings. RAPD profiling revealed the diversity in the Bacillus subtilis group, ranging from 10 to 32%. The discriminative pattern among the isolates belonging to the same species was validated by 16S rDNA partial sequencing which identified them into four different strains of B. subtilis.

  14. GC-ECD analysis of S-metolachlor (Dual Gold) in cotton plant and soil in trial field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Pengying; Liu, Fengmao; Wang, Suli; Wang, Yuhong; Han, Lijun

    2008-08-01

    The analytical method of S-metolachlor residue and its degradation in cotton and soil in trial field were investigated. S-metolachlor EC (96% w/w) was applied as pre-emergence at dosages of 1,500 and 2,250 ml ha(-1) 3 days after sowing of the cottonseeds in the field. The soil and the plant samples were collected at different intervals and the residues of S-metolachlor were analyzed by GC-ECD. The results showed that the degradation of S-metolachlor in cotton leaves in Beijing and Nanjing coincides with C = 0.1113e(-0.1050t) and C = 0.1177e(-0.1580t), respectively; the half-lives were about 6.6 and 4.4 days. The degradation of S-metolachlor in soil in Beijing and Nanjing coincides with C = 1.0621e(-0.0475) (t), and C = 0.9212e(-0.0548) (t), respectively; the half-lives were about 14.6 and 12.6 days,. At harvest time, the S-metolachlor in cotton seeds and soil samples were detected by GC-ECD and confirmed by GC/MS. The results showed that the residues in cottonseeds were lower than the USA EPA's maximum residue limit of 0.1 mg kg(-1) in cottonseed. It could be considered as safe to human beings and environment.

  15. Nematicides and nonconventional soil amendments in the management of root-knot nematode on cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, E C

    1984-04-01

    Granular and liquid commercial humates, with micronutrients, and a microbial fermentation product were compared in several combinations with nematicides for their effects on cotton lint yield and root-knot nematode suppression. Fumigant nematicides effectively reduced cotton root galling caused by root-knot nematodes, and cotton lint yields increased. Organophosphates and carbamates were not effective. Occasionally, cotton lint yields were increased or maintained with combination treatments o f humates, micronutrients, and a microbial fermentation product, but galling o f cotton roots by root-knot nematodes was usually not reduced by these treatments.

  16. Plant growth regulation of Bt-cotton through Bacillus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pindi, Pavan Kumar; Sultana, Tasleem; Vootla, Praveen Kumar

    2014-06-01

    Deccan plateau in India periodically experiences droughts due to irregular rain fall and the soil in many parts of the region is considered to be poor for farming. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria are originally defined as root-colonizing bacteria, i.e., Bacillus that cause either plant growth promotion or biological control of plant diseases. The study aims at the isolation of novel Bacillus species and to assess the biotechnological potential of the novel species as a biofertilizer, with respect to their plant growth promoting properties as efficient phosphate-solubilizing bacteria. Seven different strains of Bacillus were isolated from cotton rhizosphere soil near boys' hostel of Palamuru University which belongs to Deccan plateau. Among seven isolated strains, Bacillus strain-7 has shown maximum support for good growth of eight cotton cultivars. This bacterial species is named Bacillus sp. PU-7 based on the phenotypic and phylogenetic analysis. Among eight cotton cultivars, Mahyco has shown high levels of IAA, proteins, chlorophyll, sugars and low level of proline. Efficacy of novel Bacillus sp. PU-7 with Mahyco cultivar has been checked experimentally at field level in four different cotton grown agricultural soils. The strains supported plant growth in almost all the cases, especially in the deep black soil, with a clear evidence of maximum plant growth by increased levels of phytohormone production and biochemical analysis, followed by shallow black soil. Hence, it is inferred that the novel isolate can be used as bioinoculant in the cotton fields.

  17. Study on Spatial-temporal Dynamics of Bt Toxic Protein Expression in Insect-resistant Transgenic Cotton and Its Degradation in Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yiwen ZHANG; Lianrong WANG; Liancheng ZHANG; Jun ZHANG; Xinbo JI; Jinmao WANG

    2012-01-01

    [Ob.jcctive] This study aimed to investigate the spatial-temporal dynamics of Bt toxic protein expression in insect-resistant transgenic cotton and its degradation in soil. [Meth~d] BtcrylAc toxic protein expression in roots, stems and leaves of trans- genic cotton Guoshen GK45 at different developmental stages and the annual aver- age content of BtCrylAc toxin protein in the topsoil, rhizosphere soil and following cotton-growing area were explored and analyzed by using enzyme linked immuno sorbed assay (ELISA). [Result] The content of exogenous BtCrylAc toxin protein de- creased during the growth process of insect-resistant transgenic cotton; to be specif- ic, the content of BtCrylAc toxin protein in cotton stems and leaves decreased more slowly and always maintained a high level, while that in roots decreased rapidly and reached a minimum level to the following plant growth and development stage. BtCrylAc toxin protein was detected in topsoil of both non-transgenic and transgenic cotton-growing areas, and the content of BtCrylAc toxin protein increased in topsoil of following cotton-growing area, which was very low in rhizosphere soil. [Conclusion] Determination of BtcrylAc toxic protein provides scientific basis for the risk assess- ment of the cultivation of genetically modified crops and the safety evaluation of soil ecosystem.

  18. Centennial black carbon turnover observed in a Russia steppe soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammes, K.; Torn, M.S.; Lapenas, A.G.; Schmidt, M.W.I.

    2008-09-15

    Black carbon (BC), from incomplete combustion of fuels and biomass, has been considered highly recalcitrant and a substantial sink for carbon dioxide. Recent studies have shown that BC can be degraded in soils. We use two soils with very low spatial variability sampled 100 years apart in a Russian steppe preserve to generate the first whole-profile estimate of BC stocks and turnover in the field. Quantities of fire residues in soil changed significantly over a century. Black carbon stock was 2.5 kg m{sup -2}, or about 7-10% of total organic C in 1900. With cessation of biomass burning, BC stocks decreased 25% over a century, which translates into a centennial soil BC turnover (293 years best estimate; range 182-541 years), much faster than so-called inert or passive carbon in ecosystem models. The turnover time presented here is for loss by all processes, namely decomposition, leaching, and erosion, although the latter two were probably insignificant in this case. Notably, at both time points, the peak BC stock was below 30 cm, a depth interval, which is not typically accounted for. Also, the quality of the fire residues changed with time, as indicated by the use benzene poly carboxylic acids (BPCA) as molecular markers. The proportions of less-condensed (and thus more easily degradable) BC structures decreased, whereas the highly condensed (and more recalcitrant) BC structures survived unchanged over the 100-year period. Our results show that BC cannot be assumed chemically recalcitrant in all soils, and other explanations for very old soil carbon are needed.

  19. Soil carbon dioxide emission from intensively cultivated black soil in Northeast China. Nitrogen fertilization effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Kang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing (China). State Key Lab. of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture; Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Ding, Weixin; Cai, Zucong [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing (China). State Key Lab. of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture; Wang, Yufeng; Zhang, Xilin; Zhou, Baoku [Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin (China). Inst. of Soil and Fertilizer

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to understand the effect of nitrogen fertilization on soil respiration and native soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition and to identify the key factor affecting soil respiration in a cultivated black soil. Materials and methods: A field experiment was conducted at the Harbin State Key Agroecological Experimental Station, China. The study consisted of four treatments: unplanted and N-unfertilized soil (U0), unplanted soil treated with 225 kg N ha{sup -1} (UN), maize planted and N-unfertilized soil (P0), and planted soil fertilized with 225 kg N ha{sup -1} (PN). Soil CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O fluxes were measured using the static closed chamber method. Results and discussion: Cumulative CO{sub 2} emissions during the maize growing season with the U0, UN, P0, and PN treatments were 1.29, 1.04, 2.30 and 2.27 Mg C ha{sup -1}, respectively, indicating that N fertilization significantly reduced the decomposition of native SOC. However, no marked effect on soil respiration in planted soil was observed because the increase of rhizosphere respiration caused by N addition was counteracted by the reduction of native SOC decomposition. Soil CO{sub 2} fluxes were significantly affected by soil temperature but not by soil moisture. The temperature sensitivity (Q{sub 10}) of soil respiration was 2.16-2.47 for unplanted soil but increased to 3.16-3.44 in planted soil. N addition reduced the Q{sub 10} of native SOC decomposition possibly due to low labile organic C but increased the Q{sub 10} of soil respiration due to the stimulation of maize growth. The estimated annual CO{sub 2} emission in N-fertilized soil was 1.28 Mg C ha{sup -1} and was replenished by the residual stubble, roots, and exudates. In contrast, the lost C (1.53 Mg C ha{sup -1}) in N-unfertilized soil was not completely supplemented by maize residues, resulting in a reduction of SOC. Although N fertilization significantly increased N{sub 2}O emissions, the global warming potential

  20. [Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 and nitrogen application on cotton biomass, nitrogen utilization and soil urease activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Ning; Yin, Fei-hu; Chen, Yun; Gao, Zhi-jian; Liu, Yu; Shi, Lei

    2015-11-01

    In this study, a semi-open-top artificial climate chamber was used to study the effect of CO2 enrichment (360 and 540 µmol · mol(-1)) and nitrogen addition (0, 150, 300 and 450 kg · hm(-2)) on cotton dry matter accumulation and distribution, nitrogen absorption and soil urease activity. The results showed that the dry matter accumulation of bud, stem, leaf and the whole plant increased significantly in the higher CO2 concentration treatment irrespective of nitrogen level. The dry matter of all the detected parts of plant with 300 kg · hm(-2) nitrogen addition was significantly higher than those with the other nitrogen levels irrespective of CO2 concentration, indicating reasonable nitrogen fertilization could significantly improve cotton dry matter accumulation. Elevated CO2 concentration had significant impact on the nitrogen absorption contents of cotton bud and stem. Compared to those under CO2 concentration of 360 µmol · mol(-1), the nitrogen contents of bud and stem both increased significantly under CO2 concentration of 540 µmol · mol(-1). The nitrogen content of cotton bud in the treatment of 300 kg · hm(-2) nitrogen was the highest among the four nitrogen fertilizer treatments. While the nitrogen contents of cotton stem in the treatments of 150 kg · hm(-2) and 300 kg · hm(-2) nitrogen levels were higher than those in the treatment of 0 kg · hm(-2) and 450 kg · hm(-2) nitrogen levels. The nitrogen content of cotton leaf was significantly influenced by the in- teraction of CO2 elevation and N addition as the nitrogen content of leaf increased in the treatments of 0, 150 and 300 kg · hm(-2) nitrogen levels under the CO2 concentration of 540 µmol · mol(-1). The nitrogen content in cotton root was significantly increased with the increase of nitrogen fertilizer level under elevated CO2 (540 µmol · mol(-1)) treatment. Overall, the cotton nitrogen absorption content under the elevated CO2 (540 µmol · mol(-1)) treatment was higher than that

  1. Physicochemical characterization of biosurfactant and its potential to remove oil from soil and cotton cloth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rakeshkumar M; Mody, Kalpana; Mishra, Avinash; Jha, Bhavanath

    2012-08-01

    An alkaliphilic bacterium, Klebsiella sp. strain RJ-03, produced a biosurfactant, which showed low viscosity with pseudoplastic rheological behavior and exhibited emulsification activity with oils and hydrocarbons. The biosurfactant has excellent oil removing efficiency as compared to chemical surfactants. The isolated biosurfactant has compatibility with detergents and enhanced oil removing efficiency from soil and cotton cloths. It comprised of sugar, uronic acid, protein and sulfate. GC-MS analysis confirmed the presence of six monosaccharides (w/w), glucose (6.65%), galactose (23.98%), rhamnose (14.94%), mannose (17.54%), fucose (9.47%) and 6-O-Me-galactose (1.4%). It is a high molecular weight, thermostable biopolymer showing degradation above 300 °C. Positive ion reflector mode of MALDI TOF-TOF MS analysis revealed series of low and mid range mass peaks (m/z) corresponding to mono-, di-, tri- and oligo-saccharides content. The NMR, FT-IR, EDX-SEM, AFM and PSD analysis confirmed the presence of functional groups, bonds, elements and particle size respectively.

  2. Effects of domestic wastewater treated by anaerobic stabilization on soil pollution, plant nutrition, and cotton crop yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzen, Nese; Cetin, Oner; Unlu, Mustafa

    2016-12-01

    This study has aimed to determine the effects of treated wastewater on cotton yield and soil pollution in Southeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey during 2011 and 2012. The treated wastewater was provided from the reservoir operated as anaerobic stabilization. After treatment, suspended solids (28-60 mg/l), biological oxygen demand (29-30 mg/l), and chemical oxygen demand (71-112 mg/l) decreased significantly compared to those in the wastewater. There was no heavy metal pollution in the water used. There were no significant amounts of coliform bacteria, fecal coliform, and Escherichia coli compared to untreated wastewater. The cottonseed yield (31.8 g/plant) in the tanks where no commercial fertilizers were applied was considerably higher compared to the yield (17.2 g/plant) in the fertilized tanks where a common nitrogenous fertilizer was utilized. There were no significant differences between the values of soil pH. Soil electrical conductivity (EC) after the experiment increased from 0.8-1.0 to 0.9-1.8 dS/m. Heavy metal pollution did not occur in the soil and plants, because there were no heavy metals in the treated wastewater. It can be concluded that treated domestic wastewater could be used to grow in a controlled manner crops, such as cotton, that would not be used directly as human nutrients.

  3. How Integrated Management Strategies Promote Protein Quality of Cotton Embryos: High Levels of Soil Available N, N Assimilation and Protein Accumulation Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, HongKun; Meng, YaLi; Chen, BingLin; Zhang, XingYue; Wang, YouHua; Zhao, WenQing; Zhou, ZhiGuo

    2016-01-01

    Cottonseed is widely used as a source of ruminant feed and for industrial purposes. Therefore, there is a tremendous need to improve the nutritional value of cotton embryos. In this study, a conventional management (CM) and two integrated cotton management strategies (IMS1, IMS2) were performed at two soil fertility levels to study the relationships among soil N, N assimilation, embryonic protein accumulation and protein quality. The levels of proteins, essential amino acids, and semi-essential amino acids, especially those of glutamate, lysine, and methionine, were higher in IMS1 and IMS2 embryos than in CM embryos. These changes were significantly positively correlated with the soil-available N content, glutamine synthetase activity and peak value of protein accumulation rate and were negatively correlated with the free amino acid level. These results illustrated that integrated management strategies, especially the rates and timing of N application, raise the level of soil available N, which is beneficial for N assimilation in developing cotton embryos. The protein content was limited by the rate of protein accumulation rather than by the free amino acid content. The combination of target yield fertilization, a growth-driven N application schedule, a high plant density and the seedling raising with bio-organic fertilizer can substantially improve protein quality in cotton embryos, especially at a soil with low soil organic matter and total nitrogen.

  4. Carbon black retention in saturated natural soils: Effects of flow conditions, soil surface roughness and soil organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohwacharin, J; Takizawa, S; Punyapalakul, P

    2015-10-01

    We evaluated factors affecting the transport, retention, and re-entrainment of carbon black nanoparticles (nCBs) in two saturated natural soils under different flow conditions and input concentrations using the two-site transport model and Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). Soil organic matter (SOM) was found to create unfavorable conditions for the retention. Despite an increased flow velocity, the relative stability of the estimated maximum retention capacity in soils may suggest that flow-induced shear stress forces were insufficient to detach nCB. The KPFM observation revealed that nCBs were retained at the grain boundary and on surface roughness, which brought about substantial discrepancy between theoretically-derived attachment efficiency factors and the ones obtained by the experiments using the two-site transport model. Thus, decreasing ionic strength and increasing solution pH caused re-entrainment of only a small fraction of retained nCB in the soil columns.

  5. Producing Organic Cotton: A Toolkit - Crop Guide, Projekt guide, Extension tools

    OpenAIRE

    Eyhorn, Frank

    2005-01-01

    The CD compiles the following extension tools on organic cotton: Organic Cotton Crop Guide, Organic Cotton Training Manual, Soil Fertility Training Manual, Organic Cotton Project Guide, Record keeping tools, Video "Organic agriculture in the Nimar region", Photos for illustration.

  6. The impact of black wattle encroachment of indigenous grasslands on soil carbon, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oelofse, Myles; Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Magid, Jakob;

    2016-01-01

    adverse environmental impacts in South Africa. Little is known about the effects of black wattle encroachment on soil carbon, therefore the aim of this study was to investigate the impact of black wattle encroachment of natural grassland on soil carbon stocks and dynamics. Focussing on two sites...... in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, the study analysed carbon stocks in soil and litter on a chronosequence of black wattle stands of varying ages (up to >50 years) and compared these with adjacent native grassland. The study found that woody encroachment of grassland at one site had an insignificant effect...

  7. Impact of water content and temperature on the degradation of Cry1Ac protein in leaves and buds of Bt cotton in the soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-jun Zhang

    Full Text Available Determining the influence of soil environmental factors on degradation of Cry1Ac protein from Bt cotton residues is vital for assessing the ecological risks of this commercialized transgenic crop. In this study, the degradation of Cry1Ac protein in leaves and in buds of Bt cotton in soil was evaluated under different soil water content and temperature settings in the laboratory. An exponential model and a shift-log model were used to fit the degradation dynamics of Cry1Ac protein and estimate the DT50 and DT90 values. The results showed that Cry1Ac protein in the leaves and buds underwent rapid degradation in the early stage (before day 48, followed by a slow decline in the later stage under different soil water content and temperature. Cry1Ac protein degraded the most rapidly in the early stage at 35°C with 70% soil water holding capacity. The DT50 values were 12.29 d and 10.17 d and the DT90 values were 41.06 d and 33.96 d in the leaves and buds, respectively. Our findings indicated that the soil temperature was a major factor influencing the degradation of Cry1Ac protein from Bt cotton residues. Additionally, the relative higher temperature (25°C and 35°C was found to be more conducive to degradation of Cry1Ac protein in the soil and the greater water content (100%WHC retarded the process. These findings suggested that under appropriate soil temperature and water content, Cry1Ac protein from Bt cotton residues will not persist and accumulate in soil.

  8. Rhizosphere ecology and phytoprotection in soils naturally suppressive to Thielaviopsis black root rot of tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almario, Juliana; Muller, Daniel; Défago, Geneviève; Moënne-Loccoz, Yvan

    2014-07-01

    Soil suppressiveness to disease is an intriguing emerging property in agroecosystems, with important implications because it enables significant protection of susceptible plants from soil-borne pathogens. Unlike many soils where disease suppressiveness requires crop monoculture to establish, certain soils are naturally suppressive to disease, and this type of specific disease suppressiveness is maintained despite crop rotation. Soils naturally suppressive to Thielaviopsis basicola-mediated black root rot of tobacco and other crops occur in Morens region (Switzerland) and have been studied for over 30 years. In Morens, vermiculite-rich suppressive soils formed on morainic deposits while illite-rich conducive soils developed on sandstone, but suppressiveness is of microbial origin. Antagonistic pseudomonads play a role in black root rot suppressiveness, including Pseudomonas protegens (formerly P. fluorescens) CHA0, a major model strain for research. However, other types of rhizobacterial taxa may differ in prevalence between suppressive and conducive soils, suggesting that the microbial basis of black root rot suppressiveness could be far more complex than solely a Pseudomonas property. This first review on black root rot suppressive soils covers early findings on these soils, the significance of recent results, and compares them with other types of suppressive soils in terms of rhizosphere ecology and plant protection mechanisms.

  9. Cotton as an entry point for soil fertility maintenance and food crop productivity in savannah agroecosystems - Evidence from a long-term experiment in southern Mali

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ripoche, A.; Crétenet, M.; Corbeels, M.; Affholder, F.; Naudin, K.; Sissoko, F.; Douzet, J.M.; Tittonell, P.A.

    2015-01-01

    Given the scarcity of manure and the limited land available for fallowing, cotton cultivation with its input credit schemes is often the main entry point for nutrients in cropping systems of West Africa. In an experiment carried out during 25 years in southern Mali, the crop and soil responses to or

  10. Weeds of cereal stubble-fields on various soils in the Kielce region. P. III. Black, alluvial and rendzina soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jędruszczak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The weed flora growing stubble-fields area is determined by soil features. Weeds found in cereal stubble-fields on black soils formed from sands and loams, medium and haevy alluvial soils as well as brown and chernozem rendzina soils are presented in the paper. The 273 phytosociological records were worked out. They were collected from 87 stands situated in 76 localities of Kielce region. The results showed that species number and species composition were dependent on the soils (black. alluvial, rendzina. The existance of 118 (medium alluvial soil to 140 (brown rendzina soil weed species, including 73 common for all of the soils considered, was found there. Relatively high per cent (29-35 of them belonged to perennial weeds. From 22 (brown rendzina soil to 35 (heavy alluvial soil of species reached high constancy degrees (V-III. Stellaria media, Myosotis arvensis, Polygonum aviculare, Agropyron repens and Cirsium arvense predominated on the all of the soil examined. Among the weed flora registered, 25 species, recorded only on rendzina soils, were distinguishable for that soils.

  11. Levels and patterns of organochlorine pesticides in agricultural soils in an area of extensive historical cotton cultivation in Henan province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Beibei; Wu, Chunfa; Liu, Wuxing; Teng, Ying; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter; Guo, Dong

    2016-04-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have attracted widespread concern because of their environmental persistence and toxicity. The historical influence of different agricultural land use types on soil concentrations of OCP residues was investigated by collecting a total of 52 surface soil samples from long-term cotton fields and fields with other crops in Lvdian township, Henan province, eastern central China. The concentration, composition, and possible sources of 16 OCPs were determined and a health risk assessment of these soils was conducted. Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), heptachlor, chlordane, and dichloro diphenyl trichloroethane plus its main metabolites (DDTs) were the most frequently detected OCPs with concentrations of 2.9-56.4 ng g(-1), 4.3-14.0 ng g(-1), 18.0-1254.4 ng g(-1), and below detection limit (BDL) -206.1 ng g(-1), respectively. Analysis of variance of p,p-DDE shows significant (P cotton fields and fields containing other crops. Compositional analysis suggests that the HCH is derived mainly from the use of lindane and that there are recent inputs. Analysis of variance and compositional analysis indicate that the p,p-DDE in surface soil from long-term cotton fields is derived mainly from the aerobic biodegradation of historical residues. The sum of carcinogenic risk values of OCPs for soil samples were found to be 1.58 × 10(-6), posing a low cancer risk to the inhabitants of the region studied.

  12. Nanoscale Interactions between Engineered Nanomaterials and Black Carbon (Biochar) in Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    An understanding of the interactions between engineered nanomaterials (NMs) and soil constituents, and a comprehension of how these interactions may affect biological uptake and toxicity are currently lacking. Charcoal black carbon is a normal constituent of soils due to fire history, and can be pre...

  13. Long Term Effects of Poultry Litter on Soil Physical and Chemical Properties in Cotton Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surrency, J.; Tsegaye, T.; Coleman, T.; Fahsi, A.; Reddy, C.

    1998-01-01

    Poultry litter and compost can alter the moisture holding capacity of a soil. These organic materials can also increase the nutrient status of a soil during the decomposition process by microbial actions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of poultry litter and compost on the dielectric constant and moisture holding capacity of soil. The Delta-T theta-probe was used to measure volumetric soil water content and the apparent dielectric constant of the upper 6-cm of the soil profile. Soil texture, pH, and organic matter were also determined for each plot. Results of these analyses indicated that the pH of the soil ranged from 6.4 to 7.7 and the volumetric soil moisture content ranged from 0.06 to 0.18 cu m/cu m for the upper 6-cm of the soil profile. The effect of poultry litter and compost on soil properties resulted in an increase in the volumetric moisture content and dielectric constant of the soil due to the improvement of the soil structure.

  14. Impact of Transgenic Cottons on the Number and Community Structure of Bacteria in the Cotton Soils%转基因抗虫棉对棉田土壤细菌数量及群落结构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈俊辉; 王扬扬; 郑婕; 李荣; 闫新; 李顺鹏; 蒋建东

    2012-01-01

    以转基因抗虫棉(GK12、33B)及其亲本对照(SM、5415)为材料,利用稀释平板法和基于rRNA基因PCR扩增的变性梯度凝胶电泳(DGGE)技术研究了棉田土壤中细菌数量和群落结构在转基因棉种植第一年的动态变化.结果表明:棉田土壤细菌数量随棉花生育期逐渐增加,于花铃中期达到最大值,转基因棉与其亲本之间细菌数量差异不显著.放线菌数量随生育期变化较小,转基因棉与其亲本之间在花铃中期出现显著差异.DGGE结果显示,转基因棉和亲本都存在丰富且相似的条带,聚类分析表明大多数转基因棉和亲本间条带相似性达80%以上,根据不同的生理期分成2个簇;主成分分析表明转基因棉和亲本细菌群落结构没有显著差异,但在不同生育期存在一定差异,表明生育期是影响细菌群落结构的主要因素,与聚类分析结果相吻合.研究结果初步说明转基因棉对棉田土壤细菌数量和群落结构没有显著影响.%Dynamic changes of the number and community structure of bacteria in the soils of transgenic cottons(GK12 and 33B ) together with their parents (SM and 5415) were systematically investigated using traditional plate counting and rRNA gene based PCR-DGGE methods. The results showed that the total number of bacteria increased with the reproductive periods of cottons, and the largest number appeared at the middle blossoming stage of cottons. No significant differences in the numbers of bacteria between transgenic cottons and their parents were found. The number of actinomycete changed little during the reproductive periods. However, significant differences were observed between the transgenic cottons and their parents at the blossoming stage. The results from PCR-DGGE showed that there were abundant and similar bands among all transgenic cottons and their parents, and the similarities between most of these samples were above 80%. Samples were divided into two clusters

  15. Relationship Between Water-Stable Aggregates and Nutrients in Black Soils After Reclamation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Qiang; YU Wan-Tai; ZHAO Shao-Hua; ZHANG Lu

    2007-01-01

    Water-stable aggregates, which are an index for the evaluation of the structural properties of the soil, are affected by many factors. Zhaoguang Farm, Longzhen Farm, and Jiusan Farm were chosen as the representative study sites in the region of black soils, a typical soil resource in Northeast China. The variation in the content of>0.25 mm water-stable aggregates and its relationship with the nutrients in black soil were investigated after different years of reclamation. The results showed that the>0.25 mm water-stable aggregates were more in the surface than in the subsurface soil and they changed in the following order: Longzhen Farm>Zhaoguang Farm>Jiusan Farm. The water-stable aggregates decreased sharply at the initial stage of reclamation and then became stable gradually with time. They were significantly correlated with the contents of organic C, total N, total P, and CEC in black soil, with the correlation coefficients r being 0.76, 0.68, 0.61, and 0.81 (P<0.01), respectively; however, their relationships with available P, available K, and total K were unclear. These showed that organic matter was the cementation of soil water-stable aggregates. Increasing decompositions and decreasing inputs of organic matter after reclamation were responsible for the amount of reduction of the water-stable aggregates. Thus, to maintain good soil aggregate structure, attention should be paid to improvement of soil nutrient status, especially the supply of organic C and N.

  16. [Effects of water storage in deeper soil layers on the root growth, root distribution and economic yield of cotton in arid area with drip irrigation under mulch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hong-Hai; Zhang, Hong-Zhi; Zhang, Ya-Li; Zhang, Wang-Feng

    2012-02-01

    Taking cotton cultivar Xinluzao 13 as test material, a soil column culture expenment was conducted to study the effects of water storage in deeper (> 60 cm) soil layer on the root growth and its relations with the aboveground growth of the cultivar in arid area with drip irrigation under mulch. Two levels of water storage in 60-120 cm soil layer were installed, i. e., well-watered and no watering, and for each, the moisture content in 0-40 cm soil layer during growth period was controlled at two levels, i.e., 70% and 55% of field capacity. It was observed that the total root mass density of the cultivar and its root length density and root activity in 40-120 cm soil layer had significant positive correlations with the aboveground dry mass. When the moisture content in 0-40 cm soil layer during growth season was controlled at 70% of field capacity, the total root mass density under well-watered and no watering had less difference, but the root length density and root activity in 40-120 cm soil layer under well-watered condition increased, which enhanced the water consumption in deeper soil layer, increased the aboveground dry mass, and finally, led to an increased economic yield and higher water use efficiency. When the moisture content in 0-40 cm soil layer during growth season was controlled at 55% of field capacity and the deeper soil layer was well-watered, the root/shoot ratio and root length density in 40-120 cm soil layer and the root activity in 80-120 cm soil layer were higher, the water consumption in deeper soil layer increased, but it was still failed to adequately compensate for the negative effects of water deficit during growth season on the impaired growth of roots and aboveground parts, leading to a significant decrease in the economic yield, as compared with that at 70% of field capacity. Overall, sufficient water storage in deeper soil layer and a sustained soil moisture level of 65% -75% of field capacity during growth period could promote the

  17. Dynamics of soil diazotrophic community structure, diversity, and functioning during the cropping period of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Sandhya; Singh, Dileep Kumar; Annapurna, Kannepalli

    2015-01-01

    The soil sampled at different growth stages along the cropping period of cotton were analyzed using various molecular tools: restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), terminal restriction length polymorphism (T-RFLP), and cloning-sequencing. The cluster analysis of the diazotrophic community structure of early sampled soil (0, 15, and 30 days) was found to be more closely related to each other than the later sampled one. Phylogenetic and diversity analysis of sequences obtained from the first (0 Day; C0) and last soil sample (180 day; C180) confirmed the data. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that C0 was having more unique sequences than C180 (presence of γ-Proteobacteria exclusively in C0). A relatively higher richness of diazotrophic community sequences was observed in C0 (S(ACE) : 30.76; S(Chao1) : 20.94) than C180 (S(ACE) : 18.00; S(Chao1) : 18.00) while the evenness component of Shannon diversity index increased from C0 (0.97) to C180 (1.15). The impact of routine agricultural activities was more evident based on diazotrophic activity (measured by acetylene reduction assay) than its structure and diversity. The nitrogenase activity of C0 (1264.85 ± 35.7 ηmol of ethylene production g(-1) dry soil h(-1) ) was statistically higher when compared to all other values (p structure/diversity and N2 fixation rates. Thus, considerable functional redundancy of nifH was concluded to be existing at the experimental site.

  18. [Prediction of soil organic carbon in different soil fractions of black soils in Northeast China using near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ru-qin; Yang, Xue-ming; Zhang, Xiao-ping; Shen, Yan; Liang, Ai-zhen; Shi, Xiu-huan; Wei, Shou-cai; Chen, Xue-wen

    2012-02-01

    The soil organic carbon (SOC) associated with different soil fractions varies in the composition and dynamics. The present work is aimed to evaluate the potential of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to predict SOC content in different soil fractions of black soils. SOC contents of 136 black soil samples in China were analyzed and the NIR spectra were collected using a VECTOR/22 (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy). Partial least squares (PLS) regression with cross validation was used to develop calibrations between reference data and NIRS spectra (n = 100) which were validated using an independent set of samples (n = 36). Predictions for water-sieved aggregate associated organic carbon were generally good with R2 (coefficient of determination) ranging from 0.69 to 0.82 and the RPD (residual prediction deviation) from 1.2 to 1.8. NIRS well predicted the SOC in soil fractions and could reduce tedious laboratory analysis.

  19. [Effect of long-term fertilization on microbial community functional diversity in black soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-xin; Chi, Feng-qin; Xu, Xiu-hong; Kuang, En-jun; Zhang, Jiu-ming; Su, Qing-rui; Zhou, Bao-ku

    2015-10-01

    In order to study the effects of long-term different fertilization on microbial community functional diversity in arable black. soil, we examined microbial metabolic activities in two soil la- yers (0-20 cm, 20-40 cm) under four treatments (CK, NPK, M, MNPK) from a 35-year continuous fertilization field at the Ministry of Agriculture Key Field Observation Station of Harbin Black Soil Ecology Environment using Biolog-ECO method. The results showed that: in the 0-20 cm soil layer, combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizer(MNPK) increased the rate of soil microbial carbon source utilization and community metabolism richness, diversity and dominance; In the 20-40 cm layer, these indices of the MNPK treatment was lower than that of the NPK treat- ment; while NPK treatment decreased soil microbial community metabolism evenness in both layers. Six groups of carbon sources used by soil microbes of all the treatments were different between the two soil layers, and the difference was significant among all treatments in each soil layer (P functional diversity in both tillage soil layer and down soil layers, and chemical fertilization alone had a larger influence on the microbial community functional diversity in the 20-40 cm layer.

  20. Optimization research about polyester/cotton fabric soil release finish process%涤棉织物易去污整理工艺优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚永旺; 闫英山; 李玉华; 李春光; 吕建品

    2015-01-01

    The soil release finishing agent and softer for polyester/cotton fabric soil release finishing were optimized, and the soil release property was improved by the synergistic effect of soil release finishing agent and polyether derivative HP and optimization of technological conditions. The soil release finishing process for cotton fabric is that cotton fabric was baked for 2 min under 160 ℃ with soil release agent SR-7000 60 g/L, polyether derivative HP 30 g/L, softer HF 103 30 g/L, easy care finishing agent EFR 80 g/L, catalyzer 531 20 g/L, and strong protective agent HLC 30 g/L. The soil release property of finished fabric is 3.5 scale after 30 times washing.%在涤棉织物的易去污整理过程中对易去污整理剂、柔软剂进行优选,通过易去污整理剂与聚醚衍生物HP协同作用和优化工艺条件提高织物易去污效果.涤棉织物易去污整理工艺条件:易去污整理剂SR-7000 60 g/L,聚醚衍生物HP 30 g/L,柔软剂HF103 30 g/L,免烫整理剂EFR 80 g/L,催化剂531 20 g/L,强力保护剂HLC 30 g/L,焙烘温度160 ℃ ,焙烘时间2 min.整理后的织物30次水洗后易去污效果3.5级.

  1. Is marine dissolved organic matter the "missing sink" for soil-derived black carbon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmar, Thorsten; Suryaputra, I. Gusti N. A.; Niggemann, Jutta

    2010-05-01

    The thermal alteration of biomass during wildfires can be an important factor for the stabilization of organic matter in soils. Black carbon, i.e. biochars and soot, is more resistant to biodegradation than unaltered biomass, and it can therefore accumulate in soils and sediments. Our knowledge on the turnover of black carbon is still very fragmentary, and the known loss rates do not account for the estimated production rates. Major loss mechanisms remain unidentified or have been underestimated. Recently, we have identified a major thermogenic component in dissolved organic matter (DOM) of the deep ocean. We hypothesize that black carbon in soils is solubilized over time, probably via microbial interaction, and transported via rivers into the ocean. DOM, one of the largest organic carbon pools on earth, could therefore be an important transport medium of soil-derived black carbon. A case study was performed in the Suwannee River estuary and adjacent oceanic shelf (Florida, USA). The Suwannee River drains extensive wetlands and fire-impacted forests. The fate of dissolved black carbon was traced from the river through its estuary into the open Gulf of Mexico. Black carbon was molecularly quantified as benzenepolycarboxylic acids after nitric acid oxidation via a new UPLC method (ultra-performance liquid chromatography). The molecular analysis was accompanied by optical (excitation-emission matrix fluorescence and absorbance spectroscopy) and elemental characterization of DOM. A major component (approx. 10% on a carbon basis) of Suwannee River DOM could be identified as black carbon. The concentration of black carbon decreased offshore, and on the open ocean only about 1% of DOM could be identified as black carbon. In the deep ocean, the thermogenic component of DOM is higher and approx. 2.4% of DOM. The surface ocean must therefore be an efficient sink for dissolved black carbon. We hypothesize that sunlight may initiate photochemical reactions that cause a loss of

  2. Decolorization of Remazol Black-B azo dye in soil by fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azeem Khalid*, Sadia Batool, Muhammad Tariq Siddique, Zilli Huma Nazli, Riffat Bibi, Shahid Mahmood and Muhammad Arshad

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Textile industry is known to release huge amount of dyes in the water and soil environments during the dyeingprocess. The present study was planned with the aim to remove azo dye toxicants from the soil using fungal strains.The fungi were isolated by using Remazol Black-B azo dye as the sole source of C and N. Ten isolates were initiallyselected for testing their decolorization potential in the liquid medium. Three most effective strains were used tostudy the decolorization of Remazol Black-B in soil. The strain S4 was found to be very effective in removing thedye Remazol Black-B from liquid medium as well as in soil suspension. More than 95% decolorization by the strainS4 was observed in soil under optimal incubation conditions. Overall, the dye decolorization was maximum at 100mg dye kg-1 soil at pH 7-8 under static conditions. Glucose, moisture and aeration also affected the decolorizationefficacy of the fungal strain in soil. This study implies that fungi could be used for bioremediation of dyecontaminatedsites.

  3. Basic Soil Productivity of Spring Maize in Black Soil Under Long-Term Fertilization Based on DSSAT Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHA Yan; WU Xue-ping; HE Xin-hua; ZHANG Hui-min; GONG Fu-fei; CAI Dian-xiong; ZHU Ping; GAO Hong-jun

    2014-01-01

    Increasing basic farmland soil productivity has signiifcance in reducing fertilizer application and maintaining high yield of crops. In this study, we deifned that the basic soil productivity (BSP) is the production capacity of a farmland soil with its own physical and chemical properties for a speciifc crop season under local environment and ifeld management. Based on 22-yr (1990-2011) long-term experimental data on black soil (Typic hapludoll) in Gongzhuling, Jilin Province, Northeast China, the decision support system for an agro-technology transfer (DSSAT)-CERES-Maize model was applied to simulate the yield by BSP of spring maize (Zea mays L.) to examine the effects of long-term fertilization on changes of BSP and explore the mechanisms of BSP increasing. Five treatments were examined:(1) no-fertilization control (control);(2) chemical nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (NPK); (3) NPK plus farmyard manure (NPKM); (4) 1.5 time of NPKM (1.5NPKM) and (5) NPK plus straw (NPKS). Results showed that after 22-yr fertilization, the yield by BSP of spring maize signiifcantly increased 78.0, 101.2, and 69.4% under the NPKM, 1.5NPKM and NPKS, respectively, compared to the initial value (in 1992), but not signiifcant under NPK (26.9%increase) and the control (8.9%decrease). The contribution percentage of BSP showed a signiifcant rising trend (PNPKM>NPK≈NPKS, indicating that organic manure combined with chemical fertilizers (1.5NPKM and NPKM) could more effectively increase BSP compared with the inorganic fertilizer application alone (NPK) in the black soil. This study showed that soil organic matter (SOM) was the key factor among various fertility factors that could affect BSP in the black soil, and total N, total P and/or available P also played important role in BSP increasing. Compared with the chemical fertilization, a balanced chemical plus manure or straw fertilization (NPKM or NPKS) not only increased the concentrations of soil nutrient, but also improved the

  4. [Effects of heavy machinery operation on the structural characters of cultivated soils in black soil region of Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, En-Heng; Chai, Ya-Fan; Chen, Xiang-Wei

    2008-02-01

    With the cultivated soils in black soil region of Northeast China as test objects, this paper measured their structural characters such as soil strength, bulk density, and non-capillary porosity/capillary porosity (NCP/CP) ratio before and after heavy and medium-sized machinery operation, aimed to study the effects of machinery operation on the physical properties of test soils. The results showed that after machinery operation, there existed three distinct layers from top to bottom in the soil profiles, i.e., plowed layer, cumulative compacted layer, and non-affected layer, according to the changes of soil strength. Under medium-sized machinery operation, these three layers were shallower, and there was a new plow pan at the depth between 17.5 and 30 cm. Heavy machinery operation had significant positive effects on the improvement of topsoil structure (P machinery, the bulk density of topsoil decreased by 7.2% and 3.5%, respectively, and NCP/CP increased by 556.6% after subsoiling, which would benefit water infiltration, reinforce water storage, and weaken the threat of soil erosion. The main action of heavy machinery operation was soil loosening, while that of medium-sized machinery operation was soil compacting.

  5. [Using 137Cs and 210Pb(ex) to trace the impact of soil erosion on soil organic carbon at a slope farmland in the black soil region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hai-Yan; Sheng, Mei-Ling; Sun, Li-Ying; Cai, Qiang-Guo

    2013-07-01

    Soil cores were collected from a 28.5 hm2 slope farmland in the black soil region of Northeast China. Based on the sampled data of 137Cs, 210Pb(ex) and SOC, the potentials of applying 137Cs and 210Pb(ex) for assessing SOC redistribution were evaluated, aimed to approach the impact of soil erosion on soil organic carbon (SOC) in black soil region. At both planar and vertical directions, the 137Cs, 210Pb(ex) and SOC in the farmland had similar distribution patterns. Although there were large planar variations in the 137Cs and 210Pb(ex) areal activities and the SOC stock as affected by soil erosion and deposition, the 137Cs, 210Pb(ex) and SOC had similar changing trends over the landscape. Two depth distribution profiles were also used to study the relations of 137Cs and 210Pb(ex) with SOC. At eroded site, the radioactivities of 137Cs and 210Pb(ex) and the SOC mass fraction did not show large variations in 0-25 cm soil layer, but decreased sharply below 25 cm. For the deposition sample, the radioactivities of 137Cs and 210Pb(ex) in 0-100 cm soil increased firstly and then decreased. The SOC mass fraction also had similar depth distribution pattern in this soil layer. The 137Cs and 210Pb(ex) presented positive linear correlations with the SOC, indicating that 137Cs, 210Pb(ex) and SOC moved with the same physical mechanism in the farmland, and fallout 137Cs and 210Pb(ex) could be used to study spatio-temporal distribution characteristics of SOC in the black soil region under the condition of soil erosion.

  6. [Environmental behavior and effect of biomass-derived black carbon in soil: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Xue; Liu, Wei; Wu, Wei-Xiang; Zhong, Zhe-Ke; Chen, Ying-Xu

    2009-04-01

    Biomass-derived black carbon, also named biochar, has the characteristics of high stability against decay and high capability of adsorption, and can affect the environment through its interactions with climate and geology, playing a significant role in global climate change, carbon biogeochemical cycle, and environmental system. In recent years, more and more researchers in the fields of atmospheric sciences, geology, and environmental science focused on the environmental behavior and effect of biochar. As one possible source of the components with high aromatic structure in soil humus, biochar is of great importance in increasing soil carbon storage and improving soil fertility, and in maintaining the balance of soil ecosystem. This paper offered the latest information regarding the characteristics and biotic and abiotic oxidation mechanisms of biochar, its effects on global climate change, and the environmental effect of biochar in soil. Research prospects were briefly discussed on the environmental behavior and effect of biochar in soil ecosystem.

  7. Influences of Soil Fertility on Spatial Patterns of Aphis Gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae Occurred in Bt-cotton Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Qiang Tan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available With the widespread planting of bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt-cotton, non-target piercing-sucking insects such as Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae have become the main hazard of cotton. Fertilization influences the distribution and population dynamics of aphid seriously. In this study, the effects of Nitrogen (N and Phosphorus (P on aphid population density were investigated on Bt-cotton; the combinational impacts of nitrogen and potassium (K fertilizers on the distribution of aphid were examined as to guide rational fertilization to reduce pests and environmental pollution. Aphid density in cotton plants fertilized with 72 kg/ha N (84.2±22.7 aphids/plant was significantly higher than fertilized with 0 and 108 kg/ha N (36.7±4.0 and 47.8±18.7 aphids/plant. Compared to cotton plants treated with 23 and 69 kg/ha P, aphid density was higher (61.67±21.08 aphids/plant in cotton plants treated with 46 kg/ha P. Comparison of spatial distribution of aphid population showed that aphid preferred to suck the sap of bottom fruit branches in cotton plants treated by single K fertilizer and combinational fertilizers of N and K. Thus, these results suggested that proper application of fertilizers should be beneficial to controlling phytophagous insects in Bt-cotton production.

  8. Desorption properties of cotton fabric for oil soil%棉织物对油类污渍的脱附

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨立强; 张淑芝; 苏高峰; 刘学民

    2012-01-01

    以水溶性阿拉伯树胶作为对比,研究了棉织物上蓖麻油、磷脂、液体石蜡、羊毛脂的脱附过程.用准二级动力学方程拟合了脱附动力学,相关系数均接近于1.结果表明:阿拉伯树胶在洗衣液中的脱附效果最好,脱附得最快,羊毛脂最难脱附,但是脱附速率较快.通过SEM表面观察发现,洗涤后阿拉伯树胶在纤维上几乎没有残留;羊毛脂洗涤前后变化不大,蓖麻油不易吸附也不易清除;磷脂、液体石蜡、蓖麻油洗涤前后均有一定程度的残留,附着在纤维表面,不同污渍在棉纤维表面的结合力不同.%A comparative study was undertaken of desorption process of water soluble arabic gum, castor oil, phosphatide, liquid paraffin, lanolin from the cotton fabric under certain conditions. Quasi-secondary reaction kinetics equation was used to fit desorption curves, and the correlation coefficients were close to 1. The results showed that arabic gum exhibited the best desorption result and the fastest desorption rate in the washing water. On the contrary, lanolin was most difficult to be desorbed, but it had faster desorption rate than other soils. SEM observation showed that almost no arabic gum residue was on the fiber surface after washing; lanolin changed little before and after washing; castor oil was not easy to be adsorbed or easy to be removed; and phosphatide, liquid paraffin, castor oil all displayed certain degree of residues after washing, and were adhered to the fiber surface. Adhesion forces of different soilson the sunface of cotton fiber were different.

  9. [Effects of tillage mode on black soil's penetration resistance and bulk density].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xue-Wen; Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Liang, Ai-Zhen; Jia, Shu-Xia; Shi, Xiu-Huan; Fan, Ru-Qin; Wei, Shou-Cai

    2012-02-01

    Taking an eight-year field experiment site in Dehui County of Jilin Province, Northeast China as test object, this paper studied the effects of different tillage modes (no tillage and ploughing in autumn) on the penetration resistance and bulk density of black soil. No tillage increased the soil penetration resistance, especially at the soil depth of 2.5-17.5 cm. In the continuous cropping of maize and the rotation of maize-soybean, the maximum soil penetration resistance at planting zone under no tillage and ploughing in autumn was 2816 and 1931 kPa, and 2660 and 2051 kPa, respectively, which had no restriction on the crop growth. The curve of soil penetration resistance under ploughing in autumn changed with ridge shape, while that under no tillage changed less. Comparing with ploughing in autumn, no tillage increased the bulk density of 5-20 cm soil layer significantly. Under no tillage, the bulk density of 5-30 cm soil layer changed little, but under ploughing in autumn, soil bulk density increased gradually with increasing soil depth. There was no significant correlation between soil bulk density and soil penetration resistance.

  10. THE CONTENT OF MACRO- AND MICRONUTRIENTS IN CORN GRAIN GROWN ON ORDINARY BLACK SOILS UNDER FERTILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biryukova O. A.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the results of studies on elemental composition of corn grain under various fertilizer treatments. The balanced application of fertilizers is an important factor in optimizing corn nutrition on ordinary black soils and obtaining ecologically safe and clean crop production

  11. Evaluation on Heavy Metals in Black Soils of Hailun and Bayan Counties in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZAKIR; Shahidanasreen

    2010-01-01

    The concentration of heavy metals was investigated in black soil samples collected from the fields treated with chemical in Bayan County which were from the vegetation covers,bare soil and grain fields without any chemical treatments in Hailun National Field Research Station of Agroecosystem,Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) in July,2009.Results showed that the presence of significantly high concentration of zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) in soils covered with grass vegetation.However,mercury (Hg),copper (Cu),nick...

  12. Molecular composition of several soil organic matter fractions from anthropogenic black soils (Terra Preta de Índio) in Amazonia — A pyrolysis-GC/MS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, Judith; Almeida-Santos, Taís; Macedo, Rodrigo Santana; Buurman, Peter; Kuyper, Thomas W.; Vidal-Torrado, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    The stability of soil organic matter (OM) in Amazonian anthropogenic soils, Terra Preta de Índio (TPI), is still not completely understood. The large contribution from black carbon (BC) and minerals to these soils is well-known; OM stability is therefore frequently explained by these properties,

  13. [Humus composition of black soil and its organo-mineral complexes under different fertility level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lanpo; Wang, Jie; Liu, Jingshuan; Liu, Shuxia; Wang, Yanling; Wang, Hongbin; Zhang, Zhidan

    2005-01-01

    Determinations by Kumada method showed that with the improvement of black soil fertility, the free and combined humus contents in soil and its different size organo-mineral complexes increased, but the humification degree of free humus decreased, which was more obvious in silt and fine sand size complexes. The organic carbon content in complexes, humus extraction rate, free humus content, and humification degree of free humic acid decreased with the increasing particle size of complexes. All free humic acids in fertile soil were Rp type, while in unfertile soil, they were Rp and B type. With the increasing particle size of complexes, the type of free humic acids changed in the sequence A type (clay)-->B type (silt)-->Rp type (fine sand). Combined form humic acid mainly belonged to A type, no matter what particle size the complex was. The improvement of soil fertility could make the humification degree of free humus in soil and its complexes decrease, and furthermore, result in type change. In black soil, the type change of free humic acid mainly occurred in silt size complex, and that of combined form humic acid mainly occurred in fine sand size complex.

  14. Bacterial community structure and diversity in a black soil as affected by long-term fertilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Dan; YANG Qian; ZHANG Jun-Zheng; WANG Shuang; CHEN Xue-Li; ZHANG Xi-Lin; LI Wei-Qun

    2008-01-01

    Black soil (Mollisol) is one of the main soil types in northeastern China.Biolog and polymerase chain reactiondenaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) methods were used to examine the influence of various fertilizer combinations on the structure and function of the bacterial community in a black soil collected from Harbin,Heilongjiang Province.Biolog results showed that substrate richness and catabolic diversity of the soil bacterial community were the greatest in the chemical fertilizer and chemical fertilizer+manure treatments.The metabolic ability of the bacterial community in the manure treatment was similar to the control.DGGE fingerprinting indicated similarity in the distribution of most 16S rDNA bands among all treatments,suggesting that microorganisms with those bands were stable and not influenced by fertilization.However,chemical fertilizer increased the diversity of soil bacterial community.Principal component analysis of Biolog and DGGE data revealed that the structure and function of the bacterial community were similar in the control and manure treatments,suggesting that the application of manure increased the soil microbial population,but had no effect on the bacterial community structure.Catabolic function was similar in the chemical fertilizer and chemical fertilizer+manure treatments,but the composition structure of the soil microbes differed between them.The use of chemical fertilizers could result in a decline in the catabolic activity of fast-growing or eutrophic bacteria.

  15. 黑液腐植酸肥料对棉花生长及土壤肥力的影响%Effect of different humic acid liquid fertilizer on cotton growth and soil fertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王平; 田长彦; 张小勇; 莫海涛

    2012-01-01

    通过在北疆布设的3种肥料(腐植酸液体肥料HALF-A、HALF-B、HALF-C)5个施肥水平的田间试验,研究了黑液腐植酸肥料对棉花生长及土壤肥力的影响.结果表明:(1)与常规肥料比,应用不同黑液腐植酸液体肥科,增产幅度达到8.54%~10.80%,提高单铃重0.2~0.39,对衣分和单株有效成铃数影响不大;(2)施用腐植酸液体肥料能够推迟棉花成熟2~4d;(3)腐植酸液体肥料施用量2250kg/hm2以上对显著促进了棉花花后干物质的累积;(4)三种腐植酸液体肥料施用量3000kg/hm2时对棉花氮素养分的吸收促进作用最大,HALF-B在施用量2250kg/hm2,HALF-C在3000kg/hm2时促进了棉花磷素养分的吸收,腐植酸液体肥料施用量3750kg/hm2以上时显著促进了棉花钾素养分的吸收;(5)施用腐植酸液体肥科对当年收获后土壤肥力影响不大.%In order to provide the evidence for resource ulilization of black liquor, the field experiments of humic acid product from black liquor were carried out in North Xinjiang. With designing three fertilizer treatments HALF- A, HALF - B, HALF - C and five-level method, to study the effect of humic acid product on the cotton growth and soil fertility- The experiments showed that: (l) compared with the conventional solid fertilizer, humic acid liquid fertilizer could remarkably increase the cotton yield by 8.5% ~ 10.8% , boll weight increaeed by 0.2~0.3 g, but lint percentage and Boll per plant was not affected. (2) Compared with the conventional solid fertilizer, humic arid liquid fertilizer could delay the harvest lime by 2 ~ 4 day. (3) Compared with the conventional solid fertilizer, 2 250 kg/hra2 humic acid liquid fertilizer could evidently promote dry matter accumulation amount of after flower period. (4) compared with the conventional solid fertilizer, three humic acid liquid fertilizer promote nitrogen uptake by application amount about 3 000 kg/hm\\ meanwhile, 2 250 k&/hm2 HALF - B and 3 000

  16. Biological control agent of larger black flour beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae): A nuisance pest developing in cotton gin trash piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larger black flour beetles (LBFB), Cynaeus angustus, feed on saprophytic fungi found in gin trash piles, and become nuisance pests in homes and businesses. We examined the dose-response of three entomopathogenic nematode species (Steinernema carpocapsae, S. feltiae, and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora...

  17. [Impact of tillage practices on microbial biomass carbon in top layer of black soils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bing-jie; Jia, Shu-xia; Zhang, Xiao-ping; Liang, Ai-zhen; Chen, Xue-wen; Zhang, Shi-xiu; Liu, Si-yi; Chen, Sheng-long

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted on a long-term (13 years) tillage and rotation experiment on black soil in northeast China to determine the effects of tillage, time and soil depth on soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC). Tillage systems included no tillage (NT), ridge tillage (RT) and mould-board plough (MP). Soil sampling was done at 0-5, 5-10 and 10-20 cm depths in June, August and September, 2013, and April, 2014 in the corn phase of corn-soybean rotation plots. MBC content was measured by the chloroform fumigation extraction (CFE) method. The results showed that the MBC content varied with sampling time and soil depth. Soil MBC content was the lowest in April for all three tillage systems, and was highest in June for MP, and highest in August for NT and RT. At each sampling time, tillage system had a significant effect on soil MBC content only in the top 0-5 cm layer. The MBC content showed obvious stratification under NT and RT with a higher MBC content in the top 0-5 cm layer than under MP. The stratification ratios under NT and RT were greatest in September when they were respectively 67.8% and 95.5% greater than under MP. Our results showed that soil MBC contents were greatly affected by the time and soil depth, and were more apparently accumulated in the top layer under NT and RT.

  18. Effect of soil weathering degree on the increase of cotton biomass and silicon mineralomass after amendment with biochar highly concentrated in phytoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zimin; Delvaux, Bruno; Yans, Johan; Dufour, Nicolas; Houben, David; Cornelis, Jean-Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Silicon (Si) is beneficial for plants, but not essential. It plays a crucial role in improving the yields of Si-accumulator crops through alleviating various biotic and abiotic stresses. The demand of Si fertilizers will likely increase due to soil desilication and removal of harvested biomass. Since plants accumulate Si in the form of readily soluble phytoliths, plant-derived biochar is considered as a Si source for Si accumulator crops. In addition to its beneficial effects on soil fertility and carbon sequestration, biochar is a promising cost-effective and environmentally friendly alternative to conventional Si amendments. Here, we study the impact of biochar materials with different phytolith concentrations on the bioavailability of Si in soils differing in weathering stage, and its effect on cotton biomass and Si mineralomass. Two biochar materials were used: Miscanthus x giganteus (Si concentration: 34.6 g/kg) and soft woody material (Si concentration: 0.9 g/kg). A conventional wollastonite (CaSiO3) treatment was carried for comparison purpose. The concentration of bioavailable Si was determined through 0.01 M CaCl2 extraction. Biochars were incorporated at the rate of 3% (w/w) in two soils: a slightly weathered Cambisol and a highly weathered Nitisol. The Miscanthus biochar ability to release bioavailable Si in the Cambisol (CaCl2 extractable Si/total Si concentration) is significantly smaller (0.9%) than the one of wollastonite (5.2%). In the highly weathered Nitisol, the Miscanthus biochar ability to release bioavailable Si is much larger (1.4%) than that of wollastonite (0.7%). Miscanthus biochar significantly increases the cotton biomass and Si mineralomass relative to soft wood biochar. The increase is larger in the highly weathered Nitisol than in the slightly weathered Cambisol. Principal component analyses and linear regression show that both the larger release rate of bioavailable Si and CEC are the main factors responsible for the increase of

  19. 甲萘威在棉花和土壤中的残留和消解动态%Residue Dynamics of Carbaryl in Cotton and Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马婧玮; 李通; 张军锋; 周玲; 司敬沛; 吴绪金

    2014-01-01

    In order to provide scientific basis for the safe use of carbaryl on cotton, the degradation dynamics of carbaryl in cotton and soil were studied by LC-MS/MS. The sample was extracted with methanol + dichloromethane (volume ratio of 1:99), cleaned up by amino solid phase extraction column, then determined by LC-MS/MS. The results showed that the half-lives of carbaryl in cotton leaf and soil were 1.1-1.9 days and 4.3-6.2 days, respectively. The final residues in cotton seed were all under 0.023 mg/kg. The results suggested that metaldehyde + carbaryl 30% GR could be used in cotton field at most one time and the pre-harvest interval should be 7 days.%采用液相色谱-串联质谱法(LC-MS/MS)研究了甲萘威在棉花和土壤中的残留消解动态,为棉花上甲萘威的安全使用提供科学依据。样品经甲醇+二氯甲烷(体积比1∶99)提取,氨基固相萃取柱净化,后经LC-MS/MS测定其残留量。甲萘威在棉叶上的半衰期为1.1~1.9 d;在土壤中的半衰期为4.3~6.2 d。试验条件下,甲萘威在收获前14 d、收获前7 d、收获期棉籽中的残留量≤0.023 mg/kg。建议30%聚醛·甲萘威颗粒剂在推荐剂量下最多施药1次,采收间隔期为7 d。

  20. Desenvolvimento do sistema radicular do algodoeiro na camada arável do solo Distribution of cotton roots in the upper soil layers at three different time intervals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Magalhães

    1962-01-01

    Full Text Available Sabe-se que o sistema radicular do algodoeiro se situa predominantemente na região compreendida pelos primeiros 20 cm de profundidade do solo. Como a cultura exige intensas práticas culturais, torna-se útil conhecer a distribuição progressiva do sistema radicular naquela região, sobretudo nos primeiros meses do ciclo vegetative época em que a cultura exige a intensificação das capinas. Estudos sôbre a questão foram efetuados em um ensaio de campo com a variedade IAC 12-57/566, em solo tipo terra-roxa-misturado, fozendo-se observações aos 42, 61 e 81 dias após a germinação das sementes. Os dados mostraram maior concentração de raízes na camada de 3 a 15 cm de profundidade do solo e até a uma distância aproximada de 25 cm lateralmente às plantas. O ritmo de crescimento do sistema radicular do algodoeiro foi mais intenso do 42.° ao 61.° dia após a germinação. A má utilização dos implementos agrícolas nesse período mais critico, poderá pois, provocar grandes danos à cultura, principalmente se forem empregados cultivos profundos.The distribution of the cotton plant root system in the upper 20 cm layer of soil was studied at three different times (42, 61 ond 81-day old plants. These studies were carried out in a cotton field of the variety IAC 12-57/566 planted on a "terra-roxa-misturada" type of soil. The spacing was 80 cm between rows and 15 cm between plants in the row. The method employed consisted in excavating a ditch at a right angle to the plant rows, including four plants, and then removing the soil as blocks. Five loyers of soil blocks were taken: the first and second were 3 cm thick; the third, 4 cm thick; and the fourth and fifth, 5 cm thick. After washing off the soil of each block, the roots in it were air dried and weighed. A representation of the root distribution os encountered is given in figure 2. Far the cotton field studied, most of the roots were found between 3 and 15 cm of depth up to a

  1. The Effect of Long-Term Continuous Cropping of Black Pepper on Soil Bacterial Communities as Determined by 454 Pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wu; Li, Zhigang; Liu, Hongjun; Xue, Chao; Zhang, Ruifu; Wu, Huasong; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, 3 replanted black pepper orchards with continuously cropping histories for 10, 21, and 55 years in tropical China, were selected for investigating the effect of monoculture on soil physiochemical properties, enzyme activities, bacterial abundance, and bacterial community structures. Results showed long-term continuous cropping led to a significant decline in soil pH, organic matter contents, enzymatic activities, and resulted in a decrease in soil bacterial abundance. 454 pyrosequencing analysis of 16S rRNA genes revealed that the Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria were the main phyla in the replanted black pepper orchard soils, comprising up to 73.82% of the total sequences; the relative abundances of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes phyla decreased with long-term continuous cropping; and at genus level, the Pseudomonas abundance significantly depleted after 21 years continuous cropping. In addition, bacterial diversity significantly decreased after 55 years black pepper continuous cropping; obvious variations for community structures across the 3 time-scale replanted black pepper orchards were observed, suggesting monoculture duration was the major determinant for bacterial community structure. Overall, continuous cropping during black pepper cultivation led to a significant decline in soil pH, organic matter contents, enzymatic activities, resulted a decrease in soil bacterial abundance, and altered soil microbial community membership and structure, which in turn resulted in black pepper poor growth in the continuous cropping system.

