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Sample records for black cotton soils

  1. Effect of clay minerals on the stabilization of black cotton and lateritic soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem associated with black cotton and lateritic soils because of the swelling-shrinkage property of their constituent clay minerals were investigated. Samples of black cotton lateritic soils were collected from different parts of Kenya. The samples were analysed for their mineral compositions and later treated with hydrated lime in order to eliminate the swelling shrinkage behaviour. The samples were subsequently tested for their engineering properties in a soil mechanics laboratory using shear box and Casagrande apparatus. It was found that the chemical treatment of the soils with hydrated lime removes their plastic property and improves their shear strength. (author)

  2. Stabilization of Black Cotton Soil With Sand and Cement as a Subgrade for Pavement

    OpenAIRE

    Mrs. Neetu B. Ramteke *1 ,; Prof. Anilkumar Saxena 2 ,; , Prof. T. R. Arora 3

    2014-01-01

    Expansive soil (Black cotton soil) is very weak and does not have enough stability for any type of construction work. In pavement, subgrade layer is the bottommost layer underlying the base course or surface course. To make the subgrade soil stable, by improving its engineering properties is very essential. In the present work, stabilization of subgrade soil by using sand and cement (varying percentage of sand and constant percentage of cement by weight of soil) is used to enh...

  3. Analysis of Engineering Properties of Black Cotton Soil & Stabilization Using By Lime.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavish S. Mehta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing of population and the reduction of available land, more and more construction of buildings and other civil engineering structures have to be carried out on weak or soft soil. Owing to such soil of poor shear strength and high swelling & shrinkage, a great diversity of ground improvement techniques such as soil stabilization and reinforcement are employed to improve mechanical behavior of soil, thereby enhancing the reliability of construction. Black cotton soil is one of the major soil deposits of India. They exhibit high swelling and shrinking when exposed to changes in moisture content and hence have been found to be most troublesome from engineering considerations. Stabilization occurs when lime is added to black cotton soil and a pozzolanic reaction takes place. The hydrated lime reacts with the clay particles and permanently transforms them into a strong cementations matrix. Black cotton soil showing low to medium swelling potential from Rajkot Gujarat was used for determining the basic properties of the soil. Changes in various soil properties such as Liquid limit, Plastic Limit, Maximum Dry Density, Optimum Moisture Content, and California Bearing Ratio were studied. Keywords–

  4. Improvement in Properties of Black Cotton Soil with an Addition of Natural Fibre (Coir Derived From Coconut Covering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyank Goyal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of soil in foundation is a major challenge in civil engineering. Structures built on black cotton soil may be damaged due to high swelling and shrinkage characteristics of this soil with variation of water content. Black cotton soil is an expansive soil which loses its strength in presence of water. On the other hand, it has behavior of shrinkage when loss of moisture is there. About 20 % of land area in India is covered by black cotton soil. Because of its swelling & shrinkage properties, it is also called expansive soil. The present paper is an attempt to study the effectiveness of coconut fiber (coir to control swelling properties of black cotton soil along with an impact on its strength characteristics and dry density. The test results show that in presence of 2% coir fibre, the shrinkage limit is increases by 7.52% to 12.62%. Increase in compressive strength was observed from1.09 to1.32 kg per sq-cm.

  5. Desiccation-Induced Volumetric Shrinkage of Compacted Metakaolin-Treated Black Cotton Soil for a Hydraulic Barriers System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, George; Peter, Oriola F. O.; Osinubi, Kolawole J.

    2016-03-01

    Black cotton soil treated with up to 24% metakaolin (MCL) content was prepared by molding water contents of -2, 0, 2, 4 and 6% of optimum moisture content (OMC) and compacted with British Standard Light (BSL) and West African Standard (WAS) or `Intermediate' energies. The specimens were extruded from the compaction molds and allowed to air dry in a laboratory in order to assess the effect of desiccation-induced shrinkage on the compacted mix for use as a hydraulic barrier in a waste containment application. The results recorded show that the volumetric shrinkage strain (VSS) values were large within the first 10 days of drying; the VSS values increased with a higher molding of the water content, relative to the OMC. The VSS generally increased with a higher initial degree of saturation for the two compactive efforts, irrespective of the level of MCL treatment. Generally, the VSS decreased with an increasing MCL content. Only specimens treated with a minimum 20% MCL content and compacted with the WAS energy satisfied the regulatory maximum VSS of 4% for use as a hydraulic barrier.

  6. DECOMPOSITION OF BT COTTON AND NON BT COTTON RESIDUES UNDER VARIED SOIL TYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Kumari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Use of the insecticidal cry proteins from the bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt in cotton has raised a number of concerns, including the ecological impact on soil ecosystems.Greenhouse study was conducted during the 2011 wet season (March to August at the Institute of Agricultural Sciences of Banaras Hindu University. It was carried out on three different soil orders that includedentisol, inceptisol and alfisol. Bt cotton (var.NCS-138 and its non-transgenic isoline (var.NCS-138 were grown until maturity. A no crop pot was maintained for all the three soil orders. The highest rate of decomposition was found in alluvial soil compared to black and red soils in 50 days after incorporation (DAI. Thereafter the rate of decomposition was slowed downby100 DAI and the constant rate of decomposition was found in 150 DAI. The rate of decomposition was higher in non Bt than Bt crop residues.

  7. Zero Tillage cotton systems and soil quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landers, J. N.; de Freitas, P. L.

    2012-04-01

    Monocropping in cotton production systems negates the benefits of zero tillage. With cotton in a 3-year rotation including other summer and cover crops, such as soybeans and intensive-rooting Brachiaria spp., research on sandy soils in Bahia improved soil fertility, structure and biological activity. Cotton is a deep tap-rooted crop, sensitive to physical and chemical impediments to root development; this has engendered a paradigm of heavy soil preparation operations to remove these. But, ZT can overcome such obstacles, allowing the cotton crop to benefit from cost reductions and a number of other benefits, especially erosion control.. Soil quality has three principal dimensions. Maximum yields only occur when soil fertility, structure and biological activity are in balance. Under Zero Tillage management of Brazilian soils, the processes of nutrient availability, nutrient cycling and efficiency result from increasing SOM and higher CEC. ZT system fertility is also strongly influenced by total annual aerial and root biomass generation; C:N ratios of the biomass, changes in aeration in residue breakdown processes (for roots, dependent on internal drainage), reduced fixation of Phosphorus fertilizers, the possibility of surface application of P and K, use of deep-rooted cover crops to re-cycle nutrients and deleterious effects of over-liming. Soil physical parameters undergo a transformation : greater water holding capacity, a small increase in bulk density (ameliorated by a reversal of soil aggregate breakdown inherent to conventional tillage by the binding action of root exudates and fungal hyphae), enhanced particle aggregate size protects SOM from oxidation; old root holes create semi-permanent macro-pores which facilitate rooting, aeration and rainfall infiltration.. Soil life of all types benefits from ZT management and contributes to soil fertility and structural improvements, plus enhancing certain biological controls of pathogenic organisms and allelopathic

  8. Cotton Production Practices Change Soil Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaise, D.; Singh, J. V.

    2012-04-01

    Historically, indigenous Asiatic cottons (Gossypium arboreum) were cultivated with minimal inputs in India. The introduction of the Upland cottons (G. hirsutum) and later the hybrid (H-4) triggered a whole set of intensified agronomic management with reliance on high doses of fertilisers and pesticide usage. In 2002, the transgenic Bt cotton hybrids were introduced and released for commercial cultivation. Presently, more than 95% of the nearly 12.2 million hectares of cotton area is under the Bt transgenic hybrids. These hybrids are not only high yielding but have reduced the dependence on pesticide because of an effective control of the lepidopteran pests. Thus, a change in the management practices is evident over the years. In this paper, we discuss the impact of two major agronomic management practices namely, nutrient management and tillage besides organic cotton cultivation in the rainfed cotton growing regions of central India characterized by sub-humid to semi-arid climate and dominated by Vertisols. Long-term studies at Nagpur, Maharashtra indicated the importance of integrated nutrient management (INM) wherein a part of the nutrient needs through fertiliser was substituted with organic manures such as farmyard manure (FYM). With the application of mineral fertilisers alone, soils became deficient in micronutrients. This was not observed with the FYM amended plots. Further, the manure amended plots had a better soil physical properties and the water holding capacity of the soil improved due to improvements in soil organic matter (SOM). Similarly, in a separate experiment, an improvement in SOM was observed in the organically managed fields because of continuous addition of organic residues. Further, it resulted in greater biological activity compared to the conventionally managed fields. Conservation tillage systems such as reduced tillage (RT) are a means to improve soil health and crop productivity. Long-term studies on tillage practices such as

  9. Nutrient omission in Bt cotton affects soil organic carbon and nutrients status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aladakatti, Y. R.; Biradar, D. P.; Satyanarayana, T.; Majumdar, K.; Shivamurthy, D.

    2012-04-01

    Studies carried out at the University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, India, in medium black soils assessed the effect of nutrient omission in Bt cotton and its effect on the soil organic carbon (SOC) and available nutrients at the end of second consecutive year of nutrient omission. The study also assessed the extent of contribution of the macro and micronutrients towards seed cotton yield. The experiment consisting 11 treatments omitting a nutrient in each treatment including an absolute control without any nutrients was conducted in a Randomised Block Design with three replications. Cotton crop sufficiently fertilized with macro and micro nutrients (165 : 75 : 120 NPK kg ha-1 and 20 kg each of CaSO4, and MgSO4, 10 kg of S, 20 kg each of ZnSO4, FeSO4 and 0.1 per cent Boron twice as foliar spray) was taken as a standard check to assess the contribution of each nutrient in various nutrient omission treatments. Soils of each treatment were analysed initially and after each crop of cotton for SOC and available nutrient status. Results indicated that the SOC decreased after each crop of cotton in absolute control where no nutrients were applied (0.50 % to 0.38 %) and also in the N omission treatment (0.50 % to 0.35 %). But there was no significant impact of omission of P, K and other nutrients on soil organic carbon. Soil available N, P and K in the soil were reduced as compared to the initial soil status after first and second crop of cotton in the respective treatment where these nutrients were omitted. The soil available N, P and K were reduced to the extent of 61 kg ha-1, 7.1 kg ha-1 and 161.9 kg ha-1 in the respective nutrient omission treatment at end of second crop of cotton as compared to the initial status of these nutrients in the soil. This might be due to the mining of these nutrients from the soil nutrient pool with out addition of these nutrients extraneously. The nutrient status of N, P and K remained almost similar in omission of other nutrients

  10. Ecological study of the larger black flour beetle in cotton gin trash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nansen, Christian; James, Jacob; Bowling, David; Parajulee, Megha N; Porter, Patrick

    2008-12-01

    The larger black flour beetle Cynaeus angustus (Leconte) thrives in cotton gin trash piles on the Southern High Plains of Texas and sometimes becomes a nuisance after invading public and private structures. For better understanding of the basic larger black flour beetle ecology in gin trash piles, we conducted a series of laboratory and semirealistic field trials. We showed (1) in naturally infested gin trash piles, that similar trap captures were obtained in three cardinal directions; (2) in a laboratory study, late-instar larvae stayed longer in larval stage in moist soil compared with drier soil; (3) in both horizontal and vertical choice experiments, late instars preferred soil with low moisture content; and (4) specifically larger black flour beetle adults, but most larvae as well, responded negatively to high moisture content in gin trash. The results presented are consistent with reports of larger black flour beetle living in decaying yucca palms in deserts and suggest that maintaining gin trash piles with high moisture content may be an important component in an integrated control strategy. PMID:19161678

  11. Effects of Soil Salinity on Sucrose Metabolism in Cotton Fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jun; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Jingran; Luo, Junyu; Zhao, Xinhua; Dong, Helin; Ma, Yan; Sui, Ning; Zhou, Zhiguo; Meng, Yali

    2016-01-01

    Cotton (Gosspium hirsutum L.) is classified as a salt tolerant crop. However, its yield and fiber quality are negatively affected by soil salinity. Studies on the enzymatic differences in sucrose metabolism under different soil salinity levels are lacking. Therefore, field experiments, using two cotton cultivars, CCRI-79 (salt-tolerant) and Simian 3 (salt-sensitive), were conducted in 2013 and 2014 at three different salinity levels (1.15 dS m-1 [low soil salinity], 6.00 dS m-1 [medium soil salinity], and 11.46 dS m-1 [high soil salinity]). The objective was to elucidate the effects of soil salinity on sucrose content and the activity of key enzymes that are related to sucrose metabolism in cotton fiber. Results showed that as the soil salinity increased, cellulose content, sucrose content, and sucrose transformation rate declined; the decreases in cellulose content and sucrose transformation rate caused by the increase in soil salinity were more in Simian 3 than those in CCRI-79. With increase in soil salinity, activities of sucrose metabolism enzymes sucrose phophate synthase (SPS), acidic invertase, and alkaline invertase were decreased, whereas sucrose synthase (SuSy) activity increased. However, the changes displayed in the SuSy and SPS activities in response to increase in soil salinity were different and the differences were large between the two cotton cultivars. These results illustrated that suppressed cellulose synthesis and sucrose metabolism under high soil salinity were mainly due to the change in SPS, SuSy, and invertase activities, and the difference in cellulose synthesis and sucrose metabolism in fiber for the two cotton cultivars in response to soil salinity was determined mainly by both SuSy and SPS activities. PMID:27227773

  12. Effects of Soil Salinity on Sucrose Metabolism in Cotton Fiber.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Peng

    Full Text Available Cotton (Gosspium hirsutum L. is classified as a salt tolerant crop. However, its yield and fiber quality are negatively affected by soil salinity. Studies on the enzymatic differences in sucrose metabolism under different soil salinity levels are lacking. Therefore, field experiments, using two cotton cultivars, CCRI-79 (salt-tolerant and Simian 3 (salt-sensitive, were conducted in 2013 and 2014 at three different salinity levels (1.15 dS m-1 [low soil salinity], 6.00 dS m-1 [medium soil salinity], and 11.46 dS m-1 [high soil salinity]. The objective was to elucidate the effects of soil salinity on sucrose content and the activity of key enzymes that are related to sucrose metabolism in cotton fiber. Results showed that as the soil salinity increased, cellulose content, sucrose content, and sucrose transformation rate declined; the decreases in cellulose content and sucrose transformation rate caused by the increase in soil salinity were more in Simian 3 than those in CCRI-79. With increase in soil salinity, activities of sucrose metabolism enzymes sucrose phophate synthase (SPS, acidic invertase, and alkaline invertase were decreased, whereas sucrose synthase (SuSy activity increased. However, the changes displayed in the SuSy and SPS activities in response to increase in soil salinity were different and the differences were large between the two cotton cultivars. These results illustrated that suppressed cellulose synthesis and sucrose metabolism under high soil salinity were mainly due to the change in SPS, SuSy, and invertase activities, and the difference in cellulose synthesis and sucrose metabolism in fiber for the two cotton cultivars in response to soil salinity was determined mainly by both SuSy and SPS activities.

  13. Influence by physical properties of coal combustion residues (CCRs on dry root productivity of Withania somnifera grown in black cotton soil

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    Bhisham Yadav

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In India, presently ~40% Coal Combustion Residues (CCRs generated by burning of pulverized coal at Thermal Power Station is being used for cement, bricks, land reclamation etc. Now a day it has also been considered for agriculture applications. This study, an attempt was made to use of CCRs as soil modifier and micro fertilizer for cultivation of Withania somnifera under two cropping. Results revealed that production of dry root yields of Withania somnifera was found higher in T5 treatment (35.545g and 39.002g per plant as compared to control treatment (T1. It is showed significant (p<0.001% from all the treatments in both the years. The essential elements like Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn were found increasing trends in dry root of Withania somnifera with increase the concentration of CCRs application. This study is found the bulk utilization of CCRs for cultivation of Withania somnifera improved their root yield and chemical quality.

  14. [Effects of cotton stalk biochar on microbial community structure and function of continuous cropping cotton rhizosphere soil in Xinjiang, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Mei-ying; Tang, Guang-mu; Liu, Hong-liang; Li, Zhi-qiang; Liu, Xiao-wei; Xu, Wan-li

    2016-01-01

    In this study, field trials were conducted to examine the effects of cotton stalk biochar on microbial population, function and structural diversity of microorganisms in rhizosphere soil of continuous cotton cropping field in Xinjiang by plate count, Biolog and DGGE methods. The experiment was a factorial design with four treatments: 1) normal fertilization with cotton stalk removed (NPK); 2) normal fertilization with cotton stalk powdered and returned to field (NPKS); 3) normal fertilization plus cotton stalk biochar at 22.50 t · hm⁻² (NPKB₁); and 4) normal fertilization plus cotton stalk biochar at 45.00 t · hm⁻² (NPKB₂). The results showed that cotton stalk biochar application obviously increased the numbers of bacteria and actinomycetes in the rhizospheric soil. Compared with NPK treatment, the number of fungi was significantly increased in the NPKB₁treatment, but not in the NPKB₂ treatment. However, the number of fungi was generally lower in the biochar amended (NPKB₁, NPKB₂) than in the cotton stalk applied plots (NPKS). Application of cotton stalk biochar increased values of AWCD, and significantly improved microbial richness index, suggesting that the microbial ability of utilizing carbohydrates, amino acids and carboxylic acids, especially phenolic acids was enhanced. The number of DGGE bands of NPKB₂ treatment was the greatest, with some species of Gemmatimonadetes, Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria being enriched. UPGMC Cluster analysis pointed out that bacterial communities in the rhizospheric soil of NPKB₂ treatment were different from those in the NPK, NPKS and NPKB₁treatments, which belonged to the same cluster. These results indicated that application of cotton stalk biochar could significantly increase microbial diversity and change soil bacterial community structure in the cotton rhizosphere soil, thus improving the health of soil ecosystem. PMID:27228607

  15. Investigation of low temperature soil removal from cotton fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Dengler, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was the investigation and improvement of washing cotton, soiled with triglycerides at room temperature. Therefore the wash efficiency determining interactions were identified and the influence of structures and viscosity of washing agent and temperature on the laundry results determined. To increase systematically the soil release two different strategies were applied. On the one hand we tried to increase the amount of released triglyceride and the other hand we tried to ...

  16. Improvement of colour strength and colourfastness properties of gamma irradiated cotton using reactive black-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad Bhatti, Ijaz; Adeel, Shahid; Nadeem, Raziya; Asghar, Toheed

    2012-03-01

    The dyeing behaviour of gamma irradiated cotton fabric using Reactive Black-5 dye powder has been investigated. The mercerized, bleached and plain weaved cotton fabric was irradiated to different absorbed doses of 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 Gy using Co-60 gamma irradiator. Dyeing was performed using irradiated and un-irradiated cotton with dye solutions. The dyeing parameters such as temperature of dyeing, time of dyeing and pH of dyeing solutions were optimised. The colour strength values of dyed fabrics were evaluated by comparing irradiated and un-irradiated cotton in CIE Lab system using Spectra flash SF650. Methods suggested by International Standard Organisation (ISO) were employed to study the effect of gamma irradiation on the colourfastness properties of dyed fabric. It is found that gamma irradiated cotton dyed with Reactive Black-5 has not only improved the colour strength but also enhanced the rating of fastness properties.

  17. Strategies for soil-based precision agriculture in cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely, Haly L.; Morgan, Cristine L. S.; Stanislav, Scott; Rouze, Gregory; Shi, Yeyin; Thomasson, J. Alex; Valasek, John; Olsenholler, Jeff

    2016-05-01

    The goal of precision agriculture is to increase crop yield while maximizing the use efficiency of farm resources. In this application, UAV-based systems are presenting agricultural researchers with an opportunity to study crop response to environmental and management factors in real-time without disturbing the crop. The spatial variability soil properties, which drive crop yield and quality, cannot be changed and thus keen agronomic choices with soil variability in mind have the potential to increase profits. Additionally, measuring crop stress over time and in response to management and environmental conditions may enable agronomists and plant breeders to make more informed decisions about variety selection than the traditional end-of-season yield and quality measurements. In a previous study, seed-cotton yield was measured over 4 years and compared with soil variability as mapped by a proximal soil sensor. It was found that soil properties had a significant effect on seed-cotton yield and the effect was not consistent across years due to different precipitation conditions. However, when seed-cotton yield was compared to the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), as measured using a multispectral camera from a UAV, predictions improved. Further improvement was seen when soil-only pixels were removed from the analysis. On-going studies are using UAV-based data to uncover the thresholds for stress and yield potential. Long-term goals of this research include detecting stress before yield is reduced and selecting better adapted varieties.

  18. Removal of Erichrome Black T from Synthetic Wastewater by Cotton Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Ladhe, U. V.; S. K. Wankhede; V. T. Patil; P. R. Patil

    2011-01-01

    Adsorptions of Erichrome Black T dye in aqueous solution on cotton stem activated carbon have been studied as a function of contact time, concentration and pH. Effect of various experimental parameters has been investigated at 39±1 °C under batch adsorption technique. The result shows that cotton stem activated carbon adsorbs dye to a sufficient extent. The physicochemical characterization and chemical kinetics was also examined for the same dye. The overall result shows that it can be fruitf...

  19. Soil Temperature Dependent Growth of Cotton Seedlings Before Emergence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Soil temperature is an important variable governing plant growth and development.Studies were conducted under laboratory conditions to determine the effect of soil temperature on root and shoot growth of cotton during emergence.Cotton seedlings were grown for 192 h at 20,32 and 38℃ in soil packed in 300 mm long and 50 mm diameter cylinders.The data indicated that the longest roots(173 ram)as well as shoots(152 mm)were recorded at 32 ℃ followed by 20 (130 mm root and 82 mm shoot)and 38℃(86 mm root and 50 mm shoot).Roots grown at 20 and 38 ℃ were 20% and 50% shorter,respectively,than those grown at 32℃ after 192 h.Roots and shoots exhibited the lowest length and dry biomass at 38℃.Shoot lengths grown at 20(74 ram)and 38℃(51 mm)were 44% and 61% shorter than those grown at 32℃(131 mm)after 180 h growth period,respectively.Growth at all three temperatures followed a similar pattern.Initially there was a linear growth phase followed by the reduction or cessation of growth.Time to cessation of growth varied with temperature and decreased faster at higher temperatures.Sowing of cotton should be accomlplished before seedbed reaches a soil temperature(≥38℃)detrimental for emergence.Further,the seedbeds should be capable of providing sufficient moisture and essential nutrients for emerging seedling before its seed reserves are exhausted to enhance seedling establishment in soil.

  20. Effects of Soil Water Content on Cotton Root Growth and Distribution Under Mulched Drip Irrigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xiao-tang; CHEN Hu; WANG Jing; MENG Xiao-bin; CHEN Fu-hong

    2009-01-01

    The relation between soil water content and the growth of cotton root was studied for the scheme of field water and cotton yield under mulched drip irrigation.Based on the field experiments,three treatments of soil water content were conducted with 90%θf,75%θf,and 60%θf (θf is field water capacity).Cotton roots and root-shoot ratio were studied with digging method,and the soil moisture was observed with TDR (time domain reflector),and cotton yield was measured.The results indicated that the growth of cotton root accorded with Logistic growth curve in the three treatments,the cotton root grew quickly and its weight was very high under 75%θf because of the suitable soil water condition,while grew slowly and its weight was lower under 90%θf due to water moisture beyond the suitable condition,and the root weight was in between under 60%θf.For the three water treatments,the cotton root weight decreased with soil depth,and decreased more significantly in deeper soil layer with the soil moisture increasing.And the ratio of cotton root weight in 0-30 cm soil layer to the total root weight was the highest under 75%θf.The cotton root system was distributed mainly in the soil of narrow row and wide row mulched with plastic film,and little in the soil outside plastic film.The weight of cotton root was the highest in the soil of narrow row or wide row mulched with plastic film under 75%θf.Root-shoot ratio decreased with the soil moisture increasing.The soil water content affected cotton yields,and cotton yield was the highest under 75%θf.The higher soil moisture level is unfavorable to the growth of cotton root system and yield of cotton under mulched drip irrigation.

  1. Effects of Soil Salinity on Sucrose Metabolism in Cotton Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jun; Liu, Jingran; Zhang, Lei; Luo, Junyu; Dong, Helin; Ma, Yan; Zhao, Xinhua; Chen, Binglin; Sui, Ning; Zhou, Zhiguo; Meng, Yali

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated sucrose metabolism of the youngest fully expanded main-stem leaf (MSL) and the subtending leaf of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) boll (LSCB) of salt-tolerant (CCRI-79) and salt-sensitive (Simian 3) cultivars and its relationship to boll weight under low, medium and high soil salinity stress in Dafeng, China, in 2013 and 2014. The results showed that with increased soil salinity, 1) both the chlorophyll content and net photosynthetic rate (Pn) decreased, while the internal CO2 concentration firstly declined, and then increased in the MSL and LSCB; 2) carbohydrate contents in the MSL reduced significantly, while sucrose and starch contents in the LSCB increased, as did the activities of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) and sucrose synthase (SuSy) in both the MSL and LSCB; 3) but invertase activity in both the MSL and LSCB did not change significantly. Our study also showed that the LSCB was more sensitive to soil salinity than was the MSL. Of the measured physiological indices, higher SPS activity, mainly controlled by sps3, may contribute to adaption of the LSCB to soil salinity stress because SPS is beneficial for efficiently sucrose synthesis, reduction of cellular osmotic potential and combined actions of Pn, and sucrose transformation rate and SPS may contribute to the reduction in boll weight under soil salinity stress. PMID:27228029

  2. Effects of Soil Salinity on Sucrose Metabolism in Cotton Leaves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Peng

    Full Text Available This study investigated sucrose metabolism of the youngest fully expanded main-stem leaf (MSL and the subtending leaf of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. boll (LSCB of salt-tolerant (CCRI-79 and salt-sensitive (Simian 3 cultivars and its relationship to boll weight under low, medium and high soil salinity stress in Dafeng, China, in 2013 and 2014. The results showed that with increased soil salinity, 1 both the chlorophyll content and net photosynthetic rate (Pn decreased, while the internal CO2 concentration firstly declined, and then increased in the MSL and LSCB; 2 carbohydrate contents in the MSL reduced significantly, while sucrose and starch contents in the LSCB increased, as did the activities of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS and sucrose synthase (SuSy in both the MSL and LSCB; 3 but invertase activity in both the MSL and LSCB did not change significantly. Our study also showed that the LSCB was more sensitive to soil salinity than was the MSL. Of the measured physiological indices, higher SPS activity, mainly controlled by sps3, may contribute to adaption of the LSCB to soil salinity stress because SPS is beneficial for efficiently sucrose synthesis, reduction of cellular osmotic potential and combined actions of Pn, and sucrose transformation rate and SPS may contribute to the reduction in boll weight under soil salinity stress.

  3. Controlled release fungicide, soil amendments and biofumigation effects on cotton root rot suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cotton root rot pathogen (Phymatotrichopsis ominora) causes major losses in cotton produced in the Southwest. Granular controlled release formulations (CRF) of the fungicide, Propiconazole, developed to be soil applied at planting were studied at 1.0 and 3.0 lb a.i./ac. applications and with tw...

  4. Soil microbial biomass and root growth in Bt and non-Bt cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, D. K. Y.; Broughton, K.; Knox, O. G.; Hulugalle, N. R.

    2012-04-01

    The introduction of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) has had a substantial impact on pest management in the cotton industry. While there has been substantial research done on the impact of Bt on the above-ground parts of the cotton plant, less is known about the effect of Bt genes on below ground growth of cotton and soil microbial biomass. The aim of this research was to test the hypothesis that Bt [Sicot 80 BRF (Bollgard II Roundup Ready Flex®)] and non-Bt [Sicot 80 RRF (Roundup Ready Flex®)] transgenic cotton varieties differ in root growth and root turnover, carbon indices and microbial biomass. A field experiment was conducted in Narrabri, north-western NSW. The experimental layout was a randomised block design and used minirhizotron and core break and root washing methods to measure cotton root growth and turnover during the 2008/09 season. Root growth in the surface 0-0.1 m of the soil was measured using the core break and root washing methods, and that in the 0.1 to 1 m depth was measured with a minirhizotron and an I-CAP image capture system. These measurements were used to calculate root length per unit area, root carbon added to the soil through intra-seasonal root death, carbon in roots remaining at the end of the season and root carbon potentially added to the soil. Microbial biomass was also measured using the ninhydrin reactive N method. Root length densities and length per unit area of non-Bt cotton were greater than Bt cotton. There were no differences in root turnover between Bt and non-Bt cotton at 0-1 m soil depth, indicating that soil organic carbon stocks may not be affected by cotton variety. Cotton variety did not have an effect on soil microbial biomass. The results indicate that while there are differences in root morphology between Bt and non-Bt cotton, these do not change the carbon turnover dynamics in the soil.

  5. Neutron-activation analysis for investigation of biochemical manganese in soils cotton soweol zone of Uzbekistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: For many years we neutron activation analysis of soils sampled from different areas of landscape-geochemical regions of Uzbekistan including zone of extreme ecological catastrophe of Aral. Content of manganese and some other elements in the 'soil-cotton' system was investigated. Neutron-activation method of manganese determining with productivity up to 400 samples on shift with detection limit of 1,1 10-5 % and discrepancies not more than 10%. Was developed extremely uniform distribution of manganese in cotton sowed soils of the Republic (340-1800mg/kg) is determined. Practically all soils of cotton-sowed zone of Republic are with lack of manganese. Distribution of manganese on soil profile of separate organs of cotton (leaves seeds etc.) was studied. Correlation between gross concentration of manganese and its active part extracted by distilled water on the basis of quantity analysis was found. Successive comparison of gross content of manganese in the soil with crop capacity of cotton in different zones of Republic made it possible to find interconnection between these quantities, which proves necessity of using micro-additions of manganese in the soils where its low concentration is detected

  6. Conserved current for the Cotton tensor, black hole entropy and equivariant Pontryagin forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreiro Perez, Roberto, E-mail: roferreiro@ccee.ucm.e [Departamento de Economia Financiera y Contabilidad I Facultad de Ciencias Economicas y Empresariales, UCM Campus de Somosaguas, 28223-Pozuelo de Alarcon (Spain)

    2010-07-07

    The Chern-Simons Lagrangian density in the space of metrics of a three-dimensional manifold M is not invariant under the action of diffeomorphisms on M. However, its Euler-Lagrange operator can be identified with the Cotton tensor, which is invariant under diffeomorphims. As the Lagrangian is not invariant, the Noether theorem cannot be applied to obtain conserved currents. We show that it is possible to obtain an equivariant conserved current for the Cotton tensor by using the first equivariant Pontryagin form on the bundle of metrics. Finally we define a Hamiltonian current which gives the contribution of the Chern-Simons term to the black hole entropy, energy and angular momentum.

  7. Conserved current for the Cotton tensor, black hole entropy and equivariant Pontryagin forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chern-Simons Lagrangian density in the space of metrics of a three-dimensional manifold M is not invariant under the action of diffeomorphisms on M. However, its Euler-Lagrange operator can be identified with the Cotton tensor, which is invariant under diffeomorphims. As the Lagrangian is not invariant, the Noether theorem cannot be applied to obtain conserved currents. We show that it is possible to obtain an equivariant conserved current for the Cotton tensor by using the first equivariant Pontryagin form on the bundle of metrics. Finally we define a Hamiltonian current which gives the contribution of the Chern-Simons term to the black hole entropy, energy and angular momentum.

  8. Effects of crop residue on soil and plant water evaporation in a dryland cotton system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lascano, R. J.; Baumhardt, R. L.

    1996-03-01

    Dryland agricultural cropping systems emphasize sustaining crop yields with limited use of fertilizer while conserving both rain water and the soil. Conservation of these resources may be achieved with management systems that retain residues at the soil surface simultaneously modifying both its energy and water balance. A conservation practice used with cotton grown on erodible soils of the Texas High Plains is to plant cotton into chemically terminated wheat residues. In this study, the partitioning of daily and seasonal evapotranspiration ( E t) into soil and plant water evaporation was compared for a conventional and a terminated-wheat cotton crop using the numerical model ENWATBAL. The model was configured to account for the effects of residue on the radiative fluxes and by introducing an additional resistance to latent and sensible heat fluxes derived from measurements of wind speed and vapor conductance from a soil covered with wheat-stubble. Our results showed that seasonal E t was similar in both systems and that cumulative soil water evaporation was 50% of E t in conventional cotton and 31% of E t in the wheat-stubble cotton. Calculated values of E t were in agreement with measured values. The main benefit of the wheat residues was to suppress soil water evaporation by intercepting irradiance early in the growing season when the crop leaf area index (LAI) was low. In semiarid regions LAI of dryland cotton seldom exceeds 2 and residues can improve water conservation. Measured soil temperatures showed that early in the season residues reduced temperature at 0.1 m depth by as much as 5°C and that differences between systems diminished with depth and over time. Residues increased lint yield per unit of E t while not modifying seasonal E t and reducing cumulative soil water evaporation.

  9. Cadmium (Cd) Localization in Tissues of Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), and Its Phytoremediation Potential for Cd-Contaminated Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhifan; Zhao, Ye; Fan, Lidong; Xing, Liteng; Yang, Yujie

    2015-12-01

    Phytoremediation using economically valuable, large biomass, non-edible plants is a promising method for metal-contaminated soils. This study investigated cotton's tolerance for Cd and remediation potential through analyzing Cd bioaccumulation and localization in plant organs under different soil Cd levels. Results showed cotton presents good tolerance when soil Cd concentration ≤20.26 mg kg(-1). Cotton had good Cd accumulation ability under low soil Cd levels (stem to root) above 1. Energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis indicated cotton leaf transpiration played a key role in extracting soil Cd, while roots and stems were the main compartments of Cd storage. Cd complexation to other organic constituents in root and stem cell sap could be a primary detoxifying strategy. Therefore, cotton is a potential candidate for phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated soils. PMID:26419249

  10. [Effects of soil wetting pattern on the soil water-thermal environment and cotton root water consumption under mulched drip irrigation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong-wei; Li, Ming-si; Liu, Dong; Lyu, Mou-chao; Jia, Yan-hui

    2015-08-01

    Abstract: To explore the effects of soil wetting pattern on soil water-thermal environment and water consumption of cotton root under mulched drip irrigation, a field experiment with three drip intensities (1.69, 3.46 and 6.33 L · h(-1)), was carried out in Shihezi, Xinjiang Autonomous Region. The soil matric potential, soil temperature, cotton root distribution and water consumption were measured during the growing period of cotton. The results showed that the main factor influencing the soil temperature of cotton under plastic mulch was sunlight. There was no significant difference in the soil temperature and root water uptake under different treatments. The distribution of soil matrix suction in cotton root zone under plastic mulch was more homogeneous under ' wide and shallow' soil wetting pattern (W633). Under the 'wide and shallow' soil wetting pattern, the average difference of cotton root water consumption between inner row and outer row was 0.67 mm · d(-1), which was favorable to the cotton growing trimly at both inner and outer rows; for the 'narrow and deep' soil wetting pattern (W169), the same index was 0.88 mm · d(-1), which was unfavorable to cotton growing uniformly at both inner and outer rows. So, we should select the broad-shallow type soil wetting pattern in the design of drip irrigation under mulch. PMID:26685608

  11. Water Use Efficiency in Saline Soils under Cotton Cultivation in the Tarim River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoning Zhao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Tarim River Basin, the largest area of Chinese cotton production, is receiving increased attention because of serious environmental problems. At two experimental stations (Korla and Aksu, we studied the influence of salinity on cotton yield. Soil chemical and physical properties, soil water content, soil total suction and matric suction, cotton yield and water use efficiency under plastic mulched drip irrigation in different saline soils was measured during cotton growth season. The salinity (mS·cm−1 were 17–25 (low at Aksu and Korla, 29–50 (middle at Aksu and 52–62 (high at Aksu for ECe (Electrical conductivity measured in saturation-paste extract of soil over the 100 cm soil profile. The soil water characteristic curves in different saline soils showed that the soil water content (15%–23% at top 40 cm soil, lower total suction power (below 3500 kPa and lower matric suction (below 30 kPa in low saline soil at Korla had the highest water use efficiency (10 kg·ha−1·mm−1 and highest irrigation water use efficiency (12 kg·ha−1·mm−1 and highest yield (6.64 t·ha−1. Higher water content below 30 cm in high saline soil increased the salinity risk and led to lower yield (2.39 t·ha−1. Compared to low saline soils at Aksu, the low saline soil at Korla saved 110 mm irrigation and 103 mm total water to reach 1 t·ha−1 yield and increased water use efficiency by 5 kg·ha−1·mm−1 and 7 kg·ha−1·mm−1 for water use efficiency (WUE and irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE respectively.

  12. Phosphorus application to cotton enhances growth, yield, and quality characteristics on a sandy loam soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphorus (P) is the second most limiting nutrient in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) production after nitrogen. Under wheat-cotton cropping system of Pakistan most of the farmers apply P fertilizer only to wheat crop. A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of fertilizer P on the growth, yield and fibre quality of cotton on a sandy loam calcareous soil at farmer's field in cotton growing area of district Khanewal, Punjab. Five levels of P (0, 17, 26, 34 and 43 kg P ha /sup -1/) along with 120 kg N and 53 kg K ha/sup -1/ were applied. The response of cotton growth parameters was greater than quality components to P addition in calcareous soil. There was significant increase in the growth and yield parameters with each additional rate of P. The response of number of bolls per plant, boll weight and seed cotton yield was to the tune of 88.23, 16.82 and 42%, respectively at P application rate of 34 kg ha/sup -1/. Cotton quality components (lint %age, fiber length and fiber strength) improved from 2 to 5% where 43 kg P ha/sup -1/ was added. The lint and seed P concentration was little affected by P application as compared to stem and leaves showing its essentiality for cell division and development of meristematic tissue. Phosphorus use, thus not only valuable for wheat crop but also its application to cotton crop is of vital importance in improving both lint yield and quality. (author)

  13. Mathematical Analyses for the Influence of Soil Conditions and Nutrient Interactions on Cotton Yields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGJIANHUI; HUCHANGQING; 等

    1996-01-01

    The influence of soil chemical properties and soil nutrition on cotton yields was studied by means of establishing mathematical models.The nultivarate quadratic regression equations developed by a stepwise regression method not only presented the single effect of soil factors but also displayed the interaction(synergistic or antagonistic) of soil nutrients.The effect of individual factor and the way of nutrient interaction were further analysed by the path analysis method.The results showed that among major factors affecting cotton yields,there existed the interactions between macronutrients(available P× available K),and between macronutrients and microelements(N×Zn,P×Mo,P×Cu,P×Zn,K×Mo)besides the single effect of soil pH,total P ,available Cu and available Zn.

  14. Cadmium (Cd) Localization in Tissues of Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), and Its Phytoremediation Potential for Cd-Contaminated Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhifan; Zhao, Ye; Fan, Lidong; Xing, Liteng; Yang, Yujie

    2015-12-01

    Phytoremediation using economically valuable, large biomass, non-edible plants is a promising method for metal-contaminated soils. This study investigated cotton's tolerance for Cd and remediation potential through analyzing Cd bioaccumulation and localization in plant organs under different soil Cd levels. Results showed cotton presents good tolerance when soil Cd concentration ≤20.26 mg kg(-1). Cotton had good Cd accumulation ability under low soil Cd levels (soil Cd, while roots and stems were the main compartments of Cd storage. Cd complexation to other organic constituents in root and stem cell sap could be a primary detoxifying strategy. Therefore, cotton is a potential candidate for phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated soils.

  15. Mobile nickel content in calcareous black soils of Rajac

    OpenAIRE

    Đorđević Aleksandar R.

    2002-01-01

    A description of mobile Ni contents in various subtypes of calcareous black soils from the area of the mountain massif of Rajac, is given in the present paper. A hundred soil samples were analysed in all, originating from four subtypes of calcareous black soil (organogenic, organo-mineral, brownized and loessivized black soils). The extraction of mobile Ni was carried out with 1.0 N HCl and its content was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The obtained results indicate that m...

  16. Field trial of diatomaceous earth in cotton gin trash against the larger black flour beetle, Cynaeus angustus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, N E; Porter, P

    2004-04-01

    The larger black flour beetle, Cynaeus angustus (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), is an agricultural and home nuisance pest in North America. In the Southern High Plains of Texas, the larger black flour beetle is associated with cotton gin trash, by-products of cotton ginning that are field stored in large piles for economic reasons. Larger black flour beetle overwinter in gin trash piles but may disperse by the millions in summer and autumn, entering houses as far as 2 km away where they cause distress to homeowners. Because > 1.2 billion kg of gin trash is produced annually in Texas alone, the potential consequences of the larger black flour beetle are enormous. We conducted a field experiment that evaluated the efficacy of diatomaceous earth (DE) on the abundance of the larger black flour beetle in gin trash. There were no significant differences in numbers of larger black flour beetle among treatments and controls (mean number of adults summed over time: controls = 115.41, layered treatment = 87.60, top and bottom treatment = 96.50, bottom treatment = 115.16). There were sufficient numbers of beetles in treated piles to still pose a potential home nuisance problem, likely because the moisture content of field-stored gin trash is too high for DE to work effectively. Therefore, treating cotton gin trash with diatomaceous earth will probably be unable to prevent home infestations of larger black flour beetle. Location within a gin trash pile and season influenced pest numbers, which has implications for long-term field storage of cotton gin trash. PMID:15154486

  17. Distribution of Heavy Metals in the Soils Associated with the Commonly Used Pesticides in Cotton Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Saadia Rashid Tariq; Musharaf Shafiq; Ghayoor Abbas Chotana

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural soils contain both heavy metals and pesticides originating from various agricultural practices. It is quite important to study the relationships between these two classes of compounds. To accomplish this, 52 soil samples were collected from cotton fields and analyzed for their metal contents (Ni, Cu, Co, Pb, Cr, and Cd) and levels of most commonly used pesticides (imidacloprid, acetamiprid, and emamectin). FAAS was used for metal estimation and the pesticides were determined by H...

  18. Sub-soil microbial activity under rotational cotton crops in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polain, Katherine; Knox, Oliver; Wilson, Brian; Pereg, Lily

    2016-04-01

    Soil microbial communities contribute significantly to soil organic matter formation, stabilisation and destabilisation, through nutrient cycling and biodegradation. The majority of soil microbial research examines the processes occurring in the top 0 cm to 30 cm of the soil, where organic nutrients are easily accessible. In soils such as Vertosols, the high clay content causes swelling and cracking. When soil cracking is coupled with rain or an irrigation event, a flush of organic nutrients can move down the soil profile, becoming available for subsoil microbial community use and potentially making a significant contribution to nutrient cycling and biodegradation in soils. At present, the mechanisms and rates of soil nutrient turnover (such as carbon and nitrogen) at depth under cotton rotations are mostly speculative and the process-response relationships remain unclear, although they are undoubtedly underpinned by microbial activity. Our research aims to determine the contribution and role of soil microbiota to the accumulation, cycling and mineralisation of carbon and nitrogen through the whole root profile under continuous cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and cotton-maize rotations in regional New South Wales, Australia. Through seasonal work, we have established both baseline and potential microbial activity rates from 0 cm to 100 cm down the Vertosol profile, using respiration and colourimetric methods. Further whole soil profile analyses will include determination of microbial biomass and isotopic carbon signatures using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) methodology, identification of microbial communities (sequencing) and novel experiments to investigate potential rates of nitrogen mineralisation and quantification of associated genes. Our preliminary observations and the hypotheses tested in this three-year study will be presented.

  19. Soil microflora and enzyme activities in rhizosphere of Transgenic Bt cotton hybrid under different intercropping systems and plant protection schedules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biradar, D. P.; Alagawadi, A. R.; Basavanneppa, M. A.; Udikeri, S. S.

    2012-04-01

    Field experiments were conducted over three rainy seasons of 2005-06 to 2007-08 on a Vertisol at Dharwad, Karnataka, India to study the effect of intercropping and plant protection schedules on productivity, soil microflora and enzyme activities in the rhizosphere of transgenic Bt cotton hybrid. The experiment consisted of four intercropping systems namely, Bt cotton + okra, Bt cotton + chilli, Bt cotton + onion + chilli and Bt cotton + redgram with four plant protection schedules (zero protection, protection for Bt cotton, protection for intercrop and protection for both crops). Observations on microbial populations and enzyme activities were recorded at 45, 90, 135 and 185 (at harvest) days after sowing (DAS). Averaged over years, Bt cotton + okra intercropping had significantly higher total productivity than Bt cotton + chilli and Bt cotton + redgram intercropping system and was similar to Bt cotton + chilli + onion intercropping system. With respect to plant protection schedules for bollworms, protection for both cotton and intercrops recorded significantly higher yield than the rest of the treatments. Population of total bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, P-solubilizers, free-living N2 fixers as well as urease, phosphatase and dehydrogenase enzyme activities increased up to 135 days of crop growth followed by a decline. Among the intercropping systems, Bt cotton + chilli recorded significantly higher population of microorganisms and enzyme activities than other cropping systems. While Bt cotton with okra as intercrop recorded the least population of total bacteria and free-living N2 fixers as well as urease activity. Intercropping with redgram resulted in the least population of actinomycetes, fungi and P-solubilizers, whereas Bt cotton with chilli and onion recorded least activities of dehydrogenase and phosphatase. Among the plant protection schedules, zero protection recorded maximum population of microorganisms and enzyme activities. This was followed by the

  20. Impact of continued use of profenofos on soil as a consequence of cotton crop protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The same area was used since the project started in 1995 in the study to determine the impact of continued use of profenofos on soil properties in a cotton field. The effect on microbial population was minimal. Total bacterial, Bacillus and fungal counts generally decreased during the first spraying but recovered after the succeeding applications of profenofos. Basal respiration was not affected by profenofos treatment. Substrate induced respiration was not affected in the first spraying but was stimulated after the second and third sprayings. Movement of profenofos in the soil was slow when the soil was maintained at field capacity. It is easily degraded in the soil. The differences in organic volatiles, cumulative percent mineralization and bound residue formation of 14C-2,4-D in untreated soil and farmer's field soil previously treated with cypermethrin, isoprocarb and profenofos were not statistically significant. (author)

  1. Soil- and Atmosphere-Induced Plant Water Stress in Cotton as Inferred From Foliage Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idso, S. B.; Reginato, R. J.; Farah, S. M.

    1982-08-01

    Foliage temperatures of cotton obtained by means of infrared thermometry, along with air wet and dry bulb temperature measurements, were used to investigate certain relationships existing between the water contents of soil and air and the ability of the crop to maintain transpiration at the potential rate. It was found that as soil water content is progressively depleted following an irrigation, departure from potential transpiration begins to occur at smaller and smaller values of air vapor pressure deficit in a regularly predictable fashion. It was also demonstrated that the plant water potential of cotton transpiring at the potential rate is a function of the air vapor pressure deficit and that the difference between this base value and the tension that develops under nonpotential conditions is a unique function of a newly developed plant water stress index. Finally, an example of the application of this foliage temperature-based index to evaluating the effects of an irrigation event is presented.

  2. Distribution of Heavy Metals in the Soils Associated with the Commonly Used Pesticides in Cotton Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadia Rashid Tariq

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural soils contain both heavy metals and pesticides originating from various agricultural practices. It is quite important to study the relationships between these two classes of compounds. To accomplish this, 52 soil samples were collected from cotton fields and analyzed for their metal contents (Ni, Cu, Co, Pb, Cr, and Cd and levels of most commonly used pesticides (imidacloprid, acetamiprid, and emamectin. FAAS was used for metal estimation and the pesticides were determined by HPLC equipped with UV detector. The results of the study revealed slightly enhanced levels of Ni and Cd in these samples while the rest of the metals were present within tolerable range. Acetamiprid residues in soil were strongly positively correlated with Cu and negatively correlated with Cr. Similarly, imidacloprid in soil was negatively correlated with Ni. Thus it was evidenced that Cu stabilizes acetamiprid while Cr and Ni facilitate the degradation of acetamiprid and imidacloprid in the soil.

  3. Potential use of cotton plant wastes for the removal of Remazol Black B reactive dye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the potential use of cotton plant wastes - stalk (CS) and hull (CH) - as sorbents for the removal of Remazol Black B (RB5), a vinyl sulfone type reactive dye, was investigated. The results indicated that adsorption was strongly pH-dependent but slightly temperature-dependent for each sorbent-dye system. The Freundlich, Langmuir, Redlich-Peterson and Langmuir-Freundlich adsorption models were used for the mathematical description of adsorption equilibrium and isotherm constants were evaluated at 25 deg. C. All models except the Freundlich model were applicable for the description of dye adsorption by both sorbents in the concentration range studied. According to the Langmuir model, CS and CH sorbents exhibited the highest RB5 dye uptake capacities of 35.7 and 50.9 mg g-1, respectively, at an initial pH value of 1.0. Simple mass transfer and kinetic models were applied to the experimental data to examine the mechanisms of adsorption and potential rate-controlling steps. It was found that both external mass transfer and intra-particle diffusion played an important role in the adsorption mechanisms of dye, and adsorption kinetics followed the pseudo second-order type kinetic model for each sorbent. Using the Langmuir model parameters, thermodynamic constant ΔGo was also evaluated for each sorption system

  4. Sewage Sludge Usage in Cotton Crop:I.Influence on Soil Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.D.TSADILAN; D.G.DIMOYIANNIS; 等

    1999-01-01

    A field experiment with cotton was conducted on a well drained,calcareous,clay loamy Typic Xerochreph to investigate the utility of sewage sludge as a partial substitute for fertilizers and the influence of tis application on the basic soil properties and heavy metal concentrations.The experimental design was completely randomized blocks with five treatments replicated four times each.Sewage sludge came from the treatment plant of the municipality of Volos,Central Greece,with the following characteristics:organic matter content 36.6%,pH(H2O1:5)6.89,CaCO3 53.4g kg-1,total N 265.g kg-1,ttal P33.5g kg-1,and total K 968mg kg-1 soil.Heavy metal concentrations were Cd 5.24,Pb 442,Ni38,Cu 224,Zn1812,and Mn 260mgkg-1 dry weight,respectively.The soil was high in potassium(K)and poor in available phosphorus(P).The results showed that sewage sludge application increased cotton yield and K and P concentrations in cotton leaves,Soil pH was reduced in the case of higher sewage sludge rate.Electrical conductivity,organic matter content,totalN,and avaiable P were significantly increased.Total concentrations of Zn,Pb,and Cu were slightly increased.DTPA-extractable Zn,Cu,and Mn were also significantly increased.Available forms of all heavy metals,except Cd,were significantly correlated with organic matter content in a positive way and negatively with soil pH.

  5. A Black (White) Hole in the Global Spread of GM Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkitbayeva, Saule; Qaim, Matin; Swinnen, Johan

    2016-04-01

    Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) cotton has been widely adopted, notably by smallholder farmers in developing countries. However, it has not been used in Central Asia, an important cotton-producing region. We discuss possible reasons and hypothesize that the most likely explanation is limited local demand for Bt owing to low levels of pest infestation. This would imply that global Bt cotton adoption rates may already be close to 100% when considering real demand for insect-resistant varieties. PMID:27017312

  6. A Black (White) Hole in the Global Spread of GM Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkitbayeva, Saule; Qaim, Matin; Swinnen, Johan

    2016-04-01

    Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) cotton has been widely adopted, notably by smallholder farmers in developing countries. However, it has not been used in Central Asia, an important cotton-producing region. We discuss possible reasons and hypothesize that the most likely explanation is limited local demand for Bt owing to low levels of pest infestation. This would imply that global Bt cotton adoption rates may already be close to 100% when considering real demand for insect-resistant varieties.

  7. Soil Biochemical Changes Induced by Poultry Litter Application and Conservation Tillage under Cotton Production Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seshadri Sajjala

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Problems arising from conventional tillage (CT systems (such as soil erosion, decrease of organic matter, environmental damage etc. have led many farmers to the adoption of no-till (NT systems that are more effective in improving soil physical, chemical and microbial properties. Results from this study clearly indicated that NT, mulch tillage (MT, and winter rye cover cropping systems increased the activity of phosphatase, β-glucosidase and arylsulfatase at a 0–10 cm soil depth but decreased the activity of these enzymes at 10–20 cm. The increase in enzyme activity was a good indicator of intensive soil microbial activity in different soil management practices. Poultry litter (PL application under NT, MT, and rye cropping system could be considered as effective management practices due to the improvement in carbon (C content and the biochemical quality at the soil surface. The activities of the studied enzymes were highly correlated with soil total nitrogen (STN soil organic carbon (SOC at the 0–10 cm soil depth, except for acid phosphatase where no correlation was observed. This study revealed that agricultural practices such as tillage, PL, and cover crop cropping system have a noticeable positive effect on soil biochemical activities under cotton production.

  8. World Champion from the Black Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIRED; LIU

    1998-01-01

    TWENTY years ago, while working in the rich black soil of the northeast, I came to know a Mr. Li. He was the blacksmith with the production team I worked on, the Heilongjiang Production & Construction Corps.His daughter, Li Yemei, is now a student at Beijing University. She had been admitted to China’s most famous university because of her outstanding achievements in sports. A marathon runner, she had won 13 championships in national and international competitions. In China, any athlete who has broken a world record or performed outstandingly in any of the three most important international events—the Olympic Games, the World Championships, or the World Cup—is given access to a university education without taking the usual entrance examination. Yemei had dreamed of attending Beijing University since she was a little girl, and that’s the university she chose to attend when she retired from professional competitions.

  9. Soil organic carbon sequestration in cotton production systems of the southeastern United States: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causarano, H J; Franzluebbers, A J; Reeves, D W; Shaw, J N

    2006-01-01

    Past agricultural management practices have contributed to the loss of soil organic carbon (SOC) and emission of greenhouse gases (e.g., carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide). Fortunately, however, conservation-oriented agricultural management systems can be, and have been, developed to sequester SOC, improve soil quality, and increase crop productivity. Our objectives were to (i) review literature related to SOC sequestration in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) production systems, (ii) recommend best management practices to sequester SOC, and (iii) outline the current political scenario and future probabilities for cotton producers to benefit from SOC sequestration. From a review of 20 studies in the region, SOC increased with no tillage compared with conventional tillage by 0.48 +/- 0.56 Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1) (H(0): no change, p < 0.001). More diverse rotations of cotton with high-residue-producing crops such as corn (Zea mays L.) and small grains would sequester greater quantities of SOC than continuous cotton. No-tillage cropping with a cover crop sequestered 0.67 +/- 0.63 Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1), while that of no-tillage cropping without a cover crop sequestered 0.34 +/- 47 Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1) (mean comparison, p = 0.04). Current government incentive programs recommend agricultural practices that would contribute to SOC sequestration. Participation in the Conservation Security Program could lead to government payments of up to Dollars 20 ha(-1). Current open-market trading of C credits would appear to yield less than Dollars 3 ha(-1), although prices would greatly increase should a government policy to limit greenhouse gas emissions be mandated. PMID:16825457

  10. Maize (Zea mays L.) and Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) Straw Decomposition in Soil: Effect of Straw Placement, Mineral Nitrogen and Tillage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    With the present understanding that decomposing straw may not only affect soil properties, but pos-sibly greenhouse gas emissions as well, focus among environmental researchers has gradually expanded toinclude understanding of decomposition rate and stability of straw of different plants in different soils underdifferent management conditions. Against such a background, a short-term (60 days) greenhouse simulationexperiment was carried out to study the effects of straw placement, external mineral N source and tillageon straw decomposition of maize and cotton in two contrasting soils, a red soil (Ferrasol) and a black soil(Acrisol). The treatments included straw addition only (T1); straw addition + mineral N (T2); and strawaddition + tillage (T3). Straw was either buried in the soil or placed on the surface. Sampling was doneevery 15 days. Placement, addition of external mineral N sources (urea, 46% N), straw type, soil type andexposure duration (15, 30, 45 and 60 days) affected straw decomposition. Decomposition was more in buriedstraw than in surface-placed straw at all sampling dates in red soil. The addition of an external N sourcesignificantly increased decomposition. The study could not, however, fully account for the effect of tillageon straw decomposition because of the limited effect of our tillage method due to the artificial barrier tomechanical interference supplied by the mesh bags.

  11. Quantitative Analysis of Moisture Effect on Black Soil Reflectance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Huan-Jun; ZHANG Yuan-Zhi; ZHANG Xin-Le; ZHANG Bai; SONG Kai-Shan; WANG Zong-Ming; TANG Na

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that soil reflectance decreases with increasing soil moisture content,or increases when the soil moisture reaches a certain content;however,there are few analyses on the quantitative relationship between soil reflectance and its moisture,especially in the case of black soils in northeast China.A new moisture adjusting method was developed to obtain soil reflectance with a smaller moisture interval to describe the quantitative relationship between soil reflectance and moisture.For the soil samples with moisture contents ranging from air-dry to saturated,the changes in soil reflectance with soil moisture can be depicted using a cubic equation.Both moisture threshold (MT) and moisture inflexion (MI) of soil reflectance can also be determined by the equation.When the moisture range was smaller than MT,soil reflectance can be simulated with a linear model.However,for samples with different soil organic matter (OM),the parameters of the linear model varied regularly with the OM content.Based on their relationship,the soil moisture can be estimated from soil reflectance in the black soil region.

  12. Comparative analysis of black carbon in soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Michael W. I.; Skjemstad, Jan O.; Czimczik, Claudia I.; Glaser, Bruno; Prentice, Ken M.; Gelinas, Yves; Kuhlbusch, Thomas A. J.

    2001-03-01

    Black carbon (BC), produced by incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and vegetation, occurs ubiquitously in soils and sediments. BC exists as a continuum from partly charred material to highly graphitized soot particles, with no general agreement on clear-cut boundaries of definition or analysis. In a comparative analysis, we measured BC forms in eight soil samples by six established methods. All methods involved removal of the non-BC components from the sample by thermal or chemical means or a combination of both. The remaining carbon, operationally defined as BC, was quantified via mass balance, elemental composition or by exploiting benzenecarboxylic acids as molecular markers or applying 13C MAS NMR (magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance) spectroscopy. BC concentrations measured for individual samples vary over 2 orders of magnitude (up to a factor of 571). One possible explanation for this wide range of results is that the individual BC methods rely on operational definitions with clear-cut but different boundaries and developed for specific scientific questions, whereas BC represents a continuum of materials with widely contrasting physicochemical properties. Thus the methods are inherently designed to analytically determine different parts of the continuum, and it is crucial to know how measurements made by different techniques relate to each other. It is clear from this preliminary comparative analysis that a collection of BC reference materials should be established as soon as possible 1 ) to ensure long-term intralaboratory and interlaboratory data quality and 2) to facilitate comparative analyses between different analytical techniques and scientific approaches

  13. Remote sensing in dryland cotton: relation to yield potential and soil properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, John J.; Iqbal, Javed; Thomasson, John A.; Willers, Jeffrey L.; Jenkins, Johnie N.

    2004-01-01

    The use of soil and topography information to explain crop yield variation across fields is often applied for crop management purposes. Remote sensed data is a potential source of information for site-specific crop management, providing both spatial and temporal information about soil and crop condition. Studies were conducted in a 104-acre (42-hectare) dryland cotton field in 2001 and 2002 in order to (1) qualitatively assess the spatial variability of soil physical properties from kriged estimates, (2) compare actual yields with normalized difference vegetation reflectance indices (NDVI) obtained from multispectral imagery and from in situ radiometer data, and (3) predict site-specific cotton yields using a crop simulation model, GOSSYM. An NDVI map of soybean in 2000 obtained from a multispectral image was used to establish four sites in each low, medium and high NDVI class. These 12 sites were studied in 2001 and 12 more sites selected at random were studied in 2002 (n = 24). Site-specific measurements included leaf area index (LAI), canopy hyperspectral reflectance, and three-band multispectral image data for green, red, and near-infrared reflectance wavebands at spatial resolutions of 2 m in 2001 and 0.5 m in 2002. Imagery was imported into the image analysis software Imagine (ERDAS, v. 8.5) for georegistration and image analysis. A 6x6 pixels (144 m2) area of interest was established on top of each field plot site and digital numbers (DN) from reflectance imagery were extracted from each band for derivation of NDVI maps for each of four sampling dates. Lint yield from each plot site was collected by hand and also by a cotton picker equipped with AgLeader yield monitor and OmniStar differential global positioning system. We found plant height, leaf area index, and lint yield were closely associated with NDVI maps and with NIR band values acquired from either an aircraft or handheld (GER-1500) sensor during peak bloom in mid July. Results indicate NDVI and NIR

  14. Distribution and source apportionment studies of heavy metals in soil of cotton/wheat fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafique, Nazia; Tariq, Saadia R

    2016-05-01

    Heavy metals enriched agricultural soils have been the subject of great concern because these metals have potential to be transferred to the soil solution and afterward accumulated in food chain. To study the trace metal persistence in crop soil, 90 representative soil samples were collected and analyzed for heavy metal (As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) and anions (chloride, nitrates, phosphates and sulfates). Cluster and factor analysis techniques were used for the source identification of these excessive heavy metal levels and ecological risk was determined with potential ecological risk assessment. The degree of enrichment of eight studied heavy metals in comparison with the corresponding background levels decreased in order: Cd > Pb > Fe > Ni > Mn > As > Cu ~ Zn. Arsenic and cadmium exhibited 1.30- and 1.64-fold exceeded levels than threshold limits set by National environment quality standards, respectively. Cd in cotton field's soil may lead to higher potential risk than other heavy metals. On overall basis, the cumulative mean potential ecological risk for the district (207.75) corresponded to moderate risk level with higher contributions from As and Pb especially from Cd. Cadmium formed strong positive correlation with phosphate content of soil at p pesticides. PMID:27115422

  15. Distribution and source apportionment studies of heavy metals in soil of cotton/wheat fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafique, Nazia; Tariq, Saadia R

    2016-05-01

    Heavy metals enriched agricultural soils have been the subject of great concern because these metals have potential to be transferred to the soil solution and afterward accumulated in food chain. To study the trace metal persistence in crop soil, 90 representative soil samples were collected and analyzed for heavy metal (As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) and anions (chloride, nitrates, phosphates and sulfates). Cluster and factor analysis techniques were used for the source identification of these excessive heavy metal levels and ecological risk was determined with potential ecological risk assessment. The degree of enrichment of eight studied heavy metals in comparison with the corresponding background levels decreased in order: Cd > Pb > Fe > Ni > Mn > As > Cu ~ Zn. Arsenic and cadmium exhibited 1.30- and 1.64-fold exceeded levels than threshold limits set by National environment quality standards, respectively. Cd in cotton field's soil may lead to higher potential risk than other heavy metals. On overall basis, the cumulative mean potential ecological risk for the district (207.75) corresponded to moderate risk level with higher contributions from As and Pb especially from Cd. Cadmium formed strong positive correlation with phosphate content of soil at p < 0.01. Cluster analysis indicated that Cluster 1 (extremely polluted) probably originated from anthropogenic inputs of phosphate fertilizer and past usage of arsenical pesticides.

  16. Effects of soil moisture on cotton root length density and yield under drip irrigation with plastic mulch in Aksu Oasis farmland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChengYi ZHAO; YingYu YAN; Yilihamu Yimamu; JuYan LI; ZhiMin ZHAO; LaoSheng WU

    2010-01-01

    Effects of soil moisture on cotton root length density(total root length per unit soil volume)and yield under drip irrigation with plastic mulch were studied through field experiments.The results indicate that spatial distributions of root length density of cotton under various water treatments were basically similar.Horizontally,both root length densities of cotton in wide and narrow rows were similar,and higher than that between mulches.Vertically,root length density of cotton decreased with increasing soil depth.The distribution of root length density is different under different irrigation treatments.In conditions of over-irrigation,the root length density of cotton between mulches would increase.However,it would decrease in both the wide rows and narrow rows.The mean root length density of cotton increased with increasing irrigation water.Water stress caused the root length density to increase in lower soil layers.There is a significant correlation between root length density and yields of cotton at the flower-boll and wadding stages.The regression between irrigation amount and yield of cotton can be expressed as y=-0.0026x2+18.015x-24845(R2=0.959).It showed that the irrigation volume of 3,464.4m3/hm2 led to optimal root length density.The yield of cotton was 6,360.8kg/hm2 under that amount of irrigation.

  17. Effects of soil moisture on cotton root length density and yield under drip irrigation with plastic mulch in Aksu Oasis farmland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yilihamu; Yimamu

    2010-01-01

    Effects of soil moisture on cotton root length density (total root length per unit soil volume) and yield under drip irrigation with plastic mulch were studied through field experiments. The results indicate that spatial distributions of root length density of cotton under various water treatments were basically similar. Horizontally, both root length densities of cotton in wide and narrow rows were similar, and higher than that between mulches. Vertically, root length density of cotton decreased with increasing soil depth. The distribution of root length density is different under different irrigation treatments. In conditions of over-irrigation, the root length density of cotton between mulches would increase. However, it would decrease in both the wide rows and narrow rows. The mean root length density of cotton increased with increasing irrigation water. Water stress caused the root length density to increase in lower soil layers. There is a significant correlation between root length density and yields of cotton at the flower-boll and wadding stages. The regression between irrigation amount and yield of cotton can be expressed as y = -0.0026x2+18.015x-24845 (R2 = 0.959). It showed that the irrigation volume of 3,464.4 m3/hm2 led to op-timal root length density. The yield of cotton was 6,360 .8 kg/hm2 under that amount of irrigation.

  18. Effect of Shading on Gas Exchange of Cotton Leaves Under Conditions of Different Soil Water Contents1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Effect of different shading levels (no-shading, 80% shading, and 40% shading) on photosynthetic and stomatal responses in cotton leaves were investigated under onditions of different soil water contents in summer midday. All cotton leaves exhibited similar basic responses to shading, including decreased netphotosynthetic rates, a tendency to decrease in transpiration rates, and increased stomatal conductance and intercellular CO2 concentration. The leaf conductance of 80% shaded and 40% shaded plants increased by 28% and 16.7% compared with no-shaded plants at high water, respectively, but the net photosynthetic rates of 80% shaded and 40% shaded plants declined by 50% and 14.73%, respectively. Results showed that combined effect of soil moisture and shading on photosynthetic and stomatal responses in cotton leaves was very remarkable.

  19. Integrated Prevention and Control System for Soil Erosion in Typical Black Soil Region of Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Li-ying; CAI Qiang-guo; CHEN Sheng-yong; HE Ji-jun

    2012-01-01

    The black soil region of Northeast China is one of the most important food production bases and commodity grain bases in China. However, the continual loss and degradation of precious black soil resources has led to direct threats to national food security and regional sustainable development. Therefore, it is necessary to summarize integrated prevention and control experience of small watersheds in black soil region of Northeast China. Tongshuang small watershed, a typical watershed in rolling hills of typical black soil areas in Northeast China, is selected as the study area. Based on nearly 50 years’ experience in prevention and control of soil and water loss, the structures and overall benefits of an integrated prevention and control system for soil and water loss are investigated. Then, the ’three defense lines’ tri-dimensional protection system with reasonable allocation of different types of soil and water control measures from the hill top to gully is systematically analyzed. The first line on the top hill can weaken and block uphill runoff and sediment, hold water resources and improve soil property. The second line on the hill can truncate slope length, slow down the runoff velocity and reduce erosion energy. The third line in the gully is mainly composed of waterfall engineering, which can inhibit soil erosion and restore land resources. The ’three defense lines’ system is feasible for soil and water loss control of small watersheds in the typical black soil region of Northeast China. Through the application of the in Tongshuang small watershed, There are effective improvements in ecological conditions in Tongshuang small watershed after the application of ’three defense lines’ soil and water control system. Moreover, the integrated treatment paradigm for soil and water loss in typical black soil region is compared with that in loess region. The results of this study could offer references and experiences for other small watersheds in

  20. The Effects of Organic Wastes on Soil and Cotton Quality with respect to the Risk of Boron and Heavy Metal Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müzeyyen Seçer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects on soil and cotton quality of organic wastes from medicinal and aromatic plant factories were investigated with regard to the risks of boron and heavy metal pollution. Oily cumin, oregano, oilless oregano wastes, and mineral fertilizers were applied to cotton in two field experiments performed in the years 2003 and 2006. The Pb content of the soil differed significantly in the 2003 experiment and oregano wastes had significantly decreasing effect. Boron of soil to which oily cumin wastes had been applied reached a toxic limit value in 2006. Boron in soil adversely affected long fibres; B in leaves had a positive effect on the fineness of fibres in 2006. Soil Ni adversely affected plant height in 2006 and seed cotton yield in 2003. Leaf Ni had an adverse effect on fibre elasticity in 2006. Soil Co increased ginning out-turn and Cr decreased the fibre fineness of cotton in 2003.

