WorldWideScience

Sample records for black adolescent femininity

  1. Ghetto Fabulous: Reading Black Adolescent Femininity in Contemporary Urban Street Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Elizabeth; Staples, Jeanine; Gibson, Simone

    2009-01-01

    In this article the authors provide a general overview of the controversies associated with urban street fiction, a brief introduction to the genre and an introduction to the complex representations of Black adolescent femininity within two contemporary titles, "Black and Ugly" (Styles, 2006) and "Bitch" (King, 2006). The authors provide a…

  2. "Styled by Their Perceptions": Black Adolescent Girls Interpret Representations of Black Females in Popular Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Gholnecsar E.; McArthur, Sherell A.

    2015-01-01

    Identity formation is a critical process shaping the lives of adolescents and can present distinct challenges for Black adolescent girls who are positioned in society to negotiate ideals of self when presented with false and incomplete images representing Black girlhood. Researchers have found distorted images of Black femininity derived from…

  3. [Estrogens and feminine brain maturation during adolescence: emergency contraceptive pill].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Moratalla, Natalia; Errasti Alcalá, Tania; Santiago, Esteban

    2011-01-01

    In the period between puberty and maturity takes place the process of brain maturation. Hormone levels induce changes in neurons and direct the architecture and structural functionality thus affecting patterns of development of different brain areas. The onset of puberty brings with it the invasion of the female brain by high levels of hormones, cyclic surges of estrogen and progesterone in addition to steroids produced in situ. Control centers of emotions (amygdala), memory and learning (hippocampus) and sexual activity (hypothalamus) are modified according to the cyclical concentrations of both hormones. Sex hormones stimulate multimodal actions, both short and longer terms, because neurons in various brain areas have different types of receptors, membrane, cytoplasmic and nuclear. The composition of emergency contraceptive pill (postcoital pill) with high hormonal content raises the urgency of a thorough knowledge about the possible effect that the lack of control of the menstrual cycle in a time of consolidation of brain maturation, can bring in structuring and development of brain circuitry. Changes in the availability of sex steroids during puberty and adolescence underlie psychiatric disorders whose prevalence is typically feminine, such as depression, anxiety disorders. It is a fundamental ethical duty to present scientific data about the influence of estrogen in young female brain maturation, both for full information to potential users, and also to induce the appropriate public health measures.

  4. "You Don't Have to Claim Her": Reconstructing Black Femininity through Critical Hip-Hop Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Lauren Leigh

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the ways in which females who identify with hip-hop often develop and construct their identities in relation to media representations of blackness and femininity in hip-hop music and culture. In order for educators to support female students in constructing identities of empowerment and agency, they should be willing and able…

  5. Femininity and Depression Mediated by Social and Relational Aggression in Late Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbert, Jered B.; Field, Julaine E.; Crothers, Laura M.; Schreiber, James B.

    2010-01-01

    Although studies have found a relation between the use of relational aggression and depressive symptomatology, there is less evidence for the relation of the role of gender identity in these processes. Consequently, this study investigated the roles of social and relational aggression and feminine gender role identity in depressive symptoms among…

  6. Disturbing Femininity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvenegård-Lassen, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    it comes to femininity – in need of management. Based on an analysis of the newspaper coverage of the elec-tion, I argue that highlighting gender (in)equality as either an important political issue or as something that conditions the possibilities of taking up a position as politician was evaluated...

  7. Feminine Magic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly, Lynne

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Having been introduced to magic by my father, I have adapted the classic methods to work in my role as a mature female teacher. Using performance and mysterious narrative, intriguing props and playing on my femininity, the classic magician routines have served me well when performing for teenagers. Reworking the classic routines in this way ensures that a school magic club for teenagers serves the various needs of both male and female students.

  8. Sleep in Healthy Black and White Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Matthews, Karen A.; Hall, Martica; Dahl, Ronald E.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Inadequate sleep among adolescents has negative consequences for self-regulation, emotional well-being, and risk behaviors. Using multiple assessment methods, we evaluated the adequacy of sleep among healthy adolescents from a lower socioeconomic community and expected differences by race. METHODS: A total of 250 healthy high school students enrolled in public school (mean age: 15.7 years; 57% black, 54% female) from families of low to middle class according to the ...

  9. Birth Order and Sibling Sex Ratio in Homosexual Male Adolescents and Probably Prehomosexual Feminine Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Ray; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined the hypothesis that male homosexuals have a greater than average proportion of male siblings and a later than average birth order, by comparing a group of prehomosexual boys (individuals exhibiting cross-gender behaviors) and homosexual adolescents with a control group. Both predicted results were confirmed. (MDM)

  10. Disturbing Femininity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Hvenegård-Lassen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available When Helle Thorning-Schmidt in 2011 became the first female Prime Minister in Denmark, this “victory for the women” was praised in highly celebratory tones in Danish newspapers. The celebration involved a paradoxical representation of gen-der as simultaneously irrelevant to politics and – when it comes to femininity – in need of management. Based on an analysis of the newspaper coverage of the elec-tion, I argue that highlighting gender (inequality as either an important political issue or as something that conditions the possibilities of taking up a position as politician was evaluated as a performative speech act, i.e. an act that creates the trouble it names. Ruling out gender equality as relevant was, however, continually interrupted by comments on how Thorning-Schmidt and other female politicians perform gender in ways that fit or do not fit with “doing politician”. These com-ments tended to concern the styling of bodies and behaviour and followed well known – or sticky – gendered scripts.

  11. Sleep in healthy black and white adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Karen A; Hall, Martica; Dahl, Ronald E

    2014-05-01

    Inadequate sleep among adolescents has negative consequences for self-regulation, emotional well-being, and risk behaviors. Using multiple assessment methods, we evaluated the adequacy of sleep among healthy adolescents from a lower socioeconomic community and expected differences by race. A total of 250 healthy high school students enrolled in public school (mean age: 15.7 years; 57% black, 54% female) from families of low to middle class according to the Hollingshead scale participated in weeklong assessments of sleep duration and fragmentation, assessed by using actigraphy; sleep duration and perceived quality, assessed by using daily diaries; and daytime sleepiness and sleep delay, assessed by using a questionnaire. Students slept during the school week a mean ± SD of 6.0 ± 0.9 hours per night according to actigraphy and 6.8 ± 1.1 hours according to daily diary, and during the weekend, a mean of 7.4 ± 1.2 and 8.7 ± 1.4 hours, respectively. Black participants and male participants slept less and had more fragmented sleep; female participants reported poorer quality of sleep in their daily diaries and more daytime sleepiness. The results remained significant after adjustments for age, physical activity, smoking status, and percentile BMI. Most students slept less than the 8 to 9 hours suggested by the guidelines of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Black male participants had the least amount of sleep, which may play a role in the substantial risks experienced by this demographic group. Our findings are consistent with recommendations that pediatricians should routinely screen their adolescent patients about their sleep, especially those from at-risk subgroups. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  12. Obesity among Black Adolescent Girls: Genetic, Psychosocial, and Cultural Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleyne, Sylvan I.; LaPoint, Velma

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on the causes, consequences, and prevention of obesity among a subgroup of the American population, Black adolescent girls. Using an ecological perspective on obesity among Black adolescent girls, including feminist-womanist perspectives and historical and medical sociological perspectives, the authors discuss genetic,…

  13. Social Integration and the Mental Health of Black Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Theda; Joe, Sean; Shields, Joseph; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.

    2014-01-01

    The influence of family, school, and religious social contexts on the mental health of Black adolescents has been understudied. This study used Durkheim's social integration theory to examine these associations in a nationally representative sample of 1,170 Black adolescents, ages 13-17. Mental health was represented by positive and negative…

  14. When Black Girls Fight: Interrogating, Interrupting, and (Re)Imagining Dangerous Scripts of Femininity in Urban Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Jennifer; Edwards, Erica B.

    2018-01-01

    The recent death of Amy Joyner, a promising Wilmington, Delaware, high school sophomore demonstrates very clearly the ways in which Black girls are made vulnerable in urban schools. Joyner, an honor roll student, was jumped by a group of girls in the bathroom just before classes began. The alleged cause of the fight was jealousy over a boy. Black…

  15. Black Adolescent Males: Intersections Among Their Gender Role Identity and Racial Identity and Associations With Self-Concept (Global and School).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Tamara R

    2017-09-12

    Intersectional approaches for understanding identity have gained momentum in the social sciences. Black adolescent males are often perceived as threatening, underachieving, and hypermasculine, which is reinforced through media outlets and psychological research that portray them as a monolith rather than a heterogeneous group with multiple intersecting identities. This cross-sectional study of 70 Black adolescent males between 14 and 18 years old simultaneously explores their race and gender identities and associations with self-concept (global and school). Results demonstrated that participants reported a combination of feminine and masculine gender roles, rather than hypermasculine. A canonical correlation analysis found that Black racial identity attitudes (RIAS-L) and gender roles simultaneously contributed to significant relationships with total and school self-concept. Study limitations and future directions for research and practice are discussed. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  16. Risky movies, risky behaviors, and ethnic identity among Black adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Amy; Ellithorpe, Morgan E; Hennessy, Michael; Jamieson, Patrick E; Khurana, Atika; Weitz, Ilana

    2017-12-01

    To investigate how exposure to sex, alcohol and violent content in mainstream and Black-oriented movies relates to corresponding adolescent behavior among Black youth from the United States and whether those relationships are moderated by ethnic identity. The present study uses survey data from an online sample of 1000 Black adolescents and content analysis ratings on top-grossing 2014 films and 2013/2014 Black-oriented films. Content-specific exposure measures for alcohol, sexual activity, and violence were calculated from self-reported exposure data and content analysis ratings. Regression analyses estimated the associations among exposures to risky health content in mainstream and Black-oriented films and adolescent behaviors as well as moderation by ethnic group identity. Black adolescents were mostly unaffected by exposure to risk portrayals in mainstream films, but exposure to risk in Black-oriented films was related to their behavior in all three domains. Strong group identity strengthened the relationship between exposure to sex in Black-oriented and mainstream films depending on the sexual outcome. The type of movie (i.e., mainstream or Black-oriented) through which Black adolescents are exposed to risky health portrayals is important for understanding its relationship to their behavior, and variations by ethnic identity were limited to sex content. Future research should identify the mechanisms through which risk content in Black-oriented films is associated with Black adolescents' risky behaviors to determine how media influence contributes to behavioral disparities among youth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Adolescent Black Males' Drug Trafficking and Addiction: Three Theoretical Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sharon E.

    1995-01-01

    Explains the incidence and nature of drug trafficking and chemical dependency among adolescent black males. The paper also discusses the social science theories of Emile Durkheim, Karl Marx, and Molefi Asante to better understand the behaviors, and the consequences of those behaviors, of young black males who participate in drug trafficking. (GR)

  18. Treating Mental Illness among Diabetic Black Male Adolescents: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Andrae; Fields, Lashawnda; O'Dwyer, Curtis; Scott, Marquisha Lawrence; Joe, Sean

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To examine randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for treatment evidence for Black male adolescents suffering from comorbid mental illness and diabetes mellitus. Method: A review of the studies published in English-language journals was conducted. Results: We found no RCT focused on Black males with diabetes mellitus Type 2 (DMT2).…

  19. Attitudes about Male-Female Relations among Black Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Roger H.

    1981-01-01

    Examines the relationship of family structure, peer group affiliation, social class, and sex with five dependent variables concerned with attitudes toward dating values, marriage, romanticism, premarital pregnancy, and premarital sexual permissiveness among 85 rural, Black adolescent males and females. Findings suggest general community norms and…

  20. Masculinity, femininity, and transsexualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman-Jeglińska, Anna; Grabowska, Anna; Dulko, Stanisław

    2002-12-01

    This study examined the relationship between sex role and gender identity in a Polish transsexual population where, unlike in Western countries, male-to-female (MF) transsexualism is much less common than female-to-male (FM) transsexualism. One hundred and three FM (82 primary, 21 secondary) and 29 MF (16 primary, 13 secondary) transsexuals plus 135 control males (CM) and 303 control females (CF) completed a Sex Role Inventory, which measures sex-role identification, that is, the degree to which one self-identifies with masculine and feminine characteristics. Data obtained from primary transsexuals revealed that, on a femininity scale, MF transsexuals scores exceeded not only CM but also CF. On a masculinity scale, MF transsexuals rated themselves significantly lower than CM, but at a level comparable to CF. The comparison of FM transsexuals and controls showed that, on a masculinity scale, transsexuals scored higher than CF but were not different from CM. On the femininity scale, FM transsexuals rated themselves in between the two control groups: lower than CF but slightly higher than CM. The relations of secondary transsexuals' scores to CF and CM scores, on both masculine and feminine scales, were in the same direction as the primary transsexuals' scores. Secondary transsexuals rated themselves very similarly to their primary counterparts (the exception was a much higher score of MF-primary transsexuals than MF-secondary transsexuals on the femininity scale). Our study revealed that transsexualism does not imply a simple inversion of sex-role patterns: transsexuals differ not only from nontranssexual individuals of the same anatomical sex but also from those of the opposite sex. Moreover, MF transsexualism is not a mirror image of FM transsexualism: it constitutes a more extreme condition in the identification with feminine versus masculine personality traits. These differences seem to be universal for different countries and regions. The diagnostic value of our

  1. Translation of feminine: Szymborska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Donata Guerizoli Kempinska

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2014v1n33p35 The paper discusses the problems present in the process of the translation of the feminine, related to the discursive articulations of the gender and to the socio-historical conditions of its construction. The differences between languages make this articulation hard to transpose and such is the case in some of Wisława Szymborska’s poems. An attentive reading of her work and of its translations in different languages reveals that the transposition of its specifically feminine humor is also a challenge for the translator

  2. Adolescence, Advertising, and the Ideology of Menstruation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merskin, Debra

    1999-01-01

    Conducted a content analysis of 10 years of feminine hygiene advertisements in "Seventeen" and "Teen" magazines. Finds that advertising copy in these magazines works to dispel myths about menstruation but that few black models are shown. Discusses advertising as an element of socialization for adolescent girls. (SLD)

  3. The Self-Concept Level of Black Adolescents with and without African Names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, Francis; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Explored the self-concept level of Black adolescents with and without African names, and of their parents, using the Terrell and Taylor Black Ideology Scale and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Adolescents with African names demonstrated significantly higher scores on the Black self-concept scales than did those without African names.…

  4. Forestry: feminine plural?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veltri A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the Authors discuss the results of the surveys submitted to Italian women which are engaged in various activities in the forestry sector. A quantitative analysis comes out from qualitative considerations set out by the interviews. In Italy is well known that women are rarely able to advance in employment and there are few women in managerial positions. The Authors conclude that the forestry sciences are not yet feminine plural.

  5. "A battle between lust and loathing": the interplay between masculinity and femininity in Zakes Mda's The Madonna of Excelsior

    OpenAIRE

    Crous, Marius

    2010-01-01

    In this essay the emphasis is on the interplay between masculinity and femininity and in particular that of white masculinity versus black femininity, as well as the role played by black female sexuality in the formation of masculine identity in a rural setting in apartheid South Africa. The essay also looks at the representation of the female body and the role of the female body as site of contestation of socio-political assumptions about masculinity and femininity. The text under discussion...

  6. Masculinity and Femininity in Question

    OpenAIRE

    Herlambang, Pauline; Djundjung, Jenny M

    2015-01-01

    The character traits in Shinchan seem to be contrary to the structure of masculine and feminine traits. I am interested in discussing the feminine character traits that are adopted by the male characters and the masculine character traits that are adopted by the female characters in a patriarchal society in Japan. Under the patriarchal system, there are rigid segregation of gender roles and the expected feminine and masculine traits. The main purpose of this paper is that even though some of ...

  7. Physiotherapy - a feminine profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, S D

    1986-01-01

    The female-dominated professions in health care are not as powerful as the male-dominated medical profession. This paper suggests that the key factor in shaping the discrepancies in pay, status and power between medicine and the female-dominated professions is gender. It is argued that physiotherapy developed as a profession for middle-class women and that family responsibilities continue to take priority over professional responsibilities for the majority of physiotherapists. Physiotherapy enjoys higher occupational prestige than social work, speech therapy, occupational therapy and nursing and it is suggested that physiotherapy has achieved this status through recruitment of women from middle and upper middle class backgrounds. The history of physiotherapy is the history of a middle class feminine profession. Copyright © 1986 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by . All rights reserved.

  8. The role of cognitive style in the stress and coping of black South African adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooyen, Melinda; Naude, Luzelle; Nel, Lindi; Esterhuyse, Karel

    2014-12-01

    Although stress is a common phenomenon in all phases of life, it can be said that adolescence is a particularly stressful life stage. In South Africa, black adolescents are faced with many stressors and challenges which are placing demands on their emotional and cognitive resources. The aim of this study was to determine whether black South African adolescents with different cognitive styles (i.e. rational or experiential) differ in their levels of stress and coping. Furthermore, the common stressors that black adolescents experience and the coping styles predominantly used by black adolescents could be determined. One hundred and eighty-seven participants (88 males and 99 females) completed the Rational Experiential, the Coping Reponses and the Adolescent Stress Inventory. Adolescents operating from an experiential cognitive style experienced more stress regarding school performance, school attendance, financial pressure and emerging adult responsibility than adolescents operating from a rational cognitive style. Adolescents employing a rational style sought more alternative rewards as a coping strategy, whereas adolescents employing an experiential style relied more on emotional discharge. The findings of this study concur with previous research, but provide a unique perspective on adolescents' stress and coping in this South African context.

  9. Gender and Ethnic Differences in the Association Between Obesity and Depression Among Black Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association between obesity and major depression disorder (MDD) in a nationally representative sample of Black adolescents in the USA. The study also tested the effects of ethnicity and gender as possible moderators. Data came from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL)-Adolescents, a representative household mental health survey of Black adolescents in the USA. Participants consisted of 1170 Black adolescents (810 African Americans and 360 Caribbean Blacks). Obesity was defined determined by the cutoff points based on the body mass index (BMI) appropriate for age and gender. Twelve-month MDD was measured using the World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). In the first step, the association between obesity and MDD in the pooled sample, controlling for the main effects of gender and ethnicity. In the next steps, two interactions were tested: (1) obesity and ethnicity and (2) obesity and gender. Although any associations between obesity and MDD in the pooled sample of Blacks were not found, there was a significant interaction between ethnicity and obesity on MDD. Upon testing the associations across intersections of ethnicity and gender, a positive association was found among Caribbean Black females but not Caribbean Black males, African American males, or African American female. The link between BMI and MDD among Blacks depends on ethnicity and gender, and risk of comorbid depression among Black youth with obesity is highest among Caribbean Black females.

  10. Gender influencers on work values of black adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, V G; Shields, L C

    1987-01-01

    Work values and key influencers of a sample of black male and female adolescents were examined. Results indicated that boys and girls valued both the intrinsic and extrinsic rewards of work; however, girls reported slighter stronger extrinsic values than did boys. In addition, the sexes reported differences in the importance of specific work values such as "making lots of money," and "doing important things." When naming a key influencer, respondents tended to cite a same-sex and race individual. Sex of one's key influencer was related to certain work values, with subjects reporting a male key influencer valuing "trying out one's own ideas" and "having a secure future" more than those reporting a female key influencer. The interaction of sex of subject and sex of key influencer was significant on one of the work value outcomes. Implications of these findings are considered.

  11. Hispanic and Black American Adolescents' Beliefs Relating to Sexuality and Contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Clarissa S.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Explored the level of scientific knowledge regarding sexuality and contraception of Black and Hispanic inner-city adolescents. Results indicated that Hispanic males were the most knowledgeable, Hispanic females the least, and Black males and females were intermediate. A cultural basis for this difference is considered, and the need to design…

  12. Attitudes, Knowledge, and Behavior Regarding Condom Use in Urban Black Adolescent Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Michele D.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined male adolescent behavior, attitudes, and knowledge concerning condom use. Findings from 241 sexually active black adolescent males revealed that factors associated with condom use included higher grade level, having 2 or more sexual partners in past 6 months, communication about contraception with sexual partner, desire for sexually…

  13. The BlackBerry Project: Capturing the Content of Adolescents' Text Messaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Marion K.; Rosen, Lisa H.; More, David; Ehrenreich, Samuel E.; Gentsch, Joanna K.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an innovative method for capturing the content of adolescents' electronic communication on handheld devices: text messaging, e-mail, and instant messaging. In an ongoing longitudinal study, adolescents were provided with BlackBerry devices with service plans paid for by the investigators, and use of text messaging was…

  14. Developing a Connective Feminine Discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek, Ulla

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the work of the Australian writer and historian Drusilla Modjeska through a focus on the intersections between women‟s lives, love and art, which constitute the central triptych of Modjeska‟s writing. It argues that Modjeska's oeuvre unfolds a connective feminine discourse...... through a development of what the paper calls hinging tropes, discursive connectors that join life, love and art, such as weaving, folding and talking. That connective feminine discourse is indeed central to Modjeska‟s personal and sometimes idiosyncratic feminism...

  15. Adolescent Black Holes May be Hard to Find

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvis, Martin; Chakravorty, Susmita

    2017-08-01

    Finding adolescent black holes that are growing rapidly from their seed masses is a major goal of the next generation of large observatories. We have examined how these early quasars may appear in terms of their broad emission lines (BELs) in the optical and ultraviolet. We find that below 10**6 Msol, the equivalent widths of the BELs drop precipitously. Moreover, if the BELs originate in clouds that form as the cool phase of a multi-phase medium, then for metallicities Z/Zsol ~> 3, so quasars are preferentially found in special environments, perhaps with deep potential wells. The population that we see though could be biased by the Z/Zsol > 3 requirement. A stronger argument is that the thermal instability leading to cool clouds is predominantly due to line emission by iron. Iron comes primarily from type 1a supernovae, which take of order 1 billion years to ignite. Hence iron should be under-abundant relative to other elements until z ~ 6 - 7. That the highest redshift quasar is at z = 7.1 may be a consequence of this requirement. Quasars above z ~ 7 could still be found by their rest-frame ultraviolet or X-ray continuum.

  16. Culturally Responsive Social Skills Instruction for Adolescent Black Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson-Ervin, Porsha; Cartledge, Gwendolyn; Keyes, Starr

    2011-01-01

    The cultural disconnect between black males and the school environment has been correlated with poor academic achievement and high discipline rates for Black males. Instructional strategies that draw upon the learner?s cultural background hold promise as one means for intervention. This paper addresses the social skills needs of black adolescent…

  17. Do health care needs of indigent Mexican-American, black, and white adolescents differ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, S B; Fujii, C; Shragg, G P; Rice, L; Morgan, M; Felice, M E

    1990-03-01

    Few studies have addressed the specific health care needs of Mexican-American adolescents. This 2-year study assessed the routine health care needs and incidence of chronic illness among 279 Mexican-American, 233 white, and 333 black indigent adolescents enrolled in a vocational training program. Mexican-Americans were more likely to have a positive purified protein derivative tuberculin test and acne/eczema requiring treatment. Blacks were more likely to have incomplete immunizations and thyroid disorders, while whites were more likely to have musculoskeletal conditions and require family planning services and psychiatric intervention for mental health disorders. Although no difference in incidence of chronic illness was noted, our data suggests that routine health care needs may differ among indigent Mexican-American, white, and black adolescents.

  18. Longitudinal Trajectories of Ethnic Identity among Urban Black and Latino Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahl, Kerstin; Way, Niobe

    2006-01-01

    The current study modeled developmental trajectories of ethnic identity exploration and affirmation and belonging from middle to late adolescence (ages 15-18) and examined how these trajectories varied according to ethnicity, gender, immigrant status, and perceived level of discrimination. The sample consisted of 135 urban low-income Black and…

  19. Self-Esteem and Achievement of At-Risk Adolescent Black Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howerton, D. Lynn; And Others

    The relationship between self-esteem and academic achievement of at-risk adolescent black males was studied for 42 students in grades 6, 7, and 8. The Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI) was used to provide global measures of self-esteem. School grades and scores from the Stanford Achievement Test battery were used to measure academic…

  20. Fertility, Menstrual Characteristics, and Contraceptive Practices among White, Black, and Southeast Asian Refugee Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Ingrid; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Compared fertility and menstrual characteristics and contraceptive practices of adolescents in maternal and infant care program. Hmong subjects were more likely to have live birth; Asians were usually married while Whites and Blacks were not. Asians were less likely to have used contraceptives and Hmongs were less likely to choose contraception…

  1. Development of the metabolic syndrome in black and white adolescent girls : A longitudinal assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrison, JA; Friedman, LA; Harlan, WR; Harlan, LC; Barton, BA; Schreiber, GB; Klein, DJ

    Background. The metabolic syndrome, associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease, begins to develop during adolescence. Objective. We sought to identify early predictors of the presence of the syndrome at the ages of 18 and 19 years in black and white girls.

  2. Families, Neighborhood Socio-Demographic Factors, and Violent Behaviors among Latino, White, and Black Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Martinez, Lorena M.; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Schulz, Amy J.; Diez-Roux, Ana V.; Pedraza, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Youth violence is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among Blacks and Latinos. Violent behaviors within Latino subgroups and the reasons for subgroup differences are not well understood. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 16,615), this study examined the risk for violent behaviors among an ethnically…

  3. Development of the metabolic syndrome in black and white adolescent girls : A longitudinal assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrison, JA; Friedman, LA; Harlan, WR; Harlan, LC; Barton, BA; Schreiber, GB; Klein, DJ

    2005-01-01

    Background. The metabolic syndrome, associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease, begins to develop during adolescence. Objective. We sought to identify early predictors of the presence of the syndrome at the ages of 18 and 19 years in black and white girls.

  4. What Works for Adolescent Black Males at Risk of Suicide: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe, Sean; Scott, Marquisha Lawrence; Banks, Andrae

    2018-01-01

    We reviewed the controlled studies that report outcome findings for Black adolescent males 24 years of age and younger at risk of suicide. Our review identified 48 articles published from 2000 to 2015, 33 that met our initial criteria for full-text articles review, resulting in 6 that met all inclusion criteria. We sought to understand what works…

  5. Black Female Adolescents and Racism in Schools: Experiences in a Colorblind Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Nicole M.; Viesca, Kara Mitchell; Bianco, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    This article takes up the questions: (a) How do Black female adolescents define racism?, (b) What kind of experiences with racism to they report having in schools?, and (c) How can these perspectives and experiences inform educational reform efforts? The in-depth analysis of 18 student surveys and interviews revealed that most of the definitions…

  6. Provider communication behaviors that predict motivation to change in black adolescents with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcone, April Idalski; Naar-King, Sylvie; Brogan, Kathryn E; Albrecht, Terrance; Barton, Ellen; Foster, Tanina; Martin, Tim; Marshall, Sharon

    2013-10-01

    The goal of this research was to identify communication behaviors used by weight loss counselors that mostly strongly predicted black adolescents' motivational statements. Three types of motivational statements were of interest: change talk (CT; statements describing their own desires, abilities, reasons, and need for adhering to weight loss recommendations), commitment language (CML; statements about their intentions or plans for adhering), and counterchange talk (CCT; amotivational statements against change and commitment). Thirty-seven black adolescents with obesity received a single motivational interviewing session targeting weight-related behaviors. The video-recorded transcribed sessions were coded using the Minority Youth Sequential Coding for Observing Process Exchanges generating a sequential chain of communication. Data were then subjected to sequential analysis to determine causal relationships between counselor and adolescent communication. Asking open-ended questions to elicit adolescent CT and emphasizing adolescents' autonomy most often led to CT. Open-ended questions to elicit CML, reflecting adolescent CML, and emphasizing autonomy most often led to CML. In contrast, open-ended questions to elicit CCT, reflecting CCT, reflecting ambivalence, and neutral open-ended questions about the target behavior led to CCT. This study provides clinicians with insight into the most effective way to communicate with black adolescents with obesity about weight loss. Specifically, reflective statements and open questions focusing on their own desires, abilities, reasons, need, and commitment to weight loss recommendations are more likely to increase motivational statements, whereas other types of reflections and questions may be counterproductive. Finally, because adolescents have a strong need for autonomous decision making, emphasizing their autonomy may be particularly effective in evoking motivational statements.

  7. Discrimination Increases Suicidal Ideation in Black Adolescents Regardless of Ethnicity and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Discrimination is a common experience for Blacks across various developmental periods. Although much is known about the effect of discrimination on suicidal ideation of adults, less is known about the same association in Black youth. Aim: We examined the association between discrimination and suicidal ideation in a national sample of Black youth. We also explored gender and ethnic differences in this association. Methods: We used data from the National Survey of American Life-Adolescents (NSAL-A, 2003–2004. In total, 1170 Black adolescents entered the study. This number was composed of 810 African American and 360 Caribbean Black youth (aged 13 to 17 years. Demographic and socioeconomic factors were controls, perceived discrimination was the predictor, and lifetime suicidal ideation was the outcome. Logistic regression was used to test the association between perceived discrimination and suicidal ideation in the pooled sample, as well as based on ethnicity and gender. Results: In the pooled sample of Black youth, higher perceived discrimination was associated with higher odds of suicidal ideation (Odds Ratio (OR = 1.09; 95% Confidence Interval (CI = 1.02−1.17. This association was significant net of age, ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status. We did not find interactions between perceived discrimination and ethnicity or gender on suicidal ideation. Perceived discrimination was associated with suicidal ideation in African Americans (CI = 1.09; 95% CI = 1.01−1.17 and Caribbean Blacks (CI = 1.16; 95% CI = 1.03−1.32, males (CI = 1.11; 95% CI = 1.00−1.25, and females (CI = 1.08; 95% CI = 1.00−1.16. Conclusion: Discrimination jeopardizes the mental health of Black youth. In a universal pattern, discrimination is associated with suicidal ideation in Black youth. More research is needed on this topic.

  8. Discrimination Increases Suicidal Ideation in Black Adolescents Regardless of Ethnicity and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Moghani Lankarani, Maryam; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard

    2017-11-06

    Discrimination is a common experience for Blacks across various developmental periods. Although much is known about the effect of discrimination on suicidal ideation of adults, less is known about the same association in Black youth. We examined the association between discrimination and suicidal ideation in a national sample of Black youth. We also explored gender and ethnic differences in this association. We used data from the National Survey of American Life-Adolescents (NSAL-A), 2003-2004. In total, 1170 Black adolescents entered the study. This number was composed of 810 African American and 360 Caribbean Black youth (aged 13 to 17 years). Demographic and socioeconomic factors were controls, perceived discrimination was the predictor, and lifetime suicidal ideation was the outcome. Logistic regression was used to test the association between perceived discrimination and suicidal ideation in the pooled sample, as well as based on ethnicity and gender. In the pooled sample of Black youth, higher perceived discrimination was associated with higher odds of suicidal ideation (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.09; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.02-1.17). This association was significant net of age, ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status. We did not find interactions between perceived discrimination and ethnicity or gender on suicidal ideation. Perceived discrimination was associated with suicidal ideation in African Americans (CI = 1.09; 95% CI = 1.01-1.17) and Caribbean Blacks (CI = 1.16; 95% CI = 1.03-1.32), males (CI = 1.11; 95% CI = 1.00-1.25), and females (CI = 1.08; 95% CI = 1.00-1.16). Discrimination jeopardizes the mental health of Black youth. In a universal pattern, discrimination is associated with suicidal ideation in Black youth. More research is needed on this topic.

  9. Det skriger bare feminin energi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tania Erika Aniol

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is based on a nearly five month ‘journey’. It was the curiosity of exploring genders role in the context of education, where there is an overrepresentation of one gender that began this journey. At nursing education that traditionally and culturally is feminine connoted, the male...... the male students learn how to behave as a nurse. My main findings show that the male students use four subordinate strategies; assimilation-, adaptation-, confrontation-, and the ventilation strategy, in order to legitimate their presence and by that identify themselves in the community of practice...

  10. Measuring eating concerns in Black and White adolescent girls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franko, DL; Striegel-Moore, RH; Barton, BA; Schumann, BC; Garner, DM; Daniels, [No Value; Schreiber, GB; Crawford, PB

    Objective: Few instruments exist to measure eating concerns in adolescent girls from diverse ethnic backgrounds. Methods: A Children's version of the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI-C) has been under development for several years and was designed to be more appropriate for younger children with lower

  11. Educating Rita and Her Sisters: Using Drama to Reimagine Femininities in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatton, Christine

    2013-01-01

    This article examines drama in relation to girls' education, and considers some of the ways in which drama might be applied in schools to challenge limiting hegemonic narratives about gender and support the emerging understandings and performances of femininities of adolescent girls. It reports on case study research conducted with a Year 9 Drama…

  12. Black Adolescent Females’ Perceptions of Racial Discrimination When Accessing Reproductive and General Health Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie J. Lewis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents, like adults, frequently experience discrimination, which can be particularly salient in the context of reproductive health care. We examined urban Black adolescent females’ perceived experiences of racial discrimination during reproductive health care encounters. Structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with female African American patients, from age 13 through 20, who obtained reproductive health care services at a single site. Twenty-four participants were enrolled. All were in or graduated from high school, with a mean age of 16.8 years. These young Black women reported infrequent race-based discrimination in the health care setting; however, many reported commonly experiencing discrimination in other places. An awareness of the discrimination that minority young women experience in non–health care settings can help providers demonstrate cultural humility when addressing such concerns with their patients. With this information, providers can provide anticipatory guidance and the tools necessary to navigate complex social systems.

  13. Racial and gender identity among Black adolescent males: an intersectionality perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Leoandra Onnie; Scott, Marc A; Way, Niobe

    2015-01-01

    A considerable amount of social identity research has focused on race and racial identity, while gender identity, particularly among Black adolescents, remains underexamined. The current study used survey data from 183 Black adolescent males (13-16 years old) to investigate the development and relation between racial and gender identity centrality and private regard, and how these identities impact adjustment over time. It was found that dimensions of racial and gender identity were strongly correlated. Levels of racial centrality increased over time while gender centrality, and racial and gender private regard declined. In addition, racial and gender identity uniquely contributed to higher levels of psychological well-being and academic adjustment. These findings are discussed within the context of existing identity theories and intersectionality theory. © 2014 The Authors. Child Development © 2014 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  14. Empowering Young Black Males--III: A Systematic Modular Training Program for Black Male Children & Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Courtland C.

    This series of five interrelated modules is an update and revision of "Saving the Native Son: Empowerment Strategies for Young Black Males (1996)." It offers specific strategies for empowering young African American males to help them achieve optimal educational and social success. Empowerment is a developmental process by which people who are…

  15. Understanding the Different Realities, Experience, and Use of Self-Esteem between Black and White Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Portia E.

    2010-01-01

    African American adolescent females possess higher self-esteem than any other racial or ethnic adolescent female group. This article tests two popular empirically supported explanations for Black high self-esteem: "contingency of self-esteem theory" and the "locus of control model". This article builds on past research to illustrate the specific…

  16. Increased Pre- and Post-Meal Free Fatty Acid Levels in Black, Obese Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazeau, Rachel-Marie; Rauch, Lindsey; Huang, Hong; Bauer, John A; Hoffman, Robert P

    2016-09-01

    Black adolescents are at increased risk of cardiometabolic disease but have lower fasting triglyceride, which is usually associated with decreased risk. No one has studied racial differences in triglycerides or free fatty acids (FFAs) after a high-fat meal. Oral glucose tolerance testing was used to assess insulin secretion, sensitivity, and disposition index (DI). Endothelial function, triglycerides, FFA, c-reactive protein, interleukin 6 (IL6), and adiponectin were measured both pre- and 3 hr postprandially (McDonald's Big Breakfast(®) and 12 ounce Sprite(®)) in obese adolescents (10-13 years, 9 black and 7 white). Endothelial function was assessed using reactive hyperemic changes in forearm vascular resistance (FVR). Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) showed no difference in insulin sensitivity, but blacks tended to have (P = 0.08) higher insulin secretion and had increased DI (P = 0.003). After a high-fat meal, triglycerides increased in both groups (P < 0.001), tended to be lower in blacks compared with whites preprandially (64 ± 33 mg/dL vs 110 ± 80, P = 0.064), and was lower postprandially (112 ± 63 vs 188 ± 112, P = 0.039). Pre- and postprandial FFA (Black: 0.58 ± 0.15 and 0.39 ± 0.18 vs. white: 0.44 ± 0.14 and 0.26 ± 0.06, P = 0.020) and adiponectin (P = 0.002) were increased in blacks. FFA decreased in both groups postprandially (P = 0.002). IL6 increased after the meal (P = 0.022). Endothelial function decreased postprandially (P < 0.02), but this was due to a decrease in preocclusion FVR. These results indicate that differences in fat metabolism are present in both black and white obese adolescents. How these differences explain higher rates of cardiometabolic disease in blacks is unclear.

  17. The Femininity Ideology Scale (FIS): dimensions and its relationship to anxiety and feminine gender role stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Katherine; Levant, Ronald; Smalley, Bryant; Cook, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a confirmatory factor analytic investigation of the Femininity Ideology Scale (FIS) and to assess whether feminine gender role stress mediated the relationship between femininity ideology and anxiety. During the 2010-2011 academic year, a convenience sample of 606 college women were recruited from three universities and one college. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a four- versus the hypothesized five-factor model, resulting in the elimination of the Dependency/Deference factor. Mediation analysis using structural equation modeling indicated no direct relationship between Femininity Ideology and Anxiety, although an indirect one was observed, mediated through Feminine Gender Role Stress. The results are discussed in terms of possible changes in contemporary notions of femininity, and the utility of using the FIS in applied therapeutic settings.

  18. Associations between Femininity and Women's Political Behavior during Midlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Elizabeth R.; Sabik, Natalie J.

    2010-01-01

    The contention that femininity makes women unsuited for political participation has roots in feminist theory and political science. This study investigated whether the desirable and undesirable dimensions of femininity, corresponding to Feminine Interpersonal Relations (FIR: warmth, nurturance, and interpersonal appeal) and Feminine Self-Doubt…

  19. Racial Discrimination during Adolescence Predicts Mental Health Deterioration in Adulthood: Gender Differences among Blacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Moazen-Zadeh, Ehsan; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2017-01-01

    Despite the existing knowledge regarding the negative mental health consequences of perceived racial discrimination, very few researchers have used a longitudinal design with long-term follow-up periods to explore gender differences in this association over time. The current longitudinal study aimed to investigate gender differences in predictive role of an increase in perceived racial discrimination during adolescence for mental health deterioration a decade later when they are transitioning to young adulthood. Current study followed 681 Black youths for 18 years from 1994 (mean age 15) to 2012 (mean age 32). All participants spent their adolescence and transition to young adulthood in an economically disadvantaged urban area in the Midwest of the United States. Independent variable was perceived racial discrimination measured in 1999 and 2002. Outcomes were psychological symptoms (anxiety and depression) measured in 1999 and at end of follow-up (2012). Covariates included sociodemographics (age, family structure, and parental employment) measured in 1994. Gender was used to define groups in a multigroup structural equation model to test moderating effects. Multigroup structural equation modeling showed that among male Black youth, an increase in perceived racial discrimination from age 20 to 23 was predictive for an increase in symptoms of anxiety and depression from age 20 to 32. Among female Black youth, change in perceived racial discrimination did not predict future change in depressive or anxiety symptoms. While racial discrimination is associated with negative mental health consequences for both genders, male and female Black youth differ in regard to long-term effects of an increase in perceived discrimination on deterioration of psychological symptoms. Black males seem to be more susceptible than Black females to the psychological effects of an increase in racial discrimination over time.

  20. Racial Discrimination during Adolescence Predicts Mental Health Deterioration in Adulthood: Gender Differences among Blacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundDespite the existing knowledge regarding the negative mental health consequences of perceived racial discrimination, very few researchers have used a longitudinal design with long-term follow-up periods to explore gender differences in this association over time.ObjectiveThe current longitudinal study aimed to investigate gender differences in predictive role of an increase in perceived racial discrimination during adolescence for mental health deterioration a decade later when they are transitioning to young adulthood.MethodsCurrent study followed 681 Black youths for 18 years from 1994 (mean age 15 to 2012 (mean age 32. All participants spent their adolescence and transition to young adulthood in an economically disadvantaged urban area in the Midwest of the United States. Independent variable was perceived racial discrimination measured in 1999 and 2002. Outcomes were psychological symptoms (anxiety and depression measured in 1999 and at end of follow-up (2012. Covariates included sociodemographics (age, family structure, and parental employment measured in 1994. Gender was used to define groups in a multigroup structural equation model to test moderating effects.ResultsMultigroup structural equation modeling showed that among male Black youth, an increase in perceived racial discrimination from age 20 to 23 was predictive for an increase in symptoms of anxiety and depression from age 20 to 32. Among female Black youth, change in perceived racial discrimination did not predict future change in depressive or anxiety symptoms.ConclusionWhile racial discrimination is associated with negative mental health consequences for both genders, male and female Black youth differ in regard to long-term effects of an increase in perceived discrimination on deterioration of psychological symptoms. Black males seem to be more susceptible than Black females to the psychological effects of an increase in racial discrimination over time.

  1. Understanding sex partner selection from the perspective of inner-city black adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrinopoulos, Katherine; Kerrigan, Deanna; Ellen, Jonathan M

    2006-09-01

    Black adolescents in inner-city settings are at increased risk for HIV and other STDs. Sex partner characteristics, as well as individual behavior, influence individuals' STD risk, yet little is known about the process of sex partner selection for adolescents in this setting. Semistructured in-depth interviews were conducted during the summer and fall of 2002 with 50 inner-city black adolescents (26 females and 24 males) who had been purposively recruited from an STD clinic. Content analysis was used to study interview texts. Young women desire a monogamous romantic partner, rather than a casual sex partner; however, to fulfill their desire for emotional intimacy, they often accept a relationship with a nonmonogamous partner. Young men seek both physical and emotional benefits from being in a relationship; having a partner helps them to feel wanted, and they gain social status among their peers when they have multiple partners. For men, these benefits may help compensate for an inability to obtain jobs that would improve their financial and, as a result, social status. Both women and men assess partners' STD risk on the basis of appearance. HIV and other STD prevention initiatives must go beyond the scope of traditional messages aimed at behavior change and address the need for social support and socioeconomic opportunities among at-risk, inner-city adolescents.

  2. Assessment of Evaluation Frameworks for Design of a Sexual Risk Prevention Game for Black Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockolow, Paulina; Joppa, Meredith; Zhu, Jichen

    2018-01-01

    Adolescent sexual risk behavior (SRB), a major public health problem affects urban Black adolescent girls increasing their health disparities and risks for sexually transmitted infections. Collaborating with these adolescents, we designed a game for smartphones that incorporates elements of trauma-informed care and social cognitive theory to reduce SRB. Game researchers promote use of a comprehensive, multipurpose framework for development and evaluation of games for health applications. Our first game development step was framework selection and measurable health outcomes identification. Literature search identified two health game frameworks, both incorporating pedagogical theory, learning theory, and gaming requirements. Arnab used the IM + LM-GM framework to develop and implement a game in a school intervention program. Yusoff's framework was developed for use during game design. We investigated concordance and discordance between our SRB game design characteristics and each framework's components. Findings indicated Arnab's framework was sufficiently comprehensive to guide development of our game and outcome measure selection.

  3. The Role of Religiousness on Substance-Use Disorder Treatment Outcomes: A Comparison of Black and White Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krentzman, Amy R.; Battle, DuWayne; Pagano, Maria E.; Andrade, Fernando H.; Bradley, Jaclyn C.; Delva, Jorge; Johnson, Shannon M.; Robinson, Elizabeth A. R.

    2012-01-01

    This study compares 41 Black and 124 White adolescents at intake and discharge from a residential treatment program for substance-use disorders. Study data were obtained as part of a larger study (N = 195) that sought to assess the relationship of helping behavior and addiction recovery. This post-hoc analysis aims to identify cultural strengths that may be associated with recovery from substance-use disorders among Black adolescents. Using regression analyses and controlling for the severity of substance use and background variables that distinguish racial groups, religious practices and behaviors at intake were examined. Specifically, Black youth and White youth were compared on treatment outcomes, including alcohol or drug use during treatment, drug craving, 12-Step work, and 12-Step helping. The burden of health and socioeconomic disparities at intake did not disproportionately disfavor Black adolescents. Outcomes related to 12-Step measures were similar between Black and White youth. White adolescents reported higher craving scores at discharge, and Black adolescents were more likely to use drugs during treatment. High levels of religiousness at treatment intake were linked to greater 12-Step work and greater 12-Step helping at discharge. High levels of religiousness at intake were not related to drug use during treatment or to craving scores at discharge. The relationship between intake levels of religiousness and treatment-related outcomes did not differ by race. PMID:22970338

  4. Masculinity-femininity predicts sexual orientation in men but not in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udry, J Richard; Chantala, Kim

    2006-11-01

    Using the nationally representative sample of about 15,000 Add Health respondents in Wave III, the hypothesis is tested that masculinity-femininity in adolescence is correlated with sexual orientation 5 years later and 6 years later: that is, that for adolescent males in 1995 and again in 1996, more feminine males have a higher probability of self-identifying as homosexuals in 2001-02. It is predicted that for adolescent females in 1995 and 1996, more masculine females have a higher probability of self-identifying as homosexuals in 2001-02. Masculinity-femininity is measured by the classical method used by Terman & Miles. For both time periods, the hypothesis was strongly confirmed for males: the more feminine males had several times the probability of being attracted to same-sex partners, several times the probability of having same-sex partners, and several times the probability of self-identifying as homosexuals, compared with more masculine males. For females, no relationship was found at either time period between masculinity and sex of preference. The biological mechanism underlying homosexuality may be different for males and females.

  5. Socioeconomic status and parenting during adolescence in relation to ideal cardiovascular health in Black and White men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Karen A; Boylan, Jennifer M; Jakubowski, Karen P; Cundiff, Jenny M; Lee, Laisze; Pardini, Dustin A; Jennings, J Richard

    2017-07-01

    American Heart Association (AHA) developed a new metric to evaluate ideal cardiovascular health based on optimal levels of 7 cardiovascular risk factors and health behaviors. We evaluated the relationships of parenting characteristics and academic achievement in adolescence in relation to ideal cardiovascular health in midlife men. We measured cardiovascular risk factors in 171 Black and 136 White men and their ideal cardiovascular health score was constructed based on AHA guidelines. When the participants were 13-16 years old, annual measures of parent-child communication, positive relationship, parental monitoring, family cohesion, boys' involvement in family activities, and academic achievement were recorded and averaged. Confirmatory factor analysis of adolescent parenting measures revealed a single Parenting Composite. Multiple linear regressions showed a significant Race by Parenting Composite interaction term, β = -.19, p = .03; better parenting was significantly related to more ideal cardiovascular health in Blacks only, β = -.23, p = .004, which remained after adjustments for adolescent and adult socioeconomic status (SES). Academic achievement was related to ideal cardiovascular health, β = -.13, but was no longer significant after controls for adult SES. Adult SES was a strong correlate of ideal cardiovascular health in Black and White men. Black men exposed to positive parenting during adolescence had more ideal cardiovascular health based on AHA guidelines. Improving academic achievement in adolescence may indirectly benefit adult cardiovascular health through improving adult SES. This is the first study of adolescent family predictors of the extent of ideal cardiovascular health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Feminine leadership and organisational culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea-Simona Saseanu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available People in general, leaders especially, are influenced by the organisational culture and the other way around. Organisational culture represents a determining factor regarding the display of leadership, since these two processes create each other, adding value and consistency to one another. Moreover, organisational culture can be created and developed in a fluctuant business environment, in which the external factors influence its progress. The development of society has incessantly been emphasized by the relationship between the sexes, by their individual evolution, but also by the interdependency between them. Although there is increasingly more talk about gender equality, in many countries, the social as well as economical chances and opportunities are not equal for women and men. Gradually, women have been through a series of changes related to education, rights and obligations. However, the number of women leaders has always been much lower than the number of men leaders. The personality traits of leaders significantly influence the leadership style and the way in which they are perceived by their subordinates, all this having a major impact on the overall performances of the organisation. In this manner, depending on the gender (masculine/feminine, we can state that one could observe certain personality traits that are characteristic to women and others specific to men, leaving their mark on the leadership method and on the leadership style adopted of each of them. Considering the fact that, in the current turbulent economic environment, certain qualities such as flexibility, intuition, development of communication networks and motivating the employees represent values that are considered to be “feminine”, one can assert that, in this case, gender is an opportunity. However, if we should take into consideration the impact of culture, of certain mentalities and misconceptions that are still present, regarding the woman’s standing in

  7. Do Typical Galaxies in Adolescence Already Host Growing Black Holes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trump, Jonathan

    2012-10-01

    This archival grism proposal achieves a 100-fold gain in high-quality {5+sigma} information for discovering which properties of adolescent {0.7linked to AGN activity. We propose to analyze 147 WFC3 G141 and 111 ACS 800L pointings of 2-orbit grism data in the CANDELS fields, for a sample of 3000 galaxies reaching SFR 5 Msun/yr and stellar masses of log{M*/Msun} 9 at z 1.5. We will leverage spatially-resolved line ratios to uniquely distinguish a nuclear AGN from extended low-metallicity or shocked gas. Compared to our 30-galaxy published sample that hints at AGNs in low-mass z 2 galaxies {Trump et al. 2011}, this 3000 galaxy sample enables a 100-fold gain in divisions by galaxy morphology, SFR, and stellar mass to discover which galaxy properties correlate most with rapid SMBH growth. We will stack the deep {0.8-4 Ms} Chandra data available in these fields as an independent check of the grism AGN/SF diagnostics. The unique ancillary data in these fields also include ACS+WFC3 imaging for morphologies, deep multiwavelength data for well-sampled SEDs and stellar masses, and previous optical {and future near-IR} spectroscopy to supplement the G141 coverage. Based on discussions with the GOODS-N and 3D-HST teams, our proposed AGN science does not overlap with their proposed or funded science goals. As a value-added product for the community we will release, via the public Rainbow-CANDELS database server, an atlas of spatial maps of emission lines and line ratios {and associated errors} for the entire sample of 3000 galaxies.