  2. The Effect of Long-Term Continuous Cropping of Black Pepper on Soil Bacterial Communities as Determined by 454 Pyrosequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Xiong

    Full Text Available In the present study, 3 replanted black pepper orchards with continuously cropping histories for 10, 21, and 55 years in tropical China, were selected for investigating the effect of monoculture on soil physiochemical properties, enzyme activities, bacterial abundance, and bacterial community structures. Results showed long-term continuous cropping led to a significant decline in soil pH, organic matter contents, enzymatic activities, and resulted in a decrease in soil bacterial abundance. 454 pyrosequencing analysis of 16S rRNA genes revealed that the Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria were the main phyla in the replanted black pepper orchard soils, comprising up to 73.82% of the total sequences; the relative abundances of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes phyla decreased with long-term continuous cropping; and at genus level, the Pseudomonas abundance significantly depleted after 21 years continuous cropping. In addition, bacterial diversity significantly decreased after 55 years black pepper continuous cropping; obvious variations for community structures across the 3 time-scale replanted black pepper orchards were observed, suggesting monoculture duration was the major determinant for bacterial community structure. Overall, continuous cropping during black pepper cultivation led to a significant decline in soil pH, organic matter contents, enzymatic activities, resulted a decrease in soil bacterial abundance, and altered soil microbial community membership and structure, which in turn resulted in black pepper poor growth in the continuous cropping system.

  3. Light Fraction Carbon and Water-Stable Aggregates in Black Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Yi; CHEN Xin; SHEN Shan-Min

    2007-01-01

    The distribution of light fraction carbon (LF-C) in the various size classes of aggregates and its relationship to waterstable aggregates as well as the influence of cultivation on the organic components in virgin and cultivated black soils were studied by wet sieving and density separation methods. The total organic carbon (TOC) and LF-C were significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) in the virgin soils than in the cultivated soils. The LF-C in aggregates of different size classes varied from 0.9 to 2.5 g kg-1 in the cultivated soils and from 2.5 to 7.1 g kg-1 in the virgin soils, whereas the ratio of LF-C to TOC varied from 1.9% to 7.3% and from 5.0% to 12.2%, respectively. After being incubated under constant temperature and controlled humidity for three months, the contribution of LF-C to TOC sharply decreased to an amount (1.7%-8.5%)close to the level in soils that had been cultivated for 20 to 25 years (1.3%-8.8%). As a result, the larger water-stable macro-aggregates (especially > 1 mm) decreased sharply, indicating that the LF-C pool in virgin soils declined quickly after cultivation, which reduced the water stability of soil aggregates.

  4. Effects of Acetochlor and Methamidophos on Fungal Communities in Black Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xin-Yu; ZHANG Hui-Wen; ZHOU Qi-Xing; SU Zhen-Cheng; ZHANG Cheng-Gang

    2005-01-01

    Using plate counting and ergosterol assay, single and joint effects of acetochlor and methamidophos on the dynamics of soil fungal population and total fungal biomass in the black soil zone of Northeast China were investigated. The results demonstrated that acetochlor at high concentration levels (150 and 250 mg kg-1) had an acute and mostly chronic toxicity on both the soil fungal population and total fungal biomass, but at a low concentration (50 mg kg-1) generally had a stimulating effect that was stronger with total fungal biomass than with the soil fungal population. Methamidophos at a high concentration level (250 mg kg-1) alone and almost all of its combinations with various dosages of acetochlor increased the soil fungal population, whereas at most sampling dates with 250 mg methamidophos kg-1 soil, total fungal biomass increased, but in combination with acetochlor it was decreased in the early period of incubation and then increased 28 days after incubation. Thus, through measuring the number of colony forming unit of the soil fungal population along with the total fungal biomass, a better understanding on effects of agrochemicals on soil fungi could be made.

  5. Ecotoxicity of Cadmium to Maize and Soybean Seedling in Black Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Ecotoxicity and bioavailability of cadmium (Cd) to the maize (Zea mays L.) and the soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) were investigated by acute toxicity experiment in the laboratory with black soil. Ecotoxicity and bioavailability of Cd were quantified by calculating the median effective concentration (EC50) and bioaccumulation factor (B4F). The measurement endpoints used were seed germination and seedling growth (shoot and root). The results showed that concentrations of Cd in the soil had adverse effect on the growth of roots and shoots. Seed germination was not the sensitive indicator for the ecotoxicity of Cd in the soil, while the growth of roots was the most sensitive measurement endpoint.Absorbability and transport of Cd in plants depended on the test crop species and Cd concentrations in the soil. The maize retains more Cd in its roots, while the soybean transports more Cd to the shoots from roots.

  6. CHANGES IN BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF ORDINARY BLACK SOILS AT GLEYISATION (MODEL EXPERIMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandashova K. A.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of laboratory modeling of gleyisation and its effect on the biological properties of soils with stagnant regime in ordinary black soils. Gleyisation is a complex biochemical process that occurs under oxygen reduction conditions. Anaerobic microorganisms, the presence of organic substances, and the constant or prolonged waterlogging of individual horizons or the entire soil profile promote gleyisation. Model experiments revealed that gleyisation increase the total number of bacteria and suppresses number of actinomycetes, micromycetes and growth of fungal mycelium. Gleyisation decreases the activity of oxidoreductases and increases the hydrolases activity. In addition, the second content of humus slightly increases and active acidity (pH changes to neutral. Accumulation of large amounts of iron oxide (II in soil is revealed

  7. Distribution of black carbon in Ponderosa pine litter and soils following the High Park wildfire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Boot

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Black carbon (BC, the heterogeneous product of burned biomass, is a critical component in the global carbon cycle, yet timescales and mechanisms for incorporation into the soil profile are not well understood. The High Park Fire, which took place in northwestern Colorado in the summer of 2012, provided an opportunity to study the effects of both fire intenstiy and geomorphology on properties of carbon (C, nitrogen (N, and BC in the Cache La Poudre River drainage. We sampled montane Ponderosa pine litter, 0–5 cm soils, and 5–15 cm soils four months post-fire in order to examine the effects of slope and burn intensity on %C, C stocks, %N and black carbon (g kg−1 C, and g m−2. We developed and implemented the benzene polycarboxylic acid (BPCA method for quantifying BC. With regard to slope, we found that steeper slopes had higher C : N than shallow slopes, but that there was no difference in black carbon content or stocks. BC content was greatest in the litter in burned sites (19 g kg−1 C, while BC stocks were greatest in the 5–15 cm subsurface soils (23 g m−2. At the time of sampling, none of the BC deposited on the land surface post-fire had been incorporated into to either the 0–5 cm or 5–15 cm soil layers. The ratio of B5CA : B6CA (less condensed to more condensed BC indicated there was significantly more older, more processed BC at depth. Total BC soil stocks were relatively low compared to other fire-prone grassland and boreal forest systems, indicating most of the BC produced in this system is likely transported off the surface through erosion events. Future work examining mechanisms for BC transport will be required for understanding the role BC plays in the global carbon cycle.

  8. Spatial Variability of Nutrient Properties in Black Soil of Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xing-Yi; SUI Yue-Yu; ZHANG Xu-Dong; MENG Kai; S.J.HERBERT

    2007-01-01

    A total of 1400 soil samples from the plow layer (0-20 cm) at an approximate interval of 5 km were collected in the autumn of 2002 over the entire black soil arable crops region to determine the spatial variability of seven variables, such as total organic matter content (OMC), total N, total P, total K, alkali-dissolvable N (AN), available P (AP) and available K (AK), with classical statistics and geostatistical analysis across the entire black soil area in Northeast China. In nonsampled areas ordinary kriging was utilized for interpolation of estimated nutrient determinations. Classical statistics revealed highly significant (P ≤ 0.01) correlations with all seven of the soil properties, except for OMC with AP and total K with AK. In addition, using coefficients of variation, all soil properties, except for total K, were moderately variable. A geostatistical analysis indicated that structural factors, such as parent material, terrain, and water table, were the main causes of the spatial correlations. Strong spatial correlations were noted with OMC, total N, total P, AN, and AP, while they were moderate for total K and AK. The effective spatial autocorrelation of OMC, total N, total P, and AN ranged from 1 037 to 1 353 km, whereas the ranges of total K, AP, and AK were only from 6 to 138 km. The fit of the experimental semi-variograms to the theoretical models indicated that except for AN, kriging could successfully interpolate other six variables. Thus, the geostatistical method used on a large scale could accurately evaluate the spatial variability of most black soil nutrient properties in Northeast China.

  9. Distribution of black carbon in Ponderosa pine litter and soils following the High Park wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boot, C. M.; Haddix, M.; Paustian, K.; Cotrufo, M. F.

    2014-12-01

    Black carbon (BC), the heterogeneous product of burned biomass, is a critical component in the global carbon cycle, yet timescales and mechanisms for incorporation into the soil profile are not well understood. The High Park Fire, which took place in northwestern Colorado in the summer of 2012, provided an opportunity to study the effects of both fire intenstiy and geomorphology on properties of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and BC in the Cache La Poudre River drainage. We sampled montane Ponderosa pine litter, 0-5 cm soils, and 5-15 cm soils four months post-fire in order to examine the effects of slope and burn intensity on %C, C stocks, %N and black carbon (g kg-1 C, and g m-2). We developed and implemented the benzene polycarboxylic acid (BPCA) method for quantifying BC. With regard to slope, we found that steeper slopes had higher C : N than shallow slopes, but that there was no difference in black carbon content or stocks. BC content was greatest in the litter in burned sites (19 g kg-1 C), while BC stocks were greatest in the 5-15 cm subsurface soils (23 g m-2). At the time of sampling, none of the BC deposited on the land surface post-fire had been incorporated into to either the 0-5 cm or 5-15 cm soil layers. The ratio of B5CA : B6CA (less condensed to more condensed BC) indicated there was significantly more older, more processed BC at depth. Total BC soil stocks were relatively low compared to other fire-prone grassland and boreal forest systems, indicating most of the BC produced in this system is likely transported off the surface through erosion events. Future work examining mechanisms for BC transport will be required for understanding the role BC plays in the global carbon cycle.

  10. MATCHING COTTON GROWERS’ PERCEPTIONS OF THE VALUE OF INGARD™ COTTON WITH ECONOMIC ANALYSIS BASED ON SAME FARM PAIRED COMPARISONS OF PERFORMANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Hancock, Wayne M.; Harrison, Jennifer L.; O'Brian, Dennis T.

    1999-01-01

    The genetically modified INGARD™ cotton seed was released in Australia in 1996 and was greeted with high expectations and enthusiasm within the cotton industry. INGARD™ cotton seed contains the Cry1A(c) gene from the soil bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis var kurstaki for the biological control of Helicoverpa armigera and H. punctigera moth larvae in cotton. These are the most serious insect pests of cotton and account for the majority of insecticides applied to cotton in Australia. Significant...

  11. Using 137Cs Tracer Technique to Evaluate Erosion and Deposition of Black Soil in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Soil and water losses through erosion have been serious in the black soil region of Northeast China. Therefore, a sloping cultivated land in Songnen Plain was selected as a case study to: 1) determine the 137Cs reference inventory in the study area; 2) calculate erosion and deposition rates of black soil on different slope locations; 3) conduct a sensitivity analysis of some model parameters; and 4) compare overall outputs using four different models. Three transects were set in the field with five slope locations for each transect, including summit, shoulder-slope, back-slope, foot-slope, and toe-slope. Field measurements and model simulation were used to estimate a bomb-derived 137Cs reference inventory in the study area.Soil erosion and deposition rates were estimated using four 137Cs models and percentage of 137Cs loss/gain. The 137Cs reference value in the study area was 2 232.8 Bq m-2 with 137Cs showing a clear topographic pattern, decreasing from the summit to shoulder-slope, then increasing again at the foot-slope and reaching a maximum at the toe-slope. Predicted soil redistribution rates for different slope locations varied. Among models, the Yang Model (YANG-M) overestimated erosion loss but underestimated deposition. However, the standard mass balance model (MBM1) gave predictions similar to a mass balance model incorporating soil movement by tillage (MBM2). Sensitivity analysis of the proportion factor γand distribution pattern of 137Cs in the surface layer demonstrated the impact of 137Cs enrichment on calculation of the soil erosion rate. Factors influencing the redistribution of fallout 137Cs in landscape should be fully considered as calculating soil redistribution rate using 137Cs technique.

  12. Erosion effect on the productivity of black soil in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG ZhiQiang; LIU BaoYuan; WANG XuYan; GAO XiaoFei; LIU Gang

    2009-01-01

    Continuous soil erosion has caused serious land degradation in the black soil area of Northeast China. The primary objective of this study was to determine the effects of accelerated erosion on soil produc- tivity, as measured by soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) yields. Eight erosion levels, 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 cm, were simulated by imitating the integrated process of natural erosion and tillage activity. Each erosion level had two sub-treatments: conventional fertilization and no fertilization. Soil erosion was found to affect survival probability and to cause remarkable reductions in the Leaf Area Index (LAI), plant height, pod number, biomass, and yield. Soybean yield was exponentially decreased with the increase of soil erosion depth. Compared to erosion depth of 0 cm, erosion levels of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 cm experienced reductions in soybean yield by 28.8%, 37.8%, 43.5%, 52.6%, 53.1%, 52.9%, and 64.1% respectively when fertilized whereas the reductions at those levels were 32.6%, 42.2%, 53.0%, 54.0%, 65.8%, 69.7%, and 72.6%, respectively, when unfertilized. At the erosion depths of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 cm, the yield reductions per 10 cm of soil eroded when fertilized were 28.8%, 18.9%, 14.5%, 13.2%, 10.6%, 8.8%, and 9.2%, averaged 14.9%, but when unfertilized they were 32.6%, 21.1%, 17.7%, 13.5%, 13.2%, 11.6%, and 10.4%, averaged 17.1%. The results also showed that chemical fertili- zers could enhance the yields of eroded soil, but could not recover the yields to the pre-erosion level. Additionally, the results indicated that the primary reason for the decrease in soybean yield with in- creasing erosion depth was the loss of soil organic matter, soil N and P. These results may aid in se- lecting effective soil erosion control strategy, forecasting land degradation, establishing soil erosion tolerance, and evaluating the economic cost of soil erosion in the black soil region in Northeast China.

  13. Erosion effect on the productivity of black soil in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Continuous soil erosion has caused serious land degradation in the black soil area of Northeast China. The primary objective of this study was to determine the effects of accelerated erosion on soil productivity, as measured by soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) yields. Eight erosion levels, 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 cm, were simulated by imitating the integrated process of natural erosion and tillage activity. Each erosion level had two sub-treatments: conventional fertilization and no fertilization. Soil erosion was found to affect survival probability and to cause remarkable reductions in the Leaf Area Index (LAI), plant height, pod number, biomass, and yield. Soybean yield was exponentially decreased with the increase of soil erosion depth. Compared to erosion depth of 0 cm, erosion levels of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 cm experienced reductions in soybean yield by 28.8%, 37.8%, 43.5%, 52.6%, 53.1%, 52.9%, and 64.1% respectively when fertilized whereas the reductions at those levels were 32.6%, 42.2%, 53.0%, 54.0%, 65.8%, 69.7%, and 72.6%, respectively, when unfertilized. At the erosion depths of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 cm, the yield reductions per 10 cm of soil eroded when fertilized were 28.8%, 18.9%, 14.5%, 13.2%, 10.6%, 8.8%, and 9.2%, averaged 14.9%, but when unfertilized they were 32.6%, 21.1%, 17.7%, 13.5%, 13.2%, 11.6%, and 10.4%, averaged 17.1%. The results also showed that chemical fertili zers could enhance the yields of eroded soil, but could not recover the yields to the pre-erosion level. Additionally, the results indicated that the primary reason for the decrease in soybean yield with increasing erosion depth was the loss of soil organic matter, soil N and P. These results may aid in selecting effective soil erosion control strategy, forecasting land degradation, establishing soil erosion tolerance, and evaluating the economic cost of soil erosion in the black soil region in Northeast China.

  14. The Effects of Different Fertilizing Methods on Nitrification and Denitrification in Black Soil in Songnen Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shu-yu; WANG Hong-yan; WANG Xu-mei; QI Zhi-yong

    2004-01-01

    The paper compared the effects of application of farm manure with chemical fertilizers on nitrification and denitrification in black soil, the result showed that the numbers of nitrobacterias and denitrobacterias in farm manure treatment were both higher than that of other treatments. The intensity of denitrification in chemical treatment was higher than that of manure treatment. The content of organic matter in soil was correlated with the intensity of nitrification and denitrification, and the coefficients were respectively 0.9981 and 0.8693.

  15. Study on the Balanced Fertilization for Corn in Black Soil Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Regressive models were obtained by employing "311-B" and "3414" optimal regressive desingns through 5-year (1993~1997) field experiment,and by datum processing with computer. These models express the re- lationships between corn yields in high,middle and low yield areas and N,P,and K application rates in black soil. By analysis to the models, the fertilizer application rates for maximum yield and optimal yield were achieved.

  16. Study on the Balanced Fertilization for Corn in Black Soil Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuDe-zhi; GaoYun; 等

    1999-01-01

    Regressive models were obtained by employing “311-B” and “3414” optimal regressive desingns through 5-year (1993-1997) field experiment,and by datum processing with computer.These models express the relationships between corn yields in high,middle and low yield areas and N,P,and K application rates in black soil.By analysis to the models,the fertilizer application rates for maximum yield and optimal yield were achieved.

  17. The soil-water flow system beneath a cotton field in arid north-west China, serviced by mulched drip irrigation using brackish water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianwen; Jin, Menggui; Huang, Jinou; Yuan, Jingjing

    2015-02-01

    A field experiment was carried out in southern Xinjiang, China, to reveal soil-water flow pattern beneath a combined plastic-mulch (film) and drip-irrigation system using brackish water. The soil-water flow system (SWFS) was characterized from soil surface to the water table based on observed spatio-temporal distribution of total soil-water potential, water content and electric conductivity. Root suction provided a strong inner sink. The results indicated that SWFS determined the soil salinity and moisture distribution. Drip-irrigation events could leach excess salts from the root zone and provide soil conditions with a tolerable salinity level that supports the growth of cotton. High-salinity strips were formed along the wetting front and at the bare soil surface. Hydrogeology conditions, irrigation regime, climate, plant growth and use of mulch would affect potential sources and sinks, boundary conditions and the size of the SWFS. At depth 0-60 cm, the soil salinity at the end of the irrigation season was 1.9 times that at the beginning. Beneath the mulch cover, the soil-water content in the `wide rows' zone (55 cm between the two rows with no drip line) was higher than that in the `narrow rows' zone (15 cm between the two rows with a drip line) due to the strong root-water uptake. The downward water flow below the divergent curved surface of zero flux before irrigation, and the water-table fluctuation with irrigation events, indicated that excessive irrigation occurred.

  18. Comparing watershed black locust afforestation and natural revegetation impacts on soil nitrogen on the Loess Plateau of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhao; Li, Xiangru; Wang, Yunqiang; Wang, Yi; Wang, Kaibo; Cui, Buli

    2016-04-01

    This study examined a pair of neighbouring small watersheds with contrasting vegetations: artificial forestland and natural grassland. Since 1954, afforestation which mainly planted with black locust has been conducted in one of these watersheds and natural revegetation in the other. The differences in soil total N, nitrate, ammonium, foliar litterfall δ15N and dual stable isotopes of δ15N and δ18O in soil nitrate were investigated in the two ecosystems. Results showed that there was no significant difference in soil total N storage between the two ecosystems, but the black locust forestland presented higher soil nitrate than the grassland. Moreover, the foliar litterfall N content and δ15N of the forestland were significant higher than the grassland. These results indicate that 60 years of watershed black locust afforestation have increased soil N availability. The higher nitrate in the forestland was attributed to the biological N fixation of black locust and difference in ecosystem hydrology. The dual stable isotopes of δ15N and δ18O revealed that the two ecosystems had different sources of soil nitrate. The soil nitrate in the forestland was likely derived from soil N nitrification, while the soil nitrate in the grassland was probably derived from the legacy of NO3‑ fertiliser.

  19. Effect of N fertilization rate on soil alkali-hydrolyzable N, subtending leaf N concentration, fiber yield, and quality of cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binglin Chen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen, which is sensitive to N fertilization rate, is one of the indicators of soil nitrogen supplying capacity. Two field experiments were conducted in Dongtai (120°19″ E, 32°52″ N, Jiangsu, China in 2009 and Dafeng (120°28″ E, 33°12″ N, Jiangsu province, China in 2010. Six nitrogen rates (0, 150, 300, 375, 450, and 600 kg ha− 1 were used to study the effect of N fertilization rate on soil alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen content (SAHNC, subtending leaf nitrogen concentration (SLNC, yield, and fiber quality. In both Dongtai and Dafeng experiment station, the highest yield (1709 kg ha− 1, best quality (fiber length 30.6 mm, fiber strength 31.6 cN tex− 1, micronaire 4.82, and highest N agronomic efficiency (2.03 kg kg− 1 were achieved at the nitrogen fertilization rate of 375 kg ha− 1. The dynamics of SAHNC and SLNC could be simulated with a cubic and an exponential function, respectively. The changes in SAHNC were consistent with the changes in SLNC. Optimal average rate (0.276 mg day− 1 and duration (51.8 days of SAHNC rapid decline were similar to the values obtained at the nitrogen rate of 375 kg ha− 1 at which cotton showed highest fiber yield, quality, and N agronomic efficiency. Thus, the levels and strategies of nitrogen fertilization can affect SAHNC dynamics. The N fertilization rate that optimizes soil alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen content would optimize the subtending leaf nitrogen concentration and thereby increase the yield and quality of the cotton fiber.

  20. The influence of mineral fertilizer combined with a nitrification inhibitor on microbial populations and activities in calcareous Uzbekistanian soil under cotton cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egamberdiyeva, D; Mamiev, M; Poberejskaya, S K

    2001-10-30

    Application of fertilizers combined with nitrification inhibitors affects soil microbial biomass and activity. The objective of this research was to determine the effects of fertilizer application combined with the nitrification inhibitor potassium oxalate (PO) on soil microbial population and activities in nitrogen-poor soil under cotton cultivation in Uzbekistan. Fertilizer treatments were N as urea, P as ammophos, and K as potassium chloride. The nitrification inhibitor PO was added to urea and ammophos at the rate of 2%. Three treatments--N200 P140 K60 (T1), N200 PO P140 K60 (T2), and N200 P140 PO K60 (T3) mg kg(-1) soil--were applied for this study. The control (C) was without fertilizer and PO. The populations of oligotrophic bacteria, ammonifying bacteria, nitrifying bacteria, denitrifying bacteria, mineral assimilating bacteria, oligonitrophilic bacteria, and bacteria group Azotobacter were determined by the most probable number method. The treatments T2 and T3 increased the number of oligonitrophilic bacteria and utilization mineral forms of nitrogen on the background of reducing number of ammonifying bacteria. T2 and T3 also decreased the number of nitrifying bacteria, denitrifying bacteria, and net nitrification. In conclusion, our experiments showed that PO combined with mineral fertilizer is one of the most promising compounds for inhibiting nitrification rate, which was reflected in the increased availability and efficiency of fertilizer nitrogen to the cotton plants. PO combined with mineral fertilizer has no negative effects on nitrogen-fixing bacteria Azotobacter and oligo-nitrophilic bacteria.

  1. INFLUENCE OF THE WAYS OF THE BASIC SOIL CULTIVATION ON AGRO-PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF REGULAR BLACK SOIL AND YIELDS OF SUNFLOWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dereka F. I.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the researches on the study of the different systems of basic treatment of soil under sunflower’s density, aggregate composition, supplies of productive moisture on regular black soil of the Krasnodar region

  2. Community Composition and Structure of Soil Macro-Arthropods Under Agricultural Land Uses in the Black Soil Region of Jilin Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Dong-hui; ZHANG Bai; CHEN Peng

    2006-01-01

    Soil macro-arthropods in the black soil region in Jilin Province of China were investigated with the emphasis laid on the species richness and abundance in relation to the types of land-use, i.e., farm yard, farm land and Three-North Forest Shelter Belt. Soil macro-arthropods were hand-sorted in the field. A total of 2 357 soil macro-arthropod individuals was captured and fell into 70 families. The results suggested that type of land use affected the species richness and abundance of soil macro-arthropods. Agricultural practices had a strong impact on the soil macro-arthropods community, the conventional cultivations changed the vertical structure of macro-arthropods in the soil profile, and improved the richness and abundance of macro-arthropods in the lower soil layers especially in July. The results also showed that different groups of soil macro-arthropods had various responses to land use changes.

  3. Impact of Transgenic Bt+CpTI Cotton on Soil Enzyme Activities and Soil Microorganisms%转双价棉种植对土壤酶活性及土壤微生物的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红梅; 宋晓龙; 皇甫超河; 张贵龙; 杨殿林; 赵建宁

    2013-01-01

    Due to its strong and effective insecticidal properties, transgenic Bt+CpTI cotton has witnessed an expanding planting area in recent years, and the impact of its cultivation on soil ecosystem becomes an important part of environmental risk assessment. Using transgenic Bt+CpTI cotton sGK321 and its parental homologous conventional cotton Shiyuan 321 as the study objects, a comparative analysis was conducted on the changes in enzyme activities (urease, alkaline phosphatase, and catalase) of the rhizosphere soil and changes in the number of culturable microor-ganisms (bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes) at different growth stages (seedling stage, budding stage, flower and bol stage, and bol opening stage) of sGK321 and Shiyuan 321 under the condition of 13 years field plantings. The results showed that, the populations of bacteria, fungi, and actinomycete and the soil enzyme activi-ties of urease, alkaline phosphatase and catalase had a similar variation trend along with the cotton growing process for transgenic cotton and conventional cotton. Some occasional and inconsistent effects on soil enzyme activities and soil fungi composi-tion in the rhizosphere soil of transgenic Bt+CpTI cotton were found at the seedling stage, budding stage, flower and bol stage as compared with that of conventional cotton. The amount of bacteria and actinomycetes were not significantly different during a certain stage; however, the activities of urease, catalase, alkaline phos-phatase, also with the number of fungi were significantly different, e.g. the urease activities at seedling stage, the alkaline phosphatase at seedling and budding stages, and the soil culturable fungi at flower and bol stage were less than that of conven-tional cotton, while the soil alkaline phosphatase activities at flower and bol stage were higher. Cluster analysis showed that soil enzyme activities and microbial popu-lation changed mainly along the growth processes, suffering little from the planting of

  4. INFLUENCE OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE AGENTS ON A STRUCTURAL STATE AND THE ENZYMATIC ACTIVITY OF BLACK ORDINARY CARBONATED SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lychman V. A.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The results of a long-term research of the influence of various biologically active agents (a humic preparation Lignogumat and microbiological Baikal EM fertilizer on a structural state and the enzymatic activity of ordinary carbonated black soil are presented. It has been established that biologically active substances contribute to increased enzymatic activity, humus and improve the soil structure

  5. Biochemical changes in black oat (avena strigosa schreb) cultivated in vineyard soils contaminated with copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotto, Eduardo; Ceretta, Carlos A; Rossato, Liana V; Farias, Julia G; Brunetto, Gustavo; Miotto, Alcione; Tiecher, Tadeu L; de Conti, Lessandro; Lourenzi, Cledimar R; Schmatz, Roberta; Giachini, Admir; Nicoloso, Fernando T

    2016-06-01

    Soils used for the cultivation of grapes generally have a long history of copper (Cu) based fungicide applications. As a result, these soils can accumulate Cu at levels that are capable of causing toxicity in plants that co-inhabit the vineyards. The aim of the present study was to evaluate growth parameters and oxidative stress in black oat plants grown in vineyard soils contaminated with high levels of Cu. Soil samples were collected from the Serra Gaúcha and Campanha Gaúcha regions, which are the main wine producing regions in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, in southern Brazil. Experiments were conducted in a greenhouse in 2009, with soils containing Cu concentrations from 2.2 to 328.7 mg kg(-1). Evaluated parameters included plant root and shoot dry matter, Cu concentration in the plant's tissues, and enzymatic and non-enzymatic biochemical parameters related to oxidative stress in the shoots of plants harvested 15 and 40 days after emergence. The Cu absorbed by plants predominantly accumulated in the roots, with little to no translocation to the shoots. Even so, oat plants showed symptoms of toxicity when grown in soils containing high Cu concentrations. The enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems of oat plants were unable to reverse the imposed oxidative stress conditions.

  6. Impact of Long-Term Fertilization on Phosphorus Status in Black Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Xiao-Zeng; SONG Chun-Yu; WANG Shou-Yu; C. TANG

    2005-01-01

    A twelve-year field trial was carried out to determine the impact of long-term fertilization on phosphorus (P) distribution in the soil profile, P balance, and the transformation and availability of soil P in a black soil (Phaeozem, FAO). Under a wheat-soybean-corn rotation, during twelve years where no fertilizer was applied, crops removed 60 and 81 mg P kg-1 soil in the control and NK treatment, respectively. About one third of the P absorbed by crops was originated from organic P. Ca2-P, Ca8-P, Al-P and Fe-P were the main forms of inorganic P absorbed by crops. The surplus P from fertilization remained in the 0-20 cm soil layer and increased with the application rate of P. The combined application of NP or NPK increased available P to a lesser extent than the combined application of PK. Fertilizer P had mainly transformed to the Al-P, Fe-P, Ca2-P, and Ca8-P forms. By using the P budget (X), changes in total P (Y1) and available P (Y2) in soils under the current cropping system could be predicted by the equations: Y1 = 0.02 + 1.01X and Y2 = 2.08 + 0.15X.

  7. Distinguishing black carbon from biogenic humic substances in soil clay fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, D.A.; Chappell, M.A.; Martens, D.A.; Wershaw, R. L.; Thompson, M.

    2008-01-01

    Most models of soil humic substances include a substantial component of aromatic C either as the backbone of humic heteropolymers or as a significant component of supramolecular aggregates of degraded biopolymers. We physically separated coarse (0.2-2.0????m e.s.d.), medium (0.02-0.2????m e.s.d.), and fine (> 0.02????m e.s.d.) clay subfractions from three Midwestern soils and characterized the organic material associated with these subfractions using 13C-CPMAS-NMR, DTG, SEM-EDX, incubations, and radiocarbon age. Most of the C in the coarse clay subfraction was present as discrete particles (0.2-5????m as seen in SEM images) of black carbon (BC) and consisted of approximately 60% aromatic C, with the remainder being a mixture of aliphatic, anomeric and carboxylic C. We hypothesize that BC particles were originally charcoal formed during prairie fires. As the BC particles aged in soil their surfaces were oxidized to form carboxylic groups and anomeric and aliphatic C accumulated in the BC particles either by adsorption of dissolved biogenic compounds from the soil solution or by direct deposition of biogenic materials from microbes living within the BC particles. The biogenic soil organic matter was physically separated with the medium and fine clay subfractions and was dominated by aliphatic, anomeric, and carboxylic C. The results indicate that the biogenic humic materials in our soils have little aromatic C, which is inconsistent with the traditional heteropolymer model of humic substances.

  8. [Topsoil phosphorus forms and availability of different soil and water conservation plantations in typical black soil region, northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-Yan; Fan, Rui-Ying; Wang, En-Heng; Xia, Xiang-You; Chen, Xiang-Wei

    2014-06-01

    Aiming to understand soil phosphorus status of plantations in typical black soil region of Northeast China, the topsoil (0-10 cm) phosphorus fractionations and its availability were examined in four soil and water conservation plantations dominantly composed of Larix gmelini, Fraxinus mandshurica, Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica and Populus nigra var. italica x P. cathayan, respectively. The results showed that total P, Olsen-P and the concentration of different P fractionations in F. mandshurica and P. nigra var. italica x P. cathayan plantations were significantly higher than that of the other two coniferous plantations. Organic P was the major fractionation in the four plantations' topsoil, and sodium hydroxide extractable organic P (NaOH-Po ) representing moderately labile organic phosphorus was predominant, which accounted for 58.9% of total P. The contents of H2O-Pi and NaHCO3-P which were more labile to plant were lower, only accounting for 1.2% and 6.6% of total P, respectively. Except for NaHCO3-Po, all the other P fractions of four plantations correlated with each other, and they also had significant correlations with soil organic matter, total P, Olsen-P. Compared with the coniferous plantations, the broadleaf plantations presented higher availability of phosphorus.

  9. Response of soil nematode communities to long-term application of inorganic fertilizers in the black soil of Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoke ZHANG; Yong JIANG; Lei LIANG; Xiaofan ZHAO; Qi LI

    2009-01-01

    The effects of inorganic fertilizers on soil nematode communities were studied in a long-term fertilization experimental field in the Black Soil Region of Northeast China,where no fertilizer (CK),N fertilizer (N),combined application of N and P (NP),combined application of N and K (NK),and combined application of N,P and K (NPK) were compared.The results showed that the total nematode abundance was not affected significantly by inorganic fertilizers in the long-term field experiment.The numbers of bacterivores increased significantly in the NP treatment compared to the CK treatment,and those of fungivores and plant-parasites were inhibited in the NPK treatment.The similarity between CK and NPK treatment and the nematode diversity were higher than in other treatments.The stability of the soil ecosystem was disturbed by the inorganic fertilizers,as indicated by the change in MI values under different treatments.The response of soil nematodes mainly depended on the types of inorganic fertilizers applied.

  10. INFLUENCE OF WAYS OF MAIN SOIL TREATMENT UNDER SOYA BEANS ON CHANGE OF AGROPHYSICAL INDEXES OF LEACHED BLACK SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makarenko S. A.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There were cited the results of researches for 2010-2012 obtained in the stationary experiment of the chair of general and irrigated land management of Kuban State Agrarian University on the study of influence of the system of main soil processing under soya beans on the dynamics of main agrophysical indexes of leached black soil: on density of composition, solidity, general porosity, coefficient of structural properties in the article. There was stated that in the beginning of vegetation on the background of direct sowing of soya beans, the soil layer in 0-30 cm was characterized by values of density and solidity and in the result of it we observed the weak development of the root system. The worsening of air regime led to the decrease of symbiotic nitrogen fixation, it negatively affected on the growth and development of a cultivar. Agrophysical indexes brought nearer to optimal on variants with disposal tip on 20-22 cm and disk-shaped hulling on 8-10 cm. The worsening of investigated agrophysical soil indexes has been happened since the phase of florescence – soya bean formation till the harvesting. But the variant with disposal tip where we observed the high content of agronomically valuable fraction at the coefficient of structural property 2,42 was the closest to optimal ones. The minimization of soil treatment and especially the denial from its implementation significantly made worse the main agrophysical indexes of soil on variants with direct sowing to critical values for soya beans

  11. The Influence of Mineral Fertilizer Combined With a Nitrification Inhibitor on Microbial Populations and Activities in Calcareous Uzbekistanian Soil Under Cotton Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilfuza Egamberdiyeva

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of fertilizers combined with nitrification inhibitors affects soil microbial biomass and activity. The objective of this research was to determine the effects of fertilizer application combined with the nitrification inhibitor potassium oxalate (PO on soil microbial population and activities in nitrogen-poor soil under cotton cultivation in Uzbekistan. Fertilizer treatments were N as urea, P as ammophos, and K as potassium chloride. The nitrification inhibitor PO was added to urea and ammophos at the rate of 2%. Three treatments—N200P140K60 (T1, N200 P140 POK60 (T2, and N200 P140 POK60 (T3 mg kg-1 soil—were applied for this study. The control (C was without fertilizer and PO. The populations of oligotrophic bacteria, ammonifying bacteria, nitrifying bacteria, denitrifying bacteria, mineral assimilating bacteria, oligonitrophilic bacteria, and bacteria group Azotobacter were determined by the most probable number method. The treatments T2 and T3 increased the number of oligonitrophilic bacteria and utilization mineral forms of nitrogen on the background of reducing number of ammonifying bacteria. T2 and T3 also decreased the number of nitrifying bacteria, denitrifying bacteria, and net nitrification. In conclusion, our experiments showed that PO combined with mineral fertilizer is one of the most promising compounds for inhibiting nitrification rate, which was reflected in the increased availability and efficiency of fertilizer nitrogen to the cotton plants. PO combined with mineral fertilizer has no negative effects on nitrogen-fixing bacteria Azotobacter and oligo-nitrophilic bacteria.

  12. Combining gas exchange and chlorophylla lfuorescence measurements to analyze the photosynthetic activity of drip-irrigated cotton under different soil water deifcits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Hong-hai; Tsimilli-michael Merope; ZHANG Ya-li; ZHANG Wang-feng

    2016-01-01

    Gas exchange and chlorophyla lfuorescence were measured to study the effects of soil water deifcit (75, 60 and 45% of ifeld capacity, FC) on the photosynthetic activity of drip-irrigated cotton under ifeld conditions. At light intensities above 1200 µmol m−2 s−1, leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pn) at 60 and 45% FC was 0.75 and 0.45 times respectively than that of 75% FC. The chlorophyl content, leaf water potential and yield decreased as soil water deifcit decreased. Fiber length was signiifcantly lower at 45% FC than at 75% FC. The actual quantum yield of the photosystem II (PSII) primary photo-chemistry and the photochemical quenching were signiifcantly greater at 60% FC than at 75% FC. The electron transport rate and non-photochemical quenching at 45% FC were 0.91 and 1.29 times than those at 75% FC, respectively. The amplitudes of the K- and L-bands were higher at 45% FC than at 60% FC. As soil water content decreased, active PSII reaction centers per chlorophyl decreased, functional PSII antenna size increased, and energetic connectivity between PSII units decreased. Electron lfow from plastoquinol to the PSI end electron acceptors was signiifcantly lower at 45% FC than at 75% FC. Similar to the effect on leafPn, water deifcit reduced the performance index (PIABS, total) in the dark-adapted state. These results suggest that (i) the effect of mild water deifcit on photosystem activity was mainly related to processes between plastoquinol and the PSI end electron acceptors, (i) PSI end electron acceptors were only affected at moderate water deifcit, and (ii) PIABS, total can reliably indicate the effect of water deifcit on the energy supply for cotton metabolism.

  13. Using 137Cs to study spatial patterns of soil erosion and soil organic carbon (SOC) in an agricultural catchment of the typical black soil region, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Haiyan; Li, Qiuyan; Sun, Liying; Cai, Qiangguo

    2012-10-01

    Understanding the spatial pattern of soil organic carbon (SOC) is of great importance because of global environmental concerns. Soil erosion and its subsequent redistribution contribute significantly to the redistribution of SOC in agricultural ecosystems. This study investigated the relationships between (137)Cs and SOC over an agricultural landscape, and SOC redistribution was conducted for an agricultural catchment of the black soil region in Northeast China. The spatial patterns of (137)Cs and SOC were greatly affected by the established shelterbelts and the developed ephemeral gullies. (137)Cs were significantly correlated with SOC when (137)Cs were >2000 Bq m(-2), while no relation was observed between them when (137)Cs were SOC, landscape position and management induced their spatial difference of (137)Cs and SOC. Using (137)Cs technique to directly study SOC dynamics must be cautious in the black soils. The net SOC loss rate across the entire catchment during 1954-2010 was 92.8 kg ha(-1) yr(-1), with around 42% of the eroded SOC being redeposited within the catchment. Such information can help guide shelterbelt establishment or other land management to reduce SOC loss in the agricultural ecosystems.

  14. EVALUATION OF THE POSSIBILITY OF ENERGY USE BLACK LOCUST (Robinia pseudoacacia L. DENDROMASS ACQUIRED IN FOREST STANDS GROWING ON CLAY SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur KRASZKIEWICZ

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, in the assessed capacity using for energy purposes dendromass black locust acquired in three forest stands growing on clay soils. It was found that the test conditions black locust grows well in clay soils very rich, and its timber, in terms of energy use, has a desirable physicochemical properties. Whereas the energy of black locust plantations located on clay soils may be an alternative to gain valuable energy resource.

  15. Influence of tebuconazole and copper hydroxide on phosphatase and urease activities in red sandy loam and black clay soils

    OpenAIRE

    B. Anuradha; Rekhapadmini, A.; Rangaswamy, V.

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of two selected fungicides i.e., tebuconazole and coppoer hydroxide, was conducted experiments in laboratory and copper hydroxide on the two specific enzymes phosphatase and urease were determined in two different soil samples (red sandy loam and black clay soils) of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) from cultivated fields of Anantapuramu District, Andhra Pradesh. The activities of the selected soil enzymes were determined by incubating the selected fungicides-treated (1.0, 2.5, 5....

  16. [Response of black soil organic carbon, nitrogen and its availability to longterm fertilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Kun; Hu, Rong-Gui; Zhang, Wen-Ju; Zhou, Bao-Ku; Xu, Ming-Gang; Zhang, Jing-Ye; Xia, Ping-Ping

    2013-02-01

    Based on the long-term fertilization experiments, effects of various fertilization practices on the soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) in the surface (0-20 cm) and subsurface (20-40 cm) black soil in northeast China were studied. Results showed that, compared with the CK, long-term application of organic manure, especially the combination of mineral fertilizers and organic manure significantly increased the organic SOC and TN in the surface soil. Application of mineral fertilizers plus organic manure with conventional (NPM) and high application (N2P2M2) rate increased SOC significantly by 24. 6% and 25.1% , and TN by 29.5% and 32.8%, respectively. However, there was no significant difference among the treatments for SOC and TN at the subsurface. Compared with the CK (CKh), mineral fertilizer plus organic manure (NPM and N2P2M2) did not only increase the soil microbial biomass carbon (SMBC) and nitrogen (SMBN) , dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DN), but also significantly increased the ratio of SMBC and DOC to SOC, SMBN and TN to TN. Application of the NPM and N2P2M2 increased the value of SMBC/SOC by 0.36 to 0.59 and SMBN/TN by 1.21 to 1.95 percentage points, respectively. The value of DOC/SOC and DN/TN ranged from 0.53% to 0.72% and 1.41% to 1.78%, respectively. This result indicated that SMBC, SMBN, DOC, DN and SMBC/ SOC, SMBN/TN, DOC/SOC, DN/TN were more sensitive than SOC and TN to long-term fertilization in the soil profile, and were better indicators for the impact of long-term fertilization soil fertility. The concluded that the application of manure especially manure plus mineral fertilizers can increase soil nutrients activity in the surface and subsurface black soil, acting as a helpful practice to improve soil fertility and the ability of nutrient supply, while it may cause potential environment pollution on carbon and nitrogen loss in the agroecosystem.

  17. Effects of Transgenic Chi+Glu Cotton on Functional Diversity of Soil Microbial Community%转Chi+Glu双价基因棉对土壤微生物群落功能多样性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏锋; 朱荷琴; 肖蕊; 杨家荣

    2011-01-01

    Through studying effects of transgenic Chi+Glu cotton on functional diversity of soil microbial community, we aimed to reveal the safety of transgenic cottons on the soil ecology environment. The functional diversity of soil microorganism community of transgenic Chi+Glu cotton, transgenic Bt cotton and un-transgenic cotton in different growing stages were analyzed by Biolog Metabolic Fingerprinting method. Although there was no significant difference in the number of soil microorganism community between two transgenic cottons, the number of soil bacteria and actinomycetes of transgenic cotton were significantly higher than that of un-transgenic cotton in stages of flowering and boll-forming stages, while the number of soil fungi was significantly lower than un-transgenic cotton. Compared with un-transgenic cotton, transgenic cotton had less effects on the carbon source utilization ability, Shannon functional diversity index, Simpson index and Mclntosh index of soil microbes at sowing, seeding, squaring and boll-opening stages, but increased the carbon source utilization ability, Shannon functional diversity index and Mclntosh index at flowering and boll-forming stage significantly, while its Simpson index was significantly lower in the flowering and squaring stages. The principal component analysis showed that the 31 carbon sources utilized by the transgenic and un-transgenic cottons had significant difference in the flowering stage. In the squaring stages, the transgenic cotton had a higher utilization of car-boxylic acids, amino acids and amines than that in un-transgenic cotton. It also indicated that in the boll-opening stage, the transgenic cotton had a higher utilization of carbohydrates and carboxylic than un-transgenic cotton and the two transgenic cottons had a low utilization of car-bon sources. The result revealed that transgenic Chi+Glu cotton had significant effects on the soil microorganism community in the flowering and boll-forming stages, while

  18. Biomass burning in boreal forests and peatlands: Effects on ecosystem carbon losses and soil carbon stabilization as black carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turetsky, M. R.; Kane, E. S.; Benscoter, B.

    2011-12-01

    Climate change has increased both annual area burned and the severity of biomass combustion in some boreal regions. For example, there has been a four-fold increase in late season fires in boreal Alaska over the last decade relative to the previous 50 years. Such changes in the fire regime are expected to stimulate ecosystem carbon losses through fuel combustion, reduced primary production, and increased decomposition. However, biomass burning also will influence the accumulation of black carbon in soils, which could promote long-term soil carbon sequestration. Variations in slope and aspect regulate soil temperatures and drainage conditions, and affect the development of permafrost and thick peat layers. Wet soil conditions in peatlands and permafrost forests often inhibit combustion during wildfires, leading to strong positive correlations between pre- and post- fire organic soil thickness that persist through multiple fire cycles. However, burning can occur in poorly drained ecosystems through smouldering combustion, which has implications for emission ratios of CO2:CH4:CO as well as black carbon formation. Our studies of combustion severity and black carbon concentrations in boreal soils show a negative relationship between concentrations of black carbon and organic carbon in soils post-fire. Relative to well drained stands, poorly drained sites with thick peat layers (such as north-facing stands) had less severe burning and low concentrations of black carbon in mineral soils post-fire. Conversely, drier forests lost a greater proportion of their organic soils during combustion but retained larger black carbon stocks following burning. Overall, we have quantified greater black carbon concentrations in surface mineral soil horizons than in organic soil horizons. This is surprising given that wildfires typically do not consume the entire organic soil layer in boreal forests, and could be indicative of the vulnerability of black carbon formed in organic horizons

  19. Characteristics of PAH tar oil contaminated soils-Black particles, resins and implications for treatment strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trellu, Clément; Miltner, Anja; Gallo, Rosita; Huguenot, David; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Esposito, Giovanni; Oturan, Mehmet A; Kästner, Matthias

    2017-04-05

    Tar oil contamination is a major environmental concern due to health impacts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and the difficulty of reaching acceptable remediation end-points. Six tar oil-contaminated soils with different industrial histories were compared to investigate contamination characteristics by black particles. Here we provide a simple method tested on 6 soils to visualize and identify large amounts of black particles (BP) as either solid aggregates of resinified and weathered tar oil or various wood/coke/coal-like materials derived from the contamination history. These materials contain 2-10 times higher PAH concentrations than the average soil and were dominantly found in the sand fraction containing 42-86% of the total PAH. The PAH contamination in the different granulometric fractions was directly proportional to the respective total organic carbon content, since the PAH were associated to the carbonaceous particulate materials. Significantly lower (bio)availability of PAH associated to these carbonaceous phases is widely recognized, thus limiting the efficiency of remediation techniques. We provide a conceptual model of the limited mass transfer of PAH from resinated tar oil phases to the water phase and emphasize the options to physically separate BP based on their lower bulk density and slower settling velocity.

  20. Decomposition of soil organic matter from boreal black spruce forest: Environmental and chemical controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickland, K.P.; Neff, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    Black spruce forests are a dominant covertype in the boreal forest region, and they inhabit landscapes that span a wide range of hydrologic and thermal conditions. These forests often have large stores of soil organic carbon. Recent increases in temperature at northern latitudes may be stimulating decomposition rates of this soil carbon. It is unclear, however, how changes in environmental conditions influence decomposition in these systems, and if substrate controls of decomposition vary with hydrologic and thermal regime. We addressed these issues by investigating the effects of temperature, moisture, and organic matter chemical characteristics on decomposition of fibric soil horizons from three black spruce forest sites. The sites varied in drainage and permafrost, and included a "Well Drained" site where permafrost was absent, and "Moderately well Drained" and "Poorly Drained" sites where permafrost was present at about 0.5 m depth. Samples collected from each site were incubated at five different moisture contents (2, 25, 50, 75, and 100% saturation) and two different temperatures (10??C and 20??C) in a full factorial design for two months. Organic matter chemistry was analyzed using pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry prior to incubation, and after incubation on soils held at 20??C, 50% saturation. Mean cumulative mineralization, normalized to initial carbon content, ranged from 0.2% to 4.7%, and was dependent on temperature, moisture, and site. The effect of temperature on mineralization was significantly influenced by moisture content, as mineralization was greatest at 20??C and 50-75% saturation. While the relative effects of temperature and moisture were similar for all soils, mineralization rates were significantly greater for samples from the "Well Drained" site compared to the other sites. Variations in the relative abundances of polysaccharide-derivatives and compounds of undetermined source (such as toluene, phenol, 4-methyl phenol, and

  1. Changes in Fire-Derived Soil Black Carbon Storage in a Sub-humid Woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J. D.; Yao, J.; Murray, D. B.; Hockaday, W. C.

    2014-12-01

    Fire-derived black carbon (BC) in soil, including charcoal, represents a potentially important fraction of terrestrial carbon cycling due to its presumed long persistence in soil. Interpretation of site BC retention is important for assessing feedbacks to ecosystem processes including nutrient and water cycling. However, interaction between vegetation disturbance, BC formation, and off site transport may exist that complicate interpretation of BC addition to soils from wildfire or prescribed burns directly. To investigate the relationship between disturbance and site retention on soil BC, we determined BC concentrations for a woodland in central Texas, USA, from study plots in hilly terrain with a fire scar dendrochronology spanning 100 years. BC values were determined from 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Estimated values showed mean BC concentration of 2.73 ± 3.06 g BC kg-1 (0.91 ± 0.51 kg BC m-2) for sites with fire occurrence within the last 40 years compared with BC values of1.21 ± 1.70 g BC kg-1 soil (0.18 ± 0.14 kg BC m-2) for sites with fire 40 - 100 years ago. Sites with no tree ring evidence of fire during the last 100 years had the lowest mean soil BC concentration of 0.05 ± 0.11 g BC kg-1 (0.02 ± 0.03 kg BC m-2). Molecular proxies of stability (lignin/N) and decomposition (Alkyl C/O-Alky C) showed no differences across the sites, indicating that low potential for BC mineralization. Modeled soil erosion and time since fire from fire scar data showed that soil BC concentrations were inversely correlated. A modified the ecosystem process model, Biome-BGC, was also used simulate the effects of fire disturbance with different severities and seasonality on C cycling related to the BC production, effect on soil water availability, and off-site transport. Results showed that BC impacts on ecosystem processes, including net ecosystem exchange and leaf area development, were predominantly related to fire frequency. Site BC loss rates were

  2. Distribution of black carbon in ponderosa pine forest floor and soils following the High Park wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boot, C. M.; Haddix, M.; Paustian, K.; Cotrufo, M. F.

    2015-05-01

    Biomass burning produces black carbon (BC), effectively transferring a fraction of the biomass C from an actively cycling pool to a passive C pool, which may be stored in the soil. Yet the timescales and mechanisms for incorporation of BC into the soil profile are not well understood. The High Park fire (HPF), which occurred in northwestern Colorado in the summer of 2012, provided an opportunity to study the effects of both fire severity and geomorphology on properties of carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and BC in the Cache La Poudre River drainage. We sampled montane ponderosa pine forest floor (litter plus O-horizon) and soils at 0-5 and 5-15 cm depth 4 months post-fire in order to examine the effects of slope and burn severity on %C, C stocks, %N and BC. We used the benzene polycarboxylic acid (BPCA) method for quantifying BC. With regard to slope, we found that steeper slopes had higher C : N than shallow slopes but that there was no difference in BPCA-C content or stocks. BC content was greatest in the forest floor at burned sites (19 g BPCA-C kg-1 C), while BC stocks were greatest in the 5-15 cm subsurface soils (23 g BPCA-C m-2). At the time of sampling, unburned and burned soils had equivalent BC content, indicating none of the BC deposited on the land surface post-fire had been incorporated into either the 0-5 or 5-15 cm soil layers. The ratio of B6CA : total BPCAs, an index of the degree of aromatic C condensation, suggested that BC in the 5-15 cm soil layer may have been formed at higher temperatures or experienced selective degradation relative to the forest floor and 0-5 cm soils. Total BC soil stocks were relatively low compared to other fire-prone grassland and boreal forest systems, indicating most of the BC produced in this system is likely lost, either through erosion events, degradation or translocation to deeper soils. Future work examining mechanisms for BC losses from forest soils will be required for understanding the role BC plays in the global

  3. Cumulative release characteristics of controlled-release nitrogen and potassium fertilizers and their effects on soil fertility, and cotton growth

    OpenAIRE

    Xiuyi Yang; Jibiao Geng; Chengliang Li; Min Zhang; Xiaofei Tian

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the interacting effects of polymer coated urea (PCU) and polymer coated potassium chloride (PCPC) on cotton growth, an experiment was conducted with containerized plants in 2014 and 2015. There were two kinds of nitrogen fertilizer, PCU and urea, which were combined with PCPC at three application rates (40, 80 and 120 kg ha−1). The kinds of nitrogen fertilizer formed the main plot, while individual rates of PCPC were the subplots. The results suggested N and K release patterns ...

  4. Effect of Cultivation on Spatial Distribution of Nematode Trophic Groups in Black Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG WENJU; LI QI; JIANG YONG; CHEN WENBO; WEN DAZHONG

    2003-01-01

    Geostatistics combined with GIS was applied to assess the spatial distribution of nematode trophic groups following two contrasting soil uses in the black soil region of Northeast China. Two plots, one with fallow for 12 years and the other cultivated, were marked on regular square grids with 2-m spacing. Soil samples were collected from each sampling point, nematodes were extracted from these samples and classified into four trophic groups: bacterivores, fungivores, plant parasites, and omnivores/predators. The numbers of total nematodes and trophic groups analyzed had normal distributions on both fallow and cultivated plots. The absolute abundances of total nematodes and trophic groups were observed to be much more homogeneous on cultivated plot than on fallow one. Geostatistical analysis showed that the densities of total nematodes and trophic groups on both fallow and cultivated plots exhibited spatial dependence at the sampled scale and their experimental semivariograms were adjusted to a spherical or exponential model, except those of bacterivores and fungivores on cultivated plot. The spatial distribution of nematode trophic groups was found to be different for the two land uses, indicating that cultivation changed the native condition for soil nematode activities.

  5. Priming effects in boreal black spruce forest soils: quantitative evaluation and sensitivity analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaosheng Fan

    Full Text Available Laboratory studies show that introduction of fresh and easily decomposable organic carbon (OC into soil-water systems can stimulate the decomposition of soil OC (SOC via priming effects in temperate forests, shrublands, grasslands, and agro-ecosystems. However, priming effects are still not well understood in the field setting for temperate ecosystems and virtually nothing is known about priming effects (e.g., existence, frequency, and magnitude in boreal ecosystems. In this study, a coupled dissolved OC (DOC transport and microbial biomass dynamics model was developed to simultaneously simulate co-occurring hydrological, physical, and biological processes and their interactions in soil pore-water systems. The developed model was then used to examine the importance of priming effects in two black spruce forest soils, with and without underlying permafrost. Our simulations showed that priming effects were strongly controlled by the frequency and intensity of DOC input, with greater priming effects associated with greater DOC inputs. Sensitivity analyses indicated that priming effects were most sensitive to variations in the quality of SOC, followed by variations in microbial biomass dynamics (i.e., microbial death and maintenance respiration, highlighting the urgent need to better discern these key parameters in future experiments and to consider these dynamics in existing ecosystem models. Water movement carries DOC to deep soil layers that have high SOC stocks in boreal soils. Thus, greater priming effects were predicted for the site with favorable water movement than for the site with limited water flow, suggesting that priming effects might be accelerated for sites where permafrost degradation leads to the formation of dry thermokarst.