  1. COMPARISON OF SOIL TEST METHODS FOR AVAILABLE PHOSPHORUS IN COMMON CALCAREOUS BLACK SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biryukova O. A.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a comparative analysis of the results on available phosphorus measurements in common black soils using the Machigin and Olsen methods. The relationships between maize productivity and soil available phosphorus and also between phosphorus concentrations in the above-ground plant parts and soil available phosphorus were identified at various stages of crop development

  2. COMPARISON OF SOIL TEST METHODS FOR AVAILABLE PHOSPHORUS IN COMMON CALCAREOUS BLACK SOIL

    OpenAIRE

    Biryukova O. A.; Bozhkov D. V.; Nosov V. V.

    2014-01-01

    The article presents a comparative analysis of the results on available phosphorus measurements in common black soils using the Machigin and Olsen methods. The relationships between maize productivity and soil available phosphorus and also between phosphorus concentrations in the above-ground plant parts and soil available phosphorus were identified at various stages of crop development

  3. Developing effective ground and space-based soil moisture sensing techniques for irrigating cotton in coastal plain soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Xin

    Irrigation scheduling based on soil moisture sensor readings has gained popularity in the past few decades since it can enhance crop yield while saving water. Such method is limited since the representativeness of an individual soil moisture sensor measurement is questionable in a large field with variable soil type and texture. The optimum location of soil moisture sensors needs to be determined within such a production field for effective sensor-based irrigation scheduling. Therefore, the first object of this study was to investigate the optimum sensor location and the number of moisture sensors required for irrigating cotton in coastal plain soils. Replicated tests were conducted during 2012, 2013, and 2014 growing seasons in a cotton field located at the Edisto Research and Education Center of Clemson University, on a typical coastal plain soil. The test field was divided into different management zones based on soil electrical conductivity (EC) measurements. Soil moisture sensors including AquaSpy, Sentek EasyAg-50, Decagon EC-5, Watermark 200SS, and 503 DR Hydroprobe neutron probe access tubes were installed side by side in plots of each management zone. Irrigation treatments were based on sensor readings from various management zones. Results showed that irrigation based on sensor readings from higher electrical conductivity zones, can stabilize or even enhance yield while increasing water use efficiency (WUE) significantly. The second objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of soil moisture sensors mentioned above to determine the most accurate and affordable sensor technology for irrigation scheduling. Season long soil moisture readings of AquaSpy, Sentek EasyAg-50, Decagon EC-5, and Watermark 200SS sensors were collected and compared to neutron probe readings. The results showed that Sentek EasyAg-50 sensor performed the best among tested sensors compared to neutron probe readings with coefficient of determination, R2 = 0.847 and root mean

  4. Water use and yield of cotton grown in four Great Plains soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of earlier maturing and cool temperature tolerant varieties of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) has allowed cotton production to expand northward in the US Great Plains to regions with shorter, cooler growing seasons. The expansion of the drought tolerant cotton into these regions as ...

  5. Effect of inorganic fertilizers and municipal solid waste manure on some soil physical properties in cotton-wheat cropping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field experiment was conducted on a sandy loam soil for three consecutive years (2002-2005) to study the effects of combined use of chemical fertilizers (NPK) and organic manure (municipal solid waste manure-MSWM) on soil organic matter, bulk density, porosity, penetration resistance, and yields of crops in cotton (Desi)-wheat cropping system. After three years, organic matter content of the surface (0-15 cm) soil increased (42-68%)to 7.1-8.4 g kg from an initial level of 5.0 g kg with out any significant interaction between two fertilizer doses, three management techniques and six seasons except for dose x season interaction where higher organic matter contents were found after each cotton harvest by site-specific fertilizer application. In general, the bulk density of the surface soil increased un-impressively with the time by unique use of fertilizers and decreased gradually by application of integrated plant nutrients management (IPNM) technique using MSWM with or without pesticides/herbicides use. Porosity of soil increased (2.5 %) by applying IPNM technique compared to unique use of chemical fertilizers. Penetration resistance was increased with unique use of fertilizers to a level of 0.80 M Pa from initial value of 0.74 MPa. Presumably due to higher intrinsic bulk density of the soil. Over the three years, on an average, the MSW manured and fertilized plots (IPNM with pesticides/herbicides use ) produced higher i.e. 2% and 11% increase in seed cotton and wheat grain yields respectively than did the plots receiving chemical fertilizers. Neglecting herbicides/pesticides application decreased (4-5%) seed cotton yield. (author)

  6. Biological control agent of larger black flour beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae): a nuisance pest developing in cotton gin trash piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nansen, Christian; Stokes, Bryan; James, Jacob; Porter, Patrick; Shields, Eilson J; Wheeler, Terry; Meikle, William G

    2013-04-01

    The larger black flour beetles, Cynaeus angustus (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), feeds on saprophytic fungi found in gin trash piles and occasionally becomes a nuisance pest in adjacent homes and businesses. The potential of Steinernema carpocapsae 'NY 001,' as a potential control agent of larger black flour beetle under experimental conditions was examined with particular reference to the importance of soil moisture content. Without prospects of insecticides being labeled for control of larger black flour beetle in gin trash, the data presented here support further research into applications of entomopathogenic nematodes underneath gin trash piles as a way to minimize risk of larger black flour beetle populations causing nuisance to nearby homes and businesses.

  7. Biological control agent of larger black flour beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae): a nuisance pest developing in cotton gin trash piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nansen, Christian; Stokes, Bryan; James, Jacob; Porter, Patrick; Shields, Eilson J; Wheeler, Terry; Meikle, William G

    2013-04-01

    The larger black flour beetles, Cynaeus angustus (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), feeds on saprophytic fungi found in gin trash piles and occasionally becomes a nuisance pest in adjacent homes and businesses. The potential of Steinernema carpocapsae 'NY 001,' as a potential control agent of larger black flour beetle under experimental conditions was examined with particular reference to the importance of soil moisture content. Without prospects of insecticides being labeled for control of larger black flour beetle in gin trash, the data presented here support further research into applications of entomopathogenic nematodes underneath gin trash piles as a way to minimize risk of larger black flour beetle populations causing nuisance to nearby homes and businesses. PMID:23786050

  8. Adubação verde e sistemas de manejo do solo na produtividade do algodoeiro Green manure and soil management systems on cotton yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Camillo de Carvalho

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A adoção de sistemas de manejo conservacionistas e a sucessão de culturas com adubos verdes são práticas que visam preservar a qualidade do solo e do ambiente, sem prescindir da obtenção de produtividade elevada das culturas de interesse econômico. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de sistemas de manejo do solo e adubos verdes na produtividade do algodoeiro (Gossypium hirsutum L.. O experimento foi realizado num Latossolo Vermelho distrófico, originalmente sob vegetação de Cerrado. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, em esquema de parcela subdividida e quatro repetições. Nas parcelas, utilizaram-se quatro adubos verdes: mucuna-preta, guandu, crotalária e milheto, e área de pousio (vegetação espontânea. Nas subparcelas foram adotados dois sistemas de manejo do solo: plantio direto e preparo convencional (uma gradagem pesada + duas gradagens leves. Os sistemas de manejo do solo não interferiram na produtividade do algodoeiro. O algodoeiro apresentou produtividade semelhante quando cultivado em sucessão a diferentes espécies de adubos verdes, no sistema de plantio direto e convencional de preparo do solo.The adoption of conservation management system and succession of crops after green manures aim at preserving the environment and soil quality, without dispensing the largest cash crop yield. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of soil management systems and green manures on cotton yield (Gossypium hirsutum L.. The experiment was carried out in a Typic Hapludox, covered by Savannah vegetation. The experimental design used was that of randomized blocks, in a split plot scheme, with four replications. In plots, four green manures were used: black velvet bean, pigeon pea, sunn hemp, millet and fallow area (spontaneous vegetation. In subplots, two managament soil systems were used: no-tillage and conventional tillage (one disk harrow + two levelling harrow. Soil management systems do

  9. Continuous Monitoring of Soil Respiration in Black Spruce Forest Soils, Interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Kim, S.; Kim, W.

    2009-12-01

    This research was carried out to estimate the continuous monitoring of soil respiration using automatic chamber system that was equipped with a control system, a compressor, and seven chambers (50 cm diameter, 30 cm high) set in sphagnum moss, feather moss, lichen, and tussock in black spruce forest soils, interior Alaska during growing season of 2008. The average daily soil respirations were 0.050±0.012 (standard deviation, CV 23%), 0.022±0.020 (91%), 0.082±0.035 (43%), and 0.027±0.010 mgCO2/m2/s (37%) in lichens, sphagnum moss, tussock and feather moss on black spruce forest soils with light chamber made by transparent material. The temporal variation of soil respiration in different vegetation types on black spruce forest soils during the growing season of 2008 is shown in Figure 1. The accumulative daily soil respiration was 5.2, 9.5, 2.3, and 2.8 mgCO2/m2/s in lichen, tussock, sphagnum moss, and feather moss of black spruce forest ground during the growing periods of 103 days, 2008 (Figure 2). Therefore, averaged regional soil respiration rate is 0.19±0.18 and 0.12±0.08 kgC/m2/(growing season) of 2007 and 2008 in black spruce forest soils, interior Alaska. The winter soil respiration was 0.049±0.013 gC/m2/(winter season), corresponding from 21±7% to 29±13% of the annual CO2 emitted from black spruce forest soils, interior Alaska.

  10. Study on Spatial-temporal Dynamics of Bt Toxic Protein Expression in Insect-resistant Transgenic Cotton and Its Degradation in Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yiwen ZHANG; Lianrong WANG; Liancheng ZHANG; Jun ZHANG; Xinbo JI; Jinmao WANG

    2012-01-01

    [Ob.jcctive] This study aimed to investigate the spatial-temporal dynamics of Bt toxic protein expression in insect-resistant transgenic cotton and its degradation in soil. [Meth~d] BtcrylAc toxic protein expression in roots, stems and leaves of trans- genic cotton Guoshen GK45 at different developmental stages and the annual aver- age content of BtCrylAc toxin protein in the topsoil, rhizosphere soil and following cotton-growing area were explored and analyzed by using enzyme linked immuno sorbed assay (ELISA). [Result] The content of exogenous BtCrylAc toxin protein de- creased during the growth process of insect-resistant transgenic cotton; to be specif- ic, the content of BtCrylAc toxin protein in cotton stems and leaves decreased more slowly and always maintained a high level, while that in roots decreased rapidly and reached a minimum level to the following plant growth and development stage. BtCrylAc toxin protein was detected in topsoil of both non-transgenic and transgenic cotton-growing areas, and the content of BtCrylAc toxin protein increased in topsoil of following cotton-growing area, which was very low in rhizosphere soil. [Conclusion] Determination of BtcrylAc toxic protein provides scientific basis for the risk assess- ment of the cultivation of genetically modified crops and the safety evaluation of soil ecosystem.

  11. ISOLATION, CHARACTERIZATION OF PHYTASE PRODUCING BACILLUS SUBTILS BtRS2 FROM THE RHIZOSPHERE SOIL OF Bt COTTON FIELD

    OpenAIRE

    K. Usha Sri

    2013-01-01

    Soil samples of Bt Rhizosphere were collected from Bt cotton growing area of Andhra Pradesh, India and was used as a source material for isolation and screening of phytase producing bacteria. 19Bacteria were isolated from Bt Rhizosphere. Phytase enzyme activity of the cultures was screened on modified phytase solubulizing medium (MPSM). The result inferred that six isolates BtRS1 to BtRS6 were strongly positive in enzyme activity than six of other microorganisms while seven isolates were foun...

  12. Study on the Method of Soil Productivity Assessment in Black Soil Region of Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Xing-wu; XIE Yun; FENG Yan-jie; YIN Shui-qing

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate a simple and practical method for soil productivity assessment in the black soil region of Northeast China.Firstly,eight kinds of physicochemical properties for each of 120 soil samples collected from 25 black soil profiles were analyzed using cluster and correlation analysis.Subsequently,parameter indices were calculated using physicochemical properties.Finally,a modified productivity index(MPI)model were developed and validated.The results showed that the suitable parameters for soil productivity assessment in black soil region of Northeast China were soil available water,soil pH,clay content,and organic matter content.Compared with original productivity index(PI)model,MPI model added clay content and organic matter content in parameters while omitted bulk density.Simulation results of original PI model and MPI model were compared using crop yield of land block where investigated soil profiles were located.MPI model was proven to perform better with a higher significant correlation with maize yield.The correlation equation between MPI and yield was:Y=3.2002Ln(MP/)+10.056,R2=0.7564.The results showed that MPI model was an effective and practical method to assess soil productivity in the research area.

  13. Nematode diversity in soil from a field trial with decomposing Bt cotton expressing Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab2 protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. W. Karuri

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The quality of decomposing plant materials may affect the soil community structure. The aim of the study was to determine the impact of decomposing Bt cotton and its isoline on soil nematode diversity. Bt cotton (06Z604D, isoline (99M03 and HART 89M (local non-Bt cotton cultivar were planted for two seasons in a completely randomized block design in a confined field trial at Mwea, Kenya. After harvest the plant material was incorporated into soil and the nematode diversity was determined. The presence of Bt protein was evaluated using ELISA and insect bioassays. Abundance of bacteria feeding nematodes was significantly (p<0.05 high but to a smaller extent in the Bt cotton plots (53.7% and 52% in the first and second season respectively than in isoline (42.8% and 45% in the first and second season respectively. Insect bioassays detected Bt protein in the Bt cotton plots during the entire decomposition period in both seasons. There were no significant differences in nematode trophic groups composition between isoline and HART 89M. The effect of Cry2Ab2 and Cry1Ac protein in decomposing Bt cotton litter on soil nematodes was minimal. The study provides a basis for future studies on the impact of genetically engineered plants on soil nematodes in Kenyan agroecosystems.

  14. Xylogenesis in black spruce: does soil temperature matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupi, Carlo; Morin, Hubert; Deslauriers, Annie; Rossi, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    In boreal ecosystems, an increase in soil temperature can stimulate plant growth. However, cambium phenology in trees was better explained by air than soil temperature, which suggested that soil temperature is not the main limiting factor affecting xylogenesis. Since soil temperature and snowmelt are correlated to air temperature, the question whether soil temperature directly limits xylogenesis in the stem will remain unresolved without experiments disentangling air and soil temperatures. This study investigated the effects of an increase of 4 °C in soil temperature and a consequent 1-week earlier snowmelt on growth of black spruce [Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP] in the boreal forest of Quebec, Canada. The soil of two natural stands at different altitudes was warmed up with heating cables during 2008-2010 and cambial phenology and xylem production were monitored weekly from April to October. The results showed no significant effect of the treatment on the phenological phases of cell enlargement and wall thickening and lignification. The number of cells produced in the xylem also did not differ between control and heated trees. These findings allowed the hypothesis of a direct influence of soil temperature on stem growth to be rejected and supported the evidence that, in the short term, air temperature is the main limiting factor for xylogenesis in trees of these environments. PMID:22210529

  15. [Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 and nitrogen application on cotton biomass, nitrogen utilization and soil urease activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Ning; Yin, Fei-hu; Chen, Yun; Gao, Zhi-jian; Liu, Yu; Shi, Lei

    2015-11-01

    In this study, a semi-open-top artificial climate chamber was used to study the effect of CO2 enrichment (360 and 540 µmol · mol(-1)) and nitrogen addition (0, 150, 300 and 450 kg · hm(-2)) on cotton dry matter accumulation and distribution, nitrogen absorption and soil urease activity. The results showed that the dry matter accumulation of bud, stem, leaf and the whole plant increased significantly in the higher CO2 concentration treatment irrespective of nitrogen level. The dry matter of all the detected parts of plant with 300 kg · hm(-2) nitrogen addition was significantly higher than those with the other nitrogen levels irrespective of CO2 concentration, indicating reasonable nitrogen fertilization could significantly improve cotton dry matter accumulation. Elevated CO2 concentration had significant impact on the nitrogen absorption contents of cotton bud and stem. Compared to those under CO2 concentration of 360 µmol · mol(-1), the nitrogen contents of bud and stem both increased significantly under CO2 concentration of 540 µmol · mol(-1). The nitrogen content of cotton bud in the treatment of 300 kg · hm(-2) nitrogen was the highest among the four nitrogen fertilizer treatments. While the nitrogen contents of cotton stem in the treatments of 150 kg · hm(-2) and 300 kg · hm(-2) nitrogen levels were higher than those in the treatment of 0 kg · hm(-2) and 450 kg · hm(-2) nitrogen levels. The nitrogen content of cotton leaf was significantly influenced by the in- teraction of CO2 elevation and N addition as the nitrogen content of leaf increased in the treatments of 0, 150 and 300 kg · hm(-2) nitrogen levels under the CO2 concentration of 540 µmol · mol(-1). The nitrogen content in cotton root was significantly increased with the increase of nitrogen fertilizer level under elevated CO2 (540 µmol · mol(-1)) treatment. Overall, the cotton nitrogen absorption content under the elevated CO2 (540 µmol · mol(-1)) treatment was higher than that

  16. Variability in cotton fiber yield, fiber quality, and soil properties in a southeastern coastal plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    To maximize profitability, cotton (GossypiumhirsutumL.) producers must attempt to control the quality of the crop while maximizing yield. The objective of this research was to measure the intrinsic variability present in cotton fiber yield and quality. The 0.5-ha experimental site was located in a...

  17. Centennial black carbon turnover observed in a Russia steppe soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammes, K.; Torn, M.S.; Lapenas, A.G.; Schmidt, M.W.I.

    2008-09-15

    Black carbon (BC), from incomplete combustion of fuels and biomass, has been considered highly recalcitrant and a substantial sink for carbon dioxide. Recent studies have shown that BC can be degraded in soils. We use two soils with very low spatial variability sampled 100 years apart in a Russian steppe preserve to generate the first whole-profile estimate of BC stocks and turnover in the field. Quantities of fire residues in soil changed significantly over a century. Black carbon stock was 2.5 kg m{sup -2}, or about 7-10% of total organic C in 1900. With cessation of biomass burning, BC stocks decreased 25% over a century, which translates into a centennial soil BC turnover (293 years best estimate; range 182-541 years), much faster than so-called inert or passive carbon in ecosystem models. The turnover time presented here is for loss by all processes, namely decomposition, leaching, and erosion, although the latter two were probably insignificant in this case. Notably, at both time points, the peak BC stock was below 30 cm, a depth interval, which is not typically accounted for. Also, the quality of the fire residues changed with time, as indicated by the use benzene poly carboxylic acids (BPCA) as molecular markers. The proportions of less-condensed (and thus more easily degradable) BC structures decreased, whereas the highly condensed (and more recalcitrant) BC structures survived unchanged over the 100-year period. Our results show that BC cannot be assumed chemically recalcitrant in all soils, and other explanations for very old soil carbon are needed.

  18. CLASSIFICATION OF GREAT SOIL GROUPS IN THE EAST BLACK SEA BASIN ACCORDING TO INTERNATIONAL SOIL CLASSIFICATION SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    CUMHUR AYDINALP; EWART FITZPATRICK

    2004-01-01

    This study was carried out to classify great soil groups in the East Black Sea basin according to international soil classifi cation systems. 13 profi les of 3 great soil groups in this basin have been investigated and classifi ed according to system of FAO/UNESCO (1990), FitzPatrick (1988) and USDA Soil Taxonomy (1998) in this study.

  19. Soil carbon dioxide emission from intensively cultivated black soil in Northeast China. Nitrogen fertilization effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Kang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing (China). State Key Lab. of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture; Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Ding, Weixin; Cai, Zucong [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing (China). State Key Lab. of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture; Wang, Yufeng; Zhang, Xilin; Zhou, Baoku [Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin (China). Inst. of Soil and Fertilizer

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to understand the effect of nitrogen fertilization on soil respiration and native soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition and to identify the key factor affecting soil respiration in a cultivated black soil. Materials and methods: A field experiment was conducted at the Harbin State Key Agroecological Experimental Station, China. The study consisted of four treatments: unplanted and N-unfertilized soil (U0), unplanted soil treated with 225 kg N ha{sup -1} (UN), maize planted and N-unfertilized soil (P0), and planted soil fertilized with 225 kg N ha{sup -1} (PN). Soil CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O fluxes were measured using the static closed chamber method. Results and discussion: Cumulative CO{sub 2} emissions during the maize growing season with the U0, UN, P0, and PN treatments were 1.29, 1.04, 2.30 and 2.27 Mg C ha{sup -1}, respectively, indicating that N fertilization significantly reduced the decomposition of native SOC. However, no marked effect on soil respiration in planted soil was observed because the increase of rhizosphere respiration caused by N addition was counteracted by the reduction of native SOC decomposition. Soil CO{sub 2} fluxes were significantly affected by soil temperature but not by soil moisture. The temperature sensitivity (Q{sub 10}) of soil respiration was 2.16-2.47 for unplanted soil but increased to 3.16-3.44 in planted soil. N addition reduced the Q{sub 10} of native SOC decomposition possibly due to low labile organic C but increased the Q{sub 10} of soil respiration due to the stimulation of maize growth. The estimated annual CO{sub 2} emission in N-fertilized soil was 1.28 Mg C ha{sup -1} and was replenished by the residual stubble, roots, and exudates. In contrast, the lost C (1.53 Mg C ha{sup -1}) in N-unfertilized soil was not completely supplemented by maize residues, resulting in a reduction of SOC. Although N fertilization significantly increased N{sub 2}O emissions, the global warming potential

  20. How Integrated Management Strategies Promote Protein Quality of Cotton Embryos: High Levels of Soil Available N, N Assimilation and Protein Accumulation Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, HongKun; Meng, YaLi; Chen, BingLin; Zhang, XingYue; Wang, YouHua; Zhao, WenQing; Zhou, ZhiGuo

    2016-01-01

    Cottonseed is widely used as a source of ruminant feed and for industrial purposes. Therefore, there is a tremendous need to improve the nutritional value of cotton embryos. In this study, a conventional management (CM) and two integrated cotton management strategies (IMS1, IMS2) were performed at two soil fertility levels to study the relationships among soil N, N assimilation, embryonic protein accumulation and protein quality. The levels of proteins, essential amino acids, and semi-essential amino acids, especially those of glutamate, lysine, and methionine, were higher in IMS1 and IMS2 embryos than in CM embryos. These changes were significantly positively correlated with the soil-available N content, glutamine synthetase activity and peak value of protein accumulation rate and were negatively correlated with the free amino acid level. These results illustrated that integrated management strategies, especially the rates and timing of N application, raise the level of soil available N, which is beneficial for N assimilation in developing cotton embryos. The protein content was limited by the rate of protein accumulation rather than by the free amino acid content. The combination of target yield fertilization, a growth-driven N application schedule, a high plant density and the seedling raising with bio-organic fertilizer can substantially improve protein quality in cotton embryos, especially at a soil with low soil organic matter and total nitrogen. PMID:27532007

  1. How Integrated Management Strategies Promote Protein Quality of Cotton Embryos: High Levels of Soil Available N, N Assimilation and Protein Accumulation Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, HongKun; Meng, YaLi; Chen, BingLin; Zhang, XingYue; Wang, YouHua; Zhao, WenQing; Zhou, ZhiGuo

    2016-01-01

    Cottonseed is widely used as a source of ruminant feed and for industrial purposes. Therefore, there is a tremendous need to improve the nutritional value of cotton embryos. In this study, a conventional management (CM) and two integrated cotton management strategies (IMS1, IMS2) were performed at two soil fertility levels to study the relationships among soil N, N assimilation, embryonic protein accumulation and protein quality. The levels of proteins, essential amino acids, and semi-essential amino acids, especially those of glutamate, lysine, and methionine, were higher in IMS1 and IMS2 embryos than in CM embryos. These changes were significantly positively correlated with the soil-available N content, glutamine synthetase activity and peak value of protein accumulation rate and were negatively correlated with the free amino acid level. These results illustrated that integrated management strategies, especially the rates and timing of N application, raise the level of soil available N, which is beneficial for N assimilation in developing cotton embryos. The protein content was limited by the rate of protein accumulation rather than by the free amino acid content. The combination of target yield fertilization, a growth-driven N application schedule, a high plant density and the seedling raising with bio-organic fertilizer can substantially improve protein quality in cotton embryos, especially at a soil with low soil organic matter and total nitrogen.

  2. How Integrated Management Strategies Promote Protein Quality of Cotton Embryos: High Levels of Soil Available N, N Assimilation and Protein Accumulation Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, HongKun; Meng, YaLi; Chen, BingLin; Zhang, XingYue; Wang, YouHua; Zhao, WenQing; Zhou, ZhiGuo

    2016-01-01

    Cottonseed is widely used as a source of ruminant feed and for industrial purposes. Therefore, there is a tremendous need to improve the nutritional value of cotton embryos. In this study, a conventional management (CM) and two integrated cotton management strategies (IMS1, IMS2) were performed at two soil fertility levels to study the relationships among soil N, N assimilation, embryonic protein accumulation and protein quality. The levels of proteins, essential amino acids, and semi-essential amino acids, especially those of glutamate, lysine, and methionine, were higher in IMS1 and IMS2 embryos than in CM embryos. These changes were significantly positively correlated with the soil-available N content, glutamine synthetase activity and peak value of protein accumulation rate and were negatively correlated with the free amino acid level. These results illustrated that integrated management strategies, especially the rates and timing of N application, raise the level of soil available N, which is beneficial for N assimilation in developing cotton embryos. The protein content was limited by the rate of protein accumulation rather than by the free amino acid content. The combination of target yield fertilization, a growth-driven N application schedule, a high plant density and the seedling raising with bio-organic fertilizer can substantially improve protein quality in cotton embryos, especially at a soil with low soil organic matter and total nitrogen. PMID:27532007

  3. Producing Organic Cotton: A Toolkit - Crop Guide, Projekt guide, Extension tools

    OpenAIRE

    Eyhorn, Frank

    2005-01-01

    The CD compiles the following extension tools on organic cotton: Organic Cotton Crop Guide, Organic Cotton Training Manual, Soil Fertility Training Manual, Organic Cotton Project Guide, Record keeping tools, Video "Organic agriculture in the Nimar region", Photos for illustration.

  4. Cotton as an entry point for soil fertility maintenance and food crop productivity in savannah agroecosystems - Evidence from a long-term experiment in southern Mali

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ripoche, A.; Crétenet, M.; Corbeels, M.; Affholder, F.; Naudin, K.; Sissoko, F.; Douzet, J.M.; Tittonell, P.A.

    2015-01-01

    Given the scarcity of manure and the limited land available for fallowing, cotton cultivation with its input credit schemes is often the main entry point for nutrients in cropping systems of West Africa. In an experiment carried out during 25 years in southern Mali, the crop and soil responses to or

  5. Potential of remote sensing derived soil moisture for the estimation of actual evapotranspiration in cotton ecosystems of Middle Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoefel, Patrick; Conrad, Christopher; Dech, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    Actual evapotranspiration (ETact) is an essential component of the water balance and its determination for larger areas is difficult on regional scale. Here, remote sensing provides a powerful tool to estimate regional actual evapotranspiration to support regional water management. Particularly, in irrigation agriculture of Middle Asia decision makers have to handle limited water availability and to improve the efficiency of their regional water management systems. The growing interest in quantifying regional actual ET for water resource and irrigation management led to the development of numerous methods to estimate ET from remote sensing data. The study is primarily concerned with the irrigation farming of cotton ecosystems in Middle Asia, in particular with the situation within Khorezm Oblast in Uzbekistan. Regional problems of Khorezm Oblast are e.g. high groundwater levels, soil salinity, and non-sustainable use of land and water. The water for irrigation is taken from the Amu Darya River and then canalled to the agricultural fields. The available water in Khorezm depends on the water demand in the upstream regions. Because of this variation and the historical annual shortage of available irrigation water a sustainable use of water is highly important for the regional water management in Khorezm. Cotton is the major crop in Khorezm region. About 46% of the agricultural area was covered with cotton in 2010 and 2011, among the other main crops winter wheat (30%) and rice (5%). The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of satellite derived surface soil moisture for the optimization of the estimated ETact. Actual evapotranspiration in this study is indirectly derived by solving the surface energy balance equation using the surface energy balance algorithm for land (SEBAL). Due to its high temporal resolution MODIS (1km) data is used to provide the input information to solve the equation. The results were compared with measurements of an eddy

  6. Manipulation of soil microbes using higher biomass cropping systems to sustain soil health in cotton-based agroecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The semiarid Texas High Plains produces ~30% of U.S. cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Agricultural production, however, is experiencing a transition from irrigated to dryland crop production due to reductions in water availability from the Ogallala aquifer. Additional challenges are imposed by extrem...

  7. Impacts of Enhanced-Efficiency Nitrogen Fertilizers on Greenhouse Gas Emissions in a Coastal Plain Soil under Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Dexter B; Runion, G Brett; Smith Nannenga, Katy W; Torbert, H Allen

    2015-11-01

    Enhanced-efficiency N fertilizers (EENFs) have the potential to increase crop yield while decreasing soil N loss. However, the effect of EENFs on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from different agricultural systems is not well understood. Thus, studies from a variety of locations and cropping systems are needed to evaluate their impact. An experiment was initiated on a Coastal Plain soil under cotton ( L.) production for comparing EENFs to traditional sources. Nitrogen sources included urea, ammonia sulfate (AS), urea-ammonia sulfate (UAS), controlled-release, polymer-coated urea (Environmental Smart Nitrogen [ESN]), stabilized granular urea (SuperU), poultry litter (PL), poultry litter plus AgrotainPlus (PLA), and an unfertilized control. Carbon dioxide (CO), nitrous oxide (NO), and methane (CH) fluxes were monitored regularly after fertilization through harvest from 2009 to 2011 using a closed-chamber method. Poultry litter and PLA had higher CO flux than other N treatments, while ESN and SU were generally lowest following fertilization. Nitrous oxide fluxes were highly variable and rarely affected by N treatments; PL and PLA were higher but only during the few samplings in 2010 and 2011. Methane fluxes were higher in 2009 (wet year) than 2010 or 2011, and N treatments had minimal impact. Global warming potential (GWP), calculated from cumulative GHG fluxes, was highest with PL and PLA and lowest for control, UAS, ESN, and SU. Results suggest that PL application to cotton increases GHG flux, but GHG flux reductions from EENFs were infrequently different from standard inorganic fertilizers, suggesting their higher cost may render them presently impractical. PMID:26641321

  8. Studies on soil microorganism quantities and soil enzyme activities in the garlic-cotton and wheat-cotton intercropping systems%蒜棉、麦棉套作对土壤微生物数量及相关酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵庆龙; 宋宪亮; 孙学振; 张美玲; 李宗秦

    2011-01-01

    在大田生产条件下,以棉花单作为对照,设置蒜棉套作、麦棉套作处理,研究蒜棉套作与麦棉套作对棉田土壤微生物数量及酶活性的影响,以揭示蒜棉、麦棉套作棉田棉花高产原因。结果显示:与单作棉田相比,蒜棉套作与麦棉套作均有利于棉田土壤中细菌、放线菌的增殖,并抑制真菌的增殖,其中蒜棉套作效果更显著;蒜棉套作0—20cm土层脲酶活性和蔗糖酶活性在整个生育期显著高于棉田单作,碱性磷酸酶活性除花铃期外也均显著高于单作,过氧化氢酶在苗期与吐絮期显著高于单作;麦棉套作0—20 cm土层脲酶活性和蔗糖酶活性亦在苗期、花铃期显著高于单作,碱性磷酸酶活性在蕾期显著高于单作,过氧化氢酶活性在苗期与吐絮期显著高于单作。结论:蒜棉套作与麦棉套作能提高棉田土壤微生物中细菌和放线菌的数量,有效抑制棉田连作障碍的发生。蒜棉套作与麦棉套作能提高棉田土壤相关酶活性,对棉田健康土壤的培育有积极意义。%The soil microorganism quantities and enzyme activities were studied in fields under the wheat-cotton intercropping and garlic-cotton intercropping systems.The results show that compared with the cotton monoculture,both garlic-cotton and wheat-cotton intercropping are conductive to the proliferation of soil bacteria and actinomycetes and inhibit the proliferation of fungi,and the effects of the garlic-cotton intercropping system are more pronounced than those of the wheat-cotton intercropping system.The soil urease activity and sucrase activity in 0-20 cm soil layer in the whole growth period of the garlic-cotton intercropping system are significantly higher than those of the cotton monoculture,and the alkaline phosphatase activity of the garlic-cotton intercropping system is significantly higher than that of the cotton monoculture except the flowering and blooming stage of cotton.The catalase

  9. The impact of black wattle encroachment of indigenous grasslands on soil carbon, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oelofse, Myles; Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Magid, Jakob;

    2016-01-01

    adverse environmental impacts in South Africa. Little is known about the effects of black wattle encroachment on soil carbon, therefore the aim of this study was to investigate the impact of black wattle encroachment of natural grassland on soil carbon stocks and dynamics. Focussing on two sites...... in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, the study analysed carbon stocks in soil and litter on a chronosequence of black wattle stands of varying ages (up to >50 years) and compared these with adjacent native grassland. The study found that woody encroachment of grassland at one site had an insignificant effect...

  10. Carbon black retention in saturated natural soils: Effects of flow conditions, soil surface roughness and soil organic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated factors affecting the transport, retention, and re-entrainment of carbon black nanoparticles (nCBs) in two saturated natural soils under different flow conditions and input concentrations using the two-site transport model and Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). Soil organic matter (SOM) was found to create unfavorable conditions for the retention. Despite an increased flow velocity, the relative stability of the estimated maximum retention capacity in soils may suggest that flow-induced shear stress forces were insufficient to detach nCB. The KPFM observation revealed that nCBs were retained at the grain boundary and on surface roughness, which brought about substantial discrepancy between theoretically-derived attachment efficiency factors and the ones obtained by the experiments using the two-site transport model. Thus, decreasing ionic strength and increasing solution pH caused re-entrainment of only a small fraction of retained nCB in the soil columns. - Highlights: • We studied the retention of carbon black (nCB) in two saturated natural soils. • The nCB deposition increased as soil organic matter was removed by preheating. • Lowering ionic strength and raising pH released only small portion of deposited nCB. • The maximum retention capacity of nCB in soils was not controlled by flow velocity. • Kelvin probe force microscopy indicated that nCB was retained on surface roughness. - Kelvin probe force microscopy indicated that carboxylated nCBs, which were deposited under an unfavorable condition for attachment at low IS, were retained on surface roughness

  11. Effect of repeated pesticide applications on soil properties in cotton fields: II. Insecticide residues and impact on dehydrogenase and arginine deaminase activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Insecticides were applied sequentially at recommended dosages post crop emergence in cotton fields and soil was sampled at regular intervals after each treatment. Soil was analysed for insecticide residues and activity of the enzymes dehydrogenase and arginine deaminase. Insecticide residues detected in the soil were in small quantities and they did not persist for long. Only endosulfan leached below 15 cm. Insecticides had only temporary effects on enzyme activities which disappeared either before the next insecticide treatment or by the end of the experimental period. (author)

  12. Biosorption of eriochrome black t and astrazon fggl blue using almond and cotton seed oil cake biomass in a batch mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present research study, the biosorption of Eriochrome Black T (EBT) and Astrazon FGGL blue (A-FGGL) onto novel biomasses Almond (Prunus dulcis) oil cake and Cotton seed oil cake respectively was investigated in the batch mode using different process parameters like pH, particle size, biosorbent dose, initial dye concentration, contact time and temperature. Maximum biosorption capacity was observed at pH 3 for EBT onto almond oil cake and pH2 for Astrazon FGGL blue onto cotton seed oil cake.The biosorption capacity was efficient at the smallest particle size of biosorbent. The amount of dye sorbed (mg/g) decreased with the decrease in biosorbent dose and increased with increase in initial dye concentration and temperature. Optimum contact time for equilibrium to achieve was found to be 120 and 180 minutes for EBT and A-FGGL blue, respectively. The Langmuir isotherm model was best fitted to experimental data. The biosorption followed the pseudo-second order kinetic model suggesting a chemisorption mechanism. The positive value of deltaH showed the endothermic nature of the process. In this research, the influence of electrolytes, heavy metals and surfactants on the removal of dyes was also examined. (author)

  13. Study on Optimization of RAPD Conditions for Soil Microbe of Black Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAO Xiaodan; WU Fengzhi

    2006-01-01

    Factors including Mg2+, dNTP and primer that affected RAPD were studied using orthogonal experimental design, and at the same time, anneal temperature, extending time and cycles were also studied. Finally,PCR reaction system that is feasible for black soil microbial PCR amplification was determined, containing 7 ng DNA 40 cycles for 3 min at 94 ℃ (temperature), 40 s at 37℃ (annealing), 1.5 min at 72 ℃ (extension), a final elongation step at 72 ℃ for 7 min.

  14. Weeds of cereal stubble-fields on various soils in the Kielce region. P. III. Black, alluvial and rendzina soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jędruszczak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The weed flora growing stubble-fields area is determined by soil features. Weeds found in cereal stubble-fields on black soils formed from sands and loams, medium and haevy alluvial soils as well as brown and chernozem rendzina soils are presented in the paper. The 273 phytosociological records were worked out. They were collected from 87 stands situated in 76 localities of Kielce region. The results showed that species number and species composition were dependent on the soils (black. alluvial, rendzina. The existance of 118 (medium alluvial soil to 140 (brown rendzina soil weed species, including 73 common for all of the soils considered, was found there. Relatively high per cent (29-35 of them belonged to perennial weeds. From 22 (brown rendzina soil to 35 (heavy alluvial soil of species reached high constancy degrees (V-III. Stellaria media, Myosotis arvensis, Polygonum aviculare, Agropyron repens and Cirsium arvense predominated on the all of the soil examined. Among the weed flora registered, 25 species, recorded only on rendzina soils, were distinguishable for that soils.

  15. Carbon allocation, osmotic adjustment, antioxidant capacity and growth in cotton under long-term soil drought during flowering and boll-forming period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Gao, Min; Ji, Shu; Wang, Shanshan; Meng, Yali; Zhou, Zhiguo

    2016-10-01

    Responses of plant to drought largely depend on the intensity, duration and developmental stage at which water stress occurs. The purpose of this study was to analyze the dynamic of cotton physiology response to different levels sustained soil water deficit during reproductive growth stage at leaf basis. Three levels of steady-state water regimes [soil relative water content (SRWC) maintained at (75 ± 5)%, (60 ± 5)% and (45 ± 5)%] were imposed when the white flowers had opened on the first fruiting position of the 6-7th fruiting branches (FB6-7), which was the first day post anthesis (i.e. 1 DPA) and lasted to 50 DPA. Results showed decreasing SRWC slowed cotton growth on the base of biomass and leaf area. However, carbon metabolites levels were globally increased under drought despite of notably inhibited photosynthesis throughout the treatment period. Clear diurnal pattern of sucrose and starch concentrations was obtained and sucrose levels were evaluated while starch concentration was reduced with decreasing soil water content during a 24-h cycle. Osmotic adjustment (OA) was observed at most of the sampling dates throughout the drought period. K(+) was the main contributor to osmotic adjustment (OA) at 10 and 24 DPA then turned out to be amino acid at 38 and 50 DPA. The stressed cotton gradually failed to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) with increasing days post anthesis, primarily due to the permanent decrease in SOD activity. Elevated carbohydrates levels suggest cotton growth was more inhibited by other factors than carbon assimilation. OA and antioxidant could be important protective mechanisms against soil water deficit in this species, and transition of these mechanisms was observed with drought intensity and duration increased. PMID:27288990

  16. Soil Biochemical Changes Induced by Poultry Litter Application and Conservation Tillage under Cotton Production Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Seshadri Sajjala; Ermson Nyakatawa; Zachary Senwo; Chandra Reddy; Regine Mankolo

    2012-01-01

    Problems arising from conventional tillage (CT) systems (such as soil erosion, decrease of organic matter, environmental damage etc.) have led many farmers to the adoption of no-till (NT) systems that are more effective in improving soil physical, chemical and microbial properties. Results from this study clearly indicated that NT, mulch tillage (MT), and winter rye cover cropping systems increased the activity of phosphatase, β-glucosidase and arylsulfatase at a 0–10 cm soil depth but decrea...

  17. Black carbon as a carbon source for young soils in a glacier forefield?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckmeier, E.; Pichler, B.; Krebs, R.; Mavris, C.; Egli, M.

    2012-04-01

    Most evident changes in Alpine soils today occur in proglacial areas where existing young soils are continuously developing. Due to climate change, additional areas will become ice-free and subject to weathering and new soil formation. The glacier forefields of the European Alps are continuously exposed since the glaciers reached their maximum expansion in the 1850s. In these proglacial areas, initial soils have started to develop so that they may offer, under optimal conditions, a continuous chronosequence from 0 to 150 year-old soils. The buildup of organic carbon (Corg) in soil is an important factor controlling weathering and the formation of soils. Not only autochthonous but also distant (allochthonous) sources may contribute to the accumulation of soil organic carbon in young soils and surfaces of glacier forefields. Black carbon could be an important component in Alpine soils. However, only little is known about black carbon in very young soils that develop in glacier forefields. The aim of our study was to examine whether black carbon as an allochthonous source of soil organic matter can be detected in the initial soils, and to estimate its relative contribution (as a function of time) to total organic carbon. We investigated surface soil samples (topsoils, A or AO horizon) from 35 sites distributed over the whole proglacial area of Morteratsch, where ideal conditions for a soil chronosequence from 0 to 150 years can be found. Along this sequence, bare till sediments to weakly developed soils (Leptosols) can be encountered. Black carbon concentrations were determined in fine-earth using the benzene polycarboxylic acid (BPCA) marker method as described by Brodowski et al. (2005). We found that the proportion of BPCA-C to total Corg was related to the time since the surface was exposed. The youngest soils (younger than 40 years) contained the highest proportion of BPCA-C (up to 120 g BPCA-C/kg Corg). In these soils, however, the Corg concentrations were very

  18. Nanoscale Interactions between Engineered Nanomaterials and Black Carbon (Biochar) in Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    An understanding of the interactions between engineered nanomaterials (NMs) and soil constituents, and a comprehension of how these interactions may affect biological uptake and toxicity are currently lacking. Charcoal black carbon is a normal constituent of soils due to fire history, and can be pre...

  19. [Effect of long-term fertilization on microbial community functional diversity in black soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-xin; Chi, Feng-qin; Xu, Xiu-hong; Kuang, En-jun; Zhang, Jiu-ming; Su, Qing-rui; Zhou, Bao-ku

    2015-10-01

    In order to study the effects of long-term different fertilization on microbial community functional diversity in arable black. soil, we examined microbial metabolic activities in two soil la- yers (0-20 cm, 20-40 cm) under four treatments (CK, NPK, M, MNPK) from a 35-year continuous fertilization field at the Ministry of Agriculture Key Field Observation Station of Harbin Black Soil Ecology Environment using Biolog-ECO method. The results showed that: in the 0-20 cm soil layer, combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizer(MNPK) increased the rate of soil microbial carbon source utilization and community metabolism richness, diversity and dominance; In the 20-40 cm layer, these indices of the MNPK treatment was lower than that of the NPK treat- ment; while NPK treatment decreased soil microbial community metabolism evenness in both layers. Six groups of carbon sources used by soil microbes of all the treatments were different between the two soil layers, and the difference was significant among all treatments in each soil layer (P fertilization affected soil microbial community functional diversity in both tillage soil layer and down soil layers, and chemical fertilization alone had a larger influence on the microbial community functional diversity in the 20-40 cm layer. PMID:26995915

  20. [Effects of long-term fertilization on evolution of S forms in a red soil and a black soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chuang; Wang, Song-Shan; Li, Ju-Mei; Ma, Yi-Bing; Sun, Wen-Tao; Luo, Lei; Zhang, Shu-Zhen

    2014-04-01

    Sulfur (S) forms in two contrasting soils (a red soil and a black soil) under different long-term fertilization treatments (from 1990 to 2011) from the National Long-term Monitoring Network of Soil Fertility and Fertilizer Effects of China were investigated using a fractionation scheme in order to explore the distribution and transportation of S with different forms in the soils. The soil samples were collected from the topsoil (0-20 cm) and subsoil (20-40 cm) horizons that were treated with no fertilizers (CK), nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium fertilizers (NPK), or NPK plus organic manures (MNPK) since 1990. The results indicated that when compared with the CK, total S contents in the topsoil layers treated with NPK and MNPK were increased by 42% and 33% for the red soil, and by 6% and 76% for the black soil, respectively, while the total S in the subsoil layer was less affected by the fertilization treatments and obviously lower than in the topsoil layer except for the red soil treated with NPK. The main forms of inorganic S in the red soil and black soil were found to be available S and HCl-extracted S, respectively. The application of NPK and MNPK increased the available S by 447% and 102% in the topsoil layer of the red soil compared with CK, and facilitated the transportation of available S into the lower depth. In contrast, NPK and MNPK only increased the available S by 54% and 93% in the topsoil layer of the black soil, and showed a slight influence on available S in the subsoil. The organic S forms were predominantly composed of ester S and residual S in the two soils. Under long-term fertilization, the residual S significantly increased over 32% and 55% in the topsoil and subsoil layers, respectively, compared with CK. The ester S and carbon-bonded S, which were relatively active, were less affected by the fertilization treatments, but positively related to the level of organic carbon in each soil (P < 0.05). In addition, the results from the long

  1. Organochlorine pesticides in soil under irrigated cotton farming systems in Vertisols of the Namoi Valley, north-western New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Timothy B; Ghadiri, Hossein; Hulugalle, Nilantha R; Harden, Stephen

    2012-07-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) such as DDT and DDE have been detected in the surface 0.2m of Vertisols in the lower Namoi Valley of north western New South Wales, Australia even though they have not been applied to crops since 1982. However, their presence in the deeper soil horizons has not been investigated. The objective of this study was to determine if OCPs were present to a depth of 1.2m in Vertisols under irrigated cotton farming systems in the lower Namoi Valley of New South Wales. Soil was sampled from the 0-1.2m depths in three sites, viz. the Australian Cotton Research Institute, ACRI, near Narrabri (149°36'E, 30°12'S), and two cotton farms near Wee Waa (149°27'E, 30°13'S) and Merah North (149°18'E, 30°12'S) in northern New South Wales, Australia. The OCPs detected and their metabolites were α-endosulfan, β-endosulfan, endosulfan sulphate, DDD, DDE, DDT and endrin. The metabolite DDE, a breakdown product of DDT, was the most persistent OCP in all depths analysed. Endosulfan sulphate was the second most persistent followed by endrin>α-endosulfan>β-endosulfan>DDT and DDD. DDT was sprayed extensively in the lower Namoi Valley up to the early 1980s and may explain the persistence of DDE in the majority of soil samples. Dicofol and Dieldrin, two OCPs previously undocumented in Vertisols were also detected. The movement of OCPs into the subsoil of Vertisols may occur when irrigation or rain transports soil colloids and organic matter via preferential flow systems into the deeper layers of a soil profile. Persistence of OCPs was closely correlated to soil organic carbon concentrations. The persistence in soil of OCP's applied to cotton crops grown more than two decades ago suggests that they could enter the food chain. Their presence at depths of 1.2m suggests that they could move into groundwater that may eventually be used for domestic and stock consumption. PMID:22464189

  2. Relationship Between Water-Stable Aggregates and Nutrients in Black Soils After Reclamation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Qiang; YU Wan-Tai; ZHAO Shao-Hua; ZHANG Lu

    2007-01-01

    Water-stable aggregates, which are an index for the evaluation of the structural properties of the soil, are affected by many factors. Zhaoguang Farm, Longzhen Farm, and Jiusan Farm were chosen as the representative study sites in the region of black soils, a typical soil resource in Northeast China. The variation in the content of>0.25 mm water-stable aggregates and its relationship with the nutrients in black soil were investigated after different years of reclamation. The results showed that the>0.25 mm water-stable aggregates were more in the surface than in the subsurface soil and they changed in the following order: Longzhen Farm>Zhaoguang Farm>Jiusan Farm. The water-stable aggregates decreased sharply at the initial stage of reclamation and then became stable gradually with time. They were significantly correlated with the contents of organic C, total N, total P, and CEC in black soil, with the correlation coefficients r being 0.76, 0.68, 0.61, and 0.81 (P<0.01), respectively; however, their relationships with available P, available K, and total K were unclear. These showed that organic matter was the cementation of soil water-stable aggregates. Increasing decompositions and decreasing inputs of organic matter after reclamation were responsible for the amount of reduction of the water-stable aggregates. Thus, to maintain good soil aggregate structure, attention should be paid to improvement of soil nutrient status, especially the supply of organic C and N.

  3. Cotton Price Policy and New Cereal Technology in the Malian Cotton Zone

    OpenAIRE

    Coulibaly, Jeanne Y.; Sanders, John H.; Preckel, Paul V.; Timothy G. Baker

    2011-01-01

    During the last decade, cotton production and area have been declining as a result of depleting soil nutrients and low cotton prices in the cotton zone of Mali. This paper shows that the Malian government’s 2011 policy to increase the farm gate cotton price as a response to world cotton price increase enhances farm income but has less impact on cotton than on maize production. A complementary policy of introducing new sorghum technologies would have an equal impact on farmers’ incomes in the ...

  4. Soil heat flux variability influenced by row direction in irrigated cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    In applications of micrometeorological techniques for surface energy balance estimation, most often the least attention and effort has been devoted to determining the area-average soil heat flux (G). Although spatial and temporal variability in G under sparse/clumped vegetation conditions is signif...

  5. Effects of Transgenic Pest-Resistant Cotton on Soil Invertebrate Communities%转基因抗虫棉对土壤无脊椎动物群落的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒洪岚

    2012-01-01

    选择连续种植传统非转基因棉、5年连续种植转基因抗虫棉和10年连续种植转基因抗虫棉的棉田为研究对象,调查了土壤0~20 cm的小型无脊椎动物的群落组成和多样性变化.结果表明,与种植传统非转基因棉相比,种植转基因抗虫棉对土壤小型无脊椎动物的种类和数量等没有显著性差异,但减少了双翅目的优势种群.种植5年转基因抗虫棉会降低土壤无脊椎动物的Simpson指数、Shannon-Wiener多样性指数和Pielou均匀度.%Traditional (non—transgenic) cotton, 5th year transgenic resistant—pest cotton and 10th year transgenic pest—resistant cotton were selected to investigat the population and number of soil invertebrates in depth of 0-20 cm. Results showed that there was no significant differences in the quantity of soil small invertebrates between transgenic pest-resistant cotton and conventional cotton, but transgenic pest-resistant cotton decreased the dominant species of diptera. However, 5th year transgenic pest—resistant cotton decreased the Simpson, Shannon—Wiener diversity indexes and pielou evenness index of the soil small invertebrates compared with conventional cotton.

  6. Decolorization of Remazol Black-B azo dye in soil by fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azeem Khalid*, Sadia Batool, Muhammad Tariq Siddique, Zilli Huma Nazli, Riffat Bibi, Shahid Mahmood and Muhammad Arshad

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Textile industry is known to release huge amount of dyes in the water and soil environments during the dyeingprocess. The present study was planned with the aim to remove azo dye toxicants from the soil using fungal strains.The fungi were isolated by using Remazol Black-B azo dye as the sole source of C and N. Ten isolates were initiallyselected for testing their decolorization potential in the liquid medium. Three most effective strains were used tostudy the decolorization of Remazol Black-B in soil. The strain S4 was found to be very effective in removing thedye Remazol Black-B from liquid medium as well as in soil suspension. More than 95% decolorization by the strainS4 was observed in soil under optimal incubation conditions. Overall, the dye decolorization was maximum at 100mg dye kg-1 soil at pH 7-8 under static conditions. Glucose, moisture and aeration also affected the decolorizationefficacy of the fungal strain in soil. This study implies that fungi could be used for bioremediation of dyecontaminatedsites.

  7. Biological control agent of larger black flour beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae): A nuisance pest developing in cotton gin trash piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larger black flour beetles (LBFB), Cynaeus angustus, feed on saprophytic fungi found in gin trash piles, and become nuisance pests in homes and businesses. We examined the dose-response of three entomopathogenic nematode species (Steinernema carpocapsae, S. feltiae, and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora...

  8. 黑液腐植酸肥料对棉花生长及土壤肥力的影响%Effect of different humic acid liquid fertilizer on cotton growth and soil fertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王平; 田长彦; 张小勇; 莫海涛

    2012-01-01

    通过在北疆布设的3种肥料(腐植酸液体肥料HALF-A、HALF-B、HALF-C)5个施肥水平的田间试验,研究了黑液腐植酸肥料对棉花生长及土壤肥力的影响.结果表明:(1)与常规肥料比,应用不同黑液腐植酸液体肥科,增产幅度达到8.54%~10.80%,提高单铃重0.2~0.39,对衣分和单株有效成铃数影响不大;(2)施用腐植酸液体肥料能够推迟棉花成熟2~4d;(3)腐植酸液体肥料施用量2250kg/hm2以上对显著促进了棉花花后干物质的累积;(4)三种腐植酸液体肥料施用量3000kg/hm2时对棉花氮素养分的吸收促进作用最大,HALF-B在施用量2250kg/hm2,HALF-C在3000kg/hm2时促进了棉花磷素养分的吸收,腐植酸液体肥料施用量3750kg/hm2以上时显著促进了棉花钾素养分的吸收;(5)施用腐植酸液体肥科对当年收获后土壤肥力影响不大.%In order to provide the evidence for resource ulilization of black liquor, the field experiments of humic acid product from black liquor were carried out in North Xinjiang. With designing three fertilizer treatments HALF- A, HALF - B, HALF - C and five-level method, to study the effect of humic acid product on the cotton growth and soil fertility- The experiments showed that: (l) compared with the conventional solid fertilizer, humic acid liquid fertilizer could remarkably increase the cotton yield by 8.5% ~ 10.8% , boll weight increaeed by 0.2~0.3 g, but lint percentage and Boll per plant was not affected. (2) Compared with the conventional solid fertilizer, humic arid liquid fertilizer could delay the harvest lime by 2 ~ 4 day. (3) Compared with the conventional solid fertilizer, 2 250 kg/hra2 humic acid liquid fertilizer could evidently promote dry matter accumulation amount of after flower period. (4) compared with the conventional solid fertilizer, three humic acid liquid fertilizer promote nitrogen uptake by application amount about 3 000 kg/hm\\ meanwhile, 2 250 k&/hm2 HALF - B and 3 000

  9. Black carbon contributes to organic matter in young soils in the Morteratsch proglacial area (Switzerland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckmeier, E.; Mavris, C.; Krebs, R.; Pichler, B.; Egli, M.

    2013-03-01

    Most glacier forefields of the European Alps are being progressively exposed since the glaciers reached their maximum expansion in the 1850s. Global warming and climate changes additionally promote the exposure of sediments in previously glaciated areas. In these proglacial areas, initial soils have started to develop so that they may offer a continuous chronosequence from 0 to 150-yr-old soils. The build-up of organic matter is an important factor of soil formation, and not only autochthonous but also distant sources might contribute to its accumulation in young soils and surfaces of glacier forefields. Only little is known about black carbon in soils that develop in glacier forefields, although charred organic matter could be an important component of organic carbon in Alpine soils. The aim of our study was to examine whether black carbon (BC) is present in the initial soils of a proglacial area, and to estimate its relative contribution to soil organic matter. We investigated soil samples from 35 sites distributed over the whole proglacial area of Morteratsch (Upper Engadine, Switzerland), covering a chronosequence from 0 to 150 yr. BC concentrations were determined in fine earth using the benzene polycarboxylic acid (BPCA) marker method. We found that charred organic matter occurred in the whole area, and that it was a main compound of soil organic matter in the youngest soils, where total Corg concentrations were very low. The absolute concentrations of BC in fine earth were generally low but increased in soils that had been exposed for more than 40 yr. Specific initial microbial communities may profit from this additional C source during the first years of soil evolution and potentially promote soil development in its early stage.

  10. Basic Soil Productivity of Spring Maize in Black Soil Under Long-Term Fertilization Based on DSSAT Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHA Yan; WU Xue-ping; HE Xin-hua; ZHANG Hui-min; GONG Fu-fei; CAI Dian-xiong; ZHU Ping; GAO Hong-jun

    2014-01-01

    Increasing basic farmland soil productivity has signiifcance in reducing fertilizer application and maintaining high yield of crops. In this study, we deifned that the basic soil productivity (BSP) is the production capacity of a farmland soil with its own physical and chemical properties for a speciifc crop season under local environment and ifeld management. Based on 22-yr (1990-2011) long-term experimental data on black soil (Typic hapludoll) in Gongzhuling, Jilin Province, Northeast China, the decision support system for an agro-technology transfer (DSSAT)-CERES-Maize model was applied to simulate the yield by BSP of spring maize (Zea mays L.) to examine the effects of long-term fertilization on changes of BSP and explore the mechanisms of BSP increasing. Five treatments were examined:(1) no-fertilization control (control);(2) chemical nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (NPK); (3) NPK plus farmyard manure (NPKM); (4) 1.5 time of NPKM (1.5NPKM) and (5) NPK plus straw (NPKS). Results showed that after 22-yr fertilization, the yield by BSP of spring maize signiifcantly increased 78.0, 101.2, and 69.4% under the NPKM, 1.5NPKM and NPKS, respectively, compared to the initial value (in 1992), but not signiifcant under NPK (26.9%increase) and the control (8.9%decrease). The contribution percentage of BSP showed a signiifcant rising trend (PNPKM>NPK≈NPKS, indicating that organic manure combined with chemical fertilizers (1.5NPKM and NPKM) could more effectively increase BSP compared with the inorganic fertilizer application alone (NPK) in the black soil. This study showed that soil organic matter (SOM) was the key factor among various fertility factors that could affect BSP in the black soil, and total N, total P and/or available P also played important role in BSP increasing. Compared with the chemical fertilization, a balanced chemical plus manure or straw fertilization (NPKM or NPKS) not only increased the concentrations of soil nutrient, but also improved the

  11. [Surrounding characteristics of preferential flow in cultivated typical black soils of northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiao-jin; Wang, En-heng; Chen, Xiang-wei; Xia, Xiang-you; Shi, Chang-ting

    2010-12-01

    Taking the cultivated soils in typical black soil region of Northeast China as test objects, and by using dye tracer and double-ring infiltrometer techniques and photograph interpretation method, this paper measured and analyzed the dye-stained width and dye-stained coverage of soil transverse and longitudinal sections as well as the field maximum dye-stained depth, aimed to approach the water flow movement pattern and distribution characteristics in test soils. At soil depth 0-15 cm, matrix flow was the main soil water flow movement pattern; at depth 15-20 cm, lateral flow was observed, and the average dye-stained width and dye-stained coverage reached their maximum, being 23 cm and 20.73%, respectively. At depth 20-67 cm, the main soil water flow movement pattern was macro-pore flow, with cracks and macro-pores as the main preferential routes. The cracks at depth 20-35 cm made the preferential flow have distinct surrounding characteristics, and the macro-pores at depth 40-67 cm were the main preferential routes. Due to the existence of the preferential routes of cracks and macro-pores, the migration velocity of water in soil increased by 4.5 times, which could not only cause water loss, but also accelerate the migration of pesticides to ground water. It was suggested that these preferential routes should be decreased or eliminated during the cultivation and management on cultivated typical black soils. PMID:21442999

  12. Effect of soil weathering degree on the increase of cotton biomass and silicon mineralomass after amendment with biochar highly concentrated in phytoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zimin; Delvaux, Bruno; Yans, Johan; Dufour, Nicolas; Houben, David; Cornelis, Jean-Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Silicon (Si) is beneficial for plants, but not essential. It plays a crucial role in improving the yields of Si-accumulator crops through alleviating various biotic and abiotic stresses. The demand of Si fertilizers will likely increase due to soil desilication and removal of harvested biomass. Since plants accumulate Si in the form of readily soluble phytoliths, plant-derived biochar is considered as a Si source for Si accumulator crops. In addition to its beneficial effects on soil fertility and carbon sequestration, biochar is a promising cost-effective and environmentally friendly alternative to conventional Si amendments. Here, we study the impact of biochar materials with different phytolith concentrations on the bioavailability of Si in soils differing in weathering stage, and its effect on cotton biomass and Si mineralomass. Two biochar materials were used: Miscanthus x giganteus (Si concentration: 34.6 g/kg) and soft woody material (Si concentration: 0.9 g/kg). A conventional wollastonite (CaSiO3) treatment was carried for comparison purpose. The concentration of bioavailable Si was determined through 0.01 M CaCl2 extraction. Biochars were incorporated at the rate of 3% (w/w) in two soils: a slightly weathered Cambisol and a highly weathered Nitisol. The Miscanthus biochar ability to release bioavailable Si in the Cambisol (CaCl2 extractable Si/total Si concentration) is significantly smaller (0.9%) than the one of wollastonite (5.2%). In the highly weathered Nitisol, the Miscanthus biochar ability to release bioavailable Si is much larger (1.4%) than that of wollastonite (0.7%). Miscanthus biochar significantly increases the cotton biomass and Si mineralomass relative to soft wood biochar. The increase is larger in the highly weathered Nitisol than in the slightly weathered Cambisol. Principal component analyses and linear regression show that both the larger release rate of bioavailable Si and CEC are the main factors responsible for the increase of

  13. Black carbon estimation in French calcareous soils using chemo-thermal oxidation method

    OpenAIRE

    Caria, G.; Arrouays, D.; Dubromel, E.; Jolivet, C.; Ratié, C.; Bernoux, MARTIAL,; Barthès, Bernard; Brunet, Didier; Grinand, Clovis

    2011-01-01

    We studied the black carbon (BC) content of ca. 405 samples from French topsoil and artificial soil and carbonate mixtures. Our protocol involved three main steps: (i) decarbonation by HCl, (ii) elimination of non-pyrogenic organic carbon in a furnace at 375 degrees C, and (iii) quantification of residual carbon by CHN analysis. BC content increased for calcareous soils according to their carbonates content. Subsequent analyses confirmed the existence of a methodological artefact for BC deter...

  14. [Effects of heavy machinery operation on the structural characters of cultivated soils in black soil region of Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, En-Heng; Chai, Ya-Fan; Chen, Xiang-Wei

    2008-02-01

    With the cultivated soils in black soil region of Northeast China as test objects, this paper measured their structural characters such as soil strength, bulk density, and non-capillary porosity/capillary porosity (NCP/CP) ratio before and after heavy and medium-sized machinery operation, aimed to study the effects of machinery operation on the physical properties of test soils. The results showed that after machinery operation, there existed three distinct layers from top to bottom in the soil profiles, i.e., plowed layer, cumulative compacted layer, and non-affected layer, according to the changes of soil strength. Under medium-sized machinery operation, these three layers were shallower, and there was a new plow pan at the depth between 17.5 and 30 cm. Heavy machinery operation had significant positive effects on the improvement of topsoil structure (P machinery, the bulk density of topsoil decreased by 7.2% and 3.5%, respectively, and NCP/CP increased by 556.6% after subsoiling, which would benefit water infiltration, reinforce water storage, and weaken the threat of soil erosion. The main action of heavy machinery operation was soil loosening, while that of medium-sized machinery operation was soil compacting.

  15. THE CONTENT OF MACRO- AND MICRONUTRIENTS IN CORN GRAIN GROWN ON ORDINARY BLACK SOILS UNDER FERTILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biryukova O. A.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the results of studies on elemental composition of corn grain under various fertilizer treatments. The balanced application of fertilizers is an important factor in optimizing corn nutrition on ordinary black soils and obtaining ecologically safe and clean crop production

  16. Evaluation on Heavy Metals in Black Soils of Hailun and Bayan Counties in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZAKIR; Shahidanasreen

    2010-01-01

    The concentration of heavy metals was investigated in black soil samples collected from the fields treated with chemical in Bayan County which were from the vegetation covers,bare soil and grain fields without any chemical treatments in Hailun National Field Research Station of Agroecosystem,Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) in July,2009.Results showed that the presence of significantly high concentration of zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) in soils covered with grass vegetation.However,mercury (Hg),copper (Cu),nick...

  17. Bacterial community structure and diversity in a black soil as affected by long-term fertilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Dan; YANG Qian; ZHANG Jun-Zheng; WANG Shuang; CHEN Xue-Li; ZHANG Xi-Lin; LI Wei-Qun

    2008-01-01

    Black soil (Mollisol) is one of the main soil types in northeastern China.Biolog and polymerase chain reactiondenaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) methods were used to examine the influence of various fertilizer combinations on the structure and function of the bacterial community in a black soil collected from Harbin,Heilongjiang Province.Biolog results showed that substrate richness and catabolic diversity of the soil bacterial community were the greatest in the chemical fertilizer and chemical fertilizer+manure treatments.The metabolic ability of the bacterial community in the manure treatment was similar to the control.DGGE fingerprinting indicated similarity in the distribution of most 16S rDNA bands among all treatments,suggesting that microorganisms with those bands were stable and not influenced by fertilization.However,chemical fertilizer increased the diversity of soil bacterial community.Principal component analysis of Biolog and DGGE data revealed that the structure and function of the bacterial community were similar in the control and manure treatments,suggesting that the application of manure increased the soil microbial population,but had no effect on the bacterial community structure.Catabolic function was similar in the chemical fertilizer and chemical fertilizer+manure treatments,but the composition structure of the soil microbes differed between them.The use of chemical fertilizers could result in a decline in the catabolic activity of fast-growing or eutrophic bacteria.

  18. [Humus composition of black soil and its organo-mineral complexes under different fertility level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lanpo; Wang, Jie; Liu, Jingshuan; Liu, Shuxia; Wang, Yanling; Wang, Hongbin; Zhang, Zhidan

    2005-01-01

    Determinations by Kumada method showed that with the improvement of black soil fertility, the free and combined humus contents in soil and its different size organo-mineral complexes increased, but the humification degree of free humus decreased, which was more obvious in silt and fine sand size complexes. The organic carbon content in complexes, humus extraction rate, free humus content, and humification degree of free humic acid decreased with the increasing particle size of complexes. All free humic acids in fertile soil were Rp type, while in unfertile soil, they were Rp and B type. With the increasing particle size of complexes, the type of free humic acids changed in the sequence A type (clay)-->B type (silt)-->Rp type (fine sand). Combined form humic acid mainly belonged to A type, no matter what particle size the complex was. The improvement of soil fertility could make the humification degree of free humus in soil and its complexes decrease, and furthermore, result in type change. In black soil, the type change of free humic acid mainly occurred in silt size complex, and that of combined form humic acid mainly occurred in fine sand size complex.

  19. Effect of N fertilization rate on soil alkali-hydrolyzable N, subtending leaf N concentration, fiber yield, and quality of cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binglin Chen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen, which is sensitive to N fertilization rate, is one of the indicators of soil nitrogen supplying capacity. Two field experiments were conducted in Dongtai (120°19″ E, 32°52″ N, Jiangsu, China in 2009 and Dafeng (120°28″ E, 33°12″ N, Jiangsu province, China in 2010. Six nitrogen rates (0, 150, 300, 375, 450, and 600 kg ha− 1 were used to study the effect of N fertilization rate on soil alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen content (SAHNC, subtending leaf nitrogen concentration (SLNC, yield, and fiber quality. In both Dongtai and Dafeng experiment station, the highest yield (1709 kg ha− 1, best quality (fiber length 30.6 mm, fiber strength 31.6 cN tex− 1, micronaire 4.82, and highest N agronomic efficiency (2.03 kg kg− 1 were achieved at the nitrogen fertilization rate of 375 kg ha− 1. The dynamics of SAHNC and SLNC could be simulated with a cubic and an exponential function, respectively. The changes in SAHNC were consistent with the changes in SLNC. Optimal average rate (0.276 mg day− 1 and duration (51.8 days of SAHNC rapid decline were similar to the values obtained at the nitrogen rate of 375 kg ha− 1 at which cotton showed highest fiber yield, quality, and N agronomic efficiency. Thus, the levels and strategies of nitrogen fertilization can affect SAHNC dynamics. The N fertilization rate that optimizes soil alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen content would optimize the subtending leaf nitrogen concentration and thereby increase the yield and quality of the cotton fiber.

