WorldWideScience

Sample records for black carbon biochar

  1. An index-based approach to assessing recalcitrance and soil carbon sequestration potential of engineered black carbons (biochars).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Omar R; Kuo, Li-Jung; Zimmerman, Andrew R; Louchouarn, Patrick; Amonette, James E; Herbert, Bruce E

    2012-02-07

    The ability of engineered black carbons (or biochars) to resist abiotic and, or biotic degradation (herein referred to as recalcitrance) is crucial to their successful deployment as a soil carbon sequestration strategy. A new recalcitrance index, the R(50), for assessing biochar quality for carbon sequestration is proposed. The R(50) is based on the relative thermal stability of a given biochar to that of graphite and was developed and evaluated with a variety of biochars (n = 59), and soot-like black carbons. Comparison of R(50), with biochar physicochemical properties and biochar-C mineralization revealed the existence of a quantifiable relationship between R(50) and biochar recalcitrance. As presented here, the R(50) is immediately applicable to pre-land application screening of biochars into Class A (R(50) ≥ 0.70), Class B (0.50 ≤ R(50) carbon sequestration classes. Class A and Class C biochars would have carbon sequestration potential comparable to soot/graphite and uncharred plant biomass, respectively, whereas Class B biochars would have intermediate carbon sequestration potential. We believe that the coupling of the R(50), to an index-based degradation, and an economic model could provide a suitable framework in which to comprehensively assess soil carbon sequestration in biochars.

  2. Dynamic molecular structure of plant biomass-derived black carbon (biochar)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiluweit, M.; Nico, P.S.; Johnson, M.G.; Kleber, M.

    2009-11-15

    Char black carbon (BC), the solid residue of incomplete combustion, is continuously being added to soils and sediments due to natural vegetation fires, anthropogenic pollution, and new strategies for carbon sequestration ('biochar'). Here we present a molecular-level assessment of the physical organization and chemical complexity of biomass-derived chars and, specifically, that of aromatic carbon in char structures. BET-N{sub 2} surface area, X-ray diffraction (XRD), synchrotron-based Near-edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy are used to show how two plant materials (wood and grass) undergo analogous, but quantitatively different physical-chemical transitions as charring temperature increases from 100 to 700 C. These changes suggest the existence of four distinct categories of char consisting of a unique mixture of chemical phases and physical states: (i) in transition chars the crystalline character of the precursor materials is preserved, (ii) in amorphous chars the heat-altered molecules and incipient aromatic polycondensates are randomly mixed, (iii) composite chars consist of poorly ordered graphene stacks embedded in amorphous phases, and (iv) turbostratic chars are dominated by disordered graphitic crystallites. The molecular variations among the different char categories translate into differences in their ability to persist in the environment and function as environmental sorbents.

  3. Production and Composition of Dissolved Black Carbon from Various Biochars and Environmentally-aged Charcoals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostick, K. W.; Zimmerman, A. R.; Hatcher, P.; Mitra, S.; Wozniak, A. S.

    2016-12-01

    Pyrogenic organic matter, or black carbon (BC), is the solid carbonaceous product of biomass pyrolysis. While solid BC represents a long-lived portion of the C cycle, it releases pyrogenic dissolved organic matter (py-DOM) which may be more susceptible to mineralization and transformation. This py-DOM may impact environmental and public health and likely controls exchange between terrestrial and aquatic BC pools. Benzene polycarboxylic acids (BPCAs), produced by acid digestion of samples, are used as molecular markers for pyrogenic organic matter. Yet, we currently have a poor understanding of the controls on the production of py-DOM and its yield of BPCA compounds. In response, aqueous leaching time series experiments were carried out using a series of laboratory-made biochars and environmentally-aged charcoals. While non-charred oak biomass released 31.8 mg C/g (45% C loss), oak biochars prepared at low temperatures (250 and 400ºC), produced 9.9 and 2.6 mg C/g (11 and 2.3% C loss), respectively. Oak chars prepared at a higher temperatures (650ºC) leached only 1.85 mg C/g (1.5% C loss). In contrast, an environmentally-aged charcoal (30 y old cypress charcoal) leached 10.9% of its C. On average, 59% (ranging 38-80%) of oak pyrogenic DOC was converted into BPCAs, suggesting that oak py-DOM has a variably condensed aromatic proportion. However, much less BPCAs were generated by BC parent solids. In addition, trace amounts of BPCA were generated from non-pyrolyzed grass, oak wood, and compost leachates; these lend concern to the use of BPCAs as exclusive pyrogenic molecular markers. As expected, BPCA molecular distribution showed that condensation increased with pyrolysis temperature of solid biochars and their corresponding leachates. The comparison of these findings to 13C and 1H NMR spectra of charcoal parent solids and their leachates will further elucidate the chemistry and production mechanisms of py-DOM.

  4. Black Carbon (Biochar) In Water/Soil Environments: Molecular Structure, Sorption, Stability, and Potential Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Fei; Xing, Baoshan

    2017-12-05

    Black carbon (BC) is ubiquitous in the environments and participates in various biogeochemical processes. Both positive and negative effects of BC (especially biochar) on the ecosystem have been identified, which are mainly derived from its diverse physicochemical properties. Nevertheless, few studies systematically examined the linkage between the evolution of BC molecular structure with the resulted BC properties, environmental functions as well as potential risk, which is critical for understanding the BC environmental behavior and utilization as a multifunctional product. Thus, this review highlights the molecular structure evolution of BC during pyrolysis and the impact of BC physicochemical properties on its sorption behavior, stability, and potential risk in terrestrial and aqueous ecosystems. Given the wide application of BC and its important role in biogeochemical processes, future research should focus on the following: (1) establishing methodology to more precisely predict and design BC properties on the basis of pyrolysis and phase transformation of biomass; (2) developing an assessment system to evaluate the long-term effect of BC on stabilization and bioavailability of contaminants, agrochemicals, and nutrient elements in soils; and (3) elucidating the interaction mechanisms of BC with plant roots, microorganisms, and soil components.

  5. Dynamac molecular structure of plant biomass-derived black carbon (Biochar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Char black carbon (BC), the solid residue of incomplete combustion, is continuously being added to soils and sediments due to natural vegetation fires, anthropogenic pollution, and new strategies for carbon sequestration (“biochar”). Here we present a molecular-level assessment o...

  6. Nanoscale Interactions between Engineered Nanomaterials and Black Carbon (Biochar) in Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    An understanding of the interactions between engineered nanomaterials (NMs) and soil constituents, and a comprehension of how these interactions may affect biological uptake and toxicity are currently lacking. Charcoal black carbon is a normal constituent of soils due to fire history, and can be pre...

  7. Review of the effects of biochar amendment on soil properties and carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biochar is part of a series of materials referred to as black carbons, since biochar is produced by a chemical and/or thermal transformation of the original biomass material in different conditions. The objective of this paper is to summarize the characteristics of biochar from different feedstocks ...

  8. Carbon dioxide emissions from biochar in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Sander; Clauson-Kaas, Anne Sofie Kjærulff; Bobuľská, L.

    2014-01-01

    The stability of biochar in soil is of importance if it is to be used for carbon sequestration and long-term improvement of soil properties. It is well known that a significant fraction of biochar is highly stable in soil, but carbon dioxide (CO2) is also released immediately after application....... This study investigated the nature of the early release of CO2 and the degree to which stabilizing mechanisms protect biochar from microbial attack. Incubations of 14C-labelled biochar produced at different temperatures were performed in soils with different clay contents and in sterilized and non......-sterilized soils. It emerged that carbonate may be concentrated or form during or after biochar production, resulting in significant carbonate contents. If CO2 released from carbonates in short-term experiments is misinterpreted as mineralization of biochar, the impact of this process may be significantly over...

  9. Structural transformation of biochar black carbon by C60 superstructure: Environmental implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aqueous fullerene C60 nanoparticles (nC60) are frequently considered within the environmental engineering community as the aggregate of 60-carbon molecules. This study employed transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) to demonstrate that nC60 formed via prolonged stirring ...

  10. Biochar production for carbon sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakkar, J.; Kumar, A. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2010-07-01

    This study examined the use of agricultural biomass for biochar production and its storage in a landfill to sequester carbon. Capturing the energy from biomass that would otherwise decay, is among the many options available to mitigate the impact of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with fossil fuel consumption. Biochar is a solid fuel which can be produced from agricultural biomass such as wheat and barley straw. This organic solid can be produced by slow pyrolysis of straw. A conceptual techno-economic model based on actual data was used to estimate the cost of producing biochar from straw in a centralized plant. The objectives of the study were to estimate the overall delivered cost of straw to the charcoal production plant; estimate the transportation costs of charcoal to the landfill site; estimate the cost of landfill; and estimate the overall cost of carbon sequestration through a charcoal landfill. According to preliminary results, the cost of carbon sequestration through this pathway is greater than $50 per tonne of carbon dioxide.

  11. Rapid molecular screening of black carbon (biochar) thermosequences obtained from chestnut wood and rice straw: A pyrolysis-GC/MS study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaal, Joeri; Schneider, Maximilian P.W.; Schmidt, Michael W.I.

    2012-01-01

    Rice straw and chestnut wood were heated between 200 and 1000 °C (T CHAR ) to produce Black C ‘thermosequences’. The molecular properties of the charred residues were assessed by pyrolysis-GC/MS to investigate the relation between charring intensity and pyrolysis fingerprint. Samples obtained at T CHAR > 500 °C (wood) or >700 °C (straw) gave low quality pyrograms and poor reproducibility because of high thermal stability, but pyrolysis-GC/MS allowed to track the thermal degradation of the main biocomponents (polysaccharides, lignin, methylene chain-based aliphatics, triterpenoids, chlorophyll and proteins) in the lower temperature range, mostly occurring between T CHAR 250 and 500 °C. With increasing T CHAR , the charred residues of these biocomponents lose characteristic functional groups, aromatise and finally condense into non-pyrolysable biomass. The proportions of the pyrolysis products of unspecific origin (benzene, toluene, PAHs, etc.), increase with charring intensity, while the ratios that reflect the abundance of alkyl cross-linkages between aromatic moieties (e.g. benzene/toluene, naphthalene/alkylnaphthalene) decrease. These results provide the guidelines to using pyrolysis-GC/MS for the molecular characterisation of different components in Black C and biochar, which is an important parameter for predicting Black C/biochar behaviour in soil. Results are consistent with earlier studies of these samples using the BPCA (benzenepolycarboxylic acid) method and the ring current-induced 13 C benzene chemical shift NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) approach. Pyrolysis-GC/MS provides more information on molecular structures in the low temperature range (T CHAR ≤ 500 °C) while the BPCA and NMR ring current methods provide more reliable estimations of charring intensity, especially at higher temperatures (T CHAR ≥ 500 °C). -- Highlights: ► Charred rice straw and chestnut wood (200–1000 °C) analysed by pyrolysis-GC/MS. ► Pyrolysis-GC/MS allows

  12. Biochar carbon stability and effect on greenhouse gas emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Esben Wilson; Cross, Andrew; Hammond, Jim

    2016-01-01

    As demonstrated by several scientific studies there is no doubt that biochar in general is very recalcitrant compared to other organic matter additions and soil organic matter fractions and also that it is possible to sequester carbon at a climate change relevant time scale (~100 years or more......) by soil application of biochar. However, the carbon stability of biochar in soil is strongly correlated with the degree of thermal alteration of the original feedstock (the lower the temperature, the larger the labile fraction) and in depth understanding of the technology used and its effect...... on the biochar quality is necessary in order to produce the most beneficial biochars for soil application. Beside carbon sequestration in soil biochar may improve the GHG balance by reducing N2O and CH4 soil emissions, although contrasting results are found in the literature. The mechanisms behind...

  13. Biochar for soil fertility and natural carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostad, C.E.; Rutherford, D.W.

    2011-01-01

    Biochar is charcoal (similar to chars generated by forest fires) that is made for incorporation into soils to increase soil fertility while providing natural carbon sequestration. The incorporation of biochar into soils can preserve and enrich soils and also slow the rate at which climate change is affecting our planet. Studies on biochar, such as those cited by this report, are applicable to both fire science and soil science.

  14. Reduced carbon sequestration potential of biochar in acidic soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Yaqi; Zhan, Yu; Zhu, Lizhong

    2016-12-01

    Biochar application in soil has been proposed as a promising method for carbon sequestration. While factors affecting its carbon sequestration potential have been widely investigated, the number of studies on the effect of soil pH is limited. To investigate the carbon sequestration potential of biochar across a series of soil pH levels, the total carbon emission, CO 2 release from inorganic carbon, and phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) of six soils with various pH levels were compared after the addition of straw biochar produced at different pyrolysis temperatures. The results show that the acidic soils released more CO 2 (1.5-3.5 times higher than the control) after the application of biochar compared with neutral and alkaline soils. The degradation of both native soil organic carbon (SOC) and biochar were accelerated. More inorganic CO 2 release in acidic soil contributed to the increased degradation of biochar. Higher proportion of gram-positive bacteria in acidic soil (25%-36%) was responsible for the enhanced biochar degradation and simultaneously co-metabolism of SOC. In addition, lower substrate limitation for bacteria, indicated by higher C-O stretching after the biochar application in the acidic soil, also caused more CO 2 release. In addition to the soil pH, other factors such as clay contents and experimental duration also affected the phsico-chemical and biotic processes of SOC dynamics. Gram-negative/gram-positive bacteria ratio was found to be negatively related to priming effects, and suggested to serve as an indicator for priming effect. In general, the carbon sequestration potential of rice-straw biochar in soil reduced along with the decrease of soil pH especially in a short-term. Given wide spread of acidic soils in China, carbon sequestration potential of biochar may be overestimated without taking into account the impact of soil pH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Stabilization of carbon in composts and biochars in relation to carbon sequestration and soil fertility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolan, N.S., E-mail: Nanthi.Bolan@unisa.edu.au [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation (CERAR), University of South Australia, SA 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contaminants Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRC CARE), University of South Australia, SA 5095 (Australia); Kunhikrishnan, A. [Chemical Safety Division, Department of Agro-Food Safety, National Academy of Agricultural Science, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do 441-707 (Korea, Republic of); Choppala, G.K.; Thangarajan, R. [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation (CERAR), University of South Australia, SA 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contaminants Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRC CARE), University of South Australia, SA 5095 (Australia); Chung, J.W. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Gyeongnam National University of Science and Technology, Dongjin-ro 33, Jinju, Gyeongnam, 660-758 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-01

    There have been increasing interests in the conversion of organic residues into biochars in order to reduce the rate of decomposition, thereby enhancing carbon (C) sequestration in soils. However energy is required to initiate the pyrolysis process during biochar production which can also lead to the release of greenhouse gasses. Alternative methods can be used to stabilize C in composts and other organic residues without impacting their quality. The objectives of this study include: (i) to compare the rate of decomposition among various organic amendments and (ii) to examine the effect of clay materials on the stabilization of C in organic amendments. The decomposition of a number of organic amendments (composts and biochars) was examined by monitoring the release of carbon-dioxide using respiration experiments. The results indicated that the rate of decomposition as measured by half life (t{sub 1/2}) varied between the organic amendments and was higher in sandy soil than in clay soil. The half life value ranged from 139 days in the sandy soil and 187 days in the clay soil for poultry manure compost to 9989 days for green waste biochar. Addition of clay materials to compost decreased the rate of decomposition, thereby increasing the stabilization of C. The half life value for poultry manure compost increased from 139 days to 620, 806 and 474 days with the addition of goethite, gibbsite and allophane, respectively. The increase in the stabilization of C with the addition of clay materials may be attributed to the immobilization of C, thereby preventing it from microbial decomposition. Stabilization of C in compost using clay materials did not impact negatively the value of composts in improving soil quality as measured by potentially mineralizable nitrogen and microbial biomass carbon in soil. - Graphical abstract: Stabilization of compost using clay materials (e.g. allophane) enhances carbon sequestration in soils. Highlights: Black

  16. Mycorrhizal responses to biochar in soil-concepts and mechanisms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warnock, D.D.; Lehmann, J.; Kuyper, T.W.; Rillig, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    Experiments suggest that biomass-derived black carbon (biochar) affects microbial populations and soil biogeochemistry. Both biochar and mycorrhizal associations, ubiquitous symbioses in terrestrial ecosystems, are potentially important in various ecosystem services provided by soils, contributing

  17. Effect of activated carbon and biochars on the bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in different industrially contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołtowski, Michał; Hilber, Isabel; Bucheli, Thomas D; Oleszczuk, Patryk

    2016-06-01

    Coal production negatively affects the environment by the emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Two soils (KOK and KB) from a coking plant area was investigated and their total PAH concentration was 40 and 17 mg/kg for the sum (∑) 16 US EPA PAHs, respectively. A third soil was sampled from a bitumen plant area and was characterized by 9 mg/kg ∑16 US EPA PAHs. To reduce the freely dissolved concentration (Cfree) of the PAHs in the soil pore water, active carbon (AC) and two biochars pyrolysed from wheat straw (biochar-S) and willow (biochar-W) were added to the soils at 0.5-5 % (w/w), each. The AC performed best and reduced the Cfree by 51-98 % already at the lowest dose. The biochars needed doses up to 2.5 % to significantly reduce the Cfree by 44-86 % in the biochar-S and by 37-68 % in the biochar-W amended soils. The high black carbon (BC) content of up to 2.3 % in the Silesian soils competed with the sorption sites of the carbon amendments and the performance of the remediation was a consequence of the contaminant's source and the distribution between the BC and the AC/biochars. In contrast, the carbon amendment could best reduce the Cfree in the Lublin soil where the BC content was normal (0.05 %). It is therefore crucial to know the contaminant's source and history of a sample/site to choose the appropriate carbon amendment not only for remediation success but also for economic reasons.

  18. Strong binding of apolar hydrophobic organic contaminants by dissolved black carbon released from biochar: A mechanism of pseudomicelle partition and environmental implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Heyun; Wei, Chenhui; Qu, Xiaolei; Li, Hui; Zhu, Dongqiang

    2018-01-01

    Dissolved black carbon (DBC), the soluble fraction of black carbon (BC), is an important constituent of dissolved organic matter pool. However, little is known about the binding interactions between hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) and DBC and their significance in the fate process. This study determined the binding ability of DBC released from rice-derived BC for a series of apolar HOCs, including four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and four chlorinated benzenes, using batch sorption and solubility enhancement techniques. Bulk BC and a dissolved soil humic acid (DSHA) were included as benchmark sorbents. The organic carbon-normalized sorption coefficient of phenanthrene to DBC was slightly lower than bulk BC, but was over ten folds higher than DSHA. Consistently, DBC was more effective than DSHA in enhancing the apparent water solubility of the tested HOCs, and the enhancement positively correlated with solute n-octanol-water partition coefficient, indicating the predominance of hydrophobic partition. The much higher binding ability of DBC relative to DSHA was mainly attributed to its higher tendency to form pseudomicellar structures as supported by the fluorescence quenching and the pH-edge data. Our findings suggest that DBC might play a significant role in the environmental fate and transport of HOCs as both sorbent and carrier. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Soil carbon sequestration and biochar as negative emission technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Pete

    2016-03-01

    Despite 20 years of effort to curb emissions, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions grew faster during the 2000s than in the 1990s, which presents a major challenge for meeting the international goal of limiting warming to deforestation, showed that all NETs have significant limits to implementation, including economic cost, energy requirements, land use, and water use. In this paper, I assess the potential for negative emissions from soil carbon sequestration and biochar addition to land, and also the potential global impacts on land use, water, nutrients, albedo, energy and cost. Results indicate that soil carbon sequestration and biochar have useful negative emission potential (each 0.7 GtCeq. yr(-1) ) and that they potentially have lower impact on land, water use, nutrients, albedo, energy requirement and cost, so have fewer disadvantages than many NETs. Limitations of soil carbon sequestration as a NET centre around issues of sink saturation and reversibility. Biochar could be implemented in combination with bioenergy with carbon capture and storage. Current integrated assessment models do not represent soil carbon sequestration or biochar. Given the negative emission potential of SCS and biochar and their potential advantages compared to other NETs, efforts should be made to include these options within IAMs, so that their potential can be explored further in comparison with other NETs for climate stabilization. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Insights into the attenuated sorption of organic compounds on black carbon aged in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lei; Lv, Jitao; Chen, Zien; Huang, Rixiang; Zhang, Shuzhen

    2017-12-01

    Sorption of organic compounds on fresh black carbons (BCs) can be greatly attenuated in soil over time. We examined herein the changes in surface properties of maize straw-derived BCs (biochars) after aged in a black soil and their effects on the sorptive behaviors of naphthalene, phenanthrene and 1,3-dinitrobenzene. Dissolved fulvic and humic acids extracted from the soil were used to explore the role of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the aging of biochars. Chromatography analysis indicated that DOC molecules with relatively large molecular weight were preferentially adsorbed on the biochars during the aging processes. DOC sorption led to blockage of the biochar's micropores according to N 2 and CO 2 adsorption analyses. Surface chemistry of the biochars was also substantially modified, with more O-rich functional groups on the aged biochars compared to the original biochars, as evidenced by Near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses. The changes in both the physical and chemical surface properties of biochars by DOC led to significant attenuation of the sorption capacity and nonlinearity of the nonionic organic compounds on the aged biochars. Among the tested organic compounds, phenanthrene was the most attenuated in its sorption by the aging treatments, possibly because of its relatively large molecular size and hydrophobicity. The information can help gain a mechanistic understanding of interactions between BCs and organic compounds in soil environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Carbon Mineralization in Two Ultisols Amended with Different Sources and Particle Sizes of Pyrolyzed Biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biochar produced during pyrolysis has the potential to enhance soil fertility and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The influence of biochar properties (e.g., particle size) on both short- and long-term carbon (C) mineralization of biochar remains unclear. There is minimal informa...

  2. Water repellency of two forest soils after biochar addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. S. Page-Dumroese; P. R. Robichaud; R. E. Brown; J. M. Tirocke

    2015-01-01

    Practical application of black carbon (biochar) to improve forest soil may be limited because biochar is hydrophobic. In a laboratory, we tested the water repellency of biochar application (mixed or surface applied) to two forest soils of varying texture (a granitic coarse-textured Inceptisol and an ash cap fine-textured Andisol) at four different application rates (0...

  3. BIOCHAR: PYROGENIC CARBON FOR AGRICULTURAL USE - A CRITICAL REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etelvino Henrique Novotny

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Biochar (carbonized biomass for agricultural use has been used worldwide as soil amendment and is a technology of particular interest for Brazil, since its "inspiration" is from the historical Terra Preta de Índios(Amazon Dark Earth, and also because Brazil is the world's largest charcoal producer, generating enormous residue quantities in form of fine charcoal and due to the availability of different residual biomasses, mainly from agroindustry (e.g., sugar-cane bagasse; wood and paper-mill wastes; residues from biofuel industries; sewage sludge etc, that can be used for biochar production, making Brazil a key actor in the international scenario in terms of biochar research and utilization. In the last decade, numerous studies on biochar have been carried out and now a vast literature, and excellent reviews, are available. The objective of this paper is therefore to deliver a critical review with some highlights on biochar research, rather than an exhaustive bibliographic review. To this end, some key points considered critical and relevant were selected and the pertinent literature "condensed", with a view to guide future research, rather than analyze trends of the past.

  4. The economic value of biochar in crop production and carbon sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galinato, Suzette P.; Yoder, Jonathan K.; Granatstein, David

    2011-01-01

    This paper estimates the economic value of biochar application on agricultural cropland for carbon sequestration and its soil amendment properties. In particular, we consider the carbon emissions avoided when biochar is applied to agricultural soil, instead of agricultural lime, the amount of carbon sequestered, and the value of carbon offsets, assuming there is an established carbon trading mechanism for biochar soil application. We use winter wheat production in Eastern Whitman County, Washington as a case study, and consider different carbon offset price scenarios and different prices of biochar to estimate a farm profit. Our findings suggest that it may be profitable to apply biochar as a soil amendment under some conditions if the biochar market price is low enough and/or a carbon offset market exists. - Highlights: → We estimate the economic value of biochar application on agricultural cropland. → We consider biochar's carbon sequestration and soil amendment properties. → Biochar soil application may be profitable if a carbon offset market exists for it. → Farmers may use biochar if its market price is low enough to earn a profit.

  5. Biochar Preparation from Simulated Municipal Solid Waste Employing Low Temperature Carbonization Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areeprasert, C.; Leelachaikul, P.; Jangkobpattana, G.; Phumprasop, K.; Kiattiwat, T.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents an investigation on carbonization process of simulated municipal solid waste (MSW). Simulated MSW consists of a representative of food residue (68%), plastic waste (20%), paper (8%), and textile (4%). Laboratory-scale carbonization was performed in this study using a vertical-type pyrolyzer varying carbonization temperature (300, 350, 400, and 450 °C) and heating rate (5, 10, 15, and 20 °C/min). Appearance of the biochar product was in black and the volume was significantly reduced. Low carbonization temperature (300 °C) might not completely decompose plastic materials in MSW. Results showed that the carbonization at the temperature of 400 °C with the heating rate of 5 °C/min was the optimal condition. The yield of biochar from the optimal process was 50.6% with the heating value of 26.85 MJ/kg. Energy input of the process was attributed to water evaporation and the decomposition of plastics and paper. Energy output of the process was highest at the optimal condition. Energy output and input ratio was around 1.3-1.7 showing the feasibility of the carbonization process in all heating rate condition.

  6. Gasification biochar as soil amendment for carbon sequestration and soil quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Veronika

    2014-01-01

    Thermal gasification of biomass is an efficient and flexible way to generate energy. Besides the energy, avaluable by-product, biochar, is produced. Biochar contains a considerable amount of recalcitrant carbon thathas potential for soil carbon sequestration and soil quality improvement if recycled...... back to agriculture soils. To determine the effect of gasification biochar on soil processes and crop yield, a short-term incubation study was conducted and a field trial has been established....

  7. Effects of mineral additives on biochar formation: carbon retention, stability, and properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feiyue; Cao, Xinde; Zhao, Ling; Wang, Jianfei; Ding, Zhenliang

    2014-10-07

    Biochar is being recognized as a promising tool for long-term carbon sequestration, and biochar with high carbon retention and strong stability is supposed to be explored for that purpose. In this study, three minerals, including kaolin, calcite (CaCO3), and calcium dihydrogen phosphate [Ca(H2PO4)2], were added to rice straw feedstock at the ratio of 20% (w/w) for biochar formation through pyrolysis treatment, aiming to improve carbon retention and stabilization in biochar. Kaolin and CaCO3 had little effect on the carbon retention, whereas Ca(H2PO4)2 increased the carbon retention by up to 29% compared to untreated biochar. Although the carbon loss from the kaolin-modified biochar with hydrogen peroxide oxidation was enhanced, CaCO3 and Ca(H2PO4)2 modification reduced the carbon loss by 18.6 and 58.5%, respectively. Moreover, all three minerals reduced carbon loss of biochar with potassium dichromate oxidation from 0.3 to 38.8%. The microbial mineralization as CO2 emission in all three modified biochars was reduced by 22.2-88.7% under aerobic incubation and 5-61% under anaerobic incubation. Enhanced carbon retention and stability of biochar with mineral treatment might be caused by the enhanced formation of aromatic C, which was evidenced by cross-polarization magic angle spinning (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectra and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis. Our results indicated that the three minerals, especially Ca(H2PO4)2, were effective in increasing carbon retention and strengthening biochar stabilization, which provided a novel idea that people could explore and produce the designated biochar with high carbon sequestration capacity and stability.

  8. Application of fast pyrolysis biochar to a loamy soil - Effects on carbon and nitrogen dynamics and potential for carbon sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruun, E W

    2011-05-15

    Thermal decomposition of biomass in an oxygen-free environment (pyrolysis) produces bio-oil, syngas, and char. All three products can be used to generate energy, but an emerging new use of the recalcitrant carbon-rich char (biochar) is to apply it to the soil in order to enhance soil fertility and at the same time mitigate climate change by sequestering carbon in the soil. In general, the inherent physicochemical characteristics of biochars make these materials attractive agronomic soil conditioners. However, different pyrolysis technologies exist, i.e. slow pyrolysis, fast pyrolysis, and full gasification systems, and each of these influence the biochar quality differently. As of yet, there is only limited knowledge on the effect of applying fast pyrolysis biochar (FP-biochar) to soil. This PhD project provides new insights into the short-term impacts of adding FP-biochar to soil on the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and on soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics. The FP-biochars investigated in the thesis were generated at different reactor temperatures by fast pyrolysis of wheat straw employing a Pyrolysis Centrifuge Reactor (PCR). The carbohydrate content ranged from more than 35 % in FP-biochars made at a low reactor temperature (475 deg. C) down to 3 % in FP-biochars made at high temperatures (575 deg. C). The relative amount of carbohydrates in the FP-biochar was found to be correlated to the short-term degradation rates of the FP-biochars when applied to soil. Fast and slow pyrolysis of wheat straw resulted in two different biochar types with each their distinct physical structures and porosities, carbohydrate contents, particle sizes, pH values, BET surface areas, and elemental compositions. These different physicochemical properties obviously have different impacts on soil processes, which underscores that results obtained from soil studies using slow pyrolysis biochars (SP-biochar) are not necessarily applicable for FP-biochars. For example, the incorporation

  9. Application of fast pyrolysis biochar to a loamy soil - Effects on carbon and nitrogen dynamics and potential for carbon sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruun, E.W.

    2011-05-15

    Thermal decomposition of biomass in an oxygen-free environment (pyrolysis) produces bio-oil, syngas, and char. All three products can be used to generate energy, but an emerging new use of the recalcitrant carbon-rich char (biochar) is to apply it to the soil in order to enhance soil fertility and at the same time mitigate climate change by sequestering carbon in the soil. In general, the inherent physicochemical characteristics of biochars make these materials attractive agronomic soil conditioners. However, different pyrolysis technologies exist, i.e. slow pyrolysis, fast pyrolysis, and full gasification systems, and each of these influence the biochar quality differently. As of yet, there is only limited knowledge on the effect of applying fast pyrolysis biochar (FP-biochar) to soil. This PhD project provides new insights into the short-term impacts of adding FP-biochar to soil on the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and on soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics. The FP-biochars investigated in the thesis were generated at different reactor temperatures by fast pyrolysis of wheat straw employing a Pyrolysis Centrifuge Reactor (PCR). The carbohydrate content ranged from more than 35 % in FP-biochars made at a low reactor temperature (475 deg. C) down to 3 % in FP-biochars made at high temperatures (575 deg. C). The relative amount of carbohydrates in the FP-biochar was found to be correlated to the short-term degradation rates of the FP-biochars when applied to soil. Fast and slow pyrolysis of wheat straw resulted in two different biochar types with each their distinct physical structures and porosities, carbohydrate contents, particle sizes, pH values, BET surface areas, and elemental compositions. These different physicochemical properties obviously have different impacts on soil processes, which underscores that results obtained from soil studies using slow pyrolysis biochars (SP-biochar) are not necessarily applicable for FP-biochars. For example, the incorporation

  10. Prospective life cycle carbon abatement for pyrolysis biochar systems in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, Jim; Shackley, Simon; Sohi, Saran; Brownsort, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) of slow pyrolysis biochar systems (PBS) in the UK for small, medium and large scale process chains and ten feedstocks was performed, assessing carbon abatement and electricity production. Pyrolysis biochar systems appear to offer greater carbon abatement than other bioenergy systems. Carbon abatement of 0.7-1.3 t CO 2 equivalent per oven dry tonne of feedstock processed was found. In terms of delivered energy, medium to large scale PBS abates 1.4-1.9 t CO 2 e/MWh, which compares to average carbon emissions of 0.05-0.30 t CO 2 e/MWh for other bioenergy systems. The largest contribution to PBS carbon abatement is from the feedstock carbon stabilised in biochar (40-50%), followed by the less certain indirect effects of biochar in the soil (25-40%)-mainly due to increase in soil organic carbon levels. Change in soil organic carbon levels was found to be a key sensitivity. Electricity production off-setting emissions from fossil fuels accounted for 10-25% of carbon abatement. The LCA suggests that provided 43% of the carbon in the biochar remains stable, PBS will out-perform direct combustion of biomass at 33% efficiency in terms of carbon abatement, even if there is no beneficial effect upon soil organic carbon levels from biochar application. - Research highlights: → Biochar systems offer greater carbon abatement than combustion or gasification. → Carbon abatement of 0.7-1.4t CO 2 e/dry tonne of feedstock processed was found. → Change in soil organic carbon stocks induced by biochar is the key sensitivity. → Biochar systems produce less electricity then combustion or gasification.

  11. Magnetite impregnation effects on the sorbent properties of activated carbons and biochars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhantao; Sani, Badruddeen; Mrozik, Wojciech; Obst, Martin; Beckingham, Barbara; Karapanagioti, Hrissi K; Werner, David

    2015-03-01

    This paper discusses the sorbent properties of magnetic activated carbons and biochars produced by wet impregnation with iron oxides. The sorbents had magnetic susceptibilities consistent with theoretical predictions for carbon-magnetite composites. The high BET surface areas of the activated carbons were preserved in the synthesis, and enhanced for one low surface area biochar by dissolving carbonates. Magnetization decreased the point of zero charge. Organic compound sorption correlated strongly with BET surface areas for the pristine and magnetized materials, while metal cation sorption did not show such a correlation. Strong sorption of the hydrophobic organic contaminant phenanthrene to the activated carbon or biochar surfaces was maintained following magnetite impregnation, while phenol sorption was diminished, probably due to enhanced carbon oxidation. Copper, zinc and lead sorption to the activated carbons and biochars was unchanged or slightly enhanced by the magnetization, and iron oxides also contributed to the composite metal sorption capacity. While a magnetic biochar with 219 ± 3.7 m(2)/g surface area nearly reached the very strong organic pollutant binding capacity of the two magnetic activated carbons, a magnetic biochar with 68 ± 2.8 m(2)/g surface area was the best metal sorbent. Magnetic biochars thus hold promise as more sustainable alternatives to coal-derived magnetic activated carbons. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Technical feasibility and carbon footprint of biochar co-production with tomato plant residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorach-Massana, Pere; Lopez-Capel, Elisa; Peña, Javier; Rieradevall, Joan; Montero, Juan Ignacio; Puy, Neus

    2017-09-01

    World tomato production is in the increase, generating large amounts of organic agricultural waste, which are currently incinerated or composted, releasing CO 2 into the atmosphere. Organic waste is not only produced from conventional but also urban agricultural practices due recently gained popularity. An alternative to current waste management practices and carbon sequestration opportunity is the production of biochar (thermally converted biomass) from tomato plant residues and use as a soil amendment. To address the real contribution of biochar for greenhouse gas mitigation, it is necessary to assess the whole life cycle from the production of the tomato biomass feedstock to the actual distribution and utilisation of the biochar produced in a regional context. This study is the first step to determine the technical and environmental potential of producing biochar from tomato plant (Solanum lycopersicum arawak variety) waste biomass and utilisation as a soil amendment. The study includes the characterisation of tomato plant residue as biochar feedstock (cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and metal content); feedstock thermal stability; and the carbon footprint of biochar production under urban agriculture at pilot and small-scale plant, and conventional agriculture at large-scale plant. Tomato plant residue is a potentially suitable biochar feedstock under current European Certification based on its lignin content (19.7%) and low metal concentration. Biomass conversion yields of over 40%, 50% carbon stabilization and low pyrolysis temperature conditions (350-400°C) would be required for biochar production to sequester carbon under urban pilot scale conditions; while large-scale biochar production from conventional agricultural practices have not the potential to sequestrate carbon because its logistics, which could be improved. Therefore, the diversion of tomato biomass waste residue from incineration or composting to biochar production for use as a soil amendment

  13. Characteristics of Biochar Obtained by Hydrothermal Carbonization of Cellulose for Renewable Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Daegi Kim; Kunio Yoshikawa; Ki Young Park

    2015-01-01

    The effect of hydrothermal carbonization on the properties of cellulose present in lignocellulosic biomass was investigated for converting it into a renewable energy resource with high energy recovery efficiency. The biochar obtained from cellulose subjected to hydrothermal carbonization showed a significant increase in its carbon content and a calorific value. 13C NMR spectroscopy showed that when raw cellulose was subjected to hydrothermal carbonization above 220 °C, the resulting biochar h...

  14. Effects of Rice Straw and Its Biochar Addition on Soil Labile Carbon and Soil Organic Carbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Yun-feng; HE Xin-hua; GAO Ren; MA Hong-liang; YANG Yu-sheng

    2014-01-01

    Whether the biochar amendment could affect soil organic matter (SOM) turnover and hence soil carbon (C) stock remains poorly understood. Effects of the addition of 13C-labelled rice straw or its pyrolysed biochar at 250 or 350°C to a sugarcane soil (Ferrosol) on soil labile C (dissolved organic C, DOC;microbial biomass C, MBC;and mineralizable C, MC) and soil organic C (SOC) were investigated after 112 d of laboratory incubation at 25°C. Four treatments were examined as (1) the control soil without amendment (Soil);(2) soil plus 13C-labelled rice straw (Soil+Straw);(3) soil plus 250°C biochar (Soil+B250) and (4) soil plus 350°C biochar (Soil+B350). Compared to un-pyrolysed straw, biochars generally had an increased aryl C, carboxyl C, C and nitrogen concentrations, a decreased O-alkyl C and C:N ratio, but similar alkyl C and d13C (1 742-1 877‰). Among treatments, signiifcant higher DOC, MBC and MC derived from the new C (straw or biochar) ranked as Soil+Straw>Soil+B250>Soil+B350, whilst signiifcant higher SOC from the new C as Soil+B250>Soil+Straw≈Soil+B350. Compared to Soil, DOC and MBC derived from the native soil were decreased under straw or biochar addition, whilst MC from the native soil was increased under straw addition but decreased under biochar addition. Meanwhile, native SOC was similar among the treatments, irrespective of the straw or biochar addition. Compared to Soil, signiifcant higher total DOC and total MBC were under Soil+Straw, but not under Soil+B250 and Soil+B350, whilst signiifcant higher total MC and total SOC were under straw or biochar addition, except for MC under Soil+B350. Our results demonstrated that the application of biochar to soil may be an appropriate management practice for increasing soil C storage.

  15. Turnover of soil carbon pools following addition of switchgrass-derived biochar to four soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The amendment of soils with biochar may improve plant growth and sequester carbon, especially in marginal soils not suitable for the majority of commodity production. While biochar can persist in soils, it is not clear whether its persistence is affected by soil type. Moreover, we know little of how...

  16. Biochar as soil amendment to improve soil quality, crop yield, and carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biochar, a by-product of a thermochemical process called pyrolysis, which involves burning of any agricultural and animal waste (biomass) under high temperature and absence of oxygen. It is assumed that since biochar is very high in aromatic carbon, which persists in soil environment for very long ...

  17. Biochar affects carbon composition and stability in soil: a combined spectroscopy-microscopy study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Soriano, Maria C.; Kerré, Bart; Kopittke, Peter M.; Horemans, Benjamin; Smolders, Erik

    2016-01-01

    The use of biochar can contribute to carbon (C) storage in soil. Upon addition of biochar, there is a spatial reorganization of C within soil particles, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we used Fourier transformed infrared-microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy to examine this reorganization. A silty-loam soil was amended with three different organic residues and with the biochar produced from these residues and incubated for 237 d. Soil respiration was lower in biochar-amended soils than in residue-amended soils. Fluorescence analysis of the dissolved organic matter revealed that biochar application increased a humic-like fluorescent component, likely associated with biochar-C in solution. The combined spectroscopy-microscopy approach revealed the accumulation of aromatic-C in discrete spots in the solid-phase of microaggregates and its co-localization with clay minerals for soil amended with raw residue or biochar.The co-localization of aromatic-C:polysaccharides-C was consistently reduced upon biochar application. We conclude that reduced C metabolism is an important mechanism for C stabilization in biochar-amended soils. PMID:27113269

  18. Biochar affects carbon composition and stability in soil: a combined spectroscopy-microscopy study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Soriano, Maria C.; Kerré, Bart; Kopittke, Peter M.; Horemans, Benjamin; Smolders, Erik

    2016-04-01

    The use of biochar can contribute to carbon (C) storage in soil. Upon addition of biochar, there is a spatial reorganization of C within soil particles, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we used Fourier transformed infrared-microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy to examine this reorganization. A silty-loam soil was amended with three different organic residues and with the biochar produced from these residues and incubated for 237 d. Soil respiration was lower in biochar-amended soils than in residue-amended soils. Fluorescence analysis of the dissolved organic matter revealed that biochar application increased a humic-like fluorescent component, likely associated with biochar-C in solution. The combined spectroscopy-microscopy approach revealed the accumulation of aromatic-C in discrete spots in the solid-phase of microaggregates and its co-localization with clay minerals for soil amended with raw residue or biochar.The co-localization of aromatic-C:polysaccharides-C was consistently reduced upon biochar application. We conclude that reduced C metabolism is an important mechanism for C stabilization in biochar-amended soils.

  19. Application of Fast Pyrolysis Biochar to a Loamy soil - Effects on carbon and nitrogen dynamics and potential for carbon sequestration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Esben

    -biochar for agronomic use, since field trials are needed in order to verify potential benefits or drawbacks on soil fertility and crop yields. However, this thesis has improved the mechanistic understanding of the effects of applying FP-biochar to soil, and shows that wheat-straw FP-biochar has properties beneficial...... increased it moderately. Moreover, soil amendment of FP-biochar caused immobilization of considerable amounts of soil N, whereas SP-biochar resulted in a net mineralization of N after two months of soil incubation. Nitrogen immobilisation can be detrimental to crop yields, as shown in a Barley pot trial......Thermal decomposition of biomass in an oxygen-free environment (pyrolysis) produces bio-oil, syngas, and char. All three products can be used to generate energy, but an emerging new use of the recalcitrant carbon-rich char (biochar) is to apply it to the soil in order to enhance soil fertility...

  20. Effect of carbonization temperatures on biochar formation of bamboo leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattnaik, D.; Kumar, S.; Bhuyan, S. K.; Mishra, S. C.

    2018-03-01

    Bamboo is a typical plant native in Asia, been used in many sectors, which also produces a large volume of leaves which goes waste and not find its application for any useful purposes; is often considered as a bio-waste and normally incinerated or dumped; as its applications are not yet fully explored. However, some research work done on bamboo fibers for use as a reinforcement in making polymer matrix composite. In the present piece of research work, the influence of burning/carbonization of bamboo leaves (at different temperatures) have been studied and characterized. Proximate analysis gave the fixed carbon content (of ~nearly21%). X-Ray diffraction results revealed the presence of various phases viz. cristobalite (SiO2), Calcite (Ca2O3) etc. accompanied with changes in crystal structures. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results showed various modes of vibrations viz. O-H stretching bending of other bonds; (for aromatic benzene derivatives) etc. Scanning Electron Microscopic observation (of morphology) showed irregular stacking arrangements between the randomly spaced lamellae structure, with variation in carbonizing temperature. Results revealed the advantages of pyrolysis process in biochar production/formation. It appears that, the bamboo biochar can have suitable properties for its use as an alternative energy source and also for agricultural applications. Its high porosity and carbon content suggest its application as activated carbon also; after physical or chemical treatments. The present research focuses on extending the frontiers of use of bamboo leaves from being an unutilized biowaste to its conversion into a value added product, which can be compassed in terms of sustainable applications.

  1. Activated carbon, biochar and charcoal: Linkages and synergies across pyrogenic carbon's ABC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biochar and activated carbon, both carbonaceous pyrogenic materials, are important products for environmental technology and intensively studied for a multitude of purposes. A strict distinction between these materials is not always possible, and also a generally accepted terminology is lacking. How...

  2. Soil carbon mineralization following biochar addition associated with external nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudong Zhao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Biochar has been attracting increasing attention for its potentials of C sequestration and soil amendment. This study aimed to understand the effects of combining biochar with additional external N on soil C mineralization. A typical red soil (Plinthudults was treated with two biochars made from two types of plantation-tree trunks (soil-biochar treatments, and was also treated with external N (soil-biochar-N treatments. All treatments were incubated for 42 d. The CO2-C released from the treatments was detected periodically. After the incubation, soil properties such as pH, microbial biomass C (MBC, and microbial biomass N (MBN were measured. The addition of biochar with external N increased the soil pH (4.31-4.33 compared to the soil treated with external N only (4.21. This was not observed in the comparison of soil-biochar treatments (4.75-4.80 to soil only (4.74. Biochar additions (whether or not they were associated with external N increased soil MBC and MBN, but decreased CO2-C value per unit total C (added biochar C + soil C according to the model fitting. The total CO2-C released in soil-biochar treatments were enhanced compared to soil only (i.e., 3.15 vs. 2.57 mg and 3.23 vs. 2.45 mg, which was attributed to the labile C fractions in the biochars and through soil microorganism enhancement. However, there were few changes in soil C mineralization in soil-biochar-N treatments. Additionally, the potentially available C per unit total C in soil-biochar-N treatments was lower than that observed in the soil-biochar treatments. Therefore, we believe in the short term, that C mineralization in the soil can be enhanced by biochar addition, but not by adding external N concomitantly.

  3. Biochar, compost and biochar-compost blend as options to recover nutrients and sequester carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldfield, Thomas L; Sikirica, Nataša; Mondini, Claudio; López, Guadalupe; Kuikman, Peter J; Holden, Nicholas M

    2018-07-15

    This work assessed the potential environmental impact of recycling organic materials in agriculture via pyrolysis (biochar) and composting (compost), as well its combination (biochar-compost blend) versus business-as-usual represented by mineral fertiliser. Life cycle assessment methodology was applied using data sourced from experiments (FP7 project Fertiplus) in three countries (Spain, Italy and Belgium), and considering three environmental impact categories, (i) global warming; (ii) acidification and (iii) eutrophication. The novelty of this analysis is the inclusion of the biochar-compost blend with a focus on multiple European countries, and the inclusion of the acidification and eutrophication impact categories. Biochar, compost and biochar-compost blend all resulted in lower environmental impacts than mineral fertiliser from a systems perspective. Regional differences were found between biochar, compost and biochar-compost blend. The biochar-compost blend offered benefits related to available nutrients and sequestered C. It also produced yields of similar magnitude to mineral fertiliser, which makes its acceptance by farmers more likely whilst reducing environmental impacts. However, careful consideration of feedstock is required. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of fast pyrolysis temperature on biochar labile fraction and short-term carbon loss in a loamy soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Esben; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Ibrahim, Norazana

    2011-01-01

    Production of bio-oil, gas and biochar from pyrolysis of biomass is considered a promising technology for combined production of bioenergy and recalcitrant carbon (C) suitable for sequestration in soil. Using a fast pyrolysis centrifuge reactor (PCR) the present study investigated the relation...... between fast pyrolysis of wheat straw at different reactor temperatures and the short-term degradability of biochar in soil. After 115 days incubation 3–12% of the added biochar-C had been emitted as CO2. On average, 90% of the total biochar-C loss occurred within the first 20 days of the experiment......, emphasizing the importance of knowing the biochar labile fraction when evaluating a specific biochars C sequestration potential. The pyrolysis temperature influenced the outputs of biochar, bio-oil and syngas significantly, as well as the stability of the biochar produced. Contrary to slow pyrolysis a fast...

  5. Carbon Abatement and Emissions Associated with the Gasification of Walnut Shells for Bioenergy and Biochar Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol Pereira, Engil Isadora; Suddick, Emma C; Six, Johan

    2016-01-01

    By converting biomass residue to biochar, we could generate power cleanly and sequester carbon resulting in overall greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) savings when compared to typical fossil fuel usage and waste disposal. We estimated the carbon dioxide (CO2) abatements and emissions associated to the concurrent production of bioenergy and biochar through biomass gasification in an organic walnut farm and processing facility in California, USA. We accounted for (i) avoided-CO2 emissions from displaced grid electricity by bioenergy; (ii) CO2 emissions from farm machinery used for soil amendment of biochar; (iii) CO2 sequestered in the soil through stable biochar-C; and (iv) direct CO2 and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from soil. The objective of these assessments was to pinpoint where the largest C offsets can be expected in the bioenergy-biochar chain. We found that energy production from gasification resulted in 91.8% of total C offsets, followed by stable biochar-C (8.2% of total C sinks), offsetting a total of 107.7 kg CO2-C eq Mg-1 feedstock. At the field scale, we monitored gas fluxes from soils for 29 months (180 individual observations) following field management and precipitation events in addition to weekly measurements within three growing seasons and two tree dormancy periods. We compared four treatments: control, biochar, compost, and biochar combined with compost. Biochar alone or in combination with compost did not alter total N2O and CO2 emissions from soils, indicating that under the conditions of this study, biochar-prompted C offsets may not be expected from the mitigation of direct soil GHG emissions. However, this study revealed a case where a large environmental benefit was given by the waste-to-bioenergy treatment, addressing farm level challenges such as waste management, renewable energy generation, and C sequestration.

  6. Carbon Abatement and Emissions Associated with the Gasification of Walnut Shells for Bioenergy and Biochar Production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engil Isadora Pujol Pereira

    Full Text Available By converting biomass residue to biochar, we could generate power cleanly and sequester carbon resulting in overall greenhouse gas emissions (GHG savings when compared to typical fossil fuel usage and waste disposal. We estimated the carbon dioxide (CO2 abatements and emissions associated to the concurrent production of bioenergy and biochar through biomass gasification in an organic walnut farm and processing facility in California, USA. We accounted for (i avoided-CO2 emissions from displaced grid electricity by bioenergy; (ii CO2 emissions from farm machinery used for soil amendment of biochar; (iii CO2 sequestered in the soil through stable biochar-C; and (iv direct CO2 and nitrous oxide (N2O emissions from soil. The objective of these assessments was to pinpoint where the largest C offsets can be expected in the bioenergy-biochar chain. We found that energy production from gasification resulted in 91.8% of total C offsets, followed by stable biochar-C (8.2% of total C sinks, offsetting a total of 107.7 kg CO2-C eq Mg-1 feedstock. At the field scale, we monitored gas fluxes from soils for 29 months (180 individual observations following field management and precipitation events in addition to weekly measurements within three growing seasons and two tree dormancy periods. We compared four treatments: control, biochar, compost, and biochar combined with compost. Biochar alone or in combination with compost did not alter total N2O and CO2 emissions from soils, indicating that under the conditions of this study, biochar-prompted C offsets may not be expected from the mitigation of direct soil GHG emissions. However, this study revealed a case where a large environmental benefit was given by the waste-to-bioenergy treatment, addressing farm level challenges such as waste management, renewable energy generation, and C sequestration.

  7. Biochar alters microbial community and carbon sequestration potential across different soil pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Yaqi; Zhu, Lizhong

    2018-05-01

    Biochar application to soil has been proposed for soil carbon sequestration and global warming mitigation. While recent studies have demonstrated that soil pH was a main factor affecting soil microbial community and stability of biochar, little information is available for the microbiome across different soil pH and the subsequently CO 2 emission. To investigate soil microbial response and CO 2 emission of biochar across different pH levels, comparative incubation studies on CO 2 emission, degradation of biochar, and microbial communities in a ferralsol (pH5.19) and a phaeozems (pH7.81) with 4 biochar addition rates (0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0%, 5.0%) were conducted. Biochar induced higher CO 2 emission in acidic ferralsol, largely due to the higher biochar degradation, while the more drastic negative priming effect (PE) of SOC resulted in decreased total CO 2 emission in alkaline phaeozems. The higher bacteria diversity, especially the enrichment of copiotrophic bacteria such as Bacteroidetes, Gemmatimonadetes, and decrease of oligotrophic bacteria such as Acidobacteria, were responsible for the increased CO 2 emission and initial positive PE of SOC in ferralsol, whereas biochar did not change the relative abundances of most bacteria at phylum level in phaeozems. The relative abundances of other bacterial taxa (i.e. Actinobacteria, Anaerolineae) known to degrade aromatic compounds were also elevated in both soils. Soil pH was considered to be the dominant factor to affect CO 2 emission by increasing the bioavailability of organic carbon and abundance of copiotrophic bacteria after biochar addition in ferralsol. However, the decreased bioavailability of SOC via adsorption of biochar resulted in higher abundance of oligotrophic bacteria in phaeozems, leading to the decrease in CO 2 emission. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Comparing black carbon types in sequestering polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Fang; Gan, Jay

    2014-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely found in sediments, especially congeners from the penta-BDE formula. Due to their strong affinity for black carbon (BC), bioavailability of PBDEs may be decreased in BC-amended sediments. In this study, we used a matrix-SPME method to measure the freely dissolved concentration (C free ) of PBDEs as a parameter of their potential bioavailability and evaluated the differences among biochar, charcoal, and activated carbon. Activated carbon displayed a substantially greater sequestration capacity than biochar or charcoal. At 1% amendment rate in sediment with low organic carbon (OC) content (0.12%), C free of six PBDEs was reduced by 47.5–78.0%, 47.3–77.5%, and 94.1–98.3% with biochar, charcoal, and activated carbon, respectively, while the sequestration was more limited in sediment with high OC content (0.87%). Therefore, it is important to consider the type and properties of the BC and the sediment in BC-based remediation or mitigation. -- Highlights: • A matrix-SPME method was developed for measuring C free of PBDEs in sediment porewater. • Different black carbon types differed greatly in their ability to decrease C free of PBDEs in sediments. • Activated carbon was much more efficient in sequestering PBDEs than biochar or charcoal. • The effect of black carbon was more pronounced in sediment with lower indigenous OC content. -- Biochar, charcoal, and activated carbon have been compared for their efficacy in sequestering PBDEs in sediments by using a matrix-SPME method

  9. [Impacts of rice straw biochar on organic carbon and CO2 release in arable soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Yue-Jin; Hu, Xue-Yu; Yi, Qing; Yu, Zhong

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the stability of biochar and the effect of biochar when added into soil on soil organic carbon, a 130-day incubation experiment was conducted with rice straw biochar produced at 500 degrees C and 700 degrees C (RBC500 and RBC700) and with addition rates of 0% (control), 3%, 6% and 100% (pure biochar), to detect the change of total organic carbon (TOC), easily oxidized carbon (EOC) and status of CO2 release, following addition of biochar in arable soil. Results showed that: the content of both TOC and EOC in soil increased with biochar addition rates comparing with the control. RBC500 had greater contributions to both TOC and EOC increasing amounts than those of RBC700 under the same biochar addition rate. TOC contents of all treatments decreased during the initial 30 days with the largest decreasing amplitude of 15.8%, and tended to be stable in late incubation stages. Same to that of TOC, EOC contents of all treatments also tended to remain stable after 30 days, but in the 30 days of early incubation, EOC in the soil decreased by 72.4% and 81.7% respectively when the added amount of RBC500 was 3% and 6% , while it was reduced by 61.3% and 69.8% respectively when the added amount of RBC700 was 3% and 6%. EOC contents of soil added with biochar produced at the same temperature were similar in the end of incubation. The reduction of soil EOC content in early incubation may be related to mineralization caused by labile fractions of biochar. During the 130-day incubation, the accumulated CO2 releases showed an order of soil and biochar mixtures soil could reduce CO2 release, the largest reduction amplitude is 41.05%. In a long time scale, biochar as a soil amendment is favorable to the deduction of greenhouse gas release and soil carbon immobilization. Biochar could be used as a soil carbon sequestration carrier.

  10. Carbon sequestration potential and physicochemical properties differ between wildfire charcoals and slow-pyrolysis biochars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santín, Cristina; Doerr, Stefan H; Merino, Agustin; Bucheli, Thomas D; Bryant, Rob; Ascough, Philippa; Gao, Xiaodong; Masiello, Caroline A

    2017-09-11

    Pyrogenic carbon (PyC), produced naturally (wildfire charcoal) and anthropogenically (biochar), is extensively studied due to its importance in several disciplines, including global climate dynamics, agronomy and paleosciences. Charcoal and biochar are commonly used as analogues for each other to infer respective carbon sequestration potentials, production conditions, and environmental roles and fates. The direct comparability of corresponding natural and anthropogenic PyC, however, has never been tested. Here we compared key physicochemical properties (elemental composition, δ 13 C and PAHs signatures, chemical recalcitrance, density and porosity) and carbon sequestration potentials of PyC materials formed from two identical feedstocks (pine forest floor and wood) under wildfire charring- and slow-pyrolysis conditions. Wildfire charcoals were formed under higher maximum temperatures and oxygen availabilities, but much shorter heating durations than slow-pyrolysis biochars, resulting in differing physicochemical properties. These differences are particularly relevant regarding their respective roles as carbon sinks, as even the wildfire charcoals formed at the highest temperatures had lower carbon sequestration potentials than most slow-pyrolysis biochars. Our results challenge the common notion that natural charcoal and biochar are well suited as proxies for each other, and suggest that biochar's environmental residence time may be underestimated when based on natural charcoal as a proxy, and vice versa.

  11. Insights on the molecular mechanism for the recalcitrance of biochars: interactive effects of carbon and silicon components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jianhua; Chen, Baoliang

    2014-08-19

    Few studies have investigated the effects of structural heterogeneity (particularly the interactions of silicon and carbon) on the mechanisms for the recalcitrance of biochar. In this study, the molecular mechanisms for the recalcitrance of biochars derived from rice straw at 300, 500, and 700 °C (named RS300, RS500, and RS700, respectively) were elucidated. Short-term (24 h) and long-term (240 h) oxidation kinetics experiments were conducted under different concentrations of H2O2 to distinguish the stable carbon pools in the biochars. We discovered that the stabilities of the biochars were influenced not only by their aromaticity but also through possible protection by silicon encapsulation, which is regulated by pyrolysis temperatures. The aromatic components and recalcitrance of the biochars increased with increasing pyrolysis temperatures. The morphologies of the carbon forms in all of the biochars were also greatly associated with those of silica. Silica-encapsulation protection only occurred for RS500, not for RS300 and RS700. In RS300, carbon and silica were both amorphous, and they were easily decomposed by H2O2. The separation of crystalline silica from condensed aromatic carbon in RS700 eliminated the protective role of silicon on carbon. The effect of the biochar particle size on the stability of the biochar was greatly influenced by C-Si interactions and by the oxidation intensities. A novel silicon-and-carbon-coupled framework model was proposed to guide biochar carbon sequestration.

  12. Adsorption with Biochar or Activated Carbon as Treatment Processes for Greywater Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, K.; Cook, S. M.; Summers, R. S.

    2017-12-01

    Nearly 3 billion people experience water scarcity in their watershed for at least one month every year. Population growth, urbanization, and global climate change are increasing the severity of water scarcity in many areas. Decentralized reuse of greywater from showers, baths, and bathroom sinks could reduce residential water demand by 35% and urban water demand by 15%. Decentralized greywater reuse could be environmentally sustainable due to less energy for pumping than centralized systems. However, decentralized greywater reuse presents challenges from economies of scale. Biochar can serve as a low-cost, environmentally sustainable alternative to activated carbon (AC) in water treatment. Many studies have explored biochar as a sorbent for surface water or wastewater, but studies about biochar for greywater treatment are limited. The objectives of this study were (1) to compare the performance of biochar and AC for sorption of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in greywater and (2) to determine whether AC or biochar can satisfy greywater treatment regulations alone or in combination with other processes. Jar tests with doses ranges of 0.25 to 4 g/L were used to compare sorbents for DOC removal after various pretreatments. All sorbents were ground to ≤45 µm particle diameter. Five biochars were screened to select the most effective greywater sorbent. These biochars covered a range of production temperatures, feedstocks, and lab- and full-scale production. Wood-based forced draft top lit updraft biochar (FD-TLUD) biochar was found to be the most effective for DOC removal from both real and synthetic greywater. Sorption with FD-TLUD biochar or AC can remove up to 70% or 80% of DOC from greywater, respectively. AC sorption of DOC was only 1-10% greater at each dose from a greywater sample with 11 mg/L DOC than from a greywater sample with 43 mg/L DOC. Coagulation with 30 mg/L alum removed 14% of greywater DOC, and biochar or AC sorption removed similar percentages of

  13. Innovative Process to Enrich Carbon Content of EFB-Derived Biochar as an Alternative Energy Source in Ironmaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Purwanto

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the mechanism of a developed process—an integrated pyrolysis-tar decomposition process—to produce oil palm empty fruit bunch- (EFB- derived biochar with additional solid carbon within the biochar bodies, produced by decomposition of tar vapor on its pore surface, using the chemical vapor infiltration (CVI method. The product, carbon-infiltrated biochar, was characterized to investigate the possibility to be used as partial coke breeze replacement in ironmaking. Carbon-infiltrated biochar is proposed to be utilized for a sintering process that could reduce the consumption of coke and CO2 emission in iron-steel industry.

  14. [Priming effect of biochar on the minerialization of native soil organic carbon and the mechanisms: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Liu, Yu Xue; Chen, Chong Jun; Lyu, Hao Hao; Wa, Yu Ying; He, Li Li; Yang, Sheng Mao

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, studies on carbon sequestration of biochar in soil has been in spotlight owing to the specific characteristics of biochar such as strong carbon stability and well developed pore structure. However, whether biochar will ultimately increase soil carbon storage or promote soil carbon emissions when applied into the soil? This question remains controversial in current academic circles. Further research is required on priming effect of biochar on mineralization of native soil organic carbon and its mechanisms. Based on the analysis of biochar characteristics, such as its carbon composition and stability, pore structure and surface morphology, research progress on the priming effect of biochar on the decomposition of native soil organic carbon was reviewed in this paper. Furthermore, possible mechanisms of both positive and negative priming effect, that is promoting and suppressing the mineralization, were put forward. Positive priming effect is mainly due to the promotion of soil microbial activity caused by biochar, the preferential mineralization of easily decomposed components in biochar, and the co-metabolism of soil microbes. While negative priming effect is mainly based on the encapsulation and adsorption protection of soil organic matter due to the internal pore structure and the external surface of biochar. Other potential reasons for negative priming effect can be the stabilization resulted from the formation of organic-inorganic complex promoted by biochar in the soil, and the inhibition of activity of soil microbes and its enzymes by biochar. Finally, future research directions were proposed in order to provide theoretical basis for the application of biochar in soil carbon sequestration.

  15. Activated Biochars with Iron for In-Situ Sequestration of Organics, Metals and Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    Soil and Sediment Remediation. Beckingham B., Gomez-Eyles J.L., Riedel, G., Gilmour, C. and Ghosh, U. European Geosciences Union ( EGU ) General Assembly ...sorption of the contaminants to natural organic matter (OM), derived using generic Kow to Koc relationships obtained from the literature...that the n term is generally lower for the biochars than the activated carbons suggests strong sorption sites are more limited in the biochars, and

  16. Biochar: Promoting citizen driven carbon capture economies by developing science-inspired products that create a pull in the biochar market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood-Nowotny, Rebecca; Ziss, Elisabeth

    2017-04-01

    Prevention of catastrophic climate change requires push-pull mechanisms to attain critical mass engagement in reducing global carbon emissions or through large scale carbon capture, which is currently administered through international carbon trading schemes. Unfortunately the formal carbon trading market appears to be in disarray, as there is crisis of trust in the system; as a result the carbon credit prices are low and investment in solutions has almost ground to a halt. However there is still a public and commercial demand for trustworthy carbon credit products; consequently a vibrant and growing market. With this in mind we wanted to develop high value carbon-based substitution products for glass house production that that could have significant peripheral benefits to create market pull mechanisms. We systematically tested a variety biochar based products in hydroponic growing systems and commercial nursery scenarios, to determine their potential as substitute products. Results suggested that the high pH of the raw-biochar produced rendered it unsuitable for hydroponic production. Blending and buffering of the biochar for plant production was investigated and showed greater promise with comparable production potential. In another arm of horticultural production millions of cubic metres of peat are used across Europe each year. Biochar has a number of comparable properties to peat, it holds water, forms air pockets or pores to provide oxygen to plant roots and allows for drainage, it is light and most importantly it is sterile. In combination with other horticultural media such as compost, biochar blends could be a viable alternative to peat. Although there has been an explosion of research into the effect of biochar as a soil amendment, most of these publications deal with the impact of biochar on the carbon sequestration capacity of soils however few address the peripheral benefits of biochar on soil water holding capacity specifically in a horticultural

  17. Highly ordered macroporous woody biochar with ultra-high carbon content as supercapacitor electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Junhua; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Xinying; Holm, Nancy; Rajagopalan, Kishore; Chen, Fanglin; Ma, Shuguo

    2013-01-01

    Woody biochar monolith with ultra-high carbon content and highly ordered macropores has been prepared via one-pot pyrolysis and carbonization of red cedar wood at 750 °C without the need of post-treatment. Energy-dispersive spectroscope (EDX) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies show that the original biochar has a carbon content of 98 wt% with oxygen as the only detectable impurity and highly ordered macroporous texture characterized by alternating regular macroporous regions and narrow porous regions. Moreover, the hierarchically porous biochar monolith has a high BET specific surface area of approximately 400 m 2 g −1 . We have studied the monolith material as supercapacitor electrodes under acidic environment using electrochemical and surface characterization techniques. Electrochemical measurements show that the original biochar electrodes have a potential window of about 1.3 V and exhibit typical rectangular-shape voltammetric responses and fast charging–discharging behavior with a gravimetric capacitance of about 14 F g −1 . Simple activation of biochar in diluted nitric acid at room temperature leads to 7 times increase in the capacitance (115 F g −1 ). Because the HNO 3 -activation slightly decreases rather than increases the BET surface area of the biochar, an increase in the coverage of surface oxygen groups is the most likely origin of the substantial capacitance improvement. This is supported by EDX, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Raman measurements. Preliminary life-time studies show that biochar supercapacitors using the original and HNO 3 -activated electrodes are stable over 5000 cycles without performance decays. These facts indicate that the use of woody biochar is promising for its low cost and it can be a good performance electrode with low environmental impacts for supercapacitor applications

  18. Effect of biochar or activated carbon amendment on the volatilisation and biodegradation of organic soil pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, David; Meynet, Paola; Bushnaf, Khaled

    2013-04-01

    Biochar or activated carbon added to contaminated soil may temporarily reduce the volatilisation of organic pollutants by enhanced sorption. The long-term effect of sorbent amendments on the fate of volatile petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures (VPHs) will depend on the responses of the soil bacterial community members, especially those which may utilize VPHs as carbon substrates. We investigated the volatilisation and biodegradation of VPHs emanating from NAPL sources and migrating through one meter long columns containing unsaturated sandy soil with and without 2% biochar or activated carbon amendment. After 420 days, VPH volatilisation from AC amended soil was less than 10 percent of the cumulative VPH volatilisation flux from unamended soil. The cumulative CO2 volatilisation flux increased more slowly in AC amended soil, but was comparable to the untreated soil after 420 days. This indicated that the pollution attenuation over a 1 meter distance was improved by the AC amendment. Biochar was a weaker VPH sorbent than AC and had a lesser effect on the cumulative VPH and CO2 fluxes. We also investgated the predominant bacterial community responses in sandy soil to biochar and/or VPH addition with a factorially designed batch study, and by analyzing preserved soil samples. Biochar addition alone had only weak effects on soil bacterial communities, while VPH addition was a strong community structure shaping factor. The bacterial community effects of biochar-enhanced VPH sorption were moderated by the limited biomass carrying capacity of the sandy soil investigated which contained only low amounts of inorganic nitrogen. Several Pseudomonas spp., including Pseudomonas putida strains, became dominant in VPH polluted soil with and without biochar. The ability of these versatile VPH degraders to effectively regulate their metabolic pathways according to substrate availabilities may additionally have moderated bacterial community structure responses to the presence of biochar

  19. Stabilization of carbon in composts and biochars in relation to carbon sequestration and soil fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolan, N S; Kunhikrishnan, A; Choppala, G K; Thangarajan, R; Chung, J W

    2012-05-01

    There have been increasing interests in the conversion of organic residues into biochars in order to reduce the rate of decomposition, thereby enhancing carbon (C) sequestration in soils. However energy is required to initiate the pyrolysis process during biochar production which can also lead to the release of greenhouse gasses. Alternative methods can be used to stabilize C in composts and other organic residues without impacting their quality. The objectives of this study include: (i) to compare the rate of decomposition among various organic amendments and (ii) to examine the effect of clay materials on the stabilization of C in organic amendments. The decomposition of a number of organic amendments (composts and biochars) was examined by monitoring the release of carbon-dioxide using respiration experiments. The results indicated that the rate of decomposition as measured by half life (t(1/2)) varied between the organic amendments and was higher in sandy soil than in clay soil. The half life value ranged from 139 days in the sandy soil and 187 days in the clay soil for poultry manure compost to 9989 days for green waste biochar. Addition of clay materials to compost decreased the rate of decomposition, thereby increasing the stabilization of C. The half life value for poultry manure compost increased from 139 days to 620, 806 and 474 days with the addition of goethite, gibbsite and allophane, respectively. The increase in the stabilization of C with the addition of clay materials may be attributed to the immobilization of C, thereby preventing it from microbial decomposition. Stabilization of C in compost using clay materials did not impact negatively the value of composts in improving soil quality as measured by potentially mineralizable nitrogen and microbial biomass carbon in soil. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Gasification biochar as a valuable by-product for carbon sequestration and soil amendment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Veronika; Müller-Stöver, Dorette; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Holm, Jens Kai; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Thermal gasification of various biomass residues is a promising technology for combining bioenergy production with soil fertility management through the application of the resulting biochar as soil amendment. In this study, we investigated gasification biochar (GB) materials originating from two major global biomass fuels: straw gasification biochar (SGB) and wood gasification biochar (WGB), produced by a Low Temperature Circulating Fluidized Bed gasifier (LT-CFB) and a TwoStage gasifier, respectively, optimized for energy conversion. Stability of carbon in GB against microbial degradation was assessed in a short-term soil incubation study and compared to the traditional practice of direct incorporation of cereal straw. The GBs were chemically and physically characterized to evaluate their potential to improve soil quality parameters. After 110 days of incubation, about 3% of the added GB carbon was respired as CO 2 , compared to 80% of the straw carbon added. The stability of GB was also confirmed by low H/C and O/C atomic ratios with lowest values for WGB (H/C 0.12 and O/C 0.10). The soil application of GBs exhibited a liming effect increasing the soil pH from ca 8 to 9. Results from scanning electron microscopy and BET analyses showed high porosity and specific surface area of both GBs, indicating a high potential to increase important soil quality parameters such as soil structure, nutrient and water retention, especially for WGB. These results seem promising regarding the possibility to combine an efficient bioenergy production with various soil aspects such as carbon sequestration and soil quality improvements. - Highlights: • Biomass gasification can combine efficient bioenergy production with valuable biochar residuals for soil improvements. • The two investigated gasification biochars are recalcitrant indicating soil carbon sequestration potential. • Gasification biochars are potential soil improvers due to high specific surface area, liming effect

  1. Induction of systemic resistance in plants by biochar, a soil-applied carbon sequestering agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elad, Yigal; David, Dalia Rav; Harel, Yael Meller; Borenshtein, Menahem; Kalifa, Hananel Ben; Silber, Avner; Graber, Ellen R

    2010-09-01

    Biochar is the solid coproduct of biomass pyrolysis, a technique used for carbon-negative production of second-generation biofuels. The biochar can be applied as a soil amendment, where it permanently sequesters carbon from the atmosphere as well as improves soil tilth, nutrient retention, and crop productivity. In addition to its other benefits in soil, we found that soil-applied biochar induces systemic resistance to the foliar fungal pathogens Botrytis cinerea (gray mold) and Leveillula taurica (powdery mildew) on pepper and tomato and to the broad mite pest (Polyphagotarsonemus latus Banks) on pepper. Levels of 1 to 5% biochar in a soil and a coconut fiber-tuff potting medium were found to be significantly effective at suppressing both diseases in leaves of different ages. In long-term tests (105 days), pepper powdery mildew was significantly less severe in the biochar-treated plants than in the plants from the unamended controls although, during the final 25 days, the rate of disease development in the treatments and controls was similar. Possible biochar-related elicitors of systemic induced resistance are discussed.

