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Sample records for bk070045 donor screen

  1. Unconfirmed reactive screening tests and their impact on donor management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the percentage of false positive testing for transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs) using immunochromatographic test (ICT) as first line of screening tests and its effect on loss of volunteer blood donors. Over a period of three months, samples from blood bags of donors undergoing phlebotomy at teaching hospital blood banks in Lahore were screened for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) by immunochromatographic tests. Those found positive on initial screening were re-tested by ELISA method at the screening laboratory of the Institute of Haematology and Blood Transfusion Service, Punjab. Lahore. Out of a total of 62090 voluntary blood donors, 469 donors were found to be initially reactive for either HIV, HBV or HCV. Amongst these 96 (0.15%) blood donors were found to have tested falsely positive for HIV, HBV or HCV as compared to testing by ELISA. False positive testing rate of 0.15% or 96 out of a total of 62090 donors is rather small in terms of loss of voluntary donors and appropriate utilization of available resources. Although immunochromatographic testing is not the gold standard, however it serves an important purpose of initial donor screening. (author)

  2. Implementation of a mandatory donor RHD screening in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crottet, Sofia Lejon; Henny, Christine; Meyer, Stefan; Still, Franziska; Stolz, Martin; Gottschalk, Jochen; Neuenschwander, Kathrin; Taleghani, Behrouz Mansouri; Gowland, Peter; Frey, Beat M; Fontana, Stefano; Hustinx, Hein; Niederhauser, Christoph; Gassner, Christoph

    2014-04-01

    Starting in 2013, blood donors must be tested at least using: (1) one monoclonal anti-D and one anti-CDE (alternatively full RhCcEe phenotyping), and (2) all RhD negative donors must be tested for RHD exons 5 and 10 plus one further exonic, or intronic RHD specificity, according to the guidelines of the Blood Transfusion Service of the Swiss Red Cross (BTS SRC). In 2012 an adequate stock of RHD screened donors was built. Of all 25,370 RhD negative Swiss donors tested in 2012, 20,015 tested at BTS Berne and 5355 at BTS Zürich, showed 120 (0.47%) RHD positivity. Thirty-seven (0.15%) had to be redefined as RhD positive. Routine molecular RHD screening is reliable, rapid and cost-effective and provides safer RBC units in Switzerland. PMID:24679597

  3. Blood donors screening for blood born viruses in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabarczyk, Piotr; Kopacz, Aneta; Sulkowska, Ewa; Kubicka-Russel, Dorota; Mikulska, Maria; Brojer, Ewa; Łętowska, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Blood donor screening of viral markers in Poland is based on serologic testing for anti-HCV, HBsAg, anti-HIV1/2 (chemiluminescence tests) and on nucleic acid testing (NAT) for RNA HCV, RNA HIV-1 and DNA HBV performed in minipools of 6 with real-time PCR (MPX 2.0 test on cobas s201) or with TMA in individual donations (Ultrio Plus or Ultrio Elite). Donors of plasma for anti-D and anti-HBs production are tested for parvovirus B19 DNA. Before implementation tests and equipment are evaluated at the Institute of Hematology and Transfusion Medicine (IHTM). The last 20 years witnessed a decreasing trend for HBsAg in both first time and repeat donors (1%-0.3% and 0.1%-0.02% respectively). Prevalence of anti-HCV repeat reactive results was stable and oscillated around 0.8% for first time donors and 0.2% for repeat donors. Elevated prevalence of seropositive HIV infected donors was recently observed (7.5-9 cases/100,000 donors). Since respective molecular markers implementation HCV RNA was detected on average in 1/119,235 seronegative donations, HIV RNA in 1/783,821 and HBV DNA in 1/61,047. HBV NAT yields were mostly occult hepatitis B (1/80,248); window period cases were less frequent (1/255,146). The efficiency of HBV DNA detection depends on the sensitivity of the HBV DNA screening system. PMID:26519842

  4. Trypanosoma cruzi screening in Texas blood donors, 2008-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, M N; Woc-Colburn, L; Rossmann, S N; Townsend, R L; Stramer, S L; Bravo, M; Kamel, H; Beddard, R; Townsend, M; Oldham, R; Bottazzi, M E; Hotez, P J; Murray, K O

    2016-04-01

    Chagas disease is an important emerging disease in Texas that results in cardiomyopathy in about 30% of those infected with the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. Between the years 2008 and 2012, about 1/6500 blood donors were T. cruzi antibody-confirmed positive. We found older persons and minority populations, particularly Hispanic, at highest risk for screening positive for T. cruzi antibodies during routine blood donation. Zip code analysis determined that T. cruzi is associated with poverty. Chagas disease has a significant disease burden and is a cause of substantial economic losses in Texas. PMID:25170765

  5. Considerations for screening live kidney donors for endemic infections: a viewpoint on the UNOS policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, M E; Kumar, D; Green, M; Ison, M G; Kaul, D; Michaels, M G; Morris, M I; Schwartz, B S; Echenique, I A; Blumberg, E A

    2014-05-01

    In February 2013, the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network mandated that transplant centers perform screening of living kidney donors prior to transplantation for Strongyloides, Trypanosoma cruzi and West Nile virus (WNV) infection if the donor is from an endemic area. However, specific guidelines for screening were not provided, such as the optimal testing modalities, timing of screening prior to donation and the appropriate selection of donors. In this regard, the American Society of Transplantation Infectious Diseases Community of Practice, together with disease-specific experts, has developed this viewpoint document to provide guidance for the testing of live donors for Strongyloides, T. cruzi and WNV infection, specifically identifying at-risk populations and testing algorithms, including advantages, limitations and interpretation of results. PMID:24636427

  6. Risk Factors and Screening for Trypanosoma cruzi Infection of Dutch Blood Donors.

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    Ed Slot

    Full Text Available Blood donors unaware of Trypanosoma cruzi infection may donate infectious blood. Risk factors and the presence of T. cruzi antibodies in at-risk Dutch blood donors were studied to assess whether specific blood safety measures are warranted in the Netherlands.Birth in a country endemic for Chagas disease (CEC, having a mother born in a CEC, or having resided for at least six continuous months in a CEC were considered risk factors for T. cruzi infection. From March through September 2013, risk factor questions were asked to all donors who volunteered to donate blood or blood components. Serum samples were collected from donors reporting one or more risk factors, and screened for IgG antibodies to T. cruzi by EIA.Risk factors for T. cruzi infection were reported by 1,426 of 227,278 donors (0.6%. Testing 1,333 at-risk donors, none (0.0%; 95%, CI 0.0-0.4% was seroreactive for IgG antibodies to T. cruzi. A total of 472 donors were born in a CEC; 553 donors reported their mother being born in a CEC; and 1,121 donors reported a long-term stay in a CEC. The vast majority of reported risk factors were related to Suriname and Brazil. Overall, the participants resided for 7,694 years in CECs, which equals 2.8 million overnight stays. Of those, 1.9 million nights were spent in Suriname.Asymptomatic T. cruzi infection appears to be extremely rare among Dutch blood donors. Blood safety interventions to mitigate the risk of T. cruzi transmission by transfusion would be highly cost-ineffective in the Netherlands, and are thus not required.

  7. ELISA with double antigen sandwich for screening specific serum anti-TP antibody in blood donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To select a sensitive and specific laboratory examination suitable for screening serum anti-TP antibody in blood donors. Methods: The serum anti-TP antibody in 11271 blood donors were detected using ELISA with double antigen sandwich and the outcomes were compared with those using RPR assay. The conflicting specimen were confirmed by repeating the test with TPHA assay. Results: The positive rates of serum anti-TP antibody by ELISA with double antigen sandwich and RPR was 0.36% (41/11271) and 0.26% (29/11271), respectively. The coincidence of the detecting outcomes by ELISA with double antigen sandwich and RPR with TPHA was 97.5% (40/41) and 63.41%(26/41) respectively. Conclusion: Compared with RPR assay, ELISA with double antigen sandwich has higher sensibility and specificity for screening serum anti-TP antibody in blood donors

  8. Syphilis detection: evaluation of serological screening and pilot reverse confirmatory assay algorithm in blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommese, Linda; Paolillo, Rossella; Sabia, Chiara; Costa, Dario; De Pascale, Maria Rosaria; Iannone, Carmela; Esposito, Antonella; Schiano, Concetta; Napoli, Claudio

    2016-07-01

    Serological assays are still considered the most useful tests in the diagnosis of syphilis. Since no single serological assay is able to provide a satisfactory result, in our laboratory we have evaluated the usefulness of a commercially-available immunoblot to diagnose syphilis infection among blood donors. From October 2012 to June 2013, 4572 blood donors were screened for syphilis with an automated chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA). To confirm the presence of treponemal antibodies, CMIA-reactive sera were tested by standard Treponema pallidum haemagglutination assay (TPHA). In addition, an alternative confirmatory test - the immunoblot INNO-LIA assay was introduced in our laboratory. Since two additional positives among CMIA-reactive-TPHA-negative samples were found, we concluded that the INNO-LIA immunoblot allowed a better detection of syphilis compared to TPHA. A confirmatory strategy based on the use of two treponemal assays could meet the screening requirements for blood donors as well as in our centre. PMID:26068964

  9. Seroprevalence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus-1/2 in blood donors in northern pakistan: implication for blood donor screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the seroprevalence of Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus-1/2 (HTLV-1/2) in blood donors in Northern Pakistan. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Armed Forces Institute of Transfusion, Rawalpindi, from July to August 2013. Methodology:A total of 2100 blood donors were screened for anti-HTLV-1/2 antibodies during the study period, in a pool of six, on a highly sensitive, Chemiluminiscent Microparticle Immunoassay (CMIA) based system. The screening test reactive donors were recalled, counseled and interviewed, and a fresh sample was obtained for confirmatory testing. Confirmation was performed using additional immunoassays including Line Immunoassay (LIA); with additional testing for HTLV-1 pvDNAPCR. Frequency and percentages were determined. Results: Four donors (0.19%) were repeatedly screening test-reactive and were subsequently confirmed to be HTLV-1 infected by line immunoassay and HTLV-1 pvDNAPCR. All four donors were male with mean age of 27 ± 6.27 years. Two (50%) of the positive donors gave history of Multiple Sexual Partners (MSP). Conclusion: HTLV-1 seroprevalence in Northern Pakistan blood donors was determined to be 0.19%. Large scale studies, including the cost effectiveness of screening blood donations for anti-HTLV-1/2 in Pakistan, are recommended. (author)

  10. Tattoos and transfusion-transmitted disease risk: implications for the screening of blood donors in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio de A. Nishioka

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Having a tattoo has been associated with serological evidence of hepatitis B and C viruses, as well as human immunodeficiency virus infections and syphilis; all of these are known to be transmissible by blood transfusion. These associations are of higher magnitude for individuals with nonprofessionally-applied tattoos and with two or more tattoos. Tattoos are common among drug addicts and prisoners, conditions that are also associated with transfusion-transmitted diseases. We examined the implications of these associations for the screening of blood donors in Brazil. Numbers of individuals who would be correctly or unnecessarily deferred from blood donation on the basis of the presence of tattoos, and on their number and type, were calculated for different prevalence situations based on published odds ratios. If having a tattoo was made a deferral criterion, cost savings (due to a reduced need for laboratory testing and subsequent follow-up would accrue at the expense of the deferral of appropriate donors. Restricting deferral to more `at-risk' sub-groups of tattooed individuals would correctly defer less individuals and would also reduce the numbers of potential donors unnecessarily deferred. Key factors in balancing cost savings and unnecessary deferrals include the magnitude of the pool of blood donors in the population, the prevalence of individuals with tattoos and the `culture' of tattoos in the population. Tattoos can therefore be an efficient criterion for the screening of blood donors in certain settings, a finding that requires corroboration from larger population-based studies.

  11. Screening Investigations of Novel Nitrogen Donor Ligands for Solvent Extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is important to have a concept on how to take care of spent nuclear fuel. Several options exist, such as the once-through cycle or reprocessing. Both these methods produce a residue that must be disposed of and isolated for a very long time. Transmutation of the spent nuclear fuel is a technique that may reduce the amount and the storage time of the spent nuclear fuel by converting the long lived radionuclides into short lived or stable nuclides. Successful transmutation must be accompanied with an effective separation, or partitioning, of the elements in the spent fuel since only a few elements are the target for transmutation. Solvent extraction is one of the preferred techniques for this partitioning. Special consideration is given to the separation of trivalent actinides and trivalent lanthanides in the waste since these groups of elements have similar chemical properties and hence may be difficult to separate. This work is focused on the separation of actinides from lanthanides using novel nitrogen containing extracting reagents for solvent extraction. These nitrogen bearing reagents has been investigated using mainly solvent extraction techniques to find chemical and extraction properties for these reagents and to optimize the system in order to use these reagents in a future process. Methods for making screening test of these ligands are discussed where certain properties of the reagents are investigated, such as solubility, radiolytic and hydrolytic stability and extraction capacity. The ligands were found to be able to specifically separate actinides from lanthanides. Further on, a model based on Hansen's solubility parameter concept, which can predict the outcome of an extraction experiment is presented. The model was found to work quite well

  12. Strongyloidiasis in Po valley: serological and parasitological screening in blood donors of Cremona

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    Paolo Mangoni

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Backgroud. Strongyloides stercoralis is a ubiquitous nematode that is present also in Italy in a hypoendemic form, especially in the Po Valley. It is responsable for strongyloidiasis, an intestinal parasitosis usually asymptomatic or paucy-symptomatic that occasionally can cause a hyperinfestation syndrome and disseminated disease. Objectives. To determine the presence of S. stercoralis in asympomatic people afferent to the Cremona hospital by serological screening and direct microscopic search. Study Design. In the period from December 1, 2010 to June 30, 2011 we screened 154 donors with absolute eosinophilia >500/μL and percentage of eosinophils 9%. The research of anti-S. stercoralis antibodies was performed through an ELISA method (S.ratti Bordier Products. Donors positive to the screening test were tested for direct parasite search through with phormol-ethyl acetate stool concentration (FEA and culture on S. stercoralis Agar (Biolife, Milan. Results. 13 donors were positive to the screening test (8.4%. 10 of these 13 donors performed coproparassitologic examination. S. stercoralis was identified in the stools of 3/10 tested patients through culture and in 2/10 through FEA. Conclusions. The study results are in line with the data reported in the literature for similar geographic areas. Among the risk factors are to be counted the type of job (agriculture, and the domicile in the rural environment. The culture in S. stercoralis Agar has proved much more sensitive than FEA. The serological diagnosis represent a valuable contribution to traditional coproparassitologic examination, particularlywhen screening asymptomatic individuals at risk.

  13. Comparison of five methods of cytomegalovirus antibody screening of blood donors.

    OpenAIRE

    Phipps, P H; Grégoire, L; Rossier, E.; Perry, E.

    1983-01-01

    A group of 120 sera from blood donors was screened by complement fixation and commercially available immunofluorescence, solid-phase fluorescence immunoassay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and indirect hemagglutination tests. Twenty-four of the sera were positive by three or more of the five tests and judged to be true positives; 89 were negative by three or more of the tests and considered to be true negatives. The tests were ranked for accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, false-positive...

  14. Anti-HBc screening in Indian blood donors: Still an unresolved issue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hari Krishan Dhawan; Neelam Marwaha; Ratti Ram Sharma; Yogesh Chawla; Beenu Thakral; Karan Saluja; Sanjeev Kumar Sharma; Manish K Thakur; Ashish Jain

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To study the seroprevalence of antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) in healthy blood donors negative for HBsAg and to evaluate whether anti-HBc detection could be adopted in India as a screening assay for HBV in addition to HBsAg.METHODS:A total of 1700 serum samples collected from HBsAg-negative healthy blood donors were tested for the presence of anti-HBc antibody (IgM + IgG).All samples reactive for anti-HBc antibody were then investigated for presence of anti-HBs and for liver function tests (LFTs).One hundred serum samples reactive for anti-HBc were tested for HBV DNA by PCR method.RESULTS:Out of 1700 samples tested,142 (8.4%)blood samples were found to be reactive for anti-HBc.It was significantly lower in voluntary (6.9%) as compared to replacement donors (10.4%,P=0.011).Seventytwo (50.7%) anti-HBc reactive samples were also reactive for anti-HBs with levels >10 mIU/mL and 70(49.3%) samples were non-reactive for anti-HBs,these units were labeled as anti-HBc-only.These 142 anti-HBc reactive units were also tested for liver function test.HBV DNA was detected in only 1 of 100 samples tested.CONCLUSION:Keeping in view that 8%-18% of donor population in India is anti-HBc reactive,inclusion of anti-HBc testing will lead to high discard rate.Anti-HBs as proposed previously does not seem to predict clearance of the virus.Cost effectiveness of introducing universal anti-HBc screening and discarding large number of blood units versus considering ID NAT (Individual donor nuclic acid testing) needs to be assessed.

  15. Carrier Screening is a Deficient Strategy for Determining Sperm Donor Eligibility and Reducing Risk of Disease in Recipient Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Ari J.; Larson, Jessica L.; Silver, Maxwell J.; Lim, Regine M.; Borroto, Carlos; Spurrier, Brett; Morriss, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Aims: DNA-based carrier screening is a standard component of donor eligibility protocols practiced by U.S. sperm banks. Applicants who test positive for carrying a recessive disease mutation are typically disqualified. The aim of our study was to examine the utility of a range of screening panels adopted by the industry and the effectiveness of the screening paradigm in reducing a future child's risk of inheriting disease. Methods: A cohort of 27 donor applicants, who tested negative on an initial cystic fibrosis carrier test, was further screened with three expanded commercial carrier testing panels. These results were then compared to a systematic analysis of the applicants' DNA using next-generation sequencing (NGS) data. Results: The carrier panels detected serious pediatric disease mutations in one, four, or six donor applicants. Because each panel screens distinct regions of the genome, no single donor was uniformly identified as carrier positive by all three panels. In contrast, systematic NGS analysis identified all donors as carriers of one or more mutations associated with severe monogenic pediatric disease. These included 30 variants classified as “pathogenic” based on clinical observation and 66 with a high likelihood of causing gene dysfunction. Conclusion: Despite tremendous advances in variant identification, understanding, and analysis, the vast majority of disease-causing mutation combinations remain undetected by commercial carrier screening panels, which cover a narrow, and often distinct, subset of genes and mutations. The biological reality is that all donors and recipients carry serious recessive disease mutations. This challenges the utility of any screening protocol that anchors donor eligibility to carrier status. A more effective approach to reducing recessive disease risk would consider joint comprehensive analysis of both donor and recipient disease mutations. This type of high-resolution recessive disease risk analysis is now

  16. New strategies for blood donor screening for hepatitis B virus: nucleic acid testing versus immunoassay methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhns, Mary C; Busch, Michael P

    2006-01-01

    Serologic testing for hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibody to HBV core antigen (anti-HBc) has historically been the foundation of blood screening, while HBV nucleic acid testing (NAT) was recently developed to detect HBsAg-negative, anti-HBc-negative blood units donated during early acute infection. Comparison data on seroconversion panels using HBsAg assays of varying sensitivities and pooled- or single-sample NAT, along with viral load estimates corresponding to HBsAg assay detection limits, have provided information on the theoretical benefits of NAT relative to HBsAg. Model-derived estimates have generally been predictive of the yields of DNA-positive, HBsAg-negative window period blood units detected in a number of studies from Europe, Japan, and the US. Studies indicate that the added benefit of pooled-sample NAT is relatively small in areas of low endemicity, with greater yields in areas highly endemic for HBV. Single-sample NAT would offer more significant early window period closure and could prevent a moderate number of residual HBV transmissions not detected by HBsAg assays; however, no fully automated single-sample HBV NAT systems are currently available.Even single-sample HBV NAT may not substitute for anti-HBc screening, as indicated by studies of donors with isolated anti-HBc who have extremely low DNA levels undetectable by standard single-sample NAT and who have been associated with transfusion-transmitted HBV. Moreover, HBsAg testing may still be needed even in the setting of combined anti-HBc and NAT screening. HBsAg-positive units from donors in the chronic stage of infection may contain very low or intermittently detectable DNA levels that single-sample NAT would miss. Although such donors are usually anti-HBc reactive and would be interdicted by anti-HBc screening, some lack anti-HBc. Extensive parallel testing will be needed to determine whether single-sample NAT in combination with anti-HBc might be sufficient to

  17. Comparing prevalence of Iron Deficiency Anemia and Beta Thalassemia Trait in microcytic and non-microcytic blood donors: suggested algorithm for donor screening

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    Tiwari Aseem

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of microcytosis in donors and Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA and Beta-Thalassemia trait (BTT in microcytic and non-microcytic donors has not been studied in India. The present study aims at finding the same. Materials and Methods: Initially 925 donor samples were evaluated on cell-counter. Of these, 50 were found to be microcytic. These were subjected to Ferritin and HbA2 determination. Subsequently, an additional 51, age-and-sex matched non-microcytic donor samples were selected to serve as controls. These were subjected to the same tests. Results: The prevalence of microcytosis was 5.4% (50/925. Among the microcytic donors, 52% were IDA, 36% BTT, 8% both, and 4% none. In case of non-microcytic donors 29.4% were IDA, 3.9% BTT, and 66.7% none. Conclusions: The study revealed a high prevalence of IDA and BTT in blood donors and a higher probability of finding these in the microcytic samples. This prompted authors to suggest an algorithm for screening of blood donors for IDA and BTT. The algorithm recommends doing an hemogram on all donor samples, routinely. Ferritin could be done only in microcytic samples. At levels lower than15 ng/ml, it is diagnosed as IDA, and therefore, HPLC is performed only for non-IDA samples with Ferritin levels higher than 15 ng/ml. By employing this algorithm, a substantial number of IDA and BTT could be diagnosed while keeping the number of Ferritin tests small and the number of HPLC tests even smaller and thus making it cost efficient.