  20. Historical record of black carbon in urban soils and its environmental implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy use in urbanization has fundamentally changed the pattern and fluxes of carbon cycling, which has global and local environmental impacts. Here we have investigated organic carbon (OC) and black carbon (BC) in six soil profiles from two contrast zones in an ancient city (Nanjing) in China. BC in soils was widely variable, from 0.22 to 32.19 g kg-1. Its average concentration in an ancient residential area (Zone 1) was, 0.91 g kg-1, whereas in Zone 2, an industrial and commercial area, the figure was 8.62 g kg-1. The ratio of BC/OC ranged from 0.06 to 1.29 in soil profiles, with an average of 0.29. The vertical distribution of BC in soil is suggested to reflect the history of BC formation from burning of biomass and/or fossil fuel. BC in the surface layer of soils was mainly from traffic emission (especially from diesel vehicles). In contrast, in cultural layers BC was formed from historical coal use. The contents of BC and the ratio of BC/OC may reflect different human activities and pollution sources in the contrasting urban zones. In addition, the significant correlation of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, and Zn) with BC contents in some culture layers suggests the sorption of the metals by BC or their coexistence resulted from the coal-involved smelting. - Soil black carbon can reflect the pollution history of a city during urbanization.

  1. Spatiotemporal analysis of black spruce forest soils and implications for the fate of C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Jennifer W.; Manies, Kristen L.; O'Donnell, Jonathan; Johnson, Kristofer; Frolking, Steve; Fan, Zhaosheng

    2012-01-01

    Post-fire storage of carbon (C) in organic-soil horizons was measured in one Canadian and three Alaskan chronosequences in black spruce forests, together spanning stand ages of nearly 200 yrs. We used a simple mass balance model to derive estimates of inputs, losses, and accumulation rates of C on timescales of years to centuries. The model performed well for the surface and total organic soil layers and presented questions for resolving the dynamics of deeper organic soils. C accumulation in all study areas is on the order of 20–40 gC/m 2 / yr for stand ages up to $200 yrs. Much larger fluxes, both positive and negative, are detected using incremental changes in soil C stocks and by other studies using eddy covariance methods for CO 2 . This difference suggests that over the course of stand replacement, about 80% of all net primary production (NPP) is returned to the atmosphere within a fire cycle, while about 20% of NPP enters the organic soil layers and becomes available for stabilization or loss via decomposition, leaching, or combustion. Shifts toward more frequent and more severe burning and degradation of deep organic horizons would likely result in an acceleration of the carbon cycle, with greater CO 2 emissions from these systems overall., Spatiotemporal analysis of black spruce forest soils and implications for the fate of C.

  2. Impact of Transgenic Bt+CpTI Cotton on Soil Enzyme Activities and Soil Microorganisms%转双价棉种植对土壤酶活性及土壤微生物的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红梅; 宋晓龙; 皇甫超河; 张贵龙; 杨殿林; 赵建宁

    2013-01-01

    Due to its strong and effective insecticidal properties, transgenic Bt+CpTI cotton has witnessed an expanding planting area in recent years, and the impact of its cultivation on soil ecosystem becomes an important part of environmental risk assessment. Using transgenic Bt+CpTI cotton sGK321 and its parental homologous conventional cotton Shiyuan 321 as the study objects, a comparative analysis was conducted on the changes in enzyme activities (urease, alkaline phosphatase, and catalase) of the rhizosphere soil and changes in the number of culturable microor-ganisms (bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes) at different growth stages (seedling stage, budding stage, flower and bol stage, and bol opening stage) of sGK321 and Shiyuan 321 under the condition of 13 years field plantings. The results showed that, the populations of bacteria, fungi, and actinomycete and the soil enzyme activi-ties of urease, alkaline phosphatase and catalase had a similar variation trend along with the cotton growing process for transgenic cotton and conventional cotton. Some occasional and inconsistent effects on soil enzyme activities and soil fungi composi-tion in the rhizosphere soil of transgenic Bt+CpTI cotton were found at the seedling stage, budding stage, flower and bol stage as compared with that of conventional cotton. The amount of bacteria and actinomycetes were not significantly different during a certain stage; however, the activities of urease, catalase, alkaline phos-phatase, also with the number of fungi were significantly different, e.g. the urease activities at seedling stage, the alkaline phosphatase at seedling and budding stages, and the soil culturable fungi at flower and bol stage were less than that of conven-tional cotton, while the soil alkaline phosphatase activities at flower and bol stage were higher. Cluster analysis showed that soil enzyme activities and microbial popu-lation changed mainly along the growth processes, suffering little from the planting of

  3. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: COTTON GINS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report describes a study of air pollutants from cotton gins. Cotton gins separate cotton fibers from cottonseed and trash. During the 1976 crop year, 2.6 x 10 to the 6th power metric tons of lint cotton were ginned. Particulates composed of cotton dust, cotton lint, fine-lea...

  4. The Effect of Long-Term Continuous Cropping of Black Pepper on Soil Bacterial Communities as Determined by 454 Pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wu; Li, Zhigang; Liu, Hongjun; Xue, Chao; Zhang, Ruifu; Wu, Huasong; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, 3 replanted black pepper orchards with continuously cropping histories for 10, 21, and 55 years in tropical China, were selected for investigating the effect of monoculture on soil physiochemical properties, enzyme activities, bacterial abundance, and bacterial community structures. Results showed long-term continuous cropping led to a significant decline in soil pH, organic matter contents, enzymatic activities, and resulted in a decrease in soil bacterial abundance. 454 pyrosequencing analysis of 16S rRNA genes revealed that the Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria were the main phyla in the replanted black pepper orchard soils, comprising up to 73.82% of the total sequences; the relative abundances of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes phyla decreased with long-term continuous cropping; and at genus level, the Pseudomonas abundance significantly depleted after 21 years continuous cropping. In addition, bacterial diversity significantly decreased after 55 years black pepper continuous cropping; obvious variations for community structures across the 3 time-scale replanted black pepper orchards were observed, suggesting monoculture duration was the major determinant for bacterial community structure. Overall, continuous cropping during black pepper cultivation led to a significant decline in soil pH, organic matter contents, enzymatic activities, resulted a decrease in soil bacterial abundance, and altered soil microbial community membership and structure, which in turn resulted in black pepper poor growth in the continuous cropping system.

  5. Black carbon contribution to stabilised SOM in soil under slash and burn agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumpel, C.; Chaplot, V.; Valentin, C.

    2008-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) produced during slash and burn agriculture on tropical soils may enhance the soils organic matter content and hence their biological properties. However, once deposited on the soil surface, BC may be subject to erosion and/or microbial decomposition and thus not be preserved on site. Up to now, few studies have been carried out to assess the contribution of BC to the soils stable carbon pool on sites under slash and burn agriculture. The aim of the study was to assess the survival potential of BC in sloping tropical soils of clayey texture. The study was carried out in Northern Laos, where the soils are subjected to addition of black carbon produced by burning of agricultural crop residues. Our conceptual approach included the characterisation of (a) morphologically distinct BC forms and (b) chemical soil fractions. The samples were analysed for elemental content, chemical composition by 13C CPMAS NMR spectroscopy, carbon resistant to acid hydrolysis with HCl, carbon resistant to oxidation with acid dichromate solution and 14C activity. Our results indicated that BC produced by slash and burn agriculture was highly aromatic in nature. Its elemental composition as well as its susceptibility to be lost by chemical oxidation was dependent on its morphology. Acid hydrolysis did not lead to carbon loss from any BC form. We thus hypothesised that BC should be present in the hydrolysis resistant fraction isolated from soil. The charactersation of the chemical composition by 13C CPMAS NMR spectroscopy showed that the hydrolysis residue was composed of highly aromatic carbon. Considering the low lignin content of these soils and the good recovery of bulk soil aromatic carbon signal (80-100%) in the hydrolysis residue, we consider that this fraction may be suitable to assess BC contribution to clayey soils. We suggest that BC isolated as hydrolysis resistant C may represent up to 25% of the soils C as compared to 8% as isolated by acid dichromate oxidation

  6. The Influence of Mineral Fertilizer Combined With a Nitrification Inhibitor on Microbial Populations and Activities in Calcareous Uzbekistanian Soil Under Cotton Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilfuza Egamberdiyeva

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of fertilizers combined with nitrification inhibitors affects soil microbial biomass and activity. The objective of this research was to determine the effects of fertilizer application combined with the nitrification inhibitor potassium oxalate (PO on soil microbial population and activities in nitrogen-poor soil under cotton cultivation in Uzbekistan. Fertilizer treatments were N as urea, P as ammophos, and K as potassium chloride. The nitrification inhibitor PO was added to urea and ammophos at the rate of 2%. Three treatments—N200P140K60 (T1, N200 P140 POK60 (T2, and N200 P140 POK60 (T3 mg kg-1 soil—were applied for this study. The control (C was without fertilizer and PO. The populations of oligotrophic bacteria, ammonifying bacteria, nitrifying bacteria, denitrifying bacteria, mineral assimilating bacteria, oligonitrophilic bacteria, and bacteria group Azotobacter were determined by the most probable number method. The treatments T2 and T3 increased the number of oligonitrophilic bacteria and utilization mineral forms of nitrogen on the background of reducing number of ammonifying bacteria. T2 and T3 also decreased the number of nitrifying bacteria, denitrifying bacteria, and net nitrification. In conclusion, our experiments showed that PO combined with mineral fertilizer is one of the most promising compounds for inhibiting nitrification rate, which was reflected in the increased availability and efficiency of fertilizer nitrogen to the cotton plants. PO combined with mineral fertilizer has no negative effects on nitrogen-fixing bacteria Azotobacter and oligo-nitrophilic bacteria.

  7. Combining gas exchange and chlorophylla lfuorescence measurements to analyze the photosynthetic activity of drip-irrigated cotton under different soil water deifcits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Hong-hai; Tsimilli-michael Merope; ZHANG Ya-li; ZHANG Wang-feng

    2016-01-01

    Gas exchange and chlorophyla lfuorescence were measured to study the effects of soil water deifcit (75, 60 and 45% of ifeld capacity, FC) on the photosynthetic activity of drip-irrigated cotton under ifeld conditions. At light intensities above 1200 µmol m−2 s−1, leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pn) at 60 and 45% FC was 0.75 and 0.45 times respectively than that of 75% FC. The chlorophyl content, leaf water potential and yield decreased as soil water deifcit decreased. Fiber length was signiifcantly lower at 45% FC than at 75% FC. The actual quantum yield of the photosystem II (PSII) primary photo-chemistry and the photochemical quenching were signiifcantly greater at 60% FC than at 75% FC. The electron transport rate and non-photochemical quenching at 45% FC were 0.91 and 1.29 times than those at 75% FC, respectively. The amplitudes of the K- and L-bands were higher at 45% FC than at 60% FC. As soil water content decreased, active PSII reaction centers per chlorophyl decreased, functional PSII antenna size increased, and energetic connectivity between PSII units decreased. Electron lfow from plastoquinol to the PSI end electron acceptors was signiifcantly lower at 45% FC than at 75% FC. Similar to the effect on leafPn, water deifcit reduced the performance index (PIABS, total) in the dark-adapted state. These results suggest that (i) the effect of mild water deifcit on photosystem activity was mainly related to processes between plastoquinol and the PSI end electron acceptors, (i) PSI end electron acceptors were only affected at moderate water deifcit, and (ii) PIABS, total can reliably indicate the effect of water deifcit on the energy supply for cotton metabolism.

  8. Landscape heterogeneity, soil climate, and carbon exchange in a boreal black spruce forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Allison L; Wofsy, Steven C; v H Bright, Alfram

    2009-03-01

    We measured soil climate and the turbulent fluxes of CO2, H2O, heat, and momentum on short towers (2 m) in a 160-yr-old boreal black spruce forest in Manitoba, Canada. Two distinct land cover types were studied: a Sphagnum-dominated wetland, and a feathermoss (Pleurozium and Hylocomium)-dominated upland, both lying within the footprint of a 30-m tower, which has measured whole-forest carbon exchange since 1994. Peak summertime uptake of CO2, was higher in the wetland than for the forest as a whole due to the influence of deciduous shrubs. Soil respiration rates in the wetland were approximately three times larger than in upland soils, and 30% greater than the mean of the whole forest, reflecting decomposition of soil organic matter. Soil respiration rates in the wetland were regulated by soil temperature, which was in turn influenced by water table depth through effects on soil heat capacity and conductivity. Warmer soil temperatures and deeper water tables favored increased heterotrophic respiration. Wetland drainage was limited by frost during the first half of the growing season, leading to high, perched water tables, cool soil temperatures, and much lower respiration rates than observed later in the growing season. Whole-forest evapotranspiration increased as water tables dropped, suggesting that photosynthesis in this forest was rarely subject to water stress. Our data indicate positive feedback between soil temperature, seasonal thawing, heterotrophic respiration, and evapotranspiration. As a result, climate warming could cause covariant changes in soil temperature and water table depths that may stimulate photosynthesis and strongly promote efflux of CO2 from peat soils in boreal wetlands. PMID:19323205

  9. Assessing Fungal Population in Soil Planted with Cry1Ac and CPTI Transgenic Cotton and Its Conventional Parental Line Using 18S and ITS rDNA Sequences over Four Seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xiemin; Liu, Biao; Song, Qinxin; Zou, Bingjie; Bu, Ying; Wu, Haiping; Ding, Li; Zhou, Guohua

    2016-01-01

    Long-term growth of genetically modified plants (GMPs) has raised concerns regarding their ecological effects. Here, FLX-pyrosequencing of region I (18S) and region II (ITS1, 5.8S, and ITS2) rDNA was used to characterize fungal communities in soil samples after 10-year monoculture of one representative transgenic cotton line (TC-10) and 15-year plantation of various transgenic cotton cultivars (TC-15mix) over four seasons. Soil fungal communities in the rhizosphere of non-transgenic control (CC) were also compared. No notable differences were observed in soil fertility variables among CC, TC-10, and TC-15mix. Within seasons, the different estimations were statistically indistinguishable. There were 411 and 2 067 fungal operational taxonomic units in the two regions, respectively. More than 75% of fungal taxa were stable in both CC and TC except for individual taxa with significantly different abundance between TC and CC. Statistical analysis revealed no significant differences between CC and TC-10, while discrimination of separating TC-15mix from CC and TC-10 with 37.86% explained variance in PCoA and a significant difference of Shannon indexes between TC-10 and TC-15mix were observed in region II. As TC-15mix planted with a mixture of transgenic cottons (Zhongmian-29, 30, and 33B) for over 5 years, different genetic modifications may introduce variations in fungal diversity. Further clarification is necessary by detecting the fungal dynamic changes in sites planted in monoculture of various transgenic cottons. Overall, we conclude that monoculture of one representative transgenic cotton cultivar may have no effect on fungal diversity compared with conventional cotton. Furthermore, the choice of amplified region and methodology has potential to affect the outcome of the comparison between GM-crop and its parental line. PMID:27462344

  10. Assessing Fungal Population in Soil Planted with Cry1Ac and CPTI Transgenic Cotton and Its Conventional Parental Line Using 18S and ITS rDNA Sequences over Four Seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xiemin; Liu, Biao; Song, Qinxin; Zou, Bingjie; Bu, Ying; Wu, Haiping; Ding, Li; Zhou, Guohua

    2016-01-01

    Long-term growth of genetically modified plants (GMPs) has raised concerns regarding their ecological effects. Here, FLX-pyrosequencing of region I (18S) and region II (ITS1, 5.8S, and ITS2) rDNA was used to characterize fungal communities in soil samples after 10-year monoculture of one representative transgenic cotton line (TC-10) and 15-year plantation of various transgenic cotton cultivars (TC-15mix) over four seasons. Soil fungal communities in the rhizosphere of non-transgenic control (CC) were also compared. No notable differences were observed in soil fertility variables among CC, TC-10, and TC-15mix. Within seasons, the different estimations were statistically indistinguishable. There were 411 and 2 067 fungal operational taxonomic units in the two regions, respectively. More than 75% of fungal taxa were stable in both CC and TC except for individual taxa with significantly different abundance between TC and CC. Statistical analysis revealed no significant differences between CC and TC-10, while discrimination of separating TC-15mix from CC and TC-10 with 37.86% explained variance in PCoA and a significant difference of Shannon indexes between TC-10 and TC-15mix were observed in region II. As TC-15mix planted with a mixture of transgenic cottons (Zhongmian-29, 30, and 33B) for over 5 years, different genetic modifications may introduce variations in fungal diversity. Further clarification is necessary by detecting the fungal dynamic changes in sites planted in monoculture of various transgenic cottons. Overall, we conclude that monoculture of one representative transgenic cotton cultivar may have no effect on fungal diversity compared with conventional cotton. Furthermore, the choice of amplified region and methodology has potential to affect the outcome of the comparison between GM-crop and its parental line. PMID:27462344

  11. Effects of Transgenic Chi+Glu Cotton on Functional Diversity of Soil Microbial Community%转Chi+Glu双价基因棉对土壤微生物群落功能多样性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏锋; 朱荷琴; 肖蕊; 杨家荣

    2011-01-01

    Through studying effects of transgenic Chi+Glu cotton on functional diversity of soil microbial community, we aimed to reveal the safety of transgenic cottons on the soil ecology environment. The functional diversity of soil microorganism community of transgenic Chi+Glu cotton, transgenic Bt cotton and un-transgenic cotton in different growing stages were analyzed by Biolog Metabolic Fingerprinting method. Although there was no significant difference in the number of soil microorganism community between two transgenic cottons, the number of soil bacteria and actinomycetes of transgenic cotton were significantly higher than that of un-transgenic cotton in stages of flowering and boll-forming stages, while the number of soil fungi was significantly lower than un-transgenic cotton. Compared with un-transgenic cotton, transgenic cotton had less effects on the carbon source utilization ability, Shannon functional diversity index, Simpson index and Mclntosh index of soil microbes at sowing, seeding, squaring and boll-opening stages, but increased the carbon source utilization ability, Shannon functional diversity index and Mclntosh index at flowering and boll-forming stage significantly, while its Simpson index was significantly lower in the flowering and squaring stages. The principal component analysis showed that the 31 carbon sources utilized by the transgenic and un-transgenic cottons had significant difference in the flowering stage. In the squaring stages, the transgenic cotton had a higher utilization of car-boxylic acids, amino acids and amines than that in un-transgenic cotton. It also indicated that in the boll-opening stage, the transgenic cotton had a higher utilization of carbohydrates and carboxylic than un-transgenic cotton and the two transgenic cottons had a low utilization of car-bon sources. The result revealed that transgenic Chi+Glu cotton had significant effects on the soil microorganism community in the flowering and boll-forming stages, while

  12. Ecotoxicity of Cadmium to Maize and Soybean Seedling in Black Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Ecotoxicity and bioavailability of cadmium (Cd) to the maize (Zea mays L.) and the soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) were investigated by acute toxicity experiment in the laboratory with black soil. Ecotoxicity and bioavailability of Cd were quantified by calculating the median effective concentration (EC50) and bioaccumulation factor (B4F). The measurement endpoints used were seed germination and seedling growth (shoot and root). The results showed that concentrations of Cd in the soil had adverse effect on the growth of roots and shoots. Seed germination was not the sensitive indicator for the ecotoxicity of Cd in the soil, while the growth of roots was the most sensitive measurement endpoint.Absorbability and transport of Cd in plants depended on the test crop species and Cd concentrations in the soil. The maize retains more Cd in its roots, while the soybean transports more Cd to the shoots from roots.

  13. CHANGES IN BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF ORDINARY BLACK SOILS AT GLEYISATION (MODEL EXPERIMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandashova K. A.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of laboratory modeling of gleyisation and its effect on the biological properties of soils with stagnant regime in ordinary black soils. Gleyisation is a complex biochemical process that occurs under oxygen reduction conditions. Anaerobic microorganisms, the presence of organic substances, and the constant or prolonged waterlogging of individual horizons or the entire soil profile promote gleyisation. Model experiments revealed that gleyisation increase the total number of bacteria and suppresses number of actinomycetes, micromycetes and growth of fungal mycelium. Gleyisation decreases the activity of oxidoreductases and increases the hydrolases activity. In addition, the second content of humus slightly increases and active acidity (pH changes to neutral. Accumulation of large amounts of iron oxide (II in soil is revealed

  14. Spatial Variability of Nutrient Properties in Black Soil of Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xing-Yi; SUI Yue-Yu; ZHANG Xu-Dong; MENG Kai; S.J.HERBERT

    2007-01-01

    A total of 1400 soil samples from the plow layer (0-20 cm) at an approximate interval of 5 km were collected in the autumn of 2002 over the entire black soil arable crops region to determine the spatial variability of seven variables, such as total organic matter content (OMC), total N, total P, total K, alkali-dissolvable N (AN), available P (AP) and available K (AK), with classical statistics and geostatistical analysis across the entire black soil area in Northeast China. In nonsampled areas ordinary kriging was utilized for interpolation of estimated nutrient determinations. Classical statistics revealed highly significant (P ≤ 0.01) correlations with all seven of the soil properties, except for OMC with AP and total K with AK. In addition, using coefficients of variation, all soil properties, except for total K, were moderately variable. A geostatistical analysis indicated that structural factors, such as parent material, terrain, and water table, were the main causes of the spatial correlations. Strong spatial correlations were noted with OMC, total N, total P, AN, and AP, while they were moderate for total K and AK. The effective spatial autocorrelation of OMC, total N, total P, and AN ranged from 1 037 to 1 353 km, whereas the ranges of total K, AP, and AK were only from 6 to 138 km. The fit of the experimental semi-variograms to the theoretical models indicated that except for AN, kriging could successfully interpolate other six variables. Thus, the geostatistical method used on a large scale could accurately evaluate the spatial variability of most black soil nutrient properties in Northeast China.

  15. Effects of Acetochlor and Methamidophos on Fungal Communities in Black Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xin-Yu; ZHANG Hui-Wen; ZHOU Qi-Xing; SU Zhen-Cheng; ZHANG Cheng-Gang

    2005-01-01

    Using plate counting and ergosterol assay, single and joint effects of acetochlor and methamidophos on the dynamics of soil fungal population and total fungal biomass in the black soil zone of Northeast China were investigated. The results demonstrated that acetochlor at high concentration levels (150 and 250 mg kg-1) had an acute and mostly chronic toxicity on both the soil fungal population and total fungal biomass, but at a low concentration (50 mg kg-1) generally had a stimulating effect that was stronger with total fungal biomass than with the soil fungal population. Methamidophos at a high concentration level (250 mg kg-1) alone and almost all of its combinations with various dosages of acetochlor increased the soil fungal population, whereas at most sampling dates with 250 mg methamidophos kg-1 soil, total fungal biomass increased, but in combination with acetochlor it was decreased in the early period of incubation and then increased 28 days after incubation. Thus, through measuring the number of colony forming unit of the soil fungal population along with the total fungal biomass, a better understanding on effects of agrochemicals on soil fungi could be made.

  16. Light Fraction Carbon and Water-Stable Aggregates in Black Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Yi; CHEN Xin; SHEN Shan-Min

    2007-01-01

    The distribution of light fraction carbon (LF-C) in the various size classes of aggregates and its relationship to waterstable aggregates as well as the influence of cultivation on the organic components in virgin and cultivated black soils were studied by wet sieving and density separation methods. The total organic carbon (TOC) and LF-C were significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) in the virgin soils than in the cultivated soils. The LF-C in aggregates of different size classes varied from 0.9 to 2.5 g kg-1 in the cultivated soils and from 2.5 to 7.1 g kg-1 in the virgin soils, whereas the ratio of LF-C to TOC varied from 1.9% to 7.3% and from 5.0% to 12.2%, respectively. After being incubated under constant temperature and controlled humidity for three months, the contribution of LF-C to TOC sharply decreased to an amount (1.7%-8.5%)close to the level in soils that had been cultivated for 20 to 25 years (1.3%-8.8%). As a result, the larger water-stable macro-aggregates (especially > 1 mm) decreased sharply, indicating that the LF-C pool in virgin soils declined quickly after cultivation, which reduced the water stability of soil aggregates.

  17. Using 137Cs Tracer Technique to Evaluate Erosion and Deposition of Black Soil in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Soil and water losses through erosion have been serious in the black soil region of Northeast China. Therefore, a sloping cultivated land in Songnen Plain was selected as a case study to: 1) determine the 137Cs reference inventory in the study area; 2) calculate erosion and deposition rates of black soil on different slope locations; 3) conduct a sensitivity analysis of some model parameters; and 4) compare overall outputs using four different models. Three transects were set in the field with five slope locations for each transect, including summit, shoulder-slope, back-slope, foot-slope, and toe-slope. Field measurements and model simulation were used to estimate a bomb-derived 137Cs reference inventory in the study area.Soil erosion and deposition rates were estimated using four 137Cs models and percentage of 137Cs loss/gain. The 137Cs reference value in the study area was 2 232.8 Bq m-2 with 137Cs showing a clear topographic pattern, decreasing from the summit to shoulder-slope, then increasing again at the foot-slope and reaching a maximum at the toe-slope. Predicted soil redistribution rates for different slope locations varied. Among models, the Yang Model (YANG-M) overestimated erosion loss but underestimated deposition. However, the standard mass balance model (MBM1) gave predictions similar to a mass balance model incorporating soil movement by tillage (MBM2). Sensitivity analysis of the proportion factor γand distribution pattern of 137Cs in the surface layer demonstrated the impact of 137Cs enrichment on calculation of the soil erosion rate. Factors influencing the redistribution of fallout 137Cs in landscape should be fully considered as calculating soil redistribution rate using 137Cs technique.

  18. The Effects of Different Fertilizing Methods on Nitrification and Denitrification in Black Soil in Songnen Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shu-yu; WANG Hong-yan; WANG Xu-mei; QI Zhi-yong

    2004-01-01

    The paper compared the effects of application of farm manure with chemical fertilizers on nitrification and denitrification in black soil, the result showed that the numbers of nitrobacterias and denitrobacterias in farm manure treatment were both higher than that of other treatments. The intensity of denitrification in chemical treatment was higher than that of manure treatment. The content of organic matter in soil was correlated with the intensity of nitrification and denitrification, and the coefficients were respectively 0.9981 and 0.8693.

  19. Erosion effect on the productivity of black soil in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Continuous soil erosion has caused serious land degradation in the black soil area of Northeast China. The primary objective of this study was to determine the effects of accelerated erosion on soil productivity, as measured by soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) yields. Eight erosion levels, 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 cm, were simulated by imitating the integrated process of natural erosion and tillage activity. Each erosion level had two sub-treatments: conventional fertilization and no fertilization. Soil erosion was found to affect survival probability and to cause remarkable reductions in the Leaf Area Index (LAI), plant height, pod number, biomass, and yield. Soybean yield was exponentially decreased with the increase of soil erosion depth. Compared to erosion depth of 0 cm, erosion levels of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 cm experienced reductions in soybean yield by 28.8%, 37.8%, 43.5%, 52.6%, 53.1%, 52.9%, and 64.1% respectively when fertilized whereas the reductions at those levels were 32.6%, 42.2%, 53.0%, 54.0%, 65.8%, 69.7%, and 72.6%, respectively, when unfertilized. At the erosion depths of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 cm, the yield reductions per 10 cm of soil eroded when fertilized were 28.8%, 18.9%, 14.5%, 13.2%, 10.6%, 8.8%, and 9.2%, averaged 14.9%, but when unfertilized they were 32.6%, 21.1%, 17.7%, 13.5%, 13.2%, 11.6%, and 10.4%, averaged 17.1%. The results also showed that chemical fertili zers could enhance the yields of eroded soil, but could not recover the yields to the pre-erosion level. Additionally, the results indicated that the primary reason for the decrease in soybean yield with increasing erosion depth was the loss of soil organic matter, soil N and P. These results may aid in selecting effective soil erosion control strategy, forecasting land degradation, establishing soil erosion tolerance, and evaluating the economic cost of soil erosion in the black soil region in Northeast China.

  20. Erosion effect on the productivity of black soil in Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG ZhiQiang; LIU BaoYuan; WANG XuYan; GAO XiaoFei; LIU Gang

    2009-01-01

    Continuous soil erosion has caused serious land degradation in the black soil area of Northeast China. The primary objective of this study was to determine the effects of accelerated erosion on soil produc- tivity, as measured by soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) yields. Eight erosion levels, 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 cm, were simulated by imitating the integrated process of natural erosion and tillage activity. Each erosion level had two sub-treatments: conventional fertilization and no fertilization. Soil erosion was found to affect survival probability and to cause remarkable reductions in the Leaf Area Index (LAI), plant height, pod number, biomass, and yield. Soybean yield was exponentially decreased with the increase of soil erosion depth. Compared to erosion depth of 0 cm, erosion levels of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 cm experienced reductions in soybean yield by 28.8%, 37.8%, 43.5%, 52.6%, 53.1%, 52.9%, and 64.1% respectively when fertilized whereas the reductions at those levels were 32.6%, 42.2%, 53.0%, 54.0%, 65.8%, 69.7%, and 72.6%, respectively, when unfertilized. At the erosion depths of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 cm, the yield reductions per 10 cm of soil eroded when fertilized were 28.8%, 18.9%, 14.5%, 13.2%, 10.6%, 8.8%, and 9.2%, averaged 14.9%, but when unfertilized they were 32.6%, 21.1%, 17.7%, 13.5%, 13.2%, 11.6%, and 10.4%, averaged 17.1%. The results also showed that chemical fertili- zers could enhance the yields of eroded soil, but could not recover the yields to the pre-erosion level. Additionally, the results indicated that the primary reason for the decrease in soybean yield with in- creasing erosion depth was the loss of soil organic matter, soil N and P. These results may aid in se- lecting effective soil erosion control strategy, forecasting land degradation, establishing soil erosion tolerance, and evaluating the economic cost of soil erosion in the black soil region in Northeast China.

  1. Study on the Balanced Fertilization for Corn in Black Soil Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Regressive models were obtained by employing "311-B" and "3414" optimal regressive desingns through 5-year (1993~1997) field experiment,and by datum processing with computer. These models express the re- lationships between corn yields in high,middle and low yield areas and N,P,and K application rates in black soil. By analysis to the models, the fertilizer application rates for maximum yield and optimal yield were achieved.

  2. Comparing watershed black locust afforestation and natural revegetation impacts on soil nitrogen on the Loess Plateau of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhao; Li, Xiangru; Wang, Yunqiang; Wang, Yi; Wang, Kaibo; Cui, Buli

    2016-04-01

    This study examined a pair of neighbouring small watersheds with contrasting vegetations: artificial forestland and natural grassland. Since 1954, afforestation which mainly planted with black locust has been conducted in one of these watersheds and natural revegetation in the other. The differences in soil total N, nitrate, ammonium, foliar litterfall δ15N and dual stable isotopes of δ15N and δ18O in soil nitrate were investigated in the two ecosystems. Results showed that there was no significant difference in soil total N storage between the two ecosystems, but the black locust forestland presented higher soil nitrate than the grassland. Moreover, the foliar litterfall N content and δ15N of the forestland were significant higher than the grassland. These results indicate that 60 years of watershed black locust afforestation have increased soil N availability. The higher nitrate in the forestland was attributed to the biological N fixation of black locust and difference in ecosystem hydrology. The dual stable isotopes of δ15N and δ18O revealed that the two ecosystems had different sources of soil nitrate. The soil nitrate in the forestland was likely derived from soil N nitrification, while the soil nitrate in the grassland was probably derived from the legacy of NO3‑ fertiliser.

  3. Fisiologia e produtividade do algodoeiro em solo encharcado na fase de plântula Physiology and yield of cotton in flooded soil at the seedling stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gomes de Souza

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available O algodoeiro herbáceo (Gossypium hirsutum L. r. latifolium Hutch. é uma planta considerada sensível à deficiência de oxigênio do solo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a fisiologia e produtividade do algodoeiro cultivar CNPA 7H, em casa de vegetação, submetido à anoxia, por encharcamento do solo, na fase de plântula. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos em blocos ao acaso, com sete períodos de encharcamento e seis repetições. No encharcamento de quatro dias ocorreu uma redução na atividade da invertase de 76,69%, da beta-amilase de 77,37% e da redutase do nitrato de 51,10%. A fotossíntese foi afetada a partir do primeiro dia e alcançou decréscimo de 58,63% no décimo quarto dia de encharcamento; os carboidratos foram acumulando-se nas folhas, caule e raízes. O rendimento de algodão em caroço foi reduzido em 35,76% no décimo dia do estresse anoxítico.Annual cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. r. latifolium Hutch. is known as a sensitive plant to oxygen deficient soil. The purpose of this work was to investigate the physiology and yield of cotton CNPA 7H cultivar, grown under greenhouse conditions and exposed to oxygen shortage, by soil flooding, at seedling stage. Two experiments were carried out and the experimental design was a randomized complete block with seven flooding periods and six replications. At the fourth day of flooding regime a decrease of 76.69% invertase activity, 77.37% of beta-amilase, and 51.10% of nitrate reductase was observed. The photosynthesis activity was affected from the first day, being reduced to 58.63% in the fourteenth day of flooding; the carbohydrates were accumulated on leaves, stem and roots. Cotton yield was reduced to 35.76% at the tenth day of flooding stress.

  4. Hydraulic management of a soil moisture controlled SDI wastewater dispersal system in an Alabama Black Belt soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiajie; Dougherty, Mark; Shaw, Joey; Fulton, John; Arriaga, Francisco

    2011-10-01

    Rural areas represent approximately 95% of the 14000 km(2) Alabama Black Belt, an area of widespread Vertisols dominated by clayey, smectitic, shrink-swell soils. These soils are unsuitable for conventional onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) which are nevertheless widely used in this region. In order to provide an alternative wastewater dosing system, an experimental field moisture controlled subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) system was designed and installed as a field trial. The experimental system that integrates a seasonal cropping system was evaluated for two years on a 500-m(2) Houston clay site in west central Alabama from August 2006 to June 2008. The SDI system was designed to start hydraulic dosing only when field moisture was below field capacity. Hydraulic dosing rates fluctuated as expected with higher dosing rates during warm seasons with near zero or zero dosing rates during cold seasons. Lower hydraulic dosing in winter creates the need for at least a two-month waste storage structure which is an insurmountable challenge for rural homeowners. An estimated 30% of dosed water percolated below 45-cm depth during the first summer which included a 30-year historic drought. This massive volume of percolation was presumably the result of preferential flow stimulated by dry weather clay soil cracking. Although water percolation is necessary for OWTS, this massive water percolation loss indicated that this experimental system is not able to effective control soil moisture within its monitoring zone as designed. Overall findings of this study indicated that soil moisture controlled SDI wastewater dosing is not suitable as a standalone system in these Vertisols. However, the experimental soil moisture control system functioned as designed, demonstrating that soil moisture controlled SDI wastewater dosing may find application as a supplement to other wastewater disposal methods that can function during cold seasons. PMID:21621905

  5. Community Composition and Structure of Soil Macro-Arthropods Under Agricultural Land Uses in the Black Soil Region of Jilin Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Dong-hui; ZHANG Bai; CHEN Peng

    2006-01-01

    Soil macro-arthropods in the black soil region in Jilin Province of China were investigated with the emphasis laid on the species richness and abundance in relation to the types of land-use, i.e., farm yard, farm land and Three-North Forest Shelter Belt. Soil macro-arthropods were hand-sorted in the field. A total of 2 357 soil macro-arthropod individuals was captured and fell into 70 families. The results suggested that type of land use affected the species richness and abundance of soil macro-arthropods. Agricultural practices had a strong impact on the soil macro-arthropods community, the conventional cultivations changed the vertical structure of macro-arthropods in the soil profile, and improved the richness and abundance of macro-arthropods in the lower soil layers especially in July. The results also showed that different groups of soil macro-arthropods had various responses to land use changes.

  6. INFLUENCE OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE AGENTS ON A STRUCTURAL STATE AND THE ENZYMATIC ACTIVITY OF BLACK ORDINARY CARBONATED SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lychman V. A.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The results of a long-term research of the influence of various biologically active agents (a humic preparation Lignogumat and microbiological Baikal EM fertilizer on a structural state and the enzymatic activity of ordinary carbonated black soil are presented. It has been established that biologically active substances contribute to increased enzymatic activity, humus and improve the soil structure

  7. Black carbon quantification in charcoal-enriched soils by differential scanning calorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Brieuc; Cornelis, Jean-Thomas; Leifeld, Jens

    2015-04-01

    Black carbon (BC), the solid residue of the incomplete combustion of biomass and fossil fuels, is ubiquitous in soil and sediments, fulfilling several environmental services such as long-term carbon storage. BC is a particularly important terrestrial carbon pool due to its large residence time compared to thermally unaltered organic matter, which is largely attributed to its aromatic structure. However, BC refers to a wide range of pyrogenic products from partly charred biomass to highly condensed soot, with a degree of aromaticity and aromatic condensation varying to a large extend across the BC continuum. As a result, BC quantification largely depends on operational definitions, with the extraction efficiency of each method varying across the entire BC range. In our study, we investigated the adequacy of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) for the quantification of BC in charcoal-enriched soils collected in the topsoil of pre-industrial charcoal kilns in forest and cropland of Wallonia, Belgium, where charcoal residues are mixed to uncharred soil organic matter (SOM). We compared the results to the fraction of the total organic carbon (TOC) resisting to K2Cr2O7 oxidation, another simple method often used for BC measurement. In our soils, DSC clearly discriminates SOM from chars. SOM is less thermally stable than charcoal and shows a peak maximum around 295°C. In forest and agricultural charcoal-enriched soils, three peaks were attributed to the thermal degradation of BC at 395, 458 and 523°C and 367, 420 and 502 °C, respectively. In cropland, the amount of BC calculated from the DSC peaks is closely related (slope of the linear regression = 0.985, R²=0.914) to the extra organic carbon content measured at charcoal kiln sites relative to the charcoal-unaffected adjacent soils, which is a positive indicator of the suitability of DSC for charcoal quantification in soil. The first BC peak, which may correspond to highly degraded charcoal, contributes to a

  8. Distinguishing black carbon from biogenic humic substances in soil clay fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, D.A.; Chappell, M.A.; Martens, D.A.; Wershaw, R. L.; Thompson, M.

    2008-01-01

    Most models of soil humic substances include a substantial component of aromatic C either as the backbone of humic heteropolymers or as a significant component of supramolecular aggregates of degraded biopolymers. We physically separated coarse (0.2-2.0????m e.s.d.), medium (0.02-0.2????m e.s.d.), and fine (> 0.02????m e.s.d.) clay subfractions from three Midwestern soils and characterized the organic material associated with these subfractions using 13C-CPMAS-NMR, DTG, SEM-EDX, incubations, and radiocarbon age. Most of the C in the coarse clay subfraction was present as discrete particles (0.2-5????m as seen in SEM images) of black carbon (BC) and consisted of approximately 60% aromatic C, with the remainder being a mixture of aliphatic, anomeric and carboxylic C. We hypothesize that BC particles were originally charcoal formed during prairie fires. As the BC particles aged in soil their surfaces were oxidized to form carboxylic groups and anomeric and aliphatic C accumulated in the BC particles either by adsorption of dissolved biogenic compounds from the soil solution or by direct deposition of biogenic materials from microbes living within the BC particles. The biogenic soil organic matter was physically separated with the medium and fine clay subfractions and was dominated by aliphatic, anomeric, and carboxylic C. The results indicate that the biogenic humic materials in our soils have little aromatic C, which is inconsistent with the traditional heteropolymer model of humic substances.

  9. Biochemical changes in black oat (avena strigosa schreb) cultivated in vineyard soils contaminated with copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotto, Eduardo; Ceretta, Carlos A; Rossato, Liana V; Farias, Julia G; Brunetto, Gustavo; Miotto, Alcione; Tiecher, Tadeu L; de Conti, Lessandro; Lourenzi, Cledimar R; Schmatz, Roberta; Giachini, Admir; Nicoloso, Fernando T

    2016-06-01

    Soils used for the cultivation of grapes generally have a long history of copper (Cu) based fungicide applications. As a result, these soils can accumulate Cu at levels that are capable of causing toxicity in plants that co-inhabit the vineyards. The aim of the present study was to evaluate growth parameters and oxidative stress in black oat plants grown in vineyard soils contaminated with high levels of Cu. Soil samples were collected from the Serra Gaúcha and Campanha Gaúcha regions, which are the main wine producing regions in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, in southern Brazil. Experiments were conducted in a greenhouse in 2009, with soils containing Cu concentrations from 2.2 to 328.7 mg kg(-1). Evaluated parameters included plant root and shoot dry matter, Cu concentration in the plant's tissues, and enzymatic and non-enzymatic biochemical parameters related to oxidative stress in the shoots of plants harvested 15 and 40 days after emergence. The Cu absorbed by plants predominantly accumulated in the roots, with little to no translocation to the shoots. Even so, oat plants showed symptoms of toxicity when grown in soils containing high Cu concentrations. The enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems of oat plants were unable to reverse the imposed oxidative stress conditions.

  10. Biochemical changes in black oat (avena strigosa schreb) cultivated in vineyard soils contaminated with copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotto, Eduardo; Ceretta, Carlos A; Rossato, Liana V; Farias, Julia G; Brunetto, Gustavo; Miotto, Alcione; Tiecher, Tadeu L; de Conti, Lessandro; Lourenzi, Cledimar R; Schmatz, Roberta; Giachini, Admir; Nicoloso, Fernando T

    2016-06-01

    Soils used for the cultivation of grapes generally have a long history of copper (Cu) based fungicide applications. As a result, these soils can accumulate Cu at levels that are capable of causing toxicity in plants that co-inhabit the vineyards. The aim of the present study was to evaluate growth parameters and oxidative stress in black oat plants grown in vineyard soils contaminated with high levels of Cu. Soil samples were collected from the Serra Gaúcha and Campanha Gaúcha regions, which are the main wine producing regions in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, in southern Brazil. Experiments were conducted in a greenhouse in 2009, with soils containing Cu concentrations from 2.2 to 328.7 mg kg(-1). Evaluated parameters included plant root and shoot dry matter, Cu concentration in the plant's tissues, and enzymatic and non-enzymatic biochemical parameters related to oxidative stress in the shoots of plants harvested 15 and 40 days after emergence. The Cu absorbed by plants predominantly accumulated in the roots, with little to no translocation to the shoots. Even so, oat plants showed symptoms of toxicity when grown in soils containing high Cu concentrations. The enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems of oat plants were unable to reverse the imposed oxidative stress conditions. PMID:27002244

  11. Response of soil nematode communities to long-term application of inorganic fertilizers in the black soil of Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoke ZHANG; Yong JIANG; Lei LIANG; Xiaofan ZHAO; Qi LI

    2009-01-01

    The effects of inorganic fertilizers on soil nematode communities were studied in a long-term fertilization experimental field in the Black Soil Region of Northeast China,where no fertilizer (CK),N fertilizer (N),combined application of N and P (NP),combined application of N and K (NK),and combined application of N,P and K (NPK) were compared.The results showed that the total nematode abundance was not affected significantly by inorganic fertilizers in the long-term field experiment.The numbers of bacterivores increased significantly in the NP treatment compared to the CK treatment,and those of fungivores and plant-parasites were inhibited in the NPK treatment.The similarity between CK and NPK treatment and the nematode diversity were higher than in other treatments.The stability of the soil ecosystem was disturbed by the inorganic fertilizers,as indicated by the change in MI values under different treatments.The response of soil nematodes mainly depended on the types of inorganic fertilizers applied.

  12. [Response of black soil organic carbon, nitrogen and its availability to longterm fertilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Kun; Hu, Rong-Gui; Zhang, Wen-Ju; Zhou, Bao-Ku; Xu, Ming-Gang; Zhang, Jing-Ye; Xia, Ping-Ping

    2013-02-01

    Based on the long-term fertilization experiments, effects of various fertilization practices on the soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) in the surface (0-20 cm) and subsurface (20-40 cm) black soil in northeast China were studied. Results showed that, compared with the CK, long-term application of organic manure, especially the combination of mineral fertilizers and organic manure significantly increased the organic SOC and TN in the surface soil. Application of mineral fertilizers plus organic manure with conventional (NPM) and high application (N2P2M2) rate increased SOC significantly by 24. 6% and 25.1% , and TN by 29.5% and 32.8%, respectively. However, there was no significant difference among the treatments for SOC and TN at the subsurface. Compared with the CK (CKh), mineral fertilizer plus organic manure (NPM and N2P2M2) did not only increase the soil microbial biomass carbon (SMBC) and nitrogen (SMBN) , dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DN), but also significantly increased the ratio of SMBC and DOC to SOC, SMBN and TN to TN. Application of the NPM and N2P2M2 increased the value of SMBC/SOC by 0.36 to 0.59 and SMBN/TN by 1.21 to 1.95 percentage points, respectively. The value of DOC/SOC and DN/TN ranged from 0.53% to 0.72% and 1.41% to 1.78%, respectively. This result indicated that SMBC, SMBN, DOC, DN and SMBC/ SOC, SMBN/TN, DOC/SOC, DN/TN were more sensitive than SOC and TN to long-term fertilization in the soil profile, and were better indicators for the impact of long-term fertilization soil fertility. The concluded that the application of manure especially manure plus mineral fertilizers can increase soil nutrients activity in the surface and subsurface black soil, acting as a helpful practice to improve soil fertility and the ability of nutrient supply, while it may cause potential environment pollution on carbon and nitrogen loss in the agroecosystem.

  13. 非抗虫转基因棉花对土壤细菌群落多样性的影响%Effects of Insect Non-resistant Transgenic Cottons on Bacterial Community Diversity in Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵云丽; 李刚; 修伟明; 多立安; 曹璇; 雒珺瑜; 崔金杰; 杨殿林; 赵建宁

    2015-01-01

    There are increasing public concerns over the ecological risks of transgenic plants. Under field conditions, the diversity and com-position of bacterial community in soils grown with three insect non-resistant transgenic cottons(high-yield transgenic cotton expressing the RNA recognition motif 2 gene, disease-resistant transgenic cotton expressing the gastrodia antifungal protein and high-quality transgenic cotton expressing the [1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate(ACC)oxidase])and one conventional cotton CCRI 12(as control)were evalu-ated at the boll-opening stage by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis(DGGE). The results showed that planting three transgenic cottons did not show significant effects on Shannon-wiener index(H), evenness(EH)and richness(S)of soil bacteria. High degree of similarity in community structure was observed between transgenic and conventional cottons, indicating no influence of transgenic cottons on bacterial community diversity in the short term. High-yield RRM2 transgenic cotton, disease-resistant GAFP transgenic cotton, high-quality ACO2 transgenic cotton and conventional cotton had 67%similarity in community levels and were thus regarded as one group. According to the se-quence analysis of DGGE dominant bands, microorganisms which presented the highest homology belonged to families of Flavobacteria, Bacteriovorax, Segetibacter, alpha proteobacterium, Geobacte, Paenisporosarcina, and Acidobacterium, respectively, and all of them were not cultivatable.%田间试验条件下,为了探究非抗虫转基因棉花对土壤细菌群落多样性的影响,应用PCR-DGGE技术对转RRM2基因高产棉、转GAFP基因抗病棉、转ACO2基因优质棉及非转基因常规棉(中棉所12)种植后在吐絮期的土壤细菌群落多样性进行分析。结果表明,与常规棉相比,3种转基因棉的种植均未对土壤细菌香农-威纳指数(H)、均匀度(EH)和丰富度(S)造成显著影

  14. Decomposition of soil organic matter from boreal black spruce forest: Environmental and chemical controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickland, K.P.; Neff, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    Black spruce forests are a dominant covertype in the boreal forest region, and they inhabit landscapes that span a wide range of hydrologic and thermal conditions. These forests often have large stores of soil organic carbon. Recent increases in temperature at northern latitudes may be stimulating decomposition rates of this soil carbon. It is unclear, however, how changes in environmental conditions influence decomposition in these systems, and if substrate controls of decomposition vary with hydrologic and thermal regime. We addressed these issues by investigating the effects of temperature, moisture, and organic matter chemical characteristics on decomposition of fibric soil horizons from three black spruce forest sites. The sites varied in drainage and permafrost, and included a "Well Drained" site where permafrost was absent, and "Moderately well Drained" and "Poorly Drained" sites where permafrost was present at about 0.5 m depth. Samples collected from each site were incubated at five different moisture contents (2, 25, 50, 75, and 100% saturation) and two different temperatures (10??C and 20??C) in a full factorial design for two months. Organic matter chemistry was analyzed using pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry prior to incubation, and after incubation on soils held at 20??C, 50% saturation. Mean cumulative mineralization, normalized to initial carbon content, ranged from 0.2% to 4.7%, and was dependent on temperature, moisture, and site. The effect of temperature on mineralization was significantly influenced by moisture content, as mineralization was greatest at 20??C and 50-75% saturation. While the relative effects of temperature and moisture were similar for all soils, mineralization rates were significantly greater for samples from the "Well Drained" site compared to the other sites. Variations in the relative abundances of polysaccharide-derivatives and compounds of undetermined source (such as toluene, phenol, 4-methyl phenol, and

  15. Spatial variability of soil properties and cotton yield in the Brazilian Cerrado Variabilidade espacial de propriedades do solo e produtividade do algodoeiro no cerrado brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamari V. A Motomiya

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed at assessing the spatial variability and relationships between factors that affect cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. yield. Plant and soil data were collected by a 90 ha area divided in a regular grid of 100 m. In order to detect the variation at small scale, more intense samplings were made with spacing of 33 m, resulting in 5 "clusters" and totalizing 170 samples. Data were submitted to descriptive statistical analysis, geostatistic and interpolation through ordinary kriging. Variability expressed by the coefficient of variation was from low to moderate for all the variables except for retained bolls and soil P content. Geostatistical analysis indicated that most cotton yield factors presented spatial dependence and this should be considered when defining sampling schemes for soil and crop management practices.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a magnitude da variabilidade espacial e as relações de causa e efeito entre os fatores de produção da cultura do algodoeiro (Gossypium hirsutum L.. Dados de planta e de solo foram coletados em uma área de 90 ha dividida em malha com espaçamento regular de 100 m entre pontos. Para detectar a variação na pequena escala, amostragens mais intensas foram feitas com espaçamento de 33 m, formando 5 "ilhas", constituindo o total de 170 amostras. Os dados foram submetidos às análises estatísticas descritivas, geoestatística e interpolação, através de krigagem ordinária. A variabilidade, expressa pelo coeficiente de variação, foi baixa a moderada, para todas as variáveis analisadas, com exceção de maçãs retidas e P no solo. Os resultados da análise geoestatística indicaram que os fatores de produção da cultura do algodoeiro apresentam, em sua maioria, dependência espacial a qual deve ser considerada quando da definição de esquemas de amostragem e práticas de manejo do solo e da cultura.

  16. Contribution of root respiration to soil surface CO2 flux in a boreal black spruce chronosequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Wang, Chuankuan; Gower, Stith T

    2004-12-01

    We quantified the contributions of root respiration (RC) and heterotrophic respiration to soil surface CO2 flux (RS) by comparing trenched and untrenched plots in well-drained and poorly drained stands of a black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP) fire chronosequence in northern Manitoba, Canada. Our objectives were to: (1) test different equations for modeling RS as a function of soil temperature; and (2) model annual RS and RC for the chronosequence from continuous soil temperature measurements. The choice of equation to model RS strongly affected annual RS and RC, with an Arrhenius-based model giving the best fit to the data, especially at low temperatures. Modeled values of annual RS were positively correlated with soil temperature at 2-cm depth and were affected by year of burn and trenching, but not by soil drainage. During the growing season, measured RC was low in May, peaked in late July and declined to low values by the end of the growing season. Annual RC was < 5% of RS in the recently burned stands, approximately 40% in the 21-year-old stands and 5-15% in the oldest (152-year-old) stands. Evidence suggests that RC may have been underestimated in the oldest stands, with residual root decay from trenching accounting for 5-10% of trenched plot RS at most sites. PMID:15465701

  17. Homogeneous Cotton solitons

    OpenAIRE

    Calviño-Louzao, E.; Hervella, L. M.; Seoane-Bascoy, J.; Vázquez-Lorenzo, R.

    2013-01-01

    Left-invariant Cotton solitons on homogeneous manifolds are determined. Moreover, algebraic Cotton solitons are studied providing examples of non-invariant Cotton solitons, both in the Riemannian and Lorentzian homogeneous settings.

  18. Distribution of black carbon in ponderosa pine forest floor and soils following the High Park wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boot, C. M.; Haddix, M.; Paustian, K.; Cotrufo, M. F.

    2015-05-01

    Biomass burning produces black carbon (BC), effectively transferring a fraction of the biomass C from an actively cycling pool to a passive C pool, which may be stored in the soil. Yet the timescales and mechanisms for incorporation of BC into the soil profile are not well understood. The High Park fire (HPF), which occurred in northwestern Colorado in the summer of 2012, provided an opportunity to study the effects of both fire severity and geomorphology on properties of carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and BC in the Cache La Poudre River drainage. We sampled montane ponderosa pine forest floor (litter plus O-horizon) and soils at 0-5 and 5-15 cm depth 4 months post-fire in order to examine the effects of slope and burn severity on %C, C stocks, %N and BC. We used the benzene polycarboxylic acid (BPCA) method for quantifying BC. With regard to slope, we found that steeper slopes had higher C : N than shallow slopes but that there was no difference in BPCA-C content or stocks. BC content was greatest in the forest floor at burned sites (19 g BPCA-C kg-1 C), while BC stocks were greatest in the 5-15 cm subsurface soils (23 g BPCA-C m-2). At the time of sampling, unburned and burned soils had equivalent BC content, indicating none of the BC deposited on the land surface post-fire had been incorporated into either the 0-5 or 5-15 cm soil layers. The ratio of B6CA : total BPCAs, an index of the degree of aromatic C condensation, suggested that BC in the 5-15 cm soil layer may have been formed at higher temperatures or experienced selective degradation relative to the forest floor and 0-5 cm soils. Total BC soil stocks were relatively low compared to other fire-prone grassland and boreal forest systems, indicating most of the BC produced in this system is likely lost, either through erosion events, degradation or translocation to deeper soils. Future work examining mechanisms for BC losses from forest soils will be required for understanding the role BC plays in the global

  19. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Genes Involved in Cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.) Response to Verticillium dahliae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Li; ZHANG Xian-long; ZHU Long-fu; TU Li-li

    2008-01-01

    @@ Verticillium dahliae Kleb.is a necrotrophic plant pathogen which causes serious soil borne vascular disease in cotton.The molecular basis the defense response of cotton to this pathogen is poorly understood.

  20. Flutuação populacional de Rotylenchulus reniformis em solo cultivado com algodoeiro Population fluctuation of Rotylenchulus reniformis in soil cultivated with cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Lafourcade Asmus

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a flutuação populacional de nematoide reniforme (Rotylenchulus reniformis em solo cultivado com algodoeiro, em função de variáveis edafoclimáticas. Em uma área naturalmente infestada - com média de 680 nematoides por 200 cm³ de solo, em Aral Moreira, MS - foi estabelecida uma grade de amostragem com 30 pontos, equidistantes em 50 m. No período de outubro de 2004 a junho de 2006, amostras de solo (0,0-0,2 m e 0,2-0,4 m foram coletadas mensalmente, para avaliação da abundância e composição dos diferentes estágios da população do nematoide. Foram também mensuradas a precipitação, a temperatura e a umidade do solo a 0,15 e 0,30 m. Foi possível observar que a densidade e a composição populacional de R. reniformis são influenciadas pela presença de plantas de algodoeiro. Maior abundância desse nematoide foi encontrada à profundidade de 0,2-0,4 m. A precipitação e a umidade do solo pouco influenciaram a população de R. reniformis. A temperatura do solo, a 0,15 e 0,30 m de profundidade, correlaciona-se com a população de R. reniformis a 0,2-0,4 m de profundidade.The objective of this work was to determine the population fluctuation of reniform nematodes (Rotylenchulus reniformis in a cotton production area as affected by soil and climate conditions. A grid of 30 sampling sites, equidistant in 50 m from each other, was established in a field naturally infested - with an average of 680 reniform nematodes per 200 cm³ soil, in Aral Moreira county, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Soil samples at 0.0-0.2 and 0.2-0.4 m depths were collected monthly on each sampling site, between October 2004 and June 2006, for the evaluation of nematode abundance and population composition. Measurements of soil temperature and moisture at 0.15 and 0.30 m depth and rainfall were made in each sampling site. It was observed that cotton plants play important roles in the abundance and composition of reniform

  1. Effect of Cultivation on Spatial Distribution of Nematode Trophic Groups in Black Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG WENJU; LI QI; JIANG YONG; CHEN WENBO; WEN DAZHONG

    2003-01-01

    Geostatistics combined with GIS was applied to assess the spatial distribution of nematode trophic groups following two contrasting soil uses in the black soil region of Northeast China. Two plots, one with fallow for 12 years and the other cultivated, were marked on regular square grids with 2-m spacing. Soil samples were collected from each sampling point, nematodes were extracted from these samples and classified into four trophic groups: bacterivores, fungivores, plant parasites, and omnivores/predators. The numbers of total nematodes and trophic groups analyzed had normal distributions on both fallow and cultivated plots. The absolute abundances of total nematodes and trophic groups were observed to be much more homogeneous on cultivated plot than on fallow one. Geostatistical analysis showed that the densities of total nematodes and trophic groups on both fallow and cultivated plots exhibited spatial dependence at the sampled scale and their experimental semivariograms were adjusted to a spherical or exponential model, except those of bacterivores and fungivores on cultivated plot. The spatial distribution of nematode trophic groups was found to be different for the two land uses, indicating that cultivation changed the native condition for soil nematode activities.

  2. Black carbon in soils and sediments: Analysis, distribution, implications, and current challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Michael W. I.; Noack, Angela G.

    2000-09-01

    This review highlights the ubiquity of black carbon (BC) produced by incomplete combustion of plant material and fossil fuels in peats, soils, and lacustrine and marine sediments. We examine various definitions and analytical approaches and seek to provide a common language. BC represents a continuum from partly charred material to graphite and soot particles, with no general agreement on clear-cut boundaries. Formation of BC can occur in two fundamentally different ways. Volatiles recondense to highly graphitized soot-BC, whereas the solid residues form char-BC. Both forms of BC are relatively inert and are distributed globally by water and wind via fluvial and atmospheric transport. We summarize, chronologically, the ubiquity of BC in soils and sediments since Devonian times, differentiating between BC from vegetation fires and from fossil fuel combustion. BC has important implications for various biological, geochemical and environmental processes. As examples, BC may represent a significant sink in the global carbon cycle, affect the Earth's radiative heat balance, be a useful tracer for Earth's fire history, build up a significant fraction of carbon buried in soils and sediments, and carry organic pollutants. On land, BC seems to be abundant in dark-colored soils, affected by frequent vegetation burning and fossil fuel combustion, thus probably contributing to the highly stable aromatic components of soil organic matter. We discuss challenges for future research. Despite the great importance of BC, only limited progress has been made in calibrating analytical techniques. Progress in the quantification of BC is likely to come from systematic intercomparison using BCs from different sources and in different natural matrices. BC identification could benefit from isotopic and spectroscopic techniques applied at the bulk and molecular levels. The key to estimating BC stocks in soils and sediments is an understanding of the processes involved in BC degradation on a

  3. Priming effects in boreal black spruce forest soils: quantitative evaluation and sensitivity analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaosheng Fan

    Full Text Available Laboratory studies show that introduction of fresh and easily decomposable organic carbon (OC into soil-water systems can stimulate the decomposition of soil OC (SOC via priming effects in temperate forests, shrublands, grasslands, and agro-ecosystems. However, priming effects are still not well understood in the field setting for temperate ecosystems and virtually nothing is known about priming effects (e.g., existence, frequency, and magnitude in boreal ecosystems. In this study, a coupled dissolved OC (DOC transport and microbial biomass dynamics model was developed to simultaneously simulate co-occurring hydrological, physical, and biological processes and their interactions in soil pore-water systems. The developed model was then used to examine the importance of priming effects in two black spruce forest soils, with and without underlying permafrost. Our simulations showed that priming effects were strongly controlled by the frequency and intensity of DOC input, with greater priming effects associated with greater DOC inputs. Sensitivity analyses indicated that priming effects were most sensitive to variations in the quality of SOC, followed by variations in microbial biomass dynamics (i.e., microbial death and maintenance respiration, highlighting the urgent need to better discern these key parameters in future experiments and to consider these dynamics in existing ecosystem models. Water movement carries DOC to deep soil layers that have high SOC stocks in boreal soils. Thus, greater priming effects were predicted for the site with favorable water movement than for the site with limited water flow, suggesting that priming effects might be accelerated for sites where permafrost degradation leads to the formation of dry thermokarst.

  4. Soil biodiversity in artificial black pine stands after selective silvicultural treatments: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocali, Stefano; Fabiani, Arturo; Butti, Fabrizio; De Meo, Isabella; Bianchetto, Elisa; Landi, Silvia; Montini, Piergiuseppe; Samaden, Stefano; Cantiani, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    The decay of forest cover and soil erosion is a consequence of continual intensive forest exploitation, such as grazing and wildfires over the centuries. From the end of the eighteenth century up to the mid-1900s, black pine plantations were established throughout the Apennines' range in Italy, to improve forest soil quality. The main aim of this reafforestation was to re-establish the pine as a first cover, pioneer species. A series of thinning activities were therefore planned by foresters when these plantations were designed. The project Selpibiolife (LIFE13 BIO/IT/000282) has the main objective to demonstrate the potential of an innovative silvicultural treatment to enhance soil biodiversity under black pine stands. The monitoring will be carried out by comparing selective and traditional thinning methods (selecting trees from below leaving well-spaced, highest-quality trees) to areas without any silvicultural treatments (e.g. weeding, cleaning, liberation cutting). The monitoring survey was carried out in Pratomagno and Amiata Val D'Orcia areas on the Appennines (Italy) and involved different biotic levels: microorganisms, mesofauna, nematodes and macrofauna (Coleoptera). The results displayed a significant difference between the overall biodiversity of the two areas. In particular, microbial diversity assessed by both biochemical (microbial biomass, microbial respiration, metabolic quotient) and molecular (PCR-DGGE) approaches highlighted different a composition and activity of microbial communities within the two areas before thinning. Furthermore, little but significant differences were observed for mesofauna and nematode community as well which displayed a higher diversity level in Amiata areas compared to Pratomagno. In contrast, Coleoptera showed higher richness values in Pratomagno, where the wood degrader Nebria tibialis specie dominated, compared to Amiata. As expected, a general degraded biodiversity was observed in both areas before thinning.

  5. Effects of winter irrigation and soil surface mulching during freezing-thawing period on soil water-heat-salt for cotton fields in south Xinjiang%冻融期灌水和覆盖对南疆棉田水热盐的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚宝林; 李光永; 王峰

    2016-01-01

    Scarce water resources and soil salinity are important limiting factors for agricultural production and environmental melioration in extremely drought area and fragile ecological environment of Tarim Basin in southern Xinjiang. The under-film drip irrigation has gained universal applications as an efficient and economically viable irrigation method for increasing water use efficiency and reducing the adverse effects of cotton growth. But for winter and spring irrigation quotas are relatively high and cause groundwater level to rise, after freezing-thawing in winter, salinization occurs on soil surface and it is harmful to the growth and development of cotton seedlings. Soil surface mulching can effectively reduce soil water loss and soil salt accumulation in winter fallow periods, reduce winter and spring irrigation quota, and achieve the purpose of water saving and salinity controlling. To explore the freezing-thawing characteristics in drip irrigation cotton fields under different soil surface mulching and winter irrigation quotas, field experiments were carried out, which included 3 soil surface mulching methods: bare fields (cotton stubble and plastic film were removed before winter irrigation), high stubble fields (cotton stubble and plastic film remained in fields before winter irrigation), corn straw mulching fields (cotton stubble, plastic film remained in fields and mulched corn residue had the length of about 5-10 cm length and the thickness of 5 cm, 400 kg/hm2), and 2 winter irrigation quotas: winter irrigation 200 mm quota and no winter irrigation.Theexperiment was composed of 6 treatments: winter irrigation with bare land (WIB), winter irrigation with high cotton stubble (WICS), winter irrigation with corn straw mulching (WICM), no winter irrigation with bare land (NWIB), no winter irrigation with high cotton stubble (NWICS), and no winter irrigation with corn straw mulching (NWICM). The soil temperatures in 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 60, 80 and 100 cm

  6. 棉型织物的三防和易去污整理%Water-, oil-, stain proofing and soil release finish of cotton fabric

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨俊文

    2012-01-01

    前处理、染色和后整理等工艺处理对棉型织物的三防和易去污整理效果都有影响.试验结果表明,为保证氟化物三防和易去污双效整理的效果,前处理时要将织物上的各种杂质去除干净,以保证毛效合格;染色后布面pH值保持在5~7,整理工作液中不能添加与三防和易去污功效机理相反的助剂.%The finishing results of water-, oil- and stain- proof and soil release finish of cotton fabric are affected by pretreat-ment, dyeing and finishing processes. The results show that in order to ensure the finishing results, impurities should be removed completely to obtain good capillary effect, the pH value of fabric surface should be controlled at 5 ~7 after dyeing, and auxiliaries that have reversed behaviors should not be added into the finishing liquor.

  7. Soil acid phosphomonoesterase activity and phosphorus forms in ancient and post-agricultural black alder [Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.] woodlands

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Orczewska; Anna Piotrowska; Joanna Lemanowicz

    2012-01-01

    Black alder, an N-fixing tree is considered to accelerate the availability of phosphorus in soils due to the increased production of phosphatase enzymes, which are responsible for the P release from the litter. Acid phosphatase activity plays a pivotal role in organic P mineralization in forest soils and in making P available to plants. In order to check whether Alnus glutinosa stimulates acid phosphomonoesterase (PHACID) activity, we compared enzyme activities, total P concentration (PTOT), ...

  8. EFFECT OF POLLUTION OF ORDINARY BLACK SOIL WITH LEAD AND OIL ON THE NUMBER AND COMPOSITION OF MICROARTHROPODS

    OpenAIRE

    Kolesnikov S. I.; Samohvalova L. S.; Zharkova M. G.; Kazeev K. S.

    2013-01-01

    The number of microarthropods in the black soil de-creased with an increase in the number of oil. The same pattern was observed until a certain concentra-tion of lead in soil (von 250 mg / kg), after which high doses (500 and 1000 mg / kg) was recorded an in-crease in the number of microarthropods. Gamasid mites and ticks of akaroid-trombidiform complex have proven more resistant to lead, and armored mites and springtails - to oil, vise versa

  9. Comparison between measurements of black carbon, charcoal and associated nutrients in western Amazonan soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, A. R.; McMichael, C.; Hanlon, C.; Bush, M. B.

    2011-12-01

    To construct fire and climate history and human occupation records from soils and lake sediment profiles, climatologists and anthropologists have traditionally measured charcoal abundances by microscopic image analysis. In contrast, geochemists have developed methods of black carbon (BC) quantification using chemical extraction. We compared charcoal (>0.5 mm particle size) versus BC (measured via the CTO-340 method of Kuhlbusch, 1995) in multiple soil profiles from four western Amazon regions with evidence of pre-Columbian occupation. A secondary goal of this project was to understand the relative influence of climate and humans in the fire and ecological history of the Amazon. BC concentration in soils of the Amazon varied widely from an average of 0.5 mg g 1 in cores around Lake Gentry (southeastern Peru) to 5.5 mg g 1 around Lake Ayauchi (southeastern Ecuador), corresponding to the evidence of greater land use around the latter. Surprising, BC concentrations in habitation horizon soils at Quistococha, near Iquitos, Peru were similar to Lake Gentry, averaging about 0.6 mg g 1. However, BC as a percent of soil organic carbon (SOC) was much more uniform with an average of 12.0, 13.3, 14.6, and 13.0% in Quistococha, Gentry, Ayauchi, and Los Amigos (central-eastern Peru) soils, respectively, suggesting that the same processes that concentrate SOC also concentrate BC. BC may act to protect SOC via sorption or produce SOC via microbial community enhancement. These findings also show that BC is not regionally enriched as it might be were climate to be a predominant factor in BC production, and seem to track land use more closely. Charcoal and BC concentrations were linearly correlated in only about half the soil profiles and neither BC nor charcoal were consistently correlated with chemical anthropogenic indicators such as P or Ca within soil profiles or specific regions. However, there was a statistical covariance between each of these parameters suggesting that each

  10. The role of soil drainage class in carbon dioxide exchange and decomposition in boreal black spruce (Picea mariana) forest stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickland, K.P.; Neff, J.C.; Harden, J.W.