  2. Stabilization of carbon in composts and biochars in relation to carbon sequestration and soil fertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolan, N.S.; Kunhikrishnan, A.; Choppala, G.K.; Thangarajan, R.; Chung, J.W.

    2012-01-01

    There have been increasing interests in the conversion of organic residues into biochars in order to reduce the rate of decomposition, thereby enhancing carbon (C) sequestration in soils. However energy is required to initiate the pyrolysis process during biochar production which can also lead to the release of greenhouse gasses. Alternative methods can be used to stabilize C in composts and other organic residues without impacting their quality. The objectives of this study include: (i) to compare the rate of decomposition among various organic amendments and (ii) to examine the effect of clay materials on the stabilization of C in organic amendments. The decomposition of a number of organic amendments (composts and biochars) was examined by monitoring the release of carbon-dioxide using respiration experiments. The results indicated that the rate of decomposition as measured by half life (t 1/2 ) varied between the organic amendments and was higher in sandy soil than in clay soil. The half life value ranged from 139 days in the sandy soil and 187 days in the clay soil for poultry manure compost to 9989 days for green waste biochar. Addition of clay materials to compost decreased the rate of decomposition, thereby increasing the stabilization of C. The half life value for poultry manure compost increased from 139 days to 620, 806 and 474 days with the addition of goethite, gibbsite and allophane, respectively. The increase in the stabilization of C with the addition of clay materials may be attributed to the immobilization of C, thereby preventing it from microbial decomposition. Stabilization of C in compost using clay materials did not impact negatively the value of composts in improving soil quality as measured by potentially mineralizable nitrogen and microbial biomass carbon in soil. - Graphical abstract: Stabilization of compost using clay materials (e.g. allophane) enhances carbon sequestration in soils. Highlights: ► Comparison of decomposition rate

  3. Native Soil Charcoal as a Model for Designing Biochar for Carbon Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under changing climate a variety of mechanisms for removing carbon from the atmosphere and sequestering it elsewhere are being considered to reduce the forcing of the atmosphere. Amending soils with biochar has been proposed as one long-term means of sequestering carbon originat...

  4. The Effect of Gasification Biochar on Soil Carbon Sequestration, Soil Quality and Crop Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Veronika

    and pot and field experiments was used to study the effect of straw and wood biochar on carbon sequestration, soil quality and crop growth. Overall, the biochar amendment improved soil chemical and physical properties and plant growth and showed a potential for soil carbon sequestration without having any......New synergies between agriculture and the energy sector making use of agricultural residues for bioenergy production and recycling recalcitrant residuals to soil may offer climate change mitigation potential through the substitution of fossil fuels and soil carbon sequestration. However, concerns...... have been raised about the potential negative impacts of incorporating bioenergy residuals (biochar) in soil and increasing the removal of crop residues such as straw, possibly reducing important soil functions and services for maintaining soil quality. Therefore, a combination of incubation studies...

  5. Characterization of biochars and dissolved organic matter phases obtained upon hydrothermal carbonization of Elodea nuttallii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poerschmann, J; Weiner, B; Wedwitschka, H; Zehnsdorf, A; Koehler, R; Kopinke, F-D

    2015-01-01

    The invasive aquatic plant Elodea nuttallii was subjected to hydrothermal carbonization at 200 °C and 240 °C to produce biochar. About 58% w/w of the organic carbon of the pristine plant was translocated into the solid biochar irrespectively of the operating temperature. The process water rich in dissolved organic matter proved a good substrate for biogas production. The E. nuttallii plants showed a high capability of incorporating metals into the biomass. This large inorganic fraction which was mainly transferred into the biochar (except sodium and potassium) may hamper the prospective application of biochar as soil amendment. The high ash content in biochar (∼ 40% w/w) along with its relatively low content of organic carbon (∼ 36% w/w) is associated with low higher heating values. Fatty acids were completely hydrolyzed from lipids due to hydrothermal treatment. Low molecular-weight carboxylic acids (acetic and lactic acid), phenols and phenolic acids turned out major organic breakdown products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of fast pyrolysis temperature on biochar labile fraction and short-term carbon loss in a loamy soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruun, Esben W.; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Ibrahim, Norazana; Egsgaard, Helge; Ambus, Per; Jensen, Peter A.; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Production of bio-oil, gas and biochar from pyrolysis of biomass is considered a promising technology for combined production of bioenergy and recalcitrant carbon (C) suitable for sequestration in soil. Using a fast pyrolysis centrifuge reactor (PCR) the present study investigated the relation between fast pyrolysis of wheat straw at different reactor temperatures and the short-term degradability of biochar in soil. After 115 days incubation 3-12% of the added biochar-C had been emitted as CO 2 . On average, 90% of the total biochar-C loss occurred within the first 20 days of the experiment, emphasizing the importance of knowing the biochar labile fraction when evaluating a specific biochars C sequestration potential. The pyrolysis temperature influenced the outputs of biochar, bio-oil and syngas significantly, as well as the stability of the biochar produced. Contrary to slow pyrolysis a fast pyrolysis process may result in incomplete conversion of biomass due to limitations to heat transfer and kinetics. In our case chemical analysis of the biochars revealed unconverted cellulosic and hemicellulosic fractions, which in turn were found to be proportional with the short-term biochar degradation in soil. As these labile carbohydrates are rapidly mineralized, their presence lowers the biochar-C sequestration potential. By raising the pyrolysis temperature, biochar with none or low contents of these fractions can be produced, but this will be on the expense of the biochar quantity. The yield of CO 2 neutral bio-oil is the other factor to optimize when adjusting the pyrolysis temperature settings to give the overall greatest climate change mitigation effect.

  7. Producing energy while sequestering carbon? The relationship between biochar and agricultural productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauffman, Nathan; Dumortier, Jerome; Hayes, Dermot J.; Brown, Robert C.; Laird, David A.

    2014-01-01

    A partial solution to problems associated with anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions could be the development and deployment of carbon-negative technologies, i.e., producing energy while reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. Biofuels have been considered a possibility but have faced limitations due to competition with food production and GHG emissions through indirect land-use change (ILUC). In this article, we show how emissions from ILUC can potentially be reduced by producing food and bioenergy from biochar amended soils. The possibility of yield improvements from biochar would reduce the land requirement for crop production and thus, lead to a reduction in emissions from ILUC. In our application, biochar and bio-oil are produced via fast pyrolysis of corn stover. Bio-oil is subsequently upgraded into a fuel suitable for use in internal combustion engines. Applying the U.S. regulatory method used to determine biofuel life cycle emissions, our results show that a biochar-induced yield improvement in the U.S. Midwest ranging from 1% to 8% above trend can lead to an ILUC credit between 1.65 and 14.79 t CO 2 -equivalent ha −1  year −1 when future emissions are assessed over the next 30 years. The model is generalizable to other feedstocks and locations and illustrates the relationship between biochar and crop production. - Highlights: • If biochar leads to higher crop yields, a land-use change (LUC) credit applies. • Indirect LUC credit is applied to biofuel if biochar is produced as a by-product. • 1.65 to 14.79 t CO 2 -e ha −1  year −1 credit for 1%–8% yield increase in U.S. Midwest. • Life cycle analysis generalizable to other locations and feedstock

  8. The influence of feedstock and production temperature on biochar carbon chemistry: A solid-state 13C NMR study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McBeath, Anna V.; Smernik, Ronald J.; Krull, Evelyn S.; Lehmann, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Solid-state 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to evaluate the carbon chemistry of twenty-six biochars produced from eleven different feedstocks at production temperatures ranging from 350 °C to 600 °C. Carbon-13 NMR spectra were acquired using both cross-polarisation (CP) and direct polarisation (DP) techniques. Overall, the corresponding CP and DP spectra were similar, although aromaticity was slightly higher and observability much higher when DP was used. The relative size and purity of the aromatic ring structures (i.e. aromatic condensation) were also gauged using the ring current technique. Both aromaticity and aromatic condensation increased with increasing production temperature, regardless of the feedstock source. However, there were clear differences in these two measures for biochars produced at the same temperature but from different feedstocks. Based on a relationship previously established in a long-term incubation study between aromatic condensation and the mean residence time (MRT) of biochar, the MRT of the biochars was estimated to range from 1400 years. This study demonstrates how the combination of feedstock composition and production temperature influences the composition of aromatic domains in biochars, which in turn is likely to be related to their recalcitrance and ultimately their carbon sequestration value. -- Highlights: • Sensitive NMR techniques were used to gauge differences in biochar carbon chemistry. • Varying pyrolysis conditions influences biochars recalcitrant properties. • The MRT of contrasting biochars varies considerably from 1400 years

  9. Physical disintegration of biochar: An overlooked process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biochar is a form of black carbon (BC) that has been documented to be resistant to both microbial and chemical degradation pathways as well as simultaneously sequestering atmospheric carbon (C) and postulated to act as a soil fertility agent by providing critical inorganic plant ...

  10. Biochar soil amendment for waste-stream diversion, nutrient holding capacity, and carbon sequestration in two contrasting soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deem, L. M.; Crow, S. E.; Deenik, J. L.; Penton, C. R.; Yanagida, J.

    2013-12-01

    Biochar is organic matter that has been pyrolized under low oxygen conditions for use as a soil amendment. Currently biochar is viewed as a way to improve soil quality (e.g., increased nutrient and water holding capacity) and increase in soil carbon (C) sequestration. The use of biochar in soil is not new, yet little is known about the underlying mechanisms that control the interactions between biochar and soil following amendment. In the past, the effects of biochar addition on crop yields, soil properties and greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes in both in-situ and controlled experiments have produced inconsistent results. These discrepancies may be uncovered in part by chemical and physical characterization of the biochar prior to amendment and identification of soil- and biochar-specific interactions. Furthermore, a more holistic consideration of the system may demonstrate the virtues of biochar amendment beyond the typical considerations of yield and gas flux. We expect that as the differences between the physical and chemical properties of the biochar and the soil increase, the impact on the soil quality metrics will also increase. For this study, we used a waste product (i.e., anaerobic digester sludge) biochar with 81.5% C, pH of 10.44, pH-independent charge for anion exchange capacity (AEC) and a pH-dependent charge for cation exchange capacity (CEC), 4.14% moisture content and 25.75 cmol¬c /kg exchangeable base cations. This biochar was incorporated into both a low and a high fertility Hawaiian field soil to quantitate biochar effects on crop yield, soil pH, CEC, AEC, hot and cold water extractable C and nitrogen, bulk density, phosphorus, soil microbial ecology, and GHG flux in varying soil conditions. Compared to the higher fertility soil, we hypothesized that the low fertility soil would demonstrate a greater increase in soil quality, including higher pH, CEC and water holding capacity. Two crop management practices were included with each soil: traditional

  11. Carbon black vs. black carbon and other airborne materials containing elemental carbon: Physical and chemical distinctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, Christopher M.; Nascarella, Marc A.; Valberg, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    Airborne particles containing elemental carbon (EC) are currently at the forefront of scientific and regulatory scrutiny, including black carbon, carbon black, and engineered carbon-based nanomaterials, e.g., carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, and graphene. Scientists and regulators sometimes group these EC-containing particles together, for example, interchangeably using the terms carbon black and black carbon despite one being a manufactured product with well-controlled properties and the other being an undesired, incomplete-combustion byproduct with diverse properties. In this critical review, we synthesize information on the contrasting properties of EC-containing particles in order to highlight significant differences that can affect hazard potential. We demonstrate why carbon black should not be considered a model particle representative of either combustion soots or engineered carbon-based nanomaterials. Overall, scientific studies need to distinguish these highly different EC-containing particles with care and precision so as to forestall unwarranted extrapolation of properties, hazard potential, and study conclusions from one material to another. -- Highlights: •Major classes of elemental carbon-containing particles have distinct properties. •Despite similar names, carbon black should not be confused with black carbon. •Carbon black is distinguished by a high EC content and well-controlled properties. •Black carbon particles are characterized by their heterogenous properties. •Carbon black is not a model particle representative of engineered nanomaterials. -- This review demonstrates the significant physical and chemical distinctions between elemental carbon-containing particles e.g., carbon black, black carbon, and engineered nanomaterials

  12. Phytotoxicity and Plant Productivity Analysis of Tar-Enriched Biochars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, M. L.; Masiello, C. A.; Dugan, B.; Rudgers, J. A.; Capareda, S. C.

    2008-12-01

    Biochar is one of the three by-products obtained by the pyrolysis of organic material, the other two being syngas and bio-oil. The pyrolysis of biomass has generated a great amount of interest in recent years as all three by-products can be put toward beneficial uses. As part of a larger project designed to evaluate the hydrologic impact of biochar soil amendment, we generated a biochar through fast pyrolysis (less than 2 minutes) of sorghum stock at 600°C. In the initial biochar production run, the char bin was not purged with nitrogen. This inadvertent change in pyrolysis conditions produced a fast-pyrolysis biochar enriched with tars. We chose not to discard this batch, however, and instead used it to test the impact of tar-enriched biochars on plants. A suite of phytotoxicity tests were run to assess the effects of tar-rich biochar on plant germination and plant productivity. We designed the experiment to test for negative effects, using an organic carbon and nutrient-rich, greenhouse- optimized potting medium instead of soil. We used Black Seeded Simpson lettuce (Lactuca sativa) as the test organism. We found that even when tars are present within biochar, biochar amendment up to 10% by weight caused increased lettuce germination rates and increased biomass productivity. In this presentation, we will report the statistical significance of our germination and biomass data, as well as present preliminary data on how biochar amendment affects soil hydrologic properties.

  13. In situ application of activated carbon and biochar to PCB-contaminated soil and the effects of mixing regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denyes, Mackenzie J.; Rutter, Allison; Zeeb, Barbara A.

    2013-01-01

    The in situ use of carbon amendments such as activated carbon (AC) and biochar to minimize the bioavailability of organic contaminants is gaining in popularity. In the first in situ experiment conducted at a Canadian PCB-contaminated Brownfield site, GAC and two types of biochar were statistically equal at reducing PCB uptake into plants. PCB concentrations in Cucurbita pepo root tissue were reduced by 74%, 72% and 64%, with the addition of 2.8% GAC, Burt's biochar and BlueLeaf biochar, respectively. A complementary greenhouse study which included a bioaccumulation study of Eisenia fetida (earthworm), found mechanically mixing carbon amendments with PCB-contaminated soil (i.e. 24 h at 30 rpm) resulted in shoot, root and worm PCB concentrations 66%, 59% and 39% lower than in the manually mixed treatments (i.e. with a spade and bucket). Therefore, studies which mechanically mix carbon amendments with contaminated soil may over-estimate the short-term potential to reduce PCB bioavailability. Highlights: •Biochar and GAC reduced PCB uptake into plants and earthworms. •Biochar offered additional benefits, including increased plant and earthworm biomass. •BSAF reductions are greater when amendments are mechanically vs. manually mixed. •Mechanically mixing carbon amendments may over-estimate their remediation potential. -- In situ AC and biochar soil amendments perform equally well at reducing PCB uptake, however, laboratory-based mixing methods may exaggerate the sorptive capacities of both amendments

  14. How much biochar does gasification energy need to be carbon neutral?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saez de Bikuna Salinas, Koldo; Ibrom, Andreas; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    and arable land scenarios. Specific soil types and their estimated SOC changes have been considered [9], as well as iLUC emissions for the arable case. Taking the study case of a willow plantation combined with a medium-scale gasification plant in Denmark, we illustrate the biochar needed from the process...... in order to remain carbon neutral. The time scopes assessed are 20 and 100 years and it is assumed a fossil fuel (FF) free Denmark beyond 2050 as targeted by government (no FF displacement occurs after 2050). Results show that willow on marginal land remains carbon negative (4% biochar fraction......) for the short term, while as much as 31,8% of biochar (or 0,95 Mg C ha-1 yr-1) would be necessary in 100 years to be carbon neutral (taking natural vegetation as reference baseline). As for arable land willow, a biochar fraction of 34,1% (or 2,32 Mg C ha-1 yr-1) would be necessary in the short term...

  15. Characterization and Mineralization Rates of Low Temperature Peanut Hull and Pine Chip Biochars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.C. Das

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Biochar can potentially increase soil fertility and sequester carbon by incorporating nutrients and stable black carbon into the soil; however its effect on soil nitrogen (N and carbon (C processes is not well understood. A defined methodology to characterize biochar is necessary to predict how specific biochars will affect C and N mineralization. We amended a Tifton soil (Fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic Plinthic Kandiudults with peanut hull (Arachis hypogaea; PH; 2.1% N and pine chip (Pinus taeda; PC: 0.4% N biochar at application rates of 1% and 2% (w/w and performed a 136-day mineralization study. A companion 24-day mineralization study amended Tifton soil with PH and PC biochar at 2% and their respective feedstocks at equal C rates. Soil C mineralization rates were monitored periodically throughout each study and total N mineralization rates were also measured. In addition, we characterized each biochar using thermogravimetric analysis with mass spectrometer (TGA-MS, proximate analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and total mineral analysis to identify biochar characteristics that might correlate with mineralization properties. Limited C (<2% mineralized from both biochars, but mineralization rates of soil amended with PH biochar were higher than PC biochar. Carbon mineralization correlated well with estimated aliphatic content determined by TGA-MS but not with volatile content indicated by proximate analysis. Nitrogen was not mineralized from either biochar, indicating that plant-based biochar should not be considered a source of N for plant growth. The N in biochar may be contained in the stable aromatic structure of the biochar, as indicated by TGA-MS, and not available to soil microbes.

  16. Fabrication of bimetallic Ag/Fe immobilized on modified biochar for removal of carbon tetrachloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongwei Wu; Qiyan Feng

    2017-01-01

    As an effective conventional absorbent,biochar exhibited limited adsorption ability toward small hydrophobic molecules.To enhance the adsorption capacity,a novel adsorbent was prepared by immobilizing nanoscale zero-valent iron onto modified biochar (MB) and then the elemental silver was attached to the surface of iron (Ag/Fe/MB).It's noted that spherical Ag/Fe nanoparticles with diameter of 51 nm were highly dispersed on the surface of MB.As the typical hydrophobic contaminant,carbon tetrachloride was selected for examining the removal efficiency of the adsorbent.The removal efficiencies of carbon tetrachloride by original biochar (OB),Ag/Fe,Ag/Fe/OB and Ag/Fe/MB were fully investigated.It's found that Ag/Fe/MB showed higher carbon tetrachloride removal efficiency,which is about 5.5 times higher than that of the OB sample due to utilizing the merits of high adsorption and reduction.Thermodynamic parameters revealed that the removal of carbon tetrachloride by Ag/Fe/MB was a spontaneous and exothermic process,which was affected by solution pH,initial carbon tetrachloride concentration and temperature.The novel Ag/Fe/MB composites provided a promising material for carbon tetrachloride removal from effluent.

  17. Impact of activated carbon, biochar and compost on the desorption and mineralization of phenanthrene in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchal, Geoffrey; Smith, Kilian E.C.; Rein, Arno; Winding, Anne; Wollensen de Jonge, Lis; Trapp, Stefan; Karlson, Ulrich G.

    2013-01-01

    Sorption of PAHs to carbonaceous soil amendments reduces their dissolved concentrations, limiting toxicity but also potentially biodegradation. Therefore, the maximum abiotic desorption of freshly sorbed phenanthrene (≤5 mg kg −1 ) was measured in three soils amended with activated carbon (AC), biochar or compost. Total amounts of phenanthrene desorbed were similar between the different soils, but the amendment type had a large influence. Complete desorption was observed in the unamended and compost amended soils, but this reduced for biochar (41% desorbed) and AC (8% desorbed). Cumulative amounts mineralized were 28% for the unamended control, 19% for compost, 13% for biochar and 4% for AC. Therefore, the effects of the amendments in soil in reducing desorption were also reflected in the extents of mineralization. Modeling was used to analyze key processes, indicating that for the AC and charcoal treatments bacterial activity did not limit mineralization, but rather desorption into the dissolved phase. -- Highlights: •Phenanthrene desorption and mineralization compared in soils with activated carbon, charcoal or compost. •Only activated charcoal and biochar hindered both desorption and mineralization. •A linear relationship was found between the extents desorbed and mineralized. •Modelling indicated that bacterial activity was not limiting but that desorption was. -- Extraction into an exhaustive silicone sink measures the maximum phenanthrene desorption from soils with amendments, and this is reflected in the extent of mineralization

  18. Mechanisms of distinct activated carbon and biochar amendment effects on petroleum vapour biofiltration in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnaf, Khaled M; Mangse, George; Meynet, Paola; Davenport, Russell J; Cirpka, Olaf A; Werner, David

    2017-10-18

    We studied the effects of two percent by weight activated carbon versus biochar amendments in 93 cm long sand columns on the biofiltration of petroleum vapours released by a non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) source. Activated carbon greatly enhanced, whereas biochar slightly reduced, the biofiltration of volatile petroleum hydrocarbons (VPHs) over 430 days. Sorbent amendment benefitted the VPH biofiltration by retarding breakthrough during the biodegradation lag phase. Subsequently, sorbent amendment briefly reduced the mineralization of petroleum hydrocarbons by limiting their bioavailability. During the last and longest study period, when conditions became less supportive of microbial growth, because of inorganic nutrient scarcity, the sorbents again improved the pollution attenuation by preventing the degrading microorganisms from being overloaded with VPHs. A 16S rRNA gene based analysis showed sorbent amendment effects on soil microbial communities. Nocardioidaceae benefitted the most from petroleum hydrocarbons in activated carbon amended soil, whereas Pseudomonadacea predominated in unamended soil. Whilst the degrading microorganisms were overloaded with VPHs in the unamended soil, the reduced mobility and bioavailability of VPHs in the activated carbon amended soil led to the emergence of communities with higher specific substrate affinity, which removed bioavailable VPHs effectively at low concentrations. A numerical pollutant fate model reproduced these experimental observations by considering sorption effects on the pollutant migration and bioavailability for growth of VPH degrading biomass, which is limited by a maximum soil biomass carrying capacity. Activated carbon was a much stronger sorbent for VPHs than biochar, which explained the diverging effects of the two sorbents in this study.

  19. Source and Biological Response of Biochar Organic Compounds Released into Water; Relationships with Bio-Oil Composition and Carbonization Degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghidotti, Michele; Fabbri, Daniele; Mašek, Ondřej; Mackay, Colin Logan; Montalti, Marco; Hornung, Andreas

    2017-06-06

    Water-soluble organic compounds (WSOCs) were extracted from corn stalk biochar produced at increasing pyrolysis temperatures (350-650 °C) and from the corresponding vapors, collected as bio-oil. WSOCs were characterized by gas chromatography (semivolatile fraction), negative electron spray ionization high resolution mass spectrometry (hydrophilic fraction) and fluorescence spectroscopy. The pattern of semivolatile WSOCs in bio-oil was dominated by aromatic products from lignocellulose, while in biochar was featured by saturated carboxylic acids from hemi/cellulose and lipids with concentrations decreasing with decreasing H/C ratios. Hydrophilic species in poorly carbonized biochar resembled those in bio-oil, but the increasing charring intensity caused a marked reduction in the molecular complexity and degree of aromaticity. Differences in the fluorescence spectra were attributed to the predominance of fulvic acid-like structures in biochar and lignin-like moieties in bio-oil. The divergence between pyrolysis vapors and biochar in the distribution of WSOCs with increasing carbonization was explained by the hydrophobic carbonaceous matrix acting like a filter favoring the release into water of carboxylic and fulvic acid-like components. The formation of these structures was confirmed in biochar produced by pilot plant pyrolysis units. Biochar affected differently shoot and root length of cress seedlings in germination tests highlighting its complex role on plant growth.

  20. Biochar activated by oxygen plasma for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rakesh Kumar; Dubey, Mukul; Kharel, Parashu; Gu, Zhengrong; Fan, Qi Hua

    2015-01-01

    Biochar, also known as black carbon, is a byproduct of biomass pyrolysis. As a low-cost, environmental-friendly material, biochar has the potential to replace more expensive synthesized carbon nanomaterials (e.g. carbon nanotubes) for use in future supercapacitors. To achieve high capacitance, biochar requires proper activation. A conventional approach involves mixing biochar with a strong base and baking at a high temperature. However, this process is time consuming and energy inefficient (requiring temperatures >900 °C). This work demonstrates a low-temperature (characteristics are studied. Significant enhancement of the capacitance is achieved: 171.4 F g-1 for a 5-min oxygen plasma activation, in comparison to 99.5 F g-1 for a conventional chemical activation and 60.4 F g-1 for untreated biochar. This enhancement of the charge storage capacity is attributed to the creation of a broad distribution in pore size and a larger surface area. The plasma activation mechanisms in terms of the evolution of the biochar surface and microstructure are further discussed.

  1. Impact of Biochar on Earthworm Populations: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon L. Weyers

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the overwhelming importance of earthworm activity in the soil system, there are a limited number of studies that have examined the impact resulting from biochar addition to soil. Biochar is part of the black carbon continuum of chemo-thermal converted biomass. This review summarizes existing data pertaining to earthworms where biochar and other black carbon substances, including slash-and-burn charcoals and wood ash, have been applied. After analyzing existing studies on black carbon, we identified that these additions have a range from short-term negative impacts to long-term null effects on earthworm population density and total biomass. Documented cases of mortality were found with certain biochar-soil combinations; the cause is not fully understood, but hypothesized to be related to pH, whether the black carbon is premoistened, affects feeding behaviors, or other unknown factors. With wood ashes, negative impacts were overcome with addition of other carbon substrates. Given that field data is limited, soils amended with biochar did not appear to cause significant long-term impacts. However, this may indicate that the magnitude of short-term negative impacts on earthworm populations can be reduced with time.

  2. Multiplying Forest Garden Systems with biochar based organic fertilization for high carbon accumulation, improved water storage, nutrient cycling, and increased food diversity and farm productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Hans-Peter; Pandit, Bishnu Hari; Lucht, Wolfgang; Gerten, Dieter; Kammann, Claudia

    2017-04-01

    On abandoned, erosion prone terraces in the middle hills of Nepal, 86 participating farmer families planted >25,000 mixed trees in 2015/16. Since it was convincingly demonstrated by more than 20 field trials in this region that this was the most plant-growth promoting method, all trees were planted with farmer-made organic biochar-based fertilizer. Planting pits were mulched with rice straw and were pipe irrigated from newly established water retention ponds during the 7 months of the dry season. A peer control system of farmer triads ensured an efficient maintenance of the plantations. Tree survival rate was above 80% after one year compared to below 50% on average for countrywide forestation projects over the last 30 years. In between the young Cinnamon, Moringa, Mulberry, Lemon, Michelia, Paulownia, nut and other trees, other secondary crops were cultivated such as ginger, turmeric, black beans, onions, lentils, all with organic biochar-based fertilizer and mulching. The objective of this forest garden project was to establish robust social-agronomic systems that can be multiplied from village to village for increasing soil fertility, protecting abandoned terraces from erosion, replenishing natural water resources, generating a stable income with climate-smart agriculture, as well as capturing and sequestering atmospheric carbon. The initial financing of the set-up of the forest garden systems (tree nursery, plantation, preparation of organic biochar based fertilizer, mulching materials, building of irrigation pits and pipe irrigation system, and general maintenance) was covered by carbon credits paid in advance by the international community in the form of a monthly carbon compensation subscription. All planted trees are GIS inventoried and the yearly biomass carbon uptake will be calculated as an average value of the first ten years of tree growth. The 25,000 mixed trees accumulated the equivalent of 350 t CO2 per year (10 years total C-accumulation divided by

  3. Storage and stability of biochar-derived carbon and total organic carbon in relation to minerals in an acid forest soil of the Spanish Atlantic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Ugalde, Oihane; Gartzia-Bengoetxea, Nahia; Arostegi, Javier; Moragues, Lur; Arias-González, Ander

    2017-06-01

    Biochar can largely contribute to enhance organic carbon (OC) stocks in soil and improve soil quality in forest and agricultural lands. Its contribution depends on its recalcitrance, but also on its interactions with minerals and other organic compounds in soil. Thus, it is important to study the link between minerals, natural organic matter and biochar in soil. In this study, we investigated the incorporation of biochar-derived carbon (biochar-C) into various particle-size fractions with contrasting mineralogy and the effect of biochar on the storage of total OC in the particle-size fractions in an acid loamy soil under Pinus radiata (C3 type) in the Spanish Atlantic area. We compared plots amended with biochar produced from Miscanthus sp. (C4 type) with control plots (not amended). We separated sand-, silt-, and clay-size fractions in samples collected from 0 to 20-cm depth. In each fraction, we analyzed clay minerals, metallic oxides and oxy-hydroxides, total OC and biochar-C. The results showed that 51% of the biochar-C was in fractions fractions (0.2-2μm, 0.05-0.2μm, fractions, as it occurred with the vermiculitic phases and metallic oxides and oxy-hydroxides. Biochar also affected to the distribution of total OC among particle-size fractions. Total OC concentration was greater in fractions 2-20μm, 0.2-2μm, 0.05-0.2μm in biochar-amended plots than in control plots. This may be explained by the adsorption of dissolved OC from fraction organic matter already occurred in the first year. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Particulate matter emissions from biochar-amended soils as a potential tradeoff to the negative emission potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, Sujith; Sharratt, Brenton S.; Li, Junran; Olshevski, Stuart; Meng, Zhongju; Zhang, Jianguo

    2016-10-01

    Novel carbon sequestration strategies such as large-scale land application of biochar may provide sustainable pathways to increase the terrestrial storage of carbon. Biochar has a long residence time in the soil and hence comprehensive studies are urgently needed to quantify the environmental impacts of large-scale biochar application. In particular, black carbon emissions from soils amended with biochar may counteract the negative emission potential due to the impacts on air quality, climate, and biogeochemical cycles. We investigated, using wind tunnel experiments, the particulate matter emission potential of a sand and two agriculturally important soils amended with different concentrations of biochar, in comparison to control soils. Our results indicate that biochar application considerably increases particulate emissions possibly by two mechanisms-the accelerated emission of fine biochar particles and the generation and emission of fine biochar particles resulting from abrasion of large biochar particles by sand grains. Our study highlights the importance of considering the background soil properties (e.g., texture) and geomorphological processes (e.g., aeolian transport) for biochar-based carbon sequestration programs.

  5. Emissions & Measurements - Black Carbon | Science ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions and Measurement (EM) research activities performed within the National Risk Management Research Lab NRMRL) of EPA's Office of Research and Development (ORD) support measurement and laboratory analysis approaches to accurately characterize source emissions, and near source concentrations of air pollutants. They also support integrated Agency research programs (e.g., source to health outcomes) and the development of databases and inventories that assist Federal, state, and local air quality managers and industry implement and comply with air pollution standards. EM research underway in NRMRL supports the Agency's efforts to accurately characterize, analyze, measure and manage sources of air pollution. This pamphlet focuses on the EM research that NRMRL researchers conduct related to black carbon (BC). Black Carbon is a pollutant of concern to EPA due to its potential impact on human health and climate change. There are extensive uncertainties in emissions of BC from stationary and mobile sources. Emissions and Measurement (EM) research activities performed within the National Risk Management Research Lab NRMRL) of EPA's Office of Research and Development (ORD)

  6. Biochar increased water holding capacity but accelerated organic carbon leaching from a sloping farmland soil in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chen; Wang, Honglan; Tang, Xiangyu; Guan, Zhuo; Reid, Brian J; Rajapaksha, Anushka Upamali; Ok, Yong Sik; Sun, Hui

    2016-01-01

    A hydrologically contained field study, to assess biochar (produced from mixed crop straws) influence upon soil hydraulic properties and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) leaching, was conducted on a loamy soil (entisol). The soil, noted for its low plant-available water and low soil organic matter, is the most important arable soil type in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River catchment, China. Pore size distribution characterization (by N2 adsorption, mercury intrusion, and water retention) showed that the biochar had a tri-modal pore size distribution. This included pores with diameters in the range of 0.1-10 μm that can retain plant-available water. Comparison of soil water retention curves between the control (0) and the biochar plots (16 t ha(-1) on dry weight basis) demonstrated biochar amendment to increase soil water holding capacity. However, significant increases in DOC concentration of soil pore water in both the plough layer and the undisturbed subsoil layer were observed in the biochar-amended plots. An increased loss of DOC relative to the control was observed upon rainfall events. Measurements of excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence indicated the DOC increment originated primarily from the organic carbon pool in the soil that became more soluble following biochar incorporation.

  7. The molecular properties of biochar carbon released in dilute acidic solution and its effects on maize seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jingling; Drosos, Marios; Mazzei, Pierluigi; Savy, Davide; Todisco, Daniele; Vinci, Giovanni; Pan, Genxing; Piccolo, Alessandro

    2017-01-15

    It is not yet clear whether the carbon released from biochar in the soil solution stimulates biological activities. Soluble fractions (AQU) from wheat and maize biochars, whose molecular content was thoroughly characterized by FTIR, 13 C and 1 H NMR, and high-resolution ESI-IT-TOF-MS, were separated in dilute acidic solution to simulate soil rhizospheric conditions and their effects evaluated on maize seeds germination activity. Elongation of maize-seeds coleoptile was significantly promoted by maize biochar AQU, whereas it was inhibited by wheat biochar AQU. Both AQU fractions contained relatively small heterocyclic nitrogen compounds, whose structures were accounted by their spectroscopic properties. Point-of-Zero-Charge (PZC) values and van Krevelen plots of identified masses of soluble components suggested that the dissolved carbon from maize biochar behaved as humic-like supramolecular material capable to adhere to seedlings and deliver bioactive molecules. These findings contribute to understand the biostimulation potential of biochars from crop biomasses when applied in agricultural production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Potential phosphorus eutrophication mitigation strategy: Biochar carbon composition, thermal stability and pH influence phosphorus sorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngatia, L W; Hsieh, Y P; Nemours, D; Fu, R; Taylor, R W

    2017-08-01

    Phosphorus (P) eutrophication is a major pollution problem globally, with unprecedented amount of P emanating from agricultural sources. But little is known about the optimization of soil-biochar P sorption capacity. The study objective was to determine how biochar feedstocks and pyrolysis conditions influences carbon (C) thermal stability, C composition and pH and in turn influence the phosphorus sorption optimization. Biochar was produced from switchgrass, kudzu and Chinese tallow at 200, 300, 400, 500, 550, 650,750 °C. Carbon thermal stability was determined by multi-element scanning thermal analysis (MESTA), C composition was determined using solid state 13 C NMR. Phosphorus sorption was determined using a mixture of 10% biochar and 90% sandy soil after incubation. Results indicate increased P sorption (P biochar pyrolysis temperature. However, optimum P sorption was feedstock specific with switchgrass indicating P desorption between 200 and 550 °C. Phosphorus sorption was in the order of kudzu > switchgrass > Chinese tallow. Total C, C thermal stability, aromatic C and alkalinity increased with elevated pyrolysis temperature. Biochar alkalinity favored P sorption. There was a positive relationship between high thermal stable C and P sorption for Kudzu (r = 0.62; P = 0.0346) and Chinese tallow (r = 0.73; P = 0.0138). In conclusion, biochar has potential for P eutrophication mitigation, however, optimum biochar pyrolysis temperature for P sorption is feedstock specific and in some cases might be out of 300-500 °C temperature range commonly used for agronomic application. High thermal stable C dominated by aromatic C and alkaline pH seem to favor P sorption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. In Situ Persistence and Migration of Biochar Carbon and Its Impact on Native Carbon Emission in Contrasting Soils under Managed Temperate Pastures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhupinder Pal Singh

    Full Text Available Pyrogenic carbon (PyC is an important component of the global soil carbon (C pool, but its fate, persistence, and loss dynamics in contrasting soils and environments under planted field conditions are poorly understood. To fill this knowledge gap, a 13C-labelled biochar, as a surrogate material for PyC, produced from Eucalyptus saligna by slow pyrolysis (450°C; δ13C -36.7‰ was surface (0-10 cm applied in C3 dominated temperate pasture systems across Arenosol, Cambisol and Ferralsol. The results show a low proportion of the applied biochar-C mineralised over 12 months in a relatively clay- and C-poor Arenosol (i.e., 2.0% loss via mineralisation, followed by a clay- and C-rich Cambisol (4.6%, and clay-, C- and earthworm-rich Ferralsol (7.0%. The biochar-C mean residence time (MRT, estimated by different models, varied between 44-1079 (Arenosol, 18-172 (Cambisol, and 11-29 (Ferralsol years, with the shorter MRT estimated by a one-pool exponential and the longer MRT by an infinite-pool power or a two-pool exponential model. The two-pool model was best fitted to biochar-C mineralisation. The biochar-C recovery in the 12-30 cm soil layer varied from between 1.2% (Arenosol, 2.5-2.7% (Cambisol and 13.8-15.7% (Ferralsol of the applied biochar-C after 8-12 months. There was a further migration of biochar-C below the 50-cm depth in the Arenosol, as the combined biochar-C recovery in the mineralised pool and soil profile (up to 30 or 50 cm was 82%, in contrast to 101% in the Cambisol and 104% in the Ferralsol after 12 months. These results indicate that the downward migration of biochar-C was greatest in the Arenosol (cf. Cambisol and Ferralsol. Cumulative CO2-C emission from native soil-plant sources was lower (p <0.10 in the biochar-amended vs. non-amended Ferralsol. This field-based study shows that the downward migration of biochar-C exceeded its loss via mineralisation in the Arenosol and Ferralsol, but not in the Cambisol. It is thus important to

  10. Understanding mechanisms to predict and optimize biochar for agrochemical sorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kathleen; Gámiz, Beatriz; Cox, Lucia; Spokas, Kurt; Koskinen, William

    2017-04-01

    The ability of biochars to bind various organic compounds has been widely studied due to the potential effects on pesticide fate in soil and interest in the adoption of biochar as a "low-cost" filter material. However, the sorptive behaviors of biochars are extremely variable and much of the reported data is limited to specific biochar-chemical interactions. The lack of knowledge regarding biochar sorption mechanisms limits our current ability to predict and optimize biochar's use. This work unveils mechanistic drivers of organic pesticide sorption on biochars through targeted alteration of biochar surface chemistry. Changes in the quantity and type of functional groups on biochars and other black carbon materials were achieved through treatments with H2O2, and CO2, and characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM/EDX). The sorption capacities of these treated biochars were subsequently measured to evaluate the effects of different surface moieties on the binding of target herbicides cyhalofop acid ((R)-2-[4-(4-cyano-2-fluorophenoxy)phenoxy]propionic acid) and clomazone (2-[(2-chlorophenyl)methyl]-4,4-dimethyl-1,2-oxazolidin-3-one). Sorption of both herbicides on the studied biochars increased following H2O2 activation; however, the influence of the H2O2 activation on sorption was more pronounced for cyhalofop acid (pKa = 3.9) than clomazone, which is non-ionizable. Increased cyhalofop acid sorption on H2O2 treated biochars can be attributed to the increase in oxygen containing functional groups as well as the decrease in biochar pH. In contrast, CO2 activation reduced the sorption of cyhalofop acid compared to untreated biochar. FTIR data suggest the reduced sorption on CO2 -treated biochar was due to the removal of surface carboxyl groups, further supporting the role of specific functionality in the sorption of ionizable herbicides. Results from this work offer insight into the mechanisms of sorption and

  11. Bioenergy production systems and biochar application in forests: potential for renewable energy, soil enhancement, and carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristin McElligott; Debbie Dumroese; Mark Coleman

    2011-01-01

    Bioenergy production from forest biomass offers a unique solution to reduce wildfire hazard fuel while producing a useful source of renewable energy. However, biomass removals raise concerns about reducing soil carbon and altering forest site productivity. Biochar additions have been suggested as a way to mitigate soil carbon loss and cycle nutrients back into forestry...

  12. Pharmaceutical load in sewage sludge and biochar produced by hydrothermal carbonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    vom Eyser, C; Palmu, K; Schmidt, T C; Tuerk, J

    2015-12-15

    We investigated the removal of twelve pharmaceuticals in sewage sludge by hydrothermal carbonization (HTC), which has emerged as a technology for improving the quality of organic waste materials producing a valuable biochar material. In this study, the HTC converted sewage sludge samples to a biochar product within 4h at a temperature of 210 °C and a resulting pressure of about 15 bar. Initial pharmaceutical load of the sewage sludge was investigated as well as the residual concentrations in biochar produced from spiked and eight native sewage sludge samples from three waste water treatment plants. Additionally, the solid contents of source material and product were compared, which showed a considerable increase of the solid content after filtration by HTC. All pharmaceuticals except sulfamethoxazole, which remained below the limit of quantification, frequently occurred in the investigated sewage sludges in the μg/kg dry matter (DM) range. Diclofenac, carbamazepine, metoprolol and propranolol were detected in all sludge samples with a maximum concentration of 800 μg/kgDM for metoprolol. HTC was investigated regarding its contaminant removal efficiency using spiked sewage sludge. Pharmaceutical concentrations were reduced for seven compounds by 39% (metoprolol) to≥97% (carbamazepine). In native biochar samples the four compounds phenazone, carbamazepine, metoprolol and propranolol were detected, which confirmed that the HTC process can reduce the load of micropollutants. In contrast to the other investigated compounds phenazone concentration increased, which was further addressed in thermal behaviour studies including three structurally similar potential precursors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Removal of micro pollutants using activated biochars and powdered activated carbon in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, E.; Jung, C.; Han, J.; Son, A.; Yoon, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies have suggested that emerging micropollutants containing endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs); bisphenol A, 17 α-ethinylestradiol, 17 β-estradiol and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs); sulfamethoxazole, carbamazepine, ibuprofen, atenolol, benzophenone, benzotriazole, caffeine, gemfibrozil, primidone, triclocarban in water have been linked to ecological impacts, even at trace concentrations (sub ug/L). Adsorption with adsorbent such as activated carbon having a high-binding affinity has been widely used to eliminate various contaminants in the aqueous phase. Recently, an efficient treatment strategy for EDCs and PPCPs has been considered by using cost effective adsorption particularly with biochar in aqueous environmentIn this study, the objective of this study is to determine the removal of 13 target EDCs/PPCPs having different physicochemical properties by a biochar at various water quality conditions (pH (3.5, 7, and 10.5), background ions (NaCl, CaCl2, Na₂SO₄), ionic strength, natural organic matter (NOM)). The activated biochar produced in a laboratory was also characterized by using conventional analytical methods as well as advanced solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques, which answer how these properties determine the competitive adsorption characteristics and mechanisms of EDCs and PPCPs.The primary findings suggest that micropollutants can be removed more effectively by the biochar than the commercially available powdered activated carbon. At pH values below the pKa of each compound, the adsorption affinity toward adsorbents increased significantly with the pH, whereas the adsorption affinity decreased significantly at the pH above the pKa values. Na+ did not significantly impact adsorption, while increasing the concentration of Ca2+lead to increase in the adsorption of these micropollutants. NOM adsorption with humic acids on these adsorbents disturbed adsorption capacity of the target compounds as

  14. Analyzing the impacts of three types of biochar on soil carbon fractions and physiochemical properties in a corn-soybean rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biochar is a soil amendment produced from incomplete pyrolysis of organic materials in the absence of oxygen. In most previous studies, the impacts of biochar on soil physical properties and organic carbon was investigated under controlled conditions such as laboratory or greenhouse environments. Th...

  15. Bioavailability assessments following biochar and activated carbon amendment in DDT-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denyes, Mackenzie J; Rutter, Allison; Zeeb, Barbara A

    2016-02-01

    The effects of 2.8% w/w granulated activated carbon (GAC) and two types of biochar (Burt's and BlueLeaf) on DDT bioavailability in soil (39 μg/g) were investigated using invertebrates (Eisenia fetida), plants (Cucurbita pepo spp. pepo) and a polyoxymethylene (POM) passive sampler method. Biochar significantly reduced DDT accumulation in E. fetida (49%) and showed no detrimental effects to invertebrate health. In contrast, addition of GAC caused significant toxic effects (invertebrate avoidance and decreased weight) and did not significantly reduce the accumulation of DDT into invertebrate tissue. None of the carbon amendments reduced plant uptake of DDT. Bioaccumulation of 4,4'DDT and 4,4'-DDE in plants (C. pepo spp. pepo) and invertebrates (E. fetida) was assessed using bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) and compared to predicted bioavailability using the freely-dissolved porewater obtained from a polyoxymethylene (POM) equilibrium biomimetic method. The bioavailable fraction predicted by the POM samplers correlated well with measured invertebrate uptake (DDT soil contamination levels and the inclusion of field data from a 2.5 μg/g DDT-contaminated site found that these plants exhibit a concentration threshold effect at [DDT](soil) > 10 μg/g. The results of these studies illustrate the importance of including plants in bioavailability studies as the use of carbon materials for in situ contaminant sorption moves from predominantly sediment to soil remediation technologies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Biochar-based carbons with hierarchical micro-meso-macro porosity for high rate and long cycle life supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhipeng; Wang, Yesheng; Bi, Xu; Zhou, Tong; Zhou, Jin; Zhao, Jinping; Miao, Zhichao; Yi, Weiming; Fu, Peng; Zhuo, Shuping

    2018-02-01

    The development of supercapacitors with high energy density and power density is an important research topic despite many challenging issues exist. In this work, porous carbon material was prepared from corn straw biochar and used as the active electrode material for electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs). During the KOH activation process, the ratio of KOH/biochar significantly affects the microstructure of the resultant carbon, which further influences the capacitive performance. The optimized carbon material possesses typical hierarchical porosity composed of multi-leveled pores with high surface area and pore volume up to 2790.4 m2 g-1 and 2.04 cm3 g-1, respectively. Such hierarchical micro-meso-macro porosity significantly improved the rate performance of the biochar-based carbons. The achieved maximum specific capacitance was 327 F g-1 and maintained a high value of 205 F g-1 at a ultrahigh current density of 100 A g-1. Meanwhile, the prepared EDLCs present excellent cycle stability in alkaline electrolytes for 120 000 cycles at 5 A g-1. Moreover, the biochar-based carbon could work at a high voltage of 1.6 V in neutral Na2SO4, and exhibit a high specific capacitance of 227 F g-1, thus giving an outstanding energy density of 20.2 Wh kg-1.

  17. Immersion microcalorimetry of a carbon black

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendelbaum, Georges

    1966-01-01

    This research thesis first reports a detailed bibliographical study on various topics (fabrication of carbon black, oxidation, immersion heat, adsorptions, main existing theories, and thermodynamics) and then the development of immersion and adsorption microcalorimetry apparatuses aimed at studying the surface of a carbon black and the influence of the oxidation of this carbon black on the adsorption of polar and non-polar solvents. Immersion heats of a raw or oxidised carbon black have been measured in water, in cyclohexane and in methanol. The adsorption of methanol at 20 C and that of nitrogen at -196 C have also been measured. The author outlines that degassing conditions had to be taken into account before performing measurements [fr

  18. Structure and properties of carbon black particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei

    Structure and properties of carbon black particles were investigated using atomic force microscopy, gas adsorption, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Supplementary information was obtained using TEM and neutron scattering. The AFM imaging of carbon black aggregates provided qualitative visual information on their morphology, complementary to that obtained by 3-D modeling based on TEM images. Our studies showed that carbon black aggregates were relatively flat. The surface of all untreated carbon black particles was found to be rough and its fractal dimension was 2.2. Heating reduced the roughness and fractal dimension for all samples heat treated at above 1300 K to 2.0. Once the samples were heat treated rapid cooling did not affect the surface roughness. However, rapid cooling reduced crystallite sizes, and different Raman spectra were obtained for carbon blacks of various history of heat treatment. By analyzing the Raman spectra we determined the crystallite sizes and identified amorphous carbon. The concentration of amorphous carbon depends on hydrogen content. Once hydrogen was liberated at increased temperature, the concentration of amorphous carbon was reduced and crystallites started to grow. Properties of carbon blacks at high pressure were also studied. Hydrostatic pressure did not affect the size of the crystallites in carbon black particles. The pressure induced shift in Raman frequency of the graphitic component was a result of increased intermolecular forces and not smaller crystallites. Two methods of determining the fractal dimension, the FHH model and the yardstick technique based on the BET theory were used in the literature. Our study proved that the FHH model is sensitive to numerous assumptions and leads to wrong conclusions. On the other hand the yardstick method gave correct results, which agreed with the AFM results.

  19. Utilization of corn cob biochar in a direct carbon fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jinshuai; Zhao, Yicheng; Li, Yongdan

    2014-12-01

    Biochar obtained from the pyrolysis of corn cob is used as the fuel of a direct carbon fuel cell (DCFC) employing a composite electrolyte composed of a samarium doped ceria (SDC) and a eutectic carbonate phase. An anode layer made of NiO and SDC is utilized to suppress the cathode corrosion by the molten carbonate and improves the whole cell stability. The anode off-gas of the fuel cell is analyzed with a gas chromatograph. The effect of working temperature on the cell resistance and power output is examined. The maximum power output achieves 185 mW cm-2 at a current density of 340 mA cm-2 and 750 °C. An anode reaction scheme including the Boudouard reaction is proposed.

  20. Mycoextraction by Clitocybe maxima combined with metal immobilization by biochar and activated carbon in an aged soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin; Cheng, Guanglei; Jiao, Kai; Shi, Wenjin; Wang, Can; Xu, Heng

    2016-08-15

    To develop an eco-friendly and efficient route to remediate soil highly polluted with heavy metals, the idea of mycoextraction combined with metal immobilization by carbonaceous sorbents (biochar and activated carbon) was investigated in this study. Results showed that the application of carbonaceous amendments decreased acid soluble Cd and Cu by 5.13-14.06% and 26.86-49.58%, respectively, whereas the reducible and oxidizable fractions increased significantly as the amount of carbonaceous amendments added increased. The biological activities (microbial biomass, soil enzyme activities) for treatments with carbonaceous sorbents were higher than those of samples without carbonaceous amendments. Clitocybe maxima (C. maxima) simultaneously increased soil enzyme activities and the total number of microbes. Biochar and activated carbon both showed a positive effect on C. maxima growth and metal accumulation. The mycoextraction efficiency of Cd and Cu in treatments with carbonaceous amendments enhanced by 25.64-153.85% and 15.18-107.22%, respectively, in response to that in non-treated soil, which showed positive correlation to the augment of biochar and activated carbon in soil. Therefore, this work suggested the effectiveness of mycoextraction by C. maxima combined the application of biochar and activated carbon in immobilising heavy metal in contaminated soil. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Comparing the desorption and biodegradation of low concentrations of phenanthrene sorbed to activated carbon, biochar and compost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchal, Geoffrey; Smith, Kilian E.C.; Rein, Arno

    2013-01-01

    can be degraded at all, the desorption and biodegradation of low concentrations of 14C-labelled phenanthrene (⩽5μgL−1) freshly sorbed to suspensions of the pure soil amendments activated carbon (AC), biochar (charcoal) and compost were compared. Firstly, the maximum abiotic desorption of phenanthrene...

  2. Graft-copolymerization onto carbon black

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakase, Yoshiaki; Nishii, Masanobu; Kijima, Toshiyuki; Kato, Hiroshi.

    1988-07-01

    Radiation-induced graft copolymerization of vinyl monomer onto carbon black was performed. During the γ-ray- and electron beam-induced polymerization (In-source), or the electron beam post-polymerization, the graft-copolymerization behavior was affected by the kinds of both carbon blacks and monomers, i.e. the smaller the size of carbon black particles, the higher the apparent grafted fraction. Homopolymer in the grafted carbon black samples was washed out by the solvent of the polymer, and the extracted polymer seemed to be dimer or trimer of the used monomer. In the case of the post-polymerization with the pre-irradiation doses of 50 Mrad, homopolymer was hardly observed. The polymer sheets of plastics or rubbers with grafted carbon black had an electrical conductivity unalterable considerably by the heating cycles. The particles of grafted carbon black in the sheet might be kept much more at the surface layer within 100 nm depth than at the inner layer. (author)

  3. Adsorption of Pb(II and Cu(II by Ginkgo-Leaf-Derived Biochar Produced under Various Carbonization Temperatures and Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myoung-Eun Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ginkgo trees are common street trees in Korea, and the large amounts of leaves that fall onto the streets annually need to be cleaned and treated. Therefore, fallen gingko leaves have been used as a raw material to produce biochar for the removal of heavy metals from solutions. Gingko-leaf-derived biochar was produced under various carbonization temperatures and times. This study evaluated the physicochemical properties and adsorption characteristics of gingko-leaf-derived biochar samples produced under different carbonization conditions regarding Pb(II and Cu(II. The biochar samples that were produced at 800 °C for 90 and 120 min contained the highest oxygen- and nitrogen-substituted carbons, which might contribute to a high metal-adsorption rate. The intensity of the phosphate bond was increased with the increasing of the carbonization temperature up to 800 °C and after 90 min of carbonization. The Pb(II and Cu(II adsorption capacities were the highest when the gingko-leaf-derived biochar was produced at 800 °C, and the removal rates were 99.2% and 34.2%, respectively. The highest removal rate was achieved when the intensity of the phosphate functional group in the biochar was the highest. Therefore, the gingko-leaf-derived biochar produced at 800 °C for 90 min can be used as an effective bio-adsorbent in the removal of metals from solutions.

  4. Influence of Pyrolysis Temperature on Physico-Chemical Properties of Corn Stover (Zea mays L. Biochar and Feasibility for Carbon Capture and Energy Balance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Khalid Rafiq

    Full Text Available This study examined the influence of pyrolysis temperature on biochar characteristics and evaluated its suitability for carbon capture and energy production. Biochar was produced from corn stover using slow pyrolysis at 300, 400 and 500°C and 2 hrs holding time. The experimental biochars were characterized by elemental analysis, BET, FTIR, TGA/DTA, NMR (C-13. Higher heating value (HHV of feedstock and biochars was measured using bomb calorimeter. Results show that carbon content of corn stover biochar increased from 45.5% to 64.5%, with increasing pyrolysis temperatures. A decrease in H:C and O:C ratios as well as volatile matter, coupled with increase in the concentration of aromatic carbon in the biochar as determined by FTIR and NMR (C-13 demonstrates a higher biochar carbon stability at 500°C. It was estimated that corn stover pyrolysed at 500°C could provide of 10.12 MJ/kg thermal energy. Pyrolysis is therefore a potential technology with its carbon-negative, energy positive and soil amendment benefits thus creating win- win scenario.

  5. Influence of Pyrolysis Temperature on Physico-Chemical Properties of Corn Stover (Zea mays L.) Biochar and Feasibility for Carbon Capture and Energy Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Muhammad Khalid; Bachmann, Robert Thomas; Rafiq, Muhammad Tariq; Shang, Zhanhuan; Joseph, Stephen; Long, Ruijun

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the influence of pyrolysis temperature on biochar characteristics and evaluated its suitability for carbon capture and energy production. Biochar was produced from corn stover using slow pyrolysis at 300, 400 and 500°C and 2 hrs holding time. The experimental biochars were characterized by elemental analysis, BET, FTIR, TGA/DTA, NMR (C-13). Higher heating value (HHV) of feedstock and biochars was measured using bomb calorimeter. Results show that carbon content of corn stover biochar increased from 45.5% to 64.5%, with increasing pyrolysis temperatures. A decrease in H:C and O:C ratios as well as volatile matter, coupled with increase in the concentration of aromatic carbon in the biochar as determined by FTIR and NMR (C-13) demonstrates a higher biochar carbon stability at 500°C. It was estimated that corn stover pyrolysed at 500°C could provide of 10.12 MJ/kg thermal energy. Pyrolysis is therefore a potential technology with its carbon-negative, energy positive and soil amendment benefits thus creating win- win scenario.

  6. Comparative kinetic study of functionalized carbon nanotubes and magnetic biochar for removal of Cd2+ ions from wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruthiraan, Manimaran; Thines, Raj Kogiladas; Abdullah, Ezzat Chan; Mubarak, Nabisab Mujawar; Jayakumar, Natesan Subramanian; Ganesan, Poobalan; Sahu, Jaya Narayan

    2015-01-01

    We did a comparative study between functionalized multiwall carbon nanotube (FMWCNTs), and magnetic biochar was carried out to determine the most efficient adsorbent to be employed in the Cd 2+ ion removal. We optimized parameters such as agitation speed, contact time, pH and adsorbent dosage using design expert vrsion 6.08. The statistical analysis reveals that optimized condition for highest removal of Cd 2+ are at pH 5.0, with dosage 1.0 g, agitation speed and contact time of 100 rpm and 90 minutes, respectively. For the initial concentration of 10mg/l, the removal efficiency of Cd 2+ using FMWCNTs was 90% and and 82% of magnetic biochar. The maximum Cd 2+ adsorption capacities of both FMWCNTs and magnetic biochar were calculated: 83.33mg/g and 62.5mg/g. The Langmuir and Freundlich constants for FMWCNTs were 0.056 L/mg and 13.613 L/mg, while 0.098 L/mg and 25.204 L/mg for magnetic biochar. The statistical analysis proved that FMWCNTs have better adsorption capacity compared to magnetic biochar and both models obeyed the pseudo-second-order

  7. Comparative kinetic study of functionalized carbon nanotubes and magnetic biochar for removal of Cd{sup 2+} ions from wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruthiraan, Manimaran; Thines, Raj Kogiladas; Abdullah, Ezzat Chan [Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Mubarak, Nabisab Mujawar [UCSI University, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Jayakumar, Natesan Subramanian; Ganesan, Poobalan [University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Sahu, Jaya Narayan [Institut Teknologi Brunei, Gadong (Brunei Darussalam)

    2015-03-15

    We did a comparative study between functionalized multiwall carbon nanotube (FMWCNTs), and magnetic biochar was carried out to determine the most efficient adsorbent to be employed in the Cd{sup 2+} ion removal. We optimized parameters such as agitation speed, contact time, pH and adsorbent dosage using design expert vrsion 6.08. The statistical analysis reveals that optimized condition for highest removal of Cd{sup 2+} are at pH 5.0, with dosage 1.0 g, agitation speed and contact time of 100 rpm and 90 minutes, respectively. For the initial concentration of 10mg/l, the removal efficiency of Cd{sup 2+} using FMWCNTs was 90% and and 82% of magnetic biochar. The maximum Cd{sup 2+} adsorption capacities of both FMWCNTs and magnetic biochar were calculated: 83.33mg/g and 62.5mg/g. The Langmuir and Freundlich constants for FMWCNTs were 0.056 L/mg and 13.613 L/mg, while 0.098 L/mg and 25.204 L/mg for magnetic biochar. The statistical analysis proved that FMWCNTs have better adsorption capacity compared to magnetic biochar and both models obeyed the pseudo-second-order.

  8. Gasification biochar as a valuable by-product for carbon sequestration and soil amendment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Veronika; Müller-Stöver, Dorette Sophie; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Thermal gasification of various biomass residues is a promising technology for combining bioenergy production with soil fertility management through the application of the resulting biochar as soil amendment. In this study, we investigated gasification biochar (GB) materials originating from two ...

  9. Hydrothermal Carbonization of Seaweed For Advanced Biochar Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakoso Tirto

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Seaweed such as Eucheuma Cottonii is a potential source of biomaterialIts high moisture content makes it suitable for hydrothermal conversion process since it doesn’t need to utilize dry feedstock. The aim of this study is to convert the biomass of red seaweed Eucheuma Cottonii into alternative fuels and high value biomaterials using hydrothermal process. The hydrothermal process seaweed Eucheuma Cottonii produce two types of products, liquid product and char (solid. This research focus on the char product. The char from hydrothermal process was then activated using the tubular furnace. The yield for activated char is 7.5 % and results of SEM analysis of activated char showed the formation of allotropes carbon include carbon micro spheres, carbon micro fibres and graphene. These structures have encountered application in a wide range of technological fields, such as adsorption, catalysis, hydrogen storage or electronics.

  10. Co-gasification of pine and oak biochar with sub-bituminous coal in carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beagle, E; Wang, Y; Bell, D; Belmont, E

    2018-03-01

    Pine and oak biochars derived as byproducts of demonstration-scale pyrolysis, and blends of these two feedstocks with Powder River Basin coal, were gasified in a carbon dioxide environment using a modified drop tube reactor (MDTR) and a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The impact of gasification temperature on conversion kinetics was evaluated from the temporal evolution of major product gases in the MDTR as measured using a mass spectrometer. Random pore modeling was conducted to simulate gasification in the MDTR with favorable results. The MDTR and TGA were used to conduct gasification for assessment of non-linear additive effects in the blends. Additive analysis of the blends showed deviation from the experimental blend results, indicating inhibiting effects of co-gasifying the biochar and coal. Inhibitory effects are more significant for oak than pine and more pronounced in the TGA at lower gasification temperatures. Results are discussed in the context of feedstock and reactor type. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Preparation of porous bio-char and activated carbon from rice husk by leaching ash and chemical activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahiduzzaman, Md; Sadrul Islam, A K M

    2016-01-01

    Preparation porous bio-char and activated carbon from rice husk char study has been conducted in this study. Rice husk char contains high amount silica that retards the porousness of bio-char. Porousness of rice husk char could be enhanced by removing the silica from char and applying heat at high temperature. Furthermore, the char is activated by using chemical activation under high temperature. In this study no inert media is used. The study is conducted at low oxygen environment by applying biomass for consuming oxygen inside reactor and double crucible method (one crucible inside another) is applied to prevent intrusion of oxygen into the char. The study results shows that porous carbon is prepared successfully without using any inert media. The adsorption capacity of material increased due to removal of silica and due to the activation with zinc chloride compared to using raw rice husk char. The surface area of porous carbon and activated carbon are found to be 28, 331 and 645 m(2) g(-1) for raw rice husk char, silica removed rice husk char and zinc chloride activated rice husk char, respectively. It is concluded from this study that porous bio-char and activated carbon could be prepared in normal environmental conditions instead of inert media. This study shows a method and possibility of activated carbon from agro-waste, and it could be scaled up for commercial production.

  12. Biochars with excellent Pb(II) adsorption property produced from fresh and dehydrated banana peels via hydrothermal carbonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nan; Chen, Honggang; Xi, Junting; Yao, Denghui; Zhou, Zhi; Tian, Yun; Lu, Xiangyang

    2017-05-01

    Fresh and dehydrated banana peels were used as biomass feedstock to produce highly effective sorbent biochars through a facile one-step hydrothermal carbonization approach with 20%vol phosphoric acid as the reaction medium. The elemental ratio of oxygen content of the two as-prepared biochars were about 20%, and the FT-IR analysis confirmed the existence of abundant surface functional groups such as hydroxyl and carboxyl which greatly enhanced the adsorption performance. The sorbents showed excellent lead clarification capability of 359mg·g -1 and 193mg·g -1 for dehydrated and fresh banana peels based biochars, respectively. The change of the CO/OCO and the appearance of PbO/PbOC on the surface after adsorption confirmed that the ion exchange might be the dominant mechanism. The dehydration and pulverization pre-treatment and the addition of phosphoric acid can benefit the formation of those functional groups and hydrothermal carbonization can be a promising method to transfer biomass like fruit peels into biochars with excellent adsorption performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Pyrolytic carbon black composite and method of making the same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naskar, Amit K.; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Bi, Zhonghe

    2016-09-13

    A method of recovering carbon black includes the step of providing a carbonaceous source material containing carbon black. The carbonaceous source material is contacted with a sulfonation bath to produce a sulfonated material. The sulfonated material is pyrolyzed to produce a carbon black containing product comprising a glassy carbon matrix phase having carbon black dispersed therein. A method of making a battery electrode is also disclosed.