  18. 78 FR 66366 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Use of Donor Screening Tests To Test Donors of Human Cells, Tissues...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ... enforcement discretion. In the Federal Register of February 28, 2007 (72 FR 9007), FDA announced the... Cellular and Tissue-Based Products (HCT/Ps) for Infection with Treponema pallidum (Syphilis),'' dated... determinations for donors of HCT/Ps (HCT/P Establishments), with updated recommendations concerning donor...

  19. Screening of β-thalassemia trait and other hemoglobinopathies among blood donors in Punjab

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    Rajesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hemoglobinopathies are common genetic disorders of hemoglobin, which can be prevented by population screening and offering genetic counseling. The cumulative gene frequency of hemoglobinopathies in India is 4.2%. The carrier state for β-thalassemia in India varies from 1% to 17% with an average of 3.2%. The present study was undertaken to find out the burden of hemoglobinopathies and spectrum of this disorders among the blood donors. Materials and Methods: The study includes 975 students between 18 and 25 years who donated blood, were screened for β-thalassemia trait and related hemoglobinopathies by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC using Bio-Rad variant. Samples were also run on a hemato analyzer for red cell indices and peripheral smear for red cell morphology. Results: A total of 41 donors showed abnormal hemoglobin fractions in HPLC. Out of these, 32 (3.3% were diagnosed with β-thalassemia trait, 8 (0.8% with Hb-D Punjab and 1 (0.1% with Hb-S trait. The frequency of β-thalassemia trait in the student from different geographical regions varied from 0.8% to 4.44%, being the highest in those from Punjab and frequency of β-thalassemia trait in different caste groups varied from 0 to 4.74%, being the highest in the student from Jatt Sikh community. Conclusions: A universal approach of screening for β-thalassemia trait should be included as a part of standard blood testing among the college students, premarital and of the extended family of thalassemics. Population group with high gene frequencies requires screening programs as well as increased awareness and education program to control the birth of thalassemia major.

  20. Umbilical cord blood units for public storage donors screening for markers of infectious agents

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    A. B. Smolyaninov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The screening of 3515 cord blood samples which had entered bank for public use for presence of markers of infectious agents was carried out. It was established that majority of cord blood units contain markers of cytomegalovirus and Toxoplasma (81% that is not a contraindication for storage and subsequent use of these samples. In 4.6% of cases umbilical cord blood units were subjected to disposal because of identification of viral hepatitis B and C, as well as Tr. pallidum markers, moreover, the largest share of the discarded units contained antibodies to HbscorAg – 71,3%. Inclusion of analysis on the presence of Anti-HBcor in the required laboratory screening of mothers-donors CB was proposed in order to reduce the percentage of discarded umbilical cord blood units for the public inventory.

  1. Safe Blood Transfusion: Screening for Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C Virus Infections in Potential Blood Donors in Rural Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Van Viet

    2014-01-01

    2,400 blood samples from potential voluntary rural blood donors in a multicentre cross-sectional study in Cambodia and Vietnam were analysed with rapid and EIA tests for detection of HBsAg, anti-HBc and anti-HCV at local laboratories. 640 randomly selected blood samples were blindly validated in a Norwegian accredited micro-laboratory by a chemiluminescent micro particle immunoassay technique (CMIA). Rapid test for donor screening of hepatitis proved to have far lover accuracy than claimed by...

  2. The role of P24 antigen screening in reducing the risk of HIV transmission by scronegetive bone allograft donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disease transmission is an infrequent but important risk associated with bone transplantation. Human immunodeficiency virus infection is particularly important because of delay in seroconversion of the potential donor. This is so-call 'window' period may extend for several months. Almost all human immunodeficiency virus transmission via the transplantation of blood or tissue since the implementation of anti-HIV screening in 1985 has been during this window period. The performance of newer assays to detect viral and serologic markers may reduce this risk of disease transmission. We present the strategy employed at the Queensland Bone Bank to minimise the risk of HIV transmission through an infected donor

  3. PREVENTION OF POST-TRANSFUSION HEPATITIS BY SCREENING OF ANTIBODY TO HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGEN IN HEALTHY BLOOD DONORS

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    Sudha Bhat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Transfusion-associated hepatitis B viral infection continues to be a major problem in India even after adoption of mandatory screening for HBsAg by ELISA method. The high incidence of TAHBV is reported in patients receiving multiple transfusions.

    Objective: To study the seroprevalence of hepatitis B core antibody among healthy voluntary blood donors

    Subjects and Methods: The study was conducted in the department of Transfusion Medicine of a tertiary care referral hospital. A total of 12,232 volunteers after passing through the stringent criteria were selected for blood donation. Donor samples were tested for all mandatory transfusion transmissible infections and anti HBc IgM (Monolisa HBc IgM PLUS:BIO-RAD, France. Reactive results were confirmed by repeat testing in duplicate. Donor data was analyzed using SPSS software and Chi-square test was used to calculate the significance of difference between the groups.

    Results:A total of 12,232 healthy voluntary blood donors were recruited. Majority (93.4% were males. Median age of donor population was 26 years (range: 18-60 years. Eighty six (0.7% were positive for HBsAg, which comes under “low prevalence (<2% zone” as per WHO. On screening for HBcAg Ig M, 15 (0.1% were found to be positive and none were HBsAg reactive. There was no significance of difference in the mean age between reactive and non-reactive donors.

    Conclusion:Evaluating the usefulness of anti-HBc screening is critical. Anti HBcAg IgM screening may be included in routine screening of donors as it is an indicator of occult HBV during window period. The cost and the unnecessary wastage of the blood units when they are positive for anti HBsAg along with the core antibody need to be studied.

     

  4. Validation of a rapid type 1 diabetes autoantibody screening assay for community-based screening of organ donors to identify subjects at increased risk for the disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserfall, C; Montgomery, E; Yu, L; Michels, A; Gianani, R; Pugliese, A; Nierras, C; Kaddis, J S; Schatz, D A; Bonifacio, E; Atkinson, M A

    2016-07-01

    The Network for Pancreatic Organ donors with Diabetes (nPOD) programme was developed in response to an unmet research need for human pancreatic tissue obtained from individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus and people at increased risk [i.e. autoantibody (AAb)-positive] for the disease. This necessitated the establishment of a type 1 diabetes-specific AAb screening platform for organ procurement organizations (OPOs). Assay protocols for commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisas) determining AAb against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA), insulinoma-associated protein-2 (IA-2A) and zinc transporter-8 (ZnT8A) were modified to identify AAb-positive donors within strict time requirements associated with organ donation programmes. These rapid elisas were evaluated by the international islet AAb standardization programme (IASP) and used by OPO laboratories as an adjunct to routine serological tests evaluating donors for organ transplantation. The rapid elisas performed well in three IASPs (2011, 2013, 2015) with 98-100% specificity for all three assays, including sensitivities of 64-82% (GADA), 60-64% (IA-2A) and 62-68% (ZnT8A). Since 2009, nPOD has screened 4442 organ donors by rapid elisa; 250 (5·6%) were identified as positive for one AAb and 14 (0.3%) for multiple AAb with 20 of these cases received by nPOD for follow-up studies (14 GADA+, two IA-2A(+) , four multiple AAb-positive). Rapid screening for type 1 diabetes-associated AAb in organ donors is feasible, allowing for identification of non-diabetic, high-risk individuals and procurement of valuable tissues for natural history studies of this disease. PMID:27029857

  5. Screening human donor corneas during organ culture for the presence of guttae

    OpenAIRE

    Borderie, V; Sabolic, V.; Touzeau, O.; Scheer, S; Carvajal-Gonzalez, S.; Laroche, L.

    2001-01-01

    AIMS—To detect the presence of guttae by means of light microscopy during organ culture and to evaluate the influence of the presence of guttae in the donor tissue on transplantation outcome.
METHODS—Donor corneas were investigated for the presence of guttae by means of light microscopy at the end of organ culture. Recipient corneal buttons from patients with severe Fuchs' dystrophy and donor corneas with advanced guttae were first studied by light microscopy and subsequently by transmission ...

  6. Prevention of Post-Transfusion Hepatitis by Screening of Antibody to Hepatitis B Core Antigen in Healthy Blood Donors

    OpenAIRE

    Shastry, S.; S S Bhat

    2011-01-01

    Background Transfusion-associated hepatitis B viral infection continues to be a major problem in India even after adoption of mandatory screening for HBsAg by ELISA method. The high incidence of TAHBV is reported in patients receiving multiple transfusions. Objective To study the seroprevalence of hepatitis B core antibody among healthy voluntary blood donors Subjects and Methods The study was conducted in the department of Transfusion Medicine of a tertiary care referral hospital. A total of...

  7. PREVENTION OF POST-TRANSFUSION HEPATITIS BY SCREENING OF ANTIBODY TO HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGEN IN HEALTHY BLOOD DONORS

    OpenAIRE

    Shamee Shastry; Sudha Bhat

    2011-01-01

    Background: Transfusion-associated hepatitis B viral infection continues to be a major problem in India even after adoption of mandatory screening for HBsAg by ELISA method. The high incidence of TAHBV is reported in patients receiving multiple transfusions. Objective: To study the seroprevalence of hepatitis B core antibody among healthy voluntary blood donors Subjects and Methods: The study was conducted in the department of Transfusion Medicine of a tertiary care referral h...

  8. A Family Cluster of Chagas Disease Detected through Selective Screening of Blood Donors: A Case Report and Brief Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Mongeau-Martin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease (CD is a protozoan infection caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, which is transmitted by triatomine insect vectors in parts of Latin America. In a nonendemic country, such as Canada, spread can still occur via vertical transmission, and infected blood or organ donations. The Canadian Blood Services and Héma-Québec have both implemented selective screening of blood donors for CD based on risk factors. In 2011, Héma-Québec identified two seropositive ‘at-risk’ Chilean siblings who had donated blood in Montreal, Quebec. They were referred to the JD MacLean Centre for Tropical Diseases (Montreal, Quebec for confirmatory testing (T cruzi excreted-secreted antigen ELISA, polymerase chain reaction and/or radioimmunoprecipitation assay and follow-up. Screening of the rest of the family revealed two other seropositive family members (the mother and sister. While their geographical history in Chile suggests vectorial transmission, this family cluster of CD raises the possibility of vertical transmission. Congenital infection should always be considered among CD-positive mothers and pregnant women. With blood donor screening, Canadian physicians will increasingly see patients with CD and should know how to manage them appropriately. In addition to the case presentation, the authors review the transmission, screening and clinical management of CD in a nonendemic context.

  9. A family cluster of Chagas disease detected through selective screening of blood donors: A case report and brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongeau-Martin, Guillaume; Ndao, Momar; Libman, Michael; Delage, Gilles; Ward, Brian J

    2015-01-01

    Chagas disease (CD) is a protozoan infection caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, which is transmitted by triatomine insect vectors in parts of Latin America. In a nonendemic country, such as Canada, spread can still occur via vertical transmission, and infected blood or organ donations. The Canadian Blood Services and Héma-Québec have both implemented selective screening of blood donors for CD based on risk factors. In 2011, Héma-Québec identified two seropositive 'at-risk' Chilean siblings who had donated blood in Montreal, Quebec. They were referred to the JD MacLean Centre for Tropical Diseases (Montreal, Quebec) for confirmatory testing (T cruzi excreted-secreted antigen ELISA, polymerase chain reaction and/or radioimmunoprecipitation assay) and follow-up. Screening of the rest of the family revealed two other seropositive family members (the mother and sister). While their geographical history in Chile suggests vectorial transmission, this family cluster of CD raises the possibility of vertical transmission. Congenital infection should always be considered among CD-positive mothers and pregnant women. With blood donor screening, Canadian physicians will increasingly see patients with CD and should know how to manage them appropriately. In addition to the case presentation, the authors review the transmission, screening and clinical management of CD in a nonendemic context. PMID:26236358

  10. Population-based screening for anemia using first-time blood donors

    OpenAIRE

    Mast, AE; Steele, WR; Johnson, B.; Wright, DJ; Cable, RG; Carey, P.; Gottschall, JL; Kiss, JE; Simon, TL; Murphy, EL

    2012-01-01

    Anemia is an important public health concern. Data from population-based surveys such as the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) are the gold standard, but are obtained infrequently and include only small samples from certain minority groups. We assessed whether readily available databases of blood donor hemoglobin values could be used as a surrogate for population hemoglobin values from NHANES. Blood donor venous and fingerstick hemoglobin values were compared to 10,254...

  11. Risk Factors and Screening for Trypanosoma cruzi Infection of Dutch Blood Donors

    OpenAIRE

    Slot, Ed; Hogema, Boris M; Molier, Michel; BART, Aldert; Hans L Zaaijer

    2016-01-01

    Background Blood donors unaware of Trypanosoma cruzi infection may donate infectious blood. Risk factors and the presence of T. cruzi antibodies in at-risk Dutch blood donors were studied to assess whether specific blood safety measures are warranted in the Netherlands. Methodology Birth in a country endemic for Chagas disease (CEC), having a mother born in a CEC, or having resided for at least six continuous months in a CEC were considered risk factors for T. cruzi infection. From March thro...

  12. [Screening for hemoglobinopathies in blood donors from Caxias do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: prevalence in an Italian colony].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisot, Cristina Lucia Alberti; Silla, Lúcia Mariano da Rocha

    2004-01-01

    The high prevalence of beta thalassemia among Italians and their participation in the ethnic formation of Caxias do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, and neighboring cities prompted us to investigate hemoglobinopathies in 608 blood donors at the Caxias do Sul Regional Blood Center. Despite the ethnic influence, abnormal hemoglobin levels were found in only 1.81% of the donors (0.16% Hb AC, 0.99% Hb AS, and 0.66% Hb AH), similar to the levels observed in a study on qualitative disorders conducted in the rural area of Rio Grande do Sul. In our setting, the most commonly used screening tests for thalassemia, combined with DNA sequencing, were unable to detect quantitative hemoglobin synthesis disorders. This may be attributable to still-unknown genetic disorders, technical limitations, or simply to miscegenation. PMID:15608861

  13. Blood donors screening for malaria in non-endemic area in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Is it necessary to introduce immunological testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elyamany, Ghaleb; Al Gharawi, Ali; Alrasheed, Mohammed; Alsuhaibani, Omar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In Saudi Arabia, where malaria is not endemic, the incidence is very low. However, malaria transmission cases have been reported, mainly in Asir and Jazan provinces along the Southwestern border with Yemen. Imported cases also have been reported. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of malaria in blood donors in a tertiary care hospital in the central area of Saudi Arabia and to assess the effectiveness of malaria screening methods used by transfusion services in Prince Sultan Military Medical City. Methods This study was conducted on 180,000 people who donated blood during 2006–2015. All blood smears from blood donors were screened for malaria infection using Giemsa staining, low power and high power microscopic examinations, and using oil immersion lens. The data were analyzed and reported in descriptive statistics and prevalence. Results From the total of 180,000 blood donors who were screened for malaria, 156,000 (87%) and 23.400 (13%) were Saudi Arabia citizens and non-Saudi residents, respectively. The mean age of the blood donors was 32 (ranging from 18 to 65), 97% and 3% were male and female, respectively. Using our current method for malaria screening, the prevalence of malaria in the study population was zero. Conclusion The current methods of malaria screening in blood donors is not suitable for screening low-level parasiotemia. Adding the immunoassay and molecular screening methods is suggested. PMID:27054011

  14. Cytomegalovirus disease in a renal transplant recipient: the importance of pre-transplant screening of the donor and recipient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed H Mitwalli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 16-year-old female patient who was born with a single kidney developed chronic kidney disease during her early childhood due to reflux nephropathy and recurrent urinary tract infection. She progressed to end-stage renal disease (ESRD and was commenced on renal replacement therapy in the form of peritoneal dialysis in May 2011. Subsequently, she underwent living unrelated donor kidney transplantation in China. She was hospitalized soon after returning to Saudi Arabia for management of high-grade fever, shortness of breath, and deterioration of renal function, which was found to be due to cytomegalovirus (CMV disease, proved by kidney biopsy and presence of high level of anti-CMV immunoglobulins. Allograft biopsy showed mature viral particles sized between 120 and 149 nm in the nuclei of the glomerular endothelial cells. The patient was treated with valgancyclovir and specific CMV immunoglobulin, as well as by reducing and even stopping the dose of tacrolimus and mycophenolate. Despite all these measures, her condition continued to deteriorate and she finally died. Our study emphasizes that unrelated renal transplantation, especially if unplanned and improperly prepared, is a very risky procedure that might transfer dangerous diseases and increase the morbidity and mortality of the patients. We strongly stress the need for mandatory and proper screening for CMV carrier status among donors as well as recipients prior to transplantation. Also, a recommendation is made to reject CMV-positive donors.

  15. Occult Hepatitis B virus infection in previously screened, blood donors in Ile-Ife, Nigeria: implications for blood transfusion and stem cell transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Amadin A. Olotu; Oyelese, Adesola O.; Salawu, Lateef; Rosemary A. Audu; Azuka P. Okwuraiwe; Aboderin, Aaron O.

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission through blood transfusion is reduced by screening for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). However this method cannot detect the presence of occult hepatitis B virus infection. This study sought to determine the prevalence of occult hepatitis B virus infection among blood donors in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. For the first time in Nigeria we employed an automated real-time PCR- method to investigate the prevalence of occult HBV in blood donors. Methods Bl...

  16. High Rates of Hepatitis B and C and HIV Infections among Blood Donors in Cameroon: A Proposed Blood Screening Algorithm for Blood Donors in Resource-Limited Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florent Fouelifack Ymele

    2012-01-01

    , 4.44%  (n=206, and 1.44%  (n=67, respectively. Coinfection with HIV and HBV was observed among 0.77% donors, followed by hepatitis B and C co-infection (0.21% and HIV and HCV coinfection (0.06%. Co-infection with HIV-HBV-HCV was encountered in 2 donors. The HIV, HBV, and HCV infections lead to a destruction of one out of six sets of blood collected. Conclusion. There is a need to review policies for blood collection from donors, by modifying the algorithm of blood donors testing. Pretesting potential donors using rapid tests could help to avoid collection and destruction of (infected blood.