    2010-01-01

    Black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) forest stands range from well drained to poorly drained, typically contain large amounts of soil organic carbon (SOC), and are often underlain by permafrost. To better understand the role of soil drainage class in carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange and decomposition, we measured soil respiration and net CO2 fluxes, litter decomposition and litterfall rates, and SOC stocks above permafrost in three Alaska black spruce forest stands characterized as well drained (WD), moderately drained (MD), and poorly drained (PD). Soil respiration and net CO2 fluxes were not significantly different among sites, although the relation between soil respiration rate and temperature varied with site (Qw: WD > MD > PD). Annual estimated soil respiration, litter decomposition, and groundcover photosynthesis were greatest at PD. These results suggest that soil temperature and moisture conditions in shallow organic horizon soils at PD were more favorable for decomposition compared with the better drained sites. SOC stocks, however, increase from WD to MD to PD such that surface decomposition and C storage are diametric. Greater groundcover vegetation productivity, protection of deep SOC by permafrost and anoxic conditions, and differences in fire return interval and (or) severity at PD counteract the relatively high near-surface decomposition rates, resulting in high net C accumulation.

  11. Black Nitrogen or Plant-Derived Organic Nitrogen - which Form is More Efficiently Sequestered in Soils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Martín, María; Velasco-Molina, Marta; Knicker, Heike

    2014-05-01

    and approached those of the pots with fresh grass litter supporting the mobilization of black nitrogen and its uptake by plants. Our results point to the suggestion that N in PyOM and humified SOM have comparable biochemical stability. In order to test this hypothesis, a further experiment was set up mixtures of soil and humified 15N grass residues or aged 15N grass char to which fresh PyOM or fresh grass residues, respectively, were added. In addition solid-state 15N NMR spectroscopy was applied to disclose the nature of the sequestered N. REFERENCES Knicker, H., Almendros, G., González-Vila, F.J., Martín, F., Lüdemann, H.-D., 1996. 13C- and 15N-NMR spectroscopic examination of the transformation of organic nitrogen in plant biomass during thermal treatment. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 28, 1053-1060.

  12. Carbon Dynamics of Forest Floor and Stem in Black Spruce Forest Soils, Interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yongwon; Kim, Seong-Deog; Kim, Woongji

    2010-05-01

    Our automated open/close chamber system (AOCC) consists of eight chambers, a pump, CO2 gas analyzer, and a datalogger for CO2 data on the lichen, tussock, feather moss, and sphagnum moss of a black spruce forest, Interior Alaska, during the growing seasons of 2007 and 2008. During the observing periods of 2007 and 2008, the seasonal NEE was 0.127±0.049 and -0.039±0.025 mgCO2/m2/s in tussock regime, and 0.006±0.011 and 0.028±0.017 mgCO2/m2/s in sphagnum moss, respectively. Air temperature is a more significant regulator than soil temperature in determining the GPP and Re of forest floor vegetations. Air temperature explained 77-95% of the variability in GPP and Re of the floor vegetations. The contributions (%) of simulated seasonal GPP to the black spruce forest during non-growing periods (DOY 1-120 and 244-365) and during the growing period (DOY 121-243) of 2007 are 63-72%, 20-25%, and 8-18%, respectively. This indicates that the floor CO2 exchange, as well as the contribution of winter carbon emission, is a component of the regional carbon budget that cannot be neglected. As the result of simulated GPP and Re in tussock during 2007, tussocks are found to have on atmospheric CO2 release, similar to results of observation for 63-day of 2007. On the other hand of stem respiration rates of black spruce (Picea Mariana), the continuous measurement of stem respiration was conducted in black spruce stands of different ages (4.3 to 13.5 cm in DBH) in Interior Alaska during the growing seasons of 2007 and 2008, using a pump, CO2 analyzer, chambers, and data-logger. The averaged whole stem respiration rate is 0.011±0.005 mgCO2/m2/s (range 0.005±0.002 to 0.015±0.008 mgCO2/m2/s, CV 45%) in black spruce stands, indicating remarkably diurnal and seasonal variations of stem respiration among the stems during the growing season. It is found that metabolism exhibits 1.5-fold higher in the younger black spruce stand than in the older. Temperatures in the air and stem are

  13. Impacts of methamidophos, copper, and their combinations on bacterial community structure and function in black soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Huiwen; ZHOU; Qixing; ZHANG; Qianru; ZHANG; Chengg

    2005-01-01

    The potential ecotoxicologial risks of methamidophos, copper, and their combinations on microbial community of black soil ecosystem in the Northeast China were assessed in species richness and structures by using 16S rDNA-PCR-DGGE analysis approach, and functional characteristics at community levels by using BIOLOGGN system analysis method as well as two conventional methods(DHA and SIR). All results of DGGE banding fingerprint patterns(amplified by bacterial specific 16S rDNA V3 high variable region universal primer) indicated that the species richness of bacterial community in tested soil was significantly decreased to different extents by using different concentrations of single methamidophos, copper, especially some of their combinations had worse effects than their corresponding single factors. In addition,the structures of soil bacterial community had been disturbed under all stresses applied in this study because of the enrichment of some species and the disappearance of other species from the bacterial community. The effects of the single factors with lower concentrations on the communiy structure were weaker than those with higher concentrations. Moreover, the bacterial community structures under the combined stresses of methamidophos and copper were significantly different from those of control and their corresponding single factors. The change of DHA and carbon source substrate utilizing fingerprint patterns based on BIOLOGGNsystem were two relatively sensitive directors corresponding to the stress presented in this study. Between methamodophos and copper, there happened the significant joint-toxic actions when they were used in combination on DHA and carbon source substrate utilizing fingerprint patterns of soil bacterial communities. The DHA of soil under the combined stresses was lower than that of the control and that under the single factors, and the BIOLOGGN substrate utilizing patterns of soil treated by combinations were distinctively

  14. Soil internal drainage: temporal stability and spatial variability in succession bean-black oat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, M. M. S.; Libardi, P. L.; Moreira, N. B.; Sousa, H. H. F.; Neiverth, C. A.

    2012-04-01

    There are a variety of studies considering the soil water content, but those who consider the flow of water, which are translated by deep drainage and capillary rise are scarce, especially those who assess their spatio-temporal variability, due to its laborious obtaining. Large areas have been considered homogeneous, but show considerable spatial variability inherent in the soil, causing the appearance of zones of distinct physical properties. In deep, sandy soils where the groundwater level is far below the root zone of interference, internal drainage is one of the factors limiting the supply of water to the soil surface, and possibly one of the biggest factors that determines what kinds satisfactory development of plants present in a given landscape. The forms of relief may also be indicators of changes in soil properties, because this variability is caused by small changes that affect the slope of the pedogenetic processes and the transport and storage of water in the soil profile, i.e., the different trajectories of water flow in different forms of the landscape, is the cause of variability. The objectives of this research were: i) evaluate the spatial and temporal stability of internal soil water drainage in a place near and another distant from the root system in a bean-black-oat succession and ii) verify their spatial variability in relation to relief. With the hydraulic conductivity obtained by the instantaneous profile method and the total potential gradient obtained from the difference in readings of tensiometers installed at depths of 0.35 and 0.45 and 0.75 and 0.85 m in 60 sampling points totaling 1680 and 1200 observations during the cultivation of beans and oats, respectively, was obtained so the internal drainage / capillary rise through the Darcy-Buckingham equation. To evaluate the temporal stability the method used was the relative difference and Spearman correlation test and the spatial variability was analyzed as geostatistical methodology

  15. Study of sediment movement in an irrigated maize-cotton system combining rainfall simulations, sediment tracers and soil erosion models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Gema; Laguna, Ana; Cañasveras, Juan Carlos; Boulal, Hakim; Barrón, Vidal; Gómez-Macpherson, Helena; Giráldez, Juan Vicente; Gómez, José Alfonso

    2015-05-01

    Although soil erosion is one of the main threats to agriculture sustainability in many areas of the world, its processes are difficult to measure and still need a better characterization. The use of iron oxides as sediment tracers, combined with erosion and mixing models opens up a pathway for improving the knowledge of the erosion and redistribution of soil, determining sediment sources and sinks. In this study, magnetite and a multivariate mixing model were used in rainfall simulations at the micro-plot scale to determine the source of the sediment at different stages of a furrow-ridge system both with (+T) and without (-T) wheel tracks. At a plot scale, magnetite, hematite and goethite combined with two soil erosion models based on the kinematic wave approach were used in a sprinkler irrigation test to study trends in sediment transport and tracer dynamics along furrow lengths under a wide range of scenarios. In the absence of any stubble cover, sediment contribution from the ridges was larger than the furrow bed one, almost 90%, while an opposite trend was observed with stubble, with a smaller contribution from the ridge (32%) than that of the bed, at the micro-plot trials. Furthermore, at a plot scale, the tracer concentration analysis showed an exponentially decreasing trend with the downstream distance both for sediment detachment along furrows and soil source contribution from tagged segments. The parameters of the distributed model KINEROS2 have been estimated using the PEST Model to obtain a more accurate evaluation. Afterwards, this model was used to simulate a broad range of common scenarios of topography and rainfall from commercial farms in southern Spain. Higher slopes had a significant influence on sediment yields while long furrow distances allowed a more efficient water use. For the control of runoff, and therefore soil loss, an equilibrium between irrigation design (intensity, duration, water pattern) and hydric needs of the crops should be

  16. Preliminary study of the mite community structure in different black truffle producing soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikel Queralt

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aims of the study: The goals of this paper are to provide preliminary data on the composition of the mite community in truffle-producing soils (both wild and plantations; and to elucidate those species which may interact with the black truffle life cycle.Area of study: The study was carried out in two black truffle productive zones in Navarra (Spain, in four different plantations and five wild production areas.Material and Methods: Fauna was extracted using Berlese Tullgren funnels. Animals were separated into taxonomic groups, and mites were identified. To analyse the composition and community structure of the different habitats, parameters such as abundance, species richness, and Shanon Weiner diversity index (H’ were calculated.Main results: A total of 305 mites were recognized, belonging to 58 species representing the three major taxonomic groups (Oribatida, Prostigmata, Mesostigmata.Research highlights: The results show a possible trend towards wild areas having greater diversity and species richness than plantations. Furthermore, community analysis shows differences in species compositions among different study areas, and oribatid mites always exhibit the highest relative abundance and species richness.Keywords: Acari; Tuber melanosporum; Oribatida; Mesostigmata; Prostigmata; truffle orchards. 

  17. Microbial metabolic profiles in Australian soils with varying crop management strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldorri, Sind; McMillan, Mary; Pereg, Lily

    2015-04-01

    Cotton production belt in Australia is covering vast areas from subtropical to temperate and grassland. Soil types are mostly different variations of clay with mainly black, grey and red clay soil containing variable proportions of sand in it. Growers often grow cotton in rotation with other crops, such as wheat, beans and corn, and soil fertilization vary with a number of growers using organic amendments as a main or supplementary source of nutrients. We have collected soil samples from farms in different regions and with different crop management strategies and studied the metabolic signature of microbial communities using the Biolog Ecoplate system. The metabolic patterns, supplemented with molecular analysis of the community will further the understanding of the influence of crop and soil management on soil functions carried out by microbes.

  18. Influence of the insecticides acetamiprid and carbofuran on arylamidase and myrosinase activities in the tropical black and red clay soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohiddin, G Jaffer; Srinivasulu, M; Maddela, N R; Manjunatha, B; Rangaswamy, V; Koch Kaiser, Alma Rosel; Maisincho Asqui, Jessica Cristina; Darwin Rueda, O

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of two insecticides, namely, acetamiprid and carbofuran on the enzymatic activities of arylamidase (as glucose formed from sinigrin) and myrosinase (as β-naphthylamine formed from L-leucine β-naphthylamide) in the black and red clay soils collected from a fallow groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) fields in the Anantapur District, Andhra Pradesh, India. The study was realized within the framework of the laboratory experiments in which the acetamiprid and carbofuran were applied to the soils at different doses (1.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 kg ha(-1)). Initially, the physicochechemical properties of the soil samples were analyzed. After 10 days of pesticide application, the soil samples were analyzed for the enzyme activities. Acetamiprid and carbofuran stimulated the arylamidase and myrosinase activities at lower concentrations after 10 days incubation. Striking stimulation in soil enzyme activities was noticed at 2.5 kg ha(-1), persists for 20 days in both the soils. Overall, higher concentrations (5.0-10.0 kg ha(-1)) of acetamiprid and carbofuran were toxic or innocuous to the arylamidase and myrosinase activities. Nevertheless, the outcomes of the present study clearly indicate that the use of these insecticides (at field application rates) in the groundnut fields (black and red clay soils) stimulated the enzyme (arylamidase and myrosinase) activities.

  19. Effect of Two Kinds of Soil Ameliorant on Saline Soil Improvement and Cotton Growth%两种化学改良剂对盐渍化土壤作用机制及对棉花生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张江辉; 白云岗; 张胜江; 曹伟

    2011-01-01

    Soil salinization has been the main obstacle for agricultural development in arid area. It has been a focus how to improve saline or alkaline soil. In this paper, the experiments of different ameliorants named Handilong and Hekang under different irrigation ways were carried out to test their respective effects on soil improvement, cotton growth and cotton yield. The experiments show that, after applying the ameliorants, the soil sallinity in cotton field under drip irrigation was decreased, the desalinizalion ratios were 30. 3% and 17. 7% respectively, but the desalinizalion ratio was only 10.4% in the contrast field; the analysis on soil Na+ composition by means of sodium adsorption ratio reveals that Handilong was the most effective in reducing detrimental ion Na+ in soil. Compared with the contrast group, the cotton plant growth including cotton height, density, number of fruit-bearing shoots, buds and bolls as well as their weight was significantly improved after applying Handilong and Hekang, the un-ginned cotton yields per hectare were as high as 3 549. 0 kg and 3 451. 5 kg and increased by 618 kg (21. 1%) and 522 kg ( 17. 8% ) , and the incomes per hectare were increased by 2 491. 5 and 1 371.0 yuan RMB, respectively.%通过对膜下滴灌棉田施加旱地龙和禾康两种土壤改良剂,研究两种不同化学改良剂对改良盐碱地的应用效果及对棉花生长与产量的影响,为盐碱地改良提供理论依据.结果表明:在滴灌棉田施用旱地龙和禾康后,土体含盐量呈下降趋势,脱盐率分别为30.3%和17.7%,而对照区脱盐率仅为10.4%;借助钠吸附比概念对土壤阳离子组成进行分析,旱地龙减少土壤中有害离子最多,对照次之,禾康最小;同时施加改良剂可增加棉花产量,每公顷分别增产21.1%和17.8%,净增收2 491.5元和1 371.0元.

  20. Organic Cotton Crop Guide - A manual for practitioners in the tropics

    OpenAIRE

    Eyhorn, Frank; Ratter, Saro G.; Ramakrishnan, Mahesh

    2005-01-01

    Designed primarily as a reference manual for extension workers and farmers, the Organic Cotton Crop Guide provides comprehensive practical know-how on organic cotton production in the tropics. The guide covers all relevant aspects from soil preparation and variety selection over crop nutrition and pest management to the economic performance of organic cotton farming.

  1. Extraction and Characterization of Humic Acids and Humin Fractions from a Black Soil of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XING Bao-Shan; LIU Ju-Dong; LIU Xiao-Bing; HAN Xiao-Zeng

    2005-01-01

    Twenty-three progressive extractions were performed to study individual humic acids (Has) and humin fractions from a typical black soil (Mollisol) in Heilongjiang Province, China using elemental analysis and spectroscopic techniques. After 23 HA extractions the residue was separated into high and low organic carbon humin fractions. HA yield was the highest for the first extraction and then gradually decreased with further extractions. Organic carbon (OC) of the humin fractions accounted for 58% of total OC even after 23 successive HA extractions. In addition, the atomic C/H ratio decreased during the course of extraction while C/O increased; the E4/E6 ratio from the UV analysis decreased with further extraction while E2/Ea increased; the band assigned to aliphatic carbon (2 930 cm-1) in the diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) spectra gradually increased with progressive extraction; the calculated ratio of the sum of aromatic carbon peak heights to that of aliphatic carbon peak heights from DRIFTS spectra declined with extractions; and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data suggested that HA aliphatic carbons increased with extractions while aromatic carbons decreased. Thus, hydrophobicity and aliphaticity of Has increased with extractions while polarity and aromaticity decreased. These data showed substantial chemical, structural, and molecular differences among the 23 Has and two humin fractions. Therefore, these results may help explain why soil and sediment humin fractions have high sorption capacity for organic contaminants.

  2. Soil Organic Carbon, Black Carbon, and Enzyme Activity Under Long-Term Fertilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Xing-hua; ZHENG Jian-wei

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to understand the effects of long-term fertilization on soil organic carbon (SOC), black carbon (BC), enzyme activity, and the relationships among these parameters. Paddy ifeld was continuously fertilized over 30 yr with nine different fertilizer treatments including N, P, K, NP, NK, NPK, 2NPK (two-fold NPK), NPK+manure (NPKM), and CK (no fertilization), N, 90 kg urea-N ha-1 yr-1; P, 45 kg triple superphosphate-P2O5 ha-1 yr-1; K, 75 kg potassium chloride-K2O ha-1 yr-1;and pig manure, 22 500 kg ha-1 yr-1. Soil samples were collected and determined for SOC, BC content, and enzyme activity. The results showed that the SOC in the NPKM treatment was signiifcantly higher than those in the K, P, and CK treatments. The lowest SOC content was found in the CK treatment. SOC content was similar in the N, NP, NK, NPK, 2NPK, and NPKM treatments. There was no signiifcant difference in BC content among different treatments. The BC-to-SOC ratios (BC/SOC) ranged from 0.50 to 0.63, suggesting that BC might originate from the same source. Regarding enzyme activity, NPK treatment had higher urease activity than NPKM treatment. The urease activity of NPKM treatment was signiifcantly higher than that of 2NPK, NP, N, P, K, CK, and NPKM treatment which produced higher activities of acid phosphatase, catalase, and invertase than all other treatments. Our results indicated that long-term fertilization did not signiifcantly affect BC content. Concurrent application of manure and mineral fertilizers increased SOC content and signiifcantly enhanced soil enzyme activities. Correlation analysis showed that catalase activity was signiifcantly associated with invertase activity, but SOC, BC, and enzyme activity levels were not signiifcantly correlated with one another. No signiifcant correlations were observed between BC and soil enzymes. It is unknown whether soil enzymes play a role in the decomposition of BC.

  3. Migration and Enrichment of Arsenic in the Rock-Soil-Crop Plant System in Areas Covered with Black Shale, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Min Yi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The Okchon black shale, which is part of the Guryongsan Formation or the Changri Formation of Cambro-Ordovician age in Korea provides a typical example of natural geological materials enriched with potentially toxic elements such as U, V, Mo, As, Se, Cd, and Zn. In this study, the Dukpyung and the Chubu areas were selected to investigate the migration and enrichment of As and other toxic elements in soils and crop plants in areas covered with black shale. Rock and soil samples digested in 4-acid solution (HCl+HNO3+HF+HClO4 were analyzed for As and other heavy metals by ICP-AES and ICP-MS, and plant samples by INAA. Mean concentration of As in Okchon black shale is higher than those of both world average values of shale and black shale. Especially high concentration of 23.2 mg As kg-1 is found in black shale from the Dukpyung area. Mean concentration of As is highly elevated in agricultural soils from the Dukpyung (28.2 mg kg-1 and the Chubu areas (32.6 mg kg-1. As is highly elevated in rice leaves from the Dukpyung (1.14 mg kg-1 and the Chubu areas (1.35 mg kg-1. The biological absorption coefficient (BAC of As in plant species decreases in the order of rice leaves > corn leaves > red pepper = soybean leaves = sesame leaves > corn stalks > corn grains. This indicates that leafy plants tend to accumulate As from soil to a greater degree than cereal products such as grains.

  4. Effect of Long-Term Application of Chemical Fertilizers on microbial biomass and Functional Diversity of a Black Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG Wei-Dong; ZHU Yong-Guan; FU Bo-Jie; HAN Xiao-Zeng; ZHANG Lei; HE Ji-Zheng

    2008-01-01

    An experiment with seven N, P, K-fertilizer treatments, i.e., control (no fertilizer), NP, NK, PK, NPK, NP2K, and NPK2 where P2 and K2 indicate double amounts of P and K fertilizers respectively, was conducted to examine the effect of long-term continuous application of chemical fertilizers on microbial biomass and functional diversity of a black soil (Udoll in the USDA Soil Taxonomy) in Northeast China. The soil microbial biomass C ranged between 94 and 145 mg kg-1, with the NK treatment showing a lower biomass; the functional diversity of soil microbial community ranged from 4.13 to 4.25, with an increasing tendency from control to double-fertilizer treatments, and to triple-fertilizer treatments. The soil microbial biomass, and the microbial functional diversity and evenness did not show any significant differences among the different fertilizer treatments including control, suggesting that the long-term application of chemical fertilization would not result in significant changes in the microbial characteristics of the black soil.

  5. Smart textiles: Tough cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Alba G.; Hinestroza, Juan P.

    2008-08-01

    Cotton is an important raw material for producing soft textiles and clothing. Recent discoveries in functionalizing cotton fibres with nanotubes may offer a new line of tough, wearable, smart and interactive garments.

  6. Effects of different sea-ice water irrigation on soil moisture and cotton growth%海冰水不同灌溉量对土壤水分和棉花生物学性状的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白洋; 武雪萍; 华珞; 张国霞; 赵全胜; 王小彬; 蔡典雄

    2011-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted on Zhongjie Farm in Huanghua to research soil moisture change after irrigation,effect of water use efficiency and biological characteristics of cotton under a different amount of irrigation of 3% salinity seaice. The results showed that sea-ice water irrigation could improve moisture content of topsoil significantly, and the higher irrigation amount the greater soil moisture content in 0 ~ 100 cm soil layers; Irrigation before sowing with sea-ice could ease the drought in coastal saline soil of the Bohai coastal region and it is conducive to leaching of soil salinity. So it was an effective measure of solving drought problems and improving rate of seedling emergence. Different amounts of sea-ice water irrigation significantly affect the biological characteristics of cotton and soil water use efficiency. The cotton plant height, fruit branch number, boll number, the seed cotton yield and soil water use efficiency were significantly increasing with the irrigation of sea-ice irrigation. And they all reached the maximum by the irrigation amount of 525 m3/hm2, but later decreased with increased irrigation. By all the knowable research above, the result that when using cotton 3 % sea-ice water for irrigation, the irrigation amount should be 525 m3/hm2 was suggested in this paper.%通过在黄骅中捷农场设置海冰水(盐分浓度为3‰)4个不同灌溉量试验,研究了海冰水灌溉量对土壤含水量、灌溉水利用效率及棉花生物学性状的影响.结果表明,各处理均表现为0~100cm土层随着灌溉量增大,土壤含水量增大;播种前采用海冰水灌溉可以有效缓解环渤海滨海盐碱地土壤旱情,有利于淋洗土壤盐分,是解决当地干旱问题和提高棉花出苗率的一项有效措施.海冰水不同灌溉量处理显著影响棉花的生物学性状和灌溉水利用效率,表现为随着灌水量的增加,棉花的株高、果枝数增加,棉桃数、籽棉产量和灌溉

  7. World Collection of Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KHAKIMJON Saydaliyev; ALISHER Amanturdiev; MALOXAT Halikova

    2008-01-01

    @@ Achievements of selection and other theoretical researches on cotton not only in our country,but also world-wide depend on the presence of genetic resources.Uzbek Scientific Research Institute of Selection and Seed Growing of Cotton is a leading center of science on breeding and production of cotton across Central Asia.

  8. Dictionary of Cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Dictionary of Cotton has over 2,000 terms and definitions that were compiled by 33 researchers. It reflects the ongoing commitment of the International Cotton Advisory Committee, through its Technical Information Section, to the spread of knowledge about cotton to all those who have an interest ...

  9. Cotton Pricing Discussion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Cotton prices have received a lot of attention recently.Cotton Incorporated especically designed this Special Edition of Supply Chain Insights to frame the discussion concerning prices throughout the cotton supply chain in terms of the cyclical events that contributed to recent volatility and how a return to long-term averages over time can be expected.

  10. Cotton Trip in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    From September 6th to 12th,a National Cotton CouncilCotton Council International 2010 China leadership team,led by Charles Parker,Vice Chairman of NCC,visited China to see its cotton industrial development and continue building a good relationship with U.S.raw cotton’s largest consumer.

  11. 棉花黄萎病菌对土壤线虫群落结构的影响%Effects of Cotton Verticillium Wilt Pathogen on Soil Nematode Community Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓兰; 相吉山; 刘瑜; 高志建

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of cotton Verticillium wilt pathogens on soil ecosystem, this paper compared and studied the total numbers, amount of trophic groups and ecological indices of soil nematodes in cotton Verticillium wilt pathogens containing soil with that of control soil in Xinjiang Autonomous Region in 2013. The result indicated that a total of 42 nematode genus were identified in both pathogen infected and control areas, 36 of which were detected in the fungivores infected area, 35 were detected in the control area. The abundance of total nematodes, bacterivores and fungi ores in 0~40 cm depth soil layer were significantly lower ( P0.05)。从相对丰富度来看,黄萎病区植物寄生线虫和捕食杂食线虫的相对丰富度显著高于对照(P<0.01),食细菌线虫的相对丰富度显著低于对照( P<0.01)。从生态指数来看,黄萎病区土壤线虫的香农-威纳多样性指数( H′)、均匀度指数( J′)、营养多样性指数(TD)均显著高于对照区(P<0.05);优势度指数(λ)、通道指数(NCR)均显著低于对照区(P<0.05)。总体而言,棉花黄萎病菌会明显改变土壤线虫的群落结构,对其多样性产生显著影响。

  12. EFFECT OF POLLUTION OF ORDINARY BLACK SOIL WITH LEAD AND OIL ON THE NUMBER AND COMPOSITION OF MICROARTHROPODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolesnikov S. I.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The number of microarthropods in the black soil de-creased with an increase in the number of oil. The same pattern was observed until a certain concentra-tion of lead in soil (von 250 mg / kg, after which high doses (500 and 1000 mg / kg was recorded an in-crease in the number of microarthropods. Gamasid mites and ticks of akaroid-trombidiform complex have proven more resistant to lead, and armored mites and springtails - to oil, vise versa

  13. Accumulation of selenium and assessment of the microelements contents in rape spring on meadow-black soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantitative correlation was installed as a result of work between arrival of the selenium on meadow-black soil and contents of this element in green mass of the rape spring. Correlation between the contents of Se and Cd, Ni, Zn in green mass at the rape spring was studied. In this article the assessment of the microelements contents depending on doses and methods of using selenium is offered

  14. Black Nitrogen as a source for the built-up of microbial biomass in soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Martín, María; Milter, Anja; Knicker, Heike

    2016-04-01

    In areas with frequent wildfires, soil organic nitrogen (SON) is sequestered in pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM) due to heat-induced transformation of proteinaceous compounds into N-heterocycles, i.e. pyrrole, imidazole and indole compounds. These newly formed structures, known as Black Nitrogen (BN), have been assumed to be hardly degradable by microorganisms, thus being efficiently sequestered from the N cycle. On the other hand, a previous study showed that nitrogen of BN can be used by plants for the built-up of their biomass (de la Rosa and Knicker 2011). Thus, BN may play an important role as an N source during the recovery of the forest after a fire event. In order to obtain a more profound understanding of the role of BN within the N cycle in soils, we studied the bioavailability and incorporation of N derived from PyOM into microbial amino acids. For that, pots with soil from a burnt and an unburnt Cambisol located under a Mediterranean forest were covered with different amendments. The toppings were mixtures of unlabeled KNO3 with 15N labeled grass or 15N-labeled PyOM from burned grass and K15NO3 mixed with unlabeled grass material or PyOM. The pots were kept in the greenhouse under controlled conditions for 16 months and were sampled after 0.5, 1, 5, 8 and 16 months. From all samples the amino acids were extracted after hydrolysis (6 M HCl, 22 h, 110 °C) and quantified via gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The fate of 15N was followed by isotopic ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). The results show that the contribution of extractable amino acids to total soil organic matter was always higher in the unburnt than in the burnt soil. However, with ongoing incubation their amount decreased. Already after 0.5 months, some PyOM-derived 15N was incorporated into the extractable amino acids and the amount increased with experiment time. Since this can only occur after prior microbial degradation of PyOM our results clearly support a lower biochemical

  15. Formation causes and recovery of the "Black Soil Type" degraded alpine grassland in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHANG Zhanhuan; LONG Ruijun

    2007-01-01

    The formation causes and ecological rebuilding of the "Black Soil Type" degraded alpine grassland are summarized.The formation of the "Black Soil Type" degraded grassland was caused mainly by climate warming,decreasing glaciers,overgrazing,and damage by rats.The ecological restoration of the "Black Soil Type" degraded alpine grassland relies not only on grassland building,but also on reasonable management and planning of grassland resources.Guaranty measures for developing the alpine grassland animal husbandry in a healthy way include intensifying the educational investment in pasture regions,practicing long-term contracts for grassland,and strengthening the grassland legislation.The authors believe that the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau ecosystem has a special characteristic inertia or "inert gases",which weaken the self-renewing capability of the ecosystem and makes its structure frail.The inertia characteristic may be the important reason that makes ecological rebuilding so difficult;in addition,other problems need to be studied deeply to provide scientific bases for the ecological building in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

  16. 三防整理剂Z-200对棉织物整理工艺研究%Study on the cotton fabrics finished with water, oil and soil repellent agent Z-200

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何方容; 马小强

    2012-01-01

    采用三防整理剂Z-200在不同工艺条件下对棉织物进行整理,并测试三防效果,得到最佳三防整理工艺:整理剂用量30 g/L,柔软剂用量5 g/L,100 ℃烘3 min,175℃焙烘1.5 min.经最佳工艺条件整理的织物拒水性为95分,拒油性为5.5级,去污值为71;同时,染色织物皂洗牢度、湿摩擦牢度和水洗牢度有所提高.%Under different finishing technologies,the water,oil and soil repellency of cotton fabric finished by Z-200 were tested. The optimum finishing process was obtained: 30 g/L of finishing agent,5 g/L of softener,dried at 100 ℃ for 3 min,cured at 175℃ for 1.5 min. After finishing,the water repellent rate of the cotton fabric was 95,the oil repellent level was 5.5,and the soil release value was 71. The wet color fastness of dyed fabric was also improved.

  17. Effect of soil-water tension on herbaceous cotton yield Efeito de tensões de água no solo sobre o rendimento do algodoeiro herbáceo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Assis de Oliveira

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted during two years, 1990/91, in an alluvial soil, in the State of Paraíba, Brazil, to study the effect of the levels of soil-water tension, 50, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 600 kPa, at 20 cm depth, on upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.r. latifolium Hutch, cv. CNPA-6H yield. The experimental design was a complete randomized block with six treatments and four repetitions. There was an effect of the treatments on plant height, leaf area index and cotton yield, but the precocity index was not modified. Water should be applied when the soil-water tension, measured at 20 cm depth, reaches values around 200 kPa. There was a quadratic (R² = 0.893** response of cotton yields to soil water tension, with the maximum when water was applied at 52% of soil water depletion.Durante dois anos, 1990/91, em solo aluvial, no município de Sousa, PB, estudou-se, em condições de irrigação por sulco, o efeito das tensões de água no solo a 50, 100, 200, 300, 400 e 600 kPa, na profundidade de 20 cm, sobre o rendimento do algodoeiro herbáceo (Gossypium hirsutum L.r. latifolium Hutch, cv. CNPA-6H. Adotou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. Os resultados mostraram que houve efeito significativo dos tratamentos sobre a altura da planta, índice de área foliar e rendimento de algodão em rama, mas não houve efeito sobre os dados de precocidade. A tensão de 200 kPa mostrou-se como o melhor nível de água no solo para se efetuar as irrigações, uma vez que para as tensões superiores o rendimento foi significativamente reduzido.O efeito sobre o rendimento foi de natureza quadrática (R² = 0,893**, o que indica que o rendimento máximo seria atingido irrigando-se a cultura com 52% de esgotamento da água disponível no solo.

  18. Experimental Research on Soil Evaporation of Cotton with Drip Irrigation under Mulch in Arid Areas in Northwest China%西北干旱区滴灌棉田膜间土壤蒸发试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申孝军; 杨磊; 李东伟; 孙景生; 张寄阳; 刘浩

    2012-01-01

    膜间土壤蒸发是覆膜棉田水分消耗的主要组成部分,在干旱少雨的新疆石河子利用微型蒸渗仪观测了地下滴灌和膜下滴灌条件下,覆膜棉田膜间土壤水分蒸发,并对膜间不同位置处的土壤蒸发规律进行了试验研究。研究结果表明,滴灌条件下膜间土壤水分蒸发分别与气温、辐射、饱和水汽差以及相对湿度呈指数相关关系,与参考作物需水量呈线性相关关系,与表层土壤含水率呈指数关系;膜间土壤累积蒸发量在苗期最高,其次是花铃期,吐絮期最小;膜下滴灌条件下膜边土壤的蒸发量高于膜间(两条膜正中间的裸地)蒸发量;地下滴灌条件下,错位种植会导致灌溉水的无效蒸发,不利于灌溉水的高效利用。%Soil evaporation is an important component of water consumption in cotton with drip irrigation under mulch.Field experiments were conducted to investigate the soil evaporation between the mulch on cotton with drip irrigation(surface and subsurface drip irrigation) under the mulch with micro-lysimeter,the change law of soil evaporation on different points was studied.The results showed that there was a good exponential function relationship between soil evaporation and air temperature,saturation vaporpressure difference,solar radiation,relative humidity,soil water content,respectively,and there was a linear correlation between soil evaporation and reference crop evapotranspiration;cumulative soil evaporation of between the mulch is the highest at the seedling stage,the second at the blossoming and boll forming stages,the lowest at the boll opening stage;soil evaporation is higher at lateral of mulch than at the middle of the point between the mulch.That will lead to inefficient evaporation of soil water and the decrease in the irrigation water use efficiency with subsurface drip irrigation under plastic mulch when planting is dislocated.

  19. Effect of weathering on abundance and release of potentially toxic elements in soils developed on Lower Cambrian black shales, P. R. China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Changxun; Peng, Bo; Peltola, Pasi; Tang, Xiaoyan; Xie, Shurong

    2012-06-01

    This paper examines the geochemical features of 8 soil profiles developed on metalliferous black shales distributed in the central parts of the South China black shale horizon. The concentrations of 21 trace elements and 8 major elements were determined using ICP-MS and XRF, respectively, and weathering intensity (W) was calculated according to a new technique recently proposed in the literature. The data showed that the black shale soils inherited a heterogeneous geochemical character from their parent materials. A partial least square regression model and EF(bedrock) (enrichment factor normalized to underlying bedrock) indicated that W was not a major control in the redistribution of trace metals. Barium, Sn, Cu, V, and U tended to be leached in the upper soil horizons and trapped by Al and Fe oxides, whereas Sb, Cd, and Mo with negative EF values across the whole profiles may have been leached out during the first stage of pedogenesis (mainly weathering of black shale). Compared with the Chinese average soils, the soils were strongly enriched in the potentially toxic metals Mo, Cd, Sb, Sn, U, V, Cu, and Ba, among which the 5 first listed were enriched to the highest degrees. Elevated concentrations of these toxic metals can have a long-term negative effect on human health, in particular, the soils in mining areas dominated by strongly acidic conditions. As a whole, the black shale soils have much in common with acid sulfate soils. Therefore, black shale soils together with acid sulfate soils deserve more attention in the context of metal exposure and human health. PMID:21674160

  20. Effect of weathering on abundance and release of potentially toxic elements in soils developed on Lower Cambrian black shales, P. R. China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Changxun; Peng, Bo; Peltola, Pasi; Tang, Xiaoyan; Xie, Shurong

    2012-06-01

    This paper examines the geochemical features of 8 soil profiles developed on metalliferous black shales distributed in the central parts of the South China black shale horizon. The concentrations of 21 trace elements and 8 major elements were determined using ICP-MS and XRF, respectively, and weathering intensity (W) was calculated according to a new technique recently proposed in the literature. The data showed that the black shale soils inherited a heterogeneous geochemical character from their parent materials. A partial least square regression model and EF(bedrock) (enrichment factor normalized to underlying bedrock) indicated that W was not a major control in the redistribution of trace metals. Barium, Sn, Cu, V, and U tended to be leached in the upper soil horizons and trapped by Al and Fe oxides, whereas Sb, Cd, and Mo with negative EF values across the whole profiles may have been leached out during the first stage of pedogenesis (mainly weathering of black shale). Compared with the Chinese average soils, the soils were strongly enriched in the potentially toxic metals Mo, Cd, Sb, Sn, U, V, Cu, and Ba, among which the 5 first listed were enriched to the highest degrees. Elevated concentrations of these toxic metals can have a long-term negative effect on human health, in particular, the soils in mining areas dominated by strongly acidic conditions. As a whole, the black shale soils have much in common with acid sulfate soils. Therefore, black shale soils together with acid sulfate soils deserve more attention in the context of metal exposure and human health.

  1. Microhole subsoiling decreasing soil compaction, and improving yield and seed quality of cotton%微孔深松耕降低土壤紧实度提高棉花产量与种籽品质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王慧杰; 郝建平; 冯瑞云; 南洋; 杨淑巧; 南建福

    2015-01-01

    长期传统耕作导致土壤紧实形成犁底层是影响农田土壤质量和作物生长的关键障碍因子之一。为解决这一问题,于2013年4月至2014年5月在山西运城南花农场开展为期1 a的大田试验,对比研究微孔深松耕技术和旋耕机旋耕15~20 cm的传统耕作方法对土壤紧实度以及棉籽品质性状和生长发育的影响。结果表明:微孔深松耕技术较传统耕作方式,棉花苗期犁底层40 cm处土壤紧实度由9069.70降低到558.80 kPa,吐絮期犁底层40 cm处的土壤紧实度由8089.70降低到1174.20 kPa,吐絮期0~40 cm土层中微孔深松耕土壤容重最大为1.05 g/cm3,传统耕作最大为1.56 g/cm3;在>30 cm土层中,微孔深松耕的总根量比传统耕作方式多187.03%;微孔深松耕处理棉株棉铃的5室铃率较传统耕作增加15.00%,每个棉瓤的种子数平均增加1~2粒;棉籽的籽指、密度、绒长均明显增加,脂肪含量显著降低(P20 cm depth. At the boll opening stage, soil compaction increased slowly up to 1 174.2 kPa in microhole-subsoiled plots, while that in control plots reached a maximum of 8 089.7 kPa. Meanwhile, soil bulk density in microhole-subsoiled plots remained lower and decreased from 1.56 to 1.05 g/cm3 at>35-40 cm depth. Owing to the loosening of deeper soil, microhole subsoiling effectively induced cotton roots to go deeper. The main root reached the depth of over 80 cm depth in microhole-subsoiled plots and<70 cm depth in control plots. At the depth of below 30 cm, microhole subsoiling doubled root biomass (19.77%of total root biomass) and increased lateral roots (32.62% of total lateral root) compared with the control (9.81% of total root biomass and 19.42%of total lateral root). The 5-room boll rate was 15%higher and the number of seeds per cotton pulp was greater by from 1 to 2 in microhole-subsoiled plots than in control plots. At the second and fifth seed positions, cotton seed index

  2. Effects of Nanoscale Carbon Black Modified by HNO3 on Immobilization and Phytoavailability of Ni in Contaminated Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiemin Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A surface-modified nanoscale carbon black (MCB as Ni adsorbent in contaminated soil was prepared by oxidizing the carbon black with 65% HNO3. The surface properties of the adsorbent were characterized by zeta potential analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIRs. Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the improvement of Ni2+ adsorption by MCB. Greenhouse cultivation experiments were conducted to examine the effect of MCB on the DTPA-extractable Ni2+ in soil, Ni2+ uptake of ryegrass shoot, and growth of ryegrass. Results indicated that MCB had much lower negative zeta potential, more functional groups for exchange and complexation of cation, and more heterogeneous pores and cavities for the adsorption of cation than the unmodified parent one (CB. MCB showed enhanced sorption capacity for Ni (qmax, 49.02 mg·g−1 compared with CB (qmax, 39.22 mg·g−1. Greenhouse cultivation experiment results showed that the biomass of ryegrass shoot and the Ni uptake of the ryegrass shoot were significantly increased and the concentrations of DTPA-extractable Ni in soil were significantly decreased with the increasing of MCB amount. It is clear from this work that the MCB had good adsorption properties for the Ni and could be applied in the in situ immobilization and remediation of heavy metal contaminated saline-alkali soils.

  3. Integrated nutrients management for 'desi' cotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intensive cropping with no return of crop residues and other organic inputs result in the loss of soil organic matter (SOM) and nutrient supply in (Desi) cotton-wheat cropping system in Pakistan. For appraisal of problem and finding solution to sustainability, we evaluated six treatments comprised of two fertilizer doses and three management techniques over a period of three years (2003-05) monitoring their effects on seed cotton yield and soil fertility. The techniques included chemical fertilizers, municipal solid waste manure (MSWM) integrated with chemical fertilizers in 1:4 ratios with, and without pesticides. The results revealed that cotton yields. Were enhanced by 19% due to site-specific fertilizer dose over conventional dose. Ignoring weeds control by means of herbicided application resulted in 5% decrease of seed cotton yield in IPNM technique positive effect of MSWM integration was noted on soil test phosphorus and SOM. Site-specific fertilizer application and integrated plant nutrient management by MSWM proved their suitability as the techniques not only improve soil quality in terms of sustained levels of organic matter and phosphorus but also provide a safe way of waste disposal. (author)

  4. Carbon contributions from roots in cotton based rotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, D. K. Y.; Hulugalle, N. R.

    2012-04-01

    Most research on the decline in soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks in Australian cotton farming systems has focussed on the inputs from above-ground crop residues, with contribution from roots being less studied. This paper aims to outline the contribution of cotton roots and roots of other crops to soil carbon stocks in furrow-irrigated Vertisols in several cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)-based rotations. Data was collected from cotton-based rotation systems: cotton monoculture, cotton-vetch (Vicia benghalensis) Roth.), cotton-wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), cotton-wheat-vetch, cotton-corn, corn-corn, cotton-sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) and from BollgardTM II (Bt) and non-Bt cotton. Land management systems were permanent beds, with or without standing stubble, and conventional tillage. Root growth in the surface 0.10 m was measured with the core-break method, and that in the 0.10 to 1.0 m depth with a minirhizotron and I-CAP image capture system. These measurements were used to derive root C added to soil through intra-seasonal root death (Clost), C in roots remaining at the end of season (Croot), and total root C added to soil (Ctotal = Croot + Clost). Ctotal in non-Bt cotton (Sicot 80RRF, 0.9 t C/ha/year) was higher than in Bt cotton (Sicot 80RRF, 0.6 t C/ha/year). Overall, Ctotal from cotton roots ranges between 0.5 to 5 t C/ha/year, with Clost contributing 25-70%. Ctotal was greater with vetch than with wheat and was in the order of vetch in cotton-wheat-vetch (5.1 t C/ha/year) > vetch in cotton-vetch (1.9 t C/ha/year) > wheat in cotton-wheat (1.6 t C/ha/year) = wheat in cotton-wheat-vetch (1.7 t C/ha/year). Intra-seasonal root mortality accounted for 12% of total root carbon in vetch and 36% in wheat. Average corn Ctotal with monoculture was 9.3 t/ha and with cotton-corn 5.0 t/ha. Ctotal averaged between both treatments was, thus, of the order of 7.7 t C/ha/year and average Clost 0.04 t/ha/yr. Sorghum roots contributed less carbon with conventional tillage (8.2 t

  5. 超高效液相色谱法测定吡蚜酮棉花和土壤中的残留%Determination of pymetrozine residues in cotton and soil by ultra-performance liquid chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段婷婷; 郑永权

    2011-01-01

    建立了超高效液相色谱-亲水色谱柱测定吡蚜酮在棉花和土壤中残留量的分析方法.样本在弱碱条件下采用分散固相萃取( QuEChERS)法进行前处理.结果表明:吡蚜酮在棉叶和棉籽中添加水平为0.05~0.50 mg/kg时,其平均回收率分别为76.9% ~91.1%和76.4% ~ 93.7%,相对标准偏差(RSD)为7.2% ~8.2%和6.2% ~9.8%;在土壤中添加水平为0.02~0.5 mg/kg时,平均回收率为83.8% ~94.6%,RSD为5.3% ~ 8.0%.在山东和河南两地按推荐剂量(有效成分30 g/hm2)和1.5倍推荐剂量(有效成分45 g/hm2)施用10%吡蚜酮·高效氯氟氰菊酯悬浮剂后4d,吡蚜酮在土壤和棉叶中的残留量分别低于0.02和0.05 mg/kg;至收获时,其在土壤和棉籽中的最终残留量低于0.02和0.05 mg/kg.%A method based on QuEChERS sample preparation at weak alkali condition and ultra-performance liquid chromatography detection with hydrophilic chromatographic column was developed for determining pymetrozine residues in cotton and soil. The results indicated that average recoveries for cotton leaf at three levels (0.05 , 0.1 and 0.5 mg/kg) ranged from 76.9% -91.1% with relative standard deviations (RSD) of 1.2% -8.2%, for cotton seed ranged from 76.4% -93.7% with RSD of 6. 2% -9. 8%. Average recoveries for soil at four levels (0. 02, 0. 05, 0. 1 and 0. 5 mg/kg) ranged from 83. 8% -94. 6% with RSD of 5. 3% -8.0%. 10% pymetrozine · lawWa-cyhalothrin suspending agent was applied in Shandong and Henan according to recommended dose ( active ingredient 30 g/ha) and 1.5 times recommended dose (active ingredient 45 g/ha). The pymetrozine residues in soil and cotton leaf were less than 0.02 and 0.05 mg/kg at the 4th day in cotton dissipation experiment under field conditions . At harvest time, the residues of pymetrozine in cottonseed and soil were less than 0.05 and 0.02 mg/kg, respectively.

  6. THE INFLUENCE OF NICKEL OXIDE COMBINED WITH THE INFLUENCE OF ALTERNATING MAGNETIC FIELDS ON BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF ALKALINITY BLACK SOILS OF THE CRIMEA (THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minnikova T. V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article we have investigated the influence of nickel oxide in the amount of 100, 1000 mg/kg of the soil (1, 10 MPC, combined with the influence of an alternating magnetic field of induction of 50, 100 and 650 µT power frequency of 50 Hz on the biological properties of alkalinity black soil

  7. Microbial Biomass Carbon Trends in Black and Red Soils Under Single Straw Application: Effect of Straw Placement, Mineral N Addition and Tillage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Quantifying trends in soil microbial biomass carbon (SMBC) under contrasting management conditions is important in understanding the dynamics of soil organic matter (SOM) in soils and in ensuring their sustainable use. Against such a background, a 60-day greenhouse simulation experiment was carried out to study the effects of straw placement, mineral N source, and tillage on SMBC dynamics in two contrasting soils, red soil (Ferrasol) and black soil (Acrisol). The treatments included straw addition + buried (T1);straw addition + mineral N (T2); and straw addition + tillage (T3). Straw was either buried in the soil or placed on the surface. Sampling was done every 15 days. Straw placement, addition of external mineral N sources (Urea, 46 % N) and soil type affected SMBC. SMBC levels decreased with exposure durations (15 days, 30 days, 45 days, and 60 days). Rate of SMBC fixation was more in buried straw than in surface placed straw at all sampling dates in both soils. Addition of an external N source significantly increased SMBC level. Soil pH increased in both soil types, with a greater increase in black soil than in red soil. The study could not, however, statistically account for the effect of tillage on SMBC levels because of the limited effect of our tillage method due to the artificial barrier to mechanical interference supplied by the mesh bags,although differences in absolute values were quite evident between treatments T1 and T3.``

  8. Role of black carbon in the distribution of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans in aged field-contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chai, Y.Z.; Davis, J.W.; Wilken, M.; Martin, G.D.; Mowery, D.M.; Ghosh, U. [Dow Chemical Co USA, Midland, MI (United States). Toxicology & Environmental Research & Consulting

    2011-01-15

    Floodplain soils containing elevated levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were collected from several locations along the Tittabawassee River (Michigan, USA). The PCDD/F profiles of these soils exhibited distinct congener patterns consistent with byproducts from either chloralkali manufacturing or chlorophenols productions. Black carbon (BC) particles were isolated for the first time from floodplain soil impacted by PCDD/Fs. Petrographic analysis showed that BC particles, including coal, oxidized coal, metallurgical coke, depositional carbon, coal tar/pitch, cenosphere, and charcoal, comprised approximately 30% by volume of the organic fraction with size range of 250 {mu} m-2000 {mu} m from a typical floodplain soil. The BC particles with anthropogenic origin such as pitch and coke associated with the chloralkali production process served as both the source and subsequent transporter for the highly hydrophobic PCDD/Fs. These anthropogenic BC particles were enriched with high levels of PCDFs, containing approximately 1000-fold the concentration found in the bulk soil. The strong association of PCDD/Fs with anthropogenic BC directly impacts the physicochemical and biological availability thus the risk associated with these hydrophobic organochlorines in soils and sediments.

  9. Role of black carbon in the distribution of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans in aged field-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Yunzhou; Davis, John W; Wilken, Michael; Martin, Greg D; Mowery, Daniel M; Ghosh, Upal

    2011-01-01

    Floodplain soils containing elevated levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were collected from several locations along the Tittabawassee River (Michigan, USA). The PCDD/F profiles of these soils exhibited distinct congener patterns consistent with byproducts from either chloralkali manufacturing or chlorophenols productions. Black carbon (BC) particles were isolated for the first time from floodplain soil impacted by PCDD/Fs. Petrographic analysis showed that BC particles, including coal, oxidized coal, metallurgical coke, depositional carbon, coal tar/pitch, cenosphere, and charcoal, comprised approximately 30% by volume of the organic fraction with size range of 250μm-2000μm from a typical floodplain soil. The BC particles with anthropogenic origin such as pitch and coke associated with the chloralkali production process served as both the source and subsequent transporter for the highly hydrophobic PCDD/Fs. These anthropogenic BC particles were enriched with high levels of PCDFs, containing approximately 1000-fold the concentration found in the bulk soil. The strong association of PCDD/Fs with anthropogenic BC directly impacts the physicochemical and biological availability thus the risk associated with these hydrophobic organochlorines in soils and sediments.

  10. 转Bt基因棉对土壤无脊椎动物群落结构的影响%Effect of transgenic Bt cotton on soil invertebrate community structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭建英; 万方浩; 吴岷

    2009-01-01

    Soil invertebrates were collected by Tullgren and Baermann funnels and analyzed using community ecology method. Then soil invertebrate community structures in the 0~15 cm soil layer in transgenic Bt cotton (cvs. "GK12" and "NuCOTN 33B") fields were compared with those in non-Bt cotton (cv. "SM3") fields. Nematodes and acarids are dominant soil invertebrate groups with frequencies above 54% and over 18% respectively in each cotton cultivar field. Compared with parental non-Bt cv. "SM3"field, "GK12" field has more enchytraelidae and less homopetera, psocoptera and diptera. Cumulative numbers of most soil invertebrate groups do not significantly differ in "GK12" and "NuCOTN33B" fields, except that there are less homoptera and more araneae in "GK12" field. Soil invertebrate group richness, Shannon diversity and Pielou evenness are significantly lower in "GK12" field than in "SM3" field. Those in "NuCOTN 33B" field are also higher than in "GK12" field. Scalable one-parametric Renyi-diversity profiles also indicate significantly lower diversity in "GK12" than in "SM3" field, and generally lower diversity in "GK12" than in "NuCOTN 33B" field, except for dominant and common invertebrate groups in the 10~15 cm soil layer. The dynamics of soil invertebrate abundance, diversity and evenness have a similar fluctuation trend for the three cotton cultivar fields. Abundance of soil invertebrate reaches its peak in October during the period from July to November. At the peak, soil invertebrates are concentrated in the 0~5 cm and 10~15 cm soil layers in "SM3" field, but in the 10~15 cm soil layer in "GK12" and "NuCOTN 33B" fields. While invertebrate diversity and evenness decrease in November in "SM3" field, they increase in "GK12" field. The above findings imply that planting "GK12" changes the abundance, and decreases the richness, diversity and evenness of soil invertebrate groups. Soil invertebrate community structures also differ between the two Bt cotton cultivars

  11. [Research on mineralization process of organic phosphorus in black soil in Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shaohua; Yu, Wantai; Zhang, Lu; Shen, Shanmin

    2005-10-01

    Buried bag and incubation experiments were conducted to study mineralization process of organic phosphorus in black soil in Northeast China under different time sequences. The results showed that both the content and mineralized velocity of organic P decreased gradually as time went on, the cumulative mineralized rate increased step by step, whether it was used by the method of incubation or buried bag. Under incubation, two treatments' mineralized velocity reached the maximum at first month (31.67, 38.75 mg x kg(-1) x month(-1), respectively), and their cumulative mineralized rate and mineralized velocity at six months were 7.94%, 13.26 mg x kg(-1) x month(-1) and 9.24%, 17.99 mg x kg(-1) x month(-1), respectively. Under buried bag, the mineralized velocity of five treatments all reached the maximum at first year (55.67, 55.65, 49.60, 19.71, 22.52 mg x kg(-1) month(-1), respectively), and the cumulative mineralized rate and mineralized velocity of maize root and wheat root treatments at three years both were approximately 50% and 35 mg x kg(-1) x month(-1), which were higher than those under soybean root andgrass root treatments. From two methods of studies on the mineralization process of organic P, it could be seen that the original content of organic P influenced its mineralized rate and mineralized velocity: the higher of the original content of organic P, the higher of its mineralized rate and mineralized velocity.

  12. Assessment of Micro-Basin Tillage as a Soil and Water Conservation Practice in the Black Soil Region of Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Yuanyuan; Ou, Yang; Yan, Baixing; Xu, Xiaohong; Rousseau, Alain N.; Zhang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Micro-basin tillage is a soil and water conservation practice that requires building individual earth blocks along furrows. In this study, plot experiments were conducted to assess the efficiency of micro-basin tillage on sloping croplands between 2012 and 2013 (5°and 7°). The conceptual, optimal, block interval model was used to design micro-basins which are meant to capture the maximum amount of water per unit area. Results indicated that when compared to the up-down slope tillage, micro-basin tillage could increase soil water content and maize yield by about 45% and 17%, and reduce runoff, sediment and nutrients loads by about 63%, 96% and 86%, respectively. Meanwhile, micro-basin tillage could reduce the peak runoff rates and delay the initial runoff-yielding time. In addition, micro-basin tillage with the optimal block interval proved to be the best one among all treatments with different intervals. Compared with treatments of other block intervals, the optimal block interval treatments increased soil moisture by around 10% and reduced runoff rate by around 15%. In general, micro-basin tillage with optimal block interval represents an effective soil and water conservation practice for sloping farmland of the black soil region. PMID:27031339

  13. Effect of nutrients and plant growth regulators on growth and yield of black gram in sandy loam soils of Cauvery new delta zone, India

    OpenAIRE

    Marimuthu, S.; U. Surendran

    2015-01-01

    Pulse productivity is very low in some of the sandy soil areas where, soils are having poor water and nutrient holding capacity. To improve the pulse productivity, field experiments were conducted at Agricultural Research Station, Tamil Nadu for two consecutive years to study the effect of phosphorus sources (mono- and diammonium phosphate) with brassinolide and salicylic acid on growth and yield of black gram in sandy loam soils. The experiment was carried out in a randomized block design wi...

  14. IMPROVING PHOSPHORUS NUTRITION OF COTTON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter B. Gordon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Crop recovery of applied Phosphorus (P fertilizer can be low, especially during season of low soil temperature, which decreases plant root growth and nutrient uptake. The H2PO4- or HPO4-2 anions readily react with soil cations such as Calcium (Ca, Magnesium (Mg, iron (Fe and Aluminum (Al to produce various phosphate compounds of very limited water solubility. Specialty Fertilizer Products (SFP, Leawood, KS, USA has developed and patented a product registered as AVAIL® that is reported to attract and sequester antagonistic cations out of the soil solution leaving more of applied P in available form for plant uptake. To evaluate effectiveness of AVAIL product for cotton production, experiments were conducted in two locations in West Tennessee, Grand Junction (GJ in Hardeman County and Ames Plantation (AP located in Fayette County. Treatments consisted of applying Mono-Ammonium Phosphate (MAP, 11-52-0 alone or coated with AVAIL at rates of 34 or 68 kg ha-1 P2O5. A no P check was also included. An additional treatment consisting of AVAIL treated P in combination with Nutrisphere-N®, a Nitrogen (N stabilizer product offered by SFP, was also included. At GJ site, when averaged over P rates and years, AVAIL treated MAP improved tissue P concentration and increased cotton lint yield by 157 kg ha-1 over untreated MAP. At AP site, when averaged over years and P rates, application of AVAIL treated MAP increased cotton lint yield by 85 kg ha-1 over untreated MAP. In both experiments, 34 kg ha-1 AVAIL treated MAP produced higher tissue P concentrations and greater yields than 68 kg ha-1 without AVAIL. Influencing reactions in the micro-environment around the fertilizer granule has proven to have a significant benefit on the yield and P uptake of cotton. More research is needed to determine P content in the soil and further

  15. American Cotton Development Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The 30th International Cotton Conference took place March 24 - 27 in the historic city of Bremen,Germany this year.Worldwide high-ranking experts from cotton production, trade,spinning,weaving and some other fields of textile industries gathered together in the Bremen Town Hall.Allen A.Terhaar,Executive Director of Cotton Council International(CCI), Washington,presented a speech on the future development strategy of American cotton industry,and the development schedule in Chinese market.In the following part,let’s share his opinions and foresighted views.

  16. American Cotton Development Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2010-01-01

    @@ When we celebrated 2009 as the International Year of Natural Fiber, the global cotton industry joined hands in bringing recognition to cotton and all natural fibers. As we move into 2010 and beyond we must continue to engage the global consumer with messages that highlight the natural, renewable and biodegradable benefits of our product However, we must also go beyond what nature has provided and work toward true sustainability throughout the cotton supply chain. If some major brands and suppliers cannot achieve "sustainability" with cotton, they will do so with other fibers.

  17. Influential role of black carbon in the soil-air partitioning of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the Indus River Basin, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Usman; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Mahmood, Adeel; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Jones, Kevin C; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2015-09-01

    Levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were assessed in surface soils and passive air samples from the Indus River Basin, and the influential role of black carbon (BC) in the soil-air partitioning process was examined. ∑26-PCBs ranged between 0.002-3.03 pg m(-3) and 0.26-1.89 ng g(-1) for passive air and soil samples, respectively. Lower chlorinated (tri- and tetra-) PCBs were abundant in both air (83.9%) and soil (92.1%) samples. Soil-air partitioning of PCBs was investigated through octanol-air partition coefficients (KOA) and black carbon-air partition coefficients (KBC-A). The results of the paired-t test revealed that both models showed statistically significant agreement between measured and predicted model values for the PCB congeners. Ratios of fBCKBC-AδOCT/fOMKOA>5 explicitly suggested the influential role of black carbon in the retention and soil-air partitioning of PCBs. Lower chlorinated PCBs were strongly adsorbed and retained by black carbon during soil-air partitioning because of their dominance at the sampling sites and planarity effect. PMID:25933089

  18. Influence of stand density and soil treatment on the Spanish Black Pine (Pinus nigra Arn. ssp. Salzmannii) regeneration in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerro Barja, A. del; Lucas-Borja, M. E.; Martinez Garcia, E.; Lopez Serrano, F. R.; Andres Abellan, M.; Garcia Morote, F. A.; Navarro Lopez, R.

    2009-07-01

    Satisfactory results relating to the natural regeneration of the Spanish black pine (Pinus nigra Arn ssp. salzmannii) is generally difficult to achieve. The natural regeneration of this pine was studied comparing two types of soil treatment and various over story densities in six experimental forests. These studies were conducted from 1999 to 2002 and seed rain and germination, as well as seedling survival were observed in a number of specific plots: Brushing, scalping and control plots. In addition various over story densities were used (measured as base area m2/ha). Soil and air temperature together with soil moisture were continuously recorded throughout this summer period. The results showed that seed germination was higher in plots using the scalping technique, as opposed to the brushed or controlled plots. The best seedling survival percentage was found in scalped plots together with a larger basal area. It was also found that seedling survival was lower during the first year than during the second one. The results have practical implications for management of Spanish black pine forests as well as valuable information which could improve the conditions for regeneration. (Author) 82 refs.

  19. 拮抗菌S37、S44对棉花黄萎病病田土壤酶活性的影响%Effects of Antagonism Bacteria on Soil Enzyme Activities in Cotton Verticillium dahliae Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王飞; 赵思峰; 李俊华; 褚贵新; 郭永盛

    2011-01-01

    The influences of different antagonism bacteria on the soil enzyme activities and cotton biomass were evaluated with a pot experiment under greenhouse conditions. Four treatments were carried out. They were health soil (CK) ,CK added with Verticillium dahliae Kleb(V), V added with antagonism bacteria S37 (VS37) and V added with antagonism bacteria S44 (VS44).The results showed that cotton biomass measured as plant fresh and dry weight was significantly inhibited with Verticillium dahliae Kleb,but significantly promoted with antagonism bacteria,so that cotton could grow normally with the treatments of VS37and VS44. The three treatments of V,VS37, VS44 could improve soil enzyme activities of catalase,alkaline phosphatase,sucrase, protease and urease. The soil polyphenol oxidase were significantly inhibited with Verticillium dahliae Kleb, but significantly promoted with antagonism bacteria. The changes of soil enzyme activities were studied from cotton seeding to bolling.The activities were higher in seeding than in bolling with antagonism bacteria. The activities of alkaline phosphatase and protease increased in seeding but decreased in bolling.%采用室内模拟试验的方法研究了在健康土壤(CK)中单独加入黄萎病菌(V)、混合加入黄萎病菌与拮抗细菌S37(VS37)或S44(VS44)后对棉花生物量和土壤酶活性的影响.研究结果表明:证实了棉花黄萎病菌显著抑制了棉花的生长发育,而拮抗菌处理能够削弱这种抑制作用,使加入棉花黄萎病菌处理的棉花与正常生长的棉花间无显著差异.V、VS37和VS44三个处理对土壤中过氧化氢酶、碱性磷酸酶、蔗糖酶、蛋白酶活性有明显的促进作用.棉花黄萎病菌显著抑制了土壤多酚氧化酶活性,但拮抗菌有显著的促进作用.本试验研究了苗期至花铃期土壤酶活性的动态变化,发现拮抗菌处理前期对土壤酶活性的促进作用高于后期.磷酸酶活性和蛋白酶活性随着生长发育

  20. Organic amendments enhance microbial diversity and abundance of functional genes in Australian Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldorri, Sind; McMillan, Mary; Pereg, Lily

    2016-04-01

    Food and cash crops play important roles in Australia's economy with black, grey and red clay soil, widely use for growing cotton, wheat, corn and other crops in rotation. While the majority of cotton growers use nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers only in the form of agrochemicals, a few experiment with the addition of manure or composted plant material before planting. We hypothesized that the use of such organic amendments would enhance the soil microbial function through increased microbial diversity and abundance, thus contribute to improved soil sustainability. To test the hypothesis we collected soil samples from two cotton-growing farms in close geographical proximity and with mostly similar production practices other than one grower has been using composted plants as organic amendment and the second farmer uses only agrochemicals. We applied the Biolog Ecoplate system to study the metabolic signature of microbial communities and used qPCR to estimate the abundance of functional genes in the soil. The soil treated with organic amendments clearly showed higher metabolic activity of a more diverse range of carbon sources as well as higher abundance of genes involved in the nitrogen and phosphorous cycles. Since microbes undertake a large number of soil functions, the use of organic amendments can contribute to the sustainability of agricultural soils.

  1. Heliothis virescens and Bt cotton in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Carlos A

    2012-01-01

    The tobacco budworm (TBW), Heliothis virescens (F.), has been responsible for substantial economic losses, environmental pollution and a great challenge to the United States' economy, environment, researchers and cotton and tobacco producers during most of the past two hundred years. If a historical description of this pest problem should be written, it would necessarily be divided into two main events; the pre- and post-Bacillus thuringiensis-expressing (Bt)-cotton era. Before the advent of Bt-cotton, TBW had evolved resistance to most commercial insecticides, making cotton cultivation unfeasible at some point. Subsequently, a variety of clever control measures were developed in an effort to develop more sustainable integrated pest management programs. Without a doubt, Bt-cotton, transformed to produce insecticidal proteins from the soil borne bacterium, B. thuringiensis, is now one of the most important elements of TBW management in US cotton. This discussion could be quite short stating that Bt-cotton has produced an unprecedented level of control for TBW, but beyond this, it is important to note the additional impacts around the argument that Bt-cotton has likely reduced TBW populations over large areas-due to its high efficacy-to the low densities observed today. Cotton area suitable for TBW development has been reduced to ~40% of its pre Bt-cotton years and certainly may be another primary force behind this decline. However, the way we have detected this decline relies mostly on observations made in cotton fields, as well as males trapped in pheromone traps near cotton; these monitoring tools may not fully reflect TBW population levels at the landscape level. My argument supports what has been postulated before that TBW may be in the process of differentiating into "host races" and the cotton host race, once the most abundant in the environment, may be the one greatly affected by this habitat modification now dominated by Bt-cotton, while the other host races

  2. Effect of frozen saline water irrigation in winter on soil salt and water dynamics,germination and yield of cotton in coastal soils%冬季咸水结冰灌溉下滨海重盐碱地土壤水盐动态及对棉花出苗和产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀梅; 郭凯; 谢志霞; 封晓辉; 刘小京

    2012-01-01

    在河北省滨海区,连续3年对当地的盐碱地进行了冬季咸水结冰灌溉,并对土壤的耕层水盐动态、棉花出苗和产量以及植株的盐离子状况进行了观测.结果表明:利用矿化度为8.15~14.27 g·L-1、灌水量为180mm的地下咸水,对滨海盐碱地进行冬季结冰灌溉,后期结合地膜覆盖可显著降低土壤盐分含量和提高土壤含水量.咸水结冰灌溉处理2009-2011年棉花播种期土壤盐分含量分别为0.32%、0.29%和0.17%,土壤含水量分别为26.2%、25.0%和24.2%,保证了棉花正常出苗,3年的棉花出苗率均达到85%以上.结冰灌溉年限越长越有利于土壤盐分的淋洗.苗期棉花根、茎和叶片Na+含量比对照降低57.6%~64.5%,而相应的K+和Ca2+含量显著高于对照(不灌溉不覆膜处理)棉苗,避免了对苗期棉花的单盐伤害.随着当地雨季的来临,棉田耕层土壤可实现周年脱盐,保证了棉花的正常生长,籽棉产量达到2 643.8~3 607.7 kg·hm-2,并且3年的产量呈逐年上升趋势,实现了滨海重盐碱区水土资源的高效利用和棉花丰产.%A three-year field experiment was conducted to investigate soil water and salt dynamics, cotton emergence, seedling salt content and cotton seed yield in coastal soils (Xiaoshan, Haixing County of Hebei Province) under frozen saline water irrigation in winter. The irrigation water salinity and volume were 8.15~14.27 g·L-1, and 180 mm, respectively. After saline ice melt-water infiltration in spring, the soil was mulched with plastic film to prevent further soil salinization via evaporation. The results showed that soil salt and water contents at sowing in 2009, 2010 and 2011 were respectively 0.32%, 0.29% and 0.17% and 26.2%, 25.0% and 24.2% under saline ice water irrigation. This implied that longer saline ice water irrigation had better soil desalination effect, providing suitable soil water and salt conditions for cotton growth. While cotton

  3. 聚丙烯酰胺在黑土上的吸附解吸特性研究%Adsorption and desorption characteristics of polyacrylamide on black soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宝辉; 张学佳; 纪巍; 阮琴; 匡丽

    2009-01-01

    采用静态吸附法研究了聚丙烯酰胺在黑土上的吸附行为,考查了不同吸附时间对土壤吸附量的影响,得出了聚丙烯酰胺在土壤上的吸附等温线.并且研究了聚丙烯酰胺在黑土上的解吸行为,探讨了振荡时间、液固质量比、温度、pH值对黑土中聚丙烯酰胺解吸的影响.结果表明,聚丙烯酰胺在黑土上的吸附等温线符合Langmuir吸附模式,饱和吸附质量比为1.17 mg/g,聚丙烯酰胺在土壤上有很强的吸附亲合力,在实验条件下,最大解吸量仅为总量的25%.%The adsorption of polyacrylamide(PAM) on the black soil was studied by means of static adsorption method. The effects of static adsorption time on the capacity of PAM adsorption on the soll were examined and the adsorption isotherms of PAM on the soil were measured. Moreover, the desorption behavior of PAM on the black soil was also studied. The impact of shaken desorption time, mass ratio of solid/liquid, temperature and pH on the desorption of PAM on the black soil was analyzed. The results show that the adsorption isotherms are consistent with Langmuir model and the PAM saturated adsorptive capacity on black soil is 1.17 mg/g. PAM has a high adsorptive affinity on the black soil. The maximum desorption capacity on the black soil shares only 25% of the whole under the experimental conditions.

