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Sample records for black cherry trees

  1. Acoustic tomography for decay detection in black cherry trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiping Wang; Jan Wiedenbeck; Shanqing Liang

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the potential of using acoustic tomography for detecting internal decay in high-value hardwood trees in the forest. Twelve black cherry (Prunus serotina) trees that had a wide range of physical characteristics were tested in a stand of second-growth hardwoods in Kane, PA, using a PiCUS Sonic Tomograph tool. The trees were felled after the field...

  2. Analysis of Wave Velocity Patterns in Black Cherry Trees and its Effect on Internal Decay Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guanghui Li; Xiping Wang; Jan Wiedenbeck; Robert J. Ross

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we examined stress wave velocity patterns in the cross sections of black cherry trees, developed analytical models of stress wave velocity in sound healthy trees, and then tested the effectiveness of the models as a tool for tree decay diagnosis. Acoustic tomography data of the tree cross sections were collected from 12 black cherry trees at a production...

  3. Ozone exposure, uptake, and response of different-sized black cherry trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd S. Frederickson; John M. Skelly; Kim C. Steiner; Thomas E. Kolb

    1996-01-01

    Differences in exposure, uptake and relative sensitivity to ozone between seedling, sapling, and canopy black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) trees were characterized during two growing seasons in north central Pennsylvania. Open-grown trees of all sizes received a similar amount of ozone exposure. Seedlings had greater foliar ozone injury, expressed...

  4. Response to crop-tree release by 7-year-old stems of yellow-poplar and black cherry

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.R. Jr. Trimble; G.R. Jr. Trimble

    1973-01-01

    Five years after crop-tree release of yellow-poplar and black cherry sterns in a 7-year-old stand of Appalachian hardwoods, measurements indicated that released trees were but slightly superior to control trees in height, diameter, and crown position. Sprout regrowth of cut tree stems and grapevines had largely nullified the effects of release. Indications are that for...

  5. Crop-tree release increases growth of 12-year-old yellow-poplar and black cherry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil I. Lamson; H. Clay. Smith; H. Clay. Smith

    1989-01-01

    Precommercial thinning was done in a 12-year-old Appalachian hardwood sapling stand in West Virginia. Two crop-tree release techniques were used--crown touching and crown touching plus 5 feet. Results indicated that both treatments significantly increased 5-year d.b.h. growth for released yellow-poplar and black cherry crop trees. Although there was a major increase in...

  6. Seasonal distributions of the western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) among host and nonhost fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Wee L

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal distributions of the western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), in sweet cherry (Prunus avium (L.) L.) (major host), black hawthorn (occasional developmental host) (Crataegus douglasii Lindley), and other trees were determined in a ponderosa pine ecosystem in Washington state, USA. The hypothesis that most fly dispersal from cherry trees occurs after fruit senesce or drop was tested, with emphasis on movement to black hawthorn trees. Sweet cherry fruit developed earlier than black hawthorn, bitter cherry (common host), choke cherry, and apple fruit. Flies were usually captured first in sweet cherry trees but were caught in bitter cherry and other trees throughout the season. Peak fly capture periods in sweet cherry began around the same time or slightly earlier than in other trees. However, peak fly capture periods in black hawthorn and other nonsweet cherry trees continued after peak periods in sweet cherry ended, or relative fly numbers within sweet cherry declined more quickly than those within other trees. Larvae were reared from sweet and bitter cherry but not black hawthorn fruit. Results provide partial support for the hypothesis in that although R. indifferens commonly disperses from sweet cherry trees with fruit, it could disperse more, or more flies are retained in nonsweet cherry trees after than before sweet cherries drop. This could allow opportunities for the flies to use other fruit for larval development. Although R. indifferens infestation in black hawthorn was not detected, early season fly dispersal to this and other trees and fly presence in bitter cherry could make fly management in sweet cherry difficult. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America 2014. This work is written by a US Government employee and is in the public domain in the US.

  7. Adaptability of black walnut, black cherry, and Northern red oak to Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip M. McDonald

    1987-01-01

    When planted in sheltered sites in northern California, only 49% of black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) and 58% of black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) survived for 15 years, and 20% of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) survived for 10 years. The black walnut trees averaged 0.6 inches diameter at breast...

  8. Occurrence of gum spots in black cherry after partial harvest cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles O. Rexrode; H. Clay Smith; H. Clay Smith

    1990-01-01

    Bark beetles, primarily the bark beetle Phlosotribus liminori (Harris), are the major cause of gum spots in sawtimber-size black cherry Prunus serotina Ehrh. Approximately 90 percent of all gum spots in the bole sections are caused by bark beetles. Gum spots were studied in 95 black cherry trees near Parsons, West Virginia. Over 50 percent of the bark beetle-caused gum...

  9. Identification of Cherry green ring mottle virus on Sweet Cherry Trees in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Sook Cho

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During the 2012 growing season, 154 leaf samples were collected from sweet cherry trees in Hwaseong, Pyeongtaek, Gyeongju, Kimcheon, Daegu, Yeongju and Eumseong and tested for the presence of Cherry green ring mottle virus (CGRMV. PCR products of the expected size (807 bp were obtained from 6 samples. The PCR products were cloned and sequenced. The nucleotide sequences of the clones showed over 88% identities to published coat protein sequences of CGRMV isolates in the GenBank database. The sequences of CGRMV isolates, CGR-KO 1−6 shared 98.8 to 99.8% nucleotide and 99.6 to 100% amino acid similarities. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the Korean CGRMV isolates belong to the group II of CGRMV coat protein genes. The CGRMV infected sweet cherry trees were also tested for Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV, Apple mosaic virus (ApMV, Cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus (CNRMV, Cherry mottle leaf virus (CMLV, Cherry rasp leaf virus (CRLV, Cherry leafroll virus (CLRV, Cherry virus A (CVA, Little cherry virus 1 (LChV1, Prune dwarf virus (PDV and Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV by RT-PCR. All of the tested trees were also infected with ACLSV.

  10. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of black cherry for flowering control and insect resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying Wang; Paula M. Pijut

    2014-01-01

    Black cherry is one of the most valuable hardwood species for cabinetry, furniture, and veneer. The goal of this study was to develop transgenic black cherry plants with reproductive sterility and enhanced insect resistance. Black cherry TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (PsTFL1) was overexpressed under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter in black cherry via

  11. First Report of Cherry virus A in Sweet Cherry Trees in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plants in the genus Prunus of the family Rosaceae are important ornamental and fruit trees in China (1). In June 2007, sweet cherry (Prunus avium) trees with mottling and mosaic symptoms were observed in a private garden near Kunming, Yunnan Province. Twenty-four samples were then collected from swe...

  12. Agrobacterium-medicated transformation of mature Prunus serotina (black cherry) and regeneration of trangenic shoots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaomei Liu; Paula Pijut

    2010-01-01

    A protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation was developed for in vitro leaf explants of an elite, mature Prunus serotina tree. Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 harboring an RNAi plasmid with the black cherry AGAMOUS (AG) gene was used. Bacteria were induced...

  13. SAP FLOW RESPONSE OF CHERRY TREES TO WEATHER CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Á. JUHÁSZ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Sap flow response of cherry trees to weather condition. Themain goal of our study is to measure water-demand of cherry trees budded ontodifferent rootstocks by sapflow equipment and to study the sap flow response to themeteorological factors. The investigations are carried out in Soroksár in Hungary at‘Rita’ sweet cherry orchard. The pattern of sapflow was analyzed in relation ofsolar radiation, vapour pressure deficit and air temperature. Between solar radiationand sap flow was found a parabolic relation, daily pattern of sapflow is in closerelation (cubic also to vapour pressure deficit. No significant relationship existedbetween sapflow and air temperature. The sapflow performance of sweet cherrytrees on different rootstocks showed typical daily characters.

  14. Nutrient removal by apple, pear and cherry nursery trees

    OpenAIRE

    Giovambattista Sorrenti; Maurizio Quartieri; Silvia Salvi; Moreno Toselli

    2017-01-01

    Given that nursery is a peculiar environment, the amount of nutrients removed by nursery trees represents a fundamental acquisition to optimise fertilisation strategies, with economic and environmental implications. In this context, we determined nutrient removal by apple, pear and cherry nursery trees at the end of the nursery growing cycle. We randomly removed 5 leafless apple (Golden Delicious/EMLA M9; density of 30,000 trees ha–1), pear (Santa Maria/Adams; density of 30,000 trees ha–1) an...

  15. Nutrient removal by apple, pear and cherry nursery trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovambattista Sorrenti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Given that nursery is a peculiar environment, the amount of nutrients removed by nursery trees represents a fundamental acquisition to optimise fertilisation strategies, with economic and environmental implications. In this context, we determined nutrient removal by apple, pear and cherry nursery trees at the end of the nursery growing cycle. We randomly removed 5 leafless apple (Golden Delicious/EMLA M9; density of 30,000 trees ha–1, pear (Santa Maria/Adams; density of 30,000 trees ha–1 and cherry (AlexTM/Gisela 6®; density of 40,000 trees ha–1 trees from a commercial nursery. Trees were divided into roots (below the root collar, rootstock (above-ground wood between root collar and grafting point and variety (1-year-old wood above the grafting point. For each organ we determined biomass, macro- (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, and micro- (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, and B nutrient concentration. Pear trees were the most developed (650 g (dw tree–1, equal to 1.75 and 2.78 folds than apple and cherry trees, respectively whereas, independently of the species, variety mostly contributed (>50% to the total tree biomass, followed by roots and then above-ground rootstock. However, the dry biomass and nutrient amount measured in rootstocks (including roots represent the cumulative amount of 2 and 3 seasons, for Gisela® 6 (tissue culture and pome fruit species (generated by mound layering, respectively. Macro and micronutrients were mostly concentrated in roots, followed by variety and rootstock, irrespective of the species. Independently of the tissue, macronutrients concentration hierarchy was N>Ca>K> P>Mg>S. Removed N by whole tree accounted for 6.58, 3.53 and 2.49 g tree–1 for pear, apple and cherry, respectively, corresponding to almost 200, 107 and 100 kg N ha–1, respectively. High amounts of K and Ca were used by pear (130-140 kg ha–1 and apple trees (~50 and 130 kg ha–1 of K and Ca, respectively, while ~25 kg K ha–1 and 55 kg Ca ha–1 were

  16. Nutraceutical Value of Black Cherry Prunus serotina Ehrh. Fruits: Antioxidant and Antihypertensive Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Luna-Vázquez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In Mexico black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh. fruits are consumed fresh, dried or prepared in jam. Considering the evidence that has linked intake of fruits and vegetables rich in polyphenols to cardiovascular risk reduction, the aim of this study was to characterize the phenolic profile of black cherry fruits and to determine their antioxidant, vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effects. The proximate composition and mineral contents of these fruits were also assessed. Black cherry fruits possess a high content of phenolic compounds and display a significant antioxidant capacity. High-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis indicated that hyperoside, anthocyanins and chlorogenic acid were the main phenolic compounds found in these fruits. The black cherry aqueous extract elicited a concentration-dependent relaxation of aortic rings and induced a significant reduction on systolic blood pressure in L-NAME induced hypertensive rats after four weeks of treatment. Proximate analysis showed that black cherry fruits have high sugar, protein, and potassium contents. The results derived from this study indicate that black cherry fruits contain phenolic compounds which elicit significant antioxidant and antihypertensive effects. These findings suggest that these fruits might be considered as functional foods useful for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  17. Obtaining cherry and apple tree radiomutants by irradiation of grafts in gamma cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chvojka, L.; Fridrich, A.

    1980-01-01

    The aim of the study was to obtain dwarf mutants of cherry and apple trees. Two methods of irradiation were used: a) winter grafts were irradiated with 60 Co (4-5 kR) and grafted in the crowns of adult trees or of two-year-old rootstocks; b) summer buds on mature annual shots were irradiated with 2-3 kR and grafted on two-year-old rootstocks. Thus the clones of dwarf cherry trees (cv. Napoleon's and Techlovicka) were obtained which were further tested for fruit-bearing in experimental plantations. Colour mutants of apple tree (cv. Champion) with yellow and red fruits were also obtained as well as dwarf types of trees. (author)

  18. Improvement of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and rooting of black cherry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying Wang; Paula M. Pijut

    2014-01-01

    An improved protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of an elite, mature black cherry genotype was developed. To increase transformation efficiency, vacuum infiltration, sonication, and a combination of the two treatments were applied during the cocultivation of leaf explants with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105...

  19. Determination of feed value of cherry, apricot and almond tree ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, almond tree leaves could be used with forage in ruminant diets to reduce cost of animals feed requirements. Overall, it seemed that the tree leaves used in this study, had a higher nutritive value in ruminant's nutrition, however more experiments are needed for an accurate determination of nutritional values of ...

  20. Identification of chilling and heat requirements of cherry trees--a statistical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luedeling, Eike; Kunz, Achim; Blanke, Michael M

    2013-09-01

    Most trees from temperate climates require the accumulation of winter chill and subsequent heat during their dormant phase to resume growth and initiate flowering in the following spring. Global warming could reduce chill and hence hamper the cultivation of high-chill species such as cherries. Yet determining chilling and heat requirements requires large-scale controlled-forcing experiments, and estimates are thus often unavailable. Where long-term phenology datasets exist, partial least squares (PLS) regression can be used as an alternative, to determine climatic requirements statistically. Bloom dates of cherry cv. 'Schneiders späte Knorpelkirsche' trees in Klein-Altendorf, Germany, from 24 growing seasons were correlated with 11-day running means of daily mean temperature. Based on the output of the PLS regression, five candidate chilling periods ranging in length from 17 to 102 days, and one forcing phase of 66 days were delineated. Among three common chill models used to quantify chill, the Dynamic Model showed the lowest variation in chill, indicating that it may be more accurate than the Utah and Chilling Hours Models. Based on the longest candidate chilling phase with the earliest starting date, cv. 'Schneiders späte Knorpelkirsche' cherries at Bonn exhibited a chilling requirement of 68.6 ± 5.7 chill portions (or 1,375 ± 178 chilling hours or 1,410 ± 238 Utah chill units) and a heat requirement of 3,473 ± 1,236 growing degree hours. Closer investigation of the distinct chilling phases detected by PLS regression could contribute to our understanding of dormancy processes and thus help fruit and nut growers identify suitable tree cultivars for a future in which static climatic conditions can no longer be assumed. All procedures used in this study were bundled in an R package ('chillR') and are provided as Supplementary materials. The procedure was also applied to leaf emergence dates of walnut (cv. 'Payne') at Davis, California.

  1. The effect of the time of budding of mahaleb cherry (Prunus mahaleb L. seedlings on the quality of maiden trees of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. 'Łutówka'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Baryła

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted at the Felin Experi- mental Farm, belonging to the University of Life Sciences in Lublin, during the period 2005–2008. The experimental material consisted of maiden trees of sour cherry 'Łutówka' budded on seedlings of mahaleb cherry (Prunus mahaleb L. of unknown origin. The experiment evaluated the effect of four budding times: 15 July, 1 August, 15 August, and 1 September, on the quality of cherry trees in a nursery. The mean for the three years showed that budding time did not have a significant effect on the quality of cherry trees in the nursery. It was observed that the budding of mahaleb cherry performed on the two August dates (1st and 15th had a more beneficial effect on the growth and branching of trees than the budding done on 15 July and 1 September. The quality of maiden cherry trees 'Łutówka' in the nursery was primarily dependent on weather conditions in a given growing season, which is evidenced by the significant differences between production cycles, high variation in the quantitative results in individual years, and the absence of significant differences in the mean for 2006–2008.

  2. Promotion of adventitious root formation of difficult-to-root hardwood tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula M. Pijut; Keith E. Woeste; Charles H. Michler

    2011-01-01

    North American hardwood tree species, such as alder (Alnus spp.), ash (Fraxinus spp.), basswood (Tilia spp.), beech (Fagus spp.), birch (Betula spp.), black cherry (Prunus seratina), black walnut (Juglans nigra), black willow (...

  3. Changes in fine-root production, phenology and spatial distribution in response to N application in irrigated sweet cherry trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artacho, Pamela; Bonomelli, Claudia

    2016-05-01

    Factors regulating fine-root growth are poorly understood, particularly in fruit tree species. In this context, the effects of N addition on the temporal and spatial distribution of fine-root growth and on the fine-root turnover were assessed in irrigated sweet cherry trees. The influence of other exogenous and endogenous factors was also examined. The rhizotron technique was used to measure the length-based fine-root growth in trees fertilized at two N rates (0 and 60 kg ha(-1)), and the above-ground growth, leaf net assimilation, and air and soil variables were simultaneously monitored. N fertilization exerted a basal effect throughout the season, changing the magnitude, temporal patterns and spatial distribution of fine-root production and mortality. Specifically, N addition enhanced the total fine-root production by increasing rates and extending the production period. On average, N-fertilized trees had a length-based production that was 110-180% higher than in control trees, depending on growing season. Mortality was proportional to production, but turnover rates were inconsistently affected. Root production and mortality was homogeneously distributed in the soil profile of N-fertilized trees while control trees had 70-80% of the total fine-root production and mortality concentrated below 50 cm depth. Root mortality rates were associated with soil temperature and water content. In contrast, root production rates were primarily under endogenous control, specifically through source-sink relationships, which in turn were affected by N supply through changes in leaf photosynthetic level. Therefore, exogenous and endogenous factors interacted to control the fine-root dynamics of irrigated sweet cherry trees. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Influence of the date of cut of rootstocks to the stub on growth of maider sour cherry trees cv. 'Łutówka'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Wociór

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Over a three-year period (1997-1999 investigations were conducted on the effect of 6 date of cut to the stub on tree trunk diameter, height and branching of sour cherry maidens in the nursery.On the Prunus mahaleb seedling rootstock were found no significant influen ce of the date between January, 15 - March, 30 of cut to the stub on growth of sour cherry maidens cv. ´Łutówka' (tree trunk diameter and branching and efficiency of nursery. The date of cutting in 15 April decreased trunk diameter and percent of the first quality trees.

  5. Comparative Analysis of the Quality of Fruit, Fresh and Processed as Compote, of certain Cherry Tree Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Caplan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The five cherry tree cultivars presented in this paper (Van, Stela, Simbol, Boambe de Cotnari, Gesmerdorf are those that occupy most of the surface cultivated with this species at the Research Station for Fruit Growing Constanta. The observations and measurements concerning the biometrical and organoleptic characteristics of fresh fruit (size, aspect, firmness, taste, stone percentage, as well as the biochemical features (soluble dry substance, soluble carbohydrates, revealed the superiority of the Van and Simbol cultivars. Processed as compote, all the cultivars, apart from Stela, displayed a very good processing capacity.

  6. The occurrence of PPV in cherry trees in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navrátil, M.; Šafářová, D.; Fanigliulo, A.; Comes, S.; Petrzik, Karel; Karešová, R.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 657, - (2004), 237-244 ISSN 0567-7572 R&D Projects: GA MZe(CZ) NAZV QD1407 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5051902 Keywords : Plum pox virus * Prunus avium * sweet cherry cultivars * ELISA * RT-PCR Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  7. Black smokers and the Tree of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linich, Michael

    The molecular biology revolution has turned the classification of life on its head. Is Whittaker's five-kingdom scheme for the classification of living things no longer relevant to life science education? Coupled with this is the discovery that most microscopic life cannot yet be brought into culture. One of the key organisms making this knowledge possible is Methanococcus jannishi a microorganism found in black smokers. This workshop presents the development of the Universal Tree of Life in a historical context and then links together major concepts in the New South Wales senior science programs of Earth and Environmental Science and Biology by examining the biological and geological aspects of changes to black smokers over geological time.

  8. Evaluation of ozone injury on foliage of black cherry (Prunus serotina) and tall milkweed (Asclepias exaltata) in Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappelka, A; Renfro, J; Somers, G; Nash, B

    1997-01-01

    The incidence and severity of visible foliar ozone injury on black cherry (Prunus serotina) seedlings and saplings and tall milkweed (Asclepias exaltata) plants in Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GRSM) were determined by surveys along selected trails conducted during late summer 1992. The incidence (% injured plants) of ozone injury on black cherry was 47% and the percent injured leaves/injured plant and average leaf area injured were 43 and 6%, respectively. Maximum severity (avg. leaf area of the most severely injured leaf) was 12%. Black cherry seedlings and saplings exhibiting ozone injury were taller than non-injured plants. When insect feeding was present, it occurred 96% of the time on plants with ozone injury. Significantly more injury (p=0.007) on black cherry (% injured leaves/injured black cherry) occurred in the NW section of GRSM compared with the other Park sections. Regression analyses showed no relationships in ozone injury with respect to aspect, slope or elevation. Tall milkweed was evaluated twice during August for ozone injury. The incidence (% injured plants) of ozone injury was 74 and 79% for the first and second survey, respectively. The percentage of injured leaves per plant from the first to second survey was 63 to 79%, respectively. Tall milkweeds showing ozone injury were taller than the non-injured plants. The percentage of insect-damaged plants was 50% among plants without ozone injury and 60% among ozone-injured plants. Non-injured tall milkweed had fewer flowers and/or pods than the injured plants. Mean leaf area injured increased over time, and mean maximum leaf area injured increased from 8 to 11% during the same period. Regression analyses showed no differences in ozone injury regarding aspect, slope or elevation. Our findings indicate that ozone injury is widespread throughout the Park on sensitive vegetation.

  9. Effects of herbicide release on the growth of 8- to 12-year-old hardwood trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.W. Wendel; Neil I. Lamson; Neil I. Lamson

    1987-01-01

    In 8- to 12-year-old Appalachian hardwood stands, crop trees were released by stem injecting competing trees with a 20 percent aqueous solution of glyphosate. Species released were black cherry, red oak, and sugar maple. Release treatments were (a) injection of all trees within a 5-foot radius of the crop tree bole and (b) injections of all trees whose crown touched...

  10. Appalachian hardwood stump sprouts are potential sawlog crop trees. Research note NE-299. [Oak, maple, linden, cherry trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanson, N.I.

    1976-01-01

    Dbh and height of 8- and 12-year-old coppice shoots and the number of live shoots were recorded for 736 stumps at least 12 inches in diameter of Liriodendron tulipifera, Prunus serotina, Quercus rubra, Acer rubrum, and Tilia americana in north-central West Virgina. Of the 8-year-old shoots, T. americana had the greatest number of live stems/stump (16.8) and the greatest number of potential crop trees (dominant or co-dominant shoots attached to the stump not more than 6 inches above the ground), averaging 2.5 stems/stump. The average numbers of potential crop trees/stump were similar at 8 and 12 year. At 12 years, at least 88% of stumps of each species had at least one stem of groundline origin with no forks below 25 feet were 84% for L. tulipifera, 59% for Q rubra, 73% for A. rubrum, and 65% for P. Serotina.

  11. Above-ground woody biomass allocation and within tree carbon and nutrient distribution of wild cherry (Prunus avium L. – a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Morhart

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The global search for new ways to sequester carbon has already reached agricultural lands. Such land constitutes a major potential carbon sink. The production of high value timber within agroforestry systems can facilitate an in-situ carbon storage function. This is followed by a potential long term ex- situ carbon sinkwithin long lasting products such as veneer and furniture. For this purpose wild cherry (Prunus avium L. is an interesting option for middle Europe, yielding high prices on the timber market. Methods: A total number of 39 wild cherry were sampled in 2012 and 2013 to assess the leafless above ground biomass. The complete trees including stem and branches were separated into 1 cm diameter classes. Wood and bark from sub-samples were analysed separately and nutrient content was derived. Models for biomass estimation were constructed for all tree compartments. Results: The smallest diameter classes possess the highest proportion of bark due to smaller cross sectional area. Tree boles with a greater amount of stem wood above 10 cm in diameter will have a more constant bark proportion. Total branch bark proportion also remains relatively constant above d1.3m measurements of 8 cm. A balance is evident between the production of new branches with a low diameter and high bark proportion offset by the thickening and a relative reduction in bark proportion in larger branches. The results show that a single tree with an age of 17 and 18 years can store up to 85 kg of carbon within the aboveground biomass portion, an amount that will increase as the tree matures. Branches display greater nutrient content than stem sections per volume unit which can be attributed to a greater bark proportion. Conclusions: Using the derived models the carbon and the nutrient content of above-ground woody biomass of whole trees can be calculated. Suggested values for carbon with other major and minor nutrients held within relatively immature trees

  12. Bioecology of tulip trees at the Ajara Black Sea coast

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    Tamara Tskhoidze

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Tulip trees (Liriodendron tulipifera L. andLiriodendron chinense(Hemsl. Sarg. grow well along the Batumi coastline, develop, bloom, produce fruit, give natural revival. There they already have blooming and fruiting self-seeds. Chinese tulip poplar sometimes reaches here bigger sizes than in natural habitat. It resists winter temperatures very well. Both species can be jointly used along the Caucasian Black Sea coast as ornamental trees because there are the most favorable conditions for their vegetation. Due the great resistance American tulip trees can grow along the coastline as well as inland of Ajara.

  13. The Hardwood Tree Improvement and Regeneration Center: its strategic plans for sustaining the hardwood resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles H. Michler; Michael J. Bosela; Paula M. Pijut; Keith E. Woeste

    2003-01-01

    A regional center for hardwood tree improvement, genomics, and regeneration research, development and technology transfer will focus on black walnut, black cherry, northern red oak and, in the future, on other fine hardwoods as the effort is expanded. The Hardwood Tree Improvement and Regeneration Center (HTIRC) will use molecular genetics and genomics along with...

  14. Urban trees and forests of the Chicago region

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Robert E. III Hoehn; Allison R. Bodine; Daniel E. Crane; John F. Dwyer; Veta Bonnewell; Gary Watson

    2013-01-01

    An analysis of trees in the Chicago region of Illinois reveals that this area has about 157,142,000 trees with tree and shrub canopy that covers 21.0 percent of the region. The most common tree species are European buckthorn, green ash, boxelder, black cherry, and American elm. Trees in the Chicago region currently store about 16.9 million tons of carbon (61.9 million...

  15. Jerusalem cherry poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002871.htm Jerusalem cherry poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The Jerusalem cherry is a plant that belongs to the ...

  16. Mountain pine beetle-killed trees as snags in Black Hills ponderosa pine stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. M. Schmid; S. A. Mata; W. C. Schaupp

    2009-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle-killed ponderosa pine trees in three stands of different stocking levels near Bear Mountain in the Black Hills National Forest were surveyed over a 5-year period to determine how long they persisted as unbroken snags. Rate of breakage varied during the first 5 years after MPB infestation: only one tree broke during the first 2 years in the three...

  17. Relationship between fruit weight and the fruit-to-leaf area ratio, at the spur and whole-tree level, for three sweet cherry varieties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cittadini, E.D.; Ridder, de N.; Peri, P.L.; Keulen, van H.

    2008-01-01

    Fruit weight is the main quality parameter of sweet cherries and leaf area/fruit is the most important characteristic influencing fruit weight. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between Mean Fruit Weight (MFW) and the Fruit Number to Leaf Area Ratio (FNLAR) for `Bing¿,

  18. Water use in forest canopy black cherry trees and its relationship to leaf gas exchange and environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. J. Joyce; K. C. Steiner; J. M. Skelly

    1996-01-01

    Models of canopy gas exchange are needed to connect leaf-level measurement to higher scales. Because of the correspondence between leaf gas exchange and water use, it may be possible to predict variation in leaf gas exchange at the canopy level by monitoring rates of branch water use.

  19. Physiological and foliar symptom response of Prunus serotina, Fraxinus americana and Acer rubrum canopy trees to ozone under differing site conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Schaub; J.M. Skelly; J.W. Zhang; J.A. Ferdinand; J.E. Savage; R.E. Stevenson; D.D. Davis; K.C. Steiner

    2005-01-01

    The crowns of five canopy dominant black cherry ( Prunus serotina Ehrh.), five white ash ( Fraxinus americana L.), and six red maple ( Acer rubrum L.) trees on naturally differing environmental conditions were accessed with scaffold towers within a mixed hardwood forest stand in central Pennsylvania....

  20. Fungi associated with black mould on baobab trees in southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruywagen, Elsie M; Crous, Pedro W; Roux, Jolanda; Slippers, Bernard; Wingfield, Michael J

    2015-07-01

    There have been numerous reports in the scientific and popular literature suggesting that African baobab (Adansonia digitata) trees are dying, with symptoms including a black mould on their bark. The aim of this study was to determine the identity of the fungi causing this black mould and to consider whether they might be affecting the health of trees. The fungi were identified by sequencing directly from mycelium on the infected tissue as well as from cultures on agar. Sequence data for the ITS region of the rDNA resulted in the identification of four fungi including Aureobasidium pullulans, Toxicocladosporium irritans and a new species of Rachicladosporium described here as Rachicladosporium africanum. A single isolate of an unknown Cladosporium sp. was also found. These fungi, referred to here as black mould, are not true sooty mould fungi and they were shown to penetrate below the bark of infected tissue, causing a distinct host reaction. Although infections can lead to dieback of small twigs on severely infected branches, the mould was not found to kill trees.

  1. Analysis of Hydraulic Conductance Components in Field Grown, Mature Sweet Cherry Trees Análisis de los Componentes de Conductancia Hidráulica en Árboles Maduros de Cerezo Dulce en Condiciones de Campo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Oyarzún

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available As a necessary step towards understanding soil water extraction and plant water relationships, the components of hydraulic conductance (K of mature sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. trees were evaluated in situ based on a Ohm´s law analog method. In June 2004, K was determined for 10-yr-old ‘Bing’/‘Gisela® 5’ trees, from simultaneous measurements of whole canopy gas exchange and leaf (sunlit and shaded and stem water potentials (Ψ. Leaf water potential of sunlit leaves was lower than shaded leaves, reaching minimum values of ca. -2.3 MPa around 14:00 h (solar time. Average total hydraulic conductance was 60 ± 6 mmol s-1 MPa-1, presenting a slight decreasing trend as the season progressed. The analysis of tree K components showed that it was higher on the stem-leaf pathway (150 ± 50 mmol s-1 MPa-1, compared to the root-stem component (100 ± 20 mmol s-1 MPa-1, which is in agreement with literature reports for other fruit trees. A weak hysteresis pattern in the daily relationship between whole-canopy transpiration (weighted sunlit and shaded leaves vs. Ψ was observed, suggesting that water storage within the tree is not a significant component of sweet cherry water balance.Como un paso necesario para la comprensión de la extracción de agua desde el suelo y las relaciones suelo-agua-planta, los componentes de la conductancia hidráulica (K en árboles adultos de cerezo (Prunus avium L. fue evaluada in situ con un método basado en una analogía de la Ley de Ohm. En Junio de 2004, K fue determinada para árboles ‘Bing’/‘Gisela® 5’ de 10 años de edad, a partir de mediciones simultáneas de intercambio gaseoso del follaje en forma integrada y potenciales hídricos (Ψ de hojas individuales (soleadas y sombreadas y del xilema. Los potenciales hídricos de las hojas soleadas fueron menores que los de las hojas sombreadas, alcanzando valores mínimos de ca. -2.3 MPa alrededor de 14:00 h (hora solar. La conductancia hidr

  2. Whole-Genome Characterization of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus Infecting Sweet Cherry in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiawei; Zhai, Ying; Zhu, Dongzi; Liu, Weizhen; Pappu, Hanu R; Liu, Qingzhong

    2018-03-01

    Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) causes yield loss in most cultivated stone fruits, including sweet cherry. Using a small RNA deep-sequencing approach combined with end-genome sequence cloning, we identified the complete genomes of all three PNRSV strands from PNRSV-infected sweet cherry trees and compared them with those of two previously reported isolates. Copyright © 2018 Wang et al.

  3. Radial Growth Response of Black Spruce Stands Ten Years after Experimental Shelterwoods and Seed-Tree Cuttings in Boreal Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Montoro Girona

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Partial cutting is thought to be an alternative to achieve sustainable management in boreal forests. However, the effects of intermediate harvest intensity (45%–80% on growth remain unknown in black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill. B.S.P. stands, one of the most widely distributed boreal species with great commercial interest. In this study, we analysed the effect of three experimental shelterwood and one seed-tree treatments on tree radial growth in even-aged black spruce stands, 10 years after intervention. Our results show that radial growth response 8–10 years after cutting was 41% to 62% higher than in untreated plots, with stand structure, treatment, tree position relative to skidding trails, growth before cutting and time having significant interactions. The stand structure conditioned tree growth after cutting, being doubled in younger and denser stands. Tree spatial position had a pronounced effect on radial growth; trees at the edge of the skidding trails showed twice the increase in growth compared to interior trees. Dominant trees before cutting located close to the skidding trails manifested the highest growth response after cutting. This research suggests that the studied treatments are effective to enhance radial wood production of black spruce especially in younger stands, and that the edge effect must be considered in silvicultural management planning.

  4. De novo transcriptome assembly of a sour cherry cultivar, Schattenmorelle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeonhwa Jo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus in the genus Prunus in the family Rosaceae is one of the most popular stone fruit trees worldwide. Of known sour cherry cultivars, the Schattenmorelle is a famous old sour cherry with a high amount of fruit production. The Schattenmorelle was selected before 1650 and described in the 1800s. This cultivar was named after gardens of the Chateau de Moreille in which the cultivar was initially found. In order to identify new genes and to develop genetic markers for sour cherry, we performed a transcriptome analysis of a sour cherry. We selected the cultivar Schattenmorelle, which is among commercially important cultivars in Europe and North America. We obtained 2.05 GB raw data from the Schattenmorelle (NCBI accession number: SRX1187170. De novo transcriptome assembly using Trinity identified 61,053 transcripts in which N50 was 611 bp. Next, we identified 25,585 protein coding sequences using TransDecoder. The identified proteins were blasted against NCBI's non-redundant database for annotation. Based on blast search, we taxonomically classified the obtained sequences. As a result, we provide the transcriptome of sour cherry cultivar Schattenmorelle using next generation sequencing.

  5. Automated Detection of Branch Shaking Locations for Robotic Cherry Harvesting Using Machine Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suraj Amatya

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Automation in cherry harvesting is essential to reduce the demand for seasonal labor for cherry picking and reduce the cost of production. The mechanical shaking of tree branches is one of the widely studied and used techniques for harvesting small tree fruit crops like cherries. To automate the branch shaking operation, different methods of detecting branches and cherries in full foliage canopies of the cherry tree have been developed previously. The next step in this process is the localization of shaking positions in the detected tree branches for mechanical shaking. In this study, a method of locating shaking positions for automated cherry harvesting was developed based on branch and cherry pixel locations determined using RGB images and 3D camera images. First, branch and cherry regions were located in 2D RGB images. Depth information provided by a 3D camera was then mapped on to the RGB images using a standard stereo calibration method. The overall root mean square error in estimating the distance to desired shaking points was 0.064 m. Cherry trees trained in two different canopy architectures, Y-trellis and vertical trellis systems, were used in this study. Harvesting testing was carried out by shaking tree branches at the locations selected by the algorithm. For the Y-trellis system, the maximum fruit removal efficiency of 92.9% was achieved using up to five shaking events per branch. However, maximum fruit removal efficiency for the vertical trellis system was 86.6% with up to four shakings per branch. However, it was found that only three shakings per branch would achieve a fruit removal percentage of 92.3% and 86.4% in Y and vertical trellis systems respectively.

  6. Post-storage cell wall metabolism in two sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars displaying different postharvest performance

    OpenAIRE

    Belge, Burcu; Comabella, Eva; Graell i Sarle, Jordi; Lara Ayala, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    The biochemical processes underlying firmness loss of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit are poorly understood.Studies on cell wall metabolism of sweet cherry have been generally undertaken during on-tree development or at harvest maturity, while published reports on postharvest changes are scarce and fragmentary. In this work, cell wall modifications after storage at 0 ºC were studied in two cherry cultivars ('Celeste' and 'Somerset') displaying different postharvest potential. Firmness wa...

  7. Drivers of variability in tree transpiration in a Boreal Black Spruce Forest Chronosequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angstmann, J. L.; Ewers, B. E.; Kwon, H.

    2009-12-01

    Boreal forests are of particular interest in climate change studies because of their large land area and ability to sequester and store carbon, which is controlled by water availability. Heterogeneity of these forests is predicted to increase with climate change through the impact of more frequent wildfires, warmer, longer growing seasons, and potential drainage of forested wetlands. This study aims to quantify the influence of stand age, drainage condition, and species on tree transpiration and its drivers in a central Canadian black spruce boreal forest. Heat dissipation sensors were installed in 113 trees (69 Picea mariana (black spruce), 25 Populus tremuloides (trembling aspen), and 19 Pinus banksiana (jack pine) at four stand ages, each containing a well- and poorly-drained site over three growing seasons (2006-2008). Sap flux per unit xylem area, JS, was expressed as transpiration per unit ground area, EC, and transpiration per unit leaf area, EL, using site- and species-specific allometry to obtain sapwood area (AS)and leaf area(AL)per unit ground area. Well-drained, younger Picea mariana daily JS was 47-64% greater than the older well-drained burn ages and younger poorly-drained stands were 64-68% greater than the two oldest poorly-drained stands. Daily EL in the well-drained Picea mariana stands was on average 12-33% higher in younger stand than in the two oldest stands whereas young, poorly-drained Picea mariana had 71% greater daily EL than the older stands. Well-drained Picea mariana trees had 52% higher daily EC than older trees and poorly-drained Picea mariana in the 1964 burn had 42-81% higher daily EC than the oldest stands. Populus tremuloides located in the two youngest stands had daily JS 38-58% greater rates than the 1930 burn, whereas daily EL and EC had no distint differences due to high interannual variability. Pinus banksiana experienced 21-33% greater daily JS in the 1989 burn than in the older 1964 burn for well- and poorly-drained sites

  8. Estimating population extinction thresholds with categorical classification trees for Louisiana black bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufenberg, Jared S; Clark, Joseph D; Chandler, Richard B

    2018-01-01

    Monitoring vulnerable species is critical for their conservation. Thresholds or tipping points are commonly used to indicate when populations become vulnerable to extinction and to trigger changes in conservation actions. However, quantitative methods to determine such thresholds have not been well explored. The Louisiana black bear (Ursus americanus luteolus) was removed from the list of threatened and endangered species under the U.S. Endangered Species Act in 2016 and our objectives were to determine the most appropriate parameters and thresholds for monitoring and management action. Capture mark recapture (CMR) data from 2006 to 2012 were used to estimate population parameters and variances. We used stochastic population simulations and conditional classification trees to identify demographic rates for monitoring that would be most indicative of heighted extinction risk. We then identified thresholds that would be reliable predictors of population viability. Conditional classification trees indicated that annual apparent survival rates for adult females averaged over 5 years ([Formula: see text]) was the best predictor of population persistence. Specifically, population persistence was estimated to be ≥95% over 100 years when [Formula: see text], suggesting that this statistic can be used as threshold to trigger management intervention. Our evaluation produced monitoring protocols that reliably predicted population persistence and was cost-effective. We conclude that population projections and conditional classification trees can be valuable tools for identifying extinction thresholds used in monitoring programs.

  9. Estimating population extinction thresholds with categorical classification trees for Louisiana black bears.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared S Laufenberg

    Full Text Available Monitoring vulnerable species is critical for their conservation. Thresholds or tipping points are commonly used to indicate when populations become vulnerable to extinction and to trigger changes in conservation actions. However, quantitative methods to determine such thresholds have not been well explored. The Louisiana black bear (Ursus americanus luteolus was removed from the list of threatened and endangered species under the U.S. Endangered Species Act in 2016 and our objectives were to determine the most appropriate parameters and thresholds for monitoring and management action. Capture mark recapture (CMR data from 2006 to 2012 were used to estimate population parameters and variances. We used stochastic population simulations and conditional classification trees to identify demographic rates for monitoring that would be most indicative of heighted extinction risk. We then identified thresholds that would be reliable predictors of population viability. Conditional classification trees indicated that annual apparent survival rates for adult females averaged over 5 years ([Formula: see text] was the best predictor of population persistence. Specifically, population persistence was estimated to be ≥95% over 100 years when [Formula: see text], suggesting that this statistic can be used as threshold to trigger management intervention. Our evaluation produced monitoring protocols that reliably predicted population persistence and was cost-effective. We conclude that population projections and conditional classification trees can be valuable tools for identifying extinction thresholds used in monitoring programs.

  10. Estimating population extinction thresholds with categorical classification trees for Louisiana black bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufenberg, Jared S.; Clark, Joseph D.; Chandler, Richard B.

    2018-01-01

    Monitoring vulnerable species is critical for their conservation. Thresholds or tipping points are commonly used to indicate when populations become vulnerable to extinction and to trigger changes in conservation actions. However, quantitative methods to determine such thresholds have not been well explored. The Louisiana black bear (Ursus americanus luteolus) was removed from the list of threatened and endangered species under the U.S. Endangered Species Act in 2016 and our objectives were to determine the most appropriate parameters and thresholds for monitoring and management action. Capture mark recapture (CMR) data from 2006 to 2012 were used to estimate population parameters and variances. We used stochastic population simulations and conditional classification trees to identify demographic rates for monitoring that would be most indicative of heighted extinction risk. We then identified thresholds that would be reliable predictors of population viability. Conditional classification trees indicated that annual apparent survival rates for adult females averaged over 5 years () was the best predictor of population persistence. Specifically, population persistence was estimated to be ≥95% over 100 years when , suggesting that this statistic can be used as threshold to trigger management intervention. Our evaluation produced monitoring protocols that reliably predicted population persistence and was cost-effective. We conclude that population projections and conditional classification trees can be valuable tools for identifying extinction thresholds used in monitoring programs.

  11. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Muntingia calabura L. (Singapore cherry) of. Elaeocarpaceae is a medium size handsome ever- green tree. Leaves are simple and alternate with sticky hairs. Flowers are bisexual, bear numerous stamens, white in colour and arise in the leaf axils. Fruit is a berry, edible with several small seeds embedded in a fleshy pulp ...

  12. Temperature profile in apricot tree canopies under the soil and climate conditions of the Romanian Black Sea Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paltineanu, Cristian; Septar, Leinar; Chitu, Emil

    2016-03-01

    The paper describes the temperature profiles determined by thermal imagery in apricot tree canopies under the semi-arid conditions of the Black Sea Coast in a chernozem of Dobrogea Region, Romania. The study analyzes the thermal vertical profile of apricot orchards for three representative cultivars during summertime. Measurements were done when the soil water content (SWC) was at field capacity (FC) within the rooting depth, after intense sprinkler irrigation applications. Canopy temperature was measured during clear sky days at three heights for both sides of the apricot trees, sunlit (south), and shaded (north). For the SWC studied, i.e., FC, canopy height did not induce a significant difference between the temperature of apricot tree leaves (Tc) and the ambient air temperature (Ta) within the entire vertical tree profile, and temperature measurements by thermal imagery can therefore be taken at any height on the tree crown leaves. Differences between sunlit and shaded sides of the canopy were significant. Because of these differences for Tc-Ta among the apricot tree cultivars studied, lower base lines (LBLs) should be determined for each cultivar separately. The use of thermal imagery technique under the conditions of semi-arid coastal areas with low range of vapor pressure deficit could be useful in irrigation scheduling of apricot trees. The paper discusses the implications of the data obtained in the experiment under the conditions of the coastal area of the Black Sea, Romania, and neighboring countries with similar climate, such as Bulgaria and Turkey.

  13. Main viruses in sweet cherry plantations of Central-Western Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pérez Sánchez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sweet cherry trees (Prunus avium L. are susceptible to a range of diseases, but there have been no studies to date about the viral infection of sweet cherry trees in Spain. To determine the phytosanitary status of Spanish sweet cherry plantations, the incidence and leaf symptoms induced by Prune dwarf (PDV, Prunus necrotic ringspot (PNRSV and Apple chlorotic leaf spot (ACLSV viruses were investigated during 2009. Young leaf samples were taken from 350 sweet cherry trees, corresponding to 17 cultivars, and were analysed by double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA. To associate the leaf symptoms with the virus, 50 mature leaves from each infected tree were visually inspected during the summer. The ELISA results revealed that 72 % of sweet cherry trees were infected by at least one of the viruses. PDV occurred in all sampled cultivars and presented the highest infection rate, followed by ACLSV and PNRSV. A high number of trees showed asymptomatic, in both single and mixed infections. The leaf symptoms associated with the viruses involved generalized chlorosis around the midvein (PDV, chlorotic and dark brown necrotic ringspots on both secondary veins and intervein regions (PNRSV, chlorotic and reddish necrotic ringspots (ACLSV and generalized interveinal chlorosis (PDV-PNRSV.

  14. Potential of Cherry Tree on Salt Phytoextraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Santos Souza

    2015-06-01

    macro and micronutrients. The conclusion was that the growth of A. acreana seedlings was limited with salinity increase, which also affected negatively the concentration of, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn and Zn, making it difficult to distribute P and K on the aerial part of A. acreana seedlings.

  15. Sour and duke cherry viruses in South-West Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo PÉREZ-SÁNCHEZ

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the phytosanitary status of sour and duke cherry genetic resources in the Iberian Peninsula, and the incidence and leaf symptoms induced by the Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV, Prune dwarf virus (PDV and Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV. Young leaf samples were taken from 204 sour and duke cherry trees belonging to ten cultivars, and were assayed by DAS-ELISA. Samples positive for any of the three viruses were also tested by RT-PCR. To associate the leaf symptoms with virus presence, 50 mature leaves from each infected tree were visually inspected during the summer. The ELISA and RT-PCR results indicated that 63% of the cherry trees were infected by at least one of these viruses. PNRSV occurred in all cultivars sampled and presented the highest infection rate (46%, followed by PDV (31% and ACLSV (6%. Many trees, (60 to 100%, were asymptomatic while harbouring single and mixed virus infections. The leaf symptoms associated with the viruses included chlorotic and dark brown necrotic ringspots on secondary veins and interveinal regions, for PNRSV, generalized chlorosis around the midveins, for PDV, chlorotic and reddish necrotic ringspots, for ACLSV, and generalized interveinal chlorosis, for mixed PNRSV and PDVinfections.

  16. Tree spatial structure, host composition and resource availability influence mirid density or black pod prevalence in cacao agroforests in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidoin, Cynthia; Babin, Régis; Bagny Beilhe, Leïla; Cilas, Christian; ten Hoopen, Gerben Martijn; Bieng, Marie Ange Ngo

    2014-01-01

    Combining crop plants with other plant species in agro-ecosystems is one way to enhance ecological pest and disease regulation mechanisms. Resource availability and microclimatic variation mechanisms affect processes related to pest and pathogen life cycles. These mechanisms are supported both by empirical research and by epidemiological models, yet their relative importance in a real complex agro-ecosystem is still not known. Our aim was thus to assess the independent effects and the relative importance of different variables related to resource availability and microclimatic variation that explain pest and disease occurrence at the plot scale in real complex agro-ecosystems. The study was conducted in cacao (Theobroma cacao) agroforests in Cameroon, where cocoa production is mainly impacted by the mirid bug, Sahlbergella singularis, and black pod disease, caused by Phytophthora megakarya. Vegetation composition and spatial structure, resource availability and pest and disease occurrence were characterized in 20 real agroforest plots. Hierarchical partitioning was used to identify the causal variables that explain mirid density and black pod prevalence. The results of this study show that cacao agroforests can be differentiated on the basis of vegetation composition and spatial structure. This original approach revealed that mirid density decreased when a minimum number of randomly distributed forest trees were present compared with the aggregated distribution of forest trees, or when forest tree density was low. Moreover, a decrease in mirid density was also related to decreased availability of sensitive tissue, independently of the effect of forest tree structure. Contrary to expectations, black pod prevalence decreased with increasing cacao tree abundance. By revealing the effects of vegetation composition and spatial structure on mirids and black pod, this study opens new perspectives for the joint agro-ecological management of cacao pests and diseases at the

  17. Thinning cherry-maple stands in West Virginia: 5-year results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil I. Lamson; H. Clay. Smith; H. Clay. Smith

    1988-01-01

    In northern West Virginia, 60-year-old cherry-maple stands were thinned to 75,60, and 45 percent relative stand density. Analysis of 5-year growth data showed that basal-area growth was not reduced by thinning. Cubic-foot and board-foot volume growth decreased slightly. Individual-tree growth of all trees, dominant/codominant trees, and the 50 largest diameter trees...

  18. Black poplar-tree (Populus nigra L.) bark as an alternative indicator of urban air pollution by chemical elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berlizov, A.N.; Malyuk, I.A.; Tryshyn, V.V.

    2008-01-01

    Capabilities of black poplar-tree (Populus nigra L.) bark as a biomonitor of atmospheric air pollution by chemical elements were tested against epiphytic lichens Xanthoria parietina (L.) and Physcia adscendens (Fr.). Concentrations of 40 macro and trace elements were determined using epicadmium and instrumental NAA. The data obtained were processed using non-parametric tests. A good correlation was found between concentrations of majority of elements in bark and lichens. On the accumulation capability bark turned out to be competitive with both lichens examined. The main inorganic components of black poplar-tree bark were revealed. A substrate influence on the concentrations of some elements in epiphytic lichens was established. An optimized procedure of bark pre-irradiation treatment was suggested. (author)

  19. Improvement of new types by mutation breeding in cherry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunter, B.; Kantoglu, Y.; Bas, M.; Burak, M.

    2009-01-01

    Turkey, which is a major cultivation area for cherry, is ranked either as first or second in worldwide cherry production with an annual production amount of 200.000 tonnes. Out of this amount, 7% is exported which holds a c. 20% share of the global export. Due to the plantations of different altitudes resulted by the rich geographical structure, our country has a diverse harvest calendar. Hence, it is possible to export cherries in similar quality for almost five-six weeks with different maturation periods. Contrary to good traits, 0900 Ziraat is self incompatible, trees tends to grow vigorously with low yield on standard rootstocks. Although has some disadvantages there is huge demand from exterior market for 0900 Ziraat sweet cherry cultivar.In this research, gamma irradiation based mutation breeding technique was applied for improving of 0900 Ziraat. For this aim scions were irradiated 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55 and 60 Gy doses with Co 6 0 as a source of mutagen in 2000. After irradiation scions were budded on P.avium rootstock. According to measurement and calculation on young trees in the field, efficient mutation dose and mutation frequency were found 33,75 Gy and %4.1 respectively.Trees were characterized according to pomological traits such as fruit weight (g), peduncle length (cm), fruit width (cm), fruit height (cm), seed weight (g), soluble solid contents (%), yield (g), and cracking rate (%). According to the data 8 mutant variety candidate (dwarf, semi dwarf, high yield and crackles) were selected in 371 living mutant trees for advance observations.

  20. A review on plant Cordia obliqua Willd. (Clammy cherry)

    OpenAIRE

    Richa Gupta; Ghanshyam Das Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Cordia obliqua Willd. plant (Common name-Clammy Cherry) belongs to family Boraginaceae. It is a medium-sized deciduous tree and very vigorous in growth. According to traditional system, it possesses anthelmintic, purgative, diuretic, expectorant, antipyretic, hepatoprotective and analgesic action. The fruits are edible and used as pickle. The gum obtained from mucilage is used for pasting sheets of paper and as matrix forming material in tablet formulations. Phytochemical investigations show ...