  17. Factors associated with failure of clinical screening among blood donors who have altered serological results in the Centro Regional de Hemoterapia de Ribeirão Preto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oranice Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the frequency of positive results for hepatitis B and C, HIV and syphilis in blood donations at the Centro Regional de Hemoterapia de Ribeirão Preto, to describe donors with positive results according to some demographic and socioeconomic variables, to identify risk factors associated to these donors and the reasons that they were not detected during clinical screening. METHODS: A descriptive study was performed between July 1st 2005 and July 31st 2006 by interviewing 106 donors after medical consultations where they were informed of positive results for hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV or syphilis. RESULTS: There was a predominance of first-time donors, males, under 50-year olds, married individuals, from Ribeirão Preto, with elementary education, low economic status and of people who donated at the request of friends or relatives. Hepatitis C was the most frequently detected infection (56.6%, followed by hepatitis B (20.7%, HIV (12.3% and syphilis(10.4%. About 40% of donors had omitted risk factors for different reasons: because they trusted the results of serological tests, did not feel comfortable about talking of risk factors or did not consider them relevant. Other justifications were the duration of the interview, the interviewer was unskilled, embarrassment and doubts about confidentiality. CONCLUSION: The results indicate the need for changes in the approach to clinical screening and a review of methods to attract and guide potential donors.

  18. Hepatitis B virus screening in contacts of blood donors with antibodies against core protein (anti-HBc, but without surface antigen (HBsAg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hildenete Monteiro Fortes

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available To increase blood safety Brazil introduced screening for anti-HBc among blood donors in 1993. There was a decrease in the hepatitis B virus (HBV transmission, but this measure identified a great number of HBsAg-negative, anti-HBc-positive donors. Surveillance policy determines that contacts of HBV carriers should be screened to HBV markers, but there is no recommendation about how to guide contacts of HBsAg-negative, anti-HBc-positive donors. Aiming to evaluate whether the contacts of this group are at greater risk for HBV infection, a cross-sectional study was performed to compare prevalence of HBV infection between contacts of HBsAg-positive blood donors (group I and contacts of HBsAg-negative, anti-HBc-positive donors (group II. Contacts were submitted to a questionnaire and blood tests for HBV markers. In group I (n = 143, 53 (37.1% were anti-HBc-positive and 11 (7.7% were HBsAg-positive. In group II (n = 111, there were 9 and 0.9%, respectively. HBV exposure was associated with group I, sexual activity, blood transfusion, being one of the donor's parents, and living for more than ten years with the donor. Regarding the families as sample units, it was more common to find at least one member with HBV markers (p < 0.05 among the families of group I compared to group II. Contacts of HBsAg-negative, anti-HBc-positive individuals presented a much lower risk of having already been exposed to HBV and there is no need to screen them for HBV in low to moderate prevalence populations.

  19. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with an open incision. There is a screening process for potential donors. It’s important to emphasize that ... surgically an acceptable candidate. This shows our screening process, first the potential donor meets with a social ...

  20. Prevalence of active HCV infection among the blood donors of Khyber Pakhtunkwa and FATA region of Pakistan and evaluation of the screening tests for anti-HCV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Sanaullah

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hepatitis C is a fatal liver disease caused by the hepatitis C virus. In this study, blood donors, from various districts of the KPK province and the federally administered tribal area (FATA of Pakistan were tested for anti-HCV antibodies and HCV RNA by ICT (Immuno-chromatographic test, ELISA and RT-PCR. Out of the 7148 blood donors, 224 (3.13% were positive for anti-HCV antibodies by ICT, 135 (1.89% by ELISA while 118 (1.65% blood donors had active HCV infection as detected by RT-PCR. We suggest that ELISA should be used for anti-HCV screening in public sector hospitals and health care units.

  1. D-A-D-type narrow-bandgap small-molecule photovoltaic donors: pre-synthesis virtual screening using density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gim, Yeongrok; Kim, Daekyeom; Kyeong, Minkyu; Byun, Seunghwan; Park, Yuri; Kwon, Sooncheol; Kim, Heejoo; Hong, Sukwon; Lansac, Yves; Jang, Yun Hee

    2016-06-01

    A new series of D-A-D-type small-molecule photovoltaic donors are designed and virtually screened before synthesis using time-dependent density functional theory calculations carefully validated against various polymeric and molecular donors. In this series of new design, benzodithiophene is kept as D to achieve the optimum highest-occupied molecular orbital energy level, while thienopyrroledione is initially chosen as A but later replaced by difluorinated benzodiathiazole or its selenide derivative to achieve the optimum band gap. The D-A-D core is end-capped by pyridone units which could not only enhance their self-assembly via hydrogen bonds but also play a role as an acceptor (A') to form an extended A'-D-A-D-A' small-molecule donor. PMID:27193426

  2. Effectiveness of confidential unit exclusion in screening blood donors of the regional blood bank in Londrina, Paraná State

    OpenAIRE

    Ingridt Hildegard Vogler; Mariza Saito; Adriana Aparecida Spinosa; Marilza Celina da Silva; Egberto Munhoz; Edna Maria Vissoci Reiche

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For transfusion purposes, blood donors must be accepted both in clinical and serological evaluations and must not have excluded their own donation using the confidential unit exclusion. AIMS: The objective of this study was to verify whether blood donors who choose self exclusion are more likely to be positive in serological tests than donors who do not. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis was carried out of 51,861 consecutive whole blood donations from January 2004 to December 20...

  3. 22941 Cases of Blood Donor Screening Model of ALT%献血者22941例 ALT 初筛模式探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺许华

    2013-01-01

    objective (ALT) unqualified and gender, age, occupation, type, body mass index, blood donation (BMI) and the relationship between life style, to explore the causes of elevated alt donors, establishment of donor alt screening model for blood donation, and provide scientific reference for recruitment. Methods td-1401a dry plate rapid detector for alt screening blood donors. Results The results of ALT in blood donors screening unqualified in male than in female P < 0.01 (χ2=110.840);different age donors, with the growth of the age of unqualified rate increased significantly P < 0.01 (χ2=280.110); different occupation, different types of blood donors have significant difference P < 0.01 ( χ2= 651.070, 416.490) blood donors; weight exceed the standard is the primary cause of alt failed P < 0.01 (χ2=764.390); lifestyle has become one of the factors of ALT in blood donors. Conclusion to strengthen the propaganda and education of health knowledge of blood donation, blood donors and different scales for different blood donation activities, the establishment of alt screening model, carry out alt screening, from low risk population were recruited donors, can effectively reduce the alt failure rate, saving precious blood resources.%目的:了解无偿献血者谷丙转氨酶(alt)不合格与性别、年龄、职业、献血类型、体重指数(BMi)及生活方式等的关系,探讨献血者 alt 升高的原因,建立献血者 alt 初筛模式,为无偿献血招募工作提供科学的参考依据。方法应用 td-1401a 干片式快速检测仪对献血者 alt 进行初筛。结果献血者 alt 初筛不合格中,男性显著高于女性P <0.01(χ2=110.840);不同年龄献血者,随年龄的增长不合格率显著上升P <0.01(χ2=280.110);不同职业、不同类型献血者有显著差异P <0.01(χ2=651.070,416.490);体重超标献血者是 alt 不合格的首要原因,P <0.01(χ2=764.390);生

  4. Possibility of using combined treatment of processing and ionizing radiation to eliminate contaminated viruses from non-screened donor of tissue allografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: New emerging and re- emerging infectious diseases caused by viruses are outbreak and re- outbreak around the world. Most of the viruses come from animals ( zoonoses) and jump to human beings ( host jumping ) such as corona virus ( SARS), HIV, bird flu/ Avian flu H5N1, hepatitis viruses, Dengue fever virus, West Nile virus/WNV, Hantavirus, Marburg haemorrhagic fever virus, Hendra virus, Nipah virus etc. Transmission of those diseases through transplantation of contaminated tissue allograft to recipient can happened if the donor could not be screened properly. The donor can be well screened from some of those viruses such as HIV, hepatitis viruses and WNV. Processing of tissue allografts by pasteurization, washing and soaking in H2O2 and soap can eliminate contaminated viruses to a certain amount, have been reported by several authors. Viruses are very small microbes, they have DNA/RNA, resistant to radiation but to a certain degree they can be well eliminated by radiation. Their D10 - values vary from 4 to 13 kGy. This paper discribes briefly the possibility of using combined treatment of processing, lyophilization and sterilisation by radiation to overcome problems of non screened donor from some contaminated viruses. (Author)

  5. Testing for Partial RhD with a D-Screen Diagast Kit in Moroccan Blood Donors with Weak D Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabiri, Z; Benajiba, M; Hajjout, K; Dakka, N; Bellaoui, H

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to search for the partial D phenotype in Moroccan blood donors with weak D expression. The study included 32 samples with weak D phenotype, and partial D category red blood cells were detected with the D-Screen Diagast kit, which consists in 9 monoclonal anti-D antibodies specific for the most common categories of partial D. Among the 32 samples studied, we identified 13 specific reactions to a partial D antigen (3 DVI, 2 DVa, 2 DIII((a,b,c)), and 6 DVII), with 8 reactions suggesting a weak D and 11 reactions providing no formal argument in favor of a partial D antigen. This work can be used to validate the performance of the anti-D reagent and to improve the safety of transfusion of red blood cells from donors expressing the partial D antigen by integrating the finding into the recipient file with a recommendation concerning the appropriate care. PMID:25530908

  6. Comparison of Procleix Ultrio Elite and Procleix Ultrio NAT Assays for Screening of Transfusion Transmitted Infections among Blood Donors in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaurasia, Rahul; Rout, Diptiranjan; Zaman, Shamsuz; Chatterjee, Kabita; Pandey, Hem Chandra; Maurya, Abhishek Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background. Introduction of nucleic acid testing (NAT) has helped in decreasing window period donations, resulting in increased safety of blood supplies. NAT combines the advantages of direct and highly sequence-specific detection of viral genomes. We analysed the performance of newer Procleix Ultrio Elite (PUE) and Procleix Ultrio assay (PUA) for the screening of the viral markers in our donor population. Material and Methods. 10,015 donor samples were screened by routine immunoassays and both versions of NAT. NAT yields detected were subjected to viral load estimation and to other serological markers. Results. A total of 21 NAT yields were detected; three were positive by both NAT systems, whereas 18 samples were reactive by PUE only. NAT yields include 18 HBV and 3 HCV yields, of which 17 HBV yields were occult infections and 1 was window period (WP) infection. All 3 HCV yields were WP infections. No HIV-1/HIV-2 yield was found. Conclusion. Efficient target capture chemistry in the new TMA assay version significantly improved sensitivity. NAT is superior to serological immunoassays for screening of the viral markers; and the efficient target capture system in the newer TMA assay, namely, the PUE system, has significantly improved sensitivity over the earlier versions. PMID:26904124

  7. Testing for Partial RhD with a D-Screen Diagast Kit in Moroccan Blood Donors with Weak D Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Kabiri; Benajiba, M.; Hajjout, K.; N. Dakka; Bellaoui, H.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to search for the partial D phenotype in Moroccan blood donors with weak D expression. The study included 32 samples with weak D phenotype, and partial D category red blood cells were detected with the D-Screen Diagast kit, which consists in 9 monoclonal anti-D antibodies specific for the most common categories of partial D. Among the 32 samples studied, we identified 13 specific reactions to a partial D antigen (3 DVI, 2 DVa, 2 DIII(a,b,c), and 6 DVII), with 8 react...

  8. One window-period donation in two years of individual donor-nucleic acid test screening for hepatitis B, hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Eduardo Levi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe general data on nucleic acid/serology testing and report the first hepatitis B-nucleic acid testing yield case of an immunized donor in Brazil. Methods: A total of 24,441 donations collected in 2010 and 2011 were submitted to individual nucleic acid testing for hepatitis B, hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency virus using the TaqMan® MPX kit (Roche on the Cobas s201 platform, in addition to routine screening for serological markers. Nucleic acid testing-reactive donations were further evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction using Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus tests. Results: Thirty-two donations were reactive by nucleic acid testing, 31 were also serologically reactive and one first-time donor was identified as having hepatitis B in the window period. Follow-up samples showed increasing titers of anti-HBs rising from 19 UI/mL in the index donation to 109 IU/mL seven months later attributable to his vaccination history. Curiously, this donor was never reactive for HbsAg nor for anti-HBc. In the yield donation, he was concomitantly reactive for syphilis (enzyme immunoassay and fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorption; venereal disease research laboratory non-reactive. Overall, six donors (0.02% were characterized as occult hepatitis B. A total of 35% of the confirmed (recombinant immunoblot assay positive hepatitis C donations were nucleic acid testing non-reactive and no human immunodeficiency virus "elite controller" was identified. Conclusion: The yield rate (1:24,441; 95% confidence interval: 1:9,537 - 1:89,717 contrasts to the North American rate (1:410,540 donations and strongly advocates the adoption of nucleic acid testing for hepatitis B in Brazil despite the increasing rate of anti-HBs reactive subjects due to the successful immunization program.

  9. Latex agglutination and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for cytomegalovirus serologic screening of transplant donors and recipients.

    OpenAIRE

    Chou, S W; Scott, K M

    1988-01-01

    The effectiveness of three serologic assays (two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays [ELISAs] and latex agglutination) for cytomegalovirus (CMV) serologic matching of donors and recipients was assessed over a 2-year period in a major organ transplant program. Sera with equivocal test results were investigated by repeat testing of serum samples and additional specimens from the individuals involved and monitoring of CMV infection in recipients. An in-house ELISA identified all CMV-infective don...

  10. Testing for Partial RhD with a D-Screen Diagast Kit in Moroccan Blood Donors with Weak D Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Kabiri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to search for the partial D phenotype in Moroccan blood donors with weak D expression. The study included 32 samples with weak D phenotype, and partial D category red blood cells were detected with the D-Screen Diagast kit, which consists in 9 monoclonal anti-D antibodies specific for the most common categories of partial D. Among the 32 samples studied, we identified 13 specific reactions to a partial D antigen (3 DVI, 2 DVa, 2 DIII(a,b,c, and 6 DVII, with 8 reactions suggesting a weak D and 11 reactions providing no formal argument in favor of a partial D antigen. This work can be used to validate the performance of the anti-D reagent and to improve the safety of transfusion of red blood cells from donors expressing the partial D antigen by integrating the finding into the recipient file with a recommendation concerning the appropriate care.

  11. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with the donor that really was the main source. Otherwise these patients are screened very carefully medically ... here. And there is quite a bit of information now coming out in studies that preemptive living ...

  12. The significance of irregular antibody screening among healthy blood donors for clinical blood transfusion%健康献血者不规则抗体筛查在临床输血中的意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕学琴; 尹向丽

    2013-01-01

      目的探讨健康献血者不规则抗体筛查在临床输血中的意义。方法收集2011年8月至2012年10月3029名健康献血者的血液标本,采用盐水介质法和抗人球蛋白法进行不规则抗体筛查,抗体筛查阳性者做进一步鉴定,分析抗体特异性。结果对新疆维吾尔族自治区农三师图木舒克市中心血站3029例健康献血者进行不规则抗体筛查阳性17例(0.56%),其中抗-D阳性9例,抗-E阳性4例,抗-e阳性1例,抗-M阳性2例,抗A1阳性1例。男性不规则抗体阳性率为0.43%(6/1397),女性不规则抗体阳性率为0.67%(11/1632),差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。有输血史或妊娠史的健康献血者不规则抗体阳性率显著高于无输血史或妊娠史者(1.48% vs 0.10%,P<0.05)。结论常规对健康献血者血液标本进行不规则抗体筛查和鉴定,对保障临床用血安全、预防溶血性输血反应具有极其重要的意义。%Objective To investigate the significance of screening irregular antibodies among healthy blood do-nors for clinical blood transfusion .Methods 3 029 blood samples of healthy donors from Augst 2011 to October 2012 were collected .Saline medium method and Coombs test were used for irregular antibodies screening .The positive samples of the screening tests were further evaluated to analyze their antibody specificity .Results Among the 3 029 healthy donors ,17 cases (0 .56% ) were positive for irregular antibodies screening ,including 9 cases for anti-D anti-body ,4 cases for anti-E antibody ,1 case for anti-e antibody ,2 cases for anti-M antibody and 1 case for anti-A1 anti-body respectively .The positive rates of male and female were 0 .43% (6/1 397) and 0 .67% (11/1 632) .The differ-ence had no statistical significance (P>0 .05) .The positive rate of irregular antibody in healthy donors who had his-tory of blood transfusion or pregnancy was significantly higher

  13. RPR、TP-ELISA和TPPA在无偿献血者梅毒筛查中的应用评价%Application of RPR, TP-ELISA and TPPA in Syphilis Screening in Voluntary Blood Donors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张林伟; 张娜; 高素萍

    2011-01-01

    评价快速血浆反应素环状卡片试验(RPR)、梅毒酶联免疫吸附试验(TP-ELISA)和梅毒螺旋体明胶凝集试验(TPPA)在无偿献血者梅毒筛查中的应用价值,选择适用于血站血液筛查梅毒的检测方法.选择无偿献血者20200份血液,采用RPR和TP-ELISA方法检测梅毒抗体,经初筛、复检阳性标本再以TPPA法确认.结果表明:RPR法阳性率为0.45% (91/20200),TP-ELISA法阳性率为0.767% (155/20200),阳性检出率差异有统计学意义(x2=16.55,P<0.01).经TPPA法复检,阳性标本分别为61例和137例,与RPR符合率为67.0% (61/91,P<0.01);与TP-ELISA符合率为88.4%( 137/155,P>0.05).综合考虑方法学和实际操作的可行性,TP-ELISA阳性者需经TPPA法确认.TP-ELISA法是目前最适合血站无偿献血者梅毒筛查首选方法.%To explore the application values of RPR, TP-ELISA and TPPA in syphilis screening in voluntary blood donors, and to choose a suitable model for screening syphilis in blood center. RPR and TP-ELISA were used to screen samples of 20200 blood donors for treponema pallidum (TP) infection and these positive samples were tested by TPPA. The results showed that the positive rates of RPR and TP-ELJSA were 0. 45% and 0.77% , respectively. There was significant difference between RPR and TP-ELISA(P <0.01). There were 61 and 137 positive samples screened by TPPA, and the coincidences between TPPA with RPR and TP-ELISA were 67.0% and 88.4% , respectively. The study indicates that TP-ELISA is the optimal method in detecting syphilis for massive screening of blood donors.

  14. Viremic blood donor found by a rapid screening method in a season of high human parvovirus B19 activity in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Sérgio Setúbal

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Erythrovirus B19 infection is usually benign but may have serious consequences in patients with hemolytic anemia (transient aplastic crisis, immunodeficiency (in whom persistent infection can lead to chronic bone marrow failure with anemia, or who are in the first or second trimester of gestation (spontaneous abortion, hydrops fetalis, and fetal death. Being non-enveloped, B19 resists most inactivation methods and can be transmitted by transfusion. B19 is difficult to cultivate and native virus is usually obtained from viremic blood. As specific antibodies may be absent, and there is no reliable immunological method for antigen detection, hybridization or polymerase chain reaction are needed for detecting viremia. A rapid method, gel hemagglutination (Diamed ID-Parvovirus B19 Antigen Test, can disclose highly viremic donations, whose elimination lessens the viral burden in pooled blood products and may even render them non-infectious. In order to obtain native antigen and to determine the frequency of viremic donors, we applied this test to blood donors in a period of high viral activity in our community. Positive or indeterminate results were re-tested by dot-blot hybridization. We tested 472 donors in 1998 and 831 ones in 1999. One viremic donor was found in 1999. We suggest that in periods of high community viral activity the gel hemagglutination test may be useful in avoiding highly viremic blood being added to plasma pools or directly transfused to patients under risk.