  4. Effect of cover crop extracts on cotton and radish radicle elongation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy L. Raper

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that some cover crops are allelopathic and can inhibit weed germination and growth. Additionally, negative allelopathic effects have been documented in cash crops planted into cover crop residue. However, little literature exists comparing relative the allelopathic potential of cover crops producers utilize in conservation-agriculture systems. This study assessed the effects of twelve cover crop extracts on radish (Raphanus sativus L. and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. radicle elongation, in three trials, using an extract-agar bioassay. In Trial 1 the cover crops were black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb cv. SoilSaver, crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L. cv. AU Robin, white lupin (Lupinus albus L. cvs. AU Homer and AU Alpha, rye (Secale cereale L. cv. Elbon, wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Vigoro Grazer, and triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack cv. Trical 2700. In Trial 2 the cover crops were forage rape (Brassica napus L. var. napus cv. Licapo, sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L., Austrian winter field pea (Pisum sativum spp. arvense L. Poir, black medic (Medicago lupilina L., hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth, black oat cv. SoilSaver, and crimson clover cv. AU Robin. Cotton was evaluated using the same bioassay and all of the cover crops mentioned above in a single trial (Trial 3. All cover crop extracts inhibited radicle elongation compared to water. Allelopathic potential was highly variable among cultivars within a cover crop species, and within a cultivar. Allelopathic differences among cover crops give an additional weed control tool in conservation systems. However, winter cover selection may impact on cash crop performance if producers plant their crop into green residue.

  5. 覆盖免耕对棉田土壤物理性质及棉花生理特性的影响%Effects of Straw Mulch and Zero Tillage on Soil Physical Properties and Cotton Physiological Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑曙峰; 王维; 徐道青; 屈磊

    2011-01-01

    The experiment was conducted with the split plot design to study the effects of straw mulch and zero tillage on the temperature and bulk density of soil, the SPAD value of functional leaves, photosynthetic characteristics and growth situation of cotton. The results showed that the temperature and bulk density of soil,the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), inter CO2 concentration (Ci), transpiration rate (Tr)of cotton were lower in zero tillage treatments than in tillage treatments, while the SPAD value of functional leaves was higher. The temperature of soil was lower in straw mulch treatments than in other treatments, while the moisture was higher. In zero tillage treatments, the bulk density of soil, the stomatal conductance (Cs), inter CO2 concentration (Ci), transpiration rate (Tr) of cotton were higher in straw mulch condition than in other conditions, which was opposite in tillage treatments. The bolls had no variety among with zero tillage treatments and tillage treatments. The bolls, boll weight and lint percentage was higher in straw mulch treatments than in no mulch treatments. The SPAD value of functional leaves was decreased with the increasing of straw mulch quantity, while the yield was increased. The photosynthetic characteristics and yields of cotton under the condition of straw mulch and zero tillage were lower than under the condition of tillage. The yield had no variety among with different mulches.%采用裂区设计,研究了秸秆覆盖及免耕对土壤温度、容重及棉花功能叶SPAD值、光合特性、生育性状等的影响.结果表明:免耕降低土壤温度、容重以及棉花的净光合速率、气孔导度、胞间CO2浓度、蒸腾速率,但功能叶SPAD值为免耕>翻耕;秸秆覆盖降低土壤温度,提高土壤含水量;免耕下秸秆覆盖较地膜覆盖和露地提高土壤容重及棉花的气孔导度、胞间CO2浓度、蒸腾速率,翻耕时结果与此相反;翻耕处理棉花长势强

  6. Hydraulic management in a soil moisture controlled SDI wastewater dispersal system in an Alabama black belt soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    An experimental field moisture controlled subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) system was designed and installed as a field trial in a Vertisol in the Alabama Black Belt region for two years. The system was designed to start hydraulic dosing only when field moisture was below field capacity. Results sho...

  7. Nitrous oxide emissions from cultivated black soil: A case study in Northeast China and global estimates using empirical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zengming; Ding, Weixin; Luo, Yiqi; Yu, Hongyan; Xu, Yehong; Müller, Christoph; Xu, Xia; Zhu, Tongbin

    2014-11-01

    Manure application is effective in promoting soil carbon sequestration, but its impact on N2O emission is not well understood. A field experiment was conducted in a maize-cultivated black soil in Northeast China with six treatments: inorganic fertilizer (NPK), 75% inorganic fertilizer N plus 25% pig (PM1) or chicken (CM1) manure N, 50% inorganic fertilizer N plus 50% pig (PM2) or chicken (CM2) manure N, and no N fertilizer (CK). Annual N2O emission significantly increased from 0.34 kg N ha-1 for CK to 0.86 kg N ha-1 for NPK and further to 1.65, 1.02, 1.17, and 0.93 kg N ha-1 for PM1, CM1, PM2, and CM2, respectively. A 15N tracing study showed that 71-79% of total N2O was related to nitrification at 30-70% water-filled pore space (WFPS), and heterotrophic nitrification contributed 49% and 25% to total N2O at 30% and 70% WFPS, respectively. In an incubation, N2O emission was only stimulated when nitrate and glucose were applied together at 60% WFPS, indicating that denitrification was carbon limited. PM had a stronger effect on denitrification than CM due to higher decomposability, and the lower N2O emission at higher manure application rate was associated with decreased mineral N supply. After compiling a worldwide database and establishing an empirical model that related N2O emissions (kg N ha-1) to precipitation (Pr, m) and fertilizer N application rate (Nr, kg N ha-1) (N2O = 1.533Pr + 0.0238PrNr), annual N2O emission from global-cultivated black soil applied with inorganic fertilizer N was estimated as 347 Gg N. Our results suggested that N2O emission from cultivated black soils in China was low primarily due to low precipitation and labile organic carbon availability, and would be stimulated by manure application; thus, increased N2O emission should be taken into consideration as applying manure increases soil organic carbon sequestration.

  8. Conversion of cotton plant and cotton gin residues to fuels by the extruder-feeder liquefaction process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.H. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering; Coates, W.E. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Bioresources Research Facility; Wolf, D. [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheba (Israel). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-04-01

    Cotton is planted on a large scale in the USA, and is a major crop in Arizona. A large amount of cotton plant residue and cotton gin waste is produced annually, and these present a disposal problem. This material is comprised of cotton stalks, along with the upper portion of the taproot, and cotton gin trash. Cotton plant residues are a greater problem in the warmer regions of the USA as they serve as an over-wintering site for insect pests, and thus must be destroyed. Presently they are buried. Most field operations used to bury the residue are high energy consumers, and tend to destroy soil structure, thereby increasing the potential for erosion. This burial process is considered to be detrimental to the soil. One option to change the negative value of this biomass to a positive one is to harvest the cotton plants and combine them with other cotton wastes to produce a feedstock for liquefaction purposes. A process for harvesting and transporting the roots and stalks is being developed at the University of Arizona. In this paper we propose a combined harvesting/liquefaction system. This system would harvest and liquefy cotton wastes into oil and densified solid fuels with higher economic values. The extruder-feeder liquefaction process was developed at the University of Arizona in the 1980s under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy, with the goal to convert wood to a clean, 16000 btu/lb liquid fuel. The process has been redirected to other organic wastes using additional processing to yield ``value-added`` byproducts. Cotton wastes are good candidates for this process. By combining the harvesting and fuel processing operations, a negative value biomass would become a positive value biomass by (a) solving a disposal problem, and (b) producing high value fuels. (Author)

  9. Size-mediated tree transpiration along soil drainage gradients in a boreal black spruce forest wildfire chronosequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angstmann, J L; Ewers, B E; Kwon, H

    2012-05-01

    Boreal forests are crucial to climate change predictions because of their large land area and ability to sequester and store carbon, which is controlled by water availability. Heterogeneity of these forests is predicted to increase with climate change through more frequent wildfires, warmer, longer growing seasons and potential drainage of forested wetlands. This study aims at quantifying controls over tree transpiration with drainage condition, stand age and species in a central Canadian black spruce boreal forest. Heat dissipation sensors were installed in 2007 and data were collected through 2008 on 118 trees (69 Picea mariana (Mill.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb. (black spruce), 25 Populus tremuloides Michx. (trembling aspen), 19 Pinus banksiana Lamb. (jack pine), 3 Larix laricina (Du Roi) K. Koch (tamarack) and 2 Salix spp. (willow)) at four stand ages (18, 43, 77 and 157 years old) each containing a well- and poorly-drained stand. Transpiration estimates from sap flux were expressed per unit xylem area, J(S), per unit ground area, E(C) and per unit leaf area, E(L), using sapwood (A(S)) and leaf (A(L)) area calculated from stand- and species-specific allometry. Soil drainage differences in transpiration were variable; only the 43- and 157-year-old poorly-drained stands had ∼ 50% higher total stand E(C) than well-drained locations. Total stand E(C) tended to decrease with stand age after an initial increase between the 18- and 43-year-old stands. Soil drainage differences in transpiration were controlled primarily by short-term physiological drivers such as vapor pressure deficit and soil moisture whereas stand age differences were controlled by successional species shifts and changes in tree size (i.e., A(S)). Future predictions of boreal climate change must include stand age, species and soil drainage heterogeneity to avoid biased estimates of forest water loss and latent energy exchanges. PMID:22539635

  10. Quantitative differentiation between coal, black carbon and soil organic matter in a minesoil matrix using thermal analysis techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jaclyn; Baumgartl, Thomas; Erskine, Peter; Peltre, Clement; Plante, Alain

    2014-05-01

    Minesoils are created during the rehabilitation of mined lands, typically covering newly constructed landforms. These soils are developmentally young, with little to no organic matter due to losses during stockpiling, disturbance and dilution from mixing with overburden material. Increasing soil organic matter (SOM) content in minesoils can improve soil quality for subsequent use, and thus SOM levels could potentially be used as an indicator of rehabilitation success. Assessment of SOM accumulation in minesoils from coal mines is problematic because of the varying amounts of coal dispersed in them. A further complication is the potential presence of a third carbon source, pyrogenic or black carbon (BC) derived from vegetation burning. Black carbon is nearly ubiquitous in Australian soils and especially in Vertisols, which are common in the Bowen Basin of Queensland, Australia, an active coal mining region. The quantification of SOM accumulation in coal minesoils is therefore complicated by the varying presence of both coal and BC. The objective of this study was to quantitatively differentiate between coal, BC and soil organic matter in a minesoil matrix as a means of assessing SOM accumulation during rehabilitation. Multivariate curve resolution - alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) is a chemometric deconvolution technique that makes it possible to decompose an unresolved mixture signal into several individual components and to estimate their concentration in the original mixture. We applied MCR-ALS to resolve curves generated during ramped combustion/oxidation. As a proof-of-principle, mixtures containing coal and/or BC (reference chestnut wood char) were created using three different matrices: sand, Vertisol and minesoil. Samples were analyzed using a Netzsch STA 409PC Luxx thermal analyser coupled to a LI-840 CO2/H2O infrared gas analyser (IRGA) for evolved gas analysis (EGA). MCR-ALS analyses were performed on area-normalized CO2-EGA curves, using individual

  11. Productivity of black alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.) plantations on reclaimed oil-shale mining detritus and mineral soils in relation to rhizosphere conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present research was carried out in three black alder plantations in Estonia in 1998-2002. The above-ground productivity and the efficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus use in a plantation in reclaimed opencast oil-shale mining area at Sirgala were analyzed and compared with two plantations growing on fertile mineral soils. The results indicate that black alder is a very promising tree species for the recultivation of exhausted oil-shale opencast mines

  12. Sorption and Desorption of Phenanthrene to Black Carbon on Crop Soil from the South-North Water Diversion Project in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Hao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The water quality of South-North Water Diversion Project (SNWDP has attracted more and more attention. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in soils strongly sorb to black carbon. In this study, adsorption and desorption characteristics and isotherm of phenanthrene to black carbon in SNWDP crop soils were studied extensively. The results showed that the sorption and desorption of phenanthrene to black carbon were nonlinear. Freundlich model could fit the sorption and desorption data of BC well. Meantime, desorption process exhibited varied apparent sorption-desorption hysteresis. It can be inferred that BC of crop soils in SNWDP plays a significant role in reducing the bioavailability and toxicity of phenanthrene through sorption capacity and desorption hysteresis.

  13. Dictionary of cotton: Picking & ginning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton is an essential commodity for textiles and has long been an important item of trade in the world’s economy. Cotton is currently grown in over 100 countries by an estimated 100 producers. The basic unit of the cotton trade is the cotton bale which consists of approximately 500 pounds of raw c...

  14. Cotton Demand Dropping in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The ICAC claimed, global cotton market outlook is bleak in the 2012/2013 annual. Global cotton production is estimated at 25.9 million tons and cotton usage is estimated at 23.4 million tons. Cotton supply will exceed demand; the excess volume will reach 2.4 million tons.

  15. Soil organic carbon dynamics under long-term fertilization in a black soil of China: Evidence from stable C isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Xiaolin; He, Ping; Zhu, Ping; Zhou, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Effects of different fertilizers on organic carbon (C) storage and turnover of soil fractions remains unclear. We combined soil fractionation with isotope analyses to examine soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics after 25 years of fertilization. Five types of soil samples including the initial level (CK) and four fertilization treatments (inorganic nitrogen fertilizer, N; balanced inorganic fertilizer, NPK; inorganic fertilizer plus farmyard manure, MNPK; inorganic fertilizer plus corn straw residue, SNPK) were separated into four aggregate sizes (>2000 μm, 2000–250 μm, 250–53 μm, and 250 μm aggregates but reduced SOC storage in <250 μm aggregates due to SOC changes in LF and iPOM. PMID:26898121

  16. 寒地黑土相关知识产权及保护定位%Construction and Protection of Frigid Black Soil's Intellectual Property Rights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐洪军

    2011-01-01

    The research of frigid black soil's intellectual property rights concerned the economy and the brand of frigid black soil, food safety and produce market development of frigid black soil, together with the prosperity of folk literature art of frigid black soil. The right to geographical indications of frigid black soil had the huge property value as well as the assurance function of the product quality of producing area. In the face of the right infringement, the government and the professional association should function. Research of the folk literature art's copyright of frigid black soil faced with the research fatigue and the legal rule blank, meanwhile, the universal significance of the thought achievements was needed to be extract.%寒地黑土知识产权的研究,关乎寒地黑土经济与品牌、食品安全与寒地黑土产品市场开发、寒地黑土民间文学艺术的繁荣.寒地黑土地理标志权具有巨大的财产价值和产地产品品质保证功能.面对侵权,应发挥政府和行业协会的职能.寒地黑土民间文学艺术著作权的研究面临研究乏力和法律规定空白的境遇,亟需提炼出具有普遍意义的思想成果.

  17. The changing law of the diurnal evapotranspiration and soil evaporation in cotton field of Tarim irrigation area%塔里木灌区棉田蒸散与棵间蒸发变化规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兴繁; 胡顺军; 田长彦; 罗毅

    2012-01-01

    为了给塔里木灌区棉花合理灌溉提供科学理论依据,根据新疆阿克苏农田生态系统国家野外科学观测研究站监测的地面沟灌棉田土壤水分、降水量、灌水量等资料,采用水量平衡原理计算了棉田蒸散量,采用自制的Micro-Lysimeters测定了棉田棵间蒸发,分析了棉田蒸散和棵间蒸发的变化规律及其影响因子,结果表明,棉田蒸散强度与棵间蒸发强度从苗期、蕾期、花铃期逐渐增大,到花铃期达到最大,吐絮期、收获期逐渐减小;棵间蒸发占棉田蒸散量的比例从苗期、蕾期、花铃期逐渐减小,到花铃期达到最小,吐絮期、收获期又逐渐增大,棉花生育期内棵间蒸发占蒸散量的比例为16.49%.棉花相对棵间蒸发强度与表层土壤含水量关系密切,随着表层土壤含水量的增大相对棵间蒸发强度增强.%In order to provide a scientific theoretical basis for reasonable irrigation of cotton in Tarim irrigation area, and based on soil moisture, precipitation, irrigation and other data observed at Aksu National Field Research Station of Agro-ecosystem in Xinjiang, evapotranspiration is calculated by using water balance method, evaporation is monitored by using self-made Micro-lysimeters, and the changing law and affecting factors are analyzed. The results show that the intensity of cotton evapotranspiration and evaporation increases gradually in seedling, squaring, flowering and boiling stages, reaching its maximum in flowering and boiling stages, and then decreases gradually in boling opening and harvesting stages. The ratio of evaporation to evapotranspiration of cotton decreases gradually in seeding, squaring and flowering and boiling stages, reaching its minimum in flowering and boiling stages, then increases gradually in boll opening and harvesting stages. All through these stages, the ratio of evaporation to evapotranspiration is about 16.49% . The relative evaporation intensity of cotton

  18. 长期连作及秸秆还田棉田土壤呼吸变化特征%Soil Respiration Variation Characteristics of Continuous Cropping and Straw Incorporation Cotton Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘军; 黄金花; 杨志兰; 魏飞; 刘建国

    2015-01-01

    利用棉花长期连作定位试验田,探究秸秆还田下棉田土壤呼吸日变化和季节变化以及碳排放随着连作年限增加的变化特征,揭示长期连作棉田碳排放量与不同土层土壤有机碳和微生物量碳含量的关系,为衡量和评价长期连作及秸秆还田的生态效应提供理论依据。试验田设有连作5 a、10 a、15 a、20 a、25 a和30 a的棉花秸秆连年还田小区,采用LI-8100土壤碳通量测定仪测定棉田土壤呼吸速率的日变化和季节变化,根据棉花生育期的天数和土壤呼吸速率计算出棉花各个生育期的土壤碳排放量,并分析了土壤碳排放与有机碳和微生物量碳含量的关系。研究结果表明,秸秆还田不同连作年限棉田土壤呼吸速率日变化和季节变化差异表现为随着连作年限的增加整体上呈现增加的变化趋势,30 a 最大,5 a最小;不同连作年限棉田土壤呼吸速率日变化均表现相同的规律,呈现单峰曲线,在15:00达到峰值,最小值均在凌晨05:00出现;不同连作年限棉田土壤呼吸速率随着季节的变化呈现先升高后下降的趋势,7月下旬土壤呼吸速率最高,30 a土壤呼吸速率比5、10、15、20、25 a增加4.96%、4.33%、1.98%、2.52%、1.31%。随着连作年限增加棉花各个生育期及全生育期土壤碳排放量整体上呈现逐渐增加的变化趋势,相同连作年限棉花不同生育期土壤碳排放量差异表现为铃期>苗期>花期>蕾期>絮期,铃期土壤碳排放量最高,不同连作年限棉田铃期碳排放量占全生育期总碳排放量的25.48%~25.60%。长期连作及秸秆还田棉田土壤碳排放量与0~20 cm土层土壤总有机碳含量及两个土层微生物量碳含量呈显著的线性相关关系(P seedling stage > flowering stage > budding stage>boll opening stage, the highest carbon emissions was at bell soil, cropping in cotton boll growth stage of the carbon

  19. 干旱区灌溉及施肥措施下棉田土壤的呼吸特征%Respiration characteristics of cotton soil under irrigation and fertilization measures in arid region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张前兵; 杨玲; 孙兵; 张旺锋; 罗宏海; 张亚黎; 王进

    2012-01-01

    为探讨干旱区不同灌溉方式及施肥措施对棉田土壤呼吸速率的影响及其与水热的关系,在新疆绿洲农田棉花生长季设滴灌和漫灌2种灌溉方式,每种灌溉方式设有机肥(OM)、氮磷钾化肥(NPK)、氮磷钾化肥与有机肥配施(NPK+OM)3种施肥处理,以不施肥处理为对照(CK),对不同灌溉方式及施肥措施下土壤呼吸速率及土壤温度、土壤含水率进行了测定和分析.结果表明,不同灌溉方式及施肥措施下,棉田土壤呼吸速率具有明显的季节变化特征,在7月中旬达到峰值,10月中旬降至最低;日变化呈单峰曲线,盛花期峰值出现在15:00~17:00,盛铃期峰值均出现在15:00,最低值均出现在04:00.滴灌各施肥处理平均土壤呼吸速率显著大于漫灌,施肥处理间平均土壤呼吸速率大小顺序为(NPK+OM)>OM>CK>NPK,灌溉与施肥互作条件下,滴灌方式下NPK+OM处理平均土壤呼吸速率最大.滴灌和漫灌方式下各施肥处理的温度敏感性系数(Q10值)平均值分别为2.03和2.43,不同年份漫灌Q10值均大于滴灌.不同灌溉方式及施肥措施下,用复合方程预测土壤呼吸速率的准确性较高,R2值均在0.64~0.72.综合考虑土壤温度和土壤含水率对土壤呼吸速率的影响,能够提高区域土壤呼吸作用研究的准确性.%To discuss the soil respiration rate and its relationship with soil temperature and moisture, two different irrigation methods including drip irrigation and flood irrigation and four fertilizer treatments including organic manure(OM), NPK fertilizer(NPK), combined application of NPK. fertilizer and organic manure(NPK+OM), and no fertilization(CK) were arranged during cotton growth period in Xinjiang oasis. Soil respiration rate, soil temperature and soil moisture were measured and analyzed under different irrigation methods and fertilizer treatments. The results showed that soil respiration rate of cotton field exhibited a significant

  20. Soil erosion along a long slope in the gentle hilly areas of black soil region in Northeast China%东北黑土漫岗区长坡面坡耕地侵蚀产沙沿程变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔明; 蔡强国; 朱阿兴; 范昊明

    2007-01-01

    Characteristics of soil erosion change along a long slope in the gentle hilly areas in black soil region in Northeast China are discussed. A simplified slope model based on segments was used to analyze the runoff data and soil erosion data observed between 2003 and 2004 over 10 field plots with different slope length in Heshan Farm, Heilongjiang Province. We found that soil erosion rate over long slopes in the black soil region changed alternatively along the slope and creates alternative zones of intensive erosion and week erosion.The exact place of each zone is different for different rainfall conditions. In a year with less and mild precipitation, rill cannot happen within the top 50 m, while in a year with large and intensive precipitation, rill can be formed starting even at 15 m from the top of the slope.

  1. Nitrous oxide emissions from black soils with different pH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lianfeng Wang; Huachao Du; Zuoqiang Han; Xilin Zhang

    2013-01-01

    N2O fluxes as a function of incubation time from soil with different available N contents and pH were determined.Cumulative carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions were measured to indicate soil respiration.A 144-hr incubation experiment was conducted in a slightly acidic agricultural soil (pHH2o 5.33) after the pH was adjusted to four different values (3.65,5.00,6.90 and 8.55).The experiments consisted of a control without added N,and with NH+4-N and NO-3-N fertilization.The results showed that soil pH contributed significantly to N2O flux from the soils.There were higher N2O emissions in the period 0-12 hr in the four pH treatments,especially those enhanced with Nfertilization.The cumulative N2O-N emission reached a maximum at pH 8.55 and was stimulated by NO-3-N fertilization (70.4 tg/kg).The minimum emissions appeared at pH 3.65 and were not stimulated by NO-3-N or NH+4-N fertilization.Soil respiration increased significantly due to N-fertilization.Soil respiration increased positively with soil pH (R2 =0.98,P < 0.01).The lowest CO2-C emission (30.2 mg/kg) was presented in pH 3.65 soils without N-fertilization.The highest CO2-C emissions appeared in the pH 8.55 soils for NH+4-N fertilization (199 mg/kg).These findings suggested that N2O emissions and soil respiration were significantly influenced by low pH,which strongly inhibits soil microbial nitrification and denitrification activities.The content of NO-3-N in soil significantly and positively affected the N2O emissions through denitrification.

  2. Cotton School Tells Us More--The Fourth COTTON USA Cotton School Convened in Qingdao

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    By Wang Ting

    2012-01-01

    Since the year of 2006, Cotton Council International has already convened the Cotton School for three times in China. This year, in 2012, CCI held the Cotton School in the city of Qingdao for the fourth time, generously shared with international buyers, especially the Chinese domestic purchases, the knowledge of qualified U.S. cotton.

  3. Two methods of soil inoculation of cotton Fusarium pathogen and appropriate inoculum%土壤接种棉花枯萎病菌的两种方法及适宜接种量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑蚆爽; 冯自力; 朱荷琴; 李志芳; 赵丽红; 师勇强

    2015-01-01

    Two sets of tests were conducted to determine two soil inoculation methods of cotton Fusarium oxyspo-rum and the appropriate quantity of inoculum.Corn and sand media was used for cultivation of F .oxysporum .To inoculate the seedling in nursery or in field,the inoculum was directly thrown into the sowing gutter and fully mixed with soils.The suitable quantity of inoculum was 10 g dried inoculum per meter.Another method is to mix dried inoculum with sterile soils fully and putting them into pots.The proportion of dried inoculum of corn and sand in-oculum in soil was 0.6% to 0.8%.By using the above two methods and quantity of inoculum,the disease incidence and disease index of ‘Jimian 11’(a susceptible variety)could reach more than 80% and 50,respectively,and the methods could be used to identify resistance of cotton varieties (lines)or materials to F.oxysporum and for related studies.%本研究通过两组试验,明确了土壤接种棉花枯萎病菌的两种方法及适宜接种量。枯萎病菌的繁殖采用玉米沙粒培养基。建立苗床病圃或田间接种时,可在种沟内直接将风干的玉米沙粒培养物与土壤混匀,适宜接种量为10 g/m。采用土壤拌菌法时,病原菌的风干玉米沙粒培养物的加入量以灭菌的细沙壤土的0.6%~0.8%为宜。采用上述接种方法和接种量,感病品种‘冀棉11’当年病株率可达到80%以上,病情指数可达到50以上。本文提供的接种方法和接种量可用于棉花新品种(系)、资源材料的抗病鉴定及枯萎病的相关研究。

  4. Interactive effects of fire, soil climate, and moss on CO2 fluxes in black spruce ecosystems of interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, J. A.; Turetsky, M.R.; Harden, J.W.; Manies, K.L.; Pruett, L.E.; Shetler, G.; Neff, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    Fire is an important control on the carbon (C) balance of the boreal forest region. Here, we present findings from two complementary studies that examine how fire modifies soil organic matter properties, and how these modifications influence rates of decomposition and C exchange in black spruce (Picea mariana) ecosystems of interior Alaska. First, we used laboratory incubations to explore soil temperature, moisture, and vegetation effects on CO2 and DOC production rates in burned and unburned soils from three study regions in interior Alaska. Second, at one of the study regions used in the incubation experiments, we conducted intensive field measurements of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and ecosystem respiration (ER) across an unreplicated factorial design of burning (2 year post-fire versus unburned sites) and drainage class (upland forest versus peatland sites). Our laboratory study showed that burning reduced the sensitivity of decomposition to increased temperature, most likely by inducing moisture or substrate quality limitations on decomposition rates. Burning also reduced the decomposability of Sphagnum-derived organic matter, increased the hydrophobicity of feather moss-derived organic matter, and increased the ratio of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) in both the upland and peatland sites. At the ecosystem scale, our field measurements indicate that the surface organic soil was generally wetter in burned than in unburned sites, whereas soil temperature was not different between the burned and unburned sites. Analysis of variance results showed that ER varied with soil drainage class but not by burn status, averaging 0.9 ?? 0.1 and 1.4 ?? 0.1 g C m-2d-1 in the upland and peatland sites, respectively. However, a more complex general linear model showed that ER was controlled by an interaction between soil temperature, moisture, and burn status, and in general was less variable over time in the burned than in the unburned sites

  5. Wireless sensor network for irrigation application in cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    A wireless sensor network was deployed in a cotton field to monitor soil water status for irrigation. The network included two systems, a Decagon system and a microcontroller-based system. The Decagon system consists of soil volumetric water-content sensors, wireless data loggers, and a central data...

  6. CottonDB Enhancement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Jing; KOHEL Russell; HINZE Lori; FRELICHOWSKI James; XU Zhan-you; YU John Z; PERCY Richard

    2008-01-01

    @@ CottonDB (www.cottondb,org) was initiated in 1995.It is a database that contains genomic,genetic,and taxonomic information for cotton (Gossypium spp.).It serves both as an archival database and as a dynamic database,which incorporates new data and user resources.CottonDB is maintained at the Southern Plains Agricultural Research Center in College Station,TX.The project includes a website and database creating a repository of information for over 450,000 gene,EST,and conting sequences; genetic and physical map data; nearly 10,000 DNA primers; and 9,000 germplasm accessions.

  7. Cotton and its interaction with cotton morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The morphological plasticity of the cotton plant enables it to be produced in a wide variety of agro-ecological regions (Oosterhuis and Jernstedt 1999). This plasticity essentially translates to the lengthening, shortening, or interruption of its effective flowering period in response to season leng...

  8. A 6-year-long manipulation with soil warming and canopy nitrogen additions does not affect xylem phenology and cell production of mature black spruce

    OpenAIRE

    Madjelia Cangre Ebou eDAO; Sergio eRossi; Denis eWalsh; Hubert eMorin; Daniel eHoule

    2015-01-01

    The predicted climate warming and increased atmospheric inorganic nitrogen deposition are expected to have dramatic impacts on plant growth. However, the extent of these effects and their interactions remains unclear for boreal forest trees. The aim of this experiment was to investigate the effects of increased soil temperature and nitrogen (N) depositions on stem intra-annual growth of two mature stands of black spruce [Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP] in Quebec, Canada. During 2008-2013, the soil...

  9. DYNAMICS OF RESTORATION OF BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF BLACK SOILS POLLUTED WITH OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kutuzova I. V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Negative impact of oil on biological properties of soils right after pollution is shown in the article. Eventually, there is their restoration. However, even in some years after pollution, the biological properties of soils aren't restored completely

  10. Soil organic carbon dynamics under long-term fertilization in a black soil of China: Evidence from stable C isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Xiaolin; He, Ping; Zhu, Ping; Zhou, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Effects of different fertilizers on organic carbon (C) storage and turnover of soil fractions remains unclear. We combined soil fractionation with isotope analyses to examine soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics after 25 years of fertilization. Five types of soil samples including the initial level (CK) and four fertilization treatments (inorganic nitrogen fertilizer, N; balanced inorganic fertilizer, NPK; inorganic fertilizer plus farmyard manure, MNPK; inorganic fertilizer plus corn straw residue, SNPK) were separated into four aggregate sizes (>2000 μm, 2000-250 μm, 250-53 μm, and organic matter (iPOM), and mineral-associated organic matter (mSOM). Physical fractionation showed the iPOM fraction of aggregates dominated C storage, averaging 76.87% of SOC storage. Overall, application of N and NPK fertilizers cannot significantly increase the SOC storage but enhanced C in mSOM of aggregates, whereas MNPK fertilizer resulted in the greatest amount of SOC storage (about 5221.5 g C m(2)) because of the enhanced SOC in LF, iPOM and mSOM of each aggregate. The SNPK fertilizer increased SOC storage in >250 μm aggregates but reduced SOC storage in <250 μm aggregates due to SOC changes in LF and iPOM. PMID:26898121

  11. Soil organic carbon dynamics under long-term fertilization in a black soil of China: Evidence from stable C isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Xiaolin; He, Ping; Zhu, Ping; Zhou, Wei

    2016-02-01

    Effects of different fertilizers on organic carbon (C) storage and turnover of soil fractions remains unclear. We combined soil fractionation with isotope analyses to examine soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics after 25 years of fertilization. Five types of soil samples including the initial level (CK) and four fertilization treatments (inorganic nitrogen fertilizer, N; balanced inorganic fertilizer, NPK; inorganic fertilizer plus farmyard manure, MNPK; inorganic fertilizer plus corn straw residue, SNPK) were separated into four aggregate sizes (>2000 μm, 2000-250 μm, 250-53 μm, and NPK fertilizers cannot significantly increase the SOC storage but enhanced C in mSOM of aggregates, whereas MNPK fertilizer resulted in the greatest amount of SOC storage (about 5221.5 g C m2) because of the enhanced SOC in LF, iPOM and mSOM of each aggregate. The SNPK fertilizer increased SOC storage in >250 μm aggregates but reduced SOC storage in <250 μm aggregates due to SOC changes in LF and iPOM.

  12. Soil organic carbon dynamics under long-term fertilization in a black soil of China: Evidence from stable C isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Xiaolin; He, Ping; Zhu, Ping; Zhou, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Effects of different fertilizers on organic carbon (C) storage and turnover of soil fractions remains unclear. We combined soil fractionation with isotope analyses to examine soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics after 25 years of fertilization. Five types of soil samples including the initial level (CK) and four fertilization treatments (inorganic nitrogen fertilizer, N; balanced inorganic fertilizer, NPK; inorganic fertilizer plus farmyard manure, MNPK; inorganic fertilizer plus corn straw residue, SNPK) were separated into four aggregate sizes (>2000 μm, 2000-250 μm, 250-53 μm, and organic matter (iPOM), and mineral-associated organic matter (mSOM). Physical fractionation showed the iPOM fraction of aggregates dominated C storage, averaging 76.87% of SOC storage. Overall, application of N and NPK fertilizers cannot significantly increase the SOC storage but enhanced C in mSOM of aggregates, whereas MNPK fertilizer resulted in the greatest amount of SOC storage (about 5221.5 g C m(2)) because of the enhanced SOC in LF, iPOM and mSOM of each aggregate. The SNPK fertilizer increased SOC storage in >250 μm aggregates but reduced SOC storage in <250 μm aggregates due to SOC changes in LF and iPOM.

  13. Role of foliar feeding of micronutrients in yield maximization of cotton in Punjab

    OpenAIRE

    Yaseen, Muhammad; Ahmed, Wazir; Shahbaz, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Deficiency of micronutrients, particularly of zinc, boron, and iron, in calcareous soils is of great concern. Results indicate a reduction in yield of seed-cotton due to an imbalance of nutrients, particularly micronutrients, on calcareous soils in the last decade. About 90% of Pakistani soils are deficient in micronutrients, particularly zinc, boron, and iron. This paper highlights efforts to overcome these deficiencies in cotton through foliar feeding of micronutrients. The results of this ...

  14. 地膜残留量对新疆棉田蒸散及棵间蒸发的影响%Effects of plastic film residue on evapotranspiration and soil evaporation in cotton field of Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亮; 林涛; 严昌荣; 王静; 郭瑞霞; 岳璐珂; 汤秋香

    2016-01-01

    为探讨残膜对干旱区农田蒸散耗水特征的影响,在新疆阿克苏典型覆膜滴灌棉田开展2 a 小区试验研究,设计0、225、450 kg/hm2共3种不同的地膜残留量,采用水量平衡法,微型棵间蒸发仪法,于主要生育时期测定并计算土壤含水量、蒸散量、棵间蒸发量、作物蒸腾量、棵间蒸发占蒸散的比例。结果表明:随着地膜残留量增加棵间蒸发量、棵间蒸发占蒸散的比例呈增大趋势,而蒸散量及作物蒸腾量则逐渐减小。与无残膜处理相比,225和450 kg/hm2处理全生育期田间无效耗水的棵间蒸发量分别增加了9.27和22.20 mm,棵间蒸发占蒸散的比例增幅分别为2.6%和6.1%,作物蒸腾量降低34.89和55.94 mm。在棉花生育期内,棵间蒸发占蒸散的比例(E/ET)与叶面积指数(leaf area index,LAI)呈幂函数关系,各处理间棵间蒸发占蒸散的比例对叶面积指数的响应差异不同,450 kg/hm2处理蒸发占蒸散的比例随着 LAI 的增加,曲线下降趋势较明显;无残膜处理棵间蒸发占蒸散的比例与 LAI 的决定系数最高,均在0.9以上。土壤水分利用率也随残膜量的增加依次降低,当残膜量由0增加到450 kg/hm2时,土壤水分利用率从28.25%降至24.91%,可见,残膜增大了农田的无效耗水,不利于土壤水分的有效利用。研究可为制定缓解或克服残膜危害的应变调控技术提供依据。%Plastic film mulching plays an important role in cotton production. However, its widespread use has generate large amounts of plastic film residue and damage the physical structure of soil, which blocks the infiltration of capillary water and natural water and affects the moisture absorption in soil. Little is known about the impact of film residue on crop evapotranspiration (ETc), and soil evaporation and transpiration. This study aimed to determine the effects of different amount of plastic film residue on

  15. A Method of Extracting Total Microbial DNA from Cotton Soil for Microbial Diversity Analysis%用于微生物多样性分析的棉田土壤总DNA的提取

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张静文; 罗明; 徐文修; 肖正群

    2009-01-01

    目的:探讨适用于微生物多样性研究的棉田土壤微生物总DNA提取方法.方法:采用4种方法提取不同连作和轮作处理的棉田土壤微生物总DNA,比较其纯度、产率、片段大小,并应用ARDRA技术验证其质量.结果:其中3种方法均可获得23kb的DNA片段,但不同方法提取的DNA的产率和纯度上有明显差异.改良CTAB-SDS法提取的DNA完整性好,得率为24.20μg·g~(-1)干土,纯化后A_(260)/A_(280)和A_(260)/A_(230)为分别为1.80和1.70,纯化回收率可达70.1%,完全适用于后续的PCR分析.结论:采用该法提取棉田土壤总DNA简便而高效.对该法提取获得的棉田土壤微生物总DNA进行ARDRA和DGGE分析,所得图谱能较全面地反映不同处理间微生物多样性及群落结构的差别,为不同栽培体系下棉田土壤微生物的分子生态学研究提供了基础.%Objective:The research aimed to develop a method of extracting total microbial DNA from cotton soil for microbial diversity analysis.Method: Four methods were used to extract total microbial DNA from the cotton soi of different continuou cropping and rotation treatments.The extracted DNA were evaluated comprehencively in DNA purity,yield,fragment size,and the impact on the subsequence by ARDRA and DGGE analysis of the bacterial community.Result: The DNA extracted by three methods from the eight samples were all greater than 23kb in size,but the yields and quality were different significantly.Modified CTAB-SDA method was confirmed that the yield of the extracted DNA was 24.20μg·g~(-1) dry soil.After purified,the A_(260)/A_(280) and A_(260)/A_(230) could be get 1.80,1.70 respectively ,while percent recovery of purification was 70.1%,and the extracted DNA were successfully used for the further molecular analysis.Conclusion: It was suggested that the extracted DNA could reflect the biodiversity and composition of microbial community in the soils,while the genomic fingerprinting of the DNA displayed

  16. Superoleophobic cotton textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Boxun; Shao, Zhengzhong; de With, Gijsbertus; Ming, Weihua

    2009-02-17

    Common cotton textiles are hydrophilic and oleophilic in nature. Superhydrophobic cotton textiles have the potential to be used as self-cleaning fabrics, but they typically are not super oil-repellent. Poor oil repellency may easily compromise the self-cleaning property of these fabrics. Here, we report on the preparation of superoleophobic cotton textiles based on a multilength-scale structure, as demonstrated by a high hexadecane contact angle (153 degrees for 5 microL droplets) and low roll-off angle (9 degrees for 20 microL droplets). The multilength-scale roughness was based on the woven structure, with additional two layers of silica particles (microparticles and nanoparticles, respectively) covalently bonded to the fiber. Superoleophobicity was successfully obtained by incorporating perfluoroalkyl groups onto the surface of the modified cotton. It proved to be essential to add the nanoparticle layer in achieving superoleophobicity, especially in terms of low roll-off angles for hexadecane. PMID:19199744

  17. Black carbon as isolated by chemical oxidation: characterization and contribution in litter and soil

    OpenAIRE

    Alexis, M. A.; Rumpel, C.; Knicker, Heike; Rasse, D.; Péchot, N.; Mariotti, A.

    2007-01-01

    Comunicación oral BG1.05-1WE4O-001, presentada a la sesión BG1.05 Analysis and Characterization of Black Carbon in the Environment (co-listed in AS, HS, OS & SSS).-- Congreso celebrado del 15 -20 de abril, 2007, en Viena, Austria.

  18. Short term effects of prescribed fire on soil microbial biomass of black pine forests

    OpenAIRE

    Akbaş, Musa; Sağlam, Bülent; Tüfekçioğlu, Aydın; Dinç, Musa

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we were examined of changes microbial carbon (MBC) and microbial Nitrogen (MBN) after one month controlled fire. The study area consist of sloping and flat areas, high and low intensity of burnt areas and control areas (unburned) including (flat low intensity: FLI, flat high intensity: FHI, smooth low intensity: SLI, smooth high intensity: SHI and 0-5 cm and 5-10 cm depth soil). In terms of microbial carbon on the upper soil in the flat high intensity and upper and lower soil i...

  19. A detailed pyrolysis-GC/MS analysis of a black carbon-rich acidic colluvial soil (Atlantic ranker) from NW Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Kaal; A. Martínez-Cortizas; K.G.J. Nierop; P. Buurman

    2008-01-01

    Despite the potentially large contribution of black carbon (BC) to the recalcitrant soil organic matter pool, the molecular-level composition of aged BC has hardly been investigated. Pyrolysis-GC/MS, which provides structural information on complex mixtures of organic matter, was applied to the NaOH

  20. Extensive Sorption of Organic Compounds to Black Carbon, Coal and Kerogen in Sediments and Soils: Mechanisms and Consequences for Distribution, Bioaccumulation and Biodegradation (Critical Review)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, G.; Gustafsson, O.; Bucheli, T.D.; Jonker, M.T.O.; Koelmans, A.A.; Noort, van P.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating that sorption of organic chemicals to soils and sediments can be described by "dual-mode sorption": absorption in amorphous organic matter (AOM) and adsorption to carbonaceous materials such as black carbon (BC), coal, and kerogen, collectively termed "carbonaceous geosorben

  1. 7 CFR 1205.304 - Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.304 Section 1205.304 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.304 Cotton. Cotton means: (a) All Upland cotton...

  2. Changes in Nitrogen Metabolism and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities of Maize Tassel in Black Soils Region of Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwen eXu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Two varieties of maize (Zea mays L. grown in fields in Black soils of Northeast China were tested to study the dynamic changes of nitrogen metabolism and antioxidant enzyme activity in tassels of maize. Results showed that antioxidant enzyme activity in tassels of maize increased first and then decreased with the growing of maize, and reached peak value at shedding period. Pattern of proline was consistent with antioxidant enzyme activity, showing that osmotic adjustment could protect many enzymes, which are important for cell metabolism. Continuous reduction of soluble protein content along with the growing of maize was observed in the study, which indicated that quantitative material and energy were provided for pollen formation. Besides, another major cause was that a large proportion of nitrogen was used for the composition of structural protein. Nitrate nitrogen concentrations of tassels were more variable than ammonium nitrogen, which showed that nitrate nitrogen was the favored nitrogen source for maize.

  3. Light interception and utilization in relay intercrops of wheat and cotton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, L.; Werf, van der W.; Bastiaans, L.; Zhang, S.; Li, B.; Spiertz, J.H.J.

    2008-01-01

    In China, a large acreage of cultivated land is devoted to relay intercropping of winter wheat and cotton. Wheat is sown in strips with interspersed bare soil in October and harvested in June of the next year, while cotton is sown in the interspersed paths in the wheat crop in April and harvested be

  4. Alkaline ameliorants increase nitrous oxide emission from acidified black soil in Northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zuoqiang; Zhang, Xilin; Qiao, Yanjiao; Wang, Lianfeng

    2011-06-01

    Lime and plant ash are common management used to achieve optimum pH for plant growth and improve soil properties in agricultural soils. Laboratory incubation was conducted to assess N20 emissions as influenced by different soil amendments (lime and plant ash) in a slightly acidic arable soil (pH 5.34). The experimental treatments consisted of CK, lime and plant ash fertilized with NH4(+)-N or N03(-)-N as nitrogen resource. The results show that lime and plant ash dramatically increases the soil pH and N20 emission. For N03(-)-N fertilization, the cumulative N20 emissions from CK, lime and ash are 421, 1669 and 921 μg N20-N/kg, respectively. For NH4(+)-N fertilization, the cumulative N20 emissions from CK, lime and ash are 361, 576 and 559 μg N20-N/kg, respectively. N03(-)-N addition leads to more N20 emission than that of NH4(+)-N addition, and lime increases more N20 emission than that of plant ash. After incubation, N03(-)-N content decreased largely. The findings suggested that alkaline ameliorants increase N20 emissions due to enhancement of soil denitrification. PMID:25084592

  5. STRUCTURAL INVESTIGATIONS OF VARIOUS COTTON FIBERS AND COTTON CELLULOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ioelovich

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Macro- and crystalline structure, as well as chemical composition of fibers related to various types and sorts of Israeli cottons, both white and naturally colored, were investigated. The differences in structural parameters and chemical compositions of the cotton fibers were evaluated. Samples of cotton of the “Pima”-type had long, thin and strong fibers with highly ordered supermolecular structure. Fibers of middle-long and hybrid cottons had some lower-ordered structural organization in comparison to long-length cotton, while fibers of naturally colored cotton were characterized with disordered supermolecular and crystalline structure. Dependence of tensile strength on orientation of nano-fibrils towards the fiber axis was found. Conditions of cellulose isolation from the different cotton fibers were studied. Structural characteristics of isolated cotton celluloses and obtained MCC are discussed.

  6. Temperature profile in apricot tree canopies under the soil and climate conditions of the Romanian Black Sea Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paltineanu, Cristian; Septar, Leinar; Chitu, Emil

    2016-03-01

    The paper describes the temperature profiles determined by thermal imagery in apricot tree canopies under the semi-arid conditions of the Black Sea Coast in a chernozem of Dobrogea Region, Romania. The study analyzes the thermal vertical profile of apricot orchards for three representative cultivars during summertime. Measurements were done when the soil water content (SWC) was at field capacity (FC) within the rooting depth, after intense sprinkler irrigation applications. Canopy temperature was measured during clear sky days at three heights for both sides of the apricot trees, sunlit (south), and shaded (north). For the SWC studied, i.e., FC, canopy height did not induce a significant difference between the temperature of apricot tree leaves (Tc) and the ambient air temperature (Ta) within the entire vertical tree profile, and temperature measurements by thermal imagery can therefore be taken at any height on the tree crown leaves. Differences between sunlit and shaded sides of the canopy were significant. Because of these differences for Tc-Ta among the apricot tree cultivars studied, lower base lines (LBLs) should be determined for each cultivar separately. The use of thermal imagery technique under the conditions of semi-arid coastal areas with low range of vapor pressure deficit could be useful in irrigation scheduling of apricot trees. The paper discusses the implications of the data obtained in the experiment under the conditions of the coastal area of the Black Sea, Romania, and neighboring countries with similar climate, such as Bulgaria and Turkey.

  7. CottonDB: A resource for cotton genome research

    Science.gov (United States)

    CottonDB (http://cottondb.org/) is a database and web resource for cotton genomic and genetic research. Created in 1995, CottonDB was among the first plant genome databases established by the USDA-ARS. Accessed through a website interface, the database aims to be a convenient, inclusive medium of ...

  8. Comparison of quantification methods to measure fire-derived (black/elemental) carbon in soils and sediments using reference materials from soil, water, sediment and the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammes, Karen; Schmidt, Michael W. I.; Smernik, Ronald J.; Currie, Lloyd A.; Ball, William P.; Nguyen, Thanh H.; Louchouarn, Patrick; Houel, Stephane; Gustafsson, Örjan; Elmquist, Marie; Cornelissen, Gerard; Skjemstad, Jan O.; Masiello, Caroline A.; Song, Jianzhong; Peng, Ping'an; Mitra, Siddhartha; Dunn, Joshua C.; Hatcher, Patrick G.; Hockaday, William C.; Smith, Dwight M.; Hartkopf-Fröder, Christoph; BöHmer, Axel; Lüer, Burkhard; Huebert, Barry J.; Amelung, Wulf; Brodowski, Sonja; Huang, Lin; Zhang, Wendy; Gschwend, Philip M.; Flores-Cervantes, D. Xanat; Largeau, Claude; Rouzaud, Jean-NoëL.; Rumpel, Cornelia; Guggenberger, Georg; Kaiser, Klaus; Rodionov, Andrei; Gonzalez-Vila, Francisco J.; Gonzalez-Perez, José A.; de La Rosa, José M.; Manning, David A. C.; López-CapéL, Elisa; Ding, Luyi

    2007-09-01

    Black carbon (BC), the product of incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and biomass (called elemental carbon (EC) in atmospheric sciences), was quantified in 12 different materials by 17 laboratories from different disciplines, using seven different methods. The materials were divided into three classes: (1) potentially interfering materials, (2) laboratory-produced BC-rich materials, and (3) BC-containing environmental matrices (from soil, water, sediment, and atmosphere). This is the first comprehensive intercomparison of this type (multimethod, multilab, and multisample), focusing mainly on methods used for soil and sediment BC studies. Results for the potentially interfering materials (which by definition contained no fire-derived organic carbon) highlighted situations where individual methods may overestimate BC concentrations. Results for the BC-rich materials (one soot and two chars) showed that some of the methods identified most of the carbon in all three materials as BC, whereas other methods identified only soot carbon as BC. The different methods also gave widely different BC contents for the environmental matrices. However, these variations could be understood in the light of the findings for the other two groups of materials, i.e., that some methods incorrectly identify non-BC carbon as BC, and that the detection efficiency of each technique varies across the BC continuum. We found that atmospheric BC quantification methods are not ideal for soil and sediment studies as in their methodology these incorporate the definition of BC as light-absorbing material irrespective of its origin, leading to biases when applied to terrestrial and sedimentary materials. This study shows that any attempt to merge data generated via different methods must consider the different, operationally defined analytical windows of the BC continuum detected by each technique, as well as the limitations and potential biases of each technique. A major goal of this ring trial was

  9. Comparative study of nitrogen fertilizer use efficiency of cotton grown under conventional and fertigation practices using 15N methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitrogen fertilization and irrigation methods are the key factors of yield increase. With proper management of these two factors a good production and protection of the environment could be attained at the same time. Field experiments were carried out at Hama (Tezeen's Agricultural Research Station) for four consecutive years 1995=1998. The objectives of this study were: Assessment of nitrogen fertilizer use efficiency (NFUE) under conventional and fertigation practices; Nitrogen requirements of cotton crop grown under fertigation practices: Comparative study of water use efficiency (WUE), and seed cotton yield of cotton crop grown under conventional and drip irrigation. Treatments consisted of five nitrogen rates for the fertigated cotton crop (0, 60, 120, 180 and 240 kg N ha-1). While of the surface irrigated cotton treatment only one recommended rate by MAAR was applied (180 kg N ha -1). Irrigation methods and N treatments were arranged in RBD. The soil water content and available soil nitrogen were monitored according to the standard procedures. The results revealed that fertigation of cotton under the given circumstances improved water use efficiency, nitrogen use efficiency, seed cotton yield, dry matter production, earliness and in some cases lint properties. Under fertigation practices 35-55% of the irrigation water was saved in comparison with surface irrigated cotton grown under the same condition. The seed cotton yield was increased by more than 50% relatively to the surface irrigated cotton. Furthermore, water use efficiency of the fertigated cotton was increased by almost 90 %. (author)

  10. Atividade microbiana em solos, influenciada por resíduos de algodão e torta de mamona Microbial activity in soils influenced by residues of cotton and castor bean presscake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Capuani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A atividade microbiana não se constitui apenas como bom indicador da qualidade do solo, mas é influenciada pela adição de carbono no sistema, o qual serve como substrato aos micro-organismos que aumentam sua atividade e a liberação de CO2, compreendendo a respiração edáfica do solo. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar a atividade microbiana em diferentes tipos de solo com a adição de torta de mamona e resíduo têxtil de algodão. O trabalho foi conduzido em casa de vegetação na sede da Embrapa Algodão, em delineamento de blocos casualisados em esquema fatorial 4 x 3, com quatro repetições. A intervalos predeterminados de 4 dias os recipientes foram abertos e a solução de NaOH foi titulada com HCl 2 N na presença de indicador ácido/base fenolftaleína. Após a leitura a mesma quantidade de NaOH foi reposta e os recipientes novamente fechados. A diferença entre a quantidade de ácido necessária para neutralizar o hidróxido de sódio no recipiente testemunha e nos tratamentos equivale à quantidade de gás carbônico produzido pelos micro-organismos do solo. Constatou-se que os resíduos influenciaram significativamente a atividade microbiana nos diferentes tipos de solo, sobretudo nas primeiras determinações, apresentando-se como boas fontes para mineralização e fornecimento de nutrientes, tendo a torta de mamona proporcionado maior liberação acumulada de CO2 pelos micro-organismos.Microbial activity constitutes a good indicator of soil quality, and is influenced by the addition of carbon in the system serving as a substrate for microorganisms that increase their activity and release of CO2, comprising the edaphic respiration of the soil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbial activity in different soil types with the addition of cake press of castor bean and cotton textile residue. The study was conducted in a greenhouse at the headquarters of Embrapa Cotton in randomized block design in 4 x 3

  11. Evaluating potassium-use-efficiency of five cotton genotypes of pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potassium (K) deficiency in Pakistani soils has been recently reported as the major limiting factor affecting sustainable cotton production. The present study was conducted to envisage how K nutrition affect the growth, biomass production, yield and K-use-efficiency of five cotton genotypes, NIBGE-3701, NIBGE-1524 (Bt-transgenic), Sadori, Sindh-1 and SAU-2 (non-Bt conventional), commonly grown in Pakistan. All five genotypes were raised at deficient and adequate K levels, i.e. 0 and 60 kg K/sub 2/O ha-1, respectively. The experiment was performed in plastic pots following a completely randomized factorial design with three repeats. Adequate K nutrition significantly increased various plant growth traits and yield of all cotton genotypes under study, viz. number of sympodia (21%), number of leaves (34%), leaf dry biomass (30%), shoot dry biomass (31%), number of bolls (50%) and yield of seed cotton (92%). Substantial variations were observed among cotton genotypes for their K-use-efficiency and K-response-efficiency. Sadori and SAU-2 were screened as most K-use-efficient cotton genotypes, while Sindh-1 and SAU-2 were ranked as the most K-responsive cotton genotypes. Interestingly, Sadori did not respond to K nutrition. Moreover, Bt cotton genotypes accumulated more K as compared to non-Bt genotypes. The cotton genotype SAU-2 was identified as efficient-response genotype for better adaptation for both low- and high-K-input sustainable cotton agriculture systems. (author)

  12. In Situ Monitoring of the Losing of Ammonia Volatilization from Soil in Xinjiang Oasis Cotton Cropping Systems%新疆绿洲棉花种植体系土壤氨挥发损失原位监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐万里; 汤明尧; 马正强; 张云舒; 刘骅

    2011-01-01

    采用通气法对盐化潮土-棉花种植体系的CK(种植不施肥)、T1(基肥撒施机械翻耕,追肥沟施灌水)、T2(基肥撒施机械翻耕,追肥撒施后灌水)、T3(与T1、T2等氮量包膜尿素一次基施)4种处理的田间土壤氨挥发进行原位监测.结果表明,在施N量均为275 kg· hm-2条件下,CK、T1、T2和T3处理基肥NH3-N损失分别为0.621、1.191、1.191和0.826 kg · hm-2;追肥NH3-N损失分别为1.088、1.773、2.804和1.374kg·hm-2.T1、T2和T3来自氮肥的NH3-N损失分别为1.255、2.286和0.491 kg· hm-2,分别占施氮总量的0.46%、0.83%、0.18%.在新疆南部绿洲农田,基肥深施后覆膜、追肥结合灌水条件下,棉田土壤氨挥发不是氮肥损失的主要途径;与等氮量传统肥料相比,应用包膜肥料一次施用可明显降低氮肥氨挥发损失.%In Bachu county of main cotton production areas of southern Xinjiang, studied on field in situ determination of ammonia volatilization by using venting method on cotton cropping systems of the salinized fluvo-aquic soil, what, four treatments:(I) CK the planting and no fertilizer; (ii) Tl the broadcasting base fertilizer and plowing by machine, and topdressing by furrowing and irrigating; (iii) T2 the broadcasting base fertilizer and plowing by machine, and topdressing by broadcasting and irrigating; (iiii) T3 the one-time basal application of coated urea what equal nitrogen amount with T2 and T3. The results showed that- Under the condition of the amount of nitrogen applied was 275 kg ? Hm-2, the ammonia volatilization of the base fertilizer were 0. 621, 1. 191, 1. 191 and 0. 826 kg ? Hm-2 in the four treatments of CK, Tl, T2, T3; and the ammonia volatilization of the topdressing were 1. 088, 1. 773, 2. 804 and 1. 374 kg ? Hm-2. The ammonia volatilization from the Nitrogen were 1. 255,2. 286 and 0. 491 kg ? Hm-2 in fertilization treatments, including T1, T2 and T3, account for 0. 46%, 0. 83% and 0. 18% of total fertilization

  13. Black Soil : Oil and ethnicity in the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 led to the creation of 15 new states where there previously had been a single and vast multi-ethnical empire. Of the former Soviet territories, the Caucasus region – wedged in between the Black and the Caspian Sea – stands out. In addition to being haunted with separatism and civil war for the passed 14 years, the region has also evolved into a focal point for Russian and US great power interests regarding control over the substantial oil reserves s...

  14. 8000 yr of black carbon accumulation in a colluvial soil from NW Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaal, J.; Martinez-Cortizas, A.; Buurman, P.; Criado Boado, F.

    2008-01-01

    Analytical pyrolysis-GC/MS and solid-state 13C NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) were applied to the NaOH-extractable organic matter fraction of a colluvial soil from Galicia (NW Spain) that represents more than 8500 yr of accumulation. While molecular indicators of vegetation change were looked for,

  15. Nanoscale interactions between engineered nanomaterials and black carbon (Biochar) in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineered nanomaterials (NMs) enter agricultural soils directly as additives in agrichemical formulations1 and indirectly as contaminants in municipal sewage sludge.2 NIFA has a vested interest in developing predictive models for the fate and nanotoxicity of NMs in agroecosystems. An understanding ...

  16. Effects of soil temperature and snow cover on the mortality of overwintering pupae of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian

    2016-07-01

    Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is one of the most damaging insect pests in the world. However, little is known about the effects of snow cover and soil temperature on the overwintering pupae of H. armigera. A field experiment was conducted from November 2, 2012 to April 24, 2013 at the agrometeorological experimental station in Wulanwusu, China. Overwintering pupae were embedded into the soil at depths of 5, 10, and 15 cm in the following four treatments: without snow cover, snow cover, and increased temperatures from 600 and 1200 W infrared lights. The results showed that snow cover and rising temperatures could all markedly increase soil temperatures, which was helpful in improving the survival of the overwintering pupae of H. armigera. The mortality of overwintering pupae (MOP) at a depth of 15 cm was the highest, and the MOP at a depth of 5 cm followed. The lower accumulated temperature (≤0 °C) (AT ≤ °C) led to the higher MOP, and the lower diurnal soil temperature range (DSTR) likely led to the lower MOP. After snowmelt, the MOPs at the depths of 5 and 10 cm increased as the soil temperature increased, especially in April. The AT of the soil (≤0 °C) was the factor with the strongest effect on MOP. The soil moisture content was not a major factor affecting the MOP in this semiarid region because precipitation was 45 mm over the entire experimental period. With climate warming, the MOP will likely decrease, and the overwintering boundary air temperatures of H. armigera should be expanded due to higher soil temperatures and increased snow cover. PMID:26514355

  17. ECONOMICS OF COTTON CULTIVATION IN GUJARAT

    OpenAIRE

    Vijaysinh Dhandhukiya

    2013-01-01

    Cotton is a part of our daily lives from the time, we dry our faces on a soft cotton towel in the morning till we slide between fresh cotton sheets at night. It has hundreds of uses. Cotton is vital textile raw material, has an important role in the industry and trade of both, own country and the world with various areas for usage. This paper focuses on the growth economics of cotton cultivation in Gujarat. Key words: economics, cotton, cotton cultivation

  18. Black soiling of an architectural limestone during two-year term exposure to urban air in the city of Granada (S Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A two-year term aging test was carried out on a building limestone under different urban conditions in the city of Granada (Southern Spain) to assess its Cultural Heritage sustainability. For this purpose stone tablets were placed vertically at four sites with contrasting local pollution micro-environments and exposure conditions (rain-sheltered and unsheltered). The back (rain-sheltered) and the front (rain-unsheltered) faces of the stone tablets were studied for each site. The soiling process (surface blackening) was monitored through lightness (ΔL*) and chroma changes (ΔC*). Additionally atmospheric particles deposited on the stone surfaces and on PM10 filters during the exposure time were studied through a multianalytical approach including scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The identified atmospheric particles (responsible for stone soiling) were mainly soot and soil dust particles; also fly ash and aged salt particles were found. The soiling process was related to surface texture, exposure conditions and proximity to dense traffic streets. On the front faces of all stones, black soiling and surface roughness promoted by differential erosion between micritic and sparitic calcite were noticed. Moreover, it was found that surface roughness enhanced a feedback process that triggers further black soiling. The calculated effective area coverage (EAC) by light absorbing dust ranged from 10.2 to 20.4%, exceeding by far the established value of 2% EAC (limit perceptible to the human eye). Soiling coefficients (SC) were estimated based on square-root and bounded exponential fittings. Estimated black carbon (BC) concentration resulted in relatively similar SC for all studied sites and thus predicts the soiling process better than using particulate matter (PM10) concentration. - Highlights: ► A two-year term aging test was carried out on a building limestone under different urban conditions.

  19. Forest age stands affect soil respiration and litterfall in a Black pine forest managed by a shelterwood system in the Central Spain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedo de Santiago, Javier; Borja, Manuel Esteban Lucas; Candel, David; Viñegla Pérez, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects that stand age and forest structure generates on soil respiration and litterfall quantity. The effect of stand age on these variables was studied in a shelterwood system Spanish Black pine chronosequence in central Iberian Peninsula composed of 0-20, 20-40, 40-60, 60-80, 80-100-year-old. For each stand age, six forest stands with similar characteristics of soil type and site preparation were used. Also, a forest area ranging 80-120 years old and without forest intervention was selected and used as control. We also measured organic matter, C:N ratio, soil moisture and pH in the top 10 mineral soil at each compartment. Soil respiration measurements were carried out in three time points (3, 8 and 12 days). Results showed a clear trend in soil respiration, comparing all the experimental areas. Soil respiration showed the same trend in all stands. It initially showed higher rates, reaching stability in the middle of the measurement process and finally lightly increasing the respiration rate. The older stands had significantly higher soil respiration than the younger stands. Soil organic matter values were also higher in the more mature stands. C:N ratio showed the opposite trend, showing lower values in the less mature stands. More mature stands clearly showed more quantity of litterfall than the younger ones and there was a positive correlation between soil respiration and litterfall. Finally, the multivariate PCA analysis clearly clustered three differenced groups: Control plot; from 100 to 40 years old and from 39 to 1 years old, taking into account both soil respiration and litterfall quantity, also separately. Our results suggest that the control plot has a better soil quality and that extreme forest stand ages (100-80 and 19-1 years old) and the associated forest structure generates differences in soil respiration.

  20. Black soils and/or sediments at the western border of the Nördlinger Ries (South Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailänder, S.; Eberle, J.; Blümel, W. D.

    2009-04-01

    : KRAUSSE, D. L. (Ed.) (2008): Frühe Zentralisierungs- und Urbanisierungsprozesse. Zur Genese und Entwicklung frühkeltischer Fürstensitze und ihres territorialen Umlandes. Kolloquium des DFG-Schwerpunktprogramms 1171 (Blaubeuren, 9.-11. Oktober 2006).- Forschungen und Berichte zur Vor- und Frühgeschichte in Baden-Württemberg 101.- Stuttgart: 281-298. RITTWEGER, H. (2000): The "Black Floodplain Soil" in the Amöneburger Becken, Germany: a lower Holocene marker horizon and indicator of an upper Atlantic to Subboreal dry period in Central Europe?.- Catena 41: 143-164.

  1. Development and Adoption of Bt Cotton in India : Economic, Environmental and Health Issues

    OpenAIRE

    -, Dr S Saravanan; -, Dr V Mohanasundaram

    2016-01-01

    Bt Cotton, is genetically engineered with Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis), a bio-toxin which comes from soil bacterium. Bt which was isolated from soil in 1911, has been available to farmers as an organic pesticide since 1930..The engineered Bt gene produces a protein that cuts into the guts of specific insects, rendering the cotton resistant to these insects. Biotechnology for control of bollworms is made available in the seed itself. Farmers have to just sow the Bt cotton seeds as they do with...

  2. Cotton Life Cycle Inventory & Life Cycle Assessment--A Landmark Benchmark for Cotton Sustainability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Recently, Cotton Incorporated announced the completion of a comprehensive life cycle inventory and life cycJe analysis of cotton products. The endeavor is part of the Cotton Foundation VlSIQN 21 Project and included the participation of the National Cotton Council, Cotton Council International and Cotton Incorporated. The two-year study, managed by PE International,

  3. Influence Of Crop Management And Soil On Plantain [Musa spp. z AAB Group Response To Black Sigatoka Infection In Southeastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mobambo, KN.

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available An on-farm survey was carried out to assess the severity of black sigatoka caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet on plantain in southeastern Nigeria. Two different geomor-phological zones (Meander belts and Coastal plain sands were surveyed. Four locations were selected for each zone and two traditional farming systems (backyard and field were studied in each location. Based on geomorphological zones, less black sigatoka infection was observed in the Meander belts than in the Coastal plain sands. On farming systems basis, plantain grown in the backyard gardens had lower disease severity than that planted in the field plots. This difference in black sigatoka severity is attributable to the higher soil fertility in the Meander belts than in the Coastal plain sands and in the backyards than in the fields.

  4. New Cotton Trade Terms Flashed in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    On May 8th, 2006, China Cotton Import Regulations-Cotton Purchase Contract and General Terms (Applicable to Non-Chinese Cotton Trade), short for China Cotton Association Terms (CCAT) was issued and put into practice, which was welcomed by both China and the countries who trade cotton with China.

  5. Black to Black

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Michael Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Pop musicians performing in black stage costume take advantage of cultural traditions relating to matters black. Stylistically, black is a paradoxical color: although a symbol of melancholy, pessimism, and renunciation, black also expresses minimalist modernity and signifies exclusivity (as...

  6. STUDIES ON PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND AMORPHOUS CONSTITUENTS OF ASSOCIATED RED AND BLACK SOILS: A CASE STUDY IN HATTI SCHIST BELT OF NORTH KARNATAKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Harshitha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Associated red and black soils of the transect from Hira region of Hatti schist belt were studied for their properties. Soils were moderately deep to deep, reddish brown (5YR 3/4 to dark black (10YR3/2, clay in texture. The pH ranged from 7.56 to 7.7, EC from 0.4 to 0.44dSm-1, low to medium in organic carbon, moderate in CEC (40.1 – 54.3 c mol (p+ kg-1. Free iron oxides ranges from (0.6-3.2%, Na2CO3 extractable free silicon ranges from (0.4-3.1% and Na2CO3 extractable free aluminium ranges from (0.2 - 2.5%.

  7. Monthly Cotton Economic Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Cotton prices drifted sideways last month. A Index values ranged between 80 and 86 cents/lb. In the New York futures market, there was some volatility associated with the expiration of the July contract. However, prices for the most actively traded December contract were range-bound, generally holding to levels between 68 and 74 cents/lb.

  8. Metal analysis of cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven varieties of cotton were investigated for 8 metal ions (K, Na, Mg, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mn) using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy. All of the varieties were grown at the same location. Half of the samples were dry (rain fed only) and the other were well-watered (irrigat...

  9. Cotton Trip in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2010-01-01

    @@ During their trip in Beijing,the leadership delegation members,Charles Parker,Harrison Ashley(Vice President of NCC Ginner Services),along with Karin Malmstrom(China Director of CCI)shared a time to accept the interview,giving a general introduction about their China trip and the cotton industry in USA.