  6. Soil biodiversity in artificial black pine stands after selective silvicultural treatments: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocali, Stefano; Fabiani, Arturo; Butti, Fabrizio; De Meo, Isabella; Bianchetto, Elisa; Landi, Silvia; Montini, Piergiuseppe; Samaden, Stefano; Cantiani, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    The decay of forest cover and soil erosion is a consequence of continual intensive forest exploitation, such as grazing and wildfires over the centuries. From the end of the eighteenth century up to the mid-1900s, black pine plantations were established throughout the Apennines' range in Italy, to improve forest soil quality. The main aim of this reafforestation was to re-establish the pine as a first cover, pioneer species. A series of thinning activities were therefore planned by foresters when these plantations were designed. The project Selpibiolife (LIFE13 BIO/IT/000282) has the main objective to demonstrate the potential of an innovative silvicultural treatment to enhance soil biodiversity under black pine stands. The monitoring will be carried out by comparing selective and traditional thinning methods (selecting trees from below leaving well-spaced, highest-quality trees) to areas without any silvicultural treatments (e.g. weeding, cleaning, liberation cutting). The monitoring survey was carried out in Pratomagno and Amiata Val D'Orcia areas on the Appennines (Italy) and involved different biotic levels: microorganisms, mesofauna, nematodes and macrofauna (Coleoptera). The results displayed a significant difference between the overall biodiversity of the two areas. In particular, microbial diversity assessed by both biochemical (microbial biomass, microbial respiration, metabolic quotient) and molecular (PCR-DGGE) approaches highlighted different a composition and activity of microbial communities within the two areas before thinning. Furthermore, little but significant differences were observed for mesofauna and nematode community as well which displayed a higher diversity level in Amiata areas compared to Pratomagno. In contrast, Coleoptera showed higher richness values in Pratomagno, where the wood degrader Nebria tibialis specie dominated, compared to Amiata. As expected, a general degraded biodiversity was observed in both areas before thinning.

  7. Comparison between measurements of black carbon, charcoal and associated nutrients in western Amazonan soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, A. R.; McMichael, C.; Hanlon, C.; Bush, M. B.

    2011-12-01

    To construct fire and climate history and human occupation records from soils and lake sediment profiles, climatologists and anthropologists have traditionally measured charcoal abundances by microscopic image analysis. In contrast, geochemists have developed methods of black carbon (BC) quantification using chemical extraction. We compared charcoal (>0.5 mm particle size) versus BC (measured via the CTO-340 method of Kuhlbusch, 1995) in multiple soil profiles from four western Amazon regions with evidence of pre-Columbian occupation. A secondary goal of this project was to understand the relative influence of climate and humans in the fire and ecological history of the Amazon. BC concentration in soils of the Amazon varied widely from an average of 0.5 mg g 1 in cores around Lake Gentry (southeastern Peru) to 5.5 mg g 1 around Lake Ayauchi (southeastern Ecuador), corresponding to the evidence of greater land use around the latter. Surprising, BC concentrations in habitation horizon soils at Quistococha, near Iquitos, Peru were similar to Lake Gentry, averaging about 0.6 mg g 1. However, BC as a percent of soil organic carbon (SOC) was much more uniform with an average of 12.0, 13.3, 14.6, and 13.0% in Quistococha, Gentry, Ayauchi, and Los Amigos (central-eastern Peru) soils, respectively, suggesting that the same processes that concentrate SOC also concentrate BC. BC may act to protect SOC via sorption or produce SOC via microbial community enhancement. These findings also show that BC is not regionally enriched as it might be were climate to be a predominant factor in BC production, and seem to track land use more closely. Charcoal and BC concentrations were linearly correlated in only about half the soil profiles and neither BC nor charcoal were consistently correlated with chemical anthropogenic indicators such as P or Ca within soil profiles or specific regions. However, there was a statistical covariance between each of these parameters suggesting that each

  8. Cotton bollworm resistance to Bt transgenic cotton: A case analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) is one of the most serious insect pests of cotton. Transgenic cotton expressing Cry toxins derived from a soil bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), has been produced to target this pest. Bt cotton has been widely planted around the world, and this has resulted in efficient control of bollworm populations with reduced use of synthetic insecticides. However, evolution of resistance by this pest threatens the continued success of Bt cotton. To date, no field populations of bollworm have evolved significant levels of resistance; however, several laboratory-selected Cry-resistant strains of H. armigera have been obtained, which suggests that bollworm has the capacity to evolve resistance to Bt. The development of resistance to Bt is of great concern, and there is a vast body of research in this area aimed at ensuring the continued success of Bt cotton. Here, we review studies on the evolution of Bt resistance in H. armigera, focusing on the biochemical and molecular basis of Bt resistance. We also discuss resistance management strategies, and monitoring programs implemented in China, Australia, and India.

  9. Carbon allocation, nodulation, and biological nitrogen fixation of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) under soil water limitation

    OpenAIRE

    Dario Mantovani; Maik Veste; Katja Boldt-Burisch; Simone Fritsch; Laurie Anne Koning; Dirk Freese

    2015-01-01

    The pioneer tree black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) is a drought-resistant tree and, in symbiosis with Rhizobium, able to fix dinitrogen from the atmosphere. It is, therefore, an interesting species for marginal lands where soil amelioration is sought in addition to economic gain. However, the interaction between soil water availability, carbon allocation and nitrogen fixation is important for a successful establishment of trees on marginal lands and has not yet been investigated for blac...

  10. 非抗虫转基因棉花对土壤细菌群落多样性的影响%Effects of Insect Non-resistant Transgenic Cottons on Bacterial Community Diversity in Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵云丽; 李刚; 修伟明; 多立安; 曹璇; 雒珺瑜; 崔金杰; 杨殿林; 赵建宁

    2015-01-01

    There are increasing public concerns over the ecological risks of transgenic plants. Under field conditions, the diversity and com-position of bacterial community in soils grown with three insect non-resistant transgenic cottons(high-yield transgenic cotton expressing the RNA recognition motif 2 gene, disease-resistant transgenic cotton expressing the gastrodia antifungal protein and high-quality transgenic cotton expressing the [1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate(ACC)oxidase])and one conventional cotton CCRI 12(as control)were evalu-ated at the boll-opening stage by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis(DGGE). The results showed that planting three transgenic cottons did not show significant effects on Shannon-wiener index(H), evenness(EH)and richness(S)of soil bacteria. High degree of similarity in community structure was observed between transgenic and conventional cottons, indicating no influence of transgenic cottons on bacterial community diversity in the short term. High-yield RRM2 transgenic cotton, disease-resistant GAFP transgenic cotton, high-quality ACO2 transgenic cotton and conventional cotton had 67%similarity in community levels and were thus regarded as one group. According to the se-quence analysis of DGGE dominant bands, microorganisms which presented the highest homology belonged to families of Flavobacteria, Bacteriovorax, Segetibacter, alpha proteobacterium, Geobacte, Paenisporosarcina, and Acidobacterium, respectively, and all of them were not cultivatable.%田间试验条件下,为了探究非抗虫转基因棉花对土壤细菌群落多样性的影响,应用PCR-DGGE技术对转RRM2基因高产棉、转GAFP基因抗病棉、转ACO2基因优质棉及非转基因常规棉(中棉所12)种植后在吐絮期的土壤细菌群落多样性进行分析。结果表明,与常规棉相比,3种转基因棉的种植均未对土壤细菌香农-威纳指数(H)、均匀度(EH)和丰富度(S)造成显著影

  11. Effect of Ground Leaves from Transgenic Bt Cotton on Soil Microbial Activity%转Bt基因棉粉碎叶还土对土壤微生物活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张美俊; 段云; 杨武德; 冯美臣; 肖璐洁

    2013-01-01

    Using the simulation lab experiment,the effects of transgenic Bt cotton tissue on soil ecology system,especially on soil microbial activity were investigated.The results showed that when added the grounded residue of Bt transgenic cotton into the soil,the population of soil bacteria and fungi at cultivated middle stages were increased significantly compared with conventional cotton,but no effect on the population of soil actinomycetes was observed.It could be the difference in composition of transgenic Bt cotton or degradation product besides Bt protein resulting the difference.Transgenic Bt cotton treatments also significantly increased soil microbial biomass carbon and decreased basal respiration and microbial metabolic quotients at cultivated middle stage,which indicated that soil microbial community improved the potential utilization of carbon substrate.%为评价转Bt基因棉残体还田的生态效应,采用室内模拟试验方法,研究了转Bt基因棉粉碎叶还土后对土壤微生物活性的影响.结果表明,转Bt基因棉粉碎叶还土后在腐解中期可显著增加土壤细菌、真菌数量,对放线菌无明显影响.转Bt基因棉粉碎叶物质组成或Bt蛋白外的降解产物等方面的不同可能是对土壤微生物影响更为主要的原因.转Bt基因棉粉碎叶还土腐解中期显著提高土壤微生物生物量碳,但土壤基础呼吸和代谢商显著降低,表明转Bt基因棉粉碎叶还土土壤微生物对能源碳的利用效率提高了.

  12. How useful is the mid-infrared spectroscopy in the assessment of black carbon in soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. de la Rosa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Black carbon (BC, the recalcitrant continuum of products from incomplete combustion, includes char, charcoal and soot, being considered an important component of the global C cycle. However due to measurement uncertainties, the magnitude and distribution of BC is hardly known. In this study, a rapid and inexpensive spectroscopic technique, as it is mid-infrared spectroscopy in combination with oxidation procedures is proposed to quantify the recalcitrant aromatic fraction resistant, which can effectively determine the proportion of BC in soils. This method was tested by using a wide variety soil samples of various origin, composition and properties. Results were contrasted by those obtained by applying solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR spectroscopy. Mid-infrared spectroscopy showed a very high predicting potential in the case of samples with large concentrations of BC by taking advantage of the relative optical density of the 2920 cm-1 C–H stretching band. In the case of soils with low BC contents, the application of Partial Least Square Regression to baseline-subtracted, second-derivative Fourier-Transformed Infra-red (FT-IR spectra lead to significant (P<0.05 cross-validation models. By this procedure a considerable improvement in forecasting the aromatic fraction resistant to the chemical oxidation steps (BC-like material was obtained.

  13. 转Bt基因抗虫棉对土壤微生物群落生物多样性的影响%Effect of Transgenic Bt Cotton on Biodiversity of Soil Microbial Community.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李孝刚; 刘标; 徐文华; 曹伟; 方志翔; 刘蔸蔸; 贺昭和; 韩正敏

    2011-01-01

    设置非转基因抗虫棉棉田以及分别种植7和10 a转Bt基因抗虫棉的棉田3个处理,于2007--2008年棉花苗期、蕾期、花铃期和吐絮期采样测定了土壤中5个微生物种类的数量,以监测长期种植转Bt基因抗虫棉对土壤微生物群落生物多样性的影响.结果表明,3种类型棉田土壤细菌、真菌、固氮菌、反硝化细菌、亚硝化细菌数量以及微生物多样性指数在整个棉花生长期内变化趋势基本一致,其中,在棉花蕾期各种微生物数量达到高峰.与种植非转基因抗虫棉相比,不同种植年限转Bt基因抗虫棉对土壤细菌、真菌、固氮菌、反硝化细菌、亚硝化细菌数量和微生物多样性指数都无显著影响,但随着采样时间的不同,3种类型棉田土壤各类微生物数量和多样性指数都呈明显季节变化.%Transgenic Bt cotton has been released into the environment commercially for over 10 years in China,and its influence on soil microbes is an important part of biosafety research. To monitor impact of long-term cultivation of transgenic Bt cotton on diversity of soil microbial community, one cotton field where non-transgenic had been planted all along and other two cotton fields where transgenic Bt cotton had been planted for seven and ten years, respectively, were selected and soil samples were taken from these fields at four different cotton growth stages, namely, seedling, budding, bell forming and boll opening stage during 2007 and 2008. Results show that the populations of bacteria, fungi, azotobacter, denitrobacteria, nitrosobacteria and the diversity indices of microbes have a similar variation pattern during the cotton 8rowing period in three cotton fields and their populations peaked at the budding stage. There was no significant difference in population and diversity index of soil microbes between the two transgenic Bt cotton fields different in cultivation history, but significant seasonal variation of the

  14. Black Nitrogen or Plant-Derived Organic Nitrogen - which Form is More Efficiently Sequestered in Soils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Martín, María; Velasco-Molina, Marta; Knicker, Heike

    2014-05-01

    and approached those of the pots with fresh grass litter supporting the mobilization of black nitrogen and its uptake by plants. Our results point to the suggestion that N in PyOM and humified SOM have comparable biochemical stability. In order to test this hypothesis, a further experiment was set up mixtures of soil and humified 15N grass residues or aged 15N grass char to which fresh PyOM or fresh grass residues, respectively, were added. In addition solid-state 15N NMR spectroscopy was applied to disclose the nature of the sequestered N. REFERENCES Knicker, H., Almendros, G., González-Vila, F.J., Martín, F., Lüdemann, H.-D., 1996. 13C- and 15N-NMR spectroscopic examination of the transformation of organic nitrogen in plant biomass during thermal treatment. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 28, 1053-1060.

  15. Impacts of methamidophos, copper, and their combinations on bacterial community structure and function in black soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Huiwen; ZHOU; Qixing; ZHANG; Qianru; ZHANG; Chengg

    2005-01-01

    The potential ecotoxicologial risks of methamidophos, copper, and their combinations on microbial community of black soil ecosystem in the Northeast China were assessed in species richness and structures by using 16S rDNA-PCR-DGGE analysis approach, and functional characteristics at community levels by using BIOLOGGN system analysis method as well as two conventional methods(DHA and SIR). All results of DGGE banding fingerprint patterns(amplified by bacterial specific 16S rDNA V3 high variable region universal primer) indicated that the species richness of bacterial community in tested soil was significantly decreased to different extents by using different concentrations of single methamidophos, copper, especially some of their combinations had worse effects than their corresponding single factors. In addition,the structures of soil bacterial community had been disturbed under all stresses applied in this study because of the enrichment of some species and the disappearance of other species from the bacterial community. The effects of the single factors with lower concentrations on the communiy structure were weaker than those with higher concentrations. Moreover, the bacterial community structures under the combined stresses of methamidophos and copper were significantly different from those of control and their corresponding single factors. The change of DHA and carbon source substrate utilizing fingerprint patterns based on BIOLOGGNsystem were two relatively sensitive directors corresponding to the stress presented in this study. Between methamodophos and copper, there happened the significant joint-toxic actions when they were used in combination on DHA and carbon source substrate utilizing fingerprint patterns of soil bacterial communities. The DHA of soil under the combined stresses was lower than that of the control and that under the single factors, and the BIOLOGGN substrate utilizing patterns of soil treated by combinations were distinctively

  16. Soil internal drainage: temporal stability and spatial variability in succession bean-black oat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, M. M. S.; Libardi, P. L.; Moreira, N. B.; Sousa, H. H. F.; Neiverth, C. A.

    2012-04-01

    There are a variety of studies considering the soil water content, but those who consider the flow of water, which are translated by deep drainage and capillary rise are scarce, especially those who assess their spatio-temporal variability, due to its laborious obtaining. Large areas have been considered homogeneous, but show considerable spatial variability inherent in the soil, causing the appearance of zones of distinct physical properties. In deep, sandy soils where the groundwater level is far below the root zone of interference, internal drainage is one of the factors limiting the supply of water to the soil surface, and possibly one of the biggest factors that determines what kinds satisfactory development of plants present in a given landscape. The forms of relief may also be indicators of changes in soil properties, because this variability is caused by small changes that affect the slope of the pedogenetic processes and the transport and storage of water in the soil profile, i.e., the different trajectories of water flow in different forms of the landscape, is the cause of variability. The objectives of this research were: i) evaluate the spatial and temporal stability of internal soil water drainage in a place near and another distant from the root system in a bean-black-oat succession and ii) verify their spatial variability in relation to relief. With the hydraulic conductivity obtained by the instantaneous profile method and the total potential gradient obtained from the difference in readings of tensiometers installed at depths of 0.35 and 0.45 and 0.75 and 0.85 m in 60 sampling points totaling 1680 and 1200 observations during the cultivation of beans and oats, respectively, was obtained so the internal drainage / capillary rise through the Darcy-Buckingham equation. To evaluate the temporal stability the method used was the relative difference and Spearman correlation test and the spatial variability was analyzed as geostatistical methodology

  17. An Integrative Database System of Agro-Ecology for the Black Soil Region of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuiping Ge

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The comprehensive database system of the Northeast agro-ecology of black soil (CSDB_BL is user-friendly software designed to store and manage large amounts of data on agriculture. The data was collected in an efficient and systematic way by long-term experiments and observations of black land and statistics information. It is based on the ORACLE database management system and the interface is written in PB language. The database has the following main facilities:(1 runs on Windows platforms; (2 facilitates data entry from *.dbf to ORACLE or creates ORACLE tables directly; (3has a metadata facility that describes the methods used in the laboratory or in the observations; (4 data can be transferred to an expert system for simulation analysis and estimates made by Visual C++ and Visual Basic; (5 can be connected with GIS, so it is easy to analyze changes in land use ; and (6 allows metadata and data entity to be shared on the internet. The following datasets are included in CSDB_BL: long-term experiments and observations of water, soil, climate, biology, special research projects, and a natural resource survey of Hailun County in the 1980s; images from remote sensing, graphs of vectors and grids, and statistics from Northeast of China. CSDB_BL can be used in the research and evaluation of agricultural sustainability nationally, regionally, or locally. Also, it can be used as a tool to assist the government in planning for agricultural development. Expert systems connected with CSDB_BL can give farmers directions for farm planting management.

  18. Preliminary study of the mite community structure in different black truffle producing soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikel Queralt

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aims of the study: The goals of this paper are to provide preliminary data on the composition of the mite community in truffle-producing soils (both wild and plantations; and to elucidate those species which may interact with the black truffle life cycle.Area of study: The study was carried out in two black truffle productive zones in Navarra (Spain, in four different plantations and five wild production areas.Material and Methods: Fauna was extracted using Berlese Tullgren funnels. Animals were separated into taxonomic groups, and mites were identified. To analyse the composition and community structure of the different habitats, parameters such as abundance, species richness, and Shanon Weiner diversity index (H’ were calculated.Main results: A total of 305 mites were recognized, belonging to 58 species representing the three major taxonomic groups (Oribatida, Prostigmata, Mesostigmata.Research highlights: The results show a possible trend towards wild areas having greater diversity and species richness than plantations. Furthermore, community analysis shows differences in species compositions among different study areas, and oribatid mites always exhibit the highest relative abundance and species richness.Keywords: Acari; Tuber melanosporum; Oribatida; Mesostigmata; Prostigmata; truffle orchards. 

  19. Influence of the insecticides acetamiprid and carbofuran on arylamidase and myrosinase activities in the tropical black and red clay soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohiddin, G Jaffer; Srinivasulu, M; Maddela, N R; Manjunatha, B; Rangaswamy, V; Koch Kaiser, Alma Rosel; Maisincho Asqui, Jessica Cristina; Darwin Rueda, O

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of two insecticides, namely, acetamiprid and carbofuran on the enzymatic activities of arylamidase (as glucose formed from sinigrin) and myrosinase (as β-naphthylamine formed from L-leucine β-naphthylamide) in the black and red clay soils collected from a fallow groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) fields in the Anantapur District, Andhra Pradesh, India. The study was realized within the framework of the laboratory experiments in which the acetamiprid and carbofuran were applied to the soils at different doses (1.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 kg ha(-1)). Initially, the physicochechemical properties of the soil samples were analyzed. After 10 days of pesticide application, the soil samples were analyzed for the enzyme activities. Acetamiprid and carbofuran stimulated the arylamidase and myrosinase activities at lower concentrations after 10 days incubation. Striking stimulation in soil enzyme activities was noticed at 2.5 kg ha(-1), persists for 20 days in both the soils. Overall, higher concentrations (5.0-10.0 kg ha(-1)) of acetamiprid and carbofuran were toxic or innocuous to the arylamidase and myrosinase activities. Nevertheless, the outcomes of the present study clearly indicate that the use of these insecticides (at field application rates) in the groundnut fields (black and red clay soils) stimulated the enzyme (arylamidase and myrosinase) activities.

  20. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Genes Involved in Cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.) Response to Verticillium dahliae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Li; ZHANG Xian-long; ZHU Long-fu; TU Li-li

    2008-01-01

    @@ Verticillium dahliae Kleb.is a necrotrophic plant pathogen which causes serious soil borne vascular disease in cotton.The molecular basis the defense response of cotton to this pathogen is poorly understood.

  1. 利用PLFA方法研究转Bt基因棉花对土壤微生物群落结构变化的影响%Soil Microbial Community Structure Change Analysis of Transgenic Bt Cotton Based on Phospholipid Fatty Acid Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永山; 范巧兰; 陈耕; 柴永峰; 张冬梅; 李燕娥

    2009-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of transgenic Bt cotton on soil microbial community in 2006 under the field based on phospholipid fatty acid (PFLA) method.Three transgenic Bt cotton lines ( JM26,JM44 and CCRI41) and one non-Bt cotton line were used.The results showed transgenic Bt cotton increased amount of PFLA for soil microbe.Bt-cotton soils were characterized by the predominance of actinomycetes,fungi and eukaryotes in comparison with non-Bt cotton soil.In contrast,the microbial community was characterized by the predominance of Gram-positive bacteria in non-Bt cotton soil.Soil microbial community were characterized by the predominance of protoza and Gram-negative bacteria for Bt-cotton soils in square growth stage,and for non-Bt cotton soil in the open boll stage.PFLA anlysis was accepted as indicator for risk evaluation of transgenic Bt cotton on soil microbial community.%在大田条件下,用3个转Bt基因棉花品种和一个常规品种,利用磷脂脂肪酸(PLFA)方法研究转Bt基因棉花对土壤微生物群落结构变化的影响.试验结果表明,转基因棉花增加了土壤微生物PLFA的含量.转基因棉花降低了棉田土壤格兰氏阳性细菌的比例,提高棉田土壤的真核生物、真菌和放线菌的比例;转基因棉花在蕾期提高了土壤原生动物比例,在吐絮期比例反而降低;转基因棉花在蕾期提高了棉田土壤格兰氏阴性细菌的比例,吐絮期则降低了格兰氏阴性细菌的比例.主成分分析和聚类分析表明,转Bt基因棉花对土壤微生物群落结构变化有明显影响.PLFA方法可作为转基因生态安全评价的一种方法.

  2. [Dynamics of microbial biomass C in a black soil under long-term fertilization and related affecting factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongpo; Wu, Zhijie; Chen, Lijun; Zhu, Ping; Ren, Jun; Peng, Chang; Liang, Chenghua

    2004-08-01

    The effect of long-term fertilization on the dynamics of microbial biomass C in a typical black soil of Northeastern China was studied in a field trail treated by different fertilizations. The results showed that the amount of soil microbial biomass C under different fertilizations varied significantly with growth stages. It was the highest in farmyard manure (M2 and M4) treatments, with a less seasonal fluctuation, second in NPK treatment, the peak at sowing period, and the lowest in CK, the peak at wax maturity stage. No significant correlation was found between the dynamic changes of soil microbial biomass C and soil biological, physical and chemical properties in all treatments, but the correlation of soil microbial biomass C with the contents of N, P and K in plants and that of crude protein in grain was significantly positive.

  3. Naturally Colored Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    履之

    1994-01-01

    Instead of using dye to color cotton, an Arizona cotton breeder is letting nature do the work. Through crossbreeding, Sally Fox of Natural Cotton Colours in Wickenberg is creating plants that yield fiber in an array

  4. Effects of winter irrigation and soil surface mulching during freezing-thawing period on soil water-heat-salt for cotton fields in south Xinjiang%冻融期灌水和覆盖对南疆棉田水热盐的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚宝林; 李光永; 王峰

    2016-01-01

    Scarce water resources and soil salinity are important limiting factors for agricultural production and environmental melioration in extremely drought area and fragile ecological environment of Tarim Basin in southern Xinjiang. The under-film drip irrigation has gained universal applications as an efficient and economically viable irrigation method for increasing water use efficiency and reducing the adverse effects of cotton growth. But for winter and spring irrigation quotas are relatively high and cause groundwater level to rise, after freezing-thawing in winter, salinization occurs on soil surface and it is harmful to the growth and development of cotton seedlings. Soil surface mulching can effectively reduce soil water loss and soil salt accumulation in winter fallow periods, reduce winter and spring irrigation quota, and achieve the purpose of water saving and salinity controlling. To explore the freezing-thawing characteristics in drip irrigation cotton fields under different soil surface mulching and winter irrigation quotas, field experiments were carried out, which included 3 soil surface mulching methods: bare fields (cotton stubble and plastic film were removed before winter irrigation), high stubble fields (cotton stubble and plastic film remained in fields before winter irrigation), corn straw mulching fields (cotton stubble, plastic film remained in fields and mulched corn residue had the length of about 5-10 cm length and the thickness of 5 cm, 400 kg/hm2), and 2 winter irrigation quotas: winter irrigation 200 mm quota and no winter irrigation.Theexperiment was composed of 6 treatments: winter irrigation with bare land (WIB), winter irrigation with high cotton stubble (WICS), winter irrigation with corn straw mulching (WICM), no winter irrigation with bare land (NWIB), no winter irrigation with high cotton stubble (NWICS), and no winter irrigation with corn straw mulching (NWICM). The soil temperatures in 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 60, 80 and 100 cm

  5. DYNAMICS OF AGROCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF LEACHED BLACK SOIL AND PRODUCTIVITY OF WINTER WHEAT DEPENDING ON PREDECESSORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysanov T. S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents three-year data on the influence of different fertilization systems and predecessors (corn for silage and peas of winter wheat in the rotation on the dynamics of content in the 0-20 cm layer of black leached soil of mineral nitrogen, of available phosphorus, of potassium, and yield of winter wheat. The materials presented in this article indicate that, regardless of its predecessor in all phases of plant development, the under study fertilizer systems significantly increased the content of mineral nitrogen on the indicators of natural agrochemical background on 1,1-29,3 mg/kg; maximum contents was registered in the settlement system of fertilizer. After a seeded fallow predecessor the fertilizer systems significantly increased the content of available phosphorus in the soil at 1,5-16,6 mg/kg and exchangeable potassium in the 6-57 mg/kg. The maximum indices of both indicators were observed in the settlement system of fertilizer. Analyzed fertilizer systems contributed to a significant increase in wheat yield relatively to control 0,82-2,24 t/ha on a busy couple 0,74-1,6 t/ha for maize silage, 1,44-2,42 t/ha peas. Maximum productivity of winter wheat in the experiment was fixed at the fertilizer system after a busy couple, and was 6,19 t/ha

  6. Extraction and Characterization of Humic Acids and Humin Fractions from a Black Soil of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XING Bao-Shan; LIU Ju-Dong; LIU Xiao-Bing; HAN Xiao-Zeng

    2005-01-01

    Twenty-three progressive extractions were performed to study individual humic acids (Has) and humin fractions from a typical black soil (Mollisol) in Heilongjiang Province, China using elemental analysis and spectroscopic techniques. After 23 HA extractions the residue was separated into high and low organic carbon humin fractions. HA yield was the highest for the first extraction and then gradually decreased with further extractions. Organic carbon (OC) of the humin fractions accounted for 58% of total OC even after 23 successive HA extractions. In addition, the atomic C/H ratio decreased during the course of extraction while C/O increased; the E4/E6 ratio from the UV analysis decreased with further extraction while E2/Ea increased; the band assigned to aliphatic carbon (2 930 cm-1) in the diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) spectra gradually increased with progressive extraction; the calculated ratio of the sum of aromatic carbon peak heights to that of aliphatic carbon peak heights from DRIFTS spectra declined with extractions; and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data suggested that HA aliphatic carbons increased with extractions while aromatic carbons decreased. Thus, hydrophobicity and aliphaticity of Has increased with extractions while polarity and aromaticity decreased. These data showed substantial chemical, structural, and molecular differences among the 23 Has and two humin fractions. Therefore, these results may help explain why soil and sediment humin fractions have high sorption capacity for organic contaminants.

  7. Soil Organic Carbon, Black Carbon, and Enzyme Activity Under Long-Term Fertilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Xing-hua; ZHENG Jian-wei

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to understand the effects of long-term fertilization on soil organic carbon (SOC), black carbon (BC), enzyme activity, and the relationships among these parameters. Paddy ifeld was continuously fertilized over 30 yr with nine different fertilizer treatments including N, P, K, NP, NK, NPK, 2NPK (two-fold NPK), NPK+manure (NPKM), and CK (no fertilization), N, 90 kg urea-N ha-1 yr-1; P, 45 kg triple superphosphate-P2O5 ha-1 yr-1; K, 75 kg potassium chloride-K2O ha-1 yr-1;and pig manure, 22 500 kg ha-1 yr-1. Soil samples were collected and determined for SOC, BC content, and enzyme activity. The results showed that the SOC in the NPKM treatment was signiifcantly higher than those in the K, P, and CK treatments. The lowest SOC content was found in the CK treatment. SOC content was similar in the N, NP, NK, NPK, 2NPK, and NPKM treatments. There was no signiifcant difference in BC content among different treatments. The BC-to-SOC ratios (BC/SOC) ranged from 0.50 to 0.63, suggesting that BC might originate from the same source. Regarding enzyme activity, NPK treatment had higher urease activity than NPKM treatment. The urease activity of NPKM treatment was signiifcantly higher than that of 2NPK, NP, N, P, K, CK, and NPKM treatment which produced higher activities of acid phosphatase, catalase, and invertase than all other treatments. Our results indicated that long-term fertilization did not signiifcantly affect BC content. Concurrent application of manure and mineral fertilizers increased SOC content and signiifcantly enhanced soil enzyme activities. Correlation analysis showed that catalase activity was signiifcantly associated with invertase activity, but SOC, BC, and enzyme activity levels were not signiifcantly correlated with one another. No signiifcant correlations were observed between BC and soil enzymes. It is unknown whether soil enzymes play a role in the decomposition of BC.

  8. Microbial metabolic profiles in Australian soils with varying crop management strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldorri, Sind; McMillan, Mary; Pereg, Lily

    2015-04-01

    Cotton production belt in Australia is covering vast areas from subtropical to temperate and grassland. Soil types are mostly different variations of clay with mainly black, grey and red clay soil containing variable proportions of sand in it. Growers often grow cotton in rotation with other crops, such as wheat, beans and corn, and soil fertilization vary with a number of growers using organic amendments as a main or supplementary source of nutrients. We have collected soil samples from farms in different regions and with different crop management strategies and studied the metabolic signature of microbial communities using the Biolog Ecoplate system. The metabolic patterns, supplemented with molecular analysis of the community will further the understanding of the influence of crop and soil management on soil functions carried out by microbes.

  9. [Dynamics of microbial biomass P and its affecting factors in a long-term fertilized black soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongpo; Wu, Zhijie; Chen, Lijun; Zhu, Ping; Ren, Jun; Liang, Chenghua; Peng, Chang; Gao, Hongjun

    2004-10-01

    This paper studied the microbial biomass P in a long-term fertilized black soil. The soil was fertilized by farmyard manure (M2, M4) and chemical fertilizer (NPK), and the dynamics of soil microbial biomass P was monitored during crop growth season. The results showed that the microbial biomass P in different treatments was 8.75-47.68 mg x kg(-1) (M4), 3.02-37.16 mg x kg(-1) (M2), 1.59-10.62 mg x kg(-1) (NPK), and 0.76-6.74 mg x kg(-1) (CK). The microbial biomass P in M4 and M2 was the highest at reproductive growth stage, and that in NPK and CK was the highest at early growth stage. The significant difference of soil microbial biomass P induced by different amounts and types of fertilizer application was not varied with the period and stage of plant growth. In all treatments, no significant correlation was found between the dynamics of soil microbial biomass P and the soil biological, physical and chemical properties in plant growth period. Soil microbial biomass P had a very significant positive correlation with soil biological, physical and chemical properties (expect K), and a significant positive correlation with the N, P and K contents of plants and soil water content.

  10. Migration and Enrichment of Arsenic in the Rock-Soil-Crop Plant System in Areas Covered with Black Shale, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Min Yi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The Okchon black shale, which is part of the Guryongsan Formation or the Changri Formation of Cambro-Ordovician age in Korea provides a typical example of natural geological materials enriched with potentially toxic elements such as U, V, Mo, As, Se, Cd, and Zn. In this study, the Dukpyung and the Chubu areas were selected to investigate the migration and enrichment of As and other toxic elements in soils and crop plants in areas covered with black shale. Rock and soil samples digested in 4-acid solution (HCl+HNO3+HF+HClO4 were analyzed for As and other heavy metals by ICP-AES and ICP-MS, and plant samples by INAA. Mean concentration of As in Okchon black shale is higher than those of both world average values of shale and black shale. Especially high concentration of 23.2 mg As kg-1 is found in black shale from the Dukpyung area. Mean concentration of As is highly elevated in agricultural soils from the Dukpyung (28.2 mg kg-1 and the Chubu areas (32.6 mg kg-1. As is highly elevated in rice leaves from the Dukpyung (1.14 mg kg-1 and the Chubu areas (1.35 mg kg-1. The biological absorption coefficient (BAC of As in plant species decreases in the order of rice leaves > corn leaves > red pepper = soybean leaves = sesame leaves > corn stalks > corn grains. This indicates that leafy plants tend to accumulate As from soil to a greater degree than cereal products such as grains.

  11. 棉型织物的三防和易去污整理%Water-, oil-, stain proofing and soil release finish of cotton fabric

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨俊文

    2012-01-01

    前处理、染色和后整理等工艺处理对棉型织物的三防和易去污整理效果都有影响.试验结果表明,为保证氟化物三防和易去污双效整理的效果,前处理时要将织物上的各种杂质去除干净,以保证毛效合格;染色后布面pH值保持在5~7,整理工作液中不能添加与三防和易去污功效机理相反的助剂.%The finishing results of water-, oil- and stain- proof and soil release finish of cotton fabric are affected by pretreat-ment, dyeing and finishing processes. The results show that in order to ensure the finishing results, impurities should be removed completely to obtain good capillary effect, the pH value of fabric surface should be controlled at 5 ~7 after dyeing, and auxiliaries that have reversed behaviors should not be added into the finishing liquor.

  12. Effect of Long-Term Application of Chemical Fertilizers on microbial biomass and Functional Diversity of a Black Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG Wei-Dong; ZHU Yong-Guan; FU Bo-Jie; HAN Xiao-Zeng; ZHANG Lei; HE Ji-Zheng

    2008-01-01

    An experiment with seven N, P, K-fertilizer treatments, i.e., control (no fertilizer), NP, NK, PK, NPK, NP2K, and NPK2 where P2 and K2 indicate double amounts of P and K fertilizers respectively, was conducted to examine the effect of long-term continuous application of chemical fertilizers on microbial biomass and functional diversity of a black soil (Udoll in the USDA Soil Taxonomy) in Northeast China. The soil microbial biomass C ranged between 94 and 145 mg kg-1, with the NK treatment showing a lower biomass; the functional diversity of soil microbial community ranged from 4.13 to 4.25, with an increasing tendency from control to double-fertilizer treatments, and to triple-fertilizer treatments. The soil microbial biomass, and the microbial functional diversity and evenness did not show any significant differences among the different fertilizer treatments including control, suggesting that the long-term application of chemical fertilization would not result in significant changes in the microbial characteristics of the black soil.

  13. Development and Validation of an HPLC Method for Determination of Thiamethoxam and Its Metabolites in Cotton Leaves and Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyot, Gagan; Singh, Balwinder

    2017-01-28

    An easy and simple analytical method was standardized and validated for the estimation of residues of thiamethoxam andits metabolites in cotton. The samples were extracted with acetonitrile, water, and methanol; diluted with brine solution; partitioned into dichloromethane and ethyl acetate; dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate; and cleaned up by glass column chromatography. Final clear extracts were concentrated under vacuum and reconstituted into HPLC grade acetonitrile, and residues were estimated using an HPLC instrument equipped with a C18 column and photodiode array detector system. Acetonitrile–1% formic acid in HPLC grade water (30 + 70) was used as mobile phase at 0.2 mL/min. Consistent recoveries ranging from 82 to 97% for thiamethoxam and its metabolites were observed when samples were spiked at 0.05–1.0 mg/kg levels. The LOQ of the method was determined to be 0.05 mg/kg. The analytical method was validated in terms of the selectivity, linearity, precision, and accuracy of the detection system.

  14. Effects of Remnant Plastic Film in Soil on Growth and Yield of Cotton%残膜对棉花生长发育及产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜益娟; 郑德明; 朱朝阳

    2001-01-01

    A series of tests consisting of micro- plot, pot- simulation and check- up in situ has been conducted to assess impacts of residual plastic film in soil on cotton germination and growth. It has been discovered that quantities of remnant plastic film in soil was negatively related to rate of cotton germination and quantities of harvest plants (r=- 0.737, r = - 0.740), respectively, showing that reductions of by 9.9% — 19.1% , 7.3% — 16.5% for rate of young seedling and harvest plants than that in soil without polluted remnant plastic film. The remnant plastic film resulted in reductions of cotton bolls by 0.8— 1.0 per 100, and of yield of cotton by 7.3% — 21.6% , respectively. It was also found that the angle of remnant plastic film against the polluted soil surface exhibited different degrees of risk to growth and development of cotton with an order of 180° > 30 ° > 60 ° > 90° .%通过棉田土壤残膜状况调查及残膜田间微区试验、盆栽模拟试验,研究了残膜对棉花生长发育及产量的影响。结果表明,土壤中残膜量与棉花出苗率、收获株数呈负相关( r=- 0.737,r=- 0.740),分别比无残膜污染的土壤低 9.9%— 19.1%、 7.3%— 16.5%,残膜使株铃数减少 0.8— 1.0个,导致棉花产量低 7.3%— 21.6%;残膜碎片在土壤中的状态对棉花生长发育的危害顺序为 180° >30° >60° >90°。

  15. Effect of plantation of transgenic Bt cotton on the amount of rhizospheric soil microorganism and bacterial diversity in the cotton region of Yellow River basin%黄河流域棉区转Bt基因棉种植对根际土壤微生物数量及细菌多样性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    娜日苏; 红雨; 杨殿林; 赵建宁; 李刚; 娜布其; 刘玲

    2011-01-01

    Traditional culture-dependent method and PCR-DGGE were adopted to investigate the amount of microorganism and bacterial diversity in rhizospheric soil of transgenic Bt cotton in four provinces of Yellow River basin at four growth stages, i. e. , 30, 60, 90, and 120 days after sowing. In the same province and at the same growth stage, no significant difference was observed in the amount of microorganism in rhizospheric soils of transgenic and non-transgenic Bt cottons. Within the same province the amount of microorganism was mainly affected by growth stage; while in different provinces, it was greatly affected by regional conditions. In the four provinces, the bacterial diversity in rhizospheric soil of transgenic Bt cotton was abundant; and in the same province and at the same growth stage, there were no significant differences in the Shannon index, evenness, and richness of bacteria in rhizospheric soils of transgenic and non-transgenic Bt cottons. In different provinces, the bacterial diversity in rhizospheric soils was dependent on regional conditions, but the difference was rather small.%采用传统培养与PCR-DGGE相结合的方法研究了黄河流域棉区4个省份种植的转Bt基因棉在4个生长时期(播种后第30天、第60天、第90天和第120天)的根际土壤微生物数量及细菌多样性.结果表明:同一省份同一生长时期转Bt基因棉根际土壤微生物数量与常规棉相比均无显著差异,其数量主要受不同生长时期影响,而不同省份间主要受地域条件的影响.4个省份转Bt基因棉根际土壤细菌多样性较丰富,同一省份同一生长时期内转Bt基因棉与常规棉根际土壤细菌多样性指数、均匀度和丰富度均无显著差异.不同省份间细菌多样性主要因地域条件而有所不同,但差异较小.

  16. 新疆棉田地膜残留对棉花产量及土壤理化性质的影响%Effects of plastic film residue on cotton yield and soil physical and chemical properties in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董合干; 刘彤; 李勇冠; 刘华峰; 王栋

    2013-01-01

    Background:Xinjiang is currently one of China’s three largest cotton-planting regions. Cotton plantations account for more than half of the total agricultural area in Xinjiang. All cotton plantations in Xinjiang involve film mulching. However, this leaves behind plastic film residue, which has become a very serious problem. The average residual percentage is 24%, allowing plastic film residue to seriously harm soil quality and cotton yield. At present, because cotton yield has been improved, little attention has been paid to the hazards of plastic film residue. Purpose:The paper analyzed the effects of plastic film residue accumulation on soil quality and cotton yield by setting a density gradient. The paper studied the trends in and reasons for yield variation. Differences between cotton varieties with different root depths were compared. Method: On the basis of the complete survey of plastic film residue in the production area of short-staple cotton in northern Xinjiang, 6 density plastic film residue gradients were vetted based on the number of continuous years of film mulching: 0 (0 years), 250 kg/hm2 (13 years), 500 kg/hm2 (31 years), 1000 kg/hm2 (68 years), 1500 kg/hm2 (104 years), and 2000 kg/hm2 (141 years). The weight ratio of plastic film residues of 0-25, 25-100, and 100-200 cm2 was 1:1:1, and the films were mixed into the soil at a uniform depth of 0-40 cm. Cotton varieties included“Xinluzao 33”(deep root system) and“Xinluzao 13”(shallow root system). The area of each plot was 10 m2 and each gradient was evaluated three times. Yield-related traits and the physiochemical characteristics of the soil were studied. Conclusion:The density of plastic film residue can reach 1000 kg/hm2 after 68 years of continuous film mulching, and the cotton yield of“Xinluzao 33”and“Xinluzao 13”was found to decrease by 18.1% and 13.5%, respectively. The stand establishment rates decreased by 8.4% and 16.5%, respectively, and the degrees of precocity

  17. Effects of different soil preparation techniques on the Anatolian Black Pine (Pinus nigra Arnold subsp. pallasiana (Lamb. Holmboe regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adil Çalışkan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of different soil preparation treatments on regeneration of black pine success were examined and some suggestions were given according to the results. Twelve sample plots were randomly set in the research area. The size of each sample plot was 4 m². Sample plots were seeded equally with a total number of 2304 (48 seeds per m2 seeds in April 2012. The number of surviving seedlings was recorded every month from May to November in 2012. Surviving seedlings were recorded again in November 2013 and growths of thirty seedlings which are selected randomly from the all sample plots were examined. It was found that soil treatment with machine was more successful in regeneration at semi-arid regions like Cerkes-Turkey. Plowing equipment as mechanical soil cultivation has more economically advantageous in first years. However, the success and quality of seedlings were better in soil preparation with ripper equipment compared to plowing.

  18. Effects of Transgenic Bt Cotton Biomass on Soil Microbial Community Structure,Based on Pospholipid Fatty Acid Analysis%转基因棉花不同生物量对土壤微生物群落结构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范巧兰; 陈耕; 李永山; 张冬梅; 柴永峰; 李燕娥

    2012-01-01

    用磷脂脂肪酸图谱分析方法评价了3个转基因棉花品种(晋棉26、晋棉44、中棉所41)和它们相应的近等位非转基因棉花品种(晋棉7、冀合492、中棉所23)不同生物量对土壤微生物群落结构的影响.每个品种生物量为0g,2 g,4 g,6 g,8 g粉碎棉株与200 g土混匀,在28 ℃培养箱中培养45 d后进行分析.结果表明,随着棉花生物量的增加,土壤微生物总量显著增加,而且土壤微生物群落结构发生明显变化,细菌和放线菌所占比例明显减少,真菌比例显著增加.转基因棉花与非转基因棉花的差异因品种和还田量而表现不同.%We evaluated the effects of transgenic Bt cotton biomass on soil microbial communities using soil incubation and phospholipid fatty acid (PFLA) analysis. We used three transgenic Bt cotton lines (Jinmian 26, Jinmian 44, and CCRI 41) and their isogenic non-Bt cotton lines (Jinmian 7, Jihe 492, and CCRI 23). Different plant biomasses (0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 g) were mixed with 200 g of soil for each line, and incubated at 28 ℃ for 45 days. The total concentration of PLFAs significantly increased with increasing cotton biomass, and the microbial community was characterized by a predominance of fungi in the soil amended with cotton biomass in comparison with the control(soil without cotton biomass). In contrast, the microbial community was characterized by a predominance of bacteria and actinomycetes in the control soil. Differences between Bt-cotton and non-Bt soils depended on cotton lines and cotton biomass in the soil.

  19. Carbon allocation, nodulation, and biological nitrogen fixation of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L. under soil water limitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Mantovani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The pioneer tree black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L. is a drought-resistant tree and, in symbiosis with Rhizobium, able to fix dinitrogen from the atmosphere. It is, therefore, an interesting species for marginal lands where soil amelioration is sought in addition to economic gain. However, the interaction between soil water availability, carbon allocation and nitrogen fixation is important for a successful establishment of trees on marginal lands and has not yet been investigated for black locust. Twoyear-old trees were grown under various soil water conditions and drought cycles. The stable isotopic composition of C (δ 13C and N (δ 15N of the leaves was used to identify i the effective drought condition of the treatments and ii the portion N accrued from the atmosphere by the biological nitrogen fixation. Drought-stressed plants significantly reduced their total aboveground biomass production, which was linearly linked to tree transpiration. The shoot:root ratio values changed from 2.2 for the drought-stressed to 4.3 for the well-watered plants. Our investigation shows that drought stress increases the nodule biomass of black locust in order to maintain biological nitrogen fixation and to counteract the lower soil nitrogen availability. The biological nitrogen fixation of drought-stressed trees could be maintained at relatively higher values compared to the well-watered trees. The average leaf nitrogen content varied between 2.8% and 3.0% and was not influenced by the drought stress. Carbon fixation, carbon allocation, and biological nitrogen fixation are to some extent balanced at low irrigation and allow Robinia to cope with long-term water constraints. The combination of black locust’s ecophysiological and morphological plasticity make it interesting as a biomass source for bioenergy and timber production, even in nutrient-limited and drought-affected areas of Europe.

  20. Black Nitrogen as a source for the built-up of microbial biomass in soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Martín, María; Milter, Anja; Knicker, Heike

    2016-04-01

    In areas with frequent wildfires, soil organic nitrogen (SON) is sequestered in pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM) due to heat-induced transformation of proteinaceous compounds into N-heterocycles, i.e. pyrrole, imidazole and indole compounds. These newly formed structures, known as Black Nitrogen (BN), have been assumed to be hardly degradable by microorganisms, thus being efficiently sequestered from the N cycle. On the other hand, a previous study showed that nitrogen of BN can be used by plants for the built-up of their biomass (de la Rosa and Knicker 2011). Thus, BN may play an important role as an N source during the recovery of the forest after a fire event. In order to obtain a more profound understanding of the role of BN within the N cycle in soils, we studied the bioavailability and incorporation of N derived from PyOM into microbial amino acids. For that, pots with soil from a burnt and an unburnt Cambisol located under a Mediterranean forest were covered with different amendments. The toppings were mixtures of unlabeled KNO3 with 15N labeled grass or 15N-labeled PyOM from burned grass and K15NO3 mixed with unlabeled grass material or PyOM. The pots were kept in the greenhouse under controlled conditions for 16 months and were sampled after 0.5, 1, 5, 8 and 16 months. From all samples the amino acids were extracted after hydrolysis (6 M HCl, 22 h, 110 °C) and quantified via gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The fate of 15N was followed by isotopic ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). The results show that the contribution of extractable amino acids to total soil organic matter was always higher in the unburnt than in the burnt soil. However, with ongoing incubation their amount decreased. Already after 0.5 months, some PyOM-derived 15N was incorporated into the extractable amino acids and the amount increased with experiment time. Since this can only occur after prior microbial degradation of PyOM our results clearly support a lower biochemical

  1. Formation causes and recovery of the "Black Soil Type" degraded alpine grassland in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHANG Zhanhuan; LONG Ruijun

    2007-01-01

    The formation causes and ecological rebuilding of the "Black Soil Type" degraded alpine grassland are summarized.The formation of the "Black Soil Type" degraded grassland was caused mainly by climate warming,decreasing glaciers,overgrazing,and damage by rats.The ecological restoration of the "Black Soil Type" degraded alpine grassland relies not only on grassland building,but also on reasonable management and planning of grassland resources.Guaranty measures for developing the alpine grassland animal husbandry in a healthy way include intensifying the educational investment in pasture regions,practicing long-term contracts for grassland,and strengthening the grassland legislation.The authors believe that the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau ecosystem has a special characteristic inertia or "inert gases",which weaken the self-renewing capability of the ecosystem and makes its structure frail.The inertia characteristic may be the important reason that makes ecological rebuilding so difficult;in addition,other problems need to be studied deeply to provide scientific bases for the ecological building in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

  2. Distribution of Root and Cotton Yield and Temporal-Spatial Variation in Soil Nutrients in Jujube-Cotton Intercropping Ecosystem%枣棉间作生态系统内根系和棉花产量分布及土壤养分时空变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋锋惠; 吴正保; 史彦江

    2012-01-01

    为提高枣棉间作系统内肥料管理水平,在棉花不同物候期,测定系统内土壤养分的空间差异性.结果表明:土壤有机质质量分数随棉花生育进程基本呈增加的趋势,且枣树西侧的土壤有机质质量分数高于东侧,并且0<H(土层深度)≤20 cm土层有机质质量分数明显高于20 cm<H≤40 cm土层;土壤中速效N、P和K的质量分数表现出明显的时空分布差异性.随着棉花生育进程,土壤中速效N、P、K的质量分数均呈下降趋势.在水平分布上,随距枣树距离的增加,土壤中速效N、P质量分数均表现出先下降再上升的变化规律,距离树体130 cm左右的土壤速效N、P质量分数最低,而速效K质量分数则相对较为平稳.在垂直分布上,随着土层深度的增加,土壤速效P质量分数呈明显降低现象,而速效N、K质量分数变化较小.%The spatial variation in soil nutrients was studied in different phenological stages of cotton in order to improve fertilizer management in Jujube-cotton Intercropping Ecosystem ( JIE). Result showed that the content of soil organic matter increased with the growing process of cotton. Moreover, the organic matter content in the soil to the west of the jujube trees was higher than that to the east, and the organic matter content in 0-20 cm soil layer was higher than that in 20-40 cm soil layer. Temporal and spatial heterogeneity of contents of available N, P, and K in soil was observed in JIE. Contents of available N, P, and K decreased with the growing process of cotton. In horizontal distribution, the contents of soil available N, P, and K first decreased and then increased with increasing distance from the jujube trees, and the contents of available N and P in the soil located at 130 cm away from the jujube trees were lowest, while the available K content was relatively stable. In vertical distribution, soil available P content decreased with increasing soil depth, while the contents of

  3. Denitrification potential under different fertilization regimes is closely coupled with changes in the denitrifying community in a black soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Chang; Fan, Fenliang; Song, Alin; Cui, Peiyuan; Li, Tingqiang; Liang, Yongchao

    2015-07-01

    Preferable inorganic fertilization over the last decades has led to fertility degradation of black soil in Northeast China. However, how fertilization regimes impact denitrification and its related bacterial community in this soil type is still unclear. Here, taking advantage of a suit of molecular ecological tools in combination of assaying the potential denitrification (DP), we explored the variation of activity, community structure, and abundance of nirS and nirK denitrifiers under four different fertilization regimes, namely no fertilization control (N0M0), organic pig manure (N0M1), inorganic fertilization (N1M0), and combination of inorganic fertilizer and pig manure (N1M1). The results indicated that organic fertilization increased DP, but inorganic fertilization had no impacts. The increase of DP was mirrored by the shift of nirS denitrifiers' community structure but not by that of nirK denitrifiers'. Furthermore, the change of DP coincided with the variation of abundances of both denitrifiers. Shifts of community structure and abundance of nirS and nirK denitrifiers were correlated with the change of soil pH, total nitrogen (TN), organic matter (OM), C:P, total phosphorus (TP), and available phosphorus (Olsen P). Our results suggest that the change of DP under these four fertilization regimes was closely related to the shift of denitrifying bacteria communities resulting from the variation of properties in the black soil tested.

  4. Effects of Nanoscale Carbon Black Modified by HNO3 on Immobilization and Phytoavailability of Ni in Contaminated Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiemin Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A surface-modified nanoscale carbon black (MCB as Ni adsorbent in contaminated soil was prepared by oxidizing the carbon black with 65% HNO3. The surface properties of the adsorbent were characterized by zeta potential analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIRs. Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the improvement of Ni2+ adsorption by MCB. Greenhouse cultivation experiments were conducted to examine the effect of MCB on the DTPA-extractable Ni2+ in soil, Ni2+ uptake of ryegrass shoot, and growth of ryegrass. Results indicated that MCB had much lower negative zeta potential, more functional groups for exchange and complexation of cation, and more heterogeneous pores and cavities for the adsorption of cation than the unmodified parent one (CB. MCB showed enhanced sorption capacity for Ni (qmax, 49.02 mg·g−1 compared with CB (qmax, 39.22 mg·g−1. Greenhouse cultivation experiment results showed that the biomass of ryegrass shoot and the Ni uptake of the ryegrass shoot were significantly increased and the concentrations of DTPA-extractable Ni in soil were significantly decreased with the increasing of MCB amount. It is clear from this work that the MCB had good adsorption properties for the Ni and could be applied in the in situ immobilization and remediation of heavy metal contaminated saline-alkali soils.

  5. Molecular research and genetic engineering of resistance to Verticillium wilt in cotton: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verticillium dahliae, a soil-borne pathogen, causes Verticillium wilt, one of the most serious diseases in cotton, deleteriously influencing the crop’s production and quality. Verticillium wilt has become a major obstacle in cotton production since Helicoverpa armigera, the cotton bollworm, became e...

  6. Microbial Biomass Carbon Trends in Black and Red Soils Under Single Straw Application: Effect of Straw Placement, Mineral N Addition and Tillage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Quantifying trends in soil microbial biomass carbon (SMBC) under contrasting management conditions is important in understanding the dynamics of soil organic matter (SOM) in soils and in ensuring their sustainable use. Against such a background, a 60-day greenhouse simulation experiment was carried out to study the effects of straw placement, mineral N source, and tillage on SMBC dynamics in two contrasting soils, red soil (Ferrasol) and black soil (Acrisol). The treatments included straw addition + buried (T1);straw addition + mineral N (T2); and straw addition + tillage (T3). Straw was either buried in the soil or placed on the surface. Sampling was done every 15 days. Straw placement, addition of external mineral N sources (Urea, 46 % N) and soil type affected SMBC. SMBC levels decreased with exposure durations (15 days, 30 days, 45 days, and 60 days). Rate of SMBC fixation was more in buried straw than in surface placed straw at all sampling dates in both soils. Addition of an external N source significantly increased SMBC level. Soil pH increased in both soil types, with a greater increase in black soil than in red soil. The study could not, however, statistically account for the effect of tillage on SMBC levels because of the limited effect of our tillage method due to the artificial barrier to mechanical interference supplied by the mesh bags,although differences in absolute values were quite evident between treatments T1 and T3.``

  7. Role of black carbon in the distribution of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans in aged field-contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chai, Y.Z.; Davis, J.W.; Wilken, M.; Martin, G.D.; Mowery, D.M.; Ghosh, U. [Dow Chemical Co USA, Midland, MI (United States). Toxicology & Environmental Research & Consulting

    2011-01-15

    Floodplain soils containing elevated levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were collected from several locations along the Tittabawassee River (Michigan, USA). The PCDD/F profiles of these soils exhibited distinct congener patterns consistent with byproducts from either chloralkali manufacturing or chlorophenols productions. Black carbon (BC) particles were isolated for the first time from floodplain soil impacted by PCDD/Fs. Petrographic analysis showed that BC particles, including coal, oxidized coal, metallurgical coke, depositional carbon, coal tar/pitch, cenosphere, and charcoal, comprised approximately 30% by volume of the organic fraction with size range of 250 {mu} m-2000 {mu} m from a typical floodplain soil. The BC particles with anthropogenic origin such as pitch and coke associated with the chloralkali production process served as both the source and subsequent transporter for the highly hydrophobic PCDD/Fs. These anthropogenic BC particles were enriched with high levels of PCDFs, containing approximately 1000-fold the concentration found in the bulk soil. The strong association of PCDD/Fs with anthropogenic BC directly impacts the physicochemical and biological availability thus the risk associated with these hydrophobic organochlorines in soils and sediments.

  8. Role of black carbon in the distribution of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans in aged field-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Yunzhou; Davis, John W; Wilken, Michael; Martin, Greg D; Mowery, Daniel M; Ghosh, Upal

    2011-01-01

    Floodplain soils containing elevated levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were collected from several locations along the Tittabawassee River (Michigan, USA). The PCDD/F profiles of these soils exhibited distinct congener patterns consistent with byproducts from either chloralkali manufacturing or chlorophenols productions. Black carbon (BC) particles were isolated for the first time from floodplain soil impacted by PCDD/Fs. Petrographic analysis showed that BC particles, including coal, oxidized coal, metallurgical coke, depositional carbon, coal tar/pitch, cenosphere, and charcoal, comprised approximately 30% by volume of the organic fraction with size range of 250μm-2000μm from a typical floodplain soil. The BC particles with anthropogenic origin such as pitch and coke associated with the chloralkali production process served as both the source and subsequent transporter for the highly hydrophobic PCDD/Fs. These anthropogenic BC particles were enriched with high levels of PCDFs, containing approximately 1000-fold the concentration found in the bulk soil. The strong association of PCDD/Fs with anthropogenic BC directly impacts the physicochemical and biological availability thus the risk associated with these hydrophobic organochlorines in soils and sediments.

  9. [Research on mineralization process of organic phosphorus in black soil in Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shaohua; Yu, Wantai; Zhang, Lu; Shen, Shanmin

    2005-10-01

    Buried bag and incubation experiments were conducted to study mineralization process of organic phosphorus in black soil in Northeast China under different time sequences. The results showed that both the content and mineralized velocity of organic P decreased gradually as time went on, the cumulative mineralized rate increased step by step, whether it was used by the method of incubation or buried bag. Under incubation, two treatments' mineralized velocity reached the maximum at first month (31.67, 38.75 mg x kg(-1) x month(-1), respectively), and their cumulative mineralized rate and mineralized velocity at six months were 7.94%, 13.26 mg x kg(-1) x month(-1) and 9.24%, 17.99 mg x kg(-1) x month(-1), respectively. Under buried bag, the mineralized velocity of five treatments all reached the maximum at first year (55.67, 55.65, 49.60, 19.71, 22.52 mg x kg(-1) month(-1), respectively), and the cumulative mineralized rate and mineralized velocity of maize root and wheat root treatments at three years both were approximately 50% and 35 mg x kg(-1) x month(-1), which were higher than those under soybean root andgrass root treatments. From two methods of studies on the mineralization process of organic P, it could be seen that the original content of organic P influenced its mineralized rate and mineralized velocity: the higher of the original content of organic P, the higher of its mineralized rate and mineralized velocity.