  14. Production and characterization of activated carbon prepared from safflower seed cake biochar and its ability to absorb reactive dyestuff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angın, Dilek, E-mail: angin@sakarya.edu.tr [Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Sakarya University, Sakarya (Turkey); Köse, T. Ennil, E-mail: ennilb@ogu.edu.tr [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, 26480 Meselik-Eskisehir (Turkey); Selengil, Uğur, E-mail: uselen@ogu.edu.tr [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, 26480 Meselik-Eskisehir (Turkey)

    2013-09-01

    The use of activated carbon obtained from biochar for the removal of reactive dyestuff from aqueous solutions at various contact times, pHs and temperatures was investigated. The biochar was chemically modified with potassium hydroxide. The surface area and micropore volume of activated carbon was 1277 m{sup 2}/g and 0.4952 cm{sup 3}/g, respectively. The surface characterization of both biochar and activated carbon was undertaken using by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The experimental data indicated that the adsorption isotherms are well described by the Dubinin–Radushkevich (DR) isotherm equation. The adsorption kinetics of reactive dyestuff obeys the pseudo second-order kinetic model. The thermodynamic parameters such as ΔG{sup o}, ΔH{sup o} and ΔS{sup o} were calculated to estimate the nature of adsorption. The activation energy of the system was calculated as 1.12 kJ/mol. According to these results, prepared activated carbon could be used as a low-cost adsorbent to compare with the commercial activated carbon for the removal reactive dyestuff from waste water.

  15. The potential of activated carbon derived from bio-char waste of bio-oil pyrolysis as adsorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkania Ariany

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbon from bio-char waste of bio oil pyrolysis of mixed sugarcane bagasse and Rambutan twigs was investigated. Bio-char as by-product of bio-oil pyrolysis has potential to be good adsorbed by activating process. Bio-chars waste was activated in fixed bed reactor inside furnace without presenting oxygen. Gas N2 and CO2 were employed to drive out oxygen from the reactor and as activator, respectively. One of the best activation treatments is achieved by performing activation in different temperature and time to produce standard activated carbon. The experiment was performed at different temperatures and activation time, i.e. 800, 850, and 900° C and 80 and 120 minutes, respectively, to determine the optimal operating condition. Activated carbon was characterized by analysis of moisture content, ash content pH, and methylene blue test. The results showed that optimum activation was at 850°C and 80 minute, where activated carbon produced indicated the best adsorption capacity. The ash content and pH had significant role in resulting good activated carbon.

  16. Partitioning of carbon sources among functional pools to investigate short-term priming effects of biochar in soil: A 13C study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerré, Bart; Hernandez-Soriano, Maria C.; Smolders, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Biochar sequesters carbon (C) in soils because of its prolonged residence time, ranging from several years to millennia. In addition, biochar can promote indirect C-sequestration by increasing crop yield while, potentially, reducing C-mineralization. This laboratory study was set up to evaluate effects of biochar on C-mineralization with due attention to source appointment by using 13 C isotope signatures. An arable soil (S) (7.9 g organic C, OC kg −1 ) was amended (single dose of 10 g kg −1 soil) with dried, grinded maize stover (leaves and stalks), either natural (R) or 13 C enriched (R*), and/or biochar (B/B*) prepared from the maize stover residues (450 °C). Accordingly, seven different combinations were set up (S, SR, SB, SR*, SB*, SRB*, SR*B) to trace the source of C in CO 2 (180 days), dissolved organic-C (115 days) and OC in soil aggregate fractions (90 days). The application of biochar to soil reduced the mineralization of native soil organic C but the effect on maize stover-C mineralization was not consistent. Biochar application decreased the mineralization of the non-enriched maize stover after 90 days, this being consistent with a significant reduction of dissolved organic C concentration from 45 to 18 mg L −1 . However, no significant effect was observed for the enriched maize stover, presumably due to differences between the natural and enriched materials. The combined addition of biochar and enriched maize stover significantly increased (twofold) the presence of native soil organic C or maize derived C in the free microaggregate fraction relative to soil added only with stover. Although consistent effects among C sources and biochar materials remains elusive, our outcomes indicate that some biochar products can reduce mineralization and solubilization of other sources of C while promoting their physical protection in soil particles. - Highlights: • Biochar can reduce native soil organic carbon mineralization. • Biochar can promote storage

  17. Partitioning of carbon sources among functional pools to investigate short-term priming effects of biochar in soil: A {sup 13}C study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerré, Bart [Department of Earth and Environmental Science, KU Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 20, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Hernandez-Soriano, Maria C., E-mail: m.hernandezsoriano@uq.edu.au [Department of Earth and Environmental Science, KU Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 20, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); The University of Queensland, School of Agriculture and Food Sciences, St. Lucia, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Smolders, Erik [Department of Earth and Environmental Science, KU Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 20, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium)

    2016-03-15

    Biochar sequesters carbon (C) in soils because of its prolonged residence time, ranging from several years to millennia. In addition, biochar can promote indirect C-sequestration by increasing crop yield while, potentially, reducing C-mineralization. This laboratory study was set up to evaluate effects of biochar on C-mineralization with due attention to source appointment by using {sup 13}C isotope signatures. An arable soil (S) (7.9 g organic C, OC kg{sup −1}) was amended (single dose of 10 g kg{sup −1} soil) with dried, grinded maize stover (leaves and stalks), either natural (R) or {sup 13}C enriched (R*), and/or biochar (B/B*) prepared from the maize stover residues (450 °C). Accordingly, seven different combinations were set up (S, SR, SB, SR*, SB*, SRB*, SR*B) to trace the source of C in CO{sub 2} (180 days), dissolved organic-C (115 days) and OC in soil aggregate fractions (90 days). The application of biochar to soil reduced the mineralization of native soil organic C but the effect on maize stover-C mineralization was not consistent. Biochar application decreased the mineralization of the non-enriched maize stover after 90 days, this being consistent with a significant reduction of dissolved organic C concentration from 45 to 18 mg L{sup −1}. However, no significant effect was observed for the enriched maize stover, presumably due to differences between the natural and enriched materials. The combined addition of biochar and enriched maize stover significantly increased (twofold) the presence of native soil organic C or maize derived C in the free microaggregate fraction relative to soil added only with stover. Although consistent effects among C sources and biochar materials remains elusive, our outcomes indicate that some biochar products can reduce mineralization and solubilization of other sources of C while promoting their physical protection in soil particles. - Highlights: • Biochar can reduce native soil organic carbon mineralization.

  18. Establishing a green platform for biodiesel synthesis via strategic utilization of biochar and dimethyl carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jechan; Jung, Jong-Min; Oh, Jeong-Ik; Sik Ok, Yong; Kwon, Eilhann E

    2017-10-01

    To establish a green platform for biodiesel production, this study mainly investigates pseudo-catalytic (non-catalytic) transesterification of olive oil. To this end, biochar from agricultural waste (maize residue) and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) as an acyl acceptor were used for pseudo-catalytic transesterification reaction. Reaction parameters (temperature and molar ratio of DMC to olive oil) were also optimized. The biodiesel yield reached up to 95.4% under the optimal operational conditions (380°C and molar ratio of DMC to olive oil (36:1)). The new sustainable environmentally benign biodiesel production introduced in this study is greener and faster than conventional transesterification reactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Studies of activated carbon and carbon black for supercapacitor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richner, R; Mueller, S; Koetz, R; Wokaun, A [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    Carbon Black and activated carbon materials providing high surface areas and a distinct pore distribution are prime materials for supercapacitor applications at frequencies < 0.5 Hz. A number of these materials were tested for their specific capacitance, surface and pore size distribution. High capacitance electrodes were manufactured on the laboratory scale with attention to ease of processability. (author) 1 fig., 1 ref.

  20. Metal immobilization by sludge-derived biochar: roles of mineral oxides and carbonized organic compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weihua; Huang, Xinchen; Jia, Yanming; Rees, Frederic; Tsang, Daniel C W; Qiu, Rongliang; Wang, Hong

    2017-04-01

    Pyrolyzing sludge into biochar is a potentially promising recycling/disposal solution for municipal wastewater sludge, and the sludge-derived biochar (SDBC) presents an excellent sorbent for metal immobilization. As SDBC is composed of both mineral oxides and carbonized organic compartment, this study therefore compared the sorption behaviour of Pb and Zn on SDBC to those of individual and mixture of activated carbon (AC) and amorphous aluminium oxide (Al 2 O 3 ). Batch experiments were conducted at 25 and 45 °C, and the metal-loaded sorbents were artificially aged in the atmosphere for 1-60 days followed by additional sorption experiments. The Pb sorption was generally higher than Zn sorption, and the co-presence of Pb reduced Zn sorption on each studied sorbent. Higher sorption capacities were observed at 45 °C than 25 °C for SDBC and AC, while the opposite was shown for Al 2 O 3 , indicating the significance of temperature-dependent diffusion processes in SDBC and AC. Nevertheless, metal sorption was more selective on Al 2 O 3 that showed a greater affinity towards Pb over Zn under competition, correlating with the reducible fraction of sequential extraction. Furthermore, significant amounts of Pb and Zn were additionally sorbed on SDBC following 30-day ageing. The X-ray diffraction revealed the formation of metal-phosphate precipitates, while the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed a larger quantity of metal-oxygen bonding after 30-day ageing of metal-loaded SDBC. The results may imply favourable long-term transformation and additional sorption capacity of SDBC. In conclusion, SDBC resembles the sorption characteristics of both organic and mineral sorbents in different aspects, presenting an appropriate material for metal immobilization during soil amendment.

  1. Evaluation of modified boehm titration methods for use with biochars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidel, Rivka B; Laird, David A; Thompson, Michael L

    2013-11-01

    The Boehm titration, originally developed to quantify organic functional groups of carbon blacks and activated carbons in discrete pK ranges, has received growing attention for analyzing biochar. However, properties that distinguish biochar from carbon black and activated carbon, including greater carbon solubility and higher ash content, may render the original Boehm titration method unreliable for use with biochars. Here we use seven biochars and one reference carbon black to evaluate three Boehm titration methods that use (i) acidification followed by sparging (sparge method), (ii) centrifugation after treatment with BaCl (barium method), and (iii) a solid-phase extraction cartridge followed by acidification and sparging (cartridge method) to remove carbonates and dissolved organic compounds (DOC) from the Boehm extracts before titration. Our results for the various combinations of Boehm reactants and methods indicate that no one method was free of bias for all three Boehm reactants and that the cartridge method showed evidence of bias for all pK ranges. By process of elimination, we found that a combination of the sparge method for quantifying functional groups in the lowest pK range (∼5 to 6.4), and the barium method for quantifying functional groups in the higher pK ranges (∼6.4 to 10.3 and ∼10.3 to 13) to be free of evidence for bias. We caution, however, that further testing is needed and that all Boehm titration results for biochars should be considered suspect unless efforts were undertaken to remove ash and prevent interference from DOC. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  2. Biochar affected by composting with farmyard manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prost, Katharina; Borchard, Nils; Siemens, Jan; Kautz, Timo; Séquaris, Jean-Marie; Möller, Andreas; Amelung, Wulf

    2013-01-01

    Biochar applications to soils can improve soil fertility by increasing the soil's cation exchange capacity (CEC) and nutrient retention. Because biochar amendment may occur with the applications of organic fertilizers, we tested to which extent composting with farmyard manure increases CEC and nutrient content of charcoal and gasification coke. Both types of biochar absorbed leachate generated during the composting process. As a result, the moisture content of gasification coke increased from 0.02 to 0.94 g g, and that of charcoal increased from 0.03 to 0.52 g g. With the leachate, the chars absorbed organic matter and nutrients, increasing contents of water-extractable organic carbon (gasification coke: from 0.09 to 7.00 g kg; charcoal: from 0.03 to 3.52 g kg), total soluble nitrogen (gasification coke: from not detected to 705.5 mg kg; charcoal: from 3.2 to 377.2 mg kg), plant-available phosphorus (gasification coke: from 351 to 635 mg kg; charcoal: from 44 to 190 mg kg), and plant-available potassium (gasification coke: from 6.0 to 15.3 g kg; charcoal: from 0.6 to 8.5 g kg). The potential CEC increased from 22.4 to 88.6 mmol kg for the gasification coke and from 20.8 to 39.0 mmol kg for the charcoal. There were little if any changes in the contents and patterns of benzene polycarboxylic acids of the biochars, suggesting that degradation of black carbon during the composting process was negligible. The surface area of the biochars declined during the composting process due to the clogging of micropores by sorbed compost-derived materials. Interactions with composting substrate thus enhance the nutrient loads but alter the surface properties of biochars. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  3. 129 Xe-NMR of carbon black filled elastomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sperling-Ischinsky, K.; Veeman, W.S.

    1999-01-01

    It is shown that 129 Xe-NMR is a powerful tool to investigate carbon black and carbon black filled elastomers. For the carbon black material itself the 129 Xe chemical shift of xenon adsorbed at the surface of carbon black aggregates yields information about the relative average pore size of the carbon black aggregates. The experimental 129 Xe-NMR results of carbon black filled ethylene-propylene-diene (EPDM) can be explained when it is assumed that the xenon atoms in the bound EPDM fraction exchange rapidly on the NMR time scale between a state where they are adsorbed on the carbon black surface and a state in which they are absorbed in the EPDM layer. This would imply that the carbon black aggregates are not completely covered with EPDM chains. (author)

  4. Composting, anaerobic digestion and biochar production in Ghana. Environmental–economic assessment in the context of voluntary carbon markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galgani, Pietro; Voet, Ester van der; Korevaar, Gijsbert

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Economic–environmental assessment of combining composting with biogas and biochar in Ghana. • These technologies can save greenhouse gas emissions for up to 0.57 t CO 2 eq/t of waste treated. • Labor intensive, small-scale organic waste management is not viable without financial support. • Carbon markets would make these technologies viable with carbon prices in the range of 30–84 EUR/t. - Abstract: In some areas of Sub-Saharan Africa appropriate organic waste management technology could address development issues such as soil degradation, unemployment and energy scarcity, while at the same time reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. This paper investigates the role that carbon markets could have in facilitating the implementation of composting, anaerobic digestion and biochar production, in the city of Tamale, in the North of Ghana. Through a life cycle assessment of implementation scenarios for low-tech, small scale variants of the above mentioned three technologies, the potential contribution they could give to climate change mitigation was assessed. Furthermore an economic assessment was carried out to study their viability and the impact thereon of accessing carbon markets. It was found that substantial climate benefits can be achieved by avoiding landfilling of organic waste, producing electricity and substituting the use of chemical fertilizer. Biochar production could result in a net carbon sequestration. These technologies were however found not to be economically viable without external subsidies, and access to carbon markets at the considered carbon price of 7 EUR/ton of carbon would not change the situation significantly. Carbon markets could help the realization of the considered composting and anaerobic digestion systems only if the carbon price will rise above 75–84 EUR/t of carbon (respectively for anaerobic digestion and composting). Biochar production could achieve large climate benefits and, if approved as a land

  5. Composting, anaerobic digestion and biochar production in Ghana. Environmental–economic assessment in the context of voluntary carbon markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galgani, Pietro, E-mail: p.galgani@hotmail.com [Department of Industrial Ecology, Institute of Environmental Sciences, Leiden University, Van Steenis gebouw, Einsteinweg 2, 2333CC Leiden (Netherlands); Voet, Ester van der [Department of Industrial Ecology, Institute of Environmental Sciences, Leiden University, Van Steenis gebouw, Einsteinweg 2, 2333CC Leiden (Netherlands); Korevaar, Gijsbert [Department of Energy and Industry, Faculty of Technology, Policy, and Management, Delft University of Technology, Jaffalaan 5, 2628 BX Delft (Netherlands)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Economic–environmental assessment of combining composting with biogas and biochar in Ghana. • These technologies can save greenhouse gas emissions for up to 0.57 t CO{sub 2} eq/t of waste treated. • Labor intensive, small-scale organic waste management is not viable without financial support. • Carbon markets would make these technologies viable with carbon prices in the range of 30–84 EUR/t. - Abstract: In some areas of Sub-Saharan Africa appropriate organic waste management technology could address development issues such as soil degradation, unemployment and energy scarcity, while at the same time reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. This paper investigates the role that carbon markets could have in facilitating the implementation of composting, anaerobic digestion and biochar production, in the city of Tamale, in the North of Ghana. Through a life cycle assessment of implementation scenarios for low-tech, small scale variants of the above mentioned three technologies, the potential contribution they could give to climate change mitigation was assessed. Furthermore an economic assessment was carried out to study their viability and the impact thereon of accessing carbon markets. It was found that substantial climate benefits can be achieved by avoiding landfilling of organic waste, producing electricity and substituting the use of chemical fertilizer. Biochar production could result in a net carbon sequestration. These technologies were however found not to be economically viable without external subsidies, and access to carbon markets at the considered carbon price of 7 EUR/ton of carbon would not change the situation significantly. Carbon markets could help the realization of the considered composting and anaerobic digestion systems only if the carbon price will rise above 75–84 EUR/t of carbon (respectively for anaerobic digestion and composting). Biochar production could achieve large climate benefits and, if approved as a land

  6. Interplay between black carbon and minerals contributes to long term carbon stabilization and mineral transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, B.; Weng, Y. T.; Wang, C. C.; Chiang, C. C.; Liu, C. C.; Lehmann, J.

    2017-12-01

    Black carbon receives increasing global wide research attention due to its role in carbon sequestration, soil fertility enhancement and remediation application. Generally considered chemically stable in bulk, the reactive surface of BC can interplays with minerals and form strong chemical bondage, which renders physical protection of BC and contributes to its long term stabilization. Using historical BC-rich Amazonian Dark Earth (ADE), we probe the in-situ organo-mineral association and transformation of BC and minerals over a millennium scale using various synchrotron-based spectroscopic (XANES, FTIR) and microscopic (TXM) methods. Higher content of SRO minerals was found in BC-rich ADE compare to adjacent tropical soils. The iron signature found in BC-rich ADE was mainly ferrihydrite/lepidocrocite, a more reactive form of Fe compared to goethite, which was dominant in adjacent soil. Abundant nano minerals particles were observed in-situ associated with BC surface, in clusters and layers. The organo-mineral interaction lowers BC bioavailability and enhances its long-term stabilization in environment, while at the same time, transforms associated minerals into more reactive forms under rapid redox/weathering environment. The results suggest that mineral physical protection for BC sequestration may be more important than previous understanding. The scale up application of BC/biochar into agricultural systems and natural environments have long lasting impact on the in-situ transformation of associated minerals.

  7. Black carbon in aerosol during BIBLE B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liley, J. Ben; Baumgardner, D.; Kondo, Y.; Kita, K.; Blake, D. R.; Koike, M.; Machida, T.; Takegawa, N.; Kawakami, S.; Shirai, T.; Ogawa, T.

    2003-02-01

    The Biomass Burning and Lightning Experiment (BIBLE) A and B campaigns over the tropical western Pacific during springtime deployed a Gulfstream-II aircraft with systems to measure ozone and numerous precursor species. Aerosol measuring systems included a MASP optical particle counter, a condensation nucleus (CN) counter, and an absorption spectrometer for black carbon. Aerosol volume was very low in the middle and upper troposphere during both campaigns, and during BIBLE A, there was little aerosol enhancement in the boundary layer away from urban areas. In BIBLE B, there was marked aerosol enhancement in the lowest 3 km of the atmosphere. Mixing ratios of CN in cloud-free conditions in the upper troposphere were in general higher than in the boundary layer, indicating new particle formation from gaseous precursors. High concentrations of black carbon were observed during BIBLE B, with mass loadings up to 40 μg m-3 representing as much as one quarter of total aerosol mass. Strong correlations with hydrocarbon enhancement allow the determination of a black carbon emission ratio for the fires at that time. Expressed as elemental carbon, it is about 0.5% of carbon dioxide and 6% of carbon monoxide emissions from the same fires, comparable to methane production, and greater than that of other hydrocarbons.

  8. Analyzing the impacts of three types of biochar on soil carbon fractions and physiochemical properties in a corn-soybean rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Saroop S; Ussiri, David A N; Kumar, Sandeep; Chintala, Rajesh; Papiernik, Sharon K; Malo, Douglas D; Schumacher, Thomas E

    2017-10-01

    Biochar is a solid material obtained when biomass is thermochemically converted in an oxygen-limited environment. In most previous studies, the impacts of biochar on soil properties and organic carbon (C) were investigated under controlled conditions, mainly laboratory incubation or greenhouse studies. This 2-year field study was conducted to evaluate the influence of biochar on selected soil physical and chemical properties and carbon and nitrogen fractions for two selected soil types (clay loam and a sandy loam soil) under a corn (Zea mays L.)-soybean (Glycine max L.) rotation. The three plant based biochar materials used for this study were corn stover (CS), ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Lawson and C. Lawson) wood residue (PW), and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) (SG). Data showed that CS and SG significantly increased the pH of acidic soil at the eroded landscape position but produced no significant change in soil pH at the depositional landscape position. The effects of biochar treatments on cold water extractable C (WSC) and nitrogen (WSN) fractions for the 0-7.5 cm depth were depended on biochar and soil type. Results suggested that alkaline biochars applied at 10 Mg ha -1 can increase the pH and WSC fraction of acidic sandy loam soil, but the 10 Mg ha -1 rate might be low to substantially improve physical properties and hot water extractable C and N fractions of soil. Application of higher rates of biochar and long-term monitoring is needed to quantify the benefits of biochar under field conditions on soils in different environmental conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Modified carbon black materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostecki, Robert; Richardson, Thomas; Boesenberg, Ulrike; Pollak, Elad; Lux, Simon

    2016-06-14

    A lithium (Li) ion battery comprising a cathode, a separator, an organic electrolyte, an anode, and a carbon black conductive additive, wherein the carbon black has been heated treated in a CO.sub.2 gas environment at a temperature range of between 875-925 degrees Celsius for a time range of between 50 to 70 minutes to oxidize the carbon black and reduce an electrochemical reactivity of the carbon black towards the organic electrolyte.

  10. Black carbon: The reverse of its dark side

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, A.A.; Jonker, M.T.O.; Cornelissen, G.; Bucheli, T.D.; Noort, van P.C.M.; Gustafsson, O.

    2006-01-01

    The emission of black carbon is known to cause major environmental problems. Black carbon particles contribute to global warming, carry carcinogenic compounds and cause serious health risks. Here, we show another side of the coin. We review evidence that black carbon may strongly reduce the risk

  11. Effect of activated carbon or biochars on toxicity of different soils contaminated by mixture of native polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołtowski, Michał; Oleszczuk, Patryk

    2016-05-01

    Activated carbon (AC), biochar from wheat straw (BCS), and biochar from willow (BCW) were added to the soils sampled from areas of strong anthropogenic influence at doses of 0.5%, 1%, 2.5%, or 5% (w/w) and incubated for 2 mo. At the end of this period, the toxicity of the soils was measured. The effect of AC and biochars on the toxicity of the soils varied based on soil, type of amendment, dose, and test organism. For most of the parameters tested, the highest effectiveness of AC in terms of reduction of toxicity was observed in soil POPI (from bitumen processing plant area). In the case of the remaining soils, after the addition of AC varied results were observed, in which a reduction or an increase of toxicity, relative to the control soil, occurred. As in the case of AC, biochars also caused a significant reduction of phytotoxicity of soil POPI. In soils KB (from coking plant area, industrial waste deposit) and KOK (from coking plant area, coking battery), the reduction or increase of toxicity depended on biochar dose. Compared with the biochars, the effectiveness of AC in the reduction of toxicity depended also on soil, type of amendment, dose, and test organism. Generally, the AC was more effective than biochars in relation to mortality and reproduction of Folsomia candida (in all soils) and for reduction of luminescence inhibition of Vibrio fischeri (in POPI soil). © 2015 SETAC.

  12. Retention efficiency of Cd, Pb and Zn from agricultural by-products activated carbon and biochar under laboratory conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscione, Aline; Ramos, Barbara

    2015-04-01

    The immobilization of inorganic contaminants by using biochar in soils has played an increasingly important role and it is seen as an attractive alternative for the remediation of heavy metals. Although, the production of activated carbon (CA) from agricultural by-products has received special attention, the activation of the the organic source has been studied in order to increase its porposity, surface area and chemical polarity, resulting in higher adsorption of metals. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of BC and CA samples, obtained from a eucalyptus husks and cane sugar bagasse after activation with 20% phosphoric acid and pyrolyzed at 450oC in the retention of Zn, Cd and Pb using contaminated individual solutions. The experiment was performed using samples of activated carbon of eucalyptus husk (CCA), eucalyptus husk biochar (BC), activated carbon of sugar cane bagasse (CBA) and sugar cane bagasse biochar (BB) previously treated with Zn, Cd (range of tested solution from 0.1 up to 12 mmol L-1) and Pb (from 0.1 up 50 mmol L-1) which were submitted to stirring with ammonium acetate solution at pH 4.9 for 48 h. The results obtained were adjusted with Langmuir desorptiom isotherms. The pH of the resulting solution, were the meatls were analyse, was measure and remained in the range 4.9 - 5.0. The lower pH found in activated samples (range 2.4-2.5) resulted in larger desorption of metals than the biochar samples (pH of 9.7 for BC and 7.0 for BB). This result is surprising since for the biochar samples it was expected that any precipated metals were dissolved by the desorption solution in addition to metals released by ion exchange. Although the desorption results of activated samoels is still unclear, hich we belive may be explaibed by some adicitonal insterumental analysis, biochar samples showed better potential for application in contaminated soils than the previous.

  13. Characterization of narrow micropores in almond shell biochars by nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Characterization of biochars usually includes surface area and pore volume determination by nitrogen adsorption. In this study, we show that there is a substantial pore volume in biochars created via slow pyrolysis from low- and high-ash almond shells that cannot be characterized in this fashion due...

  14. Nitrogen and Carbon Leaching in Repacked Sandy Soil with Added Fine Particulate Biochar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Esben W.; Petersen, Carsten; Strobel, Bjarne W.

    2012-01-01

    Biochar amendment to soil may affect N turnover and retention, and may cause translocation of dissolved and particulate C. We investigated effects of three fine particulate biochars made of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) straw (one by slow pyrolysis and two by fast pyrolysis) on N and C leaching from...... repacked sandy soil columns (length: 51 cm). Biochar (2 wt%), ammonium fertilizer (NH4+, amount corresponding to 300 kg N ha-1) and an inert tracer (bromide) were added to a 3-cm top layer of sandy loam, and the columns were then irrigated with constant rate (36 mm d-1) for 15 d. The total amount...... of leachate came to about 3.0 water filled pore volumes (WFPVs). Our study revealed a high mobility of labile C components originating from the fine particulate fast pyrolysis biochar. This finding highlights a potential risk of C leaching coupled with the use of fast pyrolysis biochars for soil amendment...

  15. Sorption of ionizable and ionic organic compounds to biochar, activated carbon and other carbonaceous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kah, Melanie; Sigmund, Gabriel; Xiao, Feng; Hofmann, Thilo

    2017-11-01

    The sorption of ionic and ionizable organic compounds (IOCs) (e.g., pharmaceuticals and pesticides) on carbonaceous materials plays an important role in governing the fate, transport and bioavailability of IOCs. The paradigms previously established for the sorption of neutral organic compounds do not always apply to IOCs and the importance of accounting for the particular sorption behavior of IOCs is being increasingly recognized. This review presents the current state of knowledge and summarizes the recent advances on the sorption of IOCs to carbonaceous sorbents. A broad range of sorbents were considered to evaluate the possibility to read across between fields of research that are often considered in isolation (e.g., carbon nanotubes, graphene, biochar, and activated carbon). Mechanisms relevant to IOCs sorption on carbonaceous sorbents are discussed and critically evaluated, with special attention being given to emerging sorption mechanisms including low-barrier, charge-assisted hydrogen bonds and cation-π assisted π-π interactions. The key role played by some environmental factors is also discussed, with a particular focus on pH and ionic strength. Overall the review reveals significant advances in our understanding of the interactions between IOCs and carbonaceous sorbents. In addition, knowledge gaps are identified and priorities for future research are suggested. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Solubility of lead and copper in biochar-amended small arms range soils: influence of soil organic carbon and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchimiya, Minori; Bannon, Desmond I

    2013-08-14

    Biochar is often considered a strong heavy metal stabilizing agent. However, biochar in some cases had no effects on, or increased the soluble concentrations of, heavy metals in soil. The objective of this study was to determine the factors causing some biochars to stabilize and others to dissolve heavy metals in soil. Seven small arms range soils with known total organic carbon (TOC), cation exchange capacity, pH, and total Pb and Cu contents were first screened for soluble Pb and Cu concentrations. Over 2 weeks successive equilibrations using weak acid (pH 4.5 sulfuric acid) and acetate buffer (0.1 M at pH 4.9), Alaska soil containing disproportionately high (31.6%) TOC had nearly 100% residual (insoluble) Pb and Cu. This soil was then compared with sandy soils from Maryland containing significantly lower (0.5-2.0%) TOC in the presence of 10 wt % (i) plant biochar activated to increase the surface-bound carboxyl and phosphate ligands (PS450A), (ii) manure biochar enriched with soluble P (BL700), and (iii) unactivated plant biochars produced at 350 °C (CH350) and 700 °C (CH500) and by flash carbonization (corn). In weak acid, the pH was set by soil and biochar, and the biochars increasingly stabilized Pb with repeated extractions. In pH 4.9 acetate buffer, PS450A and BL700 stabilized Pb, and only PS450A stabilized Cu. Surface ligands of PS450A likely complexed and stabilized Pb and Cu even under acidic pH in the presence of competing acetate ligand. Oppositely, unactivated plant biochars (CH350, CH500, and corn) mobilized Pb and Cu in sandy soils; the putative mechanism is the formation of soluble complexes with biochar-borne dissolved organic carbon. In summary, unactivated plant biochars can inadvertently increase dissolved Pb and Cu concentrations of sandy, low TOC soils when used to stabilize other contaminants.

  17. Effects of biochar on air and water permeability and colloid and phosphorus leaching in soils from a natural calcium carbonate gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahawaththa Gamage, Inoka Damayanthi Kumari; Møldrup, Per; Perez, Marcos Paradelo

    2014-01-01

    chemical properties (e.g., pH and ionic strength) which significantly affected air and water transport and colloid and phosphorous leaching. In denser soils (bulk density 1.57-1.69 g cm-3) preferential flow dominated the transport and caused an enhanced movement of air and water whereas in less dense soils......Application of biochar to agricultural fields to improve soil quality has increased in popularity in recent years, but limited attention is generally paid to existing field conditions prior to biochar application. This study examined the short-term physico-chemical effects of biochar amendment...... in an agricultural field in Denmark with a calcium carbonate (CaCO3) gradient. The field comprised four reference plots and four plots to which biochar (birch wood pyrolyzed at 500 C) was applied at a rate of 20 tons ha-1. Five undisturbed soil columns (10 cm dia., 8 cm height) were sampled from each plot seven...

  18. Carbon flux from plants to soil microbes is highly sensitive to nitrogen addition and biochar amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, C.; Solaiman, Z. M.; Kilburn, M. R.; Clode, P. L.; Fuchslueger, L.; Koranda, M.; Murphy, D. V.

    2012-04-01

    The release of carbon through plant roots to the soil has been recognized as a governing factor for soil microbial community composition and decomposition processes, constituting an important control for ecosystem biogeochemical cycles. Moreover, there is increasing awareness that the flux of recently assimilated carbon from plants to the soil may regulate ecosystem response to environmental change, as the rate of the plant-soil carbon transfer will likely be affected by increased plant C assimilation caused by increasing atmospheric CO2 levels. What has received less attention so far is how sensitive the plant-soil C transfer would be to possible regulations coming from belowground, such as soil N addition or microbial community changes resulting from anthropogenic inputs such as biochar amendments. In this study we investigated the size, rate and sensitivity of the transfer of recently assimilated plant C through the root-soil-mycorrhiza-microbial continuum. Wheat plants associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were grown in split-boxes which were filled either with soil or a soil-biochar mixture. Each split-box consisted of two compartments separated by a membrane which was penetrable for mycorrhizal hyphae but not for roots. Wheat plants were only grown in one compartment while the other compartment served as an extended soil volume which was only accessible by mycorrhizal hyphae associated with the plant roots. After plants were grown for four weeks we used a double-labeling approach with 13C and 15N in order to investigate interactions between C and N flows in the plant-soil-microorganism system. Plants were subjected to an enriched 13CO2 atmosphere for 8 hours during which 15NH4 was added to a subset of split-boxes to either the root-containing or the root-free compartment. Both, 13C and 15N fluxes through the plant-soil continuum were monitored over 24 hours by stable isotope methods (13C phospho-lipid fatty acids by GC-IRMS, 15N/13C in bulk plant

  19. Enhanced rice production but greatly reduced carbon emission following biochar amendment in a metal-polluted rice paddy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Afeng; Bian, Rongjun; Li, Lianqing; Wang, Xudong; Zhao, Ying; Hussain, Qaiser; Pan, Genxing

    2015-12-01

    Soil amendment of biochar (BSA) had been shown effective for mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and alleviating metal stress to plants and microbes in soil. It has not yet been addressed if biochar exerts synergy effects on crop production, GHG emission, and microbial activity in metal-polluted soils. In a field experiment, biochar was amended at sequential rates at 0, 10, 20, and 40 t ha(-1), respectively, in a cadmium- and lead-contaminated rice paddy from the Tai lake Plain, China, before rice cropping in 2010. Fluxes of soil carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) were monitored using a static chamber method during the whole rice growing season (WRGS) of 2011. BSA significantly reduced soil CaCl2 extractable pool of Cd, and DTPA extractable pool of Cd and Pb. As compared to control, soil CO2 emission under BSA was observed to have no change at 10 t ha(-1) but decreased by 16-24% at 20 and 40 t ha(-1). In a similar trend, BSA at 20 and 40 t ha(-1) increased rice yield by 25-26% and thus enhanced ecosystem CO2 sequestration by 47-55% over the control. Seasonal total N2O emission was reduced by 7.1, 30.7, and 48.6% under BSA at 10, 20, and 40 t ha(-1), respectively. Overall, a net reduction in greenhouse gas balance (NGHGB) by 53.9-62.8% and in greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) by 14.3-28.6% was observed following BSA at 20 and 40 t ha(-1). The present study suggested a great potential of biochar to enhancing grain yield while reducing carbon emission in metal-polluted rice paddies.

  20. Activated carbon and biochar from agricultural by-products in the adorption of Cd, Pb and Zn under laboratory conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscione, Aline; Zini, Barbara

    2015-04-01

    The immobilization of inorganic contaminants by using biochar in soils has played an increasingly important role and it is seen as an attractive alternative for the remediation of heavy metals. Although, the production of activated carbon (CA) from agricultural by-products has received special attention, the activation of the the organic source has been studied in order to increase its porposity, surface area and chemical polarity, resulting in higher adsorption of metals. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of BC and CA samples, obtained from a eucalyptus husks and cane sugar bagasse after activation with 20% phosphoric acid and pyrolyzed at 450oC in the retention of Zn, Cd and Pb using contaminated individual solutions. The experiment was performed using samples of activated carbon of eucalyptus husk (CCA), eucalyptus husk biochar (BC), activated carbon of sugar cane bagasse (CBA) and sugar cane bagasse biochar (BB), treated with Zn, Cd (range of tested solution from 0.1 up to 12 mmol L-1) and Pb (from 0.1 up 50 mmol L-1) and the adjustemento of Langmuir adsorption isotherms. Samples obtained from bagasse presented higher adsoprtion of the metals tested then eucalyptus. Also the activation process had not the expected effect on either eucalyptus and bagasse samples The maxmum adsorption capacyty of samples were as follws, in mmol g-1: for Cd - 0.36 for BC; 0.32 for CCA; 0.40 for BB; 0.31 for CBA. For Zn- 0.14 for BC; no adsorbed by CCA; 0.35 5 for BB; 0.06 for CBA. For Pb - 1.24 for BC; 0.40 for CCA; 0,45 for BB; 0,03 for CBA. However, it was also observed that due to the activation with phosphoric acid, the pH of the activated carbon (CCA and CBA) were 2.4 and 2.5 in comparison with the biochars not activated (BC and BB) 9.7 and 7.0 respectively. Thus, it is yet not possible to state if the calculate capacity is due exclusively to the complexation of chemical groups in the surface of samples or to which extent there is a contribution of

  1. Carbon nanotube-based black coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, J.; Yung, C.; Tomlin, N.; Conklin, D.; Stephens, M.

    2018-03-01

    Coatings comprising carbon nanotubes are very black, that is, characterized by uniformly low reflectance over a broad range of wavelengths from the visible to far infrared. Arguably, there is no other material that is comparable. This is attributable to the intrinsic properties of graphitic material as well as the morphology (density, thickness, disorder, and tube size). We briefly describe a history of other coatings such as nickel phosphorous, gold black, and carbon-based paints and the comparable structural morphology that we associate with very black coatings. The need for black coatings is persistent for a variety of applications ranging from baffles and traps to blackbodies and thermal detectors. Applications for space-based instruments are of interest and we present a review of space qualification and the results of outgassing measurements. Questions of nanoparticle safety depend on the nanotube size and aspect ratio as well as the nature and route of exposure. We describe the growth of carbon nanotube forests along with the catalyst requirements and temperature limitations. We also describe coatings derived from carbon nanotubes and applied like paint. Building the measurement apparatus and determining the optical properties of something having negligible reflectance are challenging and we summarize the methods and means for such measurements. There exists information in the literature for effective media approximations to model the dielectric function of vertically aligned arrays. We summarize this along with the refractive index of graphite from the literature that is necessary for modeling the optical properties. In our experience, the scientific questions can be overshadowed by practical matters, so we provide an appendix of recipes for making as-grown and sprayed coatings along with an example of reflectance measurements.

  2. Incorporation of Biochar Carbon into Stable Soil Aggregates: The Role of Clay Mineralogy and Other Soil Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Charlene N.KELLY; Joseph BENJAMIN; Francisco C.CALDER(O)N; Maysoon M.MIKHA; David W.RUTHERFORD; Colleen E.ROSTAD

    2017-01-01

    Aggregation and structure plav key roles in water-holding capacity and stability of soils.In this study,the incorporation of carbon (C) from switchgrass biochar into stable aggregate size fractions was assessed in an Aridisol (from Colorado,USA) dominated by 2:1 clays and an Alfisol (from Virginia,USA) containing weathered mixed 1∶1 and 2∶1 mineralogy,to evaluate the effect of biochar addition on soil characteristics.The biochar was applied at 4 levels,0,25,50,and 100 g kg-1,to the soils grown with wheat in a growth chamber experiment.The changes in soil strength and water-holding capacity using water release curves were measured.In the Colorado soil,the proportion of soil occurring in large aggregates decreased,with concomitant increases in small size fractions.No changes in aggregate size fractions occurred in the Virginia soil.In the Colorado soil,C content increased from 3.3 to 16.8 g kg-1,whereas in the < 53 μm fraction C content increased from 5.7 to 22.6 g kg-1 with 100 g kg-1 biochar addition.In the Virginia soil,C content within aggregate size fractions increased for each size fraction,except the > 2 000 μm fraction.The greatest increase (from 6.2 to 22.0 g kg-1) occurred in the 53-250 μm fraction.The results indicated that C was incorporated into larger aggregates in the Virginia soil,but remained largely unassociated to soil particles in the Colorado soil.Biochar addition had no significant effect on water-holding capacity or strength measurements.Adding biochar to more weathered soils with high native soil organic content may result in greater stabilization of incorporated C and result in less loss because of erosion and transport,compared with the soils dominated by 2∶1 clays and low native soil organic content.

  3. Impact of activated carbon, biochar and compost on the desorption and mineralization of phenanthrene in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchal, Geoffrey; Smith, Kilian E.C.; Rein, Arno

    2013-01-01

    ), biochar or compost. Total amounts of phenanthrene desorbed were similar between the different soils, but the amendment type had a large influence. Complete desorption was observed in the unamended and compost amended soils, but this reduced for biochar (41% desorbed) and AC (8% desorbed). Cumulative...... amounts mineralized were 28% for the unamended control, 19% for compost, 13% for biochar and 4% for AC. Therefore, the effects of the amendments in soil in reducing desorption were also reflected in the extents of mineralization. Modeling was used to analyze key processes, indicating that for the AC...

  4. Comparison of Biochars Characteristics from Different Raw Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUN Tao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Biochar is the carbon-rich product from biomass under limited supply of oxygen. Biochar has been well recognized in enhancing terrestrial carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas mitigation as well as in improving soil fertility and plant productivity. To explore the differences of biochars produced from different raw materials, six biochar samples made from alfalfa straw, wheat straw, cotton straw, grape vines, sludge and lignite were selected as test material. Qualitative and quantitative analysis by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FTIR and Boehm titration were used to determine the amount of the surface functional groups of biochars. Meanwhile the scanning electron microscopy(SEM was used to characterize the surface morphology of biochar samples. In addition, the basic physicochemical characteristics of biochar samples, such as pH value, organic carbon content and cation exchange capacity were also determined. The results showed that all of the biochar were alkaline except the sludge biochar was acidic. The organic carbon content of alfalfa biochar was the highest(588.43 g·kg-1 and sludge biochar was the lowest(168.17 g·kg-1. Furthermore, the rank of cation exchange capacity was alfalfa straw biochar, cotton straw biochar > grape vine biochar > wheat straw biochar > sludge biochar > lignite biochar. FTIR spectrum showed that there were the aromatic hydrocarbon and the oxygen group on the surface of biochar and the structure of biochar was mainly based on the aromatic rings skeleton. The total functional groups content of alfalfa straw biochar was the highest, but that of sludge biochar was the lowest. The SEM results showed that there were obvious pore structure on the surface of plant-based biochar, but none on the surface of mineral-based biochar. Alfalfa straw biochar, wheat straw biochar, cotton straw biochar and grape vine biochar can be applied to improve farmland soil quality and increase soil fertility, and lignite biochar

  5. Black carbon network in Mexico. First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Valter; Peralta, Oscar; Granado, Karen; Ortinez, Abraham; Alvarez-Ospina, Harry; Espinoza, Maria de la Luz; Castro, Telma

    2017-04-01

    After the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change celebrated in Paris 2016, many countries should adopt some mechanisms in the next years to contribute to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and support sustainable development. Mexico Government has adopted an unconditional international commitment to carry out mitigation actions that would result in the reduction of 51% in black carbon (BC) emissions by year 2030. However, many BC emissions have been calculated by factor emissions. Since optical measurements of environmental BC concentrations can vary according the different components and their subsequence wavelength measure, it's important to obtain more accurate values. BC is formally defined as an ideally light-absorbing substance composed by carbon (Bond et al., 2013), and is the second main contributor (behind Carbon Dioxide; CO2) to positive radiative forcing (Ramanathan and Carmichael, 2008). Recently, BC has been used as an additional indicator in air quality management in some cities because is emitted from the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, biofuel and biomass burning in both anthropogenic and it is always emitted with other particles and gases, such as organic carbon (OC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and sulfur dioxide (SO2). Black Carbon, PM2.5 and pollutant gases were measured from January 2015 to December 2015 at three main cities in Mexico, and two other places to evaluate the BC concentration levels in the country. The urban background sites (Mexico City, Monterrey, Guadalajara, MXC-UB, GDL-UB, MTY-UB), a sub-urban background site (Juriquilla, Queretaro, JUR-SUB) and a regional background site (Altzomoni, ALT-RB). Results showed the relationship between BC and PM2.5 in the 3 large cities, with BC/PM2.5 ratios near 0.14 to 0.09 and a high BC-CO relationship in all the year in Mexico City, who showed that mobile sources are a common, at least in cities with a non-significant biomass burning emission related to agriculture or coal

  6. Large variability of biochar stability and biochar properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, J.; Nguyen, B.; Hanley, K.; Enders, A.

    2008-12-01

    In general, charring or purposeful pyrolysis increases the stability of biomass. It is less clear, however, to what extent biochar properties influence its stability. Chemical and physical properties of biochars and biomass-derived black carbons (BC) vary greatly as a function of the type of biomass it was generated from and of the production temperature. We show that these properties greatly affect the stability of BC is a function of both these factors, with highly significant interactions. BC produced from corn stalks produced at 350°C decomposed much quicker when incubated at field capacity at 30°C for one year than those produced at 600°C. In contrast, there was hardly a difference noted between those two temperatures if oak was the precursor biomass. Such differences in labile carbon not only affect the proportion of stable carbon in BC, but also influence the quantification of long-term stability. Extrapolation from short-term decay to long-term stability may require prior knowledge about the decay rate of the labile fraction of BC. Some indications are provided for the short-term oxidation of BC.

  7. Adsorption of uranium from aqueous solution using biochar produced by hydrothermal carbonization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhi-bin Zhang; East China Institute of Technology, Fuzhou; China University of Geosciences, Wuhan; China University of Geosciences, Wuhan; Xiao-hong Cao; Yun-hai Liu; East China Institute of Technology, Fuzhou; Ping Liang; East China Institute of Technology, Fuzhou; China University of Geosciences, Wuhan

    2013-01-01

    The ability of biochar produced by hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) has been explored for the removal and recovery of uranium from aqueous solutions. The micro-morphology and structure of HTC were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The influences of different experimental parameters such as solution pH, initial concentration, contact time, ionic strength and temperature on adsorption were investigated. The HTC showed the highest uranium sorption capacity at initial pH of 6.0 and contact time of 50 min. Adsorption kinetics was better described by the pseudo-second-order model and adsorption process could be well defined by the Langmuir isotherm. The thermodynamic parameters, ΔGdeg(298 K), ΔHdeg and ΔSdeg were determined to be -14.4, 36.1 kJ mol -1 and 169.7 J mol -1 K -1 , respectively, which demonstrated the sorption process of HTC towards U(VI) was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic in nature. The adsorbed HTC could be effectively regenerated by 0.05 mol/L HCl solution for the removal and recovery of U(VI). Complete removal (99.9 %) of U(VI) from 1.0 L industry wastewater containing 15.0 mg U(VI) ions was possible with 2.0 g HTC. (author)

  8. Biochar's role in mitigating soil nitrous oxide emissions: a review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cayuela, M.L.; Zwieten, van L.; Singh, B.P.; Jeffery, S.L.; Roig, A.; Sánchez-Monedero, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    More than two thirds of global nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions originate from soil, mainly associated with the extensive use of nitrogen (N) fertilizers in agriculture. Although the interaction of black carbon with the N cycle has been long recognized, the impact of biochar on N2O emissions has only

  9. Graft polymerization of vynil monomers at carbon black surface (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haryono Arumbinang.

    1976-01-01

    Effect of aromatic condensates containing functional group on carbon black surface, effect of pH condensates on carbon black chemisorption, analysis and configuration of functional group, the crystal structure, property measurement standard, particle diameter measurement, oil adsorption, colour capacity, volatile acid content, electric resistence and the volume of the granular or carbon black dust, are given. Electron paramagnetic resonance determination of the amount of free radicals on carbon black surface, its oxidation and effects on the surface and inner structure of carbon black, and graft polymerization by radiation copolymerization, are discussed. Experiments on radiation graft copolymerization by acrylic acid, methacrylate, and glycidol methacrylate, in a vacuum condition, have been carried out. It is concluded that further research on the modification and configuration of carbon black should be developed. (author)

  10. Corn cob biochar increases soil culturable bacterial abundance without enhancing their capacities in utilizing carbon sources in Biolog Eco-plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Lin-lin; HAN Guang-ming; LAN Yu; LIU Sai-nan; GAO Ji-ping; YANG Xu; MENG Jun; CHEN Wen-fu

    2017-01-01

    Biochar has been shown to influence soil microbial communities in terms of their abundance and diversity.However,the relationship among microbial abundance,structure and C metabolic traits is not well studied under biochar application.Here it was hypothesized that the addition of biochar with intrinsic properties (i.e.,porous structure) could affect the proliferation of culturable microbes and the genetic structure of soil bacterial communities.In the meantime,the presence of available organic carbon in biochar may influence the C utilization capacities of microbial community in Biolog Eco-plates.A pot experiment was conducted with differenct biochar application (BC) rates:control (0 t ha-1),BC1 (20 t ha-1) and BC2 (40 t ha-1).Culturable microorganisms were enumerated via the plate counting method.Bacterial diversity was examined using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE).Microbial capacity in using C sources was assessed using Biolog Eco-plates.The addition of biochar stimulated the growth of actinomyces and bacteria,especially the ammonifying bacteria and azotobacteria,but had no significant effect on fungi proliferation.The phylogenetic distribution of the operational taxonomic units could be divided into the following groups with the biochar addition:Firmicutes,Acidobacteria,Gemmatimonadetes,Actinobacteria,Cyanobacteria and α-,β-,γ-and δ-Proteobacteria (average similarity >95%).Biochar application had a higher capacity utilization for L-asparagine,Tween 80,D-mannitol,L-serine,γ-hydroxybutyric acid,N-acetyI-D-glucosamine,glycogen,itaconic acid,glycyl-L-glutamic acid,α-ketobutyricacid and putrescine,whereas it had received decreased capacities in using the other 20 carbon sources in Biolog Eco-plates.Redundancy analysis (RDA) revealed that the physico-chemical properties,indices of bacterial diversity,and C metabolic traits were positively correlated with the appearance of novel sequences under BC2 treatment.Our study indicates that the

  11. Sustainable biochar effects for low carbon crop production: A 5-crop season field experiment on a low fertility soil from Central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.

    2014-12-01

    Biochar's effects on improving soil fertility, enhancing crop productivity and reducing greenhouse gases (GHGs) emission from croplands had been well addressed in numerous short-term experiments with biochar soil amendment (BSA) mostly in a single crop season / cropping year. However, the persistence of these effects, after a single biochar application, has not yet been well known due to limited long-term field studies so far. Large scale BSA in agriculture is often commented on the high cost due to large amount of biochar in a single application. Here, we try to show the persistence of biochar effects on soil fertility and crop productivity improvement as well as GHGs emission reduction, using data from a field experiment with BSA for 5 crop seasons in central North China. A single amendment of biochar was performed at rates of 0 (C0), 20 (C20) and 40 t ha-1 (C40) before sowing of the first crop season. Emissions of CO2, CH4 and N2O were monitored with static closed chamber method throughout the crop growing season for the 1st, 2nd and 5th cropping. Crop yield was measured and topsoil samples were collected at harvest of each crop season. BSA altered most of the soil physic-chemical properties with a significant increase over control in soil organic carbon (SOC) and available potassium (K) content. The increase in SOC and available K was consistent over the 5 crop seasons after BSA. Despite a significant yield increase in the first maize season, enhancement of crop yield was not consistent over crop seasons without corresponding to the changes in soil nutrient availability. BSA did not change seasonal total CO2 efflux but greatly reduced N2O emissions throughout the five seasons. This supported a stable nature of biochar carbon in soil, which played a consistent role in reducing N2O emission, which showed inter-annual variation with changes in temperature and soil moisture conditions. The biochar effect was much more consistent under C40 than under C20 and with

  12. Promoting Interspecies Electron Transfer with Biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shanshan; Rotaru, Amelia-Elena; Shrestha, Pravin Malla; Malvankar, Nikhil S.; Liu, Fanghua; Fan, Wei; Nevin, Kelly P.; Lovley, Derek R.

    2014-01-01

    Biochar, a charcoal-like product of the incomplete combustion of organic materials, is an increasingly popular soil amendment designed to improve soil fertility. We investigated the possibility that biochar could promote direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) in a manner similar to that previously reported for granular activated carbon (GAC). Although the biochars investigated were 1000 times less conductive than GAC, they stimulated DIET in co-cultures of Geobacter metallireducens with Geobacter sulfurreducens or Methanosarcina barkeri in which ethanol was the electron donor. Cells were attached to the biochar, yet not in close contact, suggesting that electrons were likely conducted through the biochar, rather than biological electrical connections. The finding that biochar can stimulate DIET may be an important consideration when amending soils with biochar and can help explain why biochar may enhance methane production from organic wastes under anaerobic conditions. PMID:24846283

  13. Prenatal Exposure to Carbon Black (Printex 90)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackson, Petra; Vogel, Ulla; Wallin, Håkan

    2011-01-01

    Maternal pulmonary exposure to ultrafine particles during pregnancy may affect the health of the child. Developmental toxicity of carbon black (Printex 90) nanoparticles was evaluated in a mouse model. Time-mated mice were intratracheally instilled with Printex 90 dispersed in Millipore water on ...... on gestation days (GD) 7, 10, 15 and 18, with total doses of 11, 54 and 268 mu g Printex 90/animal. The female offspring prenatally exposed to 268 mu g Printex 90/animal displayed altered habituation pattern during the Open field test....

  14. Size distribution of carbon layer planes in biochar from different plant type of feedstock with different heating temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guan-Yang; Ikeya, Kosuke; Watanabe, Akira

    2016-11-01

    Biochar application to soil is a strategy to decelerate the increase in the atmospheric carbon concentration. The composition of condensed aromatic clusters appears to be an important determinant of the degradation rate of char in soil. The objective of the present study was to determine the size distribution of carbon layer planes in biochars produced from different types of feedstock (a broadleaf and a coniferous tree and two herbs) using different heating treatment temperatures (HTT; 400 °C-800 °C) using X-ray diffraction 11 band profile analysis. (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance with the phase-adjusted spinning side bands of the chars indicated different spectral features depending on the HTT and similar carbon composition among the plant types at each HTT. Both the content and composition of carbon layer planes in biochar produced using the same HTT were also similar among the plant types. The carbon layer plane size in the 400 °C and 600 °C chars was distributed from 0.24 to 1.68 or 1.92 nm (corresponding to 37 or 52 rings) with the mean size of 0.79-0.92 and 0.80-1.14 nm, respectively. The carbon layer planes in the 800 °C chars ranged from 0.72-0.96 nm (7-14 rings) to 2.64-3.60 nm (91-169 rings) and the mean values were 1.47-1.89 nm. The relative carbon layer plane content in the 600 °C and 800 °C chars was typically 2 and 3 times that in the 400 °C chars. These results indicate the progression of the formation and/or the size development of graphite-like structures, suggesting that a char produced at a higher HTT would have better carbon sequestrating characteristics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The effect of straw and wood gasification biochar on carbon sequestration, selected soil fertility indicators and functional groups in soil: an incubation study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Veronika; Müller-Stöver, Dorette; Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    2016-01-01

    Annual removal of crop residues may lead to depletion of soil organic carbon and soil degradation. Gasification biochar (GB), the carbon-rich byproduct of gasification of biomass such as straw and wood chips, may be used for maintaining the soil organic carbon content and counteract soil degradat......Annual removal of crop residues may lead to depletion of soil organic carbon and soil degradation. Gasification biochar (GB), the carbon-rich byproduct of gasification of biomass such as straw and wood chips, may be used for maintaining the soil organic carbon content and counteract soil......, the addition of straw resulted in a high soil respiration rate, and about 80% of the added carbonwas respired at the end of the incubation. However, the addition of straw increased aggregate stability and decreased clay dispersibility. Results from Fourier transformed infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy...

  16. Biochar composts and composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekebafe, Marian Osazoduwa; Ekebafe, Lawrence Olu; Ugbesia, Stella Omozee

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that the carbon content of wastes decreases during composting with an increase in the nitrogen content. This indicates that the increased microbial activity in the process results in an increased mineralisation rate of organic nitrogen. A formula containing biochar in the form of terra preta, biochar bokashi, biochar glomalin, biochar hydrogel and biochar mokusaku-eki could further enhance the stability of the system and its effectiveness as a soil ameliorant. It could increase the cation exchange capacity, reuse crop residue, reduce runoff, reduce watering, reduce the quantity of fertiliser increase crop yield, build and multiply soil biodiversity, strengthen and rebuild our soil food web, sequester atmospheric carbon in a carbon negative process, increase soil pH, restructure poor soils, and reduce carbon dioxide/methane/ nitrous oxide/ammonia emissions from gardens and fields. This paper considers these claims and also the wider environmental implications of the adoption of these processes. The intention of this overview is not just to summarise current knowledge of the subject, but also to identify gaps in knowledge that require further research.

  17. Granular biochar compared with activated carbon for wastewater treatment and resource recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Tyler M; Haeger, Alexander; Biffinger, Justin C; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2016-05-01

    Granular wood-derived biochar (BC) was compared to granular activated carbon (GAC) for the treatment and nutrient recovery of real wastewater in both batch and column studies. Batch adsorption studies showed that BC material had a greater adsorption capacity at the high initial concentrations of total chemical oxygen demand (COD-T) (1200 mg L(-1)), PO4 (18 mg L(-1)), and NH4 (50 mg L(-1)) compared to GAC. Conversely the BC material showed a lower adsorption capacity for all concentrations of dissolved chemical oxygen demand (COD-D) and the lower concentrations of PO4 (5 mg L(-1)) and NH4 (10 mg L(-1)). Packed bed column studies showed similar average COD-T removal rate for BC with 0.27 ± 0.01 kg m(-3) d(-1) and GAC with 0.24 ± 0.01 kg m(-3) d(-1), but BC had nearly twice the average removal rate (0.41 ± 0.08 kg m(-3) d(-3)) compared to GAC during high COD-T concentrations (>500 mg L(-1)). Elemental analysis showed that both materials accumulated phosphorous during wastewater treatment (2.6 ± 0.4 g kg(-1) and 1.9 ± 0.1 g kg(-1) for BC and GAC respectively). They also contained high concentrations of other macronutrients (K, Ca, and Mg) and low concentrations of metals (As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Zn, and Cu). The good performance of BC is attributed to its macroporous structure compared with the microporous GAC. These favorable treatment data for high strength wastewater, coupled with additional life-cycle benefits, helps support the use of BC in packed bed column filters for enhanced wastewater treatment and nutrient recovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence of public transport in black carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Y.; Oyola, P.; Gramsch, E. V.; Moreno, F.; Rubio, M.

    2013-05-01

    As a consequence of poor air quality in Santiago de Chile, several measures were taken by the local authorities to improve the environmental conditions and protect the public health. In year 2005 the Chilean government implemented a project called "Transantiago" aimed to introduce major modifications in the public transportation system. The primary objectives of this project were to: provide an economically, socially and environmentally sustainable service and improve the quality of service without increasing fares. In this work we evaluate the impact of the Transantiago system on the black carbon pollution along four roads directly affected by the modification to the transport system. The black carbon has been used to evaluate changes in air quality due to changes in traffic. The assessment was done using measurements of black carbon before Transantiago (June-July 2005) and after its implementation (June-July 2007). Four sites were selected to monitor black carbon at street levels, one site (Alameda) that represents trunk-bus streets, i.e., buses crossing the city through main avenues. Buses using these streets had an important technological update with respect to 2005. Two streets (Usach and Departamental) show a mixed condition, i.e., they combine feeder and trunk buses. These streets combine new EURO III buses with old buses with more than 3 years of service. The last street (Eliodoro Yañez) represent private cars road without public transportation and did not experience change. Hence, the results from the years 2005 and 2007 can be directly compared using an appropriate methodology. To ensure that it was not the meteorological conditions that drive the trends, the comparison between year 2005 and 2007 was done using Wilcoxon test and a regression model. A first assessment at the four sites suggested a non decrease in black carbon concentration from 2005 to 2007, except for Alameda. A first statistical approach confirmed small increases in BC in Usach and E

  19. Proper Particle Size Range for Resistance to Chemical Oxidation: A Perspective on the Recalcitrance of Beanpod Biochar for Soil Carbon Sequestration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianhua GUO; Dongyun ZHANG

    2017-01-01

    The effect of particle size on the recalcitrance of biochar against oxidation has been regarded as one of the most important factors influencing its stability and transportation in soils. Little is known about the peculiar stability of different particle sizes under chemical oxidation conditions. In this study, several sizes of biochar particles derived from beanpod were produced,and their stabilities were tested by using acid dichromate and hydrogen peroxide. We discovered that the 60-100 mesh size of particles produced at 400 and 500 ℃ showed the least carbon loss under the oxidation of both dichromate and hydrogen peroxide.In addition, this particle size also shows great stability at 600 and 700 ℃, but this stability was not observed below 300 °C for all temperature-dependent biochars. Medium-sized particles composed of exclusively heterogeneous components produced a biochar at temperatures over 400 ℃ with comparatively stronger chemical anti-oxidation characteristics. The chemical recalcitrance of biochar should be reevaluated based on particle size before soil application.

  20. Chemically treated carbon black waste and its potential applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Pengwei; Maneerung, Thawatchai; Ng, Wei Cheng; Zhen, Xu [NUS Environmental Research Institute, National University of Singapore, 1 Create Way, Create Tower #15-02, 138602 (Singapore); Dai, Yanjun [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Tong, Yen Wah [NUS Environmental Research Institute, National University of Singapore, 1 Create Way, Create Tower #15-02, 138602 (Singapore); Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 4, 117585 (Singapore); Ting, Yen-Peng [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 4, 117585 (Singapore); Koh, Shin Nuo [Sembcorp Industries Ltd., 30 Hill Street #05-04, 179360 (Singapore); Wang, Chi-Hwa, E-mail: chewch@nus.edu.sg [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 4, 117585 (Singapore); Neoh, Koon Gee, E-mail: chenkg@nus.edu.sg [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 4, 117585 (Singapore)

    2017-01-05

    Highlights: • Hazardous impurities separated from carbon black waste with little damage to solid. • Heavy metals were effectively removed from carbon black waste by HNO{sub 3} leaching. • Treated carbon black waste has high adsorption capacity (∼356.4 mg{sub dye}/g). • Carbon black waste was also found to show high electrical conductivity (10 S/cm). - Abstract: In this work, carbon black waste – a hazardous solid residue generated from gasification of crude oil bottom in refineries – was successfully used for making an absorbent material. However, since the carbon black waste also contains significant amounts of heavy metals (especially nickel and vanadium), chemical leaching was first used to remove these hazardous impurities from the carbon black waste. Acid leaching with nitric acid was found to be a very effective method for removal of both nickel and vanadium from the carbon black waste (i.e. up to 95% nickel and 98% vanadium were removed via treatment with 2 M nitric acid for 1 h at 20 °C), whereas alkali leaching by using NaOH under the same condition was not effective for removal of nickel (less than 10% nickel was removed). Human lung cells (MRC-5) were then used to investigate the toxicity of the carbon black waste before and after leaching. Cell viability analysis showed that the leachate from the original carbon black waste has very high toxicity, whereas the leachate from the treated samples has no significant toxicity. Finally, the efficacy of the carbon black waste treated with HNO{sub 3} as an absorbent for dye removal was investigated. This treated carbon black waste has high adsorption capacity (∼361.2 mg {sub dye}/g {sub carbonblack}), which can be attributed to its high specific surface area (∼559 m{sup 2}/g). The treated carbon black waste with its high adsorption capacity and lack of cytotoxicity is a promising adsorbent material. Moreover, the carbon black waste was found to show high electrical conductivity (ca. 10 S

  1. Thermal properties of carbon black aqueous nanofluids for solar absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Dongxiao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article, carbon black nanofluids were prepared by dispersing the pretreated carbon black powder into distilled water. The size and morphology of the nanoparticles were explored. The photothermal properties, optical properties, rheological behaviors, and thermal conductivities of the nanofluids were also investigated. The results showed that the nanofluids of high-volume fraction had better photothermal properties. Both carbon black powder and nanofluids had good absorption in the whole wavelength ranging from 200 to 2,500 nm. The nanofluids exhibited a shear thinning behavior. The shear viscosity increased with the increasing volume fraction and decreased with the increasing temperature at the same shear rate. The thermal conductivity of carbon black nanofluids increased with the increase of volume fraction and temperature. Carbon black nanofluids had good absorption ability of solar energy and can effectively enhance the solar absorption efficiency.

  2. Evaluation of sorbed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) on various biochars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biochar is the name given to the chemical and/or thermal transformation of biomass feed stocks into a more stable carbon form for purposes of carbon sequestration. Soil has been the focused, but not exclusive, application target for biochar. Biochar additions have resulted in both positive and nega...

  3. Investigating biochar as a tool for environmental remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biochar is being proposed as a cost-effective, carbon negative soil amendment for environmental remediation. Research has demonstrated the efficacy of biochar to sorb heavy metals and agricultural chemicals from contaminated soils, thus effectively reducing the potential for met...

  4. Comparison of carbon onions and carbon blacks as conductive additives for carbon supercapacitors in organic electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäckel, N.; Weingarth, D.; Zeiger, M.; Aslan, M.; Grobelsek, I.; Presser, V.

    2014-12-01

    This study investigates carbon onions (∼400 m2 g-1) as a conductive additive for supercapacitor electrodes of activated carbon and compares their performance with carbon black with high or low internal surface area. We provide a study of the electrical conductivity and electrochemical behavior between 2.5 and 20 mass% addition of each of these three additives to activated carbon. Structural characterization shows that the density of the resulting film electrodes depends on the degree of agglomeration and the amount of additive. Addition of low surface area carbon black (∼80 m2 g-1) enhances the power handling of carbon electrodes but significantly lowers the specific capacitance even when adding small amounts of carbon black. A much lower decrease in specific capacitance is observed for carbon onions and the best values are seen for carbon black with a high surface area (∼1390 m2 g-1). The overall performance benefits from the addition of any of the studied additives only at either high scan rates and/or electrolytes with high ion mobility. Normalization to the volume shows a severe decrease in volumetric capacitance and only at high current densities nearing 10 A g-1 we can see an improvement of the electrode capacitance.

  5. Identification of long-term carbon sequestration in soils with historical inputs of biochar using novel stable isotope and spectroscopic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Soriano, Maria C.; Kerré, Bart; Hardy, Brieuc; Dufey, Joseph; Smolders, Erik

    2013-04-01

    Biochar is the collective term for organic matter (OM) that has been produced by pyrolysis of biomass, e.g. during production of charcoal or during natural processes such as bush fires. Biochar production and application is now suggested as one of the economically feasible options for global C-sequestration strategies. The C-sequestration in soil through application of biochar is not only related to its persistence (estimated lifetime exceeds 1000 year in soil), but also due to indirect effects such as its potential to adsorb and increase OM stability in soil. Historical charcoal production sites that had been in use >200 years ago in beech/oak forests have been localized in the south of Belgium. Aerial photography identified black spots in arable land on former forest sites. Soil sampling was conducted in an arable field used for maize production near Mettet (Belgium) where charcoal production was intensive until late 18th century. Soils were sampled in a horizontal gradient across the 'black soils' that extend of few decametres, collecting soil from the spots (Biochar Amended, BA) as well as from the non-biochar amended (NBA). Stable C isotope composition was used to estimate the long-term C-sequestration derived from crops in these soils where maize had been produced since about 15 years. Because C in the biochar originates in forest wood (C3 plants), its isotopic signature (δ13C) differs from the maize (a C4 plant). The C and N content and the δ13C were determined for bulk soil samples and for microaggregate size fractions separated by wet sieving. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) coupled to optical microscopy was used to obtaining fingerprints of biochar and OM composition for soil microaggregates. The total C content in the BA soil (5.5%) and the C/N ratio (16.9) were higher than for NBA (C content 2.7%; C/N ratio 12.6), which confirms the persistence of OM in the BA. The average isotopic signature of bulk soil from BA (-26.08) was slightly

  6. Comparison of Biochars Characteristics from Different Raw Materials

    OpenAIRE

    SUN Tao; ZHU Xin-ping; LI Dian-peng; GU Zhu-yu; ZHANG Jia-xi; JIA Hong-tao

    2017-01-01

    Biochar is the carbon-rich product from biomass under limited supply of oxygen. Biochar has been well recognized in enhancing terrestrial carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas mitigation as well as in improving soil fertility and plant productivity. To explore the differences of biochars produced from different raw materials, six biochar samples made from alfalfa straw, wheat straw, cotton straw, grape vines, sludge and lignite were selected as test material. Qualitative and quantitative an...