  10. How surface fire in Siberian Scots pine forests affects soil organic carbon in the forest floor: Stocks, molecular structure, and conversion to black carbon (charcoal)

    OpenAIRE

    Czimczik, Claudia I; Preston, Caroline M; Schmidt, Michael W I; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef

    2003-01-01

    [1] In boreal forests, fire is a frequent disturbance and converts soil organic carbon (OC) to more degradation-resistant aromatic carbon, i.e., black carbon (BC) which might act as a long-term atmospheric-carbon sink. Little is known on the effects of fires on boreal soil OC stocks and molecular composition. We studied how a surface fire affected the composition of the forest floor of Siberian Scots pine forests by comparing the bulk elemental composition, molecular structure (13C-MAS NMR), ...

  11. Controle de plantas daninhas na cultura do algodoeiro (Gossypium hirsutum L. em solo anteriormente ocupado por vegetação de Cerrado Weed control on the cotton crop (Gossypium hirsutum L. in a soil previously occuped by Cerrado vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.G. Machado Neto

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se os efeitos de herbicidas, isolados ou combinados, na cultura do algodão (Gossypium hirsutum L. e eficiência no controle das plantas daninhas. O experimento foi conduzido na Fazenda de Ensino e Pesquisa da Faculdade de Engenharia de Ilha Solteira - UNESP em solo Latossolo Vermelho Escuro franco argilo-arenoso, localizada no município de Selvíria, Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. Os tratamentos testados com as doses em kg i.a/ha foram: alachlor a 2,15 e 2,58 em pré-emergência (pré, trifluralina a 0,96 em pré-plantio incorporado ao solo (ppi isolada ou combinada com MSMA a 1,89, ou bentazon a 0,72 ou diuron a 1,20 em pós-emergência (pós em jato dirigido, MSMA a 2,52 em pós, linuron a 1,0 em pré diuron a 1,6 em pré ou pós e testemunhas com e sem capina. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso com doze tratamentos e quatro repetições. As aplicações em ppi e a semeadura foram realizadas dia 11. 12.81 e as em pré dia 18.12.81, com um pulverizador costal de pressão constante (CO2 de 30 1b/pol2, com barra de quatro bicos tipo leque Albuz verde e consumo de calda de 250 l/ha. As aplicações em pós foram realizadas. no dia 27.12.81, com o mesmo pulverizador com um bico tipo defletor, polijet azul, com protetor de jato, com pressão de 40 1b/pol2 e consumo de 500 I/ha. As espécies dominantes foram capim - colchão (Digitaria sangnalis (L. Scop e caruru (Amaranthus viridis L. que foram excelentemente controladas, até 90 dias após a semeadura, por alachlor, diuron em pré, trifluralina + diuron, que reduziram mais de 80% do peso da biomassa seca da parte aérea destas. Os herbicidas não causaram fitotoxicidade à cultura. A presença das plantas daninhas reduziu em 58,9% a produção de algodão em caroço.It was conduced field trial with the objective to study the effects of herbicides, isolated or combined, in cotton crop (Gossypium hirsutum L. and weeds control, in a soil previously occuped

  12. Changes of soil conditions and floristic composition in Black Pine forest (Fraxino orni-Pinetum nigrae) and in the forest of beech and Hairy Alpenrose (Rhododendro hirsuti-Fagetum) after the wildfire

    OpenAIRE

    Urbančič, Mihej; Dakskobler, Igor

    2001-01-01

    We studied soil conditions and floristic comsposition in the forest of beech and Hairy Alpenrose (Rhododendro hirsuti-Fagetum) and in the south-Alpine Austrian black pine forest (Fraxino orni-Pinetum nigrae) within the area of the forest fire in Govci (which is located in the northwestern edge of the Trnovski gozd plateau, western Slovenia) and compared them with conditions in preserved beech and black pine forests five years after the wildfire. The black pine forest overgrows Lithosols and M...

  13. A 6-Year-Long Manipulation with Soil Warming and Canopy Nitrogen Additions does not Affect Xylem Phenology and Cell Production of Mature Black Spruce

    OpenAIRE

    Dao, Madjelia C. E.; Rossi, Sergio; Walsh, Denis; Morin, Hubert; Houle, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The predicted climate warming and increased atmospheric inorganic nitrogen deposition are expected to have dramatic impacts on plant growth. However, the extent of these effects and their interactions remains unclear for boreal forest trees. The aim of this experiment was to investigate the effects of increased soil temperature and nitrogen (N) depositions on stem intra-annual growth of two mature stands of black spruce [Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP] in Québec, QC, Canada. During 2008–2013, the ...

  14. Adoption of Conservation-Tillage Methods and Genetically Modified Cotton

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Roland K.; English, Burton C.; Gao, Qi; Larson, James A.

    2006-01-01

    Adoption of herbicide-tolerant cotton and conservation tillage may be simultaneously related. Bayes' theorem and a two-equation logit model were used to test the simultaneity hypothesis. Evidence for Tennessee suggests that adoption of these technologies reduced residual herbicide use and soil erosion more than if adoption of these technologies were independent.

  15. Fertilizing cotton with P recovered from swine wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new treatment technology has been developed to recover soluble P from waste on swine (Sus scrofa domesticus) farms. Our objective was to compare this recovered P to triple superphosphate and broiler litter for soil availability, leaching, and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) plant P concentration. A...

  16. Assessing the combined influence of TOC and black carbon in soil-air partitioning of PBDEs and DPs from the Indus River Basin, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Usman; Mahmood, Adeel; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Jones, Kevin C; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2015-06-01

    Levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and dechlorane plus (DPs) were investigated in the Indus River Basin from Pakistan. Concentrations of ∑PBDEs and ∑DPs were ranged between 0.05 and 2.38 and 0.002-0.53 ng g(-1) in the surface soils while 1.43-22.1 and 0.19-7.59 pg m(-3) in the passive air samples, respectively. Black carbon (fBC) and total organic carbon (fTOC) fractions were also measured and ranged between 0.73 and 1.75 and 0.04-0.2%, respectively. The statistical analysis revealed strong influence of fBC than fTOC on the distribution of PBDEs and DPs in the Indus River Basin soils. BDE's congener profile suggested the input of penta-bromodiphenylether (DE-71) commercial formulation in the study area. Soil-air partitioning of PBDEs were investigated by employing octanol-air partition coefficients (KOA) and black carbon-air partition coefficients (KBC-A). The results of both models suggested the combined influence of total organic carbon (absorption) and black carbon (adsorption) in the studied area. PMID:25795070

  17. Effect of nutrients and plant growth regulators on growth and yield of black gram in sandy loam soils of Cauvery new delta zone, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Marimuthu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pulse productivity is very low in some of the sandy soil areas where, soils are having poor water and nutrient holding capacity. To improve the pulse productivity, field experiments were conducted at Agricultural Research Station, Tamil Nadu for two consecutive years to study the effect of phosphorus sources (mono- and diammonium phosphate with brassinolide and salicylic acid on growth and yield of black gram in sandy loam soils. The experiment was carried out in a randomized block design with three replications during kharif season. The treatments include 100% recommended dose of NPK along with foliar application of monoammonium phosphate (MAP, diammonium phosphate (DAP, brassinolide (0.25 ppm, and salicylic acid (100 ppm along with the combination of these treatments. TNAU pulse wonder at 5.0 kg ha−1 and TNAU micronutrient mixture (MN at 5 kg ha−1 were also tried. The results revealed that application of 100% recommended dose of NPK + DAP 2% + TNAU pulse wonder 5.0 kg ha−1 was statistically significant and recorded higher plant growth (37.62 cm, number of pods / plant (37.15, yield of black gram (1162 kg ha−1, and benefit cost ratio (2.98 over the other treatments. The lowest black gram yield (730 kg ha−1 was recorded for control.

  18. [Optimization of shelterbelt distribution for the gully erosion control of cultivated slope land in rolling hill black soil region of Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zi-Long; Cui, Ming; Fan, Hao-Ming

    2012-04-01

    Shelterbelt system is one of the main components of cultivated slope land in rolling hill black soil region of Northeast China, which plays an important role in the control of gully erosion. Based on the Quickbird high-resolution remote sensing image and the digital elevation model (DEM), and combining with field survey data, this paper analyzed the effects of shelterbelt system in a small watershed of rolling hill black soil region in Heshan Farm of Heilongjiang Province on the control of gully erosion in the cultivated slope land, and put forward an optimized scheme for gully erosion control based on the features of gully erosion in the cultivated slope land and their relations with the distribution of the shelterbelt system. In the study area, the current distribution of the shelterbelt system promoted the occurrence and development of shallow gully and gully directly and indirectly. The proposed scheme for optimizing the distribution of the present shelterbelts included the adjustment of the direction of the shelterbelt perpendicular to the aspect of slope, the enhancement of the maintenance and regeneration of the shelterbelts to reduce the gaps of the shelterbelts, the increase of the shelterbelt number, and the decrease of the distances between shelterbelts. A method for calculating the shelterbelt number and the distances between the shelterbelts was also given. This study could provide scientific basis for the gully erosion control and the shelterbelts programming in the cultivated slope land of rolling hill black soil region.

  19. EFFECT OF CERTAIN INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS ON PLASTICITY AND SWELLING CHARACTERISTICS OF AN EXPANSIVE SOIL – A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR.A.V.NARASIMHA RAO

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth in population and industrialization cause generation of large quantities of effluents. The bulk effluents generated from industrial activities are discharged either treated or untreated over the soil leading to changes in soil properties causing improvement or degradation of engineering behaviour of soil. If there is an improvement in engineering behaviour of soil, there is a value addition to the industrial wastes serving the three benefits of safe disposal of effluent, using as a stabilizer and return of income on it. If there is degradation of engineering behaviour of soil then solution for decontamination is to be thought of. Expansive soils are mostly found in the arid and semi -arid regions of the world. In India expansive soils are called black cotton soils because of their colour and cotton growing potential. Expansive soils undergo swelling when they come into contact with water and shrink when water is squeezed out. The typical swelling/shrinkage behaviour is due to the basic mineral composition of the montmorillonite. The swelling nature of soil causes lot of damages to the civil engineering structures constructed over them. Hence in this paper the effect of certain industrial effluents on Plasticity and Swelling behaviour of anExpansive Soil has been presented. The soil used in this investigation is classified as “SC” as per I.S. Classification system. It is highly expansive nature as the Differential Free Swell Index is about 255%.In this Investigation tests on Consistency Limits and Swelling Characteristics are conducted on the soil treated withTextile, Tannery and Battery effluents at different percentages from 20 to 100% in increment of 20%.In order to compare the results of admixed soil, tests are also conducted on untreated soil. There is decrease in Plasticity and Swelling characteristics of soil when the soil is treated with Tannery and Textile effluents whereas anincrease Plasticity and Swelling

  20. Study on Site-specific Nutrient Management in Cotton Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Li-ping; JIANG Cheng; JIN Ji-yun; ZHANG Feng-ming

    2001-01-01

    The study on the characteristics of spatial variability of soil nutrients and fertilizer recommendations in cotton field under certain conditions of agricultural management was conducted with GIS and systematic approach for soil nutrient constrains. The results showed that of the spatial variability of soil nutrient was greatly related to the management condition of previous crops. Grid sampling and variable rate application technology (VRAT) were the tools that would hopefully increase fertilizer efficiency. The fertilizers were applied where they were needed and at proper rate. Balance fertilization demonstration showed that fertilizer recommendations according to the available nutrient level in soil could decrease fertilizer cost with 657.4 yuan / ha and increase seed cotton yield by 19.8%. A net profit of the balanced fertilization was 5314.9 yuan / ha higher than that of local fertilization practice.

  1. Response of cotton genotypes to boron under-b-adequate conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balanced boron (B) application is well-known to enhance the cotton production; however, the narrow range between B-deficiency and toxicity levels makes it difficult to manage. Cotton genotypes extensively differ in their response to B requirements. The adequate dose of B for one genotype may be insufficient or even toxic to other genotype. The effects of boron (B) on seed cotton yield and its various yield associated traits were studied on 10 cotton genotypes of Pakistan. The pot studies were undertaken to categorize cotton genotypes using B-deficient (control) and B-adequate (2.0 kg B ha-1) levels arranged in CRD with four repeats. The results indicated that the seed cotton yield, yield attributes and B-uptake of genotypes were comparatively decreased in B-deficient stressed treatment. Genotype NIA-Ufaq exhibited wide range of adaptation and ranked as efficient-responsive, as it produced higher seed cotton yield under both B-regimes. SAU-2 and CIM-506 were highly-efficient and remaining all genotypes were medium-efficient. Genotype Sindh-1 produced low seed cotton yield under B deficient condition and ranked as low-efficient. B-efficient cotton genotypes can be grown in B deficient soils without B application. (author)

  2. Application of Pg germ soil p activator on cotton%PG微生物土壤磷活化剂在棉花上应用效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅福道

    2001-01-01

    PG微生物土壤磷活化剂拌种处理棉花种子,对棉苗的株高、主根长度和干物重有不同程度的促进作用;在棉花生育期喷施,能增加棉花单株果节数、结铃数等,从而促进棉花产量的增加。%Positive effects were observed on seedling height,main root length and dry matter weight on different degree for those cottonseeds had been dealed with PG germ soil p activator beforehand sowing.Results also indicated that spay ing PG germ soil P activator during blooming stage could increase fruit sites an d boll numbers per plant which naturally increased the lint yield.

  3. Cotton Incorporated Documents Industry Gains at ICAC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Those who attack the cotton industry for its perceived impact on the environment will need to have their facts straight, thanks to a major research project undertaken by Cotton Incorporated: a life-cycle assessment (LCA) for cotton.

  4. Cotton in Benin: governance and pest management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Togbe, C.E.

    2013-01-01

    Key words: cotton, synthetic pesticides, neem oil (Azadirachta indica), Beauveria bassiana, Bacillus thuringiensis, field experiment, farmers’ participation   Pests are one of the main factors limiting cotton production worldwide. Most of the pest control strategies in cotton producti

  5. Community Structure and Abundance of Soil Ammonia-oxidizing Bacteria and Ammonia-oxidizing Archea as Influenced by Insect-resistant Bivalent Transgenic Cotton%双价转基因抗虫棉花对土壤氨氧化细菌和氨氧化古菌群落结构及丰度的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴元凤; 李刚; 修伟明; 冀国桢; 宋晓龙; 赵建宁; 杨殿林

    2014-01-01

    The cultivation area of genetically modified(GM)crops has expanded significantly in recent years. However, concerns have been raised over impacts of GM crops on soil ecosystem, especially soil microorganisms. Here, we examined the influence of insect-resistant biva-lent transgenic cotton on soil ammonia-oxidizing bacteria(AOB)and ammonia-oxidizing archaea(AOA). Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism(T-RFLP)was used to evaluate community structure change and qPCR to detect abundance difference. Compared to the control, the population of dominant AOB and AOA did not show significant difference in insect-resistant bivalent transgenic cotton soil, with no changes over the growth season though the ratio of each dominant species population varied in different varieties and at different growth stages of cotton. The Shannon index and Evenness index of AOB had no significant difference between the transgenic cotton soil and its control during the whole growth period. The Shannon index of AOA had similar results, but Evenness index of AOA was significantly low-er in the transgenic cotton soil than in the control at the seedling stage(P<0.05), with no difference found at the other growth stages. The abundance of AOB in the transgenic cotton soil was higher at the blooming stage, whereas lower at the other stages, as compared with the control soil. However, AOA had lower abundance in the GM cotton than in the control soil throughout the growing season. Therefore, the in-sect-resistant bivalent transgenic cotton had no significant impact on the community structure of soil AOB and AOA, but reduced the abun-dance of AOB and AOA, suggesting potential impacts of transgenic cotton on soil ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms.%采用末端片段多态性分析(T-RFLP)和实时定量PCR(Quantitative real-time PCR, qPCR)方法,研究了不同生长时期双价转基因抗虫棉花和亲本非转基因棉花(对照)土壤氨氧化细菌(Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria

  6. 不同种植年限转基因抗虫棉对土壤中小型节肢动物的影响%EFFECTS OF TRANSGENIC INSECT-RESISTANT COTTON PLANTS DIFFERENT IN PLANTING AGE ON SOIL MESO- AND MICRO ARTHROPODS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李孝刚; 刘标; 曹伟; 徐文华; 方志翔; 孟军; 郑央萍; 韩正敏

    2011-01-01

    2007~2008年,在分别于1999年、2002年和2006年种植CrylAc基因抗虫棉的棉田中,于棉花的苗期、营期、花铃期和吐絮期采集土壤样品,采用改良的Tullgren法收集土壤中的中小型节肢动物,以监测长期种植转基因抗虫棉对土壤节肢动物群落的影响.2年8次采样共获得12类中小型节肢动物,隶属于节肢动物门中的7纲10目,其中弹尾目、蜱螨目、蜘蛛目为本地区棉田中的优势类群,综合纲、双翅目、半翅目、双尾目、鞘翅目和同翅目为常见类群.广义线性混合模型分析结果表明,随着转基因抗虫棉种植年限的增加,各转基因抗虫棉田中的土壤主要类群中小型节肢动物的个体密度和多样性指数没有产生显著性差异,但是随着采样时期的不同各棉田土壤主要中小型节肢动物的个体密度和群落多样性指数均呈显著性季节变化.主成分分析表明,弹尾目、蜘蛛目、蜱螨目的得分值较高,可作为本地区未来转基因抗虫棉环境影响监测的重要指标生物.%In the consecutive 2-year field study (2007 ~ 2008), we took soil samples at four different cotton growth stages, namely, seedling, budding, boll forming and boll opening stages from cotton fields that had been planted with CrylAc cottons separately since 1999, 2002 and 2006, and collected soil meso- and microarthropodas in the samples with the modified Tullgren method, to monitor environmental impact of long-term cultivation of transgenic insect-resistant cotton in field conditions. A total of 12 taxonomic groups of soil meso- and microarthropods were obtained from soil samples collected in 8 times during the 2 years and could be further sorted into 7 classes, and 10 orders under arthropodas phyla. Collembola, Acarina and Araneida were the dominant groups and Symphyla, Diptera, Hemiptera, Diplura, Coleoptera and Homoptera were the common groups in the soil. The Generalized Linear Mixed Model (GLMM) analysis

  7. Crop rotation with no-till methods in cotton production of Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botir Khaitov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many soils of Uzbekistan have low water and nutrient holding capacity because of their sandy texture, low organic matter concentrations and degradation caused by long years of cotton monoculture. Conservation tillage production systems have the potential to increase the productivity of these soils by increasing soil humus and nitrogen content. As practiced conservation tillage helped to lessen N leaching losses, holding more of these elements within the topsoil as well as increase crop productivity. Conventional tillage cotton/wheat/maize crop rotation has resulted very low humus and nitrogen content in soil by degreasing crop yield. Therefore, the effects of tillage, and crop rotation were examined on growth and yield of crops in three cotton-based rotation systems, (i cotton/wheat/maize, (ii cotton/wheat/sorghum and (iii cotton/wheat/soybean, in Tashkent region in middle east of Uzbekistan. This obtained result suggests that no tillage with inserting legumes in crop rotation is able to improve soil quality and plant productivity.

  8. Organic Cotton: An Opportunity for Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Ton, P.

    2007-01-01

    Report analysing the global market for organic cotton fibre, textiles and clothing - gives a definition of organic cotton and ‘fair trade’ cotton; provides detailed figures for organic cotton production, trade, and consumption; presents the geographical markets for organic cotton fibre, textiles; describes the involvement of many large brands and retailers, and reviews organic cotton markets in the United States, Switzerland, Germany, United Kingdom and France; provides a SWOT (Strengths, Wea...

  9. Holographic perfect fluidity, Cotton energy-momentum duality and transport properties

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Ayan; Petropoulos, P Marios; Pozzoli, Valentina; Siampos, Konstadinos

    2013-01-01

    We investigate background metrics for 2+1-dimensional holographic theories where the equilibrium solution behaves as a perfect fluid, and admits thus a thermodynamic description. We introduce stationary perfect-Cotton geometries, where the Cotton tensor takes the form of the energy-momentum tensor of a perfect fluid. Fluids in equilibrium in such boundary geometries have non-trivial vorticity. The corresponding bulk can be exactly reconstructed to obtain 3+1-dimensional stationary black-hole solutions with no naked singularities for appropriate values of the black-hole mass. It follows that an infinite number of transport coefficients vanish for holographic fluids. Our results imply an intimate relationship between black-hole uniqueness and holographic perfect equilibrium. They also point towards a Cotton/energy-momentum tensor duality constraining the fluid vorticity, as an intriguing boundary manifestation of the bulk mass/nut duality.

  10. Holographic perfect fluidity, Cotton energy-momentum duality and transport properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, Ayan [Centre de Physique Théorique, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS UMR 7644,Route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Institut de Physique Théorique, CEA, CNRS URA 2306,91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Petkou, Anastasios C. [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki,54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Petropoulos, P. Marios; Pozzoli, Valentina [Centre de Physique Théorique, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS UMR 7644,Route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Siampos, Konstadinos [Service de Mécanique et Gravitation, Université de Mons, UMONS,20 Place du Parc, 7000 Mons (Belgium)

    2014-04-23

    We investigate background metrics for 2+1-dimensional holographic theories where the equilibrium solution behaves as a perfect fluid, and admits thus a thermodynamic description. We introduce stationary perfect-Cotton geometries, where the Cotton-York tensor takes the form of the energy-momentum tensor of a perfect fluid, i.e. they are of Petrov type D{sub t}. Fluids in equilibrium in such boundary geometries have non-trivial vorticity. The corresponding bulk can be exactly reconstructed to obtain 3+1-dimensional stationary black-hole solutions with no naked singularities for appropriate values of the black-hole mass. It follows that an infinite number of transport coefficients vanish for holographic fluids. Our results imply an intimate relationship between black-hole uniqueness and holographic perfect equilibrium. They also point towards a Cotton/energy-momentum tensor duality constraining the fluid vorticity, as an intriguing boundary manifestation of the bulk mass/nut duality.

  11. Changes in Olsen Phosphorus Concentration and Its Response to Phosphorus Balance in Black Soils under Different Long-Term Fertilization Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Xiaoying; Zhang, Li; Zhou, Baoku; Zhu, Ping; Zhang, Shuxiang; Xu, Minggang

    2015-01-01

    The Olsen phosphorus (P) concentration of a soil is a key index that can be used to evaluate the P supply capacity of the soil and to estimate the optimal P fertilization rate. A study of the relationship between the soil Olsen P concentration and the P balance (P input minus P output) and their variations among different fertilization patterns will help to provide useful information for proper management of P fertilization. In this paper, the two investigated long-term experiments were established on black soils in the northeast region of China. Six fertilization treatments were selected: (1) unfertilized (CK); (2) nitrogen only (N); (3) nitrogen and potassium (NK); (4) nitrogen and phosphorus (NP); (5) nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (NPK); and (6) nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and manure (NPKM). The results showed that the average Olsen P concentrations in the black soils at Gongzhuling and Harbin (16- and 31-year study periods, respectively), decreased by 0.49 and 0.56 mg kg-1 a-1, respectively, without P addition and increased by 3.17 and 1.78 mg kg-1 a-1, respectively, with P fertilization. The changes in soil Olsen P concentrations were significantly (PNPK treatments at Gongzhuling. Under an average deficit of 100 kg ha-1 P, the soil Olsen P concentration at both sites decreased by 1.36~3.35 mg kg-1 in the treatments without P addition and increased by 4.80~16.04 mg kg-1 in the treatments with 100 kg ha-1 of P accumulation. In addition, the changes in Olsen P concentrations in the soil with 100 kg ha-1of P balance were significantly correlated with the P activation coefficient (PAC, percentage of Olsen P to total P, r=0.99, P<0.01) and soil organic matter content (r=0.91, P<0.01). A low pH was related to large changes of Olsen P by 1 kg ha-1 of P balance. These results indicated that soil organic matter and pH have important effects on the change in soil Olsen P by 1 kg ha-1 of P balance. PMID:26177293

  12. Energy from cotton gin waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodin, P.L.

    1977-04-01

    The US Cotton Ginning Research Laboratory installed a small, multi-chamber incinerator to study its ability to convert cotton gin waste into useable on-site energy. The incinerator operates on a controlled or starved air principle with a maximum capacity of 350-400 lbs of trash/hr. Tests indicate that 31.4% of the heat from combustion of the gin trash can be recovered and efficiently delivered to the seed-cotton drying system.

  13. A Tale of Cotton Pickers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Cotton production in Xinjiang has boosted migrant farmers’ income and self-confidence When autumn settles in the rolling cotton fields in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region and the fluffy snowy flowers burst out of their shells,the cotton harvest season arrives.For farmers like Wu Caixia, a resident of Linze County in northwestern Gansu Province,it is time to embark on their

  14. Effects of Tillage Practices on Soil Microbial and Enzyme Activity in Long-Term Continuous Cotton of Xinjiang Oasis%耕作措施对新疆绿洲长期连作棉田土壤微生物、酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高旭梅; 刘娟; 张前兵; 罗宏海; 谷天佐; 张旺锋

    2011-01-01

    为探明新疆棉花长期连作条件下土壤微生物的演变趋势,明确不同耕作措施的调节效应,采用空间替代法,研究了不同连作年限棉田土壤微生物数量、酶活性和土壤基础呼吸的变化及其对不同耕作措施的响应特征.结果表明:随棉花连作年限的增加,0~60 cm土层中土壤pH值表现出先降低后升高再降低的趋势,土壤有机质含量升高,土壤容重增大,孔隙度降低;土壤细菌数量先增加后减少,真菌数量不断增加,放线菌数量呈波动状态;土壤微生物生物量碳(Cmic)和微生物生物量氮(Nmic)及土壤脲酶、蔗糖酶和过氧化氢酶活性随连作年限的延长均呈增加趋势,而磷酸酶活性呈先增加后减少的趋势;土壤基础呼吸表现为先增加后降低的趋势,代谢熵(qCO2)呈减小趋势.对长期连作的障碍棉田采取深度翻耕和水旱轮作均能增加土壤pH值和有机质含量,并能有效降低容重,增加孔隙度,能增加0~60 cm土层中土壤细菌和放线菌数量,降低0~20 cm土层中真菌数量;深度翻耕既增加了20~40cm土层中的Cmic和Nmic,又增加了0~60 cm土层中的土壤脲酶、磷酸酶、蔗糖酶和过氧化氢酶活性;而水旱轮作仅增加了0~20 cm土层中的Cmic,并使该土层土壤脲酶、磷酸酶、蔗糖酶和过氧化氢酶活性增强;土壤深度翻耕可提高棉田0~60 cm土层中的基础呼吸速率,使土壤表层的qCO2增高,而降低深层土壤qCO2.因此,土壤深度翻耕和水旱轮作等措施均可用于改善棉田土壤微生物环境,并有效缓解棉花长期连作引发的不利影响.是克服连作障碍的重要措施之一.%To find out the evolutive trend of soil microorganism .with continuous cropping cotton years and the regulation of agricultural practices, the method of space substitution was used, based on both investigation in the field and measurement in the laboratory, the effect of different tillage practices on the

  15. Quantitative trait locus analysis of Verticillium wilt resistance in an introgressed recombinant inbred population of Upland cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verticillium wilt (VW) of Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is caused by the soil-borne fungal pathogen Verticillium dahlia Kleb. The availability of VW-resistant cultivars is vital for control of this economically important disease, but there is a paucity of Upland cotton breeding lines and cul...

  16. Characteristics of organic soil in black spruce forests: Implications for the application of land surface and ecosystem models in cold regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, S.; Manies, K.; Harden, J.; McGuire, A.D.

    2009-01-01

    Soil organic layers (OL) play an important role in landatmosphere exchanges of water, energy and carbon in cold environments. The proper implementation of OL in land surface and ecosystem models is important for predicting dynamic responses to climate warming. Based on the analysis of OL samples of black spruce (Picea mariana), we recommend that implementation of OL for cold regions modeling: (1) use three general organic horizon types (live, fibrous, and amorphous) to represent vertical soil heterogeneity; (2) implement dynamics of OL over the course of disturbance, as there are significant differences of OL thickness between young and mature stands; and (3) use two broad drainage classes to characterize spatial heterogeneity, as there are significant differences in OL thickness between dry and wet sites. Implementation of these suggestions into models has the potential to substantially improve how OL dynamics influence variability in surface temperature and soil moisture in cold regions. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophys.ical Union.

  17. Monthly Cotton Economic Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Cotton prices remained range-bound over the last month. Prices for the March futures contract on the New York exchange traded between 93 and 100 cents/lb. Over the same time period, values for the A Index ranged between 99 and 104 cents/lb. After the release of this month's USDA report, March futures moved lower, closing near 90 cents/lb.

  18. Studies on the Characteristics and Permeation Speed of Soil Reservoir in Northeast Black Soil%东北黑土“土壤水库”特征及渗透速率研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡业殊; 刘艇; 王继红

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to reduce the soil erosion of black soil and protect the good production performance of black soil. [ Method ] By field sampling and laboratory analysis and other methods, taking eroded-land as control and farmland, forestland and wasteland as the research objects, the change characteristics and permeation speed of soil reservoirs were studied. [ Result] The order of the tetal storage capacity, flood detention storage capacity, storage capacity and the maximum effective capacity in different sample soils in 0 - 10 cm and 10 ~ 20 cm soil layers were as follows; forestland > farmland > wasteland > eroded-land,while the order of the dead storage capacity was farmland > forestland > wasteland > eroded-land. The reservoir capacity of all the plots in 20 - 80 cm soil layer was forestland > farmland > wasteland > eroded-land. The reservoir capacity of all the plots all showed the decreasing trend with the increase of the soil layer depth. [ Conclusion] The soil porosity was the main factor that affected the maximum effective capacity of soil. Soil permeability was icomprehensivey affected by soil bulk density and other factors.%[目的]减少黑土水土流失,保护黑土良好的生产性能.[方法]通过野外采样和室内分析等方法,以侵蚀地为参照,耕地、林地和荒地为研究对象,对其土壤水库变化特征及土壤渗透速率进行研究.[结果]0~ 10 cm和10 ~20 cm土层内各样地的总库容、滞洪库容、兴利库容和最大有效库容的大小顺序均为:林地>耕地>荒地>侵蚀地,而死库容的大小顺序为耕地>林地>荒地>侵蚀地.20-80cm土层内各样地的水库容的大小顺序均为:林地>耕地>荒地>侵蚀地.各样地的水库容均随土层深度的增加而呈现下降的趋势.[结论]土壤的孔隙状况是影响土壤最大有效库容的主要因素.土壤渗透性能受土壤容重等其他因素的综合影响.

  19. Genetic variability and molecular responses of root penetration in cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klueva; Joshi; Joshi; Wester; Zartman; Cantrell; Nguyen

    2000-06-12

    Compacted soils restrict root penetration hindering productivity. In this paper, genetic variability of cotton (Gossipium spp.) root capacity to penetrate hard soil layers and the patterns of gene expression during penetration event were investigated. To mimic hard soil layers, wax-petrolatum mixtures were used. Genetic variability among 27 cotton genotypes for the root capacity to penetrate wax-petrolatum disks of 500-700 g wax/kg of mixture was high indicating that breeding efforts targeted to improve this trait can be successful. In the root tips of a cotton strain with high root penetrating ability (G. hirsutum HS 200) which penetrated through wax-petrolatum disks (P), quantity of four polypeptides with molecular weights 35-66 kDa increased compared to those root tips which grew in the absence of mechanical impedance (NP). Differential display showed significant differences in the sets of mRNA expressed in P and NP roots. Out of a total of 917 cDNAs scored in the differential display experiment, 118 cDNAs, or 13%, were specific to P roots and hence could be associated with the root penetration event. Further detailed study of gene expression in penetrated roots will pinpoint molecular factors involved in root penetration ability in cotton. PMID:10773338

  20. Impact of cotton planting date and nitrogen fertilization on Bemisia argentifolii populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAN-LONGBI; DONG-MEILIN; KEH-SHENLII; NICKC.TOSCANO

    2005-01-01

    The silverleaf whitefly (Bemisia argentifolii Bellows and Perring) is a widely distributed pest of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and the population levels may be affected by rates of nitrogen fertilization and planting date. Field experiments were conducted to investigate the impact of cotton planting date and nitrogen fertilization on silverleaf whitefly population dynamics. Cotton was planted on 26 April and 8 June, for the early and late plantings, respectively. Nitrogen treatments consisted of soil applications of 0, 112, 168 and 224 kg of nitrogen per hectare. The population levels of adult whiteflies were much higher on early-planted cotton than on late planting. Also, increased numbers of adult whiteflies on both early and late plantings occurred with increasing amounts of applied nitrogen.Applied nitrogen increased seed cotton yields of early plantings but had no effect on the yields of late plantings.

  1. 棉花根系分泌物对土壤速效养分和酶活性及微生物数量的影响%Effects of Cotton Root Exudates on Available Soil Nutrition, Enzyme Activity and Microorganism Quantity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵小亮; 刘新虎; 贺江舟; 万传星; 龚明福; 张利莉

    2009-01-01

    采用水培法收集棉花根系分泌物,在耕作1年的土壤中添加棉花根系分泌物,培养10 d后测定土壤中速效养分、酶活性及微生物数量.结果显示,(1)棉花根系分泌物能极显著提高土壤中速效K和速效P含量4.31%~15.03%和5.99%~24.31%(P<0.01);高浓度分泌物处理下速效N含量比对照显著提高11.39%(P<0.05),其它处理影响不显著;各浓度分泌物对土壤有机质含量均无显著影响.(2)各浓度棉花根系分泌物均使土壤中转化酶活性显著提高,且随分泌物浓度的增加而显著增强;低浓度分泌物能显著提高土壤中磷酸酶的活性,所有浓度处理对土壤脲酶活性均无显著影响.(3)中、高浓度的棉花根系分泌物能显著增加土壤中细菌的数量,低浓度的分泌物能显著增加土壤中真菌的数量,而不同浓度处理的土壤中放线菌的数量均无显著的变化.研究表明,棉花根系分泌物可通过促进土壤细菌及土壤真菌的繁殖来增强土壤转化酶和磷酸酶活性,提高土壤速效P、速效K及速效N含量,从而对棉花根际微环境产生深刻影响.%Cotton seedlings were cultured in hydroponics,root exudates were collected by concentrating the deionized water,in which the cotton seedlings transferring to.Collected root exudates were subjected to the soil with cotton cultivation for one year.Soil available nutrition contents,enzyme activities and microorganism quantity were determined after ten days incubation of treated soil.The results showed that the root exudates of cotton can significantly enhance the contents of the available K and available P in soil.In three treatments,soil available P significantly increased by 5.99%,13.14% and 24.31% (P<0.01)and available K significantly elevated by 4.31%,8.26% and 15.03% (P<0.01).Only higher input of cotton root exudates improved the content of the available N by 11.39% (P<0.05) in soil.And any influence was observed in soil organic matter in all

  2. Cotton and Sustainability: Impacting Student Learning through Sustainable Cotton Summit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha-Brookshire, Jung; Norum, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of intensive extra-curricular learning opportunities on students' knowledge, skills, and attitudes regarding cotton and sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: A three-phase extra-curricular learning opportunity was designed to include a Sustainable Cotton Summit; pre-summit and…

  3. Potential contributions of asphalt and coal tar to black carbon quantification in urban dust, soils, and sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Mahler, B.J.; Van Metre, P.C.; Ligouis, B.; Werth, C.J.

    2010-01-01

    Measurements of black carbon (BC) using either chemical or thermal oxidation methods are generally thought to indicate the amount of char and/or soot present in a sample. In urban environments, however, asphalt and coal-tar particles worn from pavement are ubiquitous and, because of their pyrogenic origin, could contribute to measurements of BC. Here we explored the effect of the presence of asphalt and coal-tar particles on the quantification of BC in a range of urban environmental sample types, and evaluated biases in the different methods used for quantifying BC. Samples evaluated were pavement dust, residential and commercial area soils, lake sediments from a small urban watershed, and reference materials of asphalt and coal tar. Total BC was quantified using chemical treatment through acid dichromate (Cr2O7) oxidation and chemo-thermal oxidation at 375??C (CTO-375). BC species, including soot and char/charcoal, asphalt, and coal tar, were quantified with organic petrographic analysis. Comparison of results by the two oxidation methods and organic petrography indicates that both coal tar and asphalt contribute to BC quantified by Cr2O7 oxidation, and that coal tar contributes to BC quantified by CTO-375. These results are supported by treatment of asphalt and coal-tar reference samples with Cr2O7 oxidation and CTO-375. The reference asphalt is resistant to Cr2O7 oxidation but not to CTO-375, and the reference coal tar is resistant to both Cr2O7 oxidation and CTO-375. These results indicate that coal tar and/or asphalt can contribute to BC measurements in samples from urban areas using Cr2O7 oxidation or CTO-375, and caution is advised when interpreting BC measurements made with these methods. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Selection and molecular characterization of cellulolytic-xylanolytic fungi from surface soil-biomass mixtures from Black Belt sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeke, Benedict C; Hall, Rosine W; Nanjundaswamy, Ananda; Thomson, M Sue; Deravi, Yasaman; Sawyer, Leah; Prescott, Andrew

    2015-06-01

    Plant biomass is an abundant renewable natural resource that can be transformed into chemical feedstocks. Enzymes used in saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass are a major part of biofuel production costs. A cocktail of cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes are required for optimal saccharification of biomass. Accordingly, thirty-two fungal pure cultures were obtained from surface soil-biomass mixtures collected from Black Belt sites in Alabama by culturing on lignocellulosic biomass medium. The fungal strains were screened for the coproduction of cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes. Strains that displayed promising levels of cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes were characterized by molecular analysis of DNA sequences from the large subunit and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of their ribosomal RNA gene. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that two most promising isolates FS22A and FS5A were most similar to Penicillium janthinellum and Trichoderma virens. Production dynamics of cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes from these two strains were explored in submerged fermentation. Volumetric productivity after 120 h incubation was 121.08 units/L/h and 348 units/L/h for the filter paper cellulase and xylanase of strain FS22A, and 90.83 units/L/h and 359 units/L/h, respectively for strain FS5A. Assays with 10 times dilution of enzymes revealed that the activities were much higher than that observed in the crude culture supernatant. Additionally, both FS22A and FS5A also produced amylase in lignocellulose medium. The enzyme profiles of these strains and their activities suggest potential applications in cost effective biomass conversion and biodegradation. PMID:25817459

  5. Potential contributions of asphalt and coal tar to black carbon quantification in urban dust, soils, and sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yaning; Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Ligouis, Bertrand; Werth, Charles J.

    2010-12-01

    Measurements of black carbon (BC) using either chemical or thermal oxidation methods are generally thought to indicate the amount of char and/or soot present in a sample. In urban environments, however, asphalt and coal-tar particles worn from pavement are ubiquitous and, because of their pyrogenic origin, could contribute to measurements of BC. Here we explored the effect of the presence of asphalt and coal-tar particles on the quantification of BC in a range of urban environmental sample types, and evaluated biases in the different methods used for quantifying BC. Samples evaluated were pavement dust, residential and commercial area soils, lake sediments from a small urban watershed, and reference materials of asphalt and coal tar. Total BC was quantified using chemical treatment through acid dichromate (Cr 2O 7) oxidation and chemo-thermal oxidation at 375 °C (CTO-375). BC species, including soot and char/charcoal, asphalt, and coal tar, were quantified with organic petrographic analysis. Comparison of results by the two oxidation methods and organic petrography indicates that both coal tar and asphalt contribute to BC quantified by Cr 2O 7 oxidation, and that coal tar contributes to BC quantified by CTO-375. These results are supported by treatment of asphalt and coal-tar reference samples with Cr 2O 7 oxidation and CTO-375. The reference asphalt is resistant to Cr 2O 7 oxidation but not to CTO-375, and the reference coal tar is resistant to both Cr 2O 7 oxidation and CTO-375. These results indicate that coal tar and/or asphalt can contribute to BC measurements in samples from urban areas using Cr 2O 7 oxidation or CTO-375, and caution is advised when interpreting BC measurements made with these methods.

  6. Zero tillage: A potential technology to improve cotton yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Hafiz Ghazanfar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Zero tillage technology revealed with no use of any soil inverting technique to grow crops. The crop plant seed is planted in the soil directly after irrigation to make the soil soft without any replenishing in soil layers. A study was conducted to evaluate cotton genotypes FH-114 and FH-142 for the consecutive three years of growing seasons from 2013-15. The seed of both genotypes was sown with two date of sowing, 1 March and 1 May of each three years of sowing under three tillage treatments (zero tillage, minimum tillage and conventional tillage in triplicate completely randomized split-split plot design. It was found from results that significant differences were recorded for tillage treatments, date of sowing, genotypes and their interactions. Multivariate analysis was performed to evaluate the yield and it attributed traits for potential of FH-114 and FH-142 cotton genotypes. The genotype FH-142 was found with higher and batter performance as compared to FH-114 under zero tillage, minimum tillage and conventional tillage techniques. The traits bolls per plant, boll weight, fibre fineness, fibre strength, plant height, cotton yield per plant and sympodial branches per plant were found as most contributing traits towards cotton yield and production. It was also found that FH-142 gives higher output in terms of economic gain under zero tillage with 54% increase as compared to conventional tillage technique. It was suggested that zero tillage technology should be adopted to improve cotton yield and quality. It was also recommended that further study to evaluate zero tillage as potential technology should be performed with different regions, climate and timing throughout the world.

  7. Physiological and nutritional status of black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb.) grown in soil with interaction of high doses of copper and zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiecher, Tadeu L; Tiecher, Tales; Ceretta, Carlos A; Ferreira, Paulo A A; Nicoloso, Fernando T; Soriani, Hilda H; Tassinari, Adriele; Paranhos, Juçara Terezinha; De Conti, Lessandro; Brunetto, Gustavo

    2016-09-01

    Vineyard sandy acid soils from South Brazil have experienced heavy metal contamination due to replacement of copper (Cu)-based by zinc (Zn)-based products to control foliar diseases. Thus, we evaluate physiological and nutritional status of black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb.), a common interrow crop in vineyards from this region. Soil was collected in a natural field from Santana do Livramento, in Rio Grande do Sul, the southernmost state of Brazil. Black oat was cultivated for 30 days in a greenhouse with application of 0, 30, and 60 mg Cu kg(-1) combined with 0, 15, 30, 60, 120, and 180 mg Zn kg(-1). After the trial period, dry matter accumulation of roots and shoots, Cu and Zn contents in roots and shoots, chlorophyll a fluorescence, photosynthetic pigments and catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) and peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.7) activity were determined. Cu and Zn toxicity was evidenced by the decrease in plant growth of black oat as well as by the decrease of photochemical efficiency associated with the decrease in photosynthetic pigment content, especially with the highest doses of Cu and Zn. Furthermore, the activity of antioxidant enzymes (CAT and POD) was increased in intermediate doses of Zn, indicating the activation of the antioxidant system, but the stress condition in treatments with high levels of Cu and Zn was not reversed. PMID:27209215

  8. Physiological and nutritional status of black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb.) grown in soil with interaction of high doses of copper and zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiecher, Tadeu L; Tiecher, Tales; Ceretta, Carlos A; Ferreira, Paulo A A; Nicoloso, Fernando T; Soriani, Hilda H; Tassinari, Adriele; Paranhos, Juçara Terezinha; De Conti, Lessandro; Brunetto, Gustavo

    2016-09-01

    Vineyard sandy acid soils from South Brazil have experienced heavy metal contamination due to replacement of copper (Cu)-based by zinc (Zn)-based products to control foliar diseases. Thus, we evaluate physiological and nutritional status of black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb.), a common interrow crop in vineyards from this region. Soil was collected in a natural field from Santana do Livramento, in Rio Grande do Sul, the southernmost state of Brazil. Black oat was cultivated for 30 days in a greenhouse with application of 0, 30, and 60 mg Cu kg(-1) combined with 0, 15, 30, 60, 120, and 180 mg Zn kg(-1). After the trial period, dry matter accumulation of roots and shoots, Cu and Zn contents in roots and shoots, chlorophyll a fluorescence, photosynthetic pigments and catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) and peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.7) activity were determined. Cu and Zn toxicity was evidenced by the decrease in plant growth of black oat as well as by the decrease of photochemical efficiency associated with the decrease in photosynthetic pigment content, especially with the highest doses of Cu and Zn. Furthermore, the activity of antioxidant enzymes (CAT and POD) was increased in intermediate doses of Zn, indicating the activation of the antioxidant system, but the stress condition in treatments with high levels of Cu and Zn was not reversed.

  9. Emprego de calcário e de superfosfato simples na cultura do algodoeiro em solo argiloso ácido Use of lime and of ordinary superphosphate for cotton cultivated on acid clay soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson M. da Silva

    1980-01-01

    liming experiment with cotton are discussed. This experiment was conducted on Latosolic B Terra Roxa soil, acid, with a pH index of 5.0, originally under "cerradão" vegetation, with 66% of clay, 4.3% of organic mater, 0.9, 0.8 and 0.5 (meq/100 ml of Al3+, Ca2+and Mg2+, respectively. The experimental design was a split-plot, with four replications. Dolomitic limestone was applied in the first year, on main plots at the levels of 0, 1.5, 3.0 and 6.0 t/ha. P and K were annually applied on split-plots, as a factorial 3 x 2, at the levels of 0, 60 and 120 kg/ha of P2O5, and 40 and 80 kg/ha of K2O, respectively, with ordinary superphosphate and potassium chloride. Four months after lime application, the neutralization of the exchangeable aluminum found by soil analysis was observed, at the highest level, the pH value increased up to 5.5 and values of calcium plus magnesium reached 3.0 meq. The linear effect upon cotton yield, due to liming, was significant during all the period of this study, increasing from the first to the third year. The effect of phosphorus was smaller, but positive and significant. Cotton plants did not react to potassium fertilization and interactions were not observed. Lime increased the concentrations of P, Ca and Mg in leaf blades, and decreased those of K, Fe, Mn and Al in the year when it was applied. There were no symptoms of K or micronutrient deficiencies due to the use of lime at high level.

  10. Overexpression of a Foreign Bt Gene in Cotton Affects the Low-Molecular-Weight Components in Root Exudates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Wei-Dong; SHI Wei-Ming; LI Bao-Hai; ZHANG Min

    2007-01-01

    Most research in the past using genetically modified crops (GM crops) has focused on the ecological safety of foreign gene (i.e., the gene flow), gene products (for example, Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) protein), and the safety of transgenic food for humans. In this study, changes in both the species and amounts of low-molecular-weight components in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) root exudates after foreign Bt gene overexpression were investigated under different nutritional conditions. Transgenic cotton containing Bt (Bt-cotton), supplemented with all the mineral nutrients, secreted more organic acids than the wild-type cotton (WT). When nitrogen was removed from the full-nutrient solution, the amount of organic acids secretion of Bt-cotton was lesser than that of WT. The roots of the transgenic cotton secreted lesser amounts of amino acids and soluble sugars than the WT roots in the full-nutrient solution. Deficiencies of P and K caused a large increase in the total amino acid and soluble sugar secretions of both Bt-cotton and WT, with larger increases observed in Bt-cotton. Because transferring the foreign Bt gene into cotton can result in alterations in the components of the root exudates, with the effect varying depending on the nutritional status, the cultivation of genetically modified crops, such as Bt-cotton, in soil environments should be more carefully assessed, and the possible effects as a result of the alterations in the root exudate components should be considered.

  11. Zhengzhou Cotton Trading Market opened

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    On November 8th, Zhengzhou cotton trading market Co., Ltd. in Zhengzhou City, Henan Province held a grand opening ceremony. It marked the formal operations of the spot cotton Electronic Trading Center. The trading center basing on the central plain area and radiating its profound influence across the whole country.

  12. Exploring biomedical applications of cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of cotton as a biomaterial for design of improved wound dressings, and other non-implantable medical textiles will be considered. The research and development of cotton-based wound dressings, which possess a mechanism-based mode of action, has entered a new level of understanding in recent ...

  13. Exploring biomedical ppplications of cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of cotton as a biomaterial for design of improved wound dressings, and other non-implantable medical textiles will be considered. The research and development of cotton-based wound dressings, which possess a mechanism-based mode of action, has entered a new level of understanding in recent y...

  14. The effect of fire and permafrost interactions on soil carbon accumulation in an upland black spruce ecosystem of interior Alaska: Implications for post-thaw carbon loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, J. A.; Harden, J.W.; McGuire, A.D.; Kanevskiy, M.Z.; Jorgenson, M.T.; Xu, X.

    2011-01-01

    High-latitude regions store large amounts of organic carbon (OC) in active-layer soils and permafrost, accounting for nearly half of the global belowground OC pool. In the boreal region, recent warming has promoted changes in the fire regime, which may exacerbate rates of permafrost thaw and alter soil OC dynamics in both organic and mineral soil. We examined how interactions between fire and permafrost govern rates of soil OC accumulation in organic horizons, mineral soil of the active layer, and near-surface permafrost in a black spruce ecosystem of interior Alaska. To estimate OC accumulation rates, we used chronosequence, radiocarbon, and modeling approaches. We also developed a simple model to track long-term changes in soil OC stocks over past fire cycles and to evaluate the response of OC stocks to future changes in the fire regime. Our chronosequence and radiocarbon data indicate that OC turnover varies with soil depth, with fastest turnover occurring in shallow organic horizons (~60 years) and slowest turnover in near-surface permafrost (>3000 years). Modeling analysis indicates that OC accumulation in organic horizons was strongly governed by carbon losses via combustion and burial of charred remains in deep organic horizons. OC accumulation in mineral soil was influenced by active layer depth, which determined the proportion of mineral OC in a thawed or frozen state and thus, determined loss rates via decomposition. Our model results suggest that future changes in fire regime will result in substantial reductions in OC stocks, largely from the deep organic horizon. Additional OC losses will result from fire-induced thawing of near-surface permafrost. From these findings, we conclude that the vulnerability of deep OC stocks to future warming is closely linked to the sensitivity of permafrost to wildfire disturbance. ?? 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Uptake, distribution and metabolic fate of 59Fe, 58Co, 54Mn and 65Zn in plants and their mobility and availability to crops in typical black and laterite soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were undertaken on typical soils of India. Nutrient culture experiments indicated that with identical plant growth periods the accumulation in aerial tissues of 65Zn and 54Mn was greater than that of 58Co and 59Fe. The distribution of 59Fe, 58Co and 65Zn in the various aerial organs of bean plants was generally uniform whereas the distribution of 54Mn followed an acropetal gradient. The chemical association of 59Fe, 58Co and 65Zn in the edible bean pods was predominantly with lipids and ionic forms whereas 54Mn association was mainly with ionic forms. The plant uptake of these radionuclides from typical black and laterite soils showed maximum accumulation of 54Mn followed by 65Zn, 59Fe and 58Co in both soil types and the uptake was greater from the laterite soil than from the black soil. Flooding treatment of rice, while showing a reduction of 59Fe uptake, showed an increase in plant uptake of 58Co, 54Mn and 65Zn in both soil types. Organic matter addition resulted in a significant reduction of 59Fe and 58Co in the laterite soil and of 65Zn in the black soil. All the four nuclides were completely immobile in the two soil types when leached with rain water or irrigation waters or when treated with organic matter. However, leaching with 10-2 M EDTA solution induced a rapid breakthrough of all the four radionuclides. (author)

  16. A 6-year-long manipulation with soil warming and canopy nitrogen additions does not affect xylem phenology and cell production of mature black spruce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madjelia Cangre Ebou eDAO

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The predicted climate warming and increased atmospheric inorganic nitrogen deposition are expected to have dramatic impacts on plant growth. However, the extent of these effects and their interactions remains unclear for boreal forest trees. The aim of this experiment was to investigate the effects of increased soil temperature and nitrogen (N depositions on stem intra-annual growth of two mature stands of black spruce [Picea mariana (Mill. BSP] in Quebec, Canada. During 2008-2013, the soil around mature trees was warmed up by 4 °C with heating cables during the growing season and precipitations containing three times the current inorganic N concentration were added by frequent canopy applications. Xylem phenology and cell production were monitored weekly from April to October. The 6-year-long experiment performed in two sites at different altitude showed no substantial effect of warming and N-depositions on xylem phenological phases of cell enlargement, wall thickening and lignification. Cell production, in terms of number of tracheids along the radius, also did not differ significantly and followed the same patterns in control and treated trees. These findings allowed the hypothesis of a medium-term effect of soil warming and N depositions on the growth of mature black spruce to be rejected.

  17. A 6-Year-Long Manipulation with Soil Warming and Canopy Nitrogen Additions does not Affect Xylem Phenology and Cell Production of Mature Black Spruce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Madjelia C E; Rossi, Sergio; Walsh, Denis; Morin, Hubert; Houle, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The predicted climate warming and increased atmospheric inorganic nitrogen deposition are expected to have dramatic impacts on plant growth. However, the extent of these effects and their interactions remains unclear for boreal forest trees. The aim of this experiment was to investigate the effects of increased soil temperature and nitrogen (N) depositions on stem intra-annual growth of two mature stands of black spruce [Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP] in Québec, QC, Canada. During 2008-2013, the soil around mature trees was warmed up by 4°C with heating cables during the growing season and precipitations containing three times the current inorganic N concentration were added by frequent canopy applications. Xylem phenology and cell production were monitored weekly from April to October. The 6-year-long experiment performed in two sites at different altitude showed no substantial effect of warming and N-depositions on xylem phenological phases of cell enlargement, wall thickening and lignification. Cell production, in terms of number of tracheids along the radius, also did not differ significantly and followed the same patterns in control and treated trees. These findings allowed the hypothesis of a medium-term effect of soil warming and N depositions on the growth of mature black spruce to be rejected. PMID:26617610

  18. Biomass Equations and Carbon Content of Young Black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L. Trees from Plantations and Coppices on Sandy Soils in South-Western Romanian Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Liviu CIUVĂŢ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to develop biomass equations for young black locust trees from plantations and coppices established in South-West Romania. A destructive method was used to develop allometric biomass equations and to assess the carbon content of the individual tree and its biomass components. 418 black locust young trees (1-4 years old from 27 plots established in plantations and coppices growing on sandy soils in Dolj and Olt counties were sampled. Simple linear regression models were developed for biomass estimation. The results shown that root collar diameter was the most accurate biomass predictor, whilst intercept and slope values were similar to those identified in other recent studies. The specific carbon content (mean values was 45% for roots and 48% for leaves, similar to the values provided by Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change.

  19. Cotton Textile: Brisk against Bleak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dennis K.Zhao

    2009-01-01

    @@ The 6th International cotton and cotton textile conference already scheduled on Sept.8-10 in Xinjiang,China's largest cotton growing area,was called off on a short notice of rascal needle dabbing that had caused a widespread public consternation.But the information that is focused on the leitmotif of "financial crisis and revitalization of textile industry for adjustment,upgrading and innovation"is to be shared,discussed at the upcoming resumed meeting.Cotton textile industry is and will be the most important driver for the global textile and clothing sector as it provides jobs not only for the residents living in the cities,but also for the farmers growing cotton in the poverty-ridden countryside.China and India are the most important players in this sector,for both are the most populous countries in the world...

  20. Effects of Different Irrigation Methods and Fertilization Measures on Soil Respiration and Its Component Contributions in Cotton Field in Arid Region%干旱区不同灌溉方式及施肥措施对棉田土壤呼吸及各组分贡献的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张前兵; 杨玲; 王进; 罗宏海; 张亚黎; 张旺锋

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] It is of great significance to explore the effects of different irrigation methods and fertilization measures on soil carbon balance in cotton field during cotton growth season in arid region, and to compare the effects of different management practices on soil carbon sequestration intensity in cotton field.! MethodiTwo-factor experiments with two irrigation methods and four fertilizer treatments were conducted during cotton growth period. Drip irrigation and flood irrigation were arranged as two different irrigation methods and organic manure (OM), N P K fertilizer (NPK), combined application of NPK fertilizer and organic manure (NPK.+OM) and no fertilization (CK) were arranged as four fertilizer treatments. Soil respiration rate in cotton field was measured by LI-8100 automated soil CO2 efflux system and root contribution of soil respiration was detected by root exclusion method. Soil carbon sequestration intensity in cotton field under different irrigation methods and fertilization measures was analyzed by calculating net ecosystem productivity (NEP). [Result] Under the conditions of different irrigation methods and fertilization measures, seasonal variation of cropland soil respiration rate showed an increase at first, then followed a declining trend with air temperature change. Soil respiration rate reached a peak in mid-July and then reduced to the minimum in mid-October after cotton harvest. Soil carbon emission under drip irrigation was larger than that under flood irrigation, and under the same irrigation condition, the soil carbon emission with NPK+OM treatment was the highest, then with OM, CK, NPK in turn. The ratio of root respiration contribution to soil respiration was fluctuated between 36.38% and 58.74% under drip irrigation method, whereas between 33.73% and 52.03% under flood irrigation method. Root respiration contribution was the highest at the boiling stage. During the whole growth period, the root respiration contribution under

  1. Effects of Different Planting Patterns on Cotton Yield and Soil Water-salt under Brackish Water Irrigation before Sowing%微咸水造墒条件下植棉方式对产量与土壤水盐的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊鹏; 曹彩云; 冯棣; 孙景生; 李科江; 刘浩

    2013-01-01

    Effects of six planting patterns on cotton soil water-salt movement, seedling rate, leaf area index, yield and fiber quality under irrigation before sowing with 5 g/L brackish water were studied by plot comparative trial. The planting patterns were respectively seeding raising and soil-substrate transplanting with plastic mulching, seeding raising in sand and root-naked transplanting with plastic mulching, seeding raising and soil-substrate transplanting without plastic mulching, seeding raising in sand and root-naked transplanting without plastic mulching, and bunch planting without plastic mulching. The results showed that salt stress towards cotton was reduced by applying plastic film mulching to decrease soil evaporation, improve soil temperature as well as inhibit salt accumulation in surface. Under the film mulching conditions, the cotton seedling rate, leaf area index before blossoming and boll forming stage, pre-frost yield and yield were higher than that without plastic mulching. Fiber quality was also improved. The techniques of seeding raising and soil-substrate transplanting and seeding raising in sand and root-naked transplanting showed a good yield-increasing potential. Especially during the successive overcast days in the middle-late stages of cotton (in 2011 ) , the yield of seedling transplantation cotton was greatly improved.%采用小区对比试验,研究了5g/L微咸水造墒条件下不同种植方式(基质育苗移栽覆膜、沙培育苗移栽覆膜、点播覆膜与基质育苗移栽不覆膜、沙培育苗移栽不覆膜、点播不覆膜)对棉花土壤水盐变化过程、成苗率、叶面积指数、产量以及纤维品质的影响.结果表明,地膜覆盖通过减少土壤蒸发、提高土壤温度和抑制盐分表聚,削弱了盐分胁迫对棉花的危害程度,棉花的成苗率、花铃期前的叶面积指数、霜前花率以及产量均高于无覆盖处理,同时有效地提高了棉花的纤维品质;基质育苗移栽

  2. 新疆连作、轮作棉田可培养的土壤微生物区系及活性分析%Dynamics Analysis of Culturable Soil Microflora and Microbial Activity in Continuous and Rotation Cropping Systems of Xinjiang Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩剑; 张静文; 徐文修; 罗明; 吴莉莉

    2011-01-01

    Variation of culturable soil microflora and microbial activity were investigated in continuous and rotation cropping cotton field in Xinjiang.The results showed that culturable microbial population gradually decreased with long-term continuous cropping of cotton.Compared with 5 years continous cropping, the total quantity of soil microbes in 6~8 years, 9~12 years and more than 13 years continuous cropping, decreased by 40.2%, 46.7%, 52.4%,respectively.After more than 5 years continuous cropping, the structure of the soil microbial community transformed from rich nutrition bacteria type to lower nutrition fungi type, the ratio ofbacteria to fungi and actinomycetes to fungi decreased significantly.The amount of nitrogen physiological communities such as ammonifying bacteria, nitrobacteria and aerobic nitrogen-fixing bacteria decreased, while denitrifying bacteria increased.Moreover, continuous cropping resulted in soil respiration intensity and cellulolytic activity reducing.Contrary to continuous cropping, under the cotton/melilotus suavena, tomato, spring wheat or com rotation systems were most beneficial for increasing the total quantity of soil micro-organism, improving the capability of soil microbial activity, adjusting the balance of microbial community.Also there was substantial increasement in the number of azotobacteria.The effects of different rotation modes were different, the benefits of cotton-tomato and cotton-melilotus suavena rotation were more obvious.%研究了新疆连作、轮作棉田土壤可培养微生物区系及活性变化.结果表明,棉花多年连作造成土壤中可培养微生物数量减少,连作6~8年、9~12年、大于13年的棉田与连作小于5年的棉田相比,土壤微生物总量分别下降了40.2%,46.7%,52.4%.连作超过5年后,土壤微生物菌群结构逐渐从高肥的"细菌型"向低肥的"真菌型"转化,细菌/真菌(B/F)和放线菌/真菌(A/F)比值均降低,拮抗菌

  3. 7 CFR 1205.13 - Upland cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.13 Section 1205.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.13 Upland cotton. The term Upland cotton...

  4. China Cotton label to be generalized

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    "China Cotton"authorization press conference was held in Beijing on October 11. China Cotton Association granted authorization to the first four enterprises, allowing them to use the label of China Cotton on their qualified products. Shandong Lanyan Group, Beijing Miantian Textile Co., Ltd are among the fi rst companies authorized to use China Cotton label.

  5. Tracking the fingerprints and combined TOC-black carbon mediated soil-air partitioning of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in the Indus River Basin of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Usman; Sánchez-García, Laura; Rehman, Muhammad Yasir Abdur; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Mahmood, Adeel; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Jones, Kevin C; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2016-01-01

    This study reports the first investigation of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in air and soil samples from ecologically important sites of the Indus River Basin, Pakistan. The concentrations of ∑39-PCNs in air and soil were found in a range between 1-1588 pg m(-3) and 0.02-23 ng g(-1) while the mean TEQ values were calculated to be 5.4E(-04) pg TEQ m(-3) and 1.6E(+01) pg TEQ g(-1), respectively. Spatially, air and soil PCN concentrations were found to be high at Rahim Yar Khan (agricultural region). Lower-medium chlorinated PCNs (sum of tri-, tetra- and penta-CNs) predominated in both air and soil, altogether constituting 87 and 86% of total PCNs in the two environmental matrices, respectively. According to the data, soil-air partitioning of PCNs was interpreted to be similarly controlled by the combined effect of black carbon and organic matter in the Indus River Basin, with no preferential implication of the recalcitrant organic form. PMID:26613673

  6. The dependence of natural regeneration of forest trees on upper soil conditions and acidity at damaged sites in the Black Forest, Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was the goal of this study to investigate the influence of different upper soil conditions on the germination and establishment, as well as the growth, of young plants of various tree species. For this purpose, four test plots in the region of the Black Forest were laid out, in which, by various means of site preparation and fertilization, the upper soils were changed. Natural seeding of common spruce, European silver-fir, beech, sycamore maple, European mountainash, and grey alder was simulated by means of controlled sowing. For comparison, a greenhouse experiment was carried out, examining the germination and development of the same tree species in various soil substrata, using different fertilizers, and under the influence of artificial acid rain. The most important results - with a high level of variation depending on the tree species examined - can be summarized as follows: Based on the results of field and greenhouse experiments, as well as on the investigations of other authors, it can be concluded that natural regeneration of forest stands is considerably impeded under conditions of increasing soil acidity and by high acid depositions. This is seen directly as the result of unfavorable chemical conditions in the upper soil, as well as indirectly due to deteriorating competitiveness against other vegetation. Site preparation and lime or dolomite fertilization can be important measures in the practice of forestry, to encourage natural regeneration in highly acidic sites with an unfavourable humus layer and a high presence of competing vegetation. (orig./UWA). 2 figs., 85 tabs., 269 refs

  7. The effect of moisture content on the thermal conductivity of moss and organic soil horizons from black spruce ecosystems in interior alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, J. A.; Romanovsky, V.E.; Harden, J.W.; McGuire, A.D.

    2009-01-01

    Organic soil horizons function as important controls on the thermal state of near-surface soil and permafrost in high-latitude ecosystems. The thermal conductivity of organic horizons is typically lower than mineral soils and is closely linked to moisture content, bulk density, and water phase. In this study, we examined the relationship between thermal conductivity and soil moisture for different moss and organic horizon types in black spruce ecosystems of interior Alaska. We sampled organic horizons from feather moss-dominated and Sphagnum-dominated stands and divided horizons into live moss and fibrous and amorphous organic matter. Thermal conductivity measurements were made across a range of moisture contents using the transient line heat source method. Our findings indicate a strong positive and linear relationship between thawed thermal conductivity (Kt) and volumetric water content. We observed similar regression parameters (?? or slope) across moss types and organic horizons types and small differences in ??0 (y intercept) across organic horizon types. Live Sphagnum spp. had a higher range of Kt than did live feather moss because of the field capacity (laboratory based) of live Sphagnum spp. In northern regions, the thermal properties of organic soil horizons play a critical role in mediating the effects of climate warming on permafrost conditions. Findings from this study could improve model parameterization of thermal properties in organic horizons and enhance our understanding of future permafrost and ecosystem dynamics. ?? 2009 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

  8. Growth promotion and increased potassium uptake of cotton and rape by a potassium releasing strain of Bacillus edaphicus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, X.F. [Nanjing Agricultural Univ., Dept. of Microbiology, Nanjing (China)

    2005-10-01

    A potassium-releasing bacterial strain Bacillus edaphicus NBT was examined for plant-growth-promoting effects and nutrient uptake on cotton and rape in K-deficient soil in pot experiments. Inoculation with bacterial strain B. edaphicus NBT was found to increase root and shoot growth of cotton and rape. Strain NBT was able to mobilize potassium efficiently in both plants when illite was added to the soil. In cotton and rape growing in soils treated with insoluble potassium and inoculated with strain NBT, the potassium content was increased by 30 and 26%, respectively. Bacterial inoculation also resulted in higher N and P contents of above ground plant components. The bacterial isolate was also able to colonize and develop in the rhizosphere soil of cotton and rape after root inoculation. (Author)

  9. Studies on Cotton Breeding Resistant to Fusarium and Verticillium wilt Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Peng-sheng; ZENG Hua-lan; WEI Shu-gu; ZHANG Yu; LI Qiong-ying

    2008-01-01

    @@ Both Fusarium and Verticillium wilts are important soil-borne diseases,which can not be effectively controlled by chemical fungicides.The two diseases,especially Verticillium wilt,have spread all over the cotton belt,and obstructed the progress of cotton production in China in recent years.It has been proven that breeding and growing resistant cultivars is one of the most economical and effective measures to control these diseases.The program of breeding cotton for resistance to wilt diseases has been continuously studied in Industrial Crops Research Institute,Sighuan Academy of Agricultural Sciences(ICRI-SAAS) for more than 50 years.

  10. PERFORNACE OF RECRON-3S FIBER WITH CEMENT KILN DUST IN EXPANSIVE SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.V.KOTESWARA RAO

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, an attempt is made to study the influence of polymer fibers on the properties of locally available Black cotton soil with and without admixture modification. This study revealedthat the fiber reinforcement improves the soil properties in terms of improved stress-strain patterns and progressive failure in place of quick post peak failure of plain samples. The unconfined compressive strength of Clay soil is increased by 7 times with admixture stabilization and 9 times for admixture with fiber modificationwith respect to plain samples. The shear strength parameters of clay soil are also significantly increased upon admixture stabilization and admixture with fiber treatment. The CBR value also increased significantly even for soaked CBR tests. By addition of CKD the Liquid limit of the mixture is decreased 23 %, where as plastic limitis increased by 41%. Plasticity Index of the mix is decreased by 57%.

  11. Monthly Cotton Economic Leffer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    After attempting to move higher in mid-March, cotton prices !Lave since retreated, The mostactively traded May New York futures contract increased from levels near 87 cents/tb to those near 94 cents/lb. In more recent trading, prices fell back to a range between 88 and 91 cents/lb. Values for the A Index followed those in the futures market, climbing to a level above 103 cents/Ib before decreasing to levels near 100 cents/lb. Over the past month, the general pattern in daily price movement has been inverse to that of the U.S. dollar.