  10. Assessment of Micro-Basin Tillage as a Soil and Water Conservation Practice in the Black Soil Region of Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Yuanyuan; Ou, Yang; Yan, Baixing; Xu, Xiaohong; Rousseau, Alain N; Zhang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Micro-basin tillage is a soil and water conservation practice that requires building individual earth blocks along furrows. In this study, plot experiments were conducted to assess the efficiency of micro-basin tillage on sloping croplands between 2012 and 2013 (5°and 7°). The conceptual, optimal, block interval model was used to design micro-basins which are meant to capture the maximum amount of water per unit area. Results indicated that when compared to the up-down slope tillage, micro-basin tillage could increase soil water content and maize yield by about 45% and 17%, and reduce runoff, sediment and nutrients loads by about 63%, 96% and 86%, respectively. Meanwhile, micro-basin tillage could reduce the peak runoff rates and delay the initial runoff-yielding time. In addition, micro-basin tillage with the optimal block interval proved to be the best one among all treatments with different intervals. Compared with treatments of other block intervals, the optimal block interval treatments increased soil moisture by around 10% and reduced runoff rate by around 15%. In general, micro-basin tillage with optimal block interval represents an effective soil and water conservation practice for sloping farmland of the black soil region.

  11. Influence of stand density and soil treatment on the Spanish Black Pine (Pinus nigra Arn. ssp. Salzmannii) regeneration in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerro Barja, A. del; Lucas-Borja, M. E.; Martinez Garcia, E.; Lopez Serrano, F. R.; Andres Abellan, M.; Garcia Morote, F. A.; Navarro Lopez, R.

    2009-07-01

    Satisfactory results relating to the natural regeneration of the Spanish black pine (Pinus nigra Arn ssp. salzmannii) is generally difficult to achieve. The natural regeneration of this pine was studied comparing two types of soil treatment and various over story densities in six experimental forests. These studies were conducted from 1999 to 2002 and seed rain and germination, as well as seedling survival were observed in a number of specific plots: Brushing, scalping and control plots. In addition various over story densities were used (measured as base area m2/ha). Soil and air temperature together with soil moisture were continuously recorded throughout this summer period. The results showed that seed germination was higher in plots using the scalping technique, as opposed to the brushed or controlled plots. The best seedling survival percentage was found in scalped plots together with a larger basal area. It was also found that seedling survival was lower during the first year than during the second one. The results have practical implications for management of Spanish black pine forests as well as valuable information which could improve the conditions for regeneration. (Author) 82 refs.

  12. Effect of soil-water tension on herbaceous cotton yield Efeito de tensões de água no solo sobre o rendimento do algodoeiro herbáceo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Assis de Oliveira

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted during two years, 1990/91, in an alluvial soil, in the State of Paraíba, Brazil, to study the effect of the levels of soil-water tension, 50, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 600 kPa, at 20 cm depth, on upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.r. latifolium Hutch, cv. CNPA-6H yield. The experimental design was a complete randomized block with six treatments and four repetitions. There was an effect of the treatments on plant height, leaf area index and cotton yield, but the precocity index was not modified. Water should be applied when the soil-water tension, measured at 20 cm depth, reaches values around 200 kPa. There was a quadratic (R² = 0.893** response of cotton yields to soil water tension, with the maximum when water was applied at 52% of soil water depletion.Durante dois anos, 1990/91, em solo aluvial, no município de Sousa, PB, estudou-se, em condições de irrigação por sulco, o efeito das tensões de água no solo a 50, 100, 200, 300, 400 e 600 kPa, na profundidade de 20 cm, sobre o rendimento do algodoeiro herbáceo (Gossypium hirsutum L.r. latifolium Hutch, cv. CNPA-6H. Adotou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. Os resultados mostraram que houve efeito significativo dos tratamentos sobre a altura da planta, índice de área foliar e rendimento de algodão em rama, mas não houve efeito sobre os dados de precocidade. A tensão de 200 kPa mostrou-se como o melhor nível de água no solo para se efetuar as irrigações, uma vez que para as tensões superiores o rendimento foi significativamente reduzido.O efeito sobre o rendimento foi de natureza quadrática (R² = 0,893**, o que indica que o rendimento máximo seria atingido irrigando-se a cultura com 52% de esgotamento da água disponível no solo.

  13. Micromorphological evidence of black carbon in colluvial soils from NW Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaal, J.; van Mourik, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Biomass burning produces a residue called black carbon (BC). Black C is generally considered to be highly resistant against biodegradation and has a potential role in the global C cycle, but is difficult to identify and quantify when subjected to prolonged degradation in terrestrial sediments. The c

  14. Smart textiles: Tough cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Alba G.; Hinestroza, Juan P.

    2008-08-01

    Cotton is an important raw material for producing soft textiles and clothing. Recent discoveries in functionalizing cotton fibres with nanotubes may offer a new line of tough, wearable, smart and interactive garments.

  15. SOIL MYCOFLORA OF BLACK PEPPER RHIZOSPHERE IN THE PHILIPPINES AND THEIR IN VITRO ANTAGONISM AGAINST Phytophthora capsici L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Noveriza

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Foot rot disease of black pepper caused by Phytophthora capsici had been reported in Batangas and Laguna, Philippines. The plant was recovered following the application of crop residue (organic substrate and intercropping with other crops. This study was aimed to isolate, identify, and determine the soil mycoflora from the rhizosphere of black pepper grown on various cropping patterns in Batangas and Laguna. Antagonistic activity of mycoflora isolates was tested against P. capsici using dual culture technique. The result showed that 149 colonies of soil mycoflora isolated were belonging to 14 genera; three of them, i.e. Penicillium, Paecilomyces and Aspergillus, were the most dominant. All of the mycoflora isolates were able to inhibit the growth of the pathogen. Eighteen of them were the most promising antagonists, based on their inhibition growth of more than 60%. It is suggested that antagonistic mechanism of Mucor isolate (1001, Trichoderma (125, 170, 171, 179, 180, 181, Gliocladium (109, Cunninghamella (165, 168, Mortierella (177, and Aspergillus (106 was space competitor (competition for nutrient since they rapidly overgrew the pathogen. Aspergillus (67, 79, 81, 83, 108, and 202 isolates inhibited the pathogen apparently by producing antibiotic, whereas Trichoderma (125, 170, 171, 179, 180, and 181 isolates were able to penetrate the hyphae of the pathogen. The organic matter percentage in the soil was significantly correlated with the number of antagonistic mycoflora in rhizosphere (R2 = 0.1094, but the cropping pattern was negatively correlated. This study suggests that organic matter increased antagonistic mycoflora in black pepper rhizosphere, which will reduce severity of the disease.

  16. Near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy for mapping nano-scale distribution of organic carbon forms in soil: Application to black carbon particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Johannes; Liang, Biqing; Solomon, Dawit; Lerotic, Mirna; LuizãO, Flavio; Kinyangi, James; SchäFer, Thorsten; Wirick, Sue; Jacobsen, Chris

    2005-03-01

    Small-scale heterogeneity of organic carbon (C) forms in soils is poorly quantified since appropriate analytical techniques were not available up to now. Specifically, tools for the identification of functional groups on the surface of micrometer-sized black C particles were not available up to now. Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy (STXM) using synchrotron radiation was used in conjunction with Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy to investigate nano-scale distribution (50-nm resolution) of C forms in black C particles and compared to synchrotron-based FTIR spectroscopy. A new embedding technique was developed that did not build on a C-based embedding medium and did not pose the risk of heat damage to the sample. Elemental sulfur (S) was melted to 220°C until it polymerized and quenched with liquid N2 to obtain a very viscous plastic S in which the black C could be embedded until it hardened to a noncrystalline state and was ultrasectioned. Principal component and cluster analysis followed by singular value decomposition was able to resolve distinct areas in a black carbon particle. The core of the studied biomass-derived black C particles was highly aromatic even after thousands of years of exposure in soil and resembled the spectral characteristics of fresh charcoal. Surrounding this core and on the surface of the black C particle, however, much larger proportions of carboxylic and phenolic C forms were identified that were spatially and structurally distinct from the core of the particle. Cluster analysis provided evidence for both oxidation of the black C particle itself as well as adsorption of non-black C. NEXAFS spectroscopy has great potential to allow new insight into black C properties with important implications for biogeochemical cycles such as mineralization of black C in soils and sediments, and adsorption of C, nutrients, and pollutants as well as transport in the geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere.

  17. World Collection of Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KHAKIMJON Saydaliyev; ALISHER Amanturdiev; MALOXAT Halikova

    2008-01-01

    @@ Achievements of selection and other theoretical researches on cotton not only in our country,but also world-wide depend on the presence of genetic resources.Uzbek Scientific Research Institute of Selection and Seed Growing of Cotton is a leading center of science on breeding and production of cotton across Central Asia.

  18. Dictionary of Cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Dictionary of Cotton has over 2,000 terms and definitions that were compiled by 33 researchers. It reflects the ongoing commitment of the International Cotton Advisory Committee, through its Technical Information Section, to the spread of knowledge about cotton to all those who have an interest ...

  19. Cotton Trip in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    From September 6th to 12th,a National Cotton CouncilCotton Council International 2010 China leadership team,led by Charles Parker,Vice Chairman of NCC,visited China to see its cotton industrial development and continue building a good relationship with U.S.raw cotton’s largest consumer.

  20. Cotton Pricing Discussion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Cotton prices have received a lot of attention recently.Cotton Incorporated especically designed this Special Edition of Supply Chain Insights to frame the discussion concerning prices throughout the cotton supply chain in terms of the cyclical events that contributed to recent volatility and how a return to long-term averages over time can be expected.

  1. Exophiala crusticola anam. nov. (affinity Herpotrichiellaceae), a novel black yeast from biological soil crusts in the Western United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Scott T; Reddy, Gundlapally S N; Garcia-Pichel, Ferran

    2006-11-01

    A novel black yeast-like fungus, Exophiala crusticola, is described based on two closely related isolates from biological soil crust (BSC) samples collected on the Colorado Plateau (Utah) and in the Great Basin desert (Oregon), USA. Their morphology places them in the anamorphic genus Exophiala, having affinities to the family Herpotrichiellaceae (Ascomycota). Phylogenetic analysis of their D1/D2 large subunit nuclear ribosomal RNA (LSU nrRNA) gene sequences suggests that they represent a distinct species. The closest known putative relative to Exophiala crusticola is Capronia coronata Samuels, isolated from decorticated wood in Westland County, New Zealand. The holotype for Exophiala crusticola anam. nov. is UAMH 10686 and the type strain is CP141bT (=ATCC MYA-3639T=CBS 119970T=DSM 16793T). Dark-pigmented fungi appear to constitute an important heterotrophic component of soil crusts and Exophiala crusticola represents the first description of a dematiaceous fungus isolated from BSCs.

  2. Organic amendments enhance microbial diversity and abundance of functional genes in Australian Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldorri, Sind; McMillan, Mary; Pereg, Lily

    2016-04-01

    Food and cash crops play important roles in Australia's economy with black, grey and red clay soil, widely use for growing cotton, wheat, corn and other crops in rotation. While the majority of cotton growers use nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers only in the form of agrochemicals, a few experiment with the addition of manure or composted plant material before planting. We hypothesized that the use of such organic amendments would enhance the soil microbial function through increased microbial diversity and abundance, thus contribute to improved soil sustainability. To test the hypothesis we collected soil samples from two cotton-growing farms in close geographical proximity and with mostly similar production practices other than one grower has been using composted plants as organic amendment and the second farmer uses only agrochemicals. We applied the Biolog Ecoplate system to study the metabolic signature of microbial communities and used qPCR to estimate the abundance of functional genes in the soil. The soil treated with organic amendments clearly showed higher metabolic activity of a more diverse range of carbon sources as well as higher abundance of genes involved in the nitrogen and phosphorous cycles. Since microbes undertake a large number of soil functions, the use of organic amendments can contribute to the sustainability of agricultural soils.

  3. Soil organic carbon dynamics under long-term fertilization in a black soil of China: Evidence from stable C isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Xiaolin; He, Ping; Zhu, Ping; Zhou, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Effects of different fertilizers on organic carbon (C) storage and turnover of soil fractions remains unclear. We combined soil fractionation with isotope analyses to examine soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics after 25 years of fertilization. Five types of soil samples including the initial level (CK) and four fertilization treatments (inorganic nitrogen fertilizer, N; balanced inorganic fertilizer, NPK; inorganic fertilizer plus farmyard manure, MNPK; inorganic fertilizer plus corn straw residue, SNPK) were separated into four aggregate sizes (>2000 μm, 2000–250 μm, 250–53 μm, and 250 μm aggregates but reduced SOC storage in <250 μm aggregates due to SOC changes in LF and iPOM. PMID:26898121

  4. 超高效液相色谱法测定吡蚜酮棉花和土壤中的残留%Determination of pymetrozine residues in cotton and soil by ultra-performance liquid chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段婷婷; 郑永权

    2011-01-01

    建立了超高效液相色谱-亲水色谱柱测定吡蚜酮在棉花和土壤中残留量的分析方法.样本在弱碱条件下采用分散固相萃取( QuEChERS)法进行前处理.结果表明:吡蚜酮在棉叶和棉籽中添加水平为0.05~0.50 mg/kg时,其平均回收率分别为76.9% ~91.1%和76.4% ~ 93.7%,相对标准偏差(RSD)为7.2% ~8.2%和6.2% ~9.8%;在土壤中添加水平为0.02~0.5 mg/kg时,平均回收率为83.8% ~94.6%,RSD为5.3% ~ 8.0%.在山东和河南两地按推荐剂量(有效成分30 g/hm2)和1.5倍推荐剂量(有效成分45 g/hm2)施用10%吡蚜酮·高效氯氟氰菊酯悬浮剂后4d,吡蚜酮在土壤和棉叶中的残留量分别低于0.02和0.05 mg/kg;至收获时,其在土壤和棉籽中的最终残留量低于0.02和0.05 mg/kg.%A method based on QuEChERS sample preparation at weak alkali condition and ultra-performance liquid chromatography detection with hydrophilic chromatographic column was developed for determining pymetrozine residues in cotton and soil. The results indicated that average recoveries for cotton leaf at three levels (0.05 , 0.1 and 0.5 mg/kg) ranged from 76.9% -91.1% with relative standard deviations (RSD) of 1.2% -8.2%, for cotton seed ranged from 76.4% -93.7% with RSD of 6. 2% -9. 8%. Average recoveries for soil at four levels (0. 02, 0. 05, 0. 1 and 0. 5 mg/kg) ranged from 83. 8% -94. 6% with RSD of 5. 3% -8.0%. 10% pymetrozine · lawWa-cyhalothrin suspending agent was applied in Shandong and Henan according to recommended dose ( active ingredient 30 g/ha) and 1.5 times recommended dose (active ingredient 45 g/ha). The pymetrozine residues in soil and cotton leaf were less than 0.02 and 0.05 mg/kg at the 4th day in cotton dissipation experiment under field conditions . At harvest time, the residues of pymetrozine in cottonseed and soil were less than 0.05 and 0.02 mg/kg, respectively.

  5. 黑液制备的腐植酸液肥和调理剂的棉花田间应用研究%The Study on Application of Humic Acid Liquid Fertilizer and Conditioner Made from Black Liquor in Cotton Field Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫海涛; 张小勇; 肖传绪; 陈洪章

    2011-01-01

    为了给黑液实现资源化利用提供依据.在新疆进行了黑液腐植酸产品的田间试验,设计了3个处理,采用棉花定点定株方法调查其生理指标,并测定其生化指标,研究了它们对棉花的生长、产量和抗旱能力的影响.结果表明,在滴灌中应用腐植酸液肥,与常规固体肥料相比可明显促进棉花在各生育期的生长、能增加蕾、花和铃的数量、并且延长成熟时间、作物不易早衰.同时,液肥还可提高棉花的经济性状,能够显著增加籽棉的产量,增产率可达12.3%.在棉花上使用该腐植酸产品后可降低叶片的蒸腾速率,提高叶片的保水能力和CAT活力,从而明显增强棉株的抗旱能力.黑液腐植酸产品对棉花具有良好的促长、增产和抗旱效果.%In order to provide the evidence for resource utilization of black liquor, the field experiments of humic acid product from black liquor were carried out in Xinjiang Province. With designing three treatments and fixed-point & fixed-plant method, physiological indexes of cotton were investigated and biochemical indexes were determined to study the effect of humic acid product on the cotton growth, production and drought resistance. The experiments showed that compared with the conventional solid fertilizer, liquid fertilizer could remarkably promote the growth of cotton and increase the number of bud, flower and boll in the growing period in drip irrigation. The crop was not easy to decline and mature time was prolonged with the treatment of liquid fertilizer. The liquid fertilizer also can enhance the economic characteristics of cotton, and the crop' s yield treated with liquid fertilizer was increased by 12.3% than that of solid fertilizer. Moreover, the cotton experiment results supported that humic acid product from black liquor could evidently reduce transpiration rate of cotton leaf, and increase water-retention capacity and CAT activity. Therefore drought resistance of

  6. Sorption and Desorption of Phenanthrene to Black Carbon on Crop Soil from the South-North Water Diversion Project in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Hao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The water quality of South-North Water Diversion Project (SNWDP has attracted more and more attention. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in soils strongly sorb to black carbon. In this study, adsorption and desorption characteristics and isotherm of phenanthrene to black carbon in SNWDP crop soils were studied extensively. The results showed that the sorption and desorption of phenanthrene to black carbon were nonlinear. Freundlich model could fit the sorption and desorption data of BC well. Meantime, desorption process exhibited varied apparent sorption-desorption hysteresis. It can be inferred that BC of crop soils in SNWDP plays a significant role in reducing the bioavailability and toxicity of phenanthrene through sorption capacity and desorption hysteresis.

  7. Comparison of biodegradation of low-weight hydroentangled raw cotton nonwoven fabric and that of commonly used disposable nonwoven fabrics in the aerobic Captina silt loam soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The increasing use of disposable nonwovens made of petroleum-based materials generates a large amount of non-biodegradable, solid waste in the environment. As an effort to enhance the usage of biodegradable cotton in nonwovens, this study analyzed the biodegradability of mechanically pre-cleaned gr...

  8. Increasing the cotton yield and improving the ecology in cotton fields by utilizing the properties of natural resources in Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Changyan; Lu, Zhaozhi; Song, Yudong; Zhang, Henian

    2003-07-01

    The area of aeolian sand soil in Xinjiang is 3.7189×107 hm2 and occupies 25% of the total land area. Traditionally, it is considered that aeolian sand soil has low yield of crops due to its poor retention power of soil moisture and soil fertility. However, the stems of cotton growing on aeolian sand soil are small and their fictile shape is easy to be controlled. Thus, a culture mode of "increasing stems and bolls, double-layer and double-stem" of cotton is developed by scientific irrigation and fertilizer spread as well as artificial control of fictile shape based on the growth laws of cotton and the properties of aeolian sand soil, and a lint yield of over 3,750 kg/hm2 has been reaped in successive 3 years. Currently, the cotton culture in Xinjiang is rapidly developed, the proportion of cotton-culture areas occupies 40~60%, the cultivating areas of other crops are reduced, the ecosystems are simplified, and the natural enemies in cotton fields are reduced. Alfalfa belts of 8~10 m in width are planted in the zones affected by shelter forests, the occurrence of Therioaphis maculata (Buckton) in alfalfa belts is 10~15 days earlier than that of cotton aphids (Aphis gossypii Glover), and in the alfalfa belts the quantity of herioaphis maculata (Buckton), the natural enemies, is 13.65 times of that in cotton fields when the cotton aphids occur. To resect the alfalfa this moment makes the natural enemies in the alfalfa belts enter the cotton fields and eat cotton aphids, which has good effects for preventing and controlling cotton aphids.

  9. 寒地黑土相关知识产权及保护定位%Construction and Protection of Frigid Black Soil's Intellectual Property Rights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐洪军

    2011-01-01

    The research of frigid black soil's intellectual property rights concerned the economy and the brand of frigid black soil, food safety and produce market development of frigid black soil, together with the prosperity of folk literature art of frigid black soil. The right to geographical indications of frigid black soil had the huge property value as well as the assurance function of the product quality of producing area. In the face of the right infringement, the government and the professional association should function. Research of the folk literature art's copyright of frigid black soil faced with the research fatigue and the legal rule blank, meanwhile, the universal significance of the thought achievements was needed to be extract.%寒地黑土知识产权的研究,关乎寒地黑土经济与品牌、食品安全与寒地黑土产品市场开发、寒地黑土民间文学艺术的繁荣.寒地黑土地理标志权具有巨大的财产价值和产地产品品质保证功能.面对侵权,应发挥政府和行业协会的职能.寒地黑土民间文学艺术著作权的研究面临研究乏力和法律规定空白的境遇,亟需提炼出具有普遍意义的思想成果.

  10. Soil erosion along a long slope in the gentle hilly areas of black soil region in Northeast China%东北黑土漫岗区长坡面坡耕地侵蚀产沙沿程变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔明; 蔡强国; 朱阿兴; 范昊明

    2007-01-01

    Characteristics of soil erosion change along a long slope in the gentle hilly areas in black soil region in Northeast China are discussed. A simplified slope model based on segments was used to analyze the runoff data and soil erosion data observed between 2003 and 2004 over 10 field plots with different slope length in Heshan Farm, Heilongjiang Province. We found that soil erosion rate over long slopes in the black soil region changed alternatively along the slope and creates alternative zones of intensive erosion and week erosion.The exact place of each zone is different for different rainfall conditions. In a year with less and mild precipitation, rill cannot happen within the top 50 m, while in a year with large and intensive precipitation, rill can be formed starting even at 15 m from the top of the slope.

  11. An index-based approach to assessing recalcitrance and soil carbon sequestration potential of engineered black carbons (biochars).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Omar R; Kuo, Li-Jung; Zimmerman, Andrew R; Louchouarn, Patrick; Amonette, James E; Herbert, Bruce E

    2012-02-07

    The ability of engineered black carbons (or biochars) to resist abiotic and, or biotic degradation (herein referred to as recalcitrance) is crucial to their successful deployment as a soil carbon sequestration strategy. A new recalcitrance index, the R(50), for assessing biochar quality for carbon sequestration is proposed. The R(50) is based on the relative thermal stability of a given biochar to that of graphite and was developed and evaluated with a variety of biochars (n = 59), and soot-like black carbons. Comparison of R(50), with biochar physicochemical properties and biochar-C mineralization revealed the existence of a quantifiable relationship between R(50) and biochar recalcitrance. As presented here, the R(50) is immediately applicable to pre-land application screening of biochars into Class A (R(50) ≥ 0.70), Class B (0.50 ≤ R(50) carbon sequestration classes. Class A and Class C biochars would have carbon sequestration potential comparable to soot/graphite and uncharred plant biomass, respectively, whereas Class B biochars would have intermediate carbon sequestration potential. We believe that the coupling of the R(50), to an index-based degradation, and an economic model could provide a suitable framework in which to comprehensively assess soil carbon sequestration in biochars.

  12. 氟啶虫胺腈在棉花和土壤中的检测方法与残留动态研究%Residue Determination and Degradation of Sulfoxaflor in Cotton and Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦旭; 徐应明; 孙扬; 赵立杰; 刘烨潼

    2014-01-01

    研究和建立了氟啶虫胺腈在土壤、棉籽和棉叶中的高效液相色谱检测方法,并在天津和杭州两地开展了氟啶虫胺腈在棉花中的田间残留试验研究。样品采用乙腈提取,正己烷萃取,氟罗里硅土柱层析净化,正己烷/丙酮(体积比6:4)混合液洗脱,减压浓缩至干,甲醇定容,高效液相色谱配可变波长紫外检测器进行检测。当分别在空白土壤、棉籽和棉叶样品中添加浓度为0.05~2.5 mg·kg-1的氟啶虫胺腈标准品时,其平均添加回收率在76.81%~94.43%之间,相对标准偏差(R SD)在0.54%~7.20%之间;氟啶虫胺腈的最小检出量为1 ng,在所有样品中的最低检出浓度均为0.05 mg·kg-1。田间残留试验结果表明,氟啶虫胺腈在土壤和棉叶中的消解规律符合一级动力学模型Ct=C0e-kt,消解半衰期分别为1.36~5.10 d和6.13~9.37 d。最终残留试验结果表明,在棉花田手动喷雾施用50%氟啶虫胺腈水分散粒剂,按推荐剂量和1.5倍推荐剂量施药,兑水喷雾处理2~3次,每次施药间隔7 d,在距最后1次施药7、14 d和21 d时,氟啶虫胺腈在棉籽和土壤中的残留量均小于方法最低检出浓度0.05 mg·kg-1。%An analytical method with high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC)was established for determining sulfoxaflor residue in soil, cotton seeds and cotton leaves. The field residue decline study and final residue trials of sulfoxaflor in cotton in Tianjin City and Hangzhou City, were designed. The samples were extracted with acetonitrile, partitioned by n-hexane, purified using Florisil column, and de-termined by HPLC equipped with a variable wavelength detector(VWD). The results showed that when the spiked levels were 0.05 mg·kg-1 to 2.5 mg·kg-1, the average recovery of sulfoxaflor ranged from 76.81%to 94.43%with relative standard deviation (RSD)of 0.54%to 7.20%;the limit of detection(LOD)of sulfoxaflor was 1 ng, and the limit of

  13. Nitrous oxide emissions from black soils with different pH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lianfeng Wang; Huachao Du; Zuoqiang Han; Xilin Zhang

    2013-01-01

    N2O fluxes as a function of incubation time from soil with different available N contents and pH were determined.Cumulative carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions were measured to indicate soil respiration.A 144-hr incubation experiment was conducted in a slightly acidic agricultural soil (pHH2o 5.33) after the pH was adjusted to four different values (3.65,5.00,6.90 and 8.55).The experiments consisted of a control without added N,and with NH+4-N and NO-3-N fertilization.The results showed that soil pH contributed significantly to N2O flux from the soils.There were higher N2O emissions in the period 0-12 hr in the four pH treatments,especially those enhanced with Nfertilization.The cumulative N2O-N emission reached a maximum at pH 8.55 and was stimulated by NO-3-N fertilization (70.4 tg/kg).The minimum emissions appeared at pH 3.65 and were not stimulated by NO-3-N or NH+4-N fertilization.Soil respiration increased significantly due to N-fertilization.Soil respiration increased positively with soil pH (R2 =0.98,P < 0.01).The lowest CO2-C emission (30.2 mg/kg) was presented in pH 3.65 soils without N-fertilization.The highest CO2-C emissions appeared in the pH 8.55 soils for NH+4-N fertilization (199 mg/kg).These findings suggested that N2O emissions and soil respiration were significantly influenced by low pH,which strongly inhibits soil microbial nitrification and denitrification activities.The content of NO-3-N in soil significantly and positively affected the N2O emissions through denitrification.

  14. 微咸水膜下滴灌对土壤和棉花元素组成及产量的影响%Influence of Mulched Drip-Irrigation with Brackish Water on Element Composition of Soil,Cotton,and Cotton Yield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄金瓯; 靳孟贵; 栗现文

    2014-01-01

    Irrigation with brackish water has a long history throughout the world.Irrational use of brackish or saline waters, however,may lead to soil salinization and reduction of crop yields.In order to promote reasonable applications of brackish wa-ter and fertilizer irrigation,a series of experiments of mulched drip-irrigation with brackish and fresh waters were carried out at Bazhou Irrigation Experimental Station (Korla,Xinjiang,China).Plant and soil samples were collected at every growth stage. Cotton yields were measured at boll opening stage.Nine elements (Ca,Na,Mg,K,Cu,Fe,Mn,Zn and B)of each sample were tested in triplicate by ICP-OES (ICAP6300)after pretreated.The influence of water quality on the element compositions of soil and cotton and cotton yield were discussed based on the experiment.The results show that growth rate of Na+ in narrow rows and interspace of mulches was lower than that in wide rows because of higher content of Cu,Fe,Zn.The ratios of K+/Na+ and Ca2+/Na+ ,however,in most cotton organs show no significant differences between the two treatments.From buds to boll stages,brackish water irrigation enhanced the accumulation of above ground dry matters,which was favorable for vege-tative development.From boll to boll opening stages,root and reproductive growth under brackish water were superior to that for fresh water.Furthermore,dry matters,boll weight,numbers of boll per unit area and cotton yield under brackish water were higher than those for fresh water.According to the correlations analyses,relationship between most trace and macro ele-ments was weak.High correlations,however,were found among manganese,boron,and calcium.Within a certain threshold, boron,manganese promoted the absorption of calcium in cotton.It has been proved that a rational use of brackish water will not lead to the growth stress.On the contrary,it would not only lower the growth rate of Na+ in the soil effectively,but also strengthen cotton’s resistibility to salt stress

  15. The use of root gall ratings to determine high risk zones in cotton fields infested by Meloidogyne Incognita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton farmers need a reliable, accurate, and inexpensive method for determining the potential threat of root-knot nematodes (RKN) to cotton within individual fields for site specific application of nematicides. Evaluation of cotton roots for RKN galling at harvest may be an alternative to soil ana...

  16. Soil organic carbon dynamics under long-term fertilization in a black soil of China: Evidence from stable C isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Xiaolin; He, Ping; Zhu, Ping; Zhou, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Effects of different fertilizers on organic carbon (C) storage and turnover of soil fractions remains unclear. We combined soil fractionation with isotope analyses to examine soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics after 25 years of fertilization. Five types of soil samples including the initial level (CK) and four fertilization treatments (inorganic nitrogen fertilizer, N; balanced inorganic fertilizer, NPK; inorganic fertilizer plus farmyard manure, MNPK; inorganic fertilizer plus corn straw residue, SNPK) were separated into four aggregate sizes (>2000 μm, 2000-250 μm, 250-53 μm, and organic matter (iPOM), and mineral-associated organic matter (mSOM). Physical fractionation showed the iPOM fraction of aggregates dominated C storage, averaging 76.87% of SOC storage. Overall, application of N and NPK fertilizers cannot significantly increase the SOC storage but enhanced C in mSOM of aggregates, whereas MNPK fertilizer resulted in the greatest amount of SOC storage (about 5221.5 g C m(2)) because of the enhanced SOC in LF, iPOM and mSOM of each aggregate. The SNPK fertilizer increased SOC storage in >250 μm aggregates but reduced SOC storage in <250 μm aggregates due to SOC changes in LF and iPOM.

  17. Long-term impact of municipal sewage irrigation on treated soil and black locust trees in a semi-arid suburban area of Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masoud Tabari; Azadeh Salehi

    2009-01-01

    The effects of municipal sewage irrigation on the soil and black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) trees were studied. For this purpose, two artificial black locust stands under irrigation of municipal sewage and well water were selected in south of Tehran, Iran. Data were collected using technique of systematic random sampling with 4 replicates in either of both stands. It was found that growth of black locust trees, as indicated by diameter at breast height, total height, crown length, average crown diameter, basal area and volume, in sewage irrigation stand was much higher than that of well water irrigation stand (P < 0.01). Plant analysis indicated that concentrations of leaf nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn) were greater in sewage-irrigated trees, with no toxicity to the minerals of tree leaf, than those of well water-irrigated trees, and positively correlated with their respective value in soil. Ni, Cr and Pb were not detected in leaf samples. Application of sewage resulted in a 1.5-fold increase in the concentrations of soil nutrients, Ni, Cr and Pb. Among these minerals only Pb and Ni in some soil samples exceeded the toxicity limit. The increase in pH, electrical conductivity (EC) and organic carbon of soil was also observed in sewage irrigation. Results confirm that besides use as irrigation water, municipal sewages are also a potential source of plant nutrients. However, significant accumulation of heavy metals such as Pb and Ni in soil needs to be monitored.

  18. 覆盖免耕对棉田土壤物理性质及棉花生理特性的影响%Effects of Straw Mulch and Zero Tillage on Soil Physical Properties and Cotton Physiological Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑曙峰; 王维; 徐道青; 屈磊

    2011-01-01

    The experiment was conducted with the split plot design to study the effects of straw mulch and zero tillage on the temperature and bulk density of soil, the SPAD value of functional leaves, photosynthetic characteristics and growth situation of cotton. The results showed that the temperature and bulk density of soil,the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), inter CO2 concentration (Ci), transpiration rate (Tr)of cotton were lower in zero tillage treatments than in tillage treatments, while the SPAD value of functional leaves was higher. The temperature of soil was lower in straw mulch treatments than in other treatments, while the moisture was higher. In zero tillage treatments, the bulk density of soil, the stomatal conductance (Cs), inter CO2 concentration (Ci), transpiration rate (Tr) of cotton were higher in straw mulch condition than in other conditions, which was opposite in tillage treatments. The bolls had no variety among with zero tillage treatments and tillage treatments. The bolls, boll weight and lint percentage was higher in straw mulch treatments than in no mulch treatments. The SPAD value of functional leaves was decreased with the increasing of straw mulch quantity, while the yield was increased. The photosynthetic characteristics and yields of cotton under the condition of straw mulch and zero tillage were lower than under the condition of tillage. The yield had no variety among with different mulches.%采用裂区设计,研究了秸秆覆盖及免耕对土壤温度、容重及棉花功能叶SPAD值、光合特性、生育性状等的影响.结果表明:免耕降低土壤温度、容重以及棉花的净光合速率、气孔导度、胞间CO2浓度、蒸腾速率,但功能叶SPAD值为免耕>翻耕;秸秆覆盖降低土壤温度,提高土壤含水量;免耕下秸秆覆盖较地膜覆盖和露地提高土壤容重及棉花的气孔导度、胞间CO2浓度、蒸腾速率,翻耕时结果与此相反;翻耕处理棉花长势强

  19. IMPROVING PHOSPHORUS NUTRITION OF COTTON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter B. Gordon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Crop recovery of applied Phosphorus (P fertilizer can be low, especially during season of low soil temperature, which decreases plant root growth and nutrient uptake. The H2PO4- or HPO4-2 anions readily react with soil cations such as Calcium (Ca, Magnesium (Mg, iron (Fe and Aluminum (Al to produce various phosphate compounds of very limited water solubility. Specialty Fertilizer Products (SFP, Leawood, KS, USA has developed and patented a product registered as AVAIL® that is reported to attract and sequester antagonistic cations out of the soil solution leaving more of applied P in available form for plant uptake. To evaluate effectiveness of AVAIL product for cotton production, experiments were conducted in two locations in West Tennessee, Grand Junction (GJ in Hardeman County and Ames Plantation (AP located in Fayette County. Treatments consisted of applying Mono-Ammonium Phosphate (MAP, 11-52-0 alone or coated with AVAIL at rates of 34 or 68 kg ha-1 P2O5. A no P check was also included. An additional treatment consisting of AVAIL treated P in combination with Nutrisphere-N®, a Nitrogen (N stabilizer product offered by SFP, was also included. At GJ site, when averaged over P rates and years, AVAIL treated MAP improved tissue P concentration and increased cotton lint yield by 157 kg ha-1 over untreated MAP. At AP site, when averaged over years and P rates, application of AVAIL treated MAP increased cotton lint yield by 85 kg ha-1 over untreated MAP. In both experiments, 34 kg ha-1 AVAIL treated MAP produced higher tissue P concentrations and greater yields than 68 kg ha-1 without AVAIL. Influencing reactions in the micro-environment around the fertilizer granule has proven to have a significant benefit on the yield and P uptake of cotton. More research is needed to determine P content in the soil and further

  20. Effect of cover crop extracts on cotton and radish radicle elongation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy L. Raper

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that some cover crops are allelopathic and can inhibit weed germination and growth. Additionally, negative allelopathic effects have been documented in cash crops planted into cover crop residue. However, little literature exists comparing relative the allelopathic potential of cover crops producers utilize in conservation-agriculture systems. This study assessed the effects of twelve cover crop extracts on radish (Raphanus sativus L. and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. radicle elongation, in three trials, using an extract-agar bioassay. In Trial 1 the cover crops were black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb cv. SoilSaver, crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L. cv. AU Robin, white lupin (Lupinus albus L. cvs. AU Homer and AU Alpha, rye (Secale cereale L. cv. Elbon, wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Vigoro Grazer, and triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack cv. Trical 2700. In Trial 2 the cover crops were forage rape (Brassica napus L. var. napus cv. Licapo, sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L., Austrian winter field pea (Pisum sativum spp. arvense L. Poir, black medic (Medicago lupilina L., hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth, black oat cv. SoilSaver, and crimson clover cv. AU Robin. Cotton was evaluated using the same bioassay and all of the cover crops mentioned above in a single trial (Trial 3. All cover crop extracts inhibited radicle elongation compared to water. Allelopathic potential was highly variable among cultivars within a cover crop species, and within a cultivar. Allelopathic differences among cover crops give an additional weed control tool in conservation systems. However, winter cover selection may impact on cash crop performance if producers plant their crop into green residue.

  1. A detailed pyrolysis-GC/MS analysis of a black carbon-rich acidic colluvial soil (Atlantic ranker) from NW Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaal, J.; Martinez-Cortizas, A.; Nierop, K.G.J.; Buurman, P.

    2008-01-01

    Despite the potentially large contribution of black carbon (BC) to the recalcitrant soil organic matter pool, the molecular-level composition of aged BC has hardly been investigated. Pyrolysis-GC/MS, which provides structural information on complex mixtures of organic matter, was applied to the NaOH

  2. Extensive Sorption of Organic Compounds to Black Carbon, Coal and Kerogen in Sediments and Soils: Mechanisms and Consequences for Distribution, Bioaccumulation and Biodegradation (Critical Review)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, G.; Gustafsson, O.; Bucheli, T.D.; Jonker, M.T.O.; Koelmans, A.A.; Noort, van P.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating that sorption of organic chemicals to soils and sediments can be described by "dual-mode sorption": absorption in amorphous organic matter (AOM) and adsorption to carbonaceous materials such as black carbon (BC), coal, and kerogen, collectively termed "carbonaceous geosorben

  3. Alkaline ameliorants increase nitrous oxide emission from acidified black soil in Northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zuoqiang; Zhang, Xilin; Qiao, Yanjiao; Wang, Lianfeng

    2011-06-01

    Lime and plant ash are common management used to achieve optimum pH for plant growth and improve soil properties in agricultural soils. Laboratory incubation was conducted to assess N20 emissions as influenced by different soil amendments (lime and plant ash) in a slightly acidic arable soil (pH 5.34). The experimental treatments consisted of CK, lime and plant ash fertilized with NH4(+)-N or N03(-)-N as nitrogen resource. The results show that lime and plant ash dramatically increases the soil pH and N20 emission. For N03(-)-N fertilization, the cumulative N20 emissions from CK, lime and ash are 421, 1669 and 921 μg N20-N/kg, respectively. For NH4(+)-N fertilization, the cumulative N20 emissions from CK, lime and ash are 361, 576 and 559 μg N20-N/kg, respectively. N03(-)-N addition leads to more N20 emission than that of NH4(+)-N addition, and lime increases more N20 emission than that of plant ash. After incubation, N03(-)-N content decreased largely. The findings suggested that alkaline ameliorants increase N20 emissions due to enhancement of soil denitrification.

  4. American Cotton Development Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2010-01-01

    @@ When we celebrated 2009 as the International Year of Natural Fiber, the global cotton industry joined hands in bringing recognition to cotton and all natural fibers. As we move into 2010 and beyond we must continue to engage the global consumer with messages that highlight the natural, renewable and biodegradable benefits of our product However, we must also go beyond what nature has provided and work toward true sustainability throughout the cotton supply chain. If some major brands and suppliers cannot achieve "sustainability" with cotton, they will do so with other fibers.

  5. American Cotton Development Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The 30th International Cotton Conference took place March 24 - 27 in the historic city of Bremen,Germany this year.Worldwide high-ranking experts from cotton production, trade,spinning,weaving and some other fields of textile industries gathered together in the Bremen Town Hall.Allen A.Terhaar,Executive Director of Cotton Council International(CCI), Washington,presented a speech on the future development strategy of American cotton industry,and the development schedule in Chinese market.In the following part,let’s share his opinions and foresighted views.

  6. 长期连作及秸秆还田棉田土壤呼吸变化特征%Soil Respiration Variation Characteristics of Continuous Cropping and Straw Incorporation Cotton Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘军; 黄金花; 杨志兰; 魏飞; 刘建国

    2015-01-01

    利用棉花长期连作定位试验田,探究秸秆还田下棉田土壤呼吸日变化和季节变化以及碳排放随着连作年限增加的变化特征,揭示长期连作棉田碳排放量与不同土层土壤有机碳和微生物量碳含量的关系,为衡量和评价长期连作及秸秆还田的生态效应提供理论依据。试验田设有连作5 a、10 a、15 a、20 a、25 a和30 a的棉花秸秆连年还田小区,采用LI-8100土壤碳通量测定仪测定棉田土壤呼吸速率的日变化和季节变化,根据棉花生育期的天数和土壤呼吸速率计算出棉花各个生育期的土壤碳排放量,并分析了土壤碳排放与有机碳和微生物量碳含量的关系。研究结果表明,秸秆还田不同连作年限棉田土壤呼吸速率日变化和季节变化差异表现为随着连作年限的增加整体上呈现增加的变化趋势,30 a 最大,5 a最小;不同连作年限棉田土壤呼吸速率日变化均表现相同的规律,呈现单峰曲线,在15:00达到峰值,最小值均在凌晨05:00出现;不同连作年限棉田土壤呼吸速率随着季节的变化呈现先升高后下降的趋势,7月下旬土壤呼吸速率最高,30 a土壤呼吸速率比5、10、15、20、25 a增加4.96%、4.33%、1.98%、2.52%、1.31%。随着连作年限增加棉花各个生育期及全生育期土壤碳排放量整体上呈现逐渐增加的变化趋势,相同连作年限棉花不同生育期土壤碳排放量差异表现为铃期>苗期>花期>蕾期>絮期,铃期土壤碳排放量最高,不同连作年限棉田铃期碳排放量占全生育期总碳排放量的25.48%~25.60%。长期连作及秸秆还田棉田土壤碳排放量与0~20 cm土层土壤总有机碳含量及两个土层微生物量碳含量呈显著的线性相关关系(P seedling stage > flowering stage > budding stage>boll opening stage, the highest carbon emissions was at bell soil, cropping in cotton boll growth stage of the carbon

  7. Two methods of soil inoculation of cotton Fusarium pathogen and appropriate inoculum%土壤接种棉花枯萎病菌的两种方法及适宜接种量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑蚆爽; 冯自力; 朱荷琴; 李志芳; 赵丽红; 师勇强

    2015-01-01

    Two sets of tests were conducted to determine two soil inoculation methods of cotton Fusarium oxyspo-rum and the appropriate quantity of inoculum.Corn and sand media was used for cultivation of F .oxysporum .To inoculate the seedling in nursery or in field,the inoculum was directly thrown into the sowing gutter and fully mixed with soils.The suitable quantity of inoculum was 10 g dried inoculum per meter.Another method is to mix dried inoculum with sterile soils fully and putting them into pots.The proportion of dried inoculum of corn and sand in-oculum in soil was 0.6% to 0.8%.By using the above two methods and quantity of inoculum,the disease incidence and disease index of ‘Jimian 11’(a susceptible variety)could reach more than 80% and 50,respectively,and the methods could be used to identify resistance of cotton varieties (lines)or materials to F.oxysporum and for related studies.%本研究通过两组试验,明确了土壤接种棉花枯萎病菌的两种方法及适宜接种量。枯萎病菌的繁殖采用玉米沙粒培养基。建立苗床病圃或田间接种时,可在种沟内直接将风干的玉米沙粒培养物与土壤混匀,适宜接种量为10 g/m。采用土壤拌菌法时,病原菌的风干玉米沙粒培养物的加入量以灭菌的细沙壤土的0.6%~0.8%为宜。采用上述接种方法和接种量,感病品种‘冀棉11’当年病株率可达到80%以上,病情指数可达到50以上。本文提供的接种方法和接种量可用于棉花新品种(系)、资源材料的抗病鉴定及枯萎病的相关研究。

  8. Black soiling of an architectural limestone during two-year term exposure to urban air in the city of Granada (S Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urosevic, Maja; Yebra-Rodríguez, Africa; Sebastián-Pardo, Eduardo; Cardell, Carolina

    2012-01-01

    A two-year term aging test was carried out on a building limestone under different urban conditions in the city of Granada (Southern Spain) to assess its Cultural Heritage sustainability. For this purpose stone tablets were placed vertically at four sites with contrasting local pollution micro-environments and exposure conditions (rain-sheltered and unsheltered). The back (rain-sheltered) and the front (rain-unsheltered) faces of the stone tablets were studied for each site. The soiling process (surface blackening) was monitored through lightness (ΔL*) and chroma changes (ΔC*). Additionally atmospheric particles deposited on the stone surfaces and on PM10 filters during the exposure time were studied through a multianalytical approach including scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The identified atmospheric particles (responsible for stone soiling) were mainly soot and soil dust particles; also fly ash and aged salt particles were found. The soiling process was related to surface texture, exposure conditions and proximity to dense traffic streets. On the front faces of all stones, black soiling and surface roughness promoted by differential erosion between micritic and sparitic calcite were noticed. Moreover, it was found that surface roughness enhanced a feedback process that triggers further black soiling. The calculated effective area coverage (EAC) by light absorbing dust ranged from 10.2 to 20.4%, exceeding by far the established value of 2% EAC (limit perceptible to the human eye). Soiling coefficients (SC) were estimated based on square-root and bounded exponential fittings. Estimated black carbon (BC) concentration resulted in relatively similar SC for all studied sites and thus predicts the soiling process better than using particulate matter (PM10) concentration.

  9. Efeito da adição de inseticidas no solo, sôbre o desenvolvimento do algodoeiro The effect of insecticides in the soil on the growth of the cotton plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coaracy M. Franco

    1960-01-01

    diferença entre as plantas tratadas e testemunhas, quer quanto ao desenvolvimento ou à produção, o que mostra que na terra-roxa os efeitos tóxicos do BHC, nas doses estudadas, desapareceram completamente do solo no fim de dois anos.The effects of increasing amounts of insecticides added to the soil on the growth of cotton plants were studied. This was an attempt to verify whether or not a possible accumulation of insecticides in the soil might become detrimental to plant growth. The experiment was carried out in Mitscherlich pots with two types of soil: one sandy (arenito de Bauru and the other clayey (terra-roxa. The amounts of insecticides added to the pots were calculated on an area basis to correspond to those applied to cotton plantings at the end of 1, 3, and 7 crops, and are called in this paper doses 1, 3, and 7, respectively. The amounts of insecticides as recommended for cotton in the state of São Paulo are as follows: BHC, 108 kg; Toxaphene, 14.5 k; Lindane, 0.4 kg and DDT, 3.6 kg. In the sandy soil, doses 1 and 3 of BHC caused 20% and 56% reduction in yield, respectively; dose 7 inhibited the production completely. Dose 7 of Toxaphene (72.24 kg/ha when applied in emulsion form showed some toxicity. The same insecticide applied at the rate of 101.5 kg/ha in powdered form did not have any toxic effect nor did the emulsifier (15 ml of tritton 177 + xilol q.s.p. 100 ml when applied alone. Lindane, emulsified Lindane, and DDT did not have any adverse effect on the cotton plant0 growth and yield. After the first crop the soil in each pot was passed through a sieve, returned to the pot and left undisturbed for one year. Cotton was then planted again. The development of the plants in this second planting was very irregular. This was due to aluminum toxicity, because the protective painting of the aluminum trays of the Mitscherlich pots came off in many spots and the metal wos attocked by the salts used as a fertilizer, forming aluminum salts that were

  10. Cotton-based nonwovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article is an abbreviated description of a new cotton-based nonwovens research program at the Southern Regional Research Center, which is one of the four regional research centers of the Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Since cotton is a significant cash crop inte...

  11. A Study on Effects of Snow Ablation on Soil Water and Salt Movement of Cotton Field in North Xinjiang%积雪消融对北疆棉田土壤水盐运动的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳志锋; 虎胆·吐马尔白; 马合木江; 李文娟

    2013-01-01

    The main aims of this study was to discuss the influence of snow ablation on soil water and salt movement of cotton field,where the drop irrigation under membrane were used in North Xinjiang.The experiment result indicated that the effects of air temperature on soil temperature continuously decrease with the increase of soil depth.The changes of temperature difference between day and night and the evaporation of soil moisture made soil water and salt up-and-down move and made the ablation speed of upper layer of frozen soil be faster than that of down layer; Leakage of melted snow was increased in the range of 30~50 cm soil moisture content thus stopped the subsoil moisture up trend and made snow area of each layer soil moisture content be higher than those of control area; Leakage of melted snow was washed in the range of 0~50 cm soil and made surface soil salt relativly be lower than control area.Besides,leakage of melted snow also prevented the soil salt up trend,suppressed salty be up temporarily and delayed the soil against salt in the spring.Thus it can be seen the snow in ablation period plays an important part in controlling soil moisture,preserving soil moisture and controlling salt.%以常年膜下滴灌北疆棉田为研究对象,探讨了积雪消融对土壤水盐运动的影响.结果表明,气温对土壤温度的影响随着土壤深度的增加而不断减小,昼夜温差的变化和地表土壤水分蒸发使得土壤水分和盐分自下而上运动,并且使得上层冻结土体的消融速度快于下层;融雪下渗增加了30~50 cm处土壤含水率,从而阻止了下层土壤水分上移的趋势,使得积雪区各层土壤含水率高于对照区;消融积雪淋洗使得表层土壤盐分向下运移,从而改变了土壤盐分上移的趋势,暂时抑制了盐分,推迟了土壤返盐的时间.消融期积雪对土壤水分调控以及保墒、抑盐有着十分重要的作用.

  12. 8000 yr of black carbon accumulation in a colluvial soil from NW Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaal, J.; Martinez-Cortizas, A.; Buurman, P.; Criado Boado, F.

    2008-01-01

    Analytical pyrolysis-GC/MS and solid-state 13C NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) were applied to the NaOH-extractable organic matter fraction of a colluvial soil from Galicia (NW Spain) that represents more than 8500 yr of accumulation. While molecular indicators of vegetation change were looked for,

  13. The Research Progress on Soil Quality Indication of Black Farmland%农田黑土质量指示指标研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王百慧; 刘宝林; 岳中辉; 田宇; 郑景瑶

    2013-01-01

    It is necessary to evaluate the soil quality status of black farmland in order to use it rationally and maintain its sustainability. So the author summarized researches on soil quality indication of black farmland from the 1980s, including physical indicators, chemical indicators and biological indicators. Soil physical indicators and chemical indicators of black farmland started to research earlier, and now they has become much mature. On the other hand, the research on biological indicators (including microorganisms, enzymes, soil animals) appeared relatively late. However, it' s worth mentioning that the soil biological indicators could be more rapid to evaluate the soil quality of different agriculture processes and be more sensitive to land utilization. Nevertheless, up until now, the validation including soil biological indicators as a universal soil quality criterion has still been under discussion. In the future, people should integrate not only biological indicators, but also modern analysis technology to detect soil quality so as to provide the basic data for soil quality testing and rational development of black farmland.%为了合理利用黑土,维持黑土的可持续性,有必要对农田黑土的质量现状进行评价.因此,综述了20世纪80年代至今农田黑土的质量指标的研究状况,包括土壤的物理指标、化学指标和生物学指标,其中农田黑土物理指标和化学指标研究较早,研究方法已趋于成熟,而生物学指标(包括微生物、酶,土壤动物)研究起步较晚,但生物学指标能较迅速地评价不同农业过程的土壤质量,对土地利用的变化较为灵敏,但到目前为止农田黑土质量评价体系中还没有利用生物学指标的统一标准.在农田黑土质量指标的研究中除了要结合生物指标外,还需要利用现代分析技术快速灵敏的检测土壤质量,这才能为农田黑土的质量检测及合理开发提供基础数据.

  14. Effects of nematicides on cotton root mycobiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, R E; Carling, D E; Watson, C E; Scruggs, M L; Hightower, P

    2004-02-01

    Baseline information on the diversity and population densities of fungi collected from soil debris and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) roots was determined. Samples were collected from Tifton, GA, and Starkville, MS containing cotton field soil treated with the nematicides 1,3-dichloroproprene (fumigant) and aldicarb (granules). A total of 10,550 and 13,450 fungal isolates were collected from these two study sites, respectively. Of this total, 34 genera of plant pathogenic or saprophytic species were identified. Pathogenic root fungi included Fusarium spp. (40% of all isolations), Macrophomina, Pythium, Rhizoctonia, and Sclerotium. Fusarium and Rhizoctonia were the most common fungal species identified and included F. oxysporum, F. verticillioides and F. solani, the three Fusarium species pathogenic on cotton plants. Population densities of Fusarium were not significantly different among locations or tissue types sampled. Macrophomina was isolated at greater numbers near the end of the growing seasons. Anastomosis groups of R. solani isolated from roots and soil debris included AG-3, -4, -7, 2-2, and -13 and anastomosis groups of binucleate Rhizoctonia included CAG-2, -3, and -5. Occurrences and frequency of isolations among sampling dates were not consistent. Fluctuations in the frequency of isolation of Rhizoctonia did not correspond with changes in frequency of isolation of the biological control fungus, Trichoderma. When individual or pooled frequencies of the mycobiota were compared to nematicide treatments, no specific trends occurred between treatments, application methods or rates. Results from this study show that use of 1,3-D and aldicarb in cotton fields does not significantly impact plant pathogenic fungi or saprophytic fungal populations. Thus cotton producers need not adjust seedling disease control measures when these two nematicides are used.

  15. Black Soil : Oil and ethnicity in the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenkvist, Morten Anstorp

    2005-01-01

    The dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 led to the creation of 15 new states where there previously had been a single and vast multi-ethnical empire. Of the former Soviet territories, the Caucasus region – wedged in between the Black and the Caspian Sea – stands out. In addition to being haunted with separatism and civil war for the passed 14 years, the region has also evolved into a focal point for Russian and US great power interests regarding control over the substantial oil reserves s...

  16. Cotton Demand Dropping in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The ICAC claimed, global cotton market outlook is bleak in the 2012/2013 annual. Global cotton production is estimated at 25.9 million tons and cotton usage is estimated at 23.4 million tons. Cotton supply will exceed demand; the excess volume will reach 2.4 million tons.

  17. Dictionary of cotton: Picking & ginning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton is an essential commodity for textiles and has long been an important item of trade in the world’s economy. Cotton is currently grown in over 100 countries by an estimated 100 producers. The basic unit of the cotton trade is the cotton bale which consists of approximately 500 pounds of raw c...

  18. Rapid recovery of photosynthetic rate following soil water deficit and re-watering in cotton plants (Gossypium herbaceum L.) is related to the stability of the photosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xiao-Ping; Zhang, Ya-Li; Yao, He-Sheng; Luo, Hong-Hai; Gou, Ling; Chow, Wah Soon; Zhang, Wang-Feng

    2016-05-01

    The responses of gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and the anti-oxidative system of cotton leaves were studied during water deficit and recovery. The results show that water deficit led to a reversible reduction in the photosynthetic rate. This reduction was mainly accompanied by stomatal limitation. The activity of photosystem II (PSII) and photosystem I (PSI) was relatively stable during water deficit and recovery. Water deficit caused an enhanced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increased lipid peroxidation. Proline accumulation and the anti-oxidative enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and peroxidase (POD), along with the antioxidant ascorbate (AsA), increased during water deficit. On re-watering, the ROS generation rate, anti-oxidative enzymes activities and the extent of the lipid peroxidation returned to near control values. Overall, rapid recovery of the photosynthetic rate is related to the stability of the photosystems which appears to be a critical mechanism allowing cotton plants to withstand and survive drought environments.

  19. Forest age stands affect soil respiration and litterfall in a Black pine forest managed by a shelterwood system in the Central Spain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedo de Santiago, Javier; Borja, Manuel Esteban Lucas; Candel, David; Viñegla Pérez, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects that stand age and forest structure generates on soil respiration and litterfall quantity. The effect of stand age on these variables was studied in a shelterwood system Spanish Black pine chronosequence in central Iberian Peninsula composed of 0-20, 20-40, 40-60, 60-80, 80-100-year-old. For each stand age, six forest stands with similar characteristics of soil type and site preparation were used. Also, a forest area ranging 80-120 years old and without forest intervention was selected and used as control. We also measured organic matter, C:N ratio, soil moisture and pH in the top 10 mineral soil at each compartment. Soil respiration measurements were carried out in three time points (3, 8 and 12 days). Results showed a clear trend in soil respiration, comparing all the experimental areas. Soil respiration showed the same trend in all stands. It initially showed higher rates, reaching stability in the middle of the measurement process and finally lightly increasing the respiration rate. The older stands had significantly higher soil respiration than the younger stands. Soil organic matter values were also higher in the more mature stands. C:N ratio showed the opposite trend, showing lower values in the less mature stands. More mature stands clearly showed more quantity of litterfall than the younger ones and there was a positive correlation between soil respiration and litterfall. Finally, the multivariate PCA analysis clearly clustered three differenced groups: Control plot; from 100 to 40 years old and from 39 to 1 years old, taking into account both soil respiration and litterfall quantity, also separately. Our results suggest that the control plot has a better soil quality and that extreme forest stand ages (100-80 and 19-1 years old) and the associated forest structure generates differences in soil respiration.

  20. A Method of Extracting Total Microbial DNA from Cotton Soil for Microbial Diversity Analysis%用于微生物多样性分析的棉田土壤总DNA的提取

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张静文; 罗明; 徐文修; 肖正群

    2009-01-01

    目的:探讨适用于微生物多样性研究的棉田土壤微生物总DNA提取方法.方法:采用4种方法提取不同连作和轮作处理的棉田土壤微生物总DNA,比较其纯度、产率、片段大小,并应用ARDRA技术验证其质量.结果:其中3种方法均可获得23kb的DNA片段,但不同方法提取的DNA的产率和纯度上有明显差异.改良CTAB-SDS法提取的DNA完整性好,得率为24.20μg·g~(-1)干土,纯化后A_(260)/A_(280)和A_(260)/A_(230)为分别为1.80和1.70,纯化回收率可达70.1%,完全适用于后续的PCR分析.结论:采用该法提取棉田土壤总DNA简便而高效.对该法提取获得的棉田土壤微生物总DNA进行ARDRA和DGGE分析,所得图谱能较全面地反映不同处理间微生物多样性及群落结构的差别,为不同栽培体系下棉田土壤微生物的分子生态学研究提供了基础.%Objective:The research aimed to develop a method of extracting total microbial DNA from cotton soil for microbial diversity analysis.Method: Four methods were used to extract total microbial DNA from the cotton soi of different continuou cropping and rotation treatments.The extracted DNA were evaluated comprehencively in DNA purity,yield,fragment size,and the impact on the subsequence by ARDRA and DGGE analysis of the bacterial community.Result: The DNA extracted by three methods from the eight samples were all greater than 23kb in size,but the yields and quality were different significantly.Modified CTAB-SDA method was confirmed that the yield of the extracted DNA was 24.20μg·g~(-1) dry soil.After purified,the A_(260)/A_(280) and A_(260)/A_(230) could be get 1.80,1.70 respectively ,while percent recovery of purification was 70.1%,and the extracted DNA were successfully used for the further molecular analysis.Conclusion: It was suggested that the extracted DNA could reflect the biodiversity and composition of microbial community in the soils,while the genomic fingerprinting of the DNA displayed

  1. Effects of transgenic Cry1Ac cotton on entomopathogenic fungi in soil%转Cry1Ac抗虫棉对土壤虫生真菌群落的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢明; 张艳军; 吴刚

    2012-01-01

    The species diversity and amount of soil fungi around the roots of the transgenic GK-12 cotton variety containing the CrylAc gene was compared to that of the non-transgenic SM-3 variety. There was no significant difference in soil fungal species between GK-12 and SM-3 plants, with the fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae found in the root area of both varieties. There were, however, significant differences in the soil fungal species associated with these two varieties during the boll forming and boll opening periods. There were no differences in species or quantity of fungi found at different distances (5 cm, 15 cm and 25 cm) from the roots of these cotton varieties. These results indicate that the presence of the CrylAc gene had no significant effect on fungal species and quantity.%利用大蜡螟Galleria mellonella L.诱菌法对转Cry1Ac抗虫棉GK-12及其亲本棉花SM-3的根系区域土壤的虫生真菌种类和数量进行监测,评价转Cry1Ac基因对棉田土壤虫生真菌的影响.实验结果显示:检测到的虫生真菌种类,在转基因棉GK-12及其亲本棉SM-3之间无显著差异,均为球孢白僵菌(Beauveria bassiana)和金龟子绿僵菌(Metarhizium anisopliae);在棉花开花初期、盛花期、结铃期或吐絮期,土壤虫生真菌数量在抗虫棉GK-12和亲本SM-3之间存在显著的差异,其他生育期无显著差异;在距棉花主根不同距离(5cm\\15cm\\25cm)的区域,土壤虫生真菌数量和种类在抗虫棉GK-12和亲本SM-3之间无显著差异.