  7. Reinforcement of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube in Nitrile Rubber: In Comparison with Carbon Black, Conductive Carbon Black, and Precipitated Silica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atip Boonbumrung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The properties of nitrile rubber (NBR reinforced by multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT, conductive carbon black (CCB, carbon black (CB, and precipitated silica (PSi were investigated via viscoelastic behavior, bound rubber content, electrical properties, cross-link density, and mechanical properties. The filler content was varied from 0 to 15 phr. MWCNT shows the greatest magnitude of reinforcement considered in terms of tensile strength, modulus, hardness, and abrasion resistance followed by CCB, CB, and PSi. The MWCNT filled system also exhibits extremely high levels of filler network and trapped rubber even at relatively low loading (5 phr leading to high electrical properties and poor dynamic mechanical properties. Although CCB possesses the highest specific surface area, it gives lower level of filler network than MWCNT and also gives the highest elongation at break among all fillers. Both CB and PSi show comparable degree of reinforcement which is considerably lower than CCB and MWCNT.

  8. BIOCHAR MODIFICATION, THERMAL STABILITY AND TOXICITY OF PRODUCTS MODIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romana FRIEDRICHOVÁ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Biochar is a product obtained from processing of waste biomass. The main application of biochar is in soil and environment remediation. Some new applications of this carbonaceous material take advantage of its adsorption capacity use it as a heterogeneous catalyst for energy storage and conversion etc. This contribution describes thermal stability of the original biochar. It discusses biochar modified by chemical and physical methods including a new compound of biochar-graphene oxide. The purpose of the modifications is to increase its active surface to introduce active functional groups into the carbon structure of biochar in relation to fire safety and toxicity of those products.

  9. Black carbon sequestration as an alternative to bioenergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowles, Malcolm

    2007-01-01

    Most policy and much research concerning the application of biomass to reduce global warming gas emissions has concentrated either on increasing the Earth's reservoir of biomass or on substituting biomass for fossil fuels, with or without CO 2 sequestration. Suggested approaches entail varied risks of impermanence, delay, high costs, and unknowable side-effects. An under-researched alternative approach is to extract from biomass black (elemental) carbon, which can be permanently sequestered as mineral geomass and may be relatively advantageous in terms of those risks. This paper reviews salient features of black carbon sequestration and uses a high-level quantitative model to compare the approach with the alternative use of biomass to displace fossil fuels. Black carbon has been demonstrated to produce significant benefits when sequestered in agricultural soil, apparently without bad side-effects. Black carbon sequestration appears to be more efficient in general than energy generation, in terms of atmospheric carbon saved per unit of biomass; an exception is where biomass can efficiently displace coal-fired generation. Black carbon sequestration can reasonably be expected to be relatively quick and cheap to apply due to its short value chain and known technology. However, the model is sensitive to several input variables, whose values depend heavily on local conditions. Because characteristics of black carbon sequestration are only known from limited geographical contexts, its worldwide potential will not be known without multiple streams of research, replicated in other contexts. (author)

  10. Source attribution of black carbon in Arctic snow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegg, Dean A; Warren, Stephen G; Grenfell, Thomas C; Doherty, Sarah J; Larson, Timothy V; Clarke, Antony D

    2009-06-01

    Snow samples obtained at 36 sites in Alaska, Canada, Greenland, Russia, and the Arctic Ocean in early 2007 were analyzed for light-absorbing aerosol concentration together with a suite of associated chemical species. The light absorption data, interpreted as black carbon concentrations, and other chemical data were input into the EPA PMF 1.1 receptor model to explore the sources for black carbon in the snow. The analysis found four factors or sources: two distinct biomass burning sources, a pollution source, and a marine source. The first three of these were responsible for essentially all of the black carbon, with the two biomass sources (encompassing both open and closed combustion) together accounting for >90% of the black carbon.

  11. Molecular simulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon sorption to black carbon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haftka, J.J.H.; Parsons, J.R.; Govers, H.A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Strong sorption of hydrophobic organic contaminants to soot or black carbon (BC) is an important environmental process limiting the bioremediation potential of contaminated soils and sediments. Reliable methods to predict BC sorption coefficients for organic contaminants are therefore required. A

  12. Black carbon radiative forcing at TOA decreased during aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu; Cheng, Tianhai; Zheng, Lijuan; Chen, Hao

    2016-12-05

    During aging processing, black carbon (also called soot) particles may tend to be mixed with other aerosols, and highly influence their radiative forcing. In this study, freshly emitted soot particles were simulated as fractal aggregates composed of small spherical primary monomers. After aging in the atmosphere, soot monomers were coated by a thinly layer of sulfate as thinly coated soot particles. These soot particles were entirely embedded into large sulfate particle by further aging, and becoming heavily coated soot particles. In clear-sky conditions, black carbon radiative forcing with different aging states were investigated for the bottom and top of atmosphere (BOA and TOA). The simulations showed that black carbon radiative forcing increased at BOA and decreased at TOA after their aging processes. Thinly and heavily coated states increased up to ~12% and ~35% black carbon radiative forcing at BOA, and black carbon radiative forcing at TOA can reach to ~20% and ~100% smaller for thinly and heavily coated states than those of freshly emitted states, respectively. The effect of aging states of black carbon radiative forcing was varied with surface albedo, aerosol optical depth and solar zenith angles. These findings would be helpful for the assessments of climate change.

  13. Challenging the claims on the potential of biochar to mitigate climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francischinelli Rittl, T.

    2015-01-01

    Summary

    In this PhD thesis I studied the influence of biochar discourses on the political practices in Brazil and the impact of biochar on soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks, thus contributing to the current debate on the potential of biochar to mitigate climate change. Biochar is the solid

  14. The effect of young biochar on soil respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    The low temperature pyrolysis of organic material produces biochar, a charcoal like substance. Biochar is being promoted as a soil amendment to enhance soil quality, it is also seen as a mechanism of long-term sequestration of carbon. Our experiments tested the hypothesis that biochar is inert in so...

  15. Earthworms Contribute to Increased Turnover in Biochar Amended Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    With increased interest in bioenergy production from pyrolysis, biochar is likely to become a widely available co-product. Research on using biochar as a source of fertility or to increase carbon sequestration is growing; however, land application of biochar is likely to impact the biotic component...

  16. Synthesis of multiwalled carbon nanotube from different grades of carbon black using arc discharge method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arora, Neha, E-mail: n4neha31@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani (India); Sharma, N. N. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani (India); Director, School of Automobile, Mechanical & Mechatronics, Manipal University,Jaipur,India (India)

    2016-04-13

    This paper describes the synthesis of nanotube from different grades (Tread * A(non-ASTM), N134,N121,N660 and N330)of carbon black using DC arc discharge method at 40A current for 60sec. Carbon black samples of different grades were procured from industry (Aditya Birla Science and Technology Limited, India). Scanning Electron Micrographs (SEM) of the deposited carbon nanostructures suggests that MWCNTs are formed at 40A and for a minimal exposure time of 60sec.The result formed indicates the N330 grade of carbon black gets converted to MWCNTs (Multiwall Carbon nanotube) as compared to other grades.

  17. Adsorption of Remazol Black B dye on Activated Carbon Felt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donnaperna Lucio

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of Remazol Black B (anionic dye on a microporous activated carbon felt is investigated from its aqueous solution. The surface chemistry of activated carbon is studied using X-ray microanalysis, "Boehm" titrations and pH of PZC measurements which indicates that the surface oxygenated groups are mainly acidic in nature. The kinetics of Remazol Black B adsorption is observed to be pH dependent and governed by the diffusion of the dye molecules. The experimental data can be explained by "intra-particle diffusion model". For Remazol Black B, the Khan model is best suited to simulate the adsorption isotherms.

  18. A Comparison of Producer Gas, Biochar, and Activated Carbon from Two Distributed Scale Thermochemical Conversion Systems Used to Process Forest Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel Anderson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermochemical biomass conversion systems have the potential to produce heat, power, fuels and other products from forest biomass at distributed scales that meet the needs of some forest industry facilities. However, many of these systems have not been deployed in this sector and the products they produce from forest biomass have not been adequately described or characterized with regards to chemical properties, possible uses, and markets. This paper characterizes the producer gas, biochar, and activated carbon of a 700 kg h−1 prototype gasification system and a 225 kg h−1 pyrolysis system used to process coniferous sawmill and forest residues. Producer gas from sawmill residues processed with the gasifier had higher energy content than gas from forest residues, with averages of 12.4 MJ m−3 and 9.8 MJ m−3, respectively. Gases from the pyrolysis system averaged 1.3 MJ m−3 for mill residues and 2.5 MJ m−3 for forest residues. Biochars produced have similar particle size distributions and bulk density, but vary in pH and carbon content. Biochars from both systems were successfully activated using steam activation, with resulting BET surface area in the range of commercial activated carbon. Results are discussed in the context of co-locating these systems with forest industry operations.

  19. Biochar from Biomass and its Potential Agronomic and Environmental Use in Washington: A Promising Alternative to Drawdown Carbon from the Atmosphere and Develop a New Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amonette, James E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Garcia-Perez, Manuel [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Sjoding, David [Washington State Energy Program Office, Olympia, WA (United States); Fuchs, Mark R. [Washington Dept. of Ecology, Spokane, WA (United States)

    2016-03-04

    Climate change is one of the most serious issues facing the world today. Increasing concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other long-lived greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere continue to warm the planet and destabilize the climate. It has been estimated that the impact from this warming could cost the state 10 billion per year by 2020, and 16 billion per year by 2040. Long-term solutions to the climate problem likely will require that large quantities of CO2 be removed from the atmosphere. In fact, massive CO2 drawdowns from the atmosphere have occurred in earth’s recent past from events occurring in our hemisphere. Studies of those analogs provide insight into the potential magnitude for specific actions to drawdown significant CO2 from the atmosphere. One of these potential actions is the large-scale production of biochar from abundant woody biomass waste and its storage in soils, where it remains stable for hundreds to thousands of years. Moreover, for the carbon emission intensity of Washington’s fuel mix, biochar production from biomass is twice as effective in offsetting GHG emissions as complete biomass combustion of the same biomass. Washington State has large quantities of wood waste biomass that could be purposed for production of combined heat/power/biochar (CHPB) through existing biomass boilers. We propose to 1) evaluate the quantities of Washington wood waste biomass, 2) inventory existing boiler capacity and assess the technical merits and challenges to repurpose the boilers to CHPB, and 3) apply literature values and analog biochar examples to better quantify the extent of CO2 drawdown that could be achieved in Washington State over the next century using engineered biochar. This white paper explores the potential to replicate the historical drawdowns of atmospheric CO2, a topic the authors think should be part of current climate-change mitigation discussions. This

  20. A Community Network of 100 Black Carbon Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preble, C.; Kirchstetter, T.; Caubel, J.; Cados, T.; Keeling, C.; Chang, S.

    2017-12-01

    We developed a low-cost black carbon sensor, field tested its performance, and then built and deployed a network of 100 sensors in West Oakland, California. We operated the network for 100 days beginning mid-May 2017 to measure spatially resolved black carbon concentrations throughout the community. West Oakland is a San Francisco Bay Area mixed residential and industrial community that is adjacent to regional port and rail yard facilities and surrounded by major freeways. As such, the community is affected by diesel particulate matter emissions from heavy-duty diesel trucks, locomotives, and ships associated with freight movement. In partnership with Environmental Defense Fund, the Bay Area Air Quality Management District, and the West Oakland Environmental Indicators Project, we deployed the black carbon monitoring network outside of residences and business, along truck routes and arterial streets, and at upwind locations. The sensor employs the filter-based light transmission method to measure black carbon and has good precision and correspondence with current commercial black carbon instruments. Throughout the 100-day period, each of the 100 sensors transmitted data via a cellular network. A MySQL database was built to receive and manage the data in real-time. The database included diagnostic features to monitor each sensor's operational status and facilitate the maintenance of the network. Spatial and temporal patterns in black carbon concentrations will be presented, including patterns around industrial facilities, freeways, and truck routes, as well as the relationship between neighborhood concentrations and the BAAQMD's monitoring site. Lessons learned during this first of its kind black carbon monitoring network will also be shared.

  1. Phenanthrene sorption on biochar-amended soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahawaththa Gamage, Inoka Damayanthi Kumari; Moldrup, Per; Paradelo Pérez, Marcos

    2014-01-01

    on their influences on the sorption of environmental contaminants. In a field-based study at two experimental sites in Denmark, we investigated the effect of birch wood-derived biochar (Skogans kol) on the sorption of phenanthrene in soils with different properties. The soil sorption coefficient, Kd (L kg-1......), of phenanthrene was measured on sandy loam and loamy sand soils which have received from zero up to 100 t ha-1 of biochar. Results show that birch wood biochar had a higher Kd compared to soils. Furthermore, the application of birch wood biochar enhanced the sorption of phenanthrene in agricultural soils...... carbon, while it negatively correlated with clay content. The results also revealed that biochar-mineral interactions play an important role in the sorption of phenanthrene in biochar-amended soil....

  2. Production of Biochar for Soil Application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mia, Shamim; Uddin, Nijam; Mamun Hossain, Al Shaikh Abdullah; Amin, Ruhul; Mete, Fatima Z.; Hiemstra, Tjisse

    2015-01-01

    Biochar has potentials for soil fertility improvement, climate change mitigation and environmental reclamation, and charred biomass can be deliberately incorporated into soil for long-term carbon stabilization and soil amendment. Many different methods have been used for biochar production

  3. Biochar for horticultural rooting media improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, Chris; Salm, van der Caroline; Hofland-Zijlstra, Jantineke; Streminska, Marta; Eveleens-Clark, Barbara; Regelink, Inge; Fryda, Lydia; Visser, Rianne

    2017-01-01

    Peat is used as rooting medium in greenhouse horticulture. Biochar is a sustainable alternative for the use of peat, which will reduce peat derived carbon dioxide emissions. Biochar in potting soil mixtures allegedly increases water storage, nutrient supply, microbial life and disease suppression

  4. Neutron scattering analysis of rubber carbon black composite structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjelm, R.P. Jr.; Wampler, W.A.; Gerspacher, M.

    1994-01-01

    We explore the uses of small-angle neutron scattering to dissect component form, structure and distribution in carbon black-reinforced rubber by varying the contrast of the system relative to some fluid by changing the fluid scattering-length density. This is the method of contrast variation. Contrast variation allows us to separate scattering contributions from the different components. Here, we extend our studies on high surface area (HSA) carbon black suspended in cyclohexane/deuterocyclohexane to HSA mixed with polyisoprene as a gel of ''bound'' rubber swollen with the same solvent mixtures. Contrast variation of swollen composite gels shows that there are two length scales in the gel structure. Above 1 nm fluctuations in the carbon black predominate. Interactions with elastomer hold the HSA aggregates appart. Below 1 nm the scattering is largely from the elastomer. The smooth surface structure of the carbon black is unaltered by the interactions with elastomer and appears smooth over length scales above about 1 nm. These results show that contrast variation can provide information on composite structure that is not available by other means. This information relates to the reinforcement mechanism of elastomers by carbon blacks

  5. Gravimetric determination of the iodine number of carbon black

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, L.J. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses a gravimetric method for the determination of the iodine adsorption number of carbon black. It comprises determining the concentration of an accurately weighed iodine blank solution by adding a standardized titrant to the iodine solution until a titration endpoint is reached and determining the concentration of the iodine solution by accurately weighing the amount of the standardized titrant necessary to reach the endpoint, accurately weighing an amount of carbon black and adding an appropriate amount of an accurately weighed portion of the iodine solution, equilibrating the carbon black-iodine solution mixture, adding the standardized titrant to an accurately weighed portion of the supernatant from the carbon black-iodine mixture until a titration endpoint is reached and determining the concentration of the supernatant by accurately weighing the amount of the standardized titrant necessary to reach the endpoint, wherein the titration endpoint of the supernatant is obtained using an indicating and a reference electrode, and calculating the iodine adsorption number of the carbon black based on the gravimetrically determined concentration of the titrant, the iodine solution, and the supernatant

  6. Effects of the amendment of biochars and carbon nanotubes on the bioavailability of hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) in soil to ecologically different species of earthworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing; Zhu, Hongkai; Sun, Hongwen; Xu, Jiayao

    2017-03-01

    Biochar is a promising material used in soil amendment and carbon nanotubes may enter soil due to its increasing application. These carbonaceous materials may change the bioavailability of pollutants in soil. In this concern, 0.5% w/w multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and 3 corn-straw biochars acquired at different pyrolyzing temperatures were used in soil amendment and their influences on the bioavailability of hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), a brominated flame retardant, to 2 ecologically different earthworm species were studied. The amendment of 4 carbonaceous materials all reduced the bioaccumulation of HBCDs in earthworms by 18.2%-67.3%, which varied depending on the type of carbonaceous materials and the pyrolyzing temperature of biochars. The reduction in HBCDs uptake by Eisenia fetida (an epigeic species) was greater than by Metaphire guillelmi (an anecic species). The 2 earthworm species both showed bioaccumulative selectivity on certain HBCD diastereoisomer and enantiomer in the amended soils, which was similar to that in the control soil. Moreover, Tenax-assisted HBCDs desorption test was carried out for the simulation of their bioavailability. The rapid desorption fraction (F rap ), total desorption (15 d), and 24 h desorption all correlated well with the uptake of HBCDs in the earthworms, suggesting that the 24 h-desorption, due to its easy availability, can be a good proxy to predict the bioavailability of HBCDs to earthworms in soil. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Understanding the fate of black (pyrogenic) carbon in soil: Preliminary results from a long term field trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Will; Ascough, Philippa; Bird, Michael; Large, David; Shen, Licheng; Snape, Colin

    2014-05-01

    Black carbon (BC, also known as pyrogenic carbon) is an 'inert' form of carbon and has been proposed as a means of long-term carbon sequestration, particularly by amending soils and sediments with BC known as biochar. While there is abundant anecdotal evidence of biochar stability over extended timescales it is essential to gain a greater understanding of the degree and mechanisms of biochar degradation in the environment. This study aims to quantitatively assess the stability of biochar by investigating samples from field degradation trials first buried during 2009 in a tropical soil, and recovered after 12 and 36 month intervals. Catalytic hydropyrolysis (HyPy) is a novel analytical tool for the isolation of BC [1] in which high hydrogen pressure (150 bar) and a sulphided Mo catalyst reductively remove the non-BC fraction of the chars, and so isolate the most stable portion of the biochar, defined as BC(HyPy). This method also allows for the non-BC(HyPy) fraction of a sample, which from charcoal is known to include small ring PAHs (soil depth and pH to be investigated. Char stability (as measured by BC(HyPy) content) is dependent on both the feedstock and temperature of formation. HyPy is known to discriminate (in terms of BC isolation) against low temperature chars, composed of relatively small aromatic clusters [1], resulting in the low BC(HyPy) contents reported for the 305°C chars. Fresh charcoals, and those not subject to environmental degradation have display a similar distribution of aromatic clusters in the non-BC(HyPy) fraction, with 2 to 7 ring PAHs abundant [2]. However, environmentally degraded charcoals such as that from a Chinese river sediment, and an Australian river estuary [3] show a more restricted distribution with markedly fewer 2- and 3- ring PAH structures apparent. This may be evidence for the partial solubilisation of the charcoal as observed for a forest soil [4] and suggested as a mechanism for the transport of BC to the oceans [5

  8. The Interfacial Behavior between Biochar and Soil Minerals and Its Effect on Biochar Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Zhao, Ling; Gao, Bin; Xu, Xiaoyun; Cao, Xinde

    2016-03-01

    In this study, FeCl3, AlCl3, CaCl2, and kaolinite were selected as model soil minerals and incubated with walnut shell derived biochar for 3 months and the incubated biochar was then separated for the investigation of biochar-mineral interfacial behavior using XRD and SEM-EDS. The XPS, TGA, and H2O2 oxidation were applied to evaluate effects of the interaction on the stability of biochar. Fe8O8(OH)8Cl1.35 and AlCl3·6H2O were newly formed on the biochar surface or inside of the biochar pores. At the biochar-mineral interface, organometallic complexes such as Fe-O-C were generated. All the 4 minerals enhanced the oxidation resistance of biochar surface by decreasing the relative contents of C-O, C═O, and COOH from 36.3% to 16.6-26.5%. Oxidation resistance of entire biochar particles was greatly increased with C losses in H2O2 oxidation decreasing by 13.4-79.6%, and the C recalcitrance index (R50,bicohar) in TGA analysis increasing from 44.6% to 45.9-49.6%. Enhanced oxidation resistance of biochar surface was likely due to the physical isolation from newly formed minerals, while organometallic complex formation was probably responsible for the increase in oxidation resistance of entire biochar particles. Results indicated that mineral-rich soils seemed to be a beneficial environment for biochar since soil minerals could increase biochar stability, which displays an important environmental significance of biochar for long-term carbon sequestration.

  9. Effect of sterilization on mineralization of straw and black carbon

    OpenAIRE

    Bobul'ská, Lenka; Bruun, Sander; Fazekašová, Danica

    2013-01-01

    The study was aimed at investigating the role of microorganisms in the degradation of BC (black carbon). CO evolution was measured under sterilized and non-sterilized soil using BC and straw amendments. Black carbon and straw were produced from homogenously C labelled roots of barley (Hordeum vulgare) with a specific activity 2.9 MBq g C. Production of BC was implemented at 300 °C for 24 h in a muffle oven, incubated in soil and C in the evolved CO was measured after 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 26 a...

  10. Electrical conductivity of compacts of graphene, multi-wall carbon nanotubes, carbon black, and graphite powder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marinho, B.; Gomes Ghislandi, M.; Tkalya, E.; Koning, C.E.; With, de G.

    2012-01-01

    The electrical conductivity of different carbon materials (multi-walled carbon nanotubes, graphene, carbon black and graphite), widely used as fillers in polymeric matrices, was studied using compacts produced by a paper preparation process and by powder compression. Powder pressing assays show that

  11. Synthesis, characterization, and environmental implications of graphene-coated biochar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Gao, Bin; Yao, Ying; Xue, Yingwen; Inyang, Mandu

    2012-10-01

    Biochar has attracted much research attention recently because of its potential applications in many environmental areas. In this work, the biochar technology was combined with the emerging graphene technology to create a new engineered graphene-coated biochar from cotton wood. The biomass feedstock was first treated with graphene/pyrene-derivative and was then annealed at 600°C in a quartz tube furnace under N(2) environment. Laboratory characterization with different microscopy and spectrometry tools showed that the graphene sheets were "soldered" by the pyrene molecules on the biochar surface during the annealing process. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that the graphene "skin" could improve the thermal stability of the biochar, making the engineered biochar a better carbon sequester for large scale land applications. Batch sorption experimental results indicated that the graphene-coated biochar has excellent adsorption ability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with a maximum methylene blue adsorption capacity of 174 mg g(-1), which is more than 20 times higher than that of the unmodified cotton wood biochar and comparable to those of some physically or chemically activated carbons. The enhanced adsorption of methylene blue on the graphene-coated biochar is mainly controlled by the strong π-π interactions between aromatic molecules and the graphene sheets on biochar surface. It is anticipated that this novel, facile, and low-cost method can be expanded to other carbon-rich materials to create engineered biochar for various environmental applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Using measurements for evaluation of black carbon modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gilardoni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The ever increasing use of air quality and climate model assessments to underpin economic, public health, and environmental policy decisions makes effective model evaluation critical. This paper discusses the properties of black carbon and light attenuation and absorption observations that are the key to a reliable evaluation of black carbon model and compares parametric and nonparametric statistical tools for the quantification of the agreement between models and observations. Black carbon concentrations are simulated with TM5/M7 global model from July 2002 to June 2003 at four remote sites (Alert, Jungfraujoch, Mace Head, and Trinidad Head and two regional background sites (Bondville and Ispra. Equivalent black carbon (EBC concentrations are calculated using light attenuation measurements from January 2000 to December 2005. Seasonal trends in the measurements are determined by fitting sinusoidal functions and the representativeness of the period simulated by the model is verified based on the scatter of the experimental values relative to the fit curves. When the resolution of the model grid is larger than 1° × 1°, it is recommended to verify that the measurement site is representative of the grid cell. For this purpose, equivalent black carbon measurements at Alert, Bondville and Trinidad Head are compared to light absorption and elemental carbon measurements performed at different sites inside the same model grid cells. Comparison of these equivalent black carbon and elemental carbon measurements indicates that uncertainties in black carbon optical properties can compromise the comparison between model and observations. During model evaluation it is important to examine the extent to which a model is able to simulate the variability in the observations over different integration periods as this will help to identify the most appropriate timescales. The agreement between model and observation is accurately described by the overlap of

  13. 磷酸二氢钙与生物质共热解提高生物炭固碳效果%Biomass co-pyrolysis with calcium dihydrogen phosphate improving carbon fixation of biochar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李飞跃; 张丽; 李孝良; 谢越; 王艳; 汪建飞

    2016-01-01

    Turning biomass wastes into biochar under low temperature and limited oxygen conditions has recently proven as a promising approach for long term carbon sequestration. In order to reveal the effects of mineral addition which is a pretreatment of biochar production on carbon retention and stability of biochar and provide an creative idea for further improvement of carbon sequestration potential by turning biomass into biochar. Calcium dihydrogen phosphate using as a typical mineral was added to sawdust and dairy manure feedstock at the ratio of 20% for biochar formation through co-pyrolysis treatment under lab condition, a typical slow pyrolysis process, heated in a Muffle Furnace at a speed of approximately 20℃/min under limited oxygen and held at 200 to 500℃ with every other 100℃ for 1 h. Moreover, two reliable methods were applied to test biochar stability: One was a simulated long-term stability method using chemical oxidation treatment to assess the labile fraction of C in biochar samples after hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) oxidation, this method was to determine the chemical stability of biochar; The other was simulated mineralization experiment to test the biochar's microbe-resistance stability, this method was to evaluate the biological stability of biochar in terms of microbial mineralization rate under simulated soil microbial conditions in a lab-scale experiment. The carbon retention was defined as the proportion of the original carbon, which was from plant photosynthesis by sequestrating the CO2 from atmosphere in feedstock, retained in the biochar after the pyrolysis. Compared with the original biochar, modified biochar produced with calcium dihydrogen phosphate addition to sawdust and dairy manure were increased by 31.3% and 26.1%, respectively; With H2O2 oxidation, the carbon loss of modified biochar produced with calcium dihydrogen phosphate addition to sawdust was reduced by 93.1%, compared with its unmodified biochar. However, the carbon loss of

  14. Biochar for Horticultural Rooting Media Improvement: Evaluation of Biochar from Gasification and Slow Pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Blok

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Peat is used as rooting medium in greenhouse horticulture. Biochar is a sustainable alternative for the use of peat, which will reduce peat derived carbon dioxide emissions. Biochar in potting soil mixtures allegedly increases water storage, nutrient supply, microbial life and disease suppression but this depends on feedstock and the production process. The aim of this paper is to find combinations of feedstock and production circumstances which will deliver biochars with value for the horticultural end user. Low-temperature (600 °C–750 °C gasification was used for combined energy and biochar generation. Biochars produced were screened in laboratory tests and selected biochars were used in plant experiments. Tests included dry bulk density, total pore space, specific surface area, phytotoxicity, pH, EC, moisture characteristics and microbial stability. We conclude that biochars from nutrient-rich feedstocks are too saline and too alkaline to be applied in horticultural rooting media. Biochars from less nutrient-rich feedstocks can be conveniently neutralized by mixing with acid peat. The influence of production parameters on specific surface area, pH, total pore space and toxicity is discussed. Biochar mildly improved the survival of beneficial micro-organisms in a mix with peat. Overall, wood biochar can replace at least 20% v/v of peat in potting soils without affecting plant growth.

  15. Effects of pyrolysis temperature on carbon retention and stability of biochar%热解温度对生物质炭碳保留量及稳定性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李飞跃; 汪建飞; 谢越; 李贺; 李孝良; 李粉茹

    2015-01-01

    以核桃壳为生物质炭生产原料,研究热解温度(200~700℃)对生物质炭产率、元素组成、表面官能团分布及其稳定性的影响,以期探明生物质炭基本性质随热解温度变化的规律,为全面了解生物质炭固碳减排效果提供理论参考。结果表明,生物质炭的C含量随温度升高而增加,H和O元素含量却随温度升高而降低。此外,生物质炭的H/C和O/C随着温度增加而减少。生物质炭的产率及碳保留量随着温度的升高而降低。红外光谱分析结果表明,经过热解核桃壳原材料分子中所含的-C-O和O-CH3基团消失,随着热解温度升高,生物质炭中的烷烃基团-CH逐渐减少,芳香化程度逐渐升高。500℃制备生物质炭的K2Cr2O7和KMnO4氧化碳损失量均最低,分别为10.4%和1.66%。相关分析表明,生物质炭的产率、碳保留量及稳定性与热解温度之间均具有显著相关关系。%Turning biomass wastes into biochar under the conditions of low temperature and limited oxygen has recently proven to be a promising approach for long-term carbon sequestration. However, the ultimate carbon sequestration efficiency of biochar depends not only on the feedstock type and production condition, but also on the environmental conditions of soil. In order to reveal the effects of pyrolysis temperature which is main parameter of biochar production condition on carbon retention and biochar stability, and provide more information for further improvement of carbon sequestration potential by turning biomass into biochar, the characteristics of biochar derived from walnut shell under lab condition were analyzed. During a typical slow pyrolysis process, the biochar was heated at a speed of approximately 20℃/minin a Muffle Furnace under limited oxygen and held at 200-700℃ for 2 h; then, biochar yield, elemental composition, functional groups distribution using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR

  16. Comparative DEMS study on the electrochemical oxidation of carbon blacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashton, Sean James; Arenz, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Publication year: 2012 Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 217 Sean J. Ashton, Matthias Arenz The intention of the study presented here is to compare the electrochemical oxidation tendencies of a pristine Ketjen Black EC300 high surface area (HSA) carbon black, and four graphitised counterparts...... heat-treated between 2100 and 3200 °C, such as those typically used as corrosion resistant carbon (CRC) supports for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) catalysts. A methodology combining cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS) is used, which allows......; however, CRC samples graphitised =2800 °C did not exhibit this same behaviour. Highlights ¿ We quantitatively determine electrooxidation of carbon support materials. ¿ We can distinguish between the total and partial electrooxidation. ¿ Non or mildly heat treated carbon forms passivating layer. ¿ Heat...

  17. Electrical conductivity of short carbon fibers and carbon black-reinforced chloroprene rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoshniat, A. R.; MirAli, M.; Hemmati, M.; Afshar Taromi, F.; Katbab, A.

    2002-01-01

    Elastomers and plastics are intrinsically insulating materials, but by addition of some conductive particles such as conductive carbon black, carbon fibers and metals, they can change to conductive form. Conductivity of these composites are due to formation of the lattices of conductive filler particles in polymer chains. In this report, conductivity of chloroprene rubber filled with carbon black and carbon fibers as a function of temperature and pressure are studied. Electrical conductivity of chloroprene in a function of temperature and pressure are studied. Electrical conductivity of chloroprene in the presence of carbon black with proper mixing conditions increases to the conductivity level of semiconductors and even in the presence of carbon fibers it increases to the level of a conductor material. Meanwhile, the sensitivity of this compound to heat and pressure rises. Thus these composites have found various applications in the manufacture of heat and pressure sensitive sensors

  18. Synthesis and luminescence of nanodiamonds from carbon black

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Shengliang; Tian Fei; Bai Peikang; Cao Shirui; Sun Jing; Yang Jing

    2009-01-01

    Dispersed nanodiamonds just several nanometers in diameter have been successfully synthesized using carbon black as the carbon source by a long-pulse-width laser irradiation in water at room temperature and normal pressure. The produced nanodiamonds can emit strong visible light after simple surface passivation. The light emission is attributed to the surface states related to linkage groups formed on nanodiamond surface. The surface-passivated nanodiamonds with stable photoluminescence have high potential application in bioimaging and medicine

  19. Exploration of biodegradation mechanisms of black carbon-bound nonylphenol in black carbon-amended sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Guanghuan; Sun, Mingyang; Ge, Xinlei; Xu, Xinhua; Lin, Qi; Lou, Liping

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate biodegradation mechanisms of black carbon (BC)-bound contaminants in BC-amended sediment when BC was applied to control organic pollution. The single-point Tenax desorption technique was applied to track the species changes of nonylphenol (NP) during biodegradation process in the rice straw carbon (RC)-amended sediment. And the correlation between the biodegradation and desorption of NP was analyzed. Results showed that microorganisms firstly degraded the rapid-desorbing NP (6 h Tenax desorption) in RC-amended sediment. The biodegradation facilitated the desorption of slow-desorbing NP, which was subsequently degraded as well (192 h Tenax desorption). Notably, the final amount of NP degradation was greater than that of NP desorption, indicating that absorbed NP by RC amendment can be degraded by microorganisms. Finally, the residual NP amount in RC-amended sediment was decided by RC content and its physicochemical property. Moreover, the presence of the biofilm was observed by the confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) so that microorganisms were able to overcome the mass transfer resistance and directly utilized the absorbed NP. Therefore, single-point Tenax desorption alone may not be an adequate basis for the prediction of the bioaccessibility of contaminants to microorganisms or bioremediation potential in BC-amended sediment. - Highlights: • Biodegradation mechanism of RC-bound NP in sediment was examined. • The microbe prioritized the degradation of NP in desorption fraction. • The microbe formed the biofilm to directly degrade part of non-desorbable NP. • Residual NP amount was decided by RC content and physicochemical property. • Quantifying biodegradation by bioavailability will underestimate the actual outcomes. - The microbes directly degrade the non-desorbable NP bound to amended RC, so quantifying the biodegradation only by desorption will underestimate the

  20. Electrochemical determination of copper ions in spirit drinks using carbon paste electrode modified with biochar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Paulo Roberto; Lamy-Mendes, Alyne C; Rezende, Edivaltrys Inayve Pissinati; Mangrich, Antonio Sálvio; Marcolino, Luiz Humberto; Bergamini, Márcio F

    2015-03-15

    This work describes for first time the use of biochar as electrode modifier in combination with differential pulse adsorptive stripping voltammetric (DPAdSV) techniques for preconcentration and determination of copper (II) ions in spirit drinks samples (Cachaça, Vodka, Gin and Tequila). Using the best set of the experimental conditions a linear response for copper ions in the concentration range of 1.5 × 10(-6) to 3.1 × 10(-5) mol L(-1) with a Limit of Detection (LOD) of 4.0 × 10(-7) mol L(-1). The repeatability of the proposed sensor using the same electrode surface was measured as 3.6% and 6.6% using different electrodes. The effect of foreign species on the voltammetric response was also evaluated. Determination of copper ions content in different samples of spirit drinks samples was also realized adopting inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and the results achieved are in agreement at a 95% of confidence level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Potential impacts of black carbon on the marine microbial community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malits, A.; Cattaneo, R.; Sintes, E.; Gasol, J.M.; Herndl, G.J.; Weinbauer, M.G.

    2015-01-01

    Black carbon (BC) is the carbonaceous residue of the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and biomass and encompasses a range of chemically heterogeneous substances from partly charred plant material to highly condensed soot aerosols. We addressed the potential role of BC aerosol deposition on

  2. Highly Loaded Carbon Black Supported Pt Catalysts for Fuel Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaluža, Luděk; Larsen, M.J.; Zdražil, Miroslav; Gulková, Daniela; Vít, Zdeněk; Šolcová, Olga; Soukup, Karel; Koštejn, Martin; Bonde, J.L.; Maixnerová, Lucie; Odgaard, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 256, NOV 1 (2015), s. 375-383 ISSN 0920-5861 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7HX13003 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 303466 - IMMEDIATE Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : carbon black * fuell cell * electrocatalyst Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry , Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 4.312, year: 2015

  3. Engineered carbon (biochar) prepared by direct pyrolysis of Mg-accumulated tomato tissues: characterization and phosphate removal potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ying; Gao, Bin; Chen, Jianjun; Zhang, Ming; Inyang, Mandu; Li, Yuncong; Alva, Ashok; Yang, Liuyan

    2013-06-01

    An innovative method was developed to produce engineered biochar from magnesium (Mg) enriched tomato tissues through slow pyrolysis in a N2 environment. Tomato plants treated with 25mM Mg accumulated much higher level of Mg in tissue, indicating Mg can be substantially enriched in tomato plants, and pyrolysis process further concentrated Mg in the engineered biochar (8.8% Mg). The resulting Mg-biochar composites (MgEC) showed better sorption ability to phosphate (P) in aqueous solutions compared to the other four tomato leaves biochars. Statistical analysis showed a strong and significant correlation between P removal rate and biochar Mg content (R(2)=0.78, and p<0.001), indicating the enriched Mg in the engineered biochar is the main factor controlling its P removal ability. SEM-EDX, XRD and XPS analyses showed that nanoscale Mg(OH)2 and MgO particles were presented on the surface of MgEC, which serve as the main adsorption sites for aqueous P. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of Carbonization Temperature on Physicochemical Properties of Biochar derived from Slow Pyrolysis of Durian Wood (Durio zibethinus Sawdust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaira Zaman Chowdhury

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to explore the influence of pyrolysis temperature on the physicochemical properties of biochar synthesized from durian wood (Durio zibethinus sawdust. Surface morphological features, including the porosity and BET surface area of biochars, provide appropriate dimensions for growing clusters of microorganisms with excellent water retention capacity in soil. Oxygen-containing surface functional groups play a vital role in improving soil fertility by increasing its cation and anion exchange capacities with reduced leaching of nutrients from the soil surface. Biochar was produced via slow pyrolysis of woody biomass (WS using a fixed bed reactor under an oxygen-free atmosphere at different pyrolysis temperatures (350, 450, and 550 °C. The biochars obtained were characterized using ultimate and proximate analyses, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET surface area, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The yield of biochar decreased from 66.46 to 24.56%, whereas the BET surface area increased sharply from 2.567 to 220.989 m2/g, when the pyrolysis temperature was increased from 350 to 550 °C. The results highlighted the effect of pyrolysis temperature on the structure of the biochar, which could be advantageous for agricultural industries.

  5. Snow darkening caused by black carbon emitted from fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Jessica; Kloster, Silvia; Bourgeois, Quentin

    2014-05-01

    We implemented the effect of snow darkening caused by black carbon (BC) emitted from forest fires into the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology Earth System Model (MPI-M ESM) to estimate its potential climate impact of present day fire occurrence. Considerable amounts of black carbon emitted from fires are transported into snow covered regions. Already very small quantities of black carbon reduce the snow reflectance, with consequences for snow melting and snow spatial coverage. Therefore, the SNICAR (SNow And Ice Radiation) model (Flanner and Zender (2005)) is implemented in the land surface component (JSBACH) of the atmospheric general circulation model ECHAM6, developed at the MPI-M. The SNICAR model includes amongst other processes a complex calculation of the snow albedo depending on black carbon in snow and snow grain growth depending on water vapor fluxes for a five layer snow scheme. For the implementation of the SNICAR model into the one layer scheme of ECHAM6-JSBACH, we used the SNICAR-online version (http://snow.engin.umich.edu). This single-layer simulator provides the albedo of snow for selectable combinations of impurity content (e.g. black carbon), snow grain size, and incident solar flux characteristics. From this scheme we derived snow albedo values for black carbon in snow concentrations ranging between 0 and 1500 ng(BC)/g(snow) and for different snow grain sizes for the visible (0.3 - 0.7 µm) and near infrared range (0.7 - 1.5 µm). As snow grains grow over time, we assign different snow ages to different snow grain sizes (50, 150, 500, and 1000 µm). Here, a radius of 50 µm corresponds to new snow, whereas a radius of 1000 µm corresponds to old snow. The required snow age is taken from the BATS (Biosphere Atmosphere Transfer Scheme, Dickinson et al. (1986)) snow albedo implementation in ECHAM6-JSBACH. Here, we will present an extended evaluation of the model including a comparison of modeled black carbon in snow concentrations to observed

  6. Bird specimens track 135 years of atmospheric black carbon and environmental policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBay, Shane G.; Fuldner, Carl C.

    2017-10-01

    Atmospheric black carbon has long been recognized as a public health and environmental concern. More recently, black carbon has been identified as a major, ongoing contributor to anthropogenic climate change, thus making historical emission inventories of black carbon an essential tool for assessing past climate sensitivity and modeling future climate scenarios. Current estimates of black carbon emissions for the early industrial era have high uncertainty, however, because direct environmental sampling is sparse before the mid-1950s. Using photometric reflectance data of >1,300 bird specimens drawn from natural history collections, we track relative ambient concentrations of atmospheric black carbon between 1880 and 2015 within the US Manufacturing Belt, a region historically reliant on coal and dense with industry. Our data show that black carbon levels within the region peaked during the first decade of the 20th century. Following this peak, black carbon levels were positively correlated with coal consumption through midcentury, after which they decoupled, with black carbon concentrations declining as consumption continued to rise. The precipitous drop in atmospheric black carbon at midcentury reflects policies promoting burning efficiency and fuel transitions rather than regulating emissions alone. Our findings suggest that current emission inventories based on predictive modeling underestimate levels of atmospheric black carbon for the early industrial era, suggesting that the contribution of black carbon to past climate forcing may also be underestimated. These findings build toward a spatially dynamic emission inventory of black carbon based on direct environmental sampling.

  7. Biochar strategies as measures for climate protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bach, Martin; Wilske, Burkhard; Bai, Mo

    2014-01-01

    Biochar is advertised by stakeholders both public and private as an innovative interface in materials stream management which holds potential for added value in the fields of climate protection, energy, agriculture, soil improvement, and waste management. A number of factors must be considered in undertaking a comprehensive assessment and valuation for climate protection purposes of the option of a ''biochar strategy'', meaning carbon sequestration by biomass carbonisation (pyrolysis, HTC): biochar production and uptake capacities, energy and carbon balance, product stability, impact on soil functions and yield effects and, not least, economic aspects. This article addresses the more important of these factors.

  8. Characterization of Black Carbon Mixing State Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedlacek, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Davidovits, P. [Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA (United States); Lewis, E. R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Onasch, T. B. [Aerodyne Research, Billerica, MA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Interpreting the temporal relationship between the scattering and incandescence signals recorded by the Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2), Sedlacek et al. (2012) reported that 60% of the refractory black carbon containing particles in a plume containing biomass burning tracers exhibited non-core-shell structure. Because the relationship between the rBC (refractory black carbon) incandescence and the scattering signals had not been reported in the peer-reviewed literature, and to further evaluate the initial interpretation by Sedlacek et al., a series of experiments was undertaken to investigate black carbon-containing particles of known morphology using Regal black (RB), a proxy for collapsed soot, as the light-absorbing substance to characterize this signal relationship. Particles were formed by coagulation of RB with either a solid substance (sodium chloride or ammonium sulfate) or a liquid substance (dioctyl sebacate), and by condensation with dioctyl sebacate, the latter experiment forming particles in a core-shell configuration. Each particle type experienced fragmentation (observed as negative lagtimes), and each yielded similar lagtime responses in some instances, confounding attempts to differentiate particle morphology using current SP2 lagtime analysis. SP2 operating conditions, specifically laser power and sample flow rate, which in turn affect the particle heating and dissipation rates, play an important role in the behavior of particles in the SP2, including probability of fragmentation. This behavior also depended on the morphology of the particles and on the thermochemical properties of the non-RB substance. Although these influences cannot currently be unambiguously separated, the SP2 analysis may still provide useful information on particle mixing states and black carbon particle sources. This work was communicated in a 2015 publication (Sedlacek et al. 2015)

  9. 碳酸钾添加比例对玉米秸秆生物炭表面特性的影响%Effect of Potassium Carbonate Addition Rate on Surface Characteristics of Corn Stalk Derived Biochar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝凌; 王月瑛; 吕贻忠

    2017-01-01

    在600℃的热解温度下通过添加不同比例的碳酸钾制备活性生物炭.对比分析了碳酸钾活化生物炭(KBC)和普通生物炭(BC)的特性,包括生物炭红外光谱特征、表面官能团、比表面积和孔径分布及吸附动力学过程等.结果表明,经碳酸钾活化的生物炭比表面积大为提高,最高达到566 m2 g-1(KBC-2-600),而普通生物炭(BC600)的比表面积仅为86.8 m2 g-1,KBC600系列的介孔容积和微孔容积均显著高于BC600,介孔容积平均扩大了16倍,微孔容积平均扩大了4倍,同时提高了微孔率.经碳酸钾活化的生物炭表面官能团的数量和饱和度发生改变,在1256 cm-1~3414 cm-1处,官能团的总体含量均低于普通生物炭,酯类羰基消失,形成氢键的能力减弱,非饱和醚类增加,芳香性和非极性提高,此表面特征更有利于吸附非极性芳香类污染物.对萘吸附的动力学实验表明,BC600和KBC-4-600均适合以二级动力学模型拟合,经碳酸钾活化后,生物炭的吸附性能提高,颗粒内扩散模型拟合结果表明,经碳酸钾活化后,生物炭内部孔隙复杂程度和数量均得到提高.碳酸钾活化的生物炭表面性质优良,作为高效吸附剂用于修复非极性芳香类污染有很大潜力.%[Objective]In recent years,biochar as an environment-friendly material has been arousing more and more attention the world over. The use of biochar as an adsorbent has been proved to be an effective way in managing polluted soil and water. Ordinary biochar is quite low in specific surface area and underdeveloped in internal pore structure,which greatly affects adsorption efficiency of the biochar. Therefore,usually biochar needs activating for higher adsorption capacity. In this study,effect of the amendment of potassium carbonate on surface properties of biochar was studied.[Method]Activated biochar was prepared under 600℃ from corn stalk amended with potassium carbonate at a varying ratio

  10. Removing Gaseous NH3 Using Biochar as an Adsorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung S. Ro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ammonia is a major fugitive gas emitted from livestock operations and fertilization production. This study tested the potential of various biochars in removing gaseous ammonia via adsorption processes. Gaseous ammonia adsorption capacities of various biochars made from wood shaving and chicken litter with different thermal conditions and activation techniques were determined using laboratory adsorption column tests. Ammonia adsorption capacities of non-activated biochars ranged from 0.15 to 5.09 mg·N/g, which were comparable to that of other commercial activated carbon and natural zeolite. There were no significant differences in ammonia adsorption capacities of steam activated and non-activated biochars even if the surface areas of the steam activated biochars were about two orders of magnitude greater than that of non-activated biochars. In contrast, phosphoric acid activation greatly increased the biochar ammonia adsorption capacity. This suggests that the surface area of biochar did not readily control gaseous NH3 adsorption. Ammonia adsorption capacities were more or less linearly increased with acidic oxygen surface groups of non-activated and steam-activated biochars. Phosphoric acid bound to the acid activated biochars is suspected to contribute to the exceptionally high ammonia adsorption capacity. The sorption capacities of virgin and water-washed biochar samples were not different, suggesting the potential to regenerate spent biochar simply with water instead of energy- and capital-intensive steam. The results of this study suggest that non-activated biochars can successfully replace commercial activated carbon in removing gaseous ammonia and the removal efficiency will greatly increase if the biochars are activated with phosphoric acid.

  11. Potential climate impact of black carbon emitted by rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Martin; Mills, Michael; Toohey, Darin

    2010-12-01

    A new type of hydrocarbon rocket engine is expected to power a fleet of suborbital rockets for commercial and scientific purposes in coming decades. A global climate model predicts that emissions from a fleet of 1000 launches per year of suborbital rockets would create a persistent layer of black carbon particles in the northern stratosphere that could cause potentially significant changes in the global atmospheric circulation and distributions of ozone and temperature. Tropical stratospheric ozone abundances are predicted to change as much as 1%, while polar ozone changes by up to 6%. Polar surface temperatures change as much as one degree K regionally with significant impacts on polar sea ice fractions. After one decade of continuous launches, globally averaged radiative forcing from the black carbon would exceed the forcing from the emitted CO2 by a factor of about 105 and would be comparable to the radiative forcing estimated from current subsonic aviation.

  12. Electromagnetic properties of carbon black and barium titanate composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guiqin; Chen Xiaodong; Duan Yuping; Liu Shunhua

    2008-01-01

    Nanocrystalline carbon black/barium titanate compound particle (CP) was synthesized by sol-gel method. The phase structure and morphology of compound particle were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Raman spectrum measurements, the electroconductivity was test by trielectrode arrangement and the precursor powder was followed by differential scanning calorimetric measurements (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). In addition, the complex relative permittivity and permeability of compound particle were investigated by reflection method. The compound particle/epoxide resin composite (CP/EP) with different contents of CP were measured. The results show barium titanate crystal is tetragonal phase and its grain is oval shape with 80-100 nm which was coated by carbon black film. As electromagnetic (EM) complex permittivity, permeability and reflection loss (RL) shown that the compound particle is mainly a kind of electric and dielectric lossy materials and exhibits excellent microwave absorption performance in the X- and Ku-bands

  13. Carbon dioxide emissions from semi-arid soils amended with biochar alone or combined with mineral and organic fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, José M; Nieto, M Aurora; López-de-Sá, Esther G; Gascó, Gabriel; Méndez, Ana; Plaza, César

    2014-06-01

    Semi-arid soils cover a significant area of Earth's land surface and typically contain large amounts of inorganic C. Determining the effects of biochar additions on CO2 emissions from semi-arid soils is therefore essential for evaluating the potential of biochar as a climate change mitigation strategy. Here, we measured the CO2 that evolved from semi-arid calcareous soils amended with biochar at rates of 0 and 20tha(-1) in a full factorial combination with three different fertilizers (mineral fertilizer, municipal solid waste compost, and sewage sludge) applied at four rates (equivalent to 0, 75, 150, and 225kg potentially available Nha(-1)) during 182 days of aerobic incubation. A double exponential model, which describes cumulative CO2 emissions from two active soil C compartments with different turnover rates (one relatively stable and the other more labile), was found to fit very well all the experimental datasets. In general, the organic fertilizers increased the size and decomposition rate of the stable and labile soil C pools. In contrast, biochar addition had no effects on any of the double exponential model parameters and did not interact with the effects ascribed to the type and rate of fertilizer. After 182 days of incubation, soil organic and microbial biomass C contents tended to increase with increasing the application rates of organic fertilizer, especially of compost, whereas increasing the rate of mineral fertilizer tended to suppress microbial biomass. Biochar was found to increase both organic and inorganic C contents in soil and not to interact with the effects of type and rate of fertilizer on C fractions. As a whole, our results suggest that the use of biochar as enhancer of semi-arid soils, either alone or combined with mineral and organic fertilizers, is unlikely to increase abiotic and biotic soil CO2 emissions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Barrow Black Carbon Source and Impact Study Final Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, Tate [Baylor Univ., Waco, TX (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The goal of the Barrow Black Carbon Source and Impact (BBCSI) Study was to characterize the concentration and isotopic composition of carbonaceous atmospheric particulate matter (PM) at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement site in Barrow, AK. The carbonaceous component was characterized via measurement of the organic and black carbon (OC and BC) components of the total PM. To facilitate complete characterization of the particulate matter, filter-based collections were used, including a medium volume PM2.5 sampler and a high volume PM10 sampler. Thirty-eight fine (PM2.5) and 49 coarse (PM10) particulate matter fractions were collected at weekly and bi-monthly intervals. The PM2.5 sampler operated with minimal maintenance during the 12 month campaign. The PM10 sampler used for the BBCSI used standard Tisch hi-vol motors which have a known lifetime of ~1 month under constant use; this necessitated monthly maintenance and it is suggested that the motors be upgraded to industrial blowers for future deployment in the Arctic. The BBCSI sampling campaign successfully collected and archived 87 ambient atmospheric particulate matter samples from Barrow, AK from July 2012 to June 2013. Preliminary analysis of the organic and black carbon concentrations has been completed. This campaign confirmed known trends of high BC lasting from the winter through to spring haze periods and low BC concentrations in the summer.

  15. Contribution of Black Carbon Aerosol to Drying of the Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, T.; Shindell, D. T.; Samset, B. H.; Boucher, O.; Forster, P.; Hodnebrog, Ø.; Myhre, G.; Sillmann, J.; Voulgarakis, A.; Andrews, T.; Faluvegi, G.; Fläschner, D.; Iverson, T.; Kasoar, M.; Kharin, V. V.; Kirkevag, A.; Lamarque, J. F.; Olivié, D.; Richardson, T.; Stjern, C.; Takemura, T.; Zwiers, F. W.

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols affect cloud properties, radiative balance and thus, the hydrological cycle. Many studies have reported that precipitation has decreased in the Mediterranean since the mid-20th century, and investigated possible mechanisms. So far, however, the effects of aerosol forcing on Mediterranean precipitation remain largely unknown. Here we compare observed Mediterranean precipitation trends during 1951-2010 with responses to individual forcing in a set of state-of-the-art global climate models. Our analyses suggest that nearly one-third (30%) of the observed precipitation decrease may be attributable to black carbon forcing. The remainder is most strongly linked to forcing of well-mixed greenhouse gases (WMGHGs), with scattering sulfate aerosols having negligible impacts. Black carbon caused an enhanced positive North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)/Arctic Oscillation (AO)-like sea level pressure (SLP) pattern, characterized by higher SLP at mid-latitudes and lower SLP at high-latitudes. This SLP change diverted the jet stream and storm tracks further northward, reducing precipitation in the Mediterranean while increasing precipitation in Northern Europe. The results from this study suggest that future black carbon emissions may significantly affect regional water resources, agricultural practices, ecosystems, and economy in the Mediterranean region.

  16. Personal exposure to Black Carbon in transport microenvironments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dons, Evi; Int Panis, Luc; Van Poppel, Martine; Theunis, Jan; Wets, Geert

    2012-08-01

    We evaluated personal exposure of 62 individuals to the air pollutant Black Carbon, using 13 portable aethalometers while keeping detailed records of their time-activity pattern and whereabouts. Concentrations encountered in transport are studied in depth and related to trip motives. The evaluation comprises more than 1500 trips with different transport modes. Measurements were spread over two seasons. Results show that 6% of the time is spent in transport, but it accounts for 21% of personal exposure to Black Carbon and approximately 30% of inhaled dose. Concentrations in transport were 2-5 times higher compared to concentrations encountered at home. Exposure was highest for car drivers, and car and bus passengers. Concentrations of Black Carbon were only half as much when traveling by bike or on foot; when incorporating breathing rates, dose was found to be twice as high for active modes. Lowest 'in transport' concentrations were measured in trains, but nevertheless these concentrations are double the concentrations measured at home. Two thirds of the trips are car trips, and those trips showed a large spread in concentrations. In-car concentrations are higher during peak hours compared to off-peak, and are elevated on weekdays compared to Saturdays and even more so on Sundays. These findings result in significantly higher exposure during car commute trips (motive 'Work'), and lower concentrations for trips with motive 'Social and leisure'. Because of the many factors influencing exposure in transport, travel time is not a good predictor of integrated personal exposure or inhaled dose.

  17. Nanoscale interactions between engineered nanomaterials and black carbon (Biochar) in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineered nanomaterials (NMs) enter agricultural soils directly as additives in agrichemical formulations1 and indirectly as contaminants in municipal sewage sludge.2 NIFA has a vested interest in developing predictive models for the fate and nanotoxicity of NMs in agroecosystems. An understanding ...

  18. Black Carbon Measurements From Ireland's Transboundary Network (TXB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spohn, T. K.; Martin, D.; O'Dowd, C. D. D.

    2017-12-01

    Black Carbon (BC) is carbonaceous aerosol formed by incomplete fossil fuel combustion. Named for its light absorbing properties, it acts to trap heat in the atmosphere, thus behaving like a greenhouse gas, and is considered a strong, short-lived climate forcer by the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Carbonaceous aerosols from biomass burning (BB) such as forest fires and residential wood burning, also known as brown carbon, affect the ultra violet (UV) light absorption in the atmosphere as well. In 2016 a three node black carbon monitoring network was established in Ireland as part of a Transboundary Monitoring Network (TXB). The three sites (Mace Head, Malin Head, and Carnsore Point) are coastal locations on opposing sides of the country, and offer the opportunity to assess typical northern hemispheric background concentrations as well national and European pollution events. The instruments deployed in this network (Magee Scientific AE33) facilitate elimination of the changes in response due to `aerosol loading' effects; and a real-time calculation of the `loading compensation' parameter which offers insights into aerosol optical properties. Additionally, these instruments have an inbuilt algorithm, which estimates the difference in absorption in the ultraviolet wavelengths (mostly by brown carbon) and the near infrared wavelengths (only by black carbon).Presented here are the first results of the BC measurements from the three Irish stations, including instrument validation, seasonal variation as well as local, regional, and transboundary influences based on air mass trajectories as well as concurrent in-situ observations (meteorological parameters, particle number, and aerosol composition). A comparison of the instrumental algorithm to off-line sensitivity calculations will also be made to assess the contribution of biomass burning to BC pollution events.

  19. Pyrolysis temperature influences ameliorating effects of biochars on acidic soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Qing; Yuan, Jin-Hua; Xu, Ren-Kou; Li, Xing-Hui

    2014-02-01

    The biochars were prepared from straws of canola, corn, soybean, and peanut at different temperatures of 300, 500, and 700 °C by means of oxygen-limited pyrolysis.Amelioration effects of these biochars on an acidic Ultisol were investigated with incubation experiments, and application rate of biochars was 10 g/kg. The incorporation of these biochars induced the increase in soil pH, soil exchangeable base cations, base saturation, and cation exchange capacity and the decrease in soil exchangeable acidity and exchangeable Al. The ameliorating effects of biochars on acidic soil increased with increase in their pyrolysis temperature. The contribution of oxygen-containing functional groups on the biochars to their ameliorating effects on the acidic soil decreased with the rise in pyrolysis temperature, while the contribution from carbonates in the biochars changed oppositely. The incorporation of the biochars led to the decrease in soil reactive Al extracted by 0.5mol/L CuCl2, and the content of reactive Al was decreased with the increase in pyrolysis temperature of incorporated biochars. The biochars generated at 300 °C increased soil organically complexed Al due to ample quantity of oxygen-containing functional groups such as carboxylic and phenolic groups on the biochars, while the biochars generated at 500 and 700 °C accelerated the transformation of soil exchangeable Al to hydroxyl-Al polymers due to hydrolysis of Al at higher pH. Therefore, the crop straw-derived biochars can be used as amendments for acidic soils and the biochars generated at relatively high temperature have great ameliorating effects on the soils.

  20. Biochar effect on the mineralization of soil organic matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander Bruun

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to verify whether the addition of biochar to the soil affects the degradation of litter and of soil organic matter (SOM. In order to investigate the effect of biochar on the mineralization of barley straw, soil was incubated with 14C-labelled barley straw with or without unlabelled biochar. To investigate the effect of straw on the mineralization of biochar, soil was incubated with 14C-labelled biochar with or without straw. In addition, to investigate the effect of biochar on old SOM, a soil labelled by applying labelled straw 40 years ago was incubated with different levels of biochar. All experiments had a control treatment, without any soil amendment. The effect of biochar on the straw mineralization was small and nonsignificant. Without biochar, 48±0.2% of the straw carbon was mineralized within the 451 days of the experiment. In comparison, 45±1.6% of C was mineralized after biochar addition of 1.5 g kg-1. In the SOM-labelled soil, the organic matter mineralized more slowly with the increasing doses of biochar. Biochar addition at 7.7 g kg-1 reduced SOM mineralization from 6.6 to 6.3%, during the experimental period. The addition of 15.5 g kg-1 of biochar reduced the mineralized SOM to 5.7%. There is no evidence of increased degradation of either litter or SOM due to biochar addition; consequently, there is no evidence of decreased stability of SOM.

  1. High Altitude Emissions of Black Carbon Aerosols: Potential Climate Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satheesh, S. K.

    2017-12-01

    Synthesizing a series of ground-based and airborne measurements of aerosols over the Indian region during summer and pre-monsoon seasons have revealed the persistence of elevated absorbing aerosol layers over most of the Indian region; more than 50% of which located above clouds. Subsequent, in situ measurements of black carbon (BC) using high-altitude balloons, showed surprising layers with high concentrations in the middle and upper troposphere even at an altitude of 8 to 10 kms. Simultaneous measurements of the vertical thermal structure have shown localized warming due to BC absorption leading to large reduction in lapse rate and sharp temperature inversion, which in turn increases the atmospheric stability. This aerosol-induced stable layer is conducive for maintaining the black carbon layer longer at that level, leading thereby to further solar absorption and subsequently triggering dry convection. These observations support the `solar escalator' concept through which absorption-warming-convection cycles lead to self-lifting of BC to upper troposphere or even to lower stratosphere under favorable conditions in a matter of a few days. Employing an on-line regional chemistry transport model (WRF-Chem), incorporating aircraft emissions, it is shown that emissions from high-flying aircrafts as the most likely source of these elevated black carbon layers. These in-situ injected particles, produce significant warming of the thin air in those heights and lift these layers to even upper tropospheric/lower stratospheric heights, aided by the strong monsoonal convection occurring over the region, which are known to overshoot the tropical tropopause leading to injection of tropospheric air mass (along with its constituent aerosols) into the stratosphere, especially during monsoon season when the tropical tropopause layer is known to be thinnest. These simulations are further supported by the CALIPSO space-borne LIDAR derived extinction coefficient profiles. Based on

  2. Influence of carbon black distribution on performance of oxide cathodes for Li ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominko, Robert; Gaberscek, Miran; Drofenik, Jernej; Bele, Marjan; Jamnik, Janez

    2003-01-01

    The influence of carbon black content and carbon black distribution on performance of oxide-based cathodes, such as LiCoO 2 and LiMn 2 O 4 , is investigated. The electronic conductivity of oxide material/carbon black composites is compared with electrochemical characteristics of the same composites. Uniformity of carbon black distribution in cathode composites is achieved using novel coating technology in cathode preparation. In this technology, the active particles are first pretreated in a gelatin solution. The adsorbed gelatin then controls the deposition of carbon black so that carbon black particles are uniformly distributed in the final composite. The influence of various parameters, such as pH of gelatin, amount of gelatin and concentration of carbon black on the uniformity of carbon black distribution is investigated. It is shown that the conventional technology of cathode preparation yields quite non-uniform distribution of carbon black in cathode material. At the end, we demonstrate that uniformity of carbon black distribution has a crucial impact on reversible capacity, especially at high current densities

  3. The promises of the Amazonian soil: shifts in discourses of Terra Preta and biochar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlos Bezerra, J.; Turnhout, E.; Melo Vasquez, I.; Francischinelli Rittl, T.; Arts, B.J.M.; Kuijper, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Biochar – a carbon-rich product used as a soil conditioner – is among the more recent technologies in environmental governance. In the spirit of ecological modernisation, biochar is claimed to deliver multiple benefits for soil fertility and climate change mitigation. However, biochar has a long

  4. Opportunities and uses of biochar on forest sites in North America [Chapter 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Mark D. Coleman; Sean C. Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Biochar may be useful for restoring or revitalizing degraded forest soils and help with carbon sequestration, nutrient leaching losses, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, biochar is not currently widely used on forested lands across North America. This chapter provides an overview of several biochar experiments conducted in North America and discusses the...

  5. Toxicity assessment of carbon black waste: A by-product from oil refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhen, Xu; Ng, Wei Cheng; Fendy; Tong, Yen Wah; Dai, Yanjun; Neoh, Koon Gee; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Carbon black waste extract decreased cell viability in a dose and time-dependent manner. • Apoptosis of human cell lines was induced by carbon black waste extract. • Carbon black waste extract elicited oxidative stress by increasing intracellular ROS generation. • Carbon black waste extract impaired antioxidant enzymatic activities of human cell lines. • The high toxicity of carbon black waste extract could be attributed mainly to the effect of vanadium. - Abstract: In Singapore, approximately 30 t/day of carbon-based solid waste are produced from petrochemical processes. This carbon black waste has been shown to possess physical properties that are characteristic of a good adsorbent such as high external surface area. Therefore, there is a growing interest to reutilize and process this carbon black waste into secondary materials such as adsorbents. However, the carbon black waste obtained from petrochemical industries may contain heavy metals that are hazardous to human health and the environment, hence restricting its full potential for re-utilization. Therefore, it is important to examine the possible toxicity effects and toxicity mechanism of carbon black waste on human health. In this study, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) analysis showed that the heavy metals, vanadium (V), molybdenum (Mo) and nickel (Ni), were present in the carbon black waste in high concentrations. Three human cell lines (HepG2 cells, MRC-5 cells and MDA-MB-231 cells) were used to investigate the toxicity of carbon black waste extract in a variety of in vitro assays. Results from MTS assays indicated that carbon black waste extract decreased the viability of all three cell lines in a dose and time-dependent manner. Observations from confocal microscopy further confirmed this phenomenon. Flow cytometry assay also showed that carbon black waste extract induced apoptosis of human cell lines, and the level of apoptosis increased with

  6. Toxicity assessment of carbon black waste: A by-product from oil refineries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhen, Xu; Ng, Wei Cheng [NUS Environmental Research Institute, National University of Singapore, 1 Create Way, Create Tower #15-02, 138602 (Singapore); Fendy; Tong, Yen Wah [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 4, 117585 (Singapore); Dai, Yanjun [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Neoh, Koon Gee, E-mail: chenkg@nus.edu.sg [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 4, 117585 (Singapore); Wang, Chi-Hwa, E-mail: chewch@nus.edu.sg [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 4, 117585 (Singapore)

    2017-01-05

    Highlights: • Carbon black waste extract decreased cell viability in a dose and time-dependent manner. • Apoptosis of human cell lines was induced by carbon black waste extract. • Carbon black waste extract elicited oxidative stress by increasing intracellular ROS generation. • Carbon black waste extract impaired antioxidant enzymatic activities of human cell lines. • The high toxicity of carbon black waste extract could be attributed mainly to the effect of vanadium. - Abstract: In Singapore, approximately 30 t/day of carbon-based solid waste are produced from petrochemical processes. This carbon black waste has been shown to possess physical properties that are characteristic of a good adsorbent such as high external surface area. Therefore, there is a growing interest to reutilize and process this carbon black waste into secondary materials such as adsorbents. However, the carbon black waste obtained from petrochemical industries may contain heavy metals that are hazardous to human health and the environment, hence restricting its full potential for re-utilization. Therefore, it is important to examine the possible toxicity effects and toxicity mechanism of carbon black waste on human health. In this study, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) analysis showed that the heavy metals, vanadium (V), molybdenum (Mo) and nickel (Ni), were present in the carbon black waste in high concentrations. Three human cell lines (HepG2 cells, MRC-5 cells and MDA-MB-231 cells) were used to investigate the toxicity of carbon black waste extract in a variety of in vitro assays. Results from MTS assays indicated that carbon black waste extract decreased the viability of all three cell lines in a dose and time-dependent manner. Observations from confocal microscopy further confirmed this phenomenon. Flow cytometry assay also showed that carbon black waste extract induced apoptosis of human cell lines, and the level of apoptosis increased with

  7. Roles of black carbon on the fate of heavy metals and agrochemicals in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Char(coal) and other black carbon materials can comprise up to 35% of total organic carbon in US agricultural soils, and are known to strongly and often irreversibly bind contaminants including heavy metals. Black carbon has received renewed interests in recent years as a solid co-product formed du...

  8. Centennial black carbon turnover observed in a Russia steppe soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammes, K.; Torn, M.S.; Lapenas, A.G.; Schmidt, M.W.I.