  8. Obesity and bronchodilator response in black and Hispanic children and adolescents with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarry, Meghan E; Castellanos, Elizabeth; Thakur, Neeta; Oh, Sam S; Eng, Celeste; Davis, Adam; Meade, Kelley; LeNoir, Michael A; Avila, Pedro C; Farber, Harold J; Serebrisky, Denise; Brigino-Buenaventura, Emerita; Rodriguez-Cintron, William; Kumar, Rajesh; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Thyne, Shannon M; Sen, Saunak; Rodriguez-Santana, Jose R; Borrell, Luisa N; Burchard, Esteban G

    2015-06-01

    Obesity is associated with poor asthma control, increased asthma morbidity, and decreased response to inhaled corticosteroids. We hypothesized that obesity would be associated with decreased bronchodilator responsiveness in children and adolescents with asthma. In addition, we hypothesized that subjects who were obese and unresponsive to bronchodilator would have worse asthma control and would require more asthma controller medications. In the Study of African Americans, Asthma, Genes, and Environments (SAGE II) and the Genes-environments and Admixture in Latino Americans (GALA II) study, two identical, parallel, case-control studies of asthma, we examined the association between obesity and bronchodilator response in 2,963 black and Latino subjects enrolled from 2008 to 2013 using multivariable logistic regression. Using bronchodilator responsiveness, we compared asthma symptoms, controller medication usage, and asthma exacerbations between nonobese (< 95th% BMI) and obese (≥ 95th% BMI) subjects. The odds of being bronchodilator unresponsive were 24% (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.03-1.49) higher among obese children and adolescents compared with their not obese counterparts after adjustment for age, race/ethnicity, sex, recruitment site, baseline lung function (FEV1/FVC), and controller medication. Bronchodilator-unresponsive obese subjects were more likely to report wheezing (OR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.13-1.70), being awakened at night (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.09-1.65), using leukotriene receptor inhibitors (OR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.05-1.70), and using inhaled corticosteroid with long-acting β2-agonist (OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.05-1.78) than were their nonobese counterpart. These associations were not seen in the bronchodilator-responsive group. Obesity is associated with bronchodilator unresponsiveness among black and Latino children and adolescents with asthma. The findings on obesity and bronchodilator unresponsiveness represent a unique opportunity to identify factors affecting asthma

  9. A church-based intervention to change attitudes about physical activity among Black adolescent girls: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Wanda M; Berry, Diane; Hu, Jie

    2013-05-01

    To feasibility test a 12-week church-based physical activity intervention that was culturally sensitive, age- and gender specific directed at changing attitudes of Black adolescent girls' to be more physically active. A one-group pre- and posttest design was used. A convenience sample of Black adolescent girls between the age of 12-18 (n = 41). A 60-min 12-week church-based program that included interactive educational sessions followed by a high energy dance aerobics class was used. Data were collected on biophysical measures. Surveys were used to assess the following variables: attitudes, enjoyment, self-efficacy, intention, social and family support, and PA levels. Paired t-tests and repeated measures ANOVA revealed no significant changes in key variables. Positive changes were noted in the odds ratios for attitudes, self-efficacy, and intention. Body mass index, metabolic equivalent tasks, and fitness showed positive trends from pre to post intervention. Family support was significantly correlated with physical activity level (p Black churches aimed at Black adolescent girls are feasible. Participants evaluated the intervention very favorably. Family support may be a key factor in increasing physical activity levels in Black adolescent girls. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Mary and femininity: A psychological critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, P A

    1984-09-01

    This essay uses Freud to interpret the symbolism and theology of Mary in modern Catholicism. In her role as the mother of believers, Mary functions to place the Christian in the position of a child who receives illusory gratification from the mother. In her role as model for Christians to emulate, Mary functions to place the Christian in the position of receptivity and dependence which Freud associated with femininity. Reinterpreting Freud from a feminist perspective, I suggest that the kind of femininity Mary represents serves to perpetuate patriachal social structures and to inhibit full psychological maturity.

  11. Understanding the Behavioral Determinants of Mental Health Service Use by Urban, Under-Resourced Black Youth: Adolescent and Caregiver Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Michael A; Chambers, Kerri; Pohle, Cara; Beall, Peggy; Lucksted, Alicia

    2013-01-01

    Black adolescents with mental health problems are less likely than non-Black adolescents with mental health problems to receive treatment, primarily for non-financial reasons including negative perceptions of services and providers, and self-stigma associated with experiencing mental health problems. To better understand these obstacles, 16 adolescents and 11 caregivers, recruited from two K-8th grade elementary-middle schools, participated in four focus groups guided by the unified theory of behavior to explore mental health help-seeking behaviors and perceptions of mental health services. In the focus groups, caregivers acknowledged more positive attitudes about seeking mental health services than adolescents, but both expected the experience of actually doing so to be negative. Adolescents and caregivers also acknowledged social norms that inhibit their mental health help-seeking. Therefore, we conclude that interventions targeting expectancies and social norms might increase the connection of urban, under-resourced Black adolescents and their families to mental health services, and be particularly important given the long-term consequences of untreated mental health problems for this group.

  12. Mass-media și adolescența. Modele feminine incipiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica JUNJAN

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Current paper investigates perceptions of adolescents about influences of mass media regarding feminine models such as Mother, Politician Woman and the Star. Their relationship with the feminine model of the Mother is then explored. In terms of the Politician-Woman there are longterm consequences regarding the image of the self and future political participation of the youth. An important result is that the adolescents have a strongly positive image of the self, recognizing in themselves characteristics positively appreciated to their models: Mother, Star, and Politician. Most of the Politician-Women discussed by the youth have a strong media presence, in a wide range of shows, thus reaching a wide youth target.

  13. Obesity and the development of insulin resistance and impaired fasting glucose in black and white adolescent girls - A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, DJ; Friedman, LA; Harlan, WR; Barton, BA; Schreiber, GB; Cohen, RM; Harlan, LC; Morrison, JA

    Objective-Age at onset of type 2 diabetes has decreased during the past 20 years, especially in black women. Studies of factors associated with insulin resistance and hyperglycemia in preadolescent and adolescent populations are essential to understanding diabetes development. Research Design and

  14. Exploring the relationship between timing of menarche and eating disorder symptoms in black and white adolescent girls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Striegel-Moore, RH; McMahon, RP; Biro, FM; Schreiber, G; Crawford, PB; Voorhees, C

    2001-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the relationship between timing of sexual maturation and eating disorders symptoms in adolescent girls. Method: Data were collected over 10 years for a cohort of 1,213 Black girls and 1,166 White girls who were either 9 or 10 years old at study entry. Annually, girls'

  15. The relationship between body mass index and self-concept among adolescent black female university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Bodiba

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the relationship between body mass index and self-concept among adolescent black female university students. The study used a mixed research design (quantitative and qualitative methods. Media images of handsome faces and beautiful bodies are used to sell almost everything, from clothes and cosmetic to luncheon, meats, and so on. These images reinforce the western cultural stereotype that women should be thin and shapely to be attractive. Thus, as some girls go through puberty they may become dissatisfied with their weight, and to a lesser extent, with their shape, thus, developing low self-concept or imae of themselves. It is in this context that the study was conceptualised.

  16. O significado atribuído ao papel masculino e feminino por adolescentes de periferia El significado que los adolescentes de la periferia le atribuyen al rol masculino y femenino Meanings attributed to the masculine and feminine roles by socially-excluded adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Baggio

    2009-12-01

    , tiene repercusiones importantes en la forma en la que viven su sexualidad y en la construcción de una vida sana y en la formación de su ciudadanía.The objective of this research-action was to better comprehend the meanings attributed to the masculine and feminine roles by socially-excluded adolescents/youth that are integrated to a social-inclusion project. Twenty-seven subjects who are linked to the Gastronomy, Aesthetics, and New Discovery Groups. The data were derived from the "human body knowledge" workshop, developed separately in 3 groups through the construction of poster boards, collage activities, drawing, writing, the utilization of mannequins, and a dialectic approach to the theme. The data was analyzed according to thematic content analysis, producing two categories: "masculine strength and power", and "the contradictory role of the feminine gender." We conclude that the differences in masculine and feminine roles related to the social-political-cultural context of which these adolescents/youth are inserted, have important repercussions in the form in which they live their sexuality and more importantly their construction of healthy living and citizenship

  17. [Two aspects of masculinity-femininity. II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, M

    1989-02-01

    This study was designed to explore two aspects (mother-father; woman-man) of Masculinity-Femininity in personality. Sixty-five middle school students, 150 high school students and 219 university students were asked to rate the desirability for them, their fathers and mothers, and society of each of 45 items comprising a questionnaire which described valid characteristics of these two aspects. Analysis of the results revealed that male subjects in all age groups seemed to feel that their fathers desired them to be more masculine (i.e., father and man) than they, themselves, desired. Those of high school and university age also seemed to feel that their mothers and fathers and society desired more motherliness of them than they, themselves, desired. Female high school and university subjects seemed to feel that their fathers and mothers desired much more femininity (mother and woman) and much less masculinity (father and man) than they, themselves, desired.

  18. THE SOCIOLOGIC APPROACH OF FEMININE CRIMINALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRELA CRISTIANA NILA STRATONE

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study is part of a much more cognitive approach, which tries to study resocialization and the social reinsertion of women who are under freedom privation penalty. The present material contains a short historical evolution of the sociologic theories of crime, then plunging towards feminist theories, in order to approach the gender problematic concerning the delinquent woman.. The first objective is to demonstrate the necessity of a wider approach in analyzing the genesis of the crime, through the re-evaluation and reconsidering the factors with a crime risk and placing them in an equal position in the social environment. Another objective of this study is to emphasize the importance of the gender role concerning the expectations of the society from the feminine population’s side. The present study is focused on the contribution of placing the research of feminine crime research on a basis characterized by unprecedented generality, under total influencing conditions, with orientation towards gender problematic.

  19. Mom, dad, I'm straight: the coming out of gender ideologies in adolescent sexual-identity development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striepe, Meg I; Tolman, Deborah L

    2003-12-01

    Little attention has been given to how femininity and masculinity ideologies impact sexual-identity development. Differentiating violations of conventional femininity and masculinity ideologies as part of an overt process of sexual-identity development in sexual-minority adolescents suggested the possibility of a parallel process among heterosexual adolescents. Based on feminist theory and analysis of heterosexual adolescents narratives about relationships, the importance of negotiating femininity and masculinity ideologies as part of sexual-identity development for all adolescents is described.

  20. MORAL HARASSMENT DURING WORK AND FEMININE VULNERABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Sarah Cristina Andrade; Universidade de Franca - UNIFRAN; Bittar, Cléria Maria; Universidade de Franca - UNIFRAN

    2012-01-01

    Current investigation is a bibliographical review on feminine vulnerability with regard to moral harassment. Moral harassment is defined as all vexation during work, especially when a hierarchy between people has been established. Horizontal moral harassment among people of the same occupation, although it exists, is more difficult to be proved in court. Literature shows that victims of moral harassment may be women and men but research in Brazil and in other countries reveals that most victi...

  1. Television food advertising viewed by preschoolers, children and adolescents: contributors to differences in exposure for black and white youth in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming-Milici, F; Harris, J L

    2018-02-01

    Public health experts raise concerns about adolescents' and black youth's greater exposure to TV advertising for unhealthy foods and beverages compared with children and white youth. Examine how television-viewing patterns and rates of advertising during targeted programming contribute to this greater exposure. Nielsen panel data provided viewing times and amount of food advertising viewed on U.S. television in 2008 and 2012. Researchers compared results by network type (black-, child- and youth-targeted), age group (preschoolers, children and adolescents) and race (black and white youth). Food advertising exposure increased with age for both black and white youth, but black youth viewed approximately 50% or more ads than did white youth of the same age. Higher rates of food advertising on youth-targeted networks explained greater adolescent exposure. However, greater television viewing and higher rates of advertising on youth- and black-targeted networks both contributed to black youth's greater exposure. From 2008 to 2012, increases in food-ads-per-hour increased exposure for all youth. Food advertisers and networks, especially those targeting adolescents and black youth, must do more to reduce advertising that negatively impacts young people's health. Furthermore, reducing commercial-television viewing by black youth may help reduce health disparities affecting their communities. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  2. Sexy media matter: exposure to sexual content in music, movies, television, and magazines predicts black and white adolescents' sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jane D; L'Engle, Kelly Ladin; Pardun, Carol J; Guo, Guang; Kenneavy, Kristin; Jackson, Christine

    2006-04-01

    To assess over time whether exposure to sexual content in 4 mass media (television, movies, music, and magazines) used by early adolescents predicts sexual behavior in middle adolescence. An in-home longitudinal survey of 1017 black and white adolescents from 14 middle schools in central North Carolina was conducted. Each teen was interviewed at baseline when he or she was 12 to 14 years old and again 2 years later using a computer-assisted self interview (audio computer-assisted self-interview) to ensure confidentiality. A new measure of each teen's sexual media diet (SMD) was constructed by weighting the frequency of use of 4 media by the frequency of sexual content in each television show, movie, music album, and magazine the teen used regularly. White adolescents in the top quintile of sexual media diet when 12 to 14 years old were 2.2 times more likely to have had sexual intercourse when 14 to 16 years old than those who were in the lowest SMD quintile, even after a number of other relevant factors, including baseline sexual behavior, were introduced. The relationship was not statistically significant for black adolescents after controlling for other factors that were more predictive, including parental disapproval of teen sex and perceived permissive peer sexual norms. Exposure to sexual content in music, movies, television, and magazines accelerates white adolescents' sexual activity and increases their risk of engaging in early sexual intercourse. Black teens appear more influenced by perceptions of their parents' expectations and their friends' sexual behavior than by what they see and hear in the media.

  3. Positioning masculinities and femininities in preschool EFLl1 education

    OpenAIRE

    CASTAÑEDA-PEÑA, HAROLD

    2008-01-01

    Positioning Masculinities and Femininities in Preschool EFL Education seeks to describe and interpret how masculinities and femininities are communicated in the preschool EFL classroom and is aimed at discussing whether those masculinities and femininities are likely to have an impact on the preschoolers' learning of English as a foreign language. Preschoolers' classroom interactions taking place in a Colombian kindergarten, videotaped from 2004 to 2006, are analysed via ideas of 'positioning...

  4. Positioning masculinities and femininities in preschool EFL education

    OpenAIRE

    Castañeda - Peña, Harold; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana

    2008-01-01

    Positioning Masculinities and Femininities in Preschool EFL Education seeks to describe and interpret how masculinities and femininities are communicated in the preschool EFL classroom and is aimed at discussing whether those masculinities and femininities are likely to have an impact on the preschoolers’ learning of English as a foreign language. Preschoolers’ classroom interactions taking place in a Colombian kindergarten, videotaped from 2004 to 2006, are analysed via ideas of ‘positioning...

  5. A Developmental Shift in Black-White Differences in Depressive Affect across Adolescence and Early Adulthood: The Influence of Early Adult Social Roles and Socio-Economic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager, Justin

    2011-01-01

    This study examined Black-White differences in growth of depressive affect using a longitudinal sample of middle-class, suburban U.S. subjects (n = 956) that spanned from adolescence to early adulthood. Specifically, this study examined whether Black-White differences in growth of depressive affect shift over time, and the extent to which that…

  6. Relations of diet and physical activity to bone mass and height in black and white adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanbin Dong

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Because the development of healthy bodies during the years of growth has life-long health consequences, it is important to understand the early influences of diet and physical activity (PA. One way to generate hypotheses concerning such influences is to conduct cross-sectional studies of how diet and PA are related to different components of body composition. The subjects were 660 black and white adolescents. Total body bone mineral content (BMC was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; free-living diet and PA were assessed with 4-7 separate 24-h recalls. The main dietary variables investigated were: total energy intake, macronutrient distribution (%, dairy servings, vitamin D, and calcium. The main PA variables were hours of moderate PA (3-6 METs and vigorous PA (>6 METs. BMC was higher in blacks than in whites (P<0.01 and it increased more in boys than in girls (age by sex interaction as age increased (P<0.01. After adjustment for age, race and sex, higher levels of BMC were associated with higher levels of energy intake, dairy servings, calcium, vitamin D, and vigorous PA (all P 's<0.05. In the multivariable model, significant and independent proportions of the variance in BMC were explained by race, the age by sex interaction, calcium, and vigorous PA (all P 's<0.01. When height was used as the outcome variable, similar diet results were obtained; however, there was a sex by vigorous PA interaction, such that vigorous PA was associated with height only in the girls. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that the bone mass and height of growing youths are positively influenced by higher dietary intake of energy and dairy foods, along with sufficient amounts of vigorous PA. This hypothesis needs to be tested in randomized controlled trials.

  7. The relationship between body mass index and self-concept among adolescent black female university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodiba, P; Madu, S N; Ezeokana, J O; Nnedum, O A U

    2008-03-01

    The study investigated the relationship between body mass index and self-concept among adolescent black female university students. The study used a mixed research design (quantitative and qualitative methods). Media images of handsome faces and beautiful bodies are used to sell almost everything, from clothes and cosmetic to luncheon, meats, and so on. These images reinforce the western cultural stereotype that women should be thin and shapely to be attractive. Thus, as some girls go through puberty they may become dissatisfied with their weight, and to a lesser extent, with their shape, thus, developing low self-concept or imae of themselves. It is in this context that the study was conceptualised. First year female students from three different Schools and Faculties at the University of Limpopo, Turfloop Campus, South Africa, participated in the study. Using the availability and convenient sampling method, 75 students were selected for this study. For the quantitative aspect of the study, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Measure was used to measure self-esteem. For the qualitative part, a topic guide was used for the focus group discussions. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and the Pearson's Product Moment Correlation were used to analyse the quantitative data, while the phenomenological principle of open coding used for the thematic analysis. Results showed that there is a relationship between body mass and self-concept and that overweight participants tend to have a low self-esteem. Low self-esteem was perceived to be aggravated by a number of factors, like the attitude of the media and the society. Participants who are overweight also indicated that they are limited in certain activities of daily living (e.g., sports) as a result of their body mass. They expressed mixed feelings and frustration when it comes to such activities. The above results did not differ from those reported from western cultures. Support groups, life-skills programmes and psychotherapy should be

  8. Co-Parenting Relationship Experiences of Black Adolescent Mothers in Active Romantic Partnerships With the Fathers of Their Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, LaRon E; Thach, Chia T; Shelton, Melissa M; Boyer, Cherrie B

    2015-08-01

    We conducted an interpretive description of co-parenting relationship experiences of romantically involved Black adolescent mothers and fathers with shared biological children. The study was conducted in Brooklyn, New York, using data from individual in-depth interviews with adolescent mothers and fathers (n = 10). Four themes were identified: (a) putting our heads together; (b) balancing childhood and parenthood; (c) less money, more problems; and (d) if we use condoms, it is for contraception. The co-parenting couples managed very complex relationships, but their mutual interest in the welfare of their children was a relational asset. Co-parents had sparse financial resources but used a moral economy strategy to provide mutual support. Future research is needed that focuses on identifying other co-parent relationship assets and integrating and evaluating their utility for enhancing interventions for adolescent families. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Sensitive Spitzer Photometry of Supermassive Black Holes at the Final Stage of Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemmer, Ohad; Netzer, Hagai; Mor, Rivay; Trakhtenbrot, Benny

    2011-05-01

    We propose to obtain sensitive Spitzer snapshot observations of a unique sample of 35 Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasars at redshift 4.8 for which we obtained reliable, Mg II-based determinations of the supermassive black hole (SMBH) mass and normalized accretion rate (L/L_Edd). These quasars appear to mark the final stage of SMBH `adolescence' in the history of the Universe as their SMBHs are significantly less massive and their L/L_Edd values are significantly higher with respect to their counterparts at lower redshifts. Our observations will provide both 1) deep coverage of the fields around these quasars which will be utilized as crucial priors for our approved Herschel/SPIRE observations of these sources, and 2) coverage of the rest-frame optical SEDs of these fast accreting quasars. The results will maximize our ability to measure the star-formation rate in the host galaxies of these quasars using Herschel. We will thus be able to investigate correlations between SMBH growth and star-forming activity in the early Universe. The Spitzer photometry will also provide invaluable information about the shape of the rest-frame optical continuum in these quasars which will be used to search for extreme disk properties that may be signatures of the remarkably high accretion rates in these sources.

  10. The prototypicality of gender - Contemporary notions of masculine and feminine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, [No Value

    1996-01-01

    Femininity and masculinity, as abstract, nonbiological concepts, are very difficult to define. Culturally and socially induced, they are subject to drastic change over time. This article presents prototypical notions of feminine and masculine, as they appeared from a categorisation test performed by

  11. Masculine boys, feminine girls, and cancer risk behaviors: an 11-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Andrea L; Rosario, Margaret; Calzo, Jerel P; Corliss, Heather L; Frazier, Lindsay; Austin, S Bryn

    2014-09-01

    Cancer risk behaviors often begin in adolescence and persist through adulthood. Tobacco use, indoor tanning, and physical inactivity are highly prevalent, socially patterned cancer risk behaviors, and their prevalence differs strongly by sex. It is therefore possible that these behaviors also differ by gender expression within the sexes due to social patterning. We examined whether five cancer risk behaviors differed by childhood gender expression within the sexes and whether patterns of media engagement (e.g., magazine readership and trying to look like media personalities) explained possible differences, in a U.S. population-based cohort (N = 9,435). The most feminine girls had higher prevalence of indoor tanning (prevalence risk ratio [pRR] = 1.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.23-1.42) and physical inactivity (pRR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.01-1.34) and lower prevalence of worse smoking trajectory (prevalence odds ratio = .75, 95% CI = .65-.88) and smoking cigars (pRR = .61, 95% CI = .47-.79) compared with least feminine girls. Media engagement accounted for part of the higher prevalence of indoor tanning. The most masculine boys were more likely to chew tobacco (pRR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.14-2.79) and smoke cigars (pRR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.17-2.06) but less likely to follow a worse smoking trajectory (prevalence odds ratio = .69, 95% CI = .55-.87) and be physically inactive (pRR = .54, 95% CI = .43-.69) compared with least masculine boys. We found some strong differences in patterns of cancer risk behaviors by gender expression within the sexes. Prevention efforts that challenge the "masculinity" of smoking cigarettes and cigars and chewing tobacco and the "femininity" of indoor tanning to reduce their appeal to adolescents should be explored. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. HIV/STI Prevention Among Heterosexually Active Black Adolescents With Mental Illnesses: Focus Group Findings for Intervention Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawner, Bridgette M; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet; Wingood, Gina; Reason, Janaiya; Mack, Niya

    Heterosexually active Black adolescents with mental illnesses are at increased risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV. However, few HIV/STI prevention interventions exist for this demographic. We held seven focus groups (N = 33) to elucidate social, cultural, and psychological factors that influence HIV/STI risk-related sexual behaviors in this understudied population. Seven themes emerged: (a) Blackness and media portrayals, (b) Blackness as a source of cultural resilience and pride, (c) psychosocial determinants of condom use, (d) consequences of engaging in sexual activity, (e) attitudes and beliefs toward sexual behaviors, (f) benefits of sexual activity, and (g) coping mechanisms. Participants also supported the feasibility of and interest in HIV/STI prevention programs integrated with mental health treatment. Transportation, potential breaches of confidentiality, and time were noted barriers to participation. Psychoeducational, skills-based programs are needed to address the sequelae of mental illnesses as they relate to the sexual decision-making process in adolescents. Copyright © 2017 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Prostitution in Galicia: Clients and Feminine Imaginary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agueda Gómes Suárez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, the prostitution in our society turns out to be an indicator of the dominant “sexual culture” in the patriarchal and capitalist societies. This article tries to contribute with another approach to the analysis of the sexual industry in our country, adjusting, principally, to the experiences of the men involved in the phenomenon of the prostitution in Galicia. The dramatic quality in which the women in prostitution live their reality and the levity and idleness, in which the clients enjoy themselves, show the controversial and worrying face of this reality. The analysis of the clients’ speech across the “Frame Analysis”, and the study of the feminine dominant imaginary among them are portrayed in this text, together with the speech of the women in prostitution and of the men who occupy masculinized spaces. This article tries to be a contribution to the complex study of the phenomenon of the prostitution in our country.

  14. Zinc Supplementation Does Not Alter Indicators of Insulin Secretion and Sensitivity in Black and White Female Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobene, Andrea J; Kindler, Joseph M; Jenkins, Nathan T; Pollock, Norman K; Laing, Emma M; Grider, Arthur; Lewis, Richard D

    2017-07-01

    Background: Zinc is a micronutrient involved in the production of, and peripheral sensitivity to, pancreatic β cell-derived insulin. To our knowledge, the effect of zinc supplementation on insulin outcomes, and potential risk of diabetes, in otherwise healthy children in the United States has not been investigated. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the influence of zinc supplementation on insulin outcomes in black and white girls in the early stages of adolescence. A secondary objective was to determine relations between baseline zinc concentrations and insulin outcomes. Methods: Healthy black and white girls aged 9-11 y were randomly assigned to daily supplementation of zinc (9 mg elemental Zn/d; n = 75; blacks: n = 35) or placebo ( n = 72; blacks: n = 32) for 4 wk. Fasting serum insulin, glucose, and C-peptide were assessed at baseline and at 4 wk. C-peptide and glucose values were used to calculate the computer model-derived homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR). Changes in outcome measures were compared by using repeated-measures, mixed-model ANOVA. Results: Baseline plasma zinc was not correlated with C-peptide ( r = -0.07), insulin ( r = -0.06), or HOMA2-IR ( r = -0.09) (all P > 0.05) after controlling for race and age. Treatment × time interactions for C-peptide and HOMA2-IR were not significant (both P > 0.05). Although the treatment × race × time interactions for C-peptide and HOMA2-IR were not significant (both P = 0.08), black girls who received the placebo experienced slight increases in C-peptide (15.7%) and HOMA2-IR (17.7%) ( P = 0.06). Conclusions: Four weeks of zinc supplementation had no effect on insulin outcomes in healthy black and white early-adolescent girls, although C-peptide and HOMA2-IR tended to increase in black girls who received placebo. Additional trials that are appropriately powered should further explore the effect of zinc on markers of diabetes risk, and whether race affects this

  15. Internal/external locus of control, self-esteem, and parental verbal interaction of at-risk black male adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enger, J M; Howerton, D L; Cobbs, C R

    1994-06-01

    We investigated the relationship between three factors--internal/external locus of control, self-esteem, and parental verbal interaction--for at-risk Black male adolescents in the United States. Forty-two male students in Grades 6, 7, and 8 who had been identified by their teachers as being at risk completed the Locus of Control Scale for Children (Nowicki & Strickland, 1973), the Self-Esteem Inventory (Coopersmith, 1967), and the Verbal Interaction Questionnaire (Blake, 1991). A moderate positive relationship found between self-esteem and parental verbal interaction was consistent with a previous finding for White high school students. A moderate negative relationship found between locus of control and self-esteem differed from a previous finding of no significant relationship for Black elementary children. A weak, yet significant, negative relationship was found between locus of control and parental verbal interaction.

  16. Representin' in cyberspace: sexual scripts, self-definition, and hip hop culture in Black American adolescent girls' home pages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Carla E

    2007-01-01

    Despite the importance of media in the lives of girls, sexuality researchers have largely overlooked how Black American adolescent girls engage with media to construct sexual self-definitions and explore their emerging sexuality. This study investigated sexual scripts, self-definition, and hip hop culture in internet home pages constructed by Black girls aged 14-17 years residing in southern states in the USA. Although some girls in the sample constructed sexual self-representations that mirrored sexual scripts portrayed in the media, hip hop, and youth cyberculture, others resisted stereotypical representations of Black female sexuality. This paper discusses the dominant sexual scripts that emerged from in-depth analysis of 27 home pages constructed by girls residing in Georgia. The focus is on 'Freaks', 'Virgins', 'Down-Ass Chicks/Bitches', 'Pimpettes', and Resisters. Findings suggest that a one-size-fits-all approach to sexuality education may fail to address key contextual issues of relevance to girls and young women. Innovative sexuality and media education strategies that respond to the significance of media in the lives of Black American girls and young women are needed.

  17. Role of femininity and masculinity in distressed couples' communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayers, S L; Baucom, D H

    1991-10-01

    The relationship between sex role identity and marital communication of maritally distressed couples was examined. Interactional behavior of 60 maritally distressed couples was coded with the Marital Interaction Coding System and examined in relation to the level of femininity and masculinity of the spouses. Base-rate analyses indicated that femininity was positively related to greater rates of negative behavior among husbands and wives. As predicted, sequential analyses supported that wives' femininity was associated with greater negative reciprocity of the wives. Men's femininity was associated with husbands' tendency to terminate fewer negative sequences of behavior in comparison with their wives. High masculinity of the wives was associated with shorter sequences of negative behavior. Implications of the findings and future directions for research are discussed.

  18. Vaginal itching and discharge - Adult and adolescent

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 003158.htm Vaginal itching and discharge - adult and adolescent To use the sharing features on this page, ... fabric softeners, feminine sprays, ointments, creams, douches, and contraceptive foams or jellies or creams. This may irritate ...

  19. Discord in the gender harmony: Mobilising femininities at work

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Melissa; Kelan, Elisabeth K.

    2017-01-01

    This article seeks to aid our understanding of gendered inclusion by looking at how femininities are mobilised at work. Whilst within the popular press there is a growing neo-liberal discourse about women supporting other women in organisations, little consideration has been given to men’s reactions to women aligning with each other, in other words, women mobilising femininities. Furthermore, whilst studies of doing gender have considered this from an individual viewpoint, we are unclear abou...

  20. Adolescent Pornography Use and Dating Violence among a Sample of Primarily Black and Hispanic, Urban-Residing, Underage Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily F. Rothman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study was designed to characterize the pornography viewing preferences of a sample of U.S.-based, urban-residing, economically disadvantaged, primarily Black and Hispanic youth (n = 72, and to assess whether pornography use was associated with experiences of adolescent dating abuse (ADA victimization. The sample was recruited from a large, urban, safety net hospital, and participants were 53% female, 59% Black, 19% Hispanic, 14% Other race, 6% White, and 1% Native American. All were 16–17 years old. More than half (51% had been asked to watch pornography together by a dating or sexual partner, and 44% had been asked to do something sexual that a partner saw in pornography. Adolescent dating abuse (ADA victimization was associated with more frequent pornography use, viewing pornography in the company of others, being asked to perform a sexual act that a partner first saw in pornography, and watching pornography during or after marijuana use. Approximately 50% of ADA victims and 32% of non-victims reported that they had been asked to do a sexual act that their partner saw in pornography (p = 0.15, and 58% did not feel happy to have been asked. Results suggest that weekly pornography use among underage, urban-residing youth is common, and may be associated with ADA victimization.

  1. Adolescent Pornography Use and Dating Violence among a Sample of Primarily Black and Hispanic, Urban-Residing, Underage Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Emily F.; Adhia, Avanti

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was designed to characterize the pornography viewing preferences of a sample of U.S.-based, urban-residing, economically disadvantaged, primarily Black and Hispanic youth (n = 72), and to assess whether pornography use was associated with experiences of adolescent dating abuse (ADA) victimization. The sample was recruited from a large, urban, safety net hospital, and participants were 53% female, 59% Black, 19% Hispanic, 14% Other race, 6% White, and 1% Native American. All were 16–17 years old. More than half (51%) had been asked to watch pornography together by a dating or sexual partner, and 44% had been asked to do something sexual that a partner saw in pornography. Adolescent dating abuse (ADA) victimization was associated with more frequent pornography use, viewing pornography in the company of others, being asked to perform a sexual act that a partner first saw in pornography, and watching pornography during or after marijuana use. Approximately 50% of ADA victims and 32% of non-victims reported that they had been asked to do a sexual act that their partner saw in pornography (p = 0.15), and 58% did not feel happy to have been asked. Results suggest that weekly pornography use among underage, urban-residing youth may be common, and may be associated with ADA victimization. PMID:26703744

  2. Gender and masculinity-femininity ratings of tracheoesophageal speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searl, Jeffrey P; Small, Larry H

    2002-01-01

    Tracheoesophageal (TE) speech is frequently characterized as low pitched and hoarse. In laryngeal speakers, these features are most often associated with males. Because lower pitch and hoarseness are anticipated for male and female TE speakers, one might predict that females are at risk for being perceived as male. The purposes of this pilot study were to assess the reliability and accuracy of listeners' perceptions of TE speaker gender and to evaluate the relationship between gender ratings and masculinity-femininity ratings. Twenty-five naïve listeners rated the gender and the masculinity-femininity of 12 TE speakers from audio recordings of a reading passage. Listeners were able to reliably rate gender and masculinity-femininity. They accurately identified speaker gender at a high rate that was comparable for males and females. However, female speakers, despite being accurately identified as female, were at an elevated risk of being rated as masculine or neutral on the masculinity-femininity scale. As a result of this activity, the participant will be able to: (1) describe the reliability and accuracy of listener perceptions of the gender and the degree of masculinity-femininity of TE speakers; and (2) discuss the relationship between TE speaker gender identification and masculinity-femininity ratings for males and females, respectively.

  3. [Gender and job satisfaction in stereotypical masculine and feminine occupations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipińska-Grobelny, Agnieszka; Goździk, Iwona

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to analyze the relationship between gender and job satisfaction among employees involved in a stereotypical masculine (tram driver) and a stereotypical feminine occupation (nurse). It was expected that people with feminine gender schema would be more satisfied with their traditionally feminine occupations compared with those with masculine gender schema and vice versa. A group of 103 individuals, including 47 females (15 tram drivers and 32 nurses) and 56 males (41 tram drivers and 15 nurses) completed the following battery of instruments: The Bem Sex Role Inventory by Kuczyńska, Job Affect Scale by Brief, et al. Job Descriptions Questionnaire by Neuberger and Allerbeck. The results of the study showed that gender proved to be a variable that differentiates the level of job satisfaction (both overall satisfaction and satisfaction with different components) only as regards stereotypical feminine occupations. Moreover, individuals with feminine gender schema working in a stereotypical feminine occupation are more satisfied with co-workers and work conditions, and those with masculine gender schema involved in a stereotypical masculine occupation are more satisfied with a supervisor. The gender analysis can be an important tool for the recruitment and selection procedures and plays an essential role in assessing the person-environment fit.

  4. The Relationship Between Race and Racial Attitudes and Adolescent Perceptions of Black Television Characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dates, Jannette Lake

    This study conducted with eleventh graders in the Baltimore City Public Schools was based on a correlational survey which explored the relationship between viewer perceptions of black television characters, race, racial attitudes, and viewing frequency. One questionnaire measured viewing frequency, the viewer's perceptions of eight black and…

  5. Body Dissatisfaction and Characteristics of Disordered Eating among Black and White Early Adolescent Girls and Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jaehee; Forbes, Gordon B.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple measures of body dissatisfaction and behaviors associated with disordered eating were studied in 258 White girls, 223 White boys, 106 Black girls, and 82 Black boys. All participants were unpaid volunteers between the ages of 12 and 15 attending six middle schools in Delaware and Maryland. On two self-ideal figure drawing discrepancy…

  6. "I Have Goals to Prove All Those People Wrong and Not Fit into Any One of Those Boxes": Paths of Resistance to Stereotypes among Black Adolescent Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Leoandra Onnie; Way, Niobe

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents form their identities by both accommodating (endorsing) and resisting (challenging) cultural stereotypes. Most research on Black males focuses on how they accommodate to negative stereotypes (e.g., delinquency, aggression), but a growing literature emphasizes how youth resist stereotypes. Semi-structured interviews were analyzed to…

  7. Differences in Sexual Attitudes and Likeliness of Sexual Behaviors of Black Lower-Socioeconomic Father-Present vs. Father-Absent Female Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhardt, Carolyn A.; Schill, Thomas

    1984-01-01

    Compared sexual permissiveness attitudes and likely behaviors of father-absent vs. father-present Black, lower-socioeconomic female adolescents (N=100). Father-absent subjects were not found to be more sexually permissive, but had significantly greater inconsistency between behavioral and attitudinal scores in which the reported behavior was more…

  8. Temporal Effects of Child and Adolescent Exposure to Neighborhood Disadvantage on Black/White Disparities in Young Adult Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravitz-Wirtz, Nicole

    2016-05-01

    This study investigates the effects of duration and timing of exposure to neighborhood disadvantage from birth through age 17 years on obesity incidence in early adulthood and black/white disparities therein. Individual- and household-level data from the 1970-2011 waves of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics are merged with census data on respondents' neighborhoods (n = 1,498). Marginal structural models with inverse probability of treatment and censoring weights are used to quantify the probability of being obese at least once between ages 18 and 30 years as a function of cumulative exposure to neighborhood disadvantage throughout childhood and adolescence or during each of three developmental stages therein. Longer term exposure to neighborhood disadvantage from ages 0-17 years is more common among blacks than among whites and is associated with significantly greater odds of being obese at least once in early adulthood. Exposure to neighborhood-level deprivation during adolescence (ages 10-17 years) appears more consequential for future (young adult) obesity than exposure that occurs earlier in childhood. The duration and timing of exposure to neighborhood disadvantage during childhood and adolescence are associated with obesity incidence in early adulthood for both blacks and whites. However, given inequalities in the likelihood and persistence of experiencing neighborhood disadvantage as children and youth, such adverse effects are likely to be more concentrated among black versus white young adults. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Alcohol and marijuana use in pathways of risk for sexually transmitted infection in white and black adolescent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Tammy; Ye, Feifei; Hipwell, Alison E; Stepp, Stephanie D; Miller, Elizabeth; Borrero, Sonya; Hawk, Mary

    2017-01-01

    Some types of sexually transmitted infection (STI) have higher prevalence in females than males, and among black, relative to white, females. Identifying mechanisms of STI risk is critical to effective intervention. The authors tested a model in which alcohol and marijuana use serve as mediating factors in the associations between depression and conduct problems with sexual risk behavior (SRB) and STI in adolescent females. The Pittsburgh Girls Study is a longitudinal observational study of females who have been followed annually to track the course of mental and physical health conditions. The 3 oldest cohorts (N = 1750; 56.8% black, 43.2% white) provided self-reports of substance use, depression and conduct problems, SRB, and STI at ages 16-18. A path model tested alcohol and marijuana use at age 17 as mechanisms that mediate the associations of depression and conduct problems at age 16 with SRB and STI at age 18. Race was involved in 2 risk pathways. In one pathway, white females reported greater alcohol use, which was associated with greater SRB. In another pathway, black females reported earlier sexual onset, which was associated with subsequent SRB. Public assistance use was independently associated with early sexual onset and STI. SRB, but not substance use, mediated the association of depression and conduct problems with STI. Differences by race in pathways of risk for SRB and STI, involving, for example, alcohol use and early sexual onset, were identified for young white and black females, respectively. Depression and conduct problems may signal risk for SRB and STI in young females, and warrant attention to improve health outcomes.

  10. Interseccionalidade de gênero, classe e raça e vulnerabilidade de adolescentes negras às DST/aids Intersectionality of gender, class and race, and vulnerability of black female adolescents to STD/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella R. Taquette

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar a vulnerabilidade ao HIV/aids de adolescentes femininas moradoras de favelas da cidade do Rio de Janeiro. MÉTODO: foi utilizada uma combinação de métodos, quantitativo e qualitativo. Na etapa quantitativa, realizou-se um estudo observacional de corte transversal por meio de entrevistas e exames clínico/laboratoriais para diagnóstico de DST, e, na qualitativa, desenvolveram-se grupos focais sobre os temas sexualidade, gênero e raça. RESULTADOS: foram entrevistadas 816 adolescentes de 10 diferentes comunidades, com um grupo focal em cada favela: 74% eram negras, 39% eram sexualmente ativas e destas 24,4% eram portadoras de DST. Houve uma relação estatisticamente significativa entre a variável raça/cor negra e a atividade sexual. Na fase qualitativa, evidenciou-se que a discriminação racial sofrida é cotidiana e contribui para a construção de autoimagem negativa que aliada a pobreza, violência de gênero e dificuldade de acesso aos serviços de saúde ampliam a vulnerabilidade às DST/aids. CONCLUSÃO: o estudo sugere a criação de políticas que proporcionem o aumento da oferta de serviços de atendimento ginecológico a esse público, com ações que favoreçam a utilização de preservativo feminino e contribuam para reduzir a desigualdade social, de gênero e de raça.OBJECTIVE: To verify the vulnerability to HIV/AIDS of female adolescents that live in poor communities of the city of Rio de Janeiro. METHODS: It was carried out with quantitative and qualitative analyses. The quantitative phase was a cross-sectional study, through interviews of 816 adolescents and clinical/laboratory tests in ten different slums, and the qualitative phase was done on one focus group about sexuality of gender and race in each community. RESULTS: 74% of the adolescents were black, 39% had sexual activity and 24.4% of those had STD. A statistical significant association occurred between the black color/race and sexual activity

  11. Evaluating cohort and intervention effects on black adolescents' ethnic-racial identity: a cognitive-cultural approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whaley, Arthur L; McQueen, John P

    2010-11-01

    The importance of ethnic-racial socialization and ethnic-racial identity as protective factors in the psychological and social adjustment of Black youth is well established in the literature. Whaley (2003) developed a cognitive-cultural model of identity to explicate the process by which ethnic-racial socialization impacts ethnic-racial identity and subsequent social and behavioral outcomes among adolescents of African descent. The present study tests the cognitive-cultural model of identity utilizing pilot data from a modified Africentric intervention program. Both explicit and implicit aspects of ethnic-racial identity were evaluated between two cohorts: one group in 2003, which represented historical controls, and another group in 2008 which received the intervention and has pre-test and post-test data. We hypothesized that the evaluation of underlying implicit or schematic processes would be more sensitive to changes in ethnic-racial identity resulting from cohort and intervention effects. Our results confirmed this hypothesis. Implications of applying mainstream behavioral science research paradigms to issues of special concern to the Black community are discussed. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Men's strategic preferences for femininity in female faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Anthony C; Jones, Benedict C; Feinberg, David R; Perrett, David I

    2014-08-01

    Several evolutionarily relevant sources of individual differences in face preference have been documented for women. Here, we examine three such sources of individual variation in men's preference for female facial femininity: term of relationship, partnership status and self-perceived attractiveness. We show that men prefer more feminine female faces when rating for a short-term relationship and when they have a partner (Study 1). These variables were found to interact in a follow-up study (Study 2). Men who thought themselves attractive also preferred more feminized female faces for short-term relationships than men who thought themselves less attractive (Study 1 and Study 2). In women, similar findings for masculine preferences in male faces have been interpreted as adaptive. In men, such preferences potentially reflect that attractive males are able to compete for high-quality female partners in short-term contexts. When a man has secured a mate, the potential cost of being discovered may increase his choosiness regarding short-term partners relative to unpartnered men, who can better increase their short-term mating success by relaxing their standards. Such potentially strategic preferences imply that men also face trade-offs when choosing relatively masculine or feminine faced partners. In line with a trade-off, women with feminine faces were seen as more likely to be unfaithful and more likely to pursue short-term relationships (Study 3), suggesting that risk of cuckoldry is one factor that may limit men's preferences for femininity in women and could additionally lead to preferences for femininity in short-term mates. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  13. Racial/Ethnic differences in the educational expectations of adolescents: does pursuing higher education mean something different to latino students compared to white and black students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcios-Cotto, Viana Y; Milan, Stephanie

    2013-09-01

    There are striking disparities in the academic achievement of American youth, with Latino students being a particularly vulnerable population. Adolescents' academic expectations have been shown to predict educational outcomes, and thus are an important factor in understanding educational disparities. This article examines racial/ethnic differences in the future expectations of adolescents, with a particular focus on how expectations about higher education may differ in frequency and meaning for Latino youth. Participants included 375 urban ninth-grade students (49 % Latino, 23 % White, 22 % Black, and 6 % other; 51 % female) who gave written descriptions of how they pictured their lives in 5 years. Responses were subsequently coded for content and themes. Results demonstrate that Latino youth were less likely to picture themselves attending college when compared to Black and White youth, and more likely to hold social goals, such as starting their own family. Ethnic/racial differences also were found in the themes present in responses, with Latino and Black students more likely than White students to describe individuation and materialistic goals, and to give more unrealistic responses. For Latino youth only, higher education goals were associated significantly with individuation themes. In addition, for Latino youth, adolescents who wished to pursue higher education reported more depressive symptoms and emotional distress than those who did not picture going to college, whereas the opposite pattern was evident for Black and White youth. These differences may reflect cultural values, such as familismo. Practice implications include the importance of culturally tailoring programs aimed at promoting higher education.

  14. Ethnicity, Perceived Pubertal Timing, Externalizing Behaviors, and Depressive Symptoms among Black Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Rona; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Matusko, Niki; Antonucci, Toni; Jackson, James S.

    2011-01-01

    An accumulation of research evidence suggests that early pubertal timing plays a significant role in girls' behavioral and emotional problems. If early pubertal timing is a problematic event, then early developing Black girls should manifest evidence of this crisis because they tend to be the earliest to develop compared to other girls from…

  15. Genetic and Environmental Contributions to Cranial Capacity in Black and White Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, J. Philippe; Osborne, R. Travis

    1995-01-01

    Data from 236 pairs of black twins and white twins aged 13-17 years were used to examine genetic and environmental factors influencing cranial size, an indirect estimate of brain volume. Genetic factors are required to account for the phenotypic variance in cranial capacity. (SLD)

  16. Effectiveness of a Combined Tutoring and Mentoring Intervention with Ninth-Grade, Urban Black Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Cheryl L.; Wang, Dan; Piliawsky, Monte

    2016-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study examined the effectiveness of a combined tutoring and mentoring intervention for urban, low-income Black youth during the transition to high school. Participants were 118 ninth-grade students (experimental n = 69; comparison n = 49). After 7 months in the intervention program, students in the experimental group showed…

  17. Sexual Activity and Contraceptive Use among Low-Income Urban Black Adolescent Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Judith B.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Examined sexual activity and contraception among urban, low-income African-American adolescent female clients who were not sexually active (n=50), sexually active/noncontracepting (n=20), or sexually active/contracepting (n=72). Not sexually active group was younger, more career motivated, had father at home, was more influenced by family values,…

  18. Psychosocial Correlates of HIV Protection Motivation among Black Adolescents in Venda, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boer, Henk; Mashamba, M. Tshilidzi

    2005-01-01

    We assessed the usefulness of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) and protection motivation theory (PMT) to predict intended condom use among 201 adolescents from Venda, South Africa. Results indicated that both the TPB and the PMT could significantly predict intended condom use, although the level of explained variance was limited. Hierarchical…

  19. Black Fiction and Biographies: Current Books for Children and Adolescents. WCTE Service Bulletin No. 28.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karolides, Nicholas J., Comp.

    This bibliography of books for children and adolescents was developed primarily from "The New York Times Book Review" and the "Christian Science Monitor" over the past several years. Fiction and biography are listed separately. Publisher, reading level, source of the listing, and a brief annotation are given for each title. (AA)

  20. Comparison of Masculine and Feminine Gender Roles in Iranian Patients with Gender Identity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveh Alavi, MD

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Iranian FM‐GID individuals were less feminine than normal men. However, MF‐GID individuals were similar to normal women or more feminine. Cultural considerations remain to be investigated. Alavi K, Eftekhar M and Jalali Nadoushan AH. Comparison of masculine and feminine gender roles in Iranian patients with gender identity disorder. Sex Med 2015;3:261–268.

  1. Femininity, Masculinity and Androgyny in Male and Female Alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Jean; And Others

    While sex-role identification and conflict have been cited as factors in alcoholism, only a few studies have used the Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI) to measure the feminine, masculine, and androgynous traits of alcoholics. One such study was replicated by having subjects rate both their real and ideal selves. A randomized factorial analysis used…

  2. "No Boundaries"? Girls' Interactive, Online Learning about Femininities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Deirdre M.; Pomerantz, Shauna; Currie, Dawn H.