  1. Temporal changes in tree-ring nitrogen of Pinus thunbergii trees exposed to Black-tailed Gull (Larus crassirostris) breeding colonies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry, Lopez C.M., E-mail: larry@iwate-u.ac.jp [United Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Iwate University, Morioka 020-8550 (Japan); Chitoshi, Mizota [Faculty of Agriculture, Iwate University, Morioka 020-8550 (Japan); Toshiro, Yamanaka [Division of Earth Science, Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, 1-1, Naka 3-Chome, Tsushima, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Yoshihiro, Nobori [Faculty of Agriculture, Yamagata University, 1-23 Wakabamachi, Tsuruoka, Yamagata 997-8555 (Japan)

    2010-11-15

    Research highlights: {yields} N concentration and isotope ratio on tree-rings can be an important tool to infer past N soil conditions where trees grow. {yields} Changes in avian population on established or new breeding grounds caused by natural or anthropogenic mechanism could be inferred from the analysis shown in this paper. {yields} The property of trees to retain N concentration and N isotope characteristics is found in Pinus thunbergii. The use of other trees for similar analysis have to be determined because other species (Pinus densiflora, for example) do not have this property. - Abstract: Natural abundances of {sup 15}N/{sup 14}N ratios (commonly designated by {delta}{sup 15}N notation) of annual rings from Pinus thunbergii trees were determined after transplantation from a nursery to breeding colonies of Black-tailed Gull (Larus crassirostris) in Miyagi and Aomori and a control site in Yamagata, in northeastern Japan. Tree-rings were collected in July/August/September, 2009. Transplanting was conducted in the year 2000 in the Miyagi site, whereas there is no information about transplanting data in the Aomori and Yamagata sites. Soils associated with piscivorous (fish eating) avian colonies receive large seasonal input of organic N in the form of feces. The organic N is microbiologically transformed into inorganic N in soils, from which P. thunbergii derives its N. The resulting NH{sub 4}{sup -} and NO{sub 3}{sup -}N are characterized by distinctly heavy {delta}{sup 15}N ratios, due to coupled processes of mineralization, volatilization, nitrification and denitrification of feces. In general, total N concentration along with {delta}{sup 15}N values stored in the annual rings of P. thunbergii increased steadily after transplanting from the nursery to locations under continued avian N input. Tree-ring N content and isotopic ratios provided a reliable record of past annual available soil N caused by changes in the Black-tailed Gull population, and thus can

  2. Characterization of sour cherry isolates of plum pox virus from the Volga Basin in Russia reveals a new cherry strain of the virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasa, Miroslav; Prikhodko, Yuri; Predajňa, Lukáš; Nagyová, Alžbeta; Shneyder, Yuri; Zhivaeva, Tatiana; Subr, Zdeno; Cambra, Mariano; Candresse, Thierry

    2013-09-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV) is the causal agent of sharka, the most detrimental virus disease of stone fruit trees worldwide. PPV isolates have been assigned into seven distinct strains, of which PPV-C regroups the genetically distinct isolates detected in several European countries on cherry hosts. Here, three complete and several partial genomic sequences of PPV isolates from sour cherry trees in the Volga River basin of Russia have been determined. The comparison of complete genome sequences has shown that the nucleotide identity values with other PPV isolates reached only 77.5 to 83.5%. Phylogenetic analyses clearly assigned the RU-17sc, RU-18sc, and RU-30sc isolates from cherry to a distinct cluster, most closely related to PPV-C and, to a lesser extent, PPV-W. Based on their natural infection of sour cherry trees and genomic characterization, the PPV isolates reported here represent a new strain of PPV, for which the name PPV-CR (Cherry Russia) is proposed. The unique amino acids conserved among PPV-CR and PPV-C cherry-infecting isolates (75 in total) are mostly distributed within the central part of P1, NIa, and the N terminus of the coat protein (CP), making them potential candidates for genetic determinants of the ability to infect cherry species or of adaptation to these hosts. The variability observed within 14 PPV-CR isolates analyzed in this study (0 to 2.6% nucleotide divergence in partial CP sequences) and the identification of these isolates in different localities and cultivation conditions suggest the efficient establishment and competitiveness of the PPV-CR in the environment. A specific primer pair has been developed, allowing the specific reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction detection of PPV-CR isolates.

  3. Parasitoids associated with the black scale Saissetia oleae(Olivier (Hemiptera: Coccidae in olive trees in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Prado

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Black scale, Saissetia oleae (Olivier (Hemiptera: Coccidae is an important pest of olive trees (Olea europaea L. that requires the use insecticides for its control. Parasitoids are important regulating agents of this pest, but currently, no information on its complex of natural enemies and their impact on black scale in Brazilian conditions exists. This study focused on identifying parasitoid wasps that were associated with the black scale on olive trees to establish their relative abundance and rate of parasitism. Samplings were maintained in an olive orchard located in Maria da Fe, south of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, and infested branches were stored in emergence containers to recover parasitoids. Another group was kept in Flanders batteries to evaluate the rate of parasitism in approximately 100 scales. Sixteen parasitoid species were collected during the sampling period, and the most common species were Coccophagus caridei (Brèthes (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae, Diversinervus elegans Silvestri (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae, and Mesopeltita truncatipennis (Waterston (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae, the latter of which was most abundant and frequent. Parasitism ranged from 3 to 31% with peaks in summer and autumn. This level could be considered insufficient to hold the black scale under the economic injury level; however, these parasitoids should be preserved for contributions to population regulation.

  4. Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khaja, Nawal

    2007-01-01

    This is a thematic lesson plan for young learners about palm trees and the importance of taking care of them. The two part lesson teaches listening, reading and speaking skills. The lesson includes parts of a tree; the modal auxiliary, can; dialogues and a role play activity.

  5. Survey of Cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus and Cherry green ring mottle virus incidence in Korea by Duplex RT-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Yeol Lee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of Cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus (CNRMV and Cherry green ring mottle virus (CGRMV have recently been occurred in Korea, posing a problem for sweet cherry cultivation. Since infected trees have symptomless leaves or ring-like spots on the pericarp, it is difficult to identify a viral infection. In this study, the incidence of CNRMV and CGRMV in sweet cherry in Gyeongbuk province was surveyed using a newly developed duplex reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR method that can detect both viruses in a single reaction. CNRMV and CGRMV co-infection rates were 29.6%, 53.6%, and 17.6%, respectively, in samples collected from three different sites (Daegu, Gyeongju and Gyeongsan in Gyeongbuk province during 2012 and 2013. This duplex RT-PCR method offers a simple, rapid, and effective way of identifying CNRMV and CGRMV simultaneously in sweet cherry trees, which can aid in the management of viral infections that could undermine yield.

  6. Seasonal amounts of nutrients in Western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their relation to nutrient availability on cherry plant surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Wee L; Chapman, Peter S

    2008-10-01

    Relatively little is known about the nutritional ecology of fruit flies in the genus Rhagoletis. In this study, nutrient amounts in male and female western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, and availability of nitrogen and sugar on surfaces of leaves, fruit, and extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) of sweet cherry trees, were determined from late May to late June 2005 and of sugar from EFNs from mid-May to late June 2007 in Washington state. Protein amounts in male and female flies did not differ over the season. Nitrogen was present on leaves, fruit, and EFNs during the sampling period, but amounts on leaves and fruit were lower in late May than the rest of the season. Sugar amounts in flies did not differ over the season. Sugar was present on leaf, fruit, and EFN surfaces all season, but amounts on all three were lower in late May than later in the season. Fructose and glucose were the predominant sugars on all plant surfaces, but sucrose was also present in nectar from EFNs. In outdoor and field cage experiments in 2004 and 2006, more flies survived when cherry branches with leaves and fruit were present than absent. Results suggest that R. indifferens maintains stable protein and sugar levels throughout the season because sufficient amounts of nutrients are found in cherry trees during this time and that increases in nutrient availability caused by ripening and damaged cherries later in the season do not result in increased amounts of nutrients in flies.

  7. Preliminary Valuation of “Y” and “V”-Trellised Canopies for Mechanical Harvesting of Plums, Sweet Cherries and Sour Cherries for the Fresh Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabcewicz Jacek

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Plums, sweet cherry, and sour cherry trees were spaced 4.5 m × 1.5 m to be trained to “Y” and “V”-trellising systems for mechanical harvesting, with a canopy contact harvester, attending to obtain fruits meeting the requirements of the fresh fruit market. The applied trellising systems were compared with the standard central leader system at the same spacing. The most of trellised trees grew less vigorously than the standard trees, and after 3 years of training, the trees were suitable for mechanical harvesting with the harvester designed at the Research Institute of Horticulture in Skierniewice. The trellised trees were able to set as many fruitlets as those grown in the form of central leader and gave a comparable yield, but differences between cultivars were significant. Light interception in the third year after planting was lower for trees of sour cherry and plum growing in the “Y”-20° and “V” in comparison to the trees with central leader. Illumination of trellised canopies at the level of 0.7 and 1.5 m was the most favorable in “V” system when compared to control and “Y” training systems. Cost of construction for the trellising systems of stone fruits calculated per 1 ha was two times higher when compared with the standard system.

  8. Integrated Management of European Cherry Fruit Fly Rhagoletis cerasi (L.: Situation in Switzerland and Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürg Grunder

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The European cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi (L. (Diptera: Tephritidae, is a highly destructive pest. The low tolerance for damaged fruit requires preventive insecticide treatments for a marketable crop. The phase-out of old insecticides threatens cherry production throughout the European Union (EU. Consequently, new management techniques and tools are needed. With the increasing number of dwarf tree orchards covered against rain to avoid fruit splitting, crop netting has become a viable, cost-effective method of cherry fruit fly control. Recently, a biocontrol method using the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana has been developed for organic agriculture. However, for most situations, there is still a lack of efficient and environmentally sound insecticides to control this pest. This review summarizes the literature from over one hundred years of research on R. cerasi with focus on the biology and history of cherry fruit fly control as well as on antagonists and potential biocontrol organisms. We will present the situation of cherry fruit fly regulation in different European countries, give recommendations for cherry fruit fly control, show gaps in knowledge and identify future research opportunities.

  9. Early growth performances of various seed sources of black (Prunus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Early growth performances of various seed sources of black (Prunus serotina Erhr.) and wild cherry ( Prunus avium L.) seedlings on low and high elevation sites in the western Black Sea Region of Turkey.

  10. Identification and characterization of a new member of the genus Luteovirus from cherry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lenz, Ondřej; Přibylová, Jaroslava; Fránová, Jana; Koloniuk, Igor; Špak, Josef

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 162, č. 2 (2017), s. 587-590 ISSN 0304-8608 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD14004 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : cherry trees * Luteovirus * new virus * ChALV Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Virology Impact factor: 2.058, year: 2016

  11. Nanocarbon materials obtained of coniferous trees in the composition of black powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkhair Mansurov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Obtained black powders from coniferous wood. The carbon content of up to 90% can be used in warfare, pyrotechnics and industries. In the Republic of Kazakhstan does not produce gunpowder. In the energy-intensive materials laboratory, developed industrial black powders (ordinary, composed of components produced in the republic of Kazakhstan. Sulfur, activated carbon, based on apricot seeds and rice husks, softwood sawdust, which have lower costs than their foreign counterparts.

  12. Size-mediated tree transpiration along soil drainage gradients in a boreal black spruce forest wildfire chronosequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angstmann, J L; Ewers, B E; Kwon, H

    2012-05-01

    Boreal forests are crucial to climate change predictions because of their large land area and ability to sequester and store carbon, which is controlled by water availability. Heterogeneity of these forests is predicted to increase with climate change through more frequent wildfires, warmer, longer growing seasons and potential drainage of forested wetlands. This study aims at quantifying controls over tree transpiration with drainage condition, stand age and species in a central Canadian black spruce boreal forest. Heat dissipation sensors were installed in 2007 and data were collected through 2008 on 118 trees (69 Picea mariana (Mill.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb. (black spruce), 25 Populus tremuloides Michx. (trembling aspen), 19 Pinus banksiana Lamb. (jack pine), 3 Larix laricina (Du Roi) K. Koch (tamarack) and 2 Salix spp. (willow)) at four stand ages (18, 43, 77 and 157 years old) each containing a well- and poorly-drained stand. Transpiration estimates from sap flux were expressed per unit xylem area, J(S), per unit ground area, E(C) and per unit leaf area, E(L), using sapwood (A(S)) and leaf (A(L)) area calculated from stand- and species-specific allometry. Soil drainage differences in transpiration were variable; only the 43- and 157-year-old poorly-drained stands had ∼ 50% higher total stand E(C) than well-drained locations. Total stand E(C) tended to decrease with stand age after an initial increase between the 18- and 43-year-old stands. Soil drainage differences in transpiration were controlled primarily by short-term physiological drivers such as vapor pressure deficit and soil moisture whereas stand age differences were controlled by successional species shifts and changes in tree size (i.e., A(S)). Future predictions of boreal climate change must include stand age, species and soil drainage heterogeneity to avoid biased estimates of forest water loss and latent energy exchanges.

  13. Spatial Variability of Tree Transpiration Along a Soil Drainage Gradient of Boreal Black Spruce Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angstmann, J. L.; Ewers, B. E.; Kwon, H.; Bond-Lamberty, B.; Amiro, B.; Gower, S. T.

    2008-12-01

    Boreal forests are an integral component in obtaining a predictive understanding of global climate change because they comprise 33% of the world's forests and store large amounts of carbon. Much of this carbon storage is a result of peat formation in cold, poorly-drained soils. Transpiration plays a crucial role in the interaction between carbon and water cycles due to stomatal control of these fluxes. The primary focus of this study is to quantify the spatial variability and drivers of tree transpiration in boreal forest stands across a well- to poorly-drained soil drainage gradient. Species composition of this region of boreal forest changes during succession in well-drained soils from being primarily dominated by Picea mariana with co-dominant Pinus banksiana and Populus tremuloides in younger stands to being dominated solely by Picea marianain older stands. Poorly-drained soils are dominated by Picea mariana and change little with succession. Previous work in well-drained stands showed that 1) tree transpiration changed substantially with stand age due to sapwood-to-leaf area ratio dynamics and 2) minimum leaf water potential (Ψ) was kept constant to prevent excessive cavitation. We hypothesized that 1) minimum Ψ would be constant, 2) transpiration would be proportional to the sapwood-to-leaf area ratio across a soil drainage gradient, and 3) spatial relationships between trees would vary depending on stomatal responses to vapor pressure deficit (D). We tested these hypotheses by measuring Ψ of 33 trees and sap flux from 204 trees utilizing cyclic sampling constructed to study spatial relationships. Measurements were conducted at a 42-year-old stand representing maximum tree diversity during succession. There were no significant differences between growing season averaged Ψ in well- (-0.35 and -1.37 for pre-dawn and mid-day respectively) and poorly- drained soil conditions (-0.38 and -1.41 for pre-dawn and mid-day respectively) for Picea mariana. Water use

  14. Distribution of 90Sr in the tree rings of a Japanese cedar exposed to the black rain from the Nagasaki atomic bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, Y.; Nagai, M.; Aoki, T.; Nagatomo, T.; Okada, N.

    2006-01-01

    Cedar sample was collected at the black rain area in Nagasaki city. A clear peak of 90 Sr/Sr was observed in the 1924-1925 rings. To investigate the mobility of Sr in a cedar tree stem, strontium chloride solution was injected into a living tree, and the distribution profiles of Sr in the stem at 8 months later were determined. The strontium moves radially through the sapwood of a cedar stem but that it almost stops at the heartwood. It was concluded that the peak in the 1924-1925 rings was due to the black rain from the Nagasaki atomic bomb. (author)

  15. Microclonal Multiplication of wild Cherry (Prunus avium L.) from Shoot Tips and Root Sucker Buds

    OpenAIRE

    Pevalek-Kozlina, Branka; Michler, Charles H.; Jelaska, Sibila

    1994-01-01

    The effects of different combinations and concentrations of the growth regulators: 6-benzylaminopurine (BA), 6-furfurylaminopurine (KIN), N6- (2-isopentenyl) adenine (2iP), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and a-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) on axillary shoot multiplication rates for wild cherry (Prunus avium L.) shoot explants were determined. Apical shoot tips and axillary buds from juvenile trees (5-year old) and from root suckers of mature trees (55-year old) were us...

  16. Source-Sink Relations in Fruits VII. Effects of Pruning in Sour Cherry and Plum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toldam-Andersen, Torben Bo; Hansen, P.

    1993-01-01

    Sour cherries cv. 'Stevnsbær' and plums cv. 'Victoria' were heavily pruned in 1987. Fruit samples were collected during the growing season and concentrations of different quality components were determined. Pruning resulted in a small increase in fruit size, the effect being greater on the older...... trees (sour cherries) or at the lower crop load (plum). Additionally, pruning decreased the con­centrations of total and soluble dry matter and of anthocya­nins ('Stevnsbær'), while titratable acids showed an increas­ing tendency. The effects of pruning are discussed based on influences on root...

  17. Speed, Acceleration, Chameleons and Cherry Pit Projectiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planinsic, Gorazd; Likar, Andrej

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes the mechanics of cherry pit projectiles and ends with showing the similarity between cherry pit launching and chameleon tongue projecting mechanisms. The whole story is written as an investigation, following steps that resemble those typically taken by scientists and can therefore serve as an illustration of scientific…

  18. Development of an applied black willow tree improvement program for biomass production in the south

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall J. Rousseau; Emile S. Gardiner; Theodor D. Leininger

    2012-01-01

    The development of rapidly growing biomass woody crops is imperative as the United States strives to meet renewable energy goals. The Department of Energy has indicated that biomass is a prime source for renewable energy for the southern United States. Black Willow (Salix nigra Marsh.) is a potential bioenergy/biofuels crop for dedicated short-...

  19. Epicormic branching of California black oak: effect of stand and tree characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip M. McDonald; Martin W. Ritchie

    1994-01-01

    Young California black oak (Quercus kelloggii Newb.) stands usually require thinning to increase production of acorns and wood products, but epicormic branches, which yield no acorns and constitute a serious lumber degrade. often result. A crown thinning in 60-year-old hardwood stands on a south exposure at the Challenge Experimental Forest in thenorthern Sierra Nevada...

  20. Nest site selection in native and exotic trees by Black-chinned Hummingbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch; Jeffrey Kelly

    2002-01-01

    We studied nest site selection and nesting success in Black-chinned Hummingbirds (Archilochus alexandri) along the middle Rio Grande, New Mexico. The study was conducted in association with an exotic woody plant removal program to determine whether the removal of exotic plants would affect wildlife populations and nesting success, either positively or negatively. Point...

  1. Sap flow of black ash in wetland forests of northern Minnesota, USA: Hydrologic implications of tree mortality due to emerald ash borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew C. Telander; Robert A. Slesak; Anthony W. D' Amato; Brian J. Palik; Kenneth N. Brooks; Christian F. Lenhart

    2015-01-01

    Black ash (Fraxinus nigra) mortality caused by the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB) is of concern to land managers in the upper Great Lakes region, given the large areas of ash-dominated forest and potential alteration of wetland hydrology following loss of this foundation tree species. The importance of changes in evapotranspiration (ET) following...

  2. Modeling shade tree use by beef cattle as a function of black globe temperature and time of day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foust, Amanda M.; Headlee, William L.

    2017-12-01

    Increasing temperatures associated with global climate change threaten to disrupt agricultural systems such as beef production, yet relatively little is known about the use of natural tree shade to mitigate the negative effects of heat stress on beef cattle. In this study, we evaluated how temperature and time of day influenced the utilization of tree shade in relation to coloration, orientation, and behavior of beef cattle in a pasture system. Temperatures in shade and direct sunlight were measured using black globe temperature (BGT) data loggers. Time-lapse images from game cameras were used to obtain counts of shade usage, coloration, orientation, and behavior of cattle throughout the daytime hours. In general, we found that shade utilization and most of the predominating orientations and behaviors differed significantly ( P effects (Hour × BGTsun) were often nonsignificant. The mean percentage of the herd using shade was highest in mid-morning (87-96%) and early afternoon (97%), but also increased with BGTsun regardless of the time of day; these trends were similar for both dark- and light-colored cattle. Lying down was the dominant behavior exhibited in the shade, while foraging was the most prevalent behavior in the sun. When herd shade usage was lowest in mid- to late-afternoon (<1%) we also observed an increase in the use of heat-mitigating orientations in the sun (37-47%). We discuss some practical implications of these results, including the potential use of temperature thresholds to interpret cattle behaviors and shade usage.

  3. Efeito da densidade de plantação e da cultivar no crescimento da cerejeira sobre o porta-enxerto edabriz em quatro locais do norte e centro de Portugal Effect of tree planting density and cultivar on sweet cherry growth onto the edabriz rootstock at four locations in the north and centre of Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Santos

    2009-12-01

    .4, 2.1 and 2.8 m, corresponding to densities of 2600, 1300, 860 and 650 trees/ha, respectively. The trunk diameter of every plant was measured each year and trunk cross sectional area (TCSA was calculated. At the end of the second leaf stage, significant differences in growth were already observable, concerning both trial location and plant density. The sweet cherry trees of the C. Montenegro trial grew 76, 36 and 9% more than those of Alcongosta, Vila Real and Caria, respectively, thus trial location accounted for 25% of the expected total variance. Plant density corresponded to 3% of the total variance, and the trees at 0.7 m grew 22% less than those the furthest apart. Results show that cultivars grew poorly when grafted onto this rootstock in Alcongosta and Vila Real. Therefore, in analogous situations, it is important to adjust water and nutrient supply to the specific requirements of the rootstock, so as to better manage vegetative growth and to prepare the trees for their major role: fruit yielding.

  4. Breeding programme for developing new sweet cherry cultivars in the Fruit Growing Institute, Plovdiv, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Malchev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Sweet cherry is a major structural species in Bulgaria. According to the Ministry of Agriculture and Food, in 2010 it occupied 21% of the fruit tree areas, which defined it as a leading fruit crop. It represents 16% of the total fruit production in the country, as is the relative share of peach, being surpassed only by apple and plum production. The increased interest in establishing new cherry plantations necessitates the provision of new market-oriented cultivars with a better sensory profile of the fruits, resistant to biotic and abiotic stress factors, suitable for creating modern intensive cherry plantations. The Bulgarian sweet cherry cultivars are chronologically discussed and a thorough description of the development of the sweet cherry breeding programme, launched at the Fruit Growing Institute in Plovdiv in 1987, is presented. Current objectives comply with the world's major breeding trends and the changing market requirements. The paper reflects the main objectives of the programme and the finalized products obtained in the last twenty years of the past century and first decade of the new millennium, i.e. the new cultivars 'Kossara', 'Rosita', 'Rozalina' and 'Thrakiiska hrushtyalka' and some promising hybrids.

  5. Risico voor fruitbomen en inheemse bomen na bestrijding van Amerikaanse vogelkers (Prunus serotina) met loodglansschimmel (Chondrostereum purpureum) = [Risk to fruit trees and native trees due to control of black cherry (Prunus serotina) by silverleaf fungus (Chondrostereum purpureum)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de M.D.

    1988-01-01

    The shrub Prunus serotina , introduced from North America, became a forest pest in the Netherlands. Biological control was considered using the fungus Chondrostereum purpureum , commonly present as a saprophyte and parasite in wood. C. purpureum can cause

  6. Cherry Irradiation Studies. 1984 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eakin, D.E.; Hungate, F.P.; Tingey, G.L.; Olsen, K.L.; Fountain, J.B.; Burditt, A.K. Jr.; Moffit, H.R.; Johnson, D.A.; Lunden, J.D.

    1985-04-01

    Fresh cherries, cherry fruit fly larvae, and codling moth larvae were irradiated using the PNL cobalt-60 facility to determine the efficacy of irradiation treatment for insect disinfestation and potential shelf life extension. Irradiation is an effective disinfestation treatment with no significant degradation of fruit at doses well above those required for quarantine treatment. Sufficient codling moth control was achieved at projected doses of less than 25 krad; cherry fruit fly control, at projected doses of less than 15 krad. Dose levels up to 60 krad did not adversely affect cherry quality factors tested. Irradiation above 60 krad reduced the firmness of cherries but had no significant impact on other quality factors tested. Irradiation of cherries below 80 krad did not result in any significant differences in sensory evaluations (appearance, flavor, and firmness) in tests conducted at OSU. Irradiation up to 200 krad at a temperature of about 25 0 C (77 0 F) did not measurably extend shelf life. Irradiation at 500 krad at 25 0 C (77 0 F) increased mold and rotting of cherries tested. There is no apparent advantage of irradiation over low-temperature fumigation

  7. Gamma-rays irradiation of greenwood cuttings cherry varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiev, V.

    1975-01-01

    Results are reported of irradiation of greenwood cuttings of the sweet cherry grafted varieties Napoleon, Drogans Gelbe and Ryzhdavishka Belvitsa, performed at 2500 R. The treated buds have been treated on rootstocks in a nursery and trees have been raised from the grafts in a planting. Different teratological alterations were observed in shoots of most trees developed from treated buds such as fasciations, bi-, tre-, and tetra-furcation as well as branchlets with a pseudodichotomical ramification. Several forms, having a very good fruit bearing and lower strength of growth than the initial varieties, were selected. A large number of slightly growing mutagenous forms were established of the Drogans Gelbe variety. Their fruits do not differ substantially from those of the initial varieties. (author)

  8. Post-copulatory display in fulvous and black-bellied tree ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meanley, B.; Meanley, A.G.

    1958-01-01

    The courtship display of tree ducks has been characterized as simple, resembling that of the swan (Delacour, 'Waterfowl of the World', vol. 1, p. 32, London, 1954). However F. Finn ('Bird Behaviour', p. 262, London, 1919) called attention briefly to the fact that "there is frequently a marked display after, but not before, pairing, both parties executing a step-dance in the water with one wing held aloft." So far as we know, this curious display has not been described in detail nor pictured.

  9. Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) beloved and despised: a story of an invasive tree in Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vítková, Michaela; Müllerová, Jana; Sádlo, Jiří; Pergl, Jan; Pyšek, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 384, JAN 15 (2017), s. 287-302 ISSN 0378-1127 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 278065 - LONGWOOD Grant - others:COST(XE) FP1301; AV ČR(CZ) AP1002 Program:FP; Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : black locust * Central Europe * plant invasion Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 3.064, year: 2016

  10. Cherries: Calendar of Operations for Home Gardeners

    OpenAIRE

    Geisel, Pamela M; Unruh, Carolyn L; Vossen, Paul

    2002-01-01

    This series of handy guides for the home orchard gives a quick overview of major tasks that should be undertaken during the winter dormant, spring bloom, summer growing and harvest, and autumn seasons. This guide is for cherry.

  11. Dissipation rate of acetamiprid in sweet cherries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Lazić

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Degradation of acetamiprid in sweet cherry samples was evaluated at several intervals from the product application until the end of the pre-harvest interval. An orchard of sweet cherries located at Stepanovićevo village near Novi Sad was used in this study. Acetamiprid was applied according to the manufacturer’s recommendation for protecting sweet cherries from their most important pests. Sweet cherry fruit samples were collected at eight intervals: immediately after acetamiprid application and 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14 days after application. The extraction of acetamiprid from sweet cherry samples was performed using a QuEChERS-based method. Determination was carried out using an HPLC-UV diode array detection system (Agilent 1100, United States with an Agilent Zorbax Eclipse C18 column (50 mm × 4.6 mm internal diameter, 1.8 μm particle size. The method was subjected to a thorough validation procedure. The recovery data were obtained by spiking blank sweet cherry samples at three concentration levels (0.1-0.3 mg/ kg, yielding 85.4% average recovery. Precision values expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD were below 1.61% for the intraday precision. Acetamiprid showed linear calibrations from 0.05 to 2.5 μg/ml with correlation coefficient (R2 of 0.995%. The limit of detection and limit of quantification were found to be 5 μg/kg and 14 μg/kg, respectively. The validated method was applied in the analysis of acetamiprid in sweet cherry samples. During the study period, the concentration of acetamiprid decreased from 0.529 mg/kg to 0.111 mg/kg. The content of acetamiprid in sweet cherry samples at the end of the pre-harvest interval was below the maximum permissible level specified by the Serbian and EU MRLs.

  12. Molecular cloning, expression and characterization of Pru a 1, the major cherry allergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheurer, S; Metzner, K; Haustein, D; Vieths, S

    1997-06-01

    A high percentage of birch pollen allergic patients experiences food hypersensitivity reactions after ingestion of several fruits and vegetables. Previous work demonstrated common epitopes on an allergen of Mr 18,000 from sweet cherry (Prunus avium) and Bet v 1, the major allergen from birch pollen. N-terminal amino acid sequencing showed a sequence identity of 67% with Bet v 1. Here we report the cloning and cDNA sequencing of this cherry allergen. The entire deduced amino acid sequence described a protein of Mr 17,700 with 59.1% identity to Bet v 1. High degrees of identity in the range of 40 to 60% were also found with related allergens from other kinds of tree pollen and plant foods as well as with stress-induced proteins from food plants such as parsley, potato and soya. The coding DNA of the cherry protein was cloned into vector pET-16b and expressed in E. coli strain BL21(DE3) as a His-tag fusion protein. As shown by SDS-PAGE, the apparent molecular masses of the nonfusion protein and the natural allergen were identical. The fusion protein showed high IgE binding potency when sera from patients allergic to cherry were tested by immunoblotting and enzyme allergosorbent tests. Moreover, it cross-reacted strongly with IgE specific for the natural counterpart and for Bet v 1. The high biological activity of the recombinant fusion protein was further confirmed by the induction of a strong histamine release in basophils from cherry-allergic patients. Since sera from 17/19 of such patients contained IgE against this allergen it was classified as a major allergen and named Pru a 1. Recombinant Pru a 1 mimics most of the allergenic potency of cherry extract and hence could be a useful tool for studying the molecular and immunological properties of pollen related food allergens.

  13. Structure of a shear-thickening polysaccharide extracted from the New Zealand black tree fern, Cyathea medullaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, May S M; Matia-Merino, Lara; Carnachan, Susan M; Sims, Ian M; Goh, Kelvin K T

    2014-09-01

    A shear-thickening water-soluble polysaccharide was purified from mucilage extracted from the fronds of the New Zealand black tree fern (Cyathea medullaris or 'mamaku' in Māori) and its structure characterised. Constituent sugar analysis by three complementary methods, combined with linkage analysis (of carboxyl reduced samples) and 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) revealed a glucuronomannan comprising a backbone of 4-linked methylesterified glucopyranosyl uronic acid and 2-linked mannopyranosyl residues, branched at O-3 of 45% and at both O-3 and O-4 of 53% of the mannopyranosyl residues with side chains likely comprising terminal xylopyranosyl, terminal galactopyranosyl, non-methylesterified terminal glucopyranosyl uronic acid and 3-linked glucopyranosyl uronic acid residues. The weight-average molecular weight of the purified polysaccharide was ∼1.9×10(6) Da as determined by size-exclusion chromatography coupled with multi-angle laser light scattering (SEC-MALLS). The distinctive rheological properties of this polysaccharide are discussed in relation to its structure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Complex rheological properties of a water-soluble extract from the fronds of the black tree fern, Cyathea medullaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Kelvin K T; Matia-Merino, Lara; Hall, Christopher E; Moughan, Paul J; Singh, Harjinder

    2007-11-01

    A water-soluble extract was obtained from the fronds of a New Zealand native black tree fern (Cyathea medullaris or Mamaku in Māori). The extract exhibited complex rheological behavior. Newtonian, shear-thinning, shear-thickening, thixotropic, antithixotropic, and viscoelastic behaviors were observed depending on polymer concentration, shear rate, and shear history. The extract also displayed rod-climbing and self-siphoning properties typical of viscoelastic fluids. Such complex rheological properties have been reported in synthetic or chemically modified polymers but are less frequent in unmodified biopolymers. Although Mamaku extract obtained from the pith of the fern has been traditionally used by the Māori in New Zealand for treating wounds and diarrhea among other ailments, this material has never been characterized before. This study reports on the chemical composition of the extract and on its viscoelastic properties through rotational and oscillatory rheological measurements. Explanations of the mechanism behind the rheological properties were based on transient network models for associating polymers.

  15. Implication of Abscisic Acid on Ripening and Quality in Sweet Cherries: Differential Effects during Pre- and Post-harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijero, Verónica; Teribia, Natalia; Muñoz, Paula; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2016-01-01

    Sweet cherry, a non-climacteric fruit, is usually cold-stored during post-harvest to prevent over-ripening. The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of abscisic acid (ABA) on fruit growth and ripening of this fruit, considering as well its putative implication in over-ripening and effects on quality. We measured the endogenous concentrations of ABA during the ripening of sweet cherries (Prunus avium L. var. Prime Giant) collected from orchard trees and in cherries exposed to 4°C and 23°C during 10 days of post-harvest. Furthermore, we examined to what extent endogenous ABA concentrations were related to quality parameters, such as fruit biomass, anthocyanin accumulation and levels of vitamins C and E. Endogenous concentrations of ABA in fruits increased progressively during fruit growth and ripening on the tree, to decrease later during post-harvest at 23°C. Cold treatment, however, increased ABA levels and led to an inhibition of over-ripening. Furthermore, ABA levels positively correlated with anthocyanin and vitamin E levels during pre-harvest, but not during post-harvest. We conclude that ABA plays a major role in sweet cherry development, stimulating its ripening process and positively influencing quality parameters during pre-harvest. The possible influence of ABA preventing over-ripening in cold-stored sweet cherries is also discussed. PMID:27200070

  16. Self fertile and exportable sweet cherry cultivar improvement by mutation and cross-breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    In Turkey, sweet cherry production reached at 195,000 tons in the last two years. This value is 13% of the world production. Globally USA was the largest exporter of cherries in 2004, accounting for 21,2 % of world trade, just ahead of Turkey, which accounted for 20,07 % [3]. The major high quality and exporting sweet cherry variety is 0900 Ziraat. It is a mid to late season variety with heart fruit shape, pink and very firm flesh and excellent flavor. Contrary to good traits, 0900 Ziraat is self incompatible, trees tends to grow vigorously with low yield on standard rootstocks. Although has some disadvantages there is huge demand from exterior market for 0900 Ziraat sweet cherry cultivar. In this research, gamma irradiation based mutation breeding technique was applied for improving of 0900 Ziraat. For this aim scions were irradiated 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55 and 60 Gy doses with Co 6 0 as a source of mutagen. After irradiation scions were budded on P.avium rootstock in greenhouse, located on Ministry of Agriculture, Yalova Atatuerk Horticultural Central Research Institute. At the end of the first year young trees were transferred from greenhouse to orchard. According to 60 days data 'efficient mutation dose' was calculated . After first year which was including physiological effects, trees were characterized according to pomological traits such as fruit weight (g), peduncle length (cm), fruit width (cm), fruit height (cm), seed weight (g), soluble solid contents (%), yield (g), and cracking rate (%). Among the 371 living mutant trees, nominee of dwarf, large fruits (>30 mm) and high yield types were observed. According to the data's 58 mutant variety candidate were selected for advance observations. (Includes 63 tables, 29 figures)

  17. Pilgrim Souvenir: Hood of Cherries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Jeffs

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This lead alloy badge from the British Museum represents a medieval hood repurposed as a sack for a harvest of cherries. It measures 38 by 30 millimetres and was cast integrally with its pin and clasp in a three-part mould. When first made, it would have shone like silver. Badges were purchased in their millions by pilgrims between the late twelfth and early sixteenth centuries, as attractive, wearable and cheap souvenirs of their visits to holy sites. By the later Middle Ages badges were also worn as general symbols of devotion, as livery insignia, and as humorous or amorous tokens; which of these categories the “hood of cherries” badge falls into is debatable. Five of them have been found: three in Salisbury, and another in London, while the provenance of the fifth is unknown. Their cataloguers reluctantly associate them with the cult of St Dorothy, whose emblem is a basket of fruit, although Spencer expressed concern that, “a fashionable hood seems far removed from her story.” There are also possible alternative explanations to its meaning, which will be explored here.

  18. Studies on black stain root disease in ponderosa pine. pp. 236-240. M. Garbelotto & P. Gonthier (Editors). Proceedings 12th International Conference on Root and Butt Rots of Forest Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. J. Otrosina; J. T. Kliejunas; S. S. Sung; S. Smith; D. R. Cluck

    2008-01-01

    Black stain root disease of ponderosa pine, caused by Lepfographium wageneri var. ponderosum (Harrington & Cobb) Harrington & Cobb, is increasing on many eastside pine stands in northeastern California. The disease is spread from tree to tree via root contacts and grafts but new infections are likely vectored by root...

  19. Micropropagation of Prunus species relevant to cherry fruit production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druart, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Cherry tree micropropagation is limited to the production of healthy cultivars of Prunus avium and Prunus cerasus, and their rootstocks; mainly the dwarfing ones. By using meristem-tip (0.1 mm long) or healthy shoot tips/nodes, four successive steps are needed to obtain whole plants capable of growing in the nursery: multiplication by axillary branching, shoot elongation, rooting, and plantlet acclimation. Along this process, several parameters have to be adjusted for each phase of the culture, including media composition, environmental culture conditions and plant handling. These parameters vary depending on genotypic response and specific vulnerability to physiological disorders such as hyperhydricity, apex necrosis, unstable propagation, and rooting rates. Based on a 40 year-long experience of study and application of culture conditions to large-scale plant production, this document summarizes the main problems (variability of the propagation rate, hyperhydricity, apex necrosis, plant re-growth) and solutions encountered to solve them, with means validated on many mericlones.

  20. A review on plant Cordia obliqua Willd. (Clammy cherry).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Richa; Gupta, Ghanshyam Das

    2015-01-01

    Cordia obliqua Willd. plant (Common name-Clammy Cherry) belongs to family Boraginaceae. It is a medium-sized deciduous tree and very vigorous in growth. According to traditional system, it possesses anthelmintic, purgative, diuretic, expectorant, antipyretic, hepatoprotective and analgesic action. The fruits are edible and used as pickle. The gum obtained from mucilage is used for pasting sheets of paper and as matrix forming material in tablet formulations. Phytochemical investigations show the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolics, tannins and reducing sugar. Evaluation of pharmacological activities confirmed C. obliqua plant as antimicrobial, hypotensive, respiratory stimulant, diuretic and anti-inflammatory drug. A number of traditional activities of this plant still need scientific approval which will increase its medicinal potential. This review presents the Pharmacognostic properties, phytochemical constituents, traditional uses and biological activities reported for the plant and it will be helpful to explore the knowledge about Cordia obliqua Willd. for the researchers.

  1. Factors affecting branch wound occlusion and associated decay following pruning – a case study with wild cherry (Prunus avium L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Sheppard

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pruning wild cherry (Prunus avium L. is a common silvicultural practice carried out to produce valuable timber at a veneer wood quality. Sub-optimal pruning treatments can permit un-occluded pruning wounds to develop devaluing decay. The aim of this study is to determine relevant branch, tree and pruning characteristics affecting the occlusion process of pruning wounds. Important factors influencing occlusion time for an optimised pruning treatment for valuable timber production utilising wild cherry are derived. 85 artificially pruned branches originating from ten wild cherry trees were retrospectively analysed. Branch stub length, branch diameter and radial stem increment during occlusion were found to be significant predictors for occlusion time. From the results it could be concluded that for the long term success of artificial pruning of wild cherry it is crucial to (i keep branch stubs short (while avoiding damage to the branch collar, (ii to enable the tree to maintain significant radial growth after pruning, (iii to avoid large pruning wounds (>2.5 cm by removing steeply angled and fast growing branches at an early stage.

  2. Detecting local establishment strategies of wild cherry (Prunus avium L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorius Hans-Rolf

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backround P. avium, a pioneer tree species that colonizes early forest successional stages, is assumed to require an effective strategy allowing stably repeatable rounds of local establishment, dispersal and local extinction. Consequently, the early replacement of cherry by climax tree species makes the establishment of several local generations very unlikely, especially in central European continuous cover forests. This has to be seen in connection with the mixed reproduction system involving asexual reproduction as a complementary adaptational strategy. Tests of the local establishment of wild cherry must therefore consider the possibility of first generation establishment via seedling recruitment potentially followed by an asexual generation (root suckering. Successful establishment can therefore be determined only among adult individuals with the option of detecting vegetative reproduction at these stages. To test the implied suggestion about local establishment strategies of wild cherry, nuclear microsatellites were used to analyse patterns of asexual propagation among adult stages that have been subjected to one of two major types of forest management. These management types, the historical "coppice with standards system" (CWS and the "high forest system" (HFS, can be reasonably assumed to have affected the reproduction system of P. avium. Results Clear differences were found in the reproduction pattern between two stands representing the two forest management types: 1 Clonal propagation is observed in both management systems, but with a distinctly higher frequency in the CWS. Hence, sexual recruitment as a first local generation is followed by a second asexual generation in both, whereas in the CWS there is evidence for an additional clonal generation. 2 The estimation of amounts of clonal reproduction critically depends on the assumptions about multilocus gene associations. This is revealed by the application of newly developed

  3. Photovoltaics - 10 years after Cherry Hill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, E. L.

    The status of R&D programs connected with photovoltaic (PV) systems 10 years after the Cherry Hill workshop on 'Photovoltaic Conversion of Solar Energy for Terrestrial Applications' is assessed. The five categories of research recommended by the Cherry Hill Workshop are listed in a table together with their recommended research budget allocations. The workshop categories include: single-crystal Si cells; poly-Si cells; systems and diagnostics. Categories for thin film CdS/Cu2S and CuInSe2 cells are also included. The roles of government and private utility companies in providing adequate financial support for PV research programs is emphasized.

  4. PaCYP78A9, a Cytochrome P450, Regulates Fruit Size in Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiliang Qi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. is an important fruit crop in which fruit size is strongly associated with commercial value; few genes associated with fruit size have, however, been identified in sweet cherry. Members of the CYP78A subfamily, a group of important cytochrome P450s, have been found to be involved in controlling seed size and development in Arabidopsis thaliana, rice, soybean, and tomato. However, the influence of CYP78A members in controlling organ size and the underlying molecular mechanisms in sweet cherry and other fruit trees remains unclear. Here, we characterized a P. avium CYP78A gene PaCYP78A9 that is thought to be involved in the regulation of fruit size and organ development using overexpression and silencing approaches. PaCYP78A9 was significantly expressed in the flowers and fruit of sweet cherry. RNAi silencing of PaCYP78A9 produced small cherry fruits and PaCYP78A9 was found to affect fruit size by mediating mesocarp cell proliferation and expansion during fruit growth and development. Overexpression of PaCYP78A9 in Arabidopsis resulted in increased silique and seed size and PaCYP78A9 was found to be highly expressed in the inflorescences and siliques of transgenic plants. Genes related to cell cycling and proliferation were downregulated in fruit from sweet cherry TRV::PaCYP78A9-silencing lines, suggesting that PaCYP78A9 is likely to be an important upstream regulator of cell cycle processes. Together, our findings indicate that PaCYP78A9 plays an essential role in the regulation of cherry fruit size and provide insights into the molecular basis of the mechanisms regulating traits such as fruit size in P. avium.

  5. The effects of the cherry variety on the chemical and sensorial characteristics of cherry brandy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NINOSLAV NIKIĆEVIĆ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The chemical and sensorial characteristics of cherry brandy produced from five cherry varieties (Oblacinska, Celery’s 16, Rexle, Heiman’s Ruby and Heiman’s Conserve grown in Serbia were studied. Gas chromatography and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis of these distillates led to the identification of 32 components, including 20 esters, benzaldehyde, 6 terpenes and 5 acids. The ethyl esters of C8–C18 acids were the most abundant in all samples. The benzaldehyde content was quantified by high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. The average benzaldehyde concentration in the samples ranged between 2.1 and 24.1 mg L-1. The total sensory scores of the cherry brandies ranged between 17.30 to 18.05, with the cherry brandy produced from the Celery’s 16 variety receiving the highest score (18.05.

  6. Evaluation of multiple approaches to identify genome-wide polymorphisms in closely related genotypes of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seanna Hewitt

    Full Text Available Identification of genetic polymorphisms and subsequent development of molecular markers is important for marker assisted breeding of superior cultivars of economically important species. Sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. is an economically important non-climacteric tree fruit crop in the Rosaceae family and has undergone a genetic bottleneck due to breeding, resulting in limited genetic diversity in the germplasm that is utilized for breeding new cultivars. Therefore, it is critical to recognize the best platforms for identifying genome-wide polymorphisms that can help identify, and consequently preserve, the diversity in a genetically constrained species. For the identification of polymorphisms in five closely related genotypes of sweet cherry, a gel-based approach (TRAP, reduced representation sequencing (TRAPseq, a 6k cherry SNParray, and whole genome sequencing (WGS approaches were evaluated in the identification of genome-wide polymorphisms in sweet cherry cultivars. All platforms facilitated detection of polymorphisms among the genotypes with variable efficiency. In assessing multiple SNP detection platforms, this study has demonstrated that a combination of appropriate approaches is necessary for efficient polymorphism identification, especially between closely related cultivars of a species. The information generated in this study provides a valuable resource for future genetic and genomic studies in sweet cherry, and the insights gained from the evaluation of multiple approaches can be utilized for other closely related species with limited genetic diversity in the breeding germplasm. Keywords: Polymorphisms, Prunus avium, Next-generation sequencing, Target region amplification polymorphism (TRAP, Genetic diversity, SNParray, Reduced representation sequencing, Whole genome sequencing (WGS

  7. Effects of mixture and thinning in a tree farming valuable broadleaves plantation more than 20 years after the establishment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Corazzesi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of peduncolate Oak plantation trials where the Oak is mixed to wild Cherry and narrow-leaf Ash per line and per close mixture with different proportions (25% and 50% of N-fixing species (Black Locust and Italian Alder are described in the paper. The plantation, carried out in winter 1988-89, was framed into a reafforestation plan for spoil banks restoration. On a share of the plantation area, free thinnings foreseeing the release of about 70 target trees per hectare, were undertaken in 2001 and 2003; 21% and 27% of basal area were removed, respectively. In the latter trial, the crowns of target trees were completely isolated by felling all the surrounding trees. The performances of valuable timber broadleaves, the effects of intercropping and thinning on the growth of Oak target trees were analysed. Three inventories (2001, 2004 and 2008 and the annual monitoring of target trees growth were performed at the purpose. The two peduncolate Oak and narrow-leaf Ash trees showed the best performances among the set of valuable broadleaves, whilst wild cherry resulted not suited to local site conditions. A higher tree mortality occurred in the mixture with Black Locust. The mixture with both Nfixing species provided a stimulus to the Oak growth both in terms of dbh and tree height. Italian Alder resulted anyway less competitive and easy to manage, considering its progressive self-thinning, while Black Locust was aggressive enough to necessitate the control of its development by pollarding 7 years after the plantation. In the thinned plots, target trees showed significant diameter increments in comparison with control plots; maintaining year by year constant dbh increments of about 1 cm and crown’s diameter increment of about 50 cm. Intercropping with Italian Alder showed to be more effective than thinning on growth of the target trees. st1\\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso

  8. Cornelian Cherry Germplasm Resource and Physicochemical Characterization of Its Fruit in Iran

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    Hamid Hassanpour

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cornus is a very large genus which comprises 40 species of shrubs and trees native to Central and Southern Europe and parts of Western Asia. Many species are grown as ornamentals. Only a few species are grown for their fruits, chief among which is the cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.. Study on the nutritional value of the cornelian cherry has focused on nutrients which play a role in preventing diseases such as scurvy. Fresh cornelian cherry fruits contain twice as much vitamin C as oranges. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution and physicochemical properties of cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L. fruits in Iran. Materials and Methods: Distribution of cornelian cherry was traced on the map according to the visitation of the different provinces. In order to study the characteristics of the fruit, samples were taken from five different areas and various parameters were evaluated. Fruit and seed weight (g were measured by a digital balance with a sensitivity of 0.001 g (Scaltec Company, Gottingen, Germany; model SPB31. Fruit length (mm, fruit diameter (mm, seed diameter (mm and seed length (mm were measured using a digital vernier caliper with a sensitivity of 0.01 mm. TSS was determined by refrectometry of one drop extracted juice of each fruit at 25°C (Kyoto Electronics Manufacturing Co. Ltd., Japan, and Model RA-250HE. TA was determined by titration and the pH value was indicated by pH meter (HBJ-260. In addition, total ascorbic acid content was determined by the dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH method. Data were subjected to calculate of descriptive statistics by SPPSS and means were separated by Duncan’s multiple range test at p

  9. Results of isotopic investigations of nitrogen nutrition of apples and cherries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makariev, Z.

    1990-01-01

    Results are reported of 15 N study of absorption and dislocation of nitrogen fertilization in apple and cherry plantations and field trials localized nitrogen fertilization of apple plantations. It is found that there is a good functional relation between the individual roots and all skeletal branches of the crown. The apple- and cherry trees can satisfy their nitrogen needs by a part of their root system and hence the introduction of nitrogen into the whole nutrition area is not absolutely necessary. The localized nitrogen fertilization in every other row or only in the row band of apple plantations increases its biological, economic and ecological efficiency. The method is patented. 2 tabs, 7 figs, 5 refs

  10. Using laser altimetry-based segmentation to refine automated tree identification in managed forests of the Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric Rowell; Carl Selelstad; Lee Vierling; Lloyd Queen; Wayne Sheppard

    2006-01-01

    The success of a local maximum (LM) tree detection algorithm for detecting individual trees from lidar data depends on stand conditions that are often highly variable. A laser height variance and percent canopy cover (PCC) classification is used to segment the landscape by stand condition prior to stem detection. We test the performance of the LM algorithm using canopy...

  11. Physiological and foliar symptom response in the crowns of Prunus serotina, Fraxinus americana and Acer rubrum canopy trees to ambient ozone under forest conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaub, M.; Skelly, J.M.; Zhang, J.W.; Ferdinand, J.A.; Savage, J.E.; Stevenson, R.E.; Davis, D.D.; Steiner, K.C.

    2005-01-01

    The crowns of five canopy dominant black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.), five white ash (Fraxinus americana L.), and six red maple (Acer rubrum L.) trees on naturally differing environmental conditions were accessed with scaffold towers within a mixed hardwood forest stand in central Pennsylvania. Ambient ozone concentrations, meteorological parameters, leaf gas exchange and leaf water potential were measured at the sites during the growing seasons of 1998 and 1999. Visible ozone-induced foliar injury was assessed on leaves within the upper and lower crown branches of each tree. Ambient ozone exposures were sufficient to induce typical symptoms on cherry (0-5% total affected leaf area, LAA), whereas foliar injury was not observed on ash or maple. There was a positive correlation between increasing cumulative ozone uptake (U) and increasing percent of LAA for cherry grown under drier site conditions. The lower crown leaves of cherry showed more severe foliar injury than the upper crown leaves. No significant differences in predawn leaf water potential (ψ L ) were detected for all three species indicating no differing soil moisture conditions across the sites. Significant variation in stomatal conductance for water vapor (g wv ) was found among species, soil moisture, time of day and sample date. When comparing cumulative ozone uptake and decreased photosynthetic activity (P n ), red maple was the only species to show higher gas exchange under mesic vs. drier soil conditions (P wv and P n demonstrate the strong influence of heterogeneous environmental conditions within forest canopies. - Within the heterogeneous environment of a mature forest, many factors in addition to soil moisture play a significant role in determining exposure/response relationships to ozone

  12. Application Of t-Cherry Junction Trees in Pattern Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Kovacs

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Pattern recognition aims to classify data (patterns based ei-
    ther on a priori knowledge or on statistical information extracted from the data. In this paper we will concentrate on statistical pattern recognition using a new probabilistic approach which makes possible to select the so called 'informative' features. We develop a pattern recognition algorithm which is based on the conditional independence structure underlying the statistical data. Our method was succesfully applied on a real problem of recognizing Parkinson's disease on the basis of voice disorders.

  13. The dependence of natural regeneration of forest trees on upper soil conditions and acidity at damaged sites in the Black Forest, Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littek, T.

    1993-06-01

    It was the goal of this study to investigate the influence of different upper soil conditions on the germination and establishment, as well as the growth, of young plants of various tree species. For this purpose, four test plots in the region of the Black Forest were laid out, in which, by various means of site preparation and fertilization, the upper soils were changed. Natural seeding of common spruce, European silver-fir, beech, sycamore maple, European mountainash, and grey alder was simulated by means of controlled sowing. For comparison, a greenhouse experiment was carried out, examining the germination and development of the same tree species in various soil substrata, using different fertilizers, and under the influence of artificial acid rain. The most important results - with a high level of variation depending on the tree species examined - can be summarized as follows: Based on the results of field and greenhouse experiments, as well as on the investigations of other authors, it can be concluded that natural regeneration of forest stands is considerably impeded under conditions of increasing soil acidity and by high acid depositions. This is seen directly as the result of unfavorable chemical conditions in the upper soil, as well as indirectly due to deteriorating competitiveness against other vegetation. Site preparation and lime or dolomite fertilization can be important measures in the practice of forestry, to encourage natural regeneration in highly acidic sites with an unfavourable humus layer and a high presence of competing vegetation. (orig./UWA). 2 figs., 85 tabs., 269 refs [de

  14. Construction and comparative analyses of highly dense linkage maps of two sweet cherry intra-specific progenies of commercial cultivars.

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    Carolina Klagges

    Full Text Available Despite the agronomical importance and high synteny with other Prunus species, breeding improvements for cherry have been slow compared to other temperate fruits, such as apple or peach. However, the recent release of the peach genome v1.0 by the International Peach Genome Initiative and the sequencing of cherry accessions to identify Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs provide an excellent basis for the advancement of cherry genetic and genomic studies. The availability of dense genetic linkage maps in phenotyped segregating progenies would be a valuable tool for breeders and geneticists. Using two sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. intra-specific progenies derived from crosses between 'Black Tartarian' × 'Kordia' (BT×K and 'Regina' × 'Lapins'(R×L, high-density genetic maps of the four parental lines and the two segregating populations were constructed. For BT×K and R×L, 89 and 121 F(1 plants were used for linkage mapping, respectively. A total of 5,696 SNP markers were tested in each progeny. As a result of these analyses, 723 and 687 markers were mapped into eight linkage groups (LGs in BT×K and R×L, respectively. The resulting maps spanned 752.9 and 639.9 cM with an average distance of 1.1 and 0.9 cM between adjacent markers in BT×K and R×L, respectively. The maps displayed high synteny and co-linearity between each other, with the Prunus bin map, and with the peach genome v1.0 for all eight LGs (LG1-LG8. These maps provide a useful tool for investigating traits of interest in sweet cherry and represent a qualitative advance in the understanding of the cherry genome and its synteny with other members of the Rosaceae family.

  15. Gender in Winterson's Sexing the Cherry

    OpenAIRE

    Kintzele, Paul

    2010-01-01

    In his article "Gender in Winterson's Sexing the Cherry" Paul Kintzele examines the ways in which Jeanette Winterson's 1989 novel explores and critiques aspects of gender and sexuality. While acknowledging the importance of the performance theory of gender that derives from the work of Judith Butler, Kintzele contends that such an approach must be complemented with a psychoanalytic approach that insists on a particular distinction between sex and gender. Although some scholars map the sex/gen...