  15. Epidemiological investigation of syphilis antibody screening results of Bei-jing non-remunerated donors%北京市无偿献血人群梅毒抗体筛查结果调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莉; 袁曜; 孙莉; 葛红卫; 戴云; 修冰水

    2014-01-01

    Objective To provide the basis for recruiting strategy adjustment by analyzing the epidemiological status of syphilis infection of unpaid blood donors in Beijing downtown. Methods Anti-TP test results of unpaid blood donors were analyzed and then hierarchical retrospective investigation were performed according to gender, age, occupation, edu-cational level, blood donation and organization way of blood donation on these results during 1 January 2007 to 31 De-cember 2011 in Beijing Red Cross Blood Center. Results 4923 cases of positive anti-TP were screened that accounted for 0.462% in all the 1 065 177 non-remunerated donors. Positive screening rate of female was more than male (χ2=27.84, P others > workers >staff > students in order; a statistically significant difference also existed in the positive rate of different"cultural levels donors" ,"donation type"and"blood donation organizations form" (P其他>工人>职员>学生;不同文化程度、不同献血形式以及不同献血组织形式献血人群的检测结果差异均有统计学意义(P <0.05),机采项目的抗梅毒螺旋体检测阳性率高于全血,高中以下人群和家庭互助人群的阳性率最高。结论献血者选择过程的质量控制是招募安全血源的重要环节,根据本地献血人群的特点,应选择低危的、具有较高文化程度的年轻人和学生,积极引导他们成为固定献血者。同时,提高检测效能进一步保证血液安全。

  16. Prevalence Of Hepatitis C Antibodies In Healthy Blood Donors

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta Nalini; Kumar Amarjit

    2002-01-01

    Research question : What is the prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in healthy blood donors? Objective: To screen the blood donors for HCV antibodies routinely. Study design: Cross- sectional. Setting: Deptt. of Transfusion Medicine, Dayanand Medical College & Hospital, Ludhiana. Participants: Healthy blood donors. Statistical analysis: Prevalence rate. Results: Prevalence of anti HCV was found to be 1.5%, which is quite high.

  17. Hyperbilirubinemia in normal healthy donors

    OpenAIRE

    Arora Veena; Kulkarni R; Cherian Susan; Pillai Raji; Shivali M

    2009-01-01

    The present study was carried out in B.A.R.C. Hospital Blood Bank over a span of five years, and includes 2734 donors. All the bags were screened for HIV, HBsAg, HCV and VDRL and the plasma in the pilot tubes of the blood bags was observed to detect any abnormality in color. In 27 cases plasma was found to be icteric and liver function tests were carried out on these samples. Two donors showed higher SGPT level, and were excluded. No significant increases in liver enzymes were recorded in the...

  18. Prevalence of seroreactivity among blood donors in rural population.

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    Sonwane B

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The seroreactivity pattern amongst blood donors in rural population was studied at S.R.T. Rural Medical College and Hospital, Ambajogai (M. S.. The study period was from January 1996 to December 2001. A total number of 12,240 blood donors were screened. The voluntary donation was 36.98% and replacement donors were 63.02%. No professional donor is bled in our blood bank. The HIV seroreactivity among voluntary donors was 1.56% and 2.11% in replacement donors. The HBsAg seroreactivity was 2.78% in voluntary donors and 4.84% in replacement donors. VDRL seroreactivity is 1.12% in replacement donors. No malarial parasite and HCV seroreactive donor was found in our study period. We have found the magnitude of hepatitis to be far more than that of HIV. Hence testing for HCV routinely is mandatory, besides HBsAg.

  19. Gamete donation: ethical implications for donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenfield, Francoise

    1999-01-01

    The interests of gamete donors have only recently been recognized in assisted reproduction; traditionally, the interests of the patients (typically a couple) and the prospective child are paramount. However, assisted reproduction would not be possible without donors, and the simple utilitarian view would be to place their interests first to maximize the availability of the practice. There are several ethical issues on both sides of the donor--recipient equation, some of which are mutual and others are in conflict. For example, the word 'donation' implies there is no payment. Informed consent for donation is essential if the autonomy of the donor is to be respected, and includes information about the results of screening. This is a sensitive issue, especially when pathology is found in a donor who is not being screened for his or her own immediate benefit. Counselling may result in donors refusing to take part, but may also lead to selection by the person recruiting the donors, sometimes as a consequence of examining the motivation of the donor. In this case, the main problem is the ethical basis of the selection process. Other aspects of gamete donation may lead to a conflict of interests between the donor, the recipients and even the prospective child, particularly in terms of anonymity and the information that is made available about the specific circumstances of donation. Implications and support counselling are essential tools in achieving an acceptable balance for all parties involved. PMID:11844334

  20. Screening Analysis of Irregular Antibodies of 5014 Blood Donors in Hohhot Area%呼和浩特地区5014例献血人群不规则抗体筛查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 张俊玲; 尚锦清; 白俊凤

    2009-01-01

    [Objective]To analyze the frequency and distribution of irregular antibodies in Hohhot area so as to ensure the safety of blood transfusion. [Methods]Blood donors of Hohhot area were randomly selected in 2008; antibody screening cells, polybrene test and anti-human globulin test were adopted for antibody screening.[Results]The irregular antibodies were found in 9 samples(0.18%). The frequency of irregular antibodies in female was higher than that in male(P<0.01)and Rh antibodies such as anti-D, anti-E, and anti-Ec C (55.6%)were common. One sample of Le antibodies was failed to be found by polybrene test.[Conclusion]Because of irregular antibodies resulting in hemolytic transfusion reaction, the investigation of irregular antibodies is very important for ensuring blood transfusion. Antibody screening must be done for massive plasma transfusion of female donors, severe patients and infants to ensure safety.%目的 分析呼和浩特地区不规则抗体的频率与分布特征,以确保输血安全.方法 于2008年对呼和浩特地区献血者中随机抽取5014例,采用抗体筛选细胞、聚凝胺试验和抗人球蛋白试验作抗体筛查.结果 筛出不规则抗体9例,占0.18%.女性不规则抗体者多于男性(P<0.01),多为Rh抗体(抗D、抗E和抗C占55.6%).聚凝胺法漏检1例Le抗体.结论 由于不规则抗体可以导致溶血性输血反应和新生儿溶血病,因此调查该地区不规则抗体对安全输血十分重要.对女性献血者或给重危病人、小儿大量输注的血浆尤应做抗体筛选以确保安全输血.

  1. Design, synthesis and in vitro bactericidal/fungicidal screening of some vanadyl(IV)complexes with mono- and di-substituted ONS donor triazoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumrra, Sajjad H; Hanif, Muhammad; Chohan, Zahid H

    2015-01-01

    A new series of anti-bacterial and anti-fungal mono- and di-substituted triazoles (L(1))-(L(6)) have been synthesized and characterized on the basis of their physical, spectral and analytical data. The ligands (L(1))-(L(6)) on reaction with vanadyl(IV) sulphate led to the formation of vanadyl(IV) metal complexes (1)-(4). The structure of the complexes has been established on the basis of their physical, spectral and elemental analyses data. The synthesized ligands and their vanadyl(IV) complexes have been screened in vitro for anti-bacterial activity against six bacterial species such as, Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Shigella flexneri (ATCC 12022), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), Salmonella typhi (ATCC 14028), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) and Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6051) and for in vitro anti-fungal activity against six fungal strains, Trichophyton longifusus, Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, Microsporum canis, Fusarium solani and Candida glabrata. The screening results showed the vanadyl complexes to be more bactericidal/fungicidal against one or more bacterial/fungal species. The synthesized compounds were also subjected to brine shrimp bioassay for scrutinizing their cytotoxicity. PMID:25716124

  2. Quality evaluation of four hemoglobin screening methods in a blood donor setting along with their comparative cost analysis in an Indian scenario

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    Tondon Rashmi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the wide range of methods available for measurement of hemoglobin, no single technique has emerged as the most appropriate and ideal for a blood donation setup. Materials and Methods: A prospective study utilizing 1014 blood samples was carried out in a blood donation setting for quality evaluation of four methods of hemoglobin estimation along with cost analysis: Hematology cell analyzer (reference, HCS, CuSO4 method and HemoCue. Results: Mean value of HemoCue (mean ± SD = 14.7 ± 1.49 g/dl was higher by 0.24 compared to reference (mean ± SD = 13.8 ± 1.52 g/dl but not statistically significant ( P > 0.05. HemoCue proved to be the best technique (sensitivity 99.4% and specificity 84.4% whereas HCS was most subjective with 25.2% incorrect estimations. CuSO4 proved to be good with 7.9% false results. Comparative cost analysis of each method was calculated to be 35 INR/test for HemoCue, 0.76 INR /test for HCS and 0.06-0.08 INR /test for CuSO4. Conclusion: CuSO4 method gives accurate results, if strict quality control is applied. HemoCue is too expensive to be used as a primary screening method in an economically restricted country like India.

  3. Hepatitis C virus infection in the asymptomatic British blood donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutimer, D J; Harrison, R F; O'Donnell, K B; Shaw, J; Martin, B A; Atrah, H; Ala, F A; Skidmore, S; Hubscher, S G; Neuberger, J M

    1995-01-01

    Blood donor screening for hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies is now routine. Most blood transfusion services recommend that seropositive donors are referred for further investigation. Southern European studies suggest that many asymptomatic seropositive donors have clinically significant liver disease. Seropositive donors in areas of high prevalence may not, however, be representative of British donors. We have prospectively examined the prevalence and severity of HCV infection in a British volunteer blood donor population. During a 14 month period, only 0.35% (999/287,332) of all donors in the West Midlands were anti-HCV (screening assay) positive. Only 5% (52/999) of these were confirmed true seropositive. Nearly 80% (41/52) of seropositive donors were referred to the Queen Elizabeth Hospital Liver Unit for further investigation. Most underwent complete investigation, including liver biopsy. Forty of forty-one donors had biochemical, histological, or virological evidence of persistent viral infection. Histological changes were generally mild and none was cirrhotic. Covertly infected patients had less severe disease than those with an overt risk factor for HCV exposure. In the British Midlands, the prevalence of blood donor seropositivity is low. In contrast with seropositive Southern European donors, the British donor is more likely to belong to an at-risk group for parenteral exposure and is less likely to have severe histological changes. This study highlights the importance of developing locally relevant guidelines for the counselling and investigation of anti-HCV-positive blood donors. PMID:7493294

  4. Analysis of efforts to maintain safe donor in main donor pool after completion of temporary deferral period

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    Ripal Shah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Voluntary blood donation is not satisfactory all over India. In India, about 55% of donation is through voluntary non-remunerated blood donors (VNRBD. However, about one third already motivated blood donors are deferred due to stringent screening criteria, either temporarily or permanently. The temporarily deferred donors could be a good source of blood donation after deferral period. Aims: The present study is carried out to know retrieval of blood donors those who are deferred temporarily. Design: The present study is carried out in the Regional Blood Transfusion Centre of Western India. All donors screened as per the guideline and deferred donors are categorized as temporary and permanently deferred donors. Materials and Methods: From temporarily deferred donors, reason for deferral is considered. As per reason of deferral, time duration for recalling the donor is defined. Based on this, donor is called back to donate again. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test is applied. Result: A total of 33% donors were deferred either temporarily or permanently. In the repeat donors (5.32% deferral rate was significantly higher than first time (1.32% donors. Significant female preponderance was observed (15.05% vs 2.51%. Majority of temporarily deferred donors were less than 40 years of age (80.80%, graduate (82.90%, from low income group (62.90% and profession was service (48.10%. Conclusion: Low hemoglobin (78.30% was the most common reason of temporary deferral, both in first time and repeat donors (71.00%. Efforts to increase the hemoglobin in the repeat donors will improve the donor retention and overall blood safety can be increased.

  5. Donor transmitted and de novo cancer after liver transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Desai, Rajeev; Neuberger, James

    2014-01-01

    Cancers in solid organ recipients may be classified as donor transmitted, donor derived, de novo or recurrent. The risk of donor-transmitted cancer is very low and can be reduced by careful screening of the donor but cannot be abolished and, in the United Kingdom series is less than 0.03%. For donors with a known history of cancer, the risks will depend on the nature of the cancer, the interventions given and the interval between diagnosis and organ donation. The risks of cancer transmission ...

  6. Selecting suitable solid organ transplant donors: Reducing the risk of donor-transmitted infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jr, Christopher S Kovacs; Koval, Christine E; van Duin, David; de Morais, Amanda Guedes; Gonzalez, Blanca E; Avery, Robin K; Mawhorter, Steven D; Brizendine, Kyle D; Cober, Eric D; Miranda, Cyndee; Shrestha, Rabin K; Teixeira, Lucileia; Mossad, Sherif B

    2014-06-24

    Selection of the appropriate donor is essential to a successful allograft recipient outcome for solid organ transplantation. Multiple infectious diseases have been transmitted from the donor to the recipient via transplantation. Donor-transmitted infections cause increased morbidity and mortality to the recipient. In recent years, a series of high-profile transmissions of infections have occurred in organ recipients prompting increased attention on the process of improving the selection of an appropriate donor that balances the shortage of needed allografts with an approach that mitigates the risk of donor-transmitted infection to the recipient. Important advances focused on improving donor screening diagnostics, using previously excluded high-risk donors, and individualizing the selection of allografts to recipients based on their prior infection history are serving to increase the donor pool and improve outcomes after transplant. This article serves to review the relevant literature surrounding this topic and to provide a suggested approach to the selection of an appropriate solid organ transplant donor. PMID:25032095

  7. Prevalence Of Hepatitis C Antibodies In Healthy Blood Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Nalini

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question : What is the prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in healthy blood donors? Objective: To screen the blood donors for HCV antibodies routinely. Study design: Cross- sectional. Setting: Deptt. of Transfusion Medicine, Dayanand Medical College & Hospital, Ludhiana. Participants: Healthy blood donors. Statistical analysis: Prevalence rate. Results: Prevalence of anti HCV was found to be 1.5%, which is quite high.

  8. Prevalence of malaria parasites among blood donors in Kaduna, Nigeria

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    Douglas D. Garba

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: The prevalence of malaria parasites among blood donors was 7.5% Blood donors should be routinely screened for malaria parasites and the blood marked negative or positive as the case may be. Recipients of malaria parasites positive blood should be given prophylactic treatment to prevent transfusion related malaria (TRM. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(6.000: 2112-2119

  9. Our experience with deceased organ donor maintenance

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    Kumar Meena

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Deceased organ donors in an intensive care unit (ICU are the richest source of organs for transplantation. Careful donor maintenance plays a vital role in the successful functioning of the organ in the recipient. Aims : Early identification of brain stem death (BSD in the ICU, problems and management in donor maintenance till retrieval are the main objectives. Materials and Methods : BSD was identified in a level I trauma center over a period of eight years (1996-2004 using UK code. After screening for fitness, they were maintained to achieve normothermia, systolic BP > 90 mm Hg, CVP 8-10 cm water, urine output > 80 ml/hour and normal acid base balance. Results: 168 cases of BSD were maintained, 30 with identity unknown. Common transient complications noted were hypotension (68%, hypokalemia (62%, hypothermia (12%, diabetes insipidus (70%. Brain stem death was identified early and resuscitated to maintain normal tissue perfusion. 17 (12.3% consent for organ donation was obtained. Organs (24 kidneys and one liver were retrieved from 12 donors. Four donors sustained cardiac arrest before retrieval. Conclusion: Early recognition of brain stem death and prompty correction of hemodyanamic instability is the key to deceased donor maintenance. Optimal care of potential donor translates to care of multiple recipients.

  10. Asymptomatic Malaria among Blood Donors in Benin City Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bankole Henry Oladeinde

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at determining the prevalence and associated risk factors for asymptomatic malaria parasitaemia and anemia among blood donors in a private medical laboratory in Benin City, Nigeria.Venous blood was collected from a total of 247 blood donors. Malaria status, ABO, Rhesus blood groups and hemoglobin concentration of all participants were determined using standard methods.The prevalence of asymptomatic malaria infection was higher among commercial blood donors than volunteer group (commercial vs volunteer donor: 27.5 %vs. 13.8%; OR = 2.373, 95% CI = 0.793, 7.107, P = 0.174. Asymptomatic malaria was not significantly affected by gender (P = 0.733, age (P = 0.581, ABO (P = 0.433 and rhesus blood groups (P = 0.806 of blood donors. Age was observed to significantly (P = 0.015 affect malaria parasite density with donors within the age group of 21-26 years having the highest risk. The prevalence of anemia was significantly higher among commercial donors (commercial vs volunteer donors: 23.4% vs 3.4%: OR = 8.551, 95% CI = 1.135, 64.437, P = 0.013 and donors of blood group O type (P = < 0.0001.Asymptomatic malaria parasitaemia and anemia was higher among commercial donors than voluntary donors. Mandatory screening of blood donors for malaria parasite is advocated to curb transfusion transmitted malaria and associated sequelae.

  11. Laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Waleed A; Al-Akraa, Mahmoud M

    2005-07-01

    With the number of patients presently awaiting renal transplantation exceeding the number of cadaveric organs available, there is an increasing reliance on live renal donation. Of the 11,869 renal transplants performed in 2002 in the US, 52.6% were living donors from the United Network for Organ Sharing Registry. Renal allografts from living donors provide: superior immediate long-term function; require less waiting time and are more cost-effective than those from cadaveric donors. However, anticipation of postoperative pain and temporary occupational disability may dissuade many potential donors. Additionally, some recipients hesitate to accept a living donor kidney due to suffering that would be endured by the donor. It is a unique medical situation when a young, completely healthy donor undergoes a major surgical procedure to provide an organ for transplantation. It is mandatory to offer a surgical technique, which is safe and with minimal complications. It is also obvious for any organ transplantation, that the integrity of the organ remain intact, thus, enabling its successful transplantation into the recipient. An acceptably short ischemia time and adequate lengths of ureter and renal vasculature are favored. Many centers are performing laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy in an effort to ease convalescence of renal donors. This may encourage the consideration of live donation by recipients and potential donors. PMID:16047050

  12. Lung donor selection criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaney, John; Suzuki, Yoshikazu; Cantu, Edward; van Berkel, Victor

    2014-08-01

    The criteria that define acceptable physiologic and social parameters for lung donation have remained constant since their empiric determination in the 1980s. These criteria include a donor age between 25-40, a arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2)/FiO2 ratio greater than 350, no smoking history, a clear chest X-ray, clean bronchoscopy, and a minimal ischemic time. Due to the paucity of organ donors, and the increasing number of patients requiring lung transplant, finding a donor that meets all of these criteria is quite rare. As such, many transplants have been performed where the donor does not meet these stringent criteria. Over the last decade, numerous reports have been published examining the effects of individual acceptance criteria on lung transplant survival and graft function. These studies suggest that there is little impact of the historical criteria on either short or long term outcomes. For age, donors should be within 18 to 64 years old. Gender may relay benefit to all female recipients especially in male to female transplants, although results are mixed in these studies. Race matched donor/recipients have improved outcomes and African American donors convey worse prognosis. Smoking donors may decrease recipient survival post transplant, but provide a life saving opportunity for recipients that may otherwise remain on the transplant waiting list. No specific gram stain or bronchoscopic findings are reflected in recipient outcomes. Chest radiographs are a poor indicator of lung donor function and should not adversely affect organ usage aside for concerns over malignancy. Ischemic time greater than six hours has no documented adverse effects on recipient mortality and should not limit donor retrieval distances. Brain dead donors and deceased donors have equivalent prognosis. Initial PaO2/FiO2 ratios less than 300 should not dissuade donor organ usage, although recruitment techniques should be implemented with intent to transplant. PMID:25132970

  13. Hyperbilirubinemia in normal healthy donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arora Veena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in B.A.R.C. Hospital Blood Bank over a span of five years, and includes 2734 donors. All the bags were screened for HIV, HBsAg, HCV and VDRL and the plasma in the pilot tubes of the blood bags was observed to detect any abnormality in color. In 27 cases plasma was found to be icteric and liver function tests were carried out on these samples. Two donors showed higher SGPT level, and were excluded. No significant increases in liver enzymes were recorded in the others. Causes of icteric plasma in these apparently healthy donors are discussed. Differential diagnosis includes Gilbert′s disease, hemolytic anemia, drug-induced anemia and other hepatic causes of hyperbilirubinemia, of which Gilbert′s disease is most probable cause with a prevalence of 0.91% in our population. As there are no studies to document the safety of the recipients receiving such abnormal colored plasma as well as to document the hazards in its transfusion, the question arises whether to transfuse such units or not. This study highlights this dilemma. A reassessment of existing policies and regulations is merited.