    2006-01-01

    This article explores girls' learning about issues of femininity that takes place in the presence of others online, connected through chat rooms, instant messaging, and role-playing games. Informed by critical and poststructuralist feminist theorizing of gendered subjectivity, agency, and power, the article draws from qualitative interviews with…

  3. Feminine values and happy life-expectancy in nations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arrindell, W.A.; Veenhoven, R

    2002-01-01

    Cross-national studies suggest that people are happier in feminine nations that are also economically affluent. The first objective of the present study was to replicate this finding with a quality of life index which is more comprehensive than the usual measures of subjective well-being. This

  4. “It's not very feminine to have a mustache”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfister, Gertrud Ursula; Rømer, Kristine

    2017-01-01

    by society's femininity norms. Many of them perceived their bodies as “different” because of the symptoms of PCOS, namely, hirsutism. They used different strategies to live up to body ideals and cope with the symptoms. However, hirsutism had a decisive negative influence on the women's everyday lives...

  5. Feminine Values and Happy Life-Expectatncy in Nations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.A. Arrindell; R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractCross-national studies suggest that people are happier in feminine nations that are also economically affluent. The first objective of the present study was to replicate this finding with a quality of life index which is more comprehensive than the usual measures of subjective

  6. Femininity as city marketing strategy: gender bending Rotterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, M.

    2012-01-01

    Rotterdam organised the festival ‘La City’ as an entrepreneurial strategy to upgrade the city’s class position, using femininity as a tool. ‘La City’ was an attempt to introduce a new economy in Rotterdam: one that is service-based and post-industrial. Rotterdam is a former industrial city and is

  7. Technology and Gender: Differences in Masculine and Feminine Views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Cornelia; Bennett, Dorothy

    1997-01-01

    The feminine attitude toward technology looks through Learning Environments for Today's Classroom machinery to its social function; the masculine view focuses more on the machine. Presenting technology as an end in itself turns most young women off. Exploring whether new technology solves a social problem, rather than celebrating speed or power,…

  8. Racial Discrimination during Adolescence Predicts Mental Health Deterioration in Adulthood: Gender Differences among Blacks

    OpenAIRE

    Assari, Shervin; Moazen-Zadeh, Ehsan; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Zimmerman, Marc A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Despite the existing knowledge regarding the negative mental health consequences of perceived racial discrimination, very few researchers have used a longitudinal design with long-term follow-up periods to explore gender differences in this association over time. Objective The current longitudinal study aimed to investigate gender differences in predictive role of an increase in perceived racial discrimination during adolescence for mental health deterioration a decade l...

  9. Sleep duration and insulin resistance in healthy black and white adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Karen A; Dahl, Ronald E; Owens, Jane F; Lee, Laisze; Hall, Martica

    2012-10-01

    Poor sleep may play a role in insulin resistance and diabetes risk. Yet few studies of sleep and insulin resistance have focused on the important developmental period of adolescence. To address this gap, we examined the association of sleep and insulin resistance in healthy adolescents. Cross-sectional. Community setting in one high school. 245 (137 African Americans, 116 males) high school students. Participants provided a fasting blood draw and kept a sleep log and wore a wrist actigraph for one week during the school year. Participants' families were from low to middle class based on family Hollingshead scores. Total sleep time across the week averaged 7.4 h by diary and 6.4 h by actigraph; homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance ([HOMA-IR] unadjusted) averaged 4.13. Linear regression analyses adjusted for age, race, gender, body mass index, and waist circumference showed that the shorter the sleep, the higher the HOMA-IR, primarily due to sleep duration during the week. No evidence was found for long sleep being associated with elevated HOMA-IR. Fragmented sleep was not associated with HOMA-IR but was associated with glucose levels. Reduced sleep duration is associated with HOMA-IR in adolescence. Long sleep duration is not associated. Interventions to extend sleep duration may reduce diabetes risk in youth.

  10. THE MAIN SOCIAL RISK FACTORS IN THE FEMININ DELINQUENT BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Cristiana NILĂ STRATONE

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The feminine criminality is a social phenomenon of defining importance in trying to draw the portrait of contemporary human society. What is the basic mechanism of this dimension of human behavior remains a continuing challenge for criminology researchers and beyond. The feminine offenses segment dresses a form of atypical aggressivity. This is the main reason who determine the identification, analization and explanation of the factors that influence and shapes the behavior of the woman, bringing it to the form of criminal behavior. The contradiction between femininity and criminality is outlined as an intrigue of gender stereotypes, which the researcher can not bypass. That is why patterns, items, everything on the background of social change are considered. The social change comes, in turn, with challenges both from the domestic area and from the outside of the family. In this paper we will review the main social nature factors that trigger the deviant behavior leading this to delinquency and even determining its identification with forms of delinquency. Women's evolution in time, in terms of age and social modernization, results in changes in the feminine attitude, the typical female actions, woman's personality as a mother, married couple, daughter, girlfriend, etc. The purpose of this study is to present risk factors with criminogen potential on women's behavior in society. Behavioral deviance, as a result of the multitude of bio-psychological, econ- omic, socio-cultural, political, natural factors, turns into violence, and violence tends to become an increasingly strong component of female temper. Last but not least, it is observed that the femininity itself, under the pressure of social factors, takes on new forms, dominated by aggressiveness.

  11. Childhood risk factors associated with adolescent gun carrying among Black and White males: An examination of self-protection, social influence, and antisocial propensity explanations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beardslee, Jordan; Docherty, Meagan; Mulvey, Edward; Schubert, Carol; Pardini, Dustin

    2018-04-01

    Adolescent gun violence is a serious public health issue that disproportionately affects young Black males. Although it has been postulated that differential exposure to childhood risk factors might account for racial differences in adolescent gun carrying, no longitudinal studies have directly examined this issue. We examined whether childhood risk factors indexing neighborhood crime, peer delinquency, and conduct problems predicted the initiation of adolescent gun carrying among a community sample of Black and White boys. Analyses then examined whether racial differences in risk factors accounted for racial differences in gun carrying. Data came from a sample of 485 Black and White boys who were repeatedly assessed from 2nd grade until age 18. Multi-informant data collected across the first 3 years of the study were used to assess neighborhood crime, peer delinquency, and conduct problems. Illegal gun carrying was assessed annually from 5th grade through age 18. Growth curve analyses indicated that children with higher initial levels of conduct problems and delinquent peer involvement, as well as those who increased in conduct problems across childhood, were more likely to carry a gun prior to age 18. Black boys were also more likely to carry guns than Whites. Racial differences were greatly reduced, but not eliminated, after controlling for initial levels of conduct problems and delinquent peer involvement. Findings suggest that early prevention programs designed to reduce adolescent gun violence (including racial disparities in gun violence) should target boys with severe conduct problems and those who affiliate with delinquent peers during elementary school. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Perceived racial, sexual identity, and homeless status-related discrimination among Black adolescents and young adults experiencing homelessness: Relations with depressive symptoms and suicidality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattis, Maurice N; Larson, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    There is a dearth of empirical evidence that addresses how racial minority, sexual minority, and homeless statuses, with their accompanying experiences of stigma and discrimination, are related to mental health in adolescent and young adult populations. The current study addresses this gap by examining the associations between multiple forms of discrimination, depressive symptoms, and suicidality in a sample of 89 Black adolescents and young adults (52% female; 47% nonheterosexual, ages 16-24) experiencing homelessness. Results from a series of ordinary least squares and logistic regressions suggested that perceived homelessness stigma and racial discrimination were associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms, controlling for gender, age, and other types of discrimination, while perceived sexual identity discrimination showed no association. Having ever spent a homeless night on the street, an indicator of homelessness severity, accounted for a substantial amount of the association between homelessness stigma and depressive symptoms. In contrast, suicidality was not significantly associated with any measure of discrimination, homelessness severity, or personal characteristics. We also found no indication that the associations between perceived discrimination targeted at racial and homelessness statuses and mental health differed by sexual minority status. Our results suggest that depressive symptoms and suicidality are prevalent among Black homeless youth, and that depressive symptoms are particularly associated with racial discrimination and indicators of homelessness. The roles of discrimination and a lack of safe housing may be taken into account when designing programs and policies that address the mental health of Black adolescents and young adults experiencing homelessness. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Racial/Ethnic Differences in the Educational Expectations of Adolescents: Does Pursuing Higher Education Mean Something Different to Latino Students Compared to White and Black Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcios-Cotto, Viana Y.; Milan, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    There are striking disparities in the academic achievement of American youth, with Latino students being a particularly vulnerable population. Adolescents’ academic expectations have been shown to predict educational outcomes, and thus are an important factor in understanding educational disparities. This article examines racial/ethnic differences in the future expectations of adolescents, with a particular focus on how expectations about higher education may differ in frequency and meaning for Latino youth. Participants included 375 urban ninth-grade students (49% Latino, 23% White, 22% Black, and 6% other; 51% female) who gave written descriptions of how they pictured their lives in five years. Responses were subsequently coded for content and themes. Results demonstrate that Latino youth were less likely to picture themselves attending college when compared to Black and White youth, and more likely to hold social goals, such as starting their own family. Ethnic/racial differences also were found in the themes present in responses, with Latino and Black students more likely than White students to describe individuation and materialistic goals, and to give more unrealistic responses. For Latino youth only, higher education goals were associated significantly with individuation themes. In addition, for Latino youth, adolescents who wished to pursue higher education reported more depressive symptoms and emotional distress than those who did not picture going to college, whereas the opposite pattern was evident for Black and White youth. These differences may reflect cultural values, such as familismo. Practice implications include the importance of culturally tailoring programs aimed at promoting higher education. PMID:23111844

  14. Feminine transformations: gender reassignment surgical tourism in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizura, Aren Z

    2010-10-01

    Every year, hundreds of transgendered people from the United States, Europe, Asia, Canada, and Australia travel to Thailand to undergo cosmetic and gender reassignment surgeries (GRS). Many GRS clinics market themselves almost exclusively to non-Thai trans women (people assigned a male sex at birth who later identify as female). This article draws on ethnographic research with patients visiting Thailand for GRS to explore how trans women patients related their experience of medical care in Thailand to Thai cultural traditions, in particular "traditional" Thai femininity and Theravada Buddhist rituals and beliefs. Foreign patients in Thai hospital settings engage not only with medical practices but also with their perceptions of Thai cultural traditions--which inflect their feminine identifications. I draw on two patients' accounts of creating personal rituals to mark their gender reassignment surgery, placing these accounts within the context of biomedical globalization and debates about the touristic appropriation of non-"Western" cultural practices.

  15. Sexualities, Visual Arts and Power: Visual Pedagogies of the Feminine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Gruppelli Luciana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is about the relations between sexualities, visual arts and power, taking in consideration the theorizations of Michel Foucault, mainly in respect to conceits like power and dissertation. Analyses like the feminine sexuality is put in dissertation through the images produced by occidental art, starting by a very particular masculine eye. In affirming that these images produce a pedagogy of the feminine, I pretend to contribute to the amplification of the analysis that take place in the teaching field of visual arts (and consequently, for the teaching formation on the area that in the last years, through more recent methodological and theoretical tendencies, has been distinguishing the role of the images in education without, however, giving the proper attention to conceits like gender, sexuality and power.

  16. Do the BSRI and PAQ really measure masculinity and femininity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Juan; Coello, Ma Teresa

    2010-11-01

    The two most used instruments to assess masculinity (M) and femininity (F) are the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) and the Personality Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ). Two hypotheses will be tested: a) multidimensionality versus bidimensionality, and b) to what extent the two instruments, elaborated to measure the same constructs, classify subjects in the same way. Participants were 420 high school students, 198 women and 222 men, aged 12-15 years. Exploratory factor analysis and internal consistency analysis were carried out and log-linear models were tested. The data support a) the multidimensionality of both instruments and b) the lack of full concordance in the classification of persons according to the fourfold typology. Implications of the results are discussed regarding the supposed theory behind instrumentality/ expressiveness and masculinity/femininity, as well as for the use of both instruments to classify different subjects into the four distinct types.

  17. On social femininatives in Serbian and other Slavic languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piper Predrag J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Social femininatives, such as Serbian pevačica, učiteljica, upravnica, available in all Slavic languages, have in recent decades become a subject of language policy based on political correctness in the field of gender relations. As part of this language policy, the requirement is put forward of creating feminine neologisms in respect of each masculine noun, designating a profession or social status. The use of the ideological and political criteria in order to change the grammatical structure of the language is typical of more or less all modern Slavic literary languages. A common feature of such language policy is their communicative and grammatical groundlessness. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 178021: Opis i standardizacija savremenog srpskog jezika

  18. A feminine style of management in the contemporary business world

    OpenAIRE

    Nikulina Irina; Khomenko Igor; Sediakina Anna; Kanov Viktor

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of the article is to provide the insight on the gender management in connection with contemporary management. There have been wide ranges of scientific discussions regarding the question of a specific management style that women use in the business practice. A traditional approach indicates that there is no such way of managing an organization as a feminine management style. The traditional approach emphasise that women tend to use the men’s leading style with slight adjustments...

  19. Femininity, neoliberalism and popular culture: the depolitization of feminism

    OpenAIRE

    Esquirol, Meritxell

    2015-01-01

    This thesis intends to analyze the logics of representation of contemporary femininity in the popular imagery that has instrumentalized feminism. Such is the case of the transmedia narrative The Twilight Saga, the cultural franchise of 50 Shades of Grey, and TV fiction Girls. All of these cultural products have earned an important position in contemporary cultural consumption, invite a form of cultural participation closely linked to the consumer industry, and propose female ideals characteri...

  20. The Scream of the Butterfly: on Reclaiming the Feminine Divine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie-Daly, Bernice

    My thesis is that the Feminine Divine has re-entered our age as a primary image for human spiritual growth. Her central energies are immanence, interconnection, mutuality, and interdependence. Emerging from the ancient Goddess tradition, She is reflected anew in contemporary thought in multiple ways. I have explored Her re-emergence in spirituality, psychology, cross-cultural studies, ecofeminism and the new physics. I have focused my research on the experiences of women because women are the original and natural bearers of feminine energies. In the area of spirituality, She expresses Herself through women's reclaiming their sacred image in the women's spirituality movement. Further insights are gained from diverse indigenous cultures which honor the spirit-world in their everyday lives. Ritual, as the enactment of our beliefs, values and world-view, becomes powerful personal and communal expressions of Her re-emergence. From a psychological perspective, I have studied current theories of "Self-in-Relation" and Integrative Psychology. "Self-in-Relation" stresses personal development from within the context of relational growth, both within oneself and with others. Integrative Psychology articulates a body-oriented reconception of feminine and masculine energies. Ecofeminism expresses the confluence of women and nature as intrinsic to meeting environmental demands. Recognizing that treating 'mother' and 'earth' as inexhaustible resources is no longer possible, an ecofeminist position asserts that our assumptions about both women and nature be re -examined. The new physics reconstructs our perception of the universe through quantum physics and chaos theories. These perspectives view the universe as an alive, integrated whole; all aspects, including ourselves, inter-relate with all other aspects. These areas of research demonstrate the emergence of relatedness and interdependence as expressions of a new consciousness which honors the feminine Divine.

  1. Swedish women's perceptions of and conformity to feminine norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kling, Johanna; Holmqvist Gattario, Kristina; Frisén, Ann

    2017-06-01

    The relatively high gender equality in the Swedish society is likely to exert an influence on gender role construction. Hence, the present research aimed to investigate Swedish women's perceptions of and conformity to feminine norms. A mixed methods approach with two studies was used. In Study 1, young Swedish women's gender role conformity, as measured by the Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory 45 (CFNI-45), was compared to the results from previously published studies in Canada, the United States, and Slovakia. Overall, Swedish women displayed less conformity than their foreign counterparts, with the largest difference on the subscale Sexual fidelity. In Study 2, focus group interviews with young Swedish women added a more complex picture of feminine norms in the Swedish society. For instance the results indicated that Swedish women, while living in a society with a strong gender equality discourse, are torn between the perceived need to invest in their appearances and the risk of being viewed as non-equal when doing so. In sum, despite the fact that traditional gender roles are less pronounced in Sweden, gender role conformity is still a pressing issue. Since attending to the potential roles of feminine norms in women's lives previously has been proposed to be useful in counseling and therapeutic work, the present research also offers valuable information for both researchers and practitioners. [Correction added on 5 May 2017, after first online publication in April 2017: An incorrect Abstract was inadvertently captured in the published article and has been corrected in this current version.]. © 2017 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Male/Female Preferences for Masculine-Feminine Trait Clusters Derived from a Multidimensional Scaling of Hypothesized Masculine-Feminine and Creative-Noncreative Trait Terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, Ruth Bernstein

    There still remains in our social institutions and individual lives a considerable splitting between feminine and masculine gender distinctions. The present study determined the dimensionality of the space of 53 admirable personality traits hypothesized to relate to femininity-masculinity and creativity, and assessed preferences of females versus…

  3. FEMININE WRITING” - THE EVOLUTION OF A CONCEPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela BACALI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of “feminine writing” has caused much controversy in time. It appeared in France after the feminist movements in 1970, as a reaction to the lack of visibility of women writers, and it had three important stages. The first, temporally placed right after the events, whose spokeswoman was Hélène Cixous and was marked by her disputatious spirit. In the second stage, between the 80s and the 90s, a less troubled period, as the revolutionary enthusiasm decreased, the works of reference are those signed by Béatrice Didier and Christine Planté. A third stage is the one we are in at the moment – the stage from the beginning of the millennium – characterized by the fact that gender studies are more and more frequent and the efforts to reinstate a literature that has been ignored for a long time, as well as the concern to bring to the fore the literary femininity multiply. If in the period before the postmodernist era feminine literature had certain peculiarities due also to the social situation of women in a masculine society, nowadays the process of un-differentiation – a reflex of an equality that women gained with so much difficulty – is also manifested in the writing field.

  4. Correlated Male Preferences for Femininity in Female Faces and Voices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J Fraccaro

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Sexually dimorphic physical traits are important for mate choice and mate preference in many species, including humans. Several previous studies have observed that women's preferences for physical cues of male masculinity in different domains (e.g., visual and vocal are correlated. These correlations demonstrate systematic, rather than arbitrary, variation in women's preferences for masculine men and are consistent with the proposal that sexually dimorphic cues in different domains reflect a common underlying aspect of male quality. Here we present evidence for a similar correlation between men's preferences for different cues of femininity in women; although men generally preferred feminized to masculinized versions of both women's faces and voices, the strength of men's preferences for feminized versions of female faces was positively and significantly correlated with the strength of their preferences for feminized versions of women's voices. In a second study, this correlation occurred when men judged women's attractiveness as long-term, but not short-term, mates, which is consistent with previous research. Collectively, these findings (1 present novel evidence for systematic variation in men's preferences for feminine women, (2 present converging evidence for concordant preferences for sexually dimorphic traits in different domains, and (3 complement findings of correlations between women's facial and vocal femininity.

  5. Susceptibility to Food Advertisements and Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake in Non-Hispanic Black and Non-Hispanic White Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervi, Meredith M; Agurs-Collins, Tanya; Dwyer, Laura A; Thai, Chan L; Moser, Richard P; Nebeling, Linda C

    2017-08-01

    Obesity among adolescents in the United States has risen by 16% in the past 30 years. One important contributing factor may be the increased consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs), which is encouraged by advertisements for unhealthy foods and drinks that are targeted to adolescents. The purpose of this analysis was to determine the association between susceptibility to food and drink advertisements and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption in non-Hispanic black (NHB) and non-Hispanic white (NHW) adolescents and to examine if BMI is associated with SSB consumption. Data were obtained from 765 NHB and NHW of ages 14-17 who were surveyed in the Family Life, Activity, Sun, Health, and Eating study sponsored by the National Cancer Institute. Two weighted adjusted logistic regression models were conducted. The first examined the associations of advertisement susceptibility, race, and BMI with SSB consumption. The second examined the associations of race and BMI with advertisement susceptibility. Adolescents with high advertisement susceptibility were more likely to consume at least one SSB daily (OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.21, 2.47). Additionally, non-Hispanic blacks were more likely to consume at least one SSB daily (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.08, 2.85) and more likely to be highly susceptible to advertisements (OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.19, 2.48) than non-Hispanic whites. No significant associations were found between BMI and advertising susceptibility or BMI and daily SSB consumption. One approach to addressing the consumption of SSBs may be to reduce advertising that markets unhealthy food and beverages to adolescents and minorities.

  6. Examining the influence of family environments on youth violence: a comparison of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, non-Latino Black, and non-Latino White adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Martínez, Lorena M; Padilla, Mark B; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Schulz, Amy Jo

    2011-08-01

    Existing research rarely considers important ethnic subgroup variations in violent behaviors among Latino youth. Thus, their risk for severe violent behaviors is not well understood in light of the immense ethnic and generational diversity of the Latino population in the United States. Grounded in social control theory and cultural analyses of familism, we examine differences in the risk for severe youth violence, as well its associations with family cohesion, parental engagement, adolescent autonomy, household composition, and immigrant generation among Mexican (n = 1,594), Puerto Rican (n = 586), Cuban (n = 488), and non-Latino Black (n = 4,053), and White (n = 9,921) adolescents with data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Results indicate a gradient of risk; White youth had the lowest risk for severe violence and Puerto Rican youth had the highest risk compared to all other racial/ethnic subgroups. Within-group analysis indicates that family factors are not universally protective or risk-inducing. While family cohesion decreased the risk of severe violence among all groups, parental engagement was associated with increased risk among Blacks and Whites, and adolescent autonomy was associated with increased risk among Puerto Ricans and Cubans. In addition, Cuban and White adolescents who lived in single parent households or who did not live with their parents, had higher risk for severe violent behaviors than their counterparts who lived in two parent households. Among Latinos, the association of immigrant generation was in opposite directions among Mexicans and Cubans. We conclude that family and immigration factors differentially influence risk for violence among Latino subgroups and highlight the significance of examining subgroup differences and developing intervention strategies that are tailored to the needs of each ethnic subgroup.

  7. Eating attitudes, body image satisfaction and self-esteem of South African Black and White male adolescents and their perception of female body silhouettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitau, Tabither M; Micklesfield, Lisa K; Pettifor, John M; Norris, Shane A

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study of urban high schools in Johannesburg, South Africa, sought to examine eating attitudes, body image and self-esteem among male adolescents (n = 391). Anthropometric measurements, Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), Rosenberg self-esteem, body image satisfaction and perception of females were collected at age 13, 15 and 17 years. Descriptive analysis was done to describe the sample, and non-parametric Wilcoxon Mann-Whitney test was used to test for significant differences between data that were not normally distributed (EAT-26). Spearman's rank correlation coefficient analyses were conducted to test for associations between self-esteem scores and eating attitudes, body mass indices and body image satisfaction scores. To assess the differences between groups that were normally distributed chi-square tests were carried out. Ethnic differences significantly affected adolescent boys' body mass index (BMI), eating attitudes and self-esteem; White boys had higher self-esteem, BMI and normal eating attitudes than the Black boys did. BMI was positively associated with self-esteem (p = 0.01, r = 0.134) and negatively with dieting behaviour in White boys (p = 0.004, r = -0.257), and with lower EAT-26 bulimic and oral control scores in Black boys. In conclusion, the findings highlight ethnic differences and a need to better understand cultural differences that influence adolescent attitudes and behaviour.

  8. Considering an Affect Regulation Framework for Examining the Association Between Body Dissatisfaction and Positive Body Image in Black Older Adolescent Females: Does Body Mass Index Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler-Ajibade, Phoebe; Robinson, Seronda A.

    2014-01-01

    The present study provided an initial evaluation of an affect regulation model describing the association between body dissatisfaction and two contemporary measures of positive body image among 247 Black college-bound older adolescent females. We further tested whether possessing a higher body mass index (BMI) would strengthen these associations. Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate BMI. Respondents also completed a culturally-sensitive figure rating scale along with assessments of body appreciation and body image flexibility. Results indicated a robust positive association between the two measures of positive body image; BMI was the strongest predictor of both body appreciation and body image flexibility with body size discrepancy (current minus ideal) contributing incremental variance to both models tested. Implications for improving our understanding of the association between positive and negative body image and bolstering positive body image to promote health-protective behaviors among Black young women at this developmental juncture are discussed. PMID:25079011

  9. Effects of feminine hygiene products on the vaginal mucosal biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raina N. Fichorova

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over-the-counter (OTC feminine hygiene products come with little warning about possible side effects. This study evaluates in-vitro their effects on Lactobacillus crispatus, which is dominant in the normal vaginal microbiota and helps maintain a healthy mucosal barrier essential for normal reproductive function and prevention of sexually transmitted infections and gynecologic cancer. Methods: A feminine moisturizer (Vagisil, personal lubricant, and douche were purchased OTC. A topical spermicide (nonoxynol-9 known to alter the vaginal immune barrier was used as a control. L. crispatus was incubated with each product for 2 and 24h and then seeded on agar for colony forming units (CFU. Human vaginal epithelial cells were exposed to products in the presence or absence of L. crispatus for 24h, followed by epithelium-associated CFU enumeration. Interleukin-8 was immunoassayed and ANOVA was used for statistical evaluation. Results: Nonoxynol-9 and Vagisil suppressed Lactobacillus growth at 2h and killed all bacteria at 24h. The lubricant decreased bacterial growth insignificantly at 2h but killed all at 24h. The douche did not have a significant effect. At full strength, all products suppressed epithelial viability and all, except the douche, suppressed epithelial-associated CFU. When applied at non-toxic dose in the absence of bacteria, the douche and moisturizer induced an increase of IL-8, suggesting a potential to initiate inflammatory reaction. In the presence of L. crispatus, the proinflammatory effects of the douche and moisturizer were countered, and IL-8 production was inhibited in the presence of the other products. Conclusion: Some OTC vaginal products may be harmful to L. crispatus and alter the vaginal immune environment. Illustrated through these results, L. crispatus is essential in the preservation of the function of vaginal epithelial cells in the presence of some feminine hygiene products. More research should be invested

  10. Review: Lesa Lockford (2004. Performing Femininity: Rewriting Gender Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Gergen

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Performing Femininity is composed of a series of performances presented by the author to a varied audience, from customers at a strip club in New Orleans to a university class, in which a feminist history "Spin the Bottle" game was an integral part. Challenging the dominant discourse of feminist theorists, LOCKFORD looks for strength and liberatory possibilities in what appear to be forms of abjection. Traditional topics of embodiment are rediscovered in this provocative book. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0602130

  11. [Masculinity and femininity scales: current state of the art].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Juan; Quiroga, María A; Del Olmo, Isabel; Rodríguez, Antonio

    2007-08-01

    A theoretical and empirical review of masculinity and femininity scales was carried out after 30 years of their existence. Hypotheses to be tested were: (a) muldimensionality versus bidimensionality; (b) inadequate percentage of variance accounted for (less than 50%); (c) inconsistency between factor structure and the dualistic model. 618, 200 and 287 students took part in each of the three studies that were carried out. Factorial analyses (PAF) were performed. Results support multidimensionality, unsatisfactory percentage of variance accounted for, and lack of congruence between obtained factors and the dualistic model. All these data were analysed within the context of the twofold sex and gender reality model.

  12. Being Boys, Being Girls: learning masculinities and femininities

    OpenAIRE

    Paechter, Carrie F.

    2007-01-01

    What is it like being a boy or a girl?\\ud How do boys and girls learn to be men and women?\\ud How do families, schools and children’s peer groups influence the ways in which children think of themselves as male and female?\\ud Being Boys, Being Girls explores how boys and girls learn what it is to be male and female. Drawing on a wide range of studies from around the world, the book examines how masculinities and femininities are developed and understood by children and young people in familie...

  13. Feminine hygiene practices among female patients and nurses in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attieh, Elie; Maalouf, Samer; Roumieh, Dina; Abdayem, Pamela; AbiTayeh, Georges; Kesrouani, Assaad

    2016-05-23

    Inappropriate feminine hygiene practices are related to vulvovaginitis. We investigated the prevalence of personal hygiene habits among Lebanese women as well as their awareness of adequate practices. Consists of a cross-sectional observational study. Female patients and nurses at Hotel-Dieu de France University Hospital in Beirut- Lebanon filled a questionnaire about their intimate hygiene habits and knowledge of proper practices. The study included 249 women. 21.3 % of the 136 nurses and 38.9 % of the 113 patients reported a history of vulvovaginitis. The majority of women took an intimate bath at least twice daily. 14 % of nurses and 17 % of patients douched.20. Seven percent of the nurses and 43.4 % of the patients used wet wipes. 1.5 % of nurses and 4.4 % of patients used feminine deodorant sprays. There was a significant lack of awareness mainly among patients about suitable hygiene practices as well for their adverse effects. Education provided by nurses, and other healthcare providers is essential to promote reproductive health among Lebanese women.

  14. Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are correlated with cardiometabolic risk among American black and white adolescents living in a year-round sunny climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Samip; Guo, De-Huang; Pollock, Norman K; Petty, Karen; Bhagatwala, Jigar; Gutin, Bernard; Houk, Chris; Zhu, Haidong; Dong, Yanbin

    2012-05-01

    Low vitamin D status is common among healthy black and white adolescents residing at southern U.S. latitudes with a year-round sunny climate. Thus we aimed to study the relationships between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and cardiometabolic risk factors in this population. 25(OH)D concentrations were measured with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy in 701 girls and boys (14-18 years old, 54% blacks, 49% females). Cardiometabolic risk was indexed by adipokines, inflammatory markers, fasting glucose, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), lipid profile, and blood pressure (BP). Controlling for age, sex, race, sexual maturation, season, physical activity, and percent body fat, 25(OH)D concentrations were significantly correlated with adiponectin (r = 0.06, P = 0.05), leptin (r = -0.32, P risk factors, independent of adiposity. Clinical trials addressing the effects of vitamin D supplementation on cardiometabolic risk are warranted in adolescents irrespective of their geographical regions.

  15. Masculinity/femininity of the generations: as self-reported and as stereotypically appraised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, P

    1976-01-01

    Three hundred seventeen adults divided among the younger adult, middle aged, and old generations were asked (a) to judge which of the three generations was most and least masculine/feminine in overall personality style, masculine/feminine in interests and possession of gender skills, and pressured by society to do masculine/feminine sorts of things; and (b) to rate self along each of these dimensions on a Likert scale. Self-reports and beliefs about the generations did not vary as a function of membership in a generation. Young adults and middle aged were belived to be the most feminine and middle aged the most masculine in overall personality style. The middle aged were judged as possessed of the most feminine and masculine interests and the most skilled in feminine endeavors. Middle aged and young adults were judged equally possessed of masculine skills. Social pressure to do masculine and feminine activities was seen as falling equally heavily on younger adults and middle aged. The old were judged as next-most possessed of feminine skills while judged least along the other dimensions.

  16. Gender and Choosing a STEM Major in College: Femininity, Masculinity, Chilly Climate, and Occupational Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Richard M.; Wagner, Ashley; Killion, Brooke

    2017-01-01

    Masculinity and femininity have played a substantial role in how social scientists explain the gender gap in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) careers. The masculine culture of science is thought to be inconsistent with occupational values associated with feminine personalities, and to create a discriminatory academic…

  17. Future Girls, Transcendent Femininities and New Pedagogies: Toward Girls' Hybrid Bodies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzarito, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Media provides a material site for girls' identity formation and presents conflicting images of femininity, which challenge young women's self-expression and physicality development. The "problem" with girls' physicality has not been resolved, but rather complicated by discourses of new femininities in sport, fitness and health promoted…

  18. Complicating Hetero-Femininities: Young Women, Sexualities and "Girl Power" at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Claire Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    This paper is concerned with expanding knowledge of how femininity/sexuality intersections are constituted in secondary schools. Existing studies have drawn upon Judith Butler's notion of a "heterosexual matrix" in order to understand how intersections of femininity/sexuality are produced in schools through normative discourses of…

  19. Fussy Girls and Chattering Women--The Construct and Subordination of Femininity in Preschool Teacher Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedlin, Maria; Åberg, Magnus

    2018-01-01

    In Sweden, as in Western countries generally, most preschool teachers are women. This fact sometimes leads to the assumption that preschools are "feminine", and that this might be bad for boys. We challenge this assumption. Using a gender critical approach we have studied preschool student teachers. "Femininity" might be used…

  20. Freud's treatment of the feminine with reference to his theory of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study argues that Freud's treatment of the feminine is largely phallogocentric thereby providing an invaluable basis for criticism of the structure of phallogocentrism. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the critical direction of Freud's views on femininity as revealed in his theory of the Oedipus complex, relating it both ...

  1. Traumatic dissociation of aspects of the feminine: an Asian cultural perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghate, Aditee

    2018-04-01

    The paper explores the impact of the dissociated feminine principle resulting from the trauma of cultural displacement in a young Chinese woman keen to embrace a modern Western identity. A case study illustrates the outcome of the client both consciously and unconsciously rejecting the traditional stereotypical Chinese feminine identity and instead embracing the distorted, yet seductive, image of the Western (Caucasian) woman as independent, intellectual and confident. Her defensive denial of the traditional feminine was dealt with by intellectualising both personal and professional relationships. Then, unconsciously, the dissociated traditional feminine was projected into a separate aspect of her identity that held the traumatised feelings. The intellectualisation was eventually understood as being a necessary defence to cope with the cultural as well as geographical dislocation trauma. And with this realisation a space was created to accept and integrate the denied feminine-in a literal as well as a symbolic manner. © 2018, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  2. Attitudes towards the Use of Masculine and Feminine Japanese among Foreign Professionals: What Can Learners Learn from Professionals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itakura, Hiroko

    2009-01-01

    Subordinate femininity associated with feminine Japanese has been found to pose barriers for foreign language learners of Japanese, especially among Western female learners of Japanese. The present study investigates attitudes towards the use of both masculine and feminine Japanese among non-native professional speakers of Japanese. The latter's…

  3. The Assessment of Masculinity and Femininity: Scale 5 of the MMPI Compared with the BSRI and the PAQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volentine, Susen Zimmerman

    1981-01-01

    Compared the MMPI Scale 5 to the Bem Sex Role Inventory and Personal Attributes Questionnaire. Femininity measures were related more strongly to Scale 5 score than masculinity measures. It was concluded that Scale 5 may be interpreted more accurately as a measure of femininity rather than masculinity/femininity. (Author)

  4. Formations of Femininity: Science and Aesthetics in Facial Feminization Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plemons, Eric

    2017-10-01

    Facial feminization surgery (FFS) is a set of bone and soft tissue reconstructive surgical procedures intended to feminize the faces of trans- women in order to make their identities as women recognizable to others. In this article, I explore how the identification of facial femininity was negotiated in two FFS surgeons' practices. One committed to the metrics of normal skeletal form and the other to aspirational aesthetics of individual optimization; I argue that surgeons' competing clinical approaches illustrate a constitutive tension in the proliferating therapeutic logics of trans- medicine. The growing popularity of surgical practices like FFS demonstrates a shift in American trans- therapeutics away from a singular focus on the genitalia as the location of bodily sex and toward understandings of sex as a product of social recognition.

  5. Prototypes of masculine and feminine leadership in military population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Laura Lupano Perugini

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the study was to identify masculine and feminine prototypes of effective leadership in military population. Data included 262 individuals, 69,5% (n = 182 male and 30,5% (n = 80 female (age average = 25,62 years. 66% of the participants directed other persons and 34% were subordinates. Data collection was carried out administering a survey designed ad-hoc. Participants were requested to name two effective leaders (man and woman and to justify their election. They mainly identified male leaders with military people belonging not only to current military population but also those recognized because of their heroic feats. In relation with female leaders, subjects identified religious people, militaries belonging to current military population and politicians. We found differences in assigned characteristics to both prototypes.

  6. Black to Black

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Michael Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Pop musicians performing in black stage costume take advantage of cultural traditions relating to matters black. Stylistically, black is a paradoxical color: although a symbol of melancholy, pessimism, and renunciation, black also expresses minimalist modernity and signifies exclusivity (as is hi...

  7. Facial Visualizations of Women's Voices Suggest a Cross-Modality Preference for Femininity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Röder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Women with higher-pitched voices and more feminine facial features are commonly judged as being more attractive than are women with lower-pitched voices and less feminine faces, possibly because both features are affected by (age-related variations in endocrine status. These results are primarily derived from investigations of perceptions of variations in single-modality stimuli (i.e., faces or voices in samples of young adult women. In the present study we sought to test whether male and female perceptions of women's voices affect visual representations of facial femininity. Eighty men and women judged voice recordings of 10 young girls (11–15 years, 10 adult women (19–28 years and 10 peri-/post-menopausal women (50–64 years on age, attractiveness, and femininity. Another 80 men and women were asked to indicate the face they think each voice corresponded to using a video that gradually changed from a masculine looking male face into a feminine looking female face. Both male and female participants perceived voices of young girls and adult women to be significantly younger, more attractive and feminine than those of peri-/post-menopausal women. Hearing young girls' and adult women's voices resulted in both men and women selecting faces that differed markedly in apparent femininity from those associated with peri-/post-menopausal women's voices. Voices of young girls had the strongest effect on visualizations of facial femininity. Our results suggest a cross-modal preference for women's vocal and facial femininity, which depends on female age and is independent of the perceiver's sex.

  8. Dietary Habits and Eating Practices and Their Association with Overweight and Obesity in Rural and Urban Black South African Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Modiehi Heather Sedibe; Pedro T. Pisa; Alison B. Feeley; Titilola M. Pedro; Kathleen Kahn; Shane A. Norris

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate differences/similarities in dietary habits and eating practices between younger and older, rural and urban South African adolescents in specific environments (home, community and school) and their associations with overweight and obesity. Dietary habits, eating practices, and anthropometric measurements were performed on rural (n = 392, mean age = 13 years) and urban (n = 3098, mean age = 14 years) adolescents. Logistic regression analysis was used to ...

  9. Considering an affect regulation framework for examining the association between body dissatisfaction and positive body image in Black older adolescent females: does body mass index matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Jennifer B; Butler-Ajibade, Phoebe; Robinson, Seronda A

    2014-09-01

    The present study provided an initial evaluation of an affect regulation model describing the association between body dissatisfaction and two contemporary measures of positive body image among 247 Black college-bound older adolescent females. We further tested whether possessing a higher body mass index (BMI) would strengthen these associations. Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate BMI. Respondents also completed a culturally-sensitive figure rating scale along with assessments of body appreciation and body image flexibility. Results indicated a robust positive association between the two measures of positive body image; BMI was the strongest predictor of both body appreciation and body image flexibility with body size discrepancy (current minus ideal) contributing incremental variance to both models tested. Implications for improving our understanding of the association between positive and negative body image and bolstering positive body image to promote health-protective behaviors among Black young women at this developmental juncture are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of subliminal stimulation on masculinity-femininity ratings of a male model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovsepian, W; Quatman, G

    1978-02-01

    The effects of subliminal stimulation on masculinity-femininity ratings of a male model were tested for 100 male undergraduates, randomly divided into four groups and individually shown a slide of a male model. One group received no further stimulation. A second group received a subliminal flash of white light across the image of the model; a third group was presented with the subliminal message "masculine," while a fourth group was presented with the subliminal message "feminine." Subjects were asked to rate the model on a six-point scale of masculinity-femininity. The differences in ratings among groups were not significant, indicating that subliminal stimulation did not influence masculinity-femininity value-norm-anchor judgments. There were no significant differences in the reported perception of additional stimuli or the tendency to be relaxed among the four groups. However, subjects who received the "masculine" message and reported that they were more relaxed did tend to rate the model higher in masculinity.

  11. Ideological discourse of gender inequality in feminine sociology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Parkhomenko

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the issue of theoretical and methodological principles and key provisions of the discourse of gender inequality in feminine sociology. It has been stated by the author that the analysis of the ideological aspects of gender discourse, which appeared at the XXI century, is oriented to the search of contemporary gender ideology of egalitarianism and tolerance that would take root in the mentality of different societies. Analysis of ideas of different ideologies and cultures suggests that any ideology can only perform a positive function when it is based on the values of the culture. Otherwise it does not receive social support. The study of the ideological aspects of gender discourse in feminist sociology has shown that in the process of gender socialization man and woman should pass pre-ideological (before adulthood and post-ideological stages. In such situation, gender orientation values are formed in several ways (legal, economic, religious, gender norms influence the assimilation and evaluation, and only subsequently change the gender behavior and gender acquiring competence. It has been stipulated in the article that the modern world is characterized by multivariate cultures and patterns of gender socialization. In feminist sociology it has been decided to allocate three basic types of gender ideologies and their corresponding patterns of gender socialization: a patriarchal gender ideology and socialization, which are characterized by a lack of awareness, significant changes, a sense of continuity of life, self-mastery behaviors that meet all standards of culture; b modernist gender ideology and socialization, characterized by such prevailing model of behavior as the adoption of new norms of behavior, activity and independence in women’s behavior, adults can learn from children, children try to develop their own style of behavior that is different from the behavior of their parents, conflict of generations, lots of

  12. Comparison of Masculine and Feminine Gender Roles in Iranian Patients with Gender Identity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Kaveh; Eftekhar, Mehrdad; Jalali Nadoushan, Amir Hossein

    2015-12-01

    Gender identity disorders (GID) are heterogeneous disorders that may be influenced by culture and social norms. The aim of this study was to determine masculine and feminine gender roles in a group of Iranian patients with GID and compare these roles with two control groups. Twelve male-to-female (MF) and 27 female-to-male (FM) individuals with GID referred to Tehran Psychiatric Institute in Tehran, I. R. Iran were evaluated by self-report inventories and were compared with two groups of healthy controls (81 men and 89 women). Diagnoses were established based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) criteria. Data analysis was done using analysis of variance and chi-squared test. Masculine and feminine gender roles were assessed by two questionnaires: (i) Gender-Masculine (GM) and Gender-Feminine (GF) scales derived from the Minnesota Multiphasic Inventory-2 (MMPI-2); (ii) Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI). In the scales of masculinity, MF-GID individuals scored as male controls, but lower than female controls. FM-GID individuals scored similar to female controls and higher than male controls. In femininity scales, MF-GID individuals and control women seemed similar, and both scored higher than the other groups. FM-GID persons were considered less feminine than both controls in the GF scale of MMPI-2, but not in the BSRI. In both scales, FM-GID persons had higher scores than control women and MF-GID individuals. Iranian FM-GID individuals were less feminine than normal men. However, MF-GID individuals were similar to normal women or more feminine. Cultural considerations remain to be investigated. Alavi K, Eftekhar M and Jalali Nadoushan AH. Comparison of masculine and feminine gender roles in Iranian patients with gender identity disorder. Sex Med 2015;3:261-268.

  13. Raising the veil: mountains from a masculine and a feminine angle

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Context The present call for papers seeks to offer a feminine/masculine reading of mountains. Many works have already analysed the roles of human activity in mountain spaces, in agricultural production, the travel trade, the economy and the arts. But such investigation has often focused on the masculine side, revealing the practices, customs and narratives of men in the mountains. However the relations between humans and mountains do not all take a masculine form, their feminine side being eq...

  14. Traditional Masculinity and Femininity: Validation of a New Scale Assessing Gender Roles

    OpenAIRE

    Kachel, Sven; Steffens, Melanie C.; Niedlich, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Gender stereotype theory suggests that men are generally perceived as more masculine than women, whereas women are generally perceived as more feminine than men. Several scales have been developed to measure fundamental aspects of gender stereotypes (e.g., agency and communion, competence and warmth, or instrumentality and expressivity). Although omitted in later version, Bem's original Sex Role Inventory included the items ?masculine? and ?feminine? in addition to more specific gender-stereo...

  15. Basic requirements for the successful implementation of the “feminine leadership” style in Croatian enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Nina Pološki

    2001-01-01

    The “feminine leadership” style, characterized by cooperation, participation, sharing of power and information, teamwork, energizing others, enhancing self-worth of others, etc., is a leadership style of the future. As such, it has to be highly used in today’s organizations. Furthermore, many contemporary surveys have shown that women are primary holders of the “feminine leadership” style. That is why today’s organizations should hire more women, especially for management jobs. However, altho...

  16. Bone densitometry in the Feminine Climacteric routine study or election?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, C.; Estrella, A.; Bozzolo, A.; Sasson, A.; Berterreche, A.

    2002-01-01

    A descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted, on the basis of a systematic review of the clinical histories of the database, between July 1999 and July 2001.Strategy consisted of reviewing at random clinical data up to obtaining a sample of 100 patients with bone densitometry by mains of dual energy X ray absorbtiometry (DEXA) device. The standard number was statistically significant and representative of the population under study.Results: It is emphasized that more of a hal of the patients studied presented loss of the bone mineral density and 11% with and altered morphometry of the column, similar to other national and international studies. the risk factors for osteoporosis were presented in 71% of the cases, having those patients older densitometric alterations.Conclusions:considering the results and the situation that generates risk of fracture with its high socioeconomic costs, the authors recommend the routine use of the densitometry in the Feminine Climateric or in its absence, a selective screening, reserving the study for patients with given risk factors.It is proposed a guideline to select patients in which conducting the study ia a priority

  17. Performing Femininity in Japanese Politics: Chikage Ogi Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Luke

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Women’s access to the political sphere in Japan has been limited by structural constraints which perpetuate their roles primarily as housewives and mothers. Some women who seek to become professional politicians use these images of traditional femininity as a deliberate tactic in political campaigns to provide a culturally acceptable way for them to express their political views. This paper analyses the life of Chikage Ōgi, a Japanese politician who was once a Takarazuka actress, in order to develop a deeper understanding of the ways in which gender-role expectations restrict women’s access to opportunities throughout their life course and the pragmatic ways that women strive to achieve their goals despite this. Ōgi used the performance skills she developed during her time as an actress to enhance her political image and fulfil her political ambitions. This paper highlights Ōgi’s creativity in enacting agency in Japan’s male-dominated political sphere and demonstrates the complex ways she both upheld and subverted gender norms in order to achieve political longevity.

  18. The Cultural Voice of Immigrant Latina Women and the Meaning of Femininity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Greer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This phenomenological study investigates the cultural meaning of femininity to immigrant Latina women and its significance in the consideration of decisions related to maintaining breast health. Theories of culture and health promotion support the concern for women’s need for access to health care in relation to breast health and the cultural barriers that interface between the connections of femininity, body image, and mental health. For Hispanic women, breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer generating distress for the individual, partner, and family. The importance of best practices in health promotion and risk reduction strategies in the early screening of women is emphasized in the literature. However, the voice of immigrant Latina women in describing their perspective of femininity and breast health and how it may affect choice and decision making related to breast self-care practices has not been studied. Five themes emerged from the data analysis conducted with Giorgi’s phenomenological method leading to an unfolded description of femininity: power of feminine identity through motherhood, hardiness is sustainability to overcoming adversity, connection to self and others, satisfaction meeting cultural gender-role expectations, and contemplative prevention to maintain breast integrity. The findings of this study will contribute to the increasing body of evidence-based practice related to understanding the impact of culture related to breast health. While the concept of femininity can be challenged not only by a diagnosis of breast cancer but also by other diseases and life conditions, understanding the cultural meaning of femininity to Latina women is pivotal to health care professionals as they partner with Latina women and community support groups to develop empowerment strategies and programs that promote choice and decision making involving breast health.

  19. Dietary Habits and Eating Practices and Their Association with Overweight and Obesity in Rural and Urban Black South African Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedibe, Modiehi Heather; Pisa, Pedro T; Feeley, Alison B; Pedro, Titilola M; Kahn, Kathleen; Norris, Shane A

    2018-01-29

    The aim of this study was to investigate differences/similarities in dietary habits and eating practices between younger and older, rural and urban South African adolescents in specific environments (home, community and school) and their associations with overweight and obesity. Dietary habits, eating practices, and anthropometric measurements were performed on rural ( n = 392, mean age = 13 years) and urban ( n = 3098, mean age = 14 years) adolescents. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations between dietary habits and eating practices, with overweight and obesity risk. Differences in dietary habits and eating practices by gender and by site within the three environments were identified. After adjusting for gender, site, dietary habits, and eating practices within the home, community and school environment, eating the main meal with family some days (OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.114-2.835; p ≤ 0.02), eating the main meal with family almost every day (OR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.106-2.343; p ≤ 0.01), and irregular frequency of consuming breakfast on weekdays (OR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.007-1.896; p ≤ 0.05) were all associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity. For "Year 15" adolescents, irregular frequency of consuming breakfast on weekends within the home environment (OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.099-2.129, p ≤ 0.01), was associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity. For both early- and mid-adolescents, being male (OR = 0.401, 95% CI = 0.299-0.537; p ≤ 0.00; OR = 0.29, 95% CI = 0.218-0.397; p ≤ 0.00) was associated with reduced risk of overweight and obesity, while residing in a rural setting (OR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.324-0.924; p ≤ 0.02) was associated with reduced risk of overweight and obesity only among early-adolescents. Only dietary habits and eating practices within the home environment were associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity.