  2. Effects of Transgenic Bt +CpTI Cotton on the Soil Microbial Amount and Bacterial Diversity by Rhizobox Method%利用根箱法解析转双价(Bt+CpTI)基因棉花对土壤微生物数量及细菌多样性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    娜布其; 红雨; 杨殿林; 赵建宁; 李刚; 娜日苏; 刘玲

    2011-01-01

    In this study, three-room rhizobox method was used to collect soil samples from different zones of cotton root. Traditional culture-depending methods and DGGE-cloning sequencing were used to investigate the different soil microbial (bacteria,actinomycetes, fungi) amount and bacterial diversity between transgenic Bt+CpTI cotton and conventional cotton in three growing stages (40 d, 50 d and 60 d). The results of traditional culture-depending method showed that the amount of soil bacteria and actinomycetes decreased significantly in S1 zone of transgenic Bt+CpTI cotton, but the amount of three microorganisms in S2 zone and the amount of bacteria and fungi in S3 zone of transgenic Bt +CpTI cotton increased significantly, compared to the conventional cotton. DGGE fingerprinting indicated that the Shannon-Wiener index, evenness and the number of bands had no significant difference between transgenic Bt +CpTI cotton and conventional cotton in three growing stages. There was high similarity between the two cotton treatments and it was not affected by the planting of transgenic Bt+CpTI cotton. The planting of transgenic Bt+CpTI cotton only affected the amount of microorganisms and had no significant effect on the bacterial diversity.%利用根箱法对棉花根部土壤进行分区采集,并采用传统平板培养和DGGE克隆测序技术相结合的方法,对转双价基因棉和常规棉3个生长时期(播种后40d、50d和60 d)不同根区土壤细菌、放线菌和真菌数量及细菌多样性进行对比分析.平板培养结果表明,与常规棉相比,转双价基因棉S1根区土壤细菌、放线菌的数量显著降低,而S2根区土壤细菌、放线菌、真菌和S3根区土壤细菌、真菌的数量显著增加(P<0.05);DGGE图谱分析表明,在棉花生长的3个时期内,转双价基因棉和常规棉根区土壤细菌多样性指数、均匀度和条带数均无显著差异(P>0.05),2种棉花处理间有着很强的相似性,不受转双价基因

  3. Cotton School Tells Us More--The Fourth COTTON USA Cotton School Convened in Qingdao

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    By Wang Ting

    2012-01-01

    Since the year of 2006, Cotton Council International has already convened the Cotton School for three times in China. This year, in 2012, CCI held the Cotton School in the city of Qingdao for the fourth time, generously shared with international buyers, especially the Chinese domestic purchases, the knowledge of qualified U.S. cotton.

  4. Interação entre inseticidas e umidade do solo no controle do pulgão e da mosca-branca em algodoeiro Interaction between insecticides and soil moisture in the control of whitefly and aphid in cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Braz Torres

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o controle exercido por tiametoxam e pimetrozine, em aplicação foliar ou ao solo, sobre Bemisia tabaci e Aphis gossypii, em algodoeiro, e determinar a interação entre formas de aplicação e a umidade do solo, em diferentes intervalos após a aplicação. Foram aplicados inseticidas via pulverização ou esguicho ao solo, em plantas de algodoeiro submetidas a três faixas de umidade do solo. Os inseticidas foram testados separadamente, em arranjos fatoriais, com formas de aplicação (tiametoxam, pragas (pimetrozine e teores de umidade no solo como fatores de variação, com as avaliações repetidas no tempo. Foram realizadas avaliações após 3 horas e aos 3, 6, 12, 24 e 32 dias após a aplicação. Os inseticidas, em pulverização, apresentaram controle superior a 80%, até 6 dias depois da aplicação, para mosca-branca e pulgão. O uso de tiametoxam com esguicho, na menor faixa de umidade, propiciou controle inferior a 60%, no dia da aplicação, superior a 90%, aos 3 e 6 dias, e superior a 80%, aos 12 dias após aplicação. O grau de estresse hídrico em que se encontra a planta é importante para a escolha do inseticida e da modalidade de aplicação mais adequados ao controle das pragas avaliadas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the control, in cotton plants, of Bemisia tabaci and Aphis gossypii by thiamethoxam and pymetrozine, with foliar or soil drench applications, and to determine the interaction between application method and soil humidity, in different intervals after insecticide application. Insecticide application consisted of foliar spray and soil drench, using cotton plants submitted to three levels of soil moisture. The insecticides were tested separately, in factorial arrangements, with application methods (thiamethoxam, pest species (pymetrozine and soil moisture levels, as treatments, with repeated measures on time. Evaluations were carried out after 3 hours, and at 3

  5. Black soils and/or sediments at the western border of the Nördlinger Ries (South Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailänder, S.; Eberle, J.; Blümel, W. D.

    2009-04-01

    : KRAUSSE, D. L. (Ed.) (2008): Frühe Zentralisierungs- und Urbanisierungsprozesse. Zur Genese und Entwicklung frühkeltischer Fürstensitze und ihres territorialen Umlandes. Kolloquium des DFG-Schwerpunktprogramms 1171 (Blaubeuren, 9.-11. Oktober 2006).- Forschungen und Berichte zur Vor- und Frühgeschichte in Baden-Württemberg 101.- Stuttgart: 281-298. RITTWEGER, H. (2000): The "Black Floodplain Soil" in the Amöneburger Becken, Germany: a lower Holocene marker horizon and indicator of an upper Atlantic to Subboreal dry period in Central Europe?.- Catena 41: 143-164.

  6. CottonDB Enhancement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Jing; KOHEL Russell; HINZE Lori; FRELICHOWSKI James; XU Zhan-you; YU John Z; PERCY Richard

    2008-01-01

    @@ CottonDB (www.cottondb,org) was initiated in 1995.It is a database that contains genomic,genetic,and taxonomic information for cotton (Gossypium spp.).It serves both as an archival database and as a dynamic database,which incorporates new data and user resources.CottonDB is maintained at the Southern Plains Agricultural Research Center in College Station,TX.The project includes a website and database creating a repository of information for over 450,000 gene,EST,and conting sequences; genetic and physical map data; nearly 10,000 DNA primers; and 9,000 germplasm accessions.

  7. Cotton and its interaction with cotton morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The morphological plasticity of the cotton plant enables it to be produced in a wide variety of agro-ecological regions (Oosterhuis and Jernstedt 1999). This plasticity essentially translates to the lengthening, shortening, or interruption of its effective flowering period in response to season leng...

  8. STUDIES ON PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND AMORPHOUS CONSTITUENTS OF ASSOCIATED RED AND BLACK SOILS: A CASE STUDY IN HATTI SCHIST BELT OF NORTH KARNATAKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Harshitha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Associated red and black soils of the transect from Hira region of Hatti schist belt were studied for their properties. Soils were moderately deep to deep, reddish brown (5YR 3/4 to dark black (10YR3/2, clay in texture. The pH ranged from 7.56 to 7.7, EC from 0.4 to 0.44dSm-1, low to medium in organic carbon, moderate in CEC (40.1 – 54.3 c mol (p+ kg-1. Free iron oxides ranges from (0.6-3.2%, Na2CO3 extractable free silicon ranges from (0.4-3.1% and Na2CO3 extractable free aluminium ranges from (0.2 - 2.5%.

  9. Remediation of deltamethrin contaminated cotton fields: residual and adsorption assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafique Uzaira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan occupies a significant global position in the growing of high quality cotton. The extensive application of pesticides on agricultural products leads to environmental risk due to toxic residues in air, water and soil. This study examined the chemodynamic effect of Deltamethrin on cotton fields. Samples were collected from the cotton fields of D.G. Khan, Pakistan and analyzed for heavy metal speciation patterns. Batch experiments were administered in order to study the adsorption of Deltamethrin in cotton fields. The effect of different factors including pH, adsorbate dose, and adsorbent mass on adsorption were studied. It was observed that in general, adsorption increased with increases in the mass of adsorbate, although the trends were irregular. Residual fractions of deltamethrin in the soil and water of cotton fields were analyzed to assess concentrations of xenobiotics bound to soil particles. Results indicated that such residues are significantly higher in soil samples due to high Koc in comparison to water, indicating the former is an efficient degradation agent. Results from the batch experiment resulted in 95% removal with alkaline pH and an adsorbent-adsorbate ratio of 250:1. These results may be used to environment friendly resource management policies.

  10. Understanding the fate of black (pyrogenic) carbon in soil: Preliminary results from a long term field trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Will; Ascough, Philippa; Bird, Michael; Large, David; Shen, Licheng; Snape, Colin

    2014-05-01

    Black carbon (BC, also known as pyrogenic carbon) is an 'inert' form of carbon and has been proposed as a means of long-term carbon sequestration, particularly by amending soils and sediments with BC known as biochar. While there is abundant anecdotal evidence of biochar stability over extended timescales it is essential to gain a greater understanding of the degree and mechanisms of biochar degradation in the environment. This study aims to quantitatively assess the stability of biochar by investigating samples from field degradation trials first buried during 2009 in a tropical soil, and recovered after 12 and 36 month intervals. Catalytic hydropyrolysis (HyPy) is a novel analytical tool for the isolation of BC [1] in which high hydrogen pressure (150 bar) and a sulphided Mo catalyst reductively remove the non-BC fraction of the chars, and so isolate the most stable portion of the biochar, defined as BC(HyPy). This method also allows for the non-BC(HyPy) fraction of a sample, which from charcoal is known to include small ring PAHs (oceans [5], implying that BC cycling could be faster than previously thought [6]. Longer term field trials will be required (analysis of the 36 month samples) to observe systematic changes in the PAH distribution of the non-BCC(HyPy) fractions isolated form aged chars, although natural analogues with a better constrained environmental history may also be useful. [1] Meredith, W. et al., 2012. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 97, 131-147. [2] Ascough, P.L. et al., 2010. Radiocarbon 52, 1336-1350. [3] Lockhart, R.S. et al., 2013. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis 104, 640-652. [4] Hockaday, W.C. et al., 2007. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 71, 3432-3445. [5] Jaffe, R. et al., 2013. Science 340, 345-347. [6] Zimmerman, M. et al., 2012. Global Change Biology 18, 3306-3316.

  11. [Optimization of shelterbelt distribution for the gully erosion control of cultivated slope land in rolling hill black soil region of Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zi-Long; Cui, Ming; Fan, Hao-Ming

    2012-04-01

    Shelterbelt system is one of the main components of cultivated slope land in rolling hill black soil region of Northeast China, which plays an important role in the control of gully erosion. Based on the Quickbird high-resolution remote sensing image and the digital elevation model (DEM), and combining with field survey data, this paper analyzed the effects of shelterbelt system in a small watershed of rolling hill black soil region in Heshan Farm of Heilongjiang Province on the control of gully erosion in the cultivated slope land, and put forward an optimized scheme for gully erosion control based on the features of gully erosion in the cultivated slope land and their relations with the distribution of the shelterbelt system. In the study area, the current distribution of the shelterbelt system promoted the occurrence and development of shallow gully and gully directly and indirectly. The proposed scheme for optimizing the distribution of the present shelterbelts included the adjustment of the direction of the shelterbelt perpendicular to the aspect of slope, the enhancement of the maintenance and regeneration of the shelterbelts to reduce the gaps of the shelterbelts, the increase of the shelterbelt number, and the decrease of the distances between shelterbelts. A method for calculating the shelterbelt number and the distances between the shelterbelts was also given. This study could provide scientific basis for the gully erosion control and the shelterbelts programming in the cultivated slope land of rolling hill black soil region.

  12. Effect of nutrients and plant growth regulators on growth and yield of black gram in sandy loam soils of Cauvery new delta zone, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Marimuthu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pulse productivity is very low in some of the sandy soil areas where, soils are having poor water and nutrient holding capacity. To improve the pulse productivity, field experiments were conducted at Agricultural Research Station, Tamil Nadu for two consecutive years to study the effect of phosphorus sources (mono- and diammonium phosphate with brassinolide and salicylic acid on growth and yield of black gram in sandy loam soils. The experiment was carried out in a randomized block design with three replications during kharif season. The treatments include 100% recommended dose of NPK along with foliar application of monoammonium phosphate (MAP, diammonium phosphate (DAP, brassinolide (0.25 ppm, and salicylic acid (100 ppm along with the combination of these treatments. TNAU pulse wonder at 5.0 kg ha−1 and TNAU micronutrient mixture (MN at 5 kg ha−1 were also tried. The results revealed that application of 100% recommended dose of NPK + DAP 2% + TNAU pulse wonder 5.0 kg ha−1 was statistically significant and recorded higher plant growth (37.62 cm, number of pods / plant (37.15, yield of black gram (1162 kg ha−1, and benefit cost ratio (2.98 over the other treatments. The lowest black gram yield (730 kg ha−1 was recorded for control.

  13. Atividade microbiana em solos, influenciada por resíduos de algodão e torta de mamona Microbial activity in soils influenced by residues of cotton and castor bean presscake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Capuani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A atividade microbiana não se constitui apenas como bom indicador da qualidade do solo, mas é influenciada pela adição de carbono no sistema, o qual serve como substrato aos micro-organismos que aumentam sua atividade e a liberação de CO2, compreendendo a respiração edáfica do solo. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar a atividade microbiana em diferentes tipos de solo com a adição de torta de mamona e resíduo têxtil de algodão. O trabalho foi conduzido em casa de vegetação na sede da Embrapa Algodão, em delineamento de blocos casualisados em esquema fatorial 4 x 3, com quatro repetições. A intervalos predeterminados de 4 dias os recipientes foram abertos e a solução de NaOH foi titulada com HCl 2 N na presença de indicador ácido/base fenolftaleína. Após a leitura a mesma quantidade de NaOH foi reposta e os recipientes novamente fechados. A diferença entre a quantidade de ácido necessária para neutralizar o hidróxido de sódio no recipiente testemunha e nos tratamentos equivale à quantidade de gás carbônico produzido pelos micro-organismos do solo. Constatou-se que os resíduos influenciaram significativamente a atividade microbiana nos diferentes tipos de solo, sobretudo nas primeiras determinações, apresentando-se como boas fontes para mineralização e fornecimento de nutrientes, tendo a torta de mamona proporcionado maior liberação acumulada de CO2 pelos micro-organismos.Microbial activity constitutes a good indicator of soil quality, and is influenced by the addition of carbon in the system serving as a substrate for microorganisms that increase their activity and release of CO2, comprising the edaphic respiration of the soil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbial activity in different soil types with the addition of cake press of castor bean and cotton textile residue. The study was conducted in a greenhouse at the headquarters of Embrapa Cotton in randomized block design in 4 x 3

  14. Effects of soil temperature and snow cover on the mortality of overwintering pupae of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian

    2016-07-01

    Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is one of the most damaging insect pests in the world. However, little is known about the effects of snow cover and soil temperature on the overwintering pupae of H. armigera. A field experiment was conducted from November 2, 2012 to April 24, 2013 at the agrometeorological experimental station in Wulanwusu, China. Overwintering pupae were embedded into the soil at depths of 5, 10, and 15 cm in the following four treatments: without snow cover, snow cover, and increased temperatures from 600 and 1200 W infrared lights. The results showed that snow cover and rising temperatures could all markedly increase soil temperatures, which was helpful in improving the survival of the overwintering pupae of H. armigera. The mortality of overwintering pupae (MOP) at a depth of 15 cm was the highest, and the MOP at a depth of 5 cm followed. The lower accumulated temperature (≤0 °C) (AT ≤ °C) led to the higher MOP, and the lower diurnal soil temperature range (DSTR) likely led to the lower MOP. After snowmelt, the MOPs at the depths of 5 and 10 cm increased as the soil temperature increased, especially in April. The AT of the soil (≤0 °C) was the factor with the strongest effect on MOP. The soil moisture content was not a major factor affecting the MOP in this semiarid region because precipitation was 45 mm over the entire experimental period. With climate warming, the MOP will likely decrease, and the overwintering boundary air temperatures of H. armigera should be expanded due to higher soil temperatures and increased snow cover.

  15. In Situ Monitoring of the Losing of Ammonia Volatilization from Soil in Xinjiang Oasis Cotton Cropping Systems%新疆绿洲棉花种植体系土壤氨挥发损失原位监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐万里; 汤明尧; 马正强; 张云舒; 刘骅

    2011-01-01

    采用通气法对盐化潮土-棉花种植体系的CK(种植不施肥)、T1(基肥撒施机械翻耕,追肥沟施灌水)、T2(基肥撒施机械翻耕,追肥撒施后灌水)、T3(与T1、T2等氮量包膜尿素一次基施)4种处理的田间土壤氨挥发进行原位监测.结果表明,在施N量均为275 kg· hm-2条件下,CK、T1、T2和T3处理基肥NH3-N损失分别为0.621、1.191、1.191和0.826 kg · hm-2;追肥NH3-N损失分别为1.088、1.773、2.804和1.374kg·hm-2.T1、T2和T3来自氮肥的NH3-N损失分别为1.255、2.286和0.491 kg· hm-2,分别占施氮总量的0.46%、0.83%、0.18%.在新疆南部绿洲农田,基肥深施后覆膜、追肥结合灌水条件下,棉田土壤氨挥发不是氮肥损失的主要途径;与等氮量传统肥料相比,应用包膜肥料一次施用可明显降低氮肥氨挥发损失.%In Bachu county of main cotton production areas of southern Xinjiang, studied on field in situ determination of ammonia volatilization by using venting method on cotton cropping systems of the salinized fluvo-aquic soil, what, four treatments:(I) CK the planting and no fertilizer; (ii) Tl the broadcasting base fertilizer and plowing by machine, and topdressing by furrowing and irrigating; (iii) T2 the broadcasting base fertilizer and plowing by machine, and topdressing by broadcasting and irrigating; (iiii) T3 the one-time basal application of coated urea what equal nitrogen amount with T2 and T3. The results showed that- Under the condition of the amount of nitrogen applied was 275 kg ? Hm-2, the ammonia volatilization of the base fertilizer were 0. 621, 1. 191, 1. 191 and 0. 826 kg ? Hm-2 in the four treatments of CK, Tl, T2, T3; and the ammonia volatilization of the topdressing were 1. 088, 1. 773, 2. 804 and 1. 374 kg ? Hm-2. The ammonia volatilization from the Nitrogen were 1. 255,2. 286 and 0. 491 kg ? Hm-2 in fertilization treatments, including T1, T2 and T3, account for 0. 46%, 0. 83% and 0. 18% of total fertilization

  16. Effect of different thickness black soil cover repair impacts to soda meadow alkaline soil%不同厚度黑土覆盖对苏打草甸碱土修复效果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦庆先; 周连仁

    2011-01-01

    将建筑工地表层(0~20 cm)黑土直接覆盖碱斑之上,对土壤pH、电导率、阳离子交换量、碱化度以及牧草产量等参数进行统计分析.结果表明,黑土覆盖厚度与土壤pH、电导率和碱化度均存在极显著的指数负相关关系;结合试验供试土壤性质和牧草生长状况,实现苏打草甸碱土地面植被快速恢复,覆盖厚度不得低于6 cm.%The experiment covered alkaline spot with surface layer black soil in construction site, made analysis with soil pH, electric conductivity, CEC, ESP and pasture yield. The results showed that covering thickness of black soil had distinct exponential function negative correlation with soil pH, electric conductivity and ESP; considering the character of testing soil and status of pasture growth, to repair the plant in soda meadow alkaline rapid, and the thickness should be more than 6 cm.

  17. EFFECT OF CERTAIN INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS ON PLASTICITY AND SWELLING CHARACTERISTICS OF AN EXPANSIVE SOIL – A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR.A.V.NARASIMHA RAO

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth in population and industrialization cause generation of large quantities of effluents. The bulk effluents generated from industrial activities are discharged either treated or untreated over the soil leading to changes in soil properties causing improvement or degradation of engineering behaviour of soil. If there is an improvement in engineering behaviour of soil, there is a value addition to the industrial wastes serving the three benefits of safe disposal of effluent, using as a stabilizer and return of income on it. If there is degradation of engineering behaviour of soil then solution for decontamination is to be thought of. Expansive soils are mostly found in the arid and semi -arid regions of the world. In India expansive soils are called black cotton soils because of their colour and cotton growing potential. Expansive soils undergo swelling when they come into contact with water and shrink when water is squeezed out. The typical swelling/shrinkage behaviour is due to the basic mineral composition of the montmorillonite. The swelling nature of soil causes lot of damages to the civil engineering structures constructed over them. Hence in this paper the effect of certain industrial effluents on Plasticity and Swelling behaviour of anExpansive Soil has been presented. The soil used in this investigation is classified as “SC” as per I.S. Classification system. It is highly expansive nature as the Differential Free Swell Index is about 255%.In this Investigation tests on Consistency Limits and Swelling Characteristics are conducted on the soil treated withTextile, Tannery and Battery effluents at different percentages from 20 to 100% in increment of 20%.In order to compare the results of admixed soil, tests are also conducted on untreated soil. There is decrease in Plasticity and Swelling characteristics of soil when the soil is treated with Tannery and Textile effluents whereas anincrease Plasticity and Swelling

  18. STRUCTURAL INVESTIGATIONS OF VARIOUS COTTON FIBERS AND COTTON CELLULOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ioelovich

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Macro- and crystalline structure, as well as chemical composition of fibers related to various types and sorts of Israeli cottons, both white and naturally colored, were investigated. The differences in structural parameters and chemical compositions of the cotton fibers were evaluated. Samples of cotton of the “Pima”-type had long, thin and strong fibers with highly ordered supermolecular structure. Fibers of middle-long and hybrid cottons had some lower-ordered structural organization in comparison to long-length cotton, while fibers of naturally colored cotton were characterized with disordered supermolecular and crystalline structure. Dependence of tensile strength on orientation of nano-fibrils towards the fiber axis was found. Conditions of cellulose isolation from the different cotton fibers were studied. Structural characteristics of isolated cotton celluloses and obtained MCC are discussed.

  19. Nitrogen isotopic patterns of vegetation as affected by breeding activity of Black-tailed Gull (Larus crassiostris): A coupled analysis of feces, inorganic soil nitrogen and flora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizota, C., E-mail: mizota@iwate-u.ac.jp [Iwate University, Ueda 3-18-8, Morioka, Iwate 020-8550 (Japan)

    2009-11-15

    Two currently breeding colonies (Matsushima Bay and Rishiri island; northern Japan) of predominant Black-tailed Gull (Larus crassiostris) were studied for N isotopic patterns of flora, which is affected by increased supply of inorganic soil N derived from the microbial transformation of feces. Coupled samples of feces, topsoil and flora were collected in early to mid July (2008), when input of fecal N onto soils was at its maximum. As bird migration and breeding continued, native Japanese red-pine (Pinus densiflora), junipers (Juniperus chinensis and Juniperus rigita; Matsushima Bay colony) and Sasa senanensis (Rishiri colony) declined, while ornithocoprophilus exotic plants succeeded. Among tree species on the islands, P. densiflora with ectomycorrizal colonization appears highly susceptible to elevated concentrations of NH{sub 4}-N in the topsoil. A mechanism for best explaining the plant succession associated with the breeding activity of Black-tailed Gull was evidenced by two parameters: first, concomitant elevation of N content in the flora and second, inorganic soil N content, along with changes in N isotopic composition ({delta}{sup 15}N). Earlier isotopic data on the foliar N affected by breeding activity were compiled and reviewed. Emphasis was put on isotopic information for inorganic N in soils that controls plant succession.

  20. Studies on the Characteristics and Permeation Speed of Soil Reservoir in Northeast Black Soil%东北黑土“土壤水库”特征及渗透速率研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡业殊; 刘艇; 王继红

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to reduce the soil erosion of black soil and protect the good production performance of black soil. [ Method ] By field sampling and laboratory analysis and other methods, taking eroded-land as control and farmland, forestland and wasteland as the research objects, the change characteristics and permeation speed of soil reservoirs were studied. [ Result] The order of the tetal storage capacity, flood detention storage capacity, storage capacity and the maximum effective capacity in different sample soils in 0 - 10 cm and 10 ~ 20 cm soil layers were as follows; forestland > farmland > wasteland > eroded-land,while the order of the dead storage capacity was farmland > forestland > wasteland > eroded-land. The reservoir capacity of all the plots in 20 - 80 cm soil layer was forestland > farmland > wasteland > eroded-land. The reservoir capacity of all the plots all showed the decreasing trend with the increase of the soil layer depth. [ Conclusion] The soil porosity was the main factor that affected the maximum effective capacity of soil. Soil permeability was icomprehensivey affected by soil bulk density and other factors.%[目的]减少黑土水土流失,保护黑土良好的生产性能.[方法]通过野外采样和室内分析等方法,以侵蚀地为参照,耕地、林地和荒地为研究对象,对其土壤水库变化特征及土壤渗透速率进行研究.[结果]0~ 10 cm和10 ~20 cm土层内各样地的总库容、滞洪库容、兴利库容和最大有效库容的大小顺序均为:林地>耕地>荒地>侵蚀地,而死库容的大小顺序为耕地>林地>荒地>侵蚀地.20-80cm土层内各样地的水库容的大小顺序均为:林地>耕地>荒地>侵蚀地.各样地的水库容均随土层深度的增加而呈现下降的趋势.[结论]土壤的孔隙状况是影响土壤最大有效库容的主要因素.土壤渗透性能受土壤容重等其他因素的综合影响.

  1. Development of natural treatment system consisting of black soil and Kentucky bluegrass for the post-treatment of anaerobically digested strong wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaochen; Fukushi, Kensuke

    2016-03-01

    To develop a sound post-treatment process for anaerobically-digested strong wastewater, a novel natural treatment system comprising two units is put forward. The first unit, a trickling filter, provides for further reduction of biochemical oxygen demand and adjustable nitrification. The subsequent soil-plant unit aims at removing and recovering the nutrients nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). As a lab-scale feasibility study, a soil column test was conducted, in which black soil and valuable Kentucky bluegrass were integrated to treat artificial nutrient-enriched wastewater. After a long-term operation, the nitrification function was well established in the top layers, despite the need for an improved denitrification process prior to discharge. P and K were retained by the soil through distinct mechanisms. Since they either partially or totally remained in plant-available forms in the soil, indirect nutrient reuse could be achieved. As for Kentucky bluegrass, it displayed better growth status when receiving wastewater, with direct recovery of 8%, 6% and 14% of input N, P and K, respectively. Furthermore, the indispensable role of Kentucky bluegrass for better treatment performance was proved, as it enhanced the cell-specific nitrification potential of the soil nitrifying microorganisms inhabiting the rhizosphere. After further upgrade, the proposed system is expected to become a new solution for strong wastewater pollution.

  2. Effects of Application Amino Acid Fertilizer on Soil Enzyme Activity and Available Nutrients in Cotton Rhizosphere and Bulk Soils%氨基酸有机肥对棉花根际和非根际土壤酶活性和养分有效性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊华; 沈其荣; 褚贵新; 危常州; 乔旭; 杨兴明

    2011-01-01

    在新疆石河子进行了2年不同氨基酸有机肥施用量的大田试验,测定棉花根际和非根际土壤酶活性和有效养分含量.结果表明,棉花根际土壤过氧化氢酶、蔗糖酶、磷酸酶、脲酶、纤维素酶活性高于非根际,且脲酶、纤维素酶活性达到显著差异.新陆早8号根际过氧化氢酶活性高于新陆早12号,但蔗糖酶、磷酸酶、脲酶、纤维素酶活性低于新陆早12号.根际碱解N呈显著降低,速效P呈增加趋势.膜下滴灌根际和非根际土壤过氧化氢酶、磷酸酶、脲酶、土壤pH及非根际的碱解N、速效P、根际的速效K较淹灌高,而土壤蔗糖酶、纤维素酶、根际碱解N、速效P、非根际的速效K较淹灌低.氨基酸有机肥对棉花根际和非根际土壤酶活性都有增加作用.土壤pH随着有机肥施用量的增加呈下降趋势,根际低于非根际.氨基酸有机肥增加了土壤碱解N、速效P、速效K含量.%Field experiments were carried out to study the effects of applying an amino acid fertilizer on enzyme activities and available nutrients in rhizosphere and bulk soils of two varieties of different disease-resistance cotton at Shihezi city in Xinjiang in 2006 with open flooding irrigation and in 2007 with film-covered trickle irrigation.Soil samples were collected at the bolling stage.The results showed that the activities of catalase, alkaline phosphatase, urease and cellulase, urease and cellulase were significantly higher in rhizosphere soils than those in bulk soils.The activities of catalase, alkaline phosphatase, urease and cellulase except catalase in rhizosphere soils of variety Xinluzao-8 were lower than those of variety Xinluzao-12.The contents of available nitrogen increased while available phosphorus decreased in rhizosphere soils in comparison with bulk soils.When compared to the open flooding irrigation, the film-covered trickle irrigation increased the activities of catalase, alkaline phosphatase

  3. Cotton, biotechnology, and economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Baffes, John

    2011-01-01

    During the past decade, cotton prices remained considerably below other agricultural prices (although they recovered toward the end of 2010). Yet, between 2000-04 and 2005-09 world cotton production increased 13 percent. This paper conjectures that biotechnology-induced productivity improvements increased supplies by China and India, which, in addition to keeping cotton prices low, aided t...

  4. Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Keerti S; Campbell, LeAnne M; Sherwood, Shanna; Nunes, Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    Cotton continues to be a crop of great economic importance in many developing and some developed countries. Cotton plants expressing the Bt gene to deter some of the major pests have been enthusiastically and widely accepted by the farmers in three of the major producing countries, i.e., China, India, and the USA. Considering the constraints related to its production and the wide variety of products derived from the cotton plant, it offers several target traits that can be improved through genetic engineering. Thus, there is a great need to accelerate the application of biotechnological tools for cotton improvement. This requires a simple, yet robust gene delivery/transformant recovery system. Recently, a protocol, involving large-scale, mechanical isolation of embryonic axes from germinating cottonseeds followed by direct transformation of the meristematic cells has been developed by an industrial laboratory. However, complexity of the mechanical device and the patent restrictions are likely to keep this method out of reach of most academic laboratories. In this chapter, we describe the method developed in our laboratory that has undergone further refinements and involves Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cotton cells, selection of stable transgenic callus lines, and recovery of plants via somatic embryogenesis.

  5. Potential contributions of asphalt and coal tar to black carbon quantification in urban dust, soils, and sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Y.; Mahler, B.J.; Van Metre, P.C.; Ligouis, B.; Werth, C.J. [University of Illinois Urbana Champaign, Urbana, IL (USA). Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

    2010-12-01

    Measurements of black carbon (BC) using either chemical or thermal oxidation methods are generally thought to indicate the amount of char and/or soot present in a sample. In urban environments, however, asphalt and coal-tar particles worn from pavement are ubiquitous and, because of their pyrogenic origin, could contribute to measurements of BC. Here we explored the effect of the presence of asphalt and coal-tar particles on the quantification of BC in a range of urban environmental sample types, and evaluated biases in the different methods used for quantifying BC. Samples evaluated were pavement dust, residential and commercial area soils, lake sediments from a small urban watershed, and reference materials of asphalt and coal tar. Total BC was quantified using chemical treatment through acid dichromate (Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7}) oxidation and chemo-thermal oxidation at 375{sup o}C (CTO-375). BC species, including soot and char/charcoal, asphalt, and coal tar, were quantified with organic petrographic analysis. Comparison of results by the two oxidation methods and organic petrography indicates that both coal tar and asphalt contribute to BC quantified by Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7} oxidation, and that coal tar contributes to BC quantified by CTO-375. These results are supported by treatment of asphalt and coal-tar reference samples with Cr2O7 oxidation and CTO-375. The reference asphalt is resistant to Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7} oxidation but not to CTO-375, and the reference coal tar is resistant to both Cr2O7 oxidation and CTO-375. These results indicate that coal tar and/or asphalt can contribute to BC measurements in samples from urban areas using Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7} oxidation or CTO-375, and caution is advised when interpreting BC measurements made with these methods.

  6. Potential contributions of asphalt and coal tar to black carbon quantification in urban dust, soils, and sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Mahler, B.J.; Van Metre, P.C.; Ligouis, B.; Werth, C.J.

    2010-01-01

    Measurements of black carbon (BC) using either chemical or thermal oxidation methods are generally thought to indicate the amount of char and/or soot present in a sample. In urban environments, however, asphalt and coal-tar particles worn from pavement are ubiquitous and, because of their pyrogenic origin, could contribute to measurements of BC. Here we explored the effect of the presence of asphalt and coal-tar particles on the quantification of BC in a range of urban environmental sample types, and evaluated biases in the different methods used for quantifying BC. Samples evaluated were pavement dust, residential and commercial area soils, lake sediments from a small urban watershed, and reference materials of asphalt and coal tar. Total BC was quantified using chemical treatment through acid dichromate (Cr2O7) oxidation and chemo-thermal oxidation at 375??C (CTO-375). BC species, including soot and char/charcoal, asphalt, and coal tar, were quantified with organic petrographic analysis. Comparison of results by the two oxidation methods and organic petrography indicates that both coal tar and asphalt contribute to BC quantified by Cr2O7 oxidation, and that coal tar contributes to BC quantified by CTO-375. These results are supported by treatment of asphalt and coal-tar reference samples with Cr2O7 oxidation and CTO-375. The reference asphalt is resistant to Cr2O7 oxidation but not to CTO-375, and the reference coal tar is resistant to both Cr2O7 oxidation and CTO-375. These results indicate that coal tar and/or asphalt can contribute to BC measurements in samples from urban areas using Cr2O7 oxidation or CTO-375, and caution is advised when interpreting BC measurements made with these methods. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Potential contributions of asphalt and coal tar to black carbon quantification in urban dust, soils, and sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yaning; Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Ligouis, Bertrand; Werth, Charles J.

    2010-12-01

    Measurements of black carbon (BC) using either chemical or thermal oxidation methods are generally thought to indicate the amount of char and/or soot present in a sample. In urban environments, however, asphalt and coal-tar particles worn from pavement are ubiquitous and, because of their pyrogenic origin, could contribute to measurements of BC. Here we explored the effect of the presence of asphalt and coal-tar particles on the quantification of BC in a range of urban environmental sample types, and evaluated biases in the different methods used for quantifying BC. Samples evaluated were pavement dust, residential and commercial area soils, lake sediments from a small urban watershed, and reference materials of asphalt and coal tar. Total BC was quantified using chemical treatment through acid dichromate (Cr 2O 7) oxidation and chemo-thermal oxidation at 375 °C (CTO-375). BC species, including soot and char/charcoal, asphalt, and coal tar, were quantified with organic petrographic analysis. Comparison of results by the two oxidation methods and organic petrography indicates that both coal tar and asphalt contribute to BC quantified by Cr 2O 7 oxidation, and that coal tar contributes to BC quantified by CTO-375. These results are supported by treatment of asphalt and coal-tar reference samples with Cr 2O 7 oxidation and CTO-375. The reference asphalt is resistant to Cr 2O 7 oxidation but not to CTO-375, and the reference coal tar is resistant to both Cr 2O 7 oxidation and CTO-375. These results indicate that coal tar and/or asphalt can contribute to BC measurements in samples from urban areas using Cr 2O 7 oxidation or CTO-375, and caution is advised when interpreting BC measurements made with these methods.

  8. Soil Infiltration Characteristics in Fallow Period of Drip Irrigation Cotton Fields in South Xinjiang%南疆滴灌棉田休闲期土壤入渗特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚宝林; 李光永; 李发永

    2014-01-01

    表明,土壤初始入渗率、稳定入渗率和累计入渗量与土壤初始含水量和土壤干容重成负相关关系,而与土壤温度和土壤总孔隙度成正相关关系。土壤浅层初始含水量较深层初始含水量对土壤入渗参数影响明显。初始入渗率与0—10 cm土壤初始含水量、土壤温度、土壤容重、土壤孔隙度成显著相关关系,稳定入渗率和累计入渗量与0—10 cm土壤初始含水量、土壤容重、土壤孔隙度成显著相关关系。结论南疆滴灌棉田冬季休闲期通过地表覆盖和灌水可降低春季土壤入渗性能,有利于减少春季灌水定额,提高灌水效率。%[Objective]The ecological environment in Tarim basin of southern Xinjiang is extremely fragile, as it’s in the arid inland river basin. As the major high quality cotton production base, mulching, drip irrigation and other water-saving irrigation technologies have relieved the contradictions of the water shortages during cotton growth period, but the winter-spring irrigation quota is relatively high. The infiltration characteristics and its influencing factors of drip irrigation cotton fields during fallow period under different surface mulching and winter irrigation quotas in south Xinjiang were studied with the aiming at providing a theoretical basis for the spring irrigation quota and irrigation efficiency.[Method]The double-ring infiltrometer was used to measure the infiltration in a constant-head experiment. Six treatments for winter irrigation with bare fields (WIB, and the winter irrigation quota was 200 mm, the same as below), winter irrigation with high stubble fields (WIS), winter irrigation with straw mulching fields (WIM), no-winter irrigation with bare fields (NWIB), no-winter irrigation with high stubble fields (NWIS) and no-winter irrigation with straw mulching fields (NWIM) were designed. The soil infiltration characteristics and simulation infiltration process were compared and the

  9. A 6-year-long manipulation with soil warming and canopy nitrogen additions does not affect xylem phenology and cell production of mature black spruce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madjelia Cangre Ebou eDAO

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The predicted climate warming and increased atmospheric inorganic nitrogen deposition are expected to have dramatic impacts on plant growth. However, the extent of these effects and their interactions remains unclear for boreal forest trees. The aim of this experiment was to investigate the effects of increased soil temperature and nitrogen (N depositions on stem intra-annual growth of two mature stands of black spruce [Picea mariana (Mill. BSP] in Quebec, Canada. During 2008-2013, the soil around mature trees was warmed up by 4 °C with heating cables during the growing season and precipitations containing three times the current inorganic N concentration were added by frequent canopy applications. Xylem phenology and cell production were monitored weekly from April to October. The 6-year-long experiment performed in two sites at different altitude showed no substantial effect of warming and N-depositions on xylem phenological phases of cell enlargement, wall thickening and lignification. Cell production, in terms of number of tracheids along the radius, also did not differ significantly and followed the same patterns in control and treated trees. These findings allowed the hypothesis of a medium-term effect of soil warming and N depositions on the growth of mature black spruce to be rejected.

  10. Application of Pg germ soil p activator on cotton%PG微生物土壤磷活化剂在棉花上应用效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅福道

    2001-01-01

    PG微生物土壤磷活化剂拌种处理棉花种子,对棉苗的株高、主根长度和干物重有不同程度的促进作用;在棉花生育期喷施,能增加棉花单株果节数、结铃数等,从而促进棉花产量的增加。%Positive effects were observed on seedling height,main root length and dry matter weight on different degree for those cottonseeds had been dealed with PG germ soil p activator beforehand sowing.Results also indicated that spay ing PG germ soil P activator during blooming stage could increase fruit sites an d boll numbers per plant which naturally increased the lint yield.

  11. Biomass Equations and Carbon Content of Young Black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L. Trees from Plantations and Coppices on Sandy Soils in South-Western Romanian Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Liviu CIUVĂŢ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to develop biomass equations for young black locust trees from plantations and coppices established in South-West Romania. A destructive method was used to develop allometric biomass equations and to assess the carbon content of the individual tree and its biomass components. 418 black locust young trees (1-4 years old from 27 plots established in plantations and coppices growing on sandy soils in Dolj and Olt counties were sampled. Simple linear regression models were developed for biomass estimation. The results shown that root collar diameter was the most accurate biomass predictor, whilst intercept and slope values were similar to those identified in other recent studies. The specific carbon content (mean values was 45% for roots and 48% for leaves, similar to the values provided by Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change.

  12. The effect of moisture content on the thermal conductivity of moss and organic soil horizons from black spruce ecosystems in interior alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, J. A.; Romanovsky, V.E.; Harden, J.W.; McGuire, A.D.

    2009-01-01

    Organic soil horizons function as important controls on the thermal state of near-surface soil and permafrost in high-latitude ecosystems. The thermal conductivity of organic horizons is typically lower than mineral soils and is closely linked to moisture content, bulk density, and water phase. In this study, we examined the relationship between thermal conductivity and soil moisture for different moss and organic horizon types in black spruce ecosystems of interior Alaska. We sampled organic horizons from feather moss-dominated and Sphagnum-dominated stands and divided horizons into live moss and fibrous and amorphous organic matter. Thermal conductivity measurements were made across a range of moisture contents using the transient line heat source method. Our findings indicate a strong positive and linear relationship between thawed thermal conductivity (Kt) and volumetric water content. We observed similar regression parameters (?? or slope) across moss types and organic horizons types and small differences in ??0 (y intercept) across organic horizon types. Live Sphagnum spp. had a higher range of Kt than did live feather moss because of the field capacity (laboratory based) of live Sphagnum spp. In northern regions, the thermal properties of organic soil horizons play a critical role in mediating the effects of climate warming on permafrost conditions. Findings from this study could improve model parameterization of thermal properties in organic horizons and enhance our understanding of future permafrost and ecosystem dynamics. ?? 2009 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

  13. Community Structure and Abundance of Soil Ammonia-oxidizing Bacteria and Ammonia-oxidizing Archea as Influenced by Insect-resistant Bivalent Transgenic Cotton%双价转基因抗虫棉花对土壤氨氧化细菌和氨氧化古菌群落结构及丰度的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴元凤; 李刚; 修伟明; 冀国桢; 宋晓龙; 赵建宁; 杨殿林

    2014-01-01

    The cultivation area of genetically modified(GM)crops has expanded significantly in recent years. However, concerns have been raised over impacts of GM crops on soil ecosystem, especially soil microorganisms. Here, we examined the influence of insect-resistant biva-lent transgenic cotton on soil ammonia-oxidizing bacteria(AOB)and ammonia-oxidizing archaea(AOA). Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism(T-RFLP)was used to evaluate community structure change and qPCR to detect abundance difference. Compared to the control, the population of dominant AOB and AOA did not show significant difference in insect-resistant bivalent transgenic cotton soil, with no changes over the growth season though the ratio of each dominant species population varied in different varieties and at different growth stages of cotton. The Shannon index and Evenness index of AOB had no significant difference between the transgenic cotton soil and its control during the whole growth period. The Shannon index of AOA had similar results, but Evenness index of AOA was significantly low-er in the transgenic cotton soil than in the control at the seedling stage(P<0.05), with no difference found at the other growth stages. The abundance of AOB in the transgenic cotton soil was higher at the blooming stage, whereas lower at the other stages, as compared with the control soil. However, AOA had lower abundance in the GM cotton than in the control soil throughout the growing season. Therefore, the in-sect-resistant bivalent transgenic cotton had no significant impact on the community structure of soil AOB and AOA, but reduced the abun-dance of AOB and AOA, suggesting potential impacts of transgenic cotton on soil ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms.%采用末端片段多态性分析(T-RFLP)和实时定量PCR(Quantitative real-time PCR, qPCR)方法,研究了不同生长时期双价转基因抗虫棉花和亲本非转基因棉花(对照)土壤氨氧化细菌(Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria

  14. Effects of pendimethalin on Cotton Soil Microorganism%二甲戊灵对棉田土壤微生物的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡佳月; 贾会娟; 韩小强; 金前; 杨德松

    2016-01-01

    Soil microorganism was used as the research object,the number of bacteria,fungi and actinomy⁃cetes in different depths of soil were determined by using the plate counting method to explore the influences of pendimethalin on soil microbial population.The results showed that fungi and actinomycetes were mostly inhibi⁃ted.Actinomycetes was the most sensitive microorganism,the inhibition effect of the pendimethalin on it was continuous.Pendimethalin had secondarily inhibition on bacteria with a phased inhibition. Fungus had resist⁃ance to pendimethalin,the inhibition and activation didn’t vary with lasting time after application.At the soil depth of 15-20 cm, pendimethalin had different degrees of activation on three kinds of microorganism. The effects of pendimethalin on soil microorganisms varied with the microorganism spices,concentrations of pendim⁃ethalin and soil depth.Under the concentration for normal use,the influence of pendimethalin on the microor⁃ganism was temporary,not apt to damage its stable structure.Long⁃term application of pendimethalin would in⁃fluence the balance of soil microbe.%以土壤微生物为研究对象,采用平板计数法分别对不同深度土壤细菌、真菌、放线菌数量进行统计,探究二甲戊灵处理后土壤微生物种群变化。结果表明,土壤深度为0~15 cm时,二甲戊灵对细菌、真菌、放线菌多为抑制作用,其中放线菌种群对表现的最为明显,呈持续抑制状态;细菌次之,呈阶段性抑制状态;而真菌对二甲戊灵具有一定抗性,随着时间的推移抑制和激活均不明显。土壤深度为15~20 cm时,二甲戊灵对3种微生物有不同程度激活作用。二甲戊灵对土壤微生物的影响随微生物种类和二甲戊灵浓度和土壤深度而异。正常使用浓度下,对微生物的影响是暂时的,其稳定系统不易破坏,但长期施用二甲戊灵会引起土壤微生物的失衡。

  15. Study on Site-specific Nutrient Management in Cotton Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Li-ping; JIANG Cheng; JIN Ji-yun; ZHANG Feng-ming

    2001-01-01

    The study on the characteristics of spatial variability of soil nutrients and fertilizer recommendations in cotton field under certain conditions of agricultural management was conducted with GIS and systematic approach for soil nutrient constrains. The results showed that of the spatial variability of soil nutrient was greatly related to the management condition of previous crops. Grid sampling and variable rate application technology (VRAT) were the tools that would hopefully increase fertilizer efficiency. The fertilizers were applied where they were needed and at proper rate. Balance fertilization demonstration showed that fertilizer recommendations according to the available nutrient level in soil could decrease fertilizer cost with 657.4 yuan / ha and increase seed cotton yield by 19.8%. A net profit of the balanced fertilization was 5314.9 yuan / ha higher than that of local fertilization practice.

  16. Effects of Tillage Practices on Soil Microbial and Enzyme Activity in Long-Term Continuous Cotton of Xinjiang Oasis%耕作措施对新疆绿洲长期连作棉田土壤微生物、酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高旭梅; 刘娟; 张前兵; 罗宏海; 谷天佐; 张旺锋

    2011-01-01

    为探明新疆棉花长期连作条件下土壤微生物的演变趋势,明确不同耕作措施的调节效应,采用空间替代法,研究了不同连作年限棉田土壤微生物数量、酶活性和土壤基础呼吸的变化及其对不同耕作措施的响应特征.结果表明:随棉花连作年限的增加,0~60 cm土层中土壤pH值表现出先降低后升高再降低的趋势,土壤有机质含量升高,土壤容重增大,孔隙度降低;土壤细菌数量先增加后减少,真菌数量不断增加,放线菌数量呈波动状态;土壤微生物生物量碳(Cmic)和微生物生物量氮(Nmic)及土壤脲酶、蔗糖酶和过氧化氢酶活性随连作年限的延长均呈增加趋势,而磷酸酶活性呈先增加后减少的趋势;土壤基础呼吸表现为先增加后降低的趋势,代谢熵(qCO2)呈减小趋势.对长期连作的障碍棉田采取深度翻耕和水旱轮作均能增加土壤pH值和有机质含量,并能有效降低容重,增加孔隙度,能增加0~60 cm土层中土壤细菌和放线菌数量,降低0~20 cm土层中真菌数量;深度翻耕既增加了20~40cm土层中的Cmic和Nmic,又增加了0~60 cm土层中的土壤脲酶、磷酸酶、蔗糖酶和过氧化氢酶活性;而水旱轮作仅增加了0~20 cm土层中的Cmic,并使该土层土壤脲酶、磷酸酶、蔗糖酶和过氧化氢酶活性增强;土壤深度翻耕可提高棉田0~60 cm土层中的基础呼吸速率,使土壤表层的qCO2增高,而降低深层土壤qCO2.因此,土壤深度翻耕和水旱轮作等措施均可用于改善棉田土壤微生物环境,并有效缓解棉花长期连作引发的不利影响.是克服连作障碍的重要措施之一.%To find out the evolutive trend of soil microorganism .with continuous cropping cotton years and the regulation of agricultural practices, the method of space substitution was used, based on both investigation in the field and measurement in the laboratory, the effect of different tillage practices on the

  17. 高产铁载体棉田土壤细菌SS05的筛选与鉴定%Screening and identification of a high yield sideropho-resproducing bacteria SS05 isolated from cotton soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林天兴; 唐梅; 黄明远; 管芩澜; 龚明福

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究从棉田土壤中筛选得到的高产铁载体细菌产铁载体能力、分类地位和抑菌活性.[方法]通过改良蔗糖-天冬氨酸培养基选择性筛选产铁载体细菌,通过分光光度计法测定铁载体活性,通过混菌法测定产铁载体细菌上清液对棉花枯萎病致病菌尖孢镰刀菌(Fusarium oxysporum)的抑菌效果,采用形态学、生理生化鉴定及16S rDNA序列系统发育分析对高产铁载体菌株进行鉴定.[结果]从棉田土壤中筛选到162株产铁载体细菌,30株产铁载体能力较强的细菌中21株具有较高产铁载体能力,菌株SS05的铁载体活性单位达到98.3%;在低铁条件下,SS05上清液对F.oxysporum具有显著的抑制作用;SS05与莫哈韦芽孢杆菌(Bacillus mojavensis)最为接近.[结论]SS05是高产铁载体菌株,与莫哈韦芽孢杆菌(Bacillus mojavensis)最为接近,在低铁培养条件下其上清液对F.oxysporum具有显著的抑制作用.%[Objective] The objective of this study was to examine the production of siderophore, taxonomic position and antifungal activity of high yield siderophore-producing bacteria isolated from Xinjiang cotton field soil. [Methods] high yield siderophore-producing bacteria were isolated by modified sugar-aspartic acid (MSA) medium and siderophore activity was measured by spectrophotometer method. The inhibitory effect against fusarium wilt pathogens (Fusarium oxysporum) was measured by mixed culture method. The strain SS05 was identified according to morphological features, physiological and biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA sequences of the strain. [Results] There were 163 siderophore-producing bacteria strains isolated from cotton soil and 21 of 30 tested strains has high siderophore-producting capacity. The total siderophore relative content of strain SS05 was 98.3%. The supernatant of SS05 cultured with low concentrations of Fe3+ has significant inhibitory effect against F. Oxysporum. Strain SS05 was

  18. Cotton Life Cycle Inventory & Life Cycle Assessment--A Landmark Benchmark for Cotton Sustainability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Recently, Cotton Incorporated announced the completion of a comprehensive life cycle inventory and life cycJe analysis of cotton products. The endeavor is part of the Cotton Foundation VlSIQN 21 Project and included the participation of the National Cotton Council, Cotton Council International and Cotton Incorporated. The two-year study, managed by PE International,

  19. New Cotton Trade Terms Flashed in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    On May 8th, 2006, China Cotton Import Regulations-Cotton Purchase Contract and General Terms (Applicable to Non-Chinese Cotton Trade), short for China Cotton Association Terms (CCAT) was issued and put into practice, which was welcomed by both China and the countries who trade cotton with China.

  20. Determination and dynamics of ethylicin residues in cotton-field ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zilei; Zhang, Hong; Ding, Ruiyan; Wang, Wenzheng; Wang, Wenbo; Li, Huidong

    2012-10-01

    In this work, we developed an efficient method to determine the ethylicin content in soil, cotton plant and cotton seed, and we also studied the fate of ethylicin in the cotton field ecosystem. The residual ethylicin was analyzed by GC-ECD. The limit of quantification was 0.005 mg/kg for soil, 0.01 mg/kg for the plant and cotton seed. The kinetics study of ethylicin residue showed that the ethylicin concentration in plant and soil can be regressively quantified as C = 1.0762e(-0.2529t) and C = 0.5535e(-0.1333t), representing a half-live of 2.7 and 5.2 days, respectively. As a conclusion, a dosage of 354 g a.i. ha(-1) was recommended, which could be considered as safe to human beings and animals.

  1. Cotton Trip in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2010-01-01

    @@ During their trip in Beijing,the leadership delegation members,Charles Parker,Harrison Ashley(Vice President of NCC Ginner Services),along with Karin Malmstrom(China Director of CCI)shared a time to accept the interview,giving a general introduction about their China trip and the cotton industry in USA.

  2. Actual laser removal of black soiling crust from siliceous sandstone by high pulse repetition rate equipment: effects on surface morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iglesias-Campos, M. A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This research project studies the role of pulse repetition rate in laser removal of black soiling crust from siliceous sandstone, and specifically, how laser fluence correlates with high pulse repetition rates in cleaning practice. The aim is to define practical cleaning processes and determine simple techniques for evaluation based on end-users’ perspective (restorers. Spot and surface tests were made using a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser system with a wide range of pulse repetition rates (5–200 Hz, systematically analysed and compared by macrophotography, portable microscope, stereomicroscope with 3D visualizing and area roughness measurements, SEM imaging and spectrophotometry. The results allow the conclusion that for operation under high pulse repetition rates the average of total energy applied per spot on a treated surface should be attendant upon fluence values in order to provide a systematic and accurate description of an actual laser cleaning intervention.En este trabajo se estudia el papel de la frecuencia de repetición en la limpieza láser de costras de contaminación sobre una arenisca silícea, y concretamente, como se relaciona fluencia y frecuencias elevadas en una limpieza real. Se pretende definir un procedimiento práctico de limpieza y determinar técnicas sencillas de evaluación desde el punto de vista de los usuarios finales (restauradores. Para el estudio se realizaron diferentes ensayos en spot y en superficie mediante un equipo Q-switched Nd:YAG con un amplio rango de frecuencias (5–200 Hz, que se analizaron y compararon sistemáticamente mediante macrofotografía, microscopio portátil, estereomicroscopio con visualización 3D y mediciones de rugosidad en área, imágenes SEM y espectrofotometría. Los resultados permiten proponer que, al trabajar con altas frecuencias, la media de la energía total depositada por spot en la superficie debería acompañar los valores de fluencia para describir y comprender mejor una

  3. [Influences of long-term application of organic and inorganic fertilizers on the composition and abundance of nirS-type denitrifiers in black soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Chang; Fan, Fen-Liang; Li, Zhao-Jun; Song, A-Lin; Zhu, Ping; Peng, Chang; Liang, Yong-Chao

    2012-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore the effects of long-term organic and inorganic fertilizations on the composition and abundance of nirS-type denitrifiers in black soil. Soil samples were collected from 4 treatments (i. e. no fertilizer treatment, CK; organic manure treatment, OM; chemical fertilizer treatment (NPK) and combination of organic and chemical fertilizers treatment (MNPK)) in Gongzhuling Long-term Fertilization Experiment Station. Composition and abundance of nirS-type denitrifiers were analyzed with terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and real-time quantitative PCR (Q-PCR), respectively. Denitrification enzyme activity (DEA) and soil properties were also measured. Application of organic fertilizers (OM and MNPK) significantly increased the DEAs of black soil, with the DEAs in OM and MNPK being 5.92 and 6.03 times higher than that in CK treatment, respectively, whereas there was no significant difference between NPK and CK. OM and MNPK treatments increased the abundances of nirS-type denitrifiers by 2.73 and 3.83 times relative to that of CK treatment, respectively. The abundance of nirS-type denitrifiers in NPK treatment was not significantly different from that of CK. The T-RFLP analysis of nirS genes showed significant differences in community composition between organic and inorganic treatments, with the emergence of a 79 bp T-RF, a significant decrease in relative abundance of the 84 bp T-RF and a loss of the 99 bp T-RF in all organic treatments. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the airS-type denitrifiers in the black soil were mainly composed of alpha, beta and gamma-Proteobacteria. The 79 bp-type denitrifiers inhabiting exclusively in organic treatments (OM and MNPK) were affiliated to Pseudomonadaceae in gamma-Proteobacteria and Burkholderiales in beta-Proteobacteria. The 84 bp-types were related to Burkholderiales and Rhodocyclales. Correlation analysis indicated that pH, concentrations of total nitrogen

  4. The effect of crops roots on the content of different form C in black soil%不同作物根系对黑土碳组分及其含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿贵; 汪景宽; 於丽华; 杨云; 邳植

    2011-01-01

    以黑龙江省寒地黑土为研究对象,通过室内培养试验研究了大豆、玉米、甜菜根系对土壤呼吸释放CO2量、水溶性有机碳、微生物量碳和土壤有机碳含量变化的影响.结果表明:大豆、玉米、甜菜根系普遍提高土壤有机碳含量,但是不同作物根系及根系施用量之间还存在一定的差异,大豆根系要好于玉米根系,而玉米根系明显好于甜菜根系.玉米、大豆、甜菜根系提高了土壤呼吸,增加了土壤CO2排放量,提高了土壤微生物量碳含量;而普遍降低了土壤可溶性有机碳含量.%The experiment with three crops ( sugar beet, maize and soybean) roots and black soil was conducted to study the changes of soil respiration and C02 emissions, soil water soluble organic C, soil microorganism biomass C and soil organic C content in soil at different crops roots treatments. The results showed that; soil organic C content was increased after applying of sugar beet, corn, soybean roots to black soil, and the increase were the most to soybean roots, then corn roots, the less increase was sugar beet roots. Soil respiration was enhanced and CO2 emissions were increased after applying of sugar beet, corn, soybean roots to black soil. Soil microorganism biomass C dramatically enhanced in black soil, but soil water soluble organic C was decreased after applying of sugar beet, corn, soybean roots to black soil. These results are different for the different types and quantities of crops roots.