  14. Donor Rejection Before Living Donor Liver Transplantation: Causes and Cost Effective Analysis in an Egyptian Transplant Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Meteini, Mahmoud; Dabbous, Hany; Sakr, Mohammad; Ibrahim, Amany; Fawzy, Iman; Bahaa, Mohamed; Abdelaal, Amr; Fathy, Mohamed; Said, Hany; Rady, Mohamed; El-Dorry, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Background: In the living donor liver transplant setting, the preoperative assessment of potential donors is important to ensure the donor safety. Objectives: The aim of this study was to identify causes and costs of living liver-donors rejection in the donation process. Materials and Methods: From June 2010 to June 2012, all potential living liver donors for 66 liver transplant candidates were screened at the Ain Shams Center for Organ Transplantation. Potential donors were evaluated in 3 phases, and their data were reviewed to determine the causes and at which phase the donors were rejected. Results: One hundred and ninety two potential living liver donors, including 157 (81.7%) males, were screened for 66 potential recipients. Of these, 126 (65.6%) were disqualified for the donation. The causes of rejection were classified as surgical (9.5 %) or medical (90.5 %). Five donors (3.9 %) were rejected due to multiple causes. Factor V Leiden mutation was detected in 29 (23 %) rejected donors (P = 0.001), 25 (19.8 %) donors had positive results for hepatitis serology (P = 0.005), and 16 (12.7 %) tested positive for drug abuse. Portal vein trifurcation (n = 9, 7.1%) and small size liver graft estimated by CT volumetric analysis (n = 6, 4.8 %) were the main surgical causes which precluded the donation. Conclusions: Among potential Egyptian living liver donors, Factor V Leiden mutation was a significant cause for live donor rejection. A stepwise approach to donor assessment was found to be cost-effective. PMID:24497879

  15. Nyretransplantation med levende donor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Løkkegaard, H; Rasmussen, F

    2000-01-01

    In recent years transplantation from living donors has accounted for 25-30% of all kidney transplants in Denmark corresponding to 40-45 per year. Most of these living donors are parents or siblings, although internationally an increasing number are unrelated donors. Donor nephrectomy is associated...... with only few complications. The long-term outcome for kidney donors is good without increase in mortality or risk for development of hypertension and renal failure; proteinuria may be seen. Living kidney transplantation is the optimal treatment of end-stage renal disease with better graft survival...... than in cadaver transplantation. The ethical and psychological aspects related to transplantation from a living donor are complex and need to be carefully evaluated when this treatment is offered to the patients....

  16. Factors influencing donor return.

    OpenAIRE

    Schlumpf, KS; Glynn, SA; Schreiber, GB; Wright, DJ; Randolph Steele, W; Tu, Y.; Hermansen, S; Higgins, MJ; Garratty, G; Murphy, EL

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To predict future blood donation behavior and improve donor retention, it is important to understand the determinants of donor return. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A self-administered questionnaire was completed in 2003 by 7905 current donors. With data mining methods, all factors measured by the survey were ranked as possible predictors of actual return within 12 months. Significant factors were analyzed with logistic regression to determine predictors of intention and of actual ret...

  17. Systems of donor transfer

    OpenAIRE

    de Charro, Frank; Akveld, Hans; Hessing, Ellen

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThe development of medical knowledge has resulted in a demand in society for donor organs, but the recruitment of donor organs for transplantation is difficult. This paper aims to provide some general insights into the complex interaction processes involved. A laissez-faire policy, in which market forces are relied on, is not acceptable from an ethical and legal point of view in most western European countries. Especially at the demand side of the exchange of donor organs, commerc...

  18. Importância dos testes sorológicos de triagem e confirmatórios na detecção de doadores de sangue infectados pelo vírus da hepatite C Importance of screening and confirmatory tests to detect blood donors infected by the hepatitis C virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda B. Garcia

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A triagem sorológica de doadores de sangue com baixos índices de prevalência de infecção, como no caso da hepatite C (HCV, gera um percentual considerável de resultados falso-positivos e descarte de bolsas de hemocomponentes freqüentemente não infectados. O objetivo deste estudo foi pesquisar o perfil sorológico e, com base no teste confirmatório, a ocorrência de hepatite C nos doadores com sorologia positiva ou indeterminada do Hemocentro Regional de Uberaba (HRU. Os testes confirmatórios foram realizados por meio da detecção do RNA do HCV no plasma, utilizando-se o método RT-PCR qualitativa. Foram realizadas, no período de 1992 a 2005, 171.027 doações de sangue no HRU, sendo 24,3% de doadores iniciais e 75,7% de retorno. O índice de inaptidão para HCV foi de 0,3% (561 doações, sendo que 53,0% destas eram de doadores iniciais e 47,0% de retorno, com prevalências de 0,5% e 0,2%, respectivamente (pSerological screening of blood donors with low indexes of infection, including hepatitis C virus (HCV, accounts for a substantial percentage of false-positive results with consequent loss of non-infected blood components. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of hepatitis C using confirmatory tests for blood donors with positive or inconclusive results at Hemocentro Regional de Uberaba (HRU. Confirmatory tests were performed by the detection of HCV RNA in plasma using qualitative RT-PCR. The study was carried out from 1992 to 2005 for 171,027 blood donors, 24.3% first-time and 75.7% repeat donors. The ineligibility rate to HCV was 0.3% (561 donors with 52.9% of them being first-time donors and 47.0% repeat donors with prevalences of 0.5% and 0.2% respectively (p<0.0001. The rate of inconclusive results was significantly higher among repeat donors (p=0.0214. Ninety-eight samples were subjected to qualitative PCR and only 34.7% (34 had positive results, with a significantly lower rate of positiveness for repeat donors

  19. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Nitin

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Of the various options for patients with end stage renal disease, kidney transplantation is the treatment of choice for a suitable patient. The kidney for transplantation is retrieved from either a cadaver or a live donor. Living donor nephrectomy has been developed as a method to address the shortfall in cadaveric kidneys available for transplantation. Laparoscopic living donor nephrectomy (LLDN, by reducing postoperative pain, shortening convalescence, and improving the cosmetic outcome of the donor nephrectomy, has shown the potential to increase the number of living kidney donations further by removing some of the disincentives inherent to donation itself. The technique of LLDN has undergone evolution at different transplant centers and many modifications have been done to improve donor safety and recipient outcome. Virtually all donors eligible for an open surgical procedure may also undergo the laparoscopic operation. Various earlier contraindications to LDN, such as right donor kidney, multiple vessels, anomalous vasculature and obesity have been overcome with increasing experience. Laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy can be done transperitoneally or retroperitoneally on either side. The approach is most commonly transperitoneal, which allows adequate working space and easy dissection. A review of literature and our experience with regards to standard approach and the modifications is presented including a cost saving model for the developing countries. An assessment has been made, of the impact of LDN on the outcome of donor and the recipient.

  20. Sero prevalence of hepatitis -C antibodies in blood donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess the prevalence of anti HCV antibodies in blood donors. Design: The retrospective sero-epidemiological data of the institute of Hematology and Blood Transfusion Service, Punjab over a period of one year after starting HCV screening, was analyzed to estimate the percentage prevalence. Setting; The data was obtained regularly from the blood units established by this institute at the pablic sector hospitals and retesting on initially reactive serum sample by EIA was done at the Institute. Subjects: A total of 166183 directed first time donors or replacement blood donors aged 18-60 years who donated blood at these blood banks or at mobile sessions have been included in the study. All initially reactive donors who tested non-reactive on EIA were excluded from the study. Main outcome Measures: Assessment of prevalence of HCV in blood donors. Results: 4.45% of the total donors intially tested reactive of these 0.36 % were atsety reactive on intial screening. Further testing by EIA, 4.1%. Conclusions: The blood transfusion service started screening for HCV in April 2000 and the prevalence of HCV, amongst the transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs) being screened for in the Punjab, is the highest. It is almost double the prevalence of HBV and several thousand time that of HIV. Meticulous and total screening coverage is needed to curtail impending catastrophe. With experience, the choice of testing methodology might have to be reviewed. (author)

  1. Systems of donor transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.T. de Charro (Frank); J.E.M. Akveld (Hans); E. Hessing (Ellen)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThe development of medical knowledge has resulted in a demand in society for donor organs, but the recruitment of donor organs for transplantation is difficult. This paper aims to provide some general insights into the complex interaction processes involved. A laissez-faire policy, in wh

  2. Electrocardiographic Abnormalities in Trypanosoma cruzi Seropositive and Seronegative Former Blood Donors

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Antonio L.; Sabino, Ester C; Marcolino, Milena S.; Salemi, Vera M. C.; Barbara M. Ianni; Fábio Fernandes; Luciano Nastari; André Antunes; Márcia Menezes; Cláudia Di Lorenzo Oliveira; Vandana Sachdev; Carrick, Danielle M.; Michael P Busch; Murphy, Eduard L.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Blood donor screening leads to large numbers of new diagnoses of Trypanosoma cruzi infection, with most donors in the asymptomatic chronic indeterminate form. Information on electrocardiogram (ECG) findings in infected blood donors is lacking and may help in counseling and recognizing those with more severe disease. OBJECTIVES: To assess the frequency of ECG abnormalities in T.cruzi seropositive relative to seronegative blood donors, and to recognize ECG abnormalities associated w...

  3. Lung donor selection criteria

    OpenAIRE

    Chaney, John; Suzuki, Yoshikazu; Cantu, Edward; van Berkel, Victor

    2014-01-01

    The criteria that define acceptable physiologic and social parameters for lung donation have remained constant since their empiric determination in the 1980s. These criteria include a donor age between 25-40, a arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2)/FiO2 ratio greater than 350, no smoking history, a clear chest X-ray, clean bronchoscopy, and a minimal ischemic time. Due to the paucity of organ donors, and the increasing number of patients requiring lung transplant, finding a donor that me...

  4. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deger, S; Giessing, M; Roigas, J; Wille, A H; Lein, M; Schönberger, B; Loening, S A

    2005-01-01

    Laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy (LDN) has removed disincentives of potential donors and may bear the potential to increase kidney donation. Multiple modifications have been made to abbreviate the learning curve while at the same time guarantee the highest possible level of medical quality for donor and recipient. We reviewed the literature for the evolution of the different LDN techniques and their impact on donor, graft and operating surgeon, including the subtleties of different surgical accesses, vessel handling and organ extraction. We performed a literature search (PubMed, DIMDI, medline) to evaluate the development of the LDN techniques from 1995 to 2003. Today more than 200 centres worldwide perform LDN. Hand-assistance has led to a spread of LDN. Studies comparing open and hand-assisted LDN show a reduction of operating and warm ischaemia times for the hand-assisted LDN. Different surgical access sites (trans- or retroperitoneal), different vessel dissection approaches, donor organ delivery techniques, delivery sites and variations of hand-assistance techniques reflect the evolution of LDN. Proper techniques and their combination for the consecutive surgical steps minimize both warm ischaemia time and operating time while offering the donor a safe minimally invasive laparoscopic procedure. LDN has breathed new life into the moribund field of living kidney donation. Within a few years LDN could become the standard approach in living kidney donation. Surgeons working in this field must be trained thoroughly and well acquainted with the subtleties of the different LDN techniques and their respective advantages and disadvantages. PMID:16754618

  5. Live-donor nephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Juan P; Davis, Eric; Edye, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Six decades after its first implementation, kidney transplantation remains the optimal therapy for end-stage renal disease requiring dialysis. Despite the incontrovertible mortality reduction and cost-effectiveness of kidney transplantation, the greatest remaining barrier to treatment of end-stage renal disease is organ availability. Although the waiting list of patients who stand to benefit from kidney transplantation grows at a rate proportional to the overall population and proliferation of diabetes and hypertension, the pool of deceased-donor organs available for transplantation experiences minimal to no growth. Because the kidney is uniquely suited as a paired organ, the transplant community's answer to this shortage is living donation of a healthy volunteer's kidney to a recipient with end-stage renal disease. This review details the history and evolution of living-donor kidney transplantation in the United States as well as advances the next decade promises. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy has overcome many of the obstacles to living donation in terms of donor morbidity and volunteerism. Known donor risks in terms of surgical and medical morbidity are reviewed, as well as the ongoing efforts to delineate and mitigate donor risk in the context of accumulating recipient morbidity while on the waiting list. PMID:22678857

  6. The Serologic Screening for Celiac Disease in the General Population (Blood Donors) and in Some High-Risk Groups of Adults (Patients with AutoimmuneDiseases, Osteoporosis and Infertility) in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vančíková, Z.; Chlumecký, Vít; Sokol, Dan; Horáková, Dana; Hamšíková, E.; Fučíková, T.; Janatková, T.; Ulčová-Gallová, Z.; Štěpán, J.; Límanová, Z.; Dvořák, M.; Kocna, P.; Sánchez, Daniel; Tučková, Ludmila; Tlaskalová, Helena

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 6 (2002), s. 753-758. ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/01/0933; GA ČR GA303/01/1380; GA AV ČR IBS5020203; GA MZe QD1023 Keywords : blood donors * osteoporosis * infertility Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.979, year: 2002

  7. 南阳市无偿献血者血型初筛错误原因分析与对策%Analysis and strategies of causes of error of blood type preliminary screening for voluntary blood donors in Nanyang city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张峰; 王帅

    2015-01-01

    目的:通过对献血者初筛血型错误原因分析,进而提高初筛血型的准确率,确保安全输血。方法对170例初筛检验血型错误结果进行分析。结果初筛血型错误总人数170例。血型错误率为0.053%(排除弱凝集和亚型),各型错误构成比例中,A型误定为AB型的比例最高,占25.3%,其次为AB型误定为A型和AB型误定为B型,各占10.0%,错误率最低为O型误定为AB型,占1.8%。结论造成血型初筛错误的原因是多方面的,主要为人为和环境因素。%Objective To analyze the causes of error of blood type preliminary screening for blood donors, and to fur-ther improve the accuracy of preliminarily screened blood type, so as to ensure the safe blood transfusion. Methods A total of 170 cases with false results of preliminarily screened blood type were analyzed. Results Total number of people with false preliminarily screened blood type was 170. The false rate of blood type was 0.053% (excluding weak aggluti-nation and sub-type). Among the proportion of composition of each false type, the proportion of type A wrongly screened as type AB was the highest, accounting for 25.3%, followed by the proportion of type AB wrongly screened as type A and the proportion of type AB wrongly screened as type B, accounted for 10.0% for each. The lowest proportion was type O wrongly screened as type AB, accounted for 1.8%. Conclusion Causes of false preliminary screening of blood type are multifaceted, and the main causes are human factors and environmental factors.

  8. Prevalence of peptic ulcer in Helicobacter pylori positive blood donors.

    OpenAIRE

    Vaira, D; Miglioli, M; Mulè, P; Holton, J; M. Menegatti; Vergura, M; Biasco, G.; Conte, R.; Logan, R P; Barbara, L

    1994-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the importance of raised antibodies to Helicobacter pylori in an asymptomatic population. A total of 128 asymptomatic blood donors who were seropositive for H pylori and consented to endoscopy were investigated. These subjects were from a population of 1010 blood donors screened for antibodies to H pylori. A questionnaire was completed to determine if any subjects had complained of symptoms, and they subsequently had endoscopy. Altogether 121 of 128 were positive...

  9. Independent donor ethical assessment: aiming to standardize donor advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Devasmita; Jotterand, Fabrice; Casenave, Gerald; Smith-Morris, Carolyn

    2014-06-01

    Living organ donation has become more common across the world. To ensure an informed consent process, given the complex issues involved with organ donation, independent donor advocacy is required. The choice of how donor advocacy is administered is left up to each transplant center. This article presents the experience and process of donor advocacy at University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center administered by a multidisciplinary team consisting of physicians, surgeons, psychologists, medical ethicists and anthropologists, lawyers, a chaplain, a living kidney donor, and a kidney transplant recipient. To ensure that advocacy remains fair and consistent for all donors being considered, the donor advocacy team at University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center developed the Independent Donor Ethical Assessment, a tool that may be useful to others in rendering donor advocacy. In addition, the tool may be modified as circumstances arise to improve donor advocacy and maintain uniformity in decision making. PMID:24919733

  10. ِAnalysis of donor motivations in living donor liver transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham eAbdeldayem

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The introduction of the living donor liver transplantation (LDLT in Egypt as in elsewhere, has raised important psychological conflicts and ethical questions. The objective of this study was to get better understanding of the potential donors’ motives towards LDLT.Methods:This study was conducted on consecutive 193 living –liver donors who underwent partial hepatectomy as donors for LDLT during the period between April 2003 and January 2013, at the National Liver Institute Menoufeyia University, Egypt. Potential donors were thoroughly evaluated preoperatively through a screening questionnaire and interviews as regard their demographic data, relationship to the potential recipient and motives towards proceeding to surgery. They were assured that the information shared between them and the transplant centre is confidential. Results.The donors’ mean age was 25.53± 6.39 years with a range of 18-45 years. Males represented 64.7 % and females were 35.3%. The most common donors (32.1%, n_62, were sons and daughters to their parents (sons: n_43, daughters: n_19 while parents to their offsprings represent 15% (mothers: n_21, fathers: n_8. Brothers and sisters represent 16.5 % (brothers: n_22, sisters: n_10. Nephews & nieces giving their uncles or aunts were 14%. The number of wives donating to their husbands was 11 (5.7%. Interestingly, there was no single husband who donated his wife. Among the remaining donors, there were 11 cousins & one uncle. Unrelated donors were 20 (10.4%. Several factors seemed to contribute to motivation for donation: the seriousness of the potential recipient condition, the relationship and personal history of the donor to the potential recipient, the religious beliefs, the trust in the health care system, and family dynamics and obligations.Conclusions. Absolute absence of coercion on the living-liver donor’s motives may not be realistic because of the serious condition of the potential recipient. It is

  11. 深圳地区无偿献血者不规则抗体筛查结果分析%Analysis of irregular antibody screening results of voluntary blood donors in Shenzhen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑楚忠; 唐万兵; 郑望春; 方瑛

    2015-01-01

    目的:对该地区无偿献血者的不规则抗体进行回顾性分析,以期发现其中的规律,确保临床输血安全和有效。方法收集2011年2月至2012年12月深圳地区169860例无偿献血者的标本,用特定抗原的红细胞,通过盐水法检测不规则抗体,阳性标本由血型室鉴定抗体特异性。结果169860份无偿献血者不规则抗体阳性36例(0.021%),其中抗‐M 阳性12例,抗‐D阳性4例,抗‐P1阳性1例,抗‐A1阳性2例,冷抗体1例,抗‐M合并其他不规则抗体1例,未知其特异性抗体15例;男性不规则抗体阳性率0.013%(15/118723),女性不规则抗体阳性率0.041%(21/51137)。结论女性的献血者不规则抗体的阳性率高于男性献血者,且该地区的献血者不规则抗体阳性检出率偏低,需要结合其他不规则抗体的检出方法,提高其检出率,确保输血的安全有效。%Objective To retrospectively analyse the irregular antibodies of the local blood donors ,in order to find the rules ,To ensure the safety and effectiveness of clinical blood transfusion .Methods Collected 169 860 blood donors specimens with the spe‐cific antigen of red blood cells in Shenzhen area from February 2011 to December 2012 ,through Brine method for detection of irreg‐ular antibodies ,positive samples would be identified the specificity of antibodies in blood typing department .Results 169 860 healthy blood donors of irregular antibodies were positive in 36 cases(0 .021% ) ,with 12 cases anti‐M ,4 cases anti‐D ,1 case anti‐P1 ,2 cases anti‐A1 ,1 case of cold antibody ,anti‐M with other irregular antibody in 1 cases ;Male irregular antibody positive rate was 0 .013% (15/118 723) ,female irregular antibody positive rate was 0 .041% (21/51 137) .Conclusion The positive rate of irregular antibody in female blood donors is higher than male blood donors ,and the positive rate of irregular antibody of blood

  12. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus in volunteer blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, P E; Stevens, C E; Pindyck, J; Schrode, J; Steaffens, J W; Lee, H

    1990-01-01

    Serum samples collected in 1985 and 1986 from 18,257 donors to the Greater New York Blood Program were screened by enzyme-linked immunoassay for antibody to human T-cell lymphotropic virus (anti-HTLV). Fifteen samples (0.08%) were confirmed positive: 7 by radioimmunoprecipitation assay (RIPA) alone, 6 by Western blot alone, and 2 by combined results from both tests. One donor, whose original test result was uninterpretable because multiple nonspecific bands were present on RIPA, clearly tested positive on subsequent specimens. Follow-up testing of individuals with this type of result may be needed to resolve their HTLV status. Anti-HTLV prevalence increased with age and was significantly more common in black or Hispanic donors and in those born in the Caribbean than in other donors. All anti-HTLV-positive donors were negative for antibody to HIV-1, and only one donor (7% of those positive) would have been excluded by any of the routine donor screening tests used at that time. PMID:2173176

  13. ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Blood Donor’s Status of HIV, HBV, HCV and Syphilis in this Region of Marathwada, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangrao H. Deshpande

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Aims & Objectives: Blood transfusion can cause the transmission of infections to recipients. This is an important mode of infection. The aim of study was to assess the prevalence of such type of infections among blood donors and to compare the seroprevalence of transfusion transmitted diseases in voluntary donors and replacement donors. Retrospective study of five years from Jan. 2007 to Dec. 2011 was done. This study was conducted at Blood bank, MIMSR Medical College Latur, Govt. Medical College, Latur and Bhalchandra Blood bank, Latur. Material & Methods: Total 10, 4925 donors were tested. Donors were screened for seroprevalence of HIV, HBC, HCV and Syphilis. Screening of HIV, HBV & HCV was done by ELISA method & Syphilis was screened by RPR type. Results: The comparison of seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV & Syphilis in voluntary donors and replacement donors showed significant difference only for HIV in the years 2007, 2010, and 2011. Conclusion: The seroprevalence of transfusion transmitted diseases in the study is very low or negligible in voluntary donors as compared to replacement donors. There was a declining trend of seroprevalence for all the disease screened. But in our study the difference is not significant, which indicates that the selection of donors is of low quality. The selection of high quality voluntary donors should be achieved by creation of awareness by education of the prospective donor populations.