    2008-09-15

    Black carbon (BC), from incomplete combustion of fuels and biomass, has been considered highly recalcitrant and a substantial sink for carbon dioxide. Recent studies have shown that BC can be degraded in soils. We use two soils with very low spatial variability sampled 100 years apart in a Russian steppe preserve to generate the first whole-profile estimate of BC stocks and turnover in the field. Quantities of fire residues in soil changed significantly over a century. Black carbon stock was 2.5 kg m{sup -2}, or about 7-10% of total organic C in 1900. With cessation of biomass burning, BC stocks decreased 25% over a century, which translates into a centennial soil BC turnover (293 years best estimate; range 182-541 years), much faster than so-called inert or passive carbon in ecosystem models. The turnover time presented here is for loss by all processes, namely decomposition, leaching, and erosion, although the latter two were probably insignificant in this case. Notably, at both time points, the peak BC stock was below 30 cm, a depth interval, which is not typically accounted for. Also, the quality of the fire residues changed with time, as indicated by the use benzene poly carboxylic acids (BPCA) as molecular markers. The proportions of less-condensed (and thus more easily degradable) BC structures decreased, whereas the highly condensed (and more recalcitrant) BC structures survived unchanged over the 100-year period. Our results show that BC cannot be assumed chemically recalcitrant in all soils, and other explanations for very old soil carbon are needed.

  9. Centennial black carbon turnover observed in a Russian steppe soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hammes

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Black carbon (BC, from incomplete combustion of fuels and biomass, has been considered highly recalcitrant and a substantial sink for carbon dioxide. Recent studies have shown that BC can be degraded in soils. We use two soils with very low spatial variability sampled 100 years apart in a Russian steppe preserve to generate the first whole-profile estimate of BC stocks and turnover in the field. Quantities of fire residues in soil changed significantly over a century. Black carbon stock was 2.5 kg m−2, or about 7–10% of total organic C in 1900. With cessation of biomass burning, BC stocks decreased 25% over a century, which translates into a centennial soil BC turnover (293 years best estimate; range 182–541 years, much faster than so-called inert or passive carbon in ecosystem models. The turnover time presented here is for loss by all processes, namely decomposition, leaching, and erosion, although the latter two were probably insignificant in this case. Notably, at both time points, the peak BC stock was below 30 cm, a depth interval, which is not typically accounted for. Also, the quality of the fire residues changed with time, as indicated by the use benzene polycarboxylic acids (BPCA as molecular markers. The proportions of less-condensed (and thus more easily degradable BC structures decreased, whereas the highly condensed (and more recalcitrant BC structures survived unchanged over the 100-year period. Our results show that BC cannot be assumed chemically recalcitrant in all soils, and other explanations for very old soil carbon are needed.

  10. Barrow Black Carbon Source and Impact Study Final Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, Tate

    2014-07-01

    The goal of the Barrow Black Carbon Source and Impact campaign was to characterize the concentration and isotopic composition of carbonaceous atmospheric particulate matter (PM) at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility site in Barrow, Alaska. The carbonaceous component was characterized by measuring the organic and black carbon (OC and BC) components of the total PM. To facilitate complete characterization of the PM, filter-based collections were used, including a medium volume PM2.5 sampler and a high volume PM10 sampler. Thirty-eight fine PM fractions (PM2.5) and 49 coarse (PM10) PM fractions were collected at weekly and bi-monthly intervals. The PM2.5 sampler operated with minimal maintenance during the 12 month campaign. The PM10 sampler used for the Barrow Black Carbon Source and Impact (BBCSI) study used standard Tisch “hi-vol” motors that have a known lifetime of approximately 1 month under constant use; this necessitated monthly maintenance, and it is suggested that, for future deployment in the Arctic, the motors be upgraded to industrial blowers. The BBCSI sampling campaign successfully collected and archived 87 ambient atmospheric PM samples from Barrow, Alaska, from July 2012 to June 2013. Preliminary analysis of the OC and BC concentrations has been completed. This campaign confirmed known trends of high BC lasting from the winter through to spring haze periods and low BC concentrations in the summer. However, the annual OC concentrations had a very different seasonal pattern with the highest concentrations during the summer, lowest concentrations during the fall, and increased concentrations during the winter and spring (Figure 1).

  11. Seasonal features of black carbon measured at Syowa Station, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, K.; Osada, K.; Yabuki, M.; Shiobara, M.; Yamanouchi, T.

    2015-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) is one of important aerosol constituents because the strong light absorption ability. Low concentrations of aerosols and BC let BC make insignificant contribution to aerosol radiative forcing in the Antarctica at the moment. Because of less or negligible source strength of BC in the Antarctic circle, BC can be used as a tracer of transport from the mid-latitudes. This study aims to understand seasonal feature, transport pathway, and origins of black carbon in the Antarctic coats. Black carbon measurement has been made using 7-wavelength aethalometer at Syowa Station, Antarctica since February, 2005. Mass BC concentrations were estimated from light attenuation by Weingartner's correction procedure (Weingartner et al., 2003) in this study. Detection limit was 0.2 - 0.4 ng/m3 in our measurement conditions (2-hour resolution and flow rate of ca. 10LPM). BC concentrations ranged from near detection limit to 55.7 ng/m3 at Syowa Station, Antarctica during the measurements. No trend has been observed since February, 2005. High BC concentrations were coincident with poleward flow from the mid-latitudes under the storm conditions by cyclone approach, whereas low BC concentrations were found in transport from coastal regions and the Antarctic continent. Considering that outflow from South America and Southern Africa affect remarkably air quality in the Southern Ocean of Atlantic and Indian Ocean sectors, BC at Syowa Station might be originated from biomass burning and human activity on South America and Southern Africa. Seasonal features of BC at Syowa Station shows maximum in September - October and lower in December - April. Spring maximum in September - October was obtained at the other Antarctic stations (Neumayer, Halley, South pole, and Ferraz). Although second maximum was found in January at the other stations, the maximum was not observed at Syowa Station.

  12. Application of biochar to soil and N2O emissions: potential effects of blending fast‐pyrolysis biochar with anaerobically digested slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Esben; Müller-Stöver, Dorette Sophie; Ambus, Per

    2011-01-01

    Soil applications of recalcitrant biochar offer the possibility of mitigating climate change effects through long‐term carbon sequestration and potentially also by reducing emissions of the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). This laboratory study examined the effect of combining a fast......‐pyrolysis biochar at small (1% by mass) and large (3%) concentrations with anaerobically digested slurry on soil N2O and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions over a period of 55 days. The results showed that fast‐pyrolysis biochar applied on its own increased N2O emissions from soil. However, when biochar was applied...... together with slurry, the larger biochar concentration decreased N2O emissions by 47%, relative to those from the slurry treatment with the smaller biochar concentration. Reduced N2O emissions coincided with enhanced soil microbial activity and immobilization of nitrogen. A combined application of biochar...

  13. Penelitian pengaruh campuran carbon black dan china clay terhadap sifat tegangan putus dan kekerasan karet vulkanisat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supraptiningsih Supraptiningsih

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been done a research of the influence of mixed carbon black and hardness properties on the vulcanization of rubber. It has been made with additive of carbon black and china clay mixed, in total variation. The result is seen that total variation of carbon black and china clay not influence to tensile strength, but their interacton can do it. The hardness of vulcanization of rubber will be influence by total variation of carbon black china clay anad their interaction.

  14. Electrical conductivity of conductive carbon blacks: influence of surface chemistry and topology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantea, Dana; Darmstadt, Hans; Kaliaguine, Serge; Roy, Christian

    2003-01-01

    Conductive carbon blacks from different manufacturers were studied in order to obtain some insight into the relation between their electrical conductivity and their surface properties. The surface chemistry was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and static secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), whereas the topology of the carbon black surface was investigated using low-pressure nitrogen adsorption. All these techniques yield information on the graphitic character of the surface. In general, the electrical conductivity of the conductive blacks increases with the graphitic character of the surface. For low surface area conductive blacks, the electrical conductivity correlates well with the surface chemistry. In the case of the XPS and SIMS data, this correlation is also valid when other types of carbon blacks such as thermal and furnace blacks are included, confirming the determining influence of the carbon black surface chemistry on the electrical conductivity

  15. Adsorption and catalytic hydrolysis of carbaryl and atrazine on pig manure-derived biochars: Impact of structural properties of biochars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Peng; Sun, Hongwen; Yu, Li; Sun, Tieheng

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► High ash content biochar can increase solution pH and released metal ions. ► Ash in biochar can combine pesticide through specific interactions. ► Composition and structure of biochar is favor for the hydrolysis of pesticides. -- Abstract: Biochars were produced from pig manure to elucidate the influence of biochars with high ash contents on the fate of pesticides. Adsorption and catalytic hydrolysis of carbaryl and atrazine on original biochars and deashed biochars were investigated. The two pesticides were substantially adsorbed by the biochars, with organic carbon normalized sorption coefficient (K oc ) values of 10 2.65 –10 3.66 L/kg for carbaryl and 10 1.90 –10 3.57 L/kg for atrazine at C e of 0.5 mg/L. Hydrophobic effect alone could not explain the sorption, and several other processes including pore-filling and π–π electron donor–acceptor interactions were involved in pesticide adsorption. Adsorption increased greatly on the deashed biochar, indicating that some organic sorption sites in the original biochars were blocked or difficult to access due to their interactions with inorganic moiety. The pesticides were found to hydrolyze faster in the presence of biochars, and in the presence of biochar pyrolyzed at 700 °C, carbaryl and atrazine were decomposed by 71.8% and 27.9% in 12 h, respectively. The elevated solution pH was the main reason for the enhanced hydrolysis; however both the mineral surface and dissolved metal ions released from the biochars were confirmed to catalyze the hydrolysis

  16. Adsorption and catalytic hydrolysis of carbaryl and atrazine on pig manure-derived biochars: Impact of structural properties of biochars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Peng, E-mail: phevos1983@yahoo.com.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Sun, Hongwen, E-mail: sunhongwen@nankai.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Yu, Li [MOE Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Sun, Tieheng [Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: ► High ash content biochar can increase solution pH and released metal ions. ► Ash in biochar can combine pesticide through specific interactions. ► Composition and structure of biochar is favor for the hydrolysis of pesticides. -- Abstract: Biochars were produced from pig manure to elucidate the influence of biochars with high ash contents on the fate of pesticides. Adsorption and catalytic hydrolysis of carbaryl and atrazine on original biochars and deashed biochars were investigated. The two pesticides were substantially adsorbed by the biochars, with organic carbon normalized sorption coefficient (K{sub oc}) values of 10{sup 2.65}–10{sup 3.66} L/kg for carbaryl and 10{sup 1.90}–10{sup 3.57} L/kg for atrazine at C{sub e} of 0.5 mg/L. Hydrophobic effect alone could not explain the sorption, and several other processes including pore-filling and π–π electron donor–acceptor interactions were involved in pesticide adsorption. Adsorption increased greatly on the deashed biochar, indicating that some organic sorption sites in the original biochars were blocked or difficult to access due to their interactions with inorganic moiety. The pesticides were found to hydrolyze faster in the presence of biochars, and in the presence of biochar pyrolyzed at 700 °C, carbaryl and atrazine were decomposed by 71.8% and 27.9% in 12 h, respectively. The elevated solution pH was the main reason for the enhanced hydrolysis; however both the mineral surface and dissolved metal ions released from the biochars were confirmed to catalyze the hydrolysis.

  17. Book review of biochar application: Essential soil microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biochar, charcoal produced following biomass pyrolysis, has the potential to positively impact soil physical and chemical properties, improving soil fertility and water holding capacity as well as adsorbing contaminants. In addition, a large proportion of biochar carbon is highly recalcitrant and s...

  18. Investigating biochar as a tool for mine soil remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biochar is a cost-effective, carbon negative soil amendment that can lead to improved soil quality. Research has also demonstrated the efficacy of biochar to sorb heavy metals and agricultural chemicals from contaminated soils, thus effectively reducing the potential for metal and chemical contamin...

  19. Sensitive method for dosing carboxylic functions of carbons and its application to the study of thermally processed carbon blacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardin, Jacques

    1968-01-01

    This research thesis reports the development of a sensitive method for the dosing of carboxylic functions present at the surface of carbon blacks, and the use of this method to study the evolution of a carbon black during heat treatments. After a brief description of modes of fabrication of carbon blacks and of their structure, the author proposes an overview of knowledge on their oxidation and functional analysis. After having outlined that existing methods do not allow the measurement of function quantities less than ten micro-equivalent per gram of carbon, the author reports the development of a method which allows such measurements. By using this method, the author shows that carboxylic groups of a carbon black, oxidized by air or not, decompose during degassing by forming carbon dioxide, and that, reciprocally, the released carbon dioxide is exclusively produced by the decomposition of carboxylic groups [fr

  20. An approach to a black carbon emission inventory for Mexico by two methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz-Núñez, Xochitl

    2014-01-01

    A black carbon (BC) emission inventory for Mexico is presented. Estimate was performed by using two approaches, based on fuel consumption and emission factors in a top-down scheme, and the second from PM25 emission data and its correlation with black carbon by source category, assuming that black carbon = elemental carbon. Results show that black carbon emissions are in interval 53–473 Gg using the fuel consumption approach and between 62 and 89 using the sector method. Black carbon key sources come from biomass burning in the rural sector, with 47 percent share to the National total. Mobile sources emissions account to 16% to the total. An opportunity to reduce, in the short-term, carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-eq) emissions by reducing black carbon emissions would be obtained in reducing emissions mainly from biomass burning in rural housing sector and diesel emissions in the transport sector with important co-benefits in direct radiative forcing, public health and air quality. - Highlights: • Black carbon emissions are estimated between 53 and 473 Gg/year on a fuel consumption method. • Black carbon emissions are estimated between 62 and 89 Gg/year on a sector method

  1. An approach to a black carbon emission inventory for Mexico by two methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz-Núñez, Xochitl, E-mail: xcruz@unam.mx

    2014-05-01

    A black carbon (BC) emission inventory for Mexico is presented. Estimate was performed by using two approaches, based on fuel consumption and emission factors in a top-down scheme, and the second from PM25 emission data and its correlation with black carbon by source category, assuming that black carbon = elemental carbon. Results show that black carbon emissions are in interval 53–473 Gg using the fuel consumption approach and between 62 and 89 using the sector method. Black carbon key sources come from biomass burning in the rural sector, with 47 percent share to the National total. Mobile sources emissions account to 16% to the total. An opportunity to reduce, in the short-term, carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-eq) emissions by reducing black carbon emissions would be obtained in reducing emissions mainly from biomass burning in rural housing sector and diesel emissions in the transport sector with important co-benefits in direct radiative forcing, public health and air quality. - Highlights: • Black carbon emissions are estimated between 53 and 473 Gg/year on a fuel consumption method. • Black carbon emissions are estimated between 62 and 89 Gg/year on a sector method.

  2. Upgrading pyrolytic residue from waste tires to commercial carbon black.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue; Li, Hengxiang; Cao, Qing; Jin, Li'e; Wang, Fumeng

    2018-05-01

    The managing and recycling of waste tires has become a worldwide environmental challenge. Among the different disposal methods for waste tires, pyrolysis is regarded as a promising route. How to effectively enhance the added value of pyrolytic residue (PR) from waste tires is a matter of great concern. In this study, the PRs were treated with hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids in turn under ultrasonic waves. The removal efficiency for the ash and sulfur was investigated. The pyrolytic carbon black (PCB) obtained after treating PR with acids was analyzed by X-ray fluorescence spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, X-ray diffractometry, laser Raman spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, and physisorption apparatus. The properties of PCB were compared with those of commercial carbon black (CCB) N326 and N339. Results showed PRs from waste tires were mainly composed of carbon, sulfur, and ash. The carbon in PCB was mainly from the CCB added during tire manufacture rather than from the pyrolysis of pure rubbers. The removal percentages for the ash and sulfur of PR are 98.33% (from 13.98 wt % down to 0.24 wt %) and 70.16% (from 1.81 wt % down to 0.54 wt %), respectively, in the entire process. The ash was mainly composed of metal oxides, sulfides, and silica. The surface properties, porosity, and morphology of the PCB were all close to those of N326. Therefore, PCB will be a potential alternative of N326 and reused in tire manufacture. This route successfully upgrades PR from waste tires to the high value-added CCB and greatly increases the overall efficiency of the waste tire pyrolysis industry.

  3. Evaluation of various carbon blacks and dispersing agents for use in the preparation of uranium microspheres with carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, R. D.; Johnson, J. A.; Collins, J. L.; McMurray, J. W.; Reif, T. J.; Brown, D. R.

    2018-01-01

    A comparison study on carbon blacks and dispersing agents was performed to determine their impacts on the final properties of uranium fuel kernels with carbon. The main target compositions in this internal gelation study were 10 and 20 mol % uranium dicarbide (UC2), which is UC1.86, with the balance uranium dioxide. After heat treatment at 1900 K in flowing carbon monoxide in argon for 12 h, the density of the kernels produced using a X-energy proprietary carbon suspension, which is commercially available, ranged from 96% to 100% of theoretical density (TD), with full conversion of UC to UC2 at both carbon concentrations. However, higher carbon concentrations such as a 2.5 mol ratio of carbon to uranium in the feed solutions failed to produce gel spheres with the proprietary carbon suspension. The kernels using our former baseline of Mogul L carbon black and Tamol SN were 90-92% of TD with full conversion of UC to UC2 at a variety of carbon levels. Raven 5000 carbon black and Tamol SN were used to produce 10 mol % UC2 kernels with 95% of TD. However, an increase in the Raven 5000 concentration led to a kernel density below 90% of TD. Raven 3500 carbon black and Tamol SN were used to make very dense kernels without complete conversion to UC2. The selection of the carbon black and dispersing agent is highly dependent on the desired final properties of the target kernels.

  4. Monumental heritage exposure to urban black carbon pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrón, D.; Lyamani, H.; Titos, G.; Casquero-Vera, J. A.; Cardell, C.; Močnik, G.; Alados-Arboledas, L.; Olmo, F. J.

    2017-12-01

    In this study, aerosol light-absorption measurements obtained at three sites during a winter campaign were used to analyse and identify the major sources of Black Carbon (BC) particles in and around the Alhambra monument, a UNESCO World Heritage Site that receives over 2 million visitors per year. The Conditional Bivariate Probability Function and the Aethalometer model were employed to identify the main sources of BC particles and to estimate the contributions of biomass burning and fossil fuel emissions to the total Equivalent Black Carbon (EBC) concentrations over the monumental complex. Unexpected high levels of EBC were found at the Alhambra, comparable to those measured in relatively polluted European urban areas during winter. EBC concentrations above 3.0 μg/m3, which are associated with unacceptable levels of soiling and negative public reactions, were observed at Alhambra monument on 13 days from 12 October 2015 to 29 February 2016, which can pose a risk to its long-term conservation and may cause negative social and economic impacts. It was found that road traffic emissions from the nearby urban area and access road to the Alhambra were the main sources of BC particles over the monument. However, biomass burning emissions were found to have very small impact on EBC concentrations at the Alhambra. The highest EBC concentrations were observed during an extended stagnant episode associated with persistent high-pressure systems, reflecting the large impact that can have these synoptic conditions on BC over the Alhambra.

  5. PTCR effect in carbon black/copolymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, L.C.; Chakki, A.; Achour, M.E.; Graca, M.P.F.

    2011-01-01

    Some materials show an abrupt increase in resistivity when the temperature changes only over a few degrees. This phenomenon, known as PTCR effect (positive temperature coefficient of resistivity), has been largely studied in the last few years, due to its potential applications in industry. Particularly, it can be used in auto controlled heaters, temperature sensors, protection circuits and in security systems for power electronic circuits. In this work we present the study of the electrical properties of the percolating system carbon black particles filled with ethylene butylacrylate copolymer composite (EBA), in the temperature range from -100 to 100 o C and in frequencies between 10 Hz and 100 kHz. The PTCR effect was observed at temperatures slightly above the room temperature, for concentrations higher than that of the percolation critical concentration. The mechanism responsible for the change in resistivity, at this stage, is predominantly tunnelling, wherein the conductive filler particles are not in physical contact, and the electrons tunnel through the insulating gap between them. At low temperatures, such as below and close to the glass transition temperature, the DC conductivity obeys the Arrhenius law. The calculated activation energy values are independent of carbon black contents inside the copolymer matrix, suggesting that these particles do not interact significantly with the chain segments of the macromolecules in the EBA copolymer.

  6. PTCR effect in carbon black/copolymer composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, L.C., E-mail: kady@fis.ua.p [I3N and Physics Department, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Chakki, A.; Achour, M.E. [LASTID, Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences, Ibn Tofail University, BP 133, 14000 Kenitra (Morocco); Graca, M.P.F. [I3N and Physics Department, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2011-01-15

    Some materials show an abrupt increase in resistivity when the temperature changes only over a few degrees. This phenomenon, known as PTCR effect (positive temperature coefficient of resistivity), has been largely studied in the last few years, due to its potential applications in industry. Particularly, it can be used in auto controlled heaters, temperature sensors, protection circuits and in security systems for power electronic circuits. In this work we present the study of the electrical properties of the percolating system carbon black particles filled with ethylene butylacrylate copolymer composite (EBA), in the temperature range from -100 to 100 {sup o}C and in frequencies between 10 Hz and 100 kHz. The PTCR effect was observed at temperatures slightly above the room temperature, for concentrations higher than that of the percolation critical concentration. The mechanism responsible for the change in resistivity, at this stage, is predominantly tunnelling, wherein the conductive filler particles are not in physical contact, and the electrons tunnel through the insulating gap between them. At low temperatures, such as below and close to the glass transition temperature, the DC conductivity obeys the Arrhenius law. The calculated activation energy values are independent of carbon black contents inside the copolymer matrix, suggesting that these particles do not interact significantly with the chain segments of the macromolecules in the EBA copolymer.

  7. Organic Biochar Based Fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Hans-Peter; Pandit, Bishnu Hari; Cornelissen, Gerard; Kammann, Claudia

    2017-04-01

    Biochar produced in cost-efficient flame curtain kilns (Kon-Tiki) was nutrient enriched either with cow urine or with dissolved mineral (NPK) fertilizer to produce biochar-based fertilizers containing between 60-100 kg N, 5-60 kg P2O5 and 60-100 kg K2O, respectively, per ton of biochar. In 21 field trials nutrient-enriched biochars were applied at rates of 0.5 to 2 t ha-1 into the root zone of 13 different annual and perennial crops. Treatments combining biochar, compost and organic or chemical fertilizer were evaluated; control treatments contained the same amounts of nutrients but without biochar. All nutrient-enriched biochar substrates improved yields compared to their respective no-biochar controls. Biochar enriched with dissolved NPK produced on average 20% ± 5.1% (N=4) higher yields than standard NPK fertilization without biochar. Cow urine-enriched biochar blended with compost resulted on average in 123% ± 76.7% (N=13) higher yields compared to the organic farmer practice with cow urine-blended compost and outcompeted NPK-enriched biochar (same nutrient dose) by 103% ± 12.4% (N=4) on average. 21 field trials robustly revealed that low-dosage root zone application of organic biochar-based fertilizers caused substantial yield increases in rather fertile silt loam soils compared to traditional organic fertilization and to mineral NPK- or NPK-biochar fertilization. This can likely be explained by the nutrient carrier effect of biochar causing a slow nutrient release behavior, more balanced nutrient fluxes and reduced nutrient losses especially when liquid organic nutrients are used for the biochar enrichment. The results promise new pathways for optimizing organic farming and improving on-farm nutrient cycling.

  8. An improved method for quantitatively measuring the sequences of total organic carbon and black carbon in marine sediment cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoming; Zhu, Qing; Zhou, Qianzhi; Liu, Jinzhong; Yuan, Jianping; Wang, Jianghai

    2018-01-01

    Understanding global carbon cycle is critical to uncover the mechanisms of global warming and remediate its adverse effects on human activities. Organic carbon in marine sediments is an indispensable part of the global carbon reservoir in global carbon cycling. Evaluating such a reservoir calls for quantitative studies of marine carbon burial, which closely depend on quantifying total organic carbon and black carbon in marine sediment cores and subsequently on obtaining their high-resolution temporal sequences. However, the conventional methods for detecting the contents of total organic carbon or black carbon cannot resolve the following specific difficulties, i.e., (1) a very limited amount of each subsample versus the diverse analytical items, (2) a low and fluctuating recovery rate of total organic carbon or black carbon versus the reproducibility of carbon data, and (3) a large number of subsamples versus the rapid batch measurements. In this work, (i) adopting the customized disposable ceramic crucibles with the microporecontrolled ability, (ii) developing self-made or customized facilities for the procedures of acidification and chemothermal oxidization, and (iii) optimizing procedures and carbon-sulfur analyzer, we have built a novel Wang-Xu-Yuan method (the WXY method) for measuring the contents of total organic carbon or black carbon in marine sediment cores, which includes the procedures of pretreatment, weighing, acidification, chemothermal oxidation and quantification; and can fully meet the requirements of establishing their highresolution temporal sequences, whatever in the recovery, experimental efficiency, accuracy and reliability of the measurements, and homogeneity of samples. In particular, the usage of disposable ceramic crucibles leads to evidently simplify the experimental scenario, which further results in the very high recovery rates for total organic carbon and black carbon. This new technique may provide a significant support for

  9. Effect of formation conditions on biochars: Compositional and structural properties of cellulose, lignin, and pine biochars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutherford, David W.; Wershaw, Robert L.; Rostad, Colleen E.; Kelly, Charlene N.

    2012-01-01

    The application of biochar to soil has been proposed as a long-term sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide in terrestrial ecosystems while providing improved soil fertility and increased crop production. Because biochar differs from the widely documented activated carbon, initial characterization information on effects of formation conditions on physical and chemical properties of biochar is important prior to its large-scale incorporation into soils. Plant biomass is composed primarily of cellulose and lignin. As a means of predicting biochar characteristics, samples of cellulose, lignin, and pine were charred under a nitrogen atmosphere at temperatures ranging from 250 °C to 500 °C for times ranging from 1 h to 168 h. Mass loss, elemental composition (carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen), Fourier transform infrared and 13 C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectra of the biochars produced were compared. Mass loss combined with NMR spectrometry showed that the initial rapid loss of material is attributed to aliphatic components, which are either lost or converted to aromatic carbon early in the charring process, and oxygen was lost more rapidly than carbon. The biomass contains a labile oxygen fraction that is quickly removed or lost upon initial heating, and a recalcitrant oxygen fraction which remains fixed in the char. If biochar is to be incorporated into agricultural soils, formation conditions should be tailored to optimize desirable characteristics, such as recalcitrance to degradation, soil fertility and pollutant sequestration, and minimize less desirable characteristics of degradability or low yield (mass loss). -- Highlights: ► Effects of formation conditions on physical and chemical properties of biochar. ► Cellulose, lignin, pine charred under inert atmosphere at various times and temperatures. ► Mass loss, elemental composition (C, H, and O), FTIR, NMR spectra compared. ► Aliphatic components either lost or converted to aromatic carbon early in

  10. Biochar-Induced Changes in Soil Hydraulic Conductivity and Dissolved Nutrient Fluxes Constrained by Laboratory Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Rebecca T.; Gallagher, Morgan E.; Masiello, Caroline A.; Liu, Zuolin; Dugan, Brandon

    2014-01-01

    The addition of charcoal (or biochar) to soil has significant carbon sequestration and agronomic potential, making it important to determine how this potentially large anthropogenic carbon influx will alter ecosystem functions. We used column experiments to quantify how hydrologic and nutrient-retention characteristics of three soil materials differed with biochar amendment. We compared three homogeneous soil materials (sand, organic-rich topsoil, and clay-rich Hapludert) to provide a basic understanding of biochar-soil-water interactions. On average, biochar amendment decreased saturated hydraulic conductivity (K) by 92% in sand and 67% in organic soil, but increased K by 328% in clay-rich soil. The change in K for sand was not predicted by the accompanying physical changes to the soil mixture; the sand-biochar mixture was less dense and more porous than sand without biochar. We propose two hydrologic pathways that are potential drivers for this behavior: one through the interstitial biochar-sand space and a second through pores within the biochar grains themselves. This second pathway adds to the porosity of the soil mixture; however, it likely does not add to the effective soil K due to its tortuosity and smaller pore size. Therefore, the addition of biochar can increase or decrease soil drainage, and suggests that any potential improvement of water delivery to plants is dependent on soil type, biochar amendment rate, and biochar properties. Changes in dissolved carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) fluxes also differed; with biochar increasing the C flux from organic-poor sand, decreasing it from organic-rich soils, and retaining small amounts of soil-derived N. The aromaticity of C lost from sand and clay increased, suggesting lost C was biochar-derived; though the loss accounts for only 0.05% of added biochar-C. Thus, the direction and magnitude of hydraulic, C, and N changes associated with biochar amendments are soil type (composition and particle size) dependent

  11. Plant development effects of biochars from different raw materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cely, Paola; Méndez, Ana; Paz-Ferreiro, Jorge; Gascó, Gabriel

    2015-04-01

    Biochar can provide multiple benefits in the ecosystem. However, the presence of phytotoxic compounds in some biochars is an important concern that needs to be addressed and that depends on the raw material and the pyrolysis conditions used in biochar production. For example, sewage sludge biochars can have elevated heavy metal contents as they were present in the feedstock and were enriched during pyrolysis. Also during carbonization, some phytotoxic compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polyphenols or volatile organic compounds (VOCs) could be formed representing a risk of contamination to soils and crops. In this work we report the results from seed germination and plant development for three biochars prepared from wood, paper sludge plus wheat husks and sewage sludge. Five higher plant species (cress, lentils, cucumber, tomato and lettuce) were studied. Biochar from wood shows seed inhibition in several species and the paper sludge biochar on lettuce. For the rest, the effect on seed germination was positive. No inhibition of root growth was detected, but in some cases leaves and stems growth were inhibited. Our results are significant in terms of advancing or current understanding on the impacts of biochar on vegetative growth and linking those effects to biochar properties.

  12. Sources of uncertainties in modelling black carbon at the global scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vignati, E.; Karl, M.; Krol, M.C.; Wilson, J.; Stier, P.; Cavalli, F.

    2010-01-01

    Our understanding of the global black carbon (BC) cycle is essentially qualitative due to uncertainties in our knowledge of its properties. This work investigates two source of uncertainties in modelling black carbon: those due to the use of different schemes for BC ageing and its removal rate in

  13. Plasma polymerization surface modification of Carbon black and its effect in elastomers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathew, T.; Datta, Rabin; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Talma, Auke; Ooij, W.J.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.

    2011-01-01

    Surface modification of carbon black by plasma polymerization was aimed to reduce its surface energy in order to compatibilize the filler with various elastomers. A fullerenic carbon black was used for the modification process. Thermogravimetric analysis, wetting behavior with liquids of known

  14. Chemical evaluation of chars produced by thermochemical conversion (gasification, pyrolysis and hydrothermal carbonization) of agro-industrial biomass on a commercial scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedner, Katja; Rumpel, Cornelia; Steiner, Christoph; Pozzi, Alessandro; Maas, Robert; Glaser, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Technologies for agro-industrial feedstock utilization such as pyrolysis, gasification and hydrothermal carbonization at industrial scale develop rapidly. The thermochemically converted biomasses of these production technologies have fundamentally different properties controlled by the production technology. This is reflected by general properties such as pH or elemental composition. The 13 C NMR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and black carbon results confirmed these observations showing that hydrochars have lower proportions of aromatic compounds than biochars (less stable) but are rich in functional groups (higher cation exchange capacity) than biochars. Analyses of pollutants indicate that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as well as dioxin contents of most samples were under the threshold values recommended by International Biochar Initiative and European Biochar Certificate. In conclusion, biochars and hydrochars are entirely different from each other and these materials will probably have a complementary reaction in a soil environment. -- Highlights: • Production technologies influences fundamentally chemical properties of chars. • Carbonized materials have different behaviour in soil environment. • Environmental risk of chars is low with respect to PAH and dioxin contents. • Certification standard for biochars is not suitable for hydrochars. • Commercial scale reactors are able to produce high quality biochars according to the regulations of the EBC or IBI

  15. Towards Soil and Sediment Inventories of Black Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiello, C. A.

    2008-12-01

    A body of literature on black carbon (BC) concentrations in soils and sediments is rapidly accumulating, but as of yet, there are no global or regional inventories of BC in either reservoir. Soil and sediment BC inventories are badly needed for a range of fields. For example, in oceanography a global sediment BC inventory is crucial in understanding the role of biomass burning in the development of stable marine carbon reservoirs, including dissolved organic carbon and sedimentary organic carbon. Again in the marine environment, BC likely strongly impacts the fate and transport of anthropogenic pollutants: regional inventories of BC in sediments will help develop better environmental remediation strategies. In terrestrial systems well-constrained natural BC soil inventories would help refine ecological, agricultural, and soil biogeochemical studies. BC is highly sorptive of nutrients including nitrogen and phosphorous. The presence of BC in ecosystems almost certainly alters N and P cycling; however, without soil BC inventories, we cannot know where BC has a significant impact. BC's nutrient sorptivity and water-holding capacity make it an important component of agricultural soils, and some researchers have proposed artificially increasing soil BC inventories to improve soil fertility. Natural soil BC concentrations in some regions are quite high, but without a baseline inventory, it is challenging to predict when agricultural amendment will significantly exceed natural conditions. And finally, because BC is one of the most stable fractions of organic carbon in soils, understanding its concentration and regional distribution will help us track the dynamics of soil organic matter response to changing environmental conditions. Developing effective regional and global BC inventories is challenging both because of data sparsity and methodological intercomparison issues. In this presentation I will describe a roadmap to generating these valuable inventories.

  16. Correlation between rheological and mechanical properties of black PE100 compounds – Effect of carbon black masterbatch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Pircheraghi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Black PE100 compounds were prepared using a co-rotating twin screw extruder by addition of carbon black masterbatches containing 35–40 wt% carbon black and different polymer carriers to a pipe grade PE100 material with bimodal molecular weight distribution. Different properties of carbon black masterbatches and PE100 black compounds were evaluated using thermal, rheological and mechanical tests. Rheological results indicated an inverse correlation between melt flow index (MFI of masterbatch samples and storage modulus, complex viscosity and shear viscosity of black compounds, while flow instabilities of compounds were also postponed to higher shear rates. TGA indicated that masterbatch with highest value of MFI contained highest amount of low molecular weight lubricants which resulted in inhibition of strain hardening behavior in tensile test of its respective black compound unlike all other samples, reflecting possible suppressing of its long term resistance to slow crack growth. This behavior is attributable to facilitated crystallization and chain folding of longer chains in the presence of low molecular weight lubricants in this sample and consequently formation of thicker lamellas as confirmed by DSC, hence lowering density of entanglements in amorphous area and inhibition of strain hardening.

  17. Sustainable gasification–biochar systems? A case-study of rice-husk gasification in Cambodia, Part II: Field trial results, carbon abatement, economic assessment and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shackley, Simon; Carter, Sarah; Knowles, Tony; Middelink, Erik; Haefele, Stephan; Haszeldine, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    In part I we described the gasification technology and characterised the physio-chemical properties and environmental impacts of the rice husk char (RHC) by-product. In part II we present summary results from field trials using the RHC, and provide an estimate of the carbon abatement and economic evaluation of the system. Statistically significant yield increases are demonstrated for RHC addition in irrigated rice cultivation (33% increase in paddy rice yield for a 41.5 t (dry weight) RHC application per hectare). The carbon abatement from the RHC addition is approximately 0.42 t CO 2 t −1 rice husk; including energy generation from gasification this increases to ca. 0.86 tCO 2 t −1 . Assuming a carbon value of $5 t CO 2 t −1 , and agronomic value of $3 t −1 RHC based on the field trials, the economic value of the RHC varies from $9 t −1 (including only recalcitrant carbon) to $15 t −1 (including avoided emissions from energy production). We summarise results from parts I and II, concluding that the gasification–biochar system meets many of the criteria of sustainability, but requires better waste water management and more field trials to demonstrate repeatable agronomic efficacy of RHC application. - Highlights: ► Field trials show statistically significant rice yield increases using rice husk char (RHC). ► Carbon abatement of 0.42 t CO 2 t −1 rice husk from RHC production. ► Bioenergy generation via gasification gives carbon abatement of 0.44 t CO 2 t −1 husk. ► Total carbon abatement is therefore ca. 0.86 t CO 2 t −1 husk. ► Agronomic value from trials is $3 t −1 char; assuming $5 CO 2 t −1 , the total value of RHC is $9–$15 t −1 .

  18. Biochar has no effect on soil respiration across Chinese agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Zheng, Jufeng; Zhang, Dengxiao; Cheng, Kun; Zhou, Huimin; Zhang, Afeng; Li, Lianqing; Joseph, Stephen; Smith, Pete; Crowley, David; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Pan, Genxing

    2016-06-01

    Biochar addition to soil has been widely accepted as an option to enhance soil carbon sequestration by introducing recalcitrant organic matter. However, it remains unclear whether biochar will negate the net carbon accumulation by increasing carbon loss through CO2 efflux from soil (soil respiration). The objectives of this study were to address: 1) whether biochar addition increases soil respiration; and whether biochar application rate and biochar type (feedstock and pyrolyzing system) affect soil respiration. Two series of field experiments were carried out at 8 sites representing the main crop production areas in China. In experiment 1, a single type of wheat straw biochar was amended at rates of 0, 20 and 40 tha(-1) in four rice paddies and three dry croplands. In experiment 2, four types of biochar (varying in feedstock and pyrolyzing system) were amended at rates of 0 and 20 tha(-1) in a rice paddy under rice-wheat rotation. Results showed that biochar addition had no effect on CO2 efflux from soils consistently across sites, although it increased topsoil organic carbon stock by 38% on average. Meanwhile, CO2 efflux from soils amended with 40 t of biochar did not significantly higher than soils amended with 20 t of biochar. While the biochars used in Experiment 2 had different carbon pools and physico-chemical properties, they had no effect on soil CO2 efflux. The soil CO2 efflux following biochar addition could be hardly explained by the changes in soil physic-chemical properties and in soil microbial biomass. Thus, we argue that biochar will not negate the net carbon accumulation by increasing carbon loss through CO2 efflux in agricultural soils. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Directed Selection of Biochars for Amending Metal ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Approximately 500,000 abandoned mines across the U.S. pose a considerable, pervasive risk to human health and the environment. World-wide the problem is even larger. Lime, organic matter, biosolids and other amendments have been used to decrease metal bioavailability in contaminated mine wastes and to promote the development of a mine waste stabilizing plant cover. The demonstrated properties of biochar make it a viable candidate as an amendment for remediating metal contaminated mine soils. In addition to sequestering potentially toxic metals, biochar can also be a source of plant nutrients, used to adjust soil pH, improve soil water holding characteristics, and increase soil carbon content. However, methods are needed for matching biochar beneficial properties with mine waste toxicities and soil health deficiencies. In this presentation we will report on a study in which we used mine soil from an abandoned Cu and Zn mine to develop a three-step procedure for identifying biochars that are most effective at reducing heavy metal bioavailability. Step 1: a slightly acidic extract of the mine spoil soil was produced, representing the potentially available metals, and used to identify metal removal properties of a library of 38 different biochars (e.g., made from a variety of feedstocks and pyrolysis or gasification conditions). Step 2: evaluation of how well these biochars retained (i.e., did not desorb) previously sorbed metals. Step 3: laboratory evalua

  20. Indispensable role of biochar-inherent mineral constituents in its environmental applications: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoyun; Zhao, Yinghao; Sima, Jingke; Zhao, Ling; Mašek, Ondřej; Cao, Xinde

    2017-10-01

    Biochar typically consists of both carbon and mineral fractions, and the carbon fraction has been generally considered to determine its properties and applications. Recently, an increasing body of research has demonstrated that mineral components inherent in biochar, such as alkali or alkaline earth metals in the form of carbonates, phosphates, or oxides, could also influence the properties and thus the applications. The review articles published thus far have mainly focused on multiple environmental and agronomic applications of biochar, including carbon sequestration, soil improvement, environmental remediation, etc. This review aims to highlight the indispensable role of the mineral fraction of biochar in these different applications, especially in environmental applications. Specifically, it provides a critical review of current research findings related to the mineral composition of biochar and the effect of the mineral fraction on the physicochemical properties, contaminant sorption, carbon retention and stability, and nutrient bioavailability of biochar. Furthermore, the role of minerals in the emerging applications of biochar, as a precursor for fuel cells, supercapacitors, and photoactive components, is also summarized. Overall, inherent minerals should be fully considered while determining the most appropriate application for any given biochar. A thorough understanding of the role of biochar-bound minerals in different applications will also allow the design or selection of the most suitable biochar for specific applications based on the consideration of feedstock composition, production parameters, and post-treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Ultra-Low Carbon Emissions from Coal-Fired Power Plants through Bio-Oil Co-Firing and Biochar Sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Qi; Mba Wright, Mark; Brown, Robert C

    2015-12-15

    This study investigates a novel strategy of reducing carbon emissions from coal-fired power plants through co-firing bio-oil and sequestering biochar in agricultural lands. The heavy end fraction of bio-oil recovered from corn stover fast pyrolysis is blended and co-fired with bituminous coal to form a bio-oil co-firing fuel (BCF). Life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per kWh electricity produced vary from 1.02 to 0.26 kg CO2-eq among different cases, with BCF heavy end fractions ranging from 10% to 60%, which corresponds to a GHG emissions reduction of 2.9% to 74.9% compared with that from traditional bituminous coal power plants. We found a heavy end fraction between 34.8% and 37.3% is required to meet the Clean Power Plan's emission regulation for new coal-fired power plants. The minimum electricity selling prices are predicted to increase from 8.8 to 14.9 cents/kWh, with heavy end fractions ranging from 30% to 60%. A minimum carbon price of $67.4 ± 13 per metric ton of CO2-eq was estimated to make BCF power commercially viable for the base case. These results suggest that BCF co-firing is an attractive pathway for clean power generation in existing power plants with a potential for significant reductions in carbon emissions.

  2. Optical Properties of Small Ice Crystals with Black Carbon Inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X.; Geier, M.; Arienti, M.

    2013-12-01

    The optical properties of ice crystals play a fundamental role in modeling atmospheric radiation and hydrological cycle, which are critical in monitoring climate change. While Black Carbon (BC) is recognized as the dominant absorber with positive radiative forcing (warming) (Ramanathan & Carmichael, 2008), in-situ observations (Cappa, et al, 2012) indicate that the characterization of the mixing state of BC with ice crystals and other non-BC particles in global climate models (Ghan & Schwartz, 2007) needs further investigation. The limitation in the available mixing models is due to the drastically different absorbing properties of BC compared to other aerosols. We explore the scattering properties of ice crystals (in shapes commonly found in cirrus clouds and contrails - Yang, et al. 2012) with the inclusion of BC particles. The Discrete Dipole Approximation (DDA) (Yurkin & Hoekstra, 2011) is utilized to directly calculate the optical properties of the crystals with multiple BC inclusions, modeled as a distribution of spheres. The results are then compared with the most popular models of internal and external mixing (Liou, et al. 2011). The DDA calculations are carried out over a broad range of BC particle sizes and volume fractions within the crystal at the 532 nm wavelength and for ice crystals smaller than 50 μm. The computationally intensive database generated in this study is critical for understanding the effect of different types of BC inclusions on the atmosphere radiative forcing. Examples will be discussed to illustrate the modification of BC optical properties by encapsulation in ice crystals and how the parameterization of the BC mixing state in global climate models can be improved. Acknowledgements Support by Sandia National Laboratories' LDRD (Laboratory Directed Research and Development) is gratefully acknowledged. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of

  3. Comparative studies of industrial grade carbon black powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chawla, Komal, E-mail: komalchawla.rs@gmail.com; Chauhan, Alok P. S., E-mail: chauhan.alok@gmail.com, E-mail: alok.chauhan@alumni.stonybrook.edu [Department of Physics and Material Science and Engineering, Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, A-10, Sector-62, Noida-201307, UP, India. (India)

    2016-05-06

    Comparative studies of two dissimilar industrial grade Carbon Black (CB) powders (N375 and N405) were conducted. The structure, surface area and particle size are the three important characteristics of CB powder that determine their processability and application as filler in preparing rubber compounds. The powders were characterized for their structure using dibutyl phthalate absorption (DBPA), particle size via laser particle size analyzer and surface area by nitrogen adsorption method. The structural characterization showed that N405 had lower DBPA in comparison to N375, confirming low structure of N405 grade CB powder. It was observed from the particle size analysis that N375 was coarser than N405 grade CB. The total surface area values were determined by the BET method based on the cross sectional area of the nitrogen molecule. N375, a coarse grade CB powder with high structure, depicted less surface area as compared to N405.

  4. Black carbon and West African Monsoon precipitation. Observations and simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, J.; Adams, A.; Zhang, C.; Wang, C.

    2009-01-01

    We have recently investigated large-scale co-variability between aerosol and precipitation and other meteorological variables in the West African Monsoon (WAM) region using long term satellite observations and reanalysis data. In this study we compared the observational results to a global model simulation including only direct radiative forcing of black carbon (BC). From both observations and model simulations we found that in boreal cold seasons anomalously high African aerosols are associated with significant reductions in cloud amount, cloud top height, and surface precipitation. These results suggest that the observed precipitation reduction in the WAM region is caused by radiative effect of BC. The result also suggests that the BC effect on precipitation is nonlinear. (orig.)

  5. Enhancement of micropore filling of water on carbon black by platinum loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyajima, Naoya, E-mail: miyajima@yamanashi.ac.jp [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering, 4-3-11 Takeda, Kofu, Yamanashi 400-8511 (Japan); Hatori, Hiroaki [Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan); Radovic, Ljubisa R. [Department of Energy and Geo-Environmental Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Yamada, Yoshio [Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    Two kinds of typical carbons, carbon black and activated carbon fibers, were modified with platinum nanoparticles without changing their original pore structures. The surface properties of the modified carbons were investigated by measuring of water adsorption isotherms. Micropore filling of water was facilitated by the presence of platinum nanoparticles on the surface of the carbon black. On the other hand, such a filling effect was not observed in the case of the activated carbon fibers. A critical content and/or size of platinum nanoparticles could be required to promote efficiently the water adsorption.

  6. Effect of biochar amendment on compost organic matter composition following aerobic composting of manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, Nikolas; Subdiaga, Edisson; Orsetti, Silvia; de la Rosa, José María; Knicker, Heike; Schmidt, Hans-Peter; Kappler, Andreas; Behrens, Sebastian

    2018-02-01

    Biochar, a material defined as charred organic matter applied in agriculture, is suggested as a beneficial additive and bulking agent in composting. Biochar addition to the composting feedstock was shown to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and nutrient leaching during the composting process, and to result in a fertilizer and plant growth medium that is superior to non-amended composts. However, the impact of biochar on the quality and carbon speciation of the organic matter in bulk compost has so far not been the focus of systematic analyses, although these parameters are key to determine the long-term stability and carbon sequestration potential of biochar-amended composts in soil. In this study, we used different spectroscopic techniques to compare the organic carbon speciation of manure compost amended with three different biochars. A non-biochar-amended compost served as control. Based on Fourier-transformed infrared (FTIR) and 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy we did not observe any differences in carbon speciation of the bulk compost independent of biochar type, despite a change in the FTIR absorbance ratio 2925cm -1 /1034cm -1 , that is suggested as an indicator for compost maturity. Specific UV absorbance (SUVA) and emission-excitation matrixes (EEM) revealed minor differences in the extractable carbon fractions, which only accounted for ~2-3% of total organic carbon. Increased total organic carbon content of biochar-amended composts was only due to the addition of biochar-C and not enhanced preservation of compost feedstock-C. Our results suggest that biochars do not alter the carbon speciation in compost organic matter under conditions optimized for aerobic decomposition of compost feedstock. Considering the effects of biochar on compost nutrient retention, mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions and carbon sequestration, biochar addition during aerobic composting of manure might be an attractive strategy to produce a sustainable, slow

  7. Potentials to mitigate climate change using biochar - the Austrian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckman, Viktor J.; Klinglmüller, Michaela; Liu, Jay; Uzun, Basak B.; Varol, Esin A.

    2015-04-01

    Biomass utilization is seen as one of various promising strategies to reduce additional carbon emissions. A recent project on potentials of biochar to mitigate climate change (FOREBIOM) goes even a step further towards bioenergy in combination of CCS or "BECS" and tries to assess the current potentials, from sustainable biomass availability to biochar amendment in soils, including the identification of potential disadvantages and current research needs. The current report represents an outcome of the 1st FOREBIOM Workshop held in Vienna in April, 2013 and tries to characterize the Austrian perspective of biochar for climate change mitigation. The survey shows that for a widespread utilization of biochar in climate change mitigation strategies, still a number of obstacles have to be overcome. There are concerns regarding production and application costs, contamination and health issues for both producers and customers besides a fragmentary knowledge about biochar-soil interactions specifically in terms of long-term behavior, biochar stability and the effects on nutrient cycles. However, there are a number of positive examples showing that biochar indeed has the potential to sequester large amounts of carbon while improving soil properties and subsequently leading to a secondary carbon sink via rising soil productivity. Diversification, cascadic utilization and purpose designed biochar production are key strategies overcoming initial concerns, especially regarding economic aspects. A theoretical scenario calculation showed that relatively small amounts of biomass that is currently utilized for energy can reduce the gap between Austria's current GHG emissions and the Kyoto target by about 30% if biomass residues are pyrolized and biochar subsequently used as soil amendment. However, by using a more conservative approach that is representing the aims of the underlying FOREBIOM project (assuming that 10% of the annual biomass increment from forests is used for biochar

  8. A three-year experiment confirms continuous immobilization of cadmium and lead in contaminated paddy field with biochar amendment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bian, Rongjun; Joseph, Stephen; Cui, Liqiang; Pan, Genxing; Li, Lianqing; Liu, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Afeng; Rutlidge, Helen; Wong, Singwei; Chia, Chee; Marjo, Chris; Gong, Bin; Munroe, Paul; Donne, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Biochar significantly increased soil pH, organic matter and immobilized soil Cd and Pb. • Biochar treatment consistently reduced rice Cd and Pb content in three years. • Contaminated biochar from the study field contained much higher heavy metals than fresh biochar. • Biochar caused metal immobilization primarily due to the precipitation and surface adsorption. - Abstract: Heavy metal contamination in croplands has been a serious concern because of its high health risk through soil-food chain transfer. A field experiment was conducted in 2010–2012 in a contaminated rice paddy in southern China to determine if bioavailability of soil Cd and Pb could be reduced while grain yield was sustained over 3 years after a single soil amendment of wheat straw biochar. Contaminated biochar particles were separated from the biochar amended soil and microscopically analyzed to help determine where, and how, metals were immobilized with biochar. Biochar soil amendment (BSA) consistently and significantly increased soil pH, total organic carbon and decreased soil extractable Cd and Pb over the 3 year period. While rice plant tissues’ Cd content was significantly reduced, depending on biochar application rate, reduction in plant Pb concentration was found only in root tissue. Analysis of the fresh and contaminated biochar particles indicated that Cd and Pb had probably been bonded with the mineral phases of Al, Fe and P on and around and inside the contaminated biochar particle. Immobilization of the Pb and Cd also occurred to cation exchange on the porous carbon structure

  9. A three-year experiment confirms continuous immobilization of cadmium and lead in contaminated paddy field with biochar amendment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bian, Rongjun [Institute of Resources, Ecosystem and Environment of Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University, 1 Weigang, Nanjing 210095 (China); Joseph, Stephen [Institute of Resources, Ecosystem and Environment of Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University, 1 Weigang, Nanjing 210095 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Discipline of Chemistry, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Cui, Liqiang [Institute of Resources, Ecosystem and Environment of Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University, 1 Weigang, Nanjing 210095 (China); Pan, Genxing, E-mail: pangenxing@aliyun.com [Institute of Resources, Ecosystem and Environment of Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University, 1 Weigang, Nanjing 210095 (China); Li, Lianqing [Institute of Resources, Ecosystem and Environment of Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University, 1 Weigang, Nanjing 210095 (China); Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center for Solid Organic Waste Resource Utilization, Nanjing Agricultural University, 1 Weigang, Nanjing 210095 (China); Liu, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Afeng [Institute of Resources, Ecosystem and Environment of Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University, 1 Weigang, Nanjing 210095 (China); Rutlidge, Helen [Solid State and Elemental Analysis Unit, Mark Wainwright Analytical Centre, University of New South Wales, Kensington, NSW 2052 (Australia); Wong, Singwei [Electron Microscope Unit, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Chia, Chee [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Marjo, Chris; Gong, Bin [Solid State and Elemental Analysis Unit, Mark Wainwright Analytical Centre, University of New South Wales, Kensington, NSW 2052 (Australia); Munroe, Paul [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Donne, Scott [Discipline of Chemistry, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Biochar significantly increased soil pH, organic matter and immobilized soil Cd and Pb. • Biochar treatment consistently reduced rice Cd and Pb content in three years. • Contaminated biochar from the study field contained much higher heavy metals than fresh biochar. • Biochar caused metal immobilization primarily due to the precipitation and surface adsorption. - Abstract: Heavy metal contamination in croplands has been a serious concern because of its high health risk through soil-food chain transfer. A field experiment was conducted in 2010–2012 in a contaminated rice paddy in southern China to determine if bioavailability of soil Cd and Pb could be reduced while grain yield was sustained over 3 years after a single soil amendment of wheat straw biochar. Contaminated biochar particles were separated from the biochar amended soil and microscopically analyzed to help determine where, and how, metals were immobilized with biochar. Biochar soil amendment (BSA) consistently and significantly increased soil pH, total organic carbon and decreased soil extractable Cd and Pb over the 3 year period. While rice plant tissues’ Cd content was significantly reduced, depending on biochar application rate, reduction in plant Pb concentration was found only in root tissue. Analysis of the fresh and contaminated biochar particles indicated that Cd and Pb had probably been bonded with the mineral phases of Al, Fe and P on and around and inside the contaminated biochar particle. Immobilization of the Pb and Cd also occurred to cation exchange on the porous carbon structure.

  10. Composting-derived organic coating on biochar enhances its affinity to nitrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, Nikolas; Joseph, Stephen; Conte, Pellegrino; Albu, Mihaela; Obst, Martin; Borch, Thomas; Orsetti, Silvia; Subdiaga, Edisson; Behrens, Sebastian; Kappler, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Biochar is defined charcoal that is produced by the thermal treatment of biomass in the (partial) absence of oxygen (pyrolysis) for non-oxidative applications, especially in agriculture. Due to its high surface area and porous structure, it is suggested as a beneficial soil amendment to increase crop yields and to tailor biogeochemical cycles in agro-ecosystems to reduce both greenhouse gas emissions and nutrient leaching. While early research focused on single applications of large amounts of biochar (>10 t ha-1), economic and ecological boundaries as well as practical considerations and recent findings shifted the focus towards low-dose (˜1 t ha-1) and potentially repeated applications of nutrient-enriched biochars, i.e. biochar-based fertilizers in the root-zone. Thus, biochar must be "loaded" with nutrients prior to its use as a root-zone amendment. Co-composting is suggested as a superior method, as co-composted biochar was shown to promote plant growth and showed the desired slow release of nutrients such as nitrate ("nitrate capture", Kammann et al., 2015 SR5:11080). However, the underlying mechanisms are not understood and nitrate capture has been quantified only for isolated biochars but not for e.g. biochar-amended composts without prior separation of the biochar. In the present study, we used repeated extractions with 2 M KCl and found that up to 30% of the nitrate present in a biochar-amended compost is captured in biochar, although biochar was amended to the initial composting feedstock (manure) only at 4% (w/w). Additionally, we quantified nitrate capture by pristine biochar after soaking the biochar in NH4NO3 solution in the absence of any additional organic carbon and nitrate capture of separated co-composted biochar. Assuming pseudo-first order kinetics for biochar nitrate release, we found an increase of biochar's affinity to nitrate after co-composting. Spectro-microscopical investigations (scanning transmission electron microscopy with electron

  11. Characterization of black carbon in the ambient air of Agra, India: Seasonal variation and meteorological influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Pratima; Singh, Shalendra Pratap; Jangid, Ashok; Kumar, Ranjit

    2017-09-01

    This study characterizes the black carbon in Agra, India home to the Taj Mahal—and situated in the Indo-Gangetic basin. The mean black carbon concentration is 9.5 μg m-3 and, owing to excessive biomass/fossil fuel combustion and automobile emissions, the concentration varies considerably. Seasonally, the black carbon mass concentration is highest in winter, probably due to the increased fossil fuel consumption for heating and cooking, apart from a low boundary layer. The nocturnal peak rises prominently in winter, when the use of domestic heating is excessive. Meanwhile, the concentration is lowest during the monsoon season because of the turbulent atmospheric conditions and the process of washout by precipitation. The ratio of black carbon to brown carbon is less than unity during the entire study period, except in winter (December). This may be because that biomass combustion and diesel exhaust are major black carbon contributors in this region, while a higher ratio in winter may be due to the increased consumption of fossil fuel and wood for heating purposes. ANOVA reveals significant monthly variation in the concentration of black carbon; plus, it is negatively correlated with wind speed and temperature. A high black carbon mass concentration is observed at moderate (1-2 m s-1) wind speed, as compared to calm or turbulent atmospheric conditions.

  12. Biochar: a green sorbent to sequester acidic organic contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmund, Gabriel; Kah, Melanie; Sun, Huichao; Hofmann, Thilo

    2015-04-01

    Biochar is a carbon rich product of biomass pyrolysis that exhibits a high sorption potential towards a wide variety of inorganic and organic contaminants. Because it is a valuable soil additive and a potential carbon sink that can be produced from renewable resources, biochar has gained growing attention for the development of more sustainable remediation strategies. A lot of research efforts have been dedicated to the sorption of hydrophobic contaminants and metals to biochar. Conversely, the understanding of the sorption of acidic organic contaminants remains limited, and questions remain on the influence of biochar characteristics (e.g. ash content) on the sorption behaviour of acidic organic contaminants. To address this knowledge gap, sorption batch experiments were conducted with a series of structurally similar acidic organic contaminants covering a range of dissociation constant (2,4-D, MCPA, 2,4-DB and triclosan). The sorbents selected for experimentation included a series of 10 biochars covering a range of characteristics, multiwalled carbon nanotubes as model for pure carbonaceous phases, and an activated carbon as benchmark. Overall, sorption coefficient [L/kg] covered six orders of magnitude and generally followed the order 2,4-D pH dependent lipophilicity ratio (i.e. D instead of Kow), ash content and ionic strength are key factors influencing the sorption of acidic organic contaminants to biochars. Overall, the identified factors, as well as the environmental matrix, should be carefully considered when selecting the type of biochar for sequestration purposes.

  13. Accounting for black carbon lowers estimates of blue carbon storage services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Swee Theng; Gallagher, John B

    2018-02-07

    The canopies and roots of seagrass, mangrove, and saltmarsh protect a legacy of buried sedimentary organic carbon from resuspension and remineralisation. This legacy's value, in terms of mitigating anthropogenic emissions of CO 2 , is based on total organic carbon (TOC) inventories to a depth likely to be disturbed. However, failure to subtract allochthonous recalcitrant carbon overvalues the storage service. Simply put, burial of oxidation-resistant organics formed outside of the ecosystem provides no additional protection from remineralisation. Here, we assess whether black carbon (BC), an allochthonous and recalcitrant form of organic carbon, is contributing to a significant overestimation of blue carbon stocks. To test this supposition, BC and TOC contents were measured in different types of seagrass and mangrove sediment cores across tropical and temperate regimes, with different histories of air pollution and fire together with a reanalysis of published data from a subtropical system. The results suggest current carbon stock estimates are positively biased, particularly for low-organic-content sandy seagrass environs, by 18 ± 3% (±95% confidence interval) and 43 ± 21% (±95% CI) for the temperate and tropical regions respectively. The higher BC fractions appear to originate from atmospheric deposition and substantially enrich the relatively low TOC fraction within these environs.

  14. Physical and chemical characterization of waste wood derived biochars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yargicoglu, Erin N; Sadasivam, Bala Yamini; Reddy, Krishna R; Spokas, Kurt

    2015-02-01

    Biochar, a solid byproduct generated during waste biomass pyrolysis or gasification in the absence (or near-absence) of oxygen, has recently garnered interest for both agricultural and environmental management purposes owing to its unique physicochemical properties. Favorable properties of biochar include its high surface area and porosity, and ability to adsorb a variety of compounds, including nutrients, organic contaminants, and some gases. Physical and chemical properties of biochars are dictated by the feedstock and production processes (pyrolysis or gasification temperature, conversion technology and pre- and post-treatment processes, if any), which vary widely across commercially produced biochars. In this study, several commercially available biochars derived from waste wood are characterized for physical and chemical properties that can signify their relevant environmental applications. Parameters characterized include: physical properties (particle size distribution, specific gravity, density, porosity, surface area), hydraulic properties (hydraulic conductivity and water holding capacity), and chemical and electrochemical properties (organic matter and organic carbon contents, pH, oxidation-reduction potential and electrical conductivity, zeta potential, carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen (CHN) elemental composition, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heavy metals, and leachable PAHs and heavy metals). A wide range of fixed carbon (0-47.8%), volatile matter (28-74.1%), and ash contents (1.5-65.7%) were observed among tested biochars. A high variability in surface area (0.1-155.1g/m(2)) and PAH and heavy metal contents of the solid phase among commercially available biochars was also observed (0.7-83 mg kg(-1)), underscoring the importance of pre-screening biochars prior to application. Production conditions appear to dictate PAH content--with the highest PAHs observed in biochar produced via fast pyrolysis and lowest among the gasification

  15. Effect of Pinus radiata derived biochars on soil sorption and desorption of phenanthrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Honghua; Lin Kunde; Wang Hailong; Gan, Jay

    2010-01-01

    Biochars are anthropogenic carbonaceous sorbent and their influences on the sorption of environmental contaminants need to be characterized. Here we evaluated the effect of Pinus radiata derived biochars on soil sorption and desorption of phenanthrene. Two biochars separately produced at 350 o C and 700 o C and three soils were tested. Biochar amendment generally enhanced the soil sorption of phenanthrene. The biochar produced at 700 o C generally showed a greater ability at enhancing a soil's sorption ability than that prepared at 350 o C. The single-step desorption measurement showed an apparent hysteresis in biochar-amended soils. After 28 d equilibration, the sorptive capacity of biochar-amended soil (with an organic carbon content of 0.16%) significantly decreased. This study clearly suggested that biochar application enhanced soil sorption of hydrophobic organic compounds, but the magnitude of enhancement depended on the preparation of biochars, the indigenous soil organic carbon levels, and the contact time between soil and biochar. - Pinus radiata derived biochars influence soil sorption and desorption of phenanthrene.

  16. Black carbon emissions in Russia: A critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Meredydd; Kholod, Nazar; Kuklinski, Teresa; Denysenko, Artur; Smith, Steven J.; Staniszewski, Aaron; Hao, Wei Min; Liu, Liang; Bond, Tami C.

    2017-08-01

    This study presents a comprehensive review of estimated black carbon (BC) emissions in Russia from a range of studies. Russia has an important role regarding BC emissions given the extent of its territory above the Arctic Circle, where BC emissions have a particularly pronounced effect on the climate. We assess underlying methodologies and data sources for each major emissions source based on their level of detail, accuracy and extent to which they represent current conditions. We then present reference values for each major emissions source. In the case of flaring, the study presents new estimates drawing on data on Russia's associated petroleum gas and the most recent satellite data on flaring. We also present estimates of organic carbon (OC) for each source, either based on the reference studies or from our own calculations. In addition, the study provides uncertainty estimates for each source. Total BC emissions are estimated at 688 Gg in 2014, with an uncertainty range 401 Gg-1453 Gg, while OC emissions are 9224 Gg with uncertainty ranging between 5596 Gg and 14,736 Gg. Wildfires dominated and contributed about 83% of the total BC emissions: however, the effect on radiative forcing is mitigated in part by OC emissions. We also present an adjusted estimate of Arctic forcing from Russia's BC and OC emissions. In recent years, Russia has pursued policies to reduce flaring and limit particulate emissions from on-road transport, both of which appear to significantly contribute to the lower emissions and forcing values found in this study.

  17. Uptake mechanism for iodine species to black carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choung, Sungwook; Um, Wooyong; Kim, Minkyung; Kim, Min-Gyu

    2013-09-17

    Natural organic matter (NOM) plays an important role in determining the fate and transport of iodine species such as iodide (I(-)) and iodate (IO3(-)) in groundwater system. Although NOM exists as diverse forms in environments, prior iodine studies have mainly focused on uptake processes of iodide and iodate to humic materials. This study was conducted to determine the iodide and iodate uptake potential for a particulate NOM (i.e., black carbon [BC]). A laboratory-produced BC and commercial humic acid were used for batch experiments to compare their iodine uptake properties. The BC exhibited >100 times greater uptake capability for iodide than iodate at low pH of ~3, while iodide uptake was negligible for the humic acid. The uptake properties of both solids strongly depend on the initial iodine aqueous concentrations. After uptake reaction of iodide to the BC, X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy results indicated that the iodide was converted to electrophilic species, and iodine was covalently bound to carbon atom in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons present in the BC. The computed distribution coefficients (i.e., Kd values) suggest that the BC materials retard significantly the transport of iodide at low pH in environmental systems containing even a small amount of BC.

  18. Photo-lability of deep ocean dissolved black carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stubbins

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved black carbon (DBC, defined here as condensed aromatics isolated from seawater via PPL solid phase extraction and quantified as benzenepolycarboxylic acid (BPCA oxidation products, is a significant component of the oceanic dissolved organic carbon (DOC pool. These condensed aromatics are widely distributed in the open ocean and appear to be tens of thousands of years old. As such DBC is regarded as highly refractory. In the current study, the photo-lability of DBC, DOC and coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM; ultraviolet-visible absorbance were determined over the course of a 28 day irradiation of North Atlantic Deep Water under a solar simulator. During the irradiation DBC fell from 1044 ± 164 nM-C to 55 ± 15 nM-C, a 20-fold decrease in concentration. Dissolved black carbon photo-degradation was more rapid and more extensive than for bulk CDOM and DOC. The concentration of DBC correlated with CDOM absorbance and the quality of DBC indicated by the ratios of different BPCAs correlated with CDOM absorbance spectral slope, suggesting the optical properties of CDOM may provide a proxy for both DBC concentrations and quality in natural waters. Further, the photo-lability of components of the DBC pool increased with their degree of aromatic condensation. These trends indicate that a continuum of compounds of varying photo-lability exists within the marine DOC pool. In this continuum, photo-lability scales with aromatic character, specifically the degree of condensation. Scaling the rapid photo-degradation of DBC to rates of DOC photo-mineralisation for the global ocean leads to an estimated photo-chemical half-life for oceanic DBC of less than 800 years. This is more than an order of magnitude shorter than the apparent age of DBC in the ocean. Consequently, photo-degradation is posited as the primary sink for oceanic DBC and the apparent survival of DBC molecules in the oceans for millennia appears to be facilitated not by their

  19. Black Carbon at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaffe, Dan A. [Univ. of Washington, Bothell, WA (United States); Sedlacek, Arthur [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Laing, James R. [Univ. of Washington, Bothell, WA (United States)

    2017-03-01

    This campaign was initiated to measure refractory black carbon (rBC, as defined in Schwarz et al. (2010)) at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory (MBO) using the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility single-particle soot photometer (SP2; unit 54). MBO is a high-elevation site located on the summit of Mt. Bachelor in central Oregon, USA (43.979°N, 121.687°W, 2,763 meters ASL). This site is operated by Professor Dan Jaffe’s group at the University of Washington Bothell and has been used continuously as an atmospheric observatory for the past 12 years (Jaffe et al., 2005; Gratz et al., 2014). The location of MBO allows frequent sampling of the free troposphere along with a wide array of plumes from regional and distant sources. MBO is currently supported with funding from the National Science Foundation (NSF) to the Principal Investigator (PI; D. Jaffe) via the project “Influence of Free Tropospheric Ozone and PM on Surface Air Quality in the Western U.S.” (#1447832) covering the period 03/15/2015 to 02/28/2018. The SP2 instrument from Droplet Measurement Technologies provides particle-resolved measurements of rBC mass loading, size and mass distributions, and mixing state. The SP2 was installed at MBO on 6/27/2016 and ran through 9/23/2016. Additional measurements at MBO during this campaign included carbon monoxide (CO), fine particulate matter (PM1), aerosol light scattering coefficients (σscat) at three wavelengths using a TSI nephelometer, aerosol absorption coefficients (σabs) with the Brechtel tricolor absorption photometer (TAP), aerosol number size distributions with a scanning mobility particle sizer spectrometer (SMPS), and black carbon (eBC) with an aethalometer. BC data from this campaign have been submitted to the ARM Data Archive. Black carbon (BC) is the predominant light-absorbing aerosol constituent in the atmosphere, and is estimated to exert a positive radiative forcing second only to CO

  20. Production of bran castor biochar through slow pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pissinati de Rezende, E. I.; Mangrich, A. S.; Batista, M. G. F.; Toledo, J. M. S.; Novotny, E. H.