  16. Linear relationships between cherry tomato traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Giacomini Sari

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to identify the linear relationship between cherry tomato yield components. Two uniformity trials, without treatments, were conducted on Lilli cherry tomato plants in a plastic greenhouse during the 2014 spring/summer season, with the plants in two stems. Variables observed for each plant were mean fruit length, mean fruit width, mean fruit weight, number of bunches, number of fruits per bunch, total number of fruits, and total fruit weight; a Pearson's correlation matrix was used to estimate the relationship between the variables. Path analysis was then performed considering total fruit weight as the main variable and the remaining variables as explanatory. Due to the severe multicollinearity, the variable 'number of fruits per bunch' was eliminated. Pearson's correlation coefficients were significant between explanatory and main variables. Mean fruit weight has a low cause-and-effect relationship with the total weight of fruits produced. A low cause-and-effect relationship was also observed between number of fruits and number of bunches. Cherry tomato productivity is directly related to the number of fruits per plant.

  17. Economic Sustainability of Italian Greenhouse Cherry Tomato

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    Riccardo Testa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse tomato cultivation plays an important role in Sicily, being the primary production area in Italy, due to its favorable pedo-climatic conditions that permit extra-seasonal productions. In Sicily, more than half of greenhouse tomato production is derived from the Province of Ragusa on the southeastern coast, where especially cherry tomato typologies are cultivated. Over the last decade, the Ragusa Province has registered a decrease both in terms of greenhouse tomato area and harvested production due to several structural problems that would require restructuring of the tomato supply chain. Thus, since recognition of real costs and profitability of tomato growing is a vital issue, both from the perspective of the farm, as well as from that of the entrepreneur, the aim of this paper was to analyze the economic sustainability of Sicilian greenhouse cherry tomato cultivated in the Ragusa Province. In particular, an economic analysis on 30 representative farms was conducted in order to estimate production costs and profits of greenhouse cherry tomato. According to our results, the lack of commercial organization, which characterizes the small farms we surveyed, determines low contractual power for farmers and, consequently, low profitability.

  18. Development of Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) Related to the Phenology of Blueberry, Blackberry, Strawberry Guava, and Surinam Cherry Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisognin, M; Nava, D E; Diez-Rodríguez, G I; Valgas, R A; Garcia, M S; Krolow, A C R; Antunes, L E C

    2015-02-01

    Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) is the main pest of temperate climate orcharding. The study investigated the development of A. fraterculus related to phenological stage of blueberry, blackberry, strawberry guava, and Surinam cherry trees. The phenological stages I (green fruits), II (intermediate ripening stage of fruits), and III (fruits close to harvesting) were determined, and they are from 8th, 10th, and 11th week; 6th, 8th, and 9th week; 8th, 13th, and 16th week; and 5th, 6th, and 7th week after the first flowering of blueberry, blackberry, strawberry guava, and Surinam cherry trees, respectively. We collected fruits from orchards to determine the infestation index using the formula: number of pupa/fruit weight. To investigate the development of A. fraterculus, we determined the following biological parameters: egg-to-adult period, weight of pupae, oviposition period, fecundity, number of pupae, and number of infested fruits. The infestation index for the fruits collected in the field was greater in strawberry guava and Surinam cherry fruits. In the laboratory, the development of A. fraterculus occurred in stage III of blueberry. In blackberry, besides stage III, we also observed the development in stage II, however, at lower infestation. In strawberry guava, the development of A. fraterulus occurred in stages II and III, and the development in both stages was similar. For Surinam cherry, the development occurred in the three phenological stages with similar values for biological parameters. Overall, of the four hosts studied, the strawberry guava and Surinam cherry fruits allowed a better biological development of A. fraterculus, corroborating its preference for fruits native to Brazil. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. The effects of the fermentation with immobilized yeast and different cherry varieties on the quality of cherry brandy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Miličević

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate influence of different fermentation processes (by immobilized yeast cells and classical fermentation and different cherry varieties (Maraska, Montmorencys and Kelleris on the chemical and sensorial characteristics of cherry brandies. Cherry brandies were analyzed to determine chemical composition, aroma profile and sensory properties. Cherry brandies produced by immobilized yeast cells had a higher content of aldehydes, but lower content of total acids, total extract, higher alcohols and esters compared to the samples produced by classical fermentation process. Furfural was not detected in cherry distillates produced by immobilized yeast cells, while distillates produced by classical fermentation process had very low content. Cherry brandies produced by classical fermentation process had significantly higher content of benzaldehyde which has great influence on aroma of cherry brandies. Ethyl octanoate which is considered one of the most important contributors to the aroma of alcoholic distillates was found in the highest concentrations in Maraska distillates. The best evaluated sample was brandy produced from Maraska cherry variety fermented by immobilized yeast cells followed by brandy produced also from Maraska cherry variety, but by classical fermentation process.

  20. Water use by black wattle (Acacia mearnsii): implications for the link between removal of invading trees and catchment streamflow response

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dye, P

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available vegetation covers. Author’s review shows that very high rates of total evaporation are possible from dense infestations of black waffle occurring in riparian zones, where there are no soil water deficits through the year. Annual total evaporation from...

  1. Post-storage cell wall metabolism in two sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars displaying different postharvest performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belge, Burcu; Comabella, Eva; Graell, Jordi; Lara, Isabel

    2015-09-01

    The biochemical processes underlying firmness loss of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit are poorly understood. Studies on cell wall metabolism of sweet cherry have been generally undertaken during on-tree development or at harvest maturity, while published reports on postharvest changes are scarce and fragmentary. In this work, cell wall modifications after storage at 0 ℃ were studied in two cherry cultivars ('Celeste' and 'Somerset') displaying different postharvest potential. Firmness was largely determined by the yields of the Na2CO3- and KOH-soluble fractions, enriched in covalently-bound pectins and in matrix glycans, respectively, and correlated well with ascorbic acid contents. The yields of these two cell wall fractions were correlated inversely with pectinmethylesterase and endo-1,4-β-d-glucanase activities, indicating a relevant role of these two enzymes in postharvest firmness changes in sweet cherry. The amount of solubilised cell wall materials was closely associated to the contents of dehydroascorbic acid, suggesting the possible involvement of oxidative mechanisms in cell wall disassembly. These data may help understanding the evolution of fruit quality during the marketing period, and give hints for the design of suitable management strategies to preserve key attributes. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Detecting pits in tart cherries by hyperspectral transmission imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jianwei; Lu, Renfu

    2004-11-01

    The presence of pits in processed cherry products causes safety concerns for consumers and imposes potential liability for the food industry. The objective of this research was to investigate a hyperspectral transmission imaging technique for detecting the pit in tart cherries. A hyperspectral imaging system was used to acquire transmission images from individual cherry fruit for four orientations before and after pits were removed over the spectral region between 450 nm and 1,000 nm. Cherries of three size groups (small, intermediate, and large), each with two color classes (light red and dark red) were used for determining the effect of fruit orientation, size, and color on the pit detection accuracy. Additional cherries were studied for the effect of defect (i.e., bruises) on the pit detection. Computer algorithms were developed using the neural network (NN) method to classify the cherries with and without the pit. Two types of data inputs, i.e., single spectra and selected regions of interest (ROIs), were compared. The spectral region between 690 nm and 850 nm was most appropriate for cherry pit detection. The NN with inputs of ROIs achieved higher pit detection rates ranging from 90.6% to 100%, with the average correct rate of 98.4%. Fruit orientation and color had a small effect (less than 1%) on pit detection. Fruit size and defect affected pit detection and their effect could be minimized by training the NN with properly selected cherry samples.

  3. Responses to flooding of plant water relations and leaf gas exchange in tropical tolerant trees of a black-water wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana eHerrera

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes the research on physiological responses to flooding of trees in the seasonal black-water wetland of the Mapire River in Venezuela. Inter-annual variability was found during eight years of sampling, in spite of which a general picture emerged of increased stomatal conductance (gs and photosynthetic rate (PN during the flooded period to values as high as or higher than in plants in drained wet soil. Models explaining the initial inhibitory responses and the acclimation to flooding are proposed. In the inhibitory phase of flooding, hypoxia generated by flooding causes a decrease in root water absorption and stomatal closure. An increase with flooding in xylem water potential ( suggests that flooding does not cause water deficit. The PN decreases due to changes in relative stomatal and non-stomatal limitations to photosynthesis; an increase in the latter is due to reduced chlorophyll and total soluble protein content. Total non-structural carbohydrates accumulate in leaves but their content begins to decrease during the acclimatized phase at full flooding, coinciding with the resumption of high gs and PN. The reversal of the diminution in gs is associated, in some but not all species, to the growth of adventitious roots. The occurrence of morpho-anatomical and biochemical adaptations which improve oxygen supply would cause the acclimation, including increased water absorption by the roots, increased rubisco and chlorophyll contents and ultimately increased PN. Therefore, trees would perform as if flooding did not signify a stress to their physiology.

  4. Responses to flooding of plant water relations and leaf gas exchange in tropical tolerant trees of a black-water wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, A

    2013-01-01

    This review summarizes the research on physiological responses to flooding of trees in the seasonal black-water wetland of the Mapire River in Venezuela. Inter-annual variability was found during 8 years of sampling, in spite of which a general picture emerged of increased stomatal conductance (gs) and photosynthetic rate (PN) during the flooded period to values as high as or higher than in plants in drained wet soil. Models explaining the initial inhibitory responses and the acclimation to flooding are proposed. In the inhibitory phase of flooding, hypoxia generated by flooding causes a decrease in root water absorption and stomatal closure. An increase with flooding in xylem water potential (ψ) suggests that flooding does not cause water deficit. The PN decreases due to changes in relative stomatal and non-stomatal limitations to photosynthesis; an increase in the latter is due to reduced chlorophyll and total soluble protein content. Total non-structural carbohydrates (TNC) accumulate in leaves but their content begins to decrease during the acclimatized phase at full flooding, coinciding with the resumption of high gs and PN. The reversal of the diminution in gs is associated, in some but not all species, to the growth of adventitious roots. The occurrence of morpho-anatomical and biochemical adaptations which improve oxygen supply would cause the acclimation, including increased water absorption by the roots, increased rubisco and chlorophyll contents and ultimately increased PN. Therefore, trees would perform as if flooding did not signify a stress to their physiology.

  5. A short note on the use of the red-black tree in Cartesian adaptive mesh refinement algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasbestan, Jaber J.; Senocak, Inanc

    2017-12-01

    Mesh adaptivity is an indispensable capability to tackle multiphysics problems with large disparity in time and length scales. With the availability of powerful supercomputers, there is a pressing need to extend time-proven computational techniques to extreme-scale problems. Cartesian adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) is one such method that enables simulation of multiscale, multiphysics problems. AMR is based on construction of octrees. Originally, an explicit tree data structure was used to generate and manipulate an adaptive Cartesian mesh. At least eight pointers are required in an explicit approach to construct an octree. Parent-child relationships are then used to traverse the tree. An explicit octree, however, is expensive in terms of memory usage and the time it takes to traverse the tree to access a specific node. For these reasons, implicit pointerless methods have been pioneered within the computer graphics community, motivated by applications requiring interactivity and realistic three dimensional visualization. Lewiner et al. [1] provides a concise review of pointerless approaches to generate an octree. Use of a hash table and Z-order curve are two key concepts in pointerless methods that we briefly discuss next.

  6. Evolutionary melting pots: a biodiversity hotspot shaped by ring diversifications around the Black Sea in the Eastern tree frog (Hyla orientalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufresnes, Christophe; Litvinchuk, Spartak N; Leuenberger, Julien; Ghali, Karim; Zinenko, Oleksandr; Stöck, Matthias; Perrin, Nicolas

    2016-09-01

    Hotspots of intraspecific genetic diversity, which are of primary importance for the conservation of species, have been associated with glacial refugia, that is areas where species survived the Quaternary climatic oscillations. However, the proximate mechanisms generating these hotspots remain an open issue. Hotspots may reflect the long-term persistence of large refugial populations; alternatively, they may result from allopatric differentiation between small and isolated populations, that later admixed. Here, we test these two scenarios in a widely distributed species of tree frog, Hyla orientalis, which inhabits Asia Minor and southeastern Europe. We apply a fine-scale phylogeographic survey, combining fast-evolving mitochondrial and nuclear markers, with a dense sampling throughout the range, as well as ecological niche modelling, to understand what shaped the genetic variation of this species. We documented an important diversity centre around the Black Sea, composed of multiple allopatric and/or parapatric diversifications, likely driven by a combination of Pleistocene climatic fluctuations and complex regional topography. Remarkably, this diversification forms a ring around the Black Sea, from the Caucasus through Anatolia and eastern Europe, with terminal forms coming into contact and partially admixing in Crimea. Our results support the view that glacial refugia generate rather than host genetic diversity and can also function as evolutionary melting pots of biodiversity. Moreover, we report a new case of ring diversification, triggered by a large, yet cohesive dispersal barrier, a very rare situation in nature. Finally, we emphasize the Black Sea region as an important centre of intraspecific diversity in the Palearctic with implications for conservation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Simultaneous detection and identification of four cherry viruses by two step multiplex RT-PCR with an internal control of plant nad5 mRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorani, Md Salik; Awasthi, Prachi; Sharma, Maheshwar Prasad; Ram, Raja; Zaidi, Aijaz Asgar; Hallan, Vipin

    2013-10-01

    A multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (mRT-PCR) was developed and standardized for the simultaneous detection of four cherry viruses: Cherry virus A (CVA, Genus; Capillovirus), Cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus (CNRMV, unassigned species of the Betaflexiviridae), Little cherry virus 1 (LChV-1, Genus; Closterovirus) and Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV, Genus; Ilarvirus) with nad5 as plant internal control. A reliable and quick method for total plant RNA extraction from pome and stone fruit trees was also developed. To minimize primer dimer formation, a single antisense primer for CVA and CNRMV was used. A mixture of random hexamer and oligo (dT) primer was used for cDNA synthesis, which was highly suited and economic for multiplexing. All four viruses were detected successfully by mRT-PCR in artificially created viral RNA mixture and field samples of sweet cherry. The identity of the viruses was confirmed by sequencing. The assay could detect above viruses in diluted cDNA (10(-4)) and RNA (10(-3), except PNRSV which was detected only till ten times lesser dilution). The developed mRT-PCR will not only be useful for the detection of viruses from single or multiple infections of sweet cherry plants but also for other stone and pome fruits. The developed method will be therefore quite helpful for virus indexing, plant quarantine and certification programs. This is the first report for the simultaneous detection of four cherry viruses by mRT-PCR. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Organic fertilization in cherry tomato plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janini Tatiane Lima Souza Maia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cherry tomato (Solanum lycopersicum is highly demanding with regard to mineral nutrients. The use of animal manure shows to be an efficient and sustainable fertilization way for this crop. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different doses of cattle manure in the vegetative and reproductive growth of cherry tomato. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse at the Plant Science Department of Universidade Federal de Vicosa, using a completely randomized experimental design with 5 treatments and 4 replications, besides 1 control treatment using chemical fertilizer as a source of NPK. After 45 days from the beginning of the experiment, the number of leaves, flowers, and fruits, the dry mass of leaves, stem, flowers, fruits, and roots, the stem length, and the root volume were evaluated. The nutrient content in leaves, stem, and roots was also evaluated. Plants grown with chemical fertilizer obtained a lower average for all phytotechnical variables analyzed. The number of leaves and fruits, and the production of dry matter of leaves, fruits, and stems showed an upward linear response with an increase in manure doses. The Ca, Mg, and S leaf contents were higher in the treatment with chemical fertilization.

  9. Growth, shoot phenology and physiology of diverse seed sources of black spruce: II 23-year-old field trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt H. Johnsen; John R. Seiler; John E. Major

    1996-01-01

    Four sources of 23-year-old black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) from a provenance test at the Petawawa National Forestry Institute (46° N, 77°30¢ W) were assessed for height growth, shoot phenology and seasonal gas exchange. The provenances were designated 7000 (Yukon, 63°34¢ N, 135°55¢ W), 6979 (Alberta 52°22¢ N, 115°15¢ W), 6908 (Ontario, 48°59¢ N, 80°38¢ W)...

  10. The Correlation between Cherry Picking Female Consumers and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Consumers who are branded as cherry pickers are price sensitive shoppers with no brand loyalty but this market segment has been found to be potentially attractive for retailers, contrary to the myth that they are a retailers' nemesis.

  11. Influence of Heat Treatments on Carotenoid Content of Cherry Tomatoes

    OpenAIRE

    D'Evoli, Laura; Lombardi-Boccia, Ginevra; Lucarini, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Tomatoes and tomato products are rich sources of carotenoids—principally lycopene, followed by β-carotene and lutein. The aim of this work was to study the effect of heat treatment on carotenoid content in cherry tomatoes. Raw and canned products were sampled and analysed; furthermore whole, skin and pulp fractions of cherry tomatoes were analysed when raw and home-processed, in order to better understand heat treatment effects. Lycopene content in canned tomatoes was two-fold higher than in ...

  12. A 323-year long reconstruction of drought for SW Romania based on black pine (Pinus Nigra) tree-ring widths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levanič, Tom; Popa, Ionel; Poljanšek, Simon; Nechita, Constantin

    2013-09-01

    Increase in temperature and decrease in precipitation pose a major future challenge for sustainable ecosystem management in Romania. To understand ecosystem response and the wider social consequences of environmental change, we constructed a 396-year long (1615-2010) drought sensitive tree-ring width chronology (TRW) of Pinus nigra var. banatica (Georg. et Ion.) growing on steep slopes and shallow organic soil. We established a statistical relationship between TRW and two meteorological parameters-monthly sum of precipitation (PP) and standardised precipitation index (SPI). PP and SPI correlate significantly with TRW (r = 0.54 and 0.58) and are stable in time. Rigorous statistical tests, which measure the accuracy and prediction ability of the model, were all significant. SPI was eventually reconstructed back to 1688, with extreme dry and wet years identified using the percentile method. By means of reconstruction, we identified two so far unknown extremely dry years in Romania--1725 and 1782. Those 2 years are almost as dry as 1946, which was known as the "year of great famine." Since no historical documents for these 2 years were available in local archives, we compared the results with those from neighbouring countries and discovered that both years were extremely dry in the wider region (Slovakia, Hungary, Anatolia, Syria, and Turkey). While the 1800-1900 period was relatively mild, with only two moderately extreme years as far as weather is concerned, the 1900-2009 period was highly salient owing to the very high number of wet and dry extremes--five extremely wet and three extremely dry events (one of them in 1946) were identified.

  13. Investigation of urban environment from photographic information (photosurvey). Part I. Method and survey of vigor of trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakazawa, S; Oshima, T

    1975-01-01

    Fundamental data were gathered for a tree-planting program by surveying photometrically the growth state of plants in relation to topography in Suginami Ward, where the living environment is drastically changing. The photographs taken for the purpose were natural color 1972, infrared color 1972, panchromatic 1963 and 1966, panchromatio-infrachromatic 1970, and infrared 1971. The methods of evaluating tree vigor is explained. The tree species investigated were pasania, zelkova, ginkgo, Himalayan cedar, cherry, and pine. The results were summarized in a tree-vigor map. Vigor was in the descending order of ginkgo, Himalayan cedar, pasania, pine, zelkova and cherry. Along railroads and main roads, vigor was lower.

  14. HARVEST LABOR QUALITY AND PRODUCTIVITY:CASE STUDY OF CHERRY GROWING IN CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROBERTO JARA-ROJAS

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In Chile, the cherry tree has been one of the fastest growing and most profitable crops in the last ten years. However, increasing production costs, the scarcity of hired labor, and unfavorable exchange rates have reduced the productivity and competitiveness of the Chilean fruit sector. The aim of this article is to evaluate the harvest labor quality in cherry growing in Chile through the use of productivity indicators. A harvest labor evaluation system (HLES was designed and four indicators were measured: Average Weight of Harvested Box, Average Daily Production per Worker, Percent of Export Fruit, and Percent of Fruit Discarded. Significant differences werefound between the 2010/11 season (with the HLES implementation and the previous seasons without HLES. The average worker yield, average weight of a filled box, and fruit quality improved, while the amount of discarded fruit decreased. Hired labor management in agriculture is crucial for improving the productivity of the fresh fruit export producers. The use of HLES and the adoption of new technologies could help to solve the competitiveness problem in the Chilean fruit sector.

  15. Biocontrol of Alternaria alternata on cherry tomato fruit by use of marine yeast Rhodosporidium paludigenum Fell & Tallman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yifei; Bao, Yihong; Shen, Danhong; Feng, Wu; Yu, Ting; Zhang, Jia; Zheng, Xiao Dong

    2008-04-30

    The basidiomycetous yeast Rhodosporidium paludigenum Fell & Tallman isolated from the south of East China Sea was evaluated for its activity in reducing postharvest decay of cherry tomatoes caused by Alternaria alternata in vitro and in vivo tests. The results showed that washed cell suspension of R. paludigenum provided better control of A. alternata than any other treatment, while the autoclaved cell culture failed to provide protection against the pathogen. The concentration of antagonist had significant effect on biocontrol effectiveness in vivo: when the concentration of the washed yeast cell suspension was used at 1 x 10(9)cells/ml, the percentage rate of black rot of cherry tomato fruit was only 37%, which was remarkably lower than that treated with water (the control) after 5days of incubation at 25 degrees C. Furthermore, a great biocontrol efficacy of R. paludigenum was observed when it was applied prior to inoculation with A. alternata: the longer the incubation time of R. paludigenum, the lower disease incidence would be. However, there was little efficacy when R. paludigenum was applied after A. alternata inoculation. In addition, on the wounds of cherry tomato, it was observed that R. paludigenum grew rapidly increasing 50-fold during the first 12h at 25 degrees C. To the best of our knowledge, this is a first report concerning that the marine yeast R. paludigenum could be used as a biocontrol agent of postharvest fungal disease.

  16. Dimension yields from short logs of low-quality hardwood trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard N. Rosen; Harold A. Stewart; David J. Polak

    1980-01-01

    Charts are presented for determining yields of 4/4 dimension cuttings from short hardwood logs of aspen, soft maple, black cherry, yellow-poplar, and black walnut for several cutting grades and bolt sizes. Cost comparisons of short log and standard grade mixes show sizes. Cost comparisons of short log and standard grade mixes show the estimated least expensive...

  17. A chitosan coating containing essential oil from Origanum vulgare L. to control postharvest mold infections and keep the quality of cherry tomato fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tainá Barreto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of an edible chitosan coating (CHI; 4 mg/mL and Origanum vulgare L. essential oil (OVEO; 1.25 µL/mL for maintaining the quality of cherry tomato fruit during storage at room (25 °C; 12 days and cold (12 °C; 24 days temperatures was assessed. CHI and OVEO in combination showed in vitro fungicidal effects against R. stolonifer and Aspergillus niger. CHI-OVEO coating reduced the incidence of black mold and soft rot caused by these fungi in artificially contaminated cherry tomato fruit during storage at both temperatures by more than. CHI-OVEO coating delayed the appearance of the first visible signs of black mold and soft rot in artificially contaminated cherry tomato fruit stored at room temperature by six days and by more than nine days in those stored at cold temperature. At the end of storage at room and cold temperature fruit coated with CHI-OVEO showed higher firmness ( > 2 N/mm and lower weight loss ( > 2 % compared to uncoated tomato fruit. CHI-OVEO coating delayed the decrease of lycopene, ascorbic citric acid, glucose and fructose during the storage time assessed at room or cold temperatures. The increase of catechin, myricetin, caffeic and syringic acids was higher (1 - 9 mg/g in cherry tomato fruit coated with CHI-OVEO compared to uncoated fruit during the storage at both temperatures studied. CHI-OVEO coating is a feasible treatment for maintaining the storage quality of cherry tomato fruit.

  18. Anthropogenic radionuclides and heavy metals in black poplar tree (Populus nigra l.) bark sampled in one of the residential districts of Kyiv

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berlizov, A.N.; Malyuk, I.A.; Sazhenyuk, A.D.; Tryshyn, V.V.

    2006-01-01

    Tree bark is known to be a good alternative biological substrate that can be successfully used in the air pollution monitoring studies, especially in urban and industrialized areas suffering from the severe anthropogenic pressure. In Kyiv black poplar is a widespread tree species, whose bark was used as a biological indicator in our research. The bark samples were collected within one of the residential districts of Kyiv and were subject to comprehensive analysis for the content of stable elements and anthropogenic radionuclides. Thermal and epicadmium NAA in short- and long-term irradiation modes, respectively, were used for the determination of concentrations of up to 40 heavy metals, while gamma spectrometry, alpha spectrometry and radiochemical extraction-ion-exchange techniques were applied to determine 137 Cs, 90 Sr, Pu and Am radioactive isotopes in single bark samples. The analytical data obtained were subject to correlation and factor analysis, which revealed basic air pollution sources in the investigated region. It was shown that no significant correlations exist between radionuclides and any determined stable elements in the analyzed samples. All measured radioactive isotopes turned out to fall into a separate factor, which is believed to present the direct deposition of fuel microparticles from the Chernobyl NPP's Unit 4 from the atmosphere into the substratum during radioactive fallouts in spring 1986. This conclusion was supported by the evaluated isotopic ratios 137 Cs/ 90 Sr = 1.1 ± 0.4, 137 Cs/ 239+240 Pu = 100 ± 40, 239+240 Pu/ 238 Pu = 1.0 ± 0.6, as well as by the observed significant variation of the radionuclide concentrations (e.g. 10 Bq/kg - 1540 Bq/kg for 137 Cs, 0.1 Bq/kg - 21 Bq/kg for 238,240 Pu), which is believed to reflect a microparticle character of the pollution. The obtained data suggest that re-suspension does not play a significant role in the formation of atmospheric air pollution by radioactive substances in the

  19. Influência do substrato, tamanho de sementes e maturação de frutos na formação de mudas de pitangueira Influence of the substrate, seed size and fruit maturation in the formation of cherry tree seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Corrêa Antunes

    2012-12-01

    design, using four replicates with 12 seeds each (Experiment 1 and three replicates of 18 seeds each (Experiment 2. The treatments of experiment 1 were the seed size (medium and small and substrate (Plantimax®, vermiculite, coconut fiber. In the second experiment the treatments were the selections of Surinam cherry (67 and 172 and fruit ripening (partially and fully mature. The parameters were evaluated: emergency percentage, shoot length and the longest root (cm, number of leaves per plant, dry mass of root and shoot (g, brocade seeds, dormant and not emerged. The seeds of medium size were higher than little seeds in all variables. The substrate Plantimax® provided greater total dry matter than the coconut fiber, but no difference from the vermiculite. The selection 172 had a higher percentage of emergency and lower dormancy than 67. Seeds from fully ripe fruits showed higher dormancy and fewer leaves than partially ripe fruit seeds. It is concluded that the use of medium size seed and the substrate Plantimax® improve seedling development of Surinam cherry. The degree of ripeness of the fruit affects the process of seeds dormancy and initial seedling of Surinam cherry.

  20. Contemporary pollen flow, characterization of the maternal ecological neighbourhood and mating patterns in wild cherry (Prunus avium L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, J E; Vaughan, S P; Connolly, T; Sing, L; Moodley, D J; Russell, K

    2009-08-01

    Conversion of lowland woodland to agricultural land and resulting fragmentation in Britain has been ongoing since Neolithic times. To counteract this decline, plantations of native species, often based on non-British planting stock, have been established. This may ultimately be detrimental to the integrity of the native gene pool. We explore the genetic and ecological factors influencing the success of components of the local pollen pool, including the effect of a non-native planting on an ancient woodland population of wild cherry. Wild cherry exhibits gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) and vegetative reproduction, both of which may be determinants of paternal success. The majority (61%) of the successful pollen originated from within the study site with a maximum pollen transfer distance of 694 m. There was a distinct departure from random mating, with over half the successful pollen originating from trees which occur within 100 m of the mother tree. Self-incompatibility, clonality, tree size and proximity to the mother tree were all found to influence paternal success. Kinship of pollen gametes within a maternal progeny was highest when a mother tree was surrounded by a large number of ramets of a single, compatible clone consisting of large, adult trees. Although the contribution from the non-native plantation is currently low, it is likely that this will increasingly contribute to the progeny of the adjacent ancient population as it matures. The results clearly show that in self-incompatible species, such as P. avium, close neighbours may be pollinated by very different components of the local pollen pool.

  1. Industrial processing effects on phenolic compounds in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toydemir, G.; Capanoglu, E.; Gomez-Roldan, M.V.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Boyacioglu, D.; Hall, R.D.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    The processed juice (or nectar) of the sour cherry, Prunus cerasus L., is widely consumed in the Balkan region and Turkey. Sour cherry is known to be rich in polyphenolic compounds, such as anthocyanins and procyanidins. In this work, the effects of processing of sour cherry fruit to nectar on

  2. 78 FR 21520 - Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ...; FV12-923-1 FIR] Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate... 2012-2013 and subsequent fiscal periods from $0.40 to $0.18 per ton of sweet cherries handled. The Committee locally administers the marketing order for sweet cherries grown in designated counties in...

  3. 78 FR 76031 - Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ... FIR] Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate AGENCY... subsequent fiscal periods from $0.18 to $0.15 per ton of sweet cherries handled. The Committee locally administers the marketing order for sweet cherries grown in designated counties in Washington. The Committee's...

  4. Restoration of Black Oak (Quercus velutina) Sand Barrens via Three Different Habitat Management Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriska, David John

    Disturbance regimes, i.e. frequent fires, historically maintained oak barrens until European settlement patterns, and eventually, Smoky the Bear and the fire suppression campaign of the U.S. Forest Service snuffed out the periodic flames. In the absence of a disturbance regime, ground layer floral composition at many historical oak sand barrens will change predominantly because of a buildup of leaf litter and shading of the soils. Termed mesophication, this process of ecological succession will drive Black Oak Sand Barrens to an alternate steady state. A survey conducted on Singer Lake Bog in Green, Ohio, demonstrated that succession shifted the community to red maple-black cherry woodlands more typical of a dry southern forest. In an attempt to revive disturbance, three restoration techniques were applied at ten degraded northeast Ohio oak barrens to contrast their effectiveness in restoring black oak sand barren flora. The three restoration treatments were select canopy tree reduction favoring 5% to 30% tree canopy cover, forest floor leaf litter removal, and prescribed fire. Vegetation responses to manipulations were monitored prior to and following treatment applications, and were compared against both baseline data from before-treatment surveys and paired control sites adjacent treated areas. Imposing disturbance successfully increased species diversity and abundance above that found across Singer Lake Bog compared to sampling made prior to and adjacent to treated areas. Select canopy tree removal exhibited the largest floral responses from targeted barrens species, i.e. graminoids. A forest floor invertebrate family (Carabidea: Coleoptera) was measured for species richness and abundance pre and post treatment, where a noticeable shift occurred away from woodland obligate ground beetles toward open grassland species. Replicating oak barren structure, prior to replicating disturbance processes, is the first step in the ecological restoration of these systems.

  5. Progressive outer retinal necrosis presenting as cherry red spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiu, Glenn; Young, Lucy H

    2012-10-01

    To report a case of progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) presenting as a cherry red spot. Case report. A 53-year-old woman with recently diagnosed HIV and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) aseptic meningitis developed rapid sequential vision loss in both eyes over 2 months. Her exam showed a "cherry red spot" in both maculae with peripheral atrophy and pigmentary changes, consistent with PORN. Due to her late presentation and the rapid progression of her condition, she quickly developed end-stage vision loss in both eyes. PORN should be considered within the differential diagnosis of a "cherry red spot." Immune-deficient patients with a history of herpetic infection who present with visual loss warrant prompt ophthalmological evaluation.

  6. on black ironbark (Eucalyptus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Apis meOifera) on black ironbark. (Eucalyptus sideroxylon). B. Buys. Plant Protection Research Institute, Private Bag X5017,. Stellenbosch, 7600 Republic of South Africa. Received May /984; accepted 28 November /986. Black ironbark trees secrete nectar during the night. Argentine ants collected 42% of the nectar before ...

  7. Characterization of Pseudomonas pathovars isolated from rosaceous fruit trees in East Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harzallah, D; Sadallah, S; Larous, L

    2004-01-01

    A survey of bacterial diseases due to Pseudomonas on rosaceous fruit trees was conducted. In forty two orchards located in the Constantine region ( East Algeria). Pseudomonas isolates were identified on the bases of their cultural and biochemical characteristics . A total of fifty nine phytopathogenic bacteria were isolated from diseased pome and stone fruit trees. Thirty one strains comparable to Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae were isolated from cherry (Prunus avium L.), plum (P. domestica L.), apricot (P. armeniaca L.), almond (P. dulcis L.) and pear trees (Pirus communis L.); sixteen strains comparable to Pseudomonas syringae pv. morsprunorum were obtained from samples of cherry and plum. Twelve strains of Pseudomonas viridiflava were isolated from cherry, apricot and peach (Prunus persica L.).

  8. Allelic diversity of S-RNase at the self-incompatibility locus in natural flowering cherry populations (Prunus lannesiana var. speciosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, S; Mukai, Y

    2004-03-01

    In the Rosaceae family, which includes Prunus, gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) is controlled by a single multiallelic locus (S-locus), and the S-locus product expressed in the pistils is a glycoprotein with ribonuclease activity (S-RNase). Two populations of flowering cherry (Prunus lannesiana var. speciosa), located on Hachijo Island in Japan's Izu Islands, were sampled, and S-allele diversity was surveyed based on the sequence polymorphism of S-RNase. A total of seven S-alleles were cloned and sequenced. The S-RNases of flowering cherry showed high homology to those of Prunus cultivars (P. avium and P. dulcis). In the phylogenetic tree, the S-RNases of flowering cherry and other Prunus cultivars formed a distinct group, but they did not form species-specific subgroups. The nucleotide substitution pattern in S-RNases of flowering cherry showed no excess of nonsynonymous substitutions relative to synonymous substitutions. However, the S-RNases of flowering cherry had a higher Ka/Ks ratio than those of other Prunus cultivars, and a subtle heterogeneity in the nucleotide substitution rates was observed among the Prunus species. The S-genotype of each individual was determined by Southern blotting of restriction enzyme-digested genomic DNA, using cDNA for S-RNase as a probe. A total of 22 S-alleles were identified. All individuals examined were heterozygous, as expected under GSI. The allele frequencies were, contrary to the expectation under GSI, significantly unequal. The two populations studied showed a high degree of overlap, with 18 shared alleles. However, the allele frequencies differed considerably between the two populations.

  9. Sodium sulphite inhibition of potato and cherry polyphenolics in nucleic acid extraction for virus detection by RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R P; Nie, X; Singh, M; Coffin, R; Duplessis, P

    2002-01-01

    Phenolic compounds from plant tissues inhibit reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Multiple-step protocols using several additives to inhibit polyphenolic compounds during nucleic acid extraction are common, but time consuming and laborious. The current research highlights that the inclusion of 0.65 to 0.70% of sodium sulphite in the extraction buffer minimizes the pigmentation of nucleic acid extracts and improves the RT-PCR detection of Potato virus Y (PVY) and Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) in potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers and Prune dwarf virus (PDV) and Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) in leaves and bark in the sweet cherry (Prunus avium) tree. Substituting sodium sulphite in the nucleic acid extraction buffer eliminated the use of proteinase K during extraction. Reagents phosphate buffered saline (PBS)-Tween 20 and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) were also no longer required during RT or PCR phase. The resultant nucleic acid extracts were suitable for both duplex and multiplex RT-PCR. This simple and less expensive nucleic acid extraction protocol has proved very effective for potato cv. Russet Norkotah, which contains a high amount of polyphenolics. Comparing commercially available RNA extraction kits (Catrimox and RNeasy), the sodium sulphite based extraction protocol yielded two to three times higher amounts of RNA, while maintaining comparable virus detection by RT-PCR. The sodium sulphite based extraction protocol was equally effective in potato tubers, and in leaves and bark from the cherry tree.

  10. 21 CFR 152.126 - Frozen cherry pie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... incorporating in a filling contained in a pastry shell mature, pitted, stemmed cherries that are fresh, frozen, and/or canned. The top of the pie may be open or it may be wholly or partly covered with pastry or other suitable topping. Filling, pastry, and topping components of the food consist of optional...

  11. A review of the health benefits of cherries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased oxidative stress contributes to development and progression of several human chronic inflammatory diseases. Cherries are a rich source of polyphenols and vitamin C which have anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Our aim is to summarize results from human studies regarding health ...

  12. Regulation of the growth and photosynthesis of cherry tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The growth and photosynthetic characteristics of cherry tomato seedlings were investigated under seven light irradiations such as dysprosium lamps (white light; control, C), red light emitting diodes (LEDs) (R), blue LEDs (B), orange LEDs (O), green LEDs (G), red and blue LEDs (RB) and red, blue and green LEDs (RBG) ...

  13. Cherry Creek Research Natural Area: guidebook supplement 41

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid Schuller; Jennie Sperling; Tim Rodenkirk

    2011-01-01

    This guidebook describes Cherry Creek Research Natural Area, a 239-ha (590-ac) area that supports old-growth Douglas-fir-western hemlock (Pseudotsuga menziesii- Tsuga heterophylla) forest occurring on sedimentary materials in the southern Oregon Coast Range. Major plant associations present within the area include the western hemlock/Oregon oxalis...

  14. Bioactivity of sour cherry cultivars grown in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoo, Gaik Ming; Clausen, Morten Rahr; Pedersen, Bjarne Hjelmsted

    2012-01-01

    Thirty four varieties of sour cherries (Prunus cerasus) were investigated for their total antioxidant activity, Caco-2 cancer cell proliferation inhibitory activity and effect on prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. Total phenolic content, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and cancer cell ...

  15. Physical and Flavor Profiles of Arabica Coffee as Affected by Cherry Storage Before Pulping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusianto .

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Harvesting and pulping process of coffee cherry in the same day is inaccesible. Storage of coffee cherry before pulping was carried out incorrectly. Some storage treatments before pulping of Arabica coffee cherry had been examined at Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute using Arabica coffee cherries from Andungsari Experimental Garden, Bondowoso, East Java. Treatments of the experiment were method and period of cherry storage. Methods of coffee cherry storage were put in plastic sacks; immerse in water, without water replacement; and immerse in water with daily water replacement. Period of coffee cherry storage were 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 days. After storage treatments, the coffee cherries were pulped, fermented, washed, sundried, and dehulled. The experiment were carried out using randomized block design with three replications. Observation of coffee cherry during storage periods was done on the physical and temperature. Observation of the green coffee were done on the color dan bulk density. The green coffee were roasted at medium roast level for sensory analysis. Observation of roasting profile were out-turn, bulk density and pH of roasted coffee. Sensory analysis used Specialty Coffee Association of America method. Methods and period of cherry storage before pulping significanly influence on the cherry color, parchment color, green coffee color, and the flavor profile of Arabica coffee. Color of dry parchment changed to be red-brown becouse of cherry immersed in water for two days or more. In plastic sacks, Arabica coffee cherry may be stored only for two days, but underwater with or without water replacement, should be not more than five days. Green and sensory quality of Arabica coffee will be deteriorated after five days storage underwater. Coffee cherry storage immerse in water with daily replacing water may improve sensory quality of Arabica coffee.Key word: Arabica coffe, storage, pulping, flavor, physical

  16. Risk assessments for forest trees: The performance of the ozone flux versus the AOT concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, P.E.; Braun, S.; Broadmeadow, M.; Elvira, S.; Emberson, L.; Gimeno, B.S.; Le Thiec, D.; Novak, K.; Oksanen, E.; Schaub, M.; Uddling, J.; Wilkinson, M.

    2007-01-01

    Published ozone exposure-response relationships from experimental studies with young trees performed at different sites across Europe were re-analysed in order to test the performance of ozone exposure indices based on AOTX (Accumulated exposure Over a Threshold of X nmol mol -1 ) and AF st Y (Accumulated Stomatal Flux above a threshold of Y nmol m -2 s -1 ). AF st 1.6 was superior, as compared to AOT40, for explaining biomass reductions, when ozone sensitive species with differing leaf morphology were included in the analysis, while this was not the case for less sensitive species. A re-analysis of data with young black cherry trees, subject to different irrigation regimes, indicated that leaf visible injuries were more strongly related to the estimated stomatal ozone uptake, as compared to the ozone concentration in the air. Experimental data with different clones of silver birch indicated that leaf thickness was also an important factor influencing the development of ozone induced leaf visible injury. - Ozone stomatal flux based indices were superior, as compared to AOT40, for explaining biomass reductions and leaf visible injury

  17. Effect of antioxidant extract from cherries on diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachin, Tahsini

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder in humans constituting a major health concern today whose prevalence has continuously increased worldwide over the past few decades. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and disturbed capacity of antioxidant defense in diabetic subjects have been reported. It has been suggested that enhanced production of free radicals and oxidative stress is the central event for the development of diabetic complications. Antioxidants can play an important role in the improvement of diabetes. There are many reports on the effects of antioxidants in the management of diabetes. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of antioxidant extract and purified sweet and sour Cherries on hyperglycemia, microalbumin and creatinine level in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Thirty six adult Male Wistar rats were divided equally into six groups. Diabetes was induced in the rats by an intraperitoneal injection with 120 mg/kg body weight of alloxan. Oral administration of cherry extract at a concentration of 200 mg/kg body weight for 30 days significantly reduced the levels of blood glucose, and urinary microalbumin. Also an increase in the creatinine secretion level in urine was observed in the diabetic rats treated with the cherry extract as compared to untreated diabetic rats. In this paper, the most recent patent on the identification and treatment of diabetes is used. In conclusion, cherry antioxidant extract proved to have a beneficial effect on the diabetic rats in this study. In light of these advantageous results, it is advisable to broaden the scale of use of sweet and sour cherries extract in a trial to alleviate the adverse effects of diabetes.

  18. Produção Arbórea e Animal em Sistema Silvipastoril com Acácia-negra (Acacia mearnsii Trees and Animal Production in a Silvipastoral System with Black Wattle (Acacia mearnsii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelia Maria de Souza Castilhos

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho dos componentes arbóreo e animal em um sistema silvipastoril (SSP com acácia-negra (Acacia mearnsii De Wild e gramíneas perenes de verão, foi conduzido um trabalho em convênio com a empresa Seta S.A., na unidade da Fepagro em Tupanciretã, RS, no período de outubro de 1995 a maio de 2003. O delineamento experimental foi um bifatorial (espécie forrageira e densidade arbórea inteiramente casualizado, com duas repetições. As espécies forrageiras (EF avaliadas foram capim annoni (Eragrostis plana, braquiária (Brachiaria brizantha e capim gatton (Panicum maximum cv. Gatton nos quatro primeiros anos, e capim gatton, capim aruana (P. maximum cv. Aruana e capim pangola (Digitaria diversinervis para os demais anos. As densidades arbóreas (DA testadas foram de 1.667, 1.000, 833 e 500 árvores.ha-1. Com 1.667 árvores.ha-1 houve maior rendimento de madeira em todas as avaliações, não diferindo de 1.000 árvores/ha-1 a partir do quinto ano. A produtividade animal foi mais elevada em DA de 833 e 500 árvores.ha-1, sendo respectivamente 229 e 223 kg.ha-1 de peso vivo. Aos sete anos de implantação da acácia negra, o volume de madeira foi de 166; 143; 86 e 51 m3.ha-1, respectivamente, nas densidades arbóreas de 1.667; 1.000; 833 e 500 árvores.ha-1. Para que haja um equilíbrio entre produção arbórea e animal, SSPs com densidades arbóreas entre 1.000 e 833 árvores.ha-1 apresentam-se como alternativas viáveis para os produtores rurais.

     

    doi: 10.4336/2009.pfb.60.39

    A silvopastoral study consisting of black wattle (Acacia mearnsii De Wild and tropical perennial grasses was developed at the Fepagro Research Unity in Tupanciretã, RS, in collaboration with Seta Group, from October 1995 until May 2003, with the objective of evaluating trees and animal (beef cattle performances. The experiment was a bifactorial completely randomized design (forage specie and arboreal density with two

  19. Engineering cherry rootstocks with resistance to Prunus necrotic ring spot virus through RNAi-mediated silencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guo-qing; Sink, Kenneth C; Walworth, Aaron E; Cook, Meridith A; Allison, Richard F; Lang, Gregory A

    2013-08-01

    Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) is a major pollen-disseminated ilarvirus that adversely affects many Prunus species. In this study, an RNA interference (RNAi) vector pART27-PNRSV containing an inverted repeat (IR) region of PNRSV was transformed into two hybrid (triploid) cherry rootstocks, 'Gisela 6' (GI 148-1) and 'Gisela 7'(GI 148-8)', which are tolerant and sensitive, respectively, to PNRSV infection. One year after inoculation with PNRSV plus Prune Dwarf Virus, nontransgenic 'Gisela 6' exhibited no symptoms but a significant PNRSV titre, while the transgenic 'Gisela 6' had no symptoms and minimal PNRSV titre. The nontransgenic 'Gisela 7' trees died, while the transgenic 'Gisela 7' trees survived. These results demonstrate the RNAi strategy is useful for developing viral resistance in fruit rootstocks, and such transgenic rootstocks may have potential to enhance production of standard, nongenetically modified fruit varieties while avoiding concerns about transgene flow and exogenous protein production that are inherent for transformed fruiting genotypes. © 2013 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Black to Black

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Michael Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Pop musicians performing in black stage costume take advantage of cultural traditions relating to matters black. Stylistically, black is a paradoxical color: although a symbol of melancholy, pessimism, and renunciation, black also expresses minimalist modernity and signifies exclusivity (as is hi...

  1. Evaluation of Bee Diversity within Different Sweet Cherry Orchards in the Sultandaği Reservoir (Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güler Yasemin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Many varieties of sweet cherry are self-incompatible. Therefore, sweet cherry orchards require a huge population of pollinator bees to carry out an adequate amount of pollen transfer between the different varieties. Our study was conducted to evaluate the differences in the richness and diversity of these pollinators within very closely located sweet cherry orchards, and to understand the underlying effects causing these differences. The study was conducted in the Sultandağı Reservoir (Turkey which covers the towns of Sultandağı (Afyonkarahisar and Akşehir (Konya. In order to avoid a sampling bias, Malaise traps were used to collect bee samples. Sampling collections were repeated for three years; from 2007 to 2009, between April and May. The traps were set in the bud-swell period and lifted in the green-fruit period. Climatic data were taken from meteorology stations near the orchards. Vegetation in the surrounding areas was also inspected. The composition of pollinator bee species was determined and compared between orchards. In total, 83 bee species and 38 plant species were recorded. It was found that Halictidae is the most abundant and richest group among the pollinator bees. The effects of the quantity of the Malaise traps on bee sampling success were also tested. It was found that one trap per 325 trees is enough for an adequate sampling. Apart from the annual fluctuations of bee richness in the orchards, general differences in the bee diversity among orchards might be affected by the surrounding vegetation and especially from different agricultural practices such as tilling the ground.

  2. Compact type mutants in apple and sour cherries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagaja, S.W.; Przybyla, A.

    1976-01-01

    Induction of mutations in deciduous fruits is considered complementary to the conventional breeding methods. Several promissing mutants, particularly in apples, were described and some of them were introduced to commercial orchards. Studies described herein are aimed at developing compact type mutants in apple cultivars, apple rootstocks and in sour cherry cultivars. Data obtained so far confirm the results of the other authors, who developed compact type mutants in apples and sweet cherries. Physiological studies have shown that the leaves of spontaneous apple mutants of compact type are more efficient in photosynthesis than the leaves of respective standards. In spite of this, using branch ringing techniques, it was found that the leaves of compacts and those of standards do not differ in their productivity. There seem to be several advantages in employing tissue culture technique in mutation breeding. That is why a project was started to work out a method of growing apple shoots from adventitious buds developed on sections of roots. (author)

  3. Cherry tomato yield in greenhouses with different plastic covers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Holcman

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of different plastic covers on microclimate and cherry tomato yield in greenhouses. The experiments were carried out in Piracicaba, state of São Paulo (Brazil, during three growing periods (2008/2009/2010. A greenhouse was divided in: Environment I (EI - covered with plastic film anti-UV and thermo-reflective shading screen, and Environment II (EII - covered with diffusive plastic film; monitored with automatic weather sensors; and cultivated with cherry tomato (‘Sweet Grape’ and ‘Sweet Million’. Use of diffusive plastic in greenhouses provides a better inside distribution of solar energy without causing major changes in air temperature and relative humidity, resulting in higher yield (kg plant-1, fruits quantity (number plant-1 and fruits average weight than those obtained under thermo-reflective shading screen.

  4. The lichen flora of declining coniferous trees in the northern Black Forest: Ecological studies aiming at a differentiated assessment of air pollution effects and epidemic disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gliemeroth, A.K.

    1990-01-01

    For the forest region of Klosterreichenbach, a map of the state of the lichen flora has been drawn up, based on investigations of lichens on trees in different states of decline and of various age categories, and covering various species of trees, growing in areas showing the typical signs of the novel types of forest damage, and in areas subjected to pollutant emissions of a nearby, heavily polluting emission source. In the close-in area of this emission source, forest decline has been found to be strongly correlated with a heavily depleted lichen flora. Beyond the area affected by the emission source, the degree of decline of the trees has been found to increase with tree hight and age, but the quality and quantity data taken of lichen flora on these trees showed an improving trend, which however is superimposed by climatic and biological factors. The final analysis of the data indicates that the novel types of forest damage can no longer be explained by air pollution alone. (VHE) With many figs. and tabs [de

  5. Spring frost vulnerability of sweet cherries under controlled conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzneller, Philipp; Götz, Klaus-P; Chmielewski, Frank-M

    2016-01-01

    Spring frost is a significant production hazard in nearly all temperate fruit-growing regions. Sweet cherries are among the first fruit varieties starting their development in spring and therefore highly susceptible to late frost. Temperatures at which injuries are likely to occur are widely published, but their origin and determination methods are not well documented. In this study, a standardized method was used to investigate critical frost temperatures for the sweet cherry cultivar 'Summit' under controlled conditions. Twigs were sampled at four development stages ("side green," "green tip," "open cluster," "full bloom") and subjected to three frost temperatures (-2.5, -5.0, -10.0 °C). The main advantage of this method, compared to other approaches, was that the exposition period and the time interval required to reach the target temperature were always constant (2 h). Furthermore, then, the twigs were placed in a climate chamber until full bloom, before the examination of the flowers and not further developed buds started. For the first two sampling stages (side green, green tip), the number of buds found in open cluster, "first white," and full bloom at the evaluation date decreased with the strength of the frost treatment. The flower organs showed different levels of cold hardiness and became more vulnerable in more advanced development stages. In this paper, we developed four empirical functions which allow calculating possible frost damages on sweet cherry buds or flowers at the investigated development stages. These equations can help farmers to estimate possible frost damages on cherry buds due to frost events. However, it is necessary to validate the critical temperatures obtained in laboratory with some field observations.

  6. Spring frost vulnerability of sweet cherries under controlled conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzneller, Philipp; Götz, Klaus-P.; Chmielewski, Frank-M.

    2016-01-01

    Spring frost is a significant production hazard in nearly all temperate fruit-growing regions. Sweet cherries are among the first fruit varieties starting their development in spring and therefore highly susceptible to late frost. Temperatures at which injuries are likely to occur are widely published, but their origin and determination methods are not well documented. In this study, a standardized method was used to investigate critical frost temperatures for the sweet cherry cultivar `Summit' under controlled conditions. Twigs were sampled at four development stages ("side green," "green tip," "open cluster," "full bloom") and subjected to three frost temperatures (-2.5, -5.0, -10.0 °C). The main advantage of this method, compared to other approaches, was that the exposition period and the time interval required to reach the target temperature were always constant (2 h). Furthermore, then, the twigs were placed in a climate chamber until full bloom, before the examination of the flowers and not further developed buds started. For the first two sampling stages (side green, green tip), the number of buds found in open cluster, "first white," and full bloom at the evaluation date decreased with the strength of the frost treatment. The flower organs showed different levels of cold hardiness and became more vulnerable in more advanced development stages. In this paper, we developed four empirical functions which allow calculating possible frost damages on sweet cherry buds or flowers at the investigated development stages. These equations can help farmers to estimate possible frost damages on cherry buds due to frost events. However, it is necessary to validate the critical temperatures obtained in laboratory with some field observations.

  7. Dietary supplementation with tart cherries for prevention of inflammation-associated colorectal cancer in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, Ashli

    2017-01-01

    The cherry fruit is a nutrient-dense food with comparatively low caloric content and significant amounts of key nutrients and bioactive food chemicals. Much of the health benefit of cherries is attributed to their high amounts of anthocyanins, which have anti-oxidant and anticancer properties that contribute to changes in cell signaling pathways involved in inflammation, carcinogenesis and angiogenesis. In this project, we aimed to determine whether dietary supplementation with tart cherries ...

  8. Complete solution of the modified Cherry oscillator problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfirsch, D.