  14. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Wednesday 13 November 2002 in restaurant nr 2, from 8.30 to 16.30 hrs will be held a blood donors campaign, organized by the Etablissement de Transfusion de Haute-Savoie If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  15. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion d'Annemasse will be held at CERN on Tuesday 14 November 2001 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  16. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Tuesday 19 March 2002 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion sanguine of Geneva If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  17. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    A blood donors campaign, organized by the Établissement de Transfusion de Rhône-Alpes will be held at CERN on Tuesday 14 November 2000 in restaurant nr 2, from 8.30 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  18. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion Sanguine of Geneva will be held at CERN on Tuesday 13 March 2001 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  19. Living Donor Liver Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What are Some Benefits of a Living-donor Liver Transplant? In the U.S., more than 17,500 patients ... 1,700 patients die each year while waiting. Liver transplants are given to patients on the basis of ...

  20. Becoming a Donor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about donation.” > Read more about my story Organ, eye, and tissue donation and transplantation provide a second chance at life for thousands ... individuals whose lives could be enhanced through tissue transplants. Use the link ... as an organ, eye, and tissue donor. > Register in your state to ...

  1. DONOR DEFERRAL PATTERN AMONG BLOOD DONORS IN BLOOD BANK OF A MEDICAL COLLEGE HOSPITAL OF CHHATTISGARH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhanu P .

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A 3 Years retrospective study conducted on “Donor Deferral Pattern among Blood Donors in Blood Bank’’ of a Medical College Hospital of Chhattisgarh. This study shows the major possible causes of deferrals for donation of blood in northern Chhattisgarh. Donor’s detail information on the donor deferral including the cause of deferral was recorded in deferral register. Donors deferred were analyzed and computed for study on the bas ic of medical examination. In the study done f ro m A ugust 2012 to July 2015 a total of 18773 donors were registered and the screened. Out of these 18153 were male and 620 were female. Among the male, 1486 were deferred which makes 8.18% of the total registe red. Among female, 339 were deferred which makes 54.67% of the total registered. The maximum numbers of deferrals were due to low Hb (17.97% the second most important cause for deferral in this region happens to be alcohol/ganja intake (11.61%. The third leading cause is skin puncture or ear piercing (10.57%. This figure is mainly due to professional donors who frequent around the hospital very often. Interestingly forth cause is deferral is medication (7.39% mostly over the counter drugs. Other major c ause for deferrals in descending order are low BP (6.68%, fever and cold (6.30%, hypertension (5.64%, underweight (4.54%, Typhoid (4.05%, menstrual cycle (3.39% and donated <3 month (2.41%. The least percentage of cause of deferral was due to breast feeding (0.10%. It is because of very low percentage of female donation. Strict screening of donor is compulsory to achieve safe blood equally important is to increase the number of voluntary donations with minimum deferral. To achieve this it is necessa ry to study and analyze various causes for donor deferral & categorize them under temporary & Permanent, so that temporary deferral can be converted to donations. Proper medical examination and Strict deferral system of the blood donors in blood banks redu ces the

  2. Donor transplant programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transplantation of organs and tissues from one human to another human has become an essential and well established form of therapy for many types of organ and tissue failure. In Malaysia, kidney, cornea and bone marrow transplantation are well established. Recently, liver, bone and heart transplanation have been performed. Unfortunately, because of the lack of cadaveric organ donation, only a limited number of solid organ transplantation have been performed. The cadaveric organ donor rate in Malaysia is low at less than one per million population. The first tissue transplanted in Malaysia was the cornea which was performed in the early 1970s. At that time and even now the majority of corneas came from Sri Lanka. The first kidney transplant was performed in 1975 from a live related donor. The majority of the 629 kidney transplants done at Hospital Kuala Lumpur to date have been from live related donors. Only 35 were from cadaver donors. Similarly, the liver transplantation programme which started in 1995 are from live related donors. A more concerted effort has been made recently to increase the awareness of the public and the health professionals on organ and tissue donation. This national effort to promote organ and tissue donation seems to have gathered momentum in 1997 with the first heart transplant successfully performed at the National Heart Institute. The rate of cadaveric donors has also increased from a previous average of I to 2 per year to 6 per year in the last one year. These developments are most encouraging and may signal the coming of age of our transplantati on programme. The Ministry of Health in conjunction with various institutions, organizations and professional groups, have taken a number of proactive measures to facilitate the development of the cadaveric organ donation programme. Efforts to increase public awareness and to overcome the negative cultural attitude towards organ donation have been intensified. Equally important are efforts

  3. THE STUDY OF DEFERRED BLOOD DONORS AT TERTIARY LEVEL HOSPITAL BASED BLOOD BANK OF SOUTH GUJARAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snehal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pre - donation donor screening is must for the safety of the blood donor and recipient. Deferrals lead to loss of precious whole blood donors and blood units available for transfusion purposes. AIM: T o record and document the current rate and reasons for donor deferral in our tertiary care hospital based blood bank to modify recruitment strategy for blood donors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Study was conducted by retrospective data analysis of whole blood donors ( V oluntary/ R eplacement , arrived for donating bloo d at blood bank and in outdoor camps , during the period 1 st July 2010 to 30 th June 2014. The donor selection was done by pre - donation screening tests like questionnaire followed by physical examination and haemoglobin estimation. National guidelines were used for selection and deferral of donors. The deferred donor’s data was analyzed statistically. RESULT: Out of 34380 blood donors who came to donate blood, 31049 (89 . 63 %, out of which 97 . 51 % voluntary donors were eligible for d onation and 3331 (10 . 37% blood donors were deferred. The deferral rate among male population 7 . 47% and female population 42 . 09% were observed. Odds ratio for deferral in female donors was 8 . 99, implying thereby that chance of deferral in females is nearly 9 times higher as compared to males. The five leading causes for male donor deferral were low haemoglobin, hypertension, medication, and malaria & alcohol intake in last 48 hours & for the female donor deferral were low haemoglobin, menstruation, medication, low weight & hypotension. CONCLUSIONS: Studying the frequency and the different causes of donor deferral will help to identify sections of the population which could be targeted for increasing and retaining of the existing pool of voluntary blood donors and also to guide and provide the necessary essential database for the policy design and programme implementation at local, regional, and national level.

  4. Neuroblastoma Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Professional Neuroblastoma Treatment Neuroblastoma Screening Research Neuroblastoma Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go to Health Professional Version Screening is looking ...

  5. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... need dialysis after the operation?” One of the advantages of living donation is that these kidneys essentially ... were removed from the donor. One of the advantages of living donor is that time is from ...

  6. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a kidney is safe. It has an excellent safety record both here and nationwide. To ensure that, ... ve had a lot of talk about the safety for the living donors. The donor for that ...

  7. Being a Living Donor: Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... surgical risks and long term complications: Long-Term Organ Specific Donor Complications Kidney Hypertension Kidney failure Proteinuria Lung Intra- ... Vancouver Forum on the care of the live organ donor: lung, liver, pancreas, and intestine data and medical ...

  8. Donor commitment and patient needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakken, R; van Walraven, A-M; Egeland, T

    2004-01-01

    The article discusses views and recommendations of the World Marrow Donor Association concerning ethical issues related to the donation of hematopoietic stem cell products with respect to recruitment, evaluation, workup, and follow-up of unrelated donors. Particular emphasis is placed upon commitment of individual donors, in particular, with respect to the needs of patients to find HLA-matched donors, who may be asked to donate stem cell and other cell products more than once for given patients. PMID:14628078

  9. Management of Young Blood Donors

    OpenAIRE

    Newman, Bruce H.

    2014-01-01

    The emphasis on high-school blood drives and acceptance of 16-year-old blood donors led to more research on physiologic and psychological ways to decrease vasovagal reaction rates in young blood donors and to increase donor retention. Research on how to accomplish this has been advantageous for the blood collection industry and blood donors. This review discussed the current situation and what can be done psychologically, physiologically, and via process improvements to decrease vasovagal rea...

  10. Comparison of deferral rates using a computerized versus written blood donor questionnaire: a randomized, cross-over study [ISRCTN84429599

    OpenAIRE

    Bourque Ronald; Haynes R Brian; Ali Anita; Swanson Graham; Hayward Robert; Sellors John W; Moore Karen-Ann; Lohfeld Lynne; Dalby Dawn; Howard Michelle

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Background Self-administered computer-assisted blood donor screening strategies may elicit more accurate responses and improve the screening process. Methods Randomized crossover trial comparing responses to questions on a computerized hand-held tool (HealthQuiz, or HQ), to responses on the standard written instrument (Donor Health Assessment Questionnaire, or DHAQ). Randomly selected donors at 133 blood donation clinics in the area of Hamilton, Canada participated from 1995 to 1996....

  11. Profile of blood donors with serologic tests reactive for the presence of syphilis in São Paulo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    de Almeida Neto, C; Murphy, EL; McFarland, W.; Junior, AM; Chen, S.; Chamone, DA; Sabino, EC

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Syphilis screening of blood donors is a common practice worldwide, but very little is known about the meaning of a positive serologic test for syphilis in blood donors and the risk profile of these donors. The aim of this study was to determine the demographic characteristics and risk behaviors of blood donors with recent and past syphilis and their implications for blood bank testing and deferral strategies. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Demographic characteristics, category of donat...

  12. Why Minority Donors Are Needed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Search Register with your state as an Organ Donor Home Why Donate Becoming a Donor About Donation & ... Why Donate RELATED INFORMATION Minority Focused Grantee Publications Organ Donation Process Enrolling as a Donor Trying to Save a Life Testing for Brain ...

  13. Recruitment of aged donor heart with pharmacological stress echo. A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Bombardini Tonino; Gherardi Sonia; Arpesella Giorgio; Picano Eugenio

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background The heart transplant is a treatment of the heart failure, which is not responding to medications, and its efficiency is already proved: unfortunately, organ donation is a limiting step of this life-saving procedure. To counteract heart donor shortage, we should screen aged potential donor hearts for initial cardiomyopathy and functionally significant coronary artery disease. Donors with a history of cardiac disease are generally excluded. Coronary angiography is recommende...

  14. Confidentiality and American semen donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karow, A M

    1993-01-01

    Most American donor insemination programs include a policy of complete confidentiality concerning the donor of the semen. This is the result of a long legal tradition of American constitutional law. However, some slight abridgement of this body of legal decisions might be very much in the best interests of children arising from donor insemination, and even--in most cases, in fact--the donors themselves. With regard to the children, the factors involved are both those of genetic counseling, should the need arise, and psychological development. Of course, as at present, the donor must be relieved of all responsibility, both legal and financial. PMID:8348162

  15. Benchmarking DFT and semi-empirical methods for a reliable and cost-efficient computational screening of benzofulvene derivatives as donor materials for small-molecule organic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A systematic computational investigation on the optical properties of a group of novel benzofulvene derivatives (Martinelli 2014 Org. Lett. 16 3424–7), proposed as possible donor materials in small molecule organic photovoltaic (smOPV) devices, is presented. A benchmark evaluation against experimental results on the accuracy of different exchange and correlation functionals and semi-empirical methods in predicting both reliable ground state equilibrium geometries and electronic absorption spectra is carried out. The benchmark of the geometry optimization level indicated that the best agreement with x-ray data is achieved by using the B3LYP functional. Concerning the optical gap prediction, we found that, among the employed functionals, MPW1K provides the most accurate excitation energies over the entire set of benzofulvenes. Similarly reliable results were also obtained for range-separated hybrid functionals (CAM-B3LYP and wB97XD) and for global hybrid methods incorporating a large amount of non-local exchange (M06-2X and M06-HF). Density functional theory (DFT) hybrids with a moderate (about 20–30%) extent of Hartree–Fock exchange (HFexc) (PBE0, B3LYP and M06) were also found to deliver HOMO–LUMO energy gaps which compare well with the experimental absorption maxima, thus representing a valuable alternative for a prompt and predictive estimation of the optical gap. The possibility of using completely semi-empirical approaches (AM1/ZINDO) is also discussed. (paper)

  16. Benchmarking DFT and semi-empirical methods for a reliable and cost-efficient computational screening of benzofulvene derivatives as donor materials for small-molecule organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortorella, Sara; Mastropasqua Talamo, Maurizio; Cardone, Antonio; Pastore, Mariachiara; De Angelis, Filippo

    2016-02-01

    A systematic computational investigation on the optical properties of a group of novel benzofulvene derivatives (Martinelli 2014 Org. Lett. 16 3424-7), proposed as possible donor materials in small molecule organic photovoltaic (smOPV) devices, is presented. A benchmark evaluation against experimental results on the accuracy of different exchange and correlation functionals and semi-empirical methods in predicting both reliable ground state equilibrium geometries and electronic absorption spectra is carried out. The benchmark of the geometry optimization level indicated that the best agreement with x-ray data is achieved by using the B3LYP functional. Concerning the optical gap prediction, we found that, among the employed functionals, MPW1K provides the most accurate excitation energies over the entire set of benzofulvenes. Similarly reliable results were also obtained for range-separated hybrid functionals (CAM-B3LYP and wB97XD) and for global hybrid methods incorporating a large amount of non-local exchange (M06-2X and M06-HF). Density functional theory (DFT) hybrids with a moderate (about 20-30%) extent of Hartree-Fock exchange (HFexc) (PBE0, B3LYP and M06) were also found to deliver HOMO-LUMO energy gaps which compare well with the experimental absorption maxima, thus representing a valuable alternative for a prompt and predictive estimation of the optical gap. The possibility of using completely semi-empirical approaches (AM1/ZINDO) is also discussed.

  17. Benchmarking DFT and semi-empirical methods for a reliable and cost-efficient computational screening of benzofulvene derivatives as donor materials for small-molecule organic solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortorella, Sara; Talamo, Maurizio Mastropasqua; Cardone, Antonio; Pastore, Mariachiara; De Angelis, Filippo

    2016-02-24

    A systematic computational investigation on the optical properties of a group of novel benzofulvene derivatives (Martinelli 2014 Org. Lett. 16 3424-7), proposed as possible donor materials in small molecule organic photovoltaic (smOPV) devices, is presented. A benchmark evaluation against experimental results on the accuracy of different exchange and correlation functionals and semi-empirical methods in predicting both reliable ground state equilibrium geometries and electronic absorption spectra is carried out. The benchmark of the geometry optimization level indicated that the best agreement with x-ray data is achieved by using the B3LYP functional. Concerning the optical gap prediction, we found that, among the employed functionals, MPW1K provides the most accurate excitation energies over the entire set of benzofulvenes. Similarly reliable results were also obtained for range-separated hybrid functionals (CAM-B3LYP and wB97XD) and for global hybrid methods incorporating a large amount of non-local exchange (M06-2X and M06-HF). Density functional theory (DFT) hybrids with a moderate (about 20-30%) extent of Hartree-Fock exchange (HFexc) (PBE0, B3LYP and M06) were also found to deliver HOMO-LUMO energy gaps which compare well with the experimental absorption maxima, thus representing a valuable alternative for a prompt and predictive estimation of the optical gap. The possibility of using completely semi-empirical approaches (AM1/ZINDO) is also discussed. PMID:26808717

  18. Blood donor management in china.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ling; Wang, Jingxing; Liu, Zhong; Stevens, Lori; Sadler, Andrew; Ness, Paul; Shan, Hua

    2014-07-01

    Despite a steady increase in total blood collections and voluntary non-remunerated blood donors, China continues to have many challenges with its blood donation system. The country's donation rate remains low at 9%o, with over 60% of donors being first-time donors. Generally there is a lack of adequate public awareness about blood donation. The conservative donor selection criteria, the relatively long donation interval, and the small donation volume have further limited blood supply. To ensure a sufficient and safe blood supply that meets the increasing clinical need for blood products, there is an urgent need to strengthen the country's blood donor management. This comprehensive effort should include educating and motivating more individuals especially from the rural areas to be involved in blood donation, developing rational and evidence-based selection criteria for donor eligibility, designing a donor follow-up mechanism to encourage more future donations, assessing the current donor testing strategy, improving donor service and care, building regional and national shared donor deferral database, and enhancing the transparency of the blood donation system to gain more trust from the general public. The purpose of the review is to provide an overview of the key process of and challenges with the blood donor management system in China. PMID:25254023

  19. Post-transplantation HTLV-1 myelopathy in three recipients from a single donor

    OpenAIRE

    Imirizaldu, J; Esteban, J.; Axpe, I; Concha, T; Juanes, F.; Susaeta, I; Carranceja, J

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: This paper reports for the first time three cases of infection by HTLV-I via organ transplantation; all the organs coming from the same asymptomatic infected donor. The need is considered for the implementation of compulsory screenings for HTLV antibodies on organ donors and on blood banks.

  20. Syphilis seroprevalence estimates of Santa Catarina blood donors in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysla Marcelino Baião

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Knowledge of blood donor characteristics is essential to better guide clinical and serological screening for hemotherapy. The objective of this study was to determine the syphilis seroprevalence and the associated factors of blood donors in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Methods This population-based study from the State of Santa Catarina used information obtained from blood donation records. We analyzed 83,396 blood donor records generated from donors who were considered eligible to donate between January and August 2010. The aim of the study was to estimate the syphilis seroprevalence and its relationship with educational level, age, gender, geographical region and having donated blood in the past 12 months. We used descriptive analyses and a Poisson regression to calculate the prevalence ratios for the variables of interest. Results We found a 0.14% overall seroprevalence and significant differences among the following: first-time blood donors (0.19% versus repeat donors (0.03% to 0.08%; low educational levels (0.30% versus medium and high educational levels (0.08% to 0.19%; and donors who did not report their residence (0.88% or age (6.94% versus those who did. Increased syphilis seroprevalence was also significantly associated with increased age. Conclusion High syphilis seroprevalence was associated with lower educational level, age, first-time donation and the failure to provide age or residence information.