    2012-04-01

    Pyrolysis is a thermal process of great importance in the present context, since it constitutes a significant alternative to adequate use of organic waste. The principal products obtained in the pyrolysis of discarded biomass are bio-oil, biogas and biochar. Biochar, in turn, may play a relevant role when applied to the soil to sequester carbon and as a soil conditioner, a material comparable to organic matter of Indians Black Earths from the Amazon Region [1]. Seeking to determine the best methods of preparation of biochar, we studied the pyrolysis of bran castor residue of the Brazilian biodiesel industry. Eight samples, from FM1 to FM8, were prepared in a factorial design 23 using two temperature (300 and 350 °C), two heating velocity (5 and 10 °C min-1) and two period of heating (30 and 60 min). The eight samples were studied using the spectroscopy: EPR, FTIR, RMN, XPS, and elemental analysis. By elemental analysis, the samples that keep for lower temperature of pyrolysis, 300 °C, showed H/C and N/C ratios greater than the samples of 350 °C. That higher value can be attributed to chemical structure more aliphatic than aromatic mainly in the FM7 sample (V = 10 °C min-1, T = 300 °C, P = 30 min). The greater N/C ratio correlated with a superior amount of nitrogenous functions, presenting by both FM7 and FM4 samples, as determined by 13C NMR spectroscopy with absorptions in 175 ppm (amide) and 55 ppm (N-alkyl).

  1. Binder-Free and Carbon-Free Nanoparticle Batteries: A Method for Nanoparticle Electrodes without Polymeric Binders or Carbon Black

    KAUST Repository

    Ha, Don-Hyung; Islam, Mohammad A.; Robinson, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we have developed a new fabrication method for nanoparticle (NP) assemblies for Li-ion battery electrodes that require no additional support or conductive materials such as polymeric binders or carbon black. By eliminating

  2. Structure aggregation of carbon black in ethylene-propylene diene polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The modulus of filled and unfilled Ethylene-propylene diene rubber (EPDM vulcanizates was used to predict the shape-factor of carbon black aggregation in the polymer. Four types of carbon black that vary in particle size and structure were used in this study. Quadratic curves relating the carbon black volume concentration and the modulus ratio of filled and unfilled rubber vulcanizates were used to adopt the shape factor of certain carbon black type. The shape factor of MT, HAF, SRF and Lampblack were 3, 3.75, 4 and 4.25 respectively. X-ray diffraction technique (XRD was also used to evaluate the relative size of crystallite on the filler surface to that of the rubber and correlating it to the shape factor of carbon black aggregation in the polymer. Effect of the pH values and structure of carbon blacks used on the shape factor of filler aggregates were also studied. It was found that the shape factor is independent on the particle size while it is dependent on the pH value and structure of carbon black. Also the crystallites size of the filler is proportional to the shape factor.

  3. Biochar feedstock and pyrolysis temperature effects on leachate: DOC characteristics and nitrate losses from a Brazilian Cerrado Arenosol mixed with agricultural waste biochars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speratti, Alicia B; Johnson, Mark S; Sousa, Heiriane Martins; Dalmagro, Higo J; Couto, Eduardo Guimarães

    2018-04-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) leached from Brazilian Cerrado Arenosols can lead to carbon (C) losses and lower soil fertility, while excessive nutrient, e.g. nitrate (NO 3 - ), leaching can potentially cause water contamination. As biochar has been shown to stabilize C and retain soil nutrients, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to test different biochars' contributions to DOC and NO 3 - leaching from a sandy soil. Biochars were made from four local agricultural waste feedstocks (cotton residue, swine manure, eucalyptus sawmill residue, sugarcane filtercake) pyrolysed at 400, 500 and 600 °C. Biochar was mixed with soil at 5% weight in pots and maize seeds planted. Leachate was collected weekly for six weeks and analyzed for DOC and NO 3 - concentrations, while fluorescence spectroscopy with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) was used to interpret DOC characteristics. Cotton and swine manure biochar treatments had higher DOC and NO 3 - losses than eucalyptus biochar, filtercake biochar, and control treatments. Cotton and swine manure biochar treatments at high temperatures lost mostly terrestrial, humified DOC, while swine manure, filtercake, and eucalyptus biochars at low temperatures lost mostly labile, microbially-derived DOC. Through the practical use of fluorescence spectroscopy, our study identified filtercake and eucalyptus biochars as most promising for retaining DOC and NO 3 - in a Cerrado Arenosol, potentially reducing stable C and nutrient losses. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Biochar effects on soils: overview and knowledge gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheijen, F. G. A.; Jeffery, S.; Bastos, A. C.; van der Velde, M.

    2012-04-01

    One of the cornerstones of the sustainable biochar concept is to improve, or at least to not deteriorate, soil quality and functioning. The idea of global sustainable biochar systems, with biochar applied to global cropland and grassland soils, has highlighted limitations in: i) current scientific understanding of biochar interactions with soil components, ii) the capacity to assess ecosystem services provided by soils, and iii) the uncertainty in spatio-temporal representation of both (i) and (ii). Pyrolysis conditions and feedstock characteristics largely control the physico-chemical properties of the resulting biochar, which in turn determine the suitability for a given application. Soils are highly heterogeneous systems at a range of scales. Combinations of land use, soil management and changing climatic conditions further enhance this heterogeneity. While this leads to difficulties in identifying the underlying mechanisms behind reported effects in the scientific literature, it also provides an opportunity for 'critical matching' of biochar properties that are best suited to a particular site (depending on soil type, hydrology, climate, land use, soil contaminants, etc.). Biochar's relatively long mean residence times in soils (100s of years) make it a potential instrument for sequestering carbon (if done sustainably). However, that same long mean residence time sets biochar apart from conventional soil amendments (such as manures and other organic fertilizers) that are considered as transient in the soil (1-10s of years). The functional life time of biochar in soils essentially moves biochar from a soil management tool to a geo-engineering technique. One of the consequences is that desired ecosystem services that are provided by soils, have to be projected for the same time period. This presentation aims to discuss critical knowledge gaps in biochar-soil-ecosystem interactions against a background of ecosystem services.

  5. Biomass Burning Emissions of Black Carbon from African Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, A. C.; Leone, O.; Nitschke, K. L.; Dubey, M. K.; Carrico, C.; Springston, S. R.; Sedlacek, A. J., III; Watson, T. B.; Kuang, C.; Uin, J.; McMeeking, G. R.; DeMott, P. J.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Robinson, A. L.; Yokelson, R. J.; Zuidema, P.

    2016-12-01

    Biomass burning (BB) emissions are a large source of carbon to the atmosphere via particles and gas phase species. Carbonaceous aerosols are emitted along with gas-phase carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) that can be used to determine particulate emission ratios and modified combustion efficiencies. Black carbon (BC) aerosols are potentially underestimated in global models and are considered to be one of the most important global warming factors behind CO2. Half or more BC in the atmosphere is from BB, estimated at 6-9 Tg/yr (IPCC, 5AR) and contributing up to 0.6 W/m2 atmospheric warming (Bond et al., 2013). With a potential rise in drought and extreme events in the future due to climate change, these numbers are expected to increase. For this reason, we focus on BC and organic carbon aerosol species that are emitted from forest fires and compare their emission ratios, physical and optical properties to those from controlled laboratory studies of single-source BB fuels to understand BB carbonaceous aerosols in the atmosphere. We investigate BC in concentrated BB plumes as sampled from the new U.S. DOE ARM Program campaign, Layered Atlantic Smoke Interactions with Clouds (LASIC). The ARM Aerosol Mobile Facility 1 (AMF1) and Mobile Aerosol Observing System (MAOS) are currently located on Ascension Island in the South Atlantic Ocean, located midway between Angola and Brazil. The location was chosen for sampling maximum aerosol outflow from Africa. The far-field aged BC from LASIC is compared to BC from indoor generation from single-source fuels, e.g. African grass, sampled during Fire Lab At Missoula Experiments IV (FLAME-IV). BC is measured with a single-particle soot photometer (SP2) alongside numerous supporting instrumentation, e.g. particle counters, CO and CO2 detectors, aerosol scattering and absorption measurements, etc. FLAME-IV includes both direct emissions and well-mixed aerosol samples that have undergone dilution, cooling, and condensation. BC

  6. Black carbon or brown carbon? The nature of light-absorbing carbonaceous aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Andreae

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the definition and measurement techniques for atmospheric 'black carbon' ('BC' or 'elemental carbon'' ('EC' have long been subjects of scientific controversy, the recent discovery of light-absorbing carbon that is not black ('brown carbon, Cbrown' makes it imperative to reassess and redefine the components that make up light-absorbing carbonaceous matter (LAC in the atmosphere. Evidence for the atmospheric presence of Cbrown comes from (1 spectral aerosol light absorption measurements near specific combustion sources, (2 observations of spectral properties of water extracts of continental aerosol, (3 laboratory studies indicating the formation of light-absorbing organic matter in the atmosphere, and (4 indirectly from the chemical analogy of aerosol species to colored natural humic substances. We show that brown carbon may severely bias measurements of 'BC' and 'EC' over vast parts of the troposphere, especially those strongly polluted by biomass burning, where the mass concentration of Cbrown is high relative to that of soot carbon. Chemical measurements to determine 'EC' are biased by the refractory nature of Cbrown as well as by complex matrix interferences. Optical measurements of 'BC' suffer from a number of problems: (1 many of the presently used instruments introduce a substantial bias into the determination of aerosol light absorption, (2 there is no unique conversion factor between light absorption and 'EC' or 'BC' concentration in ambient aerosols, and (3 the difference in spectral properties between the different types of LAC, as well as the chemical complexity of Cbrown, lead to several conceptual as well as practical complications. We also suggest that due to the sharply increasing absorption of Cbrown towards the UV, single-wavelength light absorption measurements may not be adequate for the assessment of absorption of solar radiation in the troposphere. We discuss the possible consequences of these effects for our

  7. Evaluating The Performance of Asphalt Concrete Mixes by Utilizing Carbon Black as Asphalt Modifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliaa Faleh Al.ani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Carbon black produced from several factories in Iraq is expected to provide a reinforcing agent for asphalt paving materials. Carbon black has many characteristics that distinguish  it from conventional mineral fillers, as well as their different function in pavement mixtures. Theory and exercise advanced  in the inclusive utilize of carbon black as a reinforcing agent for rubber has led to concept of asphalt reinforcement. The very fine particles of micro filler added in different contents will be dispersed in asphalt cement improving the mechanical properties of asphalt concrete mixes. In this Four percentages rates were utilized; 0, 3, 6, and 9 percent adding to asphalt grade (60-70. Mixes of asphalt concrete were destined at their optimum asphalt content (OAC then experienced to assess their engineering characteristics that contain moisture of damage, permanent deformation, modulus of resilient and characteristics of fatigue. These characteristics have been assessed utilizing indirect tensile strength, uniaxial repeated loading and repeated flexural beam tests. Mixtures improved with carbon black were existed to have amended permanent deformation and fatigue characteristics, else exhibited high resilient modulus and lower moisture susceptibility. Result showed that a rate changed from 3 to 9 percent has shown an increase in resilient modulus for increment of carbon black and modulus of resilient for mixes with 9 percent carbon black was 1.4 times that for mixes with 0 percent carbon black. The altering of carbon black from a range (3-9 percent has modified the fatigue property of the asphalt concrete mixes as determined by flexural test, Significantly, to modify the asphalt concrete manner taken the  percent of carbon black 6, and to produce the mixes more durable , higher resistance to distresses by adding the local knowledge.

  8. Characterization the potential of biochar from cow and pig manure for geoecology application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunamantha, I. M.; Widana, G. A. B.

    2018-03-01

    Biochar is a solid product generated from the carbonization of biomass with various potential benefits. The utilisation of biochar should be adapted to its characteristic which is mainly influenced by its feedstock. In this study, cow and pig manure biochar generated by a conventional process, were characterized by its physical and chemical analysis and its potential to be used as soil amendment. For this purpose, several main parameters were analyzed: organic carbon, Nutrient (total-N, available P and K) status, Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC), proximate data analysis (moisture content, ash, volatile matter and fixed carbon) and its ash composition. The comparison between biochar and feedstock will be based on these parameters. The results of this study show that the organic carbon, available P, ash, and fixed carbon content of pig-manure biochar is higher than cow manure-derived biochar; while total-N, available K, CEC and volatile matter is lower. On its ash composition, the pig manure-derived biochar is dominated by SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, P2O5, and CaO while the cow manure-derived biochar is dominated by SiO2, CaO, Al2O3, K2O, and P2O5. However, both biochar show potential for improving soil quality and reducing carbon emission from animal manure.

  9. A mycorrhizal fungus grows on biochar and captures phosphorus from its surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Edith; Balogh-Brunstad, Zsuzsanna; Jakobsen, Iver

    2014-01-01

    Biochar application to soils has potential to simultaneously improve soil fertility and store carbon to aid climate change mitigation. While many studies have shown positive effects on plant yields, much less is known about the synergies between biochar and plant growth promoting microbes......, such as mycorrhizal fungi. We present the first evidence that arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi can use biochar as a physical growth matrix and nutrient source. We used monoxenic cultures of the AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis in symbiosis with carrot roots. Using scanning electron microscopy we observed that AM...... fungal hyphae grow on and into two contrasting types of biochar particles, strongly attaching to inner and outer surfaces. Loading a nutrient-poor biochar surface with nutrients stimulated hyphal colonization. We labeled biochar surfaces with 33P radiotracer and found that hyphal contact to the biochar...

  10. Field applications of pure biochar in the North Sea region and across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruysschaert, Greet; Nelissen, Victoria; Postma, Romke

    2016-01-01

    As demonstrated by several scientific studies there is no doubt that biochar in general is very recalcitrant compared to other organic matter additions and soil organic matter fractions and also that it is possible to sequester carbon at a climate change relevant time scale (~100 years or more......) by soil application of biochar. However, the carbon stability of biochar in soil is strongly correlated with the degree of thermal alteration of the original feedstock (the lower the temperature, the larger the labile fraction) and in depth understanding of the technology used and its effect...... on the biochar quality is necessary in order to produce the most beneficial biochars for soil application. Beside carbon sequestration in soil biochar may improve the GHG balance by reducing N2O and CH4 soil emissions, although contrasting results are found in the literature. The mechanisms behind...

  11. Influence of sample composition on aerosol organic and black carbon determinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novakov, T.; Corrigan, C.E.

    1995-07-01

    In this paper we present results on characterization of filter-collected redwood (Sequoia sempevirens)-needle and eucalyptus smoke particles by thermal, optical, and solvent extraction methods. Our results demonstrate that organic and black carbon concentrations determined by thermal and optical methods are not only method dependent, but also critically influenced by the overall chemical composition of the samples. These conclusions are supported by the following: (1) the organic fraction of biomass smoke particles analyzed includes a component, ranging in concentration from about 6-20% of total carbon or from 16-30% of organic carbon, that is relatively non-volatile and has a combustion temperature close to that of black carbon; (2) presence of K or Na in biomass smoke samples lowers the combustion temperatures of this organic component and of black carbon, making their combustion properties indistinguishable; (3) about 20% of total organic material is nonvolatile when heated to 550{degrees}C in an inert atmosphere. Consequently, thermal methods that rely on a specific temperature to separate organic from black carbon may either underestimate or overestimate the black and organic carbon concentrations, depending on the amounts of Na and K and on the composition and concentration of organic material present in a sample. These analytical uncertainties and, under some conditions, absorption by organic material may contribute to the variability of empirically derived proportionality between light transmission through filter deposits and black carbon concentrations.

  12. Influence of sample composition on aerosol organic and black carbon determinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novakov, T.; Corrigan, C.E.

    1995-07-01

    In this paper we present results on characterization of filter-collected redwood (Sequoia sempevirens)-needle and eucalyptus smoke particles by thermal, optical, and solvent extraction methods. Our results demonstrate that organic and black carbon concentrations determined by thermal and optical methods are not only method dependent, but also critically influenced by the overall chemical composition of the samples. These conclusions are supported by the following: (1) the organic fraction of biomass smoke particles analyzed includes a component, ranging in concentration from about 6-20% of total carbon or from 16-30% of organic carbon, that is relatively non-volatile and has a combustion temperature close to that of black carbon; (2) presence of K or Na in biomass smoke samples lowers the combustion temperatures of this organic component and of black carbon, making their combustion properties indistinguishable; (3) about 20% of total organic material is nonvolatile when heated to 550 degrees C in an inert atmosphere. Consequently, thermal methods that rely on a specific temperature to separate organic from black carbon may either underestimate or overestimate the black and organic carbon concentrations, depending on the amounts of Na and K and on the composition and concentration of organic material present in a sample. These analytical uncertainties and, under some conditions, absorption by organic material may contribute to the variability of empirically derived proportionality between light transmission through filter deposits and black carbon concentrations

  13. Influence of plasma treatment of carbon blacks on electrochemical activity of Pt/carbon blacks catalysts for DMFCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seok; Cho, Mi-Hwa; Lee, Jae-Rock; Park, Soo-Jin

    In this work, in order to improve the dispersion of platinum catalysts deposited on carbon materials, the effects of surface plasma treatment of carbon blacks (CBs) were investigated. The surface characteristics of the CBs were determined by fourier transformed-infrared (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Boehm's titration method. The electrochemical properties of the plasma-treated CBs-supported Pt (Pt/CBs) catalysts were analyzed by linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) experiments. From the results of FT-IR and acid-base values, N 2-plasma treatment of the CBs at 300 W intensity led to a formation of a free radical on the CBs. The peak intensity increased with increase of the treatment time, due to the formation of new basic functional groups (such as C-N, C dbnd N, -NH 3 +, -NH, and dbnd NH) by the free radical on the CBs. Accordingly, the basic values were enhanced by the basic functional groups. However, after a specific reaction time, N 2-plasma treatment could hardly influence on change of the surface functional groups of CBs, due to the disappearance of free radical. Consequently, it was found that optimal treatment time was 30 s for the best electro activity of Pt/CBs catalysts and the N 2-plasma treated Pt/CBs possessed the better electrochemical properties than the pristine Pt/CBs.

  14. Effect of sulfur and Nano- carbon black on the mechanical properties of hard rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Hamza Al-Maamori

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve the properties of hard rubber(Ebonite from natural rubber, added Nano-Carbon black, where measured the properties of tensile, density, hardness and the properties of the vulcanization of a group of samples with different amount of sulfur from 18-36 pphr and different of carbon black (18-26-30 pphr. The results showed that the best carbon black ratio is 30 pphr, where it gives a balance between tensile properties of hand and toughness and flexibility of on the other hand and reduce brittleness in hard rubber.

  15. Black carbon and mineral dust in snow cover on the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yulan; Kang, Shichang; Sprenger, Michael; Cong, Zhiyuan; Gao, Tanguang; Li, Chaoliu; Tao, Shu; Li, Xiaofei; Zhong, Xinyue; Xu, Min; Meng, Wenjun; Neupane, Bigyan; Qin, Xiang; Sillanpää, Mika

    2018-02-01

    Snow cover plays a key role for sustaining ecology and society in mountainous regions. Light-absorbing particulates (including black carbon, organic carbon, and mineral dust) deposited on snow can reduce surface albedo and contribute to the near-worldwide melting of snow and ice. This study focused on understanding the role of black carbon and other water-insoluble light-absorbing particulates in the snow cover of the Tibetan Plateau (TP). The results found that the black carbon, organic carbon, and dust concentrations in snow cover generally ranged from 202 to 17 468 ng g-1, 491 to 13 880 ng g-1, and 22 to 846 µg g-1, respectively, with higher concentrations in the central to northern areas of the TP. Back trajectory analysis suggested that the northern TP was influenced mainly by air masses from Central Asia with some Eurasian influence, and air masses in the central and Himalayan region originated mainly from Central and South Asia. The relative biomass-burning-sourced black carbon contributions decreased from ˜ 50 % in the southern TP to ˜ 30 % in the northern TP. The relative contribution of black carbon and dust to snow albedo reduction reached approximately 37 and 15 %, respectively. The effect of black carbon and dust reduced the snow cover duration by 3.1 ± 0.1 to 4.4 ± 0.2 days. Meanwhile, the black carbon and dust had important implications for snowmelt water loss over the TP. The findings indicate that the impacts of black carbon and mineral dust need to be properly accounted for in future regional climate projections, particularly in the high-altitude cryosphere.

  16. Biochar from swine manure solids: influence on carbon sequestration and Olsen phosphorus and mineral nitrogen dynamics in soil with and without digestate incorporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Marchetti

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Interest in biochar (BC has grown dramatically in recent years, due mainly to the fact that its incorporation into soil reportedly enhances carbon sequestration and fertility. Currently, BC types most under investigation are those obtained from organic matter (OM of plant origin. As great amounts of manure solids are expected to become available in the near future, thanks to the development of technologies for the separation of the solid fraction of animal effluents, processing of manure solids for BC production seems an interesting possibility for the recycling of OM of high nutrient value. The aim of this study was to investigate carbon (C sequestration and nutrient dynamics in soil amended with BC from dried swine manure solids. The experiment was carried out in laboratory microcosms on a silty clay soil. The effect on nutrient dynamics of interaction between BC and fresh digestate obtained from a biogas plant was also investigated to test the hypothesis that BC can retain nutrients. A comparison was made of the following treatments: soil amended with swine manure solids (LC, soil amended with charred swine manure solids (LT, soil amended with wood chip (CC, soil amended with charred wood chip (CT, soil with no amendment as control (Cs, each one of them with and without incorporation of digestate (D for a total of 10 treatments. Biochar was obtained by treating OM (wood chip or swine manure with moisture content of less than 10% at 420°C in anoxic conditions. The CO2-C release and organic C, available phosphorus (P (Olsen P, POls and inorganic (ammonium+nitrate nitrogen (N (Nmin contents at the start and three months after the start of the experiment were measured in the amended and control soils. After three months of incubation at 30°C, the CO2-C emissions from soil with BC (CT and LT, ±D were the same as those in the control soil (Cs and were lower than those in the soils with untreated amendments (CC and LC, ±D. The organic C content

  17. Sorption of Pharmaceuticals, Heavy Metals, and Herbicides to Biochar in the Presence of Biosolids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bair, Daniel A; Mukome, Fungai N D; Popova, Inna E; Ogunyoku, Temitope A; Jefferson, Allie; Wang, Daoyuan; Hafner, Sarah C; Young, Thomas M; Parikh, Sanjai J

    2016-11-01

    Agricultural practices are increasingly incorporating recycled waste materials, such as biosolids, to provide plant nutrients and enhance soil functions. Although biosolids provide benefits to soil, municipal wastewater treatment plants receive pharmaceuticals and heavy metals that can accumulate in biosolids, and land application of biosolids can transfer these contaminants to the soil. Environmental exposure of these contaminants may adversely affect wildlife, disrupt microbial communities, detrimentally affect human health through long-term exposure, and cause the proliferation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. This study considers the use of biochar co-amendments as sorbents for contaminants from biosolids. The sorption of pharmaceuticals (ciprofloxacin, triclocarban, triclosan), and heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Ni, Pb) to biochars and biochar-biosolids-soil mixtures was examined. Phenylurea herbicide (monuron, diuron, linuron) sorption was also studied to determine the potential effect of biochar on soil-applied herbicides. A softwood (SW) biochar (510°C) and a walnut shell (WN) biochar (900°C) were used as contrasting biochars to highlight potential differences in biochar reactivity. Kaolinite and activated carbon served as mineral and organic controls. Greater sorption for almost all contaminants was observed with WN biochar over SW biochar. The addition of biosolids decreased sorption of herbicides to SW biochar, whereas there was no observable change with WN biochar. The WN biochar showed potential for reducing agrochemical and contaminant transport but may inhibit the efficacy of soil-applied herbicides. This study provides support for minimizing contaminant mobility from biosolids using biochar as a co-amendment and highlights the importance of tailoring biochars for specific characteristics through feedstock selection and pyrolysis-gasification conditions. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science

  18. Effects of pressure on morphology and structure of bio-char from pressurized entrained-flow pyrolysis of microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Maliutina

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The present dataset describes the entrained-flow pyrolysis of Microalgae Chlorella vulgaris and the results obtained during bio-char characterization. The dataset includes a brief explanation of the experimental procedure, experimental conditions and the influence of pyrolysis conditions on bio-chars morphology and carbon structure. The data show an increase in sphericity and surface smoothness of bio-chars at higher pressures and temperatures. Data confirmed that the swelling ratio of bio-chars increased with pressure up to 2.0 MPa. Consequently, changes in carbon structure of bio-chars were investigated using Raman spectroscopy. The data showed the increase in carbon order of chars at elevated pressures. Changes in the chemical structure of bio-char as a function of pyrolysis conditions were investigated using FTIR analysis. Keywords: Microalgae, Bio-char, Particle swelling, Pressurized pyrolysis

  19. Grafting the surface of carbon nanotubes and carbon black with the chemical properties of hyperbranched polyamines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Lara, Francisco; Domingo-García, María; López-Garzón, Rafael; Luz Godino-Salido, María; Peñas-Sanjuán, Antonio; López-Garzón, F. Javier; Pérez-Mendoza, Manuel; Melguizo, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Controlling the chemistry on the surface of new carbon materials is a key factor to widen the range of their applicability. In this paper we show a grafting methodology of polyalkylamines to the surface of carbon nanomaterials, in particular, carbon nanotubes and a carbon black. The aim of this work is to reach large degrees of covalent functionalization with hyperbranched polyethyleneimines (HBPEIs) and to efficiently preserve the strong chelating properties of the HBPEIs when they are fixed to the surface of these carbon materials. This functionalization opens new possibilities of using these carbon nanotubes-based hybrids. The results show that the HBPEIs are covalently attached to the carbon materials, forming hybrids. These hybrids emerge from the reaction of amine functions of the HBPEIs with carbonyls and carboxylic anhydrides of the carbon surface which become imine and imide bonds. Thus, due to the nature of these bonds, the pre-oxidized samples with relevant number of C=O groups showed an increase in the degree of functionalization with the HBPEIs. Furthermore, both the acid-base properties and the coordination capacity for metal ions of the hybrids are equivalent to that of the free HBPEIs in solution. This means that the chemical characteristics of the HBPEIs have been efficiently transferred to the hybrids. To reach this conclusion we have developed a novel procedure to assess the acid-base and the coordination properties of the hybrids (solids) by means of potentiometric titration. The good agreement of the values obtained for the hybrids and for the free HBPEIs in aqueous solution supports the reliability of the procedure. Moreover, the high capacity of the hybrids to capture Ni2+ by complexation opens new possibilities of using these hybrids to capture high-value metal ions such as Pd2+ and Pt2+.

  20. [Impact of biochar amendment on the sorption and dissipation of chlorantraniliprole in soils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting-Ting; Yu, Xiang-Yang; Shen, Yaen; Zhang, Chao-Lan; Liu, Xian-Jin

    2012-04-01

    The effects of biochar amendment on sorption and dissipation of chlorantraniliprole (CAP) in 5 different agricultural soils were studied. Red gum wood (Eucalyptus spp.) derived biochar was amended into a black soil, a yellow soil, a red soil, a purplish soil, and a fluvo-aquic soil at the rate of 0.5% (by weight). The sorption and dissipation behaviors of CAP in soils with and without biochar amendment were measured by batch equilibration technique and dissipation kinetic experiment, respectively. The objective was to investigate the impact of biochar application on the environmental fate of pesticides in agricultural soils with different physical-chemical properties, and evaluate the potential ecological impacts of field application of biochar materials. The results showed that biochar application in soils could enhance the sorption of CAP, but the magnitudes were varied among soils with different properties. Amendment of 0.5% (by weight) biochar in the black soil, which have high content of organic matter (4.59%), resulted in an increase of sorption coefficient (K(d)) by 2.17%; while for the fluvo-aquic soil with organic matter content of 1.16%, amendment of biochar at the same level led to an increase of 139.13%. The sorption capacity of biochar was partially suppressed when biochar was mixed with soils. The calculated K(Fbiochar) of biochar after mixed in the black soil, yellow soil, red soil, purplish soil, and fluvo-aquic soil were decreased by 96.94%, 90.6%, 91.31%, 68.26%, and 34.59%, respectively, compared to that of the original biochar. The half-lives of CAP in black soil, yellow soil, red soil, purplish soil, and fluvo-aquic soil were 115.52, 133.30, 154.03, 144.41 and 169.06 d, respectively. In soils amended with biochar, the corresponding half-lives of CAP were extended by 20.39, 35.76, 38.51, 79.19, and 119.75 d, respectively. Similar to the effects of biochar on CAP sorption, in soil with higher content of organic matter, the retardation of CAP

  1. Global anthropogenic emissions of particulate matter including black carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimont, Zbigniew; Kupiainen, Kaarle; Heyes, Chris; Purohit, Pallav; Cofala, Janusz; Rafaj, Peter; Borken-Kleefeld, Jens; Schöpp, Wolfgang

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive assessment of historical (1990-2010) global anthropogenic particulate matter (PM) emissions including the consistent and harmonized calculation of mass-based size distribution (PM1, PM2. 5, PM10), as well as primary carbonaceous aerosols including black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC). The estimates were developed with the integrated assessment model GAINS, where source- and region-specific technology characteristics are explicitly included. This assessment includes a number of previously unaccounted or often misallocated emission sources, i.e. kerosene lamps, gas flaring, diesel generators, refuse burning; some of them were reported in the past for selected regions or in the context of a particular pollutant or sector but not included as part of a total estimate. Spatially, emissions were calculated for 172 source regions (as well as international shipping), presented for 25 global regions, and allocated to 0.5° × 0.5° longitude-latitude grids. No independent estimates of emissions from forest fires and savannah burning are provided and neither windblown dust nor unpaved roads emissions are included. We estimate that global emissions of PM have not changed significantly between 1990 and 2010, showing a strong decoupling from the global increase in energy consumption and, consequently, CO2 emissions, but there are significantly different regional trends, with a particularly strong increase in East Asia and Africa and a strong decline in Europe, North America, and the Pacific region. This in turn resulted in important changes in the spatial pattern of PM burden, e.g. European, North American, and Pacific contributions to global emissions dropped from nearly 30 % in 1990 to well below 15 % in 2010, while Asia's contribution grew from just over 50 % to nearly two-thirds of the global total in 2010. For all PM species considered, Asian sources represented over 60 % of the global anthropogenic total, and residential combustion

  2. Global anthropogenic emissions of particulate matter including black carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Klimont

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comprehensive assessment of historical (1990–2010 global anthropogenic particulate matter (PM emissions including the consistent and harmonized calculation of mass-based size distribution (PM1, PM2. 5, PM10, as well as primary carbonaceous aerosols including black carbon (BC and organic carbon (OC. The estimates were developed with the integrated assessment model GAINS, where source- and region-specific technology characteristics are explicitly included. This assessment includes a number of previously unaccounted or often misallocated emission sources, i.e. kerosene lamps, gas flaring, diesel generators, refuse burning; some of them were reported in the past for selected regions or in the context of a particular pollutant or sector but not included as part of a total estimate. Spatially, emissions were calculated for 172 source regions (as well as international shipping, presented for 25 global regions, and allocated to 0.5°  ×  0.5° longitude–latitude grids. No independent estimates of emissions from forest fires and savannah burning are provided and neither windblown dust nor unpaved roads emissions are included. We estimate that global emissions of PM have not changed significantly between 1990 and 2010, showing a strong decoupling from the global increase in energy consumption and, consequently, CO2 emissions, but there are significantly different regional trends, with a particularly strong increase in East Asia and Africa and a strong decline in Europe, North America, and the Pacific region. This in turn resulted in important changes in the spatial pattern of PM burden, e.g. European, North American, and Pacific contributions to global emissions dropped from nearly 30 % in 1990 to well below 15 % in 2010, while Asia's contribution grew from just over 50 % to nearly two-thirds of the global total in 2010. For all PM species considered, Asian sources represented over 60 % of the global

  3. Catalytic Enhancement of Carbon Black and Coal-Fueled Hybrid Direct Carbon Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleebeeck, Lisa; Ippolito, Davide; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2015-01-01

    , Ce1-xREExO2-δ (REE = Pr, Sm)) and metal oxides (LiMn2O4, Ag2O). Materials showing the highest activity in carbon black (Mn2O3, CeO2, Ce0.6Pr0.4O2-δ, Ag2O) were subsequently tested for catalytic activity toward bituminous coal, as revealed by both I-V-P curves and electrochemical impedance...... spectroscopy (EIS). Catalytic activity was evaluated as a function of various physical characteristics of doped ceria and manganese-based materials....

  4. Russia's black carbon emissions: focus on diesel sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kholod

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Black carbon (BC is a significant climate forcer with a particularly pronounced forcing effect in polar regions such as the Russian Arctic. Diesel combustion is a major global source of BC emissions, accounting for 25–30 % of all BC emissions. While the demand for diesel is growing in Russia, the country's diesel emissions are poorly understood. This paper presents a detailed inventory of Russian BC emissions from diesel sources. Drawing on a complete Russian vehicle registry with detailed information about vehicle types and emission standards, this paper analyzes BC emissions from diesel on-road vehicles. We use the COPERT emission model (COmputer Programme to calculate Emissions from Road Transport with Russia-specific emission factors for all types of on-road vehicles. On-road diesel vehicles emitted 21 Gg of BC in 2014: heavy-duty trucks account for 60 % of the on-road BC emissions, while cars represent only 5 % (light commercial vehicles and buses account for the remainder. Using Russian activity data and fuel-based emission factors, the paper also presents BC emissions from diesel locomotives and ships, off-road engines in industry, construction and agriculture, and generators. The study also factors in the role of superemitters in BC emissions from diesel on-road vehicles and off-road sources. The total emissions from diesel sources in Russia are estimated to be 49 Gg of BC and 17 Gg of organic carbon (OC in 2014. Off-road diesel sources emitted 58 % of all diesel BC in Russia.

  5. Black carbon reduction will weaken the aerosol net cooling effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z. L.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, X. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Black carbon (BC), a distinct type of carbonaceous material formed from the incomplete combustion of fossil and biomass based fuels under certain conditions, can interact with solar radiation and clouds through its strong light-absorption ability, thereby warming the Earth's climate system. Some studies have even suggested that global warming could be slowed down in a short term by eliminating BC emission due to its short lifetime. In this study, we estimate the influence of removing some sources of BC and other co-emitted species on the aerosol radiative effect by using an aerosol-climate coupled model BCC_AGCM2.0.1_CUACE/Aero, in combination with the aerosol emissions from the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) scenarios. We find that the global annual mean aerosol net cooling effect at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) will be enhanced by 0.12 W m-2 compared with present-day conditions if the BC emission is reduced exclusively to the level projected for 2100 based on the RCP2.6 scenario. This will be beneficial for the mitigation of global warming. However, the global annual mean aerosol net cooling effect at the TOA will be weakened by 1.7-2.0 W m-2 relative to present-day conditions if emissions of BC and co-emitted sulfur dioxide and organic carbon are simultaneously reduced as the most close conditions to the actual situation to the level projected for 2100 in different ways based on the RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5 scenarios. Because there are no effective ways to remove the BC exclusively without influencing the other co-emitted components, our results therefore indicate that a reduction in BC emission can lead to an unexpected warming on the Earth's climate system in the future.

  6. The impact of black wattle encroachment of indigenous grasslands on soil carbon, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oelofse, Myles; Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Magid, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    adverse environmental impacts in South Africa. Little is known about the effects of black wattle encroachment on soil carbon, therefore the aim of this study was to investigate the impact of black wattle encroachment of natural grassland on soil carbon stocks and dynamics. Focussing on two sites...... in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, the study analysed carbon stocks in soil and litter on a chronosequence of black wattle stands of varying ages (up to >50 years) and compared these with adjacent native grassland. The study found that woody encroachment of grassland at one site had an insignificant effect...... on soil and litter carbon stocks. The second site showed a clear decline in combined soil and litter carbon stocks following wattle encroachment. The lowest stock was in the oldest wattle stand, meaning that carbon stocks are still declining after 50 years of encroachment. The results from the two sites...

  7. Selected dark sides of biomass-derived biochars as environmental amendments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zien Chen; Lei Luo; Diyi Xiao; Jitao Lv; Bei Wen; Yibing Ma; Shuzhen Zhang

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid increase in the application of biochars as amendments,studies are needed to clarify the possible environmental risks derived from biochars to use safely the biomass resources.This work reported selected dark sides of maize straw-and swine manurederived biochars pyrolyzed at 300 and 500℃C.During the pyrolysis processes,total heavy metals in the biochars were enriched greatly accompanying with considerable emission of the heavy metals into atmosphere and the trends became increasingly obvious with pyrolysis temperature.Meanwhile,the biochars showed distinctly decreased available heavy metals compared with raw feedstocks,which could be mainly attributed to the sorption by the inorganics in the biochars.The water-and acid-washing treatments significantly increased the releasing risks of heavy metals from biochars into the environments.Electron paramagnetic resonance analysis indicated that persistent free radicals,emerged strongly in the biochars as a function of the aromatization of biomass feedstocks,were free from the influence of water-,acid-,or organic-washing of the biochars and could remain stable even after aged in soils for 30 days.Dissolved biochars,highly produced during pyrolysis processes,showed distinct properties including lower molecular weight distribution while higher aromaticity compared with soil dissolved organic carbon.The results of this study provide important perspectives on the safe usage of biochars as agricultural/environmental amendments.

  8. Interactive priming of biochar and labile organic matter mineralization in a smectite-rich soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Alexandra; Singh, Balwant; Singh, Bhupinder Pal

    2011-11-15

    Biochar is considered as an attractive tool for long-term carbon (C) storage in soil. However, there is limited knowledge about the effect of labile organic matter (LOM) on biochar-C mineralization in soil or the vice versa. An incubation experiment (20 °C) was conducted for 120 days to quantify the interactive priming effects of biochar-C and LOM-C mineralization in a smectitic clayey soil. Sugar cane residue (source of LOM) at a rate of 0, 1, 2, and 4% (w/w) in combination with two wood biochars (450 and 550 °C) at a rate of 2% (w/w) were applied to the soil. The use of biochars (~ -36‰) and LOM (-12.7‰) or soil (-14.3‰) with isotopically distinct δ(13)C values allowed the quantification of C mineralized from biochar and LOM/soil. A small fraction (0.4-1.1%) of the applied biochar-C was mineralized, and the mineralization of biochar-C increased significantly with increasing application rates of LOM, especially during the early stages of incubation. Concurrently, biochar application reduced the mineralization of LOM-C, and the magnitude of this effect increased with increasing rate of LOM addition. Over time, the interactive priming of biochar-C and LOM-C mineralization was stabilized. Biochar application possesses a considerable merit for long-term soil C-sequestration, and it has a stabilizing effect on LOM in soil.

  9. Carrot, Corn, Lettuce and Soybean Nutrient Contents are Affected by Biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biochar, the carbon-rich material remaining after pyrolysis of cellulosic and manure feedstocks, has the potential as a soil amendment to sequester carbon and to improve soil water-holding and nutrient properties- thereby enhancing plant growth. However, biochar produced from so...

  10. Black carbon emissions from biomass and coal in rural China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weishi; Lu, Zifeng; Xu, Yuan; Wang, Can; Gu, Yefu; Xu, Hui; Streets, David G.

    2018-03-01

    Residential solid fuel combustion makes a major contribution to black carbon (BC) emissions in China. A new estimation of BC emissions from rural solid biomass and coal consumption has been derived from field survey data. The following new contributions are made: (1) emission factors are collected and reviewed; (2) household energy data are collected from field survey data and from the literature; (3) a new extrapolation method is developed to extend the field survey data to other locations; (4) the ownership and usage of two stove types are estimated and considered in the emission calculations; and (5) uncertainties associated with the estimation results are quantified. It is shown that rural households with higher income will consume less biomass but more coal. Agricultural acreage and temperature also significantly influence the amount of solid fuel consumed in rural areas. It is estimated that 640 ± 245 Gg BC/y were emitted to the atmosphere due to residential solid fuel consumption in rural China in 2014. Emissions of BC from straw, wood, and coal contributed 42 ± 13%, 36 ± 15%, and 22 ± 10% of the total, respectively. We show that effective BC mitigation (a reduction of 47%) could be obtained through widespread introduction of improved stoves in rural households.

  11. Black Carbon Radiative Forcing over the Tibetan Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Cenlin; Li, Qinbin; Liou, K. N.; Takano, Y.; Gu, Yu; Qi, L.; Mao, Yuhao; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2014-11-28

    We estimate the snow albedo forcing and direct radiative forcing (DRF) of black carbon (BC) in the Tibetan Plateau using a global chemical transport model in conjunction with a stochastic snow model and a radiative transfer model. Our best estimate of the annual BC snow albedo forcing in the Plateau is 2.9 W m-2 (uncertainty: 1.5–5.0 W m-226 ). We find that BC-snow internal mixing increases the albedo forcing by 40-60% compared with external mixing and coated BC increases the forcing by 30-50% compared with uncoated BC, whereas Koch snowflakes reduce the forcing by 20-40% relative to spherical snow grains. Our best estimate of the annual BC DRF at the top of the atmosphere is 2.3 W m-2 (uncertainty: 0.7–4.3 W m-230 ) in the Plateau after scaling the modeled BC absorption optical depth to Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) observations. The BC forcings are attributed to emissions from different regions.

  12. Preparation and characterization of dopamine-decorated hydrophilic carbon black

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Lijun; Lu Yonglai [State Key Laboratory of Organic-Inorganic Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Key Laboratory of Beijing City on Preparation and Processing of Novel Polymer Materials, Beijing 100029 (China); Wang Yiqing [State Key Laboratory of Organic-Inorganic Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Key Laboratory of Carbon Fiber and Functional Polymers, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100029 (China); Zhang Liqun [State Key Laboratory of Organic-Inorganic Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Key Laboratory of Beijing City on Preparation and Processing of Novel Polymer Materials, Beijing 100029 (China); Wang Wencai, E-mail: wangw@mail.buct.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Organic-Inorganic Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Key Laboratory of Carbon Fiber and Functional Polymers, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2012-05-01

    Inspired by the bio-adhesive proteins secreted by mussels for attachment to almost all wet substrates, a facile method involving oxidative polymerization of dopamine was proposed to prepare highly hydrophilic carbon black (CB) particles. A self-assembled polydopamine (PDA) ad-layer was formed via the oxidative polymerization of dopamine on the surface of CB simply by dipping the CB into an alkaline dopamine solution and mildly stirring at room temperature. The process is simple, controllable, and environment-friendly. The surface composition and structure of the CB were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The surface morphology of the CB was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that the PDA ad-layer was successfully deposited on the CB surfaces. The PDA-functionalized CB (CB-PDA) gave a stable colloidal dispersion in water. Contact angle measurement results indicated that the hydrophilicity of CB was significantly improved after dopamine modification. TGA results confirmed that the modified CB maintained good heat resistance. The method provided a facile route to prepare hydrophilic CB having terminal hydroxyl groups.

  13. Daily personal exposure to black carbon: A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ryan D.; Knibbs, Luke D.

    2016-05-01

    Continuous personal monitoring is the benchmark for air pollution exposure assessment. Black carbon (BC) is a strong marker of primary combustion like vehicle and biomass emissions. There have been few studies that quantified daily personal BC exposure and the contribution that different microenvironments make to it. In this pilot study, we used a portable aethalometer to measure BC concentrations in an individual's breathing zone at 30-s intervals while he performed his usual daily activities. We used a GPS and time-activity diary to track where he spent his time. We performed twenty 24-h measurements, and observed an arithmetic mean daily exposure concentration of 603 ng/m3. We estimated that changing commute modes from bus to train reduced the 24-h mean BC exposure concentration by 29%. Switching from open windows to closed windows and recirculated air in a car led to a reduction of 32%. Living in a home without a wood-fired heater caused a reduction of 50% compared with a wood-heated home. Our preliminary findings highlight the potential utility of simple approaches to reduce a person's daily BC exposure.

  14. Black carbon emissions from biomass and coal in rural China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Weishi; Lu, Zifeng; Xu, Yuan; Wang, Can; Gu, Yefu; Xu, Hui; Streets, David G.

    2018-03-01

    Residential solid fuel combustion makes a major contribution to black carbon (BC) emissions in China. A new estimation of BC emissions from rural solid biomass and coal consumption has been derived from field survey data. The following new contributions are made: (1) emission factors are collected and reviewed; (2) household energy data are collected from field survey data and from the literature; (3) a new extrapolation method is developed to extend the field survey data to other locations; (4) the ownership and usage of two stove types are estimated and considered in the emission calculations; and (5) uncertainties associated with the estimation results are quantified. It is shown that rural households with higher income will consume less biomass but more coal. Agricultural acreage and temperature also significantly influence the amount of solid fuel consumed in rural areas. It is estimated that 640±245 Gg BC/y were emitted to the atmosphere due to residential solid fuel consumption in rural China in 2014. Emissions of BC from straw, wood, and coal contributed 42±13%, 36±15%, and 22±10% of the total, respectively. We show that effective BC mitigation (a reduction of 47%) could be obtained through widespread introduction of improved stoves in rural households

  15. Field Measurements of Black Carbon Yields from Gas Flaring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Bradley M; Johnson, Matthew R

    2017-02-07

    Black carbon (BC) emissions from gas flaring in the oil and gas industry are postulated to have critical impacts on climate and public health, but actual emission rates remain poorly characterized. This paper presents in situ field measurements of BC emission rates and flare gas volume-specific BC yields for a diverse range of flares. Measurements were performed during a series of field campaigns in Mexico and Ecuador using the sky-LOSA optical measurement technique, in concert with comprehensive Monte Carlo-based uncertainty analyses. Parallel on-site measurements of flare gas flow rate and composition were successfully performed at a subset of locations enabling direct measurements of fuel-specific BC yields from flares under field conditions. Quantified BC emission rates from individual flares spanned more than 4 orders of magnitude (up to 53.7 g/s). In addition, emissions during one notable ∼24-h flaring event (during which the plume transmissivity dropped to zero) would have been even larger than this maximum rate, which was measured as this event was ending. This highlights the likely importance of superemitters to global emission inventories. Flare gas volume-specific BC yields were shown to be strongly correlated with flare gas heating value. A newly derived correlation fitting current field data and previous lab data suggests that, in the context of recent studies investigating transport of flare-generated BC in the Arctic and globally, impacts of flaring in the energy industry may in fact be underestimated.

  16. Black carbon aerosols and the third polar ice cap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menon, Surabi; Koch, Dorothy; Beig, Gufran; Sahu, Saroj; Fasullo, John; Orlikowski, Daniel

    2010-04-15

    Recent thinning of glaciers over the Himalayas (sometimes referred to as the third polar region) have raised concern on future water supplies since these glaciers supply water to large river systems that support millions of people inhabiting the surrounding areas. Black carbon (BC) aerosols, released from incomplete combustion, have been increasingly implicated as causing large changes in the hydrology and radiative forcing over Asia and its deposition on snow is thought to increase snow melt. In India BC emissions from biofuel combustion is highly prevalent and compared to other regions, BC aerosol amounts are high. Here, we quantify the impact of BC aerosols on snow cover and precipitation from 1990 to 2010 over the Indian subcontinental region using two different BC emission inventories. New estimates indicate that Indian BC emissions from coal and biofuel are large and transport is expected to expand rapidly in coming years. We show that over the Himalayas, from 1990 to 2000, simulated snow/ice cover decreases by {approx}0.9% due to aerosols. The contribution of the enhanced Indian BC to this decline is {approx}36%, similar to that simulated for 2000 to 2010. Spatial patterns of modeled changes in snow cover and precipitation are similar to observations (from 1990 to 2000), and are mainly obtained with the newer BC estimates.

  17. Black Carbon Inclusive Multichemical Modeling of PBDE and PCB Biomagnification and -Transformation in Estuarine Food Webs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paolo, C.; Gandhi, N.; Bhavsar, S.; Heuvel-Greve, van den M.J.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    Bioavailability and bioaccumulation of polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) are affected by adsorption on black carbon (BC) and metabolism in biota, respectively. Recent studies have addressed these two processes separately, illustrating their importance in assessing contaminant dynamics. In order

  18. Self-sensing piezoresistive cement composite loaded with carbon black particles

    KAUST Repository

    Monteiro, André O.; Cachim, Paulo B.; Da Costa, Pedro M. F. J.

    2017-01-01

    Strain sensors can be embedded in civil engineering infrastructures to perform real-time service life monitoring. Here, the sensing capability of piezoresistive cement-based composites loaded with carbon black (CB) particles is investigated. Several

  19. Thermal conductivity and stability of nano size carbon black filled PDMS: Fuel cell perspective

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chen, H

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon black filled Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was considered as a prospective bipolar plate material candidate for a Fuel Cell. In this perspective, thermal conductivity and stability of the composites were investigated. Samples with filler weight...

  20. Characterization of Black and Brown Carbon Concentrations and Sources during winter in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Caiqing; Liu, Yue; Hansen, Anthony D. A.; Močnik, Griša; Zheng, Mei

    2017-04-01

    Carbonaceous aerosols, including black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC), play important roles in air quality, human health, and climate change. A better understanding of sources of light-absorbing carbonaceous aerosol (including black carbon and brown carbon) is particular critical for formulating emission-based control strategies and reducing uncertainties in current aerosol radiative forcing estimates. Beijing, the capital of China, has experienced serious air pollution problems and high concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols in recent years, especially during heating seasons. During November and December of 2016, several severe haze episodes occurred in Beijing, with hourly average PM2.5 mass concentration up to 400 μg/m3. In this study, concentration levels and sources of black carbon and brown carbon were investigated based on 7-wavelength Aethalometer (AE-33) with combination of other PM2.5 chemical composition information. Contributions of traffic and non-traffic emissions (e.g., coal combustion, biomass burning) were apportioned, and brown carbon was separated from black carbon. Our preliminary results showed that (1) Concentrations of BC were around 5.3±4.2 μg/m3 during the study period, with distinct diurnal variations during haze and non-haze days. (2) Traffic emissions contributed to about 37±17% of total BC, and exhibited higher contributions during non-haze days compared to haze days. (3) Coal combustion was a major source of black carbon and brown carbon in Beijing, which was more significant compared to biomass burning. Sources and the relative contributions to black carbon and brown carbon during haze and non-haze days will be further discussed.

  1. Rethinking the distinction between black and brown carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, G. A.; Franchin, A.; Lamb, K. D.; Manfred, K.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Schwarz, J. P.; Wagner, N.; Washenfelder, R. A.; Womack, C.; Murphy, D. M.

    2017-12-01

    Aerosol radiative properties contribute large uncertainty to modeling of the earth's radiative budget. Black carbon (BC) aerosols originate from combustion processes and substantially contribute to warming and uncertainty - ongoing efforts are focused on reducing their anthropogenic emissions even as their emissions from biomass burning sources, such as wildfire, may increase in the future. Quantifying the radiative effect of BC is challenging, in part due to its association with other light absorbing materials including Brown carbon organic aerosol (BrC) that absorbs primarily blue and ultraviolet light while BC absorbs broadly across the visible. Conventionally BrC is thought of a low volatility spherical particles, distinguishing it from BC, which has a distinctive agglomerate morphology and is refractory at high temperatures. However, the separation of BC and BrC is often operationally defined and dependent on the measurement method. Using measurements of aerosol morphology, mass, absorption, and refractory BC mass content we were able to identify a light absorbing contribution from biomass burning aerosol that does not correspond to either BC or BrC as conventionally defined. Our measurements were collected from realistic biomass burning fires at the Missoula Fire Sciences Laboratory as part of the NOAA FIREX project (2016) and from extensive natural wildfire sampled aloft during NASA SEAC4RS field study (2013). We coin the term Dark Brown Carbon (DBrC) to describe this material, which absorbs broadly across the visible and survives thermal denuding at 250°C but does not incandesce in laser induced incandesce (LII) measurements. DBrC may be an intermediate burning stage product between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the mature soot. DBrC deserves further study to quantify its abundance and aging in ambient biomass burning plumes, and its relationship to tar balls. Our findings show that more than half of the light absorption in biomass burning

  2. Selection and Characterization of Carbon Black and Surfactants for Development of Small Scale Uranium Oxicarbide Kernels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contescu, Cristian I [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    This report supports the effort for development of small scale fabrication of UCO (a mixture of UO{sub 2} and UC{sub 2}) fuel kernels for the generation IV high temperature gas reactor program. In particular, it is focused on optimization of dispersion conditions of carbon black in the broths from which carbon-containing (UO{sub 2} {center_dot} H{sub 2}O + C) gel spheres are prepared by internal gelation. The broth results from mixing a hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) and urea solution with an acid-deficient uranyl nitrate (ADUN) solution. Carbon black, which is previously added to one or other of the components, must stay dispersed during gelation. The report provides a detailed description of characterization efforts and results, aimed at identification and testing carbon black and surfactant combinations that would produce stable dispersions, with carbon particle sizes below 1 {micro}m, in aqueous HMTA/urea and ADUN solutions. A battery of characterization methods was used to identify the properties affecting the water dispersability of carbon blacks, such as surface area, aggregate morphology, volatile content, and, most importantly, surface chemistry. The report introduces the basic principles for each physical or chemical method of carbon black characterization, lists the results obtained, and underlines cross-correlations between methods. Particular attention is given to a newly developed method for characterization of surface chemical groups on carbons in terms of their acid-base properties (pK{sub a} spectra) based on potentiometric titration. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to confirm the identity of surfactants, both ionic and non-ionic. In addition, background information on carbon black properties and the mechanism by which surfactants disperse carbon black in water is also provided. A list of main physical and chemical properties characterized, samples analyzed, and results obtained, as well as information on the desired trend or

  3. The Toxicological Mechanisms of Environmental Soot (Black Carbon and Carbon Black: Focus on Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rituraj Niranjan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The environmental soot and carbon blacks (CBs cause many diseases in humans, but their underlying mechanisms of toxicity are still poorly understood. Both are formed after the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons but differ in their constituents and percent carbon contents. For the first time, “Sir Percival Pott” described soot as a carcinogen, which was subsequently confirmed by many others. The existing data suggest three main types of diseases due to soot and CB exposures: cancer, respiratory diseases, and cardiovascular dysfunctions. Experimental models revealed the involvement of oxidative stress, DNA methylation, formation of DNA adducts, and Aryl hydrocarbon receptor activation as the key mechanisms of soot- and CB-induced cancers. Metals including Si, Fe, Mn, Ti, and Co in soot also contribute in the reactive oxygen species (ROS-mediated DNA damage. Mechanistically, ROS-induced DNA damage is further enhanced by eosinophils and neutrophils via halide (Cl− and Br− dependent DNA adducts formation. The activation of pulmonary dendritic cells, T helper type 2 cells, and mast cells is crucial mediators in the pathology of soot- or CB-induced respiratory disease. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs were also found to modulate T cells functions in respiratory diseases. Particularly, telomerase reverse transcriptase was found to play the critical role in soot- and CB-induced cardiovascular dysfunctions. In this review, we propose integrated mechanisms of soot- and CB-induced toxicity emphasizing the role of inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress. We also suggest use of antioxidants and PUFAs as protective strategies against soot- and CB-induced disorders.

  4. Effects and mechanisms of biochar-microbe interactions in soil improvement and pollution remediation: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaomin; Chen, Baoliang; Zhu, Lizhong; Xing, Baoshan

    2017-08-01

    Biochars have attracted tremendous attention due to their effects on soil improvement; they enhance carbon storage, soil fertility and quality, and contaminant (organic and heavy metal) immobilization and transformation. These effects could be achieved by modifying soil microbial habitats and (or) directly influencing microbial metabolisms, which together induce changes in microbial activity and microbial community structures. This review links microbial responses, including microbial activity, community structures and soil enzyme activities, with changes in soil properties caused by biochars. In particular, we summarized possible mechanisms that are involved in the effects that biochar-microbe interactions have on soil carbon sequestration and pollution remediation. Special attention has been paid to biochar effects on the formation and protection of soil aggregates, biochar adsorption of contaminants, biochar-mediated transformation of soil contaminants by microorganisms, and biochar-facilitated electron transfer between microbial cells and contaminants and soil organic matter. Certain reactive organic compounds and heavy metals in biochar may induce toxicity to soil microorganisms. Adsorption and hydrolysis of signaling molecules by biochar interrupts microbial interspecific communications, potentially altering soil microbial community structures. Further research is urged to verify the proposed mechanisms involved in biochar-microbiota interactions for soil remediation and improvement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Global emission inventory and atmospheric transport of black carbon. Evaluation of the associated exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Rong

    2015-06-01

    This thesis presents research focusing on the improvement of high-resolution global black carbon (BC) emission inventory and application in assessing the population exposure to ambient BC. A particular focus of the thesis is on the construction of a high-resolution (both spatial and sectorial) fuel consumption database, which is used to develop the emission inventory of black carbon. Above all, the author updates the global emission inventory of black carbon, a resource subsequently used to study the atmospheric transport of black carbon over Asia with the help of a high-resolution nested model. The thesis demonstrates that spatial bias in fuel consumption and BC emissions can be reduced by means of the sub-national disaggregation approach. Using the inventory and nested model, ambient BC concentrations can be better validated against observations. Lastly, it provides a complete uncertainty analysis of global black carbon emissions, and this uncertainty is taken into account in the atmospheric modeling, helping to better understand the role of black carbon in regional and global air pollution.

  6. Characteristics of black carbon in snow from Laohugou No. 12 glacier on the northern Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yulan; Kang, Shichang; Li, Chaoliu; Gao, Tanguang; Cong, Zhiyuan; Sprenger, Michael; Liu, Yajun; Li, Xiaofei; Guo, Junming; Sillanpää, Mika; Wang, Kun; Chen, Jizu; Li, Yang; Sun, Shiwei

    2017-12-31

    Black carbon (BC) emitted from the incomplete combustion of biomass and fossil fuel impacts the climate system, cryospheric change, and human health. This study documents black carbon deposition in snow from a benchmark glacier on the northern Tibetan Plateau. Significant seasonality of BC concentrations indicates different input or post-depositional processes. BC particles deposited in snow had a mass volume median diameter slightly larger than that of black carbon particles typically found in the atmosphere. Also, unlike black carbon particles in the atmosphere, the particles deposited in snow did not exhibit highly fractal morphology by Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope. Footprint analysis indicated BC deposited on the glacier in summer originated mainly from Central Asia; in winter, the depositing air masses generally originated from Central Asia and Pakistan. Anthropogenic emissions play an important role on black carbon deposition in glacial snow, especially in winter. The mass absorption efficiency of BC in snow at 632nm exhibited significantly seasonality, with higher values in summer and lower values in winter. The information on black carbon deposition in glacial snow provided in this study could be used to help mitigate the impacts of BC on glacier melting on the northern Tibetan Plateau. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Advantage of SBR/carbon black masterbatch for tire tread application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sone, K.; Ishiguro, M.; Akimoto, H.; Ishida, M.

    1992-04-01

    The performance required of tire tread is becoming more severe and more various year by year, as social demands on tires have been changing. To improve wear resistance, driving safety and good drive feeling, new HP tires (high performance passenger car tires) are developed intensively. In addition, good fuel efficiency is required to satisfy the CAFE rule, which was proposed for a better global environment. To support this movement of the tire industry, material suppliers are making an effort to supply better materials. Mitsubishi Kasei has been improving the quality and production process of WMB, a SBR/carbon black master-batch produced by co-coagulation of SBR latex, carbon black and extender oil under the wet dispersion process. Compared to the tire tread made from dry-mixing compounds, that made from the WMB shows the following characteristics: (1) the abrasion resistance and the durability are higher; (2) from the viscoelastic properties, skid performance and driving stability are expected to be improved. These characteristics are remarkable when WMB is compounded in the recipes for HP and racing tires using fine carbon black. In this article, these features of WMB are studied from the view point of carbon black dispersion and polymer-carbon black interaction. Furthermore, the changes of carbon black structure during abrasion and fatigue process are analyzed and the mechanisms of these processes are discussed.

  8. Preparation of carbon black masterbatch for PET using polymeric dispersing agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, D.H. [Kyungpook National University, Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Lim, J.C. [Pukyong National University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Seo, K.H. [Yeungnam College of Science and Technology, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-01

    Three kinds of copolyesters, dispersing agents, were synthesized from the polycondensation reaction of dimethylterephthalate (DMT), dimethylisophthalate (DMI), sebacic acid (SA), and 1,4-butanediol (BD). Carbon black masterbatches were prepared by mixing carbon black into the dispersing agents (1 : 1.3 weight ratio) in a Brabender Plasticorder Using single screw extruder, masterbatches were compounded with poly(ethylene terephthalate) in 3 wt% concentration and mechanical properties of the compounds were investigated Gel permeation chromatography data implied that thermal degradation of polymeric dispersing agents was not significant through dispersion. Capillary rheometer test showed that PBTI has the highest viscosity and shear sensitivity among the there dispersing agents. Volume resistivities of masterbatch and transmission electron micrographs showed that dispersity of carbon black was improved with increasing melt viscosity of dispersing agent. The ultimate performance and mechanical characteristics of carbon black filled PET compounds depended directly on dispersion quality of the carbon black in masterbatch. Mechanical properties of compounds were improved with increasing dispersity of carbon black and with increasing content of rigid aromatic group in the copolyester dispersing agent. 30 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Analyzing 20 years of Black Carbon measurements in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutzner, R. D.; Quedenau, J.; Kuik, F.; von Schneidemesser, E.; Schmale, J.