    1990-04-01

    In 1925, T.M. Cherry presented a simple example demonstrating that linear stability analysis will in general not be sufficient for finding out whether a system is stable or not with respect to small-amplitude perturbations. The example consisted of two nonlinearly coupled oscillators, one possessing positive energy, the other negative energy, with frequencies ω 1 =2ω 2 allowing third-order resonance. In a previous paper, the present author reformulated Cherry's example and then generalized it to three coupled oscillators corresponding to three-wave interaction in a continuum theory like that of Maxwell-Vlasov. Cherry was able to present a two-parameter solution set for his example which would, however, allow a four-parameter solution set, and a three-parameter solution set for the resonant three-oscillator case was obtained which, however, would allow a six-parameter solution set. Nonlinear instability could therefore be proven only for a very small part of the phase space of the oscillators. This paper now gives the complete solution for the three-oscillator case and shows that, except for a singular case, all initial conditions, especially those with arbitrarily small amplitudes, lead to explosive behaviour. This is true of the resonant case. The non-resonant oscillators can sometimes also become explosively unstable, but only if the initial amplitudes are not infinitesimally small. (orig.)

  9. 7 CFR 930.29 - Eligibility for membership on Cherry Industry Administrative Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF... shall be prohibited from having any financial interest in the cherry industry and shall possess such...

  10. Characterization of Sugar and Polyphenolic Diversity in Floral Nectar of Different 'Oblačinska' Sour Cherry Clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guffa, Basem; Nedić, Nebojša M; Dabić Zagorac, Dragana Č; Tosti, Tomislav B; Gašić, Uroš M; Natić, Maja M; Fotirić Akšić, Milica M

    2017-09-01

    'Oblačinska' sour cherry, an autochthonous cultivar, is the most planted cultivar in Serbian orchards. Since fruit trees in temperate zone reward insects by producing nectar which 'quality' affects the efficiency of insect pollination, the aim of this study was analyzing of sugars and polyphenolics in floral nectar of 16 'Oblačinska' sour cherry clones with different yielding potential. The contents of sugars and sugar alcohols were analyzed by ion chromatography, while polyphenolic profile was established using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry technique. Fourteen sugars and six sugar alcohols were detected in nectar samples and the most abundant were fructose, glucose, and sucrose. Eleven polyphenols were quantified using available standards, while another 17 were identified according to their exact masses and characteristic fragmentations. Among quantified polyphenols, rutin, naringenin, and chrysin were the most abundant in nectar. Principal component analysis showed that some polyphenol components (naringin, naringenin, and rutin) together with sugars had high impact of spatial distribution of nectar samples on score plot. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  11. Growth response of four species of Eastern hardwood tree seedlings exposed to ozone, acidic precipitation, and sulfur dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, D.D. Skelly, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    In 1987 a study was conducted in controlled environment chambers to determine the foliar sensitivity of tree seedlings of eight species to ozone and acidic precipitation, and to determine the influence of leaf position on symptom severity. Jensen and Dochinger conducted concurrent similar studies in Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) chambers with ten species of forest trees. Based on the results of these initial studies, four species representing a range in foliar sensitivity to ozone were chosen: black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.), red maple (Acer rubrum L.), northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) and yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.). These species were also chosen because of their ecological and/or commercial importance in Pennsylvania. Seedlings were exposed in growth chambers simulated acid rain. In addition acute exposures to sulfur dioxide were conducted in a regime based on unpublished monitoring data collected near coal-fired power plants. The objective of this study was to determine if the pollutant treatments influenced the growth and productivity of seedlings of these four species. This information will help researchers and foresters understand the role of air pollution in productivity of eastern forests

  12. Genomics of pear and other Rosaceae fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Toshiya; Terakami, Shingo

    2016-01-01

    The family Rosaceae includes many economically important fruit trees, such as pear, apple, peach, cherry, quince, apricot, plum, raspberry, and loquat. Over the past few years, whole-genome sequences have been released for Chinese pear, European pear, apple, peach, Japanese apricot, and strawberry. These sequences help us to conduct functional and comparative genomics studies and to develop new cultivars with desirable traits by marker-assisted selection in breeding programs. These genomics resources also allow identification of evolutionary relationships in Rosaceae, development of genome-wide SNP and SSR markers, and construction of reference genetic linkage maps, which are available through the Genome Database for the Rosaceae website. Here, we review the recent advances in genomics studies and their practical applications for Rosaceae fruit trees, particularly pear, apple, peach, and cherry.

  13. Record of Edessa scabriventris Stål (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) associated to Eugenia uniflora (Brazilian-Cherry) and Psidium guajava (Guava) (Myrtaceae), in north-northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Mauricio S; Fernandes, José A M; Lima, Iracilda M M

    2010-01-01

    This study reports for the first time Edessa scabriventris Stål on Eugenia uniflora (Brazilian-cherry) and on Psidium guajava (guava) (Myrtaceae), fruit trees with economic value. Its geographic distribution is extended with records for the states of Alagoas (Maceió Municipality 35°45'11.16''W; 9°40'18.52''S) and Pará (Belém Municipality 48°28'14.65''W; 1°26'14.83''S), north-northeastern Brazil.

  14. Quality response of 'Bing' and 'Rainier' sweet cherries to low rose electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, S.R.; Neven, L.G.

    1997-01-01

    'Bing' and 'Rainier' sweet cherries were irradiated at doses of 0.00, 0.15, 0.30, 0.60 and 0.90 kGy using a linear accelerator. Cherries were evaluated for quality immediately after treatment and again after 14 days storage at 1C. No variation in soluble solids, titratable acidity or flavor were noted at any of the irradiation doses. Defects were increased for 'Rainier' cherries at irradiation doses above 0.60 kGy, but no change in defects of 'Bing' cherries were present regardless of irradiation doses. Objective color of 'Bing' cherries was lighter with more red at irradiation doses greater than 0.30 kGy, but this change in color was not evident visually. Objective color of 'Rainier' cherries was reduced at irradiation doses of 0.60 kGy and greater. This reduction in 'Rainier' red color was evident visually at an irradiation dose of 0.90 kGy. No change in 'Bing' green stem color was evident, but 'Rainier' stem color improved at irradiation doses above 0.60 kGy. Firmness of both 'Bing' and 'Rainier' cherries was reduced at irradiation doses of 0.60 kGy and greater. By using the linear accelerator at doses of 0.60 kGy or less, 'Ring' and 'Rainier' cherries can be irradiated with no major quality loss to meet quarantine requirements

  15. Changes in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) antioxidants during nectar processing and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toydemir, G.; Capanoglu, E.; Kamiloglu, S.; Boyacioglu, D.; Vos, de C.H.; Hall, R.D.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) is rich in polyphenols, and like its processed products, is especially rich in anthocyanins. We have applied HPLC, spectrophotometric and on-line antioxidant detection methods to follow the fate of cherry antioxidants during an entire multi-step industrial-scale

  16. 77 FR 72683 - Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ...; FV12-923-1 IR] Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate... (Committee) for the 2012-2013 and subsequent fiscal periods from $0.40 to $0.18 per ton of sweet cherries handled. The Committee locally administers the marketing order which regulates the handling of sweet...

  17. 75 FR 10442 - Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Change in the Handling Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    .... The existing paragraph (e) would be redesignated as paragraph (d), and the introductory sentence of... reported by the National Agricultural Statistics Service, USDA, and 1,500 Washington cherry producers, the... revise the introductory sentence of paragraph (g) to read as follows: Sec. 923.322 Washington cherry...

  18. 78 FR 25407 - Safety Zones; National Cherry Festival Air Show and Fireworks Display; West Grand Traverse Bay...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ...-AA00 Safety Zones; National Cherry Festival Air Show and Fireworks Display; West Grand Traverse Bay... National Cherry Festival in Traverse City, MI will host an air show over the West Arm of Grand Traverse Bay. At the conclusion of the National Cherry Festival on July 6, 2013, fireworks will be launched in...

  19. Mountain-climbing bears protect cherry species from global warming through vertical seed dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naoe, Shoji; Tayasu, Ichiro; Sakai, Yoichiro; Masaki, Takashi; Kobayashi, Kazuki; Nakajima, Akiko; Sato, Yoshikazu; Yamazaki, Koji; Kiyokawa, Hiroki; Koike, Shinsuke

    2016-04-25

    In a warming climate, temperature-sensitive plants must move toward colder areas, that is, higher latitude or altitude, by seed dispersal [1]. Considering that the temperature drop with increasing altitude (-0.65°C per 100 m altitude) is one hundred to a thousand times larger than that of the equivalent latitudinal distance [2], vertical seed dispersal is probably a key process for plant escape from warming temperatures. In fact, plant geographical distributions are tracking global warming altitudinally rather than latitudinally, and the extent of tracking is considered to be large in plants with better-dispersed traits (e.g., lighter seeds in wind-dispersed plants) [1]. However, no study has evaluated vertical seed dispersal itself due to technical difficulty or high cost. Here, we show using a stable oxygen isotope that black bears disperse seeds of wild cherry over several hundred meters vertically, and that the dispersal direction is heavily biased towards the mountain tops. Mountain climbing by bears following spring-to-summer plant phenology is likely the cause of this biased seed dispersal. These results suggest that spring- and summer-fruiting plants dispersed by animals may have high potential to escape global warming. Our results also indicate that the direction of vertical seed dispersal can be unexpectedly biased, and highlight the importance of considering seed dispersal direction to understand plant responses to past and future climate change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Sweet cherry softening accompanied with moisture migration and loss during low-temperature storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Danshi; Liang, Jieyu; Liu, He; Cao, Xuehui; Ge, Yonghong; Li, Jianrong

    2017-12-18

    Hardness is one of the important qualities influencing consumer appeal and marketing of fresh sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.). Moisture loss is one of the main causative factors of cherry softening. In this work, moisture loss and softening process of sweet cherry during postharvest storage at 0 and 4 °C were studied. In addition, low-field 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) was used to analyze water distribution and migration in sweet cherry during storage at 4 °C. Moisture content correlated significantly (p Contents of cytoplasmic (p content increased gradually, and then internal damage occurred. Sweet cherry softening closely correlated with moisture loss during low-temperature storage. LF-NMR is a useful technique to investigate moisture migration of fruits and vegetables. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Application of half-embryo test to irradiated apples and cherries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Yoko; Miura, Aya; Sugita, Takiko; Yamada, Takashi; Saito, Yukio

    1995-01-01

    The half-embryo test was applied to irradiated apples and cherries. The optimum incubation temperature for apples and cherries was 30 o C and 25 o C, respectively. Benzyladenine stimulated the shooting of cherry half-embryos, therefore, they were incubated with 10 μM benzyladenine. The irradiation of apples and cherries caused obvious changes in the growth of the half-embryos. A dose of 0.15 kGy or more almost totally retarded shoot elongation. If shooting is less than 50%, the apples and cherries are identified as ''irradiated''. An assessment could be made after 1 to 4 days and the detection limit of the irradiation dose is 0.15 kGy. (author)

  2. Partitioning of Multivariate Phenotypes using Regression Trees Reveals Complex Patterns of Adaptation to Climate across the Range of Black Cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regis Wendpouire Oubida

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Local adaptation to climate in temperate forest trees involves the integration of multiple physiological, morphological, and phenological traits. Latitudinal clines are frequently observed for these traits, but environmental constraints also track longitude and altitude. We combined extensive phenotyping of 12 candidate adaptive traits, multivariate regression trees, quantitative genetics, and a genome-wide panel of SNP markers to better understand the interplay among geography, climate, and adaptation to abiotic factors in Populus trichocarpa. Heritabilities were low to moderate (0.13 to 0.32 and population differentiation for many traits exceeded the 99th percentile of the genome-wide distribution of FST, suggesting local adaptation. When climate variables were taken as predictors and the 12 traits as response variables in a multivariate regression tree analysis, evapotranspiration (Eref explained the most variation, with subsequent splits related to mean temperature of the warmest month, frost-free period (FFP, and mean annual precipitation (MAP. These grouping matched relatively well the splits using geographic variables as predictors: the northernmost groups (short FFP and low Eref had the lowest growth, and lowest cold injury index; the southern British Columbia group (low Eref and intermediate temperatures had average growth and cold injury index; the group from the coast of California and Oregon (high Eref and FFP had the highest growth performance and the highest cold injury index; and the southernmost, high-altitude group (with high Eref and low FFP performed poorly, had high cold injury index, and lower water use efficiency. Taken together, these results suggest variation in both temperature and water availability across the range shape multivariate adaptive traits in poplar.

  3. Pomological and technological characteristics of collected selections of cherry plum Prunus cerasifera Erhr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miletić Rade

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A plantation collection containing 32 genotypes selected from spontaneous populations of cherry plum Prunus cerasifera Erhr. was set up in the region of the Eastern Serbian town of Svrljig. The fruit trees budded from Prunus cerasifera seedlings and were planted at 5x4 m spacing on a mild slope of south-western aspect. This study shows the most important characteristics of the 19 selections in the collection, and the average results recorded in the 2000-2003 period. The most significant characteristics of the trees, their productivity, and fruit and stone characteristics are presented. The average coarseness of fruits, i.e. their length, width and thickness, measured 25.0x 24.4x25.0 mm, while stone coarseness was 14.4x10.3x3.6 mm. The average fruit weight was 12.1 g (24.3-4.8 g, and stone weight 0.85 g (2.2-0.3 g. Depending on fruit and stone weight, the mesocarp content was 93% (96.3-90.3%. Taking into consideration the possibility of fruit exploitation for the production of biologically high-quality food, the mesocarp chemical composition was thoroughly examined. The fruits were found to have increased contents of total acids, achieving an average of 3.09% (3.44-2.60%, which was the initial objective of this selection. Total solids content was 13.5% (16.2-10.3%, total soluble solids 12.5% (14.5-9.5% and total sugars 6.00% (11.45-3.14%. Considering these characteristics, the selections that were singled out deserve more attention in terms of preserving their biodiversity, forming a gene bank and commercial cultivation.

  4. Development of compact mutants in apple and sour cherry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagaja, S.W.; Przybyla, A.; Machnik, B.

    1982-01-01

    During the period 1973 - 79 studies were conducted with the aim of developing compact mutants in apple and cherry cultivars and in apple vegetative rootstocks. During the investigations the effect of the dose of gamma rays on frequency of the mutants was studied. Attempts were also made to evolve a micropropagation technique adapted to propagate P 2 and P 22 apple rootstocks, as an aid in mutation breeding. Several mutants were produced in all the material studied, but none of them have yet reached a sufficient developmental stage to enable their complete assessment. On the basis of the results obtained so far the following conclusions can be drawn: higher doses of irradiation resulted in higher frequency of mutants in most apple cultivars and apple rootstocks; in sour cherries the effect of dose depended on the cultivars. Among V 1 shoots developed from sleeping buds on irradiated scion wood, compact mutants were found; their frequency, however, was about 60% lower than among V 1 shoots developed directly from irradiated dormant buds. In apple rootstocks A 2 and M 26 several dwarfed mutants were found; some of these produced thorny plants and some had lower rooting ability; both these characteristics are inferior from the practical point of view. Multiplication and rooting media for in vitro propagation of apple rootstocks, worked out for M 26, were found unsuitable for the rootstocks P 2 and P 22; modifications made in the growth substance composition of the above media enabled satisfactory propagation to be obtained. (author)

  5. Influence of Heat Treatments on Carotenoid Content of Cherry Tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura D'Evoli

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Tomatoes and tomato products are rich sources of carotenoids—principally lycopene, followed by β-carotene and lutein. The aim of this work was to study the effect of heat treatment on carotenoid content in cherry tomatoes. Raw and canned products were sampled and analysed; furthermore whole, skin and pulp fractions of cherry tomatoes were analysed when raw and home-processed, in order to better understand heat treatment effects. Lycopene content in canned tomatoes was two-fold higher than in raw tomatoes (11.60 mg/100 g versus 5.12 mg/100 g. Lutein and β-carotene were respectively 0.15 mg/100 g and 0.75 mg/100 g in canned tomatoes versus 0.11 mg/100 g and 1.00 mg/100 g in raw tomatoes. For home-processed tomatoes, β-carotene and lutein showed a content decrease in all thermally treated products. This decrease was more evident for β-carotene in the skin fraction (−17%, while for lutein it was greater in the pulp fraction (−25%. Lycopene presented a different pattern: after heat treatment its concentration increased both in the whole and in pulp fractions, while in the skin fraction it decreased dramatically (−36%. The analysis of the isomers formed during the thermal treatment suggests that lycopene is rather stable inside the tomato matrix.

  6. Production and quality of fertirrgated cherry tomatoes with pisciculture wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamires da Silva Araujo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the production and the quality of fertirrigated cherry tomatoes with pisciculture wastewater with and without probiotics. The experiment was conducted in pots, under ambient conditions protected by 50% sombrite. The experimental design was a completely randomized design with four treatments and four replicates, the experimental unit consisting of thirty-two plants. Four water slides were tested: water; water from fish farms without the use of probiotics; water with probiotic and probiotic pisciculture wastewater. Probiotic addition was performed every 48 hours, with 0,5 g of probiotic containing at least 5x109 billion colony forming units per viable gram for every 8 L of water, each plant receiving 1 L of water manually in the morning. The soil used in the experiment to fill the vessels was classified as a NEOSOLO QUARTZARENIC dystrophic sandy texture caatinga stage, mixed with organic compound. The results showed that there was no difference between treatments for yield, number of fruits, fruit weight and pH. The treatment of water with probiotic was the one that presented lower acidity and better relation SST / ATT. The reuse of fish water with and without addition of the probiotic for fertirrigation of the cherry tomato crop did not interfere in the fruit production.

  7. Influence of Heat Treatments on Carotenoid Content of Cherry Tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Evoli, Laura; Lombardi-Boccia, Ginevra; Lucarini, Massimo

    2013-07-31

    Tomatoes and tomato products are rich sources of carotenoids-principally lycopene, followed by β-carotene and lutein. The aim of this work was to study the effect of heat treatment on carotenoid content in cherry tomatoes. Raw and canned products were sampled and analysed; furthermore whole, skin and pulp fractions of cherry tomatoes were analysed when raw and home-processed, in order to better understand heat treatment effects. Lycopene content in canned tomatoes was two-fold higher than in raw tomatoes (11.60 mg/100 g versus 5.12 mg/100 g). Lutein and β-carotene were respectively 0.15 mg/100 g and 0.75 mg/100 g in canned tomatoes versus 0.11 mg/100 g and 1.00 mg/100 g in raw tomatoes. For home-processed tomatoes, β-carotene and lutein showed a content decrease in all thermally treated products. This decrease was more evident for β-carotene in the skin fraction (-17%), while for lutein it was greater in the pulp fraction (-25%). Lycopene presented a different pattern: after heat treatment its concentration increased both in the whole and in pulp fractions, while in the skin fraction it decreased dramatically (-36%). The analysis of the isomers formed during the thermal treatment suggests that lycopene is rather stable inside the tomato matrix.

  8. Antifungal activity of food additives in vitro and as ingredients of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose-lipid edible coatings against Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria alternata on cherry tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagundes, Cristiane; Pérez-Gago, María B; Monteiro, Alcilene R; Palou, Lluís

    2013-09-16

    The antifungal activity of food additives or 'generally recognized as safe' (GRAS) compounds was tested in vitro against Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria alternata. Radial mycelial growth of each pathogen was measured in PDA Petri dishes amended with food preservatives at 0.2, 1.0, or 2.0% (v/v) after 3, 5, and 7 days of incubation at 25 °C. Selected additives and concentrations were tested as antifungal ingredients of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC)-lipid edible coatings. The curative activity of stable coatings was tested in in vivo experiments. Cherry tomatoes were artificially inoculated with the pathogens, coated by immersion about 24 h later, and incubated at 20 °C and 90% RH. Disease incidence and severity (lesion diameter) were determined after 6, 10, and 15 days of incubation and the 'area under the disease progress stairs' (AUDPS) was calculated. In general, HPMC-lipid antifungal coatings controlled black spot caused by A. alternata more effectively than gray mold caused by B. cinerea. Overall, the best results for reduction of gray mold on cherry tomato fruit were obtained with coatings containing 2.0% of potassium carbonate, ammonium phosphate, potassium bicarbonate, or ammonium carbonate, while 2.0% sodium methylparaben, sodium ethylparaben, and sodium propylparaben were the best ingredients for coatings against black rot. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Antihyperlipidemic Effects of Sour Cherries Characterized by Different In Vitro Antioxidant Power and Polyphenolic Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Nóra; Blázovics, Anna; Fébel, Hedvig; Salido, Sofía; Altarejos, Joaquín; Fehér, Erzsébet; Kocsis, Ibolya; Szentmihályi, Klára; Abrankó, László; Hegedűs, Attila; Stefanovits-Bányai, Éva

    2015-12-01

    The aims of the present study were to clarify in vivo effects of three sour cherry cultivars characterized by different polyphenolic composition in hyperlipidemic animals in a short term experiment. The three different sour cherry cultivars were chosen based on their total in vitro antioxidant capacity, total polyphenolic, monomeric anthocyanin and flavonoid content. Male Wistar rats were divided randomly into eight groups: rats kept on normal diet (control) and normal diet supplied with sour cherry powder of one of the three cultivars; others were kept on fat-rich diet and fat-rich diet supplied with sour cherry powder prepared from one of the three cultivars. The treatment lasted 10 days. Lyophilized sour cherry administered in the diet decreased both total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels, and increased the HDL cholesterol concentration in sera of hyperlipidemic animals. Significant differences were found in the efficacy of different sour cherry cultivars in case of hyperlipidemia. Sour cherries characterized by higher polyphenol content seem to have a more pronounced effect on serum cholesterol levels. Our results suggest that besides anthocyanins, colourless polyphenols also have lipid lowering effect.

  10. The correlation between cherry picking and the distance that consumers travel to do grocery shopping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Van Scheers

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Retailers often use price promotions to discriminate between consumers who can shift purchases over time and those who cannot. Retailers consistently tend to charge lower prices than necessary, pricing defensively to prevent loyal customers from cherry picking, or shifting to competitors. Knowledge about cherry picking behaviour will enable retailers to obtain a higher share of disposable income from even price-sensitive shoppers, while at the same time charging higher prices. Recent studies indicate that effective cherry picking entails saving costs through price searching over time, price searching across stores, or both. This study examines the relationship between cherry picking and the distance that consumers travel to do grocery shopping. Interviews were conducted at ten different retail outlets over three days, and the results show that there is a highly significant correlation between cherry picking and the distance that consumers travel to do grocery shopping.These results should help retailers to benefit from cherry picking by taking a proactive approach to store switching and store location, two of the main influences on cherry picking behaviour.

  11. Tracking cholesterol/sphingomyelin-rich membrane domains with the ostreolysin A-mCherry protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Skočaj

    Full Text Available Ostreolysin A (OlyA is an ∼15-kDa protein that has been shown to bind selectively to membranes rich in cholesterol and sphingomyelin. In this study, we investigated whether OlyA fluorescently tagged at the C-terminal with mCherry (OlyA-mCherry labels cholesterol/sphingomyelin domains in artificial membrane systems and in membranes of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK epithelial cells. OlyA-mCherry showed similar lipid binding characteristics to non-tagged OlyA. OlyA-mCherry also stained cholesterol/sphingomyelin domains in the plasma membranes of both fixed and living MDCK cells, and in the living cells, this staining was abolished by pretreatment with either methyl-β-cyclodextrin or sphingomyelinase. Double labelling of MDCK cells with OlyA-mCherry and the sphingomyelin-specific markers equinatoxin II-Alexa488 and GST-lysenin, the cholera toxin B subunit as a probe that binds to the ganglioside GM1, or the cholesterol-specific D4 domain of perfringolysin O fused with EGFP, showed different patterns of binding and distribution of OlyA-mCherry in comparison with these other proteins. Furthermore, we show that OlyA-mCherry is internalised in living MDCK cells, and within 90 min it reaches the juxtanuclear region via caveolin-1-positive structures. No binding to membranes could be seen when OlyA-mCherry was expressed in MDCK cells. Altogether, these data clearly indicate that OlyA-mCherry is a promising tool for labelling a distinct pool of cholesterol/sphingomyelin membrane domains in living and fixed cells, and for following these domains when they are apparently internalised by the cell.

  12. Analysis of Agromorphological Descriptors to Differentiate between Duke Cherry (Prunus x gondouinii (Poit. & TurpinRehd. and Its Progenitors: Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L. and Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L. Análisis de Descriptores Agromorfológicos para Diferenciar entre Cerezo Duke (Prunus x gondouinii (Poit. & Turpin Rehd. y sus Progenitores: Cerezo (Prunus avium L. y Guindo (Prunus cerasus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pérez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The rapid identification of the hybrids between sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. and sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. is not easy. In order to resolve this problem, 18 Spanish sweet, sour and duke cherry cultivars were surveyed and characterized using 43 agromorphological descriptors evaluated in flowers, leaves, dormant 1-yr-old shoots, fruits, and trees during 2005 and 2006. Based on quantitative parameters, ANOVA and stepwise discriminant analysis (SDA were carried out. For qualitative descriptors, statistical comparisons were done by means of the chi-square (χ2 test. As result of the study, two quantitative (titratable acidity and number of lenticels and six qualitative descriptors (shape of the central and lateral lobes in the internal bracts of the flower fascicles, leaf shape and margin, pubescence in the veins of the lower side of the leaf, and type of sulci of the seed coat were identified as differential parameters in P. avium, P. cerasus and P. x gondouinii(Poit. & Turpin Rehd. Also, another four qualitative descriptors (petal coloration at the end of blooming, leaf stipule type, and seed shape and viability were found to be useful for easy differentiation between sour and duke cherry. None of these parameters has been employed previously to discriminate among sweet, sour and duke cherry.Los híbridos de cerezo (Prunus avium L. y guindo (Prunus cerasus L. no son fáciles de identificar. Para resolver este problema, 18 cultivares de cerezo, guindo y sus híbridos fueron prospectados y caracterizados agromorfológicamente mediante el estudio de 43 descriptores evaluados en flores, hojas, frutos, ramas de 1 año y árbol durante los años 2005 y 2006. En base a los resultados obtenidos del estudio de los diferentes parámetros cuantitativos se realizaron un ANDEVA y un análisis discriminante escalonado (SDA. Los descriptores cualitativos fueron analizados mediante el test de Chi-cuadrado (χ². Como resultado del estudio se identificaron

  13. Effects of wood biochar addition on growth of cherry radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. radculus pers)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Huadan; Zhang, Qian; Liu, Guocheng

    2018-03-01

    Extensive cultivation and unreasonable management of the farmland result in severe soil degradation such as compaction, acidification, and salinization. Our results showed that the biochar amendment increased the cherry radish germination rate, while barely influenced the fresh biomass of shoot and root. Moreover, both 1.5% and 3% biochar addition showed no significant difference in the fruit shape index of cherry radish compared to the control treatment. These results suggested that the biochar application alone could not improve the cherry radish growth in this tested soil. Thus, application of biochar combined with fertilizer or composted with organic wastes should be taken into account for this soil.

  14. Analisis Pengukuran Produktivitas Perusahaan Alsintan CV. Cherry Sarana Agro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prima Fithri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available CV Cherry Sarana Agro is a manufacturing company, which produces agricultural machinery. In reality, company evaluatesits work and performance based on level of profits. In order to maintain the company's performance, it is necessary to measures the productivity of company to see how effective the performance of this company. So it can be determined what is needed in order to improve the performance of the company and also can increase profits. Measuring the productivity can be seen from the financial data that obtained from the company. Then based on data processing, show this company's productivity levels decreased during the period of measurement and it means company requires efforts to increase the efficient use of inputs. It is necessary for company to increase its productivity for the future. This improvement was made by taking into account the partial productivity as inputs that affect the profitability of the company on an ongoing basis.

  15. Black rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emparan, Roberto; Reall, Harvey S

    2006-01-01

    A black ring is a five-dimensional black hole with an event horizon of topology S 1 x S 2 . We provide an introduction to the description of black rings in general relativity and string theory. Novel aspects of the presentation include a new approach to constructing black ring coordinates and a critical review of black ring microscopics. (topical review)

  16. Listening to old beech and young cherry trees - long-term research in the Alleghenies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan L. Stout; Coeli M. Hoover; Todd E. Ristau

    2006-01-01

    Long-term research results have been a foundation of forestry practice on the Allegheny Plateau since the 1970s. This includes results from monitoring reference conditions in areas set aside for this purpose and from long-running manipulative studies, some dating back to the 1920s. The success of long-term research in this region reflects the commitment of a handful of...

  17. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Flowering Trees. Boswellia serrata Roxb. ex Colebr. (Indian Frankincense tree) of Burseraceae is a large-sized deciduous tree that is native to India. Bark is thin, greenish-ash-coloured that exfoliates into smooth papery flakes. Stem exudes pinkish resin ... Fruit is a three-valved capsule. A green gum-resin exudes from the ...

  18. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Flowering Trees. Ailanthus excelsa Roxb. (INDIAN TREE OF. HEAVEN) of Simaroubaceae is a lofty tree with large pinnately compound alternate leaves, which are ... inflorescences, unisexual and greenish-yellow. Fruits are winged, wings many-nerved. Wood is used in making match sticks. 1. Male flower; 2. Female flower.

  19. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Flowering Trees. Gyrocarpus americanus Jacq. (Helicopter Tree) of Hernandiaceae is a moderate size deciduous tree that grows to about 12 m in height with a smooth, shining, greenish-white bark. The leaves are ovate, rarely irregularly ... flowers which are unpleasant smelling. Fruit is a woody nut with two long thin wings.

  20. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 8 Issue 8 August 2003 pp 112-112 Flowering Trees. Zizyphus jujuba Lam. of Rhamnaceae · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 8 Issue 9 September 2003 pp 97-97 Flowering Trees. Moringa oleifera · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 8 Issue 10 October 2003 pp 100-100 Flowering Trees.

  1. Growth and fruit bearing of the sweet cherry (Prunus avium L

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Radunic

    2011-06-06

    Jun 6, 2011 ... Modern intensive production of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) tends to planting of high ... the highest was recorded on "V", while the smallest was in Spanish bush. Training system and density did not affect the fruit weight.

  2. Selected cultivars of cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) as a new food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    Cornelian cherry is a widely distributed species in. Europe and it .... In connection with the decrease of .... Relationship between total phenolic content (g GAE.kg-1 FM) and DPPH radical scavenging .... Biodiversity, ex-situ conservation and.

  3. Construction of Two mCherry Plasmids (pXG-mCherry for Transgenic Leishmania: Valuable Tools for Future Molecular Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Vacas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania is the causative agent of leishmaniasis, a neglected tropical disease that affects more than 12 million people around the world. Current treatments are toxic and poorly effective due to the acquisition of resistance within Leishmania populations. Thus, the pursuit for new antileishmanial drugs is a priority. The available methods for drug screening based on colorimetric assays using vital dyes are time-consuming. Currently, the use of fluorescent reporter proteins is replacing the use of viability indicator dyes. We have constructed two plasmids expressing the red fluorescent protein mCherry with multiple cloning sites (MCS, adequate for N- and C-terminal fusion protein constructs. Our results also show that the improved pXG-mCherry plasmid can be employed for drug screening in vitro. The use of the red fluorescent protein, mCherry, is an easier tool for numerous assays, not only to test pharmacological compounds, but also to determine the subcellular localization of proteins.

  4. Genetic and molecular characterization of three novel S-haplotypes in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Tatsuya; Potter, Daniel; Tao, Ryutaro; Vieira, Cristina P; Vieira, Jorge; Iezzoni, Amy F

    2008-01-01

    Tetraploid sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) exhibits gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) whereby the specificity of self-pollen rejection is controlled by alleles of the stylar and pollen specificity genes, S-RNase and SFB (S haplotype-specific F-box protein gene), respectively. As sour cherry selections can be either self-compatible (SC) or self-incompatible (SI), polyploidy per se does not result in SC. Instead the genotype-dependent loss of SI in sour cherry is due to the accumulation of non-functional S-haplotypes. The presence of two or more non-functional S-haplotypes within sour cherry 2x pollen renders that pollen SC. Two new S-haplotypes from sour cherry, S(33) and S(34), that are presumed to be contributed by the P. fruticosa species parent, the complete S-RNase and SFB sequences of a third S-haplotype, S(35), plus the presence of two previously identified sweet cherry S-haplotypes, S(14) and S(16) are described here. Genetic segregation data demonstrated that the S(16)-, S(33)-, S(34)-, and S(35)-haplotypes present in sour cherry are fully functional. This result is consistent with our previous finding that 'hetero-allelic' pollen is incompatible in sour cherry. Phylogenetic analyses of the SFB and S-RNase sequences from available Prunus species reveal that the relationships among S-haplotypes show no correspondence to known organismal relationships at any taxonomic level within Prunus, indicating that polymorphisms at the S-locus have been maintained throughout the evolution of the genus. Furthermore, the phylogenetic relationships among SFB sequences are generally incongruent with those among S-RNase sequences for the same S-haplotypes. Hypotheses compatible with these results are discussed.

  5. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF SOME IRANIAN SWEET CHERRY (PRUNUS AVIUM) CULTIVARS USING MICROSATELLITE MARKERS AND MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsad, A; Esna-Ashari, M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize 23 important Iranian sweet cherry (Prunus avium) cultivars collected from different provinces of Iran and 1 foreign cultivar, which was used as control, considered for breeding programs by using 21 microsatellite markers and 27 morphological traits. In sweet cherry (Prunus avium) accessions, leaf, fruit, and stone morphological characters were evaluated during two consecutive years. The study revealed a high variability in the set of evaluated sweet cherry accessions. The majority of important correlations were determined among variables representing fruit and leaf size and variables related to color. Cluster analysis distinguished sweet cherry accessions into two distinct groups. Principal component analysis (PCA) of qualitative and quantitative morphological parameters explained over 86.59% of total variability in the first seven axes. In PCA, leaf traits such as leaf length and width, and fruit traits such as length, width, and weight, and fruit flesh and juice color were predominant in the first two components, indicating that they were useful for the assessment of sweet cherry germplasm characterization. Out of 21 SSR markers, 16 were polymorphic, producing 177 alleles that varied from 4 to 16 alleles (9.35 on average) with a mean heterozygosity value of 0.82 that produced successful amplifications and revealed DNA polymorphisms. Allele size varied from 95 to 290 bp. Cluster analyses showed that the studied sweet cherry genotypes were classified intofive main groups based mainly on their species characteristics and SSR data. In general, our results did not show a clear structuring of genetic variability within the Iranian diffusion area of sweet cherry, so it was not possible to draw any indications on regions of provenance delimitation. The results of this study contribute to a better understanding of sweet cherry genetic variations in Iran, thus making for more efficient programs aimed at preserving biodiversity and

  6. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Cherry Hill, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The solar heating and hot water system installed in existing buildings at the Cherry Hill Inn in Cherry Hill, New Jersey is described in detail. The system is expected to furnish 31.5% of the overall heating load and 29.8% of the hot water load. The collectors are liquid evacuated tube type. The storage system is an above ground insulated steel water tank with a capacity of 7,500 gallons.

  7. Tay-Sach disease with "cherry-red spot"--first reported case in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, L Y; Balasubramaniam, S; Sunder, R; Jamalia, R; Karunakar, T V N; Alagaratnam, J

    2011-12-01

    We present a rare case of Tay-Sachs disease with retinal 'cherry-red spots' in a 19-month-old Malay child. Molecular genetic studies confirmed the diagnosis. The case highlights that 'cherry-red spot' is a useful clinical clue in Tay-Sachs disease and several other lysosomal storage disorders. It serves as an ideal illustration of the eye as a window to inborn error of metabolism.

  8. Identification of the translational start site of codon-optimized mCherry in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Carroll, Paul; Muwanguzi-Karugaba, Julian; Melief, Eduard; Files, Megan; Parish, Tanya

    2014-01-01

    Background Fluorescent proteins are used widely as reporter genes in many organisms. We previously codon-optimized mCherry for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and generated expression constructs with high level expression in mycobacteria with multiple uses in vitro and in vivo. However, little is known about the expression of fluorescent proteins in mycobacteria and the translational start codon for mCherry has not been experimentally determined. Results We determined the translational start site ...

  9. Tree compression with top trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Landau, Gad M.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a new compression scheme for labeled trees based on top trees [3]. Our compression scheme is the first to simultaneously take advantage of internal repeats in the tree (as opposed to the classical DAG compression that only exploits rooted subtree repeats) while also supporting fast...

  10. Tree compression with top trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Landau, Gad M.

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new compression scheme for labeled trees based on top trees. Our compression scheme is the first to simultaneously take advantage of internal repeats in the tree (as opposed to the classical DAG compression that only exploits rooted subtree repeats) while also supporting fast...

  11. Black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feast, M.W.

    1981-01-01

    This article deals with two questions, namely whether it is possible for black holes to exist, and if the answer is yes, whether we have found any yet. In deciding whether black holes can exist or not the central role in the shaping of our universe played by the forse of gravity is discussed, and in deciding whether we are likely to find black holes in the universe the author looks at the way stars evolve, as well as white dwarfs and neutron stars. He also discusses the problem how to detect a black hole, possible black holes, a southern black hole, massive black holes, as well as why black holes are studied

  12. A simplified description of the three-dimensional structure of agroforestry trees for use with a radiative transfer model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meloni, S.

    1998-01-01

    To simulate transmitted radiation in agroforestry systems, radiative transfer models usually require a detailed three-dimensional description of the tree canopy. We propose here a simplification of the description of the three-dimensional structure of wild cherry trees (Prunus avium). The simplified tree description was tested against the detailed one for five-year-old wild cherry. It allowed accurate simulation of transmitted radiation and avoided tedious measurements of tree structure. The simplified description was then applied to older trees. Allometric relationships were used to compute the parameters not available on free-grown trees. The transmitted radiation in an agroforestry system was simulated at four different ages: 5, 10, 15 and 20 years. The trees were planted on a 5 m square grid. Two row orientations, chosen to provide different transmitted radiation patterns, were tested: north/south and north- east/south-west. The simulations showed that the daily mean transmitted radiation was reduced from 92% of incident radiation under five-year-old trees to 37% under 20-year-old trees. The variability of transmitted radiation increased with tree growth. The row orientation had only small effects on the shaded area at the beginning and end of the day when solar elevation was low. (author)

  13. Polyphenols and Volatiles in Fruits of Two Sour Cherry Cultivars, Some Berry Fruits and Their Jams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branka Levaj

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports about the content of polyphenols and volatiles in fresh fruits of two sour cherry cultivars (Marasca and Oblačinska, some berry fruits (strawberry Maya, raspberry Willamette and wild blueberry and the corresponding low sugar jams. Phenolic compounds (hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids, flavan 3-ols and flavonols were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Those found in the fruits were also found in the jams. Jams contained lower amounts of polyphenols than fresh fuits, but their overall retention in jams was relatively high. Among fruits, sour cherry Marasca had the highest level of polyphenols, while sour cherry Marasca jam and raspberry Willamette jam had the highest level of polyphenols among jams. The major flavonoid in all investigated fruits, except in sour cherry Oblačinska, was (–-epicatechin. Sour cherry Marasca had the highest level of (–-epicatechin (95.75 mg/kg, and it also contained very high amounts of flavonols, derivatives of quercetin and kaempferol. Hydroxybenzoic acids (HBAs were not found in sour cherries Marasca and Oblačinska, but were found in berry fruits and jams. Phenolic compound (+-gallocatechin was found only in Marasca fruit and jam. Ellagic acid was found in the highest concentration in raspberry Willamette fruit and jam. Hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs were found in all the investigated fruits, with the exception of a derivative of ferulic acid, which was not found in strawberry. Derivatives of caffeic, p-coumaric and chlorogenic acids were found in all the investigated fruits, with chlorogenic acid being the most abundant, especially in sour cherry Marasca. Volatiles were determined by gas chromatography (GC and expressed as the peak area of the identified compounds. All investigated volatiles of fresh fruit were also determined in the related jams with relatively high retention. Sour cherries Marasca and Oblačinska contained the same volatile compounds, but

  14. Black Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt

    1988-01-01

    Examines some aspects of the problem of alcoholism among Blacks, asserting that Black alcoholism can best be considered in an ecological, environmental, sociocultural, and public health context. Notes need for further research on alcoholism among Blacks and for action to reduce the problem of Black alcoholism. (NB)

  15. Black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Brügmann, B.; Ghez, A. M.; Greiner, J.

    2001-01-01

    Recent progress in black hole research is illustrated by three examples. We discuss the observational challenges that were met to show that a supermassive black hole exists at the center of our galaxy. Stellar-size black holes have been studied in x-ray binaries and microquasars. Finally, numerical simulations have become possible for the merger of black hole binaries.

  16. Effects of planting density and bearing-branch composition on the yield of sweet cherry [Prunus avium] grown by hedge-row training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, A.; Shinya, K.; Watanabe, K.; Inomata, M.

    2008-01-01

    To improve the yield of sweet cherries (Prunus avium L.) grown by hedge-row training, the following two methods were compared: increased numbers of spurs and bouquet spurs to improve the spur composition and narrowed row intervals to increase planting density. To develop spurs and bouquet spurs, 30 cm long branches were positioned at 30 cm intervals on lateral branches in addition to the conventional spur development from 5 cm current shoots. Although this measure decreased the number of bouquet spurs, it increased the total number of spurs including the conventional short spurs to improve the yield to 1,024 kg/10a from 557 kg/10a using conventional hedge-row training. However, this method decreased solar radiation in the tree crowns thereby lowering fruit quality. In contrast, increasing planting density from 3-m intervals to 2- or 1.5-m intervals did not affect fruit quality. Moreover, in contrast to a yield of 588 kg/10a when row intervals were 3 m, the row intervals narrowed to 2 m and 1.5 m improved the yield to 881 kg/10a and 1,101 kg/10a, respectively. The above results show that decreasing row intervals is an effective method for increasing the yield of sweet cherries grown by hedge-row training without lowering fruit quality

  17. Tree Nut Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blog Vision Awards Common Allergens Tree Nut Allergy Tree Nut Allergy Learn about tree nut allergy, how ... a Tree Nut Label card . Allergic Reactions to Tree Nuts Tree nuts can cause a severe and ...

  18. Fruit size QTL analysis of an F1 population derived from a cross between a domesticated sweet cherry cultivar and a wild forest sweet cherry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, G.; Sebolt, A.M.; Sooriyapathirana, S.S.; Wang, D.; Bink, M.C.A.M.; Olmstead, J.W.; Iezzoni, A.F.

    2010-01-01

    Maximizing fruit size is critical for profitable sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) production. Yet, despite its importance, little is known about the genetic control of fruit size. The objective of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for fruit size and two essential components of

  19. Major gene mutations in fruit tree domestication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiegel-Roy, P.

    1989-01-01

    Though fruit gathering from the wild began long before domestication, fruit tree domestication started only after the establishment of grain agriculture. Banana, fig, date, grape and olive were among the first fruit trees domesticated. Most fruit trees are outbreeders, highly heterozygous and vegetatively propagated. Knowledge of genetics and economic traits controlled by major genes is limited. Ease of vegetative propagation has played a prominent part in domestication; advances in propagation technology will play a role in domestication of new crops. Changes toward domestication affected by major genes include self-fertility in peach, apricot and sour cherry, while the emergence of self-fertile almond populations is more recent and due probably to introgression from Amygdalus webbii. Self-compatibility in the sweet cherry has been attained only by pollen irradiation. A single gene controls sex in Vitis. Wild grapes are dioecious, with most domesticated cultivars hermaphrodite, and only a few females. In the papaya changes from dioecism to hermaphroditism have also occurred. Self-compatible systems have also been selected during domestication in Rubus. Changes towards parthenocarpy and seedlessness during domestication occurred in the banana, citrus, grape, fig and pineapple. In the banana, parthenocarpy is due to three complementary dominant genes; stenospermocarpy in the grape depends on two complementary recessive genes; parthenocarpy and sterility in citrus seems more complicated; however, it can be induced in genetic material of suitable background with ease by irradiation. Presence of persistent syconia in the fig is controlled by a mutant allele P dominant to wild +. Thornlessness in blackberry is recessive, while in the pineapple spineless forms are dominant. Changes affecting fruit composition owing to major genes include the disappearance of amygdalin present in bitter almonds (bitter kernel recessive to sweet), shell hardness in almond, and a recessive

  20. The bacterial communities of Drosophila suzukii collected from undamaged cherries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Angus Chandler

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila suzukii is an introduced pest insect that feeds on undamaged, attached fruit. This diet is distinct from the fallen, discomposing fruits utilized by most other species of Drosophila. Since the bacterial microbiota of Drosophila, and of many other animals, is affected by diet, we hypothesized that the bacteria associated with D. suzukii are distinct from that of other Drosophila. Using 16S rDNA PCR and Illumina sequencing, we characterized the bacterial communities of larval and adult D. suzukii collected from undamaged, attached cherries in California, USA. We find that the bacterial communities associated with these samples of D. suzukii contain a high frequency of Tatumella. Gluconobacter and Acetobacter, two taxa with known associations with Drosophila, were also found, although at lower frequency than Tatumella in four of the five samples examined. Sampling D. suzukii from different locations and/or while feeding on different fruits is needed to determine the generality of the results determined by these samples. Nevertheless this is, to our knowledge, the first study characterizing the bacterial communities of this ecologically unique and economically important species of Drosophila.

  1. CONVECTIVE DRYING OF CHERRY TOMATO: STUDY OF SKIN EFFECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. KHAMA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A whole single cherry tomato was dried in a forced convective micro-dryer. The experiments were carried out at constant air velocity and humidity and temperatures of 50, 60, 70 °C. In order to study the effect of the skin, two sets of experiments were performed using a tomato with and without skin (easily removed. Shorter drying times were obtained when increasing drying temperatures as well as when removing sample skin. X-ray microtomography, a non-destructive 3D imaging technique was used to follow shrinkage of the samples. This phenomenon was introduced in the modelling part of this study. Analytical solutions of the Fick’law were used to determine the diffusion coefficient at the three temperatures studied, and then the activation energy was obtained through fitting the Arrhenius equation. The skin effect was clearly evidenced by showing that the mass transfer parameter values of an original tomato with skin were largely smaller than the one without skin. Indeed, the moisture effective diffusivity ranged from 2.56×10-11 to 7.67×10-11 m2·s-1 with activation energy of 50430 J·mol-1 for tomato with skin an ranged from 4.59×10-10 m2·s-1 to 6.73×10-10 m2·s-1 with activation energy of 17640 J.mol-1 for tomato without skin.

  2. Stability of midazolam in syrspend SF and syrspend SF cherry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Christine M; Sorenson, Bridget; Whaley, Paul A

    2013-01-01

    Midazolam is a short-acting benzodiazepine central nervous system depressant available as an injection, tablet, or oral syrup. The need for alternative dosage form options for patients unable to take tablets and shortages of other forms of the drug have led compounding pharmacies to seek alternatives, mainly solutions and suspensions. Additionally, some patients are unable to use suspending agents containing alcohol or sorbitol. The objective of this study was to determine the stability of midazolam in sorbitol-free, alcohol-free SyrSpend SF and SyrSpend SF Cherry suspending agents. The studied samples were compounded into a 1-mg/mL suspension and stored in low-actinic plastic bottles at temperatures between 2 degrees C to 8 degrees C and at room temperature conditions. Six samples were assayed at each time point out to 58 days by a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method. The method was validated for its specificity through forced-degradation studies. The samples remained within 90% to 110% of the initial concentration throughout the course of the study. Based on the data collected, the beyond-use date of these preparations is at least 58 days when protected from light at both refrigerated and room temperature storage conditions.

  3. The Missing Set: How Landscape Acts in The Cherry Orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Leone

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Why is the cherry orchard almost entirely absent from the stage? How does this absent landscape function dramatically? Chekhov's own garden expertise supports a study of the way that landscape in this play—its presence at once pervasive and virtual—both transcends and subverts the functions of setting. Such a reading of the function of landscape leads us to new ways of answering old questions about the play, as well: is the orchard more or other than a symbol? is the play a comedy? I examine the features and conventions of an orchard and garden landscape as they collide with characters' apprehension of the orchard as a repository of the past, and with Lopahin's plans—radical, practical and Romantic—for its future. The orchard's fate parallels the dispersal and re-definition of the family; that shared human and landscape drama can be read to show how landscape is constructed and how that construct depends upon, reflects, and may subvert human intentions.

  4. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    medium-sized handsome tree with a straight bole that branches at the top. Leaves are once pinnate, with two to three pairs of leaflets. Young parts of the tree are velvety. Inflorescence is a branched raceme borne at the branch ends. Flowers are large, white, attractive, and fragrant. Corolla is funnel-shaped. Fruit is an ...

  5. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cassia siamia Lamk. (Siamese tree senna) of Caesalpiniaceae is a small or medium size handsome tree. Leaves are alternate, pinnately compound and glandular, upto 18 cm long with 8–12 pairs of leaflets. Inflorescence is axillary or terminal and branched. Flowering lasts for a long period from March to February. Fruit is ...

  6. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Flowering Trees. Cerbera manghasL. (SEA MANGO) of Apocynaceae is a medium-sized evergreen coastal tree with milky latex. The bark is grey-brown, thick and ... Fruit is large. (5–10 cm long), oval containing two flattened seeds and resembles a mango, hence the name Mangas or. Manghas. Leaves and fruits contain ...

  7. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user

    Flowering Trees. Gliricidia sepium(Jacq.) Kunta ex Walp. (Quickstick) of Fabaceae is a small deciduous tree with. Pinnately compound leaves. Flower are prroduced in large number in early summer on terminal racemes. They are attractive, pinkish-white and typically like bean flowers. Fruit is a few-seeded flat pod.

  8. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Flowering Trees. Acrocarpus fraxinifolius Wight & Arn. (PINK CEDAR, AUSTRALIAN ASH) of. Caesalpiniaceae is a lofty unarmed deciduous native tree that attains a height of 30–60m with buttresses. Bark is thin and light grey. Leaves are compound and bright red when young. Flowers in dense, erect, axillary racemes.

  9. Talking Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolman, Marvin

    2005-01-01

    Students love outdoor activities and will love them even more when they build confidence in their tree identification and measurement skills. Through these activities, students will learn to identify the major characteristics of trees and discover how the pace--a nonstandard measuring unit--can be used to estimate not only distances but also the…

  10. Drawing Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkjær From, Andreas; Schlichtkrull, Anders; Villadsen, Jørgen

    2018-01-01

    We formally prove in Isabelle/HOL two properties of an algorithm for laying out trees visually. The first property states that removing layout annotations recovers the original tree. The second property states that nodes are placed at least a unit of distance apart. We have yet to formalize three...

  11. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    Grevillea robusta A. Cunn. ex R. Br. (Sil- ver Oak) of Proteaceae is a daintily lacy ornamental tree while young and growing into a mighty tree (45 m). Young shoots are silvery grey and the leaves are fern- like. Flowers are golden-yellow in one- sided racemes (10 cm). Fruit is a boat- shaped, woody follicle.

  12. Tree-growth analyses to estimate tree species' drought tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilmann, Britta; Rigling, Andreas

    2012-02-01

    Climate change is challenging forestry management and practices. Among other things, tree species with the ability to cope with more extreme climate conditions have to be identified. However, while environmental factors may severely limit tree growth or even cause tree death, assessing a tree species' potential for surviving future aggravated environmental conditions is rather demanding. The aim of this study was to find a tree-ring-based method suitable for identifying very drought-tolerant species, particularly potential substitute species for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Valais. In this inner-Alpine valley, Scots pine used to be the dominating species for dry forests, but today it suffers from high drought-induced mortality. We investigate the growth response of two native tree species, Scots pine and European larch (Larix decidua Mill.), and two non-native species, black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii Mirb. var. menziesii), to drought. This involved analysing how the radial increment of these species responded to increasing water shortage (abandonment of irrigation) and to increasingly frequent drought years. Black pine and Douglas fir are able to cope with drought better than Scots pine and larch, as they show relatively high radial growth even after irrigation has been stopped and a plastic growth response to drought years. European larch does not seem to be able to cope with these dry conditions as it lacks the ability to recover from drought years. The analysis of trees' short-term response to extreme climate events seems to be the most promising and suitable method for detecting how tolerant a tree species is towards drought. However, combining all the methods used in this study provides a complete picture of how water shortage could limit species.

  13. A Jerte Valley Cherry-Based Product as a Supply of Tryptophan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Garrido

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available L -Tryptophan (tryptophan is an essential amino acid in humans. It has important roles as a precursor of different bioactive compounds. Based on previous studies in which tryptophan has been shown to be present in fresh cherries, the aim of the present work was to analyze the tryptophan content of a Jerte Valley cherry-based product. A previously optimized method of analysis of tryptophan was used, ie, high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC/FL. As expected, HPLC/FL technique permitted to detect and quantify the tryptophan content in a different matrix rather than fresh cherries. In fact, the Jerte Valley cherry-based product contained 69.54 ± 10.64 ppm of tryptophan, thereby showing that this product is a good source of tryptophan. In summary, it has been proven that the Jerte Valley cherry-based product is rich in tryptophan and may be indicated as a supply of this essential amino acid as well as having potential health benefits for conditions where tryptophan is necessary.