  5. Allelopathic influence of a wheat or rye cover crop on growth and yield of no-till cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    TECHNICAL ABSTRACT No-till planting cotton into small grain cover crops has many benefits including reducing soil erosion and allelopathic suppression of weeds. It is suggested that the potentials of allelopathy on cotton plants. Nevertheless, little is known about the actual effects of alleloche...

  6. Interactive effects of wildfire and permafrost on microbial communities and soil processes in an Alaskan black spruce forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldrop, M.P.; Harden, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Boreal forests contain significant quantities of soil carbon that may be oxidized to CO2 given future increases in climate warming and wildfire behavior. At the ecosystem scale, decomposition and heterotrophic respiration are strongly controlled by temperature and moisture, but we questioned whether changes in microbial biomass, activity, or community structure induced by fire might also affect these processes. We particularly wanted to understand whether postfire reductions in microbial biomass could affect rates of decomposition. Additionally, we compared the short-term effects of wildfire to the long-term effects of climate warming and permafrost decline. We compared soil microbial communities between control and recently burned soils that were located in areas with and without permafrost near Delta Junction, AK. In addition to soil physical variables, we quantified changes in microbial biomass, fungal biomass, fungal community composition, and C cycling processes (phenol oxidase enzyme activity, lignin decomposition, and microbial respiration). Five years following fire, organic surface horizons had lower microbial biomass, fungal biomass, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations compared with control soils. Reductions in soil fungi were associated with reductions in phenol oxidase activity and lignin decomposition. Effects of wildfire on microbial biomass and activity in the mineral soil were minor. Microbial community composition was affected by wildfire, but the effect was greater in nonpermafrost soils. Although the presence of permafrost increased soil moisture contents, effects on microbial biomass and activity were limited to mineral soils that showed lower fungal biomass but higher activity compared with soils without permafrost. Fungal abundance and moisture were strong predictors of phenol oxidase enzyme activity in soil. Phenol oxidase enzyme activity, in turn, was linearly related to both 13C lignin decomposition and microbial respiration

  7. Cotton Incorporated Documents Industry Gains at ICAC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Those who attack the cotton industry for its perceived impact on the environment will need to have their facts straight, thanks to a major research project undertaken by Cotton Incorporated: a life-cycle assessment (LCA) for cotton.

  8. Cotton in Benin: governance and pest management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Togbe, C.E.

    2013-01-01

    Key words: cotton, synthetic pesticides, neem oil (Azadirachta indica), Beauveria bassiana, Bacillus thuringiensis, field experiment, farmers’ participation   Pests are one of the main factors limiting cotton production worldwide. Most of the pest control strategies in cotton producti

  9. Emprego de calcário e de superfosfato simples na cultura do algodoeiro em solo argiloso ácido Use of lime and of ordinary superphosphate for cotton cultivated on acid clay soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson M. da Silva

    1980-01-01

    liming experiment with cotton are discussed. This experiment was conducted on Latosolic B Terra Roxa soil, acid, with a pH index of 5.0, originally under "cerradão" vegetation, with 66% of clay, 4.3% of organic mater, 0.9, 0.8 and 0.5 (meq/100 ml of Al3+, Ca2+and Mg2+, respectively. The experimental design was a split-plot, with four replications. Dolomitic limestone was applied in the first year, on main plots at the levels of 0, 1.5, 3.0 and 6.0 t/ha. P and K were annually applied on split-plots, as a factorial 3 x 2, at the levels of 0, 60 and 120 kg/ha of P2O5, and 40 and 80 kg/ha of K2O, respectively, with ordinary superphosphate and potassium chloride. Four months after lime application, the neutralization of the exchangeable aluminum found by soil analysis was observed, at the highest level, the pH value increased up to 5.5 and values of calcium plus magnesium reached 3.0 meq. The linear effect upon cotton yield, due to liming, was significant during all the period of this study, increasing from the first to the third year. The effect of phosphorus was smaller, but positive and significant. Cotton plants did not react to potassium fertilization and interactions were not observed. Lime increased the concentrations of P, Ca and Mg in leaf blades, and decreased those of K, Fe, Mn and Al in the year when it was applied. There were no symptoms of K or micronutrient deficiencies due to the use of lime at high level.

  10. Adsorption Behavior of Acetochlor in the Acidification Black Soil%乙草胺在酸化黑土中的吸附行为1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      采用平衡吸附法,对乙草胺在酸化黑土中的吸附行为进行研究,了解乙草胺在酸化黑土中的环境行为。酸化黑土对乙草胺的吸附经历了快速、减速和平衡3个阶段,并在12 h达到吸附平衡。结果表明:在乙草胺质量浓度变化范围内(0~80 mg・ L-1),酸化黑土对乙草胺的吸附质量分数逐渐增加,最大吸附质量分数为586.74 mg・ kg-1,但并未出现饱和吸附点;随着温度由25℃升高到45℃,乙草胺的吸附质量分数减小;表观热力学参数(ΔG、ΔH、ΔS)表明酸化黑土对乙草胺的吸附是非自发、放热和熵减少的过程。 EDTA的添加对酸化黑土吸附乙草胺的影响呈现负相关性,随EDTA的添加,乙草胺的吸附质量分数减小;NaCl的添加对酸化黑土吸附乙草胺的影响呈现正相关性,随NaCl的添加,乙草胺的吸附质量分数略有增加。总之,EDTA和NaCl的添加对乙草胺在酸化黑土中的环境行为具有一定的影响。%By the equilibrium adsorption method we investigated the adsorption behavior of acetochlor to understand the environ-mental behavior of acetochlor in the acidification black soil.The adsorption behavior of acetochlor in the acidification black soil experienced three stages, rapid, slow and equilibrium adsorption.The process of adsorption completed within 12 hours.The adsorption of acetochlor gradually increases in the acetochlor content range of 0-80 mg・ L-1 , and the maxi-mum adsorption of acetochlor in the acidification black soil is 586.74 mg・ kg-1 , but the saturation adsorption point does not appear.As the temperature increases from 25℃ to 45℃, the adsorbed acetochlor content decreases.The apparent thermodynamic parameters (ΔG、ΔH、ΔS) showed that it is a non-spontaneous, exothermic and entropy-reducing process. EDTA on the adsorption of acetochlor in the acidification black soil showes a negative correlation.As the EDTA

  11. Impact of cotton planting date and nitrogen fertilization on Bemisia argentifolii populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAN-LONGBI; DONG-MEILIN; KEH-SHENLII; NICKC.TOSCANO

    2005-01-01

    The silverleaf whitefly (Bemisia argentifolii Bellows and Perring) is a widely distributed pest of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and the population levels may be affected by rates of nitrogen fertilization and planting date. Field experiments were conducted to investigate the impact of cotton planting date and nitrogen fertilization on silverleaf whitefly population dynamics. Cotton was planted on 26 April and 8 June, for the early and late plantings, respectively. Nitrogen treatments consisted of soil applications of 0, 112, 168 and 224 kg of nitrogen per hectare. The population levels of adult whiteflies were much higher on early-planted cotton than on late planting. Also, increased numbers of adult whiteflies on both early and late plantings occurred with increasing amounts of applied nitrogen.Applied nitrogen increased seed cotton yields of early plantings but had no effect on the yields of late plantings.

  12. HYDROLYZABLE SOIL NITROGEN CONTENT AS AN IMPORTANT INDEX FOR APPLE NUTRITION DIAGNOSTICS IN THE CONDITIONS OF CENTRAL BLACK EARTH REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzin A. I.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There are given the results of long-term research of different forms of soil nitrogen content and their relationships with the content of total nitrogen in leaves and yield. It was detected a strong positive correlation among them hydrolyzable nitrogen content in the soil and total nitrogen content in the leaves and yield. It is proposed the use of this index for diagnostic of soil nitrogen supply

  13. 新疆连作、轮作棉田可培养的土壤微生物区系及活性分析%Dynamics Analysis of Culturable Soil Microflora and Microbial Activity in Continuous and Rotation Cropping Systems of Xinjiang Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩剑; 张静文; 徐文修; 罗明; 吴莉莉

    2011-01-01

    Variation of culturable soil microflora and microbial activity were investigated in continuous and rotation cropping cotton field in Xinjiang.The results showed that culturable microbial population gradually decreased with long-term continuous cropping of cotton.Compared with 5 years continous cropping, the total quantity of soil microbes in 6~8 years, 9~12 years and more than 13 years continuous cropping, decreased by 40.2%, 46.7%, 52.4%,respectively.After more than 5 years continuous cropping, the structure of the soil microbial community transformed from rich nutrition bacteria type to lower nutrition fungi type, the ratio ofbacteria to fungi and actinomycetes to fungi decreased significantly.The amount of nitrogen physiological communities such as ammonifying bacteria, nitrobacteria and aerobic nitrogen-fixing bacteria decreased, while denitrifying bacteria increased.Moreover, continuous cropping resulted in soil respiration intensity and cellulolytic activity reducing.Contrary to continuous cropping, under the cotton/melilotus suavena, tomato, spring wheat or com rotation systems were most beneficial for increasing the total quantity of soil micro-organism, improving the capability of soil microbial activity, adjusting the balance of microbial community.Also there was substantial increasement in the number of azotobacteria.The effects of different rotation modes were different, the benefits of cotton-tomato and cotton-melilotus suavena rotation were more obvious.%研究了新疆连作、轮作棉田土壤可培养微生物区系及活性变化.结果表明,棉花多年连作造成土壤中可培养微生物数量减少,连作6~8年、9~12年、大于13年的棉田与连作小于5年的棉田相比,土壤微生物总量分别下降了40.2%,46.7%,52.4%.连作超过5年后,土壤微生物菌群结构逐渐从高肥的"细菌型"向低肥的"真菌型"转化,细菌/真菌(B/F)和放线菌/真菌(A/F)比值均降低,拮抗菌

  14. Zero tillage: A potential technology to improve cotton yield

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    Abbas Hafiz Ghazanfar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Zero tillage technology revealed with no use of any soil inverting technique to grow crops. The crop plant seed is planted in the soil directly after irrigation to make the soil soft without any replenishing in soil layers. A study was conducted to evaluate cotton genotypes FH-114 and FH-142 for the consecutive three years of growing seasons from 2013-15. The seed of both genotypes was sown with two date of sowing, 1 March and 1 May of each three years of sowing under three tillage treatments (zero tillage, minimum tillage and conventional tillage in triplicate completely randomized split-split plot design. It was found from results that significant differences were recorded for tillage treatments, date of sowing, genotypes and their interactions. Multivariate analysis was performed to evaluate the yield and it attributed traits for potential of FH-114 and FH-142 cotton genotypes. The genotype FH-142 was found with higher and batter performance as compared to FH-114 under zero tillage, minimum tillage and conventional tillage techniques. The traits bolls per plant, boll weight, fibre fineness, fibre strength, plant height, cotton yield per plant and sympodial branches per plant were found as most contributing traits towards cotton yield and production. It was also found that FH-142 gives higher output in terms of economic gain under zero tillage with 54% increase as compared to conventional tillage technique. It was suggested that zero tillage technology should be adopted to improve cotton yield and quality. It was also recommended that further study to evaluate zero tillage as potential technology should be performed with different regions, climate and timing throughout the world.

  15. Stable N isotope values of black spruce ecosystem components integrate source N isotope values, soil fertility, and microbial biomass: a natural and experimental study from Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, J. R.; Schuur, T.; Mack, M. C.; Nettelton Hollingsworth, T.; Bååth, E.

    2009-12-01

    The productivity and ecosystem dynamics of many northern ecosystems are limited by nitrogen (N) availability. Understanding N dynamics is especially important in boreal forests where slight changes in N availability can have profound effects on ecosystem productivity and diversity of plants and microbes. However, because N cycling processes vary profoundly in time and space, assessing ecosystem N supply and cycling pathways are difficult even with frequent measurements. Recent soil, plant, and fungal meta-analyses have indicated that stable isotopes of N may provide just such an integrative measure of N cycling by recording pathways of N flux through ecosystems. Here we present N stable isotope patterns across 30 plots varying in natural fertility and in 4 blocks of 16 experimentally fertilized plots of mature black spruce forest in central Alaska. We measured soil N isotope ratios of NO3, NH4, and salt extracted dissolved organic N (DON) using persulfate oxidation coupled to the bacterial denitrifier technique. The soil N isotope values varied from 15 to -26‰ across the landscape and were a poor predictor of the variability in plant N isotope values ranging from 5-11‰. Instead a combination of fungal biomass (PLFA 18:2ω6,9), fungal ingrowth, cation exchange capacity, and resin extractable phosphate (P) were better explanatory variables in a multiple regression context. This suggests that plant N isotope ratios are a product of numerous soil and microbial processes and not simply a direct reflection of source N pools. Denitrification in soils and ectomycorrhizal (ECM) assimilation and delivery of N were also likely causal as each influence pathways of N cycling that can alter the N isotope values of source and receiving pools. In contrast with the very low N environment present in our natural gradient, we found that N fertilization, both singly and in conjunction with P, caused the N isotope values of foliage, fine roots, soil N, and fungal fruiting bodies to

  16. Review of Soil Organic Matter Fractions and Structure of Black Soil in Northeast China%东北黑土有机质组分与结构的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁尧; 韩晓增; 丁雪丽

    2012-01-01

    In the case of global climate change, it is essential to study the transformation process of soil organic matter (SOM) for improving the potential of terrestrial carbon sequestration. SOM cycle and stabilization are significantly related to its fractions and structure characteristics. Black soil in northeast China is well known of its high SOC stocks, it plays a crucial role in national food production. Recently, SOM content of black soil decreased dramatically, which resulted in the degradation of soil fertility and quality. The current advances of SOM dynamics, fractions and structure of black soil in northeast China as influenced by different agricultural managements were reviewed in this paper, and the further researches on SOM of black soil were also discussed. It showed that reclamation and tillage resulted in total SOM content, labile fractions and humic substance decreased markedly, the content and quality of SOM promoted as the application of optimum chemical fertilizer and organic manure, and SOM structure became simpler with long-term application of chemical fertilizer plus organic manure, which was positive to increase soil fertility. The mechanism of change on SOM fractions and its structure need to be further understood.%在全球气候变化背景下研究土壤有机质的转化过程对于评价陆地生态系统碳截获潜力具有重要意义,而土壤有机质的循环特征及其稳定性与土壤有机质的组成和结构密切相关.东北黑土区是我国重要的商品粮基地,近年来,黑土有机质含量呈显著下降趋势,造成黑土肥力和质量的严重退化.本文通过文献资料的整理,总结了不同农田管理措施下黑土土壤有机质的消长动态、组分变化以及结构特征的研究现状,并探讨了研究中存在的问题.开垦和耕作导致土壤有机质总量、活性组分以及腐殖物质含量的显著降低,而平衡施用化肥和有机肥是维持和提升土壤有机

  17. 转几丁质酶和葡聚糖酶双价基因棉花对土壤细菌种群多样性的影响%Effects of transgenic cotton expressing chitinase and glucanase genes on the diversity of soil bacterial community

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志芳; 冯自力; 赵丽红; 师勇强; 冯鸿杰; 朱荷琴

    2015-01-01

    以转几丁质酶和葡聚糖酶双价基因棉花为研究对象,非转基因受体棉花为对照,通过比较可培养细菌数量和基于16S rRNA克隆文库细菌种群分析,评价外源双价基因的导入在苗期、蕾期、花铃期和吐絮期对棉花根际细菌群落多样性的影响。结果表明,可培养细菌的数量不受外源双价基因的影响,随着棉花生育期的交替而变化,以代谢旺盛的花铃期最多。构建的转基因和非转基因不同生育期根际土壤细菌16S rRNA文库容量为2400个克隆,涵盖了细菌的283个属。其中,Acidobacterium是最大优势类群,共包括624个克隆,其次为未知细菌种群和 Flavisolibacter。比较转基因和非转基因棉花根际土壤细菌的种群结构,结果显示,同一生育期内前者种群的多样性显著低于后者,二者的共有类群随着生长发育的进行而增多。研究结果说明几丁质酶基因和葡聚糖酶基因对棉花根际细菌种群多样性有着不同程度的削减作用,但是随着种植时间的延长,该差异呈现逐渐缩小的趋势。%The transgenic cotton expressing chitinase and glucanase genes was studied using nontransgenic cotton as a control. Specifically, the effects of exogenous genes on bacterial community diversity in rhizospheres of cotton at stages of seedling, budding, boll forming and boll opening were evaluated through comparing the number of cultiva-ble bacteria and analyzing 16S rRNA gene clone libraries. The results showed that the number of cultivable bacteria was not affected by exogenous genes but the cotton growth period, and the number peaked at the stage of boll forming with vigorous metabolism. The 16S rRNA gene clone library prepared from soil bacteria in rhizospheres of transgenic and nontransgenic cotton at different stages contained 2400 clones which covered 283 genera. Among them,Acido-bacterium was the most dominant group which contained 642 clones

  18. Modeling the effects of fire severity and climate warming on active layer and soil carbon dynamics of black spruce forests across the landscape in interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genet, H.; McGuire, Anthony David; Barrett, K.; Breen, A.; Euskirchen, E.S.; Johnstone, J.F.; Kasischke, E.S.; Melvin, A.M.; Bennett, A.; Mack, M.C.; Rupp, T.S.; Schuur, A.E.G.; Turetsky, M.R.; Yuan, F.

    2013-01-01

    There is a substantial amount of carbon stored in the permafrost soils of boreal forest ecosystems, where it is currently protected from decomposition. The surface organic horizons insulate the deeper soil from variations in atmospheric temperature. The removal of these insulating horizons through consumption by fire increases the vulnerability of permafrost to thaw, and the carbon stored in permafrost to decomposition. In this study we ask how warming and fire regime may influence spatial and temporal changes in active layer and carbon dynamics across a boreal forest landscape in interior Alaska. To address this question, we (1) developed and tested a predictive model of the effect of fire severity on soil organic horizons that depends on landscape-level conditions and (2) used this model to evaluate the long-term consequences of warming and changes in fire regime on active layer and soil carbon dynamics of black spruce forests across interior Alaska. The predictive model of fire severity, designed from the analysis of field observations, reproduces the effect of local topography (landform category, the slope angle and aspect and flow accumulation), weather conditions (drought index, soil moisture) and fire characteristics (day of year and size of the fire) on the reduction of the organic layer caused by fire. The integration of the fire severity model into an ecosystem process-based model allowed us to document the relative importance and interactions among local topography, fire regime and climate warming on active layer and soil carbon dynamics. Lowlands were more resistant to severe fires and climate warming, showing smaller increases in active layer thickness and soil carbon loss compared to drier flat uplands and slopes. In simulations that included the effects of both warming and fire at the regional scale, fire was primarily responsible for a reduction in organic layer thickness of 0.06 m on average by 2100 that led to an increase in active layer thickness

  19. Correlação entre a resposta do algodoeiro à adubação e a porcentagem de saturação em bases em vários tipos de solos do Estado de São Paulo Correlation between cotton responses to fertilizers and percentage of base saturation in soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Geraldo Fuzatto

    1966-01-01

    Full Text Available É discutido um aspecto da relação entre o efeito da adubação no algodoeiro e a análise química do solo, nas condições do Estado de São Paulo. Correlação entre a resposta à adubação e a porcentagem de saturação em bases no solo, foi verificada no estudo de 126 experimentos, conduzidos em vários tipos de solo. Uma equação polinomial de 2.° grau, descreve a correlação obtida, com um coeficiente R = 0,676xx.In this paper, the correlation between cotton responses to fertilization, and percentage of base saturation in soils, in the State of São Paulo, is discussed. A second degree polynomial, based on data collected from 126 experiments, was found to fit the data satisfactorily, with a correlation coefficient R = 0.676xx. The results indicate the possibility of estimating the effects due to fertilization in cotton crops, by use of the mentioned chemical characteristic of soils.

  20. Overexpression of a Foreign Bt Gene in Cotton Affects the Low-Molecular-Weight Components in Root Exudates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Wei-Dong; SHI Wei-Ming; LI Bao-Hai; ZHANG Min

    2007-01-01

    Most research in the past using genetically modified crops (GM crops) has focused on the ecological safety of foreign gene (i.e., the gene flow), gene products (for example, Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) protein), and the safety of transgenic food for humans. In this study, changes in both the species and amounts of low-molecular-weight components in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) root exudates after foreign Bt gene overexpression were investigated under different nutritional conditions. Transgenic cotton containing Bt (Bt-cotton), supplemented with all the mineral nutrients, secreted more organic acids than the wild-type cotton (WT). When nitrogen was removed from the full-nutrient solution, the amount of organic acids secretion of Bt-cotton was lesser than that of WT. The roots of the transgenic cotton secreted lesser amounts of amino acids and soluble sugars than the WT roots in the full-nutrient solution. Deficiencies of P and K caused a large increase in the total amino acid and soluble sugar secretions of both Bt-cotton and WT, with larger increases observed in Bt-cotton. Because transferring the foreign Bt gene into cotton can result in alterations in the components of the root exudates, with the effect varying depending on the nutritional status, the cultivation of genetically modified crops, such as Bt-cotton, in soil environments should be more carefully assessed, and the possible effects as a result of the alterations in the root exudate components should be considered.

  1. Cotton 2K-Management tools for irrigated cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of simulation models to manage crops was a concept introduced in the 1980’s. For example, the cotton simulation model known as GOSSYM was made available in 1989 and was used by both producers and consultants to manage cotton in real time. More recently, Dr. Avi Marani, Professor Emeritus, Sc...

  2. Removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution using cotton stalk, cotton waste and cotton dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ertas, Murat [Department of Forest Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Forestry, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, 46060 Kahramanmaras (Turkey); Acemioglu, Bilal, E-mail: acemioglu@kilis.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Arts, Kilis 7 Aralik University, 79000 Kilis (Turkey); Alma, M. Hakki [Department of Forest Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Forestry, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, 46060 Kahramanmaras (Turkey); Usta, Mustafa [Department of Forest Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Forestry, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)

    2010-11-15

    In this study, cotton stalk (CS), cotton waste (CW) and cotton dust (CD) was used as sorbents to remove methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution by batch sorption technique. Effects of initial dye concentration, solution pH, solution temperature and sorbent dose on sorption were studied. It was seen that the removal of methylene blue increased with increasing initial dye concentration (from 25 to 100 mg/l), solution pH (from 5 to 10), solution temperature (from 20 to 50 deg. C) and sorbent dose (from 0.25 to 1.50 g/50 ml). The maximum dye removal was reached at 90 min. Sorption isotherms were analyzed by Langmuir and Freundlich models at different temperatures of 20, 30, 40 and 50 deg. C, and the results were discussed in detail. Moreover, the thermodynamics of sorption were also studied. It was found that the values of standard free energy ({Delta}G{sup o}) were positive for cotton stalk and negative for cotton waste and cotton dust. The values of standard enthalpy ({Delta}H{sup o}) and entropy ({Delta}S{sup o}) were found to be positive, and the obtained results were interpreted in detail. The results of this study showed that cotton stalk, cotton waste and cotton dust could be employed as effective and low-cost materials for the removal of dyes from aqueous solution.

  3. Banco de sementes de aveia preta no solo sob dois sistemas de manejo Soil seed bank of black oat in two management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Paulo Ludwig

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As sementes de aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schreb. possuem a capacidade de permanecer viáveis no solo de um ano de cultivo para outro. Dessa forma, o objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o número de sementes de aveia preta resultantes de dois sistemas de manejo (colheita e ressemeadura natural, que poderão formar o banco de sementes do solo. Os ensaios foram realizados no município de Jari - RS, em uma área cultivada sob o sistema de "plantio direto". Foram coletadas 50 amostras em cada sistema de manejo, com um espaçamento de 10x20m, utilizando um amostrador de diâmetro de 0,05m e uma profundidade de 0,1m. O levantamento do número de sementes e da emergência das plântulas foi realizado no Laboratório Didático da Faculdade de Agronomia Eliseu Maciel (UFPel. Constatou-se que a colheita e a ressemeadura natural possibilitam a presença de sementes no solo por área, em quantidades superiores à indicada para a semeadura. Com a colheita, a área fica heterogênea em número de sementes no solo e em plântulas emergidas. A ressemeadura natural resulta em uma grande quantidade de sementes no solo e formação de plântulas.The black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb. seeds are able to remain alive in soil from a culture to another. The objective of this study was to evaluate the number of black oat seeds resulting from two management, harvesting, and natural reseeding, which could form the seed bank of soil. The experiments were conducted in Jari-RS, Brazil, the cultivation system is "No Tillage". Were collected 50 samples in each management, at a spacing of 10mx20m, using a sampler diameter of 0.05m and depth of 0.1m. The evaluation of the number of seeds and seedling emergence was accomplish at the Laboratory of Seeds Analysis of the Faculdade de Agronomia "Eliseu Maciel" (UFPEL. It was found that both as the crop as the natural seeding allow large quantities of seeds in the soil for the upper area suitable for planting. The harvest area is

  4. Effects of Manure Fertilizer and Chemical Fertilizer on Nitrogen Transformation Bacteria and Soil Enzyme in Black Soil%农肥和化肥对黑土氮素转化功能菌和土壤酶的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于佳; 王宏燕; 赵伟; 宋立娟

    2011-01-01

    Various trends of soil function bacteria and its activity was Analyzed under different ratios of the manure and chemical fertilizers,in on the black soil field under maize. The results showed that the high manure fertilizer ratio scenario leads to an increase in ammonification bacteria and nitrobacteria, which were 2. 22 times and 4. 09 times of standard sample (CK) respectively. Meanwhile, the high chemical fertilizer ratio also contributed to a significant raise in the amount of denitrifying bacteria, which was 8.49 times of CK.Furthermore, Manure fertilizer scenario had a positive influence on soil microbial biomass carbon, nitrogen, soil urease and catalase as the analyzed data of activities of these factors were much higher than that of CK. Specifically speaking, the positive correlations existed in the following groups: soil microbial biomass C and soil urease activity, microbial biomass N and catalyse activity and microbial biomass and soil ammonification bacteria as well At the same time, soil microbial biomass C and soil ammonification bacteria had significant negative correlation ship.%实验以玉米田黑土为研究对象,主要研究土壤氮素转化功能菌及其活性在不同施入量农肥和化肥处理下的变化.结果表明:农肥高量处理使土壤氨化细菌和硝化细菌数量升高,分别是对照的2.22倍和4.09倍,而化肥高量处理使反硝化细菌数量明显增加,是对照的8.49倍;农肥处理对土壤微生物量碳、微生物量氮、土壤脲酶和土壤过氧化氢酶有促进作用,其活性明显高于对照.相关分析表明,土壤微生物量碳与土壤脲酶,土壤微生物量氮与过氧化氢酶和土壤氨化细菌之间均存在着极显著的正相关关系,而土壤微生物量碳与土壤氨化细菌之间存在着极显著的负相关关系.图8,表1,参14.

  5. Biological Dimensions of Crack Morphology in Dryland Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCarlo, K. F.; Spiegel, M.; Caylor, K. K.

    2014-12-01

    Macropores and cracks have an integral role in soil hydrology, and the physicochemical factors that induce them have been the subject of much laboratory research. How these processes translate to field soils, however, is often obfuscated by the biological elements present that complicate its formation and dynamics. In this study, we investigated the biological influence of herbivores and vegetation on 3D crack morphology in a dryland swelling soil (black cotton/vertisol). Fieldwork was conducted at and near the Kenya Long-Term Exclosure Experiment (KLEE) plots in Mpala, central Kenya, where three different soil regions were identified: highly vegetated areas, animal trails, and termite mounds. Crack networks were physically characterized by pouring liquid resin into the soil and excavating them when dry, after which they were imaged and quantified using medical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Cracking intensity of each cast was corrected via soil moisture and bulk density measurements at 5 cm intervals over 30 cm. 3D characterization of the soil system shows that mechanical compaction is a major influence in the formation of extensive and deep cracks in animal trails, with megaherbivores (e.g. elephants) inducing the most extreme cracks. Bioturbation is seen as a major influence in the formation of shallower cracks in termite mounds, as termites loosen and aerate the soil and reduce the soil's cohesive properties. Highly vegetated soils show a large degree of variability: small, disconnected soil patches induced by vegetative cover and a larger root network results in smaller and shallower cracks, but full vegetative cover induces deep and irregular cracks, possibly due to diverted rainfall. Our results highlight the intricate connections between the biology and physics that dictate soil processes in a complex soil system at the field scale.

  6. 16S rRNA-based PCR-DGGE analysis of actinomycete communities in fields with continuous cotton cropping in Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Long, XuanQi; Huo, XiangDong; Chen, YiFeng; Lou, Kai

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the variations in the microbial community structure of soil actinomycetes in fields with continuous cropping of cotton in Xinjiang Autonomous Region, China. Soil samples were collected from four depths in fields with 7-year continuous cotton cropping. The community structure of soil actinomycetes was examined using the 16S rRNA-based polymerase chain reaction-density gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) techniques. The microbial diversity indices of the soil samples from different depths generally decreased along with the period of continuous cotton cropping. When the period of continuous cropping of cotton reached 5 years, the diversity indices rose again and gradually stabilized at a level slightly lower than that of soils with original ecology (i.e., 0-year cotton cropping). Cluster analysis showed that at the 1-20-cm depth, the actinomycete community structure of the soil subjected to 1-year cotton cropping was similar to that of soil subjected to 0-year cotton cropping, whereas that of soils after 3-year continuous cotton cropping showed high similarity. At the 21-40-cm depth, the actinomycete community structure showed various changes but generally recovered to its original pattern after repeated fluctuations. Principal component analysis showed that at the 1-30-cm depth, the actinomycete community structure varied similarly regardless of the period of continuous cotton cropping. In contrast, there were no clear actinomycete community structure variation trends at the 31-40-cm soil depth. Homology comparison of sequences recovered from the DGGE bands showed that the obtained sequences shared similarities >88 %. Alignment with the known homologous sequences indicated a lack of microorganisms related to soil-borne cotton diseases. Continuous cotton cropping exerted significant influences on the community structure of soil actinomycetes in Xinjiang Autonomous Region, which were largely determined by the soil depth and

  7. Effects of Waste Glass (WG on the Strength Characteristics of Cement Stabilized Expansive Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A.Ikara

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the suitability of using waste glass (WG as admixture to cement stabilized black cotton soil (BCS for roads, fills and embankment. The soil was classified as A-7-5 and CH according to the American Association of State Highway and Transport Officials (AASHTO and the Unified Soil Classification System (USCS Classifications. Chemical analysis revealed that WG is rich in main oxides such as Silicon Oxide (69.2, Aluminium Oxide (2.29, Iron Oxide (1.57, Calcium Oxide (15.1 and Sodium Oxide (8.75. The soil was stabilized with 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8% cement and 0, 5 10, 15 and 20% WG by weight of the dry soil. Laboratory tests were carried out using the Standard Proctor (SP compactive efforts, California Bearing Ratio (CBR, Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS, and compaction characteristics tests to evaluate the effectiveness of WG on Ordinary Portland cement (OPC stabilized BCS. The results obtained showed a decrease in the plasticity index (PI, liquid limit (LL, plastic limit (PL and increase Maximum Dry Density (MDD with increase in WG content in all cement proportions used and as compared to the values obtained for the natural soil. The peak 7 days UCS values of 1152kN/m2 was obtained at 8% OPC and 20% WG. Similarly, highest CBR value of 53.8% was obtained at an optimum blend of 8% OPC/20%WG. The results indicate that there is a potential in the use of WG as admixture to strengthen Black cotton soils.

  8. Preparation of Magnetic Black Carbon and Its Adsorption of Heavy Metals Pb and Cd in Soil%磁性黑炭的制备及其对土壤中重金属Pb 和 Cd 的吸附

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪柳芳; 翁仁贵

    2015-01-01

    In order to solve the problem of powder magnetic black carbon that is easy to be covered by the soil and thus can influence the absorption effects, the formed magnetic black carbon with 3-5 mm diameter was prepared via bond forming method by using sodium carboxymethylcellulose ( CMC ) as the bonding agent to circumvent the embedding.The magnetic black carbon was used as soil amendment to repair heavy metal pollution soil, with potted artificial simulated contaminated soil.The best adsorption conditions for magnetic black carbon to heavy metals Pb and Cd in the contaminated soil was studied through the orthogonal experiment and single factor experiments.The results shows that as the soil moisture content is 20%and the soil pH is 6.0, the addition of 6%magnetic black carbon can respectively remove 59 .67%of Pb and 68 .53% of Cd in the contaminated soil within 30 reaction days, elaborating that the magnetic black carbon has good adsorption properties on the heavy metals such as Pb and Cd in contaminated soil.%为解决粉末状磁性黑炭易被土壤包覆影响其吸附效果的问题,以羧甲基纤维素( CMC)为粘结剂,采用粘结成型方法制备直径为3~5 mm的成型磁性黑炭。以磁性黑炭为土壤重金属吸附剂,采用盆栽方式,针对人工模拟污染土壤,通过正交试验和单因素试验确定磁性黑炭对重金属Pb和Cd的去除效果。结果表明,在土壤pH为6.0,土壤含水率为20%,磁性黑炭添加量为土壤质量的6%时,吸附反应30 d,磁性黑炭对Pb和Cd的去除率分别为59.67%和68.53%,磁性黑炭对土壤中的重金属具有较好的吸附性能。

  9. Exploring biomedical applications of cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of cotton as a biomaterial for design of improved wound dressings, and other non-implantable medical textiles will be considered. The research and development of cotton-based wound dressings, which possess a mechanism-based mode of action, has entered a new level of understanding in recent ...

  10. Exploring biomedical ppplications of cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of cotton as a biomaterial for design of improved wound dressings, and other non-implantable medical textiles will be considered. The research and development of cotton-based wound dressings, which possess a mechanism-based mode of action, has entered a new level of understanding in recent y...

  11. The Spindle Type Cotton Harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    The spindle type cotton picker was commercialized during the mid 1900’s and is currently produced by two US agricultural equipment manufacturers, John Deere and CaseIH. Picking is the predominate machine harvest method used throughout the US and world. Harvesting efficiency of a spindle type cotton ...

  12. Persistence and dissipation kinetics of spiromesifen in chili and cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, K K; Rao, Cherukuri Sreenivasa; Dubey, J K; Patyal, S K; Parihar, N S; Battu, R S; Sharma, Vandana; Gupta, Pratigya; Kumar, Anoop; Kalpana; Jaya, Maisnam; Singh, Balwinder; Sharma, I D; Nath, Amit; Gour, Tej Bahadur

    2007-09-01

    In a field study carried out at three different locations, the dissipation of spiromesifen on cotton and chili was studied and its DT50, and DT99 were estimated at each location. Spiromesifen was sprayed on chili at 96 and 192 g a.i. ha(-1) and cotton at 120 and 240 g a.i. ha(-1). Samples of chili fruits were drawn at 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15, 21, 30 days after treatment and that of cotton seed and lint at first picking and harvest. Soil samples were drawn 30 days after treatment from 0 to 15 and 15 to 30 cm layer. Quantification of residues was done on GC-MS in Selected Ion Monitoring (SIM) mode in mass range 271-274 m/z. The LOQ of this method was found 0.033 microg g(-1), LOD being 0.01 microg g(-1). The DT50 of spiromesifen when applied at recommended doses in chili fruits was found to be 2.18-2.40 days. Ninety-nine percent degradation was found to occur within 14.5-16.3 days after application. Residues of spiromesifen were not detected in cotton seed and lint samples at the first picking. In soil, no residues of spiromesifen were detectable 15 days after treatment.

  13. Seed cotton yield, ionic and quality attributes of two cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. varieties as influenced by various rates of K and Na under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sohail

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Cotton is more sensitive to low K availability than most other major field crops, and often shows symptoms of K deficiency in soils not considered K deficient. Field investigation was conducted at Sahiwal to study the effect of different rates of K and Na application on seed cotton yield, ionic ratio and quality characteristics of two cotton varieties. Ten soil K: Na ratios were developed after considering indigenous K, Na status in soil. The treatments of K+Na in kg ha-1 to give K:Na ratios were as: 210+ 60 (3.5:1 i.e. control, 225 + 60 (3.75:1, 240 + 60 (4:1, 255 + 60 (4.25:1, 270 + 60 (4.5:1, 210 + 75 (2.8:1, 225 + 75 (3:1, 240 + 75 (3.2:1, 255 + 75 (3.4:1 and 270 + 75 (3.6:1. Control treatment represented indigenous K, Na status of soil. The experiment continued until maturity. Maximum seed cotton yield of NIBGE-2 was observed at K: Na ratio of 3.6:1. Variety NIBGE-2 manifested greater seed cotton yield than MNH-786. Leaf K: Na ratio of two cotton varieties differed significantly (p < 0.01 due to varieties, rates of K and Na and their interaction. Variety NIBGE-2 maintained higher K: Na ratio than MNH-786 and manifested good fiber quality. There was significant relationship (R2 = 0.55, n = 10 between K: Na ratio and fiber length and significant relationship (R2 = 0.65, n = 10 between K concentration and fiber length for NIBGE-2. There was also significant relationship (R2 = 0.91, 0.78, n = 10 between boll number and seed cotton yield for both varieties. The increase in yield was attributed to increased boll weight.

  14. Cotton Textile: Brisk against Bleak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dennis K.Zhao

    2009-01-01

    @@ The 6th International cotton and cotton textile conference already scheduled on Sept.8-10 in Xinjiang,China's largest cotton growing area,was called off on a short notice of rascal needle dabbing that had caused a widespread public consternation.But the information that is focused on the leitmotif of "financial crisis and revitalization of textile industry for adjustment,upgrading and innovation"is to be shared,discussed at the upcoming resumed meeting.Cotton textile industry is and will be the most important driver for the global textile and clothing sector as it provides jobs not only for the residents living in the cities,but also for the farmers growing cotton in the poverty-ridden countryside.China and India are the most important players in this sector,for both are the most populous countries in the world...

  15. China Cotton label to be generalized

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    "China Cotton"authorization press conference was held in Beijing on October 11. China Cotton Association granted authorization to the first four enterprises, allowing them to use the label of China Cotton on their qualified products. Shandong Lanyan Group, Beijing Miantian Textile Co., Ltd are among the fi rst companies authorized to use China Cotton label.

  16. CCI President Participated in China Cotton Summit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ On May 7-8 the 2010 China Cotton Summit and the International Cotton Fair were held in Sanya, Hainan Province, China. Mr. Wallace L. Darneille, the new president of Cotton Council International (CCI) made a special trip to China to participate in the event and present on the "cotton and textile supply and demand situation in the U.S."

  17. Impact of deforestation on soil carbon stock and its spatial distribution in the Western Black Sea Region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucuker, Mehmet Ali; Guney, Mert; Oral, H Volkan; Copty, Nadim K; Onay, Turgut T

    2015-01-01

    Land use management is one of the most critical factors influencing soil carbon storage and the global carbon cycle. This study evaluates the impact of land use change on the soil carbon stock in the Karasu region of Turkey which in the last two decades has undergone substantial deforestation to expand hazelnut plantations. Analysis of seasonal soil data indicated that the carbon content decreased rapidly with depth for both land uses. Statistical analyses indicated that the difference between the surface carbon stock (defined over 0-5 cm depth) in agricultural and forested areas is statistically significant (Agricultural = 1.74 kg/m(2), Forested = 2.09 kg/m(2), p = 0.014). On the other hand, the average carbon stocks estimated over the 0-1 m depth were 12.36 and 12.12 kg/m(2) in forested and agricultural soils, respectively. The carbon stock (defined over 1 m depth) in the two land uses were not significantly different which is attributed in part to the negative correlation between carbon stock and bulk density (-0.353, p < 0.01). The soil carbon stock over the entire study area was mapped using a conditional kriging approach which jointly uses the collected soil carbon data and satellite-based land use images. Based on the kriging map, the spatially soil carbon stock (0-1 m dept) ranged about 2 kg/m(2) in highly developed areas to more than 23 kg/m(2) in intensively cultivated areas as well as the averaged soil carbon stock (0-1 m depth) was estimated as 10.4 kg/m(2).

  18. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the Indus River catchment area, Pakistan: Status, soil-air exchange and black carbon mediated distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajwa, Anam; Ali, Usman; Mahmood, Adeel; Chaudhry, Muhammad Jamshed Iqbal; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Jones, Kevin C; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2016-06-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were investigated in passive air and soil samples from the catchment area of the Indus River, Pakistan. ∑15OCPs ranged between 0.68 and 13.47 ng g(-1) in soil and 375.1-1975 pg m-(3) in air. HCHs and DDTs were more prevalent in soil and air compartments. Composition profile indicated that β-HCH and p,p'-DDE were the dominant of all metabolites among HCHs and DDTs respectively. Moreover, fBC and fTOC were assessed and evaluated their potential role in the distribution status of OCPs. The fTOC and fBC ranged between 0.77 and 2.43 and 0.04-0.30% respectively in soil. Regression analysis showed the strong influence of fBC than fTOC on the distribution of OCPs in the Indus River catchment area soil. Equilibrium status was observed for β-HCH, δ-HCH, p,p'-DDD, o,p'-DDT, TC, HCB and Heptachlor with ff ranged between 0.3 and 0.59 while assessing the soil-air exchange of OCPs.

  19. Charm of Cotton Art COTTON USA: Naturally Color Your Life: Cotton & Patchwork Exhibition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Flora Zhao

    2012-01-01

    The grand opening of Cotton Council International's (CCI) finale event Naturally Color YourLife: Cotton & Patchwork by CO-FFON USA took place in Beijing's 798 Art Bridge Gallery on May 25th, 2012. The exhibition was a perfect marriage of the constant pursuit of traditional patchwork art with the fantastic imagination of modern design.

  20. Prepration of carbon black/oil soiled strips and the evaluation of its washing performance%炭黑油污布的制备及洗涤性能评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王赢; 王平; 王强; 袁久刚; 陈黎明; 范雪荣

    2012-01-01

    As one of the standard soiled test strips, carbon black/oil soiled strips were widely used for measuring the washing performance of clothes washing machines. The preparation of novel carbon black/oil soiled strips based on aqueous systems were discussed. The effects of the dosage of Arabic gum powder, Peregal O, oil additive and emulsifying condition (rate and time) on the stability of carbon black/oil soiled solution were analyzed. The dyeing evenness and washing performance for the self-made carbon black/oil soiled strips were also evaluated. The results indicated that stable carbon black/oil soiled solution was obtained, when the dosage of Arabic gum powder and Peregal 0 were both 1.5%, using castor oil as additive with an emulsifying rate of 700 r/min for 50 min. Compared with the standard carbon black/oil soiled strips based on oil system (GB/T 4288-2008), the preparation method discussed in the paper was much easier, and the dyeing result and washing performance of achieved soiled strips were similar as the standard, which had potential application prospect.%炭黑油污布是检测洗衣机洗涤性能的常用标准污染布之一.探讨了水性体系中新型炭黑油污布的制备方法,分析了阿拉伯胶、平平加0、添加油剂及乳化条件(速度、时间)对污液稳定性的影响,评价了炭黑油污布的着色均匀性和洗涤性能.结果表明,以蓖麻油为添加油剂,阿拉伯胶、平平加0用量均为1.5%,经700 r/min乳化分散50 min,制得的污液稳定性较好.与油性体系中制备的标准炭黑油污布(GB/T 4288-2008)相比,炭黑油污布制备方法简单,污布色外观和洗涤性能与标准炭黑油污布相近,具有潜在的应用前景.

  1. Response of soil enzyme activity and microbial community structure, diversity to continuous cotton cropping in northern Xinjiang%棉花连作对北疆土壤酶活性、致病菌及拮抗菌多样性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李锐; 刘瑜; 褚贵新; 高慧

    2015-01-01

    本文通过测定土壤酶活性与微生物 PCR-DGGE 指纹图谱研究了北疆棉区5年棉花连作(CtN5)、10年棉花连作(CtN10)及15年棉花连作(CtN15)对土壤过氧化氢酶、蔗糖酶、芳基硫酸酯酶、脱氢酶和蛋白酶酶活性的影响,分析了土壤细菌、真菌、镰刀菌和枯草芽孢杆菌群落结构多样性对北疆棉田长期连作的响应。结果表明:过氧化氢酶、蔗糖酶、脱氢酶活性随棉花连作年限延长而下降。CtN15处理的过氧化氢酶、蔗糖酶和脱氢酶活性分别比CtN10处理下降15.0%、6.4%和12.0%,比CtN5处理下降16.8%、58.6%和49.5%(P followed by an increasing tendency from continuous cotton cropping of 10 years (CtN10) to 15 years (CtN15). The Shannon-Wiener and Simpson indices of soil total bacteria and total fungi declined markedly with increasing years of continuous cotton cropping. Compared with CtN10, the quantity of soil total bacteria gene band (DGGE fingerprint) decreased by 7.41% under CtN15. It decreased by 1.72% from CtN5 treatment to CtN10 treatment. The values of soil total fungal gene band and Shannon-Wiener diversity index were 78 and 3.22 under CtN15 treatment, suggesting respectively 17.02% and 5.29% decreases under CtN15 compared with CtN5. Compared with CtN10 treatment, the Shannon-Wiener and Simpson indices of soil bacillus community increased respectively by 54.8%and 14.5%under CtN15 treatment. Moreover, the amount of fusarium gene and bacillus gene bands as well as the related diversity indices decreased from CtN5 to CtN10 treatment, but then increased from CtN10 to CtN15. In conclusion therefore, soil enzyme activity and microbial community structure and diversity decreased with increasing years of continuous cotton cropping. Long-term, continuous cultivation of cotton had an adverse effect on soil biological characteristics in northern Xinjiang.

  2. Effect of Chitinase-Producing Strain V-8 on 3ontrolling Cotton Fusarium Wilt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to screen endophytic bacteria which is antag- onistic to cotton Fusarium wilt. [Method] Fresh cotton plants collected from cotton- growing areas in Jingzhou City, Hubei Province were used as experimental materials to isolate endophytic bacteria. Through chitinase test and co-culturing both micro-or- ganisms side by side on the same PDA culture plate, antagonistic strains to cotton Fusarium wilt were screened. [Result] A total of 83 bacterial isolates were obtained from cotton plants grown in the fields, six of which were chitinase-productive bacte- ria. Through chitinase test and co-culturing both micro-organisms side by side on the same PDA culture plate, strain V-8 which had the strongest antagonistic effect on Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum was screened. Strain V-8 had a wider anti- fungal spectrum with certain inhibitory effect on all the six important pathogenic fungi including Fusarium oxysporum f. sp niveum; it colonized stably in the rhizospheric soil of cotton, with a colonization density of up to 6.2x10s cfu/g fifty days after inoc- ulation; the relative effect on controlling cotton Fusarium wilt in pot test was 73.2%. The Findings of this study suggested that strain V-8 had great potential for biological control of cotton Fusarium wilt and could be taken as a substantial material for the cloning of chitinase genes. [Conclusion] The results from this study provides bases for the control of cotton fusarium wilt, as well as the exploitation of endophytic bac- teria resources in cotton and the development of novel biological pesticides.

  3. Effects of Long-term Fertilization on Enzyme Activities and Soil Fertility for Black Farmlands Under Different Soil Matter Levels%长期施肥对不同有机质含量农田黑土土壤酶活性及土壤肥力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈文婷; 付岩梅; 隋跃宇; 刘晓冰; 李建维

    2013-01-01

    The research investigated the effects of long-term fertilization on soil enzyme activities and soil fertility for the black farmlands under different soil organic matter levels. This study used the conventional analysis methods to test and analyze the activity of soil urease, phosphatase, invertase, protease and the contents of soil organic matter, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, available nitrogen, available phosphorus in five black farmlands soil with different soil matter content of soil spatial shift long-term experiments in National Observation Station of Hailun Agro-ecology System. The results showed that, the application of chemical fertilizers could increase the nutrient content in different degree and soil enzyme activities of black soil. The order of the raise was Bei'an (SOM11)>Nenjiang (SOM6)>Helen (SOM5)>Dehui (SOM3) > Lishu (SOM1.7). Compared to other four soils, Bei'an (SOM11) reached significant difference level(P嫩江(SOM6)>海伦(SOM5)>德惠(SOM3)>梨树(SOM1.7),北安黑土与其他4种土壤之间达到了差异显著水平(P<0.05)。相关分析结果显示:土壤脲酶、磷酸酶、蛋白酶、蔗糖酶与土壤有机质、全氮、全磷、碱解氮显著相关,土壤脲酶、蔗糖酶可以反映不同有机质含量农田黑土长期施肥后土壤质量变化趋势。

  4. Nitrate isotopes illuminate the black box of paddy soil biogeochemistry: water and carbon management control nitrogen sources and sinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, N. S.; Clough, T. J.; Johnson-Beebout, S. E.; Buresh, R. J.

    2010-12-01

    Accurate prediction of the available nitrogen (N) pool in submerged paddy soils is needed in order to produce rice, one of the world’s most essential crops, in an economically and environmentally sustainable manner. By applying emerging nitrate dual-isotope (δ15N- δ18O- NO3-) techniques to paddy systems, we were able to obtain a unique process-level quantification of the synergistic impacts of carbon (C) and water management on N availability. Soil and water samples were collected from fallow experimental plots, with or without organic C amendments, that were maintained under 1 of 3 different hydrologic regimens: continuously submerged, water excluded, or alternate wetting and drying. In continuously submerged soils the δ15N-NO3- : δ18O-NO3- signal of denitrification was not present, indicating that there was no N attenuation. Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) was the dominant factor in defining the available N pool under these conditions, with δ15N-NO3- approaching atmospheric levels as size of the pool increased. Using an isotope-based pool-mixing model, it was calculated that 10±2 µg N g-1 soil were contributed by BNF during the fallow. A lack of BNF combined with removal via denitrification (δ15N-NO3- : δ18O-NO3- = 1) caused relatively lower available N levels in dried and alternate wetting-drying soils during this period. Magnitude and net impact of denitrification was defined by the extent of drying and C availability, with rice straw C additions driving tighter coupling of nitrification and denitrification (δ15N:δ18O straw amendments ultimately retained a significantly larger available N pool due to enhanced input from soil organic matter. These findings underline the necessity of, and validate a new means for, accurate quantification micro-scale biogeochemical interactions for developing farm-scale management practices that can maximize N storage and minimize environmentally undesirable losses.

  5. Sequence composition and mapping of BACs of cotton homoeologous chromosomes 11 and 21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interest in cotton chromosome 11 and its homoeologous chromosome 21 derives from the discovery of resistance (R) or pathogen-induced R genes underlying QTLs involved in root-knot nematode, reniform nematode, Fusarium wilt, Verticillium wilt, and black root rot resistance. Genetic and QTL mapping eff...

  6. 松嫩平原典型黑土分布区土壤呼吸研究%A study of soil respiration of typical black soil in Songnen Plain, northeastern China.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国栋; 杨柯; 崔玉军; 李瑛

    2011-01-01

    We measured soil respiration in different land uses, such as crop land, fallow land and uncultivated land, located in typical black soil area of Songnen Plain. Autotrophic and heterotrophic soil respiration was distinguished by trenching. Temperature sensitivity of soil respiration (Q10) was calculated in different land use respectively. The results indicated that soil respiration was controlled by many factors, such as soil temperature, soil moisture, vegetation types and cultivation activities. Diurnal soil respiration was dominated by temperature. Autotrophie respiration by plant root occupies 50% of the soilrespiration in summer, but the ratio in spring and autumn is less than that in summer. Because of different vegetation types and different proportion of autotrophic soil respiration occupied, autotrophic soil respiration in different land use decreases in order of uncultivated land 〉 fallow land〉-erop land. Q10 of soil respiration with plants is bigger than those without plants.%在松嫩平原典型黑土分布区,选择耕地、休耕地、自然荒地3种土地利用方式进行土壤CO2呼吸研究。采用壕沟隔断法,探讨了植物根系呼吸在不同土地利用方式下的差异,采用温度敏感系数Q10分析了不同土地利用方式下土壤呼吸对温度的敏感性。结果表明:土壤呼吸受多方面因素影响,包括土壤温度、湿度、植被类型、农业生产活动等。土壤呼吸日变化过程中,温度是影响土壤呼吸速率的决定性因素。在夏季植物根系呼吸所占的比例最大,超过了50%,春秋两季根系呼吸所占的比例相对较少。受植物种类及植物根系呼吸在土壤呼吸中所占比例大小的影响,在3种不同的土地利用方式下根系自养呼吸所占的比例大小顺序依次为荒地〉休耕地〉耕地。有根系的土壤呼吸对土壤温度升高的反应要敏感些。

  7. Importância do fluxo de massa e difusão no suprimento de potássio ao algodoeiro como variável de água e potássio no solo Importance of mass flow and diffusion on the potassium supply to cotton plants as affected by soil water and potassium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. Oliveira

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A deficiência tardia de potássio na cultura do algodoeiro tem ocorrido com freqüência nas regiões do cerrado brasileiro. Um dos motivos poderia ser atribuído à baixa disponibilidade de água nessa época. Assim, procurou-se quantificar a contribuição da difusão e do fluxo de massa no suprimento de K às raízes do algodoeiro de acordo com a disponibilidade do nutriente e de água. Para tanto, realizou-se um experimento em vasos em casa de vegetação, utilizando amostras da camada arável (0-20 cm de um Latossolo Vermelho típico, com 330 mg kg-1 de argila. O experimento constou de duas doses de potássio (15 e 121 mg dm-3 , na forma de KCl, e quatro conteúdos de água (-0,03; -0,1; -0,5 e -1,0 MPa. As plantas foram colhidas aos 53 dias da emergência. A difusão foi o principal mecanismo de transporte de K no solo, variando de 72 a 96 % do total absorvido pelo algodoeiro. A influência do conteúdo de água do solo sobre os mecanismos de transporte de K foi maior em solos com maior concentração deste nutriente, razão por que o fluxo de massa cresce em importância em solos mais secos.Late season potassium (K deficiency has been observed quite frequently for cotton crops in the Brazilian cerrado region. One possible reason for such a problem could be the low water availability at this period of the season. Thus, an experiment was conducted in order to quantify the relative contribution of mass flow and diffusion in supplying K to cotton roots, as affected by soil water and K availability. The arable layer of a typic Red Latosol (Haplortox, with 630 mg kg-1 sand, 40 mg kg-1 silt, and 330 mg kg-1 clay was sampled and filled into 5 L pots. The treatments were two K rates (15 and 121 mg dm-3, applied as potassium chloride, and four levels of soil water (-0.03, -0.1, -0.5, and -1.0 MPa. Two cotton plants were grown in each pot and harvested 53 days after plant emergence. Diffusion was the main transport mechanism of K to cotton roots

  8. Facts about Cotton and Soil Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    After the United Nations Climate Change Conference 2009 in Copenhagen,environmental protection and low-carbon have been brought into spotlight.Due to the climate change,people have focused on how to do the green thing. We should live and produce in a low-carbon style.How to do this?You should pay much more attention to materials that were used in the production.

  9. Interaction Effects of Insecticides on Enzyme Activities in Black Clay Soil from Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L. Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Nasreen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In practice pesticides are extensively used in agriculture as a part of pest control strategies. Two insecticides, endosulfan (organochlorine and profenophos (organophosphate, were assessed for their effects on the activities of protease (in terms of tyrosine formed from casein and urease (as ammonia released from urea in soil, collected from a fallow groundnut field by applications of insecticides at normal field rates and at higher concentrations (1.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 kg ha-1, in a laboratory study. The results showed a strong positive influence on protease and urease enzyme activities in soil treated with 2.5 and 5.0 kg ha-1 dry soil and they were significantly (P ≤ 0.05 higher than the control over the course of incubation. In soil treatment, there was a significant increase in protease and decrease in urease activities after 24h of incubation which continued up to 20 days. However, a significant decrease in both protease and urease enzyme activities was observed in 30 and 40 days of incubation.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.60.2.671

  10. Impact of Groundwater Level on Nitrate Nitrogen Accumulation in the Vadose Zone Beneath a Cotton Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiyun Jiao

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the impacts of groundwater level on nitrate nitrogen accumulation in the vadose zone of a cotton field were investigated. Experiments were conducted in a cotton field at the CAS Ecological Agricultural Experiment Station in Nanpi from 2008 to 2010. A vertical observation well was drilled, and time-domain reflectometry probes and soil solution extractors were installed every 50 cm in the walls of the well to a depth of 5 m. The soil water content was monitored, and soil solution samples were obtained and analyzed every six days throughout the growing seasons during the three studied years. Additionally, a water consumption experiment was conducted, and the topsoil water content and leaf area index were measured in the cotton field. The resulting data were used to estimate parameters for use in a soil hydraulic and nitrate nitrogen movement model, and cotton evapotranspiration was calculated using the Penman–Monteith method. Groundwater level increases and decreases of ±4 m were simulated during a ten-year period using HYDRUS-1D. The results showed significant nitrate nitrogen accumulation in the vadose zone when the groundwater level remained unchanged or decreased, with increased accumulation as the groundwater depth increased. Additionally, increased precipitation and a deeper groundwater level resulted in greater nitrate nitrogen leaching in the cotton root zone. Therefore, irrigation and fertilization strategies should be adjusted based on precipitation conditions and groundwater depth.

  11. Utilization of Cotton DNA Markers in Cotton Breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CANTRELL Roy G; XIAO Jin-hua

    2008-01-01

    @@ Informative,portable,and efficient DNA markers have the potential to accelerate genetic gain in cotton breeding.Discovery and widespread application of DNA markers to cotton has traditionally lagged behind other major crop species.The reasons are well known to ICGI participants.The foundation for widespread development and application of DNA markers has been laid by ICGI and research within the private sector.

  12. Impact of different types of polluted irrigation water on soil fertility and wheat grain yield in clayey black soils of central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, J K; Sharma, A K; Srivastava, Ajay

    2014-04-01

    This study was carried out in three different cities of western Madhya Pradesh (India) to investigate the effects of long-term irrigation with industrial waste water (IWW), contaminated groundwater (CGW), and untreated municipal sewage water (USW) on soil fertility as well as on wheat crop yield. Irrigation with these three types of polluted water increased organic matter content as well as contents of available P (with IWW and USW only), available K, available S, available Zn, available Cu (IWW only), and available Mn (IWW and CGW only). The magnitude of improvement in soil fertility status was the highest in the case of USW, followed by IWW and finally, by CGW. Concentrations of Na in wheat leaf tissue increased by 198 and 58% whereas concentrations of Ca decreased significantly by 16 and 13% due to the use of IWW and CGW, respectively, resulting in poor Ca nutrition to the crop. Although wheat grain yield increased considerably due to USW, the same recorded significant decreases with IWW and CGW. In spite of the enhancement in the available nutrient status, decrease in wheat grain yield with the use of IWW and CGW could be due to the build-up of salts in the soil and an imbalance in the Na/Ca ratio in wheat crops irrigated with IWW and CGW. The adverse effect on wheat productivity was more pronounced with IWW as compared to CGW.