    2016-12-01

    Black Carbon (BC) is an important short-lived climate-forcing pollutant contributing to global warming through absorption of sunlight. In addition, BC, as a component of particulate matter (PM) exerts adverse health effects. Anthropogenic emission sources of BC include residential heating, transport, and agricultural fires, and the dominant natural emission source is wildfires. Despite the adverse effects of BC, legislation that requires mandatory monitoring of BC concentrations does not currently exist in the European Union (EU). Instead, BC is only indirectly monitored as component of PM10 and PM2.5 (PM with a diameter smaller 10 µm and 2.5 µm, respectively). Before the introduction of mandatory PM10 and PM2.5 monitoring in the EU in 2005 and 2015, respectively, `black smoke' (BS), a surrogate for BC, was a required measurement in Germany from the early 1990s. The annual mean limit value was 14 µg/m3 from 1995 and 8 µg/m³ from 1998. In 2004, many measurements were stopped, with the repeal of the regulations. In most German federal states a limited number BC monitoring stations continued to operate. We present a synthesis of BC data from 213 stations across Germany covering the period between 1994 and 2014. Due to the lack of a standardized method and respective legislation, the data set is very heterogeneous relying on twelve different measurement methods including chemical, optical, and thermal-optical methods. Stations include, among others, urban background, traffic and rural. We highlight results from the year 2009, as it is the year with the largest measurement coverage based on the same measurement method, with 28 stations. Further, we calculated trends in BC concentrations for 13 stations with at least 10 years of data, for median concentrations, as well as 5th percentile (background) and 95th percentile (peak episodes). Preliminary results suggest that concentrations have generally declined, with a larger trend at traffic stations compared to urban

  10. Suitability of marginal biomass-derived biochars for soil amendment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buss, Wolfram [UK Biochar Research Centre, School of Geosciences, University of Edinburgh, Crew Building, Alexander Crum Brown Road, Edinburgh EH9 3FF (United Kingdom); Graham, Margaret C. [School of Geosciences, University of Edinburgh, Crew Building, Alexander Crum Brown Road, Edinburgh EH9 3FF (United Kingdom); Shepherd, Jessica G. [UK Biochar Research Centre, School of Geosciences, University of Edinburgh, Crew Building, Alexander Crum Brown Road, Edinburgh EH9 3FF (United Kingdom); School of Geosciences, University of Edinburgh, Crew Building, Alexander Crum Brown Road, Edinburgh EH9 3FF (United Kingdom); Mašek, Ondřej, E-mail: ondrej.masek@ed.ac.uk [UK Biochar Research Centre, School of Geosciences, University of Edinburgh, Crew Building, Alexander Crum Brown Road, Edinburgh EH9 3FF (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-15

    The term “marginal biomass” is used here to describe materials of little or no economic value, e.g. plants grown on contaminated land, food waste or demolition wood. In this study 10 marginal biomass-derived feedstocks were converted into 19 biochars at different highest treatment temperatures (HTT) using a continuous screw-pyrolysis unit. The aim was to investigate suitability of the resulting biochars for land application, judged on the basis of potentially toxic element (PTE) concentration, nutrient content and basic biochar properties (pH, EC, ash, fixed carbon). It was shown that under typical biochar production conditions the percentage content of several PTEs (As, Al, Zn) and nutrients (Ca, Mg) were reduced to some extent, but also that biochar can be contaminated by Cr and Ni during the pyrolysis process due to erosion of stainless steel reactor parts (average + 82.8% Cr, + 226.0% Ni). This can occur to such an extent that the resulting biochar is rendered unsuitable for soil application (maximum addition + 22.5 mg Cr kg{sup −1} biochar and + 44.4 mg Ni kg{sup −1} biochar). Biomass grown on land heavily contaminated with PTEs yielded biochars with PTE concentrations above recommended threshold values for soil amendments. Cd and Zn were of particular concern, exceeding the lowest threshold values by 31-fold and 7-fold respectively, despite some losses into the gas phase. However, thermal conversion of plants from less severely contaminated soils, demolition wood and food waste anaerobic digestate (AD) into biochar proved to be promising for land application. In particular, food waste AD biochar contained very high nutrient concentrations, making it interesting for use as fertiliser. - Highlights: • Marginal biomass feedstocks are materials of little economic value. • Biochar from biomass grown on PTE-rich soils tends to exceed guideline values. • Biochar from biomass with high mineral content can be a beneficial nutrient source. • Cr and Ni

  11. Suitability of marginal biomass-derived biochars for soil amendment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buss, Wolfram; Graham, Margaret C.; Shepherd, Jessica G.; Mašek, Ondřej

    2016-01-01

    The term “marginal biomass” is used here to describe materials of little or no economic value, e.g. plants grown on contaminated land, food waste or demolition wood. In this study 10 marginal biomass-derived feedstocks were converted into 19 biochars at different highest treatment temperatures (HTT) using a continuous screw-pyrolysis unit. The aim was to investigate suitability of the resulting biochars for land application, judged on the basis of potentially toxic element (PTE) concentration, nutrient content and basic biochar properties (pH, EC, ash, fixed carbon). It was shown that under typical biochar production conditions the percentage content of several PTEs (As, Al, Zn) and nutrients (Ca, Mg) were reduced to some extent, but also that biochar can be contaminated by Cr and Ni during the pyrolysis process due to erosion of stainless steel reactor parts (average + 82.8% Cr, + 226.0% Ni). This can occur to such an extent that the resulting biochar is rendered unsuitable for soil application (maximum addition + 22.5 mg Cr kg −1 biochar and + 44.4 mg Ni kg −1 biochar). Biomass grown on land heavily contaminated with PTEs yielded biochars with PTE concentrations above recommended threshold values for soil amendments. Cd and Zn were of particular concern, exceeding the lowest threshold values by 31-fold and 7-fold respectively, despite some losses into the gas phase. However, thermal conversion of plants from less severely contaminated soils, demolition wood and food waste anaerobic digestate (AD) into biochar proved to be promising for land application. In particular, food waste AD biochar contained very high nutrient concentrations, making it interesting for use as fertiliser. - Highlights: • Marginal biomass feedstocks are materials of little economic value. • Biochar from biomass grown on PTE-rich soils tends to exceed guideline values. • Biochar from biomass with high mineral content can be a beneficial nutrient source. • Cr and Ni from the

  12. Economic feasibility of biochar application to soils in temperate climate regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soja, Gerhard; Bücker, Jannis; Gunczy, Stefan; Kitzler, Barbara; Klinglmüller, Michaela; Kloss, Stefanie; Watzinger, Andrea; Wimmer, Bernhard; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Zehetner, Franz

    2014-05-01

    The findings that fertility improvements in tropical soils have been successfully mediated by biochar applications have caused wide-spread interest to use biochar as a soil amendment also for soils in temperate climate regions. But these soils in intensively cultivated regions are not always as acidic or sandy as the tropical Ferralsols where biochar is most effective. Therefore it is not self-evident that different soil characteristics allow biochar to display the same benefits if site-specific demands for the optimal organic soil amendment are not considered. This study pursued the objective to study the extent of benefits that biochar could provide for crops on two typical Austrian agricultural soils in a two-year field experiment. An economic evaluation assessed the local biochar production costs and compared them with the value of the observed biochar benefits. From a business economic viewpoint, currently high costs of biochar are not balanced by only moderate increases in crop yields and thus agricultural revenues. Improved water retention due to biochar, however, might justify biochar as an adaptation measure to global warming, especially when considering beside business economic aspects also overall economic aspects. When not assuming total crop failures but only increased soil fertility, even an inclusion of avoided social (=societal) costs by sequestering carbon and thereby helping to mitigate climate change do not economically justify the application of biochar. Price of biochar would need to decrease by at least 40 % to achieve a break-even from the overall economic viewpoint (if optimistic assumptions about the social value of sequestered carbon are applied; at pessimistic assumptions price for biochar must decrease even more in order to break even). When applying an alternative type of soil treatment of using modified biochar but avoiding additional N-fertilization, a similar picture arises: Social benefits due to avoided N-fertilization and

  13. Are emissions of black carbon from gasoline vehicles overestimated? Real-time, in situ measurement of black carbon emission factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Xing, Zhenyu; Zhao, Shuhui; Zheng, Mei; Mu, Chao; Du, Ke

    2016-03-15

    Accurately quantifying black carbon (BC) emission factors (EFs) is a prerequisite for estimation of BC emission inventory. BC EFs determined by measuring BC at the roadside or chasing a vehicle on-road may introduce large uncertainty for low emission vehicles. In this study, BC concentrations were measured inside the tailpipe of gasoline vehicles with different engine sizes under different driving modes to determine the respective EFs. BC EFs ranged from 0.005-7.14 mg/kg-fuel under the speeds of 20-70 km/h, 0.05-28.95 mg/kg-fuel under the accelerations of 0.5-1.5m/s(2). Although the water vapor in the sampling stream could result in an average of 12% negative bias, the BC EFs are significantly lower than the published results obtained with roadside or chasing vehicle measurement. It is suggested to conduct measurement at the tailpipe of gasoline vehicles instead of in the atmosphere behind the vehicles to reduce the uncertainty from fluctuation in ambient BC concentration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of biochar on isoproturon partitioning and bioaccessibility in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, B.J.; Pickering, F.L.; Freddo, A.; Whelan, M.J.; Coulon, F.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of biochar (5%) on the loss, partitioning and bioaccessibility of 14 C-isoproturon ( 14 C-IPU) was evaluated. Results indicated that biochar had a dramatic effect upon 14 C-IPU partitioning: 14 C-IPU extractability (0.01 M CaCl 2 ) in biochar-amended treatments was reduced to 14 C-IPU extractability in biochar free treatments decreased with ageing from 90% to 40%. A partitioning model was constructed to derive an effective partition coefficient for biochar:water (K BW of 7.82 × 10 4 L kg −1 ). This was two orders of magnitude greater than the apparent K foc value of the soil organic carbon:water (631 L kg −1 ). 14 C-radiorespirometry assays indicated high competence of microorganisms to mineralise 14 C-IPU in the absence of biochar (40.3 ± 0.9%). Where biochar was present 14 C-IPU mineralisation never exceeded 2%. These results indicate reduced herbicide bioaccessibility. Increasing IPU application to ×10 its recommended dose was ineffective at redressing IPU sequestration and its low bioaccessibility. Highlights: •Biochar had a dramatic effect on IPU partitioning. •IPU extractability was reduced to BW ) was 7.82 × 10 4 L kg −1 . •K BW was 124 times greater than the apparent K foc value of the control. •Biochar precluded microbial bioaccessibility – no catabolic response was observed. -- Biochar dramatically reduced 14 C-IPU extractability ( BW being ×123 greater than the apparent K foc . Correspondingly, microbial bioaccessibility of IPU was negligible

  15. [Effect of bamboo leaf biochar addition on soil CO2 efflux and labile organic carbon pool in a Chinese chestnut plantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhan-Lei; Li, Yong-Fu; Jiang, Pei-Kun; Zhou, Guo-Mo; Liu, Juan

    2014-11-01

    Effect of biochar addition on soil CO2 efflux in a typical Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) plantation in Lin'an, Zhejiang Province, China was investigated from July 2012 to July 2013 by the static closed chamber-GC technique. Soil temperature, soil moisture, WSOC and MBC concentrations were determined as well. Results showed that soil CO2 efflux exhibited a strong sea- sonal pattern. Compared with the control (without biochar application), the biochar treatment increased the soil CO2 efflux only in the first month since application, and then the effect diminished thereafter. There were no significant differences in the annual cumulative value of soil CO2 efflux between the biochar and control treatments. The annual mean value in soil MBC concentration (362 mg · kg(-1)) in the biochar treatment was higher than that (322 mg · kg(-1)) in the control. However, no significant difference in the soil WSOC concentration was found between the biochar and control treatments. Strong exponential relationships between soil temperature and soil CO2 efflux were observed regardless of the treatment and soil layer. The apparent temperature sensitivity (Q10) of soil CO2 efflux in the biochar treatment was higher than that in the control. Soil CO2 efflux was related to soil WSOC concentration but not with soil MBC or moisture content. To conclude, the application of bamboo leaf biochar did not affect the annual cumulative CO2 emission in the Chinese chestnut plantation but increased the Q10, and the CO2 efflux was predominantly controlled by the soil temperature and soil WSOC level.

  16. Comparison of structural health assessment capabilities in epoxy – carbon black and epoxy – carbon nanotube nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    F. Inam; B. R. Bhat; N. Luhyna; T. Vo

    2014-01-01

    A novel method for comparing structural health of different types of brittle epoxy nanocomposites filled with carbon nanostructured fillers is presented. Epoxy – 0.2 vol% carbon black (CB) and epoxy – 0.2 vol% carbon nanotube (CNT) nanocomposite bars were prepared by calendering and thermal curing. Nanocomposite bars were subjected to Vickers diamond indentation to produce sub-surface damage. Electrical conductivities were analysed by 4-point method to estimate the structural damage caused by...

  17. 20 years of Black Carbon measurements in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutzner, Rebecca; Quedenau, Jörn; Kuik, Friderike; von Schneidemesser, Erika; Schmale, Julia

    2016-04-01

    Black Carbon (BC) is an important short-lived climate-forcing pollutant contributing to global warming through absorption of sunlight. At the same time, BC, as a component of particulate matter (PM) exerts adverse health effects, like decreased lung function and exacerbated asthma. Globally, anthropogenic emission sources of BC include residential heating, transport, and agricultural fires, while the dominant natural emission sources are wildfires. Despite the various adverse effects of BC, legislation that requires mandatory monitoring of BC concentrations does not currently exist in the European Union. Instead, BC is only indirectly monitored as component of PM10 and PM2.5 (particulate matter with a diameter smaller 10 μm and 2.5 μm). Before the introduction of mandatory PM10 and PM2.5 monitoring in the European Union in 2005 and 2015, respectively, 'black smoke', a surrogate for BC, was a required measurement in Germany from the early 1990s. The annual mean limit value was 14 μg m-3 from 1995 and 8 μg m-3 from 1998 onwards. Many 'black smoke' measurements were stopped in 2004, with the repeal of the regulations obtaining at the time. However, in most German federal states a limited number BC monitoring stations continued to operate. Here we present a synthesis of BC data from 213 stations across Germany covering the period between 1994 and 2014. Due to the lack of a standardized method and respective legislation, the data set is very heterogeneous relying on twelve different measurement methods including chemical, optical, and thermal-optical methods. Stations include locations classified as background, urban-background, industrial and traffic among other types. Raw data in many different formats has been modelled and integrated in a relational database, allowing various options for further data analysis. We highlight results from the year 2009, as it is the year with the largest measurement coverage based on the same measurement method, with 30 stations. In

  18. Impacts of black carbon and co-pollutant emissions from transportation sector in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, Miguel; Almanza, Victor; Garcia, Agustin; Jazcilevich, Aron; Lei, Wenfang; Molina, Luisa

    2016-04-01

    Black carbon is one of the most important short-lived climate-forcing agents, which is harmful to human health and also contributes significantly to climate change. Transportation is one of the largest sources of black carbon emissions in many megacities and urban complexes, with diesel vehicles leading the way. Both on-road and off-road vehicles can emit substantial amounts of harmful BC-containing particulate matter (PM) and are also responsible for large emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and many other co-emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Regionally, black carbon emissions contributions from mobile sources may vary widely depending on the technical characteristics of the vehicle fleet, the quality and chemical properties of the fuels consumed, and the degree of local development and economic activities that foster wider and more frequent or intensive use of vehicles. This presentation will review and assess the emissions of black carbon from the on-road and off-road transportation sector in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area. Viable mitigation strategies, including innovative technological alternatives to reduce black carbon and co-pollutants in diesel vehicles and their impacts on climate, human health and ecosystems will be described.

  19. Cellphones as a Distributed Platform for Black Carbon Data Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, N.; Ramana, M.; Lukac, M. L.; Siva, P.; Ahmed, T.; Kar, A.; Rehman, I.; Ramanathan, V.

    2010-12-01

    Black carbon (BC), the visible component of soot that gives emissions such as diesel engine exhaust their dark color, has come to be recognized as a major contributor to global warming, and a frontline concern for climate change strategies (Ramanathan 2001, Jacobson 2010). We have developed a new low-cost instrument for gathering and measuring atmospheric BC concentrations that leverages cellphones to transmit data from an air filtration unit to a centralized database for analysis. Our new system relies on image processing techniques, as opposed to other more expensive optical methods, to interpret images of filters captured with a cellphone camera. As a result, the entire system costs less than $500 (and is orders of magnitude cheaper than an Aethalometer, the prevailing method for measuring atmospheric BC). We are working with three community groups in Los Angeles, and will recruit three groups in the San Francisco Bay Area, to enable 40 citizens to be actively engaged in monitoring BC across California. We are working with The Energy Resources Institute, an international NGO based in India, to deploy this instrument with 60 people in conjunction with Project Surya, which aims to deploy clean cookstoves and rigorously evaluate their impact on BC emissions. Field tests of this new instrument performed in California report an average error of 0.28 µg/m3 when compared with an Aethelometer. These excellent results hold the promise of making large-scale data collection of BC feasible and relatively easy to reproduce (Ramanathan et al., forthcoming). The use of cellphones for data collection permits monitoring of BC to occur on a greater, more comprehensive scale not previously possible, and serves as a means of instituting more precise, variation-sensitive evaluations of emissions. By storing the data in a publicly available repository, our system will provide real-time access to mass-scale BC measurements to researchers and the public. Through our pilot

  20. Effects of biochar and manure amendments on water vapor sorption in a sandy loam soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Tuller, Markus; Moldrup, Per

    2015-01-01

    Over the last few years, the application of biochar (BC) as a soil amendment to sequester carbon and mitigate global climate change has received considerable attention. While positive effects of biochar on plant nutrition are well documented, little is known about potential impacts on the physical....... Hysteresis of the water vapor sorption isotherms increased with increasing BC application rates. Biochar age did not significantly affect vapor sorption and SSA....

  1. Sources of uncertainties in modelling black carbon at the global scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Vignati

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of the global black carbon (BC cycle is essentially qualitative due to uncertainties in our knowledge of its properties. This work investigates two source of uncertainties in modelling black carbon: those due to the use of different schemes for BC ageing and its removal rate in the global Transport-Chemistry model TM5 and those due to the uncertainties in the definition and quantification of the observations, which propagate through to both the emission inventories, and the measurements used for the model evaluation.

    The schemes for the atmospheric processing of black carbon that have been tested with the model are (i a simple approach considering BC as bulk aerosol and a simple treatment of the removal with fixed 70% of in-cloud black carbon concentrations scavenged by clouds and removed when rain is present and (ii a more complete description of microphysical ageing within an aerosol dynamics model, where removal is coupled to the microphysical properties of the aerosol, which results in a global average of 40% in-cloud black carbon that is scavenged in clouds and subsequently removed by rain, thus resulting in a longer atmospheric lifetime. This difference is reflected in comparisons between both sets of modelled results and the measurements. Close to the sources, both anthropogenic and vegetation fire source regions, the model results do not differ significantly, indicating that the emissions are the prevailing mechanism determining the concentrations and the choice of the aerosol scheme does not influence the levels. In more remote areas such as oceanic and polar regions the differences can be orders of magnitude, due to the differences between the two schemes. The more complete description reproduces the seasonal trend of the black carbon observations in those areas, although not always the magnitude of the signal, while the more simplified approach underestimates black carbon concentrations by orders of

  2. Effects of airborne black carbon pollution on maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illes, Bernadett; Anda, Angela; Soos, Gabor

    2013-04-01

    The black carbon (BC) changes the radiation balance of the Earth and contributes to global warming. The airborne BC deposited on the surface of plant, changing the radiation balance, water balance and the total dry matter (TDM) content of plant. The objective of our study was to investigate the impact of soot originated from motor vehicle exhaust on maize. The field experiment was carried out in Keszthely Agrometeorological Research Station (Hungary) in three consecutive years (2010, 2011, 2012) of growing season. The test plant was the maize hybrid Sperlona (FAO 340) with short growing season. The BC was chemically "pure", which means that it is free any contaminants (e.g. heavy metals). The BC was coming from the Hankook Tyre Company (Dunaújváros, Hungary), where used that for improve the wear resistance of tires. We used a motorised sprayer of SP 415 type to spray the BC onto the leaf surface. The leaf area index (LAI) was measured each week on the same 12 sample maize in each treatment using an LI 3000A automatic planimeter (LI-COR, Lincoln, NE). Albedo was measured by pyranometers of the CMA-11 type (Kipp & Zonen, Vaisala), what we placed the middle of the plot of 0.3 ha. The effects of BC were studied under two different water supplies: evapotranspirometers of Thornthwaite type were used for "ad libitum" treatment and rainfed treatment in field plots. In 2010 and 2012, a big difference was not observed in the case of LAI in the effects of BC. However, in 2011 there was a significant difference. The LAI of the BC polluted maize was higher (10-15%, P<0.05), than the LAI of the control maize in the rainfed plot and in the ET chambers, respectively. The albedo of the BC contaminated maize decreased (15-30%, P<0.05) in all three years. We also detected that the green plant surface of maize increased on BC contaminated treatment. These results may suggest that the plant is able to absorb the additional carbon source through the leaves. The albedo decreased

  3. Estimates of increased black carbon emissions from electrostatic precipitators during powdered activated carbon injection for mercury emissions control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clack, Herek L

    2012-07-03

    The behavior of mercury sorbents within electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) is not well-understood, despite a decade or more of full-scale testing. Recent laboratory results suggest that powdered activated carbon exhibits somewhat different collection behavior than fly ash in an ESP and particulate filters located at the outlet of ESPs have shown evidence of powdered activated carbon penetration during full-scale tests of sorbent injection for mercury emissions control. The present analysis considers a range of assumed differential ESP collection efficiencies for powdered activated carbon as compared to fly ash. Estimated emission rates of submicrometer powdered activated carbon are compared to estimated emission rates of particulate carbon on submicrometer fly ash, each corresponding to its respective collection efficiency. To the extent that any emitted powdered activated carbon exhibits size and optical characteristics similar to black carbon, such emissions could effectively constitute an increase in black carbon emissions from coal-based stationary power generation. The results reveal that even for the low injection rates associated with chemically impregnated carbons, submicrometer particulate carbon emissions can easily double if the submicrometer fraction of the native fly ash has a low carbon content. Increasing sorbent injection rates, larger collection efficiency differentials as compared to fly ash, and decreasing sorbent particle size all lead to increases in the estimated submicrometer particulate carbon emissions.

  4. The Effect of Soil Warming on Decomposition of Biochar, Wood, and Bulk Soil Organic Carbon in Contrasting Temperate and Tropical Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torn, Margaret; Tas, Neslihan; Reichl, Ken; Castanha, Cristina; Fischer, Marc; Abiven, Samuel; Schmidt, Michael; Brodie, Eoin; Jansson, Janet

    2013-04-01

    Biochar and wood are known to decay at different rates in soil, but the longterm effect of char versus unaltered wood inputs on soil carbon dynamics may vary by soil ecosystem and by their sensitivity to warming. We conducted an incubation experiment to explore three questions: (1) How do decomposition rates of char and wood vary with soil type and depth? (2) How vulnerable to warming are these slowly decomposing inputs? And (3) Do char or wood additions increase loss of native soil organic carbon (priming)? Soils from a Mediterranean grassland (Hopland Experimental Research Station, California) and a moist tropical forest (Tabunoco Forest, Puerto Rico) were collected from two soil depths and incubated at ambient temperature (14°C, 20°C for Hopland and Tabonuco respectively) and ambient +6°C. We added 13C-labeled wood and char (made from the wood at 450oC) to the soils and quantified CO2 and 13CO2 fluxes with continuous online carbon isotope measurements using a Cavity Ringdown Spectrometer (Picarro, Inc) for one year. As expected, in all treatments the wood decomposed much (about 50 times) more quickly than did the char amendment. With few exceptions, amendments placed in the surface soil decomposed more quickly than those in deeper soil, and in forest soil faster than that placed in grassland soil, at the same temperature. The two substrates were not very temperature sensitive. Both had Q10 less than 2 and char decomposition in particular was relatively insensitive to warming. Finally, the addition of wood caused a significant increase of roughly 30% in decomposition losses of the native soil organic carbon in the grassland and slightly less in forest. Char had only a slight positive priming effect but had a significant effect on microbial community. These results show that conversion of wood inputs to char through wildfire or intentional management will alter not only the persistence of the carbon in soil but also its temperature response and effect on

  5. Fundamental and molecular composition characteristics of biochars produced from sugarcane and rice crop residues and by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Chang Yoon; Dodla, Syam K; Wang, Jim J

    2016-01-01

    Biochar conversion of sugarcane and rice harvest residues provides an alternative for managing these crop residues that are traditionally burned in open field. Sugarcane leaves, bagasse, rice straw and husk were converted to biochar at four pyrolysis temperatures (PTs) of 450 °C, 550 °C, 650 °C, and 750 °C and evaluated for various elemental, molecular and surface properties. The carbon content of biochars was highest for those produced at 650-750 °C. Biochars produced at 550 °C showed the characteristics of biochar that are commonly interpreted as being stable in soil, with low H/C and O/C ratios and pyrolysis fingerprints dominated by aromatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. At 550 °C, all biochars also exhibited maximum CEC values with sugarcane leaves biochar (SLB) > sugarcane bagasse biochar (SBB) > rice straw biochar (RSB) > rice husk biochar (RHB). The pore size distribution of biochars was dominated by pores of 20 nm and high PT increased both smaller and larger than 50 nm pores. Water holding capacity of biochars increased with PT but the magnitude of the increase was limited by feedstock types, likely related to the hydrophobicity of biochars as evident by molecular composition, besides pore volume properties of biochars. Py-GC/MS analysis revealed a clear destruction of lignin with decarboxylation and demethoxylation at 450 °C and dehydroxylation at above 550 °C. Overall, biochar molecular compositions became similar as PT increased, and the biochars produced at 550 °C demonstrated characteristics that have potential benefit as soil amendment for improving both C sequestration and nutrient dynamics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Amending greenroof soil with biochar to affect runoff water quantity and quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, Deborah A.; Johnson, Gwynn R. [Portland State University, Mechanical and Materials Engineering, POB 751, Portland, OR 97207 (United States); Spolek, Graig A., E-mail: graig@cecs.pdx.edu [Portland State University, Mechanical and Materials Engineering, POB 751, Portland, OR 97207 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Numbers of greenroofs in urban areas continue to grow internationally; so designing greenroof soil to reduce the amount of nutrients in the stormwater runoff from these roofs is becoming essential. This study evaluated changes in extensive greenroof water discharge quality and quantity after adding biochar, a soil amendment promoted for its ability to retain nutrients in soils and increase soil fertility. Prototype greenroof trays with and without biochar were planted with sedum or ryegrass, with barren soil trays used as controls. The greenroof trays were subjected to two sequential 7.4 cm/h rainfall events using a rain simulator. Runoff from the rain events was collected and evaluated. Trays containing 7% biochar showed increased water retention and significant decreases in discharge of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, nitrate, phosphate, and organic carbon. The addition of biochar to greenroof soil improves both runoff water quality and retention. - Highlights: > Biochar in green roof soil reduces nitrogen and phosphorus in the runoff. > Addition of biochar reduces turbidity of runoff. > Addition of biochar reduces total organic carbon content in runoff by 67-72%. > Biochar improves water retention of saturated soil. - In this controlled laboratory experiment, greenroof soil was amended by the addition of biochar, which reduced the water runoff concentration of nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic carbon.

  7. Amending greenroof soil with biochar to affect runoff water quantity and quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, Deborah A.; Johnson, Gwynn R.; Spolek, Graig A.

    2011-01-01

    Numbers of greenroofs in urban areas continue to grow internationally; so designing greenroof soil to reduce the amount of nutrients in the stormwater runoff from these roofs is becoming essential. This study evaluated changes in extensive greenroof water discharge quality and quantity after adding biochar, a soil amendment promoted for its ability to retain nutrients in soils and increase soil fertility. Prototype greenroof trays with and without biochar were planted with sedum or ryegrass, with barren soil trays used as controls. The greenroof trays were subjected to two sequential 7.4 cm/h rainfall events using a rain simulator. Runoff from the rain events was collected and evaluated. Trays containing 7% biochar showed increased water retention and significant decreases in discharge of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, nitrate, phosphate, and organic carbon. The addition of biochar to greenroof soil improves both runoff water quality and retention. - Highlights: → Biochar in green roof soil reduces nitrogen and phosphorus in the runoff. → Addition of biochar reduces turbidity of runoff. → Addition of biochar reduces total organic carbon content in runoff by 67-72%. → Biochar improves water retention of saturated soil. - In this controlled laboratory experiment, greenroof soil was amended by the addition of biochar, which reduced the water runoff concentration of nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic carbon.

  8. Comparison of manufactured and black carbon nanoparticle concentrations in aquatic sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, A.A.; Nowack, B.; Wiesner, M.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we show that concentrations of manufactured carbon-based nanoparticles (MCNPs) in aquatic sediments will be negligible compared to levels of black carbon nanoparticles (BCNPs). This is concluded from model calculations accounting for MCNP sedimentation fluxes, removal rates due to

  9. Evaluating the capabilities of portable black carbon monitors and photometers for measuring airborne carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Naomi; Ogura, Isamu, E-mail: i-ogura@aist.go.jp; Kotake, Mari; Kishimoto, Atsuo; Honda, Kazumasa [Technology Research Association for Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes (TASC) (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    For daily monitoring of occupational exposure to aerosolized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) where CNTs are manufactured and handled, inexpensive real-time measuring methods are preferable. In this study, we evaluated the capabilities of a portable black carbon monitor (BCM; also called an aethalometer) and a light-scattering aerosol photometer in detecting airborne CNTs. The responses of these instruments to airborne CNTs, aerosolized through vortex shaking, were evaluated by comparing the measurements of CNT mass concentrations made by these instruments to those determined through thermal carbon analysis. Results showed that their raw readings underestimated CNT mass concentrations in most cases. Their sensitivities depended on the type of CNTs and decreased with the particle sizes of aerosolized CNT clumps. We also found that the sensitivity of the BCM tended to substantially decrease with increasing filter load, even before the point at which the filter should be replaced as recommended by the manufacturer, which could be attributed to a clean environmental condition (i.e., the absence of ubiquitous light-scattering material). As an example of the use of these instruments for measuring airborne CNTs in the presence of background aerosols, a CNT-handling simulation was also conducted. Although both the BCM and the photometer could detect CNT emissions, the BCM was more sensitive to the detection of emitted CNTs in the presence of background aerosols. The correction factors obtained from the response evaluations could enhance the measurement accuracy of these instruments, which will be helpful for the daily monitoring of CNTs at workplaces.

  10. Evaluating the capabilities of portable black carbon monitors and photometers for measuring airborne carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Naomi; Ogura, Isamu; Kotake, Mari; Kishimoto, Atsuo; Honda, Kazumasa

    2013-01-01

    For daily monitoring of occupational exposure to aerosolized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) where CNTs are manufactured and handled, inexpensive real-time measuring methods are preferable. In this study, we evaluated the capabilities of a portable black carbon monitor (BCM; also called an aethalometer) and a light-scattering aerosol photometer in detecting airborne CNTs. The responses of these instruments to airborne CNTs, aerosolized through vortex shaking, were evaluated by comparing the measurements of CNT mass concentrations made by these instruments to those determined through thermal carbon analysis. Results showed that their raw readings underestimated CNT mass concentrations in most cases. Their sensitivities depended on the type of CNTs and decreased with the particle sizes of aerosolized CNT clumps. We also found that the sensitivity of the BCM tended to substantially decrease with increasing filter load, even before the point at which the filter should be replaced as recommended by the manufacturer, which could be attributed to a clean environmental condition (i.e., the absence of ubiquitous light-scattering material). As an example of the use of these instruments for measuring airborne CNTs in the presence of background aerosols, a CNT-handling simulation was also conducted. Although both the BCM and the photometer could detect CNT emissions, the BCM was more sensitive to the detection of emitted CNTs in the presence of background aerosols. The correction factors obtained from the response evaluations could enhance the measurement accuracy of these instruments, which will be helpful for the daily monitoring of CNTs at workplaces

  11. Interactive effects of biochar ageing in soils related to feedstock, pyrolysis temperature, and historic charcoal production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitkötter, Julian; Marschner, Bernd

    2015-04-01

    Biochar is suggested for soil amelioration and carbon sequestration, based on its assumed role as the key factor for the long-term fertility of Terra preta soils. Several studies have shown that certain biochar properties can undergo changes through ageing processes, especially regarding charge characteristics. However, only a few studies determined the changes of different biochars under the same incubation conditions and in different soils. The objective of this study was to characterize the changes of pine chip (PC)- and corn digestate (CD)-derived biochars pyrolyzed at 400 or 600 °C during 100 days of laboratory incubation in a historical kiln soil and an adjacent control soil. Separation between soil and biochar was ensured by using mesh bags. Especially, changes in charge characteristics depended on initial biochar properties affected by feedstock and pyrolysis temperature and on soil properties affected by historic charcoal production. While the cation exchange capacity (CEC) markedly increased for both CD biochars during incubation, PC biochars showed no or only slight increases in CEC. Corresponding to the changes in CEC, ageing of biochars also increased the amount of acid functional groups with increases being in average about 2-fold higher in CD biochars than in PC biochars. Further and in contrast to other studies, the surface areas of biochars increased during ageing, likely due to ash leaching and degradation of tar residues. Changes in CEC and surface acidity of CD biochars were more pronounced after incubation in the control soil, while surface area increase was higher in the kiln soil. Since the two acidic forest soils used in this this study did not greatly differ in physical or chemical properties, the main process for inducing these differences in the buried biochar most likely is related to the differences in dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Although the kiln soil contained about 50% more soil organic carbon due to the presence of charcoal

  12. Amending Jasper County, Missouri soils with biochar and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abandoned mines and the residuals from mining across the U.S. pose a considerable, pervasive risk to human health and the environment. Many soils in the Tri-State-Mining District (TSMD), located where Missouri, Kansas and Oklahoma meet, have been affected by the residuals of historic lead and zinc mining. Here we describe a research collaboration between ORD and Region 7 to investigate the use of customized soil amendments, which will include biochar, as a tool to provide both soil remediation and reestablishment of a soil-stabilizing native plant community at sites in the TSMD. Biochar is a charcoal-like, carbon-rich, porous by-product of thermal pyrolysis or gasification. A benefit of using biochar is the ability to engineer its properties to correspond to specific soil remediation needs. Specifically, it has properties that make it well suited for use in remediating mine soils and reestablishing vegetation, with studies indicating that biochar can complex and immobilize heavy metals. This is of critical importance for mining influenced sites. However, the optimized biochar properties for the remediation of acidic mine soils are not yet fully known. Biochar can be produced to have a range of pH values, depending upon feedstock and pyrolysis or gasification conditions, and post-production activation. Therefore, this material may be used as a liming agent to raise soil pH. Additionally, some biochars have been shown to improve soil water holding capacities and

  13. Nitrous oxide emission reduction in temperate biochar-amended soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felber, R.; Hüppi, R.; Leifeld, J.; Neftel, A.

    2012-01-01

    Biochar, a pyrolysis product of organic residues, is an amendment for agricultural soils to improve soil fertility, sequester CO2 and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In highly weathered tropical soils laboratory incubations of soil-biochar mixtures revealed substantial reductions for nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2). In contrast, evidence is scarce for temperate soils. In a three-factorial laboratory incubation experiment two different temperate agricultural soils were amended with green waste and coffee grounds biochar. N2O and CO2 emissions were measured at the beginning and end of a three month incubation. The experiments were conducted under three different conditions (no additional nutrients, glucose addition, and nitrate and glucose addition) representing different field conditions. We found mean N2O emission reductions of 60 % compared to soils without addition of biochar. The reduction depended on biochar type and soil type as well as on the age of the samples. CO2 emissions were slightly reduced, too. NO3- but not NH4+ concentrations were significantly reduced shortly after biochar incorporation. Despite the highly significant suppression of N2O emissions biochar effects should not be transferred one-to-one to field conditions but need to be tested accordingly.

  14. Influence of biochar on isoproturon partitioning and bioaccessibility in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, B J; Pickering, F L; Freddo, A; Whelan, M J; Coulon, F

    2013-10-01

    The influence of biochar (5%) on the loss, partitioning and bioaccessibility of (14)C-isoproturon ((14)C-IPU) was evaluated. Results indicated that biochar had a dramatic effect upon (14)C-IPU partitioning: (14)C-IPU extractability (0.01 M CaCl2) in biochar-amended treatments was reduced to <2% while, (14)C-IPU extractability in biochar free treatments decreased with ageing from 90% to 40%. A partitioning model was constructed to derive an effective partition coefficient for biochar:water (KBW of 7.82 × 10(4) L kg(-1)). This was two orders of magnitude greater than the apparent Kfoc value of the soil organic carbon:water (631 L kg(-1)). (14)C-radiorespirometry assays indicated high competence of microorganisms to mineralise (14)C-IPU in the absence of biochar (40.3 ± 0.9%). Where biochar was present (14)C-IPU mineralisation never exceeded 2%. These results indicate reduced herbicide bioaccessibility. Increasing IPU application to ×10 its recommended dose was ineffective at redressing IPU sequestration and its low bioaccessibility. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effective sorption of atrazine by biochar colloids and residues derived from different pyrolysis temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Gao, Yan; Sun, Lili; Zhang, Shuaishuai; Li, Jiaojiao; Zhang, Ying

    2018-04-26

    Biochar has attracted much attention, which owns many environmental and agronomic benefits, including carbon sequestration, improvement of soil quality, and immobilization of environmental contaminants. Biochar has been also investigated as an effective sorbent in recent publications. Generally, biochar particles can be divided into colloids and residues according to particle sizes, while understanding of adsorption capacities towards organic pollutants in each section is largely unknown, representing a critical knowledge gap in evaluations on the effectiveness of biochar for water treatment application. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectra, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method are used to examine the structures and surface properties of biochar colloids and residues derived from corn straws prepared at different pyrolysis temperatures. Also, their roles in atrazine (a typical organic pollutant) removal are investigated by batch adsorption experiments and fitted by different kinetic and thermodynamic models, respectively. The adsorption capacities of biochar colloids are much more than those of residues, resulting from the colloids containing abundant oxygen functional groups and mineral substances, and the adsorption capacities of biochar colloids and residues increase with the increase of pyrolysis temperatures. The highest adsorption performance of 139.33 mg g -1 can be obtained in biochar colloids prepared at 700 °C, suggesting the important functions of biochar colloids in the application of atrazine removal by biochar.

  16. Effects on soil quality of biochar and straw amendment in conjunction with chemical fertilizers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Li-li; ZHONG Zhe-ke; YANG Hui-min

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects on chemical and microbiological properties of paddy soil of short-term biochar,straw,and chemical fertilizers compared with chemical fertilization alone.Five soil fertilization treatments were evaluated:regular chemical fertilizers (RF),straw+regular chemical fertilizers (SRF),straw biochar+regular chemical fertilizers (SCRF),bamboo biochar (BC)+regular chemical fertilizers (BCRF),and straw biochar+70% regular chemical fertilizers (SC+70%RF).Their effects were investigated after approximately 1.5 years.The soil pH and cation exchange capacity (CEC) were significantly higher in biochar-treated soils.The soil phosphorous (P) and potassium (K) contents increased with biochar application.The soil Colwell P content was significantly increased with the addition of straw biochar in the treatments of SCRF and SC+70%RF.The oxygen (O):carbon (C) ratio doubled in BC picked from the soil.This indicated that BC underwent a significant oxidation process in the soil.The denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprints of microbial communities differed among the treatments.Soils with added biochar had higher Shannon diversity and species richness indices than soils without biochars.The results suggest that biochar can improve soil fertility.

  17. Low-temperature atmospheric oxidation of mixtures of titanium and carbon black or brown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elizarova, V.A.; Babaitsev, I.V.; Barzykin, V.V.; Gerusova, V.P.; Rozenband, V.I.

    1984-01-01

    This article reports on the thermogravimetric investigation of mixtures of titanium no. 2 and carbon black with various mass carbon contents. Adding carbon black (as opposed to boron) to titanium leads to an increase in the rate of heat release of the oxidation reaction. An attempt is made to clarify the low-temperature oxidation mechanism of titanium mixtures in air. An x-ray phase and chemical (for bound carbon) analysis of specimens of a stoichiometric Ti + C mixture after heating in air to a temperature of 650 0 C at the rate of 10 0 /min was conducted. The results indicate that the oxidation of the titanium-carbon mixture probably proceeds according to a more complex mechanism associated with the transport of the gaseous carbon oxidation products and their participation in the titanium oxidation

  18. Biochar physico-chemical properties as affected by environmental exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorrenti, Giovambattista; Masiello, Caroline A.; Dugan, Brandon; Toselli, Moreno

    2016-01-01

    To best use biochar as a sustainable soil management and carbon (C) sequestration technique, we must understand the effect of environmental exposure on its physical and chemical properties because they likely vary with time. These properties play an important role in biochar's environmental behavior and delivery of ecosystem services. We measured biochar before amendment and four years after amendment to a commercial nectarine orchard at rates of 5, 15 and 30 t ha −1 . We combined two pycnometry techniques to measure skeletal (ρ s ) and envelope (ρ e ) density and to estimate the total pore volume of biochar particles. We also examined imbibition, which can provide information about soil hydraulic conductivity. Finally, we investigated the chemical properties, surface, inner layers atomic composition and C1s bonding state of biochar fragments through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Ageing increased biochar skeletal density and reduced the water imbibition rate within fragments as a consequence of partial pore clogging. However, porosity and the volume of water stored in particles remained unchanged. Exposure reduced biochar pH, EC, and total C, but enhanced total N, nitrate-N, and ammonium-N. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses showed an increase of O, Si, N, Na, Al, Ca, Mn, and Fe surface (0–5 nm) atomic composition (at%) and a reduction of C and K in aged particles, confirming the interactions of biochar with soil inorganic and organic phases. Oxidation of aged biochar fragments occurred mainly in the particle surface, and progressively decreased down to 75 nm. Biochar surface chemistry changes included the development of carbonyl and carboxylate functional groups, again mainly on the particle surface. However, changes were noticeable down to 75 nm, while no significant changes were measured in the deepest layer, up to 110 nm. Results show unequivocal shifts in biochar physical and chemical properties/characteristics over short (~ years

  19. Biochar physico-chemical properties as affected by environmental exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorrenti, Giovambattista, E-mail: g.sorrenti@unibo.it [Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Bologna, viale G. Fanin 44, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Masiello, Caroline A., E-mail: masiello@rice.edu [Departments of Earth Science, BioSciences, and Chemistry, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Dugan, Brandon, E-mail: dugan@rice.edu [Department of Earth Science, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Toselli, Moreno, E-mail: moreno.toselli@unibo.it [Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Bologna, viale G. Fanin 44, 40127 Bologna (Italy)

    2016-09-01

    To best use biochar as a sustainable soil management and carbon (C) sequestration technique, we must understand the effect of environmental exposure on its physical and chemical properties because they likely vary with time. These properties play an important role in biochar's environmental behavior and delivery of ecosystem services. We measured biochar before amendment and four years after amendment to a commercial nectarine orchard at rates of 5, 15 and 30 t ha{sup −1}. We combined two pycnometry techniques to measure skeletal (ρ{sub s}) and envelope (ρ{sub e}) density and to estimate the total pore volume of biochar particles. We also examined imbibition, which can provide information about soil hydraulic conductivity. Finally, we investigated the chemical properties, surface, inner layers atomic composition and C1s bonding state of biochar fragments through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Ageing increased biochar skeletal density and reduced the water imbibition rate within fragments as a consequence of partial pore clogging. However, porosity and the volume of water stored in particles remained unchanged. Exposure reduced biochar pH, EC, and total C, but enhanced total N, nitrate-N, and ammonium-N. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses showed an increase of O, Si, N, Na, Al, Ca, Mn, and Fe surface (0–5 nm) atomic composition (at%) and a reduction of C and K in aged particles, confirming the interactions of biochar with soil inorganic and organic phases. Oxidation of aged biochar fragments occurred mainly in the particle surface, and progressively decreased down to 75 nm. Biochar surface chemistry changes included the development of carbonyl and carboxylate functional groups, again mainly on the particle surface. However, changes were noticeable down to 75 nm, while no significant changes were measured in the deepest layer, up to 110 nm. Results show unequivocal shifts in biochar physical and chemical properties/characteristics over

  20. The effects of additional black carbon on Arctic sea ice surface albedo: variation with sea ice type and snow cover

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Marks; M. D. King

    2013-01-01

    Black carbon in sea ice will decrease sea ice surface albedo through increased absorption of incident solar radiation, exacerbating sea ice melting. Previous literature has reported different albedo responses to additions of black carbon in sea ice and has not considered how a snow cover may mitigate the effect of black carbon in sea ice. Sea ice is predominately snow covered. Visible light absorption and light scattering coefficients are calculated for a typical first year and multi-y...

  1. Thermal Oxidation of Tail Gases from the Production of Oil-furnace Carbon Black

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosak, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the production technology of oil-furnace carbon black, as well as the selected solution for preventing the emissions of this process from contaminating the environment.The products of industrial oil-furnace carbon black production are different grades of carbon black and process tail gases. The qualitative composition of these tail gases during the production of oil-furnace carbon black are: carbon(IV oxide, carbon(II oxide, hydrogen, methane, hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen, oxygen, and water vapor.The quantitative composition and lower caloric value of process tail gases change depending on the type of feedstock used in the production, as well as the type of process. The lower caloric value of process tail gases is relatively small with values ranging between 1500 and 2300 kJ m–3.In the conventional production of oil-furnace carbon black, process tail gases purified from carbon black dust are freely released into the atmosphere untreated. In this manner, the process tail gases pollute the air in the town of Kutina, because their quantitative values are much higher than the prescribed emissions limits for hydrogen sulfide and carbon(II oxide. A logical solution for the prevention of such air pollution is combustion of the process tail gases, i. e. their thermal oxidation. For this purpose, a specially designed flare system has been developed. Consuming minimum amounts of natural gas needed for oxidation, the flare system is designed to combust low caloric process tail gases with 99 % efficiency. Thus, the toxic and flammable components of the tail gases (hydrogen sulfide, hydrogen, carbon(II oxide, methane and other trace hydrocarbons would be transformed into environmentally acceptable components (sulfur(IV oxide, water, carbon(IV oxide and nitrogen(IV oxide, which are in compliance with the emissions limit values prescribed by law.Proper operation of this flare system in the production of oil-furnace carbon black would solve

  2. Evaluation of black carbon estimations in global aerosol models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhao

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available We evaluate black carbon (BC model predictions from the AeroCom model intercomparison project by considering the diversity among year 2000 model simulations and comparing model predictions with available measurements. These model-measurement intercomparisons include BC surface and aircraft concentrations, aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD retrievals from AERONET and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI and BC column estimations based on AERONET. In regions other than Asia, most models are biased high compared to surface concentration measurements. However compared with (column AAOD or BC burden retreivals, the models are generally biased low. The average ratio of model to retrieved AAOD is less than 0.7 in South American and 0.6 in African biomass burning regions; both of these regions lack surface concentration measurements. In Asia the average model to observed ratio is 0.7 for AAOD and 0.5 for BC surface concentrations. Compared with aircraft measurements over the Americas at latitudes between 0 and 50N, the average model is a factor of 8 larger than observed, and most models exceed the measured BC standard deviation in the mid to upper troposphere. At higher latitudes the average model to aircraft BC ratio is 0.4 and models underestimate the observed BC loading in the lower and middle troposphere associated with springtime Arctic haze. Low model bias for AAOD but overestimation of surface and upper atmospheric BC concentrations at lower latitudes suggests that most models are underestimating BC absorption and should improve estimates for refractive index, particle size, and optical effects of BC coating. Retrieval uncertainties and/or differences with model diagnostic treatment may also contribute to the model-measurement disparity. Largest AeroCom model diversity occurred in northern Eurasia and the remote Arctic, regions influenced by anthropogenic sources. Changing emissions, aging, removal, or optical properties within a single model

  3. Black carbon and the Himalayan cryosphere: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertler, Charles G.; Puppala, Siva Praveen; Panday, Arnico; Stumm, Dorothea; Shea, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    The Himalayan cryosphere borders global hotspots for emissions of black carbon (BC), a carbonaceous aerosol with a short atmospheric lifespan and potentially significant impacts on glaciers and snow cover. BC in the atmosphere absorbs radiation efficiently, leading to localized positive climate forcing. BC may also be deposited onto snow and ice surfaces, thereby changing their albedo. This review presents up-to-date observational data of BC in the atmosphere and in snow and ice, as well as its effects on the cryosphere in the Hindu-Kush-Himalayan (HKH) region along the northern edge of South Asia. Significant spatial variation exists in the measured concentrations of BC in the atmosphere and cryosphere. A strong seasonal pattern exists, with highest concentrations in the pre-monsoon and lowest during the monsoon. Existing observations show bias towards certain areas, with a noticeable lack of measurements on the south side of the Himalaya. Significant uncertainty persists in the emissions estimates of BC in the HKH region, with a standard deviation of regional emissions from various emission inventories of 0.5150 × 10-9 kg m-2 s-1, or 47.1% of the mean (1.0931 × 10-9 kg m-2 s-1). This and other uncertainties, including poor model resolution, imprecision in deposition modeling, and incongruities among measurement types, propagate through simulations of BC concentration in atmosphere and cryosphere. Modeled atmospheric concentrations can differ from observations by as much as a factor of three with no systematic bias, and modeled concentrations in snow and ice can differ from observations by a factor of 60 in certain regions. In the Himalaya, estimates of albedo change due to BC range from about 2 to 10%, estimates of direct radiative forcing due to BC in the atmosphere from (-2)-7 W m-2, and surface forcing estimates from 0 to 28 W m-2, though every forcing estimate uses its own definition, with varying degrees of complexity and numbers of feedbacks. We find the

  4. Factors Controlling Black Carbon Deposition in Snow in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, L.; Li, Q.; He, C.; Li, Y.

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluates the sensitivity of black carbon (BC) concentration in snow in the Arctic to BC emissions, dry deposition and wet scavenging efficiency using a 3D global chemical transport model GEOS-Chem driven by meteorological field GEOS-5. With all improvements, simulated median BC concentration in snow agrees with observation (19.2 ng g-1) within 10%, down from -40% in the default GEOS-Chem. When the previously missed gas flaring emissions (mainly located in Russia) are included, the total BC emission in the Arctic increases by 70%. The simulated BC in snow increases by 1-7 ng g-1, with the largest improvement in Russia. The discrepancy of median BC in snow in the whole Arctic reduces from -40% to -20%. In addition, recent measurements of BC dry deposition velocity suggest that the constant deposition velocity of 0.03 cm s-1 over snow and ice used in the GEOS-Chem is too low. So we apply resistance-in-series method to calculate the dry deposition velocity over snow and ice and the resulted dry deposition velocity ranges from 0.03 to 0.24 cm s-1. However, the simulated total BC deposition flux in the Arctic and BC in snow does not change, because the increased dry deposition flux has been compensated by decreased wet deposition flux. However, the fraction of dry deposition to total deposition increases from 16% to 25%. This may affect the mixing of BC and snow particles and further affect the radative forcing of BC deposited in snow. Finally, we reduced the scavenging efficiency of BC in mixed-phase clouds to account for the effect of Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen (WBF) process based on recent observations. The simulated BC concentration in snow increases by 10-100%, with the largest increase in Greenland (100%), Tromsø (50%), Alaska (40%), and Canadian Arctic (30%). Annual BC loading in the Arctic increases from 0.25 to 0.43 mg m-2 and the lifetime of BC increases from 9.2 to 16.3 days. This indicates that BC simulation in the Arctic is really sensitive to

  5. Heterogeneity of biochar amendment to improve the carbon and nitrogen sequestration through reduce the greenhouse gases emissions during sewage sludge composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Mukesh Kumar; Wang, Meijing; Chen, Hongyu; Wang, Quan; Zhao, Junchao; Ren, Xiuna; Li, Dong-Sheng; Awasthi, Sanjeev Kumar; Shen, Feng; Li, Ronghua; Zhang, Zengqiang

    2017-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effects of biochar as an amendment to a gaseous emissions and sewage sludge (SS) composting dynamics. Six dosage of biochar [low dosage of biochar (LDB) - 2%, 4% and 6%; and higher dosage of biochar (HDB) - 8%, 12% and 18%] were amended to a mixture of SS and wheat straw (4:1 ratio on dry weight basis) and compared to control or without additive. The HDB significantly reduced CH 4 , N 2 O and NH 3 emission by 92.85-95.34%, 95.14-97.30% and 58.03-65.17%, but not the CO 2 emission. Meanwhile, humification results indicated that humic and fulvic acid 35-42% and 24-28% higher in the HDB amended treatments than those in the LDB and control treatments. The HDB significantly decreased total nitrogen losses and greenhouse gas emission, while LDB had significantly (pemissions. Due to effective performance of HDB, the 12% biochar was recommended to be used in SS composting practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds in biochar and biochar-amended soil: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Residual pollutants including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and carbon(aceous) nanoparticles are inevitably generated during the pyrolysis of waste biomass, and remain on the solid co-product called biochar. Such pollutants could have adverse effects on ...

  7. Estimation of Black Carbon Emissions from Dry Dipterocarp Forest Fires in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubonwan Chaiyo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the estimation of black carbon emissions from dry dipterocarp forest fires in Thailand. Field experiments were set up at the natural forest, Mae Nam Phachi wildlife sanctuary, Ratchaburi Province, Thailand. The dead leaves were the main component consumed of the surface biomass with coverage higher than 90% in volume and mass. The dead leaves load was 342 ± 190 g∙m−2 and followed by a little mass load of twig, 100 g∙m−2. The chemical analysis of the dead leaves showed that the carbon content in the experimental biomass fuel was 45.81 ± 0.04%. From the field experiments, it was found that 88.38 ± 2.02% of the carbon input was converted to carbon released to the atmosphere, while less than 10% were left in the form of residues, and returned to soil. The quantity of dead leaves consumed to produce each gram of carbon released was 2.40 ± 0.02 gdry biomass burned. From the study, the emissions factor of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, particulate matter (PM2.5 and black carbon amounted 1329, 90, 26.19 and 2.83 g∙kg−1dry biomass burned, respectively. In Thailand, the amount of black carbon emissions from dry dipterocarp forest fires amounted 17.43 tonnes∙y−1.

  8. Remediation of metal polluted soils by phytorremediation combined with biochar addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Ana; Paz-Ferreiro, Jorge; Gómez-Limón, Dulce; César Arranz, Julio; Saa, Antonio; Gascó, Gabriel

    2016-04-01

    The main objective of this work is to optimize and quantify the treatment of metal polluted soils through phytoremediation techniques combined with the addition of biochar. Biochar is a carbon rich material obtained by thermal treatment of biomass in inert atmosphere. In recent years, it has been attracted considerable interest due to their positive effect after soil addition. The use of biochar also seems appropriate for the treatment of metal-contaminated soils decreasing their mobility. Biochar properties highly depend on the raw material composition and manufacturing conditions. This paper is based on the use of manure wastes, rich in nutrients and therefore interesting raw materials for biochar production, especially when combined with phytoremediation techniques since the biochar act as conditioner and slow release fertilizer. We are very grateful to Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad (Spain) for financial support under Project CGL2014-58322-R.

  9. Synergistic dye adsorption by biochar from co-pyrolysis of spent mushroom substrate and Saccharina japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewu, Divine Damertey; Boakye, Patrick; Jung, Hwansoo; Woo, Seung Han

    2017-11-01

    The potential of activating terrestrial biomass (spent mushroom substrate, SMS) with ash-laden marine biomass [kelp seaweed, KE] via co-pyrolysis in the field of adsorption was first investigated. KE biochar (KBC), SMS biochar (SMSBC), biochar (SK10BC) from 10%-KE added SMS, and biochar (ESBC) from KE-extract added SMS were used for the adsorption of cationic dye crystal violet (CV). ESBC had highest fixed carbon content (70.60%) and biochar yield (31.6%). SK10BC exhibited high ash content, abundant functional groups, coarser surface morphology and Langmuir maximum adsorptive capacity (610.1mg/g), which is 2.2 times higher than that of SMSBC (282.9mg/g). Biochar activated by a small amount of high ash-containing biomass such as seaweed via co-pyrolysis can serve as viable alternative adsorbent for cationic dye removal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of biochar on aerobic processes, enzyme activity, and crop yields in two sandy loam soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Zhencai; Bruun, Esben; Arthur, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Biochar added to agricultural soils may sequester carbon and improve physico-chemical conditions for crop growth, due to effects such as increased water and nutrient retention in the root zone. The effects of biochar on soil microbiological properties are less certain. We addressed the effects...... of wood-based biochar on soil respiration, water contents, potential ammonia oxidation (PAO), arylsulfatase activity (ASA), and crop yields at two temperate sandy loam soils under realistic field conditions. In situ soil respiration, PAO, and ASA were not significantly different in quadruplicate field...... plots with or without biochar (20 Mg ha−1); however, in the same plots, volumetric water contents increased by 7.5 % due to biochar (P = 0.007). Crop yields (oat) were not significantly different in the first year after biochar application, but in the second year, total yields of spring barley increased...

  11. Reduction of the efficacy of biochar as soil amendment by soil erosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fister, Wolfgang; Heckrath, Goswin Johann; Greenwood, Philip

    Biochar is primarily used as soil amendment to improve soil quality and to sequester more carbon (C) to increase both medium- and long-term soil C stocks. These positive effects are obviously diminished if biochar is eroded and transported out of the field. Due to its low bulk density......, the preferential mobilization and redistribution of biochar in the landscape seems probable. Therefore, the question has been raised in recent years of how vulnerable biochar actually is to soil erosion. This is especially relevant on soils which are regularly cultivated and are vulnerable to soil erosion...... of the financial value of the eroded biochar and its cost-effectiveness were scaled up from plot to field scale. In this investigation, the biochar was applied to the soil surface of three plots on a recently cultivated sandy field near Viborg in northern Jutland, Denmark at concentrations equivalent to 1.5-2.0 kg...

  12. Effects of feedstock and pyrolysis temperature on biochar adsorption of ammonium and nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, Xiapu; Wang, Hongyuan; Liu, Jian; Zhai, Limei; Liu, Shen; Ren, Tianzhi; Liu, Hongbin

    2014-01-01

    Biochar produced by pyrolysis of biomass can be used to counter nitrogen (N) pollution. The present study investigated the effects of feedstock and temperature on characteristics of biochars and their adsorption ability for ammonium N (NH4(+)-N) and nitrate N (NO3(-)-N). Twelve biochars were produced from wheat-straw (W-BC), corn-straw (C-BC) and peanut-shell (P-BC) at pyrolysis temperatures of 400, 500, 600 and 700°C. Biochar physical and chemical properties were determined and the biochars were used for N sorption experiments. The results showed that biochar yield and contents of N, hydrogen and oxygen decreased as pyrolysis temperature increased from 400°C to 700°C, whereas contents of ash, pH and carbon increased with greater pyrolysis temperature. All biochars could sorb substantial amounts of NH4(+)-N, and the sorption characteristics were well fitted to the Freundlich isotherm model. The ability of biochars to adsorb NH4(+)-N followed: C-BC>P-BC>W-BC, and the adsorption amount decreased with higher pyrolysis temperature. The ability of C-BC to sorb NH4(+)-N was the highest because it had the largest cation exchange capacity (CEC) among all biochars (e.g., C-BC400 with a CEC of 38.3 cmol kg(-1) adsorbed 2.3 mg NH4(+)-N g(-1) in solutions with 50 mg NH4(+) L(-1)). Compared with NH4(+)-N, none of NO3(-)-N was adsorbed to biochars at different NO3(-) concentrations. Instead, some NO3(-)-N was even released from the biochar materials. We conclude that biochars can be used under conditions where NH4(+)-N (or NH3) pollution is a concern, but further research is needed in terms of applying biochars to reduce NO3(-)-N pollution.

  13. Effects of feedstock and pyrolysis temperature on biochar adsorption of ammonium and nitrate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiapu Gai

    Full Text Available Biochar produced by pyrolysis of biomass can be used to counter nitrogen (N pollution. The present study investigated the effects of feedstock and temperature on characteristics of biochars and their adsorption ability for ammonium N (NH4(+-N and nitrate N (NO3(--N. Twelve biochars were produced from wheat-straw (W-BC, corn-straw (C-BC and peanut-shell (P-BC at pyrolysis temperatures of 400, 500, 600 and 700°C. Biochar physical and chemical properties were determined and the biochars were used for N sorption experiments. The results showed that biochar yield and contents of N, hydrogen and oxygen decreased as pyrolysis temperature increased from 400°C to 700°C, whereas contents of ash, pH and carbon increased with greater pyrolysis temperature. All biochars could sorb substantial amounts of NH4(+-N, and the sorption characteristics were well fitted to the Freundlich isotherm model. The ability of biochars to adsorb NH4(+-N followed: C-BC>P-BC>W-BC, and the adsorption amount decreased with higher pyrolysis temperature. The ability of C-BC to sorb NH4(+-N was the highest because it had the largest cation exchange capacity (CEC among all biochars (e.g., C-BC400 with a CEC of 38.3 cmol kg(-1 adsorbed 2.3 mg NH4(+-N g(-1 in solutions with 50 mg NH4(+ L(-1. Compared with NH4(+-N, none of NO3(--N was adsorbed to biochars at different NO3(- concentrations. Instead, some NO3(--N was even released from the biochar materials. We conclude that biochars can be used under conditions where NH4(+-N (or NH3 pollution is a concern, but further research is needed in terms of applying biochars to reduce NO3(--N pollution.

  14. Methodological interference of biochar in the determination of extracellular enzyme activities in composting samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindo, K.; Matsumoto, K.; García Izquierdo, C.; Sonoki, T.; Sanchez-Monedero, M. A.

    2014-07-01

    Biochar application has received increasing attention as a means to trap recalcitrant carbon and enhance soil fertility. Hydrolytic enzymatic assays, such as β-glucosidase and phosphatase activities, are used for the assessment of soil quality and composting process, which are based on use of p-nitrophenol (PNP) derivatives as substrate. However, sorption capacity of biochar can interfere with colorimetric determination of the hydrolysed PNP, either by the sorption of the substrate or the reaction product of hydrolysis into biochar surface. The aim of the present work is to study the biochar sorption capacity for PNP in biochar-blended composting mixtures in order to assess its impact on the estimation of the colorimetric-based enzymatic assays. A retention test was conducted by adding a solution of known amounts of PNP in universal buffer solution (pH = 5, 6.5 and 11, corresponding to the β-glucosidase, acid and alkaline phosphatase activity assays, respectively), in samples taken at the initial stage and after maturation stage from four different composting piles (two manure composting piles; PM: poultry manure, CM: cow manure and two other similar piles containing 10% of additional biochar (PM + B, CM + B)). The results show that biochar-blended composts (PM + B, CM + B) generally exhibited low enzymatic activities, compared to manure compost without biochar (PM, CM). In terms of the difference between the initial and maturation stage of composting process, the PNP retention in biochar was shown higher at maturation stage, caused most probably by an enlarged proportion of biochar inside compost mixture after the selective degradation of easily decomposable organic matter. TThe retention of PNP on biochar was influenced by pH dependency of sorption capacity of biochar and/or PNP solubility, since PNP was more efficiently retained by biochar at low pH values (5 and 6.5) than at high pH values (11).

  15. Morphology, molecular structure, and stable carbon isotopic composition of black carbon (BC) in urban topsoils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Yutong; Xiao, Qing; Lu, Shenggao

    2018-02-01

    Urban soils contain significant amounts of black carbon (BC) from biomass and fossil fuel combustion and regard to be a pool of BC. BC in urban soils has multiple effects on environmental processes in urban system, such as global climate change, air quality, and public health. Urban topsoil samples (0-10 cm) were collected from Anshan, Liaoning Province, northeast China, which is one of the most important old steel industrial bases in China. The BC in urban topsoils was extracted using the density method. Their chemical composition, morphology, molecular structure, and stable carbon isotopic composition were examined using elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and stable carbon isotope (δ 13 C). Elemental analysis shows that carbon content in the BC of studied soils ranged from 64.5 to 78.4%, with the average more than 70%. The O/C atomic ratio of BC is on average 0.18. The BC particle displays different morphology, including porous spherical, irregular porous fragmentary, and blocky shapes. The porous spherical BC particles has atomic molar O/C ratio determined by SEM-EDS ranging from 0.04 to 0.37. XRD indicates that BC exists in mainly combining with mineral phases hematite (Fe 2 O 3 ), kaolinite (Al 2 Si 2 O 5 (OH) 4 ), quartz (SiO 2 ), and calcite (CaCO 3 ). The FTIR spectra of BC particles show major bands at approximately 3400 cm -1 (O-H), 2920 cm -1 (C = H), 1600 cm -1 (C = C), 1230 cm -1 (C = O), and 1070 cm -1 (C = O). The stable carbon isotope (δ 13 C) of BC ranges from -24.48 to -23.18‰ with the average of -23.79 ± 0.39‰. The concentration of BC in the industrial area is significantly (p fuel combustion. Results indicated that a combination of atomic O/C ratio, porous structure, and stable carbon isotopic (δ 13 C) of BC could reflect effectively the origin of BC

  16. Effects of biochar on dechlorination of hexachlorobenzene and the bacterial community in paddy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yang; Bian, Yongrong; Wang, Fang; Herzberger, Anna; Yang, Xinglun; Gu, Chenggang; Jiang, Xin

    2017-11-01

    Anaerobic reductive dechlorination is an important degradation pathway for chlorinated organic contaminants in paddy soil. This study investigated the effects of amending paddy soil with wheat straw biochar on both the dechlorination of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), a typical highly chlorinated contaminant, and on the structure of soil bacteria communities. Soil amendment of 0.1% biochar did not significantly affect the dechlorination of HCB in the soil. However, biochar amendment at higher application levels (5%) stimulated the dechlorination of HCB in the first month of anaerobic incubation and inhibited the dechlorination of HCB after that period. The stimulation effect may be ascribed to the graphite carbon and carbon-centered persistent radicals, which are redox active, in biochar. The inhibiting effect could be partly ascribed to the reduced bioavailability of HCB in biochar-amended soils. High-throughput sequencing revealed that the amendment of biochar changed the soil bacterial community structure but not the bacterial abundances and diversities. The relative abundance of Dehalococcoidaceae in the tested soils showed a significant relationship with the dechlorination percentages of HCB, indicating that Dehalococcoidaceae may be the main HCB-dechlorinating bacteria in the studied paddy soil. The results indicated that low application levels of biochar did not affect the dechlorination of HCB in the paddy soil, while high application levels of biochar mainly inhibited the dechlorination of HCB due to the reduced bioavailability of HCB and the reduced abundances of certain dechlorinating bacteria in the biochar-amended paddy soil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Study of tribological properties of natural rubber containing carbon nanotubes and carbon black as hybrid fillers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harea, Evghenii; Stoček, Radek; Storozhuk, Liudmyla; Sementsov, Yurii; Kartel, Nikolai

    2018-04-01

    Dry friction and wear properties of natural rubber (NR), containing multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and carbon black (CB), were investigated. Natural rubber (NR)-based composites containing all common additives and curatives, and a fixed amount (30 phr—parts per 100 rubber by weight) of hybrid fillers (MWCNT x + CB30-x ) were prepared by simple mixing procedure and tested. The main goal was to study the behaviours of composites at different tribological testing conditions, such as friction speed and normal load. It was found that with an increase of concentration of MWCNT from x = 0 phr to x = 5 phr in studied composites, there was a decrease in the coefficient of friction (COF) with no significant change in wear in the framework of each used combination of testing parameters. Generally, higher friction speed at certain normal force led to the increase of COF of all the samples and wear reflected deliberate value fluctuation. Also, it was established that considerable growth of wear and unexpected reducing of friction coefficient ensued from increasing of applied load for every fixed sliding speed.

  18. Evaluation of the performance of biochars as an adsorbent for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, J.; Kang, S.; Ok, Y.; Choi, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Biochars, byproducts generated by pyrolysis of biomass, are known to have several advantages as a soil amendment such as carbon sequestration effect, enhancement of soil microbial activity, and nutrient supply. Because of their high surface area and affinity to organic pollutants, biochars are also being evaluated as an adsorbent for hydrophobic organic pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils, stormwater, and wastewater. Depending on their organic precursors and pyrolysis temperatures, biochars have been shown to have various physicochemical properties, which should determine their performance as an adsorbent for hydrophobic organic pollutants. In this study, we obtained biochars derived from soybean stover, wood chip, rice husk, and sewage sludge with pyrolysis temperatures of 700°, 250°, 500°, and 500°, respectively, to investigate their performance for PAH adsorption. Adsorption kinetic and isotherm experiments were conducted using naphthalene and phenanthrene as model compounds. Soybean stover biochar reached close to equilibrium in 7 days while the others did in 25 days in the kinetic experiments. The first-order sorption rate constants were greater for naphthalene than for phenanthrene for all biochars studied, and they were generally in the order of soybean stover>rice husk>sewage sludge>wood chip biochars for the two contaminants. The removal rates of aqueous PAHs at equilibrium were in the order of soybean stover>rice husk>sewage sludge>wood chip biochars at a concentration range of a few ng/mL. The results suggested that the sorption capability and the rate is generally greater for biochar produced from plant materials than that from sludge, and for biochar produced at higher pyrolysis temperature. Comparing the sorption properties of the biochars and granular activated carbon (GAC), it is shown that biochar produced at optimal conditions can exhibit performance for PAH adsorption similar to GAC.

  19. Glyphosate sorption/desorption on biochars – Interactions of physical and chemical processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Biochar, a carbon-rich product of biomass pyrolysis, could limit glyphosate transport in soil and remediate contaminated water. The present study investigates the sorption/desorption behavior of glyphosate on biochars prepared from different hardwoods at temperatures ranging from 350°C t...

  20. Earthworms, Microbes and the Release of C and N in Biochar Amended Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land application of biochar has the potential to increase soil fertility and sequester carbon. It is unclear how soil microbes and earthworms interact with biochar and affect release or retention of nutrients. In order to determine the effects and interactions among soil microbes, earthworms, and bi...

  1. Laguna Madre Water Purification using Biochar from Citrus Peels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, C.; Al-Qudah, O. M.

    2017-12-01

    Laguna Madre is an important lagoon in the coast of Texas. It is one of the seven hypersaline lagoons in the world. Due to inflow of water with extreme amounts of phosphorus and nitrates and the low inflow of freshwater, the lagoon has high amount of phosphorus and nitrates which can be harmful for fish and plants situated in the lagoon. The goal is to be able to perform a filtration method with citrus peels biochar, and then to evaluate and compare the produced biochar, zeolite, and activated carbon as an infiltration filter by assessing reductions of nitrogen and phosphorus compounds, as well as sum selected trace elements. Furthermore, the current research will investigate how long the cleaning capacity of biochar lasts and how the performance of the filter changes under an increased load of contaminants. The performance of biochar from different parent materials and recycling options for the used filter materials are also included in this research.

  2. Low black carbon concentration in agricultural soils of central and northern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yli-Halla, Markku; Rimhanen, Karoliina; Muurinen, Johanna; Kaseva, Janne; Kahiluoto, Helena

    2018-08-01

    Soil carbon (C) represents the largest terrestrial carbon stock and is key for soil productivity. Major fractions of soil C consist of organic C, carbonates and black C. The turnover rate of black C is lower than that of organic C, and black C abundance decreases the vulnerablility of soil C stock to decomposition under climate change. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of soil C in different pools and impact of agricultural management on the abundance of different species. Soil C fractions were quantified in the topsoils (0-15cm) of 23 sites in the tropical highlands of Ethiopia. The sites in central Ethiopia represented paired plots of agroforestry and adjacent control plots where cereal crops were traditionally grown in clayey soils. In the sandy loam and loam soils of northern Ethiopia, the pairs represented restrained grazing with adjacent control plots with free grazing, and terracing with cereal-based cropping with adjacent control plots without terracing. Soil C contained in carbonates, organic matter and black C along with total C was determined. The total C median was 1.5% (range 0.3-3.6%). The median proportion of organic C was 85% (range 53-94%), 6% (0-41%) for carbonate C and 6% (4-21%) for black C. An increase was observed in the organic C and black C fractions attributable to agroforestry and restrained grazing. The very low concentration of the relatively stable black C fraction and the dominance of organic C in these Ethiopian soils suggest vulnerability to degradation and the necessity for cultivation practices maintaining the C stock. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Environmental Impacts of the Production and Application of Biochar - EuroChar Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rack, Mireille; Woods, Jeremy

    2014-05-01

    One of the potential benefits of biochar is carbon sequestration. To determine the overall net sequestration potential it is important to analyse the full supply chain, assessing both the direct and indirect emissions associated with the production and application of biochar. However, it is essential to also incorporate additional environmental impact categories to ensure the assessment of a more complete environmental impact profile. This paper uses a full life-cycle assessment (LCA) methodology to evaluate the results from the EuroChar, 'biochar for carbon sequestration and large-scale removal of GHG from the atmosphere', project. This EU Seventh Framework Programme project aims to investigate and reduce uncertainties around the impacts of, and opportunities for, biochar, and in particular explore possible pathways for its introduction into modern agricultural systems in Europe. The LCA methodology, according to the ISO standards, is applied to the project-specific supply chains to analyse the environmental impacts of biochar production and application. Two conversion technologies for the production of biochar are assessed, gasification and hydrothermal carbonization (HTC), in order to provide conversion efficiencies and emission factors for the biochar production component of the supply chain. The selected feedstocks include those derived from waste residues and dedicated crops. For the end use stage, various forms and methods for biochar application are considered. In addition to the Global Warming Potential category, other environmental impact categories are also included in the analysis. The resulting 'feedstock * conversion technology' matrix provides nine pathways for the production and application of biochar, which are applied as a representative basis for the scenario modelling. These scenarios have been developed in order to assess the feedstock and land availability in Europe for the production and application of biochar and to give an order of

  4. Exploring biomass based carbon black as filler in epoxy composites: Flexural and thermal properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Khalil, H.P.S.; Firoozian, P.; Bakare, I.O.; Akil, Hazizan Md.; Noor, Ahmad Md.