  20. Dietary Habits and Eating Practices and Their Association with Overweight and Obesity in Rural and Urban Black South African Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modiehi Heather Sedibe

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate differences/similarities in dietary habits and eating practices between younger and older, rural and urban South African adolescents in specific environments (home, community and school and their associations with overweight and obesity. Dietary habits, eating practices, and anthropometric measurements were performed on rural (n = 392, mean age = 13 years and urban (n = 3098, mean age = 14 years adolescents. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations between dietary habits and eating practices, with overweight and obesity risk. Differences in dietary habits and eating practices by gender and by site within the three environments were identified. After adjusting for gender, site, dietary habits, and eating practices within the home, community and school environment, eating the main meal with family some days (OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.114–2.835; p ≤ 0.02, eating the main meal with family almost every day (OR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.106–2.343; p ≤ 0.01, and irregular frequency of consuming breakfast on weekdays (OR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.007–1.896; p ≤ 0.05 were all associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity. For “Year 15” adolescents, irregular frequency of consuming breakfast on weekends within the home environment (OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.099–2.129, p ≤ 0.01, was associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity. For both early- and mid-adolescents, being male (OR = 0.401, 95% CI = 0.299–0.537; p ≤ 0.00; OR = 0.29, 95% CI = 0.218–0.397; p ≤ 0.00 was associated with reduced risk of overweight and obesity, while residing in a rural setting (OR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.324–0.924; p ≤ 0.02 was associated with reduced risk of overweight and obesity only among early-adolescents. Only dietary habits and eating practices within the home environment were associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity.

  1. Feminilidade: alteridade e experiência Femininity: alterity and experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Arán

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Este ensaio tem como objetivo desenvolver a noção de alteridade na psicanálise a partir dos conceitos de feminilidade e de experiência. Parte de uma crítica à centralidade do modelo Édipo / castração na teoria psicanalítica ­ modelo este que fundamenta uma forma de subjetivação que se faz pelo recalque como defesa ou pela renúncia pulsional - para pensar novas formas de sociabilidade. Inicialmente, procura-se analisar o destino da experiência alteritária na modernidade: o outro como estranho-familiar. Em seguida, através da análise de algumas passagens da obra freudiana, procura-se desen­ volver a noção de alteridade no registro da imanência, ou seja, como uma abertura para a diferença.The objective of this essay is to elaborate on the notion of alterity in psychoanalysis based on the concepts of femininity and experience. The point of departure is a critique of the centrality of the Oedipean/castration model in psychoanalytical theory (a model underlying a form of subjectivation resulting from repression or denial of drive in order to conceive new forms of sociabilily. The article begins by analyzing lhe fate of the altetily experience in modernity: lhe other as slrange/familiar. Next, by analyzing key passages from Freud's work, lhe author seeks to develop the notion of alterily in lhe context of immanence, that is, as an openness to difference.

  2. Sexuality Attitudes of Black Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timberlake, Constance A.; Carpenter, Wayne D.

    1990-01-01

    Assessed sexuality attitudes of black middle-class sample (N=124) concerning communication regarding sexuality information, adolescent contraception, adolescent pregnancy, nonmarital intercourse, responsibility for contraception and pregnancy, abortion, pornography, and masturbation. Results suggest that participants were well-informed, moderate,…

  3. Wading through the stereotypes: positive and negative associations between media use and black adolescents' conceptions of self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, L Monique

    2004-03-01

    Although concern is often expressed that frequent media exposure may adversely affect the self-esteem and racial self-esteem of African American youths, evidence to support this assumption has been limited. To examine this issue, the author collected data among 156 African American high school students, testing connections among racial self-esteem, three dimensions of self-esteem, and multiple forms of media use. Whereas initial comparisons revealed media use to be a negative correlate of self-esteem, further analysis demonstrated that this association varied depending on the media genre and the domain of self in question, the content of students' media diets, and the individual characteristics of the viewer. In addition, both stronger identification with popular Black characters and greater religiosity emerged as possible protective factors. ((c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)

  4. THE GOSPEL’S VISION FOR WOMEN AND THE FEMININE GENIUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Cathey

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The spiritual impoverishment of humanity is directly tied to the marginalization of women that has prevented them from fully expressing their feminine genius in both the home and in society. What is need to remove obstacles to the feminine genius is the adoption of the Gospel vision for women and the espousal of Jesus Christ’s attitude toward women. By showing openness, respect, acceptance, and tenderness towards women, the feminine gifts will make an indispensable contribution to the growth of a culture that promotes a culture worthy of persons, a world in which human relationships are more honest and authentic. Women, beginning with their daily relationships with people, offer to humanity the richness of their sensitivity, intuitiveness, generosity, and fidelity. The family and society, as John Paul II noted, direly need the maternal and healing embrace of women.

  5. The Haunting Presence of the Feminine: Virginia Woolf in the Streets of London

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Pantuchowicz

    2017-01-01

    Beginning with the theme of the location of haunting in Gothic interiors and the confusion of life and death and the “sub-central” positioning of the feminine as the hidden source of fearfulness, the paper analyzes Virginia Woolf’s “Street Haunting: A London Adventure” as an example of a narrative written from the position of the haunting in which the figure of fearful feminine is transformed into a “hauntess” participating in the public world on equal rights with others. Woolf’s text, though...

  6. Female Fighters: Perceptions of Femininity in the Super Smash Bros. Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John L Adams

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study takes on a qualitative analysis of the online forum, SmashBoards, to examine the way gender is perceived and acted upon in the community surrounding the Super Smash Bros. series. A total of 284 comments on the forum were analyzed using the concepts of gender performativity and symbolic interactionism to determine the perceptions of femininity, reactions to female players, and the understanding of masculinity within the community. Ultimately, although hypermasculine performances were present, a focus on the technical aspects of the game tended to take priority over any understanding of gender, resulting in a generally ambiguous approach to femininity.

  7. "Écriture feminine" fotografijoje : Veronika Šleivytė ir Violeta Bubelytė

    OpenAIRE

    Narušytė, Agnė

    2011-01-01

    The concept of écriture feminine proposed by French feminists Hélène Cixous, Julia Kristeva and Luce Irigaray in 1970s has been criticised for being apolitical. But the criticism has been contested with the argument that it has a potential in changing the discourse that structures gender relationships in society. Écriture feminine as 'writing the body' is constructed in feminist theory as an opposition to the dominating patriarchal discourse that prevents women from occupying the subject posi...

  8. The writing of Mina Loy between the feminine figurations in the late 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Bento Pugliesi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This papper will deal with the ambivalence of Mina Loy's thought as presented on her poems and on the Feminist Manifesto, understanding it as a response to European psychology from the turn of the nineteenth century to the twentieth century, especially the conceptions of the feminine by Otto Weininger. In this way, it is intended to understand how a poetic form already carries in itself something of an invective against the masculine way (DERRIDA, 1993 to value the knowledge, which Loy intends to destroy in favor of positive affirmations of a feminine identity.

  9. Gender Role Orientation and Anxiety Symptoms among African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palapattu, Anuradha G.; Kingery, Julie Newman; Ginsburg, Golda S.

    2006-01-01

    The present study evaluated gender role theory as an explanation for the observed gender differences in anxiety symptoms among adolescents. Specifically, the relation between gender, gender role orientation (i.e., masculinity and femininity), self-esteem, and anxiety symptoms was examined in a community sample of 114 African Americans aged 14 to…

  10. Black rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emparan, Roberto; Reall, Harvey S

    2006-01-01

    A black ring is a five-dimensional black hole with an event horizon of topology S 1 x S 2 . We provide an introduction to the description of black rings in general relativity and string theory. Novel aspects of the presentation include a new approach to constructing black ring coordinates and a critical review of black ring microscopics. (topical review)

  11. Adolescents of the U.S. National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study: male role models, gender role traits, and psychological adjustment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, H.; Goldberg, N.; van Gelderen, L.; Gartrell, N.

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the influence of male role models on the lives of adolescents (N = 78) in the U.S. National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study. Half of the adolescents had male role models; those with and those without male role models had similar scores on the feminine and masculine scales

  12. Higher levels of state depression in masculine than in feminine nations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arrindell, W.A.; Steptoe, A.; Wardle, J.

    Studies using identical measures have identified different levels of depression in different countries or cultures. Until now, however, explanations for such differences, other than methodological ones, have not been empirically addressed. It was hypothesized and found that soft or feminine nations

  13. Masculinity and femininity in the divergence of male body image concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Stuart B; Rieger, Elizabeth; Karlov, Lisa; Touyz, Stephen W

    2013-01-01

    Given recent assertions suggesting that gender role endorsement may be relevant in the divergence of male body image concerns, this study examined the self-reported gender role endorsement in opposing dimensional extremes of male body image disorders, namely, muscle dysmorphia and anorexia nervosa. This study further examined the relationship between gender role endorsement and eating disordered and muscle dysmorphia disorder pathology. Participants were 21 male muscle dysmorphia patients, 24 male anorexia nervosa patients, and 30 male gym-using controls from Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States. All participants completed multidimensional measures of masculinity and femininity, and measures of eating disorder and muscle dysmorphia symptomatology. Patients with muscle dysmorphia reported significantly elevated adherence to masculine (but not feminine) norms relative to control gym-using men and men with anorexia nervosa, whereas patients with anorexia nervosa exhibited elevated feminine (but not masculine) gender role endorsement relative to control gym-using men and men with muscle dysmorphia. Masculine and feminine gender role endorsement appear to be associated with the divergence of body image concerns towards muscularity and thinness-oriented ideals respectively.

  14. Momaday, Welch, and Silko: Expressing the Feminine Principle through Male Alienation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antell, Judith A.

    1988-01-01

    Examines common themes in three Native American novels by N. Scott Momaday, James Welch, and Leslie Silko: the power of Indian women's femaleness, and reintegration of the alienated male protagonist through ancient rituals that awaken the realization of the feminine principle within himself. (SV)

  15. Cross-cultural validity of the masculine and Feminine Gender Role Stress scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Well, S; Kolk, AM; Arrindell, WA

    The objective was to examine the usefulness of Dutch versions of the Masculine Gender Role Stress (MGRS; Eisler & Skidmore, 1987) Scale and the Feminine Gender Role Stress (Gillespie & Eisler, 1992) Scale in The Netherlands. Undergraduate students (N = 2,239) completed both gender role stress

  16. Changing Women: The Cross-Currents of American Indian Feminine Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsosie, Rebecca

    1988-01-01

    Examines the writings of contemporary American Indian women with regard to Euro-American stereotypes and their own concepts of femininity and Indian identity. Relates these writings to the social history of American Indians, traditional beliefs, and the autobiographical experiences of early twentieth century Indian women. Contains 32 references.…

  17. OUT OF SIGHT, STILL IN MIND: visually impaired women's embodied accounts of ideal femininity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara A. Fannon

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available With its emphasis on physical form, the diffusion of the feminine ideal relies heavily on the use of visual imagery but there is a common knowledge about  the feminine ideal that penetrates language and discourse. The relationship between mainstream representations of the feminine ideal and non-disabled female body/self dissatisfaction has been well-documented over the years but less attention has been given to understanding how such visual representations affect women with disabilities, specifically women with visual disabilities. Drawing on qualitative data taken from the personal diaries and in-depth interviews with seven blind and visually impaired Irish women, and using a feminist disability model reinforced by sociology of the body, gender theory and visual studies, I examine what it means to be a young woman with a visual disability living in a visually-reliant, appearance-oriented culture. I explore interpretations and expressions of femininity and beauty, the complicated, often fraught, relationship with female body and self and the rituals and practices used to manage appearance while having a disability.

  18. Correlates of Female Athletic Participation: Masculinity, Femininity, Self-Esteem, and Attitudes toward Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colker, Ruth; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    1980-01-01

    Investigates self-esteem, psychological masculinity and femininity, and attitudes toward women of female athletes in an attempt to examine the validity of various stereotypes and to investigate potential subgroup distinctions based on sport played, level of commitment to athletics, and experience. (Author)

  19. Relationship of Masculinity-Femininity to Dependency and Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameya, Mary Morris; Nadelman, Lorraine

    Unconscious masculinity-femininity, dependency and self-esteem were respectively measured, in two group-testing sessions per child, by the short form of the Franck Drawing Completion Test, the Group Personality Projective Test, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Subjects were 122 sixth and seventh grade white working-class boys and girls from an…

  20. Mapping Femininity as Self-reflection Strategy in Lady Mary Wortley Montagu’s Travel Letters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Precup

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper participates in the discussion about the differences between masculine and feminine modes of travel in terms of interests, perception, and representation, by exploring the Letters of the Right Honourable Lady M--y W--y M--e Written during Her Travels in Europe, Asia and Africa, by Lady Mary Wortley Montagu. As a traveller, Lady Mary engaged in the contemplation of cultural landscapes: she attempted to understand the social logic of the communities she met and to assess the cultural distance between the English society and the local customs of the countries she visited. Within this large social and cultural framework, the focus of her keen spirit of observation is represented, in many of her letters, by gender dynamics and the status of women, thus allowing a feminine configuration of the map of continental Europe and the Ottoman Empire and a comparative understanding of femininity and expected feminine behaviour. Therefore, the contention of this paper is that, in Lady Mary’s letters, the female-traveller’s gaze ends in meditation and self-contemplation, and functions as a means of comparing and reassessing female identity.

  1. Feminine and Masculine Dimensions of the Typical, Desirable, and Ideal Woman and Man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Lucia A.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Over 400 college students used the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) to describe either a typical, desirable, or ideal man or woman. Findings obtained from Bem's androgeny score are contrasted with those from its component masculinity and femininity scale scores. Recommendations are made for using the component scores as separate variables. (Author/GC)

  2. Gender Stereotypes and Women's Reports of Liking and Ability in Traditionally Masculine and Feminine Occupations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Debra L.

    2008-01-01

    Gender stereotypes were examined for their causal influence on women's reported liking for and perceived ability to succeed in traditionally masculine and feminine occupations. One hundred twenty-one women were assigned to either a gender-stereotype activation or filler task and then completed measures of liking for, and perceived ability to…

  3. THE FEMINISM AND FEMININITY OF ANN VERONICA IN H. G. WELLS' ANN VERONICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liem Satya Limanta

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available H.G. Well's Ann Veronica structurally seems to be divided into two parts; the first deals with Ann Veronica's struggle to get equality with men and freedom in most aspects of life, such as in politics, economics, education, and sexuality; the second describes much the other side of her individuality which she cannot deny, namely her femininity, such as her crave for love, marriage, maternity, and beauty. H.G. Wells describes vividly the two elements in Ann Veronica, feminism and femininity. As a feminist, Ann Veronica rebelled against her authoritative Victorian father, who regarded women only as men's property to be protected from the harsh world outside. On the other side, Ann could not deny her being a woman after she fell in love with Capes. Her femininity from the second half of the novel then is explored. Although the novel ends with the depiction of the domestic life of Ann Veronica, it does not mean that the feminism is gone altogether. The key point is that the family life Ann chooses as a `submissive' wife and good mother is her choice. It is very different if it is forced on her to do. Thus, this novel depicts both sides of Ann Veronica, her feminism and her femininity.

  4. Black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feast, M.W.

    1981-01-01

    This article deals with two questions, namely whether it is possible for black holes to exist, and if the answer is yes, whether we have found any yet. In deciding whether black holes can exist or not the central role in the shaping of our universe played by the forse of gravity is discussed, and in deciding whether we are likely to find black holes in the universe the author looks at the way stars evolve, as well as white dwarfs and neutron stars. He also discusses the problem how to detect a black hole, possible black holes, a southern black hole, massive black holes, as well as why black holes are studied

  5. Traditional Masculinity and Femininity: Validation of a New Scale Assessing Gender Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachel, Sven; Steffens, Melanie C; Niedlich, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Gender stereotype theory suggests that men are generally perceived as more masculine than women, whereas women are generally perceived as more feminine than men. Several scales have been developed to measure fundamental aspects of gender stereotypes (e.g., agency and communion, competence and warmth, or instrumentality and expressivity). Although omitted in later version, Bem's original Sex Role Inventory included the items "masculine" and "feminine" in addition to more specific gender-stereotypical attributes. We argue that it is useful to be able to measure these two core concepts in a reliable, valid, and parsimonious way. We introduce a new and brief scale, the Traditional Masculinity-Femininity (TMF) scale, designed to assess central facets of self-ascribed masculinity-femininity. Studies 1-2 used known-groups approaches (participants differing in gender and sexual orientation) to validate the scale and provide evidence of its convergent validity. As expected the TMF reliably measured a one-dimensional masculinity-femininity construct. Moreover, the TMF correlated moderately with other gender-related measures. Demonstrating incremental validity, the TMF predicted gender and sexual orientation in a superior way than established adjective-based measures. Furthermore, the TMF was connected to criterion characteristics, such as judgments as straight by laypersons for the whole sample, voice pitch characteristics for the female subsample, and contact to gay men for the male subsample, and outperformed other gender-related scales. Taken together, as long as gender differences continue to exist, we suggest that the TMF provides a valuable methodological addition for research into gender stereotypes.

  6. Black Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt

    1988-01-01

    Examines some aspects of the problem of alcoholism among Blacks, asserting that Black alcoholism can best be considered in an ecological, environmental, sociocultural, and public health context. Notes need for further research on alcoholism among Blacks and for action to reduce the problem of Black alcoholism. (NB)

  7. Black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Brügmann, B.; Ghez, A. M.; Greiner, J.

    2001-01-01

    Recent progress in black hole research is illustrated by three examples. We discuss the observational challenges that were met to show that a supermassive black hole exists at the center of our galaxy. Stellar-size black holes have been studied in x-ray binaries and microquasars. Finally, numerical simulations have become possible for the merger of black hole binaries.

  8. Adjustment and sex-role orientation in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamke, L K

    1982-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to reexamine the relationship between sex-role orientation and self-esteem in adolescence. One hundred and six senior high school students completed the Rosenberg self-esteem measure (Rosenberg, 1965) and two measures of sex-role orientation, the Bem Sex Role Inventory, Short Form (BSRI; Bem, 1981), and the Personal Attributes Questionnaire Short Form (PAQ; Spence et al., 1975). The relationship between sex-role orientation and self-esteem was found to vary depending on the sex-role measure employed. Results of the BSRI revealed that androgynous individuals had higher levels of self-esteem than masculine, feminine, and undifferentiated adolescents. PAQ results indicated that androgynous individuals had higher levels of self-esteem than feminine and undifferentiated individuals. When the independent contributions of masculinity and femininity were assessed, both BSRI and PAQ masculinity and femininity significantly predicted self-esteem. Analyses also revealed that the effects of sex-role orientation on self-esteem varied by sex across both the BSRI and PAQ. Implications of the present findings for previous work on sex-role development in adolescence are discussed.

  9. The Expression of the Femininity and Imperialism : Through comparison study of works of Toshiko Tamura and Myung-soon Kim

    OpenAIRE

    金, 玟妵

    2005-01-01

    Toshiko Tamura and Myung-soon Kim flourished in 1910-20 in Japan and Korea. In those days it was an act of a man to write. The feminine was demanded above all to the thing which a woman wrote by the literary world and the society, so that woman does not invade a domain of a man. A lot of studies about that the motherhood is one of a model of feminine, it was used to mobilize a woman for war, while militarism advances. Then is what kind of position was there the femininity at socially and cult...

  10. Links between femininity ideology and adolescent girls‘ depresive symptoms, self-esteem and subjective life satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Erentaitė, Rasa; Malinauskienė, Oksana

    2012-01-01

    Mokslinė problema. Tyrimai rodo, kad kai kurie paauglių merginų perimamos moteriškumo sampratos aspektai gali būti nepalankūs jų psichikos sveikatai, t. y. būti susiję su aukštesniais psichologinių sunkumų ir žemesniais gerovės rodikliais. Tačiau lieka neaišku, kiek tai aktualu vėlyvojoje paauglystėje, kokie psichologinių sunkumų ir gerovės rodikliai yra susiję su moteriškumo ideologija bei kiek šie ryšiai svarbūs Lietuvos kontekste. Tikslas. Šiame darbe siekiama nustatyti paauglių moteriškum...

  11. Adolescent Pregnancy and Its Delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Lloyd H.

    This paper examines some probable reasons for the black adolescent male's contribution to increased pregnancy in the black community. Using a situation analysis, it presents the following testable suppositions: (1) black males' fear of retribution for impregnating a girl has diminished, leading to increased sexual intercourse and ultimately to…

  12. Gender and Work: Representations of Femininities and Masculinities in the View of Women Brazilian Executives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre de Pádua Carrieri

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to identify and analyze social representations of femininity and masculinity, asreported by women business executives in Brazil. For that, the research resorted to semi-structured interviews of sixty-four executives from seven Brazilian cities. As a technique for data analysis, this research utilized the theoretical and conceptual basis of French discourse analysis. When gender issues become related to the specific qualities of being a woman and a business executive – or to the interfaces that gender may establish with an individual’s work – contradictions may emerge from the construction of a particular thematic. Also, positive and negative aspects of being a female executive exist, namely: (a representations of an executive; (b feminine competency and incompetency; (c dilemmas regarding sensitivity; (d conflicts involving seduction power; (e omissions, prejudice and violence suffered by women at work; and (f motherhood.

  13. Gendered mental disorders: masculine and feminine stereotypes about mental disorders and their relation to stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boysen, Guy; Ebersole, Ashley; Casner, Robert; Coston, Nykhala

    2014-01-01

    Research indicates that stereotypes can intersect. For example, the intersection of stereotypes about gender and mental disorders could result in perceptions of gendered mental disorders. In the current research, Studies 1 and 2 showed that people view specific disorders as being masculine or feminine. The masculine stereotype included antisocial personality disorder, addictions, and paraphilias. The feminine stereotype included eating disorders, histrionic personality disorder, body dysmorphia, and orgasmic disorder. In both studies, the perception of disorders as masculine was positively correlated with stigma. Study 3 showed that the positive correlation between masculinity and stigma also occurred when examining specific symptoms rather than full mental disorders. The findings provide further evidence for the intersection of stereotypes and indicate a novel factor in the understanding of stigma.

  14. Primary amenorrhea in anorexia nervosa: impact on characteristic masculine and feminine traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jessica H; Sisk, Cheryl L; Thornton, Laura M; Brandt, Harry; Crawford, Steven; Fichter, Manfred M; Halmi, Katherine A; Johnson, Craig; Jones, Ian; Kaplan, Allan S; Mitchell, James E; Strober, Michael; Treasure, Janet; Woodside, D Blake; Berrettini, Wade H; Kaye, Walter H; Bulik, Cynthia M; Klump, Kelly L

    2014-01-01

    Animal studies indicate that gonadal hormones at puberty have an effect on the development of masculine and feminine traits. However, it is unknown whether similar processes occur in humans. We examined whether women with anorexia nervosa (AN), who often experience primary amenorrhea, exhibit attenuated feminization in their psychological characteristics in adulthood due to the decrease/absence of gonadal hormones at puberty. Women with AN were compared on a number of psychological characteristics using general linear models on the basis of the presence/absence of primary amenorrhea. Although women with primary amenorrhea exhibited lower anxiety scores than those without primary amenorrhea, in general, results did not provide evidence of attenuated feminization in women with AN with primary amenorrhea. Future research should utilize novel techniques and direct hormone measurement to explore the effects of pubertal gonadal hormones on masculine and feminine traits. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  15. Constructions of masculinity and femininity and sexual risk negotiation practices among women in urban Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiaveh, Daniel Y; Izugbara, Chimaraoke O; Okyerefo, Michael P K; Reysoo, Fenneke; Fayorsey, Clara K

    2015-01-01

    Using qualitative data gathered through in-depth interviews with women in Accra, Ghana, this paper explores narratives of masculinity and femininity and sexual risk negotiation practices among women. While women framed 'proper' masculinity in terms of stereotypical reproductive norms, they also acknowledged the fluidity and multiplicity of masculinities. Femininity was more uniformly characterised in terms of physical attractiveness and beauty, responsibility and reproduction. These features, especially those related to adherence to morally and socially appropriate sexual norms (e.g., menstrual and bodily hygiene, unplanned pregnancy etc.), influenced women's approach to sexual negotiation. Work aiming to support women to negotiate sex safely needs to pay attention to their notions of gender and practices of sexual negotiation.

  16. "I Have to Listen to This Old Body": Femininity and the Aging Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutagumirwa, Sylivia Karen; Bailey, Ajay

    2017-10-13

    This study explores how older women with low socioeconomic status living in rural Tanzania give meaning to their (aging) body in relation to the ideals of femininity. Ten qualitative in-depth interviews and 10 focus group discussions (N = 60) were conducted among women aged 60 and older. The findings reveal that older women perceive their aging body as "a burden." This characterization of the body is linked to the inability of the aging body to live up to the women's gendered lives. The conflict between their physical limitations and the desire to perform gendered tasks (internalized feminine habitus) affect the women's process of self-identification. This led to emotional distress and subsequently threatened their survival and well-being. The results suggest that older women need to be supported through interventions that are tailored to their cultural and socioeconomic context. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America.

  17. The Effect of Masculinity/Femininity and Pupil Size on Rapid, Unconscious Appraisals of Male Facial Attractiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzgerald, Kate

    2007-01-01

    Olsen and Marshuetz (2005) claim that attractiveness is such an important attribute that it can be appraised within 13ms, at an unconscious level. The current study aimed to replicate Olsen and Marshuetz's (2005) findings whilst introducing two previously reported cues of attractiveness as variables; facial masculinity/femininity and pupil size. If Olsen and Marshuetz's (2005) claims were correct, what effect would a variation in the masculinity/femininity or pupil size of a ...

  18. HIV prevalence and demographic determinants of condomless receptive anal intercourse among trans feminine individuals in Beirut, Lebanon

    OpenAIRE

    Rachel L Kaplan; Justine McGowan; Glenn J Wagner

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Growing evidence suggests increased HIV incidence in the Middle East and North Africa among “key populations.” To date, epidemiological data have not accurately included and measured HIV prevalence and risk among trans feminine individuals in the region. Through the lens of the Gender Affirmation Framework, we assessed demographic correlates of risk behaviour and the prevalence of HIV among trans feminine individuals in Lebanon. Methods: Long-chain referral sampling was used to ...

  19. “Having it All” on Social Media: Entrepreneurial Femininity and Self-Branding Among Fashion Bloggers

    OpenAIRE

    Brooke Erin Duffy; Emily Hund

    2015-01-01

    Against the backdrop of the widespread individualization of the creative workforce, various genres of social media production have emerged from the traditionally feminine domains of fashion, beauty, domesticity, and craft. Fashion blogging, in particular, is considered one of the most commercially successful and publicly visible forms of digital cultural production. To explore how fashion bloggers represent their branded personae as enterprising feminine subjects, we conducted a qualitative a...

  20. Differences in beta-cell function and insulin secretion in Black vs. White obese adolescents: Do incretin hormones play a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black youth are at higher risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D) than their White peers. Previously we demonstrated that for the same degree of insulin sensitivity, Black youth have an upregulated beta-cell function and insulin hypersecretion, in response to intravenous (IV) glucose, compared with Whites. T...

  1. Traditional Masculinity and Femininity: Validation of a New Scale Assessing Gender Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachel, Sven; Steffens, Melanie C.; Niedlich, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Gender stereotype theory suggests that men are generally perceived as more masculine than women, whereas women are generally perceived as more feminine than men. Several scales have been developed to measure fundamental aspects of gender stereotypes (e.g., agency and communion, competence and warmth, or instrumentality and expressivity). Although omitted in later version, Bem's original Sex Role Inventory included the items “masculine” and “feminine” in addition to more specific gender-stereotypical attributes. We argue that it is useful to be able to measure these two core concepts in a reliable, valid, and parsimonious way. We introduce a new and brief scale, the Traditional Masculinity-Femininity (TMF) scale, designed to assess central facets of self-ascribed masculinity-femininity. Studies 1–2 used known-groups approaches (participants differing in gender and sexual orientation) to validate the scale and provide evidence of its convergent validity. As expected the TMF reliably measured a one-dimensional masculinity-femininity construct. Moreover, the TMF correlated moderately with other gender-related measures. Demonstrating incremental validity, the TMF predicted gender and sexual orientation in a superior way than established adjective-based measures. Furthermore, the TMF was connected to criterion characteristics, such as judgments as straight by laypersons for the whole sample, voice pitch characteristics for the female subsample, and contact to gay men for the male subsample, and outperformed other gender-related scales. Taken together, as long as gender differences continue to exist, we suggest that the TMF provides a valuable methodological addition for research into gender stereotypes. PMID:27458394

  2. You Are How You Eat? Femininity, Normalization, and Veganism as an Ethical Practice of Freedom

    OpenAIRE

    Megan A. Dean

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I argue that the practice of veganism is, or can be, a Foucauldian ethical practice of freedom. I begin by sketching out the problematization of alimentary practices within a normalizing patriarchal framework, which some feminists argue is dominant within contemporary North American society. Within this problematization, eating—for many women—is a way to manage the body’s appearance and bring it into conformity with feminine norms, and also an ongoing opportunity to exercise the...

  3. Negotiating Middle-class Respectable Femininity: Bangladeshi Women and their Families

    OpenAIRE

    Hussein, Nazia

    2017-01-01

    Using qualitative data, this article explains how affluent urban and new middle-class women in Bangladesh reconstruct the notion of respectable femininity within the family. The normative conception of middle-class women’s respectability is measured against women prioritizing family above work by performing their domestic, care, and socializing roles and by maintaining moral propriety. Using Bourdieu’s theory of capitals and Lamont’s formulation of boundary work, I demonstrate that by reinsta...

  4. Generational Differences in Internalized Transnegativity and Psychological Distress Among Feminine Spectrum Transgender People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Kasey B; Dolezal, Curtis; Bockting, Walter O

    2018-01-01

    This study examined internalized transnegativity and psychological distress in two age groups of transgender individuals who identified their gender identity on the feminine spectrum (rather than congruent with their male sex assigned at birth). Due to greater visibility and acceptance of gender diversity in the United States, we hypothesized that internalized transnegativity would be lower in the younger compared with the older group, and that the younger generation would, therefore, report lower levels of psychological distress than the older generation. The study sample consisted of trans-feminine individuals (N = 440) who completed a online survey of the U.S. transgender population and comprised a younger group aged 18-24 years (n = 133) and an older group aged 40 years and older (n = 307). Internalized transnegativity was assessed using the Transgender Identity Survey, and psychological distress was assessed with the Brief Symptom Inventory 18. We used regression and mediation analysis to examine differences between the two groups. Contrary to our expectations, the older group reported significantly lower levels of both internalized transnegativity and psychological distress compared with the younger group. Internalized transnegativity partially mediated the relationship between age group and psychological distress. Despite greater visibility of transgender people and increasing acceptance of gender diversity in the United States, the younger trans-feminine individuals reported more psychological distress than the older transfeminine individuals, which was, in part, related to internalized transnegativity. Trans-feminine individuals may benefit from culturally sensitive and clinically competent mental health services to alleviate internalized transnegativity and psychological distress.

  5. Gender and work: representations of femininities and masculinities in the view of women brazilian executives

    OpenAIRE

    Carrieri, Alexandre de Pádua; Diniz, Ana Paula Rodrigues; Souza, Eloisio Moulin de; Menezes, Raquel Santos Soares

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to identify and analyze social representations of femininity and masculinity, as reported by women business executives in Brazil. For that, the research resorted to semi-structured interviews of sixty-four executives from seven Brazilian cities. As a technique for data analysis, this research utilized the theoretical and conceptual basis of French discourse analysis. When gender issues become related to the specific qualities of being a woman and a business exec...

  6. Discourses of masculinity, femininity and sexuality in Uganda's Stand Proud, Get Circumcised campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudrum, Sarah; Oliffe, John L; Benoit, Cecilia

    2017-02-01

    This paper analyses discourses of masculinity, femininity and sexuality in Stand Proud, Get Circumcised, a public health campaign promoting circumcision as an HIV-prevention strategy in Uganda. The campaign includes posters highlighting the positive reactions of women to circumcised men, and is intended to support the national rollout of voluntary medical male circumcision. We offer a critical discourse analysis of representations of masculinity, femininity and sexuality in relation to HIV prevention. The campaign materials have a playful feel and, in contrast to ABC (Abstain, Be faithful, Use condoms) campaigns, acknowledge the potential for pre-marital and extra-marital sex. However, these posters exploit male anxieties about appearance and performance, drawing on hegemonic masculinity to promote circumcision as an idealised body aesthetic. Positioning women as the campaign's face reasserts a message that women are the custodians of family health and simultaneously perpetuates a norm of estrangement between men and their health. The wives' slogan, 'we have less chance of getting HIV', is misleading, because circumcision only directly prevents female-to-male HIV transmission. Reaffirming hegemonic notions of appearance- and performance-based heterosexual masculinity reproduces existing unsafe norms about masculinity, femininity and sexuality. In selling male circumcision, the posters fail to promote an overall HIV-prevention message.

  7. The Grey Zone of Subjectivity. Phenomenology of the feminine body in Emmanuel Lévinas's thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Adamiak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of a "woman figure" by Emmanuel Lévinas, is an example, in which the notions of "masculinity" and "femininity" serve to determine the character of a certain proposition of a Subject. Lévinas introduced sexual characteristics into the neutral subject, yet he is incon-sistent in his treatment of the idea of a Woman and, moreover, he assigned subjectivity to a single gender: the masculine. Nonetheless, the criticism of Lévinas’s model of femininity from a feminist viewpoint is neither simple nor clear. Lévinas continually evades such criticism. He re-established the body and sensuality as key aspects of meeting with the Other. And also, he criticizes the Western ontological tradition as a theoretical source of violence against the Other, since – as he claims – on a high level of abstraction it appears that thematisation itself is a violence. At the same time, Lévinas proposes ontology of a "woman". In relation to this, one needs to ask the question: why does Lévinas, whilst stating the need to be freed from ontology, at the same time create an ontological woman? And additionally, what are the philo-sophical and ethical consequences of the phenomenology of femininity that are presented by Lévinas?

  8. Hispanic Adolescent Fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darabi, Katherine F.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Discusses fertility of Hispanic adolescents in the United States. Summarizes what is known about sexuality, contraception, pregnancy, and childbearing among male and female Hispanics of various countries of origin. Indicates Hispanic adolescent birthrates fall between those of non-Hispanic Whites and Blacks, but there is considerable within-group…

  9. Black Tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mental alertness as well as learning, memory, and information processing skills. It is also used for treating headache; ... of carbamazepine. Since black tea contains caffeine, in theory taking black tea with carbamazepine might decrease the ...

  10. Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Townsend, P. K.

    1997-01-01

    This paper is concerned with several not-quantum aspects of black holes, with emphasis on theoretical and mathematical issues related to numerical modeling of black hole space-times. Part of the material has a review character, but some new results or proposals are also presented. We review the experimental evidence for existence of black holes. We propose a definition of black hole region for any theory governed by a symmetric hyperbolic system of equations. Our definition reproduces the usu...

  11. Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Horowitz, Gary T.; Teukolsky, Saul A.

    1998-01-01

    Black holes are among the most intriguing objects in modern physics. Their influence ranges from powering quasars and other active galactic nuclei, to providing key insights into quantum gravity. We review the observational evidence for black holes, and briefly discuss some of their properties. We also describe some recent developments involving cosmic censorship and the statistical origin of black hole entropy.

  12. The effects of black garlic ethanol extract on the spatial memory and estimated total number of pyramidal cells of the hippocampus of monosodium glutamate-exposed adolescent male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermawati, Ery; Sari, Dwi Cahyani Ratna; Partadiredja, Ginus

    2015-09-01

    Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is believed to exert deleterious effects on various organs, including the hippocampus, likely via the oxidative stress pathway. Garlic (Alium sativum L.), which is considered to possess potent antioxidant activity, has been used as traditional remedy for various ailments since ancient times. We have investigated the effects of black garlic, a fermented form of garlic, on spatial memory and estimated the total number of pyramidal cells of the hippocampus in adolescent male Wistar rats treated with MSG. Twenty-five rats were divided into five groups: C- group, which received normal saline; C+ group, which was exposed to 2 mg/g body weight (bw) of MSG; three treatment groups (T2.5, T5, T10), which were treated with black garlic extract (2.5, 5, 10 mg/200 g bw, respectively) and MSG. The spatial memory test was carried out using the Morris water maze (MWM) procedure, and the total number of pyramidal cells of the hippocampus was estimated using the physical disector design. The groups treated with black garlic extract were found to have a shorter path length than the C- and C+ groups in the escape acquisition phase of the MWM test. The estimated total number of pyramidal cells in the CA1 region of the hippocampus was higher in all treated groups than that of the C+ group. Based on these results, we conclude that combined administration of black garlic and MSG may alter the spatial memory functioning and total number of pyramidal neurons of the CA1 region of the hippocampus of rats.

  13. Involvement in Child Rearing and Firm Control Parenting by Male Cohabiting Partners in Black Low-Income Stepfamilies: Forecasting Adolescent Problem Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forehand, Rex; Parent, Justin; Golub, Andrew; Reid, Megan; Lafko, Nicole

    2015-09-01

    Cohabitation is a family structure that is rapidly increasing in the United States. The current longitudinal study examined the interplay of involvement in a youth's daily activities and firm control parenting by male cohabiting partners (MCPs) on change in adolescents' internalizing and externalizing problems. In a sample of 111 inner-city African American families, adolescents reported on involvement and parenting by MCPs at Wave 1 and biological mothers reported on adolescent problem behaviors at Waves 1 and 2. A significant interaction indicated that low involvement and low firm control by MCPs at Wave 1 were associated with the highest level of internalizing problems at Wave 2. An interaction did not emerge when externalizing problems served as the outcome. The findings indicate that male partners play an important role in parenting adolescents in cohabiting families and should be considered potential participants in prevention and intervention programs. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Raising Black Children. Two Leading Psychiatrists Confront the Educational, Social, and Emotional Problems Facing Black Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, James P.; Poussaint, Alvin F.

    This book responds to nearly 1,000 commonly asked questions concerning a child's development from infancy to adolescence, as it applies to black children. Common parental concerns are discussed from sibling rivalry to setting a curfew, as well as advice for parents and teachers who must foster healthy self-esteem in black children living within a…

  15. Red is Romantic, but Only for Feminine Females: Sexual Dimorphism Moderates Red Effect on Sexual Attraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangfang Wen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous researchers have documented that the color red enhances one's sexual attraction to the opposite sex. The current study further examined the moderating role of sexual dimorphism in red effects. The results indicated that red enhanced men's sexual attraction to women with more feminine facial characteristics but had no effect on ratings of perceived general attractiveness. Red clothing also had a marginally significant effect on men's sexual attractiveness. In addition, regardless of sexual dimorphism cues, male participants rated women with red as warmer and more competent. The underlying mechanisms of the red effect, the limitations of the current study, and suggestions for future directions are discussed.

  16. Interactions between masculinity--femininity and apparent health in face preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Finlay G. Smith; Benedict C. Jones; Lisa M. DeBruine; Anthony C. Little

    2009-01-01

    Consistent with Getty's (2002. Signaling health versus parasites. Am Nat. 159:363--371.) proposal that cues to long-term health and cues to current condition are at least partly independent, recent research on human face preferences has found divergent effects of masculinity--femininity, a cue to long-term health, and apparent health, a cue to current condition. In light of this, we tested for interactions between these 2 cues. Participants viewed composite images of opposite-sex faces that h...

  17. The Thought of Emmanuel Lévinas: An Open Philosophy to the Feminine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magali Mendes de Menezes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present text intends to cover three important works by the philosopher Emmanuel Lévinas – De l’existence à l’existant, Le temps et l’autre, Totalité et infinit – in order to understand how the concept of feminine appear in his reflections and what meanings it assumes before the subject (understood by Lévinas as the masculine, the subjectivity and before the thought on ethics, considered by the philosopher as the first philosophy.

  18. Mapping Femininity as Self-reflection Strategy in Lady Mary Wortley Montagu’s Travel Letters

    OpenAIRE

    Amelia Precup

    2017-01-01

    The present paper participates in the discussion about the differences between masculine and feminine modes of travel in terms of interests, perception, and representation, by exploring the Letters of the Right Honourable Lady M--y W--y M--e Written during Her Travels in Europe, Asia and Africa, by Lady Mary Wortley Montagu. As a traveller, Lady Mary engaged in the contemplation of cultural landscapes: she attempted to understand the social logic of the communities she met and to assess the c...

  19. Feminine anthroponyms in 13th-century Scotland: the Ragman Roll (1296

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Di Clemente

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The documents known as Ragman Roll collect the fealty oaths sworn and the homages rendered by Scottish nobility, clergy, landowners and burgesses to Edward I Plantagenet after the English invasion of Scotland in the spring and summer of 1296. These documents record personal names and surnames of ca. 1800 people, being a precious source for the study of Scottish anthroponymy in the second half of the 13th century. This paper focuses on the feminine anthroponyms occurring in the Ragman Roll, on their form and on their historical-etymological and cultural background.

  20. Foreign Relations: Figuring Faith and Femininity in the Age of Rubens

    OpenAIRE

    Lyon, Jamie Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Foreign Relations: Figuring Faith and Femininity in the Age of Rubens by Jamie Vanessa LyonDoctor of Philosophy in History of ArtUniversity of California, Berkeley Professor Elizabeth Honig, ChairThe first part of my title, Foreign Relations, is meant to conjure up the many valences of this phrase in the life and works of Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640). On the most obvious level, it points to his part time employment as a multi-linguistic diplomat negotiating peace on behalf of the ...

  1. Black Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Khristin Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united.  The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape from poverty of enslavement and to establish a way of life through tradition. A way of personal freedoms was through getting a good education that lead to a better foundation and a better way of life.

  2. Influence of gender role orientation (masculinity versus femininity) on body satisfaction and eating attitudes in homosexuals, heterosexuals and transsexuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cella, Stefania; Iannaccone, Mara; Cotrufo, Paolo

    2013-06-01

    The primary aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between gender role orientation and eating disorder attitudes and behaviors and body dissatisfaction in a sample of homosexuals, heterosexuals, and transsexuals. We screened 132 homosexuals, 178 heterosexuals (both male and female), and 15 MtF transsexuals by means of an ad hoc socio-demographic schedule; the Eating Disorders Inventory-2 and Symptom Checklist; the Body Uneasiness Test and the Bem Sex Role Inventory. Differences between homosexual, heterosexual, and transsexual participants emerged, but those data seem to be best explained by the constructs of femininity and masculinity than by the biological gender. The empirical evidence of a positive correlation between femininity and eating problems, and the negative correlation between masculinity and eating problems, is full of implications. Eating disorders appear to be diseases of femininity; masculinity seems to be a protective factor, independently by the biological gender.

  3. The influence of gender stereotypes on eating habits among Costa Rican adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Rojas, Rafael; Fuster-Baraona, Tamara; Garita, Carlos; Sánchez, Marta; Smith-Castro, Vanesa; Valverde-Cerros, Oscar; Colon-Ramos, Uriyoán

    2015-01-01

    To identify the influence of gender stereotypes on eating habits among Costa Rican adolescents. Qualitative, descriptive research was used in this study. Adolescents and parents were recruited from socioeconomically diverse populations in rural and urban areas of San José, Costa Rica. Subjects were 92 adolescents (14 to 17 years old) and 48 parents. Focus group data were transcribed and entered into the qualitative data analysis software Atlas.ti version 5.0. Analyses were grounded on the social cognitive theory. Five themes emerged from the focus group discussions: (1) Costa Rican adolescents associate the consumption of moderate quantities of healthy foods with femininity and male homosexuality. (2) The consumption of hearty portions of nonhealthy foods was associated with masculinity and male heterosexuality. (3) There is an emerging view that it is acceptable for heterosexual male adolescents to take care of their bodies through healthy eating. (4) Body care among female adolescents is an element of femininity and body image. (5) Parents reinforce their daughters' persistent concern with weight control because they perceive it as feminine behavior. Health promoters should be aware of the existing and changing food stereotypes around gender as an avenue for the promotion of healthy eating.

  4. FEMININE FOREVER?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    ously known as menopausal hormone replacement therapy. In this article .... nounced with advancing age, obesity and previous VTE. ... years of treatment. No secondary protection against CAD. CAD in premenopausal women is less common than in men. After meno- pause, CAD is the most common cause of death in ...

  5. Feminine courage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, L.

    1999-01-01

    This is a first hand account of working conditions and some of the hardships that female labourers on a seismic crew, working under all kinds of weather conditions, have to endure to overcome gender stereotypes. The objective is not to lay blame or making retribution, but to begin discussion of the gender issue in the oil and gas industry, and to make a positive difference in the workplace of the future

  6. Feminine courage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, L.

    1999-04-01

    This is a first hand account of working conditions and some of the hardships that female labourers on a seismic crew, working under all kinds of weather conditions, have to endure to overcome gender stereotypes. The objective is not to lay blame or making retribution, but to begin discussion of the gender issue in the oil and gas industry, and to make a positive difference in the workplace of the future.

  7. The Haunting Presence of the Feminine: Virginia Woolf in the Streets of London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Pantuchowicz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Beginning with the theme of the location of haunting in Gothic interiors and the confusion of life and death and the “sub-central” positioning of the feminine as the hidden source of fearfulness, the paper analyzes Virginia Woolf’s “Street Haunting: A London Adventure” as an example of a narrative written from the position of the haunting in which the figure of fearful feminine is transformed into a “hauntess” participating in the public world on equal rights with others. Woolf’s text, though seemingly positing the protagonist in the position of flâneuse, in fact implicitly criticizes flâneuring as a masculine kind of looking and participating in the public space. Taking place away from home, Woolf’s strolling in the streets of London carnivalizes (in the Bakhtinian sense the activity by way of a joyful blurring of the split between the home and the market. Transgressing what Kathryn Simpson calls “the male privilege of the flâneur” (2010, p. 47 and rendering the transgression as haunting, Woolf evades participation in the masculine world of traffic and exchange by way of bringing the space of the Gothic confinement, and also of entombment, to the public.

  8. Effort analysis of gender differences in cardiovascular response: Further evidence involving a traditionally feminine incentive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Patricia; Wright, Rex A; Krubinski, Kimberlee; Molzof, Hylton; Hur, Jinwoo

    2015-07-01

    Participants were presented a moderately- or impossibly difficult cumulative mental addition task with instructions that they could win a traditionally feminine- or masculine incentive if they achieved a 90% success rate. When the incentive was feminine, systolic blood pressure responses during the task period were stronger under moderately difficult conditions among women, but low irrespective of difficulty among men - creating a gender difference only when difficulty was moderate. By contrast, when the incentive was masculine, systolic-, mean arterial- and, to a lesser degree, diastolic blood pressure responses during the task period were stronger under moderately difficult conditions irrespective of gender. The former finding confirmed expectations and adds substantively to the body of evidence favoring a recent effort analysis of gender influence on CV response to performance challenge. The latter findings conflict with what was first expected, but can be understood in terms of post hoc reasoning extended in light of participants' ratings of the masculine incentive. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Preference for leaders with masculine voices holds in the case of feminine leadership roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Rindy C; Klofstad, Casey A

    2012-01-01

    Human voice pitch research has focused on perceptions of attractiveness, strength, and social dominance. Here we examine the influence of pitch on selection of leaders, and whether this influence varies by leadership role. Male and female leaders with lower-pitched (i.e., masculine) voices are generally preferred by both men and women. We asked whether this preference shifts to favor higher-pitch (i.e., feminine) voices within the specific context of leadership positions that are typically held by women (i.e., feminine leadership roles). In hypothetical elections for two such positions, men and women listened to pairs of male and female voices that differed only in pitch, and were asked which of each pair they would vote for. As in previous studies, men and women preferred female candidates with masculine voices. Likewise, men preferred men with masculine voices. Women, however, did not discriminate between male voices. Overall, contrary to research showing that perceptions of voice pitch can be influenced by social context, these results suggest that the influence of voice pitch on perceptions of leadership capacity is largely consistent across different domains of leadership.

  10. Basic requirements for the successful implementation of the “feminine leadership” style in Croatian enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Pološki

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The “feminine leadership” style, characterized by cooperation, participation, sharing of power and information, teamwork, energizing others, enhancing self-worth of others, etc., is a leadership style of the future. As such, it has to be highly used in today’s organizations. Furthermore, many contemporary surveys have shown that women are primary holders of the “feminine leadership” style. That is why today’s organizations should hire more women, especially for management jobs. However, although there are many objective factors that force organizations to offer more employment to women, there are still many obstacles that have to be overcome so that more women could be taken on board. For example, prejudices about women’s status and role in society, cultural prejudices, traditional educational schemes and organizational obstacles are the serious constraints that prevent women from entering the labor and management force. Fortunately, as a result of the globalization and the development of the information and communication technologies, the organizational values and attitudes toward women are changing. The new and improved thinking and acting philosophy toward women in organizations, and better organizational policies, programs and processes concerning women have become a necessity.