  13. [Effects of long-term fertilization on organic carbon functional groups in black soil as revealed by synchrotron radiation soft X-ray near-edge absorption spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nan; Wang, Shuai; Wang, Qing-He; Dong, Pei-Bo; Li, Cui-Lan; Zhang, Jin-Jing; Gao, Qiang; Zhao, Yi-Dong

    2012-10-01

    A 20 years (1984-2004) stationary field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of long-term application of chemical fertilizers (N or NPK) alone or in combination with low (0.125 kg x hm(-2)) or high dose of corn stalk (0.25 kg x hm(-2)) on organic carbon functional groups in black soil using synchrotron radiation soft X-ray near-edge absorption spectroscopy (C-1s NEXAFS). Compared with the control (CK) treatment, the aromatic C and the carboxyl C of soil increased, whereas the aliphatic C, the carbonyl C and the aliphatic C/aromatic C ratio decreased after the application of chemical fertilizer alone. After the application of chemical fertilizations in combined with corn stalk, the aromatic C decreased while the aliphatic C and the aliphatic C/aromatic C ratio increased as compared to N or NPK fertilizer treatment. And the change tendency was more obvious with the increase in the dose of corn stalk applied. Regardless of corn stalk application, the aromatic C, the aliphatic C, and the aliphatic C/aromatic C ratio were all higher for NPK than for N fertilizer treatment. The above results indicated that, compared with the no-fertilizer control treatment, the application of chemical fertilizers alone resulted in the relative proportion of aromatic compounds increased whereas that of aliphatic hydrocarbon compounds decreased. On the other hand, the relative proportion of the aliphatic hydrocarbon compounds was higher after the application of chemical fertilizers with than without corn stalk, with high than with low dose of corn stalk, and with NPK than with N fertilization. C-1s NEXAFS spectroscopy could characterize in situ the changes of organic carbon functional groups in soil under long-term stationary fertilization.

  14. Nitrous oxide emissions from irrigated cotton in north eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, P.; Rowlings, D.; Weier, K.; Rochester, I.; Kiese, R.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2009-04-01

    Cotton is one of many agricultural industries in Australia heavily reliant on nitrogenous fertilizers and water storages to maintain high levels of production. Cotton-based farming systems are therefore labelled as potentially high-risk agricultural systems with respect to gaseous losses of nitrogen to the atmosphere. The on-farm study was undertaken at Dalby in the Darling Downs region of Queensland in north eastern Australia. The field was furrow irrigated and had been under continuous cotton (with winter bare fallow) for 10 years. The block was conventionally tilled, with a spraying regime typical for cotton production in this area. The black clay (with a surface clay content of 68%) and soil organic carbon content (0-10 cm) of 1.0% and a pH of 8.5, is typical of the region. During the the 2006/07 season, soil water (0-50 cm with Enviroscan), mineral nitrogen (0-10 cm) and crop production data was also collected to develop accurate models for predicting greenhouse gas emissions as a function of key chemical, physical and biological processes and specific management events. The 2006/07 experiment also attempted to directly measure the specific losses of N2O and N2 from a single application of N fertiliser using 15N isotopically labelled urea. The automated greenhouse gas measuring system (developed by Butterbach-Bahl et al.) consists of six chambers connected to sequential sampling unit, a gas chromatograph (equipped with both electron capture and flame ionization detectors for nitrous oxide and methane analysis respectively), and a Licor for carbon dioxide. To meet the demand for high mobility, the sample acquisition and analysis system is trailer mounted. During a normal sampling period, the chambers were closed for 90 minutes (unless temperatures within the chambers exceeded 55oC). The sampling program ensured that that a single gas sample was drawn back from each chamber every 20 minutes. To facilitate 15N gas sampling, Swagelok T-pieces were inserted into

  15. Qualidade física do solo na produtividade da cultura do feijoeiro num Argissolo Soil physical quality on black beans yield in an Alfisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Loguércio Collares

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar as propriedades físicas e o intervalo hídrico ótimo (IHO de um Argissolo, sob diferentes estados de compactação, cultivado com feijoeiro. Foram utilizados três experimentos, cujos tratamentos constituíram-se de: plantio direto (PD; plantio direto compactado pelo tráfego de quatro passadas de máquina (PDc; e escarificação em área anteriormente sob plantio direto (Esc. Avaliaram-se a densidade, a porosidade, a umidade volumétrica e a resistência à penetração do solo. Nas plantas, avaliaram-se a distribuição do sistema radicular e a produtividade. A densidade crítica obtida pelo IHO foi de 1,75 Mg m-3. No PDc a densidade do solo foi superior à crítica na maioria das camadas, enquanto o PD e Esc apresentaram densidade acima da crítica em poucas camadas. A umidade do solo ficou fora dos limites do IHO na maior parte do ciclo da cultura. A resistência à penetração ficou acima da crítica no PDc em todas as avaliações. O sistema radicular concentrou-se superficialmente no PDc com melhor distribuição e desenvolvimento no PD e Esc. Nos três experimentos, a produtividade do Esc foi de 2 a 12% menor, e a do PDc foi de 30 a 62% menor do que no PD. A escarificação não foi necessária para as condições físicas do PD.In this work, soil properties and least limiting water range (LLWR were determined for an Alfisol under three states of compaction with black beans crop. Three experiments were used, comprising the following treatments: 12 years of no-tillage - NT; 12 years, of no-tillage compacted by four passes of a bucket loader - NTc; and chiseling of soil previously under no-tillage for 12 years - Ch. Throughout the plant cycle, bulk density, total porosity, volumetric water content, air filled porosity and soil resistance to penetration were evaluated. Plant root distribution and yield were also evaluated. The critical bulk density obtained by LLWR was 1.75 Mg m-3. In the NTc the

  16. Simultaneous determination of butachlor and clomazone in cotton and soil by high performance liquid chromatography%高效液相色谱法同时测定棉花及土壤中丁草胺和异噁草酮的残留

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新安; 陈锡岭; 赵华

    2011-01-01

    建立了同时测定丁草胺和异噁草酮棉花及土壤中的残留的高效液相色谱分析方法.样品经乙腈提取,中性氧化铝柱净化,紫外检测器检测.丁草胺和异嗯草酮的最小检出量分别为5.0×10别0和1.0×10 -9g,样品的最低检出浓度均为0.05 mg·kg-1.棉叶、棉籽和土壤中添加浓度为0.05~1.0mg·kg-1时,丁草胺的平均回收率为88.78% ~ 99.52%,相对标准偏差(RSD)为0.49%~2.09%;异嗯草酮的平均回收率为85.57%~ 101.82%,相对标准偏差(RSD)为0.97% ~2.44%.该方法的准确度、精密度及灵敏度均达到农药残留分析的要求.将该方法应用于丁草胺和异嗯草酮在棉花及土壤中的残留试验中,测得丁草胺在棉叶和土壤中的残留消解半衰期分别为2.14和2.53 d,异噁草酮在棉叶和土壤中的残留消解半衰期分别为2.80和2.82 d,收获时土壤和棉籽中丁草胺和异嗯草酮的最终残留量均小于0.05 mg· kg-1.%An analytical method was established for simultaneous determining butachlor and elomazone residues in cotton and soil. Samples were extracted with acetonitrile, cleaned up by passing through an aluminum oxide ( neutral ) column, determined by reversed-phase HPLC with an ultraviolet detector. When the sample was spiked at 0. 05 - 1. 0 mg.kg-1 , the average recovery varied from 88. 78% to 99. 52% (RSD 0. 49% -2. 09% ) for butachlor and 85. 57% to 101. 82% (RSD 0. 97% -2. 44% ) for elomazone. The lowest detection limit for butachlor and elomazone was 5. 0 × 10-10' and 1. 0× 10 -9 g, respectively. The lowest detectable concentration was 0. 05 mg-kg ' in cotton seeds and soil. The proposed method met the demands of pesticide residue analysis. The degraded dynamic in cotton leaves and soil indicated that the half lives of butachlor were 2. 14 and 2. 53 days, and the half lives of elomazone were 2. 14 and 2. 53 days. The final residues of butachlor and elomazone in soil and cotton seeds were less than0

  17. 7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade Cotton. Below leaf grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in leaf grade than...

  18. 7 CFR 28.451 - Below Color Grade Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Below Color Grade Cotton. 28.451 Section 28.451... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Color Grade Cotton § 28.451 Below Color Grade Cotton. Below color grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in color grade than...

  19. Evaluation on Diseases Resistance of Cotton Material and Its Utilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Hua-lan; HE Lian; YE Peng-sheng; ZHANG Yu; WEI Shu-gu

    2008-01-01

    @@ Fusarium wilt and Verticillium wilt are important worldwide fungal diseases on cotton that cause damage to yield and quality.The pathogens survive in soil as microsclerotia for many years,and can be transmitted through seeds,soil,stream,and plant residues.And currently,no effective chemical control is available for those diseases.Production practices have established that planting wilt diseaseresistance varieties was one of the most effective and safe measures to control those diseases with low cost.However,screening for wilt-resistance germplasm resources is the basis for resistance breeding.

  20. 小麦-玉米-大豆轮作下黑土农田土壤呼吸与碳平衡%Soil respiration and carbon budget in black soils of wheatmaize-soybean rotation system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁尧; 韩晓增; 乔云发; 李禄军; 尤孟阳

    2012-01-01

    农田生态系统是陆地生态系统的重要组成部分,探讨农田生态系统的土壤呼吸与碳平衡对于科学评价陆地生态系统在全球变化下的源汇效应具有重要意义.基于中国科学院海伦农业生态实验站的长期定位试验,对不同施肥处理下黑土小麦-玉米-大豆轮作体系2005-2007年的作物固碳量与土壤CO2排放通量进行了观测,并对该轮作体系下黑土农田生态系统的碳平衡状况进行了估算.结果表明:在小麦-玉米-大豆轮作体系中,作物固碳量的高低表现为:玉米>大豆>小麦,平均值分别为6 513 kg(C)·hm-2、4 025 kg(C)·hm-2和3 655kg(C)·hm-2,从作物生长季土壤CO2排放总量来看,3种作物以大豆农田生态系统的土壤CO2排放总量最高,平均值达4 062 kg(C)·hm-2;其次为玉米,为3 813 kg(C)·hm-2;而小麦最低,为2 326 kg(C)·hm-2.3种作物轮作下NEP(净生态系统生产力)均为正值,表明黑土农田土壤-作物系统为大气CO2的“汇”,不同作物系统的碳汇强度表现为玉米>小麦>大豆,三者的平均值分别为3 215 kg(C)·hm-2、1643 kg(C)·hm-2和512 kg(C)·hm-2.长期均衡施用氮、磷、钾化肥或氮、磷、钾化肥配施有机肥后,小麦、玉米和大豆农田生态系统的固碳量和土壤CO2排放总量均明显增加,并在氮、磷、钾配施有机肥处理下达到最高.不同的施肥管理措施将改变土壤-植物系统作为大气CO2“汇”的程度,总体表现为化肥均衡施用下NEP值较高,而化肥与有机肥配施下农田生态系统的NEP值较低.%Farmlands are important terrestrial ecosystems with characteristic soil respiration and carbon budget processes. Data from the long-term experiment at Hailun Agricultural Ecology Station of Chinese Academy of Sciences for 2005-2007 were analyzed for the characteristics of crop carbon fixation, soil cumulative CO2 flux and carbon budget in the black soils of wheat-maize-soybean rotation systems

  1. 耕作措施对东北黑土微生物呼吸的影响%Effect of Conservation Tillage on Microbial Respiration of Black Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾淑霞; 孙冰洁; 梁爱珍; 陈学文; 张士秀; 魏守才; 刘四义; 陈升龙; 张晓平

    2015-01-01

    耕作处理只改变了5 cm的Q10值,免耕比秋翻高10.8%。土壤微生物呼吸速率与土壤温度、水分混合回归模型能更好地反应其变化规律,解释土壤微生物呼吸速率变异的65%(秋翻)和81%(免耕)。【结论】免耕增加了表层(0—5 cm)的SOC含量,从而使得该土层的土壤微生物量碳和活性增加,但是由于免耕处理增加0—30 cm 土层SOC含量的加权平均值,因此相对于传统的耕作措施(秋翻),免耕有利于SOC含量的增加。%Objective] In this study, soil microbial activity and biomass carbon under 13-year conservation tillage (no-till) were assessed in a black soil agro-ecosystem in northeast China in order to determine the effect of tillage treatment on soil organic carbon and soil microbial biomass, which would provide a theoretical basis for valuing the ‘sink’ or ‘source’ function of soil carbon pool.[Method] The present study was conducted as part of a long term tillage experiment on the continuous maize (Zea mays L.), tillage treatments consisted of no-tillage (NT), and mouldboard plough (MP). The NT treatment had no soil disturbance except planting, crop residues were left on soil surface after harvest. The MP treatment included one fall mouldboard plough (about 15 cm in depth) after maize harvest, one disking (7.5 to 10 cm in depth) in spring and field cultivation (ridging in June). Soil respiration without roots represented soil microbial respiration, which was measured biweekly from 14 June 2012 to 25 September 2013 using LI-8100 automated soil CO2 flux system (LI-COR Inc., Lincoln, NE, USA), soil microbial biomass and the number of colony forming units of bacteria (cfub), fungi (cfuf), and actinomyces (cfua) were measured during the soil microbial respiration was the highest.[Result] It was found that the range of soil microbial respiration was 0.42-3.35μmolCO2·m-2·s-1under NT and 0.48-3.24μmolCO2·m-2·s-1under MP during growing season, the average soil

  2. 75 FR 24373 - Cotton Research and Promotion Program: Designation of Cotton-Producing States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... Federal Regulations is sold by the Superintendent of Documents. #0;Prices of new books are listed in the... Service 7 CFR Part 1205 RIN 0581-AC84 Cotton Research and Promotion Program: Designation of Cotton... Marketing Service (AMS) is amending the Cotton Research and Promotion Order (Cotton Order) following...

  3. LONG TERM 32-YEAR-OLD APPLICATION OF FERTILIZERS FOR THE FERTILITY OF THE ORDINARY BLACK SOIL AND PRODUCTIVITY OF SUGAR BEET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neshchadim N. N.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the effectiveness of mineral and organic fertilizers in long-term application (for more than thirty years according to the influence on the fertility of ordinary black soil of the Western Ciscaucasia and productivity of sugar beet. The investigations were carried out in the long-term stationary experiment laid on the experimental stationary section "Severokubanskaya agricultural experimental station" of P.P. Lukyanenko Krasnodar Agricultural Research Institute. The experiment was laid simultaneously in time and space in two ten-course crop rotations and combined grain-grass tilled. In the structure of sown areas sugar beet occupied 10% of crop rotation area and was placed after the winter wheat. During three rotations it was studied: 1- control without fertilizer with natural forming level of mineral nutrition; 2- minimal dose N21P26K16 3- medium dose N43P52K33 ; 4 - N43P52K33, 5- high dose N96P104K68; 6- organo-mineral system¹ N43P52K34 + 12 t/ha of manure; 7- organo-mineral system² N20P24K34 + II-III rotations tillage of straw crop + 6 t/ha of manure; 8- medium dose P52K33; 9- medium dose N43K33; 10- medium dose N43K52. The soil which is used by organo-mineral system with increased and high standards of mineral fertilizers had higher concentration of mineral nitrogen. Long systematic application of fertilizer had more noticeable effect on soil phosphorus regime. The provision of soil by exchange potassium tended to decline from rotation to rotation. If at the completion of the first rotation the content of this battery was at the level 362,0-433,0 mg / kg of soil, in 2010, these values were 356,0-405,0 mg / kg of soil, remaining at the level of increased and high provision characterized to ordinary black-soil. Fertilizers for crop rotation provided almost equal yield increase: in the first rotation - 4,9-16,0 t / ha in the second 5,3- 17,1, the third 6,1-15,5 t / ha. In the moderate favorable for moisture and

  4. 黑碳添加对土壤活性有机碳和原有机碳的影响%Effects of Black Carbon Addition on Soil Labile Organic Carbon and Native Soil Organic Carbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李淑香; 尹云锋; 杨玉盛; 高人; 马红亮; 李芳芳

    2013-01-01

    Black carbon (BC) is an important pool of the global C cycle. However, very little is known about the effect of BC addition on soil labile organic carbon and native soil organic carbon. In the study, BC was produced by charring the rice straw under 350℃ and mixed with soil under different rates of addition levels (0, 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%), and incubated for 56 days at 25 ℃. The results indicated that soil easily mineralization carbon (Cm) increased with the increase of BC addition level, and soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) content had the similar trend (exception for 3%). Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content in soil showed no significant difference among the lower addition levels (1%, 2%, 3%), but it was obviously lower in BC amended soils (1%, 2%, 3%) relative to the unamended soils. Using natural 13C abundance method, the results suggested that BC addition inhibited the native SOC decomposition at rate of 1% BC addition, but stimulated the native SOC decomposition at rates of 2%, 3%, 4% and 5% BC addition. However, the effects of BC additions on the native SOC decomposition were not significant among different treatments.%通过室内培养实验,向土壤(甘蔗土)中分别添加不同用量的黑碳(BC,350℃热解水稻秸秆),添加量分别为0(BC0)、1%(BC1)、2%(BC2)、3%(BC3)、4%(BC4)和5%(BC5),研究黑碳添加量对土壤活性有机碳和原有机碳的影响.结果表明,在25℃培养条件下,土壤易矿化碳(Cm)随黑碳添加量的增加而增加;土壤微生物生物量碳含量亦随添加量的增加呈增加趋势(BC3处理除外).土壤可溶性有机碳含量在BC1、BC2和BC3处理之间的差异不显著,并显著低于对照土壤(BC0);应用δ13C自然丰度方法研究发现,BC1处理抑制了土壤原有机碳分解,而BC2、BC3、BC4和BC5处理促进了土壤原有机碳的分解,但统计上未达显著水平.

  5. Uncertainties Mounting, Cotton Price Becomes Volatile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Junfei

    2010-01-01

    @@ In the domestic market, the unre-mitting foul weather has delayed cotton picking by two weeks with downgraded quality; in the inter-national market, factors such as sus-pension of cotton export in India and disaster-affecting cotton yield in Paki-stan have led to such a market anticipa-tion that cotton stock across the world is to show another decline trend in the upcoming year. The unanimous market anticipation has resulted in a surge in cotton price during the Mid-autumn Festival: the transaction price for un-loading cotton inventories has increased by nearly RMB 3,000/ton, the price for purchasing new cotton has gone beyond RMB 25,000/ton and the cost for the imported cotton with owned quota (effect shipment after the next Spring Festival)has exceeded RMB 21,000/ton.

  6. China International Cotton Conference Concluded in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The 2007 China International Cotton Conference was held on June 27-29 in Urumqi, Xinjiang Municipality, China. With the theme "China's Cotton Industry on WTO and It's Implications The Global Market".

  7. Black to Black

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Michael Alexander

    2012-01-01

    ’s a lifestyle I enjoy.” For Monáe, the tuxedo is both working clothes and a superhero uniform. Together with futuristic references to Fritz Lang’s dystopian Metropolis, her trademark starched shirt and tuxedo also recall Weimar and pre-war Berlin. While outwardly dissimilar, Sioux’s and Monáe’s shared black...... suggested that appreciation of the highly personal motives of both Siouxsie Sioux and Janelle Monáe in wearing black may be achieved via analogies with the minimalist sublime of American artists Frank Stella’s and Ad Reinhardt’s black canvasses....

  8. CCI President Participated in China Cotton Summit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    On May 7-8 the 2010 China Cotton Summit and the International Cotton Fair were held in Sanya,Hainan Province,China.Mr.Wallace L.Darneille, the new president of Cotton Council International(CCI) made a special trip to China to participate in the event and present on the"cotton and textile supply and demand situation in the U.S."

  9. GRAFTING OF HUMIC ACID ONTO COTTON CELLULOSE (Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Qi; ZHANG Dehe

    1988-01-01

    Cotton cellulose reacted with epichlorohydrin under the catalytic action of HClO4 and H2O to form 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl ether with a substitution degree of 0.61. The chlorine-containing product was treated with aliphatic diamines (ethylenediamine, propylenediamine, etc.) to produce nitrogen-containing cellulose which further reacted with humic acid to give black fiberous graft cellulose. This product contains 27-35%humic acid, 0.90 meq/g acidic groups, possesses 0.49 meq/g Cu2 +-complexing capacity and good mechanical strength, and can be used under pH12.

  10. Efficacy of Fumigant Nematicides to Control Hoplolaimus columbus on Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noe, J P

    1990-10-01

    Four rates of methyl bromide (Mbr) (16.8, 33.6, 67,2, and 134.4 kg a.i./ha) and one rate of 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) (28.1 liters a.i./ha) were evaluated over 2 years for control of Hoplolaimus columbus on cotton. All nematicide treatments were applied through a tarpless subsoiler-bedder prior to planting cotton, Gossypium hirsutum cv. Dehapine 90. Nematode population densities were monitored before and after treatment, at midseason, and at harvest, and yields were measured at maturity. Soil fertility variables (pH, P, K, Ca, Mg) were measured for each plot. Cotton yields were significantly increased by treatment with 1,3-D in 1988 and by all nematicidal treatments in 1989. Levels of nematode control varied from year to year among treatments. The responses of H. columbus numbers to rate of Mbr were best described by quadratic regression models. Levels of soil calcium and magnesium were significant factors in a multiple regression model relating a measure of control efficacy to rates of Mbr.

  11. THE INFLUENCE OF FERTILIZERS ON THE FORMATION OF STRUCTURAL PARAMETERS OF YIELD AND QUALITY OF WINTER WHEAT ON LEACHED BLACK SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salenko E. A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the results of programming of a yield of winter wheat grain on quality and productivity of winter wheat in the conditions of teaching and experimental farm of Stavropol upland. There were given the weather conditions during the research, their influence on the formation of the structure yield and quality of winter wheat. We have presented an analysis and a comparative evaluation of the structure of the winter wheat crop, including a variety of quantitative traits: the length of the stem and ear, number of grains per ear, mass of one ear, weight of 1000 grains, tillering and overall productivity yields. This scientific article describes the technical requirements to the content: protein, gluten, vitreous, the DCO, the class of grain. In general, the results of 4-year data on leached black soils of Stavropol Upland were the largest and the best indicators on the structure of winter wheat yield and grain quality, as they were obtained with the introduction of the planned dose N126R80K72 harvest of 6.0 t/ha according to the method of calculation by V.V. Ageev, planned yield levels 5.0 and 6.0 t / ha have been achieved, the accuracy of programming (99% was obtained by calculating the doses of fertilizers by the method of V. V. Ageev

  12. Greige cotton comber noils for sustainable nonwovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    To increase utilization of cotton in value-added nonwoven products, a study was conducted to examine the feasibility of utilizing cotton textile processing/combing bye-product known as griege cotton comber noils. The study was conducted on a commercial-grade, textile-cum-nonwovens pilot plant and ha...

  13. Characterization of a Cotton Fiber Gene Promoter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Cotton fibers are unicellular trichomes derived from outer integument cells of the ovule.Our previously study showed that cotton R2R3 MYB transcript factor GaMYB2 could complement the Arabidopsis trichome mutant of glabra1(gl1),suggesting that cotton fiber initiation and Arabidopsis leaf

  14. Toward cotton molecular breeding: challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton (Gossypium spp) is the leading natural fiber in the global textile market, but progress in the development and applications of molecular tools to improve cotton lags behind other major crop plants. The slow progress is in part due to cotton's large complex allotetraploid genome of 26 partial...

  15. Sequencing the Cotton Genomes-Gossypium spp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PATERSON Andrew H

    2008-01-01

    @@ The genomes of most major crops,including cotton,will be fully sequenced in the next fewyears.Cotton is unusual,although not unique,in that we will need to sequence not only cultivated(tetraploid) genotypes but their diploid progenitors,to understand how elite cottons have surpassedthe productivity and quality of their progenitors.

  16. 7 CFR 1205.308 - Cotton Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton Board. 1205.308 Section 1205.308 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.308 Cotton Board. Cotton Board means the...

  17. 7 CFR 1205.305 - Upland cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.305 Section 1205.305 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.305 Upland cotton. Upland cotton means all...

  18. 黑碳不同添加量对土壤有机碳矿化的影响%Effects of Different Addition Rate of Black Carbon on Soil Organic Carbon Mineralization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李淑香; 李芳芳

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探讨黑碳不同添加量对土壤有机碳矿化的影响.[方法]将350℃下制备的黑碳分别以0% (BC0)、1% (BCl)、2% (BC2)、3% (BC3)、4% (BC4)和5% (BC5)6个不同用量添加到土壤中,恒温25℃培养56 d.[结果]在整个培养过程中,土壤CO2释放速率和土壤CO2-C累积释放量均表现为BC5> BC4> BC3> BC2> BC1.培养至56 d,BC分解率介于0.24%~2.12%.[结论]黑碳对维持土壤碳库平衡具有重要的作用.%[ Objective] The study aimed to study the effects of addition rate of black carbon on soil organic carbon mineralization. [ Method] BC was produced by charring the rice straw under 350 ℃ and was mixed into soil with different addition rate (BC0, BC1, BC2, BC3, BC4, BC5 , respectively) , and incubated for 56 days at 25 ℃. [ Results] During the whole incubation period, soil CO2 releasing rate and the accumulation amount of soil CO2-C changed with the following order: BC5 > BC4 > BC3 > BC2 > BC1. After 56 days of incubation, the decomposition rate of black carbon ranged from 0.24% to 2. 12% . [ Conclusion] Black carbon was of great importance in maintaining the balance of soil carbon pool.

  19. 土壤生境抑制烟草根黑腐病研究进展%Research Advance of Suppression Effect of Soil Habitat on Tobacco Black Root Rot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶兴义; 霍沁建; 曹务栋; 张梦; 蒋卫

    2011-01-01

    Tobacco black root rot once resulting in great loss was a worldwide fungal disease. This paper gave a concise introduction on the outbreak of tobacco black root rot in our nation recent years, and the pathogenicbacteria, biological characteristics, infection and symptom of this disease, and then summarized the effects of soil habitat factors, included soil physi-chemical properties, soil nutrient status, root exudates and soil microorganism, on tobacco black root rot. At last, we raised some procedures, such as improving field management and cultivation strategies, reasonable fertilization and biocontrol, to ameliorate soil habitat and control the disease.%烟草根黑腐病是一种世界性真菌病,曾给各主要种烟国造成巨大损失.为此简述了近20年来烟草根黑腐病在中国各主要种烟省份爆发流行的状况,并对此病害的病原菌、生物学特性、侵染和病症特征加以介绍,总结了土壤理化性质、土壤养分状况、根系分泌物和土壤微生物等土壤生境因子对该病病原菌存活、侵染、病害爆发的影响,提出通过加强田间管理、改进栽培策略、合理施用肥料、引入生物防治等措施,以改善土壤生境为目标,抑制烟草根黑腐病爆发.

  20. Utilizing management zones for Rotylenchulus reniformis in cotton: Effects on nematode levels, crop damage, and Pasteuria sp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nematode management zones (MZs) based on soil electrical conductivity (EC, a proxy for soil texture) have not been published for R. reniformis. We tested 1) whether R. reniformis levels and the amount of damage caused to cotton differed among MZs, 2) if the relative effectiveness of nematicides dif...

  1. Potential of Endophytic Fungi Isolated from Cotton Roots for Biological Control against Verticillium Wilt Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingfei; Li, Zhifang; Shi, Yongqiang; Zhao, LiHong; Feng, Zili; Zhu, Heqin

    2017-01-01

    Verticillium wilt is a soil-borne disease, and severely limits the development of cotton production. To investigate the role of endophytic fungi on Verticillium wilt, CEF-818 (Penicillium simplicissimum), CEF-714 (Leptosphaeria sp.), CEF-642 (Talaromyces flavus.) and CEF-193 (Acremonium sp.) isolated from cotton roots were used to assess their effects against cotton wilt disease caused by a defoliating V. dahliae strain Vd080. In the greenhouse, all treatments significantly reduced disease incidence and disease index, with the control efficacy ranging from 26% (CEF-642) to 67% (CEF-818) at 25 days (d) after inoculation. In the disease nursery, compared to controls (with disease incidence of 33.8% and disease index of 31), CEF-818, CEF-193, CEF-714 and CEF-642 provided a protection effect of 69.5%, 69.2%, 54.6% and 45.7%, respectively. Especially, CEF-818 and CEF-714 still provided well protection against Verticillium wilt with 46.9% and 56.6% or 14.3% and 33.7% at the first peak of the disease in heavily infected field, respectively (in early July). These results indicated that these endophytes not only delayed but also reduced wilt symptoms on cotton. In the harvest, the available cotton bolls of plant treated with CEF-818 and CEF-714 increased to 13.1, and 12.2, respectively. And the seed cotton yield significantly increased after seed bacterization with CEF-818 (3442.04 kg/ha) compared to untreated control (3207.51 kg/ha) by 7.3%. Furtherly, CEF-818 and CET-714 treatment increased transcript levels for PAL, PPO, POD, which leads to the increase of cotton defense reactions. Our results indicate that seed treatment of cotton plants with CEF-818 and CET-714 can help in the biocontrol of V. dahliae and improve seed cotton yield in cotton fields. This study provided a better understanding of cotton-endophyte interactions which will aid in developing effective biocontrol agents for Verticillium wilt of cotton in futhre. PMID:28107448

  2. 控释氮肥对棉花植株N素吸收、土壤硝态氮累积及产量的影响%Effects of Controlled Release of N Fertilizer on Plant Tissue N Absorption and Accumulation of Soil Nitrate Nitrogen and Yield of Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡伟; 张炎; 胡国智; 李青军; 汤明尧

    2011-01-01

    通过2年田间定位试验研究了控释氮肥和普通氮肥不同用量对棉花植株N素吸收和土壤硝态氮累积及产量的影响.结果表明:2008年控释氮肥处理植株N素吸收量和吸收速率在苗期和蕾期小于普通氮肥,但花期以后超过后者,并维持较高水平,2009年的N素吸收量控释氮肥始终高于普通氮肥,同时,控释氮肥不同程度地提高了氮肥表观利用率;在施氮量小于180 kg·hm-2条件下,苗期土壤硝态氮累积量(0~90 cm)较高,而在蕾期和铃期其硝态氮量相对降低,相同肥料品种处理的土壤硝态氮累积量与施氮量成正相关,控释氮肥养分释放相对稳定,并对下年度产生后续影响;同一肥料品种下,棉花皮棉产量随施氮量增加而增加,控释氮肥处理高于普通氮肥,且氮肥农学利用率明显提高,其中施N量126 kg·hm-2的控释氮肥处理,可以达到或超过普通氮肥180kg·hm-2N素处理的产量水平.%Field experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of different amounts of controlled release nitrogenous fertilizer and common urea on cotton yield, along with nitrate-N accumulation in soil and N absorption in plant tissue in 2008 and 2009. The results showed that N concentration volume and rate of plant tissue were less for controlled release N-fertilizer than that of common urea during seedling and bud stage, respectively, but exceeded the latter after florescence and maintain higher level in 2008. N concentration volume for the controlled-release kept higher all along in 2009, increased the N apparent nutrient availability as well; Nitrate-N accumulation of field soil( 0~90 cm) in cotton seedling stage was higher than, then falling lower in bud stage and boll stage on condition that N-fertilizer applied less than 180 kg· hm-2. Nitrate-N accumulation was in direct proportion to rates of N-fertilizer applied. Nutrient of controlled release N fertilizer released relatively stable and could produce

  3. Trade Statistics: Cotton Yarn & Fabric in Feb.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Cotton is the single most important textile fiber in the world,accounting for nearly 40 percent of total world fiber production.While some 80 countries from around the globe produce cotton,the United States,China,and India together provide over half the world's cotton.This monthly update provides official CNTAC (China National Textile & Apparel Council ) data on China import and export of cotton yarn and cotton fabric,to show a general profile of China's foreign trade in current textile industry.

  4. Abundance and diversity of soybean-nodulating rhizobia in black soil are impacted by land use and crop management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jun; Han, Xiao Zeng; Ji, Zhao Jun; Li, Yan; Wang, En Tao; Xie, Zhi Hong; Chen, Wen Feng

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the effects of land use and crop management on soybean rhizobial communities, 280 nodule isolates were trapped from 7 fields with different land use and culture histories. Besides the known Bradyrhizobium japonicum, three novel genospecies were isolated from these fields. Grassland (GL) maintained a higher diversity of soybean bradyrhizobia than the other cultivation systems. Two genospecies (Bradyrhizobium spp. I and III) were distributed widely in all treatments, while Bradyrhizobium sp. II was found only in GL treatment. Cultivation with soybeans increased the rhizobial abundance and diversity, except for the soybean monoculture (S-S) treatment. In monoculture systems, soybeans favored Bradyrhizobium sp. I, while maize and wheat favored Bradyrhizobium sp. III. Fertilization decreased the rhizobial diversity indexes but did not change the species composition. The organic carbon (OC) and available phosphorus (AP) contents and pH were the main soil parameters positively correlated with the distribution of Bradyrhizobium spp. I and II and Bradyrhizobium japonicum and negatively correlated with Bradyrhizobium sp. III. These results revealed that different land uses and crop management could not only alter the diversity and abundance of soybean rhizobia, but also change interactions between rhizobia and legume or nonlegume plants, which offered novel information about the biogeography of rhizobia.

  5. Primary Studies on Cotton Telomere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LING Jian; PENG Ren-hai; WANG Kun-bo; WANG Chun-ying; SONG Guo-li; LIU Fang; LI Shao-hui; ZHANG Xiang-di; WANG Yu-hong

    2008-01-01

    @@ The Arabidopsis -type telomere sequence was amplified and cloned using the primers designed from the fragment which contained the telomere sequence in an Arabidopsis BAC.In situ hybridizations with cotton metaphase chromosomes,using the telomere as probe,it indicated that the signals were located at all chromosome ends of 7 diploid and 2 tetraploid cotton species.To identify the signals of FISH,the genome DNA of Xinhai 7,digested by Bal31 kinetics,was used in this study.

  6. Short-term effects of tillage practices on soil organic carbon turnover assessed by δ13C abundance in particle-size fractions of black soils from northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Aizhen; Chen, Shenglong; Zhang, Xiaoping; Chen, Xuewen

    2014-01-01

    The combination of isotope trace technique and SOC fractionation allows a better understanding of SOC dynamics. A five-year tillage experiment consisting of no-tillage (NT) and mouldboard plough (MP) was used to study the changes in particle-size SOC fractions and corresponding δ (13)C natural abundance to assess SOC turnover in the 0-20 cm layer of black soils under tillage practices. Compared to the initial level, total SOC tended to be stratified but showed a slight increase in the entire plough layer under short-term NT. MP had no significant impacts on SOC at any depth. Because of significant increases in coarse particulate organic carbon (POC) and decreases in fine POC, total POC did not remarkably decrease under NT and MP. A distinct increase in silt plus clay OC occurred in NT plots, but not in MP plots. However, the δ (13)C abundances of both coarse and fine POC increased, while those of silt plus clay OC remained almost the same under NT. The C derived from C3 plants was mainly associated with fine particles and much less with coarse particles. These results suggested that short-term NT and MP preferentially enhanced the turnover of POC, which was considerably faster than that of silt plus clay OC.

  7. Decontamination tests on cotton materials; Essais de decontamination sur tissus de coton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, P.; Pelletier, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    It is shown that versene gives the best decontamination results on cotton materials soiled by a mixture of fission products. (author) [French] On a montre que le versene donne les meilleurs resultats de decontamination sur des tissus de coton souilles par un melange de produits de fission. (auteur)

  8. Cooperative action of cellulase enzyme and carboxymethyl cellulose on cotton fabric cleanability from a topographical standpoint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calvimontes, A.; Lant, N.J.; Dutschk, V.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the effect of cotton treatment with cellulose and carboxymethyl cellulose on soil release of three different types of fabric: woven plain, woven twill and knitted were systematically studied. A recent study of the effect of a cleaning cellulase enzyme on cellulose films has proven tha

  9. Cutinase promotes dry esterification of cotton cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoman, Zhao; Teresa, Matama; Artur, Ribeiro; Carla, Silva; Jing, Wu; Jiajia, Fu; Artur, Cavaco-Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Cutinase from Thermobifida fusca was used to esterify the hydroxyl groups of cellulose with the fatty acids from triolein. Cutinase and triolein were pre-adsorbed on cotton and the reaction proceeded in a dry state during 48 h at 35°C. The cutinase-catalyzed esterification of the surface of cotton fabric resulted in the linkage of the oleate groups to the glycoside units of cotton cellulose. The superficial modification was confirmed by performing ATR-FTIR on treated cotton samples and by MALDI-TOF analysis of the liquors from the treatment of the esterified cotton with a crude cellulase mixture. Modified cotton fabric also showed a significant increase of hydrophobicity. This work proposes a novel bio-based approach to obtain hydrophobic cotton.

  10. China's Cotton Policy and the Impact of China's WTO Accession and Bt Cotton Adoption on the Chinese and U.S. Cotton Sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng Fang; Bruce A. Babcock

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we provide an analysis of China's cotton policy and develop a framework to quantify the impact of both China's World Trade Organization (WTO) accession and Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) cotton adoption on Chinese and U.S. cotton sectors. We use a Chinese cotton sector model consisting of supply, demand, price linkages, and textiles output equations. A two-stage framework model provides gross cropping area and total area for cotton and major subsitute crops from nine cotton-produci...

  11. Rendimento de feijão e alterações no pH e na matéria orgânica do solo em função de doses de composto de resíduo de algodão Yield of bean plant and changes in pH and soil organic matter as a function of doses of compost cotton waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvio Júnio Ramos

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o rendimento de feijão e as alterações no pH e na matéria orgânica do solo após a aplicação do composto de resíduo de algodão. Para tanto, instalou-se o experimento em condições de campo, em um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso com cinco tratamentos constituídos por doses (0, 20, 40, 60, 80t ha-1 de resíduo de algodão compostado oriundo da indústria têxtil, com cinco repetições. Verificou-se que a aplicação do resíduo de algodão compostado promoveu melhoria nas características produtivas do feijoeiro submetido ao manejo orgânico e elevou os valores de pH e matéria orgânica do solo. Desse modo, o composto utilizado mostrou-se como uma alternativa para a adubação da cultura.The objective of this research was to evaluate the yield of bean plants and changes in pH and soil organic matter after compost cotton waste application. An experiment was carried out in an Acrisol. The experimental design was of randomized blocks with five levels of cotton waste compost (0, 20, 40, 60, 80t ha-1 from the textile factory, in five replications. The application of the cotton waste compost promoted increase in the growth and productive characteristics in bean crop, and increased the pH values and soil organic matter. Thus, the compost showed as an alternative for fertilization of the culture.

  12. 7 CFR 1427.165 - Eligible seed cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible seed cotton. 1427.165 Section 1427.165... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.165 Eligible seed cotton. (a) Seed cotton pledged as collateral for a loan must be tendered to CCC by...

  13. Future of Cotton in Nonwovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although cotton offers several positive attributes, such as absorbency of liquids, dyeability, transportation and dissipation of moisture for wear comfort, static-freedom, sustainability, biodegradability and bioconsumability, and the like, its use in nonwoven products has been minimal. In order to ...

  14. Transgene Stacking in Cotton Improvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ye-hua; WANG Xue-kui; YAO Ming-jing; FAN Yu-peng; GAO Da-yu

    2008-01-01

    @@ To date,more and more transgenic varieties of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsuturn L.) generated with transgenes,which derived from varies of alien species,are playing important role in agricultural production.Stacking of multi-transgenes has a potential for combining all the merits of distinct transgenic lines in a cultivar and possibly makes a significant contribution to cultivar improvement.

  15. Cocoa/Cotton Comparative Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    With genome sequence from two members of the Malvaceae family recently made available, we are exploring syntenic relationships, gene content, and evolutionary trajectories between the cacao and cotton genomes. An assembly of cacao (Theobroma cacao) using Illumina and 454 sequence technology yielded ...

  16. Anthraquinone dyes for superhydrophobic cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salabert, J; Sebastián, R M; Vallribera, A

    2015-09-28

    Water-repellent, self-cleaning and stain resistant textiles are of interest for industrial applications. Anthraquinone reactive dyes were covalently grafted onto cotton fabric surfaces obtaining bright colors with good wash-fastness properties and giving rise to breathable superhydrophobic textiles with self-cleaning properties.

  17. Transgene Stacking in Cotton Improvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    To date,more and more transgenic varieties of upland cotton(Gossypium hirsutum L.) generated with transgenes,which derived from varies of alien species,are playing important role in agricultural production.Stacking of multi-transgenes has a potential for combining all the merits of distinct

  18. 6-Benzyladenine enhancement of cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of applied plant growth regulators (PGR) on growth, development and yield in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. and Gossypium barbadense L.) has been studied for over half a century. Studies of PGR containing cytokinin alone or in combination with gibbererillins applied at the pinhead squa...

  19. Primary Studies on Cotton Telomere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Arabidopsis-type telomere sequence was amplified and cloned using the primers designed from the fragment which contained the telomere sequence in an Arabidopsis BAC.In situ hybridizations with cotton metaphase chromosomes,using the telomere as probe,it indicated that the signals

  20. Characteristics of Black Soil Fertility and Comprehensive Assessment Under Long-term Fertilization%长期施肥下黑土肥力特征及综合评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝小雨; 周宝库; 马星竹; 高中超

    2015-01-01

    为探索黑土区耕地质量稳定提升、作物持续稳产高产的有效施肥模式,利用始于1979年的定位试验,研究了长期不同施肥措施对黑土物理性质(1项)、化学性质(8项)和生物肥力指标(4项)的影响,并运用主成分分析和聚类分析对其进行了综合评价。结果表明:长期施肥增加土壤养分含量,有机无机肥配施降低土壤容重。长期单施化肥导致土壤酸化,有机无机肥配施减缓土壤酸化。运用主成分分析对13个土壤肥力指标降维,提取到3个主成分,涵盖了原始数据信息总量的89.6%。系统聚类得到不同施肥措施的培肥效果为N2 P2 M2> NPKM 、NPM >M2、M >NPK、N2 P2>NP、CK ,有机肥与化肥配施为黑土最佳的培肥模式。综合评价培肥土壤、作物产量和环境效应,推荐常量化肥和有机肥配施(MNPK)为黑土最佳培肥模式。%In order to explore the effective fertilization mode to improve the cultivated land quality ,and crop con‐tinuous output ,based on long‐term experiment with various fertilizations in black soil of northeast China ,soil physical property (bulk density ) ,chemical properties (organic matter ,total nitrogen ,total phosphorus ,total potassium ,available nitrogen ,available phosphorus ,available potassium and pH ) ,and biological properties (dissolved organic carbon ,dissolved organic nitrogen ,soil microbial biomass carbon and soil microbial biomass nitrogen) were analyzed .Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were used to evaluate these data .The results showed that long‐term fertilization could increase soil nutrient content , and compared with non‐fertilization and chemical fertilizer treatments ,combined application of organic manure and inorganic fertilizer reduced soil bulk density .Long‐term fertilization of chemical fertilizer could make the soil acidification ,and organic manure and

  1. Cotton and Climate Change: Impacts and Options to mitigate and adapt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ton, P.

    2012-04-01

    Cotton & Climate change: Impacts and Options to mitigate and adapt. Climate change will have major impacts on cotton production and trade depending on production location. This report to be presented analyses the impacts of climate change on cotton production and trade in the main producing areas world-wide, and the options available to mitigate and to adapt to these impacts. Cotton production is both a contributor to climate change and subject to its impacts. Agricultural production, processing, trade and consumption contribute up to 40% of the world's emissions when forest clearance is included in the calculation. Cotton production contributes to between 0.3% and 1% of total global GHG emissions. Cotton has a certain resilience to high temperatures and drought due to its vertical tap root. The crop is, however, sensitive to water availability, particularly at the height of flowering and boll formation. Rising temperatures favour plant development, unless day temperatures exceed 32°C. New production areas may be established where cotton was not grown before. Increases in atmospheric CO2 will also favour plant development. In turn, increased pests, water stress, diseases, and weather extremes will pose adaptation challenges. Overall, the negative impacts of climate change on cotton production relate to the reduced availability of water for irrigation, in particular in Xinjiang (China), Pakistan, Australia and the western United States. Heat stress risks creating depressed yields in Pakistan in particular, while in other countries limited increases in temperatures could favour cotton plant growth and lengthen the cotton growing season. The impacts of climate change on rainfall will likely be positive in the Yellow River area (China), in India, the south-eastern United States and south-eastern Anatolia (Turkey). Impacts on rainfall in Brazil and West and Central Africa are unclear. Mitigation and adaptation to climate change in cotton production, as in agriculture

  2. Phosphorus use efficiency by cotton measured through 32P isotope technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcante, N. C.; Muraoka, T.; Camacho, M. A.; César, F. R. C. F.; Bruno, I. P.

    2012-04-01

    Deficiency of phosphorus (P) is the major limitation to agricultural production in the Brazilian Savannah (Cerrado), which is naturally poor in this nutrient. Most of the P applied by fertilizer in Cerrado soils are converted into low solubility forms and can not be easily absorbed by plants. This occurs for characteristics of adsorption, conditioned by the predominance of low pH and aluminum and iron oxides in the clay fraction. The development of genotypes and cultivars with greater capacity to grow up in soils with low P availability ('phosphorus efficiency') is interesting to improve the agriculture in these areas in a sustainable way. Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is the main product for the fibers used nationally and globally in the textile chain. This study aim was to evaluate the efficiency of absorption and utilization of P by cotton cultivars/genotypes grown in Cerrado soil by the isotopic dilution technique. The soil classified as Ultisols, was labeled with the radioisotope 32P.The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in a completely randomized design factorial 2 x 17. Factors were considered two levels of P (insufficient = 20 mg kg-1 and sufficient = 120 mg kg-1) and 17 genetic materials of cotton recommended for Cerrado region. Phosphorus levels influenced significantly the shoots dry matter production, the P content and accumulation, the 32P specific activity, the L value and L value less seed cotton P by cultivars and genotypes. The hierarchical clustering analysis used to verify the similarities between the cultivars and genotypes of cotton, classified them into internally homogeneous groups and heterogeneous between different groups. Cultivars FMT 523, FM 910 and CNPA GO 2043 were the most responsive to phosphate fertilizer in sufficient level of P, while the genotype Barbadense 01 and cultivars FM 966LL, IPR Jataí, BRS Aroeira and BRS Buriti were most efficient absorbing P in soils with insufficient level.

  3. Picão-preto: uma planta daninha especial em solos tropicais Black jack: a special weed in tropical soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.B Santos

    2011-01-01

    , it is difficult to identify those which are associated with higher competitive capacity and expressiveness. This species presents biotypes resistant to some herbicides, rendering its control difficult in agricultural areas. The use of other management methods is also difficult, due to the wide variation in the flow of propagule dissemination, germination and emergence, as well as the beneficial association of this weed with microorganisms present in the soil. Although this plant has aggressive infesting characteristics, this work has reported some mechanisms that can be used for its integrated management. B. pilosa also presents medical properties, with extensive scientific studies being necessary in order to obtain benefits.

  4. Cold Pad-Batch dyeing method for cotton fabric dyeing with reactive dyes using ultrasonic energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Zeeshan; Memon, Muhammad Hanif; Khatri, Awais; Tanwari, Anwaruddin

    2011-11-01

    Reactive dyes are vastly used in dyeing and printing of cotton fibre. These dyes have a distinctive reactive nature due to active groups which form covalent bonds with -OH groups of cotton through substitution and/or addition mechanism. Among many methods used for dyeing cotton with reactive dyes, the Cold Pad Batch (CPB) method is relatively more environment friendly due to high dye fixation and non requirement of thermal energy. The dyed fabric production rate is low due to requirement of at least twelve hours batching time for dye fixation. The proposed CPB method for dyeing cotton involves ultrasonic energy resulting into a one third decrease in batching time. The dyeing of cotton fibre was carried out with CI reactive red 195 and CI reactive black 5 by conventional and ultrasonic (US) method. The study showed that the use of ultrasonic energy not only shortens the batching time but the alkalis concentrations can considerably be reduced. In this case, the colour strength (K/S) and dye fixation (%F) also enhances without any adverse effect on colour fastness of the dyed fabric. The appearance of dyed fibre surface using scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed relative straightening of fibre convolutions and significant swelling of the fibre upon ultrasonic application. The total colour difference values ΔE (CMC) for the proposed method, were found within close proximity to the conventionally dyed sample.

  5. 海南典型胡椒园土壤化学肥力现状分析与评价%Analysis and Assessment of Soil Chemical Fertility in Typical Black Pepper Gardens in Hainan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建峰; 邢谷杨; 孙燕; 王华; 邬华松; 郑维全

    2009-01-01

    Top soil(0~20cm) samples collected from 30 gardens of Black Pepper (Piper nigrum) in Hainan Province were tested. The results showed that the soil pH of 50% soil samples was obviously lower(≤4.5); that soil organic matter of 13.33% soil samples was in low status; that total N and alkali hydrolysable N were abundant; that 23.33% and 30.00% of soil samples were deficient of available P and K respectively; that the soil samples were heavily deficient of available Ca, Mg and B but rich in available Fe, Zn and S; and that 10.00% of the soil samples were deficient of available Mn and Cu.%对海南各市县30个胡椒园中O~20 cm土层的土壤样品进行了测试分析.结果表明,有一半的土壤样品pH≤4.5;13.33%的土壤样品有机质含量偏低;土壤全N、碱解N丰富;23.33%的土壤样品缺少有效P;30.00%的土壤样品缺少有效K;交换性Ca、Mg严重缺乏;有效Fe、Zn、S丰富,有效B严重缺乏,10.00%的土壤样品均缺乏有效Mn、Cu.

  6. Biosafety assessment of transgenic Bt cotton on model animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Bano

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: To know the effects of transgenic crops on soil microorganisms, animals and other expected hazards due to the introduction of GM crops into the environment is critical both scientifically and environmentally. The work was conducted to study the effect of insecticidal Bt protein on Rats and Earthworms. Methods: For this purpose, animals like rat and soil organisms like Earthworm were selected. Rats were selected on the basis of its 95% homology on genomic, cellular and enzymatic level with human while earthworm were preferred on the basis of their direct contact with soil to evaluate the impact of Bt (Cry1AC crop field soil on earthworm, secreted by root exudates of Bt cotton. Several physical, molecular, biochemical and histological analyses were performed on both Rats/Earthworms fed on standard diet (control group as well containing Bt protein (experimental group. Results: Molecular analyses such as immune Dot blot, SDS-PAGE, ELISA and PCR, confirmed the absence of Cry1Ac protein in blood and urine samples of rats, which were fed with Bt protein in their diet. Furthermore, histological studies showed that there was no difference in cellular architecture in liver, heart, kidney and intestine of Bt and non-Bt diet fed rats. To see the effect of Bt on earthworm two different groups were studied, one with transgenic plant field soil supplemented with grinded leaves of cotton and second group with non-Bt field soil. Conclusions: No lethal effects of transgenic Bt protein on the survival of earthworm and rats were observed. Bradford assay, Dipstick assay ELISA demonstrated the absence of Cry1Ac protein in the mid-gut epithelial tissue of earthworm. The results of present study will be helpful in successful deployment and commercial release of genetically modified crop in Pakistan.

  7. Discovery and identification of candidate genes from the chitinase gene family for Verticillium dahliae resistance in cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Xu, Xiaoyang; Tian, Liangliang; Wang, Guilin; Zhang, Xueying; Wang, Xinyu; Guo, Wangzhen

    2016-06-29

    Verticillium dahliae, a destructive and soil-borne fungal pathogen, causes massive losses in cotton yields. However, the resistance mechanism to V. dahilae in cotton is still poorly understood. Accumulating evidence indicates that chitinases are crucial hydrolytic enzymes, which attack fungal pathogens by catalyzing the fungal cell wall degradation. As a large gene family, to date, the chitinase genes (Chis) have not been systematically analyzed and effectively utilized in cotton. Here, we identified 47, 49, 92, and 116 Chis from four sequenced cotton species, diploid Gossypium raimondii (D5), G. arboreum (A2), tetraploid G. hirsutum acc. TM-1 (AD1), and G. barbadense acc. 3-79 (AD2), respectively. The orthologous genes were not one-to-one correspondence in the diploid and tetraploid cotton species, implying changes in the number of Chis in different cotton species during the evolution of Gossypium. Phylogenetic classification indicated that these Chis could be classified into six groups, with distinguishable structural characteristics. The expression patterns of Chis indicated their various expressions in different organs and tissues, and in the V. dahliae response. Silencing of Chi23, Chi32, or Chi47 in cotton significantly impaired the resistance to V. dahliae, suggesting these genes might act as positive regulators in disease resistance to V. dahliae.

  8. Calculation of pesticide degradation in decaying cotton gin trash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossan, Angus N; Kennedy, Ivan R

    2008-10-01

    Pesticide residues were measured in stockpiled cotton gin trash (CGT) over a 2-year period. Samples were analysed by GC/MS/MS and interpretation of the results was aided by the presence of DDE residues, remnant from prior DDT use. Fourteen pesticide residues from current agricultural practice were detected in CGT. Several of these, including indoxacarb, profenofos, chlorpyrifos, propargite, bifenthrin, ethion and cyhalothrin, were more persistent than expected on the basis of published data for soil dissipation. The results showed a complex pattern of pesticide residue decay over time because of the simultaneous decomposition of the CGT matrix.

  9. [Effect of Long-Term Fertilization on Organic Nitrogen Functional Groups in Black Soil as Revealed by Synchrotron-Based X-Ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure Spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Gao, Qiang; Wang, Shuai; Zhu, Ping; Zhang, Jin-jing; Zhao, Yi-dong

    2015-07-01

    Nitrogen (N) is a common limiting nutrient in crop production. The N content of soil has been used as an important soil fertility index. Organic N is the major form of N in soil. In most agricultural surface soils, more than 90% of total N occurs in organic forms. Therefore, understanding the compositional characteristics of soil organic N functional groups can provide the scientific basis for formulating the reasonable farmland management strategies. Synchrotron radiation soft X-ray absorption near-edge structure (N K-edge XANES) spectroscopy is the most powerful tool to characterize in situ organic N functional groups compositions in soil. However, to our most knowledge, no studies have been conducted to examine the organic N functional groups compositions of soil using N K-edge XANES spectroscopy under long-term fertilization practices. Based on a long-term field experiment (started in 1990) in a black soil (Gongzhuling, Northeast China), we investigated the differences in organic N functional groups compositions in bulk soil and clay-size soil fraction among fertilization patterns using synchrotron-based N K- edge XANES spectroscopy. Composite soil samples (0-20 cm) were collected in 2008. The present study included six treatments: farmland fallow (FALL), no-fertilization control (CK), chemical nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium fertilization (NPK), NPK in combination with organic manure (NPKM), 1.5 times of NPKM (1.5 NPKM), and NPK in combination with maize straw (NPKS). The results showed that N K-edge XANES spectra of all the treatments under study exhibited characteristic absorption peaks in the ranges of 401.2-401.6 and 402.7-403.1 eV, which were assigned as amides/amine-N and pyrrole-N, respectively. These characteristic absorption peaks were more obvious in clay-size soil fraction than in bulk soil. The results obtained from the semi-quantitative analysis of N K-edge XANES spectra indicated that the relative proportion of amides/amine-N was the highest

  10. Assessing Salinity in Cotton and Tomato Plants by Using Reflectance Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldshleger, Naftaly

    2016-04-01

    Irrigated lands in semi-arid and arid areas are subjected to salinization processes. An example of this phenomenon is the Jezreel Valley in northern Israel where soil salinity has increased over the years. The increase in soil salinity results in the deterioration of the soil structure and crops damage. In this experiment we quantified the relation between the chemical and spectral features of cotton and tomato plants and their mutual relationship to soil salinity. The experiment was carried out as part of ongoing research aiming to detect and monitor saline soils and vegetation by combining different remote sensing methods. The aim of this study was to use vegetation reflectance measurements to predict foliar Cl and Na concentration and assess salinity in the soil and in vegetation by their reflectance measurements. The model developed for determining concentrations of chlorine and sodium in tomato and cotton produced good results ( R2 = 0.92 for sodium and 0.85 for chlorine in tomato and R2 = 0.84 for sodium and 0.82 for chlorine in cotton). Lately, we extend the method to calculate vegetation salinity, by doing correlation between the reflectance slopes of the tested crops CL and Na from two research areas. The developed model produced a good results for all the data (R2=0.74) Our method can be implemented to assess vegetation salinity ahead of planting, and developed as a generic tool for broader use for agriculture in semi-arid regions. In our opinion these results show the possibility of monitoring for a threshold level of salinity in tomato and cotton leaves so remedial action can be taken in time to prevent crop damage. Our results strongly suggest that future imaging spectroscopy remote sensing measurements collected by airborne and satellite platforms could measure the salinity of soil and vegetation over larger areas. These results can be the first steps for generic a model which includes more vegetation for salinity measurements.

  11. Analysis of the Cotton E6 Promoter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Aimin; LIU Jinyuan

    2005-01-01

    An E6 gene from sea island cotton (Gossypium barbadense) was expressed specifically in cotton fiber cells to transfer functions to cultivated species for better transgenic engineering. The regulatory activity of the E6 promoter region was then studied by isolating a 614-bp fragment of the 5'-flanking region from upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum CRI-12) to produce a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter construct for analysis of tissue-specific expression in transgenic tobacco seedlings. Fluorescent analyses indicate that the relatively short E6 promoter is sufficient to direct green fluorescent protein expression specifically in the leaf trichomes (hair cells) of the transgenic tobacco plants. As cotton fibers are also unicellular trichomes that differentiate from epidermal cells of developing cotton ovules, the result suggests that the relatively short E6 promoter can serve as a fiber-specific expression promoter for genetic engineering to improve cotton fiber quality.

  12. Digieye Application In Cotton Colour Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matusiak Małgorzata

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Colour is one of the most important properties of cotton raw materials. It helps in determining and classifying the quality of fibres according to the Universal Cotton Standards. Organoleptic and instrumental techniques are applied to assess the color of cotton. Worldwide, the colour parameters of cotton are measured by the High Volume Instrument (HVI, which provides information on reflectance (Rd and yellowness (+b that is specific for cotton, but are not the typical and globally recognized colour characteristics. Usually, worldwide, the colour of textile products and other goods is assessed utilizing the spectrophotometer, which provides the colour data that is widely recognized and accepted by the CIE L*a*b* colour space. This paper discusses utilizing the DigiEye system to measure the colour parameters of cotton samples and compares the results with the colour parameters from the HVI.