  14. Identifying promising accessions of cherry tomato: a sensory strategy using consumers and chefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Mariella C; Deliza, Rosires; Ares, Gastón; Freitas, Daniela De G C; Silva, Aline L S; Carmo, Margarida G F; Abboud, Antonio C S

    2013-06-01

    An increased production of cherry and gourmet tomato cultivars that are harvested at advanced colour stages and sold at a higher price has been observed in the last 10 years. In this context, producers need information on the sensory characteristics of new cultivars and their perception by potential consumers. The aim of the present work was to obtain a sensory characterisation of nine cherry tomato cultivars produced under Brazilian organic cultivation conditions from a chef and consumer perspective. Nine organic cherry tomato genotypes were evaluated by ten chefs using an open-ended question and by 110 consumers using a check-all-that-apply question. Both methodologies provided similar information on the sensory characteristics of the cherry tomato accessions. The superimposed representation of the samples in a multiple factor analysis was similar for consumers' and chefs' descriptions (RV coefficient 0.728), although they used different methodologies. According to both panels, cherry tomatoes were sorted into five groups of samples with similar sensory characteristics. Results from the present work may provide information to help organic producers in the selection of the most promising cultivars for cultivation, taking into account consumers' and chefs' perceptions, as well as in the design of communication and marketing strategies. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Effect of Postharvest Oxalic Acid and Calcium Chloride on Quality Attributes of Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Safa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fruits and vegetables have special importance as a very important part of the human food supply. And from the beginnings of life, man has used these products to supply a part of his food. Nowadays, horticultural products are widely used in the diet. Cherry is one of the deciduous trees in the temperate regions, which is potassium rich. Use of Oxalic acid significantly reduces frost injury in pomegranate fruits during storage at a temperature of 2° C. In fruit trees, the importance of calcium is due to a delay in fruit ripening process and this way products have better portability. Materials and Methods: Firmness test was measured using the FT011 model of penetrometer. For determination of titratable acidity, the 0.1 N sodium hydroxide (NaOH titration method was used. Total Soluble solids content (SSC of fruit was measured by a digital refractometer (PAL-1. For determination of vitamin C in fruit juices, titration method with the indicator, 2,6-di-chlorophenolindophenol was used. Fruit juice pH was measured using pH meter model HI 9811.In order to investigate the effect of postharvest soaking treatment with Oxalic acid on the qualitative specifications and storage life of single grain sweet cherry fruit a research was conducted. This experience was conducted in a completely randomized design with 3 replications separately for the two materials. In this experiment Oxalic acid, in four levels (0,4,6 and 8 mM and Calcium chloride in four levels (0, 40, 55 and 70 mM were applied on the single grain sweet cherry fruit in the form of soaking and sampleswith7-day intervals for a period of 28 days from the fridge out and quanti tate and qualitative traits such as stiffness, weight loss, Titratable acidity, total soluble solids, vitamin C and pH were measured. Results and Discussion: The results showed that compared with control ones all of the concentrations of Oxalic acid and Calcium chloride caused significant differences in the amount

  16. Storage affects the phenolic profiles and antioxidant activities of cherries (Prunus avium L) on human low-density lipoproteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goncalves, B.; Landbo, Anne-Katrine Regel; Let, Mette Bruni

    2004-01-01

    Four sweet cherry cultivars (cvs), Burlat, Saco, Summit and Van, were analysed at harvest and after storage at 2 and 15degreesC for 30 and 6 days respectively. Phenolic profiles in methanolic extracts of freeze-dried samples of the fresh and differently stored cherries were quantified by high...

  17. 78 FR 37966 - Safety Zone; National Cherry Festival Air Show and Fireworks Display, West Grand Traverse Bay...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; National Cherry Festival Air Show and Fireworks Display, West Grand Traverse Bay... the hazards associated with fireworks displays and aircraft involved in the National Cherry Festival... Festival fireworks display and air show. At the close of the comment period, no comments were received in...

  18. Factors affecting quality and health promoting compounds during growth and postharvest life of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Correia, Sofia; Schouten, Rob; Silva, Ana P.; Gonçalves, Berta

    2017-01-01

    Sweet cherries are attractive fruits due to their taste, color, nutritional value, and beneficial health effects. Sweet cherry is a highly perishable fruit and all quality attributes and the level of health promoting compounds are affected by growth conditions, picking, packing, transport, and

  19. Juice clarification by protease and pectinase treatments indicates new roles of pectin and protein in cherry juice turbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Anne S.; Zeuner, Birgitte; Pinelo-Jiménez, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    during cold storage (haze formation) is assumed to be due to protein–phenol interactions. Our results suggest that proteins play a decisive role in the formation of immediate turbidity in cherry juice, and point to that pectin may contribute to turbidity development during cold storage of cherry juice...

  20. Seed washing, exogenous application of gibberellic acid, and cold stratification enhance the germination of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) seed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Javanmard, T.; Zamani, Z.; Keshavarz Afshar, R.; Hashemi, M.; Struik, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    Seed germination in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) is a slow and lengthy process which has delayed breeding efforts. In this study, seed from ripe fruit of the sweet cherry cultivar ‘Lambert’ were collected and, after removing the endocarp, various dormancy-breaking treatments such as seed washing,

  1. The Effect of the Cherry Hill Study Skills Program on Eighth Grade Students' Reading Comprehension and Study Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Marca, Marilyn Tierney

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of the "Cherry Hill Study Skills Program" on eighth grade students' reading comprehension and study skills. The "Cherry Hill Study Skills Program" is a process oriented course dealing with the sequential development of nine specific skills deemed essential to the retrieval and retention of information…

  2. Rootstock-to-scion transfer of transgene-derived small interfering RNAs and their effect on virus resistance in nontransgenic sweet cherry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dongyan; Song, Guo-qing

    2014-12-01

    Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are silencing signals in plants. Virus-resistant transgenic rootstocks developed through siRNA-mediated gene silencing may enhance virus resistance of nontransgenic scions via siRNAs transported from the transgenic rootstocks. However, convincing evidence of rootstock-to-scion movement of siRNAs of exogenous genes in woody plants is still lacking. To determine whether exogenous siRNAs can be transferred, nontransgenic sweet cherry (scions) was grafted on transgenic cherry rootstocks (TRs), which was transformed with an RNA interference (RNAi) vector expressing short hairpin RNAs of the genomic RNA3 of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV-hpRNA). Small RNA sequencing was conducted using bud tissues of TRs and those of grafted (rootstock/scion) trees, locating at about 1.2 m above the graft unions. Comparison of the siRNA profiles revealed that the PNRSV-hpRNA was efficient in producing siRNAs and eliminating PNRSV in the TRs. Furthermore, our study confirmed, for the first time, the long-distance (1.2 m) transfer of PNRSV-hpRNA-derived siRNAs from the transgenic rootstock to the nontransgenic scion in woody plants. Inoculation of nontransgenic scions with PNRSV revealed that the transferred siRNAs enhanced PNRSV resistance of the scions grafted on the TRs. Collectively, these findings provide the foundation for 'using transgenic rootstocks to produce products of nontransgenic scions in fruit trees'. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Phylogenetic trees

    OpenAIRE

    Baños, Hector; Bushek, Nathaniel; Davidson, Ruth; Gross, Elizabeth; Harris, Pamela E.; Krone, Robert; Long, Colby; Stewart, Allen; Walker, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the package PhylogeneticTrees for Macaulay2 which allows users to compute phylogenetic invariants for group-based tree models. We provide some background information on phylogenetic algebraic geometry and show how the package PhylogeneticTrees can be used to calculate a generating set for a phylogenetic ideal as well as a lower bound for its dimension. Finally, we show how methods within the package can be used to compute a generating set for the join of any two ideals.

  4. Low dose irradiation of 'Rainer' sweet cherries as a quarantine treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, S.R.; Moffitt, H.R.; Eakin, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    'Rainier' cherries, with and without gibberellic acid treatment were subjected to radiation at dose levels of 0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, and 1.0 KGy and held for 14 and 21 days at 1C before removal from storage and quality determined. No variation in fruit or stem color, soluble solids, titratable acidity or sensory difference was noted at any of the radiation dose levels. There was 13% loss in-firmness due to radiatlon treatment between 0.4 and 1.0 KGy. Cherries that were treated with gibberellic acid were superior canidates for radiation treatment. 'Rainier' cherries can be irradiated as soon as quality parameters have reached acceptable levels for commercial harvest

  5. Red cherries (Prunus avium var. Stella) processed by pulsed electric field - Physical, chemical and microbiological analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo, Kristine A G; Hamid, Nazimah; Oey, Indrawati; Pook, Chris; Gutierrez-Maddox, Noemi; Ma, Qianli; Ying Leong, Sze; Lu, Jun

    2018-02-01

    This study examined, for the first time, the effect of mild or moderate intensity pulsed electric field (PEF) processing on cherries, in particular changes in physicochemical properties, release of anthocyanins and polyphenols, and the potential growth of lactic acid bacteria. Cherry samples were treated at a constant pulse frequency of 100Hz and a constant pulse width of 20μs with different electric field strengths between 0.3 and 2.5kV/cm. Titratable acidity and total soluble solids values of most PEF samples stored for 24h significantly decreased compared to other samples. Stored samples also had increased cyanidin glucoside content. However, concentration of rutin, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and isorhamnetin rutinoside significantly decreased in samples stored for 24h. In conclusion, sweet cherries were only influenced by storage after PEF processing. PEF processing did not affect the growth of probiotic bacteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Optimal Fluorescence Waveband Determination for Detecting Defective Cherry Tomatoes Using a Fluorescence Excitation-Emission Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Suck Baek

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A multi-spectral fluorescence imaging technique was used to detect defective cherry tomatoes. The fluorescence excitation and emission matrix was used to measure for defects, sound surface and stem areas to determine the optimal fluorescence excitation and emission wavelengths for discrimination. Two-way ANOVA revealed the optimal excitation wavelength for detecting defect areas was 410 nm. Principal component analysis (PCA was applied to the fluorescence emission spectra of all regions at 410 nm excitation to determine the emission wavelengths for defect detection. The major emission wavelengths were 688 nm and 506 nm for the detection. Fluorescence images combined with the determined emission wavebands demonstrated the feasibility of detecting defective cherry tomatoes with >98% accuracy. Multi-spectral fluorescence imaging has potential utility in non-destructive quality sorting of cherry tomatoes.

  7. Black Tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mental alertness as well as learning, memory, and information processing skills. It is also used for treating headache; ... of carbamazepine. Since black tea contains caffeine, in theory taking black tea with carbamazepine might decrease the ...

  8. Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Townsend, P. K.

    1997-01-01

    This paper is concerned with several not-quantum aspects of black holes, with emphasis on theoretical and mathematical issues related to numerical modeling of black hole space-times. Part of the material has a review character, but some new results or proposals are also presented. We review the experimental evidence for existence of black holes. We propose a definition of black hole region for any theory governed by a symmetric hyperbolic system of equations. Our definition reproduces the usu...

  9. Climate change and spring frost damages for sweet cherries in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, Frank-M.; Götz, Klaus-P.; Weber, Katharina C.; Moryson, Susanne

    2018-02-01

    Spring frost can be a limiting factor in sweet cherry ( Prunus avium L.) production. Rising temperatures in spring force the development of buds, whereby their vulnerability to freezing temperatures continuously increases. With the beginning of blossom, flowers can resist only light frosts without any significant damage. In this study, we investigated the risk of spring frost damages during cherry blossom for historical and future climate conditions at two different sites in NE (Berlin) and SW Germany (Geisenheim). Two phenological models, developed on the basis of phenological observations at the experimental sweet cherry orchard in Berlin-Dahlem and validated for endodormancy release and for warmer climate conditions (already published), were used to calculate the beginning of cherry blossom in Geisenheim, 1951-2015 (external model validation). Afterwards, on the basis of a statistical regionalisation model WETTREG (RCP 8.5), the frequency of frost during cherry blossom was calculated at both sites for historical (1971-2000) and future climate conditions (2011-2100). From these data, we derived the final flower damage, defined as the percentage of frozen flowers due to single or multiple frost events during blossom. The results showed that rising temperatures in this century can premature the beginning of cherry blossom up to 17 days at both sites, independent of the used phenological model. The frequency and strength of frost was characterised by a high temporal and local variability. For both sites, no significant increase in frost frequency and frost damage during blossom was found. In Geisenheim, frost damages significantly decreased from the middle of the twenty-first century. This study additionally emphasises the importance of reliable phenological models which not only work for current but also for changed climate conditions and at different sites. The date of endodormancy release should always be a known parameter in chilling/forcing models.

  10. Energy and economic analysis of sweet cherry production in Turkey: A case study from Isparta province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demircan, Vecdi; Ekinci, Kamil; Keener, Harold M.; Akbolat, Davut; Ekinci, Caglar

    2006-01-01

    A survey was conducted using a face to face questionnaire with 92 sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) producers from 10 villages in five districts of the Isparta province where there is intensive sweet cherry production. The data collected was analyzed for the energy and economics of sweet cherry production. The results showed that the most energy consuming input for the different operations investigated was chemical fertilisers (45.35%), especially nitrogen (38.05%). The energy consumption for Diesel fuel was 21.53% of the total energy input. Although chemicals for plant protection had a small portion (1.45%) of the total energy input, the use of pesticide in sweet cherry production per hectare in the Isparta province was 5.36 times higher than that of Turkey's average, increasing the environmental risk problem. The energy use efficiency, defined as energy produced per unit of energy used, was 1.23. The specific energy of sweet cherry production was determined to be 3163.43 MJ tonnes -1 . It was found that the direct and indirect energy inputs were 34.48% and 54.91% of the total energy input, respectively. Among the inputs, renewable energy sources constituted 16.34% of the total energy input, which was lower than that of the non-renewable resources (chemical fertilisers and Diesel fuel). The results showed that the net return from sweet cherry production in the surveyed farms was satisfactory, as demonstrated by the benefit-cost ratio of 2.53 calculated by dividing the gross value of production by the total cost of production per hectare

  11. Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Horowitz, Gary T.; Teukolsky, Saul A.

    1998-01-01

    Black holes are among the most intriguing objects in modern physics. Their influence ranges from powering quasars and other active galactic nuclei, to providing key insights into quantum gravity. We review the observational evidence for black holes, and briefly discuss some of their properties. We also describe some recent developments involving cosmic censorship and the statistical origin of black hole entropy.

  12. Electron Tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, Ane L; Rønde, Heidi S

    2013-01-01

    The photo shows a close-up of a Lichtenberg figure – popularly called an “electron tree” – produced in a cylinder of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Electron trees are created by irradiating a suitable insulating material, in this case PMMA, with an intense high energy electron beam. Upon discharge......, during dielectric breakdown in the material, the electrons generate branching chains of fractures on leaving the PMMA, producing the tree pattern seen. To be able to create electron trees with a clinical linear accelerator, one needs to access the primary electron beam used for photon treatments. We...... appropriated a linac that was being decommissioned in our department and dismantled the head to circumvent the target and ion chambers. This is one of 24 electron trees produced before we had to stop the fun and allow the rest of the accelerator to be disassembled....

  13. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    shaped corolla. Fruit is large, ellipsoidal, green with a hard and smooth shell containing numerous flattened seeds, which are embedded in fleshy pulp. Calabash tree is commonly grown in the tropical gardens of the world as a botanical oddity.

  14. The Use of Synthetic Sweeteners in Cherry and Orange Fruit Drinks (Turkish with English Abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available in the present study aspartame, acesulfame K and aspartame + acesulfame K (1+1 are used instead of sucrose in cherry and orange beverages prepared at different brix values and the preferences of the panel at different sweetener and fruit ratio levels were investigated by using ranking test. The statistical evaluation of the results have shown that the 6 brix cherry drink and 5 brix orange drink plus 350 mg/l aspartame + acesulfame K combinations were preferred (P<0.05 by the panelists.

  15. Determination of the optimum irradiation dose for shelf-life of peas and cherry tomatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaman, M. B.; Hayumbu, P.; Siwale, J.; Mutale, C.; Kabwe, L.

    1991-01-01

    Green peas (Pisum Sativum), cultivar (mangetout) and yellow cherry tomatoes (lycoperscum esculantum), cultivar (cerasiforme) were irradiated for different absorbed doses, and their physical characteristics observed under cold storage conditions, in order to extend their shelf lives. Results suggest that 580 Gy is the maximum optimum dose. At this dose the shelf life of cherry tomatoes is shown to be extended. No beneficial effect was recorded on the storage life of green peas. A good correlation was found between the degradation of chlorophill and the spread of spotting disease for this product. (author)., 19 refs., 2 tab

  16. Rheological behavior of Brazilian Cherry (Eugenia uniflora L. pulp at pasteurization temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Santos Lopes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The rheological behavior of Brazilian Cherry (Eugenia uniflora L. pulp in the range of temperatures used for pasteurization (83 to 97 °C was studied. The results indicated that Brazilian Cherry pulp presented pseudoplastic behavior, and the Herschel-Bulkley model was considered more adequate to represent the rheological behavior of this pulp in the range of temperatures studied. The fluid behavior index (n varied in the range from 0.448 to 0.627. The effect of temperature on the apparent viscosity was described by an equation analogous to Arrhenius equation, and a decrease in apparent viscosity with an increase in temperature was observed.

  17. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Cherry Hill, New Jersey. [Hotels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-16

    The solar heating and hot water system installed in existing buildings at the Cherry Hill Inn in Cherry Hill, New Jersey is described in detail. The system went into operation November 8, 1978 and is expected to furnish 31.5% of the overall heating load and 29.8% of the hot water load. The collectors are General Electric Company liquid evacuated tube type. The storage system is an above ground insulated steel water tank with a capacity of 7,500 gallons.

  18. Time indices of multiphasic development in genotypes of sweet cherry are similar from dormancy to cessation of pit growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibeaut, David M; Whiting, Matthew D; Einhorn, Todd

    2017-02-01

    The archetypical double sigmoid-shaped growth curve of the sweet cherry drupe (Prunus avium) does not address critical development from eco-dormancy to anthesis and has not been correlated to reproductive bud development. Accurate representation of the growth and development of post-anthesis ovaries is confounded by anthesis timing, fruiting-density and the presence of unfertilized and defective ovaries whose growth differs from those that persist to maturation. These factors were addressed to assess pre-anthesis and full-season growth and development of three sweet cherry cultivars, 'Chelan', 'Bing' and 'Sweetheart', differing primarily in seasonal duration and fruit size. Volume was calculated from photographic measurements of reproductive buds, ovaries and pits at all phases of development. A population of unfertilized ovaries was produced using bee-exclusion netting to enable a statistical comparison with an open pollinated population to detect differences in size and shape between successful and failing fruit growth. Anthesis timing and fruiting-density were manipulated by floral extinction at the spur and whole-tree scales. Developmental time indices were analysed using polynomial curve fitting of log-transformed data supported by Richards and logistic functions of asymptotic growth of the pit and maturing fruit, respectively. Pre-anthesis growth began at the completion of eco-dormancy. A slight decline in relative growth rate (RGR) was observed during bud scale separation approx. -16 d from anthesis (DFA) before resumption of exponential growth to a maximum about 14 DFA. After anthesis, reduced growth of unfertilized or defective ovaries was partly discriminated from successful fruit at 5 DFA and completely at 25 DFA. Time indices of RGR inflections were similar among cultivars when adjusted for anthesis date alone, until the end of pit growth. Asymptotic growth of the pit underpinned the declining growth rate of fruit at the end of the first exponential

  19. Possibilities for early diagnostics of graft incompatibility in fruit trees by means of 15N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makariev, Z.; Ivanov, Z.; Koleva, A.; Kukov, Kh.

    1994-01-01

    The classical methods for studying the incompatibility in fruit trees are very prolonged and expensive. Their application starts in nursery, continues in orchard and takes up to 10-12 years. Using the labelled nitrogen method for 3 years we have studied the possibility for early and fast diagnostics of compatibility between graft and rootstock of cherry and apple trees. The studies have been carried out on pot and microfield experiments. The labelled nitrogen is brought into the soil with fertilizer. By evaluating the grade of its transition through the graft zone we make conclusions about the degree of compatibility between the two components. 1 5 N is determined spectrophotometricaly. (author)

  20. Hemangioma rubi no couro cabeludo Cherry hemangioma in the scalp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marcos Pereira

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available O hemangioma rubi (HR é dermatose de origem vascular extremamente freqüente, acometendo mais de 75% da população acima de 70 anos de idade. Em geral compõe-se de lesões múltiplas,localizadas predominantemente no alto do tronco e braços. Clinicamente é caracterizado por lesões que variam desde máculas puntiformes até lesões papulosas com cinco milímetros de diâmetro. As mais novas são vermelhas, em tons vivos, e as mais antigas podem ser azuladas. O HR é de etiologia desconhecida. Histologicamente chama atenção uma neoformação de vasos capilares, que se tornam dilatados e com fenestrações em suas paredes. A membrana basal está muito espessada e existe abundante estroma de colágeno entre os vasos. O presente trabalho demonstra a alta incidência do HR no couro cabeludo Em amostra de 171 pacientes, sendo 85 homens e 86 mulheres, o autor observou que 123 deles (72% tinham HR no couro cabeludo, localização em que o HR nunca foi descrito na literatura.Cherry hemangioma (CH is an extremely frequent dermatosis with vascular origin involving more than 75% of the population over 70 years of age. Normally they are multiplex spots and focus predominantly on the upper trunk and arms. Clinically they are characterized by pinpoint maculae and papules with up to 5 millimeters in diameter. The most recent lesions can be a strong red color while the older ones are bluish. The etiology of CH is still unknown. From the histologic standpoint, the neoformation of the capillary tube draws attention: they are very dilated and with fenestration along the wall. The basement membranes are thickened and there is abundant collagen stroma between the veins. This work demonstrates the high frequency of CH in the scalp. In a sample of 171 patients (85 men and 86 women the author noted that 123 (72% had CH in the scalp. However, according to the literature, CH in the scalp has never been described.

  1. Chemicals from trees and shrubs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halloran, G M

    1978-01-01

    The need for finding economically viable alternatives to crude oil is discussed in the context of Australia's uncertain reserves of black coal, from which crude oil derivatives may have to be obtained when oil supplies become depleted. A table is presented showing the major fractions of crude oil and the likely sources (in general terms) of equivalent substances from forest trees, shrubs and agricultural species.

  2. [A new strategy for enhancing acanthamoebicidal activity with synthesis of nanoflower of Laurocerausus officinalis Roemer (cherry laurel) fruit extracts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldemir, Ayşe; Karaman, Ülkü; Yusufbeyoğlu, Sadi; Eken, Ayşe; Ildız, Nilay; İlgün, Selen; Çolak, Cemil; Kaçmaz, Gamze; Öçsoy, İsmail; Çankaya, Soner

    2018-01-01

    Pathogenic Acanthamoeba species often cause infection known as Acanthamoeba keratitis among people who use contact lenses. It is a type of infection that can result in corneal ulceration, visual loss or even blindness, if not treated. There are various therapeutic options available in the treatment of Acanthamoeba infections but they are usually tough treatments with limited efficacy. For instance, hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) is a commonly used contact lens disinfectant which is effective against Acanthamoeba but it is toxic to the cornea. For these reasons, new and more efficacious treatment options are required for Acanthamoeba infections. In this context, plants are considered natural resources for the discovery of new drugs. Laurocerasus officinalis Roem. (cherry laurel) (Rosaceae) grows in Black Sea region; and it is known as "Taflan", "Laz kirazı" or "Karayemis". Local people are using the seeds against diabetes, while the fruits are consuming as food, and used fordiuretic and passing kidney stones. It has also been reported that the seeds of the cherry laurel are used as an antiparasitic agent in this area. The aim of the study was to confirm the traditionally use of antiparasitic activity of this fruit and to increase the potential effect by means of organic-inorganic hybrid synthesis. Total phenol contents of methanol extracts prepared from endocarp, mesocarp and seeds of the fruit were calculated. The effects of methanol extracts and nano flower (NFs) plants synthesized from these extracts on the proliferation of Acanthamoeba castellanii were investigated. Thus, for the first time, novel organic-inorganic nanobio-antiparasitic agents called NFs were produced from cherry laurel and the increase in the amoebicidal activity of the NFs was elucidated. The characterization of NFs were determined with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FT-IR) and Energy-Dispersive X-ray (EDX) techniques. In addition, the catalytic

  3. Effect of weed control treatments on total leaf area of plantation black walnut (Juglans nigra)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason Cook; Michael R. Saunders

    2013-01-01

    Determining total tree leaf area is necessary for describing tree carbon balance, growth efficiency, and other measures used in tree-level and stand-level physiological growth models. We examined the effects of vegetation control methods on the total leaf area of sapling-size plantation black walnut trees using allometric approaches. We found significant differences in...

  4. New highly divergent Plum pox virus isolates infecting sour cherry in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirkov, Sergei; Ivanov, Peter; Sheveleva, Anna; Zakubanskiy, Alexander; Osipov, Gennady

    2017-02-01

    Unusual Plum pox virus (PPV) isolates (named Tat isolates) were discovered on sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) in Russia. They failed to be recognized by RT-PCR using commonly employed primers specific to the strains C or CR (the only ones that proved able to infect sour cherry) as well as to the strains M and W. Some of them can be detected by RT-PCR using the PPV-D-specific primers P1/PD or by TAS-ELISA with the PPV-C-specific monoclonal antibody AC. Phylogenetic analysis of the 3'-terminal genomic region assigned the Tat isolates into the cluster of cherry-adapted strains. However, they grouped separately from the C and CR strains and from each other as well. The sequence divergence of the Tat isolates is comparable to the differences between the known PPV strains. They may represent new group(s) of cherry-adapted isolates which do not seem to belong to any known strain of the virus. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Genetic Diversity Assessment and Identification of New Sour Cherry Genotypes Using Intersimple Sequence Repeat Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roghayeh Najafzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Iran is one of the chief origins of subgenus Cerasus germplasm. In this study, the genetic variation of new Iranian sour cherries (which had such superior growth characteristics and fruit quality as to be considered for the introduction of new cultivars was investigated and identified using 23 intersimple sequence repeat (ISSR markers. Results indicated a high level of polymorphism of the genotypes based on these markers. According to these results, primers tested in this study specially ISSR-4, ISSR-6, ISSR-13, ISSR-14, ISSR-16, and ISSR-19 produced good and various levels of amplifications which can be effectively used in genetic studies of the sour cherry. The genetic similarity among genotypes showed a high diversity among the genotypes. Cluster analysis separated improved cultivars from promising Iranian genotypes, and the PCoA supported the cluster analysis results. Since the Iranian genotypes were superior to the improved cultivars and were separated from them in most groups, these genotypes can be considered as distinct genotypes for further evaluations in the framework of breeding programs and new cultivar identification in cherries. Results also confirmed that ISSR is a reliable DNA marker that can be used for exact genetic studies and in sour cherry breeding programs.

  6. 75 FR 77564 - Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, et al.;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    .... As with other, similar marketing order programs, reports and forms are periodically studied to reduce... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 930 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-10-0081... Percentages for the 2010-2011 Crop Year for Tart Cherries AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION...

  7. Giant Paperclip Necklaces, Soup-Can Rings and Cherry-Pie Hats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Laurel A.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an art project inspired by the wearable sculpture art created by artist Marjorie Schick. Students used wallpaper paste and newspapers to create papier-mache for a mountain hat, a cherry-pie mask/hat, a "dress" shoe and a Cubistic mask. Cardboard was used in many of these things, in addition to being used as…

  8. Effect of gamma-irradiation on the survival of Listeria monocytogenes and allergenicity of cherry tomatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todoriki, Setsuko; Bari, Latiful; Kitta, Kazumi; Ohba, Mika; Ito, Yasuhiro; Tsujimoto, Yuka; Kanamori, Norihito; Yano, Erika; Moriyama, Tatsuya; Kawamura, Yukio; Kawamoto, Shinichi

    2009-01-01

    The presence of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh produce is a growing concern because of the possibility of food-borne illness. Ionizing radiation is an effective non-thermal means of eliminating pathogenic bacteria in fresh produce; however, the effect of ionizing irradiation on the allergenic properties of the host commodities remains unknown. This study aimed (i) to determine the effective dose of gamma-irradiation in eliminating L. monocytogenes on whole cherry tomatoes and (ii) to evaluate the effect of gamma-irradiation on the allergenic properties of tomato proteins. Cherry tomatoes that were inoculated with a mixture of five L. monocytogenes strains were treated with gamma-rays from a 60 Co source. A 1.25 kGy dose of gamma-irradiation was found to be sufficient to eliminate L. monocytogenes on whole cherry tomatoes. The immunoblot profile of serum samples obtained from two patients with tomato allergy revealed that gamma-irradiation did not affect the allergenicity of tomato proteins for up to 7 days after irradiation when the tomatoes were stored at 20 deg. C. Additionally, the m-RNA levels of β-fructofuranosidase, polygalacturonase, pectin esterase, and superoxide dismutase, the main allergenic proteins in tomato, were not affected by the applied irradiation dose. Thus, this study demonstrated that a 1.25 kGy dose of gamma-irradiation effectively eliminates L. monocytogenes on cherry tomatoes without affecting the expression of allergenic proteins in the fruits.

  9. Cherry Picking Robot Vision Recognition System Based on OpenCV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Qi Rong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Through OpenCV function, the cherry in a natural environment image after image preprocessing, color recognition, threshold segmentation, morphological filtering, edge detection, circle Hough transform, you can draw the cherry’s center and circular contour, to carry out the purpose of the machine picking. The system is simple and effective.

  10. Evaluation of Sanitizing Methods for Reducing Microbial Contamination on Fresh Strawberry, Cherry Tomato, and Red Bayberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Strawberries, cherry tomatoes, and red bayberries, which are the most popular types of fresh produce in China, are vulnerable to microbial contamination. In this study, different sanitizing methods [treatment with 2% organic acids, 0.02% sodium hypochlorite (SH, 0.1% sodium chlorite (SC, and 0.1% acidified sodium chlorite (ASC] were applied to fresh strawberry, cherry tomato, and red bayberry, and their abilities to reduce aerobic bacteria, Escherichia coli O157:H7, mold, yeast, and Salmonella Typhimurium were evaluated. The commercially used SH method reduced the background microbiota on strawberry, cherry tomato, and red bayberry by 0.20–2.07 log cfu/g. The ASC method reduced background microbiota (except for mold on strawberry and cherry tomato by more than 3.0 log cfu/g. ASC was the only sanitizer that significantly reduced mold on red bayberry, and lactic acid was the only organic acid sanitizer that effectively reduced yeast on red bayberry. The ASC method had the best sterilizing effect on the three fresh fruits and also required the shortest sanitizing time and low chlorite content. The application of ASC method significantly reduced the microbiota on retail grocery samples, and the effect was similar to that achieved by sanitizing methods comparison.

  11. Productive variability, border use and plot size in trials with cherry tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Santos

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Knowing the productive variability within protected environments is crucial for choosing the experimental design to be used in that conditions. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess the variability of fruit production in protected environment cultivated with cherry tomatoes and to verify the border effect and plot size in reducing this variability. To this, data from an uniformity test carried out in a greenhouse with cherry tomato cv. ‘Lili’ were used. Total fresh mass of fruits per plant was considered being these plants arranged in cropping rows parallel to the lateral openings of the greenhouse and also the same plants arranged in columns perpendicular to these openings. To generate the borders, different scenarios were designed by excluding rows and columns and using different plot sizes. In each scenario, homogeneity of variances among the remaining rows and columns was tested. There is no variability of fruit production among rows or columns in trials with cherry tomatoes carried out in greenhouses and the use of border does not bring benefits in terms of reduction of coefficient of variation or reduction of cases of variance heterogeneity among rows or columns. Plots with a size equal to or greater than two plants make possible to use the completely randomized design in the cherry tomato trials in greenhouses.

  12. Influence of Post-Harvest Ripening on the Levels of Selected Compounds in Various Cherry Cultivars

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Goliáš, J.; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Kožíšková, J.; Kotas, Petr; Tříska, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 36 (2018) ISSN 1212-1800 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : neochlorogenic acid * organic acids * p-coumaroylquinic acid * rutin * storage * sugars * sweet cherries Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 0.787, year: 2016

  13. Authentication of "Cereza del Jerte" sweet cherry varieties by free zone capillary electrophoresis (FZCE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serradilla, Manuel J; Martín, Alberto; Aranda, Emilio; Hernández, Alejandro; Benito, María J; Lopez-Corrales, Margarita; Córdoba, María de Guía

    2008-11-15

    The purpose of this work was to develop a procedure based on protein analysis by free zone capillary electrophoresis (FZCE) that can be used as an alternative to other methods in the determination of sweet cherry varieties for the authentication of "Cereza del Jerte". Two autochthonous varieties of sweet cherry type "Picota", 'Ambrunés' and 'Pico Negro', and the foreign variety 'Sweetheart' were used in the study. Two protocols for extracting the methanol-soluble proteins were tested. On the basis of the results, direct evaporation with nitrogen of a methanol extract was included in the extraction protocol for routine analysis. This method was found to give excellent repeatability of the corrected migration time (CMT), and showed greater effectiveness in discriminating sweet cherry varieties than the SDS-PAGE technique. Three peaks found in the FZCE electropherograms were investigated as a basis for discriminating between varieties. In addition, the FZCE analysis of methanol-soluble proteins provides information about the physico-chemical parameters relevant to the sensorial quality of the sweet cherries. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 75 FR 31663 - Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Change in the Handling Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... producer returns by providing pack differentiation; and benefit producers, handlers, and consumers. DATES... producer returns by providing pack differentiation, and is expected to benefit producers, handlers, and..., and container regulations for any variety or varieties of cherries grown in the production area...

  15. Phytoplasmas in apricot, peach and sour cherry orchards in East Bohemia, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ludvíková, H.; Fránová, Jana; Suchá, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 64, Suppl. (2011), s. 67-68 ISSN 1721-8861 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC09021 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : Candidatus Phytoplasma prunorum * PCR/RFLP * apricot, peach and sour cherry orchards Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.592, year: 2011

  16. A method for assessing frost damage risk in sweet cherry orchards of South Patagonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cittadini, E.D.; Ridder, de N.; Peri, P.L.; Keulen, van H.

    2006-01-01

    Quantification of frost damage risk is important in planning the development of new orchard areas and for decision-making on design and installation of frost control systems. The objective of this study was to develop a comprehensive method to quantify frost damage risk in different sweet cherry

  17. Cyanogenic Glucosides and Derivatives in Almond and Sweet Cherry Flower Buds from Dormancy to Flowering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Del Cueto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Almond and sweet cherry are two economically important species of the Prunus genus. They both produce the cyanogenic glucosides prunasin and amygdalin. As part of a two-component defense system, prunasin and amygdalin release toxic hydrogen cyanide upon cell disruption. In this study, we investigated the potential role within prunasin and amygdalin and some of its derivatives in endodormancy release of these two Prunus species. The content of prunasin and of endogenous prunasin turnover products in the course of flower development was examined in five almond cultivars – differing from very early to extra-late in flowering time – and in one sweet early cherry cultivar. In all cultivars, prunasin began to accumulate in the flower buds shortly after dormancy release and the levels dropped again just before flowering time. In almond and sweet cherry, the turnover of prunasin coincided with increased levels of prunasin amide whereas prunasin anitrile pentoside and β-D-glucose-1-benzoate were abundant in almond and cherry flower buds at certain developmental stages. These findings indicate a role for the turnover of cyanogenic glucosides in controlling flower development in Prunus species.

  18. Cryopreservation of dormant vegetative buds of tart and sweet cherry in liquid nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field collections of clonally propagated fruit crops such as tart and sweet cherry are vulnerable to damage by pests, diseases and environmental stresses and are expensive to maintain. There is a need in Kazakhstan to create backup collections of plants to guarantee germplasm preservation. Cryoprese...

  19. 75 FR 46901 - Changes to Treatments for Sweet Cherries from Australia and Irradiation Dose for Mediterranean...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-04

    ... misspelling in a footnote. The issues raised by the remaining commenters are discussed below. One commenter... Turkey and Iran at an economic disadvantage in the world cherry market. The treatments discussed in the... pest-free areas for that pest. Because the cooler climate and geographical isolation of Tasmania...

  20. Effect of gamma-irradiation on the survival of Listeria monocytogenes and allergenicity of cherry tomatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todoriki, Setsuko; Bari, Latiful; Kitta, Kazumi; Ohba, Mika; Ito, Yasuhiro; Tsujimoto, Yuka; Kanamori, Norihito; Yano, Erika; Moriyama, Tatsuya; Kawamura, Yukio; Kawamoto, Shinichi

    2009-07-01

    The presence of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh produce is a growing concern because of the possibility of food-borne illness. Ionizing radiation is an effective non-thermal means of eliminating pathogenic bacteria in fresh produce; however, the effect of ionizing irradiation on the allergenic properties of the host commodities remains unknown. This study aimed (i) to determine the effective dose of gamma-irradiation in eliminating L. monocytogenes on whole cherry tomatoes and (ii) to evaluate the effect of gamma-irradiation on the allergenic properties of tomato proteins. Cherry tomatoes that were inoculated with a mixture of five L. monocytogenes strains were treated with gamma-rays from a 60Co source. A 1.25 kGy dose of gamma-irradiation was found to be sufficient to eliminate L. monocytogenes on whole cherry tomatoes. The immunoblot profile of serum samples obtained from two patients with tomato allergy revealed that gamma-irradiation did not affect the allergenicity of tomato proteins for up to 7 days after irradiation when the tomatoes were stored at 20 °C. Additionally, the m-RNA levels of β-fructofuranosidase, polygalacturonase, pectin esterase, and superoxide dismutase, the main allergenic proteins in tomato, were not affected by the applied irradiation dose. Thus, this study demonstrated that a 1.25 kGy dose of gamma-irradiation effectively eliminates L. monocytogenes on cherry tomatoes without affecting the expression of allergenic proteins in the fruits.

  1. Effect of gamma-irradiation on the survival of Listeria monocytogenes and allergenicity of cherry tomatoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todoriki, Setsuko [National Food Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642 (Japan)], E-mail: setsuko@affrc.go.jp; Bari, Latiful; Kitta, Kazumi; Ohba, Mika; Ito, Yasuhiro; Tsujimoto, Yuka [National Food Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642 (Japan); Kanamori, Norihito [Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8686 (Japan); Yano, Erika; Moriyama, Tatsuya; Kawamura, Yukio [School of Agriculture, Kinki University, Nara-city, Nara 631-8505 (Japan); Kawamoto, Shinichi [National Food Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642 (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    The presence of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh produce is a growing concern because of the possibility of food-borne illness. Ionizing radiation is an effective non-thermal means of eliminating pathogenic bacteria in fresh produce; however, the effect of ionizing irradiation on the allergenic properties of the host commodities remains unknown. This study aimed (i) to determine the effective dose of gamma-irradiation in eliminating L. monocytogenes on whole cherry tomatoes and (ii) to evaluate the effect of gamma-irradiation on the allergenic properties of tomato proteins. Cherry tomatoes that were inoculated with a mixture of five L. monocytogenes strains were treated with gamma-rays from a {sup 60}Co source. A 1.25 kGy dose of gamma-irradiation was found to be sufficient to eliminate L. monocytogenes on whole cherry tomatoes. The immunoblot profile of serum samples obtained from two patients with tomato allergy revealed that gamma-irradiation did not affect the allergenicity of tomato proteins for up to 7 days after irradiation when the tomatoes were stored at 20 deg. C. Additionally, the m-RNA levels of {beta}-fructofuranosidase, polygalacturonase, pectin esterase, and superoxide dismutase, the main allergenic proteins in tomato, were not affected by the applied irradiation dose. Thus, this study demonstrated that a 1.25 kGy dose of gamma-irradiation effectively eliminates L. monocytogenes on cherry tomatoes without affecting the expression of allergenic proteins in the fruits.

  2. Sensitivity of promising cherry hybrids and new cultivars to economically important fungal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Vasileva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. As a result of years of developing the breeding programme for creating novel sweet cherry cultivars in the Fruit Growing Institute (FGI, Plovdiv, a reach hybrid fund from first and second hybrid generation is created. Of the selected and propagated hybrids at a more advanced stage of testing are 11 hybrids along with three new cultivars of the FGI Plovdiv ('Kossara', 'Rosalina' and 'Trakiiska hrushtyalka' grafted on three rootstocks were tested for sensitivity to causers of economically important fungal diseases in sweet cherry - cherry leaf spot (Blumeriella jaapii (Rehm Arx, shothole blight (Stigmina carpophila (Lev. Ellis and brown rot (Monilinia fructigena (G. Wint Honey. The degree of infestation under field conditions is reported by determining the index of attack on leaves and fruit, using the formula of McKinney. As the most sensitive elites are outlined elite El.17-31 (to cherry leaf spot and elite El.17-136 (to shothole blight. The cultivars 'Kossara' and 'Trakiiska hrushtyalka' exhibit an average resistance to the three diseases, as the values for the index of infestation are lower or similar to those of standard cultivars 'Van' and 'Bing', while 'Rosalina' demonstrated sensitivity to shothole blight and brown rot. Interesting is the elite El.17- 37 demonstrating the least infestation of Blumeriella jaapii - 7.33% and Monilinia fructigena - 6.67%. The same has a set of valuable qualities as late maturing date and very large fruits with excellent sensory profile, making it a potential candidate cultivar.

  3. Direct photothermal techniques for quantification of anthocyanins in sour cherry cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doka, O.; Ficzek, G.; Bicanic, D.D.; Spruijt, R.B.; Luterotti, S.; Toth, M.; Buijnsters, J.G.; György Végvári, G.

    2011-01-01

    The analytical performance of the newly proposed laser-based photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) and of optothermal window (OW) method for quantification of total anthocyanin concentration (TAC) in five sour cherry varieties is compared to that of the spectrophotometry (SP). High performance liquid

  4. Assessing the potential for establishment of western cherry fruit fly using ecological niche modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Neven, Lisa G; Yee, Wee L

    2014-06-01

    Sweet cherries, Prunus avium (L.) L., grown in the western United States are exported to many countries around the world. Some of these countries have enforced strict quarantine rules and trade restrictions owing to concerns about the potential establishment and subsequent spread of western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), a major quarantine pest of sweet cherry. We used 1) niche models (CLIMEX and MaxEnt) to map the climatic suitability, 2) North Carolina State University-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Plant Pest Forecasting System to examine chilling requirement, and 3) host distribution and availability to assess the potential for establishment of R. indifferens in areas of western North America where it currently does not exist and eight current or potential fresh sweet cherry markets: Colombia, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Taiwan, Thailand, Venezuela, and Vietnam. Results from niche models conformed well to the current distribution of R. indifferens in western North America. MaxEnt and CLIMEX models had high performance and predicted climatic suitability in some of the countries (e.g., Andean range in Colombia and Venezuela, northern and northeastern India, central Taiwan, and parts of Vietnam). However, our results showed no potential for establishment of R. indifferens in Colombia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Taiwan, Thailand, Venezuela, and Vietnam when the optimal chilling requirement to break diapause (minimum temperature policy makers.

  5. Aroma peculiarities of apricot (Armeniaca vulgaris Lam. and cherry-plum (Prunus cerasifera Ehrh. flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. М. Горіна

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the component composition of volatile solutions determining fragrance of the flowers in apricot and cherry-plum varieties and Prunus brigantiaca Vill. x Armeniaca vulgaris Lam. hybrids there are 36 highest hydrocarbons and benzaldehyde that prevail. There are fewer amounts of the solutions which scare bees (benzaldehyde in the fragrance of cherry-plum varieties as compared to the flowers of apricot and hybrids. At the same time, the content of tricosane, pentacosane, docosane, heneycosane, eicosane, nonadecan that probably attract bees is higher in the cherry-plum flowers than in the fragrance of apricot and hybrid flowers. The average three years yield of cherry-plum plants (Nikitska Zhovta 10,7 and Salgirskaya Rumjanaya 28,5 t/ ha is higher than for apricot (Recolte de Schatene 0,3; Rodnik 2,9; Ananasniy Tsurupinsky 7,4 t/ha and hybrids (8110 – 5,2; 8098 – 6,4 t/ha that could be explained with better pollination of flowers and better fruit formation. Prevailing components of flower aroma of these plants    and their possible link with yield of the objects in questions have been analyzed.

  6. Stage-specific fluorescence intensity of GFP and mCherry during sporulation In Bacillus Subtilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailey Kirra

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fluorescent proteins are powerful molecular biology tools that have been used to study the subcellular dynamics of proteins within live cells for well over a decade. Two fluorescent proteins commonly used to enable dual protein labelling are GFP (green and mCherry (red. Sporulation in the Gram positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis has been studied for many years as a paradigm for understanding the molecular basis for differential gene expression. As sporulation initiates, cells undergo an asymmetric division leading to differential gene expression in the small prespore and large mother cell compartments. Use of two fluorescent protein reporters permits time resolved examination of differential gene expression either in the same compartments or between compartments. Due to the spectral properties of GFP and mCherry, they are considered an ideal combination for co-localisation and co-expression experiments. They can also be used in combination with fluorescent DNA stains such as DAPI to correlate protein localisation patterns with the developmental stage of sporulation which can be linked to well characterised changes in DNA staining patterns. Findings While observing the recruitment of the transcription machinery into the forespore of sporulating Bacillus subtilis, we noticed the occurrence of stage-specific fluorescence intensity differences between GFP and mCherry. During vegetative growth and the initial stages of sporulation, fluorescence from both GFP and mCherry fusions behaved similarly. During stage II-III of sporulation we found that mCherry fluorescence was considerably diminished, whilst GFP signals remained clearly visible. This fluorescence pattern reversed during the final stage of sporulation with strong mCherry and low GFP fluorescence. These trends were observed in reciprocal tagging experiments indicating a direct effect of sporulation on fluorescent protein fluorophores. Conclusions Great care should be taken

  7. Performance of a Horizontal Double Cylinder Type of Fresh Coffee Cherries Pulping Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukrisno Widyotomo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Pulping is one important step in wet coffee processing method. Usually, pulping process uses a machine which constructed using wood or metal materials. A horizontal single cylinder type coffee pulping machine is the most popular machine in coffee processor and market. One of the weakness of a horizontal single cylinder type coffee pulping machine is high of broken beans. Broken beans is one of major aspect in defect system that result in low quality. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute has designed and tested a horizontal double cylinder type coffee pulping machine. Material tested is Robusta cherry, mature, 60—65% (wet basis moisture content, which size compostition of coffee cherries was 50.8% more than 15 mm diameter, 32% more than 10 mm diameter, and 16.6% to get through 10 mm hole diameter; 690—695 kg/m3 bulk density, and clean from methal and foreign materials. The result showed that this machine has 420 kg/h optimal capacity in operational conditions, 1400 rpm rotor rotation speed for unsorted coffee cherries with composition 53.08% whole parchment coffee, 16.92% broken beans, and 30% beans in the wet skin. For small size coffee cherries, 603 kg/h optimal capacity in operational conditions, 1600 rpm rotor rotation speed with composition 51.30% whole parchment coffee, 12.59% broken beans, and 36.1% beans in the wet skin. Finally, for medium size coffee cherries, 564 kg/h optimal capacity in operational conditions, 1800 rpm rotor rotation speed with composition 48.64% whole parchment coffee, 18.5% broken beans, and 32.86% beans in the wet skin.Key words : coffee, pulp, pulper, cylinder, quality.

  8. The determination of antioxidant activity of Brazil-cherry (Eugenia uniflora L.) leaves extract using FRAP method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawati, Puji; Maulida, Ika Rahma; Muhaimin

    2017-12-01

    Brazil-cherry leaves (Eugenia uniflora L.) have antioxidant activity because they contain phenolic and flavonoids compounds. The aim of the study was to obtain antioxidant activity using FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power) method. Brazil-cherry leaves were extracted using soxhlet method by ethanol 70%. The free radical activity absorbance was measured with a UV-Vis spectrophotometer at a wavelength of 711 nm and the total value of antioxidant activity was calculated based on the data absorbance. The results showed that Brazil-cherry leaves have the antioxidant activity with the value 2.493mgAAE/g extract.

  9. Black Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Khristin Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united.  The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape from poverty of enslavement and to establish a way of life through tradition. A way of personal freedoms was through getting a good education that lead to a better foundation and a better way of life.

  10. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    deciduous tree with irregularly-shaped trunk, greyish-white scaly bark and milky latex. Leaves in opposite pairs are simple, oblong and whitish beneath. Flowers that occur in branched inflorescence are white, 2–. 3cm across and fragrant. Calyx is glandular inside. Petals bear numerous linear white scales, the corollary.

  11. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Berrya cordifolia (Willd.) Burret (Syn. B. ammonilla Roxb.) – Trincomali Wood of Tiliaceae is a tall evergreen tree with straight trunk, smooth brownish-grey bark and simple broad leaves. Inflorescence is much branched with white flowers. Stamens are many with golden yellow anthers. Fruit is a capsule with six spreading ...

  12. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Canthium parviflorum Lam. of Rubiaceae is a large shrub that often grows into a small tree with conspicuous spines. Leaves are simple, in pairs at each node and are shiny. Inflorescence is an axillary few-flowered cymose fascicle. Flowers are small (less than 1 cm across), 4-merous and greenish-white. Fruit is ellipsoid ...

  13. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sriranga

    Hook.f. ex Brandis (Yellow. Cadamba) of Rubiaceae is a large and handsome deciduous tree. Leaves are simple, large, orbicular, and drawn abruptly at the apex. Flowers are small, yellowish and aggregate into small spherical heads. The corolla is funnel-shaped with five stamens inserted at its mouth. Fruit is a capsule.

  14. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Celtis tetrandra Roxb. of Ulmaceae is a moderately large handsome deciduous tree with green branchlets and grayish-brown bark. Leaves are simple with three to four secondary veins running parallel to the mid vein. Flowers are solitary, male, female and bisexual and inconspicuous. Fruit is berry-like, small and globose ...

  15. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Aglaia elaeagnoidea (A.Juss.) Benth. of Meliaceae is a small-sized evergreen tree of both moist and dry deciduous forests. The leaves are alternate and pinnately compound, terminating in a single leaflet. Leaflets are more or less elliptic with entire margin. Flowers are small on branched inflorescence. Fruit is a globose ...

  16. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user

    Flowers are borne on stiff bunches terminally on short shoots. They are 2-3 cm across, white, sweet-scented with light-brown hairy sepals and many stamens. Loquat fruits are round or pear-shaped, 3-5 cm long and are edible. A native of China, Loquat tree is grown in parks as an ornamental and also for its fruits.

  17. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mid-sized slow-growing evergreen tree with spreading branches that form a dense crown. The bark is smooth, thick, dark and flakes off in large shreds. Leaves are thick, oblong, leathery and bright red when young. The female flowers are drooping and are larger than male flowers. Fruit is large, red in color and velvety.

  18. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Andira inermis (wright) DC. , Dog Almond of Fabaceae is a handsome lofty evergreen tree. Leaves are alternate and pinnately compound with 4–7 pairs of leaflets. Flowers are fragrant and are borne on compact branched inflorescences. Fruit is ellipsoidal one-seeded drupe that is peculiar to members of this family.

  19. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    narrow towards base. Flowers are large and attrac- tive, but emit unpleasant foetid smell. They appear in small numbers on erect terminal clusters and open at night. Stamens are numerous, pink or white. Style is slender and long, terminating in a small stigma. Fruit is green, ovoid and indistinctly lobed. Flowering Trees.

  20. ~{owering 'Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . Stamens are fused into a purple staminal tube that is toothed. Fruit is about 0.5 in. across, nearly globose, generally 5-seeded, green but yellow when ripe, quite smooth at first but wrinkled in drying, remaining long on the tree ajier ripening.

  1. Tree Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark J. Ambrose

    2012-01-01

    Tree mortality is a natural process in all forest ecosystems. However, extremely high mortality also can be an indicator of forest health issues. On a regional scale, high mortality levels may indicate widespread insect or disease problems. High mortality may also occur if a large proportion of the forest in a particular region is made up of older, senescent stands....

  2. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Guaiacum officinale L. (LIGNUM-VITAE) of Zygophyllaceae is a dense-crowned, squat, knobbly, rough and twisted medium-sized ev- ergreen tree with mottled bark. The wood is very hard and resinous. Leaves are compound. The leaflets are smooth, leathery, ovate-ellipti- cal and appear in two pairs. Flowers (about 1.5.

  3. Pseudomnas syringae – a Pathogen of Fruit Trees in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljko Gavrilović

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Data about symptomatology, pathogenicity and bacteriological characteristics of Pseudomonas syringae, and PCR methods for fast and reliable detection of the pathogen are given in this paper. P. syringae has been experimentaly proved as a pathogen of pear, apple, apricot, plum cherry, and raspberry, and pathogen strains have also been isolated from necrotic peach buds. Two pathogen varieties, syringae and morsprunorum, were found in our research in Serbia, the former being dominant on fruit trees.The most reliable method for detection of this bacteria is PCR, using BOX and REP primers. This method has also revealed significant differences among the strains originating from fruit trees in Serbia. Thus, it was proved that the population of P. syringae in Serbia is heterogeneous, which is very important for future epidemiologocal studies. Control of this pathogen includes mechanical, cultural and chemical measures, but integrated approach is very important for sustainable control.