  12. Correlação entre a resposta do algodoeiro à adubação e a porcentagem de saturação em bases em vários tipos de solos do Estado de São Paulo Correlation between cotton responses to fertilizers and percentage of base saturation in soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Geraldo Fuzatto

    1966-01-01

    Full Text Available É discutido um aspecto da relação entre o efeito da adubação no algodoeiro e a análise química do solo, nas condições do Estado de São Paulo. Correlação entre a resposta à adubação e a porcentagem de saturação em bases no solo, foi verificada no estudo de 126 experimentos, conduzidos em vários tipos de solo. Uma equação polinomial de 2.° grau, descreve a correlação obtida, com um coeficiente R = 0,676xx.In this paper, the correlation between cotton responses to fertilization, and percentage of base saturation in soils, in the State of São Paulo, is discussed. A second degree polynomial, based on data collected from 126 experiments, was found to fit the data satisfactorily, with a correlation coefficient R = 0.676xx. The results indicate the possibility of estimating the effects due to fertilization in cotton crops, by use of the mentioned chemical characteristic of soils.

  13. Key Technologies in Wsn-Based Cotton Field Soilmoisture Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruirui; Chen, Liping; Xu, Gang; Wang, Yanji

    To level up the application of wireless sensor network in cotton field soil monitoring, wireless sensor network technology has been studied deeply. Some difficulties, including the design of soil moisture sensor, covering problem in wireless sensor network and diagnosis algorithm for wireless sensor networks and node, are been proposed and discussed. Combined with cotton field soil moisture monitoring application, coverage and deployment based not only on plane space but also on time are been discussed and a fault diagnosis algorithm based on entropy is been put forward in the article.

  14. Seed cotton yield, ionic and quality attributes of two cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. varieties as influenced by various rates of K and Na under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sohail

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Cotton is more sensitive to low K availability than most other major field crops, and often shows symptoms of K deficiency in soils not considered K deficient. Field investigation was conducted at Sahiwal to study the effect of different rates of K and Na application on seed cotton yield, ionic ratio and quality characteristics of two cotton varieties. Ten soil K: Na ratios were developed after considering indigenous K, Na status in soil. The treatments of K+Na in kg ha-1 to give K:Na ratios were as: 210+ 60 (3.5:1 i.e. control, 225 + 60 (3.75:1, 240 + 60 (4:1, 255 + 60 (4.25:1, 270 + 60 (4.5:1, 210 + 75 (2.8:1, 225 + 75 (3:1, 240 + 75 (3.2:1, 255 + 75 (3.4:1 and 270 + 75 (3.6:1. Control treatment represented indigenous K, Na status of soil. The experiment continued until maturity. Maximum seed cotton yield of NIBGE-2 was observed at K: Na ratio of 3.6:1. Variety NIBGE-2 manifested greater seed cotton yield than MNH-786. Leaf K: Na ratio of two cotton varieties differed significantly (p < 0.01 due to varieties, rates of K and Na and their interaction. Variety NIBGE-2 maintained higher K: Na ratio than MNH-786 and manifested good fiber quality. There was significant relationship (R2 = 0.55, n = 10 between K: Na ratio and fiber length and significant relationship (R2 = 0.65, n = 10 between K concentration and fiber length for NIBGE-2. There was also significant relationship (R2 = 0.91, 0.78, n = 10 between boll number and seed cotton yield for both varieties. The increase in yield was attributed to increased boll weight.

  15. Digieye Application In Cotton Colour Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Matusiak Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Colour is one of the most important properties of cotton raw materials. It helps in determining and classifying the quality of fibres according to the Universal Cotton Standards. Organoleptic and instrumental techniques are applied to assess the color of cotton. Worldwide, the colour parameters of cotton are measured by the High Volume Instrument (HVI), which provides information on reflectance (Rd) and yellowness (+b) that is specific for cotton, but are not the typical and globally recogniz...

  16. US Economy and Cotton Industry Developmenf Trend

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2012-01-01

    2012 China Cotton Development Summit Forum, oriented with the theme of "sustainable cotton industrial development under globalization", was held in the city of Chengdu, China, from May 17th to May 18, 2012. During the forum, Kevin Latner, Director of Overseas Operations, National Cotton Council of America as well as the Executive Director, Cotton Council International, presented a speech featuring the economic and cotton industrial development trend in US.

  17. IMPROVEMENT OF QUALITY OF A COTTON FIBRE SORTING COTTON SEGMENTS IN THE ELECTRIC DEVICE

    OpenAIRE

    Yusubaliev, Ashirbay; Yusupalieva, Umida

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses the increase of cotton fiber quality by sorting cotton segments source of raw cotton in the electric device. The data of the study results in the techno-logical properties of the fibers division of fractions.

  18. Actual laser removal of black soiling crust from siliceous sandstone by high pulse repetition rate equipment: effects on surface morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iglesias-Campos, M. A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This research project studies the role of pulse repetition rate in laser removal of black soiling crust from siliceous sandstone, and specifically, how laser fluence correlates with high pulse repetition rates in cleaning practice. The aim is to define practical cleaning processes and determine simple techniques for evaluation based on end-users’ perspective (restorers. Spot and surface tests were made using a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser system with a wide range of pulse repetition rates (5–200 Hz, systematically analysed and compared by macrophotography, portable microscope, stereomicroscope with 3D visualizing and area roughness measurements, SEM imaging and spectrophotometry. The results allow the conclusion that for operation under high pulse repetition rates the average of total energy applied per spot on a treated surface should be attendant upon fluence values in order to provide a systematic and accurate description of an actual laser cleaning intervention.En este trabajo se estudia el papel de la frecuencia de repetición en la limpieza láser de costras de contaminación sobre una arenisca silícea, y concretamente, como se relaciona fluencia y frecuencias elevadas en una limpieza real. Se pretende definir un procedimiento práctico de limpieza y determinar técnicas sencillas de evaluación desde el punto de vista de los usuarios finales (restauradores. Para el estudio se realizaron diferentes ensayos en spot y en superficie mediante un equipo Q-switched Nd:YAG con un amplio rango de frecuencias (5–200 Hz, que se analizaron y compararon sistemáticamente mediante macrofotografía, microscopio portátil, estereomicroscopio con visualización 3D y mediciones de rugosidad en área, imágenes SEM y espectrofotometría. Los resultados permiten proponer que, al trabajar con altas frecuencias, la media de la energía total depositada por spot en la superficie debería acompañar los valores de fluencia para describir y comprender mejor una

  19. Effects of Agronomic Measures on Soil Organic Carbon and Microbial Carbon Content in Cotton in Arid Region%农艺措施对干旱区棉田土壤有机碳及微生物量碳含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张前兵; 杨玲; 张旺锋; 罗宏海; 张亚黎; 王进

    2014-01-01

    [Objective]To reveal the regulatory mechanism of agronomic measures on soil carbon stability of the agro-ecosystem in arid region, an experiment was carried out to study the effects of agricultural practices on soil organic carbon (SOC) and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) of cotton fields, which would a provide theoretical basis for agricultural resources utilization and sustainable development in the oasis arid region.[Method]In this study, the split-split plot design method was used to arrange the treatments during cotton growth period. In the main plot treatment, two irrigation methods were designed:drip irrigation and flood irrigation. The split-plot treatment consisted of two stubble management measures: stubble-incorporated and stubble-removed. The split-split-plot treatment was composed of four fertilizer treatments:organic manure (chicken manure, which was composted before utilization, OM), N P K fertilizer (NPK), combined application of NPK fertilizer and organic manure (NPK+OM), and no fertilization (CK). The soil heterotrophic respiration intensity was measured after emergence of the cotton seedling, and soil samples were collected in the annual cotton harvest period. The soil organic carbon and microbial biomass carbon of cotton fields were measured under different agronomic measures.[Result]Both soil organic carbon and microbial biomass carbon were not significant under the condition of interaction between different agronomic measures (P>0.05). The soil organic carbon and microbial biomass carbon at 0-20 cm surface soil were the highest, with lower distribution trends as soil layer depth increased of cotton field, and reduced to lowest at 40-60 cm soil layer in the oasis arid region. The soil organic carbon under conventional flood irrigation was 2.5%-3.0%more than that under drip irrigation under mulch, and under stubble incorporation was 2.3%-6.3%more than that under stubble removal, and as compared with CK treatment, the soil organic carbon under NPK

  20. The Impact of Organic Cotton Farming on the Livelihoods of Smallholders. Evidence from the Maikaal bioRe poject in central India

    OpenAIRE

    Eyhorn, Frank; Mäder, Paul; Ramakrishnan, Mahesh

    2005-01-01

    This research report analyses the impact of conversion to organic cotton farming on the livelihoods of smallholders in the Maikaal bioRe organic cotton project in Madhya Pradesh, central India. For that purpose, it compares farm profile data, material and financial input/output and soil parameters of organic and conventional farms over two cropping periods (2003 – 2005). The results show that organic farms achieve cotton yields that are on a par with those in conventional farms, though nutrie...

  1. The effect of crops roots on the content of different form C in black soil%不同作物根系对黑土碳组分及其含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿贵; 汪景宽; 於丽华; 杨云; 邳植

    2011-01-01

    以黑龙江省寒地黑土为研究对象,通过室内培养试验研究了大豆、玉米、甜菜根系对土壤呼吸释放CO2量、水溶性有机碳、微生物量碳和土壤有机碳含量变化的影响.结果表明:大豆、玉米、甜菜根系普遍提高土壤有机碳含量,但是不同作物根系及根系施用量之间还存在一定的差异,大豆根系要好于玉米根系,而玉米根系明显好于甜菜根系.玉米、大豆、甜菜根系提高了土壤呼吸,增加了土壤CO2排放量,提高了土壤微生物量碳含量;而普遍降低了土壤可溶性有机碳含量.%The experiment with three crops ( sugar beet, maize and soybean) roots and black soil was conducted to study the changes of soil respiration and C02 emissions, soil water soluble organic C, soil microorganism biomass C and soil organic C content in soil at different crops roots treatments. The results showed that; soil organic C content was increased after applying of sugar beet, corn, soybean roots to black soil, and the increase were the most to soybean roots, then corn roots, the less increase was sugar beet roots. Soil respiration was enhanced and CO2 emissions were increased after applying of sugar beet, corn, soybean roots to black soil. Soil microorganism biomass C dramatically enhanced in black soil, but soil water soluble organic C was decreased after applying of sugar beet, corn, soybean roots to black soil. These results are different for the different types and quantities of crops roots.

  2. Effect of Chitinase-Producing Strain V-8 on 3ontrolling Cotton Fusarium Wilt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to screen endophytic bacteria which is antag- onistic to cotton Fusarium wilt. [Method] Fresh cotton plants collected from cotton- growing areas in Jingzhou City, Hubei Province were used as experimental materials to isolate endophytic bacteria. Through chitinase test and co-culturing both micro-or- ganisms side by side on the same PDA culture plate, antagonistic strains to cotton Fusarium wilt were screened. [Result] A total of 83 bacterial isolates were obtained from cotton plants grown in the fields, six of which were chitinase-productive bacte- ria. Through chitinase test and co-culturing both micro-organisms side by side on the same PDA culture plate, strain V-8 which had the strongest antagonistic effect on Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum was screened. Strain V-8 had a wider anti- fungal spectrum with certain inhibitory effect on all the six important pathogenic fungi including Fusarium oxysporum f. sp niveum; it colonized stably in the rhizospheric soil of cotton, with a colonization density of up to 6.2x10s cfu/g fifty days after inoc- ulation; the relative effect on controlling cotton Fusarium wilt in pot test was 73.2%. The Findings of this study suggested that strain V-8 had great potential for biological control of cotton Fusarium wilt and could be taken as a substantial material for the cloning of chitinase genes. [Conclusion] The results from this study provides bases for the control of cotton fusarium wilt, as well as the exploitation of endophytic bac- teria resources in cotton and the development of novel biological pesticides.

  3. 东北典型黑土区土壤重金属污染现状评价与分析%Appraisal and Analysis of Soil Heavy Metal Pollution of Typical Black Soil Region in the Northeast of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王粟; 孙彬; 汪潮柱; 裴占江; 李淑琴; 左辛; 张欣; 刘杰

    2013-01-01

    According to the typical black soil region in the northeast of China,with the heavy metal of black soil in Heilongjiang Province as the research object,through the stationing sampling,testing analysis,the pollution status was studied and pollution evaluation was conducted.The results showed that:the average content of As,Cd,Co,Cr,Hg,Ni,Pb in black soil are all below the national soil background value.The relatively higher values mainly in Shuangyashan,Jixi,Jamusi belong to Songnen Plain region,other areas only individual element of heavy metal content was relatively higher.The average single factor pollution index was less than 1,indicating no pollution.Nemerow comprehensive pollution evaluation method was adopted for evaluating sample pollution.It was found that 6 samples exceeding the standard,with exceeding rate 0.9%.The exceeding samples were mainly affected by Ni,Hg,Cd.For the typical black soil region,exploitation resources of mineral is the primary cause of soil environment pollution,in addition,improper use of pesticide and fertilizer,solid waste and sewage of industrial production,also are important factors for affecting black soil environmental quality.%针对东北典型黑土区域,以黑龙江省黑土重金属为研究对象,通过布点采样、检测分析,研究其污染现状,进行污染评价.结果表明:黑土土壤中砷(As)、镉(Cd)、钴(Co)、铬(Cr)、汞(Hg)、镍(Ni)、铅(Pb)7项土壤重金属元素平均含量均低于全国背景值.其相对高值区主要分布于双鸭山、鸡西、佳木斯所属的三江平原地区,其他地区仅有个别元素重金属含量相对稍高.各元素平均单因子污染指数均<1,属于未污染.采用内梅罗综合污染评价方法对个样点污染情况进行评价,发现超标样点为6个,超标率为0.9%.超标样点主要受Ni、Hg、Cd 3种元素污染的影响.对典型黑土区矿产资源的开采可能是影响黑土土壤重金属污染的最主要因素之一.另外,

  4. Effects of Season and Management of Irrigated Cotton Fields on Collembola (Hexapoda) in New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytton-Hitchins, James A; Greenslade, Penelope; Wilson, Lewis J

    2015-06-01

    The effects of production practices on the relative abundance of springtails (Collembola) in irrigated cotton fields of northern New South Wales (NSW) were studied over 2 yr to examine effects of farm management on these decomposer organisms. Pitfall trapping and soil core extraction was undertaken in both pseudoreplicated plots within whole fields on cotton farms and on experimental replicate plots of Envirofeast cotton and Lucerne. The relative abundance of surface-active springtails in cotton rows and densities of soil species from the rhizosphere were calculated. Twenty-three species of Collembola were collected from 5 fields, 19 in pitfall traps, and 11 in soil cores. Five species, Setogaster sp., Proisotoma minuta, Entomobrya unostrigata, Entomobrya multifasciata grp, and Lepidobrya sp. were numerically dominant on the ground at 86-96% of individuals and Mesaphorura sp., Folsomides parvulus, and Hemisotoma thermophila grp dominant in the soil. Native grassland samples contained 15 species of which a probable 10 were native and 8 were not found in cotton. Nineteen species of the 24 species identified from cotton were predominantly fungal feeders. Highest catches of Collembola occurred after flowering and soil Collembola increased with depth and during cotton growth on unsprayed plots but decreased on sprayed plots. Surface soil moistures affected daily catch rates with decomposing residues, crop stage, predator abundance, and season as secondary factors. Insecticide (endosulfan, pyrethroid, carbamate, and organophosphate) and predator effects were either negligible or unclear depending on the factor involved. Springtails appear to be predominately food limited during times of adequate soil moisture in cotton fields. PMID:26313958

  5. Utilization of Cotton DNA Markers in Cotton Breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CANTRELL Roy G; XIAO Jin-hua

    2008-01-01

    @@ Informative,portable,and efficient DNA markers have the potential to accelerate genetic gain in cotton breeding.Discovery and widespread application of DNA markers to cotton has traditionally lagged behind other major crop species.The reasons are well known to ICGI participants.The foundation for widespread development and application of DNA markers has been laid by ICGI and research within the private sector.

  6. Interactive effects of wildfire and permafrost on microbial communities and soil processes in an Alaskan black spruce forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldrop, M.P.; Harden, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Boreal forests contain significant quantities of soil carbon that may be oxidized to CO2 given future increases in climate warming and wildfire behavior. At the ecosystem scale, decomposition and heterotrophic respiration are strongly controlled by temperature and moisture, but we questioned whether changes in microbial biomass, activity, or community structure induced by fire might also affect these processes. We particularly wanted to understand whether postfire reductions in microbial biomass could affect rates of decomposition. Additionally, we compared the short-term effects of wildfire to the long-term effects of climate warming and permafrost decline. We compared soil microbial communities between control and recently burned soils that were located in areas with and without permafrost near Delta Junction, AK. In addition to soil physical variables, we quantified changes in microbial biomass, fungal biomass, fungal community composition, and C cycling processes (phenol oxidase enzyme activity, lignin decomposition, and microbial respiration). Five years following fire, organic surface horizons had lower microbial biomass, fungal biomass, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations compared with control soils. Reductions in soil fungi were associated with reductions in phenol oxidase activity and lignin decomposition. Effects of wildfire on microbial biomass and activity in the mineral soil were minor. Microbial community composition was affected by wildfire, but the effect was greater in nonpermafrost soils. Although the presence of permafrost increased soil moisture contents, effects on microbial biomass and activity were limited to mineral soils that showed lower fungal biomass but higher activity compared with soils without permafrost. Fungal abundance and moisture were strong predictors of phenol oxidase enzyme activity in soil. Phenol oxidase enzyme activity, in turn, was linearly related to both 13C lignin decomposition and microbial respiration

  7. Potencial de lixiviação de herbicidas utilizados na cultura do algodão em colunas de solo Leaching potential of herbicides used in cotton crop under soil column conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H Inoue

    2010-12-01

    potential of four herbicides commonly used in preemergence cotton weed control, in samples of two soils from Campo Novo do Parecis-MT (RQ-sandy texture and Tangará da Serra-MT (LV-clay texture. Thus, a bioassay technique in soil columns was adopted, in which water depths of 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mm were simulated after application of alachlor (RQ 2.40; LV 3.36 kg ha-1, oxyfluorfen (RQ 0.48; LV 0.72 kg ha-1, prometryne (RQ 0.75; LV 1.50 kg ha-1 and S-metolachlor (RQ 1.20; LV 1.44 kg ha-1. For soil samples with sandy texture (RQ, water depths of 80 and 100 mm led to leaching down to layers of 10-15 cm for alachlor and 15-20 cm for S-metolachlor.Regardless of the irrigation depth applied in the RQ samples, oxyfluorfen did not exceed the depth of 5-10 cm and prometryne could be detected at the depth of 10-15 cm only at water depth of 100 mm. In columns filled with clay soil (LV, oxyfluorfen did not move beneath the surface layer, even under the highest water depths and prometryne reached the depth of 5-10 cm under 80 and 100 mm. The herbicides alachlor and S-metolachlor reached 10-15 cm depth under water depths of 80 and 100 mm in the LV. A more intense downward movement of the herbicide molecules was found in sandy soil samples (RQ than in clay texture soil samples (LV.

  8. AMOUNT OF NITROGEN AND ORGANIC CARBON IN SOIL AND NITROGEN AND ORGANIC MATTER IN FOREST FLOOR OF BLACK PINE (Pinus nigra Arn. supsp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe) STANDS DEVELOPED IN GOLCUK (ISPARTA)

    OpenAIRE

    Karatepe, Yasin

    2009-01-01

    In this study, total N (Nt) and organic C of soils; and total N and organic matter of forest floor were compared in black pine (Pinus nigra Arn. supsp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe) stands developed on four different growing sites in Golcuk, Isparta. Average of total N reserves was greatest in soils on andesite parent material (8.568 ton/ha) while it was lowest in soils on Golcuk Formation (0.614 ton/ha). Average of organic carbon reserves was greatest in soils on andesite parent material (79.0...

  9. Effects of N application levels and post-decapitation smearing of NAA on fruit abscission and yield of cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.) in saline soil%施氮水平和打顶后涂抹NAA对盐渍土壤上长绒棉铃脱落和产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张少民; 孙良斌; 宁新民; 史伍新; 冯固; 白灯莎·买买提艾力

    2011-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of decapitation (a conventional cotton cultivation technique in Xinjiang) and smearing NAA after decapitation on the yield and fruit abscission of cotton under low (226.5 rog·kg-1) and high (346.5 mg·kg-1) nitrogen doses in a saline soil.The results showed that fruit abscission rates of decapitation and smearing with NAA after decapitation were lower than those of non-decapitation treatment under both low and high nitrogen levels.Compared with the conventional decapitation treatment, smearing with 0.3 mmol·L-1 NAA after decapitation increased boll retention rate and cotton yield by 1.3% and 23.7%, respectively.It, however, decreased fruit abscission rate by 0.8%, under low nitrogen application.In terms of boll retention rate, fruit abscission rate and cotton yield under high nitrogen application, no significant difference was noted between smearing with 3 mmol·L-1 NAA after decapitation and conventional decapitation practices.Boll retention rate, weight per boll and number of opened boll were lower under high nitrogen level than under low nitrogen level.Furthermore, ginning yield was not different between different nitrogen levels in the same decapitation treatment.Lint weight under low nitrogen level was higher than that under high nitrogen level.It was concluded that smearing cotton with proper concentrations of NAA after decapitation increased boll retention rate and decreased fruit abscission rate, which eventually enhanced cotton yield.Cotton yield decreased with excessive nitrogen application level.%为探讨减少盐碱地棉花铃脱落的途径,田间条件下研究了土壤供应低氮(N 226.5 kg·hm-2)和高氮(N346.5 kg·hm-2)条件下,不打顶、打顶和打顶后涂抹生长素对棉花铃脱落和产量构成因素的影响.结果表明,低氮和高氮水平下,打顶、打顶后涂抹NAA处理果枝落铃率都低于不打顶处理.打顶后涂抹浓度为0.3 mmol·L-1的NAA处

  10. Winter Cover Crops and Vinegar for Early-Season Weed Control in Sustainable Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeds in cotton may be suppressed by winter cover crops and the use of organic herbicides such as vinegar. Black oat (Avena strigosa), and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), winter cover crops were planted in a sustainable production field in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas and were tilled prior to ...

  11. Autonomous cotton module forming system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton producers often have difficulty finding adequate labor during harvest. Module builder operators are often inexperienced and may build poorly shaped modules. Equipment manufacturers have recently introduced harvesters with on-board module building capabilities to reduce labor requirements; h...

  12. Response of soil enzyme activity and microbial community structure, diversity to continuous cotton cropping in northern Xinjiang%棉花连作对北疆土壤酶活性、致病菌及拮抗菌多样性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李锐; 刘瑜; 褚贵新; 高慧

    2015-01-01

    本文通过测定土壤酶活性与微生物 PCR-DGGE 指纹图谱研究了北疆棉区5年棉花连作(CtN5)、10年棉花连作(CtN10)及15年棉花连作(CtN15)对土壤过氧化氢酶、蔗糖酶、芳基硫酸酯酶、脱氢酶和蛋白酶酶活性的影响,分析了土壤细菌、真菌、镰刀菌和枯草芽孢杆菌群落结构多样性对北疆棉田长期连作的响应。结果表明:过氧化氢酶、蔗糖酶、脱氢酶活性随棉花连作年限延长而下降。CtN15处理的过氧化氢酶、蔗糖酶和脱氢酶活性分别比CtN10处理下降15.0%、6.4%和12.0%,比CtN5处理下降16.8%、58.6%和49.5%(P followed by an increasing tendency from continuous cotton cropping of 10 years (CtN10) to 15 years (CtN15). The Shannon-Wiener and Simpson indices of soil total bacteria and total fungi declined markedly with increasing years of continuous cotton cropping. Compared with CtN10, the quantity of soil total bacteria gene band (DGGE fingerprint) decreased by 7.41% under CtN15. It decreased by 1.72% from CtN5 treatment to CtN10 treatment. The values of soil total fungal gene band and Shannon-Wiener diversity index were 78 and 3.22 under CtN15 treatment, suggesting respectively 17.02% and 5.29% decreases under CtN15 compared with CtN5. Compared with CtN10 treatment, the Shannon-Wiener and Simpson indices of soil bacillus community increased respectively by 54.8%and 14.5%under CtN15 treatment. Moreover, the amount of fusarium gene and bacillus gene bands as well as the related diversity indices decreased from CtN5 to CtN10 treatment, but then increased from CtN10 to CtN15. In conclusion therefore, soil enzyme activity and microbial community structure and diversity decreased with increasing years of continuous cotton cropping. Long-term, continuous cultivation of cotton had an adverse effect on soil biological characteristics in northern Xinjiang.

  13. Stylet penetration behaviors of the cotton aphid Aphis gossypii on transgenic Bt cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun Xue; Xiao-Ying Wang; Cui-Hong Huang; Rong-Jiang Wang; Biao Liu; Feng-Ming Yan; Chong-Ren Xu

    2009-01-01

    Stylet penetration behaviors of cotton aphids Aphis gossypii Glover on a tmnsgenic cotton line "GK-12" expressing Bt toxic protein ofCry1A (Bt cotton) and a non-Bt conventional cotton line "Simian-3" (CK cotton) were recorded with the direct current electrical penetration graph (DC-EPG) technique. Cotton aphids reared on Bt cotton (abbreviated as Bt-aphids) and its parental non-Bt control line (CK-aphids) for more than 20 generations each, were used for recordings on two cotton lines. Among 47 selected parameters reflecting the activities of aphid stylets within plant tissues, there were eight parameters of CK-aphids showing significant differences between the performances of CK-aphids on Bt cotton and CK cotton, while for Bt-aphids, all the parameters were statistically equal between the performances on the two cotton lines. All parameters with significant differences indicated that CK-aphids could penetrate into Bt cotton more easily, but the phloem saps of Bt cotton were not as good as those of regular cotton for CK-aphids. Based on the present results, we concluded that there were some factors in Bt cotton affecting penetration behaviors of CK-aphids, but it just took several generations for CK-aphids to completely adapt Bt cotton, and Bt-aphids could feed on two cotton lines without difficulty.

  14. HYDROLYZABLE SOIL NITROGEN CONTENT AS AN IMPORTANT INDEX FOR APPLE NUTRITION DIAGNOSTICS IN THE CONDITIONS OF CENTRAL BLACK EARTH REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzin A. I.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There are given the results of long-term research of different forms of soil nitrogen content and their relationships with the content of total nitrogen in leaves and yield. It was detected a strong positive correlation among them hydrolyzable nitrogen content in the soil and total nitrogen content in the leaves and yield. It is proposed the use of this index for diagnostic of soil nitrogen supply

  15. Nitrous oxide emissions from irrigated cotton in north eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, P.; Rowlings, D.; Weier, K.; Rochester, I.; Kiese, R.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2009-04-01

    Cotton is one of many agricultural industries in Australia heavily reliant on nitrogenous fertilizers and water storages to maintain high levels of production. Cotton-based farming systems are therefore labelled as potentially high-risk agricultural systems with respect to gaseous losses of nitrogen to the atmosphere. The on-farm study was undertaken at Dalby in the Darling Downs region of Queensland in north eastern Australia. The field was furrow irrigated and had been under continuous cotton (with winter bare fallow) for 10 years. The block was conventionally tilled, with a spraying regime typical for cotton production in this area. The black clay (with a surface clay content of 68%) and soil organic carbon content (0-10 cm) of 1.0% and a pH of 8.5, is typical of the region. During the the 2006/07 season, soil water (0-50 cm with Enviroscan), mineral nitrogen (0-10 cm) and crop production data was also collected to develop accurate models for predicting greenhouse gas emissions as a function of key chemical, physical and biological processes and specific management events. The 2006/07 experiment also attempted to directly measure the specific losses of N2O and N2 from a single application of N fertiliser using 15N isotopically labelled urea. The automated greenhouse gas measuring system (developed by Butterbach-Bahl et al.) consists of six chambers connected to sequential sampling unit, a gas chromatograph (equipped with both electron capture and flame ionization detectors for nitrous oxide and methane analysis respectively), and a Licor for carbon dioxide. To meet the demand for high mobility, the sample acquisition and analysis system is trailer mounted. During a normal sampling period, the chambers were closed for 90 minutes (unless temperatures within the chambers exceeded 55oC). The sampling program ensured that that a single gas sample was drawn back from each chamber every 20 minutes. To facilitate 15N gas sampling, Swagelok T-pieces were inserted into

  16. Effects of Waste Glass (WG on the Strength Characteristics of Cement Stabilized Expansive Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A.Ikara

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the suitability of using waste glass (WG as admixture to cement stabilized black cotton soil (BCS for roads, fills and embankment. The soil was classified as A-7-5 and CH according to the American Association of State Highway and Transport Officials (AASHTO and the Unified Soil Classification System (USCS Classifications. Chemical analysis revealed that WG is rich in main oxides such as Silicon Oxide (69.2, Aluminium Oxide (2.29, Iron Oxide (1.57, Calcium Oxide (15.1 and Sodium Oxide (8.75. The soil was stabilized with 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8% cement and 0, 5 10, 15 and 20% WG by weight of the dry soil. Laboratory tests were carried out using the Standard Proctor (SP compactive efforts, California Bearing Ratio (CBR, Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS, and compaction characteristics tests to evaluate the effectiveness of WG on Ordinary Portland cement (OPC stabilized BCS. The results obtained showed a decrease in the plasticity index (PI, liquid limit (LL, plastic limit (PL and increase Maximum Dry Density (MDD with increase in WG content in all cement proportions used and as compared to the values obtained for the natural soil. The peak 7 days UCS values of 1152kN/m2 was obtained at 8% OPC and 20% WG. Similarly, highest CBR value of 53.8% was obtained at an optimum blend of 8% OPC/20%WG. The results indicate that there is a potential in the use of WG as admixture to strengthen Black cotton soils.

  17. 7 CFR 28.451 - Below Color Grade Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Below Color Grade Cotton. 28.451 Section 28.451... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Color Grade Cotton § 28.451 Below Color Grade Cotton. Below color grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in color grade than...

  18. 7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade Cotton. Below leaf grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in leaf grade than...

  19. Stable N isotope values of black spruce ecosystem components integrate source N isotope values, soil fertility, and microbial biomass: a natural and experimental study from Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, J. R.; Schuur, T.; Mack, M. C.; Nettelton Hollingsworth, T.; Bååth, E.

    2009-12-01

    The productivity and ecosystem dynamics of many northern ecosystems are limited by nitrogen (N) availability. Understanding N dynamics is especially important in boreal forests where slight changes in N availability can have profound effects on ecosystem productivity and diversity of plants and microbes. However, because N cycling processes vary profoundly in time and space, assessing ecosystem N supply and cycling pathways are difficult even with frequent measurements. Recent soil, plant, and fungal meta-analyses have indicated that stable isotopes of N may provide just such an integrative measure of N cycling by recording pathways of N flux through ecosystems. Here we present N stable isotope patterns across 30 plots varying in natural fertility and in 4 blocks of 16 experimentally fertilized plots of mature black spruce forest in central Alaska. We measured soil N isotope ratios of NO3, NH4, and salt extracted dissolved organic N (DON) using persulfate oxidation coupled to the bacterial denitrifier technique. The soil N isotope values varied from 15 to -26‰ across the landscape and were a poor predictor of the variability in plant N isotope values ranging from 5-11‰. Instead a combination of fungal biomass (PLFA 18:2ω6,9), fungal ingrowth, cation exchange capacity, and resin extractable phosphate (P) were better explanatory variables in a multiple regression context. This suggests that plant N isotope ratios are a product of numerous soil and microbial processes and not simply a direct reflection of source N pools. Denitrification in soils and ectomycorrhizal (ECM) assimilation and delivery of N were also likely causal as each influence pathways of N cycling that can alter the N isotope values of source and receiving pools. In contrast with the very low N environment present in our natural gradient, we found that N fertilization, both singly and in conjunction with P, caused the N isotope values of foliage, fine roots, soil N, and fungal fruiting bodies to

  20. Biological Dimensions of Crack Morphology in Dryland Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCarlo, K. F.; Spiegel, M.; Caylor, K. K.

    2014-12-01

    Macropores and cracks have an integral role in soil hydrology, and the physicochemical factors that induce them have been the subject of much laboratory research. How these processes translate to field soils, however, is often obfuscated by the biological elements present that complicate its formation and dynamics. In this study, we investigated the biological influence of herbivores and vegetation on 3D crack morphology in a dryland swelling soil (black cotton/vertisol). Fieldwork was conducted at and near the Kenya Long-Term Exclosure Experiment (KLEE) plots in Mpala, central Kenya, where three different soil regions were identified: highly vegetated areas, animal trails, and termite mounds. Crack networks were physically characterized by pouring liquid resin into the soil and excavating them when dry, after which they were imaged and quantified using medical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Cracking intensity of each cast was corrected via soil moisture and bulk density measurements at 5 cm intervals over 30 cm. 3D characterization of the soil system shows that mechanical compaction is a major influence in the formation of extensive and deep cracks in animal trails, with megaherbivores (e.g. elephants) inducing the most extreme cracks. Bioturbation is seen as a major influence in the formation of shallower cracks in termite mounds, as termites loosen and aerate the soil and reduce the soil's cohesive properties. Highly vegetated soils show a large degree of variability: small, disconnected soil patches induced by vegetative cover and a larger root network results in smaller and shallower cracks, but full vegetative cover induces deep and irregular cracks, possibly due to diverted rainfall. Our results highlight the intricate connections between the biology and physics that dictate soil processes in a complex soil system at the field scale.

  1. Modeling the effects of fire severity and climate warming on active layer and soil carbon dynamics of black spruce forests across the landscape in interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genet, H.; McGuire, Anthony David; Barrett, K.; Breen, A.; Euskirchen, E.S.; Johnstone, J.F.; Kasischke, E.S.; Melvin, A.M.; Bennett, A.; Mack, M.C.; Rupp, T.S.; Schuur, A.E.G.; Turetsky, M.R.; Yuan, F.

    2013-01-01

    There is a substantial amount of carbon stored in the permafrost soils of boreal forest ecosystems, where it is currently protected from decomposition. The surface organic horizons insulate the deeper soil from variations in atmospheric temperature. The removal of these insulating horizons through consumption by fire increases the vulnerability of permafrost to thaw, and the carbon stored in permafrost to decomposition. In this study we ask how warming and fire regime may influence spatial and temporal changes in active layer and carbon dynamics across a boreal forest landscape in interior Alaska. To address this question, we (1) developed and tested a predictive model of the effect of fire severity on soil organic horizons that depends on landscape-level conditions and (2) used this model to evaluate the long-term consequences of warming and changes in fire regime on active layer and soil carbon dynamics of black spruce forests across interior Alaska. The predictive model of fire severity, designed from the analysis of field observations, reproduces the effect of local topography (landform category, the slope angle and aspect and flow accumulation), weather conditions (drought index, soil moisture) and fire characteristics (day of year and size of the fire) on the reduction of the organic layer caused by fire. The integration of the fire severity model into an ecosystem process-based model allowed us to document the relative importance and interactions among local topography, fire regime and climate warming on active layer and soil carbon dynamics. Lowlands were more resistant to severe fires and climate warming, showing smaller increases in active layer thickness and soil carbon loss compared to drier flat uplands and slopes. In simulations that included the effects of both warming and fire at the regional scale, fire was primarily responsible for a reduction in organic layer thickness of 0.06 m on average by 2100 that led to an increase in active layer thickness

  2. Modeling the effects of fire severity and climate warming on active layer thickness and soil carbon storage of black spruce forests across the landscape in interior Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a substantial amount of carbon stored in the permafrost soils of boreal forest ecosystems, where it is currently protected from decomposition. The surface organic horizons insulate the deeper soil from variations in atmospheric temperature. The removal of these insulating horizons through consumption by fire increases the vulnerability of permafrost to thaw, and the carbon stored in permafrost to decomposition. In this study we ask how warming and fire regime may influence spatial and temporal changes in active layer and carbon dynamics across a boreal forest landscape in interior Alaska. To address this question, we (1) developed and tested a predictive model of the effect of fire severity on soil organic horizons that depends on landscape-level conditions and (2) used this model to evaluate the long-term consequences of warming and changes in fire regime on active layer and soil carbon dynamics of black spruce forests across interior Alaska. The predictive model of fire severity, designed from the analysis of field observations, reproduces the effect of local topography (landform category, the slope angle and aspect and flow accumulation), weather conditions (drought index, soil moisture) and fire characteristics (day of year and size of the fire) on the reduction of the organic layer caused by fire. The integration of the fire severity model into an ecosystem process-based model allowed us to document the relative importance and interactions among local topography, fire regime and climate warming on active layer and soil carbon dynamics. Lowlands were more resistant to severe fires and climate warming, showing smaller increases in active layer thickness and soil carbon loss compared to drier flat uplands and slopes. In simulations that included the effects of both warming and fire at the regional scale, fire was primarily responsible for a reduction in organic layer thickness of 0.06 m on average by 2100 that led to an increase in active layer thickness

  3. Banco de sementes de aveia preta no solo sob dois sistemas de manejo Soil seed bank of black oat in two management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Paulo Ludwig

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As sementes de aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schreb. possuem a capacidade de permanecer viáveis no solo de um ano de cultivo para outro. Dessa forma, o objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o número de sementes de aveia preta resultantes de dois sistemas de manejo (colheita e ressemeadura natural, que poderão formar o banco de sementes do solo. Os ensaios foram realizados no município de Jari - RS, em uma área cultivada sob o sistema de "plantio direto". Foram coletadas 50 amostras em cada sistema de manejo, com um espaçamento de 10x20m, utilizando um amostrador de diâmetro de 0,05m e uma profundidade de 0,1m. O levantamento do número de sementes e da emergência das plântulas foi realizado no Laboratório Didático da Faculdade de Agronomia Eliseu Maciel (UFPel. Constatou-se que a colheita e a ressemeadura natural possibilitam a presença de sementes no solo por área, em quantidades superiores à indicada para a semeadura. Com a colheita, a área fica heterogênea em número de sementes no solo e em plântulas emergidas. A ressemeadura natural resulta em uma grande quantidade de sementes no solo e formação de plântulas.The black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb. seeds are able to remain alive in soil from a culture to another. The objective of this study was to evaluate the number of black oat seeds resulting from two management, harvesting, and natural reseeding, which could form the seed bank of soil. The experiments were conducted in Jari-RS, Brazil, the cultivation system is "No Tillage". Were collected 50 samples in each management, at a spacing of 10mx20m, using a sampler diameter of 0.05m and depth of 0.1m. The evaluation of the number of seeds and seedling emergence was accomplish at the Laboratory of Seeds Analysis of the Faculdade de Agronomia "Eliseu Maciel" (UFPEL. It was found that both as the crop as the natural seeding allow large quantities of seeds in the soil for the upper area suitable for planting. The harvest area is

  4. Localized Effects of Coarse Woody Material on Soil Oribatid Communities Diminish over 700 Years of Stand Development in Black-Spruce-Feathermoss Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Doblas-Miranda

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the black-spruce clay-belt region of Western Québec, soil nutrients are limited due to paludification. Under paludified conditions, nutrient subsidies from decomposing surface coarse woody material (CWM may be important particularly during the later stages of ecosystem development when deadwood from senescent trees has accumulated. For soil organisms, CWM can alter microclimatic conditions and resource availability. We compared abundance and species richness of oribatid mites below or adjacent to CWM across a chronosequence which spans ca. 700 years of stand development. We hypothesized that oribatid abundance and richness would be greater under the logs, particularly in later stages of forest development when logs may act as localized sources of carbon and nutrients in the paludified substrate. However, oribatid density was lower directly under CWM than adjacent to CWM but these differences were attenuated with time. We suggest that oribatids may be affected by soil compaction and also that such microarthropods are most likely feeding on recently fallen leaf litter, which may be rendered inaccessible by the presence of overlying CWM. This may also explain the progressive decline in oribatid density and diversity with time, which are presumably caused by decreases in litter availability due to self-thinning and Sphagnum growth. This is also supported by changes of different oribatid trophic groups, as litter feeders maintain different numbers relative to CWM with time while more generalist fungi feeders only show differences related to position in the beginning of the succession.

  5. Effects of Manure Fertilizer and Chemical Fertilizer on Nitrogen Transformation Bacteria and Soil Enzyme in Black Soil%农肥和化肥对黑土氮素转化功能菌和土壤酶的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于佳; 王宏燕; 赵伟; 宋立娟

    2011-01-01

    Various trends of soil function bacteria and its activity was Analyzed under different ratios of the manure and chemical fertilizers,in on the black soil field under maize. The results showed that the high manure fertilizer ratio scenario leads to an increase in ammonification bacteria and nitrobacteria, which were 2. 22 times and 4. 09 times of standard sample (CK) respectively. Meanwhile, the high chemical fertilizer ratio also contributed to a significant raise in the amount of denitrifying bacteria, which was 8.49 times of CK.Furthermore, Manure fertilizer scenario had a positive influence on soil microbial biomass carbon, nitrogen, soil urease and catalase as the analyzed data of activities of these factors were much higher than that of CK. Specifically speaking, the positive correlations existed in the following groups: soil microbial biomass C and soil urease activity, microbial biomass N and catalyse activity and microbial biomass and soil ammonification bacteria as well At the same time, soil microbial biomass C and soil ammonification bacteria had significant negative correlation ship.%实验以玉米田黑土为研究对象,主要研究土壤氮素转化功能菌及其活性在不同施入量农肥和化肥处理下的变化.结果表明:农肥高量处理使土壤氨化细菌和硝化细菌数量升高,分别是对照的2.22倍和4.09倍,而化肥高量处理使反硝化细菌数量明显增加,是对照的8.49倍;农肥处理对土壤微生物量碳、微生物量氮、土壤脲酶和土壤过氧化氢酶有促进作用,其活性明显高于对照.相关分析表明,土壤微生物量碳与土壤脲酶,土壤微生物量氮与过氧化氢酶和土壤氨化细菌之间均存在着极显著的正相关关系,而土壤微生物量碳与土壤氨化细菌之间存在着极显著的负相关关系.图8,表1,参14.

  6. Unlocking the biogeochemical black box: What drives microbial response to climate forcing in semi-arid soils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, B. G.; McLain, J. E.; Lohse, K. A.

    2009-12-01

    Microbial mediated cycling of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) and their loss from soils are closely linked to soil moisture and temperature. Yet, it is unclear how microbial communities will respond to climatic forcing (namely increased inter-annual precipitation variability and severe drought) and to what extent parent material controls these responses. We used Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) and C utilization assays to determine the relative abundance and diversity of microbial populations during pre-, mid- and post-monsoon time intervals at four sites along a steep elevation gradient (temperature and precipitation range of >10°C and >50 cm, respectively) in the Santa Catalina Mountains, AZ. Contrasting parent materials (schist and granite) were paired at elevations. RT-PCR results showed large increases of bacterial and fungal biomarkers at high elevations with the onset of precipitation (pre- to mid- monsoon conditions) (as much as 824%). In contrast, bacteria biomarkers did not change at low elevation granite site as a result of the onset of precipitation whereas fungal biomarkers increased by 177% at this site. Both bacteria and fungal biomarkers increased substantially at low elevation schist sites with the onset of precipitation. Finally, C utilization assays indicated that high elevation sites had a relatively high diversity of C utilization compared to low elevation soils. We hypothesize that increased bacterial and fungal abundance in low elevation schist-derived soils relative to granite soils after the onset of monsoon rains may be a function of soil texture, with higher clay content in schist soils leading to higher soil moisture availability. Alternatively, differences in microbial responses may be due to higher C availability in schist soils compared to granite soils. Higher C utilization diversity as well as similar bacteria and fungal biomarker responses found at high elevation sites (both granite and schist soils) in response to

  7. Impact of efficient refuge policies for Bt cotton in India on world cotton trade

    OpenAIRE

    Singla, Rohit; Johnson, Phillip N.; Misra, Sukant K.

    2010-01-01

    India is a major cotton producing country in the world along with the U.S. and China. A change in the supply of and demand for cotton in the Indian market has the potential to have an impact on world cotton trade. This study evaluates the implications of efficient Bt cotton refuge policies in India on world and U.S. cotton markets. It can be hypothesized that increased refuge requirements for Bt cotton varieties in India could decrease the world supply of cotton because of the lower yield pot...

  8. Uncertainties Mounting, Cotton Price Becomes Volatile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Junfei

    2010-01-01

    @@ In the domestic market, the unre-mitting foul weather has delayed cotton picking by two weeks with downgraded quality; in the inter-national market, factors such as sus-pension of cotton export in India and disaster-affecting cotton yield in Paki-stan have led to such a market anticipa-tion that cotton stock across the world is to show another decline trend in the upcoming year. The unanimous market anticipation has resulted in a surge in cotton price during the Mid-autumn Festival: the transaction price for un-loading cotton inventories has increased by nearly RMB 3,000/ton, the price for purchasing new cotton has gone beyond RMB 25,000/ton and the cost for the imported cotton with owned quota (effect shipment after the next Spring Festival)has exceeded RMB 21,000/ton.

  9. Soaring Cotton Prices to Make Manufacturing Difficult

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    With manufacturing slowly recovering amid improving economic condi-tions, cotton demand has increased prompting more orders among mills. However, with a deficient supply of cotton in the market, prices extend gains

  10. China International Cotton Conference Concluded in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The 2007 China International Cotton Conference was held on June 27-29 in Urumqi, Xinjiang Municipality, China. With the theme "China's Cotton Industry on WTO and It's Implications The Global Market".

  11. Evaluation on Diseases Resistance of Cotton Material and Its Utilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Hua-lan; HE Lian; YE Peng-sheng; ZHANG Yu; WEI Shu-gu

    2008-01-01

    @@ Fusarium wilt and Verticillium wilt are important worldwide fungal diseases on cotton that cause damage to yield and quality.The pathogens survive in soil as microsclerotia for many years,and can be transmitted through seeds,soil,stream,and plant residues.And currently,no effective chemical control is available for those diseases.Production practices have established that planting wilt diseaseresistance varieties was one of the most effective and safe measures to control those diseases with low cost.However,screening for wilt-resistance germplasm resources is the basis for resistance breeding.

  12. The water footprint of cotton consumption

    OpenAIRE

    A. K. Chapagain; Hoekstra, A.Y.; Savenije, H. H. G.; R. Gautam

    2005-01-01

    The consumption of a cotton product is connected to a chain of impacts on the water resources in the countries where cotton is grown and processed. The aim of this report is to assess the ‘water footprint’ of worldwide cotton consumption, identifying both the location and the character of the impacts. The study distinguishes between three types of impact: evaporation of infiltrated rainwater for cotton growth (green water use), withdrawal of ground- or surface water for irrigation or processi...

  13. CCI President Participated in China Cotton Summit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    On May 7-8 the 2010 China Cotton Summit and the International Cotton Fair were held in Sanya,Hainan Province,China.Mr.Wallace L.Darneille, the new president of Cotton Council International(CCI) made a special trip to China to participate in the event and present on the"cotton and textile supply and demand situation in the U.S."

  14. Simultaneous determination of butachlor and clomazone in cotton and soil by high performance liquid chromatography%高效液相色谱法同时测定棉花及土壤中丁草胺和异噁草酮的残留

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新安; 陈锡岭; 赵华

    2011-01-01

    建立了同时测定丁草胺和异噁草酮棉花及土壤中的残留的高效液相色谱分析方法.样品经乙腈提取,中性氧化铝柱净化,紫外检测器检测.丁草胺和异嗯草酮的最小检出量分别为5.0×10别0和1.0×10 -9g,样品的最低检出浓度均为0.05 mg·kg-1.棉叶、棉籽和土壤中添加浓度为0.05~1.0mg·kg-1时,丁草胺的平均回收率为88.78% ~ 99.52%,相对标准偏差(RSD)为0.49%~2.09%;异嗯草酮的平均回收率为85.57%~ 101.82%,相对标准偏差(RSD)为0.97% ~2.44%.该方法的准确度、精密度及灵敏度均达到农药残留分析的要求.将该方法应用于丁草胺和异嗯草酮在棉花及土壤中的残留试验中,测得丁草胺在棉叶和土壤中的残留消解半衰期分别为2.14和2.53 d,异噁草酮在棉叶和土壤中的残留消解半衰期分别为2.80和2.82 d,收获时土壤和棉籽中丁草胺和异嗯草酮的最终残留量均小于0.05 mg· kg-1.%An analytical method was established for simultaneous determining butachlor and elomazone residues in cotton and soil. Samples were extracted with acetonitrile, cleaned up by passing through an aluminum oxide ( neutral ) column, determined by reversed-phase HPLC with an ultraviolet detector. When the sample was spiked at 0. 05 - 1. 0 mg.kg-1 , the average recovery varied from 88. 78% to 99. 52% (RSD 0. 49% -2. 09% ) for butachlor and 85. 57% to 101. 82% (RSD 0. 97% -2. 44% ) for elomazone. The lowest detection limit for butachlor and elomazone was 5. 0 × 10-10' and 1. 0× 10 -9 g, respectively. The lowest detectable concentration was 0. 05 mg-kg ' in cotton seeds and soil. The proposed method met the demands of pesticide residue analysis. The degraded dynamic in cotton leaves and soil indicated that the half lives of butachlor were 2. 14 and 2. 53 days, and the half lives of elomazone were 2. 14 and 2. 53 days. The final residues of butachlor and elomazone in soil and cotton seeds were less than0

  15. Exploring the sensitivity of soil carbon dynamics to climate change, fire disturbance and permafrost thaw in a black spruce ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, J. A.; Harden, J.W.; McGuire, A.D.; Romanovsky, V.E.

    2011-01-01

    In the boreal region, soil organic carbon (OC) dynamics are strongly governed by the interaction between wildfire and permafrost. Using a combination of field measurements, numerical modeling of soil thermal dynamics, and mass-balance modeling of OC dynamics, we tested the sensitivity of soil OC storage to a suite of individual climate factors (air temperature, soil moisture, and snow depth) and fire severity. We also conducted sensitivity analyses to explore the combined effects of fire-soil moisture interactions and snow seasonality on OC storage. OC losses were calculated as the difference in OC stocks after three fire cycles (???500 yr) following a prescribed step-change in climate and/or fire. Across single-factor scenarios, our findings indicate that warmer air temperatures resulted in the largest relative soil OC losses (???5.3 kg C mg-2), whereas dry soil conditions alone (in the absence of wildfire) resulted in the smallest carbon losses (???0.1 kg C mg-2). Increased fire severity resulted in carbon loss of ???3.3 kg C mg-2, whereas changes in snow depth resulted in smaller OC losses (2.1-2.2 kg C mg-2). Across multiple climate factors, we observed larger OC losses than for single-factor scenarios. For instance, high fire severity regime associated with warmer and drier conditions resulted in OC losses of ???6.1 kg C mg-2, whereas a low fire severity regime associated with warmer and wetter conditions resulted in OC losses of ???5.6 kg C mg-2. A longer snow-free season associated with future warming resulted in OC losses of ???5.4 kg C mg-2. Soil climate was the dominant control on soil OC loss, governing the sensitivity of microbial decomposers to fluctuations in temperature and soil moisture; this control, in turn, is governed by interannual changes in active layer depth. Transitional responses of the active layer depth to fire regimes also contributed to OC losses, primarily by determining the proportion of OC into frozen and unfrozen soil layers

  16. Cotton bacterial endotoxin assessed by electron microscopy.

    OpenAIRE

    Helander, I; Lounatmaa, K.

    1981-01-01

    A piece of bale cotton was incubated in nutrient broth. Electron microscopic inspection of the cotton and the broth showed Gram-negative bacteria with long flagella, loosely attached to the cotton fibres. Large amounts of endotoxin liberating from these bacteria were visible in the growth medium.

  17. Toward cotton molecular breeding: challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton (Gossypium spp) is the leading natural fiber in the global textile market, but progress in the development and applications of molecular tools to improve cotton lags behind other major crop plants. The slow progress is in part due to cotton's large complex allotetraploid genome of 26 partial...

  18. 7 CFR 1205.308 - Cotton Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton Board. 1205.308 Section 1205.308 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.308 Cotton Board. Cotton Board means the...

  19. 7 CFR 1205.305 - Upland cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.305 Section 1205.305 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.305 Upland cotton. Upland cotton means all...

  20. The water footprint of cotton consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapagain, A.K.; Hoekstra, A.Y.; Savenije, H.H.G.; Gautam, R.

    2005-01-01

    The consumption of a cotton product is connected to a chain of impacts on the water resources in the countries where cotton is grown and processed. The aim of this report is to assess the ‘water footprint’ of worldwide cotton consumption, identifying both the location and the character of the impact

  1. Characterization of a Cotton Fiber Gene Promoter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Cotton fibers are unicellular trichomes derived from outer integument cells of the ovule.Our previously study showed that cotton R2R3 MYB transcript factor GaMYB2 could complement the Arabidopsis trichome mutant of glabra1(gl1),suggesting that cotton fiber initiation and Arabidopsis leaf

  2. Bioinspiration and Biomimicry: Possibilities for Cotton Byproducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The byproducts from cotton gins have commonly been referred to as cotton gin trash or cotton gin waste primarily because the lint and seed were the main focus of the operation and the byproducts were a financial liability that did not have a consistent market. Even though the byproducts were called ...

  3. Global view of cotton germplasm resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper reports the status of several large cotton germplasm collections present across the world. Cotton germplasm collections discussed include those from the US, India, France, China, Australia, Uzbekistan, and Brazil. These collections represent a large portion of the curated cotton germpla...

  4. Impact of deforestation on soil carbon stock and its spatial distribution in the Western Black Sea Region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucuker, Mehmet Ali; Guney, Mert; Oral, H Volkan; Copty, Nadim K; Onay, Turgut T

    2015-01-01

    Land use management is one of the most critical factors influencing soil carbon storage and the global carbon cycle. This study evaluates the impact of land use change on the soil carbon stock in the Karasu region of Turkey which in the last two decades has undergone substantial deforestation to expand hazelnut plantations. Analysis of seasonal soil data indicated that the carbon content decreased rapidly with depth for both land uses. Statistical analyses indicated that the difference between the surface carbon stock (defined over 0-5 cm depth) in agricultural and forested areas is statistically significant (Agricultural = 1.74 kg/m(2), Forested = 2.09 kg/m(2), p = 0.014). On the other hand, the average carbon stocks estimated over the 0-1 m depth were 12.36 and 12.12 kg/m(2) in forested and agricultural soils, respectively. The carbon stock (defined over 1 m depth) in the two land uses were not significantly different which is attributed in part to the negative correlation between carbon stock and bulk density (-0.353, p < 0.01). The soil carbon stock over the entire study area was mapped using a conditional kriging approach which jointly uses the collected soil carbon data and satellite-based land use images. Based on the kriging map, the spatially soil carbon stock (0-1 m dept) ranged about 2 kg/m(2) in highly developed areas to more than 23 kg/m(2) in intensively cultivated areas as well as the averaged soil carbon stock (0-1 m depth) was estimated as 10.4 kg/m(2).

  5. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the Indus River catchment area, Pakistan: Status, soil-air exchange and black carbon mediated distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajwa, Anam; Ali, Usman; Mahmood, Adeel; Chaudhry, Muhammad Jamshed Iqbal; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Jones, Kevin C; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2016-06-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were investigated in passive air and soil samples from the catchment area of the Indus River, Pakistan. ∑15OCPs ranged between 0.68 and 13.47 ng g(-1) in soil and 375.1-1975 pg m-(3) in air. HCHs and DDTs were more prevalent in soil and air compartments. Composition profile indicated that β-HCH and p,p'-DDE were the dominant of all metabolites among HCHs and DDTs respectively. Moreover, fBC and fTOC were assessed and evaluated their potential role in the distribution status of OCPs. The fTOC and fBC ranged between 0.77 and 2.43 and 0.04-0.30% respectively in soil. Regression analysis showed the strong influence of fBC than fTOC on the distribution of OCPs in the Indus River catchment area soil. Equilibrium status was observed for β-HCH, δ-HCH, p,p'-DDD, o,p'-DDT, TC, HCB and Heptachlor with ff ranged between 0.3 and 0.59 while assessing the soil-air exchange of OCPs. PMID:26978705

  6. 转基因抗虫棉花重组DNA在土壤中分布的实时定量PCR分析%Real Time PCR Assays for the Distribution of Recombinant DNA of a Transgenic Insect-resistant Cotton in Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李刚; 修伟明; 赵建宁; 王丽娟; 王慧; 刘红梅; 宋晓龙; 杨殿林

    2012-01-01

    During the growth process, genetically modified crops continuously release recombinant DNA to the soil environment. The uptake and integration of the recombinant DNA by soil microorganisms will alter the structure and function of the soil microbial community, and may cause long-term perturbation of the soil ecological system. Our objective is to establish quantitative PCR detection method to explore the distribution of the exogenous recombinant DNA in soil environment, to enrich the research contents of the environmental risks of transgenic insect-resistant cotton, and to provide important technical support for the scientific evaluation of ecological security of transgenic insect-resistant cotton. Primers and Taqman probes were designed according to the construct-specific sequences between 35S promoter and CrylA (c ) gene and between 35S promoter and npt II gene respectively. The standard curves were prepared based on the linear relationship between the amount of input pGEMT-easy plasmid containing the construct-specific sequences(x) and cycle threshold(y) in 10-fold dilution mode. Three-room rhizobox method was used to collect the soil samples from different root zones of transgenic insect-resistant cotton. Total soil DNA was extracted by the PowerSoil DNA Isolation Kit. The quantity of exogenous recombinant DNA in soil samples was detected by the real time PCR method. The results showed that the established method could at least detect 10 copies of the recombinant DNA fragments, and the correlation coefficients were above 0.998 with good repeatability. All the copy number of 35S-Cry1A and 35S-npt II fragments at the three growth stages showed the trend as follows:rhizoplane>rhizosphere>non-rhizosphere, which indicated that recombinant DNA fragments concentrated in the rhizoplane soil, followed by the rhizosphere soil and non-rhizosphere soil. During the 60 d growth period, the copy number of the 35S-CrylA and 35S-npt II fragments increased~with the growing

  7. THE CONTENT AND THE FORMS OF MAGNESIUM COMPOUND IN LEACHED BLACK SOIL (CHERNOZEM OF WESTERN CISCAUCASIA IN THE AGROGENESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheudghen A. H.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the study on the magnesium mode of leached chernozem of Western Ciscaucasia at three rotation of grain-grass-tilled crop rotation. Magnesium in the soil is represented mainly by non-exchangeable form, the number of which is estimated at 90,18 and 91,29 % of gross reserves. Exchange forms of magnesium are 8,68 and 7,71 % respectively in arable and the subsurface layer. The share of water-soluble and organic forms account for less than 1 % - of 0.62 and 0.68 and 0.46 and 0.38% respectively. For three rotation 11-full rotation of gross stocks of magnesium in the soil in which crops were grown without fertilizers has decreased by 0.02 % (200 mg/kg, with fertilizers of 0.03 and 0.02 % (300 and 200 mg/kg. Intense magnesium has been leached from the topsoil. There was a change of the soil content of the forms of magnesium. In the rotation without fertilizer, the share of non-exchangeable magnesium in the General Fund item increased from baseline by 0.27 % in arable and 0.11% of the subsurface layer of soil that the absolute content decreased. The amount of water-soluble, exchangeable and organic magnesium of the soil decreased. Reducing the amount of water-soluble (0.05 and 0.06 % and metabolic (0.18 and 0.02 % of magnesium was due to its consumption of the plants. The proportion of magnesium organic part of the soil is reduced as a result of steadily declining yields, and, therefore, the amount of organic residues. In crop rotation, use of mineral fertilizers we have observed different behavior of magnesium compounds in the soil. The number of non-exchangeable magnesium decreased from baseline by 0.13 % in arable and 0,58 % of the subsurface layer of soil. The content of the exchange of magnesium increased respectively 0.43 and 0.41 %, water soluble - 0.13 and 0.10 %, and the organic part of the soil - 0.02 and 0.02 %

  8. Trade Statistics: Cotton Yarn & Fabric in Feb.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Cotton is the single most important textile fiber in the world,accounting for nearly 40 percent of total world fiber production.While some 80 countries from around the globe produce cotton,the United States,China,and India together provide over half the world's cotton.This monthly update provides official CNTAC (China National Textile & Apparel Council ) data on China import and export of cotton yarn and cotton fabric,to show a general profile of China's foreign trade in current textile industry.

  9. Primary Studies on Cotton Telomere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LING Jian; PENG Ren-hai; WANG Kun-bo; WANG Chun-ying; SONG Guo-li; LIU Fang; LI Shao-hui; ZHANG Xiang-di; WANG Yu-hong

    2008-01-01

    @@ The Arabidopsis -type telomere sequence was amplified and cloned using the primers designed from the fragment which contained the telomere sequence in an Arabidopsis BAC.In situ hybridizations with cotton metaphase chromosomes,using the telomere as probe,it indicated that the signals were located at all chromosome ends of 7 diploid and 2 tetraploid cotton species.To identify the signals of FISH,the genome DNA of Xinhai 7,digested by Bal31 kinetics,was used in this study.

  10. Save Cotton?Save Textile? Only Emphasizing Cotton Price Differences Obscures Many Contradictions%Save Cotton?Save Textile? Only Emphasizing Cotton Price Differences Obscures Many Contradictions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Zihan

    2012-01-01

    The Iong-term serious cotton price inversion endangered the cotton growers' in terests, and inflicted heavy lesses on cotton textile exports, which not only weakened the competitiveness of Chinese textile industry, but also affected the domestic employment.

  11. Effect of mineral and organic fertilizers on uptake of uranium and thorium by cotton and wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of large applications of fertilizers on the uptake of uranium and thorium by cotton and wheat from soils containing small amounts of natural radionuclides were studied. The uranium content of cotton plant parts decreased by a factor of 2.9 and that of thorium by a factor of 3.8; the uptake of uranium in wheat grain was less than the control by a factor of 1.4 and that of thorium by a factor of 2.6. Complete mineral fertilizer had a greater effect on radionuclide uptake than individual applications of mineral nutrients. The smallest uptake of uranium and thorium by cotton resulted from combined use of complete mineral fertilizer and manure. Fertilizer application altered the relative amounts of water-soluble, exchangeable, acid-soluble and fixed forms of the radionuclides in the soil. Phosphorus fertilizers decreased the exchangeable thorium fraction by 20%, and, in combination with manure, by 40%

  12. 长期施肥对黑土和暗棕壤土壤酶活性及土壤养分的影响%Effects of Long-term Fertilization on the Soil enzyme Activities and Soil Nutrients of the Black and Dark Brown Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦晓光; 魏丹; 隋跃宇

    2011-01-01

    The soil enzyme activities and their corresponding nutrients of the black and dark brown soils under the same fertilizer applications of twenty-eight years were measured, and their relationships were analyzed. The objective was to clarify the effects of long-term fertilization on the soil enzyme activities and to figure out sustainable management of the black and dark brown soils. The results showed, compared to non-fertilization treatment, all the fertilization treatments could significantly increase the soil organic matter and total NPK contents of the black and dark brown soils, and enhance the soil urease, phosphatase, invertase and catalase activities, especially for the chemical fertilizer application combined with manure. There were good correlations among the soil enzyme activities and soil nutrients. Soil urease, phosphatase, invertase and catalase activities had a significant correlation with soil organic matter, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, nitrogen and available phosphorus contents. The effects of fertilizer applications on the black soil enzyme activities were more sensitive than those of the dark brown soil. The long-term chemical fertilizer application combined with manure could provide a good soil environment for the crop growth.%为阐明长期施肥对黑土和暗棕壤土壤酶活性的影响、土壤酶活性与土壤养分的关系,探讨土壤持续利用的培肥模式,采集了施用不同肥料28年后的黑土和暗棕壤,对黑土和暗棕壤土壤酶活性以及土壤养分因子进行了测定和分析.结果表明,与不施肥对照相比,各施肥处理均可显著增加黑土和暗棕壤有机质和氮磷钾养分含量,提高土壤脲酶、磷酸酶、转化酶、过氧化氢酶活性,其中以化肥配施有机肥效果最为明显.土壤酶活性与土壤养分之间有很好的相关性,土壤脲酶、磷酸酶、转化酶、过氧化氢酶活性与土壤有机质、全氮、全磷、碱解氮、速效磷含量呈显著相

  13. Effects of Long-term Fertilization on Enzyme Activities and Soil Fertility for Black Farmlands Under Different Soil Matter Levels%长期施肥对不同有机质含量农田黑土土壤酶活性及土壤肥力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈文婷; 付岩梅; 隋跃宇; 刘晓冰; 李建维

    2013-01-01

    The research investigated the effects of long-term fertilization on soil enzyme activities and soil fertility for the black farmlands under different soil organic matter levels. This study used the conventional analysis methods to test and analyze the activity of soil urease, phosphatase, invertase, protease and the contents of soil organic matter, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, available nitrogen, available phosphorus in five black farmlands soil with different soil matter content of soil spatial shift long-term experiments in National Observation Station of Hailun Agro-ecology System. The results showed that, the application of chemical fertilizers could increase the nutrient content in different degree and soil enzyme activities of black soil. The order of the raise was Bei'an (SOM11)>Nenjiang (SOM6)>Helen (SOM5)>Dehui (SOM3) > Lishu (SOM1.7). Compared to other four soils, Bei'an (SOM11) reached significant difference level(P嫩江(SOM6)>海伦(SOM5)>德惠(SOM3)>梨树(SOM1.7),北安黑土与其他4种土壤之间达到了差异显著水平(P<0.05)。相关分析结果显示:土壤脲酶、磷酸酶、蛋白酶、蔗糖酶与土壤有机质、全氮、全磷、碱解氮显著相关,土壤脲酶、蔗糖酶可以反映不同有机质含量农田黑土长期施肥后土壤质量变化趋势。

  14. China's Cotton Policy and the Impact of China's WTO Accession and Bt Cotton Adoption on the Chinese and U.S. Cotton Sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng Fang; Babcock, Bruce A.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we provide an analysis of China's cotton policy and develop a framework to quantify the impact of both China's World Trade Organization (WTO) accession and Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) cotton adoption on Chinese and U.S. cotton sectors. We use a Chinese cotton sector model consisting of supply, demand, price linkages, and textiles output equations. A two-stage framework model provides gross cropping area and total area for cotton and major subsitute crops from nine cotton-produci...