  1. Seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis in blood donors in Southern Haryana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Dimple; Arora, Bharti; Khetarpal, Anshul

    2010-01-01

    Blood transfusion is an important mode of transmission of infections to recipients. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of transfusion-transmissible infections among blood donors. For this, a 3.5-year retrospective study, from October 2002 to April 2006 was conducted at the blood transfusion centre of Maharaja Agrasen Medical College, Agroha (Hisar) Haryana. Donors were screened for seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis. A total of 5849 donors were tested, out of which 4010 (68.6%) were replacement donors and 1839 (31.4%) were voluntary donors. The seroprevalence of HIV was 0.3% in the donors. No voluntary donor was found to be positive for HIV. The low sero-positivity among donors is attributed to pre-donation counseling in donor selection. The seroprevalence of HBV, HCV and syphilis was 1.7%, 1.0% and 0.9% respectively in total donors. The seroprevalence of hepatitis and syphilis was more in replacement donors as compared to voluntary donors. PMID:20551540

  2. Donor deferral due to anemia: A tertiary care center-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahadur Shalini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The minimum hemoglobin cutoff for blood donation in India is 12.5 gm% for both male and female donors and the minimum donation interval is 3 months. Donation of one unit of blood results in decrease in hemoglobin by 1 gm% and loss of 200-250 mg of iron. Donor deferral due to anemia is one of the major reasons of temporary rejection of blood donors. In the absence of further workup or advise, it results in loss of valuable donor base. Aim and Objective: To provide baseline information regarding the prevalence and spectrum of anemia in prospective blood donors to help plan a future strategy for donor management. Materials and Methods: Hemoglobin testing of donors was performed using Hemocue and Copper sulfate specific gravity method. Ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid sample of all the donors who failed either or both the screening tests was tested on automated analyzer for evaluation of hemoglobin and red blood cell indices. Results: Of all the donors, 15.5% were deferred due to anemia. Prevalence of anemia in prospective blood donors was 1.8%. It was significantly higher in female donors compared with male donors (34.2% vs 1.2%. The most common type of anemia was normocytic normochromic.

  3. Prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes and prediabetes among voluntary blood donors in a tertiary health care setting

    OpenAIRE

    Jawahar Ramasamy; Umadevi Komarla Parthasarathy

    2016-01-01

    Background: Finnish diabetes risk score (FINDRISC) questionnaire is a screening tool to estimate risk of type 2 diabetes. This study was conducted to find the prevalence rate of diabetes and prediabetes among voluntary blood donors using FINDRISC score as screening tool in large population. Methods: A total of 210 eligible blood donors were included in this study. After obtaining the consent, subjects will be assessed with FINDRISC questionnaire. The patients with score and #8805;12 poin...

  4. Screening analysis of HLA antibodies from male donor population in Xi’an area%西安地区男性献血员 HLA 抗体筛查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安群星; 安宁; 尹文

    2015-01-01

    目的:对西安地区部分男性献血员的HLA抗体进行检测并分析,为提高输血的安全性提供实验数据。方法:随机收集西安地区男性无偿献血者标本224份,采用 ELISA 技术对HLA‐Ⅰ类、HLA‐Ⅱ类抗体进行检测;并对有无输血史献血者HLA抗体产生的差异进行统计学分析。结果:在224例男性献血者中,52例献血者 HLA 抗体阳性(23%)。有输血史男性献血员HLA抗体阳性率(42%)明显高于无输血史男性献血员 HLA 抗体阳性率(6.0%),但是有无输血史对于HLA抗体产生类型没有明显差异。结论:输血可以明显刺激机体产生HLA抗体。将来自于具有输血史献血员的血液制品用于临床时,会增加 TRALI发生的几率,导致患者病死率上升。因此对献血员进行HLA抗体检测对安全输血十分重要。%Objective:To detect and analyze HLA antibody of men donates in Xi'an ,and provide experi‐mental data for improving the security of blood transfusion .Method:Randomly collected serum specimens of 224 men donates ,and tested HLA‐Ⅰ ,HLA‐Ⅱ antibody using ELISA ;Statistical analyze the differences on HLA anti‐bodies between non‐experience of transfusion and experience of transfusion donors .Results :For 224 men donates , HLA antibody of 52 donates were positive (23% ) .The rate of HLA antibody positive of experience of transfusion men donates 42% ) was significantly higher than that of non‐experience of transfusion men donates(6 .0% ) .But there was no significantly difference on HLA antibodies types between non‐experience of transfusion and experience of transfusion men donates .Conclusion:The transfusion could stimulate generation of HLA antibody ,obviously .So the incidence of TRALI and the death rate of patient induced by TRALI may be increased ,because transfusion with blood products from HLA antibody positive donors .So the investigation of frequency and distribution of HLA

  5. Blood Screening for Influenza

    OpenAIRE

    Hourfar, Michael Kai; Themann, Anna; Eickmann, Markus; Puthavathana, Pilaipan; Laue, Thomas; Seifried, Erhard; Schmidt, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Influenza viruses, including highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1), could threaten blood safety. We analyzed 10,272 blood donor samples with a minipool nucleic acid amplication technique. Analytical sensitivity of the method was 804 geq/mL and 444 geq/mL for generic influenza primers and influenza (H5N1) subtype–specific primers. This study demonstrates that such screening for influenza viruses is feasible.

  6. Donor demographic and laboratory predictors of single donor platelet yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Arun

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Platelet transfusions are essential to prevent morbidity and mortality in patients who are severely thrombocytopenic and are at risk of spontaneous bleeding. Platelets are currently obtained either by fractionation of whole blood or by platelet apheresis. The quality of single donor platelets (SDP in terms of yield influences platelet recovery in the recipient and allows prolonging intervals between transfusions. Material and Methods: Donor demographic and laboratory data were analyzed prior to performing plateletpheresis to identify donor factors that influence platelet yield. The study was conducted on 130 healthy, first-time plateletpheresis donors over a period of 4 years. The plateletpheresis procedures were performed using Fresenius Kabi COM.TEC and Hemonetics MCS plus separator. A relationship between pre-donation donor variables and yield of platelets was studied using the Pearson correlation. Results: The mean platelet yield was 3.160.62x1011 per unit. A positive correlation was observed between platelet yield and pre-donation platelet count, body mass index (BMI; Kg/m2 of the donor, while a negative correlation was observed between age and the platelet yield. Conclusion: Donor pre-donation platelet count, BMI and donor age influence platelet yield. Young healthy donors with a high platelet count and better BMI can give a better platelet yield in the SDP.

  7. Bartonella spp. bacteremia in blood donors from Campinas, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Helena Urso Pitassi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bartonella species are blood-borne, re-emerging organisms, capable of causing prolonged infection with diverse disease manifestations, from asymptomatic bacteremia to chronic debilitating disease and death. This pathogen can survive for over a month in stored blood. However, its prevalence among blood donors is unknown, and screening of blood supplies for this pathogen is not routinely performed. We investigated Bartonella spp. prevalence in 500 blood donors from Campinas, Brazil, based on a cross-sectional design. Blood samples were inoculated into an enrichment liquid growth medium and sub-inoculated onto blood agar. Liquid culture samples and Gram-negative isolates were tested using a genus specific ITS PCR with amplicons sequenced for species identification. Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana antibodies were assayed by indirect immunofluorescence. B. henselae was isolated from six donors (1.2%. Sixteen donors (3.2% were Bartonella-PCR positive after culture in liquid or on solid media, with 15 donors infected with B. henselae and one donor infected with Bartonella clarridgeiae. Antibodies against B. henselae or B. quintana were found in 16% and 32% of 500 blood donors, respectively. Serology was not associated with infection, with only three of 16 Bartonella-infected subjects seropositive for B. henselae or B. quintana. Bartonella DNA was present in the bloodstream of approximately one out of 30 donors from a major blood bank in South America. Negative serology does not rule out Bartonella spp. infection in healthy subjects. Using a combination of liquid and solid cultures, PCR, and DNA sequencing, this study documents for the first time that Bartonella spp. bacteremia occurs in asymptomatic blood donors. Our findings support further evaluation of Bartonella spp. transmission which can occur through blood transfusions.

  8. COBAS S201核酸检测系统在献血者血液筛查中的应用%Use of COBAS S201 nucleic acid detection system in screening blood donors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车嘉琳; 黄志森; 王德文; 梁兵; 师玲玲; 许惠芯; 朱毅瑜

    2010-01-01

    目的 采用罗氏COBAS S201核酸检测系统,调查东莞市现行血液筛查系统的残余风险,以评估开展核酸检测(nucleic acid amplification technique,NAT)的必要性和可行性.方法 对2008年7月31日至2009年3月31日期间经ELISA检测阴性的40 018份献血者血液样本,采用罗氏COBAS S201检测系统进行HBV DNA,HCV RNA,HIV RNA检测.COBAS S201检测为阳性的献血者样本,分别采用COBAS Ampliprep/Taqman平台做核酸定量检测和罗氏ECL电化学发光检测系统作乙肝"两对半"实验,以帮助分析判定样本的感染状态.结果 发现31例核酸反应性样本,阳性率为0.77‰,其中有17例为HBV核酸反应性,残余风险为1/2354~1/1291,COBAS S201核酸检测系统的临床特异性为99.97%.结论 现行的血液筛查策略为两遍ELISA检测,但仍然存在输血传播疾病的风险.COBAS S201系统操作安全简便,包含罗氏专利技术的防污染技术,可确保检测结果准确可靠,适合于对献血者血液常规筛查.%Objective To investigate the residual risk in the current blood screening system in Dongguan City by Roche COBAS S201 nucleic acid detection system, in order to assess the necessity and feasibility of nucleic acid amplification technique (NAT). Methods 40 018 ELISA-negative samples were detected for HBV DNA, HCV RNA as well as HIV RNA by Roche COBAS S201 detection system from July 31,2008 to March 31, 2009. Positive samples were under quantitative detection of nucleic acid by COBAS Ampliprep/Taqman platform as well as "two pairs of semi "-experiments of hepatitis B by Roche ECL electrochemiluminescence detection system, aiming at helping to analyze the infection status of samples.Results 31 NAT-reactive samples were found, and the positive rate was 0.77‰. 17 of 31 samples were HBV DNA-reactive, and the residual risk was 1/2354-1/1291. The clinical specificity of COBAS S201 nucleic acid detection system was 99.97%. Conclusions The current blood screening strategy

  9. Rastreamento sorológico para doenças infecciosas em banco de sangue como indicador de morbidade populacional Serological screening for infectious diseases in blood donors as morbidity indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia S. S. de Andrade

    1989-02-01

    Full Text Available É discutido o valor do rastreamento sorológico para doença de Chagas, sífilis, hepatite B e AIDS realizado por bancos de sangue como indicador de morbidade populacional. Foram analisados os dados referentes a 62.814 doações de sangue obtidas em dois bancos de sangue públicos e três privados correspondendo ao total das doações no período de outubro de 1985 a outubro de 1987 em Goiânia, Goiás (Brasil. A soroprevalência foi comparada com dados obtidos pela notificação compulsória das doenças e com inquéritos epidemiológicos disponíveis. Foi encontrada soroprevalência para AIDS de 0,0@% para um único exame de ELISA, estimando-se em 1.900 o número de indivíduos supostamente infectados em Goiás, número compatível com o esperado quando se trabalha com dados de notificação. Para a doença de Chagas, hepatite B e sífilis foram observadas soroprevalências de até 3,3%, 1,3% e 4,1%, respectivamente. Foram discutidas as dificuldades encontradas para validação desses resultados pela ausência de notificação compulsória e características particulares dos inquéritos sorológicos.Screening tests of 62,814 blood donations carried out between October 85 and October 87 in all five blood banks of Goiânia, Central Brazil, were analysed. The private institutions (3 blood banks collected 80% of all donations and the remaining were collected by public blood banks. Seroprevalence of HIV, HBsAg, Chagas' disease and syphilis were compared with data obtained in the surveillance system and from previous surveys in an attempt to validate this source of health information. A seroprevalence of 0.07% for AIDS (one ELISA test was calculated, which may suggest the presence of 1900 infected individuals, in the population of the State of Goiás as a whole. This figure seems reasonably close to the official data obtained by compulsory notification. For Chagas' disease, hepatitis B and syphilis seroprevalence of 3.3%, 1.3% and 4.1% were

  10. Retroperitoneoscopic right living donor nephrectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Zhen-li; WU Ji-tao; YANG Dian-dong; SHI Lei; MEN Chang-ping; WANG Lin

    2007-01-01

    @@ In the past, living donor nephrectomy required an open flank incision that results in postoperative morbidity and a prolonged hospital stay. Since its introduction in 1995, laparoscopic living donor nephrectomy has been shown to decrease postoperative pain and hospital stay,reduce blood loss, and improve cosmesis while hastening recovery of normal activities of donors.1 With decreased morbidity and favorable graft function, this procedure as a novel approach has been used to address the increasing disparity between organ need and availability.2 Better graft function and survival are noted in living-donor kidney transplantation than in cadaveric kidney transplantation. 1,2

  11. Vision Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... offer vision screening programs for children. At what age should a child have his or her vision screened? Vision screening ... a child fails a vision screening at any age, the child should be referred for a comprehensive eye examination. ...

  12. Newborn Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Role of Laboratories Meet the Scientist Newborn Screening: Family Stories Newborn Screening: Public Health Stories Screening Newborns for Critical ... Quality Assurance Program Newborn Screening Translation Research Initiative Newborn ... Stay Connected Twitter Facebook ...

  13. Donor selection criteria and procurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donor selection is one of the most important aspects of tissue banking practice. Without a good donor selection criteria, the results of any effort of trying to preserve tissues will have disastrous outcome for the recipient of these tissues. While with a very good and strict donor selection the Tissue Bank can guarantee safe and effective tissue allografts. There are significant aspects in the history and physical examination of the donor that must be emphasized. A donor exclusion criteria has also been formulated together with a list of all the needed laboratory examinations to eliminate possible diseases that may be transferred from the donor. The methods of procurement of tissue allografts from living and cadaver donors will be described. The limitations and advantages of each will be taken.There are also special restrictions that are important in the practice of removing the tissues from the donors. All the necessary equipment should be ready and the potential risk on the personnel should be known to all doing Tissue Banking

  14. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Boston. Dr. Joseph Murray was awarded the Nobel Prize for that pioneering work. And we’ve had a lot of talk about the safety for the living donors. The donor for that operation turned 80 last year, which is really quite an accomplishment. On ...

  15. Ethical aspects of renal transplantation from living donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzzone, P; Berloco, P B

    2007-01-01

    Kidney transplantation from living donors is widely performed all over the world. Living nephrectomy for transplantation has no direct advantages for the donor other than increased self-esteem, but it at least remains an extremely safe procedure, with a worldwide overall mortality of 0.03%. This theoretical risk for the donor seems to be justified by the socioeconomic advantages and increased quality of life of the recipient, especially in selected cases, such as pediatric patients, when living donor kidney transplantation can be performed in a preuremic phase, avoiding the psychological and physical stress of dialysis, which in children is not well tolerated and cannot prevent retarded growth. According to the Ethical Council of the Transplantation Society, commercialism must be effectively prevented, not only for ethical but also medical reasons. The risks are too high, not only for the donors, but also for the recipients, as a consequence of poor donor screening and evaluation with consequent transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or other infective agents, as well as of inappropriate medical and surgical management of donors and also recipients, who are often discharged too early. Most public or private insurance companies consider kidney donation a safe procedure without long-term impairment and therefore do not increase the premium, whereas recipient insurance of course should cover hospital fees for the donors. "Rewarded gifting" or other financial incentives to compensate for the inconvenience and loss of income related to the donation are not advisable, at least in our opinion. Our Center does not perform anonymous living organ donation or "cross-over" transplantation. PMID:17692612

  16. Ethical considerations on kidney transplantation from living donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzzone, P; Pretagostini, R; Poli, L; Rossi, M; Berloco, P B

    2005-01-01

    Kidney transplantation from living donors is widely performed all over the world. Living nephrectomy for transplantation has no direct advantage for the donor other than increased self-esteem, but at least remains an extremely safe procedure, with a worldwide overall mortality rate of 0.03%. This theoretical risk to the donor seems to be justified by the socioeconomic advantages and increased quality of life of the recipient, especially in selected cases, such as pediatric patients, when living donor kidney transplantation can be performed in a preuremic phase, avoiding the psychological and physical stress of dialysis, which in children is not well tolerated and cannot prevent retarded growth. According to the Ethical Council of the Transplantation Society, commercialism must be prevented, not only for ethical but also medical reasons. The risks are too high not only for the donors, but also for the recipients, as a consequence of poor donor screening and evaluation with consequent transmission of human immunodeficiency virus or other infectious agents, as well as inappropriate medical and surgical management of donors and also of recipients, who are often discharged too early. Most public or private insurance companies are considering kidney donation a safe procedure without long-term impairment and, therefore, do not increase the premium, whereas recipient insurance of course should cover hospital fees for the donors. "Rewarded gifting" or other financial incentives to compensate for the inconvenience and loss of income related to the donation are not advisable, at least in our opinion. Our center does not perform anonymous living organ donation or "cross-over" transplantation. PMID:16182701

  17. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute retrovirus epidemiology donor studies (Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study and Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study-II): twenty years of research to advance blood product safety and availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, Steven; King, Melissa R; Busch, Michael P; Murphy, Edward L; Glynn, Simone A

    2012-10-01

    The Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study (REDS), conducted from 1989 to 2001, and the REDS-II, conducted from 2004 to 2012, were National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-funded, multicenter programs focused on improving blood safety and availability in the United States. The REDS-II also included international study sites in Brazil and China. The 3 major research domains of REDS/REDS-II have been infectious disease risk evaluation, blood donation availability, and blood donor characterization. Both programs have made significant contributions to transfusion medicine research methodology by the use of mathematical modeling, large-scale donor surveys, innovative methods of repository sample storage, and establishing an infrastructure that responded to potential emerging blood safety threats such as xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus. Blood safety studies have included protocols evaluating epidemiologic and/or laboratory aspects of human immunodeficiency virus, human T-lymphotropic virus 1/2, hepatitis C virus, hepatitis B virus, West Nile virus, cytomegalovirus, human herpesvirus 8, parvovirus B19, malaria, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, influenza, and Trypanosoma cruzi infections. Other analyses have characterized blood donor demographics, motivations to donate, factors influencing donor return, behavioral risk factors, donors' perception of the blood donation screening process, and aspects of donor deferral. In REDS-II, 2 large-scale blood donor protocols examined iron deficiency in donors and the prevalence of leukocyte antibodies. This review describes the major study results from over 150 peer-reviewed articles published by these 2 REDS programs. In 2011, a new 7-year program, the Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study-III, was launched. The Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study-III expands beyond donor-based research to include studies of blood transfusion recipients in the hospital setting and adds a third country, South Africa

  18. 75 FR 58400 - Donor Management Research: Improvements in Clinical Management of Deceased Organ Donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... expect that better clinical donor management would improve organ quality, organs transplanted per donor... strategies and approaches serving as model interventions for identifying appropriate organ donor candidates, evaluating donated organs, maintaining donor clinical stability and optimizing methods for organ...

  19. HEPATITIS B PREVALENCE AMONG BLOOD DONORS AT A TERTIARY CARE CENTRE IN MYSORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreenivas

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Blood transfusion is an essential element of a health care system. Safety of blood transfusion is of extreme importance in order to avoid any severe morbidity and mortality in the patient. By screening donated blood units, we get a clue of the prevalence of those infections among donor pop ulations and consequently the safety of collected donations. It also gives us an idea of the prevalence of the Transfusion transmissible infections ( TTIs in the community. OBJECTIVES : To find out the sero - prevalence of TTIs namely HBV (Hepatitis B in the blood donor population at MMC&RI, Mysore. To stratify sero prevalence of TTIs based on the age and sex of the donor population . METHODOLOGY: The present study was carried out in the Blood Bank , Mysore Medical College and Research Institute , Mysore during the period from November 2012 to May 2014 among 14075 blood donors. All the samples were screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg by ELISA method . RESULTS : Out of a total of 14075 blood donors , a total of 103 tested positive for TTIs . 94.08% were males and remaining 5.92% were females. A majority of donors were voluntary donors (85.79% and a majority of the donors were between the age group of 18 - 39 years (78.17%. The prevalence rate of HBV in blood donors was 0.73%. The seroprevale nce in voluntary donors was 0.57% and in replacement donors was 1.75 % respectively. CONCLUSION : Voluntary blood donation is safe, compared to replacement as high prevalence of Hepatitis B is observed in replacement donors.