    2010-01-01

    Carbon blacks (CB), derived from bamboo stem (BS-CB), coconut shells (CNS-CB) and oil palm empty fiber bunch (EFB-CB), were obtained by pyrolysis of fibers at 700 o C, characterized and used as filler in epoxy composites. The results obtained showed that the prepared carbon black possessed well-developed porosities and are predominantly made up of micropores. The BS-CB, CNS-CB and EFB-CB filled composites were prepared and characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The SEM showed that the fractured surface of the composite indicates its high resistance to fracture. The CBs-epoxy composites exhibited better flexural properties than the neat epoxy, which was attributed to better adhesion between the CBs and the epoxy resin. TGA showed that there was improvement in thermal stability of the carbon black filled composites compared to the neat epoxy resin.

  5. Carbon Black-Modified Electrodes Screen-Printed onto Paper Towel, Waxed Paper and Parafilm M®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinti, Stefano; Mazzaracchio, Vincenzo; Cacciotti, Ilaria; Moscone, Danila; Arduini, Fabiana

    2017-10-03

    Herein, we evaluated the use of paper towel, waxed paper, and Parafilm M ® (Heathrow Scientific, Vernon Hills, IL, USA) as alternative substrates for screen-printed sensor manufacturing. Morphological study was performed to evaluate the adhesion of the ink on these uncommon substrates, as well as the morphology of the working electrode. The electrochemical characterization was carried out using ferricyanide/ferrocyanide as redox couple. To enhance the electrochemical properties of the developed sensors, the nanomaterial carbon black was used as nanomodifier. The modification by drop casting of the working electrode surface, using a stable dispersion of carbon black, allows to obtain a sensor with improved electrochemical behavior in terms of peak-to-peak separation, current intensity, and the resistance of charge transfer. The results achieved confirm the possibility of printing the electrode on several cost-effective paper-based materials and the improvement of the electrochemical behavior by using carbon black as sustainable nanomaterial.

  6. Carbon Black-Modified Electrodes Screen-Printed onto Paper Towel, Waxed Paper and Parafilm M®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Cinti

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we evaluated the use of paper towel, waxed paper, and Parafilm M® (Heathrow Scientific, Vernon Hills, IL, USA as alternative substrates for screen-printed sensor manufacturing. Morphological study was performed to evaluate the adhesion of the ink on these uncommon substrates, as well as the morphology of the working electrode. The electrochemical characterization was carried out using ferricyanide/ferrocyanide as redox couple. To enhance the electrochemical properties of the developed sensors, the nanomaterial carbon black was used as nanomodifier. The modification by drop casting of the working electrode surface, using a stable dispersion of carbon black, allows to obtain a sensor with improved electrochemical behavior in terms of peak-to-peak separation, current intensity, and the resistance of charge transfer. The results achieved confirm the possibility of printing the electrode on several cost-effective paper-based materials and the improvement of the electrochemical behavior by using carbon black as sustainable nanomaterial.

  7. Sonoelectrochemical one-pot synthesis of Pt - Carbon black nanocomposite PEMFC electrocatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karousos, Dionysios S; Desdenakis, Kostantinos I; Sakkas, Petros M; Sourkouni, Georgia; Pollet, Bruno G; Argirusis, Christos

    2017-03-01

    Simultaneous electrocatalytic Pt-nanoparticle synthesis and decoration of Vulcan XC-72 carbon black substrate was achieved in a novel one-step-process, combining galvanostatic pulsed electrodeposition and pulsed ultrasonication with high power, low-frequency (20kHz) ultrasound. Aqueous chloroplatinic acid precursor baths, as well as carbon black suspensions in the former, were examined and decoration was proven by a combination of characterization methods, namely: dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with EDX-analysis and cyclic voltammetry. In particular, PVP was shown to have a beneficial stabilizing effect against free nanoparticle aggregation, ensuring narrow size distributions of the nanoparticles synthesized, but is also postulated to prevent the establishment of a strong metal-substrate interaction. Current pulse amplitude was identified as the most critical nanoparticle size-determining parameters, while only small size particles, under 10nm, appeared to be attached to carbon black. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of part replacement of silica sand with carbon black on composite properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeosun, B.F.; Olaofe, O.

    2003-01-01

    We have reported the properties of natural rubber filled with locally available materials (Adu et al 2000). The effect of local clay, limestone, silica sand and charcoal on the properties of natural rubber has been examined. Results have shown detrimental effects of silica sand on the properties of natural rubber compound. It has been reported that when silica is used as a part for part replacement of carbon black, the heat build up the composite decreased whilst tear resistance improved. Results revealed that within the filler content range used in the present work, the hardness, modulus, and tensile strength of composites loaded with silica sand/carbon black showed enhanced magnitude over the composite loaded singly with silica sand. These parameters generally increased with increasing carbon black content in the composite. New area of use requiring moderate level of tensile strength, hardness and modulus (as in soles of shoes and engine mounts) is therefore opened up for silica sand.(author)

  9. Thickness effect on electric resistivity on polystyrene and carbon black- based composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Lopez, S; Vigueras-Santiago, E [Laboratorio de Investigacion y Desarrollo de Materiales Avanzados (LIDMA) Facultad de Quimica, Paseo Colon Esquina con Paseo Tollocan, s/n, CP 50000, Toluca (Mexico); Mayorga-Rojas, M; Reyes-Contreras, D, E-mail: eviguerass@uaemex.m [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico. Av. Instituto Literario 100 Ote. C. P. 50000, Toluca (Mexico)

    2009-05-01

    Changes on electrical resistivity were experimentally studied for polystyrene and carbon black-based composites respect to the temperature. 22% w/w carbon black composite films at 30{mu}m, 2mm y 1cm thick were submitted to thermal heating-cooling cycles from room temperature to 100 deg. C, slightly up to T{sub g} of the composite. For each cycle changes on electrical resistivity constituent a hysteresis loop that depends on the sample thickness. The changes during the heating stage could be explained as a consequence of the thermal expansion and mobility of the polymer chains at T{sub g}, producing a disconnecting of the electrical contacts among carbon black particles and an important increasing (200%) of the electrical resistivity. For each cycle, the hysteresis loop was observed in thicker samples, whereas for 30 mu m thickness sample the hysteresis loop was lost after four cycles.

  10. Electric anisotropy in high density polyethylene + carbon black composites induced by mechanical deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigueras-Santiago, E; Hernandez-Lopez, S; Camacho-Lopez, M A; Lara-Sanjuan, O, E-mail: eviguerass@uaemex.m [Laboratorio de Investigacion y Desarrollo de Materiales Avanzados (LIDMA), Facultad de Quimica, UAEM. Paseo Colon esq. con Paseo Tollocan, s/n. C.P. 50000, Toluca (Mexico)

    2009-05-01

    High density polyethylene + carbon black composites with electrical anisotropy was studied. Electrical anisotropy was induced by uniaxial mechanical deformation and injection moulding. We show that anisotropy depends on the carbon black concentration and percentage deformation. Resistivity had the highest anisotropy resistivity around the percolation threshold. Perpendicular resistivity showed two magnitude orders higher than parallel resistivity for injected samples, whereas resistivity showed an inverse behaviour for 100% tensile samples. Both directions were set respect to the deformation axe. Anisotropy could be explained in terms of the molecular deformation (alignment) of the polymer chains as a response of the deformation process originating a redistribution of the carbon black particles in both directions. Alignment of the polymer chains was evidenced by polarized Raman spectroscopy.

  11. Study of black carbon levels in city centers and industrial centers in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamasha, K.M.; Almomani, M.S.; Abu-Allaban, M.; Arnott, W. P.

    2010-01-01

    Light absorption coefficients of black carbon (B abc ) were measured at serveral urban and industrial locations in Jordan during summer of 2007 and winter of 2008 using the photoacoustic instrument at a wavelength of 870 nm. Black carbon mass concentration (BC) was calculated using B abc .Black carbon levels at urban locations in the summer of 2007 were higher than those obtained at industrial centers.Zarqa had the highest value of BC in summer (29.24μg/m 3 ) and in winter (13.27μg/m 3 ). Ibbeen and Irbid city center had relatively high values of BC in winter: 11.75μg/m 3 and 12.48μg/m 3 , respectively. (authors).

  12. Estimation of black carbon content for biomass burning aerosols from multi-channel Raman lidar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talianu, Camelia; Marmureanu, Luminita; Nicolae, Doina

    2015-04-01

    Biomass burning due to natural processes (forest fires) or anthropical activities (agriculture, thermal power stations, domestic heating) is an important source of aerosols with a high content of carbon components (black carbon and organic carbon). Multi-channel Raman lidars provide information on the spectral dependence of the backscatter and extinction coefficients, embedding information on the black carbon content. Aerosols with a high content of black carbon have large extinction coefficients and small backscatter coefficients (strong absorption), while aerosols with high content of organic carbon have large backscatter coefficients (weak absorption). This paper presents a method based on radiative calculations to estimate the black carbon content of biomass burning aerosols from 3b+2a+1d lidar signals. Data is collected at Magurele, Romania, at the cross-road of air masses coming from Ukraine, Russia and Greece, where burning events are frequent during both cold and hot seasons. Aerosols are transported in the free troposphere, generally in the 2-4 km altitude range, and reaches the lidar location after 2-3 days. Optical data are collected between 2011-2012 by a multi-channel Raman lidar and follows the quality assurance program of EARLINET. Radiative calculations are made with libRadTran, an open source radiative model developed by ESA. Validation of the retrievals is made by comparison to a co-located C-ToF Aerosol Mass Spectrometer. Keywords: Lidar, aerosols, biomass burning, radiative model, black carbon Acknowledgment: This work has been supported by grants of the Romanian National Authority for Scientific Research, Programme for Research- Space Technology and Advanced Research - STAR, project no. 39/2012 - SIAFIM, and by Romanian Partnerships in priority areas PNII implemented with MEN-UEFISCDI support, project no. 309/2014 - MOBBE

  13. Biochar from Coffee Residues: A New Promising Sorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotopoulou, Kalliopi; Karapanagioti, Hrissi; Manariotis, Ioannis

    2014-05-01

    Biochar is a carbon-rich material produced by heating biomass in an oxygen-limited environment. Biochar is mainly used as an additive to soils to sequester carbon and improve soil fertility as well as a sorbent for environmental remediation processes. Surface properties such as point of zero charge, surface area and pore volume, surface topography, surface functional groups and acid-base behavior are important factors, which affect sorption efficiency. Understanding the surface alteration of biochars increases our understanding of the pollutant-sorbent interaction. The objective of the present study was to characterize the surface properties of biochar produced, and to investigate the effect of thermal treatment conditions on key characteristics that affect sorptive properties. The espresso coffee residue was obtained after the coffee was brewed through espresso machines in coffee shops. The coffee residue was dried and kept in an oven at 50oC until its pyrolysis at 850oC. Pyrolysis with different coffee mass and containers were tested in order to find optimum biochar characteristics. Detailed characterization techniques were carried out to determine the properties of the produced biochar. The surface area, the pore volume, and the average pore size of the biochars were determined using gas (N2) adsorption-desorption cycles using the Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) equation. Open surface area and micropore volume were determined using the t-plot method and the Harkins & Jura equation. Total organic carbon was also determined because it is an important factor that affects sorption. The results were compared with the corresponding properties of activated carbons. The biochar produced exhibited a wide range of surface area from 21 to 770 m2/g and open surface area from 21 to 65 m2/g. It is obvious that the surface area results from the formation of pores. Actually it was calculated that up to 90% of the porosity is due to the micropores. More specifically the

  14. Commuter exposure to black carbon, carbon monoxide, and noise in the mass transport khlong boats of Bangkok, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, A. D.; Velasco, E.; Ho, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    Khlong (canal) boats are a unique mass transport alternative in the congested city of Bangkok. Canals and rivers provide exclusive transit-ways for reducing the commuting time of thousands of city residents daily. However, as a consequence of the service characteristics and boats design and state of repair, they can represent a potential public health risk and an important source of black carbon and greenhouse gases. This work quantifies commuter exposure to black carbon, CO and noise when waiting for and travelling in these diesel fueled boats. Exposure to toxic pollutants and acute noise is similar or worse than for other transportation modes. Mean black carbon concentrations observed at one busy pier and along the main canal were much higher than ambient concentrations at sites impacted by vehicular traffic. Concentrations of CO were similar to those reported for roadside areas of Bangkok. The equivalent continuous sound levels registered at the landing pier were similar to those reported for roadsides, but values recorded inside the boats were significantly higher. We believe that the boat service is a viable alternative mode of mass transport, but public safety could be improved to provide a high quality service, comparable to modern rail systems or emerging bus rapid transit systems. These investments would also contribute to reduce the emission of black carbon and other greenhouse and toxic pollutants.

  15. A study of the mixing state of black carbon in urban zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallet, M.; Roger, J. C.; Despiau, S.; Putaud, J. P.; Dubovik, O.

    2004-02-01

    The knowledge of the mixing state of black carbon particle with other aerosol species is critical for adequate simulations of the direct radiative effect of black carbon particles and its effect on climate. This paper reports the investigation of the mixing state of black carbon aerosol in the urban zone. The study uses a combination of in situ and ground-based remote sensing observations conducted during the ESCOMPTE experiment, which took place in industrialized region in France in summer of 2001. The criteria we used for identifying mixing state relies on the known enhancement of absorption for aerosol composed by internal versus external mixtures of black carbon with weakly absorbing aerosol components. First, using in situ aerosol data, we performed Mie computations and reconstructed the single scattering albedo of aerosol for the two different mixing assumptions: black carbon mixed externally or internally with other aerosol species. Then, we compared the obtained values ωo,int and ωo,ext with the retrievals of ωo from independent AERONET Sun-photometric measurements. The aerosol single scattering albedo (ωo,aer.) derived from the AERONET photometer observations (with the mean value equal to 0.84 ± 0.04) was found to be close to ωo,ext reconstructed from in situ observation under assumptions of external mixture. This similarity between AERONET values and external mixture simulations was observed during all the days studied. Our conclusion on external mixture of black carbon aerosol with other particles in urban zone during ESCOMPTE (close to the pollution source) is coherent with observations made during other independent studies reported in a number of recent publications.

  16. Carbon distribution in char residue from gasification of kraft black liquor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sricharoenchaikul, Viboon; Frederick, W.J.; Agrawal, Pradeep

    2003-01-01

    The char residue yields and the total carbon and carbonate content were measured for dry black liquor solids after pyrolysis or gasification in a laminar entrained-flow reactor. The experimental conditions were 700-1000 deg. C in N 2 ,CO 2 /N 2 or water vapor/N 2 at 1 bar total pressure, for residence times from 0.3 to 1.7 s. Fixed carbon yields, when measured at the same particle residence time, decreased with increasing reactor temperature. CO 2 and water vapor diminished the char carbon significantly at temperatures above 800 deg. C, compared with pyrolysis in N 2 . Water vapor oxidized the char carbon more rapidly than did CO 2 . At 1000 deg. C, the reactions of carbon with sulfate and carbonate became faster, resulting in a smaller difference between carbon conversion rates in the different gas environments. By the end of devolatilization, the amount of carbonate in the char had changed very little at 700-800 deg. C. After devolatilization, carbonate was formed more rapidly at higher temperatures. The presence of CO 2 or water vapor increased the formation of carbonate. In the presence of these gases, more carbonate was measured at all temperatures and residence times. The maximum carbonate measured in the char was 16% of the carbon in the black liquor solids, as compared to 4.4% in the original dry liquor solids. Under most conditions, the carbonate, as a fraction of carbon input, first increased to a constant, temperature-independent value and then decreased

  17. Relating black carbon content to reduction of snow albedo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, R. E.; Warren, S. G.; Clarke, A. D.

    2011-12-01

    In remote snow of the Northern Hemisphere, the levels of soot pollution are in the parts-per-billion (ppb) range, where the effect on albedo is at the level of a few percent. A reduction of albedo by 1-2% is significant for climate but is difficult to detect experimentally, because snow albedo depends on several other variables. In our work to quantify the climatic effect of black carbon (BC) in snow, we therefore do not directly measure the albedo reduction. Instead, we use a two-step procedure: (1) We collect snow samples, melt and filter them, and analyze the filters spectrophotometrically for BC concentration. (2) We use the BC amount from the filter measurement, together with snow grain size, in a radiative transfer model to compute the albedo reduction. Our radiative transfer model uses the discrete ordinates algorithm DISORT 2.0. We have chosen a representative BC size distribution and optical constants, and have incorporated those of mineral dust as well. While a given mass of BC causes over an order of magnitude more snow albedo reduction compared to dust, a snowpack containing dust mutes the albedo-reducing effect of BC. Because the computed reduction of snow albedo is model-based, it requires experimental verification. We doubt that direct measurement of albedo-reduction will be feasible in nature, because of the vertical variation of both snow grain size and soot content, and because the natural soot content is small. We conclude that what is needed is an artificial snowpack, with uniform grain size and large uniform soot content (ppm not ppb), to produce a large signal on albedo. We have chosen to pursue this experiment outdoors rather than in the laboratory, for the following reasons: (1) The snowpack in the field of view is uniformly illuminated if the source of radiation is the Sun. (2) Visible radiation penetrates into the snow, so photons emerge horizontally distant from where they entered. In the limited width of a laboratory snowpack, radiation

  18. Factors controlling black carbon distribution in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ling; Li, Qinbin; Li, Yinrui; He, Cenlin

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the sensitivity of black carbon (BC) in the Arctic, including BC concentration in snow (BCsnow, ng g-1) and surface air (BCair, ng m-3), as well as emissions, dry deposition, and wet scavenging using the global three-dimensional (3-D) chemical transport model (CTM) GEOS-Chem. We find that the model underestimates BCsnow in the Arctic by 40 % on average (median = 11.8 ng g-1). Natural gas flaring substantially increases total BC emissions in the Arctic (by ˜ 70 %). The flaring emissions lead to up to 49 % increases (0.1-8.5 ng g-1) in Arctic BCsnow, dramatically improving model comparison with observations (50 % reduction in discrepancy) near flaring source regions (the western side of the extreme north of Russia). Ample observations suggest that BC dry deposition velocities over snow and ice in current CTMs (0.03 cm s-1 in the GEOS-Chem) are too small. We apply the resistance-in-series method to compute a dry deposition velocity (vd) that varies with local meteorological and surface conditions. The resulting velocity is significantly larger and varies by a factor of 8 in the Arctic (0.03-0.24 cm s-1), which increases the fraction of dry to total BC deposition (16 to 25 %) yet leaves the total BC deposition and BCsnow in the Arctic unchanged. This is largely explained by the offsetting higher dry and lower wet deposition fluxes. Additionally, we account for the effect of the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen (WBF) process in mixed-phase clouds, which releases BC particles from condensed phases (water drops and ice crystals) back to the interstitial air and thereby substantially reduces the scavenging efficiency of clouds for BC (by 43-76 % in the Arctic). The resulting BCsnow is up to 80 % higher, BC loading is considerably larger (from 0.25 to 0.43 mg m-2), and BC lifetime is markedly prolonged (from 9 to 16 days) in the Arctic. Overall, flaring emissions increase BCair in the Arctic (by ˜ 20 ng m-3), the updated vd more than halves BCair (by ˜ 20 ng m-3

  19. ESR study on the interaction between carbon blacks and oxygen molecules; ESR ho ni yoru carbon black to sanso bunshi tono sogo sayo no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okazaki, M.; Toriyama, K.; Konishi, Y. [National Industrial Research Institute of Nagoya, Nagoya (Japan)

    2000-02-24

    Interaction between carbon blacks and oxygen molecules has been studied by means of electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The ESR spectra of the carbon blacks appears at the g-value of free spin, which are contributed by both isolated electrons and conduction electrons. Upon introducing oxygen to the system the ESR linewidth was broadened in proportion to the partial pressure of oxygen. In case of lampblack (LB 101, Degussa) the interaction was not so strong that it took a tong time at 77K for the linewidth to reach the maxmum value. In case of gassblack (P 140 V, Degussa), on the other hand, the oxygen was easily adsorbed at 298K and the linewidth at 77K became its maximum immediately after cooling. The number of unpaired electrons decreased when the system was kept at 298 K and the decrease was prominent for the local spins. These phenomena have been explained with a simple band model for the electron. (author)

  20. The biochar effect: plant resistance to biotic stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YIGAL ELAD

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biochar (charcoal is the solid co-product of pyrolysis, the thermal degradation of biomass in the absence of oxygen. Pyrolysis also yields gaseous and liquid biofuel products. There is a growing interest worldwide in the pyrolysis platform, for at least four reasons: (i pyrolysis can be a source of renewable biofuels; (ii many biomass waste materials can be treated by pyrolysis and thus converted into a fuel resource; (iii long-term sequestration of carbon dioxide which originated in the atmosphere may result from adding biochar to soil; and (iv biochar soil amendment contributes to improved soil fertility and crop productivity. Currently, however, very little biochar is utilized in agriculture, in part because its agronomic value in terms of crop response and soil health benefits have yet to be quantified, and because the mechanisms by which it improves soil fertility are poorly understood. The positive effects of biochar on crop productivity under conditions of extensive agriculture are frequently attributed to direct effects of biochar-supplied nutrients and to several other indirect effects, including increased water and nutrient retention, improvements in soil pH, increased soil cation exchange capacity, effects on P and S transformations and turnover, neutralization of phytotoxic compounds in the soil, improved soil physical properties, promotion of mycorrhizal fungi, and alteration of soil microbial populations and functions. Yet, the biochar effect is also evident under conditions of intensive production where many of these parameters are not limited. Biochar addition to soil alters microbial populations in the rhizosphere, albeit via mechanisms not yet understood, and may cause a shift towards beneficial microorganism populations that promote plant growth and resistance to biotic stresses. In addition to some scant evidence for biochar-induced plant protection against soilborne diseases, the induction of systemic resistance towards

  1. Aerosol Absorption by Black Carbon and Dust: Implications of Climate Change and Air Quality in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Mian

    2010-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosol distributions from 2000 to 2007 are simulated with the global model GOCART to attribute light absorption by aerosol to its composition and sources. We show the seasonal and interannual variations of absorbing aerosols in the atmosphere over Asia, mainly black carbon and dust. and their linkage to the changes of anthropogenic and dust emissions in the region. We compare our results with observations from satellite and ground-based networks, and estimate the importance of black carbon and dust on regional climate forcing and air quality.

  2. Study of the effect of gamma irradiation on carbon black loaded low-density polyethylene films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, M.A.; Hussein, A.; El-Ahdal, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on the tensile and physico-chemical properties of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) films loaded with different concentrations of carbon black (C.B) has been studied. The results showed that the behavior of the samples during gamma irradiation is complicated and this may be due to scission and the interaction between oxidation and crosslinking processes. The tensile properties are modified by the presence of carbon black. Film sample containing 7% C.B was found to exhibit a nearly stabilized tensile behavior with radiation dose, which allows to use this formulation in packaging for food sterilization and in preservation of weak cobalt-gamma sources. (author)

  3. Effect of silica concentration on electrical conductivity of epoxy resin-carbon black-silica nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wei; Blackburn, Richard S.; Dehghani-Sanij, Abbas A.

    2007-01-01

    Electrical properties of nanocomposites are determined by the conductive paths of carbon black and influenced by a 'network' of silica. With increasing content of silica, carbon black (CB) particles are optimally dispersed, contributing to the generation of a conductive network between CB particles via direct particle contact and a tunneling effect; maximum conductivity for the epoxy resin-CB-silica nanocomposite described herein occurs at a ratio of 0.6:1.0 (SiO 2 :CB). As a non-conductive component, excessive silica will prevent electron flow, giving rise to low conductivity

  4. Polymer-carbon black composite sensors in an electronic nose for air-quality monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, M. A.; Shevade, A. V.; Zhou, H.; Homer, M. L.

    2004-01-01

    An electronic nose that uses an array of 32 polymer-carbon black composite sensors has been developed, trained, and tested. By selecting a variety of chemical functionalities in the polymers used to make sensors, it is possible to construct an array capable of identifying and quantifying a broad range of target compounds, such as alcohols and aromatics, and distinguishing isomers and enantiomers (mirror-image isomers). A model of the interaction between target molecules and the polymer-carbon black composite sensors is under development to aid in selecting the array members and to enable identification of compounds with responses not stored in the analysis library.

  5. End of the Little Ice Age in the Alps forced by industrial black carbon

    OpenAIRE

    Painter, Thomas H.; Flanner, Mark G.; Kaser, Georg; Marzeion, Ben; VanCuren, Richard A.; Abdalati, Waleed

    2013-01-01

    The end of the Little Ice Age in the European Alps has long been a paradox to glaciology and climatology. Glaciers in the Alps began to retreat abruptly in the mid-19th century, but reconstructions of temperature and precipitation indicate that glaciers should have instead advanced into the 20th century. We observe that industrial black carbon in snow began to increase markedly in the mid-19th century and show with simulations that the associated increases in absorbed sunlight by black carbon...

  6. Influence of biochar pyrolysis temperature and post-treatment on the uptake of mercury from flue gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thermal processing, or pyrolysis, of plant and animal waste under oxygen limiting conditions results in a carbonized material called biochar. Most often, the proposed application for the biochar is soil applications as a conditioner or for the purpose of carbon sequestration. In this paper we demons...

  7. Bounding the Role of Black Carbon in the Climate System: a Scientific Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, T. C.; Doherty, S. J.; Fahey, D. W.; Forster, P. M.; Bernsten, T.; DeAngelo, B. J.; Flanner, M. G.; Ghan, S.; Karcher, B.; Koch, D.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Black carbon aerosol plays a unique and important role in Earth's climate system. Black carbon is a type of carbonaceous material with a unique combination of physical properties. This assessment provides an evaluation of black-carbon climate forcing that is comprehensive in its inclusion of all known and relevant processes and that is quantitative in providing best estimates and uncertainties of the main forcing terms: direct solar absorption; influence on liquid, mixed phase, and ice clouds; and deposition on snow and ice. These effects are calculated with climate models, but when possible, they are evaluated with both microphysical measurements and field observations. Predominant sources are combustion related, namely, fossil fuels for transportation, solid fuels for industrial and residential uses, and open burning of biomass. Total global emissions of black carbon using bottom-up inventory methods are 7500 Gg/yr in the year 2000 with an uncertainty range of 2000 to 29000. However, global atmospheric absorption attributable to black carbon is too low in many models and should be increased by a factor of almost 3. After this scaling, the best estimate for the industrial-era (1750 to 2005) direct radiative forcing of atmospheric black carbon is +0.71 W/sq m with 90% uncertainty bounds of (+0.08, +1.27)W/sq m. Total direct forcing by all black carbon sources, without subtracting the preindustrial background, is estimated as +0.88 (+0.17, +1.48) W/sq m. Direct radiative forcing alone does not capture important rapid adjustment mechanisms. A framework is described and used for quantifying climate forcings, including rapid adjustments. The best estimate of industrial-era climate forcing of black carbon through all forcing mechanisms, including clouds and cryosphere forcing, is +1.1 W/sq m with 90% uncertainty bounds of +0.17 to +2.1 W/sq m. Thus, there is a very high probability that black carbon emissions, independent of co-emitted species, have a positive forcing

  8. Bounding the Role of Black Carbon in the Climate System: A Scientific Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Tami C.; Doherty, Sarah J.; Fahey, D. W.; Forster, Piers; Berntsen, T.; DeAngelo, B. J.; Flanner, M. G.; Ghan, Steven J.; Karcher, B.; Koch, Dorothy; Kinne, Stefan; Kondo, Yutaka; Quinn, P. K.; Sarofim, Marcus; Schultz, Martin; Schulz, M.; Venkataraman, C.; Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Shiqiu; Bellouin, N.; Guttikunda, S. K.; Hopke, P. K.; Jacobson, M. Z.; Kaiser, J. W.; Klimont, Z.; Lohmann, U.; Schwarz, Joshua P.; Shindell, Drew; Storelvmo, Trude; Warren, Stephen G.; Zender, C. S.

    2013-06-06

    Black carbon aerosol plays a unique and important role in Earth’s climate system. Black carbon is a type of carbonaceous material with a unique combination of physical properties. Predominant sources are combustion related; namely, fossil fuels for transportation, solid fuels for industrial and residential uses, and open burning of biomass. Total global emissions of black carbon using bottom-up inventory methods are 7500 Gg yr-1 in the year 2000 with an uncertainty range of 2000 to 29000. This assessment provides an evaluation of black-carbon climate forcing that is comprehensive in its inclusion of all known and relevant processes and that is quantitative in providing best estimates and uncertainties of the main forcing terms: direct solar absorption, influence on liquid, mixed-phase, and ice clouds, and deposition on snow and ice. These effects are calculated with models, but when possible, they are evaluated with both microphysical measurements and field observations. Global atmospheric absorption attributable to black carbon is too low in many models, and should be increased by about about 60%. After this scaling, the best estimate for the industrial-era (1750 to 2005) direct radiative forcing of black carbon is +0.43 W m-2 with 90% uncertainty bounds of (+0.17, +0.68) W m-2. Total direct forcing by all black carbon sources in the present day is estimated as +0.49 (+0.20, +0.76) W m-2. Direct radiative forcing alone does not capture important rapid adjustment mechanisms. A framework is described and used for quantifying climate forcings and their rapid responses and feedbacks. The best estimate of industrial-era (1750 to 2005) climate forcing of black carbon through all forcing mechanisms is +0.77 W m-2 with 90% uncertainty bounds of +-0.06 to +1.53 W m-2. Thus, there is a 96% probability that black carbon emissions, independent of co-emitted species, have a positive forcing and warm the climate. With a value of +0.77 W m-2, black carbon is likely the second

  9. Hydrogen and Carbon Black Production from Thermal Decomposition of Sub-Quality Natural Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Javadi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is computational investigation of the hydrogen and carbon black production through thermal decomposition of waste gases containing CH4 and H2S, without requiring a H2S separation process. The chemical reaction model, which involves solid carbon, sulfur compounds and precursor species for the formation of carbon black, is based on an assumed Probability Density Function (PDF parameterized by the mean and variance of mixture fraction and β-PDF shape. The effects of feedstock mass flow rate and reactor temperature on hydrogen, carbon black, S2, SO2, COS and CS2 formation are investigated. The results show that the major factor influencing CH4 and H2S conversions is reactor temperature. For temperatures higher than 1100° K, the reactor CH4 conversion reaches 100%, whilst H2S conversion increases in temperatures higher than 1300° K. The results reveal that at any temperature, H2S conversion is less than that of CH4. The results also show that in the production of carbon black from sub-quality natural gas, the formation of carbon monoxide, which is occurring in parallel, play a very significant role. For lower values of feedstock flow rate, CH4 mostly burns to CO and consequently, the production of carbon black is low. The results show that the yield of hydrogen increases with increasing feedstock mass flow rate until the yield reaches a maximum value, and then drops with further increase in the feedstock mass flow rate.

  10. Bodemverbeteraars met focus op biochar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reuler, van H.; Baltissen, A.H.M.C.

    2016-01-01

    Biochar is een stabiele organische verbinding die hoofdzakelijk uit koolstof bestaat. Het ontstaat bij verhitting van biomassa onder zuurstofloze omstandigheden, z.g. pyrolyse. Biochar wordt geproduceerd als bodemverbeteraar. De discussie gaat om het effect van Biochar toediening op een aantal

  11. Effect of dolomite and biochar addition on N2O and CO2 emissions from acidic tea field soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oo, Aung Zaw; Sudo, Shigeto; Akiyama, Hiroko; Win, Khin Thuzar; Shibata, Akira; Yamamoto, Akinori; Sano, Tomohito; Hirono, Yuhei

    2018-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to study the effects of liming and different biochar amendments on N2O and CO2 emissions from acidic tea field soil. The first experiment was done with three different rates of N treatment; N 300 (300 kg N ha-1), N 600 (600 kg N ha-1) and N 900 (900 kg N ha-1) and four different rates of bamboo biochar amendment; 0%, 0.5%, 1% and 2% biochar. The second experiment was done with three different biochars at a rate of 2% (rice husk, sawdust, and bamboo) and a control and lime treatment (dolomite) and control at two moisture levels (50% and 90% water filled pore space (WFPS)). The results showed that dolomite and biochar amendment significantly increased soil pH. However, only biochar amendment showed a significant increase in total carbon (C), C/N (the ratio of total carbon and total nitrogen), and C/IN ratio (the ratio of total carbon and inorganic nitrogen) at the end of incubation. Reduction in soil NO3--N concentration was observed under different biochar amendments. Bamboo biochar with the rates of 0.5, 1 and 2% reduced cumulative N2O emission by 38%, 48% and 61%, respectively, compare to the control soil in experiment 1. Dolomite and biochar, either alone or combined significantly reduced cumulative N2O emission by 4.6% to 32.7% in experiment 2. Reduction in N2O production under biochar amendment was due to increases in soil pH and decreases in the magnitude of mineral-N in soil. Although, both dolomite and biochar increased cumulative CO2 emission, only biochar amendment had a significant effect. The present study suggests that application of dolomite and biochar to acidic tea field soil can mitigate N2O emissions.

  12. Comparative inhalation toxicity of multi-wall carbon nanotubes, graphene, graphite nanoplatelets and low surface carbon black.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma-Hock, Lan; Strauss, Volker; Treumann, Silke; Küttler, Karin; Wohlleben, Wendel; Hofmann, Thomas; Gröters, Sibylle; Wiench, Karin; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Landsiedel, Robert

    2013-06-17

    Carbon nanotubes, graphene, graphite nanoplatelets and carbon black are seemingly chemically identical carbon-based nano-materials with broad technological applications. Carbon nanotubes and carbon black possess different inhalation toxicities, whereas little is known about graphene and graphite nanoplatelets. In order to compare the inhalation toxicity of the mentioned carbon-based nanomaterials, male Wistar rats were exposed head-nose to atmospheres of the respective materials for 6 hours per day on 5 consecutive days. Target concentrations were 0.1, 0.5, or 2.5 mg/m3 for multi-wall carbon nanotubes and 0.5, 2.5, or 10 mg/m3 for graphene, graphite nanoplatelets and low-surface carbon black. Toxicity was determined after end of exposure and after three-week recovery using broncho-alveolar lavage fluid and microscopic examinations of the entire respiratory tract. No adverse effects were observed after inhalation exposure to 10 mg/m3 graphite nanoplatelets or relatively low specific surface area carbon black. Increases of lavage markers indicative for inflammatory processes started at exposure concentration of 0.5 mg/m3 for multi-wall carbon nanotubes and 10 mg/m3 for graphene. Consistent with the changes in lavage fluid, microgranulomas were observed at 2.5 mg/m3 multi-wall carbon nanotubes and 10 mg/m3 graphene. In order to evaluate volumetric loading of the lung as the key parameter driving the toxicity, deposited particle volume was calculated, taking into account different methods to determine the agglomerate density. However, the calculated volumetric load did not correlate to the toxicity, nor did the particle surface burden of the lung. The inhalation toxicity of the investigated carbon-based materials is likely to be a complex interaction of several parameters. Until the properties which govern the toxicity are identified, testing by short-term inhalation is the best option to identify hazardous properties in order to avoid unsafe applications or select

  13. Comparative inhalation toxicity of multi-wall carbon nanotubes, graphene, graphite nanoplatelets and low surface carbon black

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Carbon nanotubes, graphene, graphite nanoplatelets and carbon black are seemingly chemically identical carbon-based nano-materials with broad technological applications. Carbon nanotubes and carbon black possess different inhalation toxicities, whereas little is known about graphene and graphite nanoplatelets. Methods In order to compare the inhalation toxicity of the mentioned carbon-based nanomaterials, male Wistar rats were exposed head-nose to atmospheres of the respective materials for 6 hours per day on 5 consecutive days. Target concentrations were 0.1, 0.5, or 2.5 mg/m3 for multi-wall carbon nanotubes and 0.5, 2.5, or 10 mg/m3 for graphene, graphite nanoplatelets and low-surface carbon black. Toxicity was determined after end of exposure and after three-week recovery using broncho-alveolar lavage fluid and microscopic examinations of the entire respiratory tract. Results No adverse effects were observed after inhalation exposure to 10 mg/m3 graphite nanoplatelets or relatively low specific surface area carbon black. Increases of lavage markers indicative for inflammatory processes started at exposure concentration of 0.5 mg/m3 for multi-wall carbon nanotubes and 10 mg/m3 for graphene. Consistent with the changes in lavage fluid, microgranulomas were observed at 2.5 mg/m3 multi-wall carbon nanotubes and 10 mg/m3 graphene. In order to evaluate volumetric loading of the lung as the key parameter driving the toxicity, deposited particle volume was calculated, taking into account different methods to determine the agglomerate density. However, the calculated volumetric load did not correlate to the toxicity, nor did the particle surface burden of the lung. Conclusions The inhalation toxicity of the investigated carbon-based materials is likely to be a complex interaction of several parameters. Until the properties which govern the toxicity are identified, testing by short-term inhalation is the best option to identify hazardous properties in

  14. Differential effects of biochar on soils within an eroded field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Thomas; Chintala, Rajesh; Sandhu, Saroop; Kumar, Sandeep; Clay, Dave; Gelderman, Ron; Papiernik, Sharon; Malo, Douglas; Clay, Sharon; Julson, Jim

    2015-04-01

    Future uses of biochar will in part be dependent not only on the effects of biochar on soil processes but also on the availability and economics of biochar production. If pyrolysis for production of bio-oil and syngas becomes wide-spread, biochar as a by-product of bio-oil production will be widely available and relatively inexpensive compared to the production of biochar as primary product. Biochar produced as a by-product of optimized bio-oil production using regionally available feedstocks was examined for properties and for use as an amendment targeted to contrasting soils within an eroded field in an on-farm study initiated in 2013 at Brookings, South Dakota, USA. Three plant based biochar materials produced from carbon optimized gasification of corn stover (Zea mays L.), Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Lawson and C. Lawson) wood residue, and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) were applied at a 1% (w/w) rate to a Maddock soil (Sandy, Mixed, Frigid Entic Hapludolls) located in an eroded upper landscape position and a Brookings soil (Fine-Silty, Mixed, Superactive, Frigid Pachic Hapludolls) located in a depositional landscape position. The cropping system within this agricultural landscape was a corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) rotation. Biochar physical and chemical properties for each of the feedstocks were determined including pH, surface area, surface charge potential, C-distribution, ash content, macro and micro nutrient composition. Yields, nutrient content, and carbon isotope ratio measurements were made on the harvested seed. Soil physical properties measured included water retention, bulk density, and water infiltration from a ponded double ring infiltrometer. Laboratory studies were conducted to determine the effects of biochar on partitioning of nitrate and phosphorus at soil surface exchange complex and the extracellular enzymes activity of C and N cycles. Crop yields were increased only in the Maddock soil. Biochar interacted with each

  15. Sorption and desorption of diuron in Oxisol under biochar application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano André Petter

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to verify the kinetics of sorption and desorption of diuron in an Oxisol under application of biochar. The samples were collected in a field experiment conducted in randomized design blocks consisted of 2 base fertilization levels (0 and 400 kg∙ha−1 NPK 00-20-20 fertilizer formula and 3 doses of biochar (0, 8 and 16 Mg∙ha−1. In the evaluation of sorption and desorption, Batch Equilibrium method was used. The kinetics of sorption and desorption of diuron, total organic carbon, fulvic acid, humic acid and humin, pH and partition coefficient to organic carbon were evaluated. The Freundlich isotherm was adjusted appropriately to describe diuron sorption kinetics in all the studied treatments. The application of biochar provided increment in the sorption (Kf and reduction in the desorption of diuron in 64 and 44%, respectively. This effect is attributed to the biochar contribution to the total organic carbon and C-humin and of these to diuron through hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds. The positive correlation between the partition coefficient to organic carbon and Kf confirms the importance of soil organic compartment in the sorption of diuron. There was no competition of NPK fertilizer for the same sorption site of diuron. The increase and reduction in sorption and desorption, respectively, show that the application of biochar is an important alternative for the remediation of soil leaching of diuron, especially in sandy soils.

  16. A review of biochars' potential role in the remediation, revegetation and restoration of contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beesley, Luke; Moreno-Jimenez, Eduardo; Gomez-Eyles, Jose L.; Harris, Eva; Robinson, Brett; Sizmur, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Biochars are biological residues combusted under low oxygen conditions, resulting in a porous, low density carbon rich material. Their large surface areas and cation exchange capacities, determined to a large extent by source materials and pyrolysis temperatures, enables enhanced sorption of both organic and inorganic contaminants to their surfaces, reducing pollutant mobility when amending contaminated soils. Liming effects or release of carbon into soil solution may increase arsenic mobility, whilst low capital but enhanced retention of plant nutrients can restrict revegetation on degraded soils amended only with biochars; the combination of composts, manures and other amendments with biochars could be their most effective deployment to soils requiring stabilisation by revegetation. Specific mechanisms of contaminant-biochar retention and release over time and the environmental impact of biochar amendments on soil organisms remain somewhat unclear but must be investigated to ensure that the management of environmental pollution coincides with ecological sustainability. - Highlights: → Biochars can reduce mobilities of some organic and inorganic pollutants in soil. → Source material and production conditions influence pollutant retention. → Highly alkaline pH and water soluble carbon can undesirably mobilise some elements. → Large surface area may be toxic to soil fauna but create microbial niches. → Efficacy of biochar may depend on other organic materials applied in combination. - Biochars can reduce the mobility and impact of some soil pollutants but, if applied alone, may fail to support soil restoration, revegetation and hence ecologically circumspect remediation.

  17. Black silicon maskless templates for carbon nanotube forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wierzbicki, Rafal; Schmidt, Michael Stenbæk; Boisen, Anja

    2013-01-01

    allows maskless definition of carbon nanotube forests with control of their density, nanotube diameter and height. Four nanograss reactive ion etching recipes are investigated and their wafer-to-wafer repeatability, wafer uniformity, and density control is discussed. Evaluation of carbon nanotube forests...

  18. Effects of carbon blacks with various structures on vulcanization and reinforcement of filled ethylene-propylene-diene rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of carbon blacks on vulcanization and mechanical properties of filled ethylene-propylene-diene rubber (EPDM are investigated, by comparing with five types of rubber-grade carbon blacks. Curing kinetics is studied by rheometer and the results indicate that the curing characteristics are influenced by combination of surface area of carbon black and sulphur content on the filler surface, because the former one enhances the physical cross-linking and the latter one introduces the additional chemical cross-linking. Both the degree of cross-linking and cure rate increase with increasing surface area and sulphur content, whereas the optimum cure time and scorch time decrease. The reinforcing nature of the carbon black is assessed from mechanical measurements. It is suggested that the surface area of carbon blacks strongly affects the physical properties of EPDM/carbon black composites. Conductive carbon black (N472 can be used as desirable reinforcing filler due to the higher degree of cross-linking of EPDM with N472 than other EPDM/carbon black composites. The morphology and distribution of particles are studied by using scanning electron microscope. The sound reinforcing ability of N472 is also supported by scanning electron microscope due to the notable dispersibility of N472 within EPDM matrix. N472 ensures the EPDM/N472 composite the most conductive sample among the five composites.

  19. O2 electrocatalysis in acid media on iron naphthalocyanine impregnations. Effect of nitric acid treatment on different carbon black supports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coowar, F.; Contamin, O.; Savy, M.; Scarbeck, G.; van den Ham, D.; Riga, J.; Verbist, J.J.

    1991-01-01

    O2 electrocatalysis on (2,3)FeNPc impregnations on different carbon blacks was investigated in H2SO4 medium. The effect of nitric acid treatment on the carbon black support is to enhance both the activity and stability of the catalyst. Moreover, as seen by XPS, the dissolution of iron is impeded by

  20. Automatic Method for Controlling the Iodine Adsorption Number in Carbon Black Oil Furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zečević, N.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous of different inlet process factors in carbon black oil furnaces which must be continuously and automatically adjusted, due to stable quality of final product. The most important six inlet process factors in carbon black oil-furnaces are:1. volume flow of process air for combustion2. temperature of process air for combustion3. volume flow of natural gas for insurance the necessary heat for thermal reaction of conversionthe hydrocarbon oil feedstock in oil-furnace carbon black4. mass flow rate of hydrocarbon oil feedstock5. type and quantity of additive for adjustment the structure of oil-furnace carbon black6. quantity and position of the quench water for cooling the reaction of oil-furnace carbon black.The control of oil-furnace carbon black adsorption capacity is made with mass flow rate of hydrocarbon feedstock, which is the most important inlet process factor. Oil-furnace carbon black adsorption capacity in industrial process is determined with laboratory analyze of iodine adsorption number. It is shown continuously and automatically method for controlling iodine adsorption number in carbon black oil-furnaces to get as much as possible efficient control of adsorption capacity. In the proposed method it can be seen the correlation between qualitatively-quantitatively composition of the process tail gasses in the production of oil-furnace carbon black and relationship between air for combustion and hydrocarbon feedstock. It is shown that the ratio between air for combustion and hydrocarbon oil feedstock is depended of adsorption capacity summarized by iodine adsorption number, regarding to BMCI index of hydrocarbon oil feedstock.The mentioned correlation can be seen through the figures from 1. to 4. From the whole composition of the process tail gasses the best correlation for continuously and automatically control of iodine adsorption number is show the volume fraction of methane. The volume fraction of methane in the

  1. Black Ink of Activated Carbon Derived From Palm Kernel Cake (PKC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selamat, M. H.; Ahmad, A. H.

    2009-06-01

    Recycling the waste from natural plant to produce useful end products will benefit many industries and help preserve the environment. The research reported in this paper is an investigation on the use of the natural waste of palm kernel cake (PKC) to produce carbon residue as a black carbon for pigment source by using pyrolysis process. The activated carbons (AC) is produced in powder form using ball milling process. Rheological spectra in ink is one of quality control process in determining its performance properties. Findings from this study will help expand the scientific knowledge-base for black ink production and formulation base on PKC. Various inks with different weight percentage compositions of AC will be made and tested against its respective rheological properties in order to determine ideal ink printing system. The items in the formulation used comprised of organic and bio-waste materials with added additive to improve the quality of the black ink. Modified Polyurethane was used as binder. The binder's properties highlighted an ideal vehicle to be applied for good black ink opacity performance. The rheological behaviour is a general foundation for ink characterization where the wt% of AC-PKC resulted in different pseudoplastic behaviors, including the Newtonian behavior. The result found that Newtonian field was located in between 2 wt% and 10 wt% of AC-PKC composition with binder. Mass spectroscopy results shown that the carbon content in PKC is high and very suitable for black performance. In the ageing test, the pigment of PKC perform fairly according to the standard pigment of Black carbon (CB) of ferum oxide pigment. The contact angle for substrate's wettability of the ink system shown a good angle proven to be a water resistive coating on paper subtrates; an advantage of the PKC ink pigment performance.

  2. A Comparative Study on Biochar from Slow Pyrolysis of Corn Cob and Cassava Wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Adilah Shariff; Nurhidayah Mohamed Noor; Alexander Lau; Muhammad Azwan Mohd Ali

    2016-01-01

    Biomass such as corn and cassava wastes if left to decay will release significant quantities of greenhouse gases (GHG) including carbon dioxide and methane. The biomass wastes can be converted into biochar via thermochemical process such as slow pyrolysis. This approach can reduce the biomass wastes as well as preserve its carbon content. Biochar has the potential to be used as a carbon sequester and soil amendment. The aim of this study is to investigate the characteristics of the corn cob, ...

  3. Biochar as a soil amendment: Environmental friend or foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrolysis to produce biofuels and biochar from biomass is not a new idea, but the use of pyrolysis to extract energy from biomass through a process that can be carbon neutral to carbon negative (i.e., reduces atmospheric CO2) is a novel application of an old technology to a curre...

  4. Particulate Matter and Black Carbon Concentration Levels in Ashaiman, a Semi-Urban Area of Ghana, 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Sam-Quarcoo Dotse; Joshua Kwame Asane; F.G. Ofosu

    2012-01-01

    Particulate matter and black carbon concentration levels in Ashaiman, a semi-urban area of Ghana was assessed. Using IVL PM2.5 and PM10 particle samplers, airborne particulate matter was sampled on Teflon filters for a period of three months. In addition to determination of particulate mass in the two fractions by gravimetrical method, aerosol filters were analyzed to determine Black Carbon (BC) concentration levels using the black smoke method. BC fractions in fine and coarse, together with ...

  5. Enhanced Activated Carbon Cathode Performance for Microbial Fuel Cell by Blending Carbon Black

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiaoyuan; Xia, Xue; Ivanov, Ivan; Huang, Xia; Logan, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    Activated carbon (AC) is a useful and environmentally sustainable catalyst for oxygen reduction in air-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs), but there is great interest in improving its performance and longevity. To enhance the performance of AC cathodes, carbon black (CB) was added into AC at CB:AC ratios of 0, 2, 5, 10, and 15 wt % to increase electrical conductivity and facilitate electron transfer. AC cathodes were then evaluated in both MFCs and electrochemical cells and compared to reactors with cathodes made with Pt. Maximum power densities of MFCs were increased by 9-16% with CB compared to the plain AC in the first week. The optimal CB:AC ratio was 10% based on both MFC polarization tests and three electrode electrochemical tests. The maximum power density of the 10% CB cathode was initially 1560 ± 40 mW/m2 and decreased by only 7% after 5 months of operation compared to a 61% decrease for the control (Pt catalyst, 570 ± 30 mW/m2 after 5 months). The catalytic activities of Pt and AC (plain or with 10% CB) were further examined in rotating disk electrode (RDE) tests that minimized mass transfer limitations. The RDE tests showed that the limiting current of the AC with 10% CB was improved by up to 21% primarily due to a decrease in charge transfer resistance (25%). These results show that blending CB in AC is a simple and effective strategy to enhance AC cathode performance in MFCs and that further improvement in performance could be obtained by reducing mass transfer limitations. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  6. High resolution of black carbon and organic carbon emissions in the Pearl River Delta region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Junyu; He, Min; Shen, Xingling; Yin, Shasha; Yuan, Zibing

    2012-11-01

    A high-resolution regional black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC) emission inventory for the year 2009 was developed for the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, China, based on the collected activity data and the latest emission factors. PM(2.5), BC and OC emissions were estimated to be 303 kt, 39 kt and 31 kt, respectively. Industrial processes were major contributing sources to PM(2.5) emissions. BC emissions were mainly from mobile sources, accounting for 65.0%, while 34.1% of OC emissions were from residential combustion. The primary OC/BC ratios for individual cities in the PRD region were dependent on the levels of economic development due to differences in source characteristics, with high ratios in the less developed cities and low ratios in the central and southern developed areas. The preliminary temporal profiles were established, showing the highest OC emissions in winter and relatively constant BC emissions throughout the year. The emissions were spatially allocated into grid cells with a resolution of 3 km × 3 km. Large amounts of BC emissions were distributed over the central-southern PRD city clusters, while OC emissions exhibited a relatively even spatial distribution due to the significant biomass burning emissions from the outlying area of the PRD region. Uncertainties in carbonaceous aerosol emissions were usually higher than in other primary pollutants like SO(2), NO(x), and PM(10). One of the key uncertainty sources was the emission factor, due to the absence of direct measurements of BC and OC emission rates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Brown Carbon and Black Carbon in the Smoky Atmosphere during Boreal Forest Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorchakov, G. I.; Karpov, A. V.; Pankratova, N. V.; Semoutnikova, E. G.; Vasiliev, A. V.; Gorchakova, I. A.

    2017-12-01

    We have investigated the variability of smoke aerosol absorbing ability with variations in the content of brown carbon (BrC) and black carbon (BC). Using monitoring data on radiative characteristics of smoke aerosol at AERONET stations and the spatial distribution of aerosol optical depth (AOD) obtained by the MODIS spectrometer ( Terra satellite), we have detected large-scale smokes during boreal forest fires in Russia and Canada (1995-2012). The spatial distribution (50°-70° N, 95°-125° W) and temporal variability (at AERONET station Fort McMurray) of AOD during the smoking of a part of Canada in July 2012 have been analyzed. AOD probability distributions for July 14-18, 2012, and an estimate of aerosol radiative forcing of smoke aerosol at the upper boundary of the atmosphere have been obtained. We have proposed a technique for the diagnostics of BrC and BC in smoke aerosol particles from the spectral dependence of the imaginary part of the refractive index. At a wavelength of 440 nm, the contributions of BrC and BC to the smokeaerosol absorbing abitity can be comparable in magnitude. In many cases, the absorption spectra of smoke aerosol can be adequately approximated by either power or exponential functions. The presence of BrC in smoke-aerosol particles highly extends the variety of observed absorption spectra in a smoky atmosphere and spectral dependences of single scattering albedo. In the spectral range of 440-1020 nm, the radiative characteristics of smoke aerosol are largely contributed by its fine mode.

  8. Enhanced Activated Carbon Cathode Performance for Microbial Fuel Cell by Blending Carbon Black

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiaoyuan

    2014-02-04

    Activated carbon (AC) is a useful and environmentally sustainable catalyst for oxygen reduction in air-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs), but there is great interest in improving its performance and longevity. To enhance the performance of AC cathodes, carbon black (CB) was added into AC at CB:AC ratios of 0, 2, 5, 10, and 15 wt % to increase electrical conductivity and facilitate electron transfer. AC cathodes were then evaluated in both MFCs and electrochemical cells and compared to reactors with cathodes made with Pt. Maximum power densities of MFCs were increased by 9-16% with CB compared to the plain AC in the first week. The optimal CB:AC ratio was 10% based on both MFC polarization tests and three electrode electrochemical tests. The maximum power density of the 10% CB cathode was initially 1560 ± 40 mW/m2 and decreased by only 7% after 5 months of operation compared to a 61% decrease for the control (Pt catalyst, 570 ± 30 mW/m2 after 5 months). The catalytic activities of Pt and AC (plain or with 10% CB) were further examined in rotating disk electrode (RDE) tests that minimized mass transfer limitations. The RDE tests showed that the limiting current of the AC with 10% CB was improved by up to 21% primarily due to a decrease in charge transfer resistance (25%). These results show that blending CB in AC is a simple and effective strategy to enhance AC cathode performance in MFCs and that further improvement in performance could be obtained by reducing mass transfer limitations. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  9. Mechanisms of metal sorption by biochars: Biochar characteristics and modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongbo; Dong, Xiaoling; da Silva, Evandro B; de Oliveira, Letuzia M; Chen, Yanshan; Ma, Lena Q

    2017-07-01

    Biochar produced by thermal decomposition of biomass under oxygen-limited conditions has received increasing attention as a cost-effective sorbent to treat metal-contaminated waters. However, there is a lack of information on the roles of different sorption mechanisms for different metals and recent development of biochar modification to enhance metal sorption capacity, which is critical for biochar field application. This review summarizes the characteristics of biochar (e.g., surface area, porosity, pH, surface charge, functional groups, and mineral components) and main mechanisms governing sorption of As, Cr, Cd, Pb, and Hg by biochar. Biochar properties vary considerably with feedstock material and pyrolysis temperature, with high temperature producing biochars with higher surface area, porosity, pH, and mineral contents, but less functional groups. Different mechanisms dominate sorption of As (complexation and electrostatic interactions), Cr (electrostatic interactions, reduction, and complexation), Cd and Pb (complexation, cation exchange, and precipitation), and Hg (complexation and reduction). Besides sorption mechanisms, recent advance in modifying biochar by loading with minerals, reductants, organic functional groups, and nanoparticles, and activation with alkali solution to enhance metal sorption capacity is discussed. Future research needs for field application of biochar include competitive sorption mechanisms of co-existing metals, biochar reuse, and cost reduction of biochar production. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Effect of carbon black on electrical and rheological properties of graphite nanoplatelets/poly(ethylene-butyl acrylate composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Oxfall

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of adding carbon black on the electrical and rheological properties of graphite nanoplatelets/poly(ethylene-butyl acrylate copolymer composites produced via melt or solution mixing was studied. By adding a small amount of low- or high-structured carbon black to the nanocomposite, the electrical percolation threshold decreased and the final conductivity (at higher filler contents increased. The effect on the percolation threshold was significantly stronger in case of the high-structured carbon black where replacing 10 wt% of the total filler content with carbon black instead of graphite nanoplatelets reduced the electrical percolation threshold from 6.9 to 4.6 vol%. Finally, the solution mixing process was found to be more efficient leading to a lower percolation threshold. For the composites containing high-structured carbon black, graphite nanoplatelets and their hybrids there was a quite reasonable correlation between the electrical and rheological percolation thresholds.

  11. [Effects of biochar on soil nitrogen cycle and related mechanisms: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yi-Fan; Yang, Min; Dong, Da; Wu, Wei-Xiang

    2013-09-01

    Biochar has its unique physical and chemical properties, playing a significant role in soil amelioration, nutrient retention, fertility improvement, and carbon storage, and being a hotspot in the research areas of soil ecosystem, biogeochemical cycling, and agricultural carbon sequestration. As a kind of anthropogenic materials, biochar has the potential in controlling soil nitrogen (N) cycle directly or indirectly, and thus, has profound effects on soil ecological functions. This paper reviewed the latest literatures regarding the effects of biochar applications on soil N cycle, with the focuses on the nitrogen species adsorption and the biochemical processes (nitrification, denitrification, and nitrogen fixation) , and analyzed the related action mechanisms of biochar. The future research areas for better understanding the interactions between biochar and soil N cycle were proposed.

  12. Electrocatalytic Determination of Isoniazid by a Glassy Carbon Electrode Modified with Poly (Eriochrome Black T)

    OpenAIRE

    Karim Asadpour-Zeynali; Venus Baghalabadi

    2017-01-01

    In this work poly eriochrome black T (EBT) was electrochemically synthesized on the glassy carbon electrode as electrode modifier. On the modified electrode, voltammetric behavior of isoniazid (INH) was investigated. The poly (EBT)-modified glassy carbon electrode has excellent electrocatalytic ability for the electrooxidation of isoniazid. This fact was appeared as a reduced overpotential of INH oxidation in a wide operational pH range from 2 to 13. It has been found that the catalytic peak ...

  13. Spinning, structure and properties of PP/CNTs and PP/carbon black composite fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcincin, A.; Hricova, M.; Ujhelyiova, A.

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, the effect of the compatibilisers-dispersants and other nanofillers on melt spinning of the polypropylene (PP) composites, containing carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and carbon black pigment (CBP) has been investigated. Further, the structure and selected properties of composite fibers, such as mechanical and electrical have been studied. The results revealed, that percolation threshold for PP/CBP composite fibres was situated within the concentration of 15 - 20 wt%, what is several times higher than for PP/CNTs fibers.

  14. Effects of biochar amendment on geotechnical properties of landfill cover soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Krishna R; Yaghoubi, Poupak; Yukselen-Aksoy, Yeliz

    2015-06-01

    Biochar is a carbon-rich product obtained when plant-based biomass is heated in a closed container with little or no available oxygen. Biochar-amended soil has the potential to serve as a landfill cover material that can oxidise methane emissions for two reasons: biochar amendment can increase the methane retention time and also enhance the biological activity that can promote the methanotrophic oxidation of methane. Hydraulic conductivity, compressibility and shear strength are the most important geotechnical properties that are required for the design of effective and stable landfill cover systems, but no studies have been reported on these properties for biochar-amended landfill cover soils. This article presents physicochemical and geotechnical properties of a biochar, a landfill cover soil and biochar-amended soils. Specifically, the effects of amending 5%, 10% and 20% biochar (of different particle sizes as produced, size-20 and size-40) to soil on its physicochemical properties, such as moisture content, organic content, specific gravity and pH, as well as geotechnical properties, such as hydraulic conductivity, compressibility and shear strength, were determined from laboratory testing. Soil or biochar samples were prepared by mixing them with 20% deionised water based on dry weight. Samples of soil amended with 5%, 10% and 20% biochar (w/w) as-is or of different select sizes, were also prepared at 20% initial moisture content. The results show that the hydraulic conductivity of the soil increases, compressibility of the soil decreases and shear strength of the soil increases with an increase in the biochar amendment, and with a decrease in biochar particle size. Overall, the study revealed that biochar-amended soils can possess excellent geotechnical properties to serve as stable landfill cover materials. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Effects of Different Biochar Application Patterns on Rice Growth and Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Yue-man

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Biochar has positive effect on carbon sequestration and soil improvement, consequently biochar application has been attracted more and more attention in recent years. However, so far, few investigations about the effects of biochar application patterns on crop growth, which may have a direct impact on biochar's application and comprehensive environmental effects have been reported. Herein, soil column study was conducted using four biochars, i.e., wheat straw(WBC and wood sawdust(SBC that pyrolyzed at 500℃ and 700℃, respectively, to study the effects of two different biochar application patterns on rice growth. These two typical biochar application patterns were:generally mixed application(mixed treatment and surface application(surface treatment. The results showed that:(1In comparison with CK, all biochar application treatments promoted the growth of rice in terms of plant height and SPAD(Soil Plant Analysis Development value. Plant height of surface treatment was higher than that of mixed treatments at the heading, filling and maturation stages. SPAD and NDVI(Normalized Different Vegetation Index value of surface treatments were slightly lower than mixed treatment.(2Biochar significantly increased rice seeding setting rate by 4.88%~8.39%, moreover, surface treatments were observed higher rice seeding setting rate than mixed treatments. However, no significant difference was observed in the number of effective panicles, grains per spike and 1 000-grain weight between surface and mixed treatment. (3Application of biochar promoted rice yield, and surface treatments were more likely to increase rice yield compared with the conventional mixed treatments. (4All biochar treatments increased rice harvest index by 2.58%~10.56%, and no significant difference was found between surface and mixed treatment.(5All applications of biochar promoted nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium partial productivity, which was 9.81%~36.25% higher than that of CK.

  16. Black carbon emission reduction strategies in healthcare industry for effective global climate change management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raila, Emilia Mmbando; Anderson, David O

    2017-04-01

    Climate change remains one of the biggest threats to life on earth to date with black carbon (BC) emissions or smoke being the strongest cause after carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). Surprisingly, scientific evidence about black carbon emissions reduction in healthcare settings is sparse. This paper presents new research findings on the reduction of black carbon emissions from an observational study conducted at the UN Peacekeeping Operations (MINUSTAH) in Haiti in 2014. Researchers observed 20 incineration cycles, 30 minutes for each cycle of plastic and cardboard sharps healthcare waste (HCW) containers ranged from 3 to 14.6 kg. The primary aim was to determine if black carbon emissions from healthcare waste incineration can be lowered by mainstreaming the use of cardboard sharps healthcare waste containers instead of plastic sharps healthcare waste containers. Similarly, the study looks into whether burning temperature was associated with the smoke levels for each case or not. Independent samples t-tests demonstrated significantly lower black carbon emissions during the incineration of cardboard sharps containers (6.81 ± 4.79% smoke) than in plastic containers (17.77 ± 8.38% smoke); a statistically significant increase of 10.96% smoke (95% Confidence Interval ( CI) [4.4 to 17.5% smoke], p = 0.003). Correspondingly, lower bottom burner temperatures occurred during the incineration of cardboard sharps containers than in plastic (95% Cl [16 to 126°C], p = 0.014). Finally, we expect the application of the new quantitative evidence to form the basis for policy formulation, mainstream the use of cardboard sharps containers and opt for non-incineration disposal technologies as urgent steps for going green in healthcare waste management.

  17. Distribution and Sources of Black Carbon in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ling

    The Arctic is warming at twice the global rate over recent decades. To slow down this warming trend, there is growing interest in reducing the impact from short-lived climate forcers, such as black carbon (BC), because the benefits of mitigation are seen more quickly relative to CO2 reduction. To propose efficient mitigation policies, it is imperative to improve our understanding of BC distribution in the Arctic and to identify the sources. In this dissertation, we investigate the sensitivity of BC in the Arctic, including BC concentrations in snow (BCsnow) and BC concentrations in air (BCair), to emissions, dry deposition and wet scavenging using a global 3-D chemical transport model (CTM) GEOS-Chem. By including flaring emissions, estimating dry deposition velocity using resistance-in-series method, and including Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen (WBF) in wet scavenging, simulated BCsnow in the eight Arctic sub-regions agree with the observations within a factor of two, and simulated BCair fall within the uncertainty range of observations. Specifically, we find that natural gas flaring emissions in Western Extreme North of Russia (WENR) strongly enhance BCsnow (by up to ?50%) and BCair (by 20-32%) during snow season in the so-called 'Arctic front', but has negligible impact on BC in the free troposphere. The updated dry deposition velocity over snow and ice is much larger than those used in most of global CTMs and agrees better with observation. The resulting BCsnow changes marginally because of the offsetting of higher dry and lower wet deposition fluxes. In contrast, surface BCair decreases strongly due to the faster dry deposition (by 27-68%). WBF occurs when the environmental vapor pressure is in between the saturation vapor pressure of ice crystals and water drops in mixed-phase clouds. As a result, water drops evaporate and releases BC particles in them back into the interstitial air. In most CTMs, WBF is either missing or represented by a uniform and low BC

  18. Biochar-Induced Changes in Soil Resilience: Effects of Soil Texture and Biochar Dosage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ayodele Ebenezer AJAYI; Rainer HORN

    2017-01-01

    Biochars are,amongst other available amendment materials,considered as an attractive tool in agriculture for carbon sequestration and improvement of soil functions.The latter is widely discussed as a consequence of improved physical quality of the amended soil.However,the mechanisms for this improvement are still poorly understood.This study investigated the effect of woodchip biochar amendment on micro-structural development,micro-and macro-structural stability,and resilience of two differently textured soils,fine sand (FS) and sandy loam (SL).Test substrates were prepared by adding 50 or 100 g kg-1 biochar to FS or SL.Total porosity and plant available water were significantly increased in both soils.Moreover,compressive strength of the aggregates was significantly decreased when biochar amount was doubled.Mechanical resilience of the aggregates at both micro-and macro-scale was improved in the biochar-amended soils,impacting the cohesion and compressive behavior.A combination of these effects will result in an improved pore structure and aeration.Consequently,the physicochemical environment for plants and microbes is improved.Furthermore,the improved stability properties will result in better capacity of the biochar-amended soil to recover from the myriad of mechanical stresses imposed under arable systems,including vehicle traffic,to the weight of overburden soil.However,it was noted that doubling the amendment rate did not in any case offer any remarkable additional improvement in these properties,suggesting a further need to investigate the optimal amendment rate.