  15. 松嫩平原典型黑土分布区土壤呼吸研究%A study of soil respiration of typical black soil in Songnen Plain, northeastern China.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国栋; 杨柯; 崔玉军; 李瑛

    2011-01-01

    We measured soil respiration in different land uses, such as crop land, fallow land and uncultivated land, located in typical black soil area of Songnen Plain. Autotrophic and heterotrophic soil respiration was distinguished by trenching. Temperature sensitivity of soil respiration (Q10) was calculated in different land use respectively. The results indicated that soil respiration was controlled by many factors, such as soil temperature, soil moisture, vegetation types and cultivation activities. Diurnal soil respiration was dominated by temperature. Autotrophie respiration by plant root occupies 50% of the soilrespiration in summer, but the ratio in spring and autumn is less than that in summer. Because of different vegetation types and different proportion of autotrophic soil respiration occupied, autotrophic soil respiration in different land use decreases in order of uncultivated land 〉 fallow land〉-erop land. Q10 of soil respiration with plants is bigger than those without plants.%在松嫩平原典型黑土分布区,选择耕地、休耕地、自然荒地3种土地利用方式进行土壤CO2呼吸研究。采用壕沟隔断法,探讨了植物根系呼吸在不同土地利用方式下的差异,采用温度敏感系数Q10分析了不同土地利用方式下土壤呼吸对温度的敏感性。结果表明:土壤呼吸受多方面因素影响,包括土壤温度、湿度、植被类型、农业生产活动等。土壤呼吸日变化过程中,温度是影响土壤呼吸速率的决定性因素。在夏季植物根系呼吸所占的比例最大,超过了50%,春秋两季根系呼吸所占的比例相对较少。受植物种类及植物根系呼吸在土壤呼吸中所占比例大小的影响,在3种不同的土地利用方式下根系自养呼吸所占的比例大小顺序依次为荒地〉休耕地〉耕地。有根系的土壤呼吸对土壤温度升高的反应要敏感些。

  16. 模拟机械压实对黑土微团聚体组成及稳定性的影响%Effect of mechanical compaction on soil micro-aggregate composition and stability of black soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢倩倩; 王恩姮; 陈祥伟

    2015-01-01

    采用田间模拟机械压实的方法,通过对不同深度压实土壤水稳性微团聚体组成、平均质量比表面积、分形维数和分散系数等特征指标的测定、计算与分析,研究了机械压实对黑土区耕作土壤微团聚体组成及稳定性的影响。结果表明:0~20 cm表层土壤仅12次压实时平均质量比表面积、分形维数和分散系数显著高于对照(P<0.05);>20~40 cm亚表层土壤3次压实时平均质量比表面积、分形维数值显著降低,而12次压实时平均质量比表面积、分形维数和分散系数显著增加(P<0.05);>40~80 cm下层土壤,平均质量比表面积、分形维数和分散系数随压实次数的增加而增大,除3次和6次压实之间外,其他处理间差异均达显著水平(P<0.05)。可以认为,压实对黑土区耕作土壤团聚体组成及稳定性的影响表现为下层土壤的积累压实为主。%Aggregates are secondary particles formed through the combination of mineral particles glued by organic and inorganic substances. Soil compaction caused by mechanical tillage practices mainly affects its structure and function by the dispersing, braking, re-proportioning, re-arranging and re-combining aggregates. Although mechanical compaction was reported to reduce the proportion of soil water stable aggregate with size smaller than 0.25 mm, how further impact of mechanical compaction on composition and stability of soil micro-aggregate is still unknown. Comparing to the study of soil macro-aggregates, research on soil micro-aggregates can contribute to a better understanding of disperse strength and structural performance of primary aggregates under particular conditions. Based on the cropland soil in the typical black soil region of Northeast China, the influence of mechanical compaction on soil micro-aggregate composition and stability was studied by measuring and analyzing the soil micro-aggregate distribution

  17. Interaction Effects of Insecticides on Enzyme Activities in Black Clay Soil from Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L. Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Nasreen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In practice pesticides are extensively used in agriculture as a part of pest control strategies. Two insecticides, endosulfan (organochlorine and profenophos (organophosphate, were assessed for their effects on the activities of protease (in terms of tyrosine formed from casein and urease (as ammonia released from urea in soil, collected from a fallow groundnut field by applications of insecticides at normal field rates and at higher concentrations (1.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 kg ha-1, in a laboratory study. The results showed a strong positive influence on protease and urease enzyme activities in soil treated with 2.5 and 5.0 kg ha-1 dry soil and they were significantly (P ≤ 0.05 higher than the control over the course of incubation. In soil treatment, there was a significant increase in protease and decrease in urease activities after 24h of incubation which continued up to 20 days. However, a significant decrease in both protease and urease enzyme activities was observed in 30 and 40 days of incubation.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.60.2.671

  18. [Effects of long-term fertilization on organic carbon functional groups in black soil as revealed by synchrotron radiation soft X-ray near-edge absorption spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nan; Wang, Shuai; Wang, Qing-He; Dong, Pei-Bo; Li, Cui-Lan; Zhang, Jin-Jing; Gao, Qiang; Zhao, Yi-Dong

    2012-10-01

    A 20 years (1984-2004) stationary field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of long-term application of chemical fertilizers (N or NPK) alone or in combination with low (0.125 kg x hm(-2)) or high dose of corn stalk (0.25 kg x hm(-2)) on organic carbon functional groups in black soil using synchrotron radiation soft X-ray near-edge absorption spectroscopy (C-1s NEXAFS). Compared with the control (CK) treatment, the aromatic C and the carboxyl C of soil increased, whereas the aliphatic C, the carbonyl C and the aliphatic C/aromatic C ratio decreased after the application of chemical fertilizer alone. After the application of chemical fertilizations in combined with corn stalk, the aromatic C decreased while the aliphatic C and the aliphatic C/aromatic C ratio increased as compared to N or NPK fertilizer treatment. And the change tendency was more obvious with the increase in the dose of corn stalk applied. Regardless of corn stalk application, the aromatic C, the aliphatic C, and the aliphatic C/aromatic C ratio were all higher for NPK than for N fertilizer treatment. The above results indicated that, compared with the no-fertilizer control treatment, the application of chemical fertilizers alone resulted in the relative proportion of aromatic compounds increased whereas that of aliphatic hydrocarbon compounds decreased. On the other hand, the relative proportion of the aliphatic hydrocarbon compounds was higher after the application of chemical fertilizers with than without corn stalk, with high than with low dose of corn stalk, and with NPK than with N fertilization. C-1s NEXAFS spectroscopy could characterize in situ the changes of organic carbon functional groups in soil under long-term stationary fertilization.

  19. Synthesis of Cotton from Tossa Jute Fiber and Comparison with Original Cotton

    OpenAIRE

    Md Mizanur Rahman; Md. Rezaur Rahman; Sinin Hamdan; Md. Faruk Hossen; Josephine Chang Hui Lai; Fui Kiew Liew

    2015-01-01

    Cotton fibers were synthesized from tossa jute and characteristics were compared with original cotton by using FTIR and TGA. The FTIR results indicated that the peak intensity of OH group from jute cotton fibers occurred at 3336 cm−1 whereas the peak intensity of original cotton fibers occurred at 3338 cm−1. This indicated that the synthesized cotton fiber properties were very similar to the original cotton fibers. The TGA result showed that maximum rate of mass loss, the onset of decompositi...

  20. 7 CFR 1427.9 - Classification of cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification of cotton. 1427.9 Section 1427.9... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Nonrecourse Cotton Loan and Loan Deficiency Payments § 1427.9 Classification of cotton. (a) All cotton tendered for loan and loan...

  1. 7 CFR 1427.174 - Maturity of seed cotton loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maturity of seed cotton loans. 1427.174 Section 1427..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.174 Maturity of seed cotton loans. Seed cotton loans mature on demand by CCC but no later than May 31...

  2. 7 CFR 28.178 - Submission of cotton samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Submission of cotton samples. 28.178 Section 28.178... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.178 Submission of cotton samples. Samples of cotton submitted to a Classing Office for classification...

  3. Cotton fiber quality determined by fruit position, temperature and management

    OpenAIRE

    X Wang; Evers, J.B.; Zhang, L.; Mao, L.; Pan, X; Z. Li

    2013-01-01

    CottonXL is a tool to explore cotton fiber quality in relation to fruit position, to improve cotton quality by optimizing cotton plant structure, as well as to help farmers understand how the structure of the cotton plant determines crop growth and quality.

  4. Research on the Properties of the Naturally Coloured Cottons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Gu

    2004-01-01

    Structures and characteristics of naturally coloured cottons grown in China were analyzed. Breaking strength of yarns made of pure coloured cotton and coloured cotton fibres blended with other fibres were investigated. Colour fastness of the coloured cotton goods was tested. Suggestions for using the coloured cotton practically and effectively were also included.

  5. 7 CFR 1427.165 - Eligible seed cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible seed cotton. 1427.165 Section 1427.165... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.165 Eligible seed cotton. (a) Seed cotton pledged as collateral for a loan must be tendered to CCC by...

  6. Transgene Stacking in Cotton Improvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    To date,more and more transgenic varieties of upland cotton(Gossypium hirsutum L.) generated with transgenes,which derived from varies of alien species,are playing important role in agricultural production.Stacking of multi-transgenes has a potential for combining all the merits of distinct

  7. Cotton, Chic Your Life Naturally

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2009-01-01

    @@ As the Summit of Climate Change took place in New York this September,along with the 2009 International Year of Natural Fiber,eco-chic once again has became a fashion trend during the year,especially consuming green cotton garment.

  8. 6-Benzyladenine enhancement of cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of applied plant growth regulators (PGR) on growth, development and yield in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. and Gossypium barbadense L.) has been studied for over half a century. Studies of PGR containing cytokinin alone or in combination with gibbererillins applied at the pinhead squa...

  9. Primary Studies on Cotton Telomere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Arabidopsis-type telomere sequence was amplified and cloned using the primers designed from the fragment which contained the telomere sequence in an Arabidopsis BAC.In situ hybridizations with cotton metaphase chromosomes,using the telomere as probe,it indicated that the signals

  10. Anthraquinone dyes for superhydrophobic cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salabert, J; Sebastián, R M; Vallribera, A

    2015-09-28

    Water-repellent, self-cleaning and stain resistant textiles are of interest for industrial applications. Anthraquinone reactive dyes were covalently grafted onto cotton fabric surfaces obtaining bright colors with good wash-fastness properties and giving rise to breathable superhydrophobic textiles with self-cleaning properties. PMID:26265296

  11. Anthraquinone dyes for superhydrophobic cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salabert, J; Sebastián, R M; Vallribera, A

    2015-09-28

    Water-repellent, self-cleaning and stain resistant textiles are of interest for industrial applications. Anthraquinone reactive dyes were covalently grafted onto cotton fabric surfaces obtaining bright colors with good wash-fastness properties and giving rise to breathable superhydrophobic textiles with self-cleaning properties.

  12. Transgene Stacking in Cotton Improvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ye-hua; WANG Xue-kui; YAO Ming-jing; FAN Yu-peng; GAO Da-yu

    2008-01-01

    @@ To date,more and more transgenic varieties of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsuturn L.) generated with transgenes,which derived from varies of alien species,are playing important role in agricultural production.Stacking of multi-transgenes has a potential for combining all the merits of distinct transgenic lines in a cultivar and possibly makes a significant contribution to cultivar improvement.

  13. Study on the effects of soil temperature change to water and salt moving rule in cotton field by drip irrigation%北疆土壤温度变化对滴灌棉田水盐运移规律的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    虎胆・吐马尔白; 靳志锋; 李文娟; 马合木江

    2014-01-01

    以北疆常年膜下滴灌棉田为研究对象,分析棉花整个生育过程中土壤温度变化对棉田水盐运移规律的影响,并对灌溉制度进行优化调整。研究结果表明:土壤温度随着气温的升高而升高,降低而降低,气温影响作用随着土壤深度的增加而减弱,滞后时间随着深度的增加而延长;8月份之前,土壤温度自上而下呈递减分布,随着土壤温度的升高,土壤水分扩散率不断增大,土壤持水能力不断降低,造成5~60 cm 处土壤含水率降低,而90~150 cm 处土壤含水率增高,导致5 cm 和90~150 cm 处土壤盐分相对增高;8月份之后,随着土壤温度的降低,土壤温度分布发生变化,土壤水分扩散率不断减小,土壤持水能力不断增强,土壤水分蒸腾降低,渗漏减小,各层土壤含水率相对保持较高,各层土壤含盐率相对保持较低;在灌溉定额不变的条件下,在5、6月份相对减小灌水定额,7月和8月份相对减小灌水周期、增加灌水定额,8月之后相对增加灌水周期、减小灌水定额,在生育期末,通过穿插灌水,加大灌水定额,对土壤洗盐、抑盐有着明显的作用。%In this paper taking the cotton field in northern Xinjiang under perennial drip irrigation below membrane as the research object ,has discussed the effects of the soil temperature change to the soil water and salt moving rule in cotton field during whole growth period ,also carried out the optimal adjustment for the irrigation schedule .The research results showed that :The soil temperature will be increased with the air temperature rise ,reduced with the air temperature decrease .But the air temperature impacting function will be attenuated with the soil depth increasing ,also the lag time will be extended with the depth increases .Before August ,the soil temperature showed a decreasing distribution from top to bottom ,with the increase of soil

  14. Aerial multispectral imaging for cotton yield estimation under different irrigation and nitrogen treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton yield varied spatially within a field. The variability can be caused by various production inputs such as soil property, water management, and fertilizer application. Airborne multispectral imaging is capable of providing data and information to study effects of the inputs on the yield qualit...

  15. Studying the Relationship Between Climatic Factors and Cotton Production by Different Applied Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria M. Sawan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the statistical relationship between climatic variables and aspects of cotton production (G. barbadense, and the effects of climatic factors prevailing prior to flowering or subsequent to boll setting on flower and boll production and retention in cotton. Also, the study covers the predicted effects of climatic factors during convenient intervals (in days on cotton flower and boll production compared with daily observation. Further, cotton flower and boll production as affected by climatic factors and soil moisture status has been considered. Evaporation, sunshine duration, relative humidity , surface soil temperature at 1800 h, and maximum air temperature are the important climatic factors that significantly affect flower and boll production. The least important variables were found to be surface soil temperature at 0600 h and minimum temperature. The five-day interval was found to be more adequately and sensibly related to yield parameters. Evaporation, minimum humidity and sunshine duration were the most effective climatic factors during preceding and succeeding periods on boll production and retention. There was a negative correlation between flower and boll production and either evaporation or sunshine duration, while that correlation with minimum relative humidity was positive. The soil moisture status showed low and in significant correlation with flower and boll production. Higher minimum relative humidity, short period of sunshine duration, and low temperatures enhanced flower and boll formation.

  16. Energy balance of irrigated and dryland cotton in the Southern High Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) is a major crop in the Southern High Plains that is produced under both irrigated and dryland cultures. In 2008, the energy balance components (net radiation, soil heat flux, sensible heat flux, and latent heat flux) were measured at Bushland, Texas. Four precision weighi...

  17. Qualidade física do solo na produtividade da cultura do feijoeiro num Argissolo Soil physical quality on black beans yield in an Alfisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Loguércio Collares

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar as propriedades físicas e o intervalo hídrico ótimo (IHO de um Argissolo, sob diferentes estados de compactação, cultivado com feijoeiro. Foram utilizados três experimentos, cujos tratamentos constituíram-se de: plantio direto (PD; plantio direto compactado pelo tráfego de quatro passadas de máquina (PDc; e escarificação em área anteriormente sob plantio direto (Esc. Avaliaram-se a densidade, a porosidade, a umidade volumétrica e a resistência à penetração do solo. Nas plantas, avaliaram-se a distribuição do sistema radicular e a produtividade. A densidade crítica obtida pelo IHO foi de 1,75 Mg m-3. No PDc a densidade do solo foi superior à crítica na maioria das camadas, enquanto o PD e Esc apresentaram densidade acima da crítica em poucas camadas. A umidade do solo ficou fora dos limites do IHO na maior parte do ciclo da cultura. A resistência à penetração ficou acima da crítica no PDc em todas as avaliações. O sistema radicular concentrou-se superficialmente no PDc com melhor distribuição e desenvolvimento no PD e Esc. Nos três experimentos, a produtividade do Esc foi de 2 a 12% menor, e a do PDc foi de 30 a 62% menor do que no PD. A escarificação não foi necessária para as condições físicas do PD.In this work, soil properties and least limiting water range (LLWR were determined for an Alfisol under three states of compaction with black beans crop. Three experiments were used, comprising the following treatments: 12 years of no-tillage - NT; 12 years, of no-tillage compacted by four passes of a bucket loader - NTc; and chiseling of soil previously under no-tillage for 12 years - Ch. Throughout the plant cycle, bulk density, total porosity, volumetric water content, air filled porosity and soil resistance to penetration were evaluated. Plant root distribution and yield were also evaluated. The critical bulk density obtained by LLWR was 1.75 Mg m-3. In the NTc the

  18. 控释氮肥对棉花植株N素吸收、土壤硝态氮累积及产量的影响%Effects of Controlled Release of N Fertilizer on Plant Tissue N Absorption and Accumulation of Soil Nitrate Nitrogen and Yield of Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡伟; 张炎; 胡国智; 李青军; 汤明尧

    2011-01-01

    通过2年田间定位试验研究了控释氮肥和普通氮肥不同用量对棉花植株N素吸收和土壤硝态氮累积及产量的影响.结果表明:2008年控释氮肥处理植株N素吸收量和吸收速率在苗期和蕾期小于普通氮肥,但花期以后超过后者,并维持较高水平,2009年的N素吸收量控释氮肥始终高于普通氮肥,同时,控释氮肥不同程度地提高了氮肥表观利用率;在施氮量小于180 kg·hm-2条件下,苗期土壤硝态氮累积量(0~90 cm)较高,而在蕾期和铃期其硝态氮量相对降低,相同肥料品种处理的土壤硝态氮累积量与施氮量成正相关,控释氮肥养分释放相对稳定,并对下年度产生后续影响;同一肥料品种下,棉花皮棉产量随施氮量增加而增加,控释氮肥处理高于普通氮肥,且氮肥农学利用率明显提高,其中施N量126 kg·hm-2的控释氮肥处理,可以达到或超过普通氮肥180kg·hm-2N素处理的产量水平.%Field experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of different amounts of controlled release nitrogenous fertilizer and common urea on cotton yield, along with nitrate-N accumulation in soil and N absorption in plant tissue in 2008 and 2009. The results showed that N concentration volume and rate of plant tissue were less for controlled release N-fertilizer than that of common urea during seedling and bud stage, respectively, but exceeded the latter after florescence and maintain higher level in 2008. N concentration volume for the controlled-release kept higher all along in 2009, increased the N apparent nutrient availability as well; Nitrate-N accumulation of field soil( 0~90 cm) in cotton seedling stage was higher than, then falling lower in bud stage and boll stage on condition that N-fertilizer applied less than 180 kg· hm-2. Nitrate-N accumulation was in direct proportion to rates of N-fertilizer applied. Nutrient of controlled release N fertilizer released relatively stable and could produce

  19. Cotton and Climate Change: Impacts and Options to mitigate and adapt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ton, P.

    2012-04-01

    Cotton & Climate change: Impacts and Options to mitigate and adapt. Climate change will have major impacts on cotton production and trade depending on production location. This report to be presented analyses the impacts of climate change on cotton production and trade in the main producing areas world-wide, and the options available to mitigate and to adapt to these impacts. Cotton production is both a contributor to climate change and subject to its impacts. Agricultural production, processing, trade and consumption contribute up to 40% of the world's emissions when forest clearance is included in the calculation. Cotton production contributes to between 0.3% and 1% of total global GHG emissions. Cotton has a certain resilience to high temperatures and drought due to its vertical tap root. The crop is, however, sensitive to water availability, particularly at the height of flowering and boll formation. Rising temperatures favour plant development, unless day temperatures exceed 32°C. New production areas may be established where cotton was not grown before. Increases in atmospheric CO2 will also favour plant development. In turn, increased pests, water stress, diseases, and weather extremes will pose adaptation challenges. Overall, the negative impacts of climate change on cotton production relate to the reduced availability of water for irrigation, in particular in Xinjiang (China), Pakistan, Australia and the western United States. Heat stress risks creating depressed yields in Pakistan in particular, while in other countries limited increases in temperatures could favour cotton plant growth and lengthen the cotton growing season. The impacts of climate change on rainfall will likely be positive in the Yellow River area (China), in India, the south-eastern United States and south-eastern Anatolia (Turkey). Impacts on rainfall in Brazil and West and Central Africa are unclear. Mitigation and adaptation to climate change in cotton production, as in agriculture

  20. Next Target: To Plant Cotton in Australia%Next Target: To Plant Cotton in Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    China textile enterprises turn their sight to the largest and the best cotton farm in Australia for the use of local resource advantages, including perfect dams, low cost planting conditions, and high quality cotton.

  1. Rendimento de feijão e alterações no pH e na matéria orgânica do solo em função de doses de composto de resíduo de algodão Yield of bean plant and changes in pH and soil organic matter as a function of doses of compost cotton waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvio Júnio Ramos

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o rendimento de feijão e as alterações no pH e na matéria orgânica do solo após a aplicação do composto de resíduo de algodão. Para tanto, instalou-se o experimento em condições de campo, em um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso com cinco tratamentos constituídos por doses (0, 20, 40, 60, 80t ha-1 de resíduo de algodão compostado oriundo da indústria têxtil, com cinco repetições. Verificou-se que a aplicação do resíduo de algodão compostado promoveu melhoria nas características produtivas do feijoeiro submetido ao manejo orgânico e elevou os valores de pH e matéria orgânica do solo. Desse modo, o composto utilizado mostrou-se como uma alternativa para a adubação da cultura.The objective of this research was to evaluate the yield of bean plants and changes in pH and soil organic matter after compost cotton waste application. An experiment was carried out in an Acrisol. The experimental design was of randomized blocks with five levels of cotton waste compost (0, 20, 40, 60, 80t ha-1 from the textile factory, in five replications. The application of the cotton waste compost promoted increase in the growth and productive characteristics in bean crop, and increased the pH values and soil organic matter. Thus, the compost showed as an alternative for fertilization of the culture.

  2. 小麦-玉米-大豆轮作下黑土农田土壤呼吸与碳平衡%Soil respiration and carbon budget in black soils of wheatmaize-soybean rotation system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁尧; 韩晓增; 乔云发; 李禄军; 尤孟阳

    2012-01-01

    农田生态系统是陆地生态系统的重要组成部分,探讨农田生态系统的土壤呼吸与碳平衡对于科学评价陆地生态系统在全球变化下的源汇效应具有重要意义.基于中国科学院海伦农业生态实验站的长期定位试验,对不同施肥处理下黑土小麦-玉米-大豆轮作体系2005-2007年的作物固碳量与土壤CO2排放通量进行了观测,并对该轮作体系下黑土农田生态系统的碳平衡状况进行了估算.结果表明:在小麦-玉米-大豆轮作体系中,作物固碳量的高低表现为:玉米>大豆>小麦,平均值分别为6 513 kg(C)·hm-2、4 025 kg(C)·hm-2和3 655kg(C)·hm-2,从作物生长季土壤CO2排放总量来看,3种作物以大豆农田生态系统的土壤CO2排放总量最高,平均值达4 062 kg(C)·hm-2;其次为玉米,为3 813 kg(C)·hm-2;而小麦最低,为2 326 kg(C)·hm-2.3种作物轮作下NEP(净生态系统生产力)均为正值,表明黑土农田土壤-作物系统为大气CO2的“汇”,不同作物系统的碳汇强度表现为玉米>小麦>大豆,三者的平均值分别为3 215 kg(C)·hm-2、1643 kg(C)·hm-2和512 kg(C)·hm-2.长期均衡施用氮、磷、钾化肥或氮、磷、钾化肥配施有机肥后,小麦、玉米和大豆农田生态系统的固碳量和土壤CO2排放总量均明显增加,并在氮、磷、钾配施有机肥处理下达到最高.不同的施肥管理措施将改变土壤-植物系统作为大气CO2“汇”的程度,总体表现为化肥均衡施用下NEP值较高,而化肥与有机肥配施下农田生态系统的NEP值较低.%Farmlands are important terrestrial ecosystems with characteristic soil respiration and carbon budget processes. Data from the long-term experiment at Hailun Agricultural Ecology Station of Chinese Academy of Sciences for 2005-2007 were analyzed for the characteristics of crop carbon fixation, soil cumulative CO2 flux and carbon budget in the black soils of wheat-maize-soybean rotation systems

  3. Ozonização em meio básico para redução de cor do licor negro de indústria de celulose de algodão Color reduction of black liquor from cotton cellulose industry using ozonation in an alkaline medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Guimarães

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available As indústrias de papel e celulose descartam no ambiente um grande volume de efluente contendo grande quantidade da substância lignina, que atribui coloração e apresenta considerável potencial de toxicidade. Neste trabalho, foi avaliada a ozonização em meio básico para a redução de cor do licor negro gerado por uma indústria de celulose de algodão. Face aos resultados, foi possível observar que, para menores concentrações iniciais de ozônio (0,4 gO3 L-1 h-1, foi necessário um tempo mais longo de ozonização para se obter a redução desejada de 80% da cor. O consumo específico de ozônio, entretanto, em comparação a experimentos com dosagens mais elevadas (4,3 gO3 L-1 h-1 foi menor. Sugere-se que o oxigênio molecular desempenhe, também, um importante papel na oxidação dos compostos, participando do mecanismo de oxidação iniciado por radical hidroxila, •OH, formado na ozonização em meio básico.Pulp and paper mills discharge large amounts of wastewater containing high concentrations of lignin, a coloring substance that is dangerous and presents high toxicity to the environment. In this study, ozonation in alkaline ambience was evaluated for color reduction in black liquor, generated in a cotton linter mill. It was observed that the ozonation time to reach 80% color reduction was higher at a lower initial ozone dose (0,4 gO3 L-1 h-1 in comparison to a higher initial ozone dose (4,3 gO3 L-1 h-1. On the other hand, the amount of consumed oxidant was lower at the lower ozone dose. It is suggested that molecular oxygen participates in the oxidation mechanism of colored compounds, which is initiated by hydroxyl radicals (•OH formed during ozonation in alkaline ambience.

  4. 耕作措施对东北黑土微生物呼吸的影响%Effect of Conservation Tillage on Microbial Respiration of Black Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾淑霞; 孙冰洁; 梁爱珍; 陈学文; 张士秀; 魏守才; 刘四义; 陈升龙; 张晓平

    2015-01-01

    耕作处理只改变了5 cm的Q10值,免耕比秋翻高10.8%。土壤微生物呼吸速率与土壤温度、水分混合回归模型能更好地反应其变化规律,解释土壤微生物呼吸速率变异的65%(秋翻)和81%(免耕)。【结论】免耕增加了表层(0—5 cm)的SOC含量,从而使得该土层的土壤微生物量碳和活性增加,但是由于免耕处理增加0—30 cm 土层SOC含量的加权平均值,因此相对于传统的耕作措施(秋翻),免耕有利于SOC含量的增加。%Objective] In this study, soil microbial activity and biomass carbon under 13-year conservation tillage (no-till) were assessed in a black soil agro-ecosystem in northeast China in order to determine the effect of tillage treatment on soil organic carbon and soil microbial biomass, which would provide a theoretical basis for valuing the ‘sink’ or ‘source’ function of soil carbon pool.[Method] The present study was conducted as part of a long term tillage experiment on the continuous maize (Zea mays L.), tillage treatments consisted of no-tillage (NT), and mouldboard plough (MP). The NT treatment had no soil disturbance except planting, crop residues were left on soil surface after harvest. The MP treatment included one fall mouldboard plough (about 15 cm in depth) after maize harvest, one disking (7.5 to 10 cm in depth) in spring and field cultivation (ridging in June). Soil respiration without roots represented soil microbial respiration, which was measured biweekly from 14 June 2012 to 25 September 2013 using LI-8100 automated soil CO2 flux system (LI-COR Inc., Lincoln, NE, USA), soil microbial biomass and the number of colony forming units of bacteria (cfub), fungi (cfuf), and actinomyces (cfua) were measured during the soil microbial respiration was the highest.[Result] It was found that the range of soil microbial respiration was 0.42-3.35μmolCO2·m-2·s-1under NT and 0.48-3.24μmolCO2·m-2·s-1under MP during growing season, the average soil

  5. LONG TERM 32-YEAR-OLD APPLICATION OF FERTILIZERS FOR THE FERTILITY OF THE ORDINARY BLACK SOIL AND PRODUCTIVITY OF SUGAR BEET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neshchadim N. N.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the effectiveness of mineral and organic fertilizers in long-term application (for more than thirty years according to the influence on the fertility of ordinary black soil of the Western Ciscaucasia and productivity of sugar beet. The investigations were carried out in the long-term stationary experiment laid on the experimental stationary section "Severokubanskaya agricultural experimental station" of P.P. Lukyanenko Krasnodar Agricultural Research Institute. The experiment was laid simultaneously in time and space in two ten-course crop rotations and combined grain-grass tilled. In the structure of sown areas sugar beet occupied 10% of crop rotation area and was placed after the winter wheat. During three rotations it was studied: 1- control without fertilizer with natural forming level of mineral nutrition; 2- minimal dose N21P26K16 3- medium dose N43P52K33 ; 4 - N43P52K33, 5- high dose N96P104K68; 6- organo-mineral system¹ N43P52K34 + 12 t/ha of manure; 7- organo-mineral system² N20P24K34 + II-III rotations tillage of straw crop + 6 t/ha of manure; 8- medium dose P52K33; 9- medium dose N43K33; 10- medium dose N43K52. The soil which is used by organo-mineral system with increased and high standards of mineral fertilizers had higher concentration of mineral nitrogen. Long systematic application of fertilizer had more noticeable effect on soil phosphorus regime. The provision of soil by exchange potassium tended to decline from rotation to rotation. If at the completion of the first rotation the content of this battery was at the level 362,0-433,0 mg / kg of soil, in 2010, these values were 356,0-405,0 mg / kg of soil, remaining at the level of increased and high provision characterized to ordinary black-soil. Fertilizers for crop rotation provided almost equal yield increase: in the first rotation - 4,9-16,0 t / ha in the second 5,3- 17,1, the third 6,1-15,5 t / ha. In the moderate favorable for moisture and

  6. Digieye Application In Cotton Colour Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matusiak Małgorzata

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Colour is one of the most important properties of cotton raw materials. It helps in determining and classifying the quality of fibres according to the Universal Cotton Standards. Organoleptic and instrumental techniques are applied to assess the color of cotton. Worldwide, the colour parameters of cotton are measured by the High Volume Instrument (HVI, which provides information on reflectance (Rd and yellowness (+b that is specific for cotton, but are not the typical and globally recognized colour characteristics. Usually, worldwide, the colour of textile products and other goods is assessed utilizing the spectrophotometer, which provides the colour data that is widely recognized and accepted by the CIE L*a*b* colour space. This paper discusses utilizing the DigiEye system to measure the colour parameters of cotton samples and compares the results with the colour parameters from the HVI.

  7. Analysis of the Cotton E6 Promoter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Aimin; LIU Jinyuan

    2005-01-01

    An E6 gene from sea island cotton (Gossypium barbadense) was expressed specifically in cotton fiber cells to transfer functions to cultivated species for better transgenic engineering. The regulatory activity of the E6 promoter region was then studied by isolating a 614-bp fragment of the 5'-flanking region from upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum CRI-12) to produce a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter construct for analysis of tissue-specific expression in transgenic tobacco seedlings. Fluorescent analyses indicate that the relatively short E6 promoter is sufficient to direct green fluorescent protein expression specifically in the leaf trichomes (hair cells) of the transgenic tobacco plants. As cotton fibers are also unicellular trichomes that differentiate from epidermal cells of developing cotton ovules, the result suggests that the relatively short E6 promoter can serve as a fiber-specific expression promoter for genetic engineering to improve cotton fiber quality.

  8. Production of Mannitol by Fungi from Cotton Dust

    OpenAIRE

    Domelsmith, Linda N.; Klich, Maren A.; Goynes, Wilton R.

    1988-01-01

    Cotton dust associated with high pulmonary function decrements contains relatively high levels of mannitol. In this study, cotton leaf and bract tissue and dust isolated from cotton leaf tissue were examined by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and capillary gas chromatography. Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium herbarum, Epicoccum purpurascens, and Fusarium pallidoroseum were isolated from cotton leaf dust. The fungal samples, cotton dust, and cotton leaf contained mannitol. ...

  9. Discovery and identification of candidate genes from the chitinase gene family for Verticillium dahliae resistance in cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Xu, Xiaoyang; Tian, Liangliang; Wang, Guilin; Zhang, Xueying; Wang, Xinyu; Guo, Wangzhen

    2016-01-01

    Verticillium dahliae, a destructive and soil-borne fungal pathogen, causes massive losses in cotton yields. However, the resistance mechanism to V. dahilae in cotton is still poorly understood. Accumulating evidence indicates that chitinases are crucial hydrolytic enzymes, which attack fungal pathogens by catalyzing the fungal cell wall degradation. As a large gene family, to date, the chitinase genes (Chis) have not been systematically analyzed and effectively utilized in cotton. Here, we identified 47, 49, 92, and 116 Chis from four sequenced cotton species, diploid Gossypium raimondii (D5), G. arboreum (A2), tetraploid G. hirsutum acc. TM-1 (AD1), and G. barbadense acc. 3–79 (AD2), respectively. The orthologous genes were not one-to-one correspondence in the diploid and tetraploid cotton species, implying changes in the number of Chis in different cotton species during the evolution of Gossypium. Phylogenetic classification indicated that these Chis could be classified into six groups, with distinguishable structural characteristics. The expression patterns of Chis indicated their various expressions in different organs and tissues, and in the V. dahliae response. Silencing of Chi23, Chi32, or Chi47 in cotton significantly impaired the resistance to V. dahliae, suggesting these genes might act as positive regulators in disease resistance to V. dahliae. PMID:27354165

  10. Discovery and identification of candidate genes from the chitinase gene family for Verticillium dahliae resistance in cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Xu, Xiaoyang; Tian, Liangliang; Wang, Guilin; Zhang, Xueying; Wang, Xinyu; Guo, Wangzhen

    2016-06-29

    Verticillium dahliae, a destructive and soil-borne fungal pathogen, causes massive losses in cotton yields. However, the resistance mechanism to V. dahilae in cotton is still poorly understood. Accumulating evidence indicates that chitinases are crucial hydrolytic enzymes, which attack fungal pathogens by catalyzing the fungal cell wall degradation. As a large gene family, to date, the chitinase genes (Chis) have not been systematically analyzed and effectively utilized in cotton. Here, we identified 47, 49, 92, and 116 Chis from four sequenced cotton species, diploid Gossypium raimondii (D5), G. arboreum (A2), tetraploid G. hirsutum acc. TM-1 (AD1), and G. barbadense acc. 3-79 (AD2), respectively. The orthologous genes were not one-to-one correspondence in the diploid and tetraploid cotton species, implying changes in the number of Chis in different cotton species during the evolution of Gossypium. Phylogenetic classification indicated that these Chis could be classified into six groups, with distinguishable structural characteristics. The expression patterns of Chis indicated their various expressions in different organs and tissues, and in the V. dahliae response. Silencing of Chi23, Chi32, or Chi47 in cotton significantly impaired the resistance to V. dahliae, suggesting these genes might act as positive regulators in disease resistance to V. dahliae.

  11. Commercial cotton variety spinning study descriptive statistics and distributions of cotton fiber and yarn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cotton Quality Research Station (CQRS) of the USDA-ARS, located in Clemson, SC, has completed a comprehensive study of the relationship of cotton fiber properties to the quality of spun yarn. The five year study, began in 2001, utilized commercial variety cotton grown, harvested and ginned in e...

  12. 黑碳添加对土壤活性有机碳和原有机碳的影响%Effects of Black Carbon Addition on Soil Labile Organic Carbon and Native Soil Organic Carbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李淑香; 尹云锋; 杨玉盛; 高人; 马红亮; 李芳芳

    2013-01-01

    Black carbon (BC) is an important pool of the global C cycle. However, very little is known about the effect of BC addition on soil labile organic carbon and native soil organic carbon. In the study, BC was produced by charring the rice straw under 350℃ and mixed with soil under different rates of addition levels (0, 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%), and incubated for 56 days at 25 ℃. The results indicated that soil easily mineralization carbon (Cm) increased with the increase of BC addition level, and soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) content had the similar trend (exception for 3%). Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content in soil showed no significant difference among the lower addition levels (1%, 2%, 3%), but it was obviously lower in BC amended soils (1%, 2%, 3%) relative to the unamended soils. Using natural 13C abundance method, the results suggested that BC addition inhibited the native SOC decomposition at rate of 1% BC addition, but stimulated the native SOC decomposition at rates of 2%, 3%, 4% and 5% BC addition. However, the effects of BC additions on the native SOC decomposition were not significant among different treatments.%通过室内培养实验,向土壤(甘蔗土)中分别添加不同用量的黑碳(BC,350℃热解水稻秸秆),添加量分别为0(BC0)、1%(BC1)、2%(BC2)、3%(BC3)、4%(BC4)和5%(BC5),研究黑碳添加量对土壤活性有机碳和原有机碳的影响.结果表明,在25℃培养条件下,土壤易矿化碳(Cm)随黑碳添加量的增加而增加;土壤微生物生物量碳含量亦随添加量的增加呈增加趋势(BC3处理除外).土壤可溶性有机碳含量在BC1、BC2和BC3处理之间的差异不显著,并显著低于对照土壤(BC0);应用δ13C自然丰度方法研究发现,BC1处理抑制了土壤原有机碳分解,而BC2、BC3、BC4和BC5处理促进了土壤原有机碳的分解,但统计上未达显著水平.

  13. Cotton in Benin: governance and pest management

    OpenAIRE

    Togbe, C.E.

    2013-01-01

    Key words: cotton, synthetic pesticides, neem oil (Azadirachta indica), Beauveria bassiana, Bacillus thuringiensis, field experiment, farmers’ participation   Pests are one of the main factors limiting cotton production worldwide. Most of the pest control strategies in cotton production rely heavily on the application of synthetic pesticides. The recurrent use of synthetic pesticides has large consequences for the environment (air, water, fauna, and flora) and human health. In cott...

  14. Compositional and Structural Difference of Fulvic Acid from Black Soil Applied with Different Organic Materials:Assessment After Three Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jian-ming; WU Jing-gui

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of different effects of various organic materials on soil humic substance is important for both environmental safety and sustainable agriculture. A pot experiment was conducted at Jilin Agricultural University, Jilin Province in northeast China to discover the inlfuence of herb residue, animal excrement, woody residue, animal remnant on fulvic acid (FA) composition and structure using differential thermal analysis-thermogravimetric (DTA-TG), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and elemental analysis. DTA-TG showed the range of peak temperature in the ifrst exothermic reaction increased following the trend: CK>herb residue>animal excrement>woody residue=animal remnant, and the most weight loss was observed in animal excrement. Moreover, the second exothermic reaction of CK-and animal excrement-FA was presented as double peaks, the order of weight loss in that area was animal remnant>CK>woody residue>animal excrement>herb residue. According to FTIR, herb residue displayed higher adsorption intensity at 2 950, 1 420, 1 240 and 1 030 cm-1, animal excrement was in reverse. At the same time, herb residue-and animal excrement-FA had an absorption peak at 1 720 cm-1, while other organic materials didn’t have this peak. As elemental analysis showed, FA isolated from various treatments was signiifcantly distinct. It was clearly shown from our results that FA composition and structure in amended soils may be affected in different ways and at various extents on dependence of the nature and origin of amendment.

  15. Biosafety assessment of transgenic Bt cotton on model animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Bano

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: To know the effects of transgenic crops on soil microorganisms, animals and other expected hazards due to the introduction of GM crops into the environment is critical both scientifically and environmentally. The work was conducted to study the effect of insecticidal Bt protein on Rats and Earthworms. Methods: For this purpose, animals like rat and soil organisms like Earthworm were selected. Rats were selected on the basis of its 95% homology on genomic, cellular and enzymatic level with human while earthworm were preferred on the basis of their direct contact with soil to evaluate the impact of Bt (Cry1AC crop field soil on earthworm, secreted by root exudates of Bt cotton. Several physical, molecular, biochemical and histological analyses were performed on both Rats/Earthworms fed on standard diet (control group as well containing Bt protein (experimental group. Results: Molecular analyses such as immune Dot blot, SDS-PAGE, ELISA and PCR, confirmed the absence of Cry1Ac protein in blood and urine samples of rats, which were fed with Bt protein in their diet. Furthermore, histological studies showed that there was no difference in cellular architecture in liver, heart, kidney and intestine of Bt and non-Bt diet fed rats. To see the effect of Bt on earthworm two different groups were studied, one with transgenic plant field soil supplemented with grinded leaves of cotton and second group with non-Bt field soil. Conclusions: No lethal effects of transgenic Bt protein on the survival of earthworm and rats were observed. Bradford assay, Dipstick assay ELISA demonstrated the absence of Cry1Ac protein in the mid-gut epithelial tissue of earthworm. The results of present study will be helpful in successful deployment and commercial release of genetically modified crop in Pakistan.

  16. Calculation of pesticide degradation in decaying cotton gin trash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossan, Angus N; Kennedy, Ivan R

    2008-10-01

    Pesticide residues were measured in stockpiled cotton gin trash (CGT) over a 2-year period. Samples were analysed by GC/MS/MS and interpretation of the results was aided by the presence of DDE residues, remnant from prior DDT use. Fourteen pesticide residues from current agricultural practice were detected in CGT. Several of these, including indoxacarb, profenofos, chlorpyrifos, propargite, bifenthrin, ethion and cyhalothrin, were more persistent than expected on the basis of published data for soil dissipation. The results showed a complex pattern of pesticide residue decay over time because of the simultaneous decomposition of the CGT matrix. PMID:18651089

  17. 14C-carbaryl residues in cotton seed products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14C-Methyl and 14C-ring-labelled carbaryl were used to study the magnitude and fate of the insecticide residues in cotton seed products and in the plant. 14C-Residues were found to be 0.08-0.09, 0.23-0.30 and 0.05 ppm in the seed, oil and cake respectively. In the oil, the residue was resolved into four compounds two of which were identified as carbaryl and 1-naphthol. Residues taken up from the soil did not exceed 0.3 ppm after the first week and declined to 0.1 ppm after five weeks. (author)

  18. Aqueous supercapacitors on conductive cotton

    KAUST Repository

    Pasta, Mauro

    2010-06-01

    Wearable electronics offer the combined advantages of both electronics and fabrics. In this article, we report the fabrication of wearable supercapacitors using cotton fabric as an essential component. Carbon nanotubes are conformally coated onto the cotton fibers, leading to a highly electrically conductive interconnecting network. The porous carbon nanotube coating functions as both active material and current collector in the supercapacitor. Aqueous lithium sulfate is used as the electrolyte in the devices, because it presents no safety concerns for human use. The supercapacitor shows high specific capacitance (~70-80 F·g-1 at 0.1 A·g-1) and cycling stability (negligible decay after 35,000 cycles). The extremely simple design and fabrication process make it applicable for providing power in practical electronic devices. © 2010 Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  19. FINANCIAL RISK IN COTTON PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Paul N.; Gundersen, Carl E.

    1985-01-01

    Risk analysis continues to emphasize price and yield variability as the principal components of the decision-maker's risk environment. This research demonstrates the relative importance of financial risk for a representative cotton farm in Arizona. For highly leveraged operations, financial risk may account for 70 percent of the total risk faced by the producer. Implications for future risk analysis are discussed in light of these findings.

  20. Monthtg Cotton Economic L, ette

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    After declining in early December, cotton prices rebounded late in the month and into early January. Contracts for March New York futures fell from prices between 90 and 94 cents/Ib to levels below 87 cents/Ib in the first half of December. Following this decline, prices for March New York futures climbed higher to establish a new trading range between 93 and 97 cents/lb. Over the same time period, A Index values dipped below 93 cents/

  1. THE INFLUENCE OF FERTILIZERS ON THE FORMATION OF STRUCTURAL PARAMETERS OF YIELD AND QUALITY OF WINTER WHEAT ON LEACHED BLACK SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salenko E. A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the results of programming of a yield of winter wheat grain on quality and productivity of winter wheat in the conditions of teaching and experimental farm of Stavropol upland. There were given the weather conditions during the research, their influence on the formation of the structure yield and quality of winter wheat. We have presented an analysis and a comparative evaluation of the structure of the winter wheat crop, including a variety of quantitative traits: the length of the stem and ear, number of grains per ear, mass of one ear, weight of 1000 grains, tillering and overall productivity yields. This scientific article describes the technical requirements to the content: protein, gluten, vitreous, the DCO, the class of grain. In general, the results of 4-year data on leached black soils of Stavropol Upland were the largest and the best indicators on the structure of winter wheat yield and grain quality, as they were obtained with the introduction of the planned dose N126R80K72 harvest of 6.0 t/ha according to the method of calculation by V.V. Ageev, planned yield levels 5.0 and 6.0 t / ha have been achieved, the accuracy of programming (99% was obtained by calculating the doses of fertilizers by the method of V. V. Ageev

  2. Usable science: soil health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy soils are fundamental to sustainable rangelands, but soils toil in obscurity and this is reflected in the belowground “black-box” mentality often attributed to soils. Transformational changes get attention for land managers and public. For example, soil erosion associated with Dust Bowl of 1...

  3. Shandong’s Cotton Brocade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    SHANDONG Province, also called "Lu," produces traditional hand-woven cotton fabric known as "Lu Jin ("Jin" means brocade in Chinese). Lu Jin has a soft texture and is made in various designs and colors. Although machine-made cotton fabric is easy to buy here, local people, particularly women, prefer this kind of cloth woven in the old style handed down by their ancestors. In the countryside of Southwest Shandong, a girl usually begins learning how to weave cotton brocade as a child and old women are often still busy at the loom. In Jiaxiang County, for example, there are more than 10,400 looms, 74,000 spinning wheels and 90,000 capable weavers, producing 6 million meters of hand-woven fabric annually. Lu Jin is a suitable dowry for local girls. Usually, a girl begins selecting designs and weaving for her dowry two to three years before marriage. When she gets married, she carefully puts the fabric in the cupboards she will bring with

  4. Assessing Salinity in Cotton and Tomato Plants by Using Reflectance Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldshleger, Naftaly

    2016-04-01

    Irrigated lands in semi-arid and arid areas are subjected to salinization processes. An example of this phenomenon is the Jezreel Valley in northern Israel where soil salinity has increased over the years. The increase in soil salinity results in the deterioration of the soil structure and crops damage. In this experiment we quantified the relation between the chemical and spectral features of cotton and tomato plants and their mutual relationship to soil salinity. The experiment was carried out as part of ongoing research aiming to detect and monitor saline soils and vegetation by combining different remote sensing methods. The aim of this study was to use vegetation reflectance measurements to predict foliar Cl and Na concentration and assess salinity in the soil and in vegetation by their reflectance measurements. The model developed for determining concentrations of chlorine and sodium in tomato and cotton produced good results ( R2 = 0.92 for sodium and 0.85 for chlorine in tomato and R2 = 0.84 for sodium and 0.82 for chlorine in cotton). Lately, we extend the method to calculate vegetation salinity, by doing correlation between the reflectance slopes of the tested crops CL and Na from two research areas. The developed model produced a good results for all the data (R2=0.74) Our method can be implemented to assess vegetation salinity ahead of planting, and developed as a generic tool for broader use for agriculture in semi-arid regions. In our opinion these results show the possibility of monitoring for a threshold level of salinity in tomato and cotton leaves so remedial action can be taken in time to prevent crop damage. Our results strongly suggest that future imaging spectroscopy remote sensing measurements collected by airborne and satellite platforms could measure the salinity of soil and vegetation over larger areas. These results can be the first steps for generic a model which includes more vegetation for salinity measurements.

  5. Effect of Temperature, pH and Salt on Fluorescent Quality of Water Extractable Organic Matter in Black Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ming-tang; ZHAO Lan-po; ZHANG Jin-jing

    2013-01-01

    Water erosion is the major reason for the loss of soil organic carbon in the Northeast China, which leads to the soil quality deterioration and adjacent water pollution. In this study, the effect of extraction temperature, pH value, and salt on the water extractable organic matter (WEOM) was determined by means of the UV absorbance, fluorescence excitation-emission matrix, and derived fluorescence indexes. In general, the carbon content and aromaticity of WEOM increased with the increasing of extraction temperature, with the exception that there was no significant difference in the amount at 0 and 20°C. More fluorophores, especially microbially-derived organic matter were extracted at high temperature. The pH values of extractant, including 5, 7, and 10, showed no effect on the carbon amount of WEOM, whereas the aromaticity and microbially-derived component gradually increased with the increasing of pH values. The fluorescence intensity of humic acid-like fluorophore was stronger in neutral and alkali condition than that in acidic condition. The addition of 10 mmol L-1 CaCl2 significantly decreased the carbon amount of recovered WEOM. Moreover, it significantly decreased the aromaticity of WEOM and the quantity of fulvic acid-like and humic acid-like fluorophores, whereas increased the percentage of tyrosine-like and tryptophan-like fluorophores in the total fluorophores and the amount of microbially-derived organic matter. Generally, 10 mmol L-1 KCl showed the same influence trend, but with low influence degree.

  6. Study on the Soil Erodibility K-Value in the Typical Black Region of Northeast China%东北典型黑土区土壤可蚀性K值研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟伟峰; 许林书

    2011-01-01

    Soil erodibility factor K is an index to indicate the sensitivity degree of soil erosion,and a precise K is the prerequisite for constructing soil erosion model.The coefficient of K was measured by employing Universal Soil Loss Equation and estimated by Nomogram Formula based on infield observation and laboratory analysis.Result showed that the measured coefficients were higher than those estimated,which implied that K estimated simply by present model couldn't directly be applied in typical black soil region of Northeast China.The results,however,revealed that linear relationship existed between two coefficients from measurement and estimation.Regression equation could be set up by modifying Nomogram formula before estimating K in the typical black soil region of Northeast China,and work out K value spatial distribution chart in following.The results could supply basic data for constructing Soil Erosion Model and Soil and Water Conservation in the typical black soil region of Northeast China.%土壤可蚀性因子K是表征土壤性质对侵蚀作用敏感程度的指标,对K值准确估算是构建土壤侵蚀模型的前提。研究以试验小区的野外观测资料和室内土壤理化性质分析数据为基础,运用通用土壤流失方程和诺谟公式分别实测和估算K值。结果显示,实测值均大于估算值,说明现有K值估算模型不能直接应用于东北典型黑土区。但分析发现实测值与估算值之间具有良好的线性相关,可建立回归方程,以此来修正诺谟公式。利用修正诺谟公式估算东北典型黑土区内不同地区及不同资料占有情况下的土壤可蚀性K值,并编制K值空间分布图。研究成果可以为东北典型黑土区土壤侵蚀模型构建及水土保持提供基础资料。

  7. 土壤生境抑制烟草根黑腐病研究进展%Research Advance of Suppression Effect of Soil Habitat on Tobacco Black Root Rot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶兴义; 霍沁建; 曹务栋; 张梦; 蒋卫

    2011-01-01

    Tobacco black root rot once resulting in great loss was a worldwide fungal disease. This paper gave a concise introduction on the outbreak of tobacco black root rot in our nation recent years, and the pathogenicbacteria, biological characteristics, infection and symptom of this disease, and then summarized the effects of soil habitat factors, included soil physi-chemical properties, soil nutrient status, root exudates and soil microorganism, on tobacco black root rot. At last, we raised some procedures, such as improving field management and cultivation strategies, reasonable fertilization and biocontrol, to ameliorate soil habitat and control the disease.%烟草根黑腐病是一种世界性真菌病,曾给各主要种烟国造成巨大损失.为此简述了近20年来烟草根黑腐病在中国各主要种烟省份爆发流行的状况,并对此病害的病原菌、生物学特性、侵染和病症特征加以介绍,总结了土壤理化性质、土壤养分状况、根系分泌物和土壤微生物等土壤生境因子对该病病原菌存活、侵染、病害爆发的影响,提出通过加强田间管理、改进栽培策略、合理施用肥料、引入生物防治等措施,以改善土壤生境为目标,抑制烟草根黑腐病爆发.

  8. Improved growth and nutrient status of an oat cover crop in sod-based versus conventional peanut-cotton rotations

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Duli; Wright, David L.; Marois, James J.; Mackowiak, Cheryl L; Brennan, Meghan

    2010-01-01

    International audience Nitrogen (N) leaching from agricultural soils is a major concern in the southeastern USA. A winter cover crop following the summer crop rotation is essential for controlling N leaching and soil run-off, thereby improving sustainable development. Rotation of peanut (Arachis hypogea L.) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) with bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum) (i.e. sod-based rotation) can greatly improve soil health and increase crop yields and profitability. In the sod-ba...

  9. UMIC SUBSTANCES CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MIXED PLANTATION OF POPLAR AND BLACK LOCUST IN SANDY SOIL%杨树刺槐混交林下沙质土壤腐殖物质特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鼎华; 翟明普; 林平; 贾黎明; 孙志蓉

    2001-01-01

    The humic substances characteristics of the mixed and pure plantation of poplar and black locust in sandy soil were studied,the results were as follows:Compared with soil without forest,after the mixed and pure plantation of poplar and black locust being planted in sandy soil,soil organic C and humic C increased,the light density value of humic acid,HA/FA ratio,E4,EC,and RF values raised,Δlog K decreased,soil loose (Ⅰ) and tight (Ⅲ) combined form humus contents and the ratio of Ⅰ/Ⅲ went up,the ratio of organic C content in soil stable combined form humus (Ⅱ) to that in soil declined,indicating that the polymeric degree of soil humic substances raised,the atomic groups of aromatic nucleus increased,the aromaticity,complex degree of aromatized molecules and humification degree all went up,the quality of humic substances became better,soil maturity raised,soil nutrient\\|providing and nutrient\\|holding capacities increased and the soil fertility promoted after the mixed and pure plantation of poplar and black locust being planted in sandy soil.The increase in sandy soil fertility degrees followed the order:mixed plantation>black locust plantation>poplar plantation.%研究了沙质土壤种植杨树、刺槐纯林和混交林后土壤腐殖物质特性变化的状况。研究结果表明:与无林地相比,沙地土壤种植杨树、刺槐纯林和混交林后土壤有机C和腐殖质C增加,土壤胡敏酸的光密度值增大,胡敏酸/富啡酸比值上升,E4和EC值提高,色调系数(Δlog K)降低和相对色度(RF)升高,土壤松结合态腐殖物质(Ⅰ)和紧结合态腐殖物质(Ⅲ)以及松/紧(Ⅰ/Ⅲ)比值均有不同程度的增加,土壤稳结合态腐殖质(Ⅱ)的含C量占土壤全C的比例有不同程度的下降,表明土壤腐殖物质的聚合程度提高,腐殖物质的芳香核原子团增多,芳化度和芳化分子的复杂程度以及腐殖化程度均得到提高,腐殖物质的品质变佳,土壤

  10. 拮抗菌和生物有机肥防治棉花黄萎病及其对土壤酶活性的影响%Effects of Antagonistic Bacillus and Bio-organic Fertilizer on Controlling Cotton Virticillium Wilt and Activity of Soil Enzyme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王飞; 李俊华; 赵思峰; 沈其荣; 褚贵新; 危常州; 郭永盛

    2011-01-01

    棉花黄萎病是世界上毁灭性病害之一,它由土传真菌病原菌大丽轮枝菌引起并可以通过特制的生物有机肥进行防治.将生物有机肥、有机肥和三种拮抗细菌S37、S44、S228分别施入土壤,研究其对棉花黄萎病的防治效果及对几种主要土壤酶活性的影响.试验结果显示:防病效果达到5.9%~38.3%,由高到低依次为S37>生物有机肥>S44>S228>灭菌的生物有机肥.两种肥料处理显著提高了土壤蔗糖酶、多酚氧化酶、碱性磷酸酶、蛋白酶和脲酶的活性.3种拮抗菌处理提高了多酚氧化酶、碱性磷酸酶和蛋白酶的活性.除过氧化氢酶之外,其他酶的活性两两之间均呈现极显著正相关,但是病情指数与各种酶活性相关性均不显著.%Cotton Virticillium wilt is one of the most destructive diseases of cotton in the world. This disease is caused by the cosmopolitan soilbome fungal pathogen Verticillium dahliae Kleb and can only be controlled by some special bio-organic fertilizers applied into soils. This paper evaluated one novel bio-organic fertilizer, organic fertilizer, Antagonistic Bacillus S37, S44 and S228 to control this soil borne pathogen and their impacts on soil enzyme activities. Results showed that application of bio-organic fertilizer and antagonistic bacillus could significantly decrease the disease occurrence and controlling percentages were between 5.9%-38.3% in comparison with CK. Their controlling effects arranged from high to low as S37, bio-organic fertilizer, S44, S228, and sterilized bio-organic fertilizer. Application of bio-organic fertilizer and organic fertilizer also significantly increased activities of invertase, polyphenol oxidase, alkaline phosphatase, protease and urease in soil. The antagonistic Bacillus increased activities of polyphenol oxidase, alkaline phosphatase and protease. The activities of all enzymes except catalase had extremely significantly relationship with each other

  11. Response of irradiated cotton seeds to different levels of phosphorus fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A two year field experiments 1990, 1991 was conducted over two different locations in order to evaluate the response of cotton seeds exposed to various doses of gamma radiation 0, 5, 10 and 20 Gy, to different levels of phosphorous fertilizer, 0, 60, 100, 140 and 180 Kg P sub 2 O sub 5 ha- sub 1. Irradiation doses and P-Fertilizer levels were arranged in split plot design, where irradiation doses made up the main plots and the P-levels the sub-plots. Representative soil samples were collected and analyzed before planting and after harvesting. Soil test for P revealed enough P was available in the top soil. With a few exceptions, results showed no positive response of cotton crop to P-fertilizer and gamma rays stimulation. (author). 26 refs., 49 tabs

  12. Black Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hraba, Joseph; Siegman, Jack

    1974-01-01

    Black militancy is treated as an instance of class consciousness with criteria and scales developed to measure black consciousness and "self-placement" into black consciousness. These dimensions are then investigated with respect to the social and symbolic participation in the ideology of the black movement on the part of a sample of black…

  13. Double layer approach to create durable superhydrophobicity on cotton fabric using nano silica and auxiliary non fluorinated materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manatunga, Danushika Charyangi; de Silva, Rohini M.; de Silva, K. M. Nalin

    2016-01-01

    Creation of differential superhydrophobicity by applying different non-fluorinated hydrophobization agents on a cotton fabric roughened with silica nanoparticles was studied. Cotton fabric surface has been functionalized with silica nanoparticles and further hydrophobized with different hydrophobic agents such as hexadecyltrimethoxy silane (HDTMS), stearic acid (SA), triethoxyoctyl silane (OTES) and hybrid mixtures of HDTMS/SA and HDTMS/OTES. The cotton fabrics before and after the treatment were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The wetting behavior of cotton samples was investigated by water contact angle (WCA) measurement, water uptake, water repellency and soil repellency testing. The treated fabrics exhibited excellent water repellency and high water contact angles (WCA). When the mixture of two hydrophobization agents such as HDTMS/OTES and HDTMS/SA is used, the water contact angle has increased (145°-160°) compared to systems containing HDTMS, OTES, SA alone (130°-140°). It was also noted that this fabricated double layer (silica + hydrophobization agent) was robust even after applying harsh washing conditions and there is an excellent anti-soiling effect observed over different stains. Therefore superhydrophobic cotton surfaces with high WCA and soil repellency could be obtained with silica and mixture of hydrophobization agents which are cost effective and environmentally friendly when compared with the fluorosilane treatment.

  14. Palmer amaranth competition for water in cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer amaranth is a troublesome weed in cotton production. Yield losses of 65% have been reported due to season-long Palmer amaranth competition with cotton. To determine if water is a factor in this system, experiments were conducted in 2011, 2012, and 2013 in Citra, FL and in Tifton, GA. In 2011,...

  15. 6-Benzyladenine enhancements of cotton yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of applied plant growth regulators (PGR) on growth, development and yield in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. and Gossypium barbadense L.) has been studied for over half a century. A recent study suggested that cytokinin treatment of young cotton seedlings may enhance overall performanc...

  16. Scouring Process of Natural Color Cotton Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Wei

    2002-01-01

    In order to improve the absorbency of color cotton products, alkali and pectase scouring processes under different conditions were tested, by comparing the actual results of two different scouring processes. It was considered that the pectase scouring process more suits color cotton products.

  17. Proteomics Study of Cotton Fiber Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jin-yuan

    2008-01-01

    @@ A comparative proteomic analysis was applied to explore the mechanism of fiber cell development in cotton.Initially,an efficient protein preparation method was established for proteomic analysis of developing cotton fibers by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis,and a microwave enhanced ink staining technique also was created for fast and sensitive protein quantification in proteomic studies.

  18. The U.S. Cotton Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbird, Irving R.; And Others

    This report identifies and describes the structure and performance of the cotton industry, emphasizing the production and marketing of raw cotton. The underlying economic and political forces causing change in the various segments of the industry are also explored. The report provides a single source of economic and statistical information on…

  19. China International Cotton Conference Concluded in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The 2007 China International Cotton Conference was held on June 27-29 in Urumqi,Xinjiang Municipality, China.With the theme"China’s Cotton Industry on WTO and It’s Implications The Global Market".the Conference proceeded with three main sessions,one focusing on the

  20. China Cotton Situation Report [June 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James H. Zhao

    2007-01-01

    @@ The domestic cotton supply plus import quota released in due time can meet with spinners need in this season as can be assured by the fact that the spring sowing of cotton is finished in May, and summer sowing progresses well on its move.

  1. Insect Resistant Cotton COT67B

    OpenAIRE

    Directorate, Issued by Health Canada's Food

    2014-01-01

    Health Canada has notified Syngenta Seeds Canada Inc. that it has no objection to the sale of food derived from Insect Resistant Cotton COT67B. The Department conducted a comprehensive assessment of this cotton event according to its Guidelines for the Safety Assessment of Novel Foods. These Guidelines are based upon internationally accepted principles for establishing the safety of foods with novel traits.

  2. 77 FR 19925 - Upland Cotton Base Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... further specification. CCC uses base quality to calculate upland cotton loan rates, Adjusted World Price... section will be adjusted to reflect the price of base quality upland cotton by deducting the difference... Federal Regulations is sold by the Superintendent of Documents. #0;Prices of new books are listed in...

  3. Cotton Textile:Brisk against Bleak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dennis; K.Zhao

    2009-01-01

    The 6th International cotton and cotton textile conference already scheduled on Sept.8-10 in Xinjiang, China’s largest cotton growing area, was called off on a short notice of rascal needle dabbing that had caused a widespread public consternation. But the information that is focused on the leitmotif of "financial crisis and revitalization of textile industry for adjustment, upgrading and innovation" is to be shared, discussed at the upcoming resumed meeting. Cotton textile industry is and will be the most important driver for the global textile and clothing sector as it provides jobs not only for the residents living in the cities, but also for the farmers growing cotton in the poverty-ridden countryside. China and India are the most important players in this sector, for both are the most populous countries in the world…

  4. The Cotton tensor in Riemannian spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    García, A; Heinicke, C; Macías, A

    2004-01-01

    Recently, the study of three-dimensional spaces is becoming of great interest. In these dimensions the Cotton tensor is prominent as the substitute for the Weyl tensor. It is conformally invariant and its vanishing is equivalent to conformal flatness. However, the Cotton tensor arises in the context of the Bianchi identities and is present in any dimension. We present a systematic derivation of the Cotton tensor. We perform its irreducible decomposition and determine its number of independent components for the first time. Subsequently, we exhibit its characteristic properties and perform a classification of the Cotton tensor in three dimensions. We investigate some solutions of Einstein's field equations in three dimensions and of the topologically massive gravity model of Deser, Jackiw, and Templeton. For each class examples are given. Finally we investigate the relation between the Cotton tensor and the energy-momentum in Einstein's theory and derive a conformally flat perfect fluid solution of Einstein's ...

  5. 7 CFR 1427.101 - Eligible upland cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible upland cotton. 1427.101 Section 1427.101... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Economic Adjustment Assistance to Users of Upland Cotton § 1427.101 Eligible upland cotton. (a) For purposes of this subpart, eligible...

  6. 7 CFR 27.24 - Delivery of samples of cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Delivery of samples of cotton. 27.24 Section 27.24... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Inspection and Samples § 27.24 Delivery of samples of cotton. The original sample from each bale to be classified shall be delivered...

  7. 7 CFR 1427.1203 - Eligible ELS cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible ELS cotton. 1427.1203 Section 1427.1203... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Extra Long Staple (ELS) Cotton Competitiveness Payment Program § 1427.1203 Eligible ELS cotton. (a) For the purposes of this subpart,...

  8. 7 CFR 27.31 - Classification of Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification of Cotton. 27.31 Section 27.31... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Classification and Micronaire Determinations § 27.31 Classification of Cotton. For the purposes of subsection 15b (f) of the...

  9. 7 CFR 27.21 - Preparation of samples of cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preparation of samples of cotton. 27.21 Section 27.21... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Inspection and Samples § 27.21 Preparation of samples of cotton. The samples from each bale shall be prepared as specified in this...

  10. 7 CFR 27.25 - Additional samples of cotton; drawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional samples of cotton; drawing. 27.25 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Inspection and Samples § 27.25 Additional samples of cotton; drawing. In addition to the samples hereinbefore...

  11. 7 CFR 1205.342 - Certification of cotton importer organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certification of cotton importer organizations. 1205... Organization § 1205.342 Certification of cotton importer organizations. Any importer organization may request... members to represent cotton importers on the Cotton Board. Such eligibility shall be based, in addition...

  12. 7 CFR 1205.317 - Cotton-Importer organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton-Importer organization. 1205.317 Section 1205... RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.317 Cotton-Importer organization. Cotton-Importer organization means any organization which has been certified by the...

  13. Use of cotton gin trash and compatibilizers in polyethylene composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ginning of cotton produces 15-42% of foreign materials, called “cotton gin trash”, including cotton burr, stems, leaf fragment, and dirt. In this work we examined the mechanical properties of composites of low density polyethylene (LDPE) and cotton burr. The burr was ground into powder, and se...

  14. After Cotton Prices Hit a 10-Year Peak...

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zhaofeng

    2010-01-01

    @@ "With the fifth-grade seed cotton being priced at 4.5 yuan per 500 grams and Xinjiang lint cotton at nearly RMB 20,000 per ton, cotton prices have rocketed to a 10-year peak," Gap Chaoshan, President of the Liaocheng Cotton Association, told the reporter on September 26.

  15. Toward Elucidating the Structure of Tetraploid Cotton Genome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Wang-zhen

    2008-01-01

    @@ Upland cotton has the highest yield,and accounts for >95% of world cotton production.Decoding upland cotton genomes will undoubtedly provide the ultimate reference and resource for structural,functional,and evolutionary studies of the species.Here,we employed GeneTrek and BAC tagging information approaches to predict the general composition and structure of the allotetraploid cotton genome.

  16. Study on the Pigments of the Colored Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Zhao-wen; SHI Song-cun

    2004-01-01

    The ecological characteristics and fiber structure of the colored cotton were introduced briefly. The color changing mechanisms of the pigments extracted from colored cottons and some plants were discussed with the results of different experiments, which could offer an academic reference for the color fixations of the colored cotton textile produces and promote the development of the natural colored cotton industry.

  17. What Will We Do with a Cotton Genome Sequence?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BRUBAKER Curt

    2008-01-01

    @@ With the publication of "Toward Sequencing Cotton (Gossypium) Genomes" [Chen et al.PlantPhysiology,2007,145:1303-1310-] a clear consensus emerged from the cotton genomics community not only that cotton genome sequences were a critical resource for research and commercial innovationin cotton genomics,but that there was a logical means of achieving this goal.

  18. BLACK POLYPROPYLENE MULCH TEXTILE IN ORGANIC AGRICULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Dvorak, Petr; Hajšlová, Jana; Hamouz, Karel; Schulzová, Věra; Kuchtova, Perla; Tomasek, Jaroslav

    2010-01-01

    Black polyethylene mulch is used for weed control in a range of crops under the organic system. The use of black polypropylene mulch is usually restricted to perennial crops. The trial was conducted at Experimental station of Department of Crop Production of the Czech University of Life Science Prague-Uhříněves in Czech Republic. For the experiments were used black polypropylene woven mulch (comparison wit bare soil), two varieties of early potatoes Finka and Katka. Black polypropylene textil...

  19. 寒地农田黑土酶活性的季节动态%Seasonal Dynamic of Soil Enzyme Activity in Cold Black Farmland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳中辉; 张兴义; 田宇; 隋跃宇; 陈渊; 刘宝林

    2011-01-01

    Seasonal dynamic of catalase, phosphatase, urease, invertase activity of four black farmland areas with maize growth in Shuangcheng City in Heilongjiang Province was analyzed. The results showed that four enzyme activities differed during maize growth. Catalase activity increased firstly and then reduced steady, and finally increased, its peak appeared in the tasseling-silking stage. Phosphatase, urease activity increased at first, then decreased, its peak value was in the jointing stage. Invertase activity in maize growth period showed a downward trend, while enzyme activity was the highest in the seedling stage. Correlation analysis results indicated that there were no significant correlations between four enzyme activities and soil carbon nitrogen nutrient.%为了探讨寒地农田黑土酶活性在作物生育期内的变化规律,在黑龙江省双城市选择了4个玉米生长的黑土样地,对其过氧化氢酶、磷酸酶、脲酶、转化酶的季节动态进行研究.结果表明,过氧化氢酶活性在生长季内呈现先降低后升高再降低的趋势,其峰值出现在抽雄吐丝期;磷酸酶、脲酶活性先升高后降低,峰值出现在拔节期;转化酶活性在玉米生育期内都呈现下降的趋势,酶活性在苗期最高.相关分析结果表明,4种酶活性和土壤碳氮的转化没有显著的相关性.

  20. Testing of Cotton Fiber Length

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘若华; 李汝勤

    2001-01-01

    To understand the influences of actual sampling conditions on cotton fiber length testing, this article presents a theoretic study on the distributions and fibrogram of the sample taken out by sampler from ideal sliver at a certain angle. From the distributions expression it can be found that the size of the sampler and the sampling angle are important factors which affect sampling, but if the sampling width is narrow enough, the influence of the sampling angle on the distributions and fibrogram is small enough to be omitted. This is an important conclusion for sampling, in light of this, some suggestions for designing new type sampler are put forward.