  4. Viability of probiotic bacteria and some chemical and sensory characteristics in cornelian cherry juice during cold storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amene Nematollahi

    2016-05-01

    Conclusion: The results showed that low pH and presence of inhibitor phenolic compounds of cornelian cherry juice have negative effect on viability of probiotics, especially industrial strains during refrigerated storage.

  5. Efficiency of enzymatic and other alternative clarification and fining treatments on turbidity and haze in cherry juice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge; Köser, C.; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2001-01-01

    function. Individual and interactive effects on turbidity and haze formation in precentrifuged and uncentrifuged cherry juice of treatments with pectinase, acid protease, bromelain, gallic acid, and gelatin-silica sol were investigated in a factorial experimental design with 32 different parameter...... combinations. Gelatin-silica sol consistently had the best effect on juice clarity. Centrifugation of cherry juice (10000g for 15 min) prior to clarification treatment significantly improved juice clarity and diminished the rate of haze formation during cold storage of juice. Both treatment of precentrifuged...... cherry juice with Novozym 89L protease and co- addition of pectinase and gallic acid improved cherry juice clarity and diminished haze levels. None of the alternative treatments produced the unwieldy colloids notorious to gelatin- silica sol treatment. The data suggest that several alternative...

  6. Physicochemical properties, firmness, and nanostructures of sodium carbonate-soluble pectin of 2 Chinese cherry cultivars at 2 ripening stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lifen; Chen, Fusheng; An, Hongjie; Yang, Hongshun; Sun, Xiaoyang; Guo, Xingfeng; Li, Lite

    2008-08-01

    Firmness and physicochemical properties of 2 Chinese cherry (Prunus pseudocerasus L.) cultivars (soft cultivar "Caode" and crisp cultivar "Bende") at unripe and ripe stages were investigated, and the qualitative and quantitative information about sodium carbonate-soluble pectin (SSP) nanostructures was determined by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The lengths and widths of the cherry SSPs are very regular: almost all of the widths and lengths of SSP single molecules are composed of several basic units. The widths of the SSP chains are 37, 47, 55, and 61 nm, and the lengths are 123, 202, and 380 nm in both cultivars. The results show that the firmer cherry groups (crisp fruit) contain more percentages of wide and short SSP chains than soft fruit, and the unripe groups contain more percentages of wide and long SSP chains than corresponding ripe groups. They indicate that those nanostructural characteristics of SSP are closely related with firmness of the Chinese cherries in each cultivar.

  7. In vivo and in vitro production of some genotypes of cherry tomato Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme (Dunal)

    OpenAIRE

    Koleva Gudeva, Liljana; Dedejski, George

    2012-01-01

    Cherry tomato is a variety that is poorly present at Macedonian fields, mainly due to the traditional habits of the consumers and the commercial tomato producers to grow tomato varieties with large fruit. Cherry tomato - Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. var. cerasiforme (Dunal) is a tomato variety with small fruit, while having different shapes and colors, and it is used mainly for fresh consumption. The features of this variety are portrayed its sweetness and aroma, which further enriche the ta...

  8. Characterization of Four Popular Sweet Cherry Cultivars Grown in Greece by Volatile Compound and Physicochemical Data Analysis and Sensory Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria V. Vavoura

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatile compounds, physicochemical and sensory attributes of four sweet cherry cultivars (Canada giant, Ferrovia, Lapins and Skeena grown in Northern Greece were determined. Eighteen volatile compounds were identified and semi-quantified in cherries using solid phase micro extraction in combination with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS. Carbonyl compounds were the most abundant in sweet cherry aroma, followed by alcohols, esters and hydrocarbons/terpenes. Cherry cultivars in order of increasing amounts of volatiles were: Lapins < Canada giant < Ferrovia < Skeena. Physicochemical parameters determined included: titratable acidity (TA, pH, total soluble solids (TSS, maturity index (MI and total phenolic content (TPC. TA ranged between 0.21 and 0.28 g malic acid/100 g fresh weight (FW. The pH ranged between 3.81 and 3.96. TSS ranged between 13.00 and 16.00 °Brix. MI ranged between 51.8 and 75.0. TPC ranged between 95.14 and 170.35 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE/100 g FW. Sensory evaluation showed that cherry colour, in order of increasing intensity, was: Canada giant < Ferrovia < Lapins < Skeena. Respective order for cherry firmness was: Canada giant < Lapins ≤ Ferrovia < Skeena and for flavour: Lapins < Canada giant < Skeena ≤ Ferrovia. Correlation of volatiles to physicochemical and sensory attributes showed varying trends.

  9. Microbial diversity in pitted sweet cherries (Prunus avium L.) as affected by High-Hydrostatic Pressure treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo Del Árbol, Julia; Pérez Pulido, Rubén; La Storia, Antonietta; Grande Burgos, Maria José; Lucas, Rosario; Ercolini, Danilo; Gálvez, Antonio

    2016-11-01

    Sweet cherries are a highly appreciated seasonal fruit rich in anthocyanins. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of High-Hydrostatic Pressure (HHP) processing on the microbiological quality and bacterial biodiversity of sweet cherries. Pitted cherries inoculated with their own epiphyte microbiota to simulate a worst-case scenario of contamination during preparation and processing were treated or not by HHP (600MPa, 8min) and stored at 4°C for 60days. HHP treatment reduced total viable counts by 4.65 log cycles. The surviving bacterial fraction did not increase significantly (phigh-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene revealed that Proteobacteria had highest relative abundance (88.70%) in the spiked cherries followed by Firmicutes (11.04%). Gluconobacter and Enterobacteriaceae together with Leuconostoc were the most abundant Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs). Upon application of HHP treatment, 97.62% of OTUs from the surviving fraction belonged to Proteobacteria. The relative abundance of Enterobacteriaceae also decreased markedly while Acetobacteraceae (represented mainly by Gluconobacter) increased to 89.18%. Gluconobacter dominated during storage. Results from the present study provide insights on the microbiota of sweet cherries and the dynamics of the bacterial populations surviving HHP treatments that may be useful to improve the non-thermal preservation of cherries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Surface tree languages and parallel derivation trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelfriet, Joost

    1976-01-01

    The surface tree languages obtained by top-down finite state transformation of monadic trees are exactly the frontier-preserving homomorphic images of sets of derivation trees of ETOL systems. The corresponding class of tree transformation languages is therefore equal to the class of ETOL languages.

  11. Heterologous overexpression of sfCherry fluorescent protein in Nannochloropsis salina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam Kyu Kang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Oleaginous microalgae of the Nannochloropsis genus are considered excellent candidates for biofuels and value-added products owing to their high biomass productivity and lipid content. Here, we report the first overexpression and detection of a heterologous sfCherry fluorescent protein in Nannochloropsis salina in order to develop a transformation toolbox for future genetic improvements. Particle bombardment was employed for transformation, and expression of Shble under the control of TUB and UEP promoters, cloned from N. salina, was used to confer resistance to Zeocin antibiotics, resulting in 5.9 and 4.7 transformants per 108 cells, respectively. Stable integration of the markers into the genome was confirmed using a restriction enzyme site-directed amplification (RESDA PCR. The expression of sfCherry fluorescent protein was confirmed by Western blot analysis and confocal microscopy. These results suggest new possibilities of efficient genetic engineering of Nannochloropsis for the production of biofuels and other biochemicals.

  12. Optimization of Sour Cherry Juice Spray Drying as
Affected by Carrier Material and Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorić, Zoran; Pedisić, Sandra; Dragović-Uzelac, Verica

    2016-01-01

    Summary Response surface methodology was applied for optimization of the sour cherry Marasca juice spray drying process with 20, 30 and 40% of carriers maltodextrin with dextrose equivalent (DE) value of 4–7 and 13–17 and gum arabic, at three drying temperatures: 150, 175 and 200 °C. Increase in carrier mass per volume ratio resulted in lower moisture content and powder hygroscopicity, higher bulk density, solubility and product yield. Higher temperatures decreased the moisture content and bulk density of powders. Temperature of 200 °C and 27% of maltodextrin with 4–7 DE were found to be the most suitable for production of sour cherry Marasca powder. PMID:28115901

  13. Cherry Creek North Improvements and Fillmore Plaza Landscape Performance Benefits Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Bo; Zhang, Yue

    2012-01-01

    The 16-block Cherry Creek North retail district was designed to be Denver's premier outdoor shopping area. Yet deteriorating infrastructure, tired aesthetics and competition from an adjacent indoor mall had led to steady decline. Fillmore Plaza in the heart of the district was no longer a desirable public space since being closed to vehicular traffic in 1987. The new streetscape strengthens the retail environment, preserves the district's history and character, improves identity, beautifies t...

  14. contents of sweet cherry ( Prunus avium L. ) type grown in Konya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this research, several physico-chemical properties and mineral contents of one earliest (May 19) sweet cherry type grown in Konya region were determined. The results in terms of chemical properties were total soluble solids, 18.33 mg/100 g; pH, 3.86; color, S41P50E41; texture, 0.25 kg/cm2; and juice yield, 66.28%.

  15. TEXTURAL, FLOW AND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF FIVE “FRUZELINA” WITH SOUR CHERRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Bojdo Tomasiak

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Gel with sour cherries called “Fruzelina” is a new product in the Polish market widely used in food industry as a decorative element or filling for pastries, as an ingredient in fruit desserts, as an additive to ice creams, whipped cream and waffles. The cherry gels are the product prepared using different types of chemically modified starches. Starch is an additive used to ensure rich and short texture and high viscosity of “Fruzelina”. Food texture and viscosity may be measured by senses and instrumentally. Because of fact that sensory analysis is time consuming and very costly, it is easier and cheaper to determine food properties, especially their texture and flow behaviour by appropriate mechanical tests. The aim of this work was to study the rheological behavior of five cherry gels and evaluate the correlation between textural, flow and sensory properties of these gels measured instrumentally and by human senses. The back extrusion test has been found to be applicable to study the textural properties of cherry gels. There was high positive correlation between gel texture measured by senses and texture parameters measured in back extrusion test. Similar high correlation was identified for consistency coefficient K obtained in Ostwald de Waele model and gel texture assessed by sensory panel. It was found that values of sensory parameters such as taste and odour decreased as the rheological parameters increased. High negative correlations were observed in these cases. Therefore, instrumental measurements can be alternative for more expensive sensory methods. doi:10.5219/53

  16. Evaluation of kiln-drying schedules for wild cherry wood (Cerasus avium)

    OpenAIRE

    Korkut, Süleyman; Ünsal, Öner; Kocaefe, Duygu; Aytin, Ayhan; Gökyar, Asli

    2013-01-01

    Wild cherry wood (Cerasus avium (L.) Monench) lumber with a nominal thickness of 5 cm from Duzce region in Turkey was dried through conventional kiln drying using two different programs which are unprotective drying schedules, and protective drying schedules. The aim was to obtain the most desirable kiln schedule for keeping the wood quality at an appropriate level up to final moisture content of 12±2% was reached. Intensity of warping (twist, bow, cup, crook) occurrence, superficial, interna...

  17. Plant profile, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Cordia dichotoma (Indian cherry): A review

    OpenAIRE

    Prasad G. Jamkhande; Sonal R. Barde; Shailesh L. Patwekar; Priti S. Tidke

    2013-01-01

    More than half of the world's population relies on the traditional medicine and major role of the traditional medicine including the use of plant extract and their active constituents. Among them, Cordia dichotoma Forst., a small to moderate size plant of family Boragenaceae, commonly called bhokar, lasura, gonda, Indian cherry and shlesmataka. Plant parts such as leaves, fruit, bark and seed have been reported for possessing antidiabetic, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, immune-modulator and an...

  18. Cultivation of cherry tomato under irrigation with saline water and nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ianne G. S. Vieira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The study was carried out from August 2013 to January 2014 to evaluate growth and production of cherry tomato cultivated under irrigation with water of different salinity levels and fertilized with different nitrogen (N doses, in experiment conducted in drainage lysimeters under greenhouse conditions, at the Center for Agrifood Science and Technology of the Federal University of Campina Grande. The statistical design was randomized blocks in a 5 x 4 factorial scheme, with three replicates, and the treatments consisted of five levels of electrical conductivity of water (0.3, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5 and 4.5 dS m-1 and four N doses (60, 100, 140 and 180 mg kg-1. Growth and production variables of cherry tomato decrease linearly from the irrigation water salinity of 0.3 dS m-1 on. The longer exposure of plants to salt stress caused the highest reductions, and the root dry matter, leaf area and the number of clusters are the most sensitive variables. The highest value of plant height at 125 days after transplantation was obtained with the N dose of 139 mg kg-1 of soil. Increasing N doses reduced the effect of salinity on cherry tomato growth at 125 days after transplantation.

  19. Physico-chemical properties and fatty acid composition of pomegranate, cherry and pumpkin seed oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siano, Francesco; Straccia, Maria C; Paolucci, Marina; Fasulo, Gabriella; Boscaino, Floriana; Volpe, Maria G

    2016-03-30

    Nut and seed oils are often considered waste products but in recent years they have been receiving growing interest due to their high concentration of hydrophilic and lipophilic bioactive components, which have important pharmacological properties on human health. The aim of this work was to compare the physico-chemical and biochemical properties of pomegranate (Punicagranatum), sweet cherry (Prunusavium) and pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seed oils obtained by solvent extraction. High amount of linoleic acid was found in the cherry and pumpkin seed oils, while pomegranate seed oil showed relevant content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) along to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and nervonic acid. Pumpkin seed oil had high concentration of carotenoids, while pomegranate oil was the best absorber in the UV-A and UV-B ranges. Pomegranate, cherry and pumpkin seed oils can be an excellent source of bioactive molecules and antioxidant compounds such as polyphenols, carotenoids and unsaturated fatty acids. These seed oils can be included both as preservatives and functional ingredients in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic fields and can contribute to disease prevention and health promotion. Moreover, high absorbance of UV light indicates a potential use of these oils as filters from radiations in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic fields. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Breeding in peach, cherry and plum: from a tissue culture, genetic, transcriptomic and genomic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basilio Carrasco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This review is an overview of traditional and modern breeding methodologies being used to develop new Prunus cultivars (stone fruits with major emphasis on peach, sweet cherry and Japanese plum. To this end, common breeding tools used to produce seedlings, including in vitro culture tools, are discussed. Additionally, the mechanisms of inheritance of many important agronomical traits are described. Recent advances in stone fruit transcriptomics and genomic resources are providing an understanding of the molecular basis of phenotypic variability as well as the identification of allelic variants and molecular markers. These have potential applications for understanding the genetic diversity of the Prunus species, molecular marker-assisted selection and transgenesis. Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNPs molecular markers are described as useful tools to describe genetic diversity in peach, sweet cherry and Japanese plum. Additionally, the recently sequenced peach genome and the public release of the sweet cherry genome are discussed in terms of their applicability to breeding programs

  1. Effect of cultivar and variety on phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of cherry wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zuobing; Fang, Lingling; Niu, Yunwei; Yu, Haiyan

    2015-11-01

    To compare the influence of cultivar and variety on the phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity (AA) of cherry wines, total phenolic (TP), total flavonoid (TF), total anthocyanin (TA), total tannin (TT), five individual phenolic acids, and AA were determined. An ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS) method was developed for the determination of gallic acid (GAE), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHB), chlorogenic acid (CHL), vanillic acid (VAN), and caffeic acid (CAF). A principal component analysis (PCA) and a cluster analysis (CA) were used to analyze differences related to cultivar and variety. The TP, TF, TA, TT, and AA of samples sourced from the Shandong province of China were higher than those from the Jiangsu province. The PCA and CA results showed that phenolic compounds in cherry wines were closely related to cultivar and variety and that cultivar had more influence on the phenolic compounds of cherry wines than variety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Selection of autochthonous sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. genotypes in Feketić region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radičević Sanja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Autochthonous genotypes of fruit species are very important source of genetic variability and valuable material for breeding work. Fruit Research Institute-Čačak has a long tradition of studying autochthonous genotypes of temperate fruits sporadically spread and preserved in some localities in Serbia. Over 2005-2006, the following properties of nine autochthonous sour cherry genotypes grown in Feketic region were investigated: flowering and ripening time, pomological properties, biochemical composition of fruits and field resistance to causal agents of cherry diseases - cherry leaf spot (Blumeriella jaapii (Rehm. v. Arx., shot-hole (Clasterosporium carpophilum (Lév. Aderh. and brown rot (Monilinia laxa /Ader et Ruhl./ Honey ex Whetz.. The genotypes were tested for the presence of Prune dwarf virus and Prunus necrotic ring spot virus. In majority of genotypes fruits were large, with exceptional organoleptical properties, whereas ripening time was in the first ten or twenty days of June. The highest fruit weight was observed in F-1 genotype (8.1 g. The highest soluble solids and total sugars content were found in F- 4 genotype (17.60% and 14.25%, respectively. As for field resistance to causal agents of diseases and good pomo-technological properties, F-1, F-2, F-3, F-7 and F-8 genotypes were singled out. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31064

  3. Chemical and functional properties of cell wall polymers from two cherry varieties at two developmental stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basanta, María F; de Escalada Plá, Marina F; Stortz, Carlos A; Rojas, Ana M

    2013-01-30

    The cell wall polysaccharides of Regina and Sunburst cherry varieties at two developmental stages were extracted sequentially, and their changes in monosaccharide composition and functional properties were studied. The loosely-attached pectins presented a lower d-galacturonic acid/rhamnose ratio than ionically-bound pectins, as well as lower thickening effects of their respective 2% aqueous solution: the lowest Newtonian viscosity and shear rate dependence during the pseudoplastic phase. The main constituents of the cell wall matrix were covalently bound pectins (probably through diferulate cross-linkings), with long arabinan side chains at the RG-I cores. This pectin domain was also anchored into the XG-cellulose elastic network. Ripening occurred with a decrease in the proportion of HGs, water extractable GGM and xylogalacturonan, and with a concomitant increase in neutral sugars. Ripening was also associated with higher viscosities and thickening effects, and to larger distribution of molecular weights. The highest firmness and compactness of Regina cherry may be associated with its higher proportion of calcium-bound HGs localized in the middle lamellae of cell walls, as well as to some higher molar proportion of NS (Rha and Ara) in covalently bound pectins. These pectins showed significantly better hydration properties than hemicellulose and cellulose network. Chemical composition and functional properties of cell wall polymers were dependent on cherry variety and ripening stage, and helped explain the contrasting firmness of Regina and Sunburst varieties. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Trees are good, but…

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.G. McPherson; F. Ferrini

    2010-01-01

    We know that “trees are good,” and most people believe this to be true. But if this is so, why are so many trees neglected, and so many tree wells empty? An individual’s attitude toward trees may result from their firsthand encounters with specific trees. Understanding how attitudes about trees are shaped, particularly aversion to trees, is critical to the business of...

  5. Lee–Wick black holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosimo Bambi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We derive and study an approximate static vacuum solution generated by a point-like source in a higher derivative gravitational theory with a pair of complex conjugate ghosts. The gravitational theory is local and characterized by a high derivative operator compatible with Lee–Wick unitarity. In particular, the tree-level two-point function only shows a pair of complex conjugate poles besides the massless spin two graviton. We show that singularity-free black holes exist when the mass of the source M exceeds a critical value Mcrit. For M>Mcrit the spacetime structure is characterized by an outer event horizon and an inner Cauchy horizon, while for M=Mcrit we have an extremal black hole with vanishing Hawking temperature. The evaporation process leads to a remnant that approaches the zero-temperature extremal black hole state in an infinite amount of time.

  6. Systemic Inflammatory Load in Young and Old Ringdoves Is Modulated by Consumption of a Jerte Valley Cherry-Based Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Jonathan; Terrón, María del Pilar; Garrido, María; Barriga, Carmen; Paredes, Sergio Damián; Espino, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A chronic subclinical inflammatory status that coexists with immune dysfunction is commonly found in the elderly population. Consumption of foods rich in antioxidants (e.g., cherries) is an attractive strategy to reduce risk from chronic diseases. Based on previous studies showing the antioxidant effect of a Jerte Valley cherry derivative product in humans, the objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the intake of a Jerte Valley cherry-based beverage on inflammatory load in both young and old ringdoves (Streptopelia risoria). To this purpose, circulating levels of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines as well as serum levels of different acute-phase proteins were measured before and after a 10-day treatment with the Jerte Valley cherry-based beverage. Thus, the 10-day treatment with the cherry-based beverage modulated the balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in both young and old ringdoves by down-regulating the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interferon-γ) and up-regulating the levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-2, and IL-10). Moreover, the 10-day treatment with the Jerte Valley cherry-based product reduced the levels of several proteins involved in acute-phase responses, such as C-reactive protein, haptoglobin, α2-macroglobulin, and serum amyloid P component. On the other hand, old birds showed imbalanced levels of inflammatory markers toward a pro-inflammatory status, thereby underlining the fact that aging is usually accompanied by systemic inflammation and inflammation-related chronic diseases. To sum up, the data suggest a potential health benefit by consuming the cherry-based beverage, especially in aged populations, through their anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:22846077

  7. Modular tree automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Tree automata are traditionally used to study properties of tree languages and tree transformations. In this paper, we consider tree automata as the basis for modular and extensible recursion schemes. We show, using well-known techniques, how to derive from standard tree automata highly modular...

  8. Simple street tree sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Jeffrey T. Walton; James Baldwin; Jerry. Bond

    2015-01-01

    Information on street trees is critical for management of this important resource. Sampling of street tree populations provides an efficient means to obtain street tree population information. Long-term repeat measures of street tree samples supply additional information on street tree changes and can be used to report damages from catastrophic events. Analyses of...

  9. Black bear damage to northwestern conifers in California: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth O. Fulgham; Dennis Hosack

    2017-01-01

    A total of 789 black bear damaged trees were investigate over a multi-year period on 14 different study sites chosen on lands of four participating timber companies. The sites ranged from 30 to 50 years of age. Four different conifer species were found to have black bear damage: coastal redwood (Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl.), Douglas-fir (...

  10. The Crisis in Black and Black.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Earl Ofari

    These essays explore why the historic conflict between blacks and whites in the United States has become a crisis that divides many African Americans. The changing racial dynamic is not marked by conflicts. between the black middle class and the poor, black men and women, the black intellectual elite and rappers, black politicians and the urban…

  11. City of Pittsburgh Trees

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Trees cared for and managed by the City of Pittsburgh Department of Public Works Forestry Division. Tree Benefits are calculated using the National Tree Benefit...

  12. Shade Trees Spatial Distribution and Its Effect on Grains and Beverage Quality of Shaded Coffee Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José da Silva Neto

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Shading coffee trees has gained importance, especially among smallholders, as an option to improve the products’ quality, therefore acquiring place at the specialty coffee market, where consumers are willing to give bonus for quality. This work aims to evaluate the influence of shade trees’ spatial distribution among coffee trees’ agronomic characteristics, yield, and beans and cup quality of shaded coffee trees. The experimental design consisted of completely randomized blocks with six repetitions and four treatments: coffee trees on shade trees planting rows, distant one meter from the trunk; coffee trees on shade trees planting row, distant six meters from the trunk; and coffee plants between the rows of shade trees, parallel to the previous treatments. The parameters analyzed were plant height, canopy diameter, plagiotropic branches’ length, yield, coffee fruits’ phenological stage, ripe cherries’ Brix degree, percentage of black, unripe, and insect damaged beans, bean size, and beverage quality. Shade trees quickened coffee fruits’ phenological stage of coffee trees nearest to them. This point also showed the best beverage quality, except for overripe fruits. The remaining parameters evaluated were not affected by shade trees’ spatial distribution.

  13. Effect of phytosanitary irradiation and methyl bromide fumigation on the physical, sensory, and microbiological quality of blueberries and sweet cherries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thang, Karen; Au, Kimberlee; Rakovski, Cyril; Prakash, Anuradha

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether irradiation could serve as a suitable phytosanitary treatment alternative to methyl bromide (MB) fumigation for blueberries and sweet cherry and also to determine the effect of phytosanitary irradiation treatment on survival of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes on these fruit. 'Bluecrop' blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum) and 'Sweetheart' cherries (Prunus avium) were irradiated at 0.4 kGy or fumigated with methyl bromide and evaluated for quality attributes during storage. Irradiation caused an immediate decrease in firmness of both fruit without further significant change during storage. Fumigated fruit, in contrast, softened by 11-14% during storage. Irradiation did not adversely affect blueberry and cherry shelf-life. MB fumigation did not impact blueberry and cherry quality attributes initially; however, fumigated fruit exhibited greater damage and mold growth than the control and irradiated samples during storage. Irradiation at 400 Gy resulted in a ∼1 log CFU g(-1) reduction in Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes counts, indicating that this treatment cannot significantly enhance safety. This study indicates that irradiation at a target dose of 0.4 kGy for phytosanitary treatment does not negatively impact blueberry and cherry quality and can serve as an alternative to methyl bromide fumigation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Maize histone H2B-mCherry: a new fluorescent chromatin marker for somatic and meiotic chromosome research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Elizabeth S; Clemente, Thomas E; Bass, Hank W

    2012-06-01

    Cytological studies of fluorescent proteins are rapidly yielding insights into chromatin structure and dynamics. Here we describe the production and cytological characterization of new transgenic maize lines expressing a fluorescent histone fusion protein, H2B-mCherry. The transgene is expressed under the control of the maize ubiquitin1 promoter, including its first exon and intron. Polymerase chain reaction-based genotyping and root-tip microscopy showed that most of the lines carrying the transgene also expressed it, producing bright uniform staining of nuclei. Further, plants showing expression in root tips at the seedling stage also showed expression during meiosis, late in the life cycle. Detailed high-resolution three-dimensional imaging of cells and nuclei from various somatic and meiotic cell types showed that H2B-mCherry produced remarkably clear images of chromatin and chromosome fiber morphology, as seen in somatic, male meiotic prophase, and early microgametophyte cells. H2B-mCherry also yielded distinct nucleolus staining and was shown to be compatible with fluorescence in situ hybridization. We found several instances where H2B-mCherry was superior to DAPI as a generalized chromatin stain. Our study establishes these histone H2B-mCherry lines as new biological reagents for visualizing chromatin structure, chromosome morphology, and nuclear dynamics in fixed and living cells in a model plant genetic system.

  15. Heartwood formation in four black walnut plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith Woeste; Brian Beheler

    2003-01-01

    The amount of heartwood in black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) logs can vary widely, even among trees of the same age growing at the same location. There is little published data on the genetics, physiology, and development of heartwood in hardwoods, even though the volume of heartwood in a log can significantly influence its value.

  16. Differences in Anatomical Structure and Lignin Content of Roots of pedunculate Oak and Wild Cherry-Tree Plantlets During Acclimation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soukup, A.; Malá, J.; Hrubcová, Marie; Kálal, J.; Votrubová, O.; Cvikrová, Milena

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 4 (2004), s. 481-489 ISSN 0006-3134 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/04/0999 Grant - others:Grantová agentura Karlovy University(CZ) 145/2003/B-Bio/PrF Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : exodermis * in vitro * lignin Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection Impact factor: 0.744, year: 2004

  17. Foliar absorption and leaf-fruit transfer of 137Cs in fruit trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anguissola Scotti, I.; Silva, S.

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of 137 Cs and 40 K have been carried out on the leaves and fruit of cherry, peach, pear and apple trees contaminated by the radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear accident. It has been shown that the activity of 137 Cs in leaves depends on the interception ability of the foliage, while the amount transferred from leaves to fruit seems to be related more to genetic factors of the individual species and cultivar than to the quantity present in the leaves. (author)

  18. Counseling Blacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vontress, Clemmont E.

    1970-01-01

    Blacks have developed unique environmental perceptions, values, and attitudes, making it difficult for counselors to establish and maintain positive rapport. This article examines attitudinal ingredients posited by Carl Rogers for relevance to this problem, and suggests in-service training to help counselors and other professionals relate…

  19. Black Willow

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. M. Krinard

    1980-01-01

    Black willow and other species of Salix together comprise a majority of the stocking. Cottonwood is the chief associate, particularly in the early stages, but green ash, sycamore, pecan, persimmon, waterlocust, American elm, baldcypress, red maple, sugarberry, box-elder, and in some areas, silver maple are invaders preceding the next successional stage.

  20. Black Psyllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by mouth for up to 6 weeks reduces blood sugar in people with type 2 diabetes. Cancer. Diarrhea. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Other conditions. ... with the dose. Diabetes: Black psyllium can lower blood sugar levels ... with type 2 diabetes by slowing down absorption of carbohydrates. Monitor blood ...

  1. Black hole astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blandford, R.D.; Thorne, K.S.

    1979-01-01

    Following an introductory section, the subject is discussed under the headings: on the character of research in black hole astrophysics; isolated holes produced by collapse of normal stars; black holes in binary systems; black holes in globular clusters; black holes in quasars and active galactic nuclei; primordial black holes; concluding remarks on the present state of research in black hole astrophysics. (U.K.)

  2. Morphological and Biochemical Characteristics of Fruits of Different Cornelian Cherry (Cornus mas L. Genotypes from Spontaneous Flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia-Constantina CORNESCU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study was carried out on six local cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L. genotypes, grown in Turceni town (Gorj county and Baita village (Hunedoara county, in Romania. Several morphological and biochemical characteristics of cultivars were determined. Fruit weight and fruit flesh ratio of the analyzed genotypes ranged from 1.33 to 2.31 g and 61.53 to 78.58% respectively. Soluble solid contents were determined, the lowest noted as 10% and the highest as 25.5%. Results have shown that there was a high diversity in cornelian cherry populations within different ecological areas. Differences were exhibited in terms of fruit size and biochemical characteristics. The results of the study are useful for attempting to select superior genotypes of cornelian cherry for culture.

  3. Cross-amplified microsatellites in the European cherry fly, Rhagoletis cerasi: medium polymorphic-highly informative markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustinos, A A; Asimakopoulou, A K; Papadopoulos, N T; Bourtzis, K

    2011-02-01

    The European cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a major pest of cherries in Europe and parts of Asia. Despite its big economic significance, there is a lack of studies on the genetic structure of its natural populations. Knowledge about an insect pest on molecular, genetic and population levels facilitates the development of environmentally friendly control methods. In this study, we present the development of 13 microsatellite markers for R. cerasi, through cross-species amplification. These markers have been used for the genotyping of 130 individuals from five different sampling sites in Greece. Our results indicate that (i) cross-species amplification is a versatile and rapid tool for developing microsatellite markers in Rhagoletis spp., (ii) the microsatellite markers presented here constitute an important tool for population studies on this pest, and (iii) there is clear structuring of natural European cherry fly populations.

  4. [Health effects of sour cherries with unique polyphenolic composition in their fruits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegedűs, Attila; Papp, Nóra; Blázovics, Anna; Stefanovitsné Bányai, Éva

    2018-05-01

    Health effects of fruit consumption are confirmed by many studies. Such effects are attributed to the polyphenolic compounds accumulating in fruit skin and mesocarp tissues. They contribute to the regulation on transcriptional, post-transcriptional and epigenetic levels. Since people consume much less fruits than the recommended quantities, a new approach includes the promotion of super fruits that are extremely rich sources of specific health compounds. A comparative analysis of Hungarian stone fruit cultivars detected a huge variability in fruit in vitro antioxidant capacity and total polyphenolic content. Two outstanding sour cherry cultivars ('Pipacs 1' and 'Fanal') were identified to accumulate elevated levels of polyphenolic compounds in their fruits. Sour cherries with different polyphenolic compositions were tested against alimentary induced hyperlipidemia using male Wistar rat model. Consumption of cherry fruit had different consequences for different cultivars: consumption of 'Pipacs 1' and 'Fanal' fruits resulted in 30% lower total cholesterol levels in the sera of hyperlipidemic animals after only 10 days of treatment. However, the consumption of 'Újfehértói fürtös' fruit has not induced significant alterations in the same parameter. Other lipid parameters also reflected the short-term beneficial effects of 'Pipacs 1' and 'Fanal' fruits. We suggest that not only some tropical and berry fruits might be considered as super fruits but certain genotypes of stone fruits as well. These have indeed marked physiological effects. Since 'Pipacs 1' and 'Fanal' are rich sources of colourless polyphenolics (e.g., phenolic acids and isoflavonoids) and anthocyanins, respectively, the protective effects associated with their consumption can be attributed to different polyphenolic compounds. Orv Hetil. 2018; 159(18): 720-725.

  5. Management of genetic resources in the nursery system of wild cherry (Prunus avium L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Proietti R

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of genetic and adaptive traits of reproductive materials used in the nursery system of wild cherry, could be an useful instrument to improve ecological and economic sustainability of plantation ecosystems. This work reports results from a research which the objectives were: 1 to study the genetic variation of a Prunus avium L. Population, used for seed harvesting, through its multi-locus genotypes detected by starch gel electrophoresis; 2 to analyze the level of genetic variation within and among different steps in a commercial nursery system (basic population and sub-populations, seedlings aged S1T1 and S1T2, plantation. Results showed low genetic variation levels of the basic population, similar to a reference system of other 12 wild cherry Italian populations and to other French and Caucasian materials. The genetic distances among Monte Baldo and some closer Lombardy provenances (Area Garda, Bosco Fontana, Valtellina were smaller than the Venice Region populations (Monti Lessini and Asiago. Number of alleles and percentage of polymorphic loci within the complex of Monte Baldo provenance and multiplication materials were similar, whilst a variable value of Fis was noted. Indeed, along with the nursery system until the plantation, heterozygosis initially (S1T1 increased, then decreased proceeding to the plantation. This fluctuation of FIS values could be determined by seed lots characterized initially by higher levels of variation, due to self-incompatibility. In the following steps, a possible selection pressure can affect randomly the genotypic structure of wild cherry by increasing the homozygosity. There is not among population a well defined geographic characterization, as suggested by genetic distances, therefore homogeneous seed harvest could be established an area larger than geographic and administrative borders. On this way we could have reproductive material with a wide genetic base and environmental adaptability. To

  6. Degradation of Anthocyanin Content in Sour Cherry Juice During Heat Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilla Szalóki-Dorkó

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sour cherry juices made from two sour cherry cultivars (Érdi bőtermő and Kántorjánosi 3, were investigated to determine their total anthocyanin content and half-life of anthocyanins during heat treatment at different temperatures (70, 80 and 90 °C for 4 h. Before the heat treatment, Érdi bőtermő juice had higher anthocyanin concentration (812 mg/L than Kántorjánosi 3 juice (513 mg/L. The greatest heat sensitivity of anthocyanins was measured at 90 °C, while the treatments at 80 and 70 °C caused lower thermal degradation. The loss of anthocyanins in Érdi bőtermő juice after treatment was 38, 29 and 18 %, respectively, while in Kántorjánosi 3 juice losses of 46, 29 and 19 % were observed, respectively. At 90 °C sour cherry Érdi bőtermő juice had higher half-life (t1/2 of anthocyanins, while the Kántorjánosi 3 juice had higher t1/2 values at 70 °C. Cyanidin-3-glucosyl-rutinoside was present in higher concentrations in both cultivars (Érdi bőtermő: 348 and Kántorjánosi 3: 200 mg/L than cyanidin-3-rutinoside (177 and 121 mg/L before treatment. However, during the experiment, cyanidin-3-rutinoside was proved to be more resistant to heat. Comparing the two varieties, both investigated pigment compounds were more stable in Kántorjánosi 3 than in Érdi bőtermő. Degradation rate of anthocyanins was cultivar-dependent characteristic, which should be taken into account in the food production.

  7. Effective pollination period in "Oblačinska" sour cherry clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotirić-Akšić Milica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To obtain high yields there should be high flower density and fruit set in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. production. Furthermore, in order to ensure successful fertilization, there should be satisfactory stigma receptivity, rapid pollen tube growth along the style, as well as adequate ovule longevity. This manuscript presents the study of the effective pollination period (EPP of four ‘Oblačinska’ sour cherry clones (II/2, III/9, XI/3 and XIII/1 that differs in pollen germination, fruit set and yields. In order to estimate EPP, pollination was conducted in six different stages of flower development: balloon stage, 2 d before anthesis (-2, at anthesis (0, and 2, 4, 6 and 8 d after anthеsis (DAA. The initial (IFS and final fruit set (FFS were recorded under the field conditions. Alongside with this, the rate of pollen tubes growth in the style was observed with fluorescent microscopy. The experimental design was completely randomized, a two-factorial analysis of variance was carried out and individual testing was performed using LSD test (p ≤ 0.05; p ≤ 0.01. The experiment was set in triplicates. Regarding FFS, clones II/2 and III/9 showed the best results (p ≤ 0.01 in 4 and 6 DAA. The number of pollen tubes in the style of the pistil decreased with subsequent terms of pollination, while its number in the ovule increased up to sixth day after pollination, followed by a decline. Clones II/2 and III/9 showed EPP which lasted from 6 to 8 d, while EPP found in clone XI/3, lasted only 2 d. It is concluded that only clone having long EPP should be used as parents for creating new sour cherry cultivars. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31063 and FP7 Project AREA 316004

  8. Effect of age on the pathogenesis of Duck Tembusu virus in Cherry Valley ducks

    OpenAIRE

    Ning eLi; Chuanwei eLv; Ruichao eYue; Ying eShi; Sidang eLiu

    2015-01-01

    The effect of host age on the outcome of Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) infection was studied in ducks. Three groups of Cherry Valley ducks at 1, 3 and 7 weeks of age were intramuscularly infected with DTMUV to systematically observe the clinical symptoms, pathological changes, tissue viral loads and immune responses. Severe clinical symptoms and neurological dysfunction were observed in 1-week-old ducks as early as 2 day post infection (dpi) and some died at 5 –7 dpi. Three week old ducks showed...

  9. Effect of age on the pathogenesis of duck tembusu virus in Cherry Valley ducks

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ning; Lv, Chuanwei; Yue, Ruichao; Shi, Ying; Wei, Liangmeng; Chai, Tongjie; Liu, Sidang

    2015-01-01

    The effect of host age on the outcome of duck tembusu virus (DTMUV) infection was studied in ducks. Three groups of Cherry Valley ducks at 1, 3, and 7 weeks of age were intramuscularly infected with DTMUV to systematically observe the clinical symptoms, pathological changes, tissue viral loads, and immune responses. Severe clinical symptoms and neurological dysfunction were observed in 1-week-old ducks as early as 2 days post infection (dpi) and some died at 5–7 dpi. Three weeks-old ducks sho...

  10. Mathematical modelling of the osmotic dehydration of cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum var. cerasiforme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AZOUBEL Patricia Moreira

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Osmotic dehydration of cherry tomato as influenced by osmotic agent (sodium chloride and a mixed sodium chloride and sucrose solutions and solution concentration (10 and 25% w/w at room temperature (25°C was studied. Kinetics of water loss and solids uptake were determined by a two parameter model, based on Fick's second law and applied to spherical geometry. The water apparent diffusivity coefficients obtained ranged from 2.17x10-10 to 11.69x10-10 m²/s.

  11. SOUR CHERRY (Prunus cerasus L. GENETIC VARIABILITY AND PHOTOSYNTHETIC EFFICIENCY DURING DROUGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Viljevac

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sour cherry is an important fruit in Croatian orchards. Cultivar Oblačinska is predominant in existing orchards with noted intracultivar phenotypic heterogeneity. In this study, the genetic variability of 22 genotypes of cvs. Oblačinska, Maraska and Cigančica, as well as standard cvs. Kelleris 14, Kelleris 16, Kereška, Rexelle and Heimann conserved were investigated. Two types of molecular markers were used: microsatellite markers (SSR in order to identify intercultivar, and AFLP in order to identify intracultivar variabilities. A set of 12 SSR markers revealed small genetic distance between cvs. Maraska and Oblačinska while cv. Cigančica is affined to cv. Oblačinska. Furthermore, cvs. Oblačinska, Cigančica and Maraska were characterized compared to standard ones. AFLP markers didn`t confirm significant intracultivar variability of cv. Oblačinska although the variability has been approved at the morphological, chemical and pomological level. Significant corelation between SSR and AFLP markers was found. Identification of sour cherry cultivars tolerant to drought will enable the sustainability of fruit production with respect to the climate change in the future. For this purpose, the tolerance of seven sour cherry genotypes (cvs. Kelleris 16, Maraska, Cigančica and Oblačinska represented by 4 genotypes: OS, 18, D6 and BOR to drought conditions was tested in order to isolate genotypes with the desired properties. In the greenhouse experiment, cherry plants were exposed to drought stress. The leaf relative water content, OJIP test parameters which specify efficiency of the photosynthetic system based on measurements of chlorophyll a fluorescence, and concentrations of photo-synthetic pigments during the experiment were measured as markers of drought tolerance. Photosynthetic performance index (PIABS comprises three key events in the reaction centre of photosystem II affecting the photosynthetic activity: the absorption of energy

  12. 'Cherry red spot' in a patient with Tay-Sachs disease: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragão, Ricardo Evangelista Marrocos de; Ramos, Régia Maria Gondim; Pereira, Felipe Bezerra Alves; Bezerra, Andreya Ferreira Rodrigues; Fernandes, Daniel Nogueira

    2009-01-01

    Tay-Sachs disease is an autosomal recessive disorder of sphingolipid metabolism, caused by enzyme hexosaminidase A deficiency that leads to an accumulation of GM2 in neurocytes which results in progressive loss of neurological function. The accumulation of lipid in retinal ganglion cells that leads to a chalk-white appearance of the fundus called 'cherry red spot' is the hallmark of Tay-Sachs disease. It is also seen in others neurometabolic diseases as well as in central retinal artery occlusion. This case reports a child with Tay-Sachs disease in a family with four previous similar deaths without diagnostic.

  13. Black hole meiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Herck, Walter; Wyder, Thomas

    2010-04-01

    The enumeration of BPS bound states in string theory needs refinement. Studying partition functions of particles made from D-branes wrapped on algebraic Calabi-Yau 3-folds, and classifying states using split attractor flow trees, we extend the method for computing a refined BPS index, [1]. For certain D-particles, a finite number of microstates, namely polar states, exclusively realized as bound states, determine an entire partition function (elliptic genus). This underlines their crucial importance: one might call them the ‘chromosomes’ of a D-particle or a black hole. As polar states also can be affected by our refinement, previous predictions on elliptic genera are modified. This can be metaphorically interpreted as ‘crossing-over in the meiosis of a D-particle’. Our results improve on [2], provide non-trivial evidence for a strong split attractor flow tree conjecture, and thus suggest that we indeed exhaust the BPS spectrum. In the D-brane description of a bound state, the necessity for refinement results from the fact that tachyonic strings split up constituent states into ‘generic’ and ‘special’ states. These are enumerated separately by topological invariants, which turn out to be partitions of Donaldson-Thomas invariants. As modular predictions provide a check on many of our results, we have compelling evidence that our computations are correct.

  14. Polyfloral, linden and acacia honeys with dried cherries after three months of storage - antioxidant and sensory evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vulić Jelena J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Samples of three types of honey: polyfloral (PH, linden (LH and acacia (AH, without and with addition of dried cherries (40% were analyzed before and after three months of storage. The total phenol (TPh, flavonoid (TFd and anthocyanin (TAn contents, antioxidant activities and sensory properties of honeys with and without the addition of dry cherries were evaluated. TPh and TFd increased with addition of dried cherries to the honey, while enriched honeys showed high TAn. The LH sample with dried cherries showed the highest anthocyanins content (41.41mgCGE/100g. The antioxidant activity increased with addition of dried cherries in honey in the DPPH• test and reducing power. The PH and enriched PH exibited the best antiradical activity compared to LH and AH. The EC50 DPPH values were: 23.81 for PH and 24.19 mg/mL for PH, while the EC50 DPPH were: 1.16 mg/mL for PH40 and 1.18 mg/mL for PH40s. RP0.5 values were: 57.00 mg/mL for PH40 and 56.00 mg/ml for PH40s, while RP0.5 were: 15.05 mg/mL for PH40 and 15.18 mg/mL for PH40s. The statistical analysis showed that TPh, TFd and TAn, and antioxidant activity of honeys and enriched honeys showed significant correlation. Sensory analysis of honey with dried cherries, before and after storage, indicated very good sensory characteristics.

  15. Categorizing ideas about trees: a tree of trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisler, Marie; Lecointre, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore whether matrices and MP trees used to produce systematic categories of organisms could be useful to produce categories of ideas in history of science. We study the history of the use of trees in systematics to represent the diversity of life from 1766 to 1991. We apply to those ideas a method inspired from coding homologous parts of organisms. We discretize conceptual parts of ideas, writings and drawings about trees contained in 41 main writings; we detect shared parts among authors and code them into a 91-characters matrix and use a tree representation to show who shares what with whom. In other words, we propose a hierarchical representation of the shared ideas about trees among authors: this produces a "tree of trees." Then, we categorize schools of tree-representations. Classical schools like "cladists" and "pheneticists" are recovered but others are not: "gradists" are separated into two blocks, one of them being called here "grade theoreticians." We propose new interesting categories like the "buffonian school," the "metaphoricians," and those using "strictly genealogical classifications." We consider that networks are not useful to represent shared ideas at the present step of the study. A cladogram is made for showing who is sharing what with whom, but also heterobathmy and homoplasy of characters. The present cladogram is not modelling processes of transmission of ideas about trees, and here it is mostly used to test for proximity of ideas of the same age and for categorization.

  16. Vegetative and seedling regeneration of pin cherry (Prunus pensylvanica): Efficacy of herbicide treatment. NODA note No. 21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallik, A U; Bell, F W; Peterson, G W

    1996-11-01

    Pin cherry (Prunus pensylvanica L.) is a major competing plant commonly found in young conifer plantations in both boreal and northern hardwood forests. This note describes and presents results of a study conducted to determine, for pin cherry, the ratio of the current year`s seedling recruitment versus the previous year`s stem density; seed production; the soil seed bank; and the efficacy of a glyphosate herbicide treatment to control this competitor. The study was carried out in a seven-year-old jack pine plantation north of Atikokan, Ontario.

  17. Urban tree growth modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Gregory McPherson; Paula J. Peper

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes three long-term tree growth studies conducted to evaluate tree performance because repeated measurements of the same trees produce critical data for growth model calibration and validation. Several empirical and process-based approaches to modeling tree growth are reviewed. Modeling is more advanced in the fields of forestry and...

  18. Keeping trees as assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith

    2009-01-01

    Landscape trees have real value and contribute to making livable communities. Making the most of that value requires providing trees with the proper care and attention. As potentially large and long-lived organisms, trees benefit from commitment to regular care that respects the natural tree system. This system captures, transforms, and uses energy to survive, grow,...

  19. Management of black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) stands in Hungary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) was the first forest tree species to be imported from North America to Europe at the beginning of the 17th century. It is the most important fast-growing stand-forming tree species in Hungary . Black locust plantations can be successfully established in response to arange of economic and ecological opportunities. Plantation survival and productivity are maximized by matching the species' growth characteristics with silvicultura l options and land management needs. In the paper the sequence of forest tending operations in black locust stands is proposed, based on results of long-term st and structure and forest yield trials. Implementing good silvicultural plans and models will lead to profitable black locust stands and greater acceptance of the species by land managers. Black locust would also beavery useful species for energy productions as the related research results have been shown in the paper .

  20. Water Resources Development Miami River, Little Miami River, and Mill Creek Basins, Southwest Ohio. Volume 2. Appendices A-G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-01

    the area. Common species include boxelder, black locust, hackberry, tree of heaven, sycamore, Osage orange, black willow, mulberry, slippery elm ...and maple include tulip poplar, white ash, red elm , American elm , black cherry, hackberry, walnut, basswood, buckeye, white oak, shagbark hickory, and...willow. Other canopy species in these communities include buckeye, elm , beech, black locust, hackberry, walnut, and silver maple. The most prevalent

  1. Classification and regression trees

    CERN Document Server

    Breiman, Leo; Olshen, Richard A; Stone, Charles J

    1984-01-01

    The methodology used to construct tree structured rules is the focus of this monograph. Unlike many other statistical procedures, which moved from pencil and paper to calculators, this text's use of trees was unthinkable before computers. Both the practical and theoretical sides have been developed in the authors' study of tree methods. Classification and Regression Trees reflects these two sides, covering the use of trees as a data analysis method, and in a more mathematical framework, proving some of their fundamental properties.

  2. Plant-soil biota interactions and spatial distribution of black cherry in its native and invasive ranges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinhart, K.O.; Packer, A.; Van der Putten, W.H.; Clay, K.A.

    2003-01-01

    One explanation for the higher abundance of invasive species in their non-native than native ranges is the escape from natural enemies. But there are few experimental studies comparing the parallel impact of enemies (or competitors and mutualists) on a plant species in its native and invaded ranges,

  3. Lumber volume and value recovery from small-diameter black cherry, sugar maple, and red oak logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan Wiedenbeck; Matthew Scholl; Paul Blankenhorn; Chuck. Ray

    2017-01-01

    While only a very small percentage of hardwood logs sawn by conventional sawmills in the U.S. have small-end diameters less than 10 in, portable and scragg mills often saw smaller logs. With the closure of regionally important oriented strand board and pulpwood operations, small-diameter logs are considered to have no value in some markets. This study was...

  4. Yield of cherry tomatoes as a function of water salinity and irrigation frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre N. Santos

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The use of brackish water in agriculture can cause salinization of soils and reduce plant yield. This problem can be minimized by hydroponic cultivation, which improves plant development. The aim of this study was to evaluate the yield of cherry tomatoes grown in hydroponic system with substrate under salinity levels of the nutrient solution (NS, exposure time to salinity and irrigation frequency. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, in a randomized complete block design, in a 6 x 2 x 2 factorial scheme with five replicates: six salinity levels of NS prepared with brackish water (3.01; 4.51; 5.94; 7.34; 8.71 and 10.40 dS m-1; two exposure times to NS (60 and 105 days and two irrigation frequencies (one irrigation per day and irrigation every two days. Yield and production components of cherry tomatoes cv. 'Rita' were evaluated. NS salinity affected plant yield, reducing fruit production, which was more significant when plants were subjected to a longer time of exposure to salinity. There was no difference between NS applications on fruit production, when these applications were performed once a day or once every two days.

  5. Treatment of high strength distillery wastewater (cherry stillage) by integrated aerobic biological oxidation and ozonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán, F J; Alvarez, P M; Rodríguez, E M; García-Araya, J F; Rivas, J

    2001-01-01

    The performance of integrated aerobic digestion and ozonation for the treatment of high strength distillery wastewater (i.e., cherry stillage) is reported. Experiments were conducted in laboratory batch systems operating in draw and fill mode. For the biological step, activated sludge from a municipal wastewater treatment facility was used as inoculum, showing a high degree of activity to distillery wastewater. Thus, BOD and COD overall conversions of 95% and 82% were achieved, respectively. However, polyphenol content and absorbance at 254 nm (A(254)) could not be reduced more than 35% and 15%, respectively, by means of single biological oxidation. By considering COD as substrate, the aerobic digestion process followed a Contois' model kinetics, from which the maximum specific growth rate of microorganisms (mu(max)) and the inhibition factor, beta, were then evaluated at different conditions of temperature and pH. In the combined process, the effect of a post-ozonation stage was studied. The main goals achieved by the ozonation step were the removal of polyphenols and A(254). Therefore, ozonation was shown to be an appropriate technology to aid aerobic biological oxidation in the treatment of cherry stillage.

  6. Identification of key molecular components of the resistance of cherry tomato against Phytophthora infestans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Kleine, Liliana; Smart, Christine D; Fry, William E; Restrepo, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Cherry tomato Solanum lycopersicum var cerasiforme CV matt's wild cherry is a very resistant cultivar to most Phytophthora infestans isolates. Two isolates were identified, us 940480 and us 970001 that cause an incompatible and a compatible interaction respectively. Us 970001 is one of the few isolates producing a compatible interaction with this cultivar. To identify genes with a differential gene expression between compatible and incompatible interactions, gene expression patterns were analyzed with tomato CDNA microarrays including 12,899 independent tomato CDNA clones at different time points after inoculation. A diverse set of statistical tools were used to identify key components of the plant response to the pathogen. Forty-three genes were up-regulated during the incompatible reaction at time point 36 hours, 15 globally at all-time points and twelve were found both in globally and at 36 hours. Northern blots analysis was performed to confirm differential expression showed by microarray analysis and to study the differential expression of more plant resistance genes (PR) genes between compatible and incompatible interactions for this interaction.

  7. IDENTIFICATION OF KEY MOLECULAR COMPONENTS OF THE RESISTANCE OF CHERRY TOMATO AGAINST Phytophthora infestans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LILIANA LÓPEZ KLEINE

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cherry tomato Solanum lycopersicum var cerasiforme cv Matt’s wild cherry is a very resistant cultivar to most Phytophthora infestans isolates. Two isolates were identified, US940480 and US970001 that cause an incompatible and a compatible interaction respectively. US970001 is one of the few isolates producing a compatible interaction with this cultivar. To identify genes with a differential gene expression between compatible and incompatible interactions, gene expression patterns were analyzed with tomato cDNA microarrays including 12,899 independent tomato cDNA clones at different time points after inoculation. A diverse set of statistical tools were used to identify key components of the plant response to the pathogen. Forty-three genes were up-regulated during the incompatible reaction at time point 36 hours, 15 globally at all time points and twelve were found both in globally and at 36 hours. Northern blots analysis was performed to confirm differential expression showed by microarray analysis and to study the differential expression of more PR genes between compatible and incompatible interactions for this interaction.