  13. Black Droplets

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Jorge E

    2014-01-01

    Black droplets and black funnels are gravitational duals to states of a large N, strongly coupled CFT on a fixed black hole background. We numerically construct black droplets corresponding to a CFT on a Schwarzchild background with finite asymptotic temperature. We find two branches of such droplet solutions which meet at a turning point. Our results suggest that the equilibrium black droplet solution does not exist, which would imply that the Hartle-Hawking state in this system is dual to the black funnel constructed in \\cite{Santos:2012he}. We also compute the holographic stress energy tensor and match its asymptotic behaviour to perturbation theory.

  14. 中国东北漫岗黑土区切沟侵蚀发育特征%The characteristics of gully erosion over rolling hilly black soil areas of Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡刚; 伍永秋; 刘宝元; 张永光; 游智敏; 于章涛

    2009-01-01

    In this study, short-term gully retreat was monitored from the active gullies selected in representative black soil area, using differential global positioning system (GPS). With the support of geographic information system (GIS), multi-temporal digital elevation models (DEM) were constructed from the data collected by GPS and used for further analysis. Based on the analysis of multi-temporal DEM, we discussed the erosion-deposition characteristics within gully and a developing model for black soil gully area of Northeast China was proposed. The results are: (1) The analysis of the monitored gully data in 2004 indicated that the retreat of gully head reached more than 10 m, gully area extended 170-400 m2, net gully eroded mature gully the initial gully grows rapidly, and its erosion parameters are relatively large. The erosion parameters have not only to do with flow energy, but also with the growth phase. (3) There are significant seasonal differences in gully erosion parameters. The extension of gully area and width dominates in winter and spring without marked net erosion while changes mainly occur in gully head and net erosion in rainy season. (4) It is remarkable for freeze-thaw erosion in the black soil area of NE China. The gully wall of SG2 extended 0.45 m under freeze-thaw effect in 2004, and the distance of gully head retreated maximally 6.4 m. (5) Due to freeze-thaw action and snowrnelt, gully is primarily in the interior adjustment process in winter and early spring. There are much more depositions compared with that during rainy season, which can almost happen throughout the gully, while erosion mostly occurs near head, esp. For gullies having a relatively long history of development. On the other hand, the process of energy exchange with exterior dominates in rainy season. It is considered that this cyclic process is an important mechanism for gully growth in high latitude or/and high attitude regions.

  15. 75 FR 50847 - Cotton Program Changes for Upland Cotton, Adjusted World Price, and Active Shipping Orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ..., paper, or non-woven cotton fabric, the payment will be calculated on 25 percent of the weight (gross... further processing, for spinning, papermaking, or manufacture of non-woven cotton fabric, 25 percent of... definitions from the regulations for cotton non-recourse loans and loan deficiency payments. It clarifies...

  16. Cotton in Benin: governance and pest management

    OpenAIRE

    Togbe, C.E.

    2013-01-01

    Key words: cotton, synthetic pesticides, neem oil (Azadirachta indica), Beauveria bassiana, Bacillus thuringiensis, field experiment, farmers’ participation   Pests are one of the main factors limiting cotton production worldwide. Most of the pest control strategies in cotton production rely heavily on the application of synthetic pesticides. The recurrent use of synthetic pesticides has large consequences for the environment (air, water, fauna, and flora) and human health. In cott...

  17. Cotton dust-mediated lung epithelial injury.

    OpenAIRE

    Ayars, G H; Altman, L C; O'Neil, C E; Butcher, B T; Chi, E Y

    1986-01-01

    To determine if constituents of cotton plants might play a role in byssinosis by injuring pulmonary epithelium, we added extracts of cotton dust, green bract, and field-dried bract to human A549 and rat type II pneumocytes. Injury was measured as pneumocyte lysis and detachment, and inhibition of protein synthesis. Extracts of cotton dust and field-dried bract produced significant dose- and time-dependent lysis and detachment of both target cells, while green bract extract was less damaging. ...

  18. Persistence of Pathogenic and Non-Pathogenic Escherichia coli Strains in Various Tropical Agricultural Soils of India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Naganandhini

    Full Text Available The persistence of Shiga-like toxin producing E. coli (STEC strains in the agricultural soil creates serious threat to human health through fresh vegetables growing on them. However, the survival of STEC strains in Indian tropical soils is not yet understood thoroughly. Additionally how the survival of STEC strain in soil diverges with non-pathogenic and genetically modified E. coli strains is also not yet assessed. Hence in the present study, the survival pattern of STEC strain (O157-TNAU was compared with non-pathogenic (MTCC433 and genetically modified (DH5α strains on different tropical agricultural soils and on a vegetable growing medium, cocopeat under controlled condition. The survival pattern clearly discriminated DH5α from MTCC433 and O157-TNAU, which had shorter life (40 days than those compared (60 days. Similarly, among the soils assessed, the red laterite and tropical latosol supported longer survival of O157-TNAU and MTCC433 as compared to wetland and black cotton soils. In cocopeat, O157 recorded significantly longer survival than other two strains. The survival data were successfully analyzed using Double-Weibull model and the modeling parameters were correlated with soil physico-chemical and biological properties using principal component analysis (PCA. The PCA of all the three strains revealed that pH, microbial biomass carbon, dehydrogenase activity and available N and P contents of the soil decided the survival of E. coli strains in those soils and cocopeat. The present research work suggests that the survival of O157 differs in tropical Indian soils due to varied physico-chemical and biological properties and the survival is much shorter than those reported in temperate soils. As the survival pattern of non-pathogenic strain, MTCC433 is similar to O157-TNAU in tropical soils, the former can be used as safe model organism for open field studies.

  19. Persistence of Pathogenic and Non-Pathogenic Escherichia coli Strains in Various Tropical Agricultural Soils of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naganandhini, S; Kennedy, Z John; Uyttendaele, M; Balachandar, D

    2015-01-01

    The persistence of Shiga-like toxin producing E. coli (STEC) strains in the agricultural soil creates serious threat to human health through fresh vegetables growing on them. However, the survival of STEC strains in Indian tropical soils is not yet understood thoroughly. Additionally how the survival of STEC strain in soil diverges with non-pathogenic and genetically modified E. coli strains is also not yet assessed. Hence in the present study, the survival pattern of STEC strain (O157-TNAU) was compared with non-pathogenic (MTCC433) and genetically modified (DH5α) strains on different tropical agricultural soils and on a vegetable growing medium, cocopeat under controlled condition. The survival pattern clearly discriminated DH5α from MTCC433 and O157-TNAU, which had shorter life (40 days) than those compared (60 days). Similarly, among the soils assessed, the red laterite and tropical latosol supported longer survival of O157-TNAU and MTCC433 as compared to wetland and black cotton soils. In cocopeat, O157 recorded significantly longer survival than other two strains. The survival data were successfully analyzed using Double-Weibull model and the modeling parameters were correlated with soil physico-chemical and biological properties using principal component analysis (PCA). The PCA of all the three strains revealed that pH, microbial biomass carbon, dehydrogenase activity and available N and P contents of the soil decided the survival of E. coli strains in those soils and cocopeat. The present research work suggests that the survival of O157 differs in tropical Indian soils due to varied physico-chemical and biological properties and the survival is much shorter than those reported in temperate soils. As the survival pattern of non-pathogenic strain, MTCC433 is similar to O157-TNAU in tropical soils, the former can be used as safe model organism for open field studies.

  20. [Changes in the growth and photosynthesis of cotton seedlings under progressive drought after saltwater irrigation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shu-jie; Bai, Xin-fu; Qi, Lin; Zhu, Jian-jun; Zhang, Zhen-hua

    2014-12-01

    Pot grown cotton plants were watered with saltwater (NaCl solutions of different concentrations), followed by a duration of progressive drought stress. The changes in plantlet growth, photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll fluorescence were measured, and the water status of the plantlets, such as relative water content, water potential, osmotic potential, the Na+ and K+ contents in leaves during drought were measured and analyzed, in order to get an insight into the role of Na+ played in the adaptation of cotton to drought stress. The results showed that the growth of the plantlets was significantly inhibited, the net photosynthetic rates were remarkably lowered by the drought stress, but the plant height, biomass, net photosynthetic rate and Fv/Fm values in the cotton plants watered with 25-100 mmol x L(-1) x NaCl solution under drought stress were significantly higher than those watered with water under the same intensity of drought stress. Meanwhile, the soil and leaf relative water content, cell turgor, Na+ concentration in plants watered with 25-100 mmol x L(-1) NaCl solution were all significantly higher compared with that of plants watered with water, but the plant water potential and tissue osmotic potential were significantly lower with the decrease in tissue osmotic potential significantly correlated with the Na+ content. These results indicated that the presence of a moderate amount of Na+ in the soil could improve the water status of both the soil and the cotton plants, accelerate the absorption and accumulation of Na+ in the roots, lower the tissue osmotic potential, thereby enhancing the suction force of water in plant for maintaining a high cell turgor to maintain a relatively higher photosynthetic rate and growth rate. In this sense, it was suggested that the existence of a certain amount of NaCl in soil could effectively alleviate the adverse effects of drought on cotton.

  1. Cotton Fever: Does the Patient Know Best?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yingda; Pope, Bailey A; Hunter, Alan J

    2016-04-01

    Fever and leukocytosis have many possible etiologies in injection drug users. We present a case of a 22-year-old woman with fever and leukocytosis that were presumed secondary to cotton fever, a rarely recognized complication of injection drug use, after an extensive workup. Cotton fever is a benign, self-limited febrile syndrome characterized by fevers, leukocytosis, myalgias, nausea and vomiting, occurring in injection drug users who filter their drug suspensions through cotton balls. While this syndrome is commonly recognized amongst the injection drug user population, there is a paucity of data in the medical literature. We review the case presentation and available literature related to cotton fever.

  2. Micro- and nano-environments of C sequestration in soil: a multi-elemental STXM-NEXAFS assessment of black C and organomineral associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Dawit; Lehmann, Johannes; Wang, Jian; Kinyangi, James; Heymann, Karen; Lu, Yingshen; Wirick, Sue; Jacobsen, Chris

    2012-11-01

    Black C is an essential component of the terrestrial C pool and its formation is often credited as a CO(2) sink by transferring the fast-cycling C from the atmosphere-biosphere system into slower cycling C in the geosphere. This study is the first multi-element K- (C, N, Ca, Fe, Al and Si) soft-X-ray STXM-NEXAFS investigation conducted at a submicron-scale spatial resolution specifically targeting black C and its interaction with the mineral and non-black C organic matter in the organomineral assemblage. The STXM-NEXAFS micrographs and spectra demonstrated that pyrogenic C was dominated by quinoide, aromatic, phenol, ketone, alcohol, carboxylic and hydroxylated- and ether-linked C species. There was also evidence for the presence of pyridinic, pyridonic, pyrrolic, amine and nitril N functionalities. The non-black C organic matter contained amino acids, amino sugars, nucleic acids and polysaccharides known to exhibit negatively charged carboxylic, phenolic, enolic, thiolate and phosphate functionalities highly reactive towards metal ions and black C. The metal-rich mineral matrix was composed of phyllosilicate clay minerals, Fe and Al hydroxypolycations, oxides, hydroxides and oxyhydroxide that can attract and bind organic biopolymers. STXM-NEXAFS provided evidence for interactive association between pyrogenic C, non-black C organic matter and the mineral oxide and oxyhydroxide communities in the organomineral interface. These intimate associations occurred through a "two-way" direct linkage between black C and the mineral or non-black C organic matter or via a "three-way" indirect association where non-black C organic matter could serve as a molecular cross-linking agent binding black C with the mineral matrix or vice versa where inorganic oxides, hydroxides and polycations could act as a bridge to bind black C with non-black C organic matter. The binding and sequestration of black C in the investigated micro- and nano-C repository environments seem to be the

  3. Aqueous supercapacitors on conductive cotton

    KAUST Repository

    Pasta, Mauro

    2010-06-01

    Wearable electronics offer the combined advantages of both electronics and fabrics. In this article, we report the fabrication of wearable supercapacitors using cotton fabric as an essential component. Carbon nanotubes are conformally coated onto the cotton fibers, leading to a highly electrically conductive interconnecting network. The porous carbon nanotube coating functions as both active material and current collector in the supercapacitor. Aqueous lithium sulfate is used as the electrolyte in the devices, because it presents no safety concerns for human use. The supercapacitor shows high specific capacitance (~70-80 F·g-1 at 0.1 A·g-1) and cycling stability (negligible decay after 35,000 cycles). The extremely simple design and fabrication process make it applicable for providing power in practical electronic devices. © 2010 Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  4. 黑土对四溴双酚A的吸附热力学特征%On the absorptive effect of the thermodynamic features of tetrabromobisphenol A on the black soil in Jilin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛杨; 邱素芬; 苗诗雨; 许端平

    2016-01-01

    The given article is inclined to introduce its results of batch experiments on the absorptive effects of the thermodynamic features of the tetrabromobisphenol A on the black soil in Jilin.For our study purpose,we have collected samples of the black soil from the farmland in Songyuan,Jilin,at a depth of 0-20cm.and conducted batch experiments in hoping to find out the effects of the contact time,pH,the ionic strength and temperature on the absorption of TBBPA of the black soil.In addition,we have also investigated the isotherm data and the thermodynamics features of the soil via the linear,Freundlich and Langmuir equations.As the results of our comprehensive investigation and experiments,we have found that it is possible to divide the absorption process into two steps,that is,the fast one (0-4 h)and the slow one (4-48 h),whereas equilibrium of the sorption of TBBPA on the black soil can be reached in a period of 48hours.In addition,it would be possible to make a clear-cut and authentic description of the isotherm in a linear equation and Freundlich equation (R2 =0.940-0.992,0.907-0.981,respectively).Nevertheless,it would be possible to make the accuracy and stability of the linear and Freundlich model better than under the condition of different environmental factors,if the absorption behavior of TBBPA on the black soil is well in accord with the Linear sorption isotherm than with the Freundlich sorption isotherm,if the TBBPA distribution between the aqueous solution and the soil's organic matters can be taken as the main sorption mechanism.Thus,it can be seen that the pH value,ionic strength and temperature may all have their own noticeable effects on the sorption of TBBPA to the black soil,whose sorption capacity tends to decrease with the increase of the temperature and pH,though the sorption capacity of TBBPA tends to increase with the increase of the ionic strength.What is more,the free energy changes of TBBPA absorption to black soil is-7.77 k J/tmol,-10.54 k

  5. Black psyllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black psyllium is a weed that grows aggressively throughout the world. The plant was spread with the ... to make medicine. Be careful not to confuse black psyllium with other forms of psyllium including blond ...

  6. QTL Analysis in Tetraploid Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    QTL analyses were performed in tetraploid cotton.An interspecific F2 population consisting of 69 plants,which was developed from the cross between Gossypium hirsutum L.,cv.Handan 208(characterized as high fiber yield) and G.barbadense L.,cv.Pima 90(characterized as excellent fiber quality),was genotyped with SSR,RAPD,SRAP,and REMAP markers.A 1029-locus linkage map was

  7. Impacts of Dimethyl Phthalate Contamination on Abundance and Diversity of Microbes in Black Soil%邻苯二甲酸二甲酯污染对黑土微生物丰度和多样性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志刚; 胡云龙; 徐伟慧; 莫继先; 李珊珊; 张志; 杨志宏

    2015-01-01

    邻苯二甲酸二甲酯( DMP )是一种在环境中广泛存在的有毒有机化合物,已被中国列为优先控制污染物之一。探讨了不同浓度DMP(0~40 mg·kg-1)污染对黑土微生物区系、功能菌群和多样性的影响。结果表明,DMP污染处理后,黑土中细菌和放线菌数量受到抑制,且抑制效应与DMP浓度呈正相关,黑土中真菌数量受到DMP污染的促进,且促进作用随着污染浓度的增加而增加;自生固氮菌、氨氧化细菌、亚硝酸氧化菌、有机磷细菌和无机磷细菌数量均受到DMP污染的抑制,铁细菌数量受到DMP污染的促进;黑土微生物丰富度和多样性受到DMP污染的抑制,且10、20和40 mg·kg-1污染浓度处理的抑制效应在25 d内并未消除。因此,在5~40 mg·kg-1 DMP污染条件下,黑土微生物区系结构和功能代谢菌群数量发生改变,微生物多样性降低,从而有可能使黑土的生态系统功能受到影响。%Dimethyl phthalate (DMP), a kind of toxic organic compound ubiquitous in the environment, has been listed as an environmental pollutant for priority control by the Ministry of Environmental Protection of China ( MEP ) . The purpose of this study is to explore impacts of DMP contamination ( 0-40 mg·kg-1 ) on microflora, functional groups and diversity of soil microbes in black soil. Results show that the populations of bacteria and actinomyces in the black soil were inhibited by DMP contamination and the impact was positively related to concentration of the pollutant. However, the a⁃mount of fungi in the soil was promoted and the effect increased with rising DMP concentration. Functional bacteria, like nitrogen fixing bacteria, ammonia oxidizing bacteria, nitrite⁃oxidizing bacteria, organic phosphorus⁃dissolving bacteria and inorganic phosphorus⁃dissolving bacteria, were all inhibited by DMP contamination, but iron bacteria were promoted by DMP contamination. DMP

  8. Black carbon aerosol dynamics and isotopic composition in Alaska linked with boreal fire emissions and depth of burn in organic soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouteva, G. O.; Czimczik, C. I.; Fahrni, S. M.; Wiggins, E. B.; Rogers, B. M.; Veraverbeke, S.; Xu, X.; Santos, G. M.; Henderson, J.; Miller, C. E.; Randerson, J. T.

    2015-11-01

    Black carbon (BC) aerosol emitted by boreal fires has the potential to accelerate losses of snow and ice in many areas of the Arctic, yet the importance of this source relative to fossil fuel BC emissions from lower latitudes remains uncertain. Here we present measurements of the isotopic composition of BC and organic carbon (OC) aerosols collected at two locations in interior Alaska during the summer of 2013, as part of NASA's Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment. We isolated BC from fine air particulate matter (PM2.5) and measured its radiocarbon (Δ14C) content with accelerator mass spectrometry. We show that fires were the dominant contributor to variability in carbonaceous aerosol mass in interior Alaska during the summer by comparing our measurements with satellite data, measurements from an aerosol network and predicted concentrations from a fire inventory coupled to an atmospheric transport model. The Δ14C of BC from boreal fires was 131 ± 52‰ in the year 2013 when the Δ14C of atmospheric CO2 was 23 ± 3‰, corresponding to a mean fuel age of 20 years. Fire-emitted OC had a similar Δ14C (99 ± 21‰) as BC, but during background (low fire) periods OC (45 to 51‰) was more positive than BC (-354 to -57‰). We also analyzed the carbon and nitrogen elemental and stable isotopic composition of the PM2.5. Fire-emitted aerosol had an elevated carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio (29 ± 2) and δ15N (16 ± 4‰). Aerosol Δ14C and δ13C measurements were consistent with a mean depth of burning in organic soil horizons of 20 cm (and a range of 8 to 47 cm). Our measurements of fire-emitted BC and PM2.5 composition constrain the end-member of boreal forest fire contributions to aerosol deposition in the Arctic and may ultimately reduce uncertainties related to the impact of a changing boreal fire regime on the climate system.

  9. Shandong’s Cotton Brocade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    SHANDONG Province, also called "Lu," produces traditional hand-woven cotton fabric known as "Lu Jin ("Jin" means brocade in Chinese). Lu Jin has a soft texture and is made in various designs and colors. Although machine-made cotton fabric is easy to buy here, local people, particularly women, prefer this kind of cloth woven in the old style handed down by their ancestors. In the countryside of Southwest Shandong, a girl usually begins learning how to weave cotton brocade as a child and old women are often still busy at the loom. In Jiaxiang County, for example, there are more than 10,400 looms, 74,000 spinning wheels and 90,000 capable weavers, producing 6 million meters of hand-woven fabric annually. Lu Jin is a suitable dowry for local girls. Usually, a girl begins selecting designs and weaving for her dowry two to three years before marriage. When she gets married, she carefully puts the fabric in the cupboards she will bring with

  10. Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luminet, Jean-Pierre

    1992-09-01

    Foreword to the French edition; Foreword to the English edition; Acknowledgements; Part I. Gravitation and Light: 1. First fruits; 2. Relativity; 3. Curved space-time; Part II. Exquisite Corpses: 4. Chronicle of the twilight years; 5. Ashes and diamonds; 6. Supernovae; 7. Pulsars; 8. Gravitation triumphant; Part III. Light Assassinated: 9. The far horizon; 10. Illuminations; 11. A descent into the maelstrom; 12. Map games; 13. The black hole machine; 14. The quantum black hole; Part IV. Light Regained: 15. Primordial black holes; 16. The zoo of X-ray stars; 17. Giant black holes; 18. Gravitational light; 19. The black hole Universe; Appendices; Bibliography; Name index; Subject index.

  11. 农业利用对东北黑土黏粒矿物组成及养分的影响%Effect of Agricultural Use on Clay Minerals and Nutrient of Black Soil in Northeast of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑庆福; 赵兰坡

    2011-01-01

    为了明确农业利用对土壤的黏粒矿物组成差异及养分的影响;通过在东北黑土定点和历时8年的现代农业开垦利用,以研究东北黑土的黏粒矿物组成差异及养分的影响;经过8年的农业开垦利用后,东北黑土的风化进程加强,0.002~0.02 mm粉粒含量显著降低(F=5.84>P001=0.026),而黏粒含量因水土流失,增加未达到显著;土壤交换性离子活性较强,酸化程度加重,有机质含量降低,对养分保蓄能力明显下降.土壤中的伊利石含量极显著降低(F=11.25>P001=0.003),而高岭石和蒙脱石含量极显著增加(F=11.67>P001=0.003;F=13.89>P001=0.001),S/I混层矿物含量也较8年前的高;土壤黏粒矿物是极为敏感的胶体类型,它的改变会影响土壤肥力特征.%In order to identify the effect of agricultural use on clay minerals and nutrient of soil, th study of modern agriculture use of black soil in Northeast China has lasted for 8 years. Clay mineral com position and nutrient of black soil were investigated. The results showed that the weathering process of th black soil was strengthened. The content of silt fraction between 0.002 and 0.02mm was significantly de creased, while the content of clay fraction increase was not significant for soil erosion. Soil exchangeabl ion activity was strong, degree of acidification was increased, organic matter content decreased, and th nutrient holding capability decreased. The content of illite in soil was significantly lower, while the con tent of kaolinite and montmorillonite were significantly increased. The content of S / I mixed-layer miner al is higher than before 8 years. Soil clay minerals were a very sensitive type colloid, and its changes af fected soil fertility characteristics.

  12. Nitenpyram, Dinotefuran, and Thiamethoxam Used as Seed Treatments Act as Efficient Controls against Aphis gossypii via High Residues in Cotton Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengqun; Zhang, Xuefeng; Wang, Yao; Zhao, Yunhe; Lin, Jin; Liu, Feng; Mu, Wei

    2016-12-14

    The effects of eight neonicotinoid seed treatments against the cotton aphid Aphis gossypii and its natural enemies in Bt cotton fields were evaluated, and the concentrations of these neonicotinoids in cotton leaves and soil were also investigated. The results showed that all neonicotinoid seed treatments efficiently reduced A. gossypii populations throughout the cotton seedling stage. The percentages of curly leaf plants in all of the neonicotinoid seed treatments were below the threshold for economic loss. Among the eight tested neonicotinoid seed treatments, nitenpyram, dinotefuran, and thiamethoxam showed high control efficiency against A. gossypii. Residues of the three neonicotinoids were higher than those of other neonicotinoids in cotton leaves. Moreover, residues of dinotefuran and nitenpyram remained at low levels in the soil. However, the abundance of natural enemies in the cotton field was to some extent influenced by neonicotinoid seed treatments. Therefore, neonicotinoids nitenpyram, dinotefuran, and thiamethoxam used as seed treatment can provide effective protection that should play an important role in the management of early-season A. gossypii in Bt cotton fields; however, the risks of neonicotinoids to the environment should also be considered.

  13. Proteomics Study of Cotton Fiber Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jin-yuan

    2008-01-01

    @@ A comparative proteomic analysis was applied to explore the mechanism of fiber cell development in cotton.Initially,an efficient protein preparation method was established for proteomic analysis of developing cotton fibers by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis,and a microwave enhanced ink staining technique also was created for fast and sensitive protein quantification in proteomic studies.

  14. Palmer amaranth competition for water in cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer amaranth is a troublesome weed in cotton production. Yield losses of 65% have been reported due to season-long Palmer amaranth competition with cotton. To determine if water is a factor in this system, experiments were conducted in 2011, 2012, and 2013 in Citra, FL and in Tifton, GA. In 2011,...

  15. Antibacterial flame retardant cotton high loft nonwovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renewable resources for raw materials and biodegradability of the product at the end of the useful life is entailing a shift from petroleum-based synthetics to agro based natural fibers such as cotton, especially for producing high specific volume high loft nonwovens. Cotton is highly flammable and ...

  16. Flame retardant cotton based highloft nonwovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flame retardancy has been a serious bottleneck to develop cotton blended very high specific volume bulky High loft fabrics. Alternately, newer approach to produce flame retardant cotton blended High loft fabrics must be employed that retain soft feel characteristics desirable of furnishings. Hence, ...

  17. The U.S. Cotton Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbird, Irving R.; And Others

    This report identifies and describes the structure and performance of the cotton industry, emphasizing the production and marketing of raw cotton. The underlying economic and political forces causing change in the various segments of the industry are also explored. The report provides a single source of economic and statistical information on…

  18. Spectroscopic discernment of seed cotton trash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detection and identification of foreign material in harvested seed cotton is required for efficient removal by ginning. Trash particles remaining within the cotton fibers can detrimentally impact the quality of resulting textile products. Luminescence has been investigated as a potential tool for su...

  19. Exploring Modifications of Cotton with Biopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biopolymers including starch, alginate, and chitosan were grafted on to both nonwoven and woven cotton fabrics to examine their hemostatic and antimcrobial properties. The development of cotton-based health care fabrics that promote blood clotting and prevent microbial growth have wide applicability...

  20. China Cotton Situation Report [June 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James H. Zhao

    2007-01-01

    @@ The domestic cotton supply plus import quota released in due time can meet with spinners need in this season as can be assured by the fact that the spring sowing of cotton is finished in May, and summer sowing progresses well on its move.

  1. China International Cotton Conference Concluded in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The 2007 China International Cotton Conference was held on June 27-29 in Urumqi,Xinjiang Municipality, China.With the theme"China’s Cotton Industry on WTO and It’s Implications The Global Market".the Conference proceeded with three main sessions,one focusing on the

  2. 77 FR 19925 - Upland Cotton Base Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) upland cotton marketing assistance loan (MAL) regulations to revise... creates technical problems if the loan schedules and base grade specifications are changed. CCC... cotton industry to the USDA Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS). AMS can and does change...

  3. Milkweed, stink bugs, and Georgia cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    In peanut-cotton farmscapes in Georgia, stink bugs, i.e., Nezara viridula (L.)(Say) and Chinavia hilaris (Say), develop in peanut and then disperse at the crop-to-crop interface to feed on fruit in cotton. The main objective of this study was to examine the influence of a habitat of tropical milkwe...

  4. Import and Export for Cotton Textile Shrinking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the National Development and Reform Committee held a meeting to discuss the preparation work of this year's new cotton storage. The meeting declared clearly the policy for this year's new cotton store up, namely starting from September 1, at the fixed price of CNY 19800 per ton, making the purchase without limitation.

  5. Scouring Process of Natural Color Cotton Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Wei

    2002-01-01

    In order to improve the absorbency of color cotton products, alkali and pectase scouring processes under different conditions were tested, by comparing the actual results of two different scouring processes. It was considered that the pectase scouring process more suits color cotton products.

  6. 6-Benzyladenine enhancements of cotton yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of applied plant growth regulators (PGR) on growth, development and yield in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. and Gossypium barbadense L.) has been studied for over half a century. A recent study suggested that cytokinin treatment of young cotton seedlings may enhance overall performanc...

  7. 长期施肥对薄层黑土酶活性及土壤肥力的影响%Effect of long-term fertilization on enzyme activities and soit fertility in the black thin-layer soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦晓光; 隋跃宇; 魏丹

    2011-01-01

    Soil enzyme activities and soil fertility were studied to explore the long-term fertilization on soil enzyme activities and its relationship with soil fertility on the basis of 29-years long-term site-specific experiment with different fertilization methods. The results showed that combined application of chemical fertilizers and organic manure could significantly increase the soil organic matter, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, alkali-soluble nitrogen, available phosphorus content and enhance the soil urease, phosphatase, invertase, catalase, dehydrogenase activity. The results of correlation analysis showed that soil urease, phosphatase, invertase catalase and dehydrogenase activity positively corrected with organic matter, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and alkali-soluble nitrogen significantly, and the integrated activities of soil urease, phosphatase, invertase, catalase dehydrogenase activity could reflect the changing trend of black thin-layer soil quality in the farmland after long-term fertilization.%利用29年的长期定位试验,对不同的施肥方式下薄层黑土酶活性及肥力进行了研究,探讨长期施肥对土壤酶活性及与土壤肥力的影响.结果表明,化肥与有机肥配合施用能明显提高土壤有机质、全氮、全磷、碱解氮、有效磷含量,增强土壤脲酶、磷酸酶、转化酶、过氧化氢酶、脱氢酶活性.相关分析结果显示,土壤脲酶、磷酸酶、转化酶、过氧化氢酶、脱氢酶活性与有机质、全氮、全磷、有效磷、碱解氮呈显著正相关.土壤脲酶、磷酸酶、转化酶、过氧化氢酶、脱氢酶综合活性可以反映长期施肥后薄层黑土质量的变化趋势.

  8. Recent advances in biological control of soil borne root diseases of wheat,vegetables and cotton in China and Australia%中国、澳大利亚小麦、蔬菜以及棉花根部土传病害生物防治研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maarten RYDER; Rosemary WARREN; Paul HARVEY; 唐文华; 杨合同; 张霞; 张炳新

    2005-01-01

    土传病害是作物产量的经常性限制因素.在禾谷类生产中,某些病害在少耕制度下异常严重.因此,有利于保护土壤侵蚀的管理措施(例如减少耕作、保留农作物残体等)能导致病害发生更为严重,从而造成作物减产,这要求研究新的病害防治措施,而不能依靠农业耕作措施或轮作进行防治.生物防治是病害防治措施的一种,在中国和澳大利亚都已进行了研究.蔬菜和棉花的苗期病害一般是利用化学杀菌剂进行防治,或者病害严重发生导致毁种后重新播种.在这些病害防治方面,人们探索了生物防治措施,旨在发展安全、无残留的防治方法,本文介绍的合作研究,主要是在田间和盆栽条件下筛选、评价一系列澳大利亚和中国的土壤细菌和真菌在中国和澳大利亚东南部对土传病害的防治作用,从而建立有效可靠的作物病害生物防治方法.在两国进行的实验研究中,对象作物为小麦、蔬菜(番茄、黄瓜和辣椒)以及棉花.另外,还对枯草芽孢杆菌的作用机理以及重要植物病原菌如腐霉菌的生态学进行了研究.%Soil-borne root diseases are often major constraints to crop productivity. In cereal production systems, some diseases become more serious under conservation (I.e.reduced) tillage regimes. Thus management practices (e.g. Reduced tillage and crop residue retention) which help prevent soil erosion problems can result in more serious yield losses due to disease. This has led to research on methods other than cultivation and crop rotation for disease control.Biological control is one alternative, which has been investigated in both China and Australia.In the vegetable and cotton growing industries, seedling diseases are controlled largely by chemical fungicides or crops are replanted if there is a failure of establishment. Hence, biological controls are sought in the interest of safer and cleaner methods of disease control

  9. Comportamento de variedades paulistas de algodoeiro em diferentes níveis de adubação N,P e K, em Latossolo Roxo - (1.ª série Behavior of São Paulo cotton varieties under different levels of N, P and K fertilization on Lattossolic B "Terra Roxa" soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Machado da Silva

    1970-01-01

    Full Text Available São relatados resultados de três ensaios de variedades paulistas de algodoeiro adubadas com diferentes doses dos elementos N, P e K, conduzidos em Latossolo Roxo não infestado pelo fungo causador da murcha de Fusarium, em 1965/66. As variedades IAC 13 e IAC 12 apresentaram ciclo vegetativo mais longo que a IAC RM3. A variedade IAC 13 superou em produção a IAC 12, e a variedade IAC RM3, que apresentou sintomas mais intensos de deficiência de potássio, obteve a menor média de produção. A dose básica de adubação, correspondente a 20, 45 e 40 kg/ha de N, P2O5 e K2O, aumentou significativamente a produção. Em média, a dose dupla proporcionou pequeno aumento, quando comparada com a básica, nas variedades IAC 12 e IAC 13. Em um dado ensaio, essa dose mostrou--se inferior à básica, quando aplicada à variedade IAC RM3. A variedade IAC 12 apresentou a mais alta média de porcentagem de fibra. A IAC 13 foi a melhor quanto aos índices Micronaire e Pressley. A adubação utilizada não concorreu para melhorar nenhuma dessas características; contribuiu entretanto para aumentar o pêso dos capulhos e das sementes.The behavior of three São Paulo cotton varieties (IAC 12, IAC 13 and IAC RM3, which differ themselves in vegetative cycle and nutrient requirements, after receiving three levels of complete N, P and K fertilization, were compared under cultivation on latossolic B "Terra Roxa" soils. The inclusion of the variety IAC RM3, resistant to Fusarium wilt, was made considering a possible spreading of this disease, now common in sandy soils, to clay soils. A basic dose of NPK fertilizer, containing 20, 45 and 40 kg/ha of N, P2O5 and K..O respectively, induced a significant increase in cotton yield, in relation to control plots, where no fertilizer was added. Among the varieties, IAC 13, with longest life cycle, presented the highest yield, followed by IAC 12, with intermediate cycle length. IAC RM3 was the less productive. There was also

  10. Current implementation of site-specific technologies in U.S. cotton production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Edward M.

    2004-11-01

    The initial adoption of site-specific management for cotton production was slower than by commodities grown in the mid-west. Part of the delayed adoption can be explained by the lack of functional cotton yield monitors. Now that yield monitors are commercially available, cotton producers are beginning to find many applications for geospatial technologies. The emphasis of this paper is on applications that are being implemented at some level on commercial farms. Traditional grid-based soil sampling has found some use for pre-plant application of fertilizer, and soil conductivity mapping has been used to apply variable rate soil amendments in the west. During the growing season, vegetation indices such as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) have been used as a tool to direct scouting for insect infestations. The scouting information and NDVI are combined to create variable rate insecticide application maps. A catalyst to this approach has been the recent development of aerial variable rate application technology. In some production regions, it is necessary to control cotton's vegetative development rate with plant growth regulators (PGRs). Vegetation indices are very useful for defining areas of the field where PGRs are needed. Research is also being conducted on the use of imagery for the development of defoliation application maps before harvest. In the short-term, simple vegetation indices can meet many of management information needs for cotton when combined with directed scouting of the field. However, to be ultimately successful, dependable and frequent sources of imagery will be required. Near-real time delivery is essential, as a majority of the management decisions are often made on a daily basis. Most producer-based applications of these data have been from airborne platforms managed by local image providers where flexible image acquisition schedules are possible.

  11. Cotton Textile:Brisk against Bleak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dennis; K.Zhao

    2009-01-01

    The 6th International cotton and cotton textile conference already scheduled on Sept.8-10 in Xinjiang, China’s largest cotton growing area, was called off on a short notice of rascal needle dabbing that had caused a widespread public consternation. But the information that is focused on the leitmotif of "financial crisis and revitalization of textile industry for adjustment, upgrading and innovation" is to be shared, discussed at the upcoming resumed meeting. Cotton textile industry is and will be the most important driver for the global textile and clothing sector as it provides jobs not only for the residents living in the cities, but also for the farmers growing cotton in the poverty-ridden countryside. China and India are the most important players in this sector, for both are the most populous countries in the world…

  12. Study on the Pigments of the Colored Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Zhao-wen; SHI Song-cun

    2004-01-01

    The ecological characteristics and fiber structure of the colored cotton were introduced briefly. The color changing mechanisms of the pigments extracted from colored cottons and some plants were discussed with the results of different experiments, which could offer an academic reference for the color fixations of the colored cotton textile produces and promote the development of the natural colored cotton industry.

  13. What Will We Do with a Cotton Genome Sequence?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BRUBAKER Curt

    2008-01-01

    @@ With the publication of "Toward Sequencing Cotton (Gossypium) Genomes" [Chen et al.PlantPhysiology,2007,145:1303-1310-] a clear consensus emerged from the cotton genomics community not only that cotton genome sequences were a critical resource for research and commercial innovationin cotton genomics,but that there was a logical means of achieving this goal.

  14. Toward Elucidating the Structure of Tetraploid Cotton Genome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Wang-zhen

    2008-01-01

    @@ Upland cotton has the highest yield,and accounts for >95% of world cotton production.Decoding upland cotton genomes will undoubtedly provide the ultimate reference and resource for structural,functional,and evolutionary studies of the species.Here,we employed GeneTrek and BAC tagging information approaches to predict the general composition and structure of the allotetraploid cotton genome.

  15. After Cotton Prices Hit a 10-Year Peak...

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zhaofeng

    2010-01-01

    @@ "With the fifth-grade seed cotton being priced at 4.5 yuan per 500 grams and Xinjiang lint cotton at nearly RMB 20,000 per ton, cotton prices have rocketed to a 10-year peak," Gap Chaoshan, President of the Liaocheng Cotton Association, told the reporter on September 26.

  16. 7 CFR 1205.342 - Certification of cotton importer organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certification of cotton importer organizations. 1205... Organization § 1205.342 Certification of cotton importer organizations. Any importer organization may request... members to represent cotton importers on the Cotton Board. Such eligibility shall be based, in addition...

  17. 7 CFR 1205.317 - Cotton-Importer organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton-Importer organization. 1205.317 Section 1205... RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.317 Cotton-Importer organization. Cotton-Importer organization means any organization which has been certified by the...

  18. Transgenic cotton: from biotransformation methods to agricultural application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baohong

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic cotton is among the first transgenic plants commercially adopted around the world. Since it was first introduced into the field in the middle of 1990s, transgenic cotton has been quickly adopted by cotton farmers in many developed and developing countries. Transgenic cotton has offered many important environmental, social, and economic benefits, including reduced usage of pesticides, indirect increase of yield, minimizing environmental pollution, and reducing labor and cost. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation method is the major method for obtaining transgenic cotton. However, pollen tube pathway-mediated method is also used, particularly by scientists in China, to breed commercial transgenic cotton. Although transgenic cotton plants with disease-resistance, abiotic stress tolerance, and improved fiber quality have been developed in the past decades, insect-resistant and herbicide-tolerant cotton are the two dominant transgenic cottons in the transgenic cotton market.

  19. Testing of Cotton Fiber Length

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘若华; 李汝勤

    2001-01-01

    To understand the influences of actual sampling conditions on cotton fiber length testing, this article presents a theoretic study on the distributions and fibrogram of the sample taken out by sampler from ideal sliver at a certain angle. From the distributions expression it can be found that the size of the sampler and the sampling angle are important factors which affect sampling, but if the sampling width is narrow enough, the influence of the sampling angle on the distributions and fibrogram is small enough to be omitted. This is an important conclusion for sampling, in light of this, some suggestions for designing new type sampler are put forward.

  20. QTL Analysis in Tetraploid Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Zhong-xu; HE Dao-hua; WANG Hong-mei

    2008-01-01

    @@ QTL analyses were performed in tetraploid cotton.An interspecific F2population consisting of 69 plants,which was developed from the cross between Gossypium hirsutum L.,cv.Handan 208 (characterized as high fiber yield) and G.barbadense L.,cv.Pima 90 (characterized as excellent fiber quality),was genotyped with SSR,RAPD,SRAP,and REMAP markers.A 1029-1ocus linkage map was constructed covering 5472.3 cM with an average distance of 5.32 cM between two markers.

  1. About Viscosity of Cotton Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SAGDULLAEV Ahror

    2008-01-01

    @@ The biological variety is mainly connected with presence of the field ecosites,which determine the mechanism of interaction (the symbiosis,pathogenesis,and etc.) that differ typically of such niches of live organism.The biological,forming on sowing of the cultural plants,including cotton plant are the example for this.Their formation is conditioned presence of the separations of aphids,consisting of different sugar,squirrel,ferment,pigment and other component natural substrata.Simultaneously with creation of in natural,it begins shaping the system with determined by balance insect and successes of microorganism.

  2. Biological control of cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii Glover) in cotton (inter)cropping systems in China; a simulation study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, J.

    1997-01-01

    Cotton aphid ( Aphis gossypii Glover) is the key insect pest of seedling cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L. ) in China, particularly in the North China cotton region. The resulting annual losses amount to 10-15% of the attainable yield. Sole reliance on insecticides against the cotton aphid in the past

  3. Characteristics and sources of black carbon in agricultural soils from a county in central China%华中地区某县农田土壤黑碳分布特征及来源解析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    占长林; 万的军; 王平; 韩永明; 张家泉; 刘红霞; 肖文胜; 刘先利

    2016-01-01

    Background, aim, and scope Black carbon (BC) is a continuum of thermally altered materials produced by incomplete combustion of biomass, biofuels, and fossil fuels. It is found globally in the water, atmosphere, snow, ice, sediments, and soils. BC generally resides in the soil for a long time acting as a long-term C sink, with a potential negative feedback on climate warming. BC is composed of char and soot corresponding to combusted solid residues and clusters of carbon particles formed by gas-phase processes, respectively. Many studies have focused on BC in urban and forestland soils, while little attention is paid to agricultural soils in China. Furthermore, many previous studies did not differentiate between different BC fractions (char and soot) in soils, thereby much important information regarding the sources and environmental behavior of these two major components is missing. In this paper, the variation characteristics of BC, char and soot concentrations in agricultural soils were studied. The impact factor and potential sources of BC were also studied.Materials and methods A total of forty-six topsoil samples (0—20 cm) were collected with steel shovel in farmland from Yangxin County of Hubei Province, central China. The soil types can be classiifed into three categories: paddy soil, red soil, and lfuvo-aquic soil, and the number of soil samples is twenty-three, eighteen, and ifve, respectively. The concentrations of BC, char and soot in soils were analyzed by thermal optical relfectance method following the IMPROVE_A protocol. Total organic carbon (TOC) content was determined using potassium dichromate oxidation method.Results BC, char and soot concentrations in the agricultural soils varied from 0.17 g∙kg−1 to 3.18 g∙kg−1, 0.03 g∙kg−1 to 2.37 g∙kg−1 and 0.09 g∙kg−1 to 1.50 g∙kg−1, with average value of 0.17 g∙kg−1, 0.03 g∙kg−1, and 0.09 g∙kg−1, respectively. The average contents of BC, char and soot in three

  4. Black Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Khristin Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united.  The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape from poverty of enslavement and to establish a way of life through tradition. A way of personal freedoms was through getting a good education that lead to a better foundation and a better way of life.

  5. Reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita on Winter Cover Crops Used in Cotton Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timper, Patricia; Davis, Richard F; Tillman, P Glynn

    2006-03-01

    Substantial reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita on winter cover crops may lead to damaging populations in a subsequent cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) crop. The amount of population increase during the winter depends on soil temperature and the host status of the cover crop. Our objectives were to quantify M. incognita race 3 reproduction on rye (Secale cereale) and several leguminous cover crops and to determine if these cover crops increase population densities of M. incognita and subsequent damage to cotton. The cover crops tested were 'Bigbee' berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum), 'Paradana' balansa clover (T. balansae), 'AU Sunrise' and 'Dixie' crimson clover (T. incarnatum), 'Cherokee' red clover (T. pratense), common and 'AU Early Cover' hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), 'Cahaba White' vetch (V. sativa), and 'Wrens Abruzzi' rye. In the greenhouse tests, egg production was greatest on berseem clover, Dixie crimson clover, AU Early Cover hairy vetch, and common hairy vetch; intermediate on Balansa clover and AU Sunrise crimson clover; and least on rye, Cahaba White vetch, and Cherokee red clover. In both 2002 and 2003 field tests, enough heat units were accumulated between 1 January and 20 May for the nematode to complete two generations. Both AU Early Cover and common hairy vetch led to greater root galling than fallow in the subsequent cotton crop; they also supported high reproduction of M. incognita in the greenhouse. Rye and Cahaba White vetch did not increase root galling on cotton and were relatively poor hosts for M. incognita. Only those legumes that increased populations of M. incognita reduced cotton yield. In the southern US, M. incognita can complete one to two generations on a susceptible winter cover crop, so cover crops that support high nematode reproduction may lead to damage and yield losses in the following cotton crop. Planting rye or Meloidogyne-resistant legumes as winter cover crops will lower the risk of increased nematode populations

  6. 施肥措施对砂姜黑土水分入渗性能的影响%Effects of fertilization practices on infiltration in Shajiang black soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏俊岭; 金友前; 郜红建; 常江; 章力干

    2014-01-01

    土壤水分入渗是降雨和灌溉水转变为土壤有效水的过程,是降水、地表水、土壤水和地下水相互作用的环节,是影响作物水分利用效率的重要因素。砂姜黑土黏粒含量高,具有楔型结构等障碍因子,水分入渗性能和持水能力较弱,作物水分利用效率低。改良土体结构是提高土壤入渗与持水能力,增加作物水分利用效率的重要途径。为研究施肥措施对砂姜黑土理化性质及水分入渗性能的影响,设置不施肥对照(CK)、测土配方施肥(PF)、测土配方施肥+秸秆还田(PF+JG)和测土配方施肥+粉煤灰(PF+FMH)4个试验处理,进行小麦-玉米田间轮作试验。研究了土壤容重、颗粒组成、总孔隙度和有机质含量的变化规律,分析了土壤水分入渗特征及其与土壤理化性质之间的关系。结果表明, PF+JG、PF+FMH处理使土壤有机质含量分别较CK和PF提高18.01%、8.92%和11.18%、2.61%,土壤容重分别降低12.90%、11.29%和4.48%、2.98%,土壤总孔隙度分别增加13.89%、5.87%和12.46%、4.56%,土壤水分累积入渗量分别增加98.08%、90.39%和34.64%、29.41%。PF+JG(1.18×10-4 m·s-1)和PF+FMH(1.13×10-4 m·s-1)处理的土壤水分稳定入渗速率分别是CK(5.92×10-5 m·s-1)和PF(8.73×10-5 m·s-1)的1.99倍、1.91倍和1.35倍、1.29倍。土壤水分稳定入渗速率与有机质及总孔隙度显著正相关(P<0.01),与土壤容重呈显著负相关(P<0.05)。该研究表明,秸秆还田和粉煤灰处理,可提高土壤有机质含量,降低土壤容重,增加土壤孔隙度,提高土壤水分稳渗速率,可为土壤水分入渗性能提升提供理论依据。%Infiltration is an important mechanism by which rain and irrigation water replenishes soil water to support plant growth. As a low-yield soil, the Shajiang black soil has high clay content with strong wedging structures. These structures hinder infiltration and water holding

  7. Genetical Genomics Dissection of Cotton Fiber Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LACAPE J M; JACOBS J; LLEWELLYN D

    2008-01-01

    @@ Cotton fiber is a commodity of key economic importance in both developed and developing countries.The two cultivated species,Gossypium hirsutum and G.barbadense,are tetraploid (2n=4x=52,2.3 Gb).Cotton fibers are single-celled trichomes of the outermost epidermal layer of the ovule and elongate extensively to 25-50 mm.The final quality of the fiber results from complex developmental processes and improvement of cotton fiber quality remains a challenge for many research groups worldwide.

  8. Development of a novel‐type transgenic cotton plant for control of cotton bollworm

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Summary The transgenic Bt cotton plant has been widely planted throughout the world for the control of cotton budworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner). However, a shift towards insect tolerance of Bt cotton is now apparent. In this study, the gene encoding neuropeptide F (NPF) was cloned from cotton budworm H. armigera, an important agricultural pest. The npf gene produces two splicing mRNA variants—npf1 and npf2 (with a 120‐bp segment inserted into the npf1 sequence). These are predicted to for...

  9. 长期定位施肥对黄土旱塬黑垆土土壤酶活性的影响%Effect of Long-term Fertilization on Soil Enzyme Activities in Dryland Black Humus Soil in the Loess Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淑英; 樊庭录; 丁宁平; 姜小凤; 张平良; 苏敏

    2011-01-01

    以30年(1979~2008年)肥料长期定位试验为基础,探讨长期定位施肥对黄土旱塬黑垆土土壤酶活性的影响及不同土壤酶间相关性.结果表明:SNP和MNP处理可提高土酶蔗糖酶活性,比不施肥对照分别增加19.98%、19.14%;土壤脲酶活性单施M效果最佳,较对照提高30.72%,MNP和SNP处理优于其它处理;MNP提高碱性磷酸酶活性的效果最好、增幅196.5%,单施M和SNP效果次之;单施N可提高土壤蛋白酶活性,较对照增加28.3%,而施P有抑制黄土旱塬黑垆土蛋白酶活性的作用.脲酶与碱性磷酸酶呈显著正相关,相关系数为0.7241,过氧化氢酶与碱性磷酸酶、脲酶呈显著负相关.综合考虑,长期有机-无机NP肥配施是促进黄土旱塬黑垆土土壤良性循环、提高耕地质量的有效施肥管理措施.%Effects of long-term fertilization on soil enzyme activities in dryland black humus soil in the Loess Plateau was studied based on the long-term fertilization experiment from 1979 to 2008. The results showed that nitrogen and phosphorus with farmer manure (MNP), nitrogen and phosphorus with straw (SNP) could improve the soil invertase activity compared with no fertilizer (control) increased by 19.98%, 19.14%. Farmer manure (M) had a great effect on soil urease activities increased by 30.72% compared to the control, next to MNP and SNP. MNP could increase alkaline phos- phatase activities by 196.5% compared with the control, next to M and SNP. Only application of N could increase soil protease activities by 28.3% compared with control, while P could inhibit soil protease activities in dryland black humus soil in the Loess Plateau. There was a significant positive correlation between soil urease and alkaline phosphatase with correlation coefficient of 0.7241, while there was significantly negative correlation between catalase and alkaline phosphatase, urease. Organic-fertilizer (M and S) with NP was an effective practice for dryland black

  10. [Ecological regionalization of cotton varieties based on GGE biplot].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Nai-Yin; Zhang, Guo-Wei; Li, Jian; Zhou, Zhi-guo

    2013-03-01

    By using the heritability-adjusted GGE biplot analysis method, and taking the trial sites Anqing, Nanyang, Huanggang, Jingzhou, Wuhan, Xiangyang, Changde, Yueyang, Nanjing, Nantong, Yancheng, Jiujiang, Jianyang, Shehong, and Cixi as the representative cotton-planting areas in the Yangtze River basin, the ecological regionalization of cotton varieties in the basin was made based on the lint cotton yield, and the regionalization results were adjusted by the information ratio (IR) method, aimed to provide scientific basis for the selection of cotton varieties in the cotton-planting areas of the basin. The cotton-planting areas in the Yangtze River basin could be divided into three ecological regions, i.e., the "Sichuan basin cotton region" with Jianyang and Shehong as the representative, the "Nan-Xiang basin cotton region" with Xiangyang and Nanyang as the representative, and the "majority complex cotton region in the Yangtze River basin" including all the other sites in the basin.

  11. 化肥对黑土不同粒级碳水化合物的影响%Effect of Chemical Fertilizer Application on the Carbohydrates in Bulk Black Soil and Particle-size Fractions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫颖; 陈盈; 何红波; 解宏图; 白震; 李晓波; 田秋香; 张旭东

    2012-01-01

    The black soil fertilized with different chemical fertilizers for 21 years was sampled from Gongzhuling long-term located station. Fine clay (〈 0.2 p,m), coarse clay (0.2 - 2 μm), silt (2 - 53 μm), fine sand (53 - 250 μm) and coarse sand (250 - 2000μm) fractions were obtained by ultrasonic dispersion, centrifugation and wet sieving separation. Carbohydrates were detected in bulk soil and particlesize fractions. The results showed that there was a large variation among the size separates in black soil carbohydrate pool. Clay plus silt fractions comprised major carbohydrates pool in the soils studied and contained about 70% of the total carbohydrate. In general the application of chemical fertilizers had no clear effect on either neueral sugar accumulation or distribution in size fractions. The decrease of the (Gal+Man): (Ara+Xyl) ratio in coarse fraction after the application of chemical fertilizers indicated a higher contribution of plant sugars to the polysaccharide pool, suggesting that coarse sand fraction was more sensitive to fertilization than the other fractions.%本文采集公主岭市长期定位监测基地不施肥和施用不同化肥的黑土,通过超声波分散-离心分离得到细黏粒(〈0.2μm)、粗黏粒(0.2~2μm)、粉粒(2~53μm)、细砂粒(53~250μm)、粗砂粒(250~2000μm)5个颗粒级别,分析全土及不同粒级中土壤碳水化合物并进行含量与分布的比较。结果表明,黑土中不同粒级碳水化合物库的性质差异显著,碳水化合物多集中在粉+黏粒中;长期施用化肥后,黑土全土及各粒级碳水化合物库大小和浓度基本上没有变化;粗砂粒级(Gal+Man)(:Ara+Xyl)下降,表明该粒级中植物来源碳水化合物所占比重有所增加,暗示出粗砂粒级对施肥措施更为敏感。

  12. Triarylmethane Dyes for Artificial Repellent Cotton Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagut, Ana Maria; Gálvez, Erik; Shafir, Alexandr; Sebastián, Rosa María; Vallribera, Adelina

    2017-03-17

    Families of new hydrophobic and/or oleophobic triarylmethane dyes possessing long hydrocarbon or polyfluorinated chains have been prepared. When covalently grafted on to cotton fabric, these dyes give rise to a new type of colored superhydrophobic fibers.

  13. Using Agricultural Residue Biochar to Improve Soil Quality of Desert Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhe Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory study was conducted to test the effects of biochars made from different feedstocks on soil quality indicators of arid soils. Biochars were produced from four locally-available agricultural residues: pecan shells, pecan orchard prunings, cotton gin trash, and yard waste, using a lab-scale pyrolyzer operated at 450 °C under a nitrogen environment and slow pyrolysis conditions. Two local arid soils used for crop production, a sandy loam and a clay loam, were amended with these biochars at a rate of 45 Mg·ha−1 and incubated for three weeks in a growth chamber. The soils were analyzed for multiple soil quality indicators including soil organic matter content, pH, electrical conductivity (EC, and available nutrients. Results showed that amendment with cotton gin trash biochar has the greatest impact on both soils, significantly increasing SOM and plant nutrient (P, K, Ca, Mn contents, as well as increasing the electrical conductivity, which creates concerns about soil salinity. Other biochar treatments significantly elevated soil salinity in clay loam soil, except for pecan shell biochar amended soil, which was not statistically different in EC from the control treatment. Generally, the effects of the biochar amendments were minimal for many soil measurements and varied with soil texture. Effects of biochars on soil salinity and pH/nutrient availability will be important considerations for research on biochar application to arid soils.

  14. Evaluation of Efficacy of Melamine Treatment on Cotton Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Bhandari

    1968-05-01

    Full Text Available Melamine resin treated cotton fabric was exposed to outdoor weathering for 12 months at Kanpur to study its efficacy against weathering. Along with this, fabric treated with (i hydrated oxides of copper+manganese(ii nickel naphthenate and (iii urea formaldehyde resin, were also exposed to find out the most efficacious treatment of these. Pre monsoon exposure of the three sets commenced from 29th of April, May and June ' 65 respectively. Breaking strength and tear strength data for 12 months exposure have revealed that treatment with hydrated oxides of copper + manganese affords maximum protection to cotton fabrics against weathering degradation irrespective of the month of exposure. Urea formaldehyde resin and nickel naphthenate treatment are the next best. Melamine treatment is equally good as hydrated oxides of copper+manganese if the results are based on breaking strength alone but considering loss in tear strength it gave a poor performance. All the treatment have been found to afford protection against irradiation from mercury arc lamp (rich in ultra violet light. Melamine and urea formaldehyde resin treatments were found completely resistant to microbiological attack in soil burial.

  15. Functional finishing in cotton fabrics using zinc oxide nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Yadav; Virendra Prasad; A A Kathe; Sheela Raj; Deepti Yadav; C Sundaramoorthy; N Vigneshwaran

    2006-11-01

    Nanotechnology, according to the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI), is defined as utilization of structure with at least one dimension of nanometer size for the construction of materials, devices or systems with novel or significantly improved properties due to their nano-size. The nanostructures are capable of enhancing the physical properties of conventional textiles, in areas such as anti-microbial properties, water repellence, soil-resistance, anti-static, anti-infrared and flame-retardant properties, dyeability, colour fastness and strength of textile materials. In the present work, zinc oxide nanoparticles were prepared by wet chemical method using zinc nitrate and sodium hydroxide as precursors and soluble starch as stabilizing agent. These nanoparticles, which have an average size of 40 nm, were coated on the bleached cotton fabrics (plain weave, 30 s count) using acrylic binder and functional properties of coated fabrics were studied. On an average of 75%, UV blocking was recorded for the cotton fabrics treated with 2% ZnO nanoparticles. Air permeability of the nano-ZnO coated fabrics was significantly higher than the control, hence the increased breathability. In case of nano-ZnO coated fabric, due to its nano-size and uniform distribution, friction was significantly lower than the bulk-ZnO coated fabric as studied by Instron® Automated Materials Testing System. Further studies are under way to evaluate wash fastness, antimicrobial properties, abrasion properties and fabric handle properties.

  16. Transgenic cotton expressing Cry10Aa toxin confers high resistance to the cotton boll weevil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Thuanne Pires; Arraes, Fabricio Barbosa Monteiro; Lourenço-Tessutti, Isabela Tristan; Silva, Marilia Santos; Lisei-de-Sá, Maria Eugênia; Lucena, Wagner Alexandre; Macedo, Leonardo Lima Pepino; Lima, Janaina Nascimento; Santos Amorim, Regina Maria; Artico, Sinara; Alves-Ferreira, Márcio; Mattar Silva, Maria Cristina; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fatima

    2017-01-12

    Genetically modified (GM) cotton plants that effectively control cotton boll weevil (CBW), which is the most destructive cotton insect pest in South America, are reported here for the first time. This work presents the successful development of a new GM cotton with high resistance to CBW conferred by Cry10Aa toxin, a protein encoded by entomopathogenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) gene. The plant transformation vector harbouring cry10Aa gene driven by the cotton ubiquitination-related promoter uceA1.7 was introduced into a Brazilian cotton cultivar by biolistic transformation. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays revealed high transcription levels of cry10Aa in both T0 GM cotton leaf and flower bud tissues. Southern blot and qPCR-based 2(-ΔΔCt) analyses revealed that T0 GM plants had either one or two transgene copies. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of Cry10Aa protein expression showed variable protei