  11. Repair of the threatened feminine identity: experience of women with cervical cancer undergoing fertility preservation surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Hiroko; Yagasaki, Kaori; Shoda, Rie; Chung, Younghui; Iwata, Takashi; Sugiyama, Juri; Fujii, Takuma

    2014-01-01

    Fertility preservation is important for women of reproductive age with cervical cancer. The underlying reasons behind suboptimal reproductive results after successful fertility-preserving surgery have not yet been fully revealed. The objective of this study was to explore the experience of fertility preservation with radical trachelectomy from the perspective of women with cervical cancer. We conducted interviews with women with cervical cancer who underwent radical trachelectomy using a Grounded Theory methodology with a theoretical framework of symbolic interactionism. Our findings articulate a process in which feminine identity is first threatened by a diagnosis of cancer, then repaired by fertility preservation with radical trachelectomy, and finally reconstructed after the surgery, through interactions with self, others, and external events in women with cervical cancer. Feeling incomplete as a woman because of the loss of the uterus was a critical factor in the women's feeling that their feminine identity was threatened. Thus, fertility preservation was significant for these women. The meaning of fertility preservation varied among the women, and their life perspectives were therefore distinct after the surgery. Women with cervical cancer who undergo radical trachelectomy experience an identity transformation process, and child bearing is not the only expected outcome of fertility preservation. Nurses should coordinate care through the cancer trajectory. Understanding the identity transformation process helps nurses to assess patients' needs and provide appropriate individual care.

  12. "What do these women want?": Feminist responses to Feminine Forever, 1963-1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houck, Judith A

    2003-01-01

    In 1963, Brooklyn gynecologist Robert A. Wilson and his wife, Thelma, published a paper in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society arguing that untreated menopause robbed women of their femininity and ruined the quality of their lives. In 1966 Robert Wilson published a best-selling book, Feminine Forever, in which he maintained that menopause was an estrogen-deficiency disease that should be treated with estrogen replacement therapy to prevent the otherwise inevitable "living decay." This paper explores the issues raised by the convergence of Wilson's campaign and the emergence of the women's movement. Between 1963 and 1980, feminists did not respond with one voice to Wilson's ideas: at first, some embraced them as a boon for aging women, while others resisted regarding female aging as pathological. In 1975, studies linking ERT and endometrial cancer challenged the wisdom of routine hormone therapy; this shifted the tenor of the feminist discussion, but it did not create a consensus about the meaning of menopause or its treatment. Nevertheless, the feminist discussion of menopause revealed a larger women's health agenda-namely, the unyielding belief that women should retain control of their bodies and participate fully in the decision-making efforts regarding their health. By controlling their bodies, all women, whether feminist or not, could ultimately control their lives.

  13. "Lesbians are not women": feminine and lesbian sensibilities in Harmony Hammond's late-1970s sculpture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Margo Hobbs

    2008-01-01

    Harmony Hammond's wrapped fabric sculptures are placed in context of the theories of gender and sexuality that circulated among lesbian and straight feminists at the time they were made, the late 1970s. Hammond has cited in particular Monique Wittig's novels, such as The Lesbian Body, and her essays including "The Straight Mind" where Wittig concludes that the lesbian is not a woman. The critique to which Wittig's lesbian separatism has been subjected by Judith Butler in her consideration of the appeal and limitations of essentialism also applies to Hammond's art. Hammond's use of vaginal imagery was instrumental to visualizing a lesbian sensibility, but the proposition of such a sensibility established a new problematic: a new essential category. The article concludes that because Hammond's work was produced in the context of a complex set of discourses, lesbian, feminist, and aesthetic, it resisted reduction to a singular meaning. Her sculptures avoided the pitfall of substituting one essence for another, lesbian for feminine sensibility, but activated both. The sculptures effectively queered vaginal imagery: When Hammond used vaginal imagery to represent lesbian sensibility, she subverted the equation of sex and gender and the essentialist notion of feminine sensibility.

  14. Following the Traces of Feminine Writing in Adrienne Rich’s Poems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nodeh Soghra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The phallogocentric structure of language privileges the male in construction of meaning throughout the patriarchal history which allows no place for feminine writing. Opposing what Lacan calls as phallogocentric discourse, poststructuralist feminists exhort to what Cixous terms as “écriture feminine” as the inscription of female difference in language and text. Therefore, viewing women's difference as a source (of imagery rather than a point of inferiority to men, Rich rediscovers female experiences in her poems through using “écriture feminine” and thus exhibits the productivity and plurality of women’s language. Hence, the present study, looking from the perspective of Cixous’s “écriture feminine,” aims at analyzing female modes of writing in Rich’s poems. The main finding of the research is that, through using genuine female forms of expression as opposed to phallogocentric structure of expression, Rich brings into being the symbolic weight of female consciousness, illustrating the oppressive forces that obstruct female expression.

  15. Erfolgreiche Ambivalenz. Sarah Bernhardts Inszenierungen von Weiblichkeit Successful Ambivalence: Sarah Bernhardt’s Staging of Femininity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Kolesch

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Claudia Thorun untersucht die Inszenierungen von Weiblichkeit am Beispiel der Schauspielerin Sarah Bernhardt, die im späten 19. und beginnenden 20. Jahrhundert zu den erfolgreichsten Künstlerinnen ihrer Zeit gehörte. Dazu werden die Darstellungen ausgewählter Rollenfiguren ebenso analysiert wie die schauspieltheoretischen Überlegungen Bernhardts und schließlich die Rezeption ihres Schaffens in Theaterkritiken, aber auch Werbebildern und Medieninszenierungen. Das lesenswerte Buch erlaubt Einblicke in konkrete theatrale Verkörperungen von Weiblichkeit im Fin de Siècle, unternimmt jedoch keine ausreichende theatergeschichtliche wie kulturwissenschaftliche Kontextualisierung, obwohl die Verfasserin in der Einleitung ihrer Studie das Ziel formuliert, Gendertheorie, Theatergeschichte und Kulturwissenschaft zu verknüpfen.Claudia Thorun examines the staging of femininity using the example of the actress Sarah Bernhardt, who in the late nineteenth century was among the most successful artists of her time. The study includes analyses of the representation of specific roles, Bernhardt’s theories on acting, and finally the reception of her work in theater critiques, as well as advertisement images and representations in the media. The book, which is a worthwhile read, allows for insight into the concrete theatrical embodiment of femininity at the fin de siècle. It does not provide, however, adequate contextualization within theater history nor cultural studies, even though in her introduction, the author asserts that it is her intention to link together gender theory, theater history, and cultural studies.

  16. Preference for leaders with masculine voices holds in the case of feminine leadership roles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rindy C Anderson

    Full Text Available Human voice pitch research has focused on perceptions of attractiveness, strength, and social dominance. Here we examine the influence of pitch on selection of leaders, and whether this influence varies by leadership role. Male and female leaders with lower-pitched (i.e., masculine voices are generally preferred by both men and women. We asked whether this preference shifts to favor higher-pitch (i.e., feminine voices within the specific context of leadership positions that are typically held by women (i.e., feminine leadership roles. In hypothetical elections for two such positions, men and women listened to pairs of male and female voices that differed only in pitch, and were asked which of each pair they would vote for. As in previous studies, men and women preferred female candidates with masculine voices. Likewise, men preferred men with masculine voices. Women, however, did not discriminate between male voices. Overall, contrary to research showing that perceptions of voice pitch can be influenced by social context, these results suggest that the influence of voice pitch on perceptions of leadership capacity is largely consistent across different domains of leadership.

  17. "I Would Just like to Be Known as an Athlete": Managing Hegemony, Femininity, and Heterosexuality in Female Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mean, Lindsey J.; Kassing, Jeffrey W.

    2008-01-01

    The community of sport is a powerful site for the construction of masculinity, male identities, and heterosexuality. Consequently, the increased entry of women into the sporting arena has been actively resisted, with women athletes either excluded or framed within traditional, sexualized discourses of femininity and heterosexuality. Yet Title IX…

  18. Individual differences in personality masculinity-femininity: Examining the effects of genes, environment, and prenatal hormone transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, K.J.H.; Mosing, M.A.; Ullén, F.; Madison, G.

    2016-01-01

    Males and females score differently on some personality traits, but the underlying etiology of these differences is not well understood. This study examined genetic, environmental, and prenatal hormonal influences on individual differences in personality masculinity-femininity (M-F). We used

  19. Gender and stress : is gender role stress? A reexamination of the relationship between feminine gender role stress and eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, M.H.J.; Boselie, A.H.M.

    2002-01-01

    The present study was, first, aimed at examining the relationship between eating disorders, feminine gender role stress and other types of stress. In addition, we investigated whether eating disordered women compared to non-clinical controls use depressogenic coping more often. We hypothesized that

  20. Examining the Gender Identity of Language Teachers Using a Masculinity-Femininity Scale: A Case from Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pishghadam, Reza; Saboori, Fahime; Samavarchi, Laila; Hassanzadeh, Tahereh

    2016-01-01

    The present study pursued two goals: first, to construct and validate a masculinity/femininity scale (MFS); and second, to reveal and compare the dominant gender identity of English, Arabic, and Persian teachers. Regarding the first goal, a 30- item gender identity scale was designed and, using the data collected from 300 junior high school…

  1. "Spice Girls,""Nice Girls,""Girlies," and "Tomboys": Gender Discourses, Girls' Cultures and Femininities in the Primary Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reay, Diane

    2001-01-01

    Suggests that contemporary gendered power relations are complex, highlighting female British elementary students who assumed varied positions in relation to traditional femininities, though they all occasionally bolstered boys' power at the expense of their own. Students viewed girls as harder working, more mature, and more socially skilled, yet…

  2. "You Better Not Get Pregnant while You're Here": Tensions between Masculinities and Femininities in Military Communities of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Using a life history approach, this article explores the ways in which women in the military who are also mothers learn to embody various masculinities and femininities as they negotiate workplace gender processes. Complex intersections of gendered communities of practice result in the participants' learning to variously understand, accept, shape…

  3. Wanting to See People Like Me? Racial and Gender Diversity in Popular Adolescent Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellithorpe, Morgan E; Bleakley, Amy

    2016-07-01

    Media are one source for adolescent identity development and social identity gratifications. Nielsen viewing data across the 2014-2015 television season for adolescents ages 14-17 was used to examine racial and gender diversity in adolescent television exposure. Compared to US Census data, mainstream shows under represent women, but the proportion of Black characters is roughly representative. Black adolescents watch more television than non-Black adolescents and, after taking this into account, shows popular with Black adolescents are more likely than shows popular with non-Black adolescents to exhibit racial diversity. In addition, shows popular with female adolescents are more likely than shows popular with males to exhibit gender diversity. These results support the idea that adolescents seek out media messages with characters that are members of their identity groups, possibly because the characters serve as tools for identity development and social identity gratifications.

  4. Wanting to See People Like Me? Racial and Gender Diversity in Popular Adolescent Television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellithorpe, Morgan E.; Bleakley, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Media are one source for adolescent identity development and social identity gratifications. Nielsen viewing data across the 2014–2015 television season for adolescents ages 14–17 was used to examine racial and gender diversity in adolescent television exposure. Compared to U.S. Census data, mainstream shows underrepresent women, but the proportion of Black characters is roughly representative. Black adolescents watch more television than non-Black adolescents and, after taking this into account, shows popular with Black adolescents are more likely than shows popular with non-Black adolescents to exhibit racial diversity. In addition, shows popular with female adolescents are more likely than shows popular with males to exhibit gender diversity. These results support the idea that adolescents seek out media messages with characters that are members of their identity groups, possibly because the characters serve as tools for identity development and social identity gratifications. PMID:26759131

  5. Tackling femininity: the heterosexual paradigm and women's soccer in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engh, Mari Haugaa

    2011-01-01

    Sport is a social institution that perpetuates gendered ideologies in the wider society through appealing to discourses of the naturalness of men's privilege and domination in society. Heteronormativity regulates the roles, behaviours, appearances and sexualities of, and relationships between and among, women and men. Moreover, heteronormative discourses normalise a particular relationship between sex, gender and sexuality that posits woman/feminine/heterosexual (and man/masculine/heterosexual) as a natural order from which variance is considered a punishable deviance. This paper outlines the effects of heteronormative discourses in the lives of women footballers in South Africa, through drawing on interviews with a wide range of women footballers. The paper shows how heteronormative discourses nurture homophobic attitudes that serve to regulate the appearances and performances of South African women.

  6. Intimate violence, family, and femininity: women's narratives on their construction of violence and self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Nishi

    2013-10-01

    In the context of a high threshold for violence in everyday living and the cultural value of the institution of family, this article looks at women's narratives from counseling settings in India to comment on the cultural processes of explaining and rationalizing domestic violence that silence women. Definitions of femininity, marriage, and motherhood in India that are hinged on women's responsibility toward holding a family together have obstructed an understanding of women's individual rights and of violations of these rights. There is need to address both the public and professionals on the specific nature of domestic violence, and its ideological and structural context for creating recognition of the issue as a major social problem.

  7. Images, femininity and cancer: an analysis of an international patient education programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    This article is an analysis of a cancer patient education programme run by cosmetic companies. I focus on an analysis of imagery, arguing that there are particular discursive elements that the cosmetic companies use in order to make productive the relationship between femininity and cancer. I contextualize this education programme by presenting the controversies regarding cosmetics as they relate to the growth of breast tumours. In doing so, I conclude that conversations and questions about a link between chemicals and cancer are subverted by both ;horror' narratives of cancer and the provocative use of standards of beauty. Such discursive dominance in patient education programmes makes it difficult to engage in a more public understanding of cancer growth as affected by cosmetic chemicals.

  8. Social interactions and play patterns of parents and toddlers with feminine, masculine, and neutral toys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldera, Y M; Huston, A C; O'Brien, M

    1989-02-01

    Children as young as 18 months display sex-stereotyped toy choices. The present study was designed to determine whether parents encourage involvement with sex-stereotyped toys or avoidance of cross-sex-stereotyped toys and to determine whether masculine and feminine toys lead to different patterns of parent-child interaction, regardless of gender. 40 parent-toddler dyads were videotaped while playing with 6 different sets of sex-stereotyped toys. Equal numbers of boys and girls were observed with mothers and fathers. The children showed greater involvement when playing with same-sex-typed toys than with cross-sex toys even when statistically controlling for parents' behaviors. Parents' verbal behaviors, involvement, and proximity to the child differed across toy groups, regardless of the parent's or child's gender. Parents' initial nonverbal responses to the toys, however, were more positive when the toys were stereotyped for the child's and parent's gender than when they were not.

  9. THE DREAM OF OEDIPUS AWAKENING: INCEST AND FEMININITY IN BEGOVIĆ’S MYRRHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanja Budišćak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper attempts to give a psychoanalytic and feminist reading of one of the most intriguing, but less known Milan Begović’s plays – Myrrha. The motif of dream, incest and the position of woman in Begović’s first dramatic text are observed through the lens of the famous Freud’s writings on femininity and dreams, but also thoughts, current at the time, about the distinctions between men and women and sex-gender conditions (identity presented in a study by the Viennese philosopher Otto Weininger. The reading of Myrrha will start from the context of Begović’s extensive dramatic work, and special emphasis will be given to the central female figure which anticipates later Begović’s creative obsession with women and their status in the (contemporary patriarchal surrounding.

  10. Gendering Prayer: Millennial-generation Catholics and the Embodiment of Feminine Genius and Authentic Masculinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Anne Dugan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the relationship between prayer practices and gendered subjectivity among a group of millennial-generation Catholic men and women. Drawing on ethnographic work, this case study illuminates the role of prayer in shaping how, why, and with what sorts of struggles young and culturally-savvy women and men embodied gender complementarity in the twenty-first century U.S. This article proposes gendering prayer as an analytic for understanding how prayer cultivated these Catholics in the habits of feminine genius and authentic masculinity. By comparing women’s and men’s practices, I argue that these young adults were flourishing in the modern world, even as they rejected egalitarian gender roles in favor of multiple modes of submission within gender essentialism. This work contributes to anthropological scholarship focused on gender performance in daily Catholic life.

  11. Promiscuity is related to masculine and feminine body traits in both men and women: evidence from Brazilian and Czech samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varella, Marco Antonio Correa; Valentova, Jaroslava Varella; Pereira, Kamila Janaina; Bussab, Vera Silvia Raad

    2014-11-01

    One of the possible explanations for human within-sex variation in promiscuity stems from conditional strategies dependent on the level of body sex-dimorphism. There is some evidence that masculine men and feminine women are more promiscuous than their sex-atypical counterparts, although mixed results persist. Moreover, another line of evidence shows that more promiscuous women are rather sex-atypical. We tested whether diverse sex-dimorphic body measures (2D:4D, WHR/WSR, handgrip strength, and height and weight) influence sociosexual desires, attitudes, promiscuous behavior, and age of first intercourse in a sex-typical or sex-atypical direction. Participants were 185 young adults, 51 men and 54 women from Brazil, and 40 men and 40 women from the Czech Republic. In men stronger handgrip and more feminine 2D:4D predicted higher sociosexual behaviors, desires, and lower age of the first sexual intercourse. While in women, sociosexual desires were predicted by lower handgrip strength and more feminine 2D:4D. It thus seems that it is rather a mixture of masculine and feminine traits in men, and feminine traits in women that increase their sociosexuality. Masculine traits (height) predicting female promiscuous behavior were specific for only one population. In conclusion, a mosaic combination of sex-typical but also sex-atypical independent body traits can lead to higher promiscuity, particularly in men. Limitations, implications, and future directions for research are considered. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neotropical Behaviour. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Compassion as the reunion of feminine and masculine virtues in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramesh, Kiarash

    2017-01-01

    The central role of the virtue of compassion in the shaping of the professional character of healthcare providers is a well-emphasized fact. On the other hand, the utmost obligation of physicians is to alleviate or eliminate human suffering. Traditionally, according to the Aristotelian understanding of virtues and virtue ethics, human virtues have been associated with masculinity. In recent decades, the founders of the ethics of care have introduced a set of virtues with feminine nature. This paper analyzes the notion of compassion as a common virtue between the traditional/masculine and care/feminine sets of virtues and shows that compassion is a reunion and merging point of both sets of human virtues. This role can be actualized through the development and promotion of compassion as an important part of the character of an ideal physician/healthcare provider. In addition, this paper argues that the notion of compassion can shed light on some important aspects of the contemporary debates on healthcare provider-patient relationship and medical futility. Despite the recent technological and scientific transformations in medicine, the interpersonal relationship between healthcare providers and patients still plays a vital role in pursuing the goals of healthcare. The virtue of compassion plays a central role in the establishment of a trust-based physician-patient relationship. This central role is discernible in the debate of medical futility in which making difficult decisions, depends largely on trust and rapport which are achievable by compassion in the physician and the recognition of this compassion by the patients and their surrogate decision makers.

  13. The Crisis in Black and Black.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Earl Ofari

    These essays explore why the historic conflict between blacks and whites in the United States has become a crisis that divides many African Americans. The changing racial dynamic is not marked by conflicts. between the black middle class and the poor, black men and women, the black intellectual elite and rappers, black politicians and the urban…

  14. Communicating with adolescents

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-05-18

    May 18, 2008 ... theories concur that adolescence is a distinct developmental period characterised by ... Thus the initial self-righteous black-and- white thinking of early ... their daughter temporarily needs to hole herself up in her dirty room ...

  15. Femineidad: segregación y lazos Femininity: segregation and relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Andrea Karpel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Precisamente, en el punto en que lo femenino no hace clase, la identificación histérica deja un resto; lo inimitable de la Otra, que se vuelve causa para cada una. S. Freud señalaba que las chicas del internado hacían síntoma, todas, por la carta del amado que una recibía; en una identificación histérica que situaba la pregunta por los misterios femeninos que causan el deseo de un hombre. Nos preguntamos cómo "pasa", o no, lo femenino en estos tiempos de declive de la función paterna, qué particularidades introduce en los lazos, esta época de prevalencia de consumos autistas de objetos tóxicos y de imágenes, centrando esta pregunta en particular respecto de las jóvenes. Intentaremos situar, para ello, una lectura posible de un fenómeno de segregación actual que en ámbitos educativos de otros países y del nuestro llaman "bullying", y que suele tomar la modalidad de pandillas de chicas que se unen para desgarrar brutalmente el rostro de otra, en un pasaje al acto donde se rechaza la diferencia con un corte en lo real, eludiendo el pasaje por las identificaciones a que la función fálica daría acceso, y permaneciendo en un plano de transitivismo imaginario, en la más descarnada segregación.Precisely, in the point in which the feminine thing doesn't form a class, the hysterical identification leaves an inimitable way of "The Other woman", which turns reason and crux for each one. Freud was indicating that all the girls of the boarding school were doing symptom, for the love letter that one had received, in a hysterical identification that allowed them to place the question for the feminine mysteries that cause the desire of a man. We wonder for how the feminine thing "happens" or not in these times of decline of the paternal function; how this times of autistic consumerism of toxic substances and images establish crazy ties. We will focus on the young women question. For it, we´ll try to place a reading of a phenomenon

  16. Counseling Blacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vontress, Clemmont E.

    1970-01-01

    Blacks have developed unique environmental perceptions, values, and attitudes, making it difficult for counselors to establish and maintain positive rapport. This article examines attitudinal ingredients posited by Carl Rogers for relevance to this problem, and suggests in-service training to help counselors and other professionals relate…

  17. Black Willow

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. M. Krinard

    1980-01-01

    Black willow and other species of Salix together comprise a majority of the stocking. Cottonwood is the chief associate, particularly in the early stages, but green ash, sycamore, pecan, persimmon, waterlocust, American elm, baldcypress, red maple, sugarberry, box-elder, and in some areas, silver maple are invaders preceding the next successional stage.

  18. Black Psyllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by mouth for up to 6 weeks reduces blood sugar in people with type 2 diabetes. Cancer. Diarrhea. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Other conditions. ... with the dose. Diabetes: Black psyllium can lower blood sugar levels ... with type 2 diabetes by slowing down absorption of carbohydrates. Monitor blood ...

  19. Black hole astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blandford, R.D.; Thorne, K.S.

    1979-01-01

    Following an introductory section, the subject is discussed under the headings: on the character of research in black hole astrophysics; isolated holes produced by collapse of normal stars; black holes in binary systems; black holes in globular clusters; black holes in quasars and active galactic nuclei; primordial black holes; concluding remarks on the present state of research in black hole astrophysics. (U.K.)

  20. Media and Woman’s Education: A Theoretical Discussion about the Ways to Enunciate the Feminine on Television

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Maria Bueno Fischer

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses Foucault’s concepts of power, subjectification and (anormality, as well as Homi Bhabha’s concepts of culture and difference, in relation to the question of the feminine enunciation as articulated by the psychoanalyst Maria Rita Kehl. The article assesses how discourses on women are constructed in different televised products, emphasizing the symbolic emptiness/silences of the feminine. According to Kehl, for both men and women this fact is a consequence of “the cursed dimension in our culture,” since women have been historically in a position in which the subject is always the other: be it the father, the phallic mother or the partner

  1. Material girls and Material love: Consuming femininity and the contradictions of post-girl power among Kenyan schoolgirls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojola, Sanyu A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I use qualitative data to explore the practices engaged in by Kenyan schoolgirls to participate in modern consuming womanhood, as well as the contradictory implications of these practices for thinking about globalized mediated femininities and their enactment in resource-poor settings. The paper examines the centrality of consumption to valued modern femininity among young women around the world, as well as the structural reality of gendered access to income. I show how the cooptation of the materiality of romantic love and normative expectations of male provision in romantic relationships bridge the gap between consumption desires and economic realities among Kenyan schoolgirls in both powerful and problematic ways. The paper ends with a reflection of the implications of these findings for post-girl power, the post-feminist age and the re-inscription of patriarchy. PMID:28344428

  2. ANALIZA COMPARATIVĂ A UNOR PARAMETRI DIN SEDIMENTUL URINAR LA SUBIECŢI DE SEX FEMININ ŞI MASCULIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIOARA NICOLETA FILIMON

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Examinarea sedimentului urinar este necesară în oferirea de informaţii despre buna funcţionare a rinichilor, a întregului organism şi în depistarea posibilelor afecţiuni renale. S-a luat în studiu un lot de 129 subiecţi de sex faminin (83 şi masculin (46, la care li s-a determinat numărul de hematii, leucocite şi celule epiteliale din sedimentul urinar. Valorile obţinute au fost prelucrate statistic cu ajutorul programului statistic Minitab pentru a putea stabili daca exista sau nu diferenţe la cele 2 lotuir de subiecţi analizaţi. Numărul de hematii şi leucocite din sedimentul urinar al subiecţilor testaţi nu prezintă diferenţe semnificative la subiecţii de sex masculin şi feminin, pe când numărul celulelor epiteliale înregistrează diferenţe foarte semnificative la cele 2 sexe cu valori mai mari în cazul subiecţilor de sex feminin. Incidenţa leucocitelor în sedimentul urinar ala subiecţilor de sex masculin este mai mare decât la cei de sex feminin, la care predomină celulele epiteliale. Valoarea crescută a numărului de leucocite şi prezenţa florei bacteriene în sedimentul urinar la subiecţii de sex feminin şi masculin testaţi indică infecţii urinare.

  3. Promoting resilience among Sesotho-speaking adolescent girls ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Teachers are a crucial part of young people's social ecologies. Considering that black South African adolescent girls remain the most marginalised group in South Africa, the purpose of this qualitative, phenomenological study has been to explore if and how teachers champion resilience among black adolescent girls living ...

  4. Warriors and peacekeepers: testing a biosocial implicit leadership hypothesis of intergroup relations using masculine and feminine faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spisak, Brian R; Dekker, Peter H; Krüger, Max; van Vugt, Mark

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of facial cues on leadership emergence. Using evolutionary social psychology, we expand upon implicit and contingent theories of leadership and propose that different types of intergroup relations elicit different implicit cognitive leadership prototypes. It is argued that a biologically based hormonal connection between behavior and corresponding facial characteristics interacts with evolutionarily consistent social dynamics to influence leadership emergence. We predict that masculine-looking leaders are selected during intergroup conflict (war) and feminine-looking leaders during intergroup cooperation (peace). Across two experiments we show that a general categorization of leader versus nonleader is an initial implicit requirement for emergence, and at a context-specific level facial cues of masculinity and femininity contingently affect war versus peace leadership emergence in the predicted direction. In addition, we replicate our findings in Experiment 1 across culture using Western and East Asian samples. In Experiment 2, we also show that masculine-feminine facial cues are better predictors of leadership than male-female cues. Collectively, our results indicate a multi-level classification of context-specific leadership based on visual cues imbedded in the human face and challenge traditional distinctions of male and female leadership.

  5. Warriors and peacekeepers: testing a biosocial implicit leadership hypothesis of intergroup relations using masculine and feminine faces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian R Spisak

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of facial cues on leadership emergence. Using evolutionary social psychology, we expand upon implicit and contingent theories of leadership and propose that different types of intergroup relations elicit different implicit cognitive leadership prototypes. It is argued that a biologically based hormonal connection between behavior and corresponding facial characteristics interacts with evolutionarily consistent social dynamics to influence leadership emergence. We predict that masculine-looking leaders are selected during intergroup conflict (war and feminine-looking leaders during intergroup cooperation (peace. Across two experiments we show that a general categorization of leader versus nonleader is an initial implicit requirement for emergence, and at a context-specific level facial cues of masculinity and femininity contingently affect war versus peace leadership emergence in the predicted direction. In addition, we replicate our findings in Experiment 1 across culture using Western and East Asian samples. In Experiment 2, we also show that masculine-feminine facial cues are better predictors of leadership than male-female cues. Collectively, our results indicate a multi-level classification of context-specific leadership based on visual cues imbedded in the human face and challenge traditional distinctions of male and female leadership.

  6. Warriors and Peacekeepers: Testing a Biosocial Implicit Leadership Hypothesis of Intergroup Relations Using Masculine and Feminine Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spisak, Brian R.; Dekker, Peter H.; Krüger, Max; van Vugt, Mark

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of facial cues on leadership emergence. Using evolutionary social psychology, we expand upon implicit and contingent theories of leadership and propose that different types of intergroup relations elicit different implicit cognitive leadership prototypes. It is argued that a biologically based hormonal connection between behavior and corresponding facial characteristics interacts with evolutionarily consistent social dynamics to influence leadership emergence. We predict that masculine-looking leaders are selected during intergroup conflict (war) and feminine-looking leaders during intergroup cooperation (peace). Across two experiments we show that a general categorization of leader versus nonleader is an initial implicit requirement for emergence, and at a context-specific level facial cues of masculinity and femininity contingently affect war versus peace leadership emergence in the predicted direction. In addition, we replicate our findings in Experiment 1 across culture using Western and East Asian samples. In Experiment 2, we also show that masculine-feminine facial cues are better predictors of leadership than male-female cues. Collectively, our results indicate a multi-level classification of context-specific leadership based on visual cues imbedded in the human face and challenge traditional distinctions of male and female leadership. PMID:22276190

  7. Chemosensory Communication of Gender Information: Masculinity Bias in Body Odor Perception and Femininity Bias Introduced by Chemosignals During Social Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutic, Smiljana; Moellers, Eileen M; Wiesmann, Martin; Freiherr, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Human body odor is a source of important social information. In this study, we explore whether the sex of an individual can be established based on smelling axillary odor and whether exposure to male and female odors biases chemosensory and social perception. In a double-blind, pseudo-randomized application, 31 healthy normosmic heterosexual male and female raters were exposed to male and female chemosignals (odor samples of 27 heterosexual donors collected during a cardio workout) and a no odor sample. Recipients rated chemosensory samples on a masculinity-femininity scale and provided intensity, familiarity and pleasantness ratings. Additionally, the modulation of social perception (gender-neutral faces and personality attributes) and affective introspection (mood) by male and female chemosignals was assessed. Male and female axillary odors were rated as rather masculine, regardless of the sex of the donor. As opposed to the masculinity bias in the odor perception, a femininity bias modulating social perception appeared. A facilitated femininity detection in gender-neutral faces and personality attributes in male and female chemosignals appeared. No chemosensory effect on mood of the rater was observed. The results are discussed with regards to the use of male and female chemosignals in affective and social communication.

  8. Chemosensory communication of gender information: Masculinity bias in body odor perception and femininity bias introduced by chemosignals during social perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smiljana eMutic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human body odor is a source of important social information. In this study, we explore whether the sex of an individual can be established based on smelling axillary odor and whether exposure to male and female odors biases chemosensory and social perception. In a double-blind, pseudo-randomized application, 31 healthy normosmic heterosexual male and female raters were exposed to male and female chemosignals (odor samples of 27 heterosexual donors collected during a cardio workout and a no odor sample. Recipients rated chemosensory samples on a masculinity-femininity scale and provided intensity, familiarity and pleasantness ratings. Additionally, the modulation of social perception (gender-neutral faces and personality attributes and affective introspection (mood by male and female chemosignals was assessed. Male and female axillary odors were rated as rather masculine, regardless of the sex of the donor. As opposed to the masculinity bias in the odor perception, a femininity bias modulating social perception appeared. A facilitated femininity detection in gender-neutral faces and personality attributes in association with both male and female chemosignals appeared. No chemosensory effect on mood of the rater was observed. The results are discussed with regards to the use of male and female chemosignals in affective and social communication.

  9. THE COMMUNICATION MIX ADRESSED TO THE FEMININE SEGMENT. CASE STUDY ON THE ROMANIAN MARKET OF COSMETIC PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA ELENA PAICU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the female segment represents a genuine power in terms of consumer behavior. We can certainly argue that the feminine segment is no longer just a market niche. We can relate to this segment as the majority. To support this idea, we consider the data provided by the National Institute of Statistics. According to these statistics, the female segment sums up 51.4% of the total population, an increase being recorded in the last 10 years, from just over 50% to more than 51%. Therefore, it is not wrong to claim that feminine segment holds the majority in terms of consumer behavior. In this context, the female consumer’s preferences and needs should be integrated into all the communication strategies of organizations. The present study aims to see to what extent, at present, an attention is paid to this segment, proposing as an example a study in an area addressed in a high percentage to the feminine segment, the market of cosmetic products.

  10. “Having it All” on Social Media: Entrepreneurial Femininity and Self-Branding Among Fashion Bloggers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke Erin Duffy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Against the backdrop of the widespread individualization of the creative workforce, various genres of social media production have emerged from the traditionally feminine domains of fashion, beauty, domesticity, and craft. Fashion blogging, in particular, is considered one of the most commercially successful and publicly visible forms of digital cultural production. To explore how fashion bloggers represent their branded personae as enterprising feminine subjects, we conducted a qualitative analysis of the textual ( n  = 38 author narratives and visual ( n  = 760 Instagram images content published by leading fashion bloggers; we supplement this with in-depth interviews with eight full-time fashion/beauty bloggers. Through this data, we show how top-ranked bloggers depict the ideal of “having it all” through three interrelated tropes: the destiny of passionate work, staging the glam life, and carefully curated social sharing. Together, these tropes articulate a form of entrepreneurial femininity that draws upon post-feminist sensibilities and the contemporary logic of self-branding. We argue, however, that this socially mediated version of self-enterprise obscures the labor, discipline, and capital necessary to emulate these standards, while deploying the unshakable myth that women should work through and for consumption. We conclude by addressing how these findings are symptomatic of a digital media economy marked by the persistence of social inequalities of gender, race, class, and more.

  11. THE WOMAN; THE EVIL? – FEMININE REPRESENTATIONS IN JOSÉ SARAMAGO’S WORK

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    Débora Renata de Freitas Braga

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this research we propose to analyze the representation of women in lite­rature from the male perspective, to see to what extent the author’s position is linked (or not the rules and (pre concepts of Christian morality – the woman with original sin, because of misfortunes men, prone to sorcery and seduction as a vehicle for insubordination – and what remains of this male gaze imply. In light of theorists such as Gilles Lipovetsky and essayists as Helder Macedo, Maria Alzira Seixo, Beatriz Berrini and Maria de Fátima Marinho, elected works Caim, Memorial do Convento and Ensaio sobre a cegueira, by José Saramago. Assuming that the characters have elements in common with each other, share research in two stages: the first, we dis­cuss the configuration of the feminine in Saramago under the aspects of the look, eroticism, seduction and magic, to verify that way are relevant in shaping their roles in the male universe, in the second step, we analyze four characters – eva and lilith, for Caim, Blimunda, for Memorial do Con­vento and mulher do médico, for Ensaio sobre a cegueira, identifying the elements mentioned above and comparing them. 

  12. You Are How You Eat? Femininity, Normalization, and Veganism as an Ethical Practice of Freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan A. Dean

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I argue that the practice of veganism is, or can be, a Foucauldian ethical practice of freedom. I begin by sketching out the problematization of alimentary practices within a normalizing patriarchal framework, which some feminists argue is dominant within contemporary North American society. Within this problematization, eating—for many women—is a way to manage the body’s appearance and bring it into conformity with feminine norms, and also an ongoing opportunity to exercise the will over unruly bodily desires. I then consider the narratives of women who claim that veganism helped them to relinquish disordered eating habits, temper the emotional and psychological turmoil that surrounded their alimentary practices, and mitigate antagonism toward their own bodies. In short, the practice of veganism appears to have reproblematized eating for these women. Thus, I suggest, veganism can be an ethical practice of freedom: it can loosen the tight grip of patriarchal normalization as constituted in and through disordered eating habits, and constitute subjects that are “a little less governed” by this form of power. I conclude by considering objections to this thesis, and in particular, the concern that veganism is linked to healthism, another worrying form of normalization.

  13. The site of action of intrahypothalamic estrogen implants in feminine sexual behavior: an autoradiographic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, P.G.; Krieger, M.S.; Barfield, R.J.; McEwen, B.S.; Pfaff, D.W.

    1982-11-01

    Estrogenic stimulation of the ventromedial hypothalamus is sufficient to prime progesterone-facilitated estrous behavior in ovariectomized rats. To determine precisely the site(s) of estrogenic stimulation and the locus of its priming action on estrous behavior, we used steroid autoradiographic methods to assess the diffusion of (/sup 3/H)estradiol ((/sup 3/H)E/sub 2/) from behaviorally effective implants diluted 1:300 with cholesterol. Ovariectomized rats received (/sup 3/H)E/sub 2/-cholesterol implants aimed at the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN). Females were tested twice for feminine sexual behavior after stereotaxic surgery. They received progesterone on the day of behavioral testing. Animals were killed on the day after the second behavior test, cannulae were removed, and the brains were frozen rapidly and processed for autoradiography. Five of eight females with bilateral implants aimed at the VMN exhibited female sexual behavior in at least one of the two tests. Of these, four also showed proceptive behavior. Histological examination of brain sections indicated that behaviorally effective implants were located in, or adjacent to, the central portions of VMN. Implants from nonreceptive animals were located at the extreme anterior or posterior aspects of the VMN. The data collected are consistent with the view that estrogen acts within a sharply defined region of the VMN to prime estrons behavior.

  14. The site of action of intrahypothalamic estrogen implants in feminine sexual behavior: an autoradiographic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, P.G.; Krieger, M.S.; Barfield, R.J.; McEwen, B.S.; Pfaff, D.W.

    1982-01-01

    Estrogenic stimulation of the ventromedial hypothalamus is sufficient to prime progesterone-facilitated estrous behavior in ovariectomized rats. To determine precisely the site(s) of estrogenic stimulation and the locus of its priming action on estrous behavior, we used steroid autoradiographic methods to assess the diffusion of [ 3 H]estradiol ([ 3 H]E 2 ) from behaviorally effective implants diluted 1:300 with cholesterol. Ovariectomized rats received [ 3 H]E 2 -cholesterol implants aimed at the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN). Females were tested twice for feminine sexual behavior after stereotaxic surgery. They received progesterone on the day of behavioral testing. Animals were killed on the day after the second behavior test, cannulae were removed, and the brains were frozen rapidly and processed for autoradiography. Five of eight females with bilateral implants aimed at the VMN exhibited female sexual behavior in at least one of the two tests. Of these, four also showed proceptive behavior. Histological examination of brain sections indicated that behaviorally effective implants were located in, or adjacent to, the central portions of VMN. Implants from nonreceptive animals were located at the extreme anterior or posterior aspects of the VMN. The data collected are consistent with the view that estrogen acts within a sharply defined region of the VMN to prime estrons behavior

  15. The impact of men's magazines on adolescent boys' objectification and courtship beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, L Monique; Vandenbosch, Laura; Eggermont, Steven

    2015-02-01

    Although much attention concerning the potential impact of sexualized media has focused on girls and women, less is known about how this content effects boys' perceptions of women and courtship. Accordingly, the current three-wave panel study investigated whether exposure to sexualizing magazines predicts adolescent boys' (N = 592) sexually objectifying notions of women and their beliefs about feminine courtship strategies. The results indicated that when boys consumed sexualizing magazines more often, they expressed more gender-stereotypical beliefs about feminine courtship strategies over time. This association was mediated by boys' objectification of women. The possibility of a reciprocal relation whereby beliefs about courtship strategies predict future consumption of sexualizing magazines was also explored but received no support. Discussion focuses on effects of sexualizing media on boys, and supports future research to build on multidisciplinary knowledge. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Gender Nonconformity, Discrimination, and Mental Health among Black South African Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Further Exploration of Unexpected Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Sandfort, Theo; Bos, Henny; Knox, Justin; Reddy, Vasu

    2015-01-01

    Using data from a study about HIV risk among Black South African MSM, we aimed to ascertain whether unexpected findings about the relationship between gender nonconformity, discrimination, and mental health in this population, as reported by Cook, Sandfort, Nel, and Rich (2013), could be replicated, and to explore more in-depth how gender nonconformity relates to health. Cook et al. found that feminine men were not more likely to be depressed despite the observation that they were more likely...

  17. Associations between the Transsexual Voice Questionnaire (TVQMtF ) and self-report of voice femininity and acoustic voice measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacakis, Georgia; Oates, Jennifer; Douglas, Jacinta

    2017-11-01

    The Transsexual Voice Questionnaire (TVQ MtF ) was designed to capture the voice-related perceptions of individuals whose gender identity as female is the opposite of their birth-assigned gender (MtF women). Evaluation of the psychometric properties of the TVQ MtF is ongoing. To investigate associations between TVQ MtF scores and (1) self-perceptions of voice femininity and (2) acoustic parameters of voice pitch and voice quality in order to evaluate further the validity of the TVQ MtF . A strong correlation between TVQ MtF scores and self-ratings of voice femininity was predicted, but no association between TVQ MtF scores and acoustic measures of voice pitch and quality was proposed. Participants were 148 MtF women (mean age 48.14 years) recruited from the La Trobe Communication Clinic and the clinics of three doctors specializing in transgender health. All participants completed the TVQ MtF and 34 of these participants also provided a voice sample for acoustic analysis. Pearson product-moment correlation analysis was conducted to examine the associations between TVQ MtF scores and (1) self-perceptions of voice femininity and (2) acoustic measures of F0, jitter (%), shimmer (dB) and harmonic-to-noise ratio (HNR). Strong negative correlations between the participants' perceptions of their voice femininity and the TVQ MtF scores demonstrated that for this group of MtF women a low self-rating of voice femininity was associated with more frequent negative voice-related experiences. This association was strongest with the vocal-functioning component of the TVQ MtF . These strong correlations and high levels of shared variance between the TVQ MtF and a measure of a related construct provides evidence for the convergent validity of the TVQ MtF . The absence of significant correlations between the TVQ MtF and the acoustic data is consistent with the equivocal findings of earlier research. This finding indicates that these two measures assess different aspects of the voice

  18. Contemporary Black Theatre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Pearl

    The distinguishable black theatre in America, mirroring a distinguishable black experience, is an artistic product which demands audience involvement. Both the Afro-American oral tradition and the art of gesture are integral aspects of black theatre. In addition, the tragedy found black theatre is not tragedy in the classic sense, as blacks feel…

  19. The feminine ideal and transactional sex: Navigating respectability and risk in Swaziland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding-Miller, Rebecca; Dunkle, Kristin L; Jama-Shai, Nwabisa; Windle, Michael; Hadley, Craig; Cooper, Hannah L F

    2016-06-01

    Women who engage in transactional sex are not only at increased risk of HIV and intimate partner violence, but also face social risks including gossip and ostracism. These social and physical risks may be dependent on both what a woman expects and needs from her partner and how her community perceives the relationship. Gender theory suggests that some of these social risks may hinge on whether or not a woman's relationship threatens dominant masculinity. We conducted a qualitative study in Swaziland from September 2013 to October 2014 to explore transactional sex and respectable femininity through the lens of hegemonic gender theory. Using cultural consensus modeling, we identified cultural models of transactional sex and conducted 16 in-depth interviews with model key informants and 3 focus group discussions, for a total of 41 participants. We identified 4 main models of transactional relationships: One typified by marriage and high social respectability, a second in which women aspire towards marriage, a third particular to University students, and a fourth "sugar daddy" model. Women in all models expected and received significant financial support from their male partners. However, women in less respectable relationships risked social censure and stigma if they were discovered, in part because aspects of their relationship threatened hegemonic masculinity. Conversely, women who received male support in respectable relationships had to carefully select HIV risk reduction strategies that did not threaten their relationship and associated social status. Research and programming efforts typically focus only on the less socially respectable forms of transactional sex. This risks reinforcing stigma for women in relationships that are already considered socially unacceptable while ignoring the unique HIV risks faced by women in more respectable relationships. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Androgyny in dentists: The contribution of masculinity and femininity to mental health and well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeni L. Nikolaev

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. A dentist’s professional activity requires a high level of personality traits that are usually regarded as a combination of both female and male traits. Androgynous gender identity corresponds to dentists’ professional requirements and allows the dentists to retain mental stability and psychological well-being. Objective. The goal of this study is to determine the specificity of the androgynous identity in dentists in the context of gender differences as indicators of mental health and subjective well-being. Design. The first stage of the research covered 129 dentists of both sexes to reveal their androgynous gender type using the Bem Sex Role Inventory. During the second stage, 117 androgynous dentists were studied using the SCL-90-R and Brief Subjective Well-being Questionnaire in an effort to reveal the specificity of the dentists’ mental health and self-esteem. Results. According to the results, individuals with an androgynous type of gender identity constitute the largest part of dentists (90.70 %, regardless of their biological sex. The expression of masculinity does not statistically differ from the expression of femininity within the androgynous sample. Regardless of their sex, these dentists are characterized by a higher level of mental health. No significant differences were revealed between androgynous men and androgynous women in their subjective well-being indicators — self-estimation of health, satisfaction with material status and success motivation. Conclusion. We concluded that androgyny is the most common type of gender identity in the men and women engaged in dentistry. The basic gender characteristic in the structure of androgynous identity in dentists is masculinity, which is closely interrelated with mental health and subjective well-being regardless of biological sex.

  1. Aesthetics and Empire: The Sense of Feminine Beauty in the Making of the US Imperial Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson, Lanny

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the “sense of beauty” in the United States imperial archipelago, composed of the island territories of Cuba, Hawai`i, Philippines, and Puerto Rico, all acquired in 1898. The theoretical connection among these two elements –aesthetics and empire– is provided by a revision of the concepts “economy of colonial desire” and “complex of visuality.” This paper analyzes the most advanced visual technology of the late nineteenth century: the mass- produced, printed photograph. In particular, it focuses upon the representations of feminine beauty as found the illustrated “new-possessions” books which described recent island acquisitions of the United States. The connections between aesthetics and the forms of governance in each territory will also be elucidated.Este artículo examina el “sentido de belleza” en el archipiélago imperial estadounidense, compuesto de los territorios isleños de Cuba, Hawai`i, Filipinas y Puerto Rico, todos adquiridos en 1898. La conexión teórica entre estos dos elementos –estética e imperio– se establece mediante una revisión de los conceptos de “economía de deseo colonial” y el “complejo de visualidad”. Este artículo analiza la tecnología visual más avanzada del siglo diecinueve tardío: la fotografía impresa. En particular, se enfoca en las representaciones de belleza femenina en los libros ilustrados de las “nuevas posesiones” los cuales describían las adquisiciones recientes de los Estados Unidos. También, se dilucidarán las conexiones entre estética y las formas de gobernanza en cada territorio.

  2. Antecedents of Adolescent Parenthood and Consequences at Age 30.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ-Eft, Darlene; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Antecedents and consequences of adolescent parenting were examined using a representative national sample of 1,000 30-year-olds. It was found that 10 percent of men and 31 percent of women had had a child during adolescence. Higher incidences of adolescent parenting occurred among Blacks and low socio-economic status and low ability groups.…

  3. Shifting the Abject: Examining Abjected Adolescence in Teacher Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarigianides, Sophia Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    Teachers' efforts to re-consider adolescence as a historically-situated social category exposes how dominant biological and psychological discourses of adolescence position youth who do not fit "proper" expectations of adolescence as abject. In this seven-month study with experienced White and Black teachers working with poor youth of…

  4. Black widow spider

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002858.htm Black widow spider To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The black widow spider (Latrodectus) has a shiny black body with a ...

  5. Sex-role identification of normal adolescent males and females as related to school achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, R A; Curry, J F

    1983-12-01

    The historical view of masculinity/femininity posited essentially bipolar opposites, with the presence of one set of characteristics precluding the other. More recent studies of sex-role stereotypes have defined sexual orientation within clusters of socially desirable attributes which males and females perceive as differentiating males from females. This view negates the contention that psychological sex roles are composed of bipolar opposites, and concludes that the constructs of masculinity and femininity are independent dimensions rather than a single bipolar dimension. Little is known about the sex-role functioning of adolescents, yet it is during adolescence that qualitative shifts occur in interpersonal relationships and concurrent changes occur in cognitive functioning, with adolescents shifting toward hypothetical thinking and abstract ideal notions. In view of these changes, much can be learned about adult functioning by studying the sex-role perceptions of adolescents related to familial and social variables. This study examines the sex-role perceptions that adolescents hold of fathers, mothers, ideal males, ideal females, and selves. Differences exist between male and female adolescents, and significant linkages exist between sex-role identification and academic achievement.