  8. PRODUCTIVE POTENTIAL OF THE CHERRY TOMATO GENOTYPE GROUP BEFORE INFECTION BY Alternaria tomatophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUGO CESAR RODRIGUES MOREIRA CATÃO

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Early blight (caused by Alternaria tomatophila is a major disease of tomato with no resistant cultivars. Thus, it is necessary to identify sources of resistance and productive genotypes for the development of new cultivars. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the productive potential of cherry tomato genotypes grown in the summer / fall, the severity of early blight on leaves and the incidence of disease in fruits. The treatments consisted of Carolina tomato genotypes, Cereja Vermelho, CH 152 and CLN1561A. The experimental design consisted of randomized blocks with six replications, and the experimental plot had 16 plants. The following characteristics were evaluated: area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC, average number of microinjuries on the fruits (MF, average number of fruits per bunch (NFC, average number of bunches per plant (NCP, average number of fruits per plant (NFP, average yield, number of fruits with incidence of early blight per plant (NFI and the severity of early blight in leaves (%. The cherry tomato genotype CH152 showed tolerance to early blight with a smaller area under the disease progress curve, lower severity and fruits with incidence of A. tomatophila were not observed in this genotype. The CH152 had the highest number of fruits per bunch, greater number of bunches per plant, higher number of fruits per plant and higher productivity. This line has great potential of being integrated into breeding programs.

  9. Sample size for estimation of the Pearson correlation coefficient in cherry tomato tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Giacomini Sari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the required sample size for estimation of the Pearson coefficient of correlation between cherry tomato variables. Two uniformity tests were set up in a protected environment in the spring/summer of 2014. The observed variables in each plant were mean fruit length, mean fruit width, mean fruit weight, number of bunches, number of fruits per bunch, number of fruits, and total weight of fruits, with calculation of the Pearson correlation matrix between them. Sixty eight sample sizes were planned for one greenhouse and 48 for another, with the initial sample size of 10 plants, and the others were obtained by adding five plants. For each planned sample size, 3000 estimates of the Pearson correlation coefficient were obtained through bootstrap re-samplings with replacement. The sample size for each correlation coefficient was determined when the 95% confidence interval amplitude value was less than or equal to 0.4. Obtaining estimates of the Pearson correlation coefficient with high precision is difficult for parameters with a weak linear relation. Accordingly, a larger sample size is necessary to estimate them. Linear relations involving variables dealing with size and number of fruits per plant have less precision. To estimate the coefficient of correlation between productivity variables of cherry tomato, with a confidence interval of 95% equal to 0.4, it is necessary to sample 275 plants in a 250m² greenhouse, and 200 plants in a 200m² greenhouse.

  10. Physicochemical characterisation of four cherry species (Prunus spp.) grown in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jinping; Jiang, Qing; Lin, Juanying; Li, Xian; Sun, Chongde; Chen, Kunsong

    2015-04-15

    The physicochemical characteristics of four cherry species (Prunus avium, Prunus cerasus, Prunus pseudocerasus and Prunus tomentosa) were evaluated. Inter-species variability was greater than intra-species differences. Glucose and fructose were the main sugars, and malic acid was the main organic acid in all species. Combining HPLC-DAD and LC-ESI-MS/MS technologies, total 25 phenolic components were preliminarily identified. P. avium was characterised by high fruit weight, edible proportion, sugar content and low acid content, which made it suitable for fresh eating. P. cerasus was high in acid content and anthocyanins content, making it a good processing species. P. pseudocerasus had rich flavonols varieties and high proportion of hydrocinnamic acids. P. tomentosa was characterised by high total phenolics content (especially flavonols and tannins) and antioxidant activity, indicating a great developmental potential as a health fruit. The results of the present study might provide theoretical guidance for the further development and utilisation of cherries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Taking a Second Bite at the Appeal Cherry: Molaudzi v S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donrich W Jordaan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The principle of res judicata is well-established in our law: essentially it means that parties to a dispute have only one metaphorical "bite at the cherry". The "bite" can entail appealing through the hierarchy of courts, but once the parties have exhausted their appeals, they cannot re-litigate the same dispute. However, in the recent case of Molaudzi v S 2015 2 SACR 341 (CC the appellant attempted to appeal to the Constitutional Court twice: the first time the application for leave to appeal was dismissed; the second time the application was granted and the appeal upheld. The appellant got a second "bite at the cherry". In Molaudzi v S the Constitutional Court developed the common law by creating an interest-of-justice exception to the principle of res judicata and – for the first time in the Constitutional Court's history – overturned one of its own judgements. In this case note I present the background of the case of Molaudzi v S, analyse the judgement, and differentiate it from another Constitutional Court case that dealt with res judicata, namely Mpofu v Minister for Justice and Constitutional Development 2013 2 SACR 407 (CC.

  12. Characterization and antimicrobial properties of food packaging methylcellulose films containing stem extract of Ginja cherry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Débora; Piccirillo, Clara; Pullar, Robert C; Castro, Paula Ml; Pintado, Maria M E

    2014-08-01

    Food contamination and spoilage is a problem causing growing concern. To avoid it, the use of food packaging with appropriate characteristics is essential; ideally, the packaging should protect food from external contamination and exhibit antibacterial properties. With this aim, methylcellulose (MC) films containing natural extracts from the stems of Ginja cherry, an agricultural by-product, were developed and characterized. The antibacterial activity of films was screened by the disc diffusion method and quantified using the viable cell count assay. The films inhibited the growth of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains (Listeria innocua, methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus, Salmonella Enteritidis, Escherichia coli). For the films with lower extract content, effectiveness against the microorganisms depended on the inoculum concentration. Scanning electron microscope images of the films showed that those containing the extracts had a smooth and continuous structure. UV-visible spectroscopy showed that these materials do not transmit light in the UV. This study shows that MC films containing agricultural by-products, in this case Ginja cherry stem extract, could be used to prevent food contamination by relevant bacterial strains and degradation by UV light. Using such materials in food packaging, the shelf life of food products could be extended while utilizing an otherwise wasted by-product. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Effect of Salicylic Acid on Prevention of Chilling Injury of Cherry Tomato (Lycopersicun esculentum cv. Messina(

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hanifeh seyed hajizadeh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fruits and vegetables play a major role in providing vitamins and minerals that are essential in the metabolism. In addition to providing vitamins and minerals compounds, they are called secondary metabolites. Tomatoes are one of the most vegetables in diets of people around the world. Low temperature stress associated with the production of reactive oxygen species causing damage can occur before or after harvest, farm, transportation, storage and marketing. Today, a greater emphasis is placed on post-harvest storage of agricultural products to increase productivity and make better use of labor resources, worker, energy and money, rather than an increase in production. One of the most promising treatments is the use of salicylic acid for prevention of the frost damage of post-harvest fruits and vegetables with different mechanisms such as increased enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant system activity. Salicylic acid is known as a signal molecule in the induction defense mechanisms in plants. SA is a well-known phenol that can prevent ACO activity that is the direct precursor of ethylene and decreases Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS with increasing enzyme antioxidant activity. Salicylic acid is a natural phenolic compound known as a plant hormone having positive effect on storage life and quality of fruits. This study aimed to investigate the effects of pre- and post-harvest application of salicylic acid on antioxidant properties and quality of tomato and its effect was evaluated on prevention of chilling injury of cherry tomatoes during cold storage. Material and Methods: This research was conducted in a greenhouse of Horticulture Department of University of Maragheh. Treatments were included before harvest at fruit set stage with the control (distilled water and 0.75 mM salicylic acid spraying and after harvest, red ripened fruits were used for treatments control and immersion in 0.75 mM salicylic acid. Then all the treated fruits

  14. PERSPECTIVE SWEET CHERRY CULTIVARS SELECTED BY SIDORENKO INSTITUTE OF IRRIGATED HORTICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolgova S.V.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We presented the study of varieties of sweet cherries during 2004-2011 in the southern steppes of Ukraine. Objects of research were the famous breeding varieties that are listed in the National Plant Register of Ukraine together with perspective varieties. We have identified varieties with high resistance to frost generative buds. We have identified resistant and highly resistant varieties for resistance to the flowers of spring frosts. We have also identified the class for complex resistance to fungal diseases of stone fruit. We also identified a variety with very high yield. We have selected varieties in taste and product quality. We have selected several varieties of the complex agronomic traits, some of which have been included in the National Register of plants of Ukraine, often promising. According to the results obtained by the best research we have identified promising sweet cherry varieties that are adapted to the environmental conditions. These promising varieties are not inferior varieties cultivated with a range of indicators.

  15. 10-Undecenoic Acid, an Inexpensive Source for the Synthesis of the Pheromones of Cotton Pests, Peach Tree Borer and Cherry Tree Borer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subrata Chattopadhyay

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The aldehyde 7, derived from 10-undecenoic acid (5 on cis-selective Wittig reaction with pentylidenetriphenylphosphorane, subsequent deprotection and oxidation gave the pheromone (11Z-hexadecenal (1. Wittig-Horner olefination of 1 with the phosphonate 9 furnished the conjugated ester 10 which on base catalyzed isomerization to the (3Z-ester 11 followed by LAH reduction and acetylation gave (3Z,13Z-octadeadien-1-yl acetate (2. Compound 10 on the other hand was chemoselectively reduced and acetylated to furnish the pheromone (2E,13Z-octadeadien-1-yl acetate (4. For the synthesis of (3E,13Z-octadeadien-1-yl acetate (3, 1 was condensed with malonic acid under modified condition to afford the acid 13 which was converted to 3 by standard reaction protocol.

  16. Fault tree handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haasl, D.F.; Roberts, N.H.; Vesely, W.E.; Goldberg, F.F.

    1981-01-01

    This handbook describes a methodology for reliability analysis of complex systems such as those which comprise the engineered safety features of nuclear power generating stations. After an initial overview of the available system analysis approaches, the handbook focuses on a description of the deductive method known as fault tree analysis. The following aspects of fault tree analysis are covered: basic concepts for fault tree analysis; basic elements of a fault tree; fault tree construction; probability, statistics, and Boolean algebra for the fault tree analyst; qualitative and quantitative fault tree evaluation techniques; and computer codes for fault tree evaluation. Also discussed are several example problems illustrating the basic concepts of fault tree construction and evaluation

  17. Phenological monitoring of fruit trees in the Czech republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajkova, L.; Striz, M.; Nekovar, J.

    2010-09-01

    Phenological observations at CHMI has a long tradition. Aside from several short-term series in 18th and 19th century the general phenology network has been started in 1923.In 1987 the network has been divided into tree observation types (field crops, fruit trees and wild plants) with separate methodology instructions. The period 1991 - 2010 has been selected. We have statistically evaluated results of fruit trees phenophase onset (bud burst - BBCH07, inflorescence emergence - BBCH57, beginning of flowering - BBCH61, end of flowering - BBCH69) in above mentioned period (apple, pear, cherry, morello, apricot). The second step has been evaluation of interval duration with meteorological characteristics (air temperature, sunshine duration, number of days with precipitation above 1 mm).In selected period 1991 - 2009 were observed subsequent average phenophase onset: BBCH 07 - 25th March, BBCH 57 - 14th April, BBCH61 - 26th April, BBCH69 - 12th May (Malus domestica Borkh. - species Idared). Prunus armeniaca L. - species Velkopavlovická shows these results in period 1991 - 2009: BBCH07 - 27th March, BBCH57 - 5th April, BBCH61 - 7th April, BBCH69 - 19th April.

  18. There's Life in Hazard Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary Torsello; Toni McLellan

    The goals of hazard tree management programs are to maximize public safety and maintain a healthy sustainable tree resource. Although hazard tree management frequently targets removal of trees or parts of trees that attract wildlife, it can take into account a diversity of tree values. With just a little extra planning, hazard tree management can be highly beneficial...

  19. Contemporary Black Theatre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Pearl

    The distinguishable black theatre in America, mirroring a distinguishable black experience, is an artistic product which demands audience involvement. Both the Afro-American oral tradition and the art of gesture are integral aspects of black theatre. In addition, the tragedy found black theatre is not tragedy in the classic sense, as blacks feel…

  20. Evaluation of the glycoside hydrolase activity of a Brettanomyces strain on glycosides from sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) used in the production of special fruit beers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daenen, Luk; Sterckx, Femke; Delvaux, Freddy R; Verachtert, Hubert; Derdelinckx, Guy

    2008-11-01

    The glycoside hydrolase activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Brettanomyces custersii was examined on sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) glycosides with bound volatile compounds. Refermentations by the beta-glucosidase-negative S. cerevisiae strains LD25 and LD40 of sour cherry juice-supplemented beer demonstrated only a moderate increase of volatiles. In contrast, the beta-glucosidase-positive B. custersii strain LD72 showed a more pronounced activity towards glycosides with aliphatic alcohols, aromatic compounds and terpenoid alcohols. Important contributors to sour cherry aroma such as benzaldehyde, linalool and eugenol were released during refermentation as shown by analytical tools. A gradually increasing release was observed during refermentations by B. custersii when whole sour cherries, sour cherry pulp or juice were supplemented in the beer. Refermentations with whole sour cherries and with sour cherry stones demonstrated an increased formation of benzyl compounds. Thus, amygdalin was partially hydrolysed, and a large part of the benzaldehyde formed was mainly reduced to benzyl alcohol and some further esterified to benzyl acetate. These findings demonstrate the importance and interesting role of certain Brettanomyces species in the production of fruit lambic beers such as 'Kriek'.

  1. 75 FR 29684 - Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, et al.; Increased Assessment Rate for the 2010...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ... for the establishment of production research, market research and development, and/or promotional... rate intended to cover administrative costs and research and promotional costs be identified. Section... the assessment rate ($0.005 per pound of cherries) would continue to fund the Board's research and...

  2. 75 FR 57161 - Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, et al.; Increased Assessment Rate for the 2010...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    ... establishment of production research, market research and development, and/or promotional activities designed to... intended to cover administrative costs and research and promotional costs be identified. Section 930.48 of... the assessment rate ($0.005 per pound of cherries) will continue to fund the Board's research and...

  3. Valorization of postharvest sweet cherry discard for the development of dehydrated fruit ingredients: compositional, physical, and mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschinis, Lorena; Sette, Paula; Salvatori, Daniela; Schebor, Carolina

    2018-04-20

    Sweet cherries are an excellent source of phenolic compounds, which may contribute to a healthy diet. The objective of this work was to generate dehydrated ingredients from postharvest discard of sweet cherries. Four dried ingredients were obtained from fresh sweet cherry discard (Lapins var.) using an osmotic dehydration pretreatment and freeze drying or air drying. The ingredients showed an important phenolic contribution (2.8-6.6 g gallic acid kg -1 of product) and preserved the natural color of the fruit to a great extent. Freeze-dried ingredients were less hygroscopic than air-dried ones, and presented with a softer texture. All the ingredients were in a supercooled state at room temperature (T g range: -23.0 to -18.8 °C). Sugar infusion pretreatment caused a decrease in water sorption capacity and molecular mobility; it also reduced the initial rehydration rate. Relevant differences in nutritional and structural characteristics of the ingredients were observed depending on the processing method used. These ingredients could be incorporated into different processed foods, such as snacks, cereal mixtures, cereal bars, and bakery and confectionery products. Air-dried control ingredients presented better nutritional qualities and air-dried sweet cherries with sugar infusion pretreatment could be appropriate ingredients for applications where sweet flavor and slow rehydration rate are required. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. 76 FR 31577 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh Apricot, Sweet Cherry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ...] Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh Apricot, Sweet Cherry, and... commodities from South Africa. We are making the pest risk analysis available to the public for review and... for approving the importation of commodities that, based on the findings of a pest risk analysis, can...

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF METHOD OF QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF BIRD CHERRY FRUIT FOR INCLUSION IN THE MONOGRAPH OF STATE PHARMACOPOEIA OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenchyk L.V.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Bird cherry Padus avium Mill, Rosaceae, is widespread in Ukraine, especially in forests and forest-steppe areas. Bird cherry fruits have long been used in medicine and is a valuable medicinal raw materials. They stated to posess astringent, anti-inflammatory, phytoncidal properties. Bird cherry fruits are included in the USSR Pharmacopoeia IX ed., The State Pharmacopoeia of the Russian Federation, The State Pharmacopoeia of Republic of Belarus. In Ukraine there are no contemporary normative documents for this medicinal plant material, therefore it is the actual to develop projects in the national monographs "dry bird cherry fruit" and "fresh bird cherry fruit" to be included in the State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine. According to European Pharmacopoeia recommendation method of thin-layer chromatography (TLC is prescribed only for the identification of the herbal drug. The principles of thin-layer chromatography and application of the technique in pharmaceutical analysis are described in State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine. As it is effective and easy to perform, and the equipment required is inexpensive, the technique is frequently used for evaluating medicinal plant materials and their preparations. The TLC is aimed at elucidating the chromatogram of the drug with respect to selected reference compounds that are described for inclusion as reagents. Aim of this study was to develop methods of qualitative analysis of bird cherry fruits for a monograph in the State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine (SPU. Materials and Methods. The object of our study was dried bird cherry fruits (7 samples and fresh bird cherry fruits (7 samples harvested in 2013-2015 in Kharkiv, Poltava, Luhansk, Sumy, Lviv, Mykolaiv regions and the city Mariupol. Samples were registered in the department of SPU State Enterprise "Pharmacopeia center". In accordance with the Ph. Eur. and SPU requirements in "identification C" determination was performed by TLC. TLC was performed on

  6. Sweet cherries from the end of the world: options and constraints for fruit production systems in South Patagonia, Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cittadini, E.D.

    2007-01-01

    In South Patagonia, development of the fruit production sector has been almost exclusively based on the production of sweet cherry, with an area increase from 176 ha in 1997 to 578 ha at the end of 2006. These orchards are designed as intensive systems and oriented to export markets. Even though

  7. Book review: Doing a Systematic Review: A Student's Guide, edited by Angela Boland, M. Gemma Cherry & Rumona Dickson

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lecheler, S.

    2014-01-01

    Writing a systematic review is one of the most challenging aspects of the academic process. With Doing a Systematic Review: A Student’s Guide, Angela Boland, M. Gemma Cherry and Rumona Dickson aim to offer a detailed and effective guide to writing a successful systematic review. This takes the book

  8. 75 FR 31719 - Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... the past, the primary product produced and sold was frozen cherries; the product mix is now more... marketing efforts by having better quality products available when reserves are released to the market. One... 4, 2010 / Proposed Rules#0;#0; [[Page 31719

  9. Covering tree with stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jiong; Ibragimov, Rashid

    2015-01-01

    We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting...... tree is isomorphic to T? We prove that in the general setting, CST is NP-complete, which implies that the tree edit distance considered here is also NP-hard, even when both input trees having diameters bounded by 10. We also show that, when the number of distinct stars is bounded by a constant k, CTS...

  10. Are commercial sweet cherry rootstocks adapted to climate change? Short-term waterlogging and CO2 effects on sweet cherry cv. 'Burlat'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jiménez, Margarita; Hernández-Munuera, María; Piñero, M Carmen; López-Ortega, Gregorio; Del Amor, Francisco M

    2018-05-01

    High CO 2 is able to ameliorate some negative effects due to climate change and intensify others. This study involves the sweet cherry (Prunus avium) cultivar 'Burlat' grafted on the 'Mariana 2624', 'Adara' and 'LC 52' rootstocks. In a climate chamber at two CO 2 concentrations, ambient (400 µmol mol -1 ) and elevated (800 µmol mol -1 ), the plants were submitted to waterlogging for 7 d, followed by 7 d of recovery after drainage. Waterlogging drastically decreased the rate of photosynthesis, significantly endangering plant survival, particularly for the 'LC 52' and 'Adara' rootstocks. 'Mariana 2624' was also clearly affected by waterlogging that increased lipid peroxidation and the Cl - and SO 4 2- concentrations in all the studied plants. Nevertheless, CO 2 was able to overcome this reduction in photosynthesis, augmenting growth, increasing soluble sugars and starch, raising turgor and regulating the concentrations of Cl - and SO 4 2- , while lowering the NO 3 - concentration in leaves of all the studied rootstocks. In concordance with these results, the proline levels indicated a more intense stress at control CO 2 than at high CO 2 for waterlogged plants. 'Mariana 2624' was more resistant to waterlogging than 'Adara', and both were more resistant than 'LC 52' in control CO 2 conditions; this clearly enhanced the chance of survival under hypoxia. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Edible Coating Using a Chitosan-Based Colloid Incorporating Grapefruit Seed Extract for Cherry Tomato Safety and Preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Jin Sung; Lee, Seung Jo; Park, Hyeon Hwa; Song, Kyung Bin; Min, Sea C

    2018-01-01

    Grapefruit seed extract (GSE)-containing chitosan-based coating was developed and applied to cherry tomatoes to protect them from Salmonella invasion and improve their storability. The coating colloids were produced by mixing a chitosan colloid (1% [w/w] chitosan) with GSE at various concentrations (0.5%, 0.7%, 1.0%, and 1.2% [w/w]) using high-shear mixing (10000 rpm, 2 min). Coatings with chitosan colloids containing GSE at 0.0%, 0.5%, 0.7%, and 1.0% (w/w) inactivated Salmonella on cherry tomatoes by 1.0 ± 0.3, 1.2 ± 0.3, 1.6 ± 0.1, and 2.0 ± 0.3 log CFU/cherry tomato, respectively. Coatings both with and without GSE (1.0%) effectively inhibited the growth of Salmonella and total mesophilic aerobes, reduced CO 2 generation, and retarded titratable acidity decrease during storage at 10 and 25 °C. The advantage of incorporating GSE in the formulation was demonstrated by delayed microorganism growth and reduced weight loss at 25 °C. The chitosan-GSE coating did not affect lycopene concentration, color, and sensory properties (P > 0.05). Chitosan-GSE coating shows potential for improving the microbiological safety and storability of cherry tomatoes, with stronger efficacy at 25 °C than that of chitosan coating without GSE. A novel chitosan coating containing grape fruit seed extract (GSE) improved the microbiological safety against Salmonella and storability of cherry tomatoes without altering their flavor, demonstrating its strong potential as an effective postharvest technology. Chitosan coating containing GSE might be preferable over chitosan coating without GSE for application to tomatoes that are stored at room temperature in that it more effectively inhibits microbial growth and weight loss than the coating without GSE at 25 °C. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  12. Nonlinearities, scale-dependence, and individualism of boreal forest trees to climate forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolken, J. M.; Mann, D. H.; Grant, T. A., III; Lloyd, A. H.; Hollingsworth, T. N.

    2013-12-01

    Our understanding of the climate-growth relationships of trees are complicated by the nonlinearity and variability of these responses through space and time. Furthermore, trees growing at the same site may exhibit opposing growth responses to climate, a phenomenon termed growth divergence. To date the majority of dendrochronological studies in Interior Alaska have involved white spruce growing at treeline, even though black spruce is the most abundant tree species. Although changing climate-growth relationships have been observed in black spruce, there is little known about the multivariate responses of individual trees to temperature and precipitation and whether or not black spruce exhibits growth divergences similar to those documented for white spruce. To evaluate the occurrence of growth divergences in black spruce, we collected cores from trees growing on a steep, north-facing toposequence having a gradient in environmental parameters. Our overall goal was to assess how the climate-growth relationships of black spruce change over space and time. Specifically, we evaluated how topography influences the climate-growth relationships of black spruce and if the growth responses to climate are homogeneous. At the site-level most trees responded negatively to temperature and positively to precipitation, while at the tree-level black spruce exhibited heterogenous growth responses to climate that varied in both space (i.e., between sites) and time (i.e., seasonally and annually). There was a dominant response-type at each site, but there was also considerable variability in the proportion of trees exhibiting each response-type combination. Even in a climatically extreme setting like Alaska's boreal forest, tree responses to climate variability are spatially and temporally complex, as well as highly nonlinear.

  13. Black widow spider

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002858.htm Black widow spider To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The black widow spider (Latrodectus) has a shiny black body with a ...

  14. Trees and highway safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    To minimize the severity of run-off-road collisions of vehicles with trees, departments of transportation (DOTs) : commonly establish clear zones for trees and other fixed objects. Caltrans clear zone on freeways is 30 feet : minimum (40 feet pref...

  15. Decision-Tree Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buntine, Wray

    1994-01-01

    IND computer program introduces Bayesian and Markov/maximum-likelihood (MML) methods and more-sophisticated methods of searching in growing trees. Produces more-accurate class-probability estimates important in applications like diagnosis. Provides range of features and styles with convenience for casual user, fine-tuning for advanced user or for those interested in research. Consists of four basic kinds of routines: data-manipulation, tree-generation, tree-testing, and tree-display. Written in C language.

  16. Effect of Tree Species on Enzyme Secretion by the Shiitake Medicinal Mushroom, Lentinus edodes (Agaricomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikov, Evgeny V; Glukhova, Lubov B; Sokolyanskaya, Ludmila O; Karnachuk, Olga V; Solioz, Marc

    2016-01-01

    We compared cold and hot wood extracts of 3 endemic Siberian trees-namely, Prunus padus (bird cherry), Populus tremula (aspen), and Betula sp. (birch)-on biomass production and laccase and peroxidase secretion in submerged cultures by the medicinal mushroom Lentinus edodes. Of the conditions tested, only hot Prunus extracts stimulated biomass production, whereas all extracts stimulated laccase and peroxidase secretion, albeit to different extents. A large, differential stimulation of manganese peroxidase was observed by hot Prunus extracts. The results highlight important differences between tree species in the stimulation of biomass and enzyme production by L. edodes and point to potentially interesting stimulatory factors present in hot Prunus extracts. These findings are of relevance in the use of L. edodes for medicinal or biotechnological applications.

  17. Minnesota's Forest Trees. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, William R.; Fuller, Bruce L.

    This bulletin describes 46 of the more common trees found in Minnesota's forests and windbreaks. The bulletin contains two tree keys, a summer key and a winter key, to help the reader identify these trees. Besides the two keys, the bulletin includes an introduction, instructions for key use, illustrations of leaf characteristics and twig…

  18. D2-tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Sioutas, Spyros; Pantazos, Kostas

    2015-01-01

    We present a new overlay, called the Deterministic Decentralized tree (D2-tree). The D2-tree compares favorably to other overlays for the following reasons: (a) it provides matching and better complexities, which are deterministic for the supported operations; (b) the management of nodes (peers...

  19. Covering tree with stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jian-Ying; Ibragimov, Rashid

    2013-01-01

    We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting ...

  20. Winter Birch Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Debra; Rounds, Judy

    2011-01-01

    Trees are great inspiration for artists. Many art teachers find themselves inspired and maybe somewhat obsessed with the natural beauty and elegance of the lofty tree, and how it changes through the seasons. One such tree that grows in several regions and always looks magnificent, regardless of the time of year, is the birch. In this article, the…

  1. Total well dominated trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finbow, Arthur; Frendrup, Allan; Vestergaard, Preben D.

    cardinality then G is a total well dominated graph. In this paper we study composition and decomposition of total well dominated trees. By a reversible process we prove that any total well dominated tree can both be reduced to and constructed from a family of three small trees....

  2. Ecophysiology of the internal cycling of nitrogen in deciduous fruit trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millard, P.

    2005-01-01

    In EU Countries, society’s expectations and political decisions have pushed the adoption of ecologically sustainable ways to manage orchards. Nitrogen (N) nutrition is a powerful means of controlling growth and fruiting of trees and guidelines for N management now aim to limit fertiliser applications below threshold values in order to reduce N losses. Increasing the effectiveness of the recycling of N pools available in the orchard is a basic step to reduce external N inputs. The availability of the stable isotope 15N as experimental tool has made possible significant advancements in the knowledge of the fluxes of N in the soil-tree system. Within-tree N sources for vegetative tree growth and reproduction include remobilization of winter stored N (within the tree and between the years) and root-shoot-root N recycling (within the tree and within each year). Nitrogen remobilization from storage is the major source of N in spring, until root uptake becomes predominant. As trees age, relatively more N in new growth is derived from storage and trees become relatively less dependent on root N uptake. Specific amino acids and amides have been identified in the xylem sap of several trees, including apple and cherry, that are considered responsible for remobilization of N compounds in spring. Most evidence has been obtained with relatively young trees grown in pot so there is a need for developing new approaches for quantifying N storage by adult trees in the field. Shoot-root transport of N and subsequent xylem reloading at the root level is a normal feature of vascular plants. While qualitative evidence of this phenomenon are based on detailed analysis of phloem and xylem sap, quantifying reloading N in the xylem was approached by comparing the N fluxes in the xylem with the accumulation of N in tree canopy. Results indicate that recycling of N in the xylem is a mechanism by which plants might regulate N uptake by roots. The adoption of stable isotope techniques in tree

  3. Occupational Allergy to Peach (Prunus persica) Tree Pollen and Potential Cross-Reactivity between Rosaceae Family Pollens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nannan; Yin, Jia; Mak, Philip; Wen, Liping

    2015-10-01

    Orchard workers in north China are highly exposed to orchard pollens, especially peach and other Rosaceae family pollens during pollination season. The aim of this study was to investigate whether occupational allergy to peach tree pollen as a member of Rosaceae family is IgE-mediated and to evaluate the cross-reactivity among Rosaceae family pollens. Allergen skin test and conjunctival challenge test were performed; enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA), inhibiting ELISA, western immunoblotting and inhibiting western immunoblotting were done with Rosaceae family orchard pollens, including peach, apricot, cherry, apple and pear tree pollens. Mass spectrometry was also performed to probe the main allergen component and cross-reactive protein. Sensitizations to peach pollen were found in both skin test and conjunctival challenge in the patients. Serum specific IgE to three pollens (peach, apricot and cherry) were detected through ELISA. When peach pollen used as solid phase, ELISA inhibition revealed other four kinds of pollens capable of inducing partial to strong inhibitions (45% to 87%), with the strongest inhibition belonging to apricot pollen (87%). Western blotting showed predominant IgE binding to a 20 KD protein among these pollens, which appeared to be a cross-reactive allergen component through western blotting inhibition. It was recognized as a protein homologous to glutathione s-transferase 16 from Arabidopsis thaliana. Peach and other Rosaceae family tree pollen may serve as a potential cause of IgE mediated occupational respiratory disease in orchard workers in north China.

  4. Black Urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Vakili

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A 2-year-old boy was born at term of healthy, non-consanguineous Iranian parents. His mother attended in the clinic with the history of sometimes discoloration of diapers after passing urine. She noticed that first at the age of one month with intensified in recent months. His Physical examination and growth parameters were normal. His mother denied taking any medication (sorbitol, nitrofurantoin, metronidazole, methocarbamol, sena and methyldopa (5. Qualitative urine examination showed dark black discoloration. By this history, alkaptonuria was the most clinical suspicious. A 24-hour-urine sample was collected and sent for quantitative measurements. The urine sample was highly positive for homogentisic acid and negative for porphyrin metabolites.

  5. Detection and partial molecular characterization of atypical plum pox virus isolates from naturally infected sour cherry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirkov, Sergei; Ivanov, Peter; Sheveleva, Anna

    2013-06-01

    Atypical isolates of plum pox virus (PPV) were discovered in naturally infected sour cherry in urban ornamental plantings in Moscow, Russia. The isolates were detected by polyclonal double antibody sandwich ELISA and RT-PCR using universal primers specific for the 3'-non-coding and coat protein (CP) regions of the genome but failed to be recognized by triple antibody sandwich ELISA with the universal monoclonal antibody 5B and by RT-PCR using primers specific to for PPV strains D, M, C and W. Sequence analysis of the CP genes of nine isolates revealed 99.2-100 % within-group identity and 62-85 % identity to conventional PPV strains. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the atypical isolates represent a group that is distinct from the known PPV strains. Alignment of the N-terminal amino acid sequences of CP demonstrated their close similarity to those of a new tentative PPV strain, CR.

  6. Composition of volatile aromatic compounds and minerals of tarhana enriched with cherry laurel (Laurocerasus officinalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temiz, Hasan; Tarakçı, Zekai

    2017-03-01

    Different concentrations of cherry laurel pulp (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%) were used to produce tarhana samples. Volatile aromatic compounds and minor mineral content were investigated. Volatile aromatic compounds were analyzed by using GC-MS with SPME fiber and minor mineral values were evaluated with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer. The statistical analysis showed that addition of pulp affected volatile aromatic compounds and minor mineral content significantly. Thirty five volatile aromatic compounds were found in tarhana samples. The octanoic acid from acids, benzaldehyde (CAS) phenylmethanal from aldehydes, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one from ketones, octadecane (CAS) n -octadecane form terpenes, ethyl caprylate from esters and benzenemethanol (CAS) benzyl alcohol from alcohols had the highest percentage of volatile aromatic compounds. Tarhana samples were rich source of Mn, Cu and Fe content.

  7. Novel duck parvovirus identified in Cherry Valley ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus), China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuanfeng; Li, Qi; Chen, Zongyan; Liu, Guangqing

    2016-10-01

    An unknown infectious disease in Cherry Valley ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) characterized by short beak and strong growth retardation occurred in China during 2015. The causative agent of this disease, tentatively named duck short beak and dwarfism syndrome (DSBDS), as well as the evolutionary relationships between this causative agent and all currently known avian-origin parvoviruses were clarified by virus isolation, transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation, analysis of nuclear acid type, (RT-)PCR identification, whole genome sequencing, and NS1 protein sequences-based phylogenetic analyses. The results indicated that the causative agent of DSBDS is closely related with the goose parvovirus-like virus, which is divergent from all currently known avian-origin parvoviruses and should be a novel duck parvovirus (NDPV). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. REPEATED MEASURES ANALYSIS OF CHANGES IN PHOTOSYNTHETIC EFFICIENCY IN SOUR CHERRY DURING WATER DEFICIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Viljevac

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate changes in photosynthetic efficiency applying repeated measures ANOVA using the photosynthetic performance index (PIABS of the JIP-test as a vitality parameter in seven genotypes of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus, L. during 10 days of continuous water deficit. Both univariate and multivariate ANOVA repeated measures revealed highly significant time effect (Days and its subsequent interactions with genotype and water deficit. However, the multivariate Pillai’s trace test detected the interaction Time × Genotype × Water deficit as not significant. According to the Tukey’s Studentized Range (HSD test, differences between the control and genotypes exposed to water stress became significant on the fourth day of the experiment, indicating that the plants on the average, began to lose their photosynthetic efficiency four days after being exposed to water shortage. It corroborates previous findings in other species that PIABS is very sensitive tool for detecting drought stress.

  9. Microencapsulation of purple Brazilian cherry juice in xanthan, tara gums and xanthan-tara hydrogel matrixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutz, Josiane K; Zambiazi, Rui C; Borges, Caroline D; Krumreich, Fernanda D; da Luz, Suzane R; Hartwig, Naralice; da Rosa, Cleonice G

    2013-11-06

    The purple Brazilian cherry (Eugenia uniflora L.) juice was encapsulated in xanthan, tara and xanthan-tara hydrogel matrixes. Encapsulation efficiency, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffractometry, release profile, stability of carotenoids, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of microparticles were evaluated. Encapsulation was confirmed. The highest encapsulation efficiency was obtained with xanthan gum and hydrogel was mostly indicated for the release of carotenoids in GFS and IFS medium. Phenolic compounds had the highest release rate but not in a gradually way, regardless of wall material and fluids under analysis. Stored microparticles at 4 and 25 °C, showed carotenoid degradation. Xanthan and hydrogel wall material provided the greatest stability to these compounds. The microparticles' anti-oxidant activity decreased during storage due to the degradation of carotenoids. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Apple, Cherry, and Blackcurrant Increases Nuclear Factor Kappa B Activation in Liver of Transgenic Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balstad, Trude; Paur, Ingvild; Poulsen, Morten

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-B) is essential in normal physiology, and several human disorders involve inappropriate regulation of NF-B. Diets dominated by plant-based foods protect against chronic diseases, and several food derived compounds have been identified as promising NF-B modulators. We...... investigated the effects of diets supplemented with apple, blackcurrant, or cherries on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NF-B activation in transgenic NF-B-luciferase mice. Whole body and organ specific NF-B activities were determined. The mice had ad libitum access to the respective experimental diets for 7...... slightly higher whole-body NF-B activation at 4 h, and all 3 experimental groups had higher NF-B activation at 6 h. LPS-induced NF-B activation in liver was increased with all 3 experimental diets, but no effects were observed in other organs. Our findings indicate that high intakes of lyophilized fruits...

  11. Plant profile, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Cordia dichotoma (Indian cherry): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamkhande, Prasad G; Barde, Sonal R; Patwekar, Shailesh L; Tidke, Priti S

    2013-12-01

    More than half of the world's population relies on the traditional medicine and major role of the traditional medicine including the use of plant extract and their active constituents. Among them, Cordia dichotoma Forst., a small to moderate size plant of family Boragenaceae, commonly called bhokar, lasura, gonda, Indian cherry and shlesmataka. Plant parts such as leaves, fruit, bark and seed have been reported for possessing antidiabetic, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, immune-modulator and analgesic activity. Screening of fruit, leaves and seed shows the presence of pyrrolizidine alkaloids, coumarins, flavonoids, saponins, terpenes and sterols. Present review focuses on details of geographical distribution, physicochemical parameters, phytoconstituents and pharmacological properties of Cordia dichotoma reported so far. Copyright © 2013 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Epicuticular wax on cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus) leaves does not constitute the cuticular transpiration barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeisler, Viktoria; Schreiber, Lukas

    2016-01-01

    Epicuticular wax of cherry laurel does not contribute to the formation of the cuticular transpiration barrier, which must be established by intracuticular wax. Barrier properties of cuticles are established by cuticular wax deposited on the outer surface of the cuticle (epicuticular wax) and in the cutin polymer (intracuticular wax). It is still an open question to what extent epi- and/or intracuticular waxes contribute to the formation of the transpiration barrier. Epicuticular wax was mechanically removed from the surfaces of isolated cuticles and intact leaf disks of cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.) by stripping with different polymers (collodion, cellulose acetate and gum arabic). Scanning electron microscopy showed that two consecutive treatments with all three polymers were sufficient to completely remove epicuticular wax since wax platelets disappeared and cuticle surfaces appeared smooth. Waxes in consecutive polymer strips and wax remaining in the cuticle after treatment with the polymers were determined by gas chromatography. This confirmed that two treatments of the polymers were sufficient for selectively removing epicuticular wax. Water permeability of isolated cuticles and cuticles covering intact leaf disks was measured using (3)H-labelled water before and after selectively removing epicuticular wax. Cellulose acetate and its solvent acetone led to a significant increase of cuticular permeability, indicating that the organic solvent acetone affected the cuticular transpiration barrier. However, permeability did not change after two subsequent treatments with collodion and gum arabic or after treatment with the corresponding solvents (diethyl ether:ethanol or water). Thus, in the case of P. laurocerasus the epicuticular wax does not significantly contribute to the formation of the cuticular transpiration barrier, which evidently must be established by the intracuticular wax.

  13. Análisis de ruta de tomate Cherry en poscosecha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreira Sobreira Fábio

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar las principales variables asociadas a la resistencia poscosecha del tomate Cherry (tomate tipo cereza (Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme, y con base en ello, orientar la selección de materiales para programas de mejoramiento. Se utilizó un diseño experimental en bloques completos aleatorizados, con tres repeticiones y 10 frutos por parcela. Para el análisis de los datos se adoptó un diagrama causal ilustrativo, considerando la resistencia poscosecha como variable básica, y las siguientes variables explicativas: peso medio de los frutos, diámetro de la cicatriz del pedúnculo, grosor del mesocarpio, contenido de sólidos solubles y pH. Se realizaron análisis de varianza, correlaciones genotípicas y multicolinealidad; y desdoblamiento de las correlaciones genotípicas por medio de análisis de ruta (portugués: "análise de trilha". Considerando separadamente los caracteres estudiados, el grosor del mesocarpio y el peso medio de los frutos son los que contribuyen en una mayor medida a explicar las variaciones en la resistencia poscosecha del tomate Cherry. Es posible obtener ganancias en resistencia poscosecha por medio de selección indirecta vía grosor del mesocarpio. Esta ganancia será mayor si entre los frutos de mayor grosor del mesocarpio se seleccionan los que presentan menor peso.

  14. TreePics: visualizing trees with pictures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Puillandre

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available While many programs are available to edit phylogenetic trees, associating pictures with branch tips in an efficient and automatic way is not an available option. Here, we present TreePics, a standalone software that uses a web browser to visualize phylogenetic trees in Newick format and that associates pictures (typically, pictures of the voucher specimens to the tip of each branch. Pictures are visualized as thumbnails and can be enlarged by a mouse rollover. Further, several pictures can be selected and displayed in a separate window for visual comparison. TreePics works either online or in a full standalone version, where it can display trees with several thousands of pictures (depending on the memory available. We argue that TreePics can be particularly useful in a preliminary stage of research, such as to quickly detect conflicts between a DNA-based phylogenetic tree and morphological variation, that may be due to contamination that needs to be removed prior to final analyses, or the presence of species complexes.

  15. Wood-plastic composites utilizing wood flours derived from fast- growing trees common to the midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are several non- or under-utilized hardwood trees common to the Midwestern states. Wood flour (WF) derived from fast-growing Midwest trees (Osage orange, Black Locust and Red Mulberry) were evaluated as a source of bio-based fiber reinforcements. Wood plastic composites (WPC) of high density p...

  16. Boreal Tree Light- and Water-Use: Asynchronous, Diverging, yet Complementary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, C.; Baltzer, J. L.; Barr, A.; Black, T. A.; Bohrer, G.; Detto, M.; Maillet, J.; Matheny, A. M.; Roy, A.; Sonnentag, O.; Stephens, J.

    2017-12-01

    Water stress has been suggested as a key mechanism behind the contemporary increase in tree mortality rates in northwestern North America. However, a detailed analysis of boreal tree light- and water-use strategies as well as their interspecific differences are still lacking. Here, we examine the tree hydraulic behaviour of co-occurring larch (Larix laricina) and black spruce (Picea mariana), two characteristic boreal tree species, near the southern limit of the boreal ecozone in central Canada. Sap flux density (Js) and concurrently recorded stem radius fluctuations and meteorological conditions are used to quantify tree hydraulic functioning and to scrutinize tree light- and water-use strategies. Our analysis reveals an asynchrony in the diel hydrodynamics of the two species with the initial rise in Js occurring two hours earlier in larch than in black spruce. Structural differences in the crown architecture of larch and black spruce lead to interspecific differences in light harvesting that can explain the observed asynchrony in their hydraulic function. Furthermore, the two species exhibit diverging stomatal regulation strategies with larch employing relatively isohydric whereas black spruce anisohydric behaviour. Such asynchronous and diverging tree-level light- and water-use strategies provide new insights into the ecosystem-level complementarity of tree form and function, with implications for understanding boreal forests' water and carbon dynamics and resilience to environmental stress.

  17. 77 FR 10717 - Black Hills National Forest, Custer, South Dakota-Mountain Pine Beetle Response Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    .... The predominant tree species on lands of all ownerships in the Black Hills is ponderosa pine (Pinus... drought the Forest has seen a dramatic increase in acreage burned by wildfires. In that period over 250...

  18. Molecular genetic diversity and maternal origin of Chinese black-bone chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, W Q; Li, H F; Wang, J Y; Shu, J T; Zhu, C H; Song, W T; Song, C; Ji, G G; Liu, H X

    2014-04-29

    Chinese black-bone chickens are valued for the medicinal properties of their meat in traditional Chinese medicine. We investigated the genetic diversity and systematic evolution of Chinese black-bone chicken breeds. We sequenced the DNA of 520 bp of the mitochondrial cyt b gene of nine Chinese black-bone chicken breeds, including Silky chicken, Jinhu black-bone chicken, Jiangshan black-bone chicken, Yugan black-bone chicken, Wumeng black-bone chicken, Muchuan black-bone chicken, Xingwen black-bone chicken, Dehua black-bone chicken, and Yanjin black-bone chicken. We found 13 haplotypes. Haplotype and nucleotide diversity of the nine black-bone chicken breeds ranged from 0 to 0.78571 and 0.00081 to 0.00399, respectively. Genetic diversity was the richest in Jinhu black-bone chickens and the lowest in Yanjin black-bone chickens. Analysis of phylogenetic trees for all birds constructed based on hyplotypes indicated that the maternal origin of black-bone chickens is predominantly from three subspecies of red jungle fowl. These results provide basic data useful for protection of black-bone chickens and help determine the origin of domestic chickens.

  19. Spectra of chemical trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramanian, K.

    1982-01-01

    A method is developed for obtaining the spectra of trees of NMR and chemical interests. The characteristic polynomials of branched trees can be obtained in terms of the characteristic polynomials of unbranched trees and branches by pruning the tree at the joints. The unbranched trees can also be broken down further until a tree containing just two vertices is obtained. The effectively reduces the order of the secular determinant of the tree used at the beginning to determinants of orders atmost equal to the number of vertices in the branch containing the largest number of vertices. An illustrative example of a NMR graph is given for which the 22 x 22 secular determinant is reduced to determinants of orders atmost 4 x 4 in just the second step of the algorithm. The tree pruning algorithm can be applied even to trees with no symmetry elements and such a factoring can be achieved. Methods developed here can be elegantly used to find if two trees are cospectral and to construct cospectral trees

  20. Refining discordant gene trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górecki, Pawel; Eulenstein, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary studies are complicated by discordance between gene trees and the species tree in which they evolved. Dealing with discordant trees often relies on comparison costs between gene and species trees, including the well-established Robinson-Foulds, gene duplication, and deep coalescence costs. While these costs have provided credible results for binary rooted gene trees, corresponding cost definitions for non-binary unrooted gene trees, which are frequently occurring in practice, are challenged by biological realism. We propose a natural extension of the well-established costs for comparing unrooted and non-binary gene trees with rooted binary species trees using a binary refinement model. For the duplication cost we describe an efficient algorithm that is based on a linear time reduction and also computes an optimal rooted binary refinement of the given gene tree. Finally, we show that similar reductions lead to solutions for computing the deep coalescence and the Robinson-Foulds costs. Our binary refinement of Robinson-Foulds, gene duplication, and deep coalescence costs for unrooted and non-binary gene trees together with the linear time reductions provided here for computing these costs significantly extends the range of trees that can be incorporated into approaches dealing with discordance.

  1. Impact of utilization of alternative wood products of less conventional species (cherry and acacia) on the phenolic composition and sensory profile evolution of a red wine

    OpenAIRE

    Tavares, Mariana Ferreira Filipe

    2015-01-01

    Mestrado em Viticultura e Enologia - Instituto Superior de Agronomia / Faculdade de Ciências. Universidade do Porto The aim of this study was to evaluate the time-dependent changes, in the course of 90 days, in the phenolic and volatile composition and sensory properties in one red wine matured in contact with Portuguese (Quercus pyrenaica Willd.) and French (Quercus petraea L.) oak, acacia (Robina pseudoacacia) and cherry (Prunus Avium) wood chips and a cherry (Prunus avium) wood powder. ...

  2. Characterization and evaluation of some lines from cherry tomatoes lycopersicon esculentum mill. Var. Cerasiforme (dunal) and their ability for micropropagation in in vitro conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Dedejski, George

    2012-01-01

    Tomato production in the Republic of Macedonia is present on more than 5700 hectares, being the leading vegetable crop in the region of Strumica. Cherry tomato however, is poorly present at our fields, mainly due to the traditional habits of the consumers and the commercial tomato producers to grow tomato varieties with large fruit. Cherry tomato - Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. var. cerasiforme (Dunal) is a tomato variety with small fruit, with different shapes and colors and it is used ma...

  3. Do Farmers Really Plant Apples for Their Income and Cherries for Their Retirement? The Effects of Risk, Scope and Scale on Orchard Land Allocation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Xin; Brady, Michael P.; Tozer, Peter R.

    2015-01-01

    Most fruit growers in Central Washington that produce apples or cherries typically grow both. This is interesting given that important sources of complementarities which generate economies of scope, such as crop rotations, that motivate crop diversification throughout agriculture are not present. An alternative explanation is risk mitigation because apple and cherry yields and prices are somewhat uncorrelated. In this paper we attempt to evaluate the relative importance of economies of scope ...

  4. Black Silicon Solar Cells with Black Ribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of mask-less reactive ion etch (RIE) texturing and blackened interconnecting ribbons as a method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon made by mask-less reactive ion etching has total, average...... in the range 15.7-16.3%. The KOH-textured reference cell had an efficiency of 17.9%. The combination of black Si and black interconnecting ribbons may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted silicon solar cells....... reflectance below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon (Si) wafer. Black interconnecting ribbons were realized by oxidizing copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the visible wavelength range. Screen-printed Si solar cells were realized on 156x156 mm2 black Si substrates with resulting efficiencies...

  5. Component biomass equations for black spruce in Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. M. Czapowskyj; D. J. Robison; R. D. Briggs; E. H. White; E. H. White

    1985-01-01

    Component biomass prediction equations are presented for young black spruce (Picea mariana B.S.P. (Mill,:)) in northern Maine. A weighted least squares model was used to construct the eq~iationsfo r small trees from 1 to 15 cm d.b.h., and an ordinary least squares model for trees less than 2 m in height. A linearized allometric model was also tested but was not used....

  6. Black holes. Chapter 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penrose, R.

    1980-01-01

    Conditions for the formation of a black hole are considered, and the properties of black holes. The possibility of Cygnus X-1 as a black hole is discussed. Einstein's theory of general relativity in relation to the formation of black holes is discussed. (U.K.)

  7. Tart Cherries and health: Current knowledge and need for a better understanding of the fate of phytochemicals in the human gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba C, Mayta-Apaza; Daya, Marasini; Franck, Carbonero

    2017-09-28

    Tart cherries are increasingly popular due to purported health benefits. This Prunus cesarus species is cultivated worldwide, and its market has increased significantly in the last two decades due to improvements in agricultural practices and food processing technology. Tart cherries are rich in polyphenols, with a very specific profile combining anthocyanins and flavonols (berries-like) and chlorogenic acid (coffee-like). Tart cherries have been suggested to exert several potentially beneficial health effects including: lowering blood pressure, modulating blood glucose, enhancing cognitive function, protecting against oxidative stress and reducing inflammation. Studies focusing on tart cherry consumption have demonstrated particular benefits in recovery from exercise-induced muscle damage and diabetes associated parameters. However, the bioconversion of tart cherry polyphenols by resident colonic microbiota has never been considered, considerably reducing the impact of in vitro studies that have relied on fruit polyphenol extracts. In vitro and in vivo gut microbiota and metabolome studies are necessary to reinforce health claims linked to tart cherries consumption.

  8. Search for black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherepashchuk, Anatolii M

    2003-01-01

    Methods and results of searching for stellar mass black holes in binary systems and for supermassive black holes in galactic nuclei of different types are described. As of now (June 2002), a total of 100 black hole candidates are known. All the necessary conditions Einstein's General Relativity imposes on the observational properties of black holes are satisfied for candidate objects available, thus further assuring the existence of black holes in the Universe. Prospects for obtaining sufficient criteria for reliably distinguishing candidate black holes from real black holes are discussed. (reviews of topical problems)

  9. Tests with VHR images for the identification of olive trees and other fruit trees in the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Josiane; Soille, Pierre; Mueller, Rick

    2004-10-01

    In the context of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) there is a strong interest of the European Commission for counting and individually locating fruit trees. An automatic counting algorithm developed by the JRC (OLICOUNT) was used in the past for olive trees only, on 1m black and white orthophotos but with limits in case of young trees or irregular groves. This study investigates the improvement of fruit tree identification using VHR images on a large set of data in three test sites, one in Creta (Greece; one in the south-east of France with a majority of olive trees and associated fruit trees, and the last one in Florida on citrus trees. OLICOUNT was compared with two other automatic tree counting, applications, one using the CRISP software on citrus trees and the other completely automatic based on regional minima (morphological image analysis). Additional investigation was undertaken to refine the methods. This paper describes the automatic methods and presents the results derived from the tests.

  10. Effects of root pruning in sour cherry (Prunus cersus) "Stevnsbaer"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toldam-Andersen, Torben; Jensen, Nauja Lisa; Dencker, Ivar Blücher

    2007-01-01

    with trees of middle age on rootstock Colt were selected. Three trees with intact root systems were pulled up in each of the orchards. Based on the architecture of the root systems, a pruning distance of 30-35 cm from the trunk was used, removing approximately 30 percent of the roots. The one-sided root...