  6. HIV prevalence and demographic determinants of condomless receptive anal intercourse among trans feminine individuals in Beirut, Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Rachel L; McGowan, Justine; Wagner, Glenn J

    2016-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests increased HIV incidence in the Middle East and North Africa among "key populations." To date, epidemiological data have not accurately included and measured HIV prevalence and risk among trans feminine individuals in the region. Through the lens of the Gender Affirmation Framework, we assessed demographic correlates of risk behaviour and the prevalence of HIV among trans feminine individuals in Lebanon. Long-chain referral sampling was used to recruit 53 participants for completion of a behavioural survey and optional free rapid HIV tests. Data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to identify demographic determinants of HIV risk behaviour. Fifty-seven percent of participants reported condomless receptive anal intercourse (CRAI) with male partner(s) in the last three months, 40% of whom reported not knowing the HIV status of the partner(s). Of the participants tested for HIV as part of the study or via self-report, four (10%) were HIV positive; 13 declined HIV testing. Forty percent of the sample had no prior history of HIV testing. A history of trauma such as sexual abuse/assault was reported by almost half of the participants (49%). Sixty-eight percent reported experiencing physical violence and 32% police arrest, because of gender identity or presentation. A staggering 98% reported having experienced gender identity or gender presentation-related discrimination. Sixty-six percent of the sample reported current sex work; sex work was correlated with CRAI but was not significant in multivariate analysis. In regression analysis, "openness"/"outness" about transgender identity at work or school was significantly associated with CRAI. Surprisingly, a history of sexual abuse/assault was negatively correlated with CRAI, suggesting the need for further inquiry. The results of this study provide implications for how to address sexual health among trans feminine

  7. Cultivating Parabolas in the Parlor Garden: Reconciling Mathematics Education and Feminine Ideals in Nineteenth-Century America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiss, Andrew

    2014-02-01

    This article introduces the justification problem for mathematics, which it explores through the case study of 1820s-1840s rationales for the teaching of mathematics to women in the United States. It argues that, while educators in the 1820s justified women's studies through mental discipline (a common reason for men's study), those of the 1830s-1840s increasingly relied on separate, gendered justifications, tied to emerging ideals of middle-class femininity. This article therefore emphasizes the contingency of the justification problem, which serves to break the present-day cycle of gender stereotypes regarding mathematics.

  8. Black Urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Vakili

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A 2-year-old boy was born at term of healthy, non-consanguineous Iranian parents. His mother attended in the clinic with the history of sometimes discoloration of diapers after passing urine. She noticed that first at the age of one month with intensified in recent months. His Physical examination and growth parameters were normal. His mother denied taking any medication (sorbitol, nitrofurantoin, metronidazole, methocarbamol, sena and methyldopa (5. Qualitative urine examination showed dark black discoloration. By this history, alkaptonuria was the most clinical suspicious. A 24-hour-urine sample was collected and sent for quantitative measurements. The urine sample was highly positive for homogentisic acid and negative for porphyrin metabolites.

  9. IDENTIDAD FEMENINA Y CONSUMO DE DROGAS: UN ESTUDIO CUALITATIVO / FEMININE IDENTITY AND DRUG USE: QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Pérez Gómez* y Marcela Correa Muñoz**

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENEste estudio examina la relación entre identidad femenina (IF y consumo de drogas. Setenta y seis mujeres de tresgrupos de edades (jóvenes, adultas jóvenes y adultas mayores, de tres niveles socioeconómicos (alto, medio y bajo y trescircunstancias de consumo (consumidoras, no consumidoras y ex consumidoras fueron entrevistadas sobre seis aspectos:la definición de ser mujer y las diferencias con ser hombre; la autovaloración femenina; los factores que influyen en laconstrucción de la IF; la evolución de la IF; IF y consumo de drogas; factores protectores y de riesgo.Las entrevistadas consideraron que la mayor parte de los cambios recientes dentro de la sociedad occidental hanmejorado sustancialmente la condición de la mujer, aun cuando algunos de esos cambios también han incrementado suvulnerabilidad y están asociados al notable aumento del consumo de drogas entre las mujeres. Varios de los factoresmencionados no suelen aparecer en los estudios sobre este tema ("mal uso de la libertad", "abandono de responsabilidades","conducta sexual inadecuada" probablemente porque sus autores temen que se les acuse de estar censurando a las mujerescontemporáneas; en este estudio se presentan las percepciones de las mujeres, no las interpretaciones de los autores.ABSTRACTThis study examines the relationship between feminine identity and drug use. Seventy-six women in three ages groups(young, young adults, and mature adults, in three socio-economic levels (upper, medium, low and three drug use conditions(non users, users and ex users were interviewed on six aspects: definition of being a woman; and difference with being amale, women’s self-evaluation, factors influencing the development of FI; FI and drug use; and risk and protective factors.The results showed that the interviewees think that most of the changes that occurred in West society have substantiallyimproved women’s condition; nevertheless, some of those changes have also

  10. SHAPE OF FEMININITY IN THE TEXT OF GEGURITAN (PHILOSOPICAL VERSE IN BALI: ANALYSIS OF FEMINISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Nyoman Karmini

    2012-11-01

    become the men’s power could be the centre or the subject of the events undergoneduring their lives; (5 the women’s ability was similar to the men’s and they could show theirability; (6 the shape of femininity in the texts was in accordance with wadhu tatwa ( a type ofphilosophy and the struggle of Radical Cultural Feminism; (7 it turned out that the theory offeminism could be used for analyzing the traditional literature.

  11. Construcción de la debilidad femenina Construction of the feminine weakness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Gentil

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available En estos momentos, en nuestra sociedad, la moda para la "mujer elegante" impone un modelo de calzado totalmente dañino para la salud de sus pies, por tanto para la salud de las mujeres. Las deformidades, lesiones y dolor en los pies de las mujeres están aumentando a consecuencia de ello. Nos cuestionamos el por qué de ésta moda, siendo conscientes de que los dictados de la moda nunca se producen en el vacío, fuera de un contexto social y nunca son neutros. Se realiza un estudio cualitativo utilizando la teoría fundamentada de Glaser y Strauss y la perspectiva de género para analizar los datos recogidos mediante la observación, tratando de descubrir qué significados esconde el modelo de "mujer elegante" que nos presentan los medios de comunicación. Descubrimos que tras la ideología de la elegancia femenina se oculta una realidad pragmática que busca el regreso de las mujeres a una inferioridad biológica.In these moments, in our society, the fashion for the "elegant woman" there imposes a model of totally harmful footwear for the health of the feet, therefore for the health of the women. The deformities, injuries and pain in the feet of the women are increasing as a result of it. We question why of this one fashion, being conscious that the dictations of the fashion never take are produced in the emptiness, out of a social context and they are never neutral. A qualitative analysis is realized using the theory of Glaser and Strauss and the perspective of genre to analyse the information gathered by means of the observation trying to discover that meant there hides the model of "elegant woman" that they present theirs the mass media. We verify that after the ideology of the feminine elegance there hides itself a pragmatic reality that looks for the return of the woman to a biological inferiority.

  12. FEMININE ENTREPRENEURSHIP AS A RESEARCH THEME. SOME CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE WAY OF INITIATING A BUSINESS BY THE ENTREPRENEUR WOMEN IN THE WEST OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Cohut Ioana

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims an incursion in the concern for researches in the field of feminine entrepreneurship – as a research theme, the study directions of the feminine entrepreneurship, on the basis of the special literature in the field. The applicative part of the paper refers to the research taken in the field of feminine entrepreneurship in Romania, through the project AntrES, in the area of the initiation way of business by entrepreneur women investigated and aligns aspects regarding the research methodology, the study of the way of initiating a business, the length with the age of manager women, the occupational situation at the moment of business initiation and their previous experience.

  13. Black Silicon Solar Cells with Black Ribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of mask-less reactive ion etch (RIE) texturing and blackened interconnecting ribbons as a method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon made by mask-less reactive ion etching has total, average...... in the range 15.7-16.3%. The KOH-textured reference cell had an efficiency of 17.9%. The combination of black Si and black interconnecting ribbons may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted silicon solar cells....... reflectance below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon (Si) wafer. Black interconnecting ribbons were realized by oxidizing copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the visible wavelength range. Screen-printed Si solar cells were realized on 156x156 mm2 black Si substrates with resulting efficiencies...

  14. The relationship between domestic space and gender identity: Some signs of emergence of alternative domestic femininity and masculinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălina-Ionela Rezeanu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The premise of this article is that, by introducing domestic space in the analysis of gender identity, one might gain a more nuanced understanding of how gender and power are co-constitutive. The research question is what one could learn from the conclusions of recent studies about the relationship between gender identity and domestic space, by analyzing it as a way of “doing and undoing gender” through spatial practices. We conducted an interpretive synthesis, focusing on 20 articles published in the last ten years on the topics of domestic space, masculinity, and femininity. We show the traditional normative model of gender identity is still strong, but there are some signs, of the emergence of alternative domestic masculinity and femininity, based on the tendency to reconsider the value of domesticity, and to transgress traditional gender oppositions (mind and body, rational and emotional, public and private, work and domesticity. We discuss the implications of the findings for understanding and refining the concepts of doing and doing gender, and gendered space.

  15. Disciplining the feminine: the reproduction of gender contradictions in the mental health care of women with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulding, Nicole

    2006-02-01

    This paper provides insights into the way gendered assumptions operate within health care interventions for women with eating disorders. A multidisciplinary sample of Australian health care workers were interviewed about their approaches to treatment, and discourse analysis was used to uncover the discursive dynamics and power relations characterising their accounts of intervention. The paper demonstrates a contradictory positioning of anorexic patients in relation to autonomy and control within the two common psychiatric interventions of bed rest intervention and psychotherapy. The paper argues that this is based on gendered assumptions about selfhood and femininity in eating disorders that are reproduced in the therapeutic relationship through the operation of a gendered parent-child dynamic, with the health care worker as father or mother, and the anorexic patient as daughter. One of the main effects of this is to re-inscribe rather than challenge the discursive 'double bind' of femininity that has been widely implicated by post-structural feminists in producing eating disorders in the first place. The paper also considers the widely acknowledged problem of resistance to treatment in anorexia as a function of controlling treatments, and discusses psychiatrists' perspectives on addressing this dilemma. Finally, the paper examines the potential of feminist-informed understandings of eating disorders for overcoming the gendered dilemmas inherent within the dominant psycho-medical treatment paradigm.

  16. Self-objectification, feminist activism and conformity to feminine norms among female vegetarians, semi-vegetarians, and non-vegetarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, Britney G; Khan, Aliya; Edner, Benjamin; Rosén, Lee A

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that vegetarians may be at an increased risk for developing disordered eating or body image issues when compared to non-vegetarians. However, the results of such studies are mixed, and no research has explored potential connections between vegetarianism and self-objectification. In the current study, the authors examine factors that predicted body surveillance, body shame, and appearance control beliefs; three aspects of self-objectification. Surveys were completed by 386 women from the United States who were categorized as vegetarian, semi-vegetarian, or non-vegetarian. The three groups differed regarding dietary motivations, levels of feminist activism, and body shame, but did not differ on their conformity to feminine norms. While conformity to feminine norms predicted body surveillance and body shame levels among all three groups of women, feminist activism predicted appearance control beliefs among non-vegetarians only. These findings suggest that it is important for researchers and clinicians to distinguish among these three groups when examining the relationship between vegetarianism and self-objectification. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cute Boys or Game Boys? The Embodiment of Femininity and Masculinity in Young Norwegians’ Text Message Love-Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Prøitz

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available By looking at young Norwegians’ text messages in sexual romantic negotiations, this article examines whether text messages may provide a site for performing femininity and masculinity in ways that subvert traditional conceptions of these constructs. Although various studies on gender, sexuality and media [1] have consistently indicated gender specific usage/performances which in this article is indicated and supported by the study’s young informants’ own formulations, the discourse analysis approach employed a more complex image. Here, I focus on how the young people indicate and translate their modes and body-language into texts, paying particular attention to how signs of femininity and masculinity emerge in text message love-projects, I argue that especially for young males, text messages in love-projects offer a site where in particular young males may perform masculinity in counter-traditional ways. The article is a part of a long study of young Norwegian’s usages, self-understanding and gender performances through text message communication. [[1] Döring, Hellwig and Klimsa, 2004, Hareide 2002, Johnsen 2000, Lee and Sohn, 2004, Ling 1998, 1999, 2002, 2004, 2005, Skog 2000, 2002

  18. Black holes. Chapter 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penrose, R.

    1980-01-01

    Conditions for the formation of a black hole are considered, and the properties of black holes. The possibility of Cygnus X-1 as a black hole is discussed. Einstein's theory of general relativity in relation to the formation of black holes is discussed. (U.K.)

  19. Search for black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherepashchuk, Anatolii M

    2003-01-01

    Methods and results of searching for stellar mass black holes in binary systems and for supermassive black holes in galactic nuclei of different types are described. As of now (June 2002), a total of 100 black hole candidates are known. All the necessary conditions Einstein's General Relativity imposes on the observational properties of black holes are satisfied for candidate objects available, thus further assuring the existence of black holes in the Universe. Prospects for obtaining sufficient criteria for reliably distinguishing candidate black holes from real black holes are discussed. (reviews of topical problems)

  20. Beyoncé’s Slay Trick: The Performance of Black Camp and its Intersectional Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatzipapatheodoridis Constantine

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article pays attention to African-American artist Beyonce Knowles and her performance of black camp. Beyonce’s stage persona and performances invite multiple ideological readings as to what pertains to her interpretation of gender, sexuality, and race. While cultural theory around the icon of Beyonce has focused on her feminist and racial politics as well as her politicization of the black female body, a queer reading applied from the perspective of camp performance will concentrate on the artist’s queer appeal and, most importantly, on her exposition of black camp, an intersection of feminist, racial and queer poetics. By examining video and live performances, the scope of this article is to underline those queer nuances inherent in Beyonce’s dramatisation of black femininity and the cultural pool she draws from for its effective staging. More specifically, since Beyonce plays with tropes and themes that are common in camp culture, her performance relies on a meta-camping effect that interacts with African-American queer culture. This article, thus, traces black queer traditions and discourses in the artist’s praxis of black camp.

  1. Peer attitudes towards adolescent participants in male- and female-oriented sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, Thomas R; Hicks, Catherine M

    2005-01-01

    This study examined gender stereotypes in peer ratings of femininity and masculinity for adolescent participants in three sports. Following a preliminary study of gender stereotyping of several sports, high school students rated unfamiliar cohorts each of whom was described in a single paragraph as either a male or female dedicated participant in one of three sports. A total of 12 different descriptive paragraphs were used in a 2 (race) x 2 (sex) x 3 (sport) design. Each of these paragraphs, although short, ascribed a variety of traits that could be seen by raters as the independent variables: name (initials only), age, race, gender, hours of practice per week, number of competitions/performances per year, sport, and self-confidence. For this reason, raters were highly unlikely to surmise that sex and sport were the primary independent variables in the study. As predicted, there was a consistent decrease in rated femininity and increase in masculinity for both male and female adolescent targets as they switched from participating in a "feminine" (ballet) to a neutral (tennis) to a "masculine" (karate) sport. These results suggest that sex stereotypes for certain sports may influence who elects to participate and how participants are viewed by others.

  2. Gender Expression and Mental Health in Black South African Men Who Have Sex with Men: Further Explorations of Unexpected Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandfort, Theo G M; Bos, Henny; Reddy, Vasu

    2018-02-20

    Unlike studies conducted in Western countries, two studies among Black South African men who have sex with men (MSM) found no support for the association between gender nonconformity and mental distress, even though gender-nonconforming men experienced more discrimination and discrimination was associated with mental distress (Cook, Sandfort, Nel, & Rich, 2013; Sandfort, Bos, Knox, & Reddy, 2016). In Sandfort et al., gender nonconformity was assessed as a continuous variable, validated by comparing scores between a categorical assessment of gender presentation (masculine, feminine, no preference). Using the same dataset, we further explored this topic by (1) testing differences between gender expression groups in sexual minority stressors, resilience factors, and mental distress; (2) testing whether the impact of elevated discrimination in the feminine group was counterbalanced by lower scores on other stressors or higher scores on resilience factors; and (3) exploring whether relationships of stressors and resilience factors with mental distress varied between gender expression groups. Controlling for demographics, we found several differences between the gender expression groups in the stressors and resilience factors, but not in mental distress. We found no support for the idea that the lack of differences in mental distress between the gender expression groups was a consequence of factors working in opposite directions. However, internalized homophobia had a differential impact on depression in feminine men compared to masculine men. In our discussion of these findings, we explored the meaning of our participants' self-categorization as it might relate to gender instead of sexual identities.

  3. Aggressiveness, assertiveness and submissiveness among black adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    D.Litt. et Phil. (Psychology) Assertiveness, a specific social skill is traced back to its roots in Salter's 1949 Pavlovian model. The impression is gained that the growing interest in assertiveness may be a reaction to the post-Sputnik era of increasing violence and acts of terrorism. In South Africa assertiveness training has particular relevance, as a state of emergency was -declared by the State President in the middle of 1985. It is fitting that assertiveness training be done with bla...

  4. Effects of treating gender dysphoria and anorexia nervosa in a transgender adolescent: Lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandjord, Sarah E; Ng, Henry; Rome, Ellen S

    2015-11-01

    Patients with gender dysphoria and patients with eating disorders often experience discontent with their bodies. Several reports have recognized the co-occurrence of these two conditions, typically in adults who identify as transgender females and desire a more feminine physique. This case report, in contrast, describes a 16-year-old patient with a female sex assigned at birth who first presented with features consistent with anorexia nervosa and later revealed underlying gender dysphoria with a drive for a less feminine body shape. We discuss both the path to recognizing gender dysphoria in this patient as well as the impact of treatment on his eating disorder and overall well-being. This case is one of only a few reports describing a female-to-male transgender patient with an eating disorder and is the first to explore the effects of hormone and surgical intervention in an adolescent patient. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. A Dancing Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Deirdre; Smith, Kenneth; Schnetter, Erik; Fiske, David; Laguna, Pablo; Pullin, Jorge

    2002-04-01

    Recently, stationary black holes have been successfully simulated for up to times of approximately 600-1000M, where M is the mass of the black hole. Considering that the expected burst of gravitational radiation from a binary black hole merger would last approximately 200-500M, black hole codes are approaching the point where simulations of mergers may be feasible. We will present two types of simulations of single black holes obtained with a code based on the Baumgarte-Shapiro-Shibata-Nakamura formulation of the Einstein evolution equations. One type of simulations addresses the stability properties of stationary black hole evolutions. The second type of simulations demonstrates the ability of our code to move a black hole through the computational domain. This is accomplished by shifting the stationary black hole solution to a coordinate system in which the location of the black hole is time dependent.

  6. Negative and positive components of psychological masculinity and femininity and their relationships to self-reports of neurotic and acting out behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, J T; Helmreich, R L; Holahan, C K

    1979-10-01

    Negatively valued masculinity (M-) and femininity (F-) personality scales were developed to supplement the positively valued Masculinity (M+) and Femininity (F+) scales of the Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ; Spence & Helmreich). M- consisted of traits that had been judged to be (a) more typical of males than females, (b) undesirable in both sexes, and (c ) agentic or instrumental in content. Two F- scales were developed, both containing stereotypically feminine, undesirable traits, one set of traits referring to communionlike characteristics (Fc-) and the other to verbal passive-aggressive qualities (FVA-). Significant sex differences in the predicted direction were found on all scales. In both sexes, low and typically nonsignificant correlations were found between parallel positive and negative scales, but highly significant negative correlations were found between positive and negative cross-sex scales. These findings provide additional evidence for the multidimentionslity of masculinity and femininity. Scores on a self-esteem measure were positively correlated with M+ and F+, uncorrelated with M-, and negatively correlated with the F- scales. Different patterns of scores were associated with two types of problem behaviors. In both sexes, neuroticism was most highly correlated (in a negative direction) with M+, and acting out behavoir was most strongly correlated (in a positive direction) with M-. The next highest correlation in both instances was with FVA-.

  7. Predictions for sex of first born child reflect masculine and feminine characteristics in male and female undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer-Hague, Jaime L; Zilioli, Samuele; Watson, Neil V

    2013-08-13

    Previous research has identified physical and behavioral differences between parents who produce sons and those who produce daughters. However, the possibility that men and women have predictions about the sexes of their offspring based on these differences, or any other interoceptive cues, has not been investigated. We compared the dominance, sociosexual orientation, estradiol, testosterone, and 2D:4D ratios of men and women who predicted they would conceive a boy as their first child with those who predicted a girl. Women who predicted they would have a boy were more dominant and less sociosexually restricted than those who predicted they would have a girl. Men who predicted they would have a girl had higher salivary estradiol and higher (more feminine) 2D:4D ratios than those who predicted they would have a boy. Possible implications of these results are discussed in the context of evolutionary theory.

  8. The magazine feminal: photography and visualization of the feminine contribution to the educational reform in Catalonia 1907-1917

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernat SUREDA GARCIA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In Barcelona, between 1907 and 1917, a monthly feminine supplement called Feminal run by Carme Karr i Alfonsetti was published in the magazine Ilustració Catalana. Feminal systematically resorted to photographs to round off its reports on current affairs. The orientation Karr sets the publication responds to the ideas of conservative feminism that advocate for a greater public presence of women, without ceasing to be a wife and a mother, by modernizing their education. These aims are framed in and committed to the broad Regenerationist programme promoted by the Catalan industrial bourgeoisie at the time, with education as one of its main axes. In this article we analyse the role of photographs in reinforcing the modernizing discourse of education.

  9. [The foundation of "feminine" and "masculine". Useful theories for the training of future physicians concerning the importance of gender].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risberg, G

    2000-11-15

    A gender perspective on health and consultation is part of medical education today. Teaching about gender must not focus on differences between men and women as essential, biological, and unchangeable. The meaning of "feminine" and "masculine" is largely a social construction, i.e. the behavior and character of an individual are seldom determined by sex. Furthermore, women and men live under different conditions and have different positions in society. Medical students need to be aware of this and reflect upon the influence it may have on their professional role and practice. To achieve this awareness, knowledge about the construction of gender is needed. This article reviews relevant research in this field. The gender of the physician is used as a basis and illustration of this.

  10. The main reasons of conflicts between adolescents in the multicultural class and their prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuhlaeva O.V.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The conflict interaction in the adolescent environment, mainly in the context of intercultural interaction, is considered in the article on the basis of theoretical analysis. The relationship between conflict in adolescence and the overcoming of adolescent crisis is described, as well as the conflict was correlated with other age characteristics. A special emphasis is placed on intergroup conflicts. An additional specificity of conflicts in school classes with mixed cultural composition is discussed. An analysis of the specifics of the conflict interaction in connection with the measurement of cultures by G. Hofstede was carried out (individualism-collectivism, power distance, masculinity-femininity and avoidance of uncertainty. The conclusion about the greater urgency of potential contradictions is being made if there are teenagers belonging to widely differing cultures in the school class. The role of laughter culture as manifestations of antipodes in game form for the prevention and correction of conflicts in a adolescent multicultural environment is shown.

  11. Sexualidades, artes visuais e poder: pedagogias visuais do feminino Sexualities, visual arts and power: visual pedagogies of the feminine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Gruppelli Loponte

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho trata das relações entre sexualidades, artes visuais e poder, levando em conta as teorizações de Michel Foucault, principalmente a respeito de conceitos como poder e discurso. Analiso como a sexualidade feminina é colocada em discurso através das imagens produzidas pela arte ocidental, a partir de um olhar masculino bastante particular. Ao afirmar que essas imagens produzem uma pedagogia do feminino, pretendo contribuir para a ampliação das análises realizadas no campo do ensino das artes visuais (e, conseqüentemente, para a formação docente na área, que nos últimos anos, através das tendências metodológicas e teóricas mais recentes, vêm destacando o papel das imagens na educação sem, contudo, dar a devida importância a conceitos como gênero, sexualidade e poder.This work is about the relations between sexualities, visual arts and power, taking in consideration the theorizations of Michel Foucault, mainly in respect to conceits like power and dissertation. Analyses like the feminine sexuality is put in dissertation through the images produced by occidental art, starting by a very particular masculine eye. In affirming that these images produce a pedagogy of the feminine, I pretend to contribute to the amplification of the analysis that take place in the teaching field of visual arts (and consequently, for the teaching formation on the area that in the last years, through more recent methodological and theoretical tendencies, has been distinguishing the role of the images in education without, however, giving the proper attention to conceits like gender, sexuality and power.

  12. Variance composition, measurement invariance by gender, and construct validity of the Femininity Ideology Scale-Short Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levant, Ronald F; Alto, Kathleen M; McKelvey, Daniel K; Richmond, Katherine A; McDermott, Ryon C

    2017-11-01

    The current study extended prior work on the Femininity Ideology Scale (FIS), a multidimensional measure of traditional femininity ideology (TFI), in several ways. First, we conducted exploratory factor and bifactor analyses, which revealed a general TFI factor and 3 specific factors: dependence/deference, purity, and emotionality/traditional roles. Second, based on these results we developed the 12-item FIS-Short Form (FIS-SF). Third, we assessed the FIS-SF using confirmatory factor analysis on a separate sample, finding that the items loaded on the general factor and 3 specific factors as hypothesized, and that the bifactor model fit better than common factors and unidimensional models. Fourth, model-based reliability estimates tentatively support the use of raw scores to represent the general TFI factor and the emotionality/traditional roles specific factor, but the other 2 specific factors are best measured using SEM or by ipsatizing their scores. Fifth, we assessed measurement invariance across 2 gender groups, finding evidence for configural invariance for all factors, and for partial metric invariance for the specific factors. Sixth, we found evidence for the convergent construct validity of the FIS-SF general factor and the emotionality/traditional roles specific factors by examining relationships with the latent variables of several constructs in the nomological network. The results are discussed in relationship to prior literature, future research directions, applications to counseling practice, and limitations. Data (N = 1,472, 907 women, 565 men, 530 people of color) were from community and college participants who responded to an online survey. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Parent and Adolescent Interest in Receiving Adolescent Health Communication Information From Primary Care Clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Carol A; Cheek, Courtney; Culhane, Jennifer; Fishman, Jessica; Mathew, Leny; Salek, Elyse C; Webb, David; Jaccard, James

    2016-08-01

    Patient-centered health care recognizes that adolescents and parents are stakeholders in adolescent health. We investigate adolescent and parent interest in receiving information about health topics and parent-teen communication from clinicians. Ninety-one parent-adolescent dyads in one practice completed individual interviews. Items assessed levels of interest in receiving health and health communication information from the adolescent's doctor about 18 topics, including routine, mental health, sexual health, substance use, and injury prevention issues. Analyses tested differences between parents and adolescents, within-dyad correlations, and associations with adolescent gender and age. Most parents were female (84%). Adolescents were evenly divided by gender; 36 were aged 12-13 years, 35 were aged 14-15 years, and 20 were aged 16-17 years. Adolescent race reflected the practice population (60% black; 35% white). The vast majority of parents and adolescents reported moderate or high levels of interest in receiving information about all 18 health issues and information to increase parent-teen communication about these topics. Parents' interest in receiving information varied by adolescent age when the expected salience of topics varied by age (e.g., acne, driving safety), whereas adolescents reported similar interest regardless of age. Adolescent gender influenced parent and adolescent interest. Level of interest in receiving information from doctors within adolescent-parent pairs was not significantly correlated for one-half of topics. Parents and adolescents want health care professionals to help them learn and talk about a wide range of adolescent health topics. Feasible primary care interventions that effectively improve parent-teen health communication, and specific adolescent health outcomes are needed. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Black hole critical phenomena without black holes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    large values of Ф, black holes do form and for small values the scalar field ... on the near side of the ridge ultimately evolve to form black holes while those configu- ... The inset shows a bird's eye view looking down on the saddle point.

  15. Predictors of parent-adolescent communication in post-apartheid South Africa: a protective factor in adolescent sexual and reproductive health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzee, Jenny; Dietrich, Janan; Otwombe, Kennedy; Nkala, Busi; Khunwane, Mamakiri; van der Watt, Martin; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Gray, Glenda E

    2014-04-01

    In the HIV context, risky sexual behaviours can be reduced through effective parent-adolescent communication. This study used the Parent Adolescent Communication Scale to determine parent-adolescent communication by ethnicity and identify predictors of high parent-adolescent communication amongst South African adolescents post-apartheid. A cross-sectional interviewer-administered survey was administered to 822 adolescents from Johannesburg, South Africa. Backward stepwise multivariate regressions were performed. The sample was predominantly Black African (62%, n = 506) and female (57%, n = 469). Of the participants, 57% (n = 471) reported high parent-adolescent communication. Multivariate regression showed that gender was a significant predictor of high parent-adolescent communication (Black African OR:1.47, CI: 1.0-2.17, Indian OR: 2.67, CI: 1.05-6.77, White OR: 2.96, CI: 1.21-7.18). Female-headed households were predictors of high parent-adolescent communication amongst Black Africans (OR:1.49, CI: 1.01-2.20), but of low parent-adolescent communication amongst Whites (OR:0.36, CI: 0.15-0.89). Overall levels of parent-adolescent communication in South Africa are low. HIV prevention programmes for South African adolescents should include information and skills regarding effective parent-adolescent communication. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Black Studies Boondoggle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Richard A.

    1970-01-01

    Indicates tendencies dangerous to the basic purpose of Black Studies, and identifies four external challeges--imperialism, paternalism, nihilism, and materialism. An internal challenge is considered to be the use of European and Establishment constructs to analyze black reality. (DM)

  17. Black hole hair removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Nabamita; Mandal, Ipsita; Sen, Ashoke

    2009-01-01

    Macroscopic entropy of an extremal black hole is expected to be determined completely by its near horizon geometry. Thus two black holes with identical near horizon geometries should have identical macroscopic entropy, and the expected equality between macroscopic and microscopic entropies will then imply that they have identical degeneracies of microstates. An apparent counterexample is provided by the 4D-5D lift relating BMPV black hole to a four dimensional black hole. The two black holes have identical near horizon geometries but different microscopic spectrum. We suggest that this discrepancy can be accounted for by black hole hair - degrees of freedom living outside the horizon and contributing to the degeneracies. We identify these degrees of freedom for both the four and the five dimensional black holes and show that after their contributions are removed from the microscopic degeneracies of the respective systems, the result for the four and five dimensional black holes match exactly.

  18. Noncommutative black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-DomInguez, J C [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico); Obregon, O [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico); RamIrez, C [Facultad de Ciencias FIsico Matematicas, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, PO Box 1364, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Sabido, M [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    We study noncommutative black holes, by using a diffeomorphism between the Schwarzschild black hole and the Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model, which is generalized to noncommutative minisuperspace. Through the use of the Feynman-Hibbs procedure we are able to study the thermodynamics of the black hole, in particular, we calculate Hawking's temperature and entropy for the 'noncommutative' Schwarzschild black hole.

  19. Black holes without firewalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larjo, Klaus; Lowe, David A.; Thorlacius, Larus

    2013-05-01

    The postulates of black hole complementarity do not imply a firewall for infalling observers at a black hole horizon. The dynamics of the stretched horizon, that scrambles and reemits information, determines whether infalling observers experience anything out of the ordinary when entering a large black hole. In particular, there is no firewall if the stretched horizon degrees of freedom retain information for a time of the order of the black hole scrambling time.

  20. Black holes are hot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, G.

    1976-01-01

    Recent work, which has been investigating the use of the concept of entropy with respect to gravitating systems, black holes and the universe as a whole, is discussed. The resulting theory of black holes assigns a finite temperature to them -about 10 -7 K for ordinary black holes of stellar mass -which is in complete agreement with thermodynamical concepts. It is also shown that black holes must continuously emit particles just like ordinary bodies which have a certain temperature. (U.K.)

  1. Monopole Black Hole Skyrmions

    OpenAIRE

    Moss, Ian G; Shiiki, N; Winstanley, E

    2000-01-01

    Charged black hole solutions with pion hair are discussed. These can be\\ud used to study monopole black hole catalysis of proton decay.\\ud There also exist\\ud multi-black hole skyrmion solutions with BPS monopole behaviour.

  2. What is black hole?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. What is black hole? Possible end phase of a star: A star is a massive, luminous ball of plasma having continuous nuclear burning. Star exhausts nuclear fuel →. White Dwarf, Neutron Star, Black Hole. Black hole's gravitational field is so powerful that even ...

  3. Genocide and Black Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnette, Calvin H.

    1972-01-01

    Contends that the survival of black people is in serious jeopardy as is evidenced in contemporary discussions on the worldwide plight of black people, and that an exhaustive study of the problem in its many dimensions is seriously lacking; the moral and ethical issues of genocide require examination from a black perspective. (JW)

  4. Black holes in binary stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, R.A.M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Introduction Distinguishing neutron stars and black holes Optical companions and dynamical masses X-ray signatures of the nature of a compact object Structure and evolution of black-hole binaries High-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black holes Formation of black holes

  5. Black hole levitron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsiwalla, Xerxes D.; Verlinde, Erik P.

    2010-01-01

    We study the problem of spatially stabilizing four dimensional extremal black holes in background electric/magnetic fields. Whilst looking for stationary stable solutions describing black holes placed in external fields we find that taking a continuum limit of Denef et al.'s multicenter supersymmetric black hole solutions provides a supergravity description of such backgrounds within which a black hole can be trapped within a confined volume. This construction is realized by solving for a levitating black hole over a magnetic dipole base. We comment on how such a construction is akin to a mechanical levitron.

  6. Anorexia nervosa and gender dysphoria in two adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couturier, Jennifer; Pindiprolu, Bharadwaj; Findlay, Sheri; Johnson, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    Little has been published about the co-occurrence of gender dysphoria (GD) and eating disorders (ED) in adults, with no cases described in the adolescent population. The emphasis on body shape in both conditions suggests that there may be some overlap in symptomatology. We report two adolescent cases initially diagnosed with anorexia nervosa who later met criteria for GD. The drive for thinness for the 16-year-old male was associated with a wish to achieve a feminine physique whereas there was an emphasis for stunted breast growth and a desire for muscularity in the 13-year-old female. Complexities in presentation, evolution of symptoms over time, and the treatment of the two cases are discussed. Clinicians should inquire about sexual issues in the presentation of ED and should monitor for symptoms of GD, not only at initial presentation, but throughout treatment, especially as weight gain progresses. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Predictors of Parent-Adolescent Communication in Post-apartheid South Africa: A Protective Factor in Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzee, Jenny; Dietrich, Janan; Otwombe, Kennedy; Nkala, Busi; Khunwane, Mamakiri; van der Watt, Martin; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Gray, Glenda E

    2014-01-01

    In the HIV context, risky sexual behaviours can be reduced through effective parent-adolescent communication. This study used the Parent Adolescent Communication Scale to determine parent-adolescent communication by ethnicity and identify predictors of high parent-adolescent communication amongst South African adolescents post-apartheid. A cross-sectional interviewer-administered survey was administered to 822 adolescents from Johannesburg, South Africa. Backward stepwise multivariate regressions were performed. The sample was predominantly Black African (62%, n=506) and female (57%, n=469). Of the participants, 57% (n=471) reported high parent-adolescent communication. Multivariate regression showed that gender was a significant predictor of high parent-adolescent communication (Black African OR:1.47,CI:1.0-2.17, Indian OR:2.67,CI:1.05-6.77, White OR:2.96,CI:1.21-7.18). Female-headed households were predictors of high parent-adolescent communication amongst Black Africans (OR:1.49,CI:1.01-2.20), but of low parent-adolescent communication amongst Whites (OR:0.36,CI: 0.15-0.89). Overall levels of parent-adolescent communication in South Africa are low. HIV prevention programmes for South African adolescents should include information and skills regarding effective parent-adolescent communication. PMID:24636691

  8. Longitudinal correlates of change in blood pressure in adolescent girls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniels, [No Value; McMahon, RP; Obarzanek, E; Waclawiw, MA; Similo, SL; Biro, FM; Schreiber, GB; Kimm, SYS; Morrison, JA; Barton, BA

    The objective of this study was to assess the longitudinal changes in blood pressure in black and white adolescent girls and evaluate potential determinants of changes in blood pressure, including sexual maturation and body size. A total of 1213 black and 1166 white girls, ages 9 or 10 years at

  9. Beliefs of grade six learners’ regarding adolescent pregnancy and sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Grobler

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Escalating adolescent pregnancy and risky sexual behaviour is becoming more common amongst young adolescents and especially amongst black adolescents in South Africa. Statistics confirm that South African adolescents as young as fourteen are already sexually active and become pregnant. The decision to become sexually active with resulting adolescent pregnancy whether planned or not, are directly influenced by the teenager’s beliefs. A person’s beliefs consist of a person’ own individual beliefs or attitude as well as what the individual subjective norm which the individual perceive as other people’s beliefs regarding the same object of reason. The aim of the study was to describe the attitude of black grade six learners under the age of fourteen, towards adolescent pregnancy and sex. A quantitative descriptive research design was used. Results were clustered according to demographic variables as well as beliefs that consist of attitude and subjective norm.

  10. Primary black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novikov, I.; Polnarev, A.

    1981-01-01

    Proves are searched for of the formation of the so-called primary black holes at the very origin of the universe. The black holes would weigh less than 10 13 kg. The formation of a primary black hole is conditional on strong fluctuations of the gravitational field corresponding roughly to a half of the fluctuation maximally permissible by the general relativity theory. Only big fluctuations of the gravitational field can overcome the forces of the hot gas pressure and compress the originally expanding matter into a black hole. Low-mass black holes have a temperature exceeding that of the black holes formed from stars. A quantum process of particle formation, the so-called evaporation takes place in the strong gravitational field of a black hole. The lower the mass of the black hole, the shorter the evaporation time. The analyses of processes taking place during the evaporation of low-mass primary black holes show that only a very small proportion of the total mass of the matter in the universe could turn into primary black holes. (M.D.)

  11. The varying value of a friendly face: Experimentally induced stress is associated with higher preferences for friendship with people possessing feminine versus masculine face traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Anthony C; Harcus, Kerry

    2016-01-01

    Social support can provide a buffer to the negative consequences of stress. Previous research suggests that stress can promote affiliative and cooperative behaviours in those who are stressed. Here we examined how stress might influence who we choose to affiliate with. We measured preferences for friendships with friendly appearing feminized faces versus less friendly appearing masculinized faces after individuals undertook a stressful laboratory task. Stressed individuals had increased preferences for friendships with people with feminine faces. These data demonstrate that individuals prefer more friendly appearing feminine faced people as friends when stressed than when not stressed. This preference is likely adaptive in directing individuals towards others who are most likely to provide social support when it is needed and so reflect strategic friendship preferences.

  12. Did the perils of abdominal obesity affect depiction of feminine beauty in the sixteenth to eighteenth century British literature? Exploring the health and beauty link

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Devendra; Renn, Peter; Singh, Adrian

    2007-01-01

    ‘Good gene’ mate selection theory proposes that all individuals share evolved mental mechanisms that identify specific parts of a woman's body as indicators of fertility and health. Depiction of feminine beauty, across time and culture, should therefore emphasize the physical traits indicative of health and fertility. Abdominal obesity, as measured by waist size, is reliably linked to decreased oestrogen, reduced fecundity and increased risk for major diseases. Systematic searches of British ...

  13. Can school income and racial/ethnic composition explain the racial/ethnic disparity in adolescent physical activity participation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Tracy K; Hayward, Rodney A; Gahagan, Sheila; Field, Alison E; Heisler, Michele

    2006-06-01

    Our goal was to determine if racial/ethnic disparities in adolescent boys' and girls' physical activity participation exist and persist once the school attended is considered. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 17,007 teens in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Using multivariate linear regression, we examined the association between adolescent self-reported physical activity and individual race/ethnicity stratified by gender, controlling for a wide range of sociodemographic, attitudinal, behavioral, and health factors. We used multilevel analyses to determine if the relationship between race/ethnicity and physical activity varied by the school attended. Participants attended racially segregated schools; approximately 80% of Hispanic and black adolescent boys and girls attended schools with student populations that were schools that were >94% white. Black and Hispanic adolescent girls reported lower levels of physical activity than white adolescent girls. There were more similar levels of physical activity reported in adolescent boys, with black boys reporting slightly more activities. Although black and Hispanic adolescent girls were more likely to attend poorer schools with overall lower levels of physical activity in girls; there was no difference within schools between black, white, and Hispanic adolescent girls' physical activity levels. Within the same schools, both black and Hispanic adolescent boys had higher rates of physical activity when compared with white adolescent boys. In this nationally representative sample, lower physical activity levels in Hispanic and black adolescent girls were largely attributable to the schools they attended. In contrast, black and Hispanic males had higher activity levels than white males when attending the same schools. Future research is needed to determine the mechanisms through which school environments contribute to racial/ethnic disparities in adolescent physical activity and will need to

  14. Astrophysical black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gorini, Vittorio; Moschella, Ugo; Treves, Aldo; Colpi, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Based on graduate school lectures in contemporary relativity and gravitational physics, this book gives a complete and unified picture of the present status of theoretical and observational properties of astrophysical black holes. The chapters are written by internationally recognized specialists. They cover general theoretical aspects of black hole astrophysics, the theory of accretion and ejection of gas and jets, stellar-sized black holes observed in the Milky Way, the formation and evolution of supermassive black holes in galactic centers and quasars as well as their influence on the dynamics in galactic nuclei. The final chapter addresses analytical relativity of black holes supporting theoretical understanding of the coalescence of black holes as well as being of great relevance in identifying gravitational wave signals. With its introductory chapters the book is aimed at advanced graduate and post-graduate students, but it will also be useful for specialists.

  15. A presença feminina nas (subculturas juvenis: a arte de se tornar visível The feminine presence in youth subcultures: the art of getting visible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wivian Weller

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Na produção bibliográfica existente, constata-se uma lacuna no que diz respeito à participação feminina nas (subculturas juvenis. Será que jovens-adolescentes do sexo feminino constituem uma minoria no movimento hip hop ou em outras manifestações culturais como as galeras ou gangues? O presente artigo questiona a ausência de estudos sobre jovens-adolescentes do sexo feminino, tanto nos trabalhos sobre juventude como nos estudos feministas, destacando a necessidade de pesquisas voltadas para a compreensão das ações juvenis em seus contextos específicos. Com base em dados empíricos sobre jovens-adolescentes negras e jovens de origem turca pertencentes ao movimento hip hop nas cidades de São Paulo e Berlim, discute ainda a luta pela conquista de espaço e de reconhecimento nesse movimento cultural de predominância masculina.The omission of girls in the literature of youth (subcultures is evident. Are feminine groups, in fact, in a minority position in the hip hop movement or in other cultural expressions like the "galeras" or "gangs"? The present article interrogates the absence of research about girl-cultures in the area of youth studies and also in the gender studies. Based on empirical research among black girls and girls of Turkish origin who belong to the hip hop movement in the cities of São Paulo and Berlin, respectively, the paper shows the effort of these girls in the achievement of power and recognition in this male dominated culture.

  16. 从虚假的女性到真正的女性--伊丽格蕾女性主义哲学基础之探析%From Unreal Feminine to Real Feminine--Analysis of the philosophical Fundamental of Irigaray’ s Feminism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王继

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of inheriting the gender theory of former psychoanalysts and feminists, Irigaray deeply analyzes the neglected condition of feminine in western cultural tradition of the onefold patriarchy and its inner cause.She thinks that the radical cause is that feminine is always regarded as the reflector of identical culture of masculine and does not have her own special discourse system. So feminine is just an unreal person, and the real feminine is covered. From this viewpoint Irigaray takes the approval of sexual difference as her theoretical base.She considers that only on the foundation of defining the feminine particular body and sexual experience can the feminine own real subject position and special discourse model.Thus the feminine could harmoniously develop with masculine in equality which is founded on sexual difference.%伊丽格蕾在继承之前精神分析学家和女性主义者关于性别理论的基础上,深入地分析了西方在单一性父权文化传统中女性被遗忘的状态及其内在原因,认为根本原因在于女性始终被作为男性同一性文化的反射镜,而没有获得自身独特的话语体制,因此,女性只是虚假的位格,真正的女性被遮蔽了。以此为契机伊丽格蕾将肯定性别差异作为自己的理论基点,认为只有在界定了女性独特的身体和性体验的基础上女性才能真正获得主体地位和独特的话语模式,从而与男性在有差异的平等中和谐共生。

  17. The wounded male persona and the mysterious feminine in the poetry of James Wright: a study in the transformation of the self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, M; Schermer, V L

    1998-12-01

    James Wright's work is multilayered. Taken as a whole, which Annie Wright's beautiful compilation, Above the River, allows one to do, Wright's poems (as well as his masterful "prose poems") have a pattern akin to a mythic cycle. "Mythemes" (Lévi-Strauss, 1979) recur as dialectic opposites from one poem to another, whether the abandoned male and mysterious woman, humankind and nature, blindness and seeing, secrets and revelation. Suggestive and symbolic forms such as birds, horses, earth, sky, the destitute, rivers, and adolescence weave themselves throughout in inner and outer "landscapes" of images and experiential moments. There is a frequent shift of "gestalts" between the inner world and external reality. Such a "blooming, buzzing confusion" of internal and external referents might appear to be psychotic and imply a loss of "reality testing." Chassaguet-Smirgel (1988), citing Oscar Wilde's The Picture of Dorian Gray as an example, contended that the artist narrowly averts psychosis by transforming it into a work of art. Surrealists, for whom the psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan was an important figure (cf. Sarup, 1992, pp. 17-27), elevated psychosis to the status of art, and Wright has been considered to be a surrealistic poet, although he himself denied such an affiliation. Hall (Wright, 1990, Introduction, pp. xxiii-xxxvii) suggests that Wright, in addition to an extensive history of alcoholism, from which he seemed to recover towards the end of his life, suffered from a major mental illness, which included episodes of severe depression, hospitalizations, and at least one suicide attempt. The severity of the asceticism and the extreme damage to the self in some Wright's work suggests their roots in early traumatic experiences. (A terribly damaged yet heroic personage, whose disfigurement perhaps symbolizes the poet's trauma, is "Hook" [ATR, pp. 315-316], about a man who gives his last few cents to the poet with a hook replacing his amputated hand.) Not enough is

  18. Ratings of self and peers on sex role attributes and their relation to self-esteem and conceptions of masculinity and femininity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, J T; Helmreich, R; Stapp, J

    1975-07-01

    Male (N = 248) and female (N = 282) subjects were given the Personal Attributes Questionnaire consisting of 55 bipolar attributes drawn from the Sex Role Stereotype Questionnaire by Rosenkrantz, Vogel, Bee, Broverman, and Broverman and were asked to rate themselves and then to compare directly the typical male and female college student. Self-ratings were divided into male-valued (stereotypically masculine attributes judged more desirable for both sexes), female-valued, and sex-specific items. Also administered was the Attitudes Toward Women Scale and a measure of social self-esteem. Correlations of the self-ratings with stereotype scores and the Attitudes Toward Women Scale were low in magnitude, suggesting that sex role expectations do not distort self-concepts. For both men and women, "femininity" on the female-valued self items and "masculinity" on the male-valued items were positively correlated, and both significantly related to self-esteem. The implications of the results for a concept of masculinity and femininity as a duality, characteristic of all individuals, and the use of the self-rating scales for measuring masculinity, femininity, and androgyny were discussed.

  19. Black branes as piezoelectrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Jay; Gath, Jakob; Obers, Niels A

    2012-12-14

    We find a realization of linear electroelasticity theory in gravitational physics by uncovering a new response coefficient of charged black branes, exhibiting their piezoelectric behavior. Taking charged dilatonic black strings as an example and using the blackfold approach we measure their elastic and piezolectric moduli. We also use our results to draw predictions about the equilibrium condition of charged dilatonic black rings in dimensions higher than six.

  20. Accreting Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Begelman, Mitchell C.

    2014-01-01

    I outline the theory of accretion onto black holes, and its application to observed phenomena such as X-ray binaries, active galactic nuclei, tidal disruption events, and gamma-ray bursts. The dynamics as well as radiative signatures of black hole accretion depend on interactions between the relatively simple black-hole spacetime and complex radiation, plasma and magnetohydrodynamical processes in the surrounding gas. I will show how transient accretion processes could provide clues to these ...

  1. Nonextremal stringy black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, K.

    1997-01-01

    We construct a four-dimensional BPS saturated heterotic string solution from the Taub-NUT solution. It is a nonextremal black hole solution since its Euler number is nonzero. We evaluate its black hole entropy semiclassically. We discuss the relation between the black hole entropy and the degeneracy of string states. The entropy of our string solution can be understood as the microscopic entropy which counts the elementary string states without any complications. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  2. Naked black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, G.T.; Ross, S.F.

    1997-01-01

    It is shown that there are large static black holes for which all curvature invariants are small near the event horizon, yet any object which falls in experiences enormous tidal forces outside the horizon. These black holes are charged and near extremality, and exist in a wide class of theories including string theory. The implications for cosmic censorship and the black hole information puzzle are discussed. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  3. Individual Differences in Personality Masculinity-Femininity: Examining the Effects of Genes, Environment, and Prenatal Hormone Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verweij, Karin J H; Mosing, Miriam A; Ullén, Fredrik; Madison, Guy

    2016-04-01

    Males and females score differently on some personality traits, but the underlying etiology of these differences is not well understood. This study examined genetic, environmental, and prenatal hormonal influences on individual differences in personality masculinity-femininity (M-F). We used Big-Five personality inventory data of 9,520 Swedish twins (aged 27 to 54) to create a bipolar M-F personality scale. Using biometrical twin modeling, we estimated the influence of genetic and environmental factors on individual differences in a M-F personality score. Furthermore, we tested whether prenatal hormone transfer may influence individuals' M-F scores by comparing the scores of twins with a same-sex versus those with an opposite-sex co-twin. On average, males scored 1.09 standard deviations higher than females on the created M-F scale. Around a third of the variation in M-F personality score was attributable to genetic factors, while family environmental factors had no influence. Males and females from opposite-sex pairs scored significantly more masculine (both approximately 0.1 SD) than those from same-sex pairs. In conclusion, genetic influences explain part of the individual differences in personality M-F, and hormone transfer from the male to the female twin during pregnancy may increase the level of masculinization in females. Additional well-powered studies are needed to clarify this association and determine the underlying mechanisms in both sexes.

  4. A “New Irish Woman” Emerges: Subverting Femininity in Maeve Kelly’s A Life of Her Own

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángela Rivera Izquierdo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Women in Irish fiction have been largely the creation of male writers, and the embodiment of religious virtues such as purity and passivity, conventionally regarded as “feminine.” Not only the Roman Catholic Church but also the State progressively contributed to the social construct of Irish womanhood as inferior and, above all, domestic. From the 1960s onwards many women writers have tried relentlessly to reimage women in their fiction. Feminist activist Maeve Kelly is an outstanding example of such writers whose work remains virtually unexplored. Very often Kelly’s protagonists are women in their conventional roles as wives and mothers who struggle for happiness and independence. This essay focuses on her collected stories A Life of Her Own (1976, and particularly on her short story “The vain woman,” in which Kelly presents us with a “new Irish woman” who is no longer the personification of the Virgin Mary, and who actively rebels against her environment.

  5. Whole-body patterns of the range of joint motion in young adults: masculine type and feminine type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moromizato, Keiichi; Kimura, Ryosuke; Fukase, Hitoshi; Yamaguchi, Kyoko; Ishida, Hajime

    2016-10-01

    Understanding the whole-body patterns of joint flexibility and their related biological and physical factors contributes not only to clinical assessments but also to the fields of human factors and ergonomics. In this study, ranges of motion (ROMs) at limb and trunk joints of young adults were analysed to understand covariation patterns of different joint motions and to identify factors associated with the variation in ROM. Seventy-eight healthy volunteers (42 males and 36 females) living on Okinawa Island, Japan, were recruited. Passive ROM was measured at multiple joints through the whole body (31 measurements) including the left and right side limbs and trunk. Comparisons between males and females, dominant and non-dominant sides, and antagonistic motions indicated that body structures influence ROMs. In principal component analysis (PCA) on the ROM data, the first principal component (PC1) represented the sex difference and a similar covariation pattern appeared in the analysis within each sex. Multiple regression analysis showed that this component was associated with sex, age, body fat %, iliospinale height, and leg extension strength. The present study identified that there is a spectrum of "masculine" and "feminine" types in the whole-body patterns of joint flexibility. This study also suggested that body proportion and composition, muscle mass and strength, and possibly skeletal structures partly explain such patterns. These results would be important to understand individual variation in susceptibility to joint injuries and diseases and in one's suitable and effective postures and motions.

  6. Homogamy in Masculinity-Femininity Is Positively Linked to Relationship Quality in Gay Male Couples from the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bártová, Klára; Štěrbová, Zuzana; Martinec Nováková, Lenka; Binter, Jakub; Varella, Marco Antonio Corrêa; Valentova, Jaroslava Varella

    2017-07-01

    The main aims of this research were to test the similarity of masculinity-femininity in long-term male same-sex couples from the Czech Republic and to examine whether this similarity predicts higher relationship quality. In Study 1, participants (N = 30) and their partners completed the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS) and the Childhood Gender Nonconformity Scale (CGN). In Study 2, participants (N = 40) and their partners completed DAS and the Gender Diagnosticity Scale (GD). Results showed that the partners were no more alike than individuals paired at random in their CGN or GD, but greater similarity in CGN between partners increased Dyadic Cohesion (r = -.41 [-.71, -.02]) and Affectional Expression (r = -.38 [-.60, -.13]). Our results add to previous evidence showing that similarity in same-sex couples increased relationship quality. Although, on average, gay men were not coupled on the basis of homogamy in gender roles, their relationship quality is linked to the gender egalitarian model rather than to the gender stratified one. Thus, a widespread stereotype suggesting that same-sex partners are divided by different gender roles seems to be, at least in our sample from a Western society, rather incorrect.

  7. Analisis Kontrastif Perspektif Bahasa dan Budaya terhadap Distingsi Gender Maskulin Versus Feminin dalam Bahasa Arab dan Bahasa Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajudin Nur

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the reflection of gender in Arabic and Indonesian languages and then connects it to their each cultural contexts. Gender in Arabic grammar is important subcategory that distinguishes between masculine and feminine in almost every part of speech, whereas gender in Indonesian is not an important subcategory. After data analysis through comparison and elaboration phases obtained the following results: (1 the gender markers in Arabic are dominated by the grammatical markers, while the gender markers in Indonesian are dominated by the lexical markers and if it not significant the gender markers in Indonesian are not presented, and (2 Arabic strictly applies the gender system and is closely related to the rules of concord (agreement, while Indonesian loosely does it and does not own the rules of conformity. The distinction of gender system between the two languages shows the different of cultural system also. Based on social structure system, the Arab society emphasizes the gender segregation like man versus woman, while the society of Indonesia emphasizes the age and status distinctions. Based on genetic relationship system, the Arab people tend to be individual, while the Indonesian people tend to have mutual cooperation and collectiveness. Based on cultural system, the Arab people applying strict patriarchy, while the Indonesian people applying loose patriarchy.

  8. Trappings of femininity: A test of the "beauty as currency" hypothesis in shaping college women's gender activism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calogero, Rachel M; Tylka, Tracy L; Donnelly, Lois C; McGetrick, Amber; Leger, Andrea Medrano

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated whether believing beauty is a primary currency for women operates as an antecedent force in the relation between self-objectification and gender activism. Ninety-four ethnically diverse women attending a small liberal arts college in the southeastern United States completed the study questionnaires online for course credit. Preliminary results demonstrated beauty as currency belief, self-objectification, and support for the gender status quo were negatively associated with gender activism. A serial mediation analysis revealed support for the proposed model: Beauty as currency belief was indirectly and inversely linked to gender activism through self-objectification and support for the gender status quo, offering initial evidence for our beauty as currency hypothesis. These findings suggest belief in the notion women will reap more benefits from their bodies than other attributes or pursuits may be an important legitimizing feature of feminine beauty ideology that works through self-objectification against gender social change. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Black Family as Educator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Joan

    The black family is the primary socializing agent of the black child and, thus, the primary educator. The culture of blacks in America, in which the child is steeped, is unique, complex and rich-the result of a convergence and fusion of African, American, and European influences. In its education of the black child, the black family must deal,…

  10. Understanding adolescent mental health: the influence of social processes, doing gender and gendered power relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landstedt, Evelina; Asplund, Kenneth; Gillander Gådin, Katja

    2009-11-01

    Despite a well-documented gender pattern in adolescent mental health, research investigating possible explanatory factors from a gender-theoretical approach is scarce. This paper reports a grounded theory study based on 29 focus groups. The aim was to explore 16- to 19-year-old students' perceptions of what is significant for mental health, and to apply a gender analysis to the findings in order to advance understanding of the gender pattern in adolescent mental health. Significant factors were identified in three social processes categories, including both positive and negative aspects: (1) social interactions, (2) performance and (3) responsibility. Girls more often experienced negative aspects of these processes, placing them at greater risk for mental health problems. Boys' more positive mental health appeared to be associated with their low degree of responsibility-taking and beneficial positions relative to girls. Negotiating cultural norms of femininity and masculinity seemed to be more strenuous for girls, which could place them at a disadvantage with regard to mental health. Social factors and processes (particularly responsibility), gendered power relations and constructions of masculinities and femininities should be acknowledged as important for adolescent mental health.

  11. Adolescents taken care of in a public service of urgency and emergency: profile of morbidade and mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islaine Fernandes Dubuc

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available One is about a transversal descriptive inquiry in the characterize causes of morbidade and mortality between adolescents taken care of in the urgency and emergency service of a public hospital. The collection of data was carried through the attendance fiches, in the January, February and March months of 2003, totalizing 2722. The population consisted of adolescents of 10 the 19 years of age, residents in the city. The morbi-mortality causes had been classified in accordance with the International Classification of Desease (CID-10. More than the half of the taken care is for the feminine population (54.1%. The predominant causes of morbidade had been the infectious and parasitic illnesses in the feminine sex (26.5% and injuries and poisoning and some other consequences of external causes in the masculine sex (30.5%. The month of bigger attendance was March (38.4%. The period of the night was of bigger prevalence (37.6%. The medical clinic took care of 63.9% of the adolescents. They had received high, 84.6% of the cases and had not been detected deaths. The results contribute for the aiming of writ of prevention public politics the specific action, of control and reduction of the main causes of morbidade that take the adolescent population to look the service of ready aid.

  12. Black hole Berry phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, J.; Papadodimas, K.; Verlinde, E.

    2009-01-01

    Supersymmetric black holes are characterized by a large number of degenerate ground states. We argue that these black holes, like other quantum mechanical systems with such a degeneracy, are subject to a phenomenon which is called the geometric or Berry’s phase: under adiabatic variations of the

  13. Black holes are warm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravndal, F.

    1978-01-01

    Applying Einstein's theory of gravitation to black holes and their interactions with their surroundings leads to the conclusion that the sum of the surface areas of several black holes can never become less. This is shown to be analogous to entropy in thermodynamics, and the term entropy is also thus applied to black holes. Continuing, expressions are found for the temperature of a black hole and its luminosity. Thermal radiation is shown to lead to explosion of the black hole. Numerical examples are discussed involving the temperature, the mass, the luminosity and the lifetime of black mini-holes. It is pointed out that no explosions corresponding to the prediction have been observed. It is also shown that the principle of conservation of leptons and baryons is broken by hot black holes, but that this need not be a problem. The related concept of instantons is cited. It is thought that understanding of thermal radiation from black holes may be important for the development of a quantified gravitation theory. (JIW)

  14. on black ironbark (Eucalyptus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Apis meOifera) on black ironbark. (Eucalyptus sideroxylon). B. Buys. Plant Protection Research Institute, Private Bag X5017,. Stellenbosch, 7600 Republic of South Africa. Received May /984; accepted 28 November /986. Black ironbark trees secrete nectar during the night. Argentine ants collected 42% of the nectar before ...

  15. Black holes matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Helge Stjernholm

    2016-01-01

    Review essay, Marcia Bartusiak, Black Hole: How an Idea Abandoned by Newtonians, Hated by Einstein, and Gambled On by Hawking Became Loved (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015).......Review essay, Marcia Bartusiak, Black Hole: How an Idea Abandoned by Newtonians, Hated by Einstein, and Gambled On by Hawking Became Loved (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015)....

  16. Quantum black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Hooft, G. 't

    1987-01-01

    This article is divided into three parts. First, a systematic derivation of the Hawking radiation is given in three different ways. The information loss problem is then discussed in great detail. The last part contains a concise discussion of black hole thermodynamics. This article was published as chapter $6$ of the IOP book "Lectures on General Relativity, Cosmology and Quantum Black Holes" (July $2017$).

  17. Protecting Black Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Monique W.

    2016-01-01

    Statistics show that black girls in U.S. K-12 public schools are overrepresented among students who face disciplinary approaches (such as suspensions) that exclude or even criminalize them. Morris explains how black girls face conditions that make them vulnerable to a phenomenon she calls "school to confinement pathways"--conditions like…

  18. Black hole levitron

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arsiwalla, X.D.; Verlinde, E.P.

    2010-01-01

    We study the problem of spatially stabilizing four dimensional extremal black holes in background electric/magnetic fields. Whilst looking for stationary stable solutions describing black holes placed in external fields we find that taking a continuum limit of Denef et al.’s multicenter

  19. The Black Woman's Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Not even the first lady of the most powerful nation in the world is immune to stereotypes that have plagued Black women since first setting foot on American soil. Stereotypes of being the "angry Black woman" and curiosity about differences in appearance still persist from the academy to 1600 Pennsylvania Ave. As African-American women rise in…

  20. Black Boycott: Gainsville, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Arthur O.

    1975-01-01

    A case study of the events precipitating a black student boycott in 1969 in Gainesville, Flordia, when school board manuevering to avoid school integration led to the threatened closing of Lincoln High School, a reputable black community school. Also described are the subsequent transformations of Lincoln into a vocational-technical school and…

  1. Adolescent rationality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshman, David

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents are commonly seen as irrational, a position supported to varying degrees by many developmentalists, who often appeal to recent research on adolescent brains. Careful review of relevant evidence, however, shows that (1) adults are less rational than is generally assumed, (2) adolescents (and adults) are categorically different from children with respect to the attainment of advanced levels of rationality and psychological functioning, and (3) adolescents and adults do not differ categorically from each other with respect to any rational competencies, irrational tendencies, brain structures, or neurological functioning. Development often continues in adolescence and beyond but categorical claims about adolescents as distinct from adults cannot be justified. A review of U.S. Supreme Court decisions concerning intellectual freedom, reproductive freedom, and criminal responsibility shows ongoing ambivalence and confusion about the rationality of adolescents. Developmental theory and research suggest that adolescents should be conceptualized as young adults, not immature brains, with important implications for their roles, rights, and responsibilities.

  2. Lifshitz topological black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, R.B.

    2009-01-01

    I find a class of black hole solutions to a (3+1) dimensional theory gravity coupled to abelian gauge fields with negative cosmological constant that has been proposed as the dual theory to a Lifshitz theory describing critical phenomena in (2+1) dimensions. These black holes are all asymptotic to a Lifshitz fixed point geometry and depend on a single parameter that determines both their area (or size) and their charge. Most of the solutions are obtained numerically, but an exact solution is also obtained for a particular value of this parameter. The thermodynamic behaviour of large black holes is almost the same regardless of genus, but differs considerably for small black holes. Screening behaviour is exhibited in the dual theory for any genus, but the critical length at which it sets in is genus-dependent for small black holes.

  3. Legitimizing Blacks in Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jameliah Shorter-Bourhanou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In its efforts toward improving diversity, the discipline of philosophy has tended to focus on increasing the number of black philosophers. One crucial issue that has received less attention is the extent to which black philosophers are delegitimized in the discipline because their philosophical contributions challenge the status quo. A systematic problem that bars black philosophers from equal and full participation, this delegitimization precludes the emergence of genuine diversity and reveals the importance of interrogating broader attitudes toward black philosophical contributions. In this essay, I argue for radical systematic changes to disciplinary hallmarks of professionalization such as pedagogy, mentoring, publishing, and hiring practices with the aim of legitimizing black philosophers and their contributions.

  4. Politics of Feminine Abuse: Political Oppression and Masculine Obstinacy in Doris Lessing’s The Good Terrorist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedram Lalbakhsh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the male-dominated world of Doris Lessing’s novel The Good Terrorist. Alice Mellings, the protagonist of the novel, is a political activist whose reliance on male figures in the story—the leaders of a subdivision of a political party—ends in disillusionment and frustration. Looking at this novel from a socialist feminist point of view, Alice Mellings is found to be a minor member, exploited and abused, who has to follow the orders and instructions of her inept superiors—all male. While Alice is the one who guarantees the continuation of activism (doing all kinds of jobs needed to keep the squat alive, she is never allowed to have a role in decision making. She is a member whose identity is defined by male superiors and is considered as a half-human whose services are to be enjoyed only. However, the findings of this study prove Alice as one who has her own voice at the end. The novel’s closing is marked with an engendered New Woman who is aware of the political abuse and whose independent unbound identity stands much higher than the political oppression and masculine obstinacy that had imprisoned her for so long. She is a different woman at the end; one who knows her power, believes in it and decides to fight and not to surrender. And this is a new consciousness that Lessing raises: discover your feminine power, have a firm belief in it and use it to win.

  5. Equipes gerenciadas por mulheres: representações sociais sobre gerenciamento feminino Women managers' teams: social representations about feminine management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Maria Fontenele Mourão

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo apreender a maneira como as equipes que têm uma mulher como gerente estão construindo representações sociais sobre este gerenciar. Participaram 74 mulheres e 72 homens de equipes que trabalham com sete mulheres que atingiram o topo de carreira, ocupando cargos administrativos nos níveis DAS 5 e DAS 6 da Administração Pública Federal. Utilizou-se a associação livre de palavras, sendo as respostas analisadas pelo software EVOC. Os resultados indicam que os participantes identificam algumas características que as equipes atribuem ao gerenciamento feminino. Apontam para uma forma de gestão voltada para as relações pessoais, respeito pela pessoa, preocupação com a qualidade do trabalho. Um gerenciamento cujo estilo interativo se caracterizaria pela capacidade de promover a inclusão, característico das formas de redes planas de gestão.The aim of this study was to apprehend the way teams that have a woman as amanager are building the social representation about this management. The participants were 74 women and 72 men whose teams work with seven women who have reached the top of their careers in administrative positions of DAS 5 and DAS 6 levels of the Public Federal Administration. A free association test was applied and analyzed through the EVOC software. The results showed that the participants identified some characteristics on women management that were considered a feminine form of leadership: interpersonal relationship, respect for individuality, concern with the quality of work. This kind of management carries an interactive style that is characterized by the capacity to promote inclusion, which is a characteristic of flat management nets.

  6. ULTRAMASSIVE BLACK HOLE COALESCENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Fazeel Mahmood; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Berczik, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Although supermassive black holes (SMBHs) correlate well with their host galaxies, there is an emerging view that outliers exist. Henize 2-10, NGC 4889, and NGC 1277 are examples of SMBHs at least an order of magnitude more massive than their host galaxy suggests. The dynamical effects of such ultramassive central black holes is unclear. Here, we perform direct N-body simulations of mergers of galactic nuclei where one black hole is ultramassive to study the evolution of the remnant and the black hole dynamics in this extreme regime. We find that the merger remnant is axisymmetric near the center, while near the large SMBH influence radius, the galaxy is triaxial. The SMBH separation shrinks rapidly due to dynamical friction, and quickly forms a binary black hole; if we scale our model to the most massive estimate for the NGC 1277 black hole, for example, the timescale for the SMBH separation to shrink from nearly a kiloparsec to less than a parsec is roughly 10 Myr. By the time the SMBHs form a hard binary, gravitational wave emission dominates, and the black holes coalesce in a mere few Myr. Curiously, these extremely massive binaries appear to nearly bypass the three-body scattering evolutionary phase. Our study suggests that in this extreme case, SMBH coalescence is governed by dynamical friction followed nearly directly by gravitational wave emission, resulting in a rapid and efficient SMBH coalescence timescale. We discuss the implications for gravitational wave event rates and hypervelocity star production

  7. On the Charter Question: Black Marxism and Black Nationalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Mark; Hussain, Khuram

    2015-01-01

    This article brings two black intellectual traditions to bear on the question of charter schools: black Marxism and black nationalism. The authors examine the theoretical and rhetorical devices used to talk about charters schools by focusing on how notions of "black liberation" are deployed by the charter movement, and to what end. The…

  8. "Black Like Me": Reframing Blackness for Decolonial Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dei, George J. Sefa

    2018-01-01

    From a particular vantage point, as an African-born scholar with a politics to affirm my Black subjectivity and Indigeneity in a diasporic context, my article engages a (re)theorization of Blackness for decolonial politics. Building on existing works of how Black scholars, themselves, have theorized Blackness, and recognizing the fluid,…

  9. Black holes new horizons

    CERN Document Server

    Hayward, Sean Alan

    2013-01-01

    Black holes, once just fascinating theoretical predictions of how gravity warps space-time according to Einstein's theory, are now generally accepted as astrophysical realities, formed by post-supernova collapse, or as supermassive black holes mysteriously found at the cores of most galaxies, powering active galactic nuclei, the most powerful objects in the universe. Theoretical understanding has progressed in recent decades with a wider realization that local concepts should characterize black holes, rather than the global concepts found in textbooks. In particular, notions such as trapping h

  10. The Principle of the Eternal-Feminine in Rossini’s L’Italiana in Algeri: Isabella as the Italian Super-Woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamir, Sara

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The term Eternal-Feminine, or Das Ewig-Weibliche, first appeared in the last verses of the second part of Goethe’s Faust (completed 1832. It, subsequently, became the subject of speculation and a riddle which scholars have been trying to solve ever since. The term gradually came to represent a cultural principle regarding the image of femininity and it reached its Romantic apex, in the 19th Century, when various female archetypes were fused into a singe heroine. The present article aims to explore Isabella’s character in Rossini’s L’Italiana in Algeri in the light of the principle of the Eternal-Feminine. Although Goethe was still in the process of writing the second part of Faust when L’Italiana premiered (1813 in Italy, the cultural principle of the Eternal- Feminine can be used retrospectively in the analysis of Isabella as the central female protagonist of the opera. A thorough reading of her character suggests an aesthetic approach that makes use of certain Romantic aspects of the Eternal-Feminine principle. The present article focuses specifi cally on the Cruda sorte! Amor tiranno! scene and briefl y refers to other scenes as well.La expresión Eterno Femenino (Eternal-Feminine, o Das Ewig-Weibliche, apareció por primera vez en los últimos versos de la segunda parte del Fausto de Goethe (acabado en 1832. Posteriormente, se convirtió en tema de especulación, y en un enigma que los estudiosos han estado intentando resolver desde entonces. La expresión vino a identificar, con el paso del tiempo, un principio cultural relacionado con la imagen de la feminidad y alcanzó su extremo romántico, en el siglo XIX, cuando diversos arquetipos femeninos se fundieron en una sola heroína. El presente artículo pretende explorar el personaje de Isabella en La italianaen Argel de Rossini, a la luz del principio del Eterno Femenino. Aunque Goethe se encontraba todavía escribiendo la segunda parte de su Fausto cuando se estrenó La italiana

  11. Gendered dimensions of obesity in childhood and adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweeting Helen N

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The literature on childhood and adolescent obesity is vast. In addition to producing a general overview, this paper aims to highlight gender differences or similarities, an area which has tended not to be the principal focus of this literature. Methods Databases were searched using the terms 'obesity' and 'child', 'adolescent', 'teenager', 'youth', 'young people', 'sex', 'gender', 'masculine', 'feminine', 'male', 'female', 'boy' and 'girl' (or variations on these terms. In order to limit the potential literature, the main focus is on other reviews, both general and relating to specific aspects of obesity. Results The findings of genetic studies are similar for males and females, and differences in obesity rates as defined by body mass index are generally small and inconsistent. However, differences between males and females due to biology are evident in the patterning of body fat, the fat levels at which health risks become apparent, levels of resting energy expenditure and energy requirements, ability to engage in certain physical activities and the consequences of obesity for the female reproductive system. Differences due to society or culture include food choices and dietary concerns, overall physical activity levels, body satisfaction and the long-term psychosocial consequences of childhood and adolescent obesity. Conclusion This review suggests differences between males and females in exposure and vulnerability to obesogenic environments, the consequences of child and adolescent obesity, and responses to interventions for the condition. A clearer focus on gender differences is required among both researchers and policy makers within this field.

  12. Gendered dimensions of obesity in childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeting, Helen N

    2008-01-14

    The literature on childhood and adolescent obesity is vast. In addition to producing a general overview, this paper aims to highlight gender differences or similarities, an area which has tended not to be the principal focus of this literature. Databases were searched using the terms 'obesity' and 'child', 'adolescent', 'teenager', 'youth', 'young people', 'sex', 'gender', 'masculine', 'feminine', 'male', 'female', 'boy' and 'girl' (or variations on these terms). In order to limit the potential literature, the main focus is on other reviews, both general and relating to specific aspects of obesity. The findings of genetic studies are similar for males and females, and differences in obesity rates as defined by body mass index are generally small and inconsistent. However, differences between males and females due to biology are evident in the patterning of body fat, the fat levels at which health risks become apparent, levels of resting energy expenditure and energy requirements, ability to engage in certain physical activities and the consequences of obesity for the female reproductive system. Differences due to society or culture include food choices and dietary concerns, overall physical activity levels, body satisfaction and the long-term psychosocial consequences of childhood and adolescent obesity. This review suggests differences between males and females in exposure and vulnerability to obesogenic environments, the consequences of child and adolescent obesity, and responses to interventions for the condition. A clearer focus on gender differences is required among both researchers and policy makers within this field.

  13. Understanding the Black Aesthetic Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Marvin V.

    1988-01-01

    Discussing the importance of the Black aesthetic experience, Curtis examines Black cultural heritage and participatory style, the spiritual, and the creation and recreation of Black music. Advocating multicultural music education in teacher training, he suggests that Black music be studied for its value and contribution to society. Lists five ways…

  14. New Directions for Black Women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuigan, Dorothy, Ed.

    1978-01-01

    This collection of papers deals with various aspects of the black female experience in America. "The Black Woman in Transition" discusses the effects of sexism and racism on black women with particular reference to employment and education; it is noted that black women, in comparison with other groups in society, suffer a proportionately higher…

  15. Black Writers' Views of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hairston, Loyle

    1979-01-01

    This article argues that the stagnation, pessimism, and self-pity evident in recent Black writing results in part from the alienation of Black writers from the mainstream of Black life, and in part from the illusions that they share with other Blacks who have embraced the American value system. (Author/EB)

  16. Black holes with halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monten, Ruben; Toldo, Chiara

    2018-02-01

    We present new AdS4 black hole solutions in N =2 gauged supergravity coupled to vector and hypermultiplets. We focus on a particular consistent truncation of M-theory on the homogeneous Sasaki–Einstein seven-manifold M 111, characterized by the presence of one Betti vector multiplet. We numerically construct static and spherically symmetric black holes with electric and magnetic charges, corresponding to M2 and M5 branes wrapping non-contractible cycles of the internal manifold. The novel feature characterizing these nonzero temperature configurations is the presence of a massive vector field halo. Moreover, we verify the first law of black hole mechanics and we study the thermodynamics in the canonical ensemble. We analyze the behavior of the massive vector field condensate across the small-large black hole phase transition and we interpret the process in the dual field theory.

  17. Tuberculosis in Blacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are reported in blacks received training to enhance skills for engaging communities, develop strategies, and sustain partnerships for reducing TB rates. Other CDC activities include a study to identify the socio-cultural, racial, and health ...

  18. Introducing the Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffini, Remo; Wheeler, John A.

    1971-01-01

    discusses the cosmology theory of a black hole, a region where an object loses its identity, but mass, charge, and momentum are conserved. Include are three possible formation processes, theorized properties, and three way they might eventually be detected. (DS)

  19. Colliding black hole solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Mainuddin

    2005-01-01

    A new solution of Einstein equation in general relativity is found. This solution solves an outstanding problem of thermodynamics and black hole physics. Also this work appears to conclude the interpretation of NUT spacetime. (author)

  20. Black Sea aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacisalihoglu, G.; Eliyakut, F.; Anwari, M.A.; Ataman, O.Y.; Balkas, T.I.; Tuncel, G.; Olmez, I.

    1991-01-01

    Shipboard, high volume air particulate samples were collected from the Black Sea atmosphere and analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis, atomic absorption spectrophotometry and ion chromatography for about 40 elements and ions. Concentrations of elements in the eastern and western parts of the Black Sea are different at the 95% confidence level, with lower concentrations in the eastern Black Sea. Back-trajectories and concentrations of elements in trajectory groups show that Europe accounts for more than 70% of the anthropogenic elements in the atmosphere. The average sulfate concentration was 7 μg/m 3 , which is comparable with rural sulfate levels in western Europe. Fluxes of elements from the atmosphere to the Black Sea are in good agreement with the results of similar flux calculations for other regions

  1. Black Teenage Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loretta I. Winters

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the relative importance of race and socioeconomic status (SES in determining whether Black and White teenagers report having ever been pregnant. Data gathered from 1999 to 2006 by the National Center for Health Statistics of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention included 1,580 Black and White females aged 15 to 19 years. Results supported the effects of race and SES, with SES having the stronger effect. However, the effects of race and SES differ when controlling for the state of the economy. No difference between Blacks and Whites was found during better economic times. During 2003-2004, the period of greatest economic stress, race was determined to be the only predictor of teenage pregnancy. In particular, during 2005-2006, the reduction in pregnancy rates for Black minors (15-17 fell below those for White minors within their respective SES categories. Policy implications are discussed in light of these findings.

  2. Black-hole thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekenstein, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    Including black holes in the scheme of thermodynamics has disclosed a deep-seated connection between gravitation, heat and the quantum that may lead us to a synthesis of the corresponding branches of physics

  3. White dwarfs - black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sexl, R.; Sexl, H.

    1975-01-01

    The physical arguments and problems of relativistic astrophysics are presented in a correct way, but without any higher mathematics. The book is addressed to teachers, experimental physicists, and others with a basic knowledge covering an introductory lecture in physics. The issues dealt with are: fundamentals of general relativity, classical tests of general relativity, curved space-time, stars and planets, pulsars, gravitational collapse and black holes, the search for black holes, gravitational waves, cosmology, cosmogony, and the early universe. (BJ/AK) [de

  4. Supersymmetric black holes

    OpenAIRE

    de Wit, Bernard

    2005-01-01

    The effective action of $N=2$, $d=4$ supergravity is shown to acquire no quantum corrections in background metrics admitting super-covariantly constant spinors. In particular, these metrics include the Robinson-Bertotti metric (product of two 2-dimensional spaces of constant curvature) with all 8 supersymmetries unbroken. Another example is a set of arbitrary number of extreme Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black holes. These black holes break 4 of 8 supersymmetries, leaving the other 4 unbroken. We ha...

  5. Bumpy black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Emparan, Roberto; Figueras, Pau; Martinez, Marina

    2014-01-01

    We study six-dimensional rotating black holes with bumpy horizons: these are topologically spherical, but the sizes of symmetric cycles on the horizon vary non-monotonically with the polar angle. We construct them numerically for the first three bumpy families, and follow them in solution space until they approach critical solutions with localized singularities on the horizon. We find strong evidence of the conical structures that have been conjectured to mediate the transitions to black ring...

  6. British Dance: Black Routes

    OpenAIRE

    Adair, C.; Burt, Ramsay, 1953-

    2016-01-01

    British Dance: Black Routes re-examines the distinctive contributions made to British dance by dancers who are Black. Covering the period 1946 to the present, it presents a radical re-reading of dancers and their companies, placing their achievements within a broader historical, cultural and artistic context. The result of a two year research project, British Dance and the African Diaspora, led by editors Christy Adair and Ramsay Burt, the collection looks at artists working with contempor...

  7. Black Holes and Thermodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Wald, Robert M.

    1997-01-01

    We review the remarkable relationship between the laws of black hole mechanics and the ordinary laws of thermodynamics. It is emphasized that - in analogy with the laws of thermodynamics - the validity the laws of black hole mechanics does not appear to depend upon the details of the underlying dynamical theory (i.e., upon the particular field equations of general relativity). It also is emphasized that a number of unresolved issues arise in ``ordinary thermodynamics'' in the context of gener...

  8. Threat of the feminine identity: The emerging structure in exploring the process of women's empowerment for menopause management: A grounded theory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoureh Yazdkhasti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Women empowerment in different spheres of life especially menopause is among the key elements of health promotion in all communities. However there is no realistic images of empowering women in menopausal symptoms management. The present survey aimed to explain the process of women's empowerment for menopausal symptoms management. This qualitative study is part of a larger project which was conducted using Grounded Theory between 2013 and 2015. The article's main focus was to explore the underlying conditions and factors affecting the process of women's empowerment. Using a purposive and theoretical sampling method, 25 participants were interviewed 28 times. Data was collected through some in-depth, semi-structural and open ended interviews with the participant and also memoing and field notes. The interviews were conducted in Neighborhoods House affiliated to Tehran municipality and two gynecological clinics affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Data analysis was applied through Strauss and Corbin approach (2008 using MAXQDA10 software. Threat of the feminine identity has been noted as the women's most common concern to being empowered in menopause management. The key theme emerged in the present study (threat of the feminine identity included four main categories (consciousness about the likelihood of femininity decline, negative attitude towards herself, inadequate supportive context, latent opportunity, two subcategories and 109 first-level codes. There is a logical, coherent and integrated relationship between all these concepts and the theme of feminine identity threat. This theme is considered as an underlying social problem and a major concern for postmenopausal women in the context of this group of women's empowerment. The factors (barriers and facilitators affecting women's empowerment in menopause management are associated with social context, intensity and origin of each society. Evaluation of Iranian women

  9. Tacita Muta y el silencio femenino como arma del patriarcado romano. – Tacita Muta and the feminine silence as a weapon of the roman patriarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casamayor Mancisidor, Sara

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tacita Muta was a naiad punished by Jupiter who ripped her tongue out for talking excessively. She became a divinity that symbolized the prerogative of the feminine silence. The aim of the present article is to illustrate how the roman patriarchy imposed the duty of silence on women, taking the myth of Tacita as the starting point. We present several examples of deities, mythological characters and real women who also exemplified this female duty, along with others that transgressed the norm. All of this with the aim of getting deeper on gender relations in Roman times.

  10. Consequences of black exceptionalism? Interracial unions with blacks, depressive symptoms, and relationship satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Rhiannon A; Williams, Kristi

    2011-01-01

    Using data from Wave 4 (2008) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 7,466), we examine potential consequences of black exceptionalism in the context of interracial relationships among nonblack respondents. While increasing racial diversity and climbing rates of interracial unions have fostered the notion that racial boundaries within the United States are fading, our results add to the accumulating evidence that racial/ethnic boundaries persist in U.S. society. Results suggest that among non-Black respondents there is more stigma and disapproval attached to relationships with Blacks than there are to relationships with members of other racial/ethnic groups. Specifically, our results indicate that nonblack individuals with black partners have significantly more depressive symptoms and less relationship satisfaction than their counterparts with nonblack partners, regardless of respondent race and whether the nonblack partner is the same versus a different race from the respondent. Further, the relationship between partner race and depressive symptoms is partially and significantly mediated by relationship satisfaction.

  11. Race, Ethnicity, and Adolescent Violent Victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillyer, Marie Skubak; Tillyer, Rob

    2016-07-01

    The risk of adolescent violent victimization in the United States varies considerably across racial and ethnic populations; it is unknown whether the sources of risk also vary by race and ethnicity. This study examined the correlates of violent victimization for White, Black, and Hispanic youth. Data collected from 11,070 adolescents (51 % female, mean age = 15.04 years) during the first two waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health were used to estimate group-specific multilevel logistic regression models. The results indicate that male, violent offending, peer deviance, gang membership, and low self-control were significantly associated with increased odds of violent victimization for all groups. Some activities-including getting drunk, sneaking out, and unstructured socializing with peers-were risk factors for Black adolescents only; skipping school was a risk factor only for Hispanic adolescents. Although there are many similarities across groups, the findings suggest that minority adolescents are particularly vulnerable to violent victimization when they engage in some activities and minor forms of delinquency.

  12. Prostitución en Galicia: clientes e imaginarios femeninos Prostitution in Galicia: clients and feminine imaginary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agueda Gómez Suárez

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Hoy, la prostitución en nuestra sociedad resulta un indicador de la "cultura sexual" dominante en las sociedades patriarcales y capitalistas. Este artículo pretende aportar otro enfoque al análisis de la industria sexual en nuestro país, ajustándose, principalmente, a las experiencias de los hombres implicados en el fenómeno de la prostitución en Galicia. El dramatismo con que las mujeres en prostitución viven su realidad y la frivolidad y ociosidad en la que se recrean los clientes, muestra el controvertido e inquietante semblante de esta realidad. El análisis del discurso de los clientes a través del "Frame Analysis", y el estudio de los imaginarios femeninos dominantes entre ellos son retratados en este texto, junto con el discurso de las mujeres en prostitución y el de los hombres que ocupan espacios masculinizados. Este artículo pretende ser una contribución más al complejo estudio del fenómeno de la prostitución en nuestro país.Today, the prostitution in our society turns out to be an indicator of the dominant "sexual culture" in the patriarchal and capitalist societies. This article tries to contribute with another approach to the analysis of the sexual industry in our country, adjusting, principally, to the experiences of the men involved in the phenomenon of the prostitution in Galicia. The dramatic quality in which the women in prostitution live their reality and the levity and idleness, in which the clients enjoy themselves, show the controversial and worrying face of this reality. The analysis of the clients' speech across the "Frame Analysis", and the study of the feminine dominant imaginary among them are portrayed in this text, together with the speech of the women in prostitution and of the men who occupy masculinized spaces. This article tries to be a contribution to the complex study of the phenomenon of the prostitution in our country.

  13. Black Bear Reactions to Venomous and Non-venomous Snakes in Eastern North America

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Lynn L; Mansfield, Susan A; Hornby, Kathleen; Hornby, Stewart; Debruyn, Terry D; Mize, Malvin; Clark, Rulon; Burghardt, Gordon M

    2014-01-01

    Bears are often considered ecological equivalents of large primates, but the latter often respond with fear, avoidance, and alarm calls to snakes, both venomous and non-venomous, there is sparse information on how bears respond to snakes. We videotaped or directly observed natural encounters between black bears (Ursus americanus) and snakes. Inside the range of venomous snakes in Arkansas and West Virginia, adolescent and adult black bears reacted fearfully in seven of seven encounters upon b...

  14. HIV testing in nonhealthcare facilities among adolescent MSM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marano, Mariette R; Stein, Renee; Williams, Weston O; Wang, Guoshen; Xu, Songli; Uhl, Gary; Cheng, Qi; Rasberry, Catherine N

    2017-07-01

    To describe the extent to which Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-funded HIV testing in nonhealthcare facilities reaches adolescent MSM, identifies new HIV infections, and links those newly diagnosed to medical care. We describe HIV testing, newly diagnosed positivity, and linkage to medical care for adolescent MSM who received a CDC-funded HIV test in a nonhealthcare facility in 2015. We assess outcomes by race/ethnicity, HIV-related risk behaviors, and US geographical region. Of the 703 890 CDC-funded HIV testing events conducted in nonhealthcare facilities in 2015, 6848 (0.9%) were provided to adolescent MSM aged 13-19 years. Among those tested, 1.8% were newly diagnosed with HIV, compared with 0.7% among total tests provided in nonhealthcare facilities regardless of age and sex. The odds of testing positive among black adolescent MSM were nearly four times that of white adolescent MSM in multivariable analysis (odds ratio = 3.97, P adolescent MSM newly diagnosed with HIV, 67% were linked to HIV medical care. Linkage was lower among black (59%) and Hispanic/Latino adolescent MSM (71%) compared with white adolescent MSM (88%). CDC-funded nonhealthcare facilities can reach and provide HIV tests to adolescent MSM and identify new HIV infections; however, given the low rate of HIV testing overall and high engagement in HIV-related risk behaviors, there are opportunities to increase access to HIV testing and linkage to care for HIV-positive adolescent MSM. Efforts are needed to identify and address the barriers that prevent black and Hispanic/Latino adolescent MSM from being linked to HIV medical care in a timely manner.

  15. Black holes and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    Belief in the existence of black holes is the ultimate act of faith for a physicist. First suggested by the English clergyman John Michell in the year 1784, the gravitational pull of a black hole is so strong that nothing - not even light - can escape. Gravity might be the weakest of the fundamental forces but black-hole physics is not for the faint-hearted. Black holes present obvious problems for would-be observers because they cannot, by definition, be seen with conventional telescopes - although before the end of the decade gravitational-wave detectors should be able to study collisions between black holes. Until then astronomers can only infer the existence of a black hole from its gravitational influence on other matter, or from the X-rays emitted by gas and dust as they are dragged into the black hole. However, once this material passes through the 'event horizon' that surrounds the black hole, we will never see it again - not even with X-ray specs. Despite these observational problems, most physicists and astronomers believe that black holes do exist. Small black holes a few kilometres across are thought to form when stars weighing more than about two solar masses collapse under the weight of their own gravity, while supermassive black holes weighing millions of solar masses appear to be present at the centre of most galaxies. Moreover, some brave physicists have proposed ways to make black holes - or at least event horizons - in the laboratory. The basic idea behind these 'artificial black holes' is not to compress a large amount of mass into a small volume, but to reduce the speed of light in a moving medium to less than the speed of the medium and so create an event horizon. The parallels with real black holes are not exact but the experiments could shed new light on a variety of phenomena. The first challenge, however, is to get money for the research. One year on from a high-profile meeting on artificial black holes in London, for

  16. Masculine Ideology, Sexual Communication, and Sexual Self-Efficacy Among Parenting Adolescent Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Melanie K; Smith, Megan V; Magriples, Urania; Kershaw, Trace S

    2016-09-01

    This study examined the relationship between traditional masculine role norms (status, toughness, anti-femininity) and psychosocial mechanisms of sexual risk (sexual communication, sexual self-efficacy) among young, low-income, and minority parenting couples. Between 2007 and 2011, 296 pregnant adolescent females and their male partners were recruited from urban obstetrics clinics in Connecticut. Data regarding participants' beliefs in masculine role norms, frequency of general sex communication and sexual risk communication, and sexual self-efficacy were collected via computer-assisted self-interviews. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) models were used to test for actor effects (whether a person's masculine role norms at baseline influence the person's own psychosocial variables at 6-month follow-up) and partner effects (whether a partner's masculine role norms at baseline influence an actor's psychosocial variables at 6-month follow-up). Results revealed that higher actor status norms were significantly associated with more sexual self-efficacy, higher actor toughness norms were associated with less sexual self-efficacy, and higher actor anti-femininity norms were significantly associated with less general sex communication, sexual risk communication, and sexual self-efficacy. No partner effects were found. These results indicate a need for redefining masculine role norms through family centered approaches in pregnant or parenting adolescent couples to increase sexual communication and sexual self-efficacy. Further research is needed to understand partner effects in the context of a relationship and on subsequent sexual risk behavior. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.

  17. Substance Use among Adolescent Mothers: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Shawna L Carroll; Wu, Li-Tzy

    2013-05-01

    Maternal substance abuse is a critical problem, and adolescent mothers appear to be at high risk for such behaviors. We review studies on postpartum adolescent substance use to explore the extent of this problem and avenues for new research. Authors screened 1,300 studies, identifying 12 articles on substance use among postpartum adolescent mothers for this review. Adolescent mothers reported greater substance use before pregnancy compared to other adolescent females. Although some adolescents continued substance use during pregnancy, most stopped using only to resume within six months after birth. Comparisons of use to national samples of nulliparous adolescent females showed a higher prevalence of substance use in this population. Substances used often varied by race/ethnicity, with white mothers more likely to smoke cigarettes and use marijuana, and Black mothers more likely than whites to drink and use drugs. Of all identified studies, only one focused on Hispanics. Beliefs about drug use grew less negative as girls transitioned from pregnancy to parenthood. As they transitioned to adulthood, substance use remained prevalent and stable. Psychological distress and low self-esteem appeared to influence continued use. Friends' cigarette smoking predicted early initiation of and persistent smoking, while increased education predicted quitting. Early initiation of substances often predicted problem behaviors. Adolescent mothers are a vulnerable population, implicating use of problem behavior theory or the self-medication hypothesis in future research. Multiple avenues for new studies are needed to help identify effective treatment and intervention for this understudied population.

  18. Doing Masculinities, Doing Femininities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Lise

    2002-01-01

    Gennem et 3 måneders feltarbejde i en 5. klasse på en primary school i udkanten af London vises, hvordan drenge og piger med hjælp af deres rum/krop manifesterer sig selv som hhv. drenge og piger....

  19. Surface geometry of 5D black holes and black rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, Valeri P.; Goswami, Rituparno

    2007-01-01

    We discuss geometrical properties of the horizon surface of five-dimensional rotating black holes and black rings. Geometrical invariants characterizing these 3D geometries are calculated. We obtain a global embedding of the 5D rotating black horizon surface into a flat space. We also describe the Kaluza-Klein reduction of the black ring solution (along the direction of its rotation) which, though it is nakedly singular, relates this solution to the 4D metric of a static black hole distorted by the presence of external scalar (dilaton) and vector ('electromagnetic') fields. The properties of the reduced black hole horizon and its embedding in E 3 are briefly discussed

  20. Adolescent murderers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labelle, A; Bradford, J M; Bourget, D; Jones, B; Carmichael, M

    1991-10-01

    Clinical, developmental and environmental factors were retrospectively studied in 14 adolescent murderers who had been referred to a forensic psychiatric clinic over an 11 year period. Results of these analyses were compared with findings from previous reports. The majority of subjects came from split families. There was a greater than expected degree of psychiatric illness in the adolescents. Previous psychiatric contact, antisocial behaviour and substance abuse were common among these adolescents. A tentative profile of adolescents who are likely to commit murder can therefore be drawn up, which may suggest direction for preventive action and rehabilitation.

  1. Perceptions of sexual violence among men who have sex with men and individuals on the trans-feminine spectrum in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peitzmeier, Sarah M; Stephenson, Rob; Delegchoimbol, Altanchimeg; Dorjgotov, Myagmardorj; Baral, Stefan

    2017-08-01

    With the growing realisation that sexual violence poses pressing health and human rights concerns for men who have sex with men (MSM) and individuals on the trans-feminine spectrum, research has focused on the context in which sexual violence takes place. Rape myths and other perceptions of sexual violence affect the prevalence of perpetration and the availability of services and support for survivors. Little research has been conducted on rape myths among sexual and gender minority groups, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Two focus groups and 30 in-depth interviews were conducted with MSM and individuals on the trans-feminine spectrum in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. A number of rape myths previously noted to be prevalent among Western, heterosexual men, and women were expressed by participants, including the myth that males are never raped, rape as a cause of homosexuality or transgenderism, conceptualisations of prototypical rape as requiring overwhelming force, and victim blaming. However, many of these perceptions appeared to have different origins and effects in these populations. This study illustrates interesting similarities and differences compared to rape myths explored in Western, heterosexual male samples, and draws attention to the need to address community perceptions of sexual violence in sexual health and violence intervention programming.

  2. Social class and family size as determinants of attributed machismo, femininity, and family planning: a field study in two South American communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicassio, P M

    1977-12-01

    A study was conducted to determine the way in which stereotypes of machismo and femininity are associated with family size and perceptions of family planning. A total of 144 adults, male and female, from a lower class and an upper middle class urban area in Colombia were asked to respond to photographs of Colombian families varying in size and state of completeness. The study illustrated the critical role of sex-role identity and sex-role organization as variables having an effect on fertility. The lower-class respondents described parents in the photographs as significantly more macho or feminine because of their children than the upper-middle-class subjects did. Future research should attempt to measure when this drive to sex-role identity is strongest, i.e., when men and women are most driven to reproduce in order to "prove" themselves. Both lower- and upper-middle-class male groups considered male dominance in marriage to be directly linked with family size. Perceptions of the use of family planning decreased linearly with family size for both social groups, although the lower-class females attributed more family planning to spouses of large families than upper-middle-class females. It is suggested that further research deal with the ways in which constructs of machismo and male dominance vary between the sexes and among socioeconomic groups and the ways in which they impact on fertility.

  3. Estudio de la historia del Club Medicina Hispalense, equipo de baloncesto femenino = Study of the history of the feminine basket team Club Medicina Hispalense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Rojo Rodríguez

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Estudio descriptivo del Club Medicina Hispalense, equipo de baloncesto femenino que pasó desde niveles competitivos universitarios a niveles profesionales. En el estudio se descubre la situación económica, política y social del momento y por otro lado como afecta el mismo al Club. El objetivo de estudio principal del estudio es ilustrar la biografía del Club Medicina Hispalense de Baloncesto Femenino, por medio de recopilación de datos, mostrando la evolución, dificultades de la progresión del deporte amateur y por supuesto, la incapacidad para la mantener la estructura del club teniendo esto correlación con múltiples situaciones deportivas similares en el resto de clubes.---------------------------------------------------------------------------------Descriptive study of the Club Medicina Hispalense, A team of feminine basketball that went on from competitive university levels to professional levels. In the study there is discovered the economic, political and social situation of the moment and on the other hand like the same one concerns the Club. The aim of the main study is to focus the biography of the Basketball feminine Club Medicina Hispalense, by mean of summary the information, showing the evolution, the difficulties of the progress of the nonprofit sport and of course the inability to support the structure of the club having this relation with various sports in similar situation in other clubs.