  11. Nesting biology of Black-shouldered Kite (Elanus caeruleus in oil palm landscape in Carey Island, Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosli Ramli

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Black-shouldered Kite (Elanus caeruleus is a well-known raptor that inhabits open areas such as oil palm plantation or paddy field. To determine preferable habitat and nesting site of Black-shouldered Kite in oil palm landscape, we conducted a study on Black-shouldered Kite’s nesting biology in Carey Island, Selangor, Malaysia. We divided the island into six types of habitat and conducted road-side count of Black-shouldered Kite from April 2009 to February 2011. Whenever the Black-shouldered Kite was detected, we thoroughly searched the surrounding area for their nest. In total, we have recorded forty nests. The nests were built on 15 species of trees but most of the trees shared common physical characteristics. Some novice breeders also used oil palm tree as their nesting site. Structure and building materials of nests constructed on oil palm trees were different from nests built on other trees. Of all breeding attempts, only four nests which were located in residential area adjacent to young oil palm habitat were successful. Among important characteristics of successful nesting site include taller trees with strong branches and good leaf coverage. These trees not only protect nests from predator detection (except from other predatory birds and physical environment but also facilitate Black-shouldered Kite’s foraging activities by providing good vantage point. Keywords: Road-side counts, Direct observation, Breeding raptors, Nesting tree, Habitat selection

  12. Difference Spectroscopy in the Analysis of the Effects of Coffee Cherry Processing Variables on the Flavor of Brewed Coffee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyman, D.J.; Benck, R.M.; Merle, S.F.

    2011-01-01

    Infrared difference spectroscopy was used to study how changes in the processing of Arabica coffee cherries into green beans affected the flavor of coffee brewed from roasted green beans. Paired samples of green beans, in which the drying step or fermentation/washing step in their processing was altered, were roasted and brewed in a standard manner and their ATR-FT-IR spectra obtained. Difference spectra of the 1800 to 1680 cm-1 carbonyl region of water-subtracted spectra of paired samples of these brewed coffees provided data which indicated differences in brewed coffee flavor due to changes in fermentation/washing steps and drying steps involved in the processing of coffee cherries. The role of acid, ketone, aldehyde, ester, lactone, and vinyl ester carbonyl components on the flavor of brewed coffee is proposed that is consistent with the flavors as perceived by the coffee tasters.

  13. Antioxidant capacity of cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) - comparison between permanganate reducing antioxidant capacity and other antioxidant methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popović, Boris M; Stajner, Dubravka; Slavko, Kevrešan; Sandra, Bijelić

    2012-09-15

    Ethanol extracts (80% in water) of 10 cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) genotypes were studied for antioxidant properties, using methods including DPPH(), ()NO, O(2)(-) and ()OH antiradical powers, FRAP, total phenolic and anthocyanin content (TPC and ACC) and also one relatively new, permanganate method (permanganate reducing antioxidant capacity-PRAC). Lipid peroxidation (LP) was also determined as an indicator of oxidative stress. The data from different procedures were compared and analysed by multivariate techniques (correlation matrix calculation and principal component analysis (PCA)). Significant positive correlations were obtained between TPC, ACC and DPPH(), ()NO, O(2)(-), and ()OH antiradical powers, and also between PRAC and TPC, ACC and FRAP. PCA found two major clusters of cornelian cherry, based on antiradical power, FRAP and PRAC and also on chemical composition. Chemometric evaluation showed close interdependence between PRAC method and FRAP and ACC. There was a huge variation between C. mas genotypes in terms of antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Difference Spectroscopy in the Analysis of the Effects of Coffee Cherry Processing Variables on the Flavor of Brewed Coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald J. Lyman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Infrared difference spectroscopy was used to study how changes in the processing of Arabica coffee cherries into green beans affected the flavor of coffee brewed from roasted green beans. Paired samples of green beans, in which the drying step or fermentation/washing step in their processing was altered, were roasted and brewed in a standard manner and their ATR-FT-IR spectra obtained. Difference spectra of the 1800 to 1680 cm−1 carbonyl region of water-subtracted spectra of paired samples of these brewed coffees provided data which indicated differences in brewed coffee flavor due to changes in fermentation/washing steps and drying steps involved in the processing of coffee cherries. The role of acid, ketone, aldehyde, ester, lactone, and vinyl ester carbonyl components on the flavor of brewed coffee is proposed that is consistent with the flavors as perceived by the coffee tasters.

  15. Integration of ozonation and an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (AnSBR) for the treatment of cherry stillage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Pedro M; Beltrán, Fernando J; Rodríguez, Eva M

    2005-01-01

    Cherry stillage is a high strength organic wastewater arising from the manufacture of alcoholic products by distillation of fermented cherries. It is made up of biorefractory polyphenols in addition to readily biodegradable organic matter. An anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (AnSBR) was used to treat cherry stillage at influent COD ranging from 5 to 50 g/L. Different cycle times were selected to test biomass organic loading rates (OLR(B)), from 0.3 to 1.2 g COD/g VSS.d. COD and TOC efficiency removals higher than 80% were achieved at influent COD up to 28.5 g/L but minimum OLR(B) tested. However, as a result of the temporary inhibition of acetogens and methanogens, volatile fatty acids (VFA) noticeably accumulated and methane production came to a transient standstill when operating at influent COD higher than 10 g/L. At these conditions, the AnSBR showed signs of instability and could not operate efficiently at OLR(B) higher than 0.3 g COD/g VSS.d. A feasible explanation for this inhibition is the presence of toxic polyphenols in cherry stillage. Thus, an ozonation step prior to the AnSBR was observed to be useful, since more than 75% of polyphenols could be removed by ozone. The integrated process was shown to be a suitable treatment technology as the following advantages compared to the single AnSBR treatment were observed: greater polyphenols and color removals, higher COD and TOC removal rates thus enabling the process to effectively operate at higher OLR, higher degree of biomethanation, and good stability with less risk of acidification.

  16. Microbiological Quality and Incidence of Salmonella on Cherry Tomatoes at Retail in Querétaro, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal-Cervantes, Marla G; Arvizu-Medrano, Sofía M; Martínez-Peniche, Ramón; Martínez-Gonzáles, Nanci E; Hernández-Iturriaga, Montserrat

    2018-04-01

    Multiple outbreaks related to Salmonella in tomatoes require an evaluation of the risk associated with cherry tomatoes due to the increase in its production, consumption, and marketing in Mexico's central region. The purpose of this study was to determine the microbial quality of cherry tomatoes obtained from two retail sale points (supermarkets and local markets). Cherry tomato samples (333) were collected from four supermarkets and from four local markets, and the contents of aerobic plate count, molds and yeasts, total coliforms, and Escherichia coli were quantified; the presence of Salmonella was simultaneously determined. The median values of the microbial populations were obtained, and the data were analyzed per the sampling site by using the Wilcoxon and Kruskal-Wallis tests. The median of aerobic plate count content in tomatoes obtained from supermarkets ranged between 2.2 and 4.4 log CFU/g, and in markets from 2.9 to 4.8 log CFU/g. For molds and yeasts, the tomatoes from supermarkets (2.0 to 4.1 log CFU/g) and markets (1.5 to 4.5 log CFU/g) showed similar contents. Regardless of the sampling site, the values of total coliforms were very low, ranging from 1.0 to 1.8 log CFU/g. E. coli was detected in 5.4 and 20.1% of samples from supermarkets and markets, respectively; in both sites, the content was low (0.3 to 5.8 most probable number per g). The incidence of Salmonella was 14.1% in supermarkets and 7.8% in local markets. The results obtained from this investigation highlight the elevated risk for consumer health associated with the ingestion of cherry tomatoes.

  17. Nutrient and salinity concentrations effects on quality and storability of cherry tomato fruits grown by hydroponic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Zahirul Islam

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was conducted to investigate the effects of nutrient and salinity concentrations on the quality of deepflow technique hydroponic system cultivated cherry tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill ‘Unicorn’. The conditions were: (1 control (NS-1 × nutrient Solution, Electrical Conductivity – EC: 2.5 mS∙cm–1; (2 2 × NS (2 × NS-Double NS, EC: 5 mS∙cm–1; (3 NS + 4.23 mM NaCl (NaCl-Sodium Chloride, EC: 5 mS∙cm–1; and (4 NS + 13.70 mM Sea Water – SW (EC: 7.5 mS∙cm–1. NS + 13.70 mM SW treatment showed the lowest fresh weight loss. Visual quality as well as shelf life was the longest in NS (1 × nutrient solution treated tomato fruits. The longest shelf life at 5 °C, 11 °C, and 24 °C were 21, 16, and 8 days, respectively, in NS (1 × nutrient solution treated tomato fruits. The highest firmness was recorded in NS (1 × nutrient solution treated tomato fruits, which was retained after storage. Moreover, NS + 13.70 mM SW treatment increased the cherry tomato fruit’s quality, especially soluble solids and sugar contents. These results indicate that salinity concentration has effect the soluble solids and sugar of cherry tomato fruits. In addition, nutrient concentration influenced the shelf life and firmness of cherry tomato fruits.

  18. Effect of ultrasound on some chemical and microbiological properties of sour cherry juice by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türken, Tuğba; Erge, Hande S

    2017-09-01

    In this study, it is aimed to determine effect of ultrasonication on some chemical and microbiological properties of sour cherry juice by response surface methodology, since ultrasound is known as an alternative method for thermal food processing. Sour cherry juice was sonicated at varying amplitude levels (50, 75, 100%); moderate temperatures (20, 30, 40 ℃); and treatment times of 2, 6, 10 min at a constant frequency of 20 kHz. Different ultrasonication amplitudes, temperatures, and times had no significant effect on pH,°Bx, and titratable acidity. A significant increase in total monomeric anthocyanins was observed as the amplitude level and temperature increased (p < 0.01). An increase in the total phenolics was also obtained as the temperature increased (p < 0.05). The effect of amplitude level on antioxidant capacity of sour cherry juice was also found significant (p < 0.05). Color parameters (L*, a*, b*, C, h) generally increased by increasing temperature, amplitude level, and treatment time. It was determined that Escherichia coli O157:H7 significantly affected by temperature and treatment time (p < 0.05).

  19. Comparison of DNA comet assay and germination test (half-embryo-test) in gamma-irradiated cherry seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todoroki, Setsuko; Hayashi, Toru

    2002-01-01

    Cherry fruits were irradiated with gamma-rays at doses up to 200Gy (effective dose for disinfestation of codling moth), and DNA strand break in seed embryos was investigated by using alkaline comet assay. Immediately after irradiation (≥100Gy), DNA from embryos produced comets with a long and wide tail due to fragmentation. In control cells, DNA relaxed and produced comet with very short tail (with few strand break). After 72h storage, DNA from fruits irradiated at 200 Gy showed comets with little tail and tail moment of comets was same as un-irradiated control. These results indicate that the strand breaks of DNA caused by irradiation in fresh seed embryo are repaired during storage. On the contrary, the ability of germination lost by irradiation did not restored, a dose of 100Gy and more retarded shoot elongation. In cherries irradiated at 100Gy, the shooting percentage was less than 50% at 4th day after incubation. Germination test (Half embryo test) can be discriminate between irradiated and un-irradiated cherries. (author)

  20. Agronomic properties of wastewater sludge biochar and bioavailability of metals in production of cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mustafa K; Strezov, Vladimir; Chan, K Yin; Nelson, Peter F

    2010-02-01

    This work presents agronomic values of a biochar produced from wastewater sludge through pyrolysis at a temperature of 550 degrees C. In order to investigate and quantify effects of wastewater sludge biochar on soil quality, growth, yield and bioavailability of metals in cherry tomatoes, pot experiments were carried out in a temperature controlled environment and under four different treatments consisting of control soil, soil with biochar; soil with biochar and fertiliser, and soil with fertiliser only. The soil used was chromosol and the applied wastewater sludge biochar was 10tha(-1). The results showed that the application of biochar improves the production of cherry tomatoes by 64% above the control soil conditions. The ability of biochar to increase the yield was attributed to the combined effect of increased nutrient availability (P and N) and improved soil chemical conditions upon amendment. The yield of cherry tomato production was found to be at its maximum when biochar was applied in combination with the fertiliser. Application of biochar was also found to significantly increase the soil electrical conductivity as well as phosphorus and nitrogen contents. Bioavailability of metals present in the biochar was found to be below the Australian maximum permitted concentrations for food. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Sequential culture with Torulaspora delbrueckii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae and management of fermentation temperature to improve cherry wine quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shu Yang; Gong, Han Sheng; Zhao, Yu Ping; Liu, Wen Li; Jin, Cheng Wu

    2016-04-01

    There has been limited research on the use of non-Saccharomyces yeasts for the production of cherry wines. This work used an autochthonous Torulaspora delbrueckii strain 49 (TD49) in association with a commercial S. cerevisiae RC212 yeast, to investigate the effect of multi-starter culture (sequential inoculation and simultaneous inoculation) and fermentation temperature on the quality of cherry wines. Both TD49 and RC212 proliferated during alcoholic fermentation (AF) under sequential inoculation conditions, whereas in the case of simultaneous inoculation, TD49 increased slowly at first and then declined sharply near the fermentation end. The analytical profile showed that both mixed fermentations produced lower levels of volatile acidy and higher levels of aromatic compounds than those from RC212 mono-culture. During sensory analysis, wines from sequential fermentation obtained the highest score, mainly due to the higher intensity in 'fruity' and 'floral' characters. As for the influence of temperature, a low temperature (20 °C) enhanced TD49 persistence during AF, but the sensory quality decreased anyway; 30 °C resulted in decreases in most measured descriptors. Therefore, 25 °C was selected as the best culture temperature. TD49/RC212 sequential inoculation and fermentation at 25 °C significantly enhanced the cherry wine quality. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. The valuative tree

    CERN Document Server

    Favre, Charles

    2004-01-01

    This volume is devoted to a beautiful object, called the valuative tree and designed as a powerful tool for the study of singularities in two complex dimensions. Its intricate yet manageable structure can be analyzed by both algebraic and geometric means. Many types of singularities, including those of curves, ideals, and plurisubharmonic functions, can be encoded in terms of positive measures on the valuative tree. The construction of these measures uses a natural tree Laplace operator of independent interest.

  3. Establishing trees on cut-over peatlands in eastern Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bussières

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Four major tree-planting trials on cut-over peatlands in eastern Canada were surveyed in 2002, in order to evaluate the potential use of trees in rehabilitation following horticultural peat extraction. At one of the sites, an experiment to determine the appropriate fertilisation rate for trees planted on cut-over peatlands was also conducted over several years. Tree performance was assessed by measuring survival, total height and annual growth of red maple (Acer rubrum L., tamarack (Larix laricina (Du Roi Koch., black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill. B.S.P., jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb. and hybrid poplar (Populus spp.. Establishment and growth of tamarack and black spruce in cut-over peatlands showed good potential when compared to performance in conventional forestry plantations. Red maple and jack pine gave poor productivity but promising survival, whilst hybrid poplar plantings failed. Adding nutrients was essential for growth but dosages above 122.5 g of 3.4N-8.3P-24.2K per tree gave no further improvement. Therefore, several different tree species can be planted to reclaim cut-over peatlands in eastern Canada, so long as the appropriate species are chosen and nutrients are provided.

  4. Coded Splitting Tree Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to multiple access control called coded splitting tree protocol. The approach builds on the known tree splitting protocols, code structure and successive interference cancellation (SIC). Several instances of the tree splitting protocol are initiated, each...... instance is terminated prematurely and subsequently iterated. The combined set of leaves from all the tree instances can then be viewed as a graph code, which is decodable using belief propagation. The main design problem is determining the order of splitting, which enables successful decoding as early...

  5. Morocco - Fruit Tree Productivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — Date Tree Irrigation Project: The specific objectives of this evaluation are threefold: - Performance evaluation of project activities, like the mid-term evaluation,...

  6. A Dancing Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Deirdre; Smith, Kenneth; Schnetter, Erik; Fiske, David; Laguna, Pablo; Pullin, Jorge

    2002-04-01

    Recently, stationary black holes have been successfully simulated for up to times of approximately 600-1000M, where M is the mass of the black hole. Considering that the expected burst of gravitational radiation from a binary black hole merger would last approximately 200-500M, black hole codes are approaching the point where simulations of mergers may be feasible. We will present two types of simulations of single black holes obtained with a code based on the Baumgarte-Shapiro-Shibata-Nakamura formulation of the Einstein evolution equations. One type of simulations addresses the stability properties of stationary black hole evolutions. The second type of simulations demonstrates the ability of our code to move a black hole through the computational domain. This is accomplished by shifting the stationary black hole solution to a coordinate system in which the location of the black hole is time dependent.

  7. Black stain root disease studies on ponderosa pine parameters and disturbance treatments affecting infection and mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.J. Otrosina; J.T. Kliejunas; S. Smith; D.R. Cluck; S.S. Sung; C.D. Cook

    2007-01-01

    Black stain root disease of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Doug. Ex Laws.), caused by Leptographium wageneri var. ponderosum (Harrington & Cobb) Harrington & Cobb, is increasing on many eastside Sierra Nevada pine stands in northeastern California. The disease is spread from tree to tree via root...

  8. Large-scale thinning, ponderosa pine, and mountain pine beetle in the Black Hills, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose F. Negron; Kurt K. Allen; Angie Ambourn; Blaine Cook; Kenneth Marchand

    2017-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) (MPB), can cause extensive ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) mortality in the Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming, USA. Lower tree densities have been associated with reduced MPB-caused tree mortality, but few studies have reported on large-scale thinning and most data come from small plots that...

  9. Roosting habitat of Merriam's turkeys in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Rumble

    1992-01-01

    Lack of roost habitat (trees >40 cm diameter breast height [dbh] and >18 m2/ha basal area) can limit populations of Merriam’s turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo merriami). The Black Hills region has relatively large populations of Merriam’s turkeys, yet trees >40 cm dbh are uncommon. Consequently, I studied...

  10. Molecular genetic analysis of black poplar (Populus nigra L.) along Dutch rivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arens, P.; Coops, H.; Jansen, J.; Vosman, B.

    1998-01-01

    The genetic structure of remaining black poplar (Populus nigra) trees on the banks of the Dutch Rhine branches was investigated using the AFLP technique. In total, 143 trees, including one P. deltoides and some P. x euramericana, were analysed using six AFLP primer combinations which generated 319

  11. Effect of understory management on phenological responses of eastern black walnut on an alluvial Arkansas soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) is commonly grown in agroforestry practices for nuts and/or timber with little knowledge of how understory herbage management might affect tree phenology. We compared black walnut plant type (variety and wild-type) for phenological response in date of budburst, leaf ...

  12. Aspergillus vadensis, a new species of the group of black Aspergilli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Vries, R.P; Frisvad, Jens Christian; van de Vondervoort, P.J.I

    2005-01-01

    A strain from the group of black Aspergilli was analysed in detail to determine the species to which it belongs. A detailed analysis of morphology, RFLP patterns and metabolite profiles was carried out. In addition, a phylogenetic tree was constructed for the black Aspergilli using the ITS...

  13. Population diversity and evidence of introgression among the black oaks of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard S. Dodd; Nasser Kashani; Zara Afzal-Rafii

    2002-01-01

    The black oaks of California include 4 tree species (California black oak, coast live oak, Shreve oak, interior live oak) that are known to hybridize. Complex patterns of population variation within each species are likely to result from these hybrid combinations and from subsequent introgressions. We have been studying population variation using biochemical and...

  14. Simulation of Tsunami Resistance of a Pinus Thunbergii tree in Coastal Forest in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanko, K.; Suzuki, S.; Noguchi, H.; Hagino, H.

    2015-12-01

    Forests reduce fluid force of tsunami, whereas extreme tsunami sometimes breaks down the forest trees. It is difficult to estimate the interactive relationship between the fluid and the trees because fluid deform tree architecture and deformed tree changes flow field. Dynamic tree deformation and fluid behavior should be clarified by fluid-structure interaction analysis. For the initial step, we have developed dynamic simulation of tree sway and breakage caused by tsunami based on a vibrating system with multiple degrees of freedom. The target specie of the simulation was Japanese black pine (pinus thunbergii), which is major specie in the coastal forest to secure livelihood area from the damage by blown sand and salt in Japanese coastal area. For the simulation, a tree was segmented into 0.2 m long circular truncated cones. Turning moment induced by tsunami and self-weight was calculated at each segment bottom. Tree deformation was computed on multi-degree-of-freedom vibration equation. Tree sway was simulated by iterative calculation of the tree deformation with time step 0.05 second with temporally varied flow velocity of tsunami. From the calculation of bending stress and turning moment at tree base, we estimated resistance of a Pinus thunbergii tree from tsunami against tree breakage.

  15. Are trees long-lived?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith

    2009-01-01

    Trees and tree care can capture the best of people's motivations and intentions. Trees are living memorials that help communities heal at sites of national tragedy, such as Oklahoma City and the World Trade Center. We mark the places of important historical events by the trees that grew nearby even if the original tree, such as the Charter Oak in Connecticut or...

  16. Fragmentation of random trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalay, Z; Ben-Naim, E

    2015-01-01

    We study fragmentation of a random recursive tree into a forest by repeated removal of nodes. The initial tree consists of N nodes and it is generated by sequential addition of nodes with each new node attaching to a randomly-selected existing node. As nodes are removed from the tree, one at a time, the tree dissolves into an ensemble of separate trees, namely, a forest. We study statistical properties of trees and nodes in this heterogeneous forest, and find that the fraction of remaining nodes m characterizes the system in the limit N→∞. We obtain analytically the size density ϕ s of trees of size s. The size density has power-law tail ϕ s ∼s −α with exponent α=1+(1/m). Therefore, the tail becomes steeper as further nodes are removed, and the fragmentation process is unusual in that exponent α increases continuously with time. We also extend our analysis to the case where nodes are added as well as removed, and obtain the asymptotic size density for growing trees. (paper)

  17. The tree BVOC index

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.R. Simpson; E.G. McPherson

    2011-01-01

    Urban trees can produce a number of benefits, among them improved air quality. Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emitted by some species are ozone precursors. Modifying future tree planting to favor lower-emitting species can reduce these emissions and aid air management districts in meeting federally mandated emissions reductions for these compounds. Changes...

  18. Tree growth visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. Linsen; B.J. Karis; E.G. McPherson; B. Hamann

    2005-01-01

    In computer graphics, models describing the fractal branching structure of trees typically exploit the modularity of tree structures. The models are based on local production rules, which are applied iteratively and simultaneously to create a complex branching system. The objective is to generate three-dimensional scenes of often many realistic- looking and non-...

  19. Flowering T Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Adansonia digitata L. ( The Baobab Tree) of Bombacaceae is a tree with swollen trunk that attains a dia. of 10m. Leaves are digitately compound with leaflets up to 18cm. long. Flowers are large, solitary, waxy white, and open at dusk. They open in 30 seconds and are bat pollinated. Stamens are many. Fruit is about 30 cm ...

  20. Fault tree graphics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, L.; Wynholds, H.W.; Porterfield, W.R.

    1975-01-01

    Described is an operational system that enables the user, through an intelligent graphics terminal, to construct, modify, analyze, and store fault trees. With this system, complex engineering designs can be analyzed. This paper discusses the system and its capabilities. Included is a brief discussion of fault tree analysis, which represents an aspect of reliability and safety modeling

  1. Tree biology and dendrochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith; Walter C. Shortle

    1996-01-01

    Dendrochemistry, the interpretation of elemental analysis of dated tree rings, can provide a temporal record of environmental change. Using the dendrochemical record requires an understanding of tree biology. In this review, we pose four questions concerning assumptions that underlie recent dendrochemical research: 1) Does the chemical composition of the wood directly...

  2. Individual tree control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey A. Holt

    1989-01-01

    Controlling individual unwanted trees in forest stands is a readily accepted method for improving the value of future harvests. The practice is especially important in mixed hardwood forests where species differ considerably in value and within species individual trees differ in quality. Individual stem control is a mechanical or chemical weeding operation that...

  3. Trees and Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Dettenmaier, Megan; Kuhns, Michael; Unger, Bethany; McAvoy, Darren

    2017-01-01

    This fact sheet describes the complex relationship between forests and climate change based on current research. It explains ways that trees can mitigate some of the risks associated with climate change. It details the impacts that forests are having on the changing climate and discuss specific ways that trees can be used to reduce or counter carbon emissions directly and indirectly.

  4. Structural Equation Model Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandmaier, Andreas M.; von Oertzen, Timo; McArdle, John J.; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2013-01-01

    In the behavioral and social sciences, structural equation models (SEMs) have become widely accepted as a modeling tool for the relation between latent and observed variables. SEMs can be seen as a unification of several multivariate analysis techniques. SEM Trees combine the strengths of SEMs and the decision tree paradigm by building tree…

  5. Matching Subsequences in Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2009-01-01

    Given two rooted, labeled trees P and T the tree path subsequence problem is to determine which paths in P are subsequences of which paths in T. Here a path begins at the root and ends at a leaf. In this paper we propose this problem as a useful query primitive for XML data, and provide new...

  6. Agrobacterium arsenijevicii sp. nov., isolated from crown gall tumors on raspberry and cherry plum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmanović, Nemanja; Puławska, Joanna; Prokić, Anđelka; Ivanović, Milan; Zlatković, Nevena; Jones, Jeffrey B; Obradović, Aleksa

    2015-09-01

    Two plant-tumorigenic strains KFB 330(T) and KFB 335 isolated from galls on raspberry (Rubus idaeus) in Serbia, and a non-pathogenic strain AL51.1 recovered from a cherry plum (Prunus cerasifera) tumor in Poland, were genotypically and phenotypically characterized. Phylogenetic reconstruction based on 16S rDNA placed them within the genus Agrobacterium, with A. nepotum as their closest relative. Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) based on the partial sequences of atpD, glnA, gyrB, recA and rpoB housekeeping genes suggested that these three strains represent a new Agrobacterium species, that clustered with type strains of A. nepotum, A. radiobacter, "A. fabrum" and A. pusense. This was further supported by average nucleotide identity values (Agrobacterium species. The major cellular fatty acids of the novel strains were 18:1 w7c (72.8-77.87%) and 16:0 (6.82-8.58%). Phenotypic features allowed their differentiation from closely related species. Polyphasic characterization showed that the three strains represent a novel species of the genus Agrobacterium, for which the name Agrobacterium arsenijevicii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of A. arsenijevicii is KFB 330(T) (= CFBP 8308(T) = LMG 28674(T)). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Economic Impact of the Introduction and Establishment of Drosophila suzukii on Sweet Cherry Production in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Mazzi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available First detected in Switzerland in 2011, the invasive Drosophila suzukii, spotted wing drosophila, has caused recurring costs for growers of berries and fruit. Recommended management approaches rely on a set of methods, tailored to suit crop requirements under the prevailing local conditions. Control of D. suzukii represents a substantial economic burden for growers, in terms of material, equipment, new infrastructure and extra labour. However, those growers who invest wisely to deliver unblemished produce are rewarded with high payoffs. We present insights from a growers’ survey conducted in 2015 and 2016 to gauge the impact of the introduction and establishment of D. suzukii on Swiss sweet cherry production. The surveyed growers (111 in 2015 and 298 in 2016 observed the recommended surveillance, sanitation and control measures. The use of insecticides (78% and 79% of respondents in 2015 and 2016, respectively and the harvest of all fruits (93% and 59% of respondents in 2015 and 2016, respectively were the most widespread methods used to reduce damage. Nearly one-third of the respondents set up enclosure nets. Our economic evaluation of different scenarios provides a quantitative indication of the potentially incurred costs. We argue for enhanced stakeholder involvement to raise the acceptance of integrated pest management practices, and to inform research and outreach by providing insights into the motivations and barriers to adoption.

  8. Molecular mechanisms regulating flowering time in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ionescu, Irina Alexandra

    The timing of flowering is a well-researched but at the same time incredibly complex process in angiosperms. Although we are in possession of detailed knowledge on the genetic level of flowering time regulation in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, it is often difficult to transfer this knowle......The timing of flowering is a well-researched but at the same time incredibly complex process in angiosperms. Although we are in possession of detailed knowledge on the genetic level of flowering time regulation in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, it is often difficult to transfer...... as a result of hydrogen cyanamide treatment: the jasmonate pathway, the hydrogen cyanide pathway and the cytokinin pathway. We further analyzed the levels of cyanogenic glucosides and their derivatives during endodormancy and its release in sweet cherry and almond (Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D. A. Webb). Prunasin...... and its amide coincided with flowering time in both species. Taken together, these results contribute to elucidating parts of the complex network regulating flowering time in perennial plants....

  9. Quality Maintenance and Storability Extension of Cornelian Cherry Fruit by Modified Atmosphere Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Mohebbi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the effects of packaging with two types of polymeric films (Low density polyethylene and polypropylene and three gas compositions (Air, 20% CO₂ + 60% O₂ and 20% CO₂ + 5% O₂ on quantitative and qualitative attributes and storage life of cornelian cherry fruits were evaluated. Also some fruits in containers without cap were considered as control. After treatment, the fruits were stored at 1°C and 90-95% Relative Humidity for 35 days. Samples were taken initially and at 7-day intervals during storage, and to simulate market conditions they were placed at room temperature for 24 hr, and then qualitative and quantitative parameters such as weight loss, surface color, anthocyanin index, visual quality, decay, pH, titrable acidity, total soluble solid and vitamin C were measured. The results showed that gas combination of 20% CO₂ + 60% O₂ with polyethylene packaging and air in polypropylene packaging had a significant effect on maintaining pH, titrable acidity, total soluble solid compared with control fruits. Also, the fruits packed with polyethylene packaging in 20% CO₂ + 60% O₂ showed the best effect on retaining of vitamin C and anthocyanin index. In conclusion, the application of MAP regardless of gas combination was found to be more effective in maintaining the qualitative and quantitative characteristics compared with fruits without packaging.

  10. In Vitro Pollen Viability and Pollen Germination in Cherry Laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melekber Sulusoglu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollen quality is important for growers and breeders. This study was carried out to determine in vitro pollen viability and pollen germination in seven genotypes of cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.. Two pollen viability tests, TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride and IKI (iodine potassium iodide, were used. Pollen traits of genotypes were studied using an in vitro medium containing 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% sucrose to determine the best sucrose concentrations for germination. In the second step, the germinated pollen was counted 1, 4, 6, 10, 12, 24, and 48 hours later until there was no further germination. The viability rates were different according to genotypes and tests used. The IKI and TTC staining tests and pollen germination had low correlation (r2 = 0.0614 and r2 = 0.0015, resp.. Painted pollen rate was higher and pollen was well-stained with IKI test and pollen viability estimated with TTC staining test was better than that estimated with the IKI staining test. 15% sucrose gave the best germination rates in most of the genotypes. Pollen germination rates were recorded periodically from one hour to 48 hours in 15% sucrose and the results showed that pollen germination rates increased after 6 hours of being placed in culture media.

  11. In vitro pollen viability and pollen germination in cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulusoglu, Melekber; Cavusoglu, Aysun

    2014-01-01

    Pollen quality is important for growers and breeders. This study was carried out to determine in vitro pollen viability and pollen germination in seven genotypes of cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.). Two pollen viability tests, TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride) and IKI (iodine potassium iodide), were used. Pollen traits of genotypes were studied using an in vitro medium containing 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% sucrose to determine the best sucrose concentrations for germination. In the second step, the germinated pollen was counted 1, 4, 6, 10, 12, 24, and 48 hours later until there was no further germination. The viability rates were different according to genotypes and tests used. The IKI and TTC staining tests and pollen germination had low correlation (r(2) = 0.0614 and r(2) = 0.0015, resp.). Painted pollen rate was higher and pollen was well-stained with IKI test and pollen viability estimated with TTC staining test was better than that estimated with the IKI staining test. 15% sucrose gave the best germination rates in most of the genotypes. Pollen germination rates were recorded periodically from one hour to 48 hours in 15% sucrose and the results showed that pollen germination rates increased after 6 hours of being placed in culture media.

  12. Use of microsatellites for evaluation of genetic diversity in cherry tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Ceballos Aguirre

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Much of the diversity of tomato is found in wild forms, the most important being the Solanum lycopersicum L. var. cerasiforme and S. pimpinellifolium. The objective of this research was to assess the genetic diversity of 30 introductions of cherry tomato with 36 microsatellite molecular markers. The study was conducted at the Plant Transformation Research Center (PTRC of the University of California. A dendrogram was built using the Dice-Nei and Li similarity index and the UPGMA clustering method, where introductions were differentiated without preserving a distribution pattern obeying the geographical area of origin. A coefficient of genetic differentiation was found (Fst = 0.3474, showing a high genetic differentiation of the introductions; those from Brazil, Ecuador, and Peru were the most genetically diverse, presenting 100% of polymorphic loci. The molecular variance analysis indicated a variation of 11% between the groups and 89% within the same. The broad genotypic variability of the evaluated introductions favors the possibility of selecting those for genetic improvement and sustainable use of the species.

  13. Microclimatic changes caused by different plastic coverings in greenhouses cultivated with cherry tomato in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Holcman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In regions with intense solar radiation it is common the use of aluminated covers in greenhouses, with the aim of reducing the inside temperature. However, the use of these covers reduces photosynthetic active radiation (PAR transmitted into the greenhouse. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of different covers on microclimate in greenhouses cultivated with cherry tomato during three growing seasons. The environment I was covered with plastic film anti-UV and with thermo-reflective screen (40% disposed internally. The environment II was covered with diffusive plastic film (55%. The transmitted solar radiation to the interior of covered environments was, on average, 5.5 MJ m-2 day-1 in the environment I and 8.2 MJ m-2 day-1 in environment II. The air temperature in environment II was, on average, 1°C higher than external conditions. The highest difference for the relative humidity (RH was also observed between environment II and the outside conditions, with 10.7% for the minimum RH during the first growing period. Considering all growing periods, the diffusive plastic film provided higher solar energy availability inside the greenhouse than the plastic film with thermo-reflective screen, without causing major changes in air temperature and relative humidity, and promoting greater productivity of tomato grown under this environment for the three periods evaluated.

  14. Transcriptome and Metabolite Changes during Hydrogen Cyanamide-Induced Floral Bud Break in Sweet Cherry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Irina A; López-Ortega, Gregorio; Burow, Meike; Bayo-Canha, Almudena; Junge, Alexander; Gericke, Oliver; Møller, Birger L; Sánchez-Pérez, Raquel

    2017-01-01

    Release of bud dormancy in perennial woody plants is a temperature-dependent process and thus flowering in these species is heavily affected by climate change. The lack of cold winters in temperate growing regions often results in reduced flowering and low fruit yields. This is likely to decrease the availability of fruits and nuts of the Prunus spp. in the near future. In order to maintain high yields, it is crucial to gain detailed knowledge on the molecular mechanisms controlling the release of bud dormancy. Here, we studied these mechanisms using sweet cherry ( Prunus avium L.), a crop where the agrochemical hydrogen cyanamide (HC) is routinely used to compensate for the lack of cold winter temperatures and to induce flower opening. In this work, dormant flower buds were sprayed with hydrogen cyanamide followed by deep RNA sequencing, identifying three main expression patterns in response to HC. These transcript level results were validated by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction and supported further by phytohormone profiling (ABA, SA, IAA, CK, ethylene, JA). Using these approaches, we identified the most up-regulated pathways: the cytokinin pathway, as well as the jasmonate and the hydrogen cyanide pathway. Our results strongly suggest an inductive effect of these metabolites in bud dormancy release and provide a stepping stone for the characterization of key genes in bud dormancy release.

  15. Transcriptome and Metabolite Changes during Hydrogen Cyanamide-Induced Floral Bud Break in Sweet Cherry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Ionescu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Release of bud dormancy in perennial woody plants is a temperature-dependent process and thus flowering in these species is heavily affected by climate change. The lack of cold winters in temperate growing regions often results in reduced flowering and low fruit yields. This is likely to decrease the availability of fruits and nuts of the Prunus spp. in the near future. In order to maintain high yields, it is crucial to gain detailed knowledge on the molecular mechanisms controlling the release of bud dormancy. Here, we studied these mechanisms using sweet cherry (Prunus avium L., a crop where the agrochemical hydrogen cyanamide (HC is routinely used to compensate for the lack of cold winter temperatures and to induce flower opening. In this work, dormant flower buds were sprayed with hydrogen cyanamide followed by deep RNA sequencing, identifying three main expression patterns in response to HC. These transcript level results were validated by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction and supported further by phytohormone profiling (ABA, SA, IAA, CK, ethylene, JA. Using these approaches, we identified the most up-regulated pathways: the cytokinin pathway, as well as the jasmonate and the hydrogen cyanide pathway. Our results strongly suggest an inductive effect of these metabolites in bud dormancy release and provide a stepping stone for the characterization of key genes in bud dormancy release.

  16. Characterization of cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L. genotypes - genetic resources for food production in Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sochor Jiri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine and compare both technological properties and polyphenol content in fruits of eight cornellian cherry (Cornus mas L. cultivars from Czech Republic. The fruits of cultivar ´Vydubeckij´ had the highest dry matter (17.4% and soluble solid (15.8% content among searched cultivars. The highest crude protein and phosphorus values were determined in the fruits of the ´Titus´ cultivar as 10.9 g of crude protein and 435 mg of phosphorus for per kg fresh weight (FW base. The ´Elegantnyj´ and ´Vydubeckij´ cultivars are found to be more suitable for canning industry. The fruits of the ´Vydubeckij´ cultivar contained 10.8 g of pectin and 22.4 g of citric acid per kg fresh weight base, and could be important for technological use because of their excellent gelling ability. ´Devin´,´Vydubeckij´ and ´Titus´ cultivars had the most valuable source of chlorogenic acid (135.6, 110.9 and 115.1 mg per 100 g FW, respectively and quercetin (24.9, 25.2 and 24.2 mg per 100 g FW, respectively. This work should contribute to the popularization of this fruit specie as a valuable source of technological parameters for human nutrition and the canning industry.

  17. The Effects of Montmorency Tart Cherry Concentrate Supplementation on Recovery Following Prolonged, Intermittent Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip G. Bell

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated Montmorency tart cherry concentrate (MC supplementation on markers of recovery following prolonged, intermittent sprint activity. Sixteen semi-professional, male soccer players, who had dietary restrictions imposed for the duration of the study, were divided into two equal groups and consumed either MC or placebo (PLA supplementation for eight consecutive days (30 mL twice per day. On day 5, participants completed an adapted version of the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LISTADAPT. Maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC, 20 m Sprint, counter movement jump (CMJ, agility and muscle soreness (DOMS were assessed at baseline, and 24, 48 and 72 h post-exercise. Measures of inflammation (IL-1-β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, hsCRP, muscle damage (CK and oxidative stress (LOOH were analysed at baseline and 1, 3, 5, 24, 48 and 72 h post-exercise. Performance indices (MVIC, CMJ and agility recovered faster and muscle soreness (DOMS ratings were lower in the MC group (p < 0.05. Additionally, the acute inflammatory response (IL-6 was attenuated in the MC group. There were no effects for LOOH and CK. These findings suggest MC is efficacious in accelerating recovery following prolonged, repeat sprint activity, such as soccer and rugby, and lends further evidence that polyphenol-rich foods like MC are effective in accelerating recovery following various types of strenuous exercise.

  18. High pressure and thermal pasteurization effects on sweet cherry juice microbiological stability and physicochemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queirós, Rui P.; Rainho, Daniel; Santos, Mauro D.; Fidalgo, Liliana G.; Delgadillo, Ivonne; Saraiva, Jorge A.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated high pressure processing (P1 - 400 MPa/5 min; P2 - 550 MPa/2 min) and thermal pasteurization (TP - 70°C/30 s) effects on sweet cherry juice's microbiological and physicochemical parameters, during four weeks of refrigerated storage. All treatments reduced the microbiological load to undetectable levels not affecting total soluble solids and titratable acidity. The pH increased with all treatments, however, it decreased during storage. Phenols were differently affected: TP increased them by 6%, P1 had no effect while P2 decreased them by 11%. During storage, phenols in control and TP samples decreased by 26% and 20%, P1 samples decreased them by 11% whereas P2 showed no variation. TP had no effect on anthocyanins, while pressure treatments increased them by 8%. Anthocyanins decreased during storage, particularly in the control and P1 (decreasing 41%). All treatments had no effect on antioxidant activity until the 14th day, thereafter high pressure processing samples showed the highest antioxidant activity.

  19. Managing black walnut in natural stands: the human dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    H.E. " Hank" Stelzer

    2004-01-01

    In managing black walnut, or any forest tree species, the human dimension is often overlooked. As a result, both the number of landowners managing their land and the number of forested acres under management has not significantly increased over the past 30 years. Elements of the human landscape are explored and a roadmap for engaging landowners is proposed.

  20. efficacy of screening methods used in breeding for black pod

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    inoculation necessitates waiting until a tree bears pods before its level of resistance to black pod infection can be determined. These methods, therefore, do not offer a quick means of breeding for resistance. Consequently, tests at the seedling stage that provide information about pod resistance are earnestly needed to save ...

  1. Environmental tritium in trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    The distribution of environmental tritium in the free water and organically bound hydrogen of trees growing in the vicinity of the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL) has been studied. The regional dispersal of HTO in the atmosphere has been observed by surveying the tritium content of leaf moisture. Measurement of the distribution of organically bound tritium in the wood of tree ring sequences has given information on past concentrations of HTO taken up by trees growing in the CRNL Liquid Waste Disposal Area. For samples at background environmental levels, cellulose separation and analysis was done. The pattern of bomb tritium in precipitation of 1955-68 was observed to be preserved in the organically bound tritium of a tree ring sequence. Reactor tritium was discernible in a tree growing at a distance of 10 km from CRNL. These techniques provide convenient means of monitoring dispersal of HTO from nuclear facilities. (author)

  2. Black hole critical phenomena without black holes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    large values of Ф, black holes do form and for small values the scalar field ... on the near side of the ridge ultimately evolve to form black holes while those configu- ... The inset shows a bird's eye view looking down on the saddle point.

  3. Generalising tree traversals and tree transformations to DAGs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick; Axelsson, Emil

    2017-01-01

    We present a recursion scheme based on attribute grammars that can be transparently applied to trees and acyclic graphs. Our recursion scheme allows the programmer to implement a tree traversal or a tree transformation and then apply it to compact graph representations of trees instead. The resul......We present a recursion scheme based on attribute grammars that can be transparently applied to trees and acyclic graphs. Our recursion scheme allows the programmer to implement a tree traversal or a tree transformation and then apply it to compact graph representations of trees instead...... as the complementing theory with a number of examples....

  4. Nesting biology of Black-shouldered Kite (Elanus caeruleus) in oil palm landscape in Carey Island, Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Rosli; Fauzi, Aimi

    2018-03-01

    Black-shouldered Kite ( Elanus caeruleus ) is a well-known raptor that inhabits open areas such as oil palm plantation or paddy field. To determine preferable habitat and nesting site of Black-shouldered Kite in oil palm landscape, we conducted a study on Black-shouldered Kite's nesting biology in Carey Island, Selangor, Malaysia. We divided the island into six types of habitat and conducted road-side count of Black-shouldered Kite from April 2009 to February 2011. Whenever the Black-shouldered Kite was detected, we thoroughly searched the surrounding area for their nest. In total, we have recorded forty nests. The nests were built on 15 species of trees but most of the trees shared common physical characteristics. Some novice breeders also used oil palm tree as their nesting site. Structure and building materials of nests constructed on oil palm trees were different from nests built on other trees. Of all breeding attempts, only four nests which were located in residential area adjacent to young oil palm habitat were successful. Among important characteristics of successful nesting site include taller trees with strong branches and good leaf coverage. These trees not only protect nests from predator detection (except from other predatory birds) and physical environment but also facilitate Black-shouldered Kite's foraging activities by providing good vantage point.

  5. The Black Studies Boondoggle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Richard A.

    1970-01-01

    Indicates tendencies dangerous to the basic purpose of Black Studies, and identifies four external challeges--imperialism, paternalism, nihilism, and materialism. An internal challenge is considered to be the use of European and Establishment constructs to analyze black reality. (DM)

  6. Black hole hair removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Nabamita; Mandal, Ipsita; Sen, Ashoke

    2009-01-01

    Macroscopic entropy of an extremal black hole is expected to be determined completely by its near horizon geometry. Thus two black holes with identical near horizon geometries should have identical macroscopic entropy, and the expected equality between macroscopic and microscopic entropies will then imply that they have identical degeneracies of microstates. An apparent counterexample is provided by the 4D-5D lift relating BMPV black hole to a four dimensional black hole. The two black holes have identical near horizon geometries but different microscopic spectrum. We suggest that this discrepancy can be accounted for by black hole hair - degrees of freedom living outside the horizon and contributing to the degeneracies. We identify these degrees of freedom for both the four and the five dimensional black holes and show that after their contributions are removed from the microscopic degeneracies of the respective systems, the result for the four and five dimensional black holes match exactly.

  7. QED loop effects in the spacetime background of a Schwarzschild black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emelyanov, Viacheslav A.

    2017-12-01

    The black-hole evaporation implies that the quantum-field propagators in a local Minkowski frame acquire a correction, which gives rise to this process. The modification of the propagators causes, in turn, non-trivial local effects due to the radiative/loop diagrams in non-linear QFTs. In particular, there should be imprints of the evaporation in QED, if one goes beyond the tree-level approximation. Of special interest in this respect is the region near the black-hole horizon, which, already at tree level, appears to show highly non-classical features, e.g., negative energy density and energy flux into the black hole.

  8. Alcoholic Beverages Obtained from Black Mulberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacinto Darias-Martín

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Black mulberry (Morus nigra is a fruit not known only for its nutritional qualities and its flavour, but also for its traditional use in natural medicine as it has a high content of active therapeutic compounds. However, this fruit is not widely produced in Spain but some trees are still found growing in the Canary Islands, particularly on the edges of the ravine. The inhabitants of these islands (Tenerife, La Gomera, La Palma, El Hierro and Lanzarote collect the fruit and prepare homemade beverages for medicinal purposes. Numerous authors have reported that type II diabetes mellitus can be controlled by taking a mixture containing black mulberry and water. Apart from that, this fruit has been used for the treatment of mouth, tongue and throat inflammations. In this study we present some characteristics of black mulberry juice (TSS, pH, titratable acidity, citric acid, lactic acid, polyphenols, anthocyanins, the potassium etc. and alcoholic beverages (alcoholic grade, pH, total acidity, volatile acidity, tannins, phenols etc. obtained from black mulberry. Moreover, we have studied the quality of liquors obtained from black mulberry in Canary Islands.

  9. Noncommutative black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-DomInguez, J C [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico); Obregon, O [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico); RamIrez, C [Facultad de Ciencias FIsico Matematicas, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, PO Box 1364, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Sabido, M [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    We study noncommutative black holes, by using a diffeomorphism between the Schwarzschild black hole and the Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model, which is generalized to noncommutative minisuperspace. Through the use of the Feynman-Hibbs procedure we are able to study the thermodynamics of the black hole, in particular, we calculate Hawking's temperature and entropy for the 'noncommutative' Schwarzschild black hole.

  10. Black holes without firewalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larjo, Klaus; Lowe, David A.; Thorlacius, Larus

    2013-05-01

    The postulates of black hole complementarity do not imply a firewall for infalling observers at a black hole horizon. The dynamics of the stretched horizon, that scrambles and reemits information, determines whether infalling observers experience anything out of the ordinary when entering a large black hole. In particular, there is no firewall if the stretched horizon degrees of freedom retain information for a time of the order of the black hole scrambling time.

  11. Black holes are hot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, G.

    1976-01-01

    Recent work, which has been investigating the use of the concept of entropy with respect to gravitating systems, black holes and the universe as a whole, is discussed. The resulting theory of black holes assigns a finite temperature to them -about 10 -7 K for ordinary black holes of stellar mass -which is in complete agreement with thermodynamical concepts. It is also shown that black holes must continuously emit particles just like ordinary bodies which have a certain temperature. (U.K.)

  12. Monopole Black Hole Skyrmions

    OpenAIRE

    Moss, Ian G; Shiiki, N; Winstanley, E

    2000-01-01

    Charged black hole solutions with pion hair are discussed. These can be\\ud used to study monopole black hole catalysis of proton decay.\\ud There also exist\\ud multi-black hole skyrmion solutions with BPS monopole behaviour.

  13. What is black hole?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. What is black hole? Possible end phase of a star: A star is a massive, luminous ball of plasma having continuous nuclear burning. Star exhausts nuclear fuel →. White Dwarf, Neutron Star, Black Hole. Black hole's gravitational field is so powerful that even ...

  14. Genocide and Black Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnette, Calvin H.

    1972-01-01

    Contends that the survival of black people is in serious jeopardy as is evidenced in contemporary discussions on the worldwide plight of black people, and that an exhaustive study of the problem in its many dimensions is seriously lacking; the moral and ethical issues of genocide require examination from a black perspective. (JW)

  15. Black holes in binary stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, R.A.M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Introduction Distinguishing neutron stars and black holes Optical companions and dynamical masses X-ray signatures of the nature of a compact object Structure and evolution of black-hole binaries High-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black holes Formation of black holes

  16. A recursive algorithm for trees and forests

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Song; Guo, Victor J. W.

    2017-01-01

    Trees or rooted trees have been generously studied in the literature. A forest is a set of trees or rooted trees. Here we give recurrence relations between the number of some kind of rooted forest with $k$ roots and that with $k+1$ roots on $\\{1,2,\\ldots,n\\}$. Classical formulas for counting various trees such as rooted trees, bipartite trees, tripartite trees, plane trees, $k$-ary plane trees, $k$-edge colored trees follow immediately from our recursive relations.

  17. Phylogenetic trees in bioinformatics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burr, Tom L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Genetic data is often used to infer evolutionary relationships among a collection of viruses, bacteria, animal or plant species, or other operational taxonomic units (OTU). A phylogenetic tree depicts such relationships and provides a visual representation of the estimated branching order of the OTUs. Tree estimation is unique for several reasons, including: the types of data used to represent each OTU; the use ofprobabilistic nucleotide substitution models; the inference goals involving both tree topology and branch length, and the huge number of possible trees for a given sample of a very modest number of OTUs, which implies that fmding the best tree(s) to describe the genetic data for each OTU is computationally demanding. Bioinformatics is too large a field to review here. We focus on that aspect of bioinformatics that includes study of similarities in genetic data from multiple OTUs. Although research questions are diverse, a common underlying challenge is to estimate the evolutionary history of the OTUs. Therefore, this paper reviews the role of phylogenetic tree estimation in bioinformatics, available methods and software, and identifies areas for additional research and development.

  18. Skewed Binary Search Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Moruz, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    It is well-known that to minimize the number of comparisons a binary search tree should be perfectly balanced. Previous work has shown that a dominating factor over the running time for a search is the number of cache faults performed, and that an appropriate memory layout of a binary search tree...... can reduce the number of cache faults by several hundred percent. Motivated by the fact that during a search branching to the left or right at a node does not necessarily have the same cost, e.g. because of branch prediction schemes, we in this paper study the class of skewed binary search trees....... For all nodes in a skewed binary search tree the ratio between the size of the left subtree and the size of the tree is a fixed constant (a ratio of 1/2 gives perfect balanced trees). In this paper we present an experimental study of various memory layouts of static skewed binary search trees, where each...

  19. The gravity apple tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldama, Mariana Espinosa

    2015-01-01

    The gravity apple tree is a genealogical tree of the gravitation theories developed during the past century. The graphic representation is full of information such as guides in heuristic principles, names of main proponents, dates and references for original articles (See under Supplementary Data for the graphic representation). This visual presentation and its particular classification allows a quick synthetic view for a plurality of theories, many of them well validated in the Solar System domain. Its diachronic structure organizes information in a shape of a tree following similarities through a formal concept analysis. It can be used for educational purposes or as a tool for philosophical discussion. (paper)

  20. Visualizing phylogenetic tree landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilgenbusch, James C; Huang, Wen; Gallivan, Kyle A

    2017-02-02

    Genomic-scale sequence alignments are increasingly used to infer phylogenies in order to better understand the processes and patterns of evolution. Different partitions within these new alignments (e.g., genes, codon positions, and structural features) often favor hundreds if not thousands of competing phylogenies. Summarizing and comparing phylogenies obtained from multi-source data sets using current consensus tree methods discards valuable information and can disguise potential methodological problems. Discovery of efficient and accurate dimensionality reduction methods used to display at once in 2- or 3- dimensions the relationship among these competing phylogenies will help practitioners diagnose the limits of current evolutionary models and potential problems with phylogenetic reconstruction methods when analyzing large multi-source data sets. We introduce several dimensionality reduction methods to visualize in 2- and 3-dimensions the relationship among competing phylogenies obtained from gene partitions found in three mid- to large-size mitochondrial genome alignments. We test the performance of these dimensionality reduction methods by applying several goodness-of-fit measures. The intrinsic dimensionality of each data set is also estimated to determine whether projections in 2- and 3-dimensions can be expected to reveal meaningful relationships among trees from different data partitions. Several new approaches to aid in the comparison of different phylogenetic landscapes are presented. Curvilinear Components Analysis (CCA) and a stochastic gradient decent (SGD) optimization method give the best representation of the original tree-to-tree distance matrix for each of the three- mitochondrial genome alignments and greatly outperformed the method currently used to visualize tree landscapes. The CCA + SGD method converged at least as fast as previously applied methods for visualizing tree landscapes. We demonstrate for all three mtDNA alignments that 3D