  4. The Role of Discrimination in Care Postponement Among Trans-Feminine Individuals in the U.S. National Transgender Discrimination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Jennifer L; Theall, Katherine P; Andrinopoulos, Katherine M; Kendall, Carl

    2018-04-01

    This study examines the associations between discrimination experiences (types and locations) and care postponement among trans-feminine individuals in the United States. This secondary, cross-sectional study utilized a subset of the data from the National Transgender Discrimination Survey (n = 2248), specifically for trans-feminine individuals. In this analysis, we examined the relationship between discrimination and primary care postponement. Twenty-six percent (26.25%) of the study sample reported delaying preventive care due to fear of discrimination; 23.98%-46.66% of respondents reported past experiences of discrimination (setting dependent). Discrimination in health and non-health settings and different types of discrimination-being denied services, verbally harassed, or physically assaulted-were all significantly associated with delaying care; respondents reporting discrimination were up to 20 times more likely to postpone care. While discrimination at a health location had the strongest association with care postponement (adjusted odds ratio = 9.65, confidence interval = 7.60-12.24), discrimination in all non-health-related locations was also important. Individuals reporting discrimination in greater numbers of locations and multiple types of discrimination were more likely to postpone care. To promote preventive care-seeking, these results affirm the importance of interventions that promote discrimination-free environments for gender minorities.

  5. Merging Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centrella, Joan

    2012-01-01

    The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest source of gravitational waves for both ground-based detectors such as LIGO and VIRGO, as well as future. space-based detectors. Since the merger takes place in the regime of strong dynamical gravity, computing the resulting gravitational waveforms requires solving the full Einstein equations of general relativity on a computer. For many years, numerical codes designed to simulate black hole mergers were plagued by a host of instabilities. However, recent breakthroughs have conquered these instabilities and opened up this field dramatically. This talk will focus on.the resulting 'gold rush' of new results that is revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics

  6. Black hole gravitohydromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Punsly, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Black hole gravitohydromagnetics (GHM) is developed from the rudiments to the frontiers of research in this book. GHM describes plasma interactions that combine the effects of gravity and a strong magnetic field, in the vicinity (ergosphere) of a rapidly rotating black hole. This topic was created in response to the astrophysical quest to understand the central engines of radio loud extragalactic radio sources. The theory describes a "torsional tug of war" between rotating ergospheric plasma and the distant asymptotic plasma that extracts the rotational inertia of the black hole. The recoil from the struggle between electromagnetic and gravitational forces near the event horizon is manifested as a powerful pair of magnetized particle beams (jets) that are ejected at nearly the speed of light. These bipolar jets feed large-scale magnetized plasmoids on scales as large as millions of light years (the radio lobes of extragalactic radio sources). This interaction can initiate jets that transport energy fluxes exc...

  7. Turbulent black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Zimmerman, Aaron; Lehner, Luis

    2015-02-27

    We demonstrate that rapidly spinning black holes can display a new type of nonlinear parametric instability-which is triggered above a certain perturbation amplitude threshold-akin to the onset of turbulence, with possibly observable consequences. This instability transfers from higher temporal and azimuthal spatial frequencies to lower frequencies-a phenomenon reminiscent of the inverse cascade displayed by (2+1)-dimensional fluids. Our finding provides evidence for the onset of transitory turbulence in astrophysical black holes and predicts observable signatures in black hole binaries with high spins. Furthermore, it gives a gravitational description of this behavior which, through the fluid-gravity duality, can potentially shed new light on the remarkable phenomena of turbulence in fluids.

  8. Anyon black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaei Abchouyeh, Maryam; Mirza, Behrouz; Karimi Takrami, Moein; Younesizadeh, Younes

    2018-05-01

    We propose a correspondence between an Anyon Van der Waals fluid and a (2 + 1) dimensional AdS black hole. Anyons are particles with intermediate statistics that interpolates between a Fermi-Dirac statistics and a Bose-Einstein one. A parameter α (0 quasi Fermi-Dirac statistics for α >αc, but a quasi Bose-Einstein statistics for α quasi Bose-Einstein statistics. For α >αc and a range of values of the cosmological constant, there is, however, no event horizon so there is no black hole solution. Thus, for these values of cosmological constants, the AdS Anyon Van der Waals black holes have only quasi Bose-Einstein statistics.

  9. Black holes go supersonic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonhardt, Ulf [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews (United Kingdom)

    2001-02-01

    In modern physics, the unification of gravity and quantum mechanics remains a mystery. Gravity rules the macroscopic world of planets, stars and galaxies, while quantum mechanics governs the micro-cosmos of atoms, light quanta and elementary particles. However, cosmologists believe that these two disparate worlds may meet at the edges of black holes. Now Luis Garay, James Anglin, Ignacio Cirac and Peter Zoller at the University of Innsbruck in Austria have proposed a realistic way to make an artificial 'sonic' black hole in a tabletop experiment (L J Garay et al. 2000 Phys. Rev. Lett. 85 4643). In the February issue of Physics World, Ulf Leonhardt of the School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, UK, explains how the simulated black holes work. (U.K.)

  10. Black Hole Paradoxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Pankaj S.; Narayan, Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    We propose here that the well-known black hole paradoxes such as the information loss and teleological nature of the event horizon are restricted to a particular idealized case, which is the homogeneous dust collapse model. In this case, the event horizon, which defines the boundary of the black hole, forms initially, and the singularity in the interior of the black hole at a later time. We show that, in contrast, gravitational collapse from physically more realistic initial conditions typically leads to the scenario in which the event horizon and space-time singularity form simultaneously. We point out that this apparently simple modification can mitigate the causality and teleological paradoxes, and also lends support to two recently suggested solutions to the information paradox, namely, the ‘firewall’ and ‘classical chaos’ proposals. (paper)

  11. Bringing Black Holes Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furmann, John M.

    2003-03-01

    Black holes are difficult to study because they emit no light. To overcome this obstacle, scientists are trying to recreate a black hole in the laboratory. The article gives an overview of the theories of Einstein and Hawking as they pertain to the construction of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) near Geneva, Switzerland, scheduled for completion in 2006. The LHC will create two beams of protons traveling in opposing directions that will collide and create a plethora of scattered elementary particles. Protons traveling in opposite directions at very high velocities may create particles that come close enough to each other to feel their compacted higher dimensions and create a mega force of gravity that can create tiny laboratory-sized black holes for fractions of a second. The experiments carried out with LHC will be used to test modern string theory and relativity.

  12. Slowly balding black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyutikov, Maxim; McKinney, Jonathan C.

    2011-01-01

    The 'no-hair' theorem, a key result in general relativity, states that an isolated black hole is defined by only three parameters: mass, angular momentum, and electric charge; this asymptotic state is reached on a light-crossing time scale. We find that the no-hair theorem is not formally applicable for black holes formed from the collapse of a rotating neutron star. Rotating neutron stars can self-produce particles via vacuum breakdown forming a highly conducting plasma magnetosphere such that magnetic field lines are effectively ''frozen in'' the star both before and during collapse. In the limit of no resistivity, this introduces a topological constraint which prohibits the magnetic field from sliding off the newly-formed event horizon. As a result, during collapse of a neutron star into a black hole, the latter conserves the number of magnetic flux tubes N B =eΦ ∞ /(πc(ℎ/2π)), where Φ ∞ ≅2π 2 B NS R NS 3 /(P NS c) is the initial magnetic flux through the hemispheres of the progenitor and out to infinity. We test this theoretical result via 3-dimensional general relativistic plasma simulations of rotating black holes that start with a neutron star dipole magnetic field with no currents initially present outside the event horizon. The black hole's magnetosphere subsequently relaxes to the split-monopole magnetic field geometry with self-generated currents outside the event horizon. The dissipation of the resulting equatorial current sheet leads to a slow loss of the anchored flux tubes, a process that balds the black hole on long resistive time scales rather than the short light-crossing time scales expected from the vacuum no-hair theorem.

  13. Tridimensional Acculturation and Adaptation among Jamaican Adolescent-Mother Dyads in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Gail M.; Bornstein, Marc H.; Pottinger, Audrey M.

    2012-01-01

    A bidimensional acculturation framework cannot account for multiple destination cultures within contemporary settlement societies. A "tridimensional model" is proposed and tested among Jamaican adolescent-mother dyads in the United States compared to Jamaican Islander, European American, African American, and other Black and non-Black U.S.…

  14. Adolescent Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Susan; Seligman, Linda

    1983-01-01

    Discusses legal and developmental aspects of adolescent abuse, as distinguished from child abuse. The role of the school counselor in identifying and counseling abused adolescents and their families is discussed and several forms of intervention and support services are described. (JAC)

  15. Modeling black hole evaporation

    CERN Document Server

    Fabbri, Alessandro

    2005-01-01

    The scope of this book is two-fold: the first part gives a fully detailed and pedagogical presentation of the Hawking effect and its physical implications, and the second discusses the backreaction problem, especially in connection with exactly solvable semiclassical models that describe analytically the black hole evaporation process. The book aims to establish a link between the general relativistic viewpoint on black hole evaporation and the new CFT-type approaches to the subject. The detailed discussion on backreaction effects is also extremely valuable.

  16. Characterizing Black Hole Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John; Boggs, William Darian; Kelly, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Binary black hole mergers are a promising source of gravitational waves for interferometric gravitational wave detectors. Recent advances in numerical relativity have revealed the predictions of General Relativity for the strong burst of radiation generated in the final moments of binary coalescence. We explore features in the merger radiation which characterize the final moments of merger and ringdown. Interpreting the waveforms in terms of an rotating implicit radiation source allows a unified phenomenological description of the system from inspiral through ringdown. Common features in the waveforms allow quantitative description of the merger signal which may provide insights for observations large-mass black hole binaries.

  17. Better Physician's 'Black Bags'

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The "black bag" is outgrowth of astronaut monitoring technology from NASA's Johnson Space Center. Technically known as the portable medical status system, a highly advanced physician's "black bag" weighs less than 30 pounds, yet contains equipment for monitoring and recording vital signs, electrocardiograms, and electroencephalograms. Liquid crystal displays are used to present 15 digits of data simultaneously for long periods of time without excessive use of battery power. Single printed circuit card contains all circuitry required to measure and display vital signs such as heart and respiration rate, temperature, and blood pressure.

  18. Bulletproof Black Man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højer, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Netflix’ kommende serie om den sorte Marvel-helt Luke Cage lander snart – midt i de aktuelle racekonflikter i USA. I GIF-anatomien "Bulletproof Black Man" sætter Henrik Højer serien ind i dens amerikanske kontekst.......Netflix’ kommende serie om den sorte Marvel-helt Luke Cage lander snart – midt i de aktuelle racekonflikter i USA. I GIF-anatomien "Bulletproof Black Man" sætter Henrik Højer serien ind i dens amerikanske kontekst....

  19. Moulting Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Bena, Iosif; Chowdhury, Borun D.; de Boer, Jan; El-Showk, Sheer; Shigemori, Masaki

    2011-01-01

    We find a family of novel supersymmetric phases of the D1-D5 CFT, which in certain ranges of charges have more entropy than all known ensembles. We also find bulk BPS configurations that exist in the same range of parameters as these phases, and have more entropy than a BMPV black hole; they can be thought of as coming from a BMPV black hole shedding a "hair" condensate outside of the horizon. The entropy of the bulk configurations is smaller than that of the CFT phases, which indicates that ...

  20. Are black holes springlike?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Michael R. R.; Ong, Yen Chin

    2015-02-01

    A (3 +1 )-dimensional asymptotically flat Kerr black hole angular speed Ω+ can be used to define an effective spring constant, k =m Ω+2. Its maximum value is the Schwarzschild surface gravity, k =κ , which rapidly weakens as the black hole spins down and the temperature increases. The Hawking temperature is expressed in terms of the spring constant: 2 π T =κ -k . Hooke's law, in the extremal limit, provides the force F =1 /4 , which is consistent with the conjecture of maximum force in general relativity.

  1. Dancing with Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarseth, S. J.

    2008-05-01

    We describe efforts over the last six years to implement regularization methods suitable for studying one or more interacting black holes by direct N-body simulations. Three different methods have been adapted to large-N systems: (i) Time-Transformed Leapfrog, (ii) Wheel-Spoke, and (iii) Algorithmic Regularization. These methods have been tried out with some success on GRAPE-type computers. Special emphasis has also been devoted to including post-Newtonian terms, with application to moderately massive black holes in stellar clusters. Some examples of simulations leading to coalescence by gravitational radiation will be presented to illustrate the practical usefulness of such methods.

  2. Scattering from black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futterman, J.A.H.; Handler, F.A.; Matzner, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive treatment of the propagation of waves in the presence of black holes. While emphasizing intuitive physical thinking in their treatment of the techniques of analysis of scattering, the authors also include chapters on the rigorous mathematical development of the subject. Introducing the concepts of scattering by considering the simplest, scalar wave case of scattering by a spherical (Schwarzschild) black hole, the book then develops the formalism of spin weighted spheroidal harmonics and of plane wave representations for neutrino, electromagnetic, and gravitational scattering. Details and results of numerical computations are given. The techniques involved have important applications (references are given) in acoustical and radar imaging

  3. Virtual Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Hawking, Stephen W.

    1995-01-01

    One would expect spacetime to have a foam-like structure on the Planck scale with a very high topology. If spacetime is simply connected (which is assumed in this paper), the non-trivial homology occurs in dimension two, and spacetime can be regarded as being essentially the topological sum of $S^2\\times S^2$ and $K3$ bubbles. Comparison with the instantons for pair creation of black holes shows that the $S^2\\times S^2$ bubbles can be interpreted as closed loops of virtual black holes. It is ...

  4. Superfluid Black Holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennigar, Robie A; Mann, Robert B; Tjoa, Erickson

    2017-01-13

    We present what we believe is the first example of a "λ-line" phase transition in black hole thermodynamics. This is a line of (continuous) second order phase transitions which in the case of liquid ^{4}He marks the onset of superfluidity. The phase transition occurs for a class of asymptotically anti-de Sitter hairy black holes in Lovelock gravity where a real scalar field is conformally coupled to gravity. We discuss the origin of this phase transition and outline the circumstances under which it (or generalizations of it) could occur.

  5. Partons and black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susskind, L.; Griffin, P.

    1994-01-01

    A light-front renormalization group analysis is applied to study matter which falls into massive black holes, and the related problem of matter with transplankian energies. One finds that the rate of matter spreading over the black hole's horizon unexpectedly saturates the causality bound. This is related to the transverse growth behavior of transplankian particles as their longitudinal momentum increases. This growth behavior suggests a natural mechanism to implement 't Hooft's scenario that the universe is an image of data stored on a 2 + 1 dimensional hologram-like projection

  6. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Mental Health Service Use among Adolescents with Major Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Janet R.; Druss, Benjamin G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Little is known about racial/ethnic differences in the receipt of treatment for major depression in adolescents. This study examined differences in mental health service use in non-Hispanic white, black, Hispanic, and Asian adolescents who experienced an episode of major depression. Method: Five years of data (2004-2008) were pooled…

  7. Black Musicians Leading the Way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Music Educators Journal, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Describes the careers and musical achievements of Blacks who were forerunners in jazz, blues, gospel, music, spirituals, band music, classical music, ragtime, and opera. The list was compiled to provide teachers with historical background information for "Black History Month." (AM)

  8. Black holes and quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Wilczek, Frank

    1995-01-01

    1. Qualitative introduction to black holes : classical, quantum2. Model black holes and model collapse process: The Schwarzschild and Reissner-Nordstrom metrics, The Oppenheimer-Volkov collapse scenario3. Mode mixing4. From mode mixing to radiance.

  9. Black Sea Bass genetic connectivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Microsatellite analysis of black sea bass was undertaken to determine magnitude and direction of mixing of black seabass across the Hatteras boundary, as well as...

  10. Quantum Mechanics of Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Giddings, Steven B.

    1994-01-01

    These lectures give a pedagogical review of dilaton gravity, Hawking radiation, the black hole information problem, and black hole pair creation. (Lectures presented at the 1994 Trieste Summer School in High Energy Physics and Cosmology)

  11. Quantum aspects of black holes

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Beginning with an overview of the theory of black holes by the editor, this book presents a collection of ten chapters by leading physicists dealing with the variety of quantum mechanical and quantum gravitational effects pertinent to black holes. The contributions address topics such as Hawking radiation, the thermodynamics of black holes, the information paradox and firewalls, Monsters, primordial black holes, self-gravitating Bose-Einstein condensates, the formation of small black holes in high energetic collisions of particles, minimal length effects in black holes and small black holes at the Large Hadron Collider. Viewed as a whole the collection provides stimulating reading for researchers and graduate students seeking a summary of the quantum features of black holes.

  12. Aspects of hairy black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anabalón, Andrés, E-mail: andres.anabalon-at@uai.cl [Departamento de Ciencias, Facultad de Artes Liberales y Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Viña del Mar (Chile); Astefanesei, Dumitru [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Casilla 4059, Valparaíso (Chile)

    2015-03-26

    We review the existence of exact hairy black holes in asymptotically flat, anti-de Sitter and de Sitter space-times. We briefly discuss the issue of stability and the charging of the black holes with a Maxwell field.

  13. Black Holes in Higher Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reall Harvey S.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available We review black-hole solutions of higher-dimensional vacuum gravity and higher-dimensional supergravity theories. The discussion of vacuum gravity is pedagogical, with detailed reviews of Myers–Perry solutions, black rings, and solution-generating techniques. We discuss black-hole solutions of maximal supergravity theories, including black holes in anti-de Sitter space. General results and open problems are discussed throughout.

  14. The role of gender identity in adolescents' antisocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira Trillo, Vanesa; Mirón Redondo, Lourdes

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of the relevance of the variables sex and gender to explain delinquency is a topic of growing interest in Criminology. This study tests a model of juvenile delinquency that integrates gender identity, the association with deviant peers, and a lack of attachment to conventional contexts. We used a sample of 970 adolescents of both sexes, representative of the urban population, between 12 and 18 years, attending public schools in Galicia (Spain). The results of path analysis confirm that: a) weak attachment to conventional contexts, and belonging to a deviant groups are precedents for deviation of adolescents of both sexes; b) these contexts also contribute to the development of gender identity; and c) gender identity affects the likelihood of deviation: femininity tends to reduce this behavior, and masculinity (in particular, negatively valued masculinity) contributes to increase it. These findings support the adequacy of including gender identity in the explanatory models of delinquency. They also suggest the need to reconsider the role of conventional settings in the socialization of masculinity and, therefore, in the genesis of adolescent delinquency of both sexes.

  15. White-black and white-Hispanic differences on fluid and crystallized abilities by age across the 11- to 94-year range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, J C; McLean, J E; Kaufman, A S; Kaufman, N L

    1994-12-01

    Standardization data for the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test (KAIT) were used to examine white-black and white-Hispanic differences on the Horn-Cattell crystallized and fluid constructs at several age groups across the broad 11- to 94-year span. Samples included 1,547 white, 241 black, and 140 Hispanic persons. Multivariate analyses with educational attainment covaried yielded only one significant finding: the white-black difference on the Crystallized Famous Faces subtest became smaller with increasing age.

  16. Nonsingular black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamseddine, Ali H. [American University of Beirut, Physics Department, Beirut (Lebanon); I.H.E.S., Bures-sur-Yvette (France); Mukhanov, Viatcheslav [Niels Bohr Institute, Niels Bohr International Academy, Copenhagen (Denmark); Ludwig-Maximilians University, Theoretical Physics, Munich (Germany); MPI for Physics, Munich (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    We consider the Schwarzschild black hole and show how, in a theory with limiting curvature, the physical singularity ''inside it'' is removed. The resulting spacetime is geodesically complete. The internal structure of this nonsingular black hole is analogous to Russian nesting dolls. Namely, after falling into the black hole of radius r{sub g}, an observer, instead of being destroyed at the singularity, gets for a short time into the region with limiting curvature. After that he re-emerges in the near horizon region of a spacetime described by the Schwarzschild metric of a gravitational radius proportional to r{sub g}{sup 1/3}. In the next cycle, after passing the limiting curvature, the observer finds himself within a black hole of even smaller radius proportional to r{sub g}{sup 1/9}, and so on. Finally after a few cycles he will end up in the spacetime where he remains forever at limiting curvature. (orig.)

  17. Suburban Black Lives Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis-McCoy, R. L'Heureux

    2018-01-01

    This article explores the range of experiences and meanings of Black life in suburban space. Drawing from educational, historical, and sociological literatures, I argue that an underconsideration of suburban space has left many portraits of educational inequality incomplete. The article outlines the emergence of American suburbs and the formation…

  18. and black cumin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Black Cumin Seed, Co-pressing, Screw Speed, Oxidative Stability, Niger Seed Oil ... against oxidation resulting in rapid development of .... The machine ... apparatus (Metrohm, Herisau, model Switzerland) at .... present study indicates the need to optimize SS for ..... Mathematical simulation of an oilseed press.

  19. Black and white holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeldovich, Ya.; Novikov, I.; Starobinskij, A.

    1978-01-01

    The theory is explained of the origination of white holes as a dual phenomenon with regard to the formation of black holes. Theoretically it is possible to derive the white hole by changing the sign of time in solving the general theory of relativity equation implying the black hole. The white hole represents the amount of particles formed in the vicinity of a singularity. For a distant observer, matter composed of these particles expands and the outer boundaries of this matter approach from the inside the gravitational radius Rsub(r). At t>>Rsub(r)/c all radiation or expulsion of matter terminates. For the outside observer the white hole exists for an unlimited length of time. In fact, however, it acquires the properties of a black hole and all processes in it cease. The qualitative difference between a white hole and a black hole is in that a white hole is formed as the result of an inner quantum explosion from the singularity to the gravitational radius and not as the result of a gravitational collapse, i.e., the shrinkage of diluted matter towards the gravitational radius. (J.B.)

  20. Black and white holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeldovich, Ya; Novikov, I; Starobinskii, A

    1978-07-01

    The theory is explained of the origination of white holes as a dual phenomenon with regard to the formation of black holes. Theoretically it is possible to derive the white hole by changing the sign of time in solving the general theory of relativity equation implying the black hole. The white hole represents the amount of particles formed in the vicinity of a singularity. For a distant observer, matter composed of these particles expands and the outer boundaries of this matter approach from the inside the gravitational radius R/sub r/. At t>>R/sub r//c all radiation or expulsion of matter terminates. For the outside observer the white hole exists for an unlimited length of time. In fact, however, it acquires the properties of a black hole and all processes in it cease. The qualitative difference between a white hole and a black hole is in that a white hole is formed as the result of an inner quantum explosion from the singularity to the gravitational radius and not as the result of a gravitational collapse, i.e., the shrinkage of diluted matter towards the gravitational radius.

  1. Annotated black walnut literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. W. Van Sambeek

    2006-01-01

    Many of our publications on the establishment, management, and utilization of black walnut, butternut, and associated high-value hardwoods are printed in conference proceedings or scientific journals that are not readily available at most public libraries or on the internet. As Chair of the Education Committee, I have tried to summarize for you the relevant findings of...

  2. When Black Holes Collide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John

    2010-01-01

    Among the fascinating phenomena predicted by General Relativity, Einstein's theory of gravity, black holes and gravitational waves, are particularly important in astronomy. Though once viewed as a mathematical oddity, black holes are now recognized as the central engines of many of astronomy's most energetic cataclysms. Gravitational waves, though weakly interacting with ordinary matter, may be observed with new gravitational wave telescopes, opening a new window to the universe. These observations promise a direct view of the strong gravitational dynamics involving dense, often dark objects, such as black holes. The most powerful of these events may be merger of two colliding black holes. Though dark, these mergers may briefly release more energy that all the stars in the visible universe, in gravitational waves. General relativity makes precise predictions for the gravitational-wave signatures of these events, predictions which we can now calculate with the aid of supercomputer simulations. These results provide a foundation for interpreting expect observations in the emerging field of gravitational wave astronomy.

  3. Dictionary of Black Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, Wade; Runes, Richard N.

    This dictionary is an encyclopedic survey of the cultural background and development of the black American, covering the basic issues, events, contributions and biographies germane to the subject. The author-compiler is Chairman of Classical Languages Department at Southeastern State College, Durant, Oklahoma. Richard Runes is practicing law as a…

  4. Newborn Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Scientists using NASA's Swift satellite say they have found newborn black holes, just seconds old, in a confused state of existence. The holes are consuming material falling into them while somehow propelling other material away at great speeds. "First comes a blast of gamma rays followed by intense pulses of x-rays. The energies involved are much…

  5. Black coal. [Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, R

    1973-01-01

    Statistics are given for the Australian black coal industry for 1970-3 (production, value, employment, wages and salaries, productivity, trade, stocks, consumption, export contracts, exploration, etc.). In less detail, world coal trade is reviewed and coke production is mentioned briefly. (LTN )

  6. Australian black coal statistics 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    This second edition of Australian black coal statistics replaces the Joint Coal Board's publication 'Black coal in Australia'. It includes an expanded international coal trade supplement. Sections cover resources of black coal, coal supply and demand, coal production, employment and productivity of mines, export data, coal consumption and a directory of producers.

  7. Uncovering Black Womanhood in Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Sheree L.; Espino, Michelle M.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the growing research that outlines the experiences of Blacks and women undergraduates in engineering, little is known about Black women in this field. The purpose of this qualitative study was to uncover how eight Black undergraduate women in engineering understood their race and gender identities in a culture that can be oppressive to…

  8. Watchable Wildlife: The Black Bear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn L. Rogers

    1992-01-01

    Black bears are the bears people most often encounter. Black bears live in forests over much of North America, unlike grizzlies that live only in Alaska, northern and western Canada, and the northern Rocky Mountains. This brochure presents the latest information on black bear life and how this species responds to an ever-increasing number of campers, hikers, and...

  9. Black-spot poison ivy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schram, Sarah E; Willey, Andrea; Lee, Peter K; Bohjanen, Kimberly A; Warshaw, Erin M

    2008-01-01

    In black-spot poison ivy dermatitis, a black lacquerlike substance forms on the skin when poison ivy resin is exposed to air. Although the Toxicodendron group of plants is estimated to be the most common cause of allergic contact dermatitis in the United States, black-spot poison ivy dermatitis is relatively rare.

  10. Queering Black Racial Identity Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Alandis A.; Quaye, Stephen John

    2017-01-01

    We used queer theory to encourage readers to think differently about previous theories about Black racial identity development. Queer theory facilitates new and deeper understandings of how Black people develop their racial identities, prompting more fluidity and nuance. Specifically, we present a queered model of Black racial identity development…

  11. A Typology of Black Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryman, Donald L.

    1977-01-01

    A leadership typology is developed which describes the relationship of Black leadership styles to the Black masses. The role that such leadership plays in the political integration of Blacks as an ethnic group is analyzed. Four authority types are discussed: traditional brokerage, cultural nationalist, religious nationalist, and faddist…

  12. Warped products and black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Soon-Tae

    2005-01-01

    We apply the warped product space-time scheme to the Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black holes and the Reissner-Nordstroem-anti-de Sitter black hole to investigate their interior solutions in terms of warped products. It is shown that there exist no discontinuities of the Ricci and Einstein curvatures across event horizons of these black holes

  13. Magnetohydrodynamics near a black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    A numerical computer study of hydromagnetic flow near a black hole is presented. First, the equations of motion are developed to a form suitable for numerical computations. Second, the results of calculations describing the magnetic torques exerted by a rotating black hole on a surrounding magnetic plasma and the electric charge that is induced on the surface of the black hole are presented. (auth)

  14. Black silicon with black bus-bar strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of black silicon texturing and blackened bus-bar strings as a potential method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon was realized by mask-less reactive ion etching resulting in total, average reflectance...... below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon wafer. Black bus-bars were realized by oxidized copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the entire visible wavelength range. The combination of these two technologies may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted solar cells...

  15. Looking for the invisible universe - Black matter, black energy, black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elbaz, David

    2016-01-01

    As the discovery of the expansion of the universe and of black holes put the study of cosmology into question again because it now refers to invisible things such as black holes, black energy and black matter, the author proposes an other view on the universe within such a context. He first discusses these three enigmas of black matter, black energy and black holes. In a second part, he addresses, discusses and comments five illusions: the Uranian illusion (questions of the existence of an anti-world, of black matter temperature), the Mercurian illusion (quantum gravity, the string theory), the Martian illusion (a patchwork universe, the illusion of the infinite), the cosmic Maya (the John Wheeler's cup, the holographic universe), and the narcissistic illusion

  16. Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Radiation Exposure in Scoliosis Kyphosis Adolescent Back Pain Spondylolysis For Adolescents For Adults Common Questions & Glossary Resources ... Radiation Exposure in Scoliosis Kyphosis Adolescent Back Pain Spondylolysis For Adolescents For Adults Juvenile Idiopathic Scoliosis Diagnosed ...

  17. From binary black hole simulation to triple black hole simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Shan; Cao Zhoujian; Han, Wen-Biao; Lin, Chun-Yu; Yo, Hwei-Jang; Yu, Jui-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Black hole systems are among the most promising sources for a gravitational wave detection project. Now, China is planning to construct a space-based laser interferometric detector as a follow-on mission of LISA in the near future. Aiming to provide some theoretical support to this detection project on the numerical relativity side, we focus on black hole systems simulation in this work. Considering the globular galaxy, multiple black hole systems also likely to exist in our universe and play a role as a source for the gravitational wave detector we are considering. We will give a progress report in this paper on our black hole system simulation. More specifically, we will present triple black hole simulation together with binary black hole simulation. On triple black hole simulations, one novel perturbational method is proposed.

  18. Athletic Involvement and Adolescent Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnick, Merrill J.; Barnes, Grace M.; Sabo, Don; Farrell, Michael P.

    2007-01-01

    Athough conventional wisdom suggests that organized sport deters delinquency by building character, structuring adolescents’ time, and providing incentives for socially approved behavior, the empirical evidence to date has been mixed. Based on a sample of approximately 600 Western New York adolescents, the present study examined how self-reported jock identity, school athlete status, and frequency of athletic activity differentially influenced a range of delinquent behaviors. Neither athlete status nor frequency of athletic activity predicted these behaviors; however, jock identity was associated with significantly more incidents of delinquency. This finding was robust across both gender and race. Follow-up analyses indicated that jock identity facilitated both minor and major delinquency, with major delinquency effects for white but not black adolescents. PMID:18079971

  19. A Comprehensive Multi-Media Program to Prevent Smoking among Black Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Joy S.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Implemented program to decrease incidence of new smokers among black adolescents. Program combined school-based curriculum with comprehensive media intervention. There were two experimental conditions: one group participated in school-based intervention and was prompted to participate in multimedia intervention; other group had access to…

  20. Comparing Black, Hispanic, and White Mothers with a National Standard of Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, Robert D.; Strom, Paris S.; Beckert, Troy E.

    2008-01-01

    Black, Hispanic, and White mothers (N = 739) and adolescents (N = 806) completed a Parent Success Indicator to assess maternal behavior related to Communication, Use of Time, Teaching, Frustration, Satisfaction, and Information Needs. Comparisons between each ethnic group and a previously established national parenting standard revealed that both…

  1. Statistical mechanics of black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harms, B.; Leblanc, Y.

    1992-01-01

    We analyze the statistical mechanics of a gas of neutral and charged black holes. The microcanonical ensemble is the only possible approach to this system, and the equilibrium configuration is the one for which most of the energy is carried by a single black hole. Schwarzschild black holes are found to obey the statistical bootstrap condition. In all cases, the microcanonical temperature is identical to the Hawking temperature of the most massive black hole in the gas. U(1) charges in general break the bootstrap property. The problems of black-hole decay and of quantum coherence are also addressed

  2. BlackBerry For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Kao, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Get the most juice out of your BlackBerry handheld!. Feature-rich and complex, the BlackBerry is the number one smartphone in the corporate world is among the most popular handhelds for business users. This new and updated edition includes all the latest and greatest information on new and current BlackBerry mobile devices. Covering a range of valuable how-to topics, this helpful guide explores the BlackBerry's most useful features, techniques for getting the most out of your BlackBerry, and practical information about power usage.: Covers all aspects of the number one smartphone in the corpor

  3. Over spinning a black hole?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouhmadi-Lopez, Mariam; Cardoso, Vitor; Nerozzi, Andrea; Rocha, Jorge V, E-mail: mariam.bouhmadi@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: vitor.cardoso@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: andrea.nerozzi@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: jorge.v.rocha@ist.utl.pt [CENTRA, Department de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2011-09-22

    A possible process to destroy a black hole consists on throwing point particles with sufficiently large angular momentum into the black hole. In the case of Kerr black holes, it was shown by Wald that particles with dangerously large angular momentum are simply not captured by the hole, and thus the event horizon is not destroyed. Here we reconsider this gedanken experiment for black holes in higher dimensions. We show that this particular way of destroying a black hole does not succeed and that Cosmic Censorship is preserved.

  4. Love Practices in the Colombian School during the First Half of the Twentieth Century: Notes for a History of Feminine Love

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Ximena Herrera Beltrán

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In Latin America women increasingly detach themselves from feminine representations produced by certain discourses of modernity. However, unequal relations, binary constructions of sex and gender, and exclusion whenever there is any sign of resistance are still signs of contemporaneity. In response to this situation, this research paper shows, through an archaeological and genealogical study, how love, as a feeling and emotion, was a subject of education for girls in the Colombian school during the first half of the twentieth century. In that sense, the author reflects upon emotions, feelings and discourses, and reveals how society shaped practices and legitimized truths that, even today, define both men’s and women’s nature.

  5. Uma questão de gênero: onde o masculino e o feminino se cruzam Gender issue: where masculine and feminine meet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amílcar Torrão Filho

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute a importância dos estudos de gênero para a história, recuperando algumas de suas principais discussões e revendo o seu aparecimento na historiografia da segunda metade do século XX. Procura, ainda, inserir a construção da masculinidade como processo correlato da determinação da identidade feminina, e discute a questão da homossexualidade como parte integrante da construção da misoginia.This paper discusses the importance of gender studies for history, recovering some of its most important discussions and reviewing their appearance on the historiography in the second half of the twentieth century. It searches to include the construction of masculinity as a correlate process of the determination of feminine identity, and it discusses the issue of homosexuality as an integrant part of the construction of misogyny.

  6. Women managers' teams – social representations about feminine management / Equipes gerenciadas por mulheres - representações sociais sobre gerenciamento feminino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Maria Fontenele Mourão

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to apprehend the way teams that have a woman as amanager are building the social representation about this management. The participants were 74 women and 72 men whose teams work with seven women who have reached the top of their careers in administrative positions of DAS 5 and DAS 6 levels of the Public Federal Administration. A free association test was applied and analyzed through the EVOC software. The results showed that the participants identified some characteristics on women management that were considered a feminine form of leadership: interpersonal relationship, respect for individuality, concern with the quality of work. This kind of management carries an interactive style that is characterized by the capacity to promote inclusion, which is a characteristic of flat management nets.

  7. Depressed mood and self-esteem in young Asian, black, and white women in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, N F; Lentz, M; Mitchell, E; Oakley, L D

    1994-01-01

    During the last two decades, investigators have explored the relationship between women's life conditions and their mental health. Some have related women's socially disadvantaged status, or their socialization to a traditional feminine role, to depression and low self-esteem. Others have emphasized the consequences of women's roles, or the balance of social demands and resources, on their well-being. More recently, feminist scholars have proposed a developmental account of depression. We tested a model comparing the effects of personal resources, social demands and resources, socialization, and women's roles, on self-esteem and depressed mood in young adult Asian, Black, and White women in America. Women who resided in middle-income and racially mixed neighborhoods were interviewed in their homes. Personal resources were indicated by education and income and social resources by unconflicted network size as measured by Barrera's (1981) Arizona Social Support Interview Schedule. Social demands were assessed by conflicted network size as measured by the Barrera scale and by the Positive Life Events and Negative Life Events scales from Norbeck's (1984) revision of the Sarason Life Events Scale. Women's roles included employment, parenting, and partnership with an adult (e.g., marriage). Self-esteem was assessed with the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965) and depressed mood with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (Radloff, 1977). Although models for Asian, Black, and White women differed, social network and social demands as well as personal resources were common to each group as predictors of self-esteem and depression.

  8. Internal structure of black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cvetic, Mirjam

    2013-01-01

    Full text: We review recent progress that sheds light on the internal structure of general black holes. We first summarize properties of general multi-charged rotating black holes both in four and five dimensions. We show that the asymptotic boundary conditions of these general asymptotically flat black holes can be modified such that a conformal symmetry emerges. These subtracted geometries preserve the thermodynamic properties of the original black holes and are of the Lifshitz type, thus describing 'a black hole in the asymptotically conical box'. Recent efforts employ solution generating techniques to construct interpolating geometries between the original black hole and their subtracted geometries. Upon lift to one dimension higher, these geometries lift to AdS 3 times a sphere, and thus provide a microscopic interpretation of the black hole entropy in terms of dual two-dimensional conformal field theory. (author)

  9. Loss of attributes of femininity, anxiety and value crisis. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome compared to women after mastectomy and in menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Mącik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a relatively widespread disease and a main cause of fertility problems. The disease diagnosis is frequently related to changes in the value hierarchy. However, it can be treated as a “loss of/threat to” femininity. Similar aspects of the loss of part of femininity are connected with menopause and mastectomy. Participants and procedure One hundred and forty-five women were examined in total: 42 with the PCOS diagnosis, 20 after mastectomy, 42 in menopause and 41 healthy women (reference group. Standard measurement methods were used: the Value Crisis Questionnaire by P. Oleś and the IPAT Anxiety Scale – Self Analysis Form by R. B. Cattell. Results Women suffering from PCOS obtained significantly higher indexes of both crisis and anxiety compared to other groups, whereas women after mastectomy and in menopause did not differ between one another in tested variables, and they did not differ from healthy women either. It was noted that the most relationships between variables were observed in the group of women in menopause (significant correlations between almost all dimensions, while there are few relationships in women after mastectomy. In women with PCOS (a relatively small number of correlations relationships of the greatest strength relate to the relationships of negative self-esteem and guilt proneness with all dimensions of the value crisis. Conclusions Polycystic ovary syndrome, despite having a relatively non-threatening course, is experienced much more strongly by women compared to mastectomy and menopause. It is associated with strong internal anxiety and degradation of the value hierarchy.

  10. Inventário Feminino dos Esquemas de Gênero do Autoconceito (IFEGA Feminine Inventory of the Self-Concept's Gender Schemas (IFEGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Giavoni

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O propósito deste artigo foi elaborar e validar o Inventário Feminino dos Esquemas de Gênero do Autoconceito (IFEGA. Composto por duas escalas (masculina e feminina, este instrumento avalia os esquemas masculino e feminino do autoconceito das mulheres. A amostra foi composta por estudantes universitárias do sexo feminino. Análises fatoriais foram realizadas para ambas as escalas (Principal Axis Factoring, com rotações oblíquas e ortogonais, assim como foram avaliados os índices de consistência interna dos fatores (Alfa de Cronbach para que o instrumento fosse apropriadamente validado. Os resultados demonstraram que ambas as escalas são compostas por estruturas multifatoriais. Devidamente validado, o IFEGA pode ser utilizado para avaliar os esquemas masculino e feminino do autoconceito de indivíduos do sexo feminino.The purpose of this article was to elaborate and validate the Feminine Inventory of the Self-Concept's Gender Schemas (IFEGA. Composed by two scales (masculine and feminine scales, this instrument evaluates female self-concept's gender schemas. The sample was composed by female university students. Factorial analysis for both scales (Principal Axis Factoring with oblique and orthogonal rotations was performed, as well as the internal factors consistency analysis (Cronbach's Alpha, in order to validate the instrument. The results showed that IFEGA´s scales are composed by multifactorial structures. It can be stated that both scales may be used in the evaluation of the female self-concept's gender schemas.

  11. Weight Misperceptions and Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Adolescent Female Body Mass Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona C. Krauss

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated weight misperceptions as determinants of racial/ethnic disparities in body mass index (BMI among adolescent females using data from the National Survey of Youth 1997. Compared to their white counterparts, higher proportions of black and Hispanic adolescent females underperceived their weight status; that is, they misperceived themselves to have lower weight status compared to their clinically defined weight status. Compared to their black counterparts, higher proportions of white and Hispanic adolescent females misperceived themselves to be heavier than their clinical weight status. Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition analysis showed that accounting for weight misperceptions, in addition to individual and contextual factors, increased the total explained portion of the black-white female BMI gap from 44.7% to 54.3% but only slightly increased the total explained portion of the Hispanic-white gap from 62.8% to 63.1%. Weight misperceptions explained 13.0% of the black-white female BMI gap and 3.3% of the Hispanic-white female BMI gap. The regression estimates showed that weight underperceptions were important determinants of adolescent female BMI, particularly among black and Hispanic adolescents. Education regarding identification and interpretation of weight status may play an important role to help reduce the incidence and racial disparity of female adolescent obesity.

  12. Mental Health and Educational Experiences Among Black Youth: A Latent Class Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Theda; Lindsey, Michael A; Xiao, Yunyu; Finigan-Carr, Nadine M; Joe, Sean

    2017-11-01

    Disproportionately lower educational achievement, coupled with higher grade retention, suspensions, expulsions, and lower school bonding make educational success among Black adolescents a major public health concern. Mental health is a key developmental factor related to educational outcomes among adolescents; however, traditional models of mental health focus on absence of dysfunction as a way to conceptualize mental health. The dual-factor model of mental health incorporates indicators of both subjective wellbeing and psychopathology, supporting more recent research that both are needed to comprehensively assess mental health. This study applied the dual-factor model to measure mental health using the National Survey of American Life-Adolescent Supplement (NSAL-A), a representative cross-sectional survey. The sample included 1170 Black adolescents (52% female; mean age 15). Latent class analysis was conducted with positive indicators of subjective wellbeing (emotional, psychological, and social) as well as measures of psychopathology. Four mental health groups were identified, based on having high or low subjective wellbeing and high or low psychopathology. Accordingly, associations between mental health groups and educational outcomes were investigated. Significant associations were observed in school bonding, suspensions, and grade retention, with the positive mental health group (high subjective wellbeing, low psychopathology) experiencing more beneficial outcomes. The results support a strong association between school bonding and better mental health and have implications for a more comprehensive view of mental health in interventions targeting improved educational experiences and mental health among Black adolescents.

  13. Adolescent Gynecomastia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guss, Carly E; Divasta, Amy D

    2017-06-01

    Gynecomastia, defined as the presence of glandular breast tissue in men, is a common, typically benign physical exam finding during adolescence. Although the exact pathogenesis of gynecomastia is unknown, it is likely due to a hormonal imbalance between estrogens and androgens. Most cases are idiopathic and do not require further evaluation if the history and physical examination are reassuring. Although the majority of cases will resolve spontaneously, surgical correction may be an option for adolescents with persistent and problematic gynecomastia. Gynecomastia can have significant negative impact on one's self-esteem, and it is crucial that primary care providers screen adolescents with gynecomastia for mental health concerns. Future studies are necessary to elucidate the true incidence and prevalence of gynecomastia in adolescent males, and to further investigate the short-term and long-term physical and emotional effects of gynecomastia. Copyright© of YS Medical Media ltd.

  14. Caged black holes: Black holes in compactified spacetimes. I. Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kol, Barak; Sorkin, Evgeny; Piran, Tsvi

    2004-01-01

    In backgrounds with compact dimensions there may exist several phases of black objects including a black hole and a black string. The phase transition between them raises questions and touches on fundamental issues such as topology change, uniqueness, and cosmic censorship. No analytic solution is known for the black hole, and moreover one can expect approximate solutions only for very small black holes, while phase transition physics happens when the black hole is large. Hence we turn to numerical solutions. Here some theoretical background to the numerical analysis is given, while the results will appear in a subsequent paper. The goals for a numerical analysis are set. The scalar charge and tension along the compact dimension are defined and used as improved order parameters which put both the black hole and the black string at finite values on the phase diagram. The predictions for small black holes are presented. The differential and the integrated forms of the first law are derived, and the latter (Smarr's formula) can be used to estimate the 'overall numerical error'. Field asymptotics and expressions for physical quantities in terms of the numerical values are supplied. The techniques include the 'method of equivalent charges', free energy, dimensional reduction, and analytic perturbation for small black holes

  15. Black-hole astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, P. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Bloom, E. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Cominsky, L. [Sonoma State Univ., Rohnert Park, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy] [and others

    1995-07-01

    Black-hole astrophysics is not just the investigation of yet another, even if extremely remarkable type of celestial body, but a test of the correctness of the understanding of the very properties of space and time in very strong gravitational fields. Physicists` excitement at this new prospect for testing theories of fundamental processes is matched by that of astronomers at the possibility to discover and study a new and dramatically different kind of astronomical object. Here the authors review the currently known ways that black holes can be identified by their effects on their neighborhood--since, of course, the hole itself does not yield any direct evidence of its existence or information about its properties. The two most important empirical considerations are determination of masses, or lower limits thereof, of unseen companions in binary star systems, and measurement of luminosity fluctuations on very short time scales.

  16. Black Holes and Firewalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polchinski, Joseph

    2015-04-01

    Our modern understanding of space, time, matter, and even reality itself arose from the three great revolutions of the early twentieth century: special relativity, general relativity, and quantum mechanics. But a century later, this work is unfinished. Many deep connections have been discovered, but the full form of a unified theory incorporating all three principles is not known. Thought experiments and paradoxes have often played a key role in figuring out how to fit theories together. For the unification of general relativity and quantum mechanics, black holes have been an important arena. I will talk about the quantum mechanics of black holes, the information paradox, and the latest version of this paradox, the firewall. The firewall points to a conflict between our current theories of spacetime and of quantum mechanics. It may lead to a new understanding of how these are connected, perhaps based on quantum entanglement.

  17. Forging a Black identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Chevannes

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] The Rastafarians: sounds of cultural dissonance [revised and updated editionj. LEONARD E. BARRETT, SR. Boston: Beacon Press, 1988. xviii + 302 pp. (Paper US$ 11.95 Rasta and resistance: from Marcus Garvey to Walter Rodney. HORACE CAMPBELL. Trenton NJ: Africa World Press, 1987. xiii + 236 pp. (Cloth US$32.95, Paper US$ 10.95 Garvey's children: the legacy of Marcus Garvey. TONY SEWELL. London: Macmillan Caribbean, 1990. 128 pp. (Paper £ 17.95 The central theme linking these three titles is the evolution of a black identity among English-speaking Caribbean peoples, in particular Jamaicans. Consequently all three authors cover the two most important historical phenomena in Caribbean black nationalism, namely Garveyism and Rastafari, one focusing on the former and the other two focusing on the latter.

  18. Brazilian adolescents' prosocial moral judgment and behavior: relations to sympathy, perspective taking, gender-role orientation, and demographic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, N; Zhou, Q; Koller, S

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine demographic and individual difference variables that predict level of prosocial moral judgment and self-reported prosocial behavior and to test mediating or moderating relations among predictors. The relations of prosocial moral reasoning and self-reported prosocial behavior to perspective taking, sympathy, age, sociometric status, and gender-role orientation were examined with a sample of 149 Brazilian adolescents who completed a series of questionnaire measures. Prosocial moral judgment was expected to be predicted by both sympathy and perspective taking, whereas sympathy or prosocial moral judgment was expected to mediate the relations of femininity and perspective taking to prosocial behavior. Self-reported perspective taking and sympathy interacted when predicting prosocial moral judgment; adolescents who were high in either sympathy or perspective taking (or both) scored high in prosocial moral reasoning. A feminine orientation predicted sympathy and perspective taking, perspective taking predicted prosocial moral reasoning and sympathy, and sympathy had both direct and indirect paths (through moral judgment) to prosocial behavior. The findings generally were consistent with the contention that both the tendency to take others' perspectives and to sympathize are related to level of prosocial moral reasoning, which in turn motivates prosocial behavior. Moreover, patterns of correlations among variables were similar to those found in the United States.

  19. Gender and Daily School: Dilemmas and Prospects of the School Intervention in the Affective-Sexual Socialization of Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pereira da Rocha Rosistolato

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the classification of gender used by teachers who develop projects on sexual education in Rio de Janeiro to explain the views and the dilemmas of school intervention in the affective-sexual socialization of adolescents. The empirical material that supports the arguments is composed by 16 in-depth interviews, conducted with teachers responsible for school spaces where sexual education projects are developed in basic schools of Rio de Janeiro: The Centers of Adolescents Multipliers (Núcleos de Adolescentes Multiplicadores-/NAM‘s. Remarks were also made in a training course for teachers who wish to work with sexual education in school. The representations of gender classifications presented range from modern to traditional concerning femininity and masculinity. The projects were coordinated mostly by teachers, and pupils’ participation was basically composed of women. The teachers sought consistency between their performance in school and family spaces. But at the same time that they guided their students to combat the inequalities of gender, they had doubts and uncertainties about the possibility of educating their own children according to ideals of gender equality, especially the sons. Familiar situations contrasted with performances in the classroom, presenting tensions between denial and assertion of masculinity and traditional femininities.

  20. Beyond the black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boslough, J.

    1985-01-01

    This book is about the life and work of Stephen Hawking. It traces the development of his theories about the universe and particularly black holes, in a biographical context. Hawking's lecture 'Is the end in sight for theoretical physics' is presented as an appendix. In this, he discusses the possibility of achieving a complete, consistent and unified theory of the physical interactions which would describe all possible observations. (U.K.)