  20. Adult living donor liver imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Larry; Yeh, Benjamin M; Westphalen, Antonio C; Roberts, John P; Wang, Zhen J

    2016-01-01

    Adult living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is increasingly used for the treatment of end-stage liver disease. The three most commonly harvested grafts for LDLT are left lateral segment, left lobe, and right lobe grafts. The left lateral segment graft, which includes Couinaud's segments II and III, is usually used for pediatric recipients or small size recipients. Most of the adult recipients need either a left or a right lobe graft. Whether a left or right lobe graft should be harvested from the donors depends on estimated graft and donor remnant liver volume, as well as biliary and vascular anatomy. Detailed preoperative assessment of the potential donor liver volumetrics, biliary and vascular anatomy, and liver parenchyma is vital to minimize risks to the donors and maximize benefits to the recipients. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are currently the imaging modalities of choice in the preoperative evaluation of potential donors. This review provides an overview of key surgical considerations in LDLT that the radiologists must be aware of, and imaging findings on CT and MRI that the radiologists must convey to the surgeons when evaluating potential donors for LDLT. PMID:26912106

  1. Evaluation of the use of real-time PCR for human T cell lymphotropic virus 1 and 2 as a confirmatory test in screening for blood donors Análise do uso da PCR em tempo real para HTLV-1 e 2 como teste confirmatório na triagem de doadores de sangue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Gomes Andrade

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: HTLV-1/2 screening among blood donors commonly utilizes an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (EIA, followed by a confirmatory method such as Western blot (WB if the EIA is positive. However, this algorithm yields a high rate of inconclusive results, and is expensive. METHODS: Two qualitative real-time PCR assays were developed to detect HTLV-1 and 2, and a total of 318 samples were tested (152 blood donors, 108 asymptomatic carriers, 26 HAM/TSP patients and 30 seronegative individuals. RESULTS: The sensitivity and specificity of PCR in comparison with WB results were 99.4% and 98.5%, respectively. PCR tests were more efficient for identifying the virus type, detecting HTLV-2 infection and defining inconclusive cases. CONCLUSIONS: Because real-time PCR is sensitive and practical and costs much less than WB, this technique can be used as a confirmatory test for HTLV in blood banks, as a replacement for WB.INTRODUÇÃO: A triagem para HTLV-1/2 em doadores de sangue geralmente utiliza imunoensaio enzimático, seguido de um método confirmatório como Western blot quando o EIA é positivo, mas este algoritmo mostra alta taxa de resultados inconclusivos, e elevado custo. MÉTODOS: Dois ensaios qualitativos de PCR em tempo real foram desenvolvidos para detectar HTLV-1 e 2 e um total de 318 amostras foram testadas por PCR (152 de doadores de sangue, 108 de portadores assintomáticos, 26 de pacientes HAM/TSP e 30 de indivíduos soronegativos. RESULTADOS: A sensibilidade e especificidade das PCR em relação aos resultados de WB foram de 99,4% e 98,5%, respectivamente. As PCR foram mais eficientes em identificar o tipo viral, a infecção pelo HTLV-2 e úteis para definir casos inconclusivos. CONCLUSÕES: Por serem sensíveis, práticas e de custo muito inferior ao do WB, as técnicas de PCR em tempo real podem ser usadas como teste confirmatório do HTLV em bancos de sangue, em substituição ao WB.

  2. Triagem de hemoglobinopatias em doadores de sangue de Caxias do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil: prevalência em área de colonização italiana Screening for hemoglobinopathies in blood donors from Caxias do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: prevalence in an Italian colony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Lucia Alberti Lisot

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A alta prevalência de beta-talassemia em italianos e a participação dos mesmos na formação étnica da cidade de Caxias do Sul e arredores, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, conduziram-nos à investigação de hemoglobinopatias em uma amostra de 608 doadores de sangue do Hemocentro Regional de Caxias do Sul. Apesar da influência étnica, encontramos 1,81% de hemoglobinas anormais (0,16% Hb AC, 0,99%, Hb AS e 0,66% Hb AH, um padrão similar com o estudo do interior do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul para alterações qualitativas. Para as talassemias, as técnicas mais comuns, cruzadas com seqüenciamento de DNA, em nossas mãos, não foram capazes de esclarecer anormalidades quantitativas da hemoglobina. Esse resultado pode ser atribuído a alterações genéticas ainda não conhecidas, a limitações técnicas ou, mais simplesmente, à miscigenação.The high prevalence of beta thalassemia among Italians and their participation in the ethnic formation of Caxias do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, and neighboring cities prompted us to investigate hemoglobinopathies in 608 blood donors at the Caxias do Sul Regional Blood Center. Despite the ethnic influence, abnormal hemoglobin levels were found in only 1.81% of the donors (0.16% Hb AC, 0.99% Hb AS, and 0.66% Hb AH, similar to the levels observed in a study on qualitative disorders conducted in the rural area of Rio Grande do Sul. In our setting, the most commonly used screening tests for thalassemia, combined with DNA sequencing, were unable to detect quantitative hemoglobin synthesis disorders. This may be attributable to still-unknown genetic disorders, technical limitations, or simply to miscegenation.

  3. Recruiting unrelated donors for the National Marrow Donor Program.

    OpenAIRE

    Yanke, D. R.

    1990-01-01

    Medical advances have made bone marrow transplantation the treatment of choice for certain hematologic diseases. For those patients eligible for a marrow transplant only about 30 percent find an HLA-compatible match within their families. Studies indicate that unrelated volunteers are willing to donate their marrow. The National Marrow Donor Program was formed in 1986 as a result of a federal contract. This group is a network of donor centers, transplant centers, and collection centers. The C...

  4. Donor milk: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliani F

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Francesca Giuliani,1 Ilaria Rovelli,1 Chiara Peila,1 Stefania Alfonsina Liguori,2 Enrico Bertino,1 Alessandra Coscia1 1SCDU Neonatologia, Dipartimento di Scienze Pediatriche e dell'Adolescenza, Università degli Studi di Torino, Torino, Italy; 2SC Neonatologia, Ospedale Maria Vittoria, Torino, Italy Abstract: Mother's own milk is widely recognized as the optimal feeding for term infants, but increasing evidence exists of its benefits also for sick and preterm infants in neonatal intensive care units. However, the nutritional needs for appropriate growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes of such a particular population of infants should be attentively evaluated, considering also the indication to an appropriate fortification of human milk. The target is to achieve growth potential for preterm newborns while ensuring good metabolic outcomes and normal neurological development. When mother's milk is unavailable or in short supply, donor human milk (DHM represents the second best choice and, although somewhat modified by the Holder pasteurization process, it preserves many benefits when compared to formula, as documented by more and more reports, randomized controlled trials, and meta-analyses published in the past few years. Evidence exists of the protection exerted by DHM from necrotizing enterocolitis, while further studies are required to look at possible beneficial effects regarding infections, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, long-term cardiovascular risk factors, feeding tolerance, neurological outcome, and allergy. Finally, the concern that the use of DHM might decrease preterm infant breastfeeding is being raised. Conversely, publications exist showing that the use of DHM in the neonatal unit increases breastfeeding rates at discharge for infants of very low birth weight. Keywords: human milk, preterm infant feeding, milk bank, breast milk, mother's own milk, pasteurized human milk, fortification

  5. Epidemiology of hepatitis C virus. A preliminary study in volunteer blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, C E; Taylor, P E; Pindyck, J; Choo, Q L; Bradley, D W; Kuo, G; Houghton, M

    1990-01-01

    In a survey carried out from 1985 through 1986, volunteer blood donors to The Greater New York Blood Program were tested for two surrogate markers for non-A, non-B hepatitis--elevation of alanine aminotransferase level and presence of antibody to hepatitis B core antigen. Stored serum samples from selected donors were also recently tested for antibody to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV). Anti-HCV was detected in 0.9% to 1.4% of donors and was higher in black and Hispanic donors than in white donors. Anti-HCV prevalence increased with increasing age through the fourth decade of life, but decreased thereafter, possibly reflecting the disappearance of detectable antibody with time. Anti-HCV correlated with both alanine aminotransferase level and the presence or absence of antibody to hepatitis B core antigen. These associations suggest that donor screening for elevation of alanine aminotransferase level and presence of antibody to hepatitis B core antigen was, as expected, at least partially effective in preventing transfusion-associated non-A, non-B hepatitis. The detection of anti-HCV in donors who have neither an elevation of alanine aminotransferase level nor presence of antibody to hepatitis B core antigen suggests that donor screening for anti-HCV will further reduce the risk of transfusion-associated hepatitis. PMID:2104548

  6. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... donor meets with a social worker and a psychologist, and there are also some basic medical tests ... steroidal medications like ibuprofen, which can affect kidney function. And then about four weeks after surgery, I’ ...

  7. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of a machine, have a better quality of life. It ended up not happening until 2001. It ... Since I’ve become a kidney donor, my life really hasn’t changed. My health is just ...

  8. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a matter of experience as you -- in medical school and you do gross anatomy and you learn ... than an older donor, say, choosing between a parent over a sibling, or how would you choose ...

  9. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... spread much at all, so it has little risk of damaging other tissues. But it does a ... donor, particularly because they’re at long-term risks for health problems such as diabetes, which in ...

  10. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of work for a little while and my child is grown and I don’t have to ... donor, Anna, a question that pertains to having children. “What was your understanding about being able to ...

  11. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 800 kidneys have been transplanted, and 441 of these have been living donor transplants, and that will ... John Hopkins, and we have done hundreds of these since then. The procedure is beneficial to patients ...

  12. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... process, first the potential donor meets with a social worker and a psychologist, and there are also ... that came in. They would come in three times a week, so basically you become their family. ...

  13. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... HIV positive status or diabetes or cancer or mental illness or severe obesity are some of these ... donor, my life really hasn’t changed. My health is just as good now as it ever ...

  14. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ever be a donor?” No. The recipient, by definition, had end-stage kidney disease and certainly can’ ... And you had that PCA pump for pain control to where you push the button to help ...

  15. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... choose one donor over another? There are several factors go into that. If somebody’s fortunate enough to have more than one person who is willing to donate them a kidney, ...

  16. Health Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screenings are tests that look for diseases before you have symptoms. Screening tests can find diseases early, when they're easier to treat. You can get some screenings in your doctor's office. Others need special equipment, ...

  17. Android Blood Donor Life Saving Application in Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Hilda Jenipha

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Emergency situations, such as accidents, create an immediate, critical need for specific blood type. In addition to emergency requirements, advances in medicine have increased the need for blood in many on-going treatments and elective surgeries. Despite increasing requirements for blood, only about 5% of the Indian population donates blood. In this paper we propose a new and efficient way to overcome such scenarios with our project. We have to create a new idea, just touch the button. Donor will be prompted to enter an individual's details, like name, phone number, and blood type. After that your contact details will appear in alphabetical order on the screen; the urgent time of a blood requirement, you can quickly check for contacts matching a particular or related blood group and reach out to them via Phone Call/SMS through the Blood donor App. Blood Donor App provides list of donors in your city/area. Use this app in case of emergency. A large number of blood donors are attracted using an Android application. Cloud- based services can prove important in emergency blood delivery since they can enable central and immediate access to donors' data and location from anywhere. Since almost everyone carries a mobile phone with him, it ensures instant location tracking and communication. The location-based app, operational on android platform, will help users easily find donors of matching blood groups in their location and access their mobile numbers for instant help. Only a registered person, with willingness to donate blood, will be able to access the service.

  18. Donor transmitted and de novo cancer after liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Rajeev; Neuberger, James

    2014-05-28

    Cancers in solid organ recipients may be classified as donor transmitted, donor derived, de novo or recurrent. The risk of donor-transmitted cancer is very low and can be reduced by careful screening of the donor but cannot be abolished and, in the United Kingdom series is less than 0.03%. For donors with a known history of cancer, the risks will depend on the nature of the cancer, the interventions given and the interval between diagnosis and organ donation. The risks of cancer transmission must be balanced against the risks of death awaiting a new graft and strict adherence to current guidelines may result increased patient death. Organs from selected patients, even with high-grade central nervous system (CNS) malignancy and after a shunt, can, in some circumstances, be considered. Of potential donors with non-CNS cancers, whether organs may be safely used again depends on the nature of the cancer, the treatment and interval. Data are scarce about the most appropriate treatment when donor transmitted cancer is diagnosed: sometimes substitution of agents and reduction of the immunosuppressive load may be adequate and the impact of graft removal should be considered but not always indicated. Liver allograft recipients are at increased risk of some de novo cancers, especially those grafted for alcohol-related liver disease and hepatitis C virus infection. The risk of lymphoproliferative disease and cancers of the skin, upper airway and bowel are increased but not breast. Recipients should be advised to avoid risk behavior and monitored appropriately. PMID:24876738

  19. Rising trends of HCV infection over a period of 4 years among blood donors in central India: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Kumar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to find out the sero-prevalence of Hepatitis C infection among blood donors. Materials and Methods: All collected blood bags were screened for anti-hepatitis C virus antibodies (HCV Ab; MicroELISA 3rd generation, J. Mitra during the study period of 4 years and data were analyzed. Results: A total of 28621 blood donors were screened for transfusion transmissible infections (TTIs in which 80 donors were positive for Hepatitis C infection, constituted 11% of total sero-reactive donors. In 2009, only 10 cases were sero-reactive while in 2012, 36 cases were sero-reactive for Hepatitis C infection. Conclusions: Hepatitis C infection among blood donors are in rising trends in this study area. Voluntary donors are safer than replacement donors as they have very low sero-prevalence. As these blood donors represent the highly selective community of a general population in most of the countries. So the actual sero-prevalence of hepatitis C infection may be more in the general population. Promoting HCV screening, voluntary blood donation, diagnosis and treatment among blood donors are very important measures to control the transmission of HCV infection, decrease sero-reactive cases and ensure safe blood collection.

  20. Motivations for Giving of Alumni Donors, Lapsed Donors and Non-Donors: Implications for Christian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugano, Emilio Kariuki

    2011-01-01

    This descriptive and causal comparative study sought to identify motivations for alumni donor acquisition and retention in Christian institutions of higher learning. To meet this objective, motivations for alumni donors, lapsed donors, and non-donors were analyzed and compared. Data was collected through an electronic survey of a stratified sample…

  1. Dengue Virus Transmission from Living Donor to Recipient in Liver Transplantation: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Raman K; Gupta, Gaurav; Chorasiya, Vishal K; Bag, Pradyut; Shandil, Rajeev; Bhatia, Vikram; Wadhawan, Manav; Vij, Vivek; Kumar, Ajay

    2016-03-01

    Many infections are transmitted from a donor to a recipient through organ transplantations. The transmission of dengue virus from a donor to a recipient in liver transplantation is a rare entity, and currently, there is no recommendation for screening this virus prior to transplantation. We report a case of transmission of dengue virus from donor to recipient after liver transplantation. The recipient had a history of multiple admissions for hepatic encephalopathy and ascites. He was admitted in the ICU for 15 days for chronic liver disease, ascites, and acute kidney injury before transplantation. The donor was admitted 1 day before transplantation. The donor spiked fever on postoperative day 2 followed by thrombocytopenia and elevated liver enzymes. The donor blood test was positive for dengue NS1 antigen. The recipient also had a similar clinical picture on postoperative day 5 and his blood test was also positive for dengue NS1 antigen. Hence, the diagnosis for posttransplant donor-derived allograft-related transmission of dengue infection was made. Both recipient and donor were treated with supportive measures and discharged after their full recovery on postoperative days 9 and 18, respectively. The effect of immunosuppression on dengue presentation is still unclear and there is lack of literature available. In our case, the recipient developed dengue fever similar to general population without showing any feature of severe graft dysfunction. We have concluded that dengue virus can also be transmitted from donor to recipient, and immunosuppression did not have any adverse effect on the evolution of dengue fever within the recipient. Delhi being a hyperendemic zone, screening for donors (especially in season time) for dengue virus seems to be the best preventive method to control donor-derived transmission of dengue to recipient. PMID:27194898

  2. Algorithm for recall of HIV reactive Indian blood donors by sequential immunoassays enables selective donor referral for counseling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thakral B

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: HIV/AIDS pandemic brought into focus the importance of safe blood donor pool. Aims: To analyze true seroprevalence of HIV infection in our blood donors and devise an algorithm for donor recall avoiding unnecessary referrals to voluntary counseling and testing centre (VCTC. Materials and Methods: 39,784 blood units were screened for anti-HIV 1/2 using ELISA immunoassay (IA-1. Samples which were repeat reactive on IA-1 were further tested using two different immunoassays (IA-2 and IA-3 and Western blot (WB. Based on results of these sequential IAs and WB, an algorithm for recall of true HIV seroreactive blood donors is suggested for countries like India where nucleic acid testing or p24 antigen assays are not mandatory and given the limited resources may not be feasible. Results: The anti-HIV seroreactivity by repeat IA-1, IA-2, IA-3 and WB were 0.16%, 0.11%, 0.098% and 0.07% respectively. Of the 44 IA-1 reactive samples, 95.2% (20/21 of the seroreactive samples by both IA-2 and IA-3 were also WB positive and 100% (6/6 of the non-reactive samples by these IAs were WB negative. IA signal/cutoff ratio was significantly low in biological false reactive donors. WB indeterminate results were largely due to non-specific reactivity to gag protein (p55. Conclusions: HIV seroreactivity by sequential immunoassays (IA-1, IA-2 and IA-3; comparable to WHO Strategy-III prior to donor recall results in decreased referral to VCTC as compared to single IA (WHO Strategy-I being followed currently in India. Moreover, this strategy will repose donor confidence in our blood transfusion services and strengthen voluntary blood donation program.

  3. Economics of blood screening: in search of an optimal blood screening strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinkhumba, Jobiba

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of this retrospective study were to assess the economic impact that the practice of 'family replacement donor system' has on the operational costs of a rural blood bank and to rationalize efficient blood screening protocols with a view to minimizing blood screening costs without compromising blood safety. Prevalence of transfusion-transmissible infections such as HIV, hepatitis B and syphilis were ascertained from records of 870 potential donors screened over a period of 6 months. Costs of screening tests were approximated by summing up costs of materials used per test. Overhead and labour costs were not factored in. Average and marginal costs of a fully-screened blood unit were calculated using different blood screening protocols. The average and marginal costs of a fully-screened blood unit vary greatly depending on the order in which screening tests are conducted. Although the variation in average costs per blood unit among different protocols is narrow, US 29.44 dollars to US 33 dollars, the variation in marginal costs is significantly wider ranging from US 22.79 dollars to US 51.85 dollars. Overall, 78 (9%) of the potential donors had HIV infection while 25 (3.2%) had hepatitis B infections and nine (1.2%) donors had syphilis. Co-infection rate was very low at 1.4%. The study shows that it is possible to prioritize blood screening tests for the selection of safe blood donors simply and cost-effectively in a developing country hospital. In the face of rapid rises in health-care spending, it is very important that essential health services such as blood screening are safely delivered with as little expenditure of financial resources as possible. To make sound economic decisions, average cost is not what matters but marginal cost, the cost of one more test. PMID:16483429

  4. Italian National Survey of Blood Donors: External Quality Assessment (EQA) of Syphilis Testing▿

    OpenAIRE

    Vulcano, Francesca; Milazzo, Luisa; Volpi, Sabrina; Battista, Mara Maria; Barca, Alessandra; Hassan, Hamisa Jane; Pimpinelli, Fulvia; Giampaolo, Adele

    2009-01-01

    The detection of syphilis among blood donors may reveal high-risk sexual behavior, which can go unreported at the time of donor selection and compromise the safety of the donated blood. In Italy, blood is collected, tested, and distributed by transfusion services (TSs), which also perform outpatient transfusions. Although the TSs must screen for syphilis by law, there are no indications of the specific type of method to be used, generating discrepancies in the results obtained by the differen...

  5. Rising trends of HCV infection over a period of 4 years among blood donors in central India: A retrospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Alok Kumar; Satish Sharma,; Narayan Ingole; Nitin Gangane

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to find out the sero-prevalence of Hepatitis C infection among blood donors. Materials and Methods: All collected blood bags were screened for anti-hepatitis C virus antibodies (HCV Ab; MicroELISA 3rd generation, J. Mitra) during the study period of 4 years and data were analyzed. Results: A total of 28621 blood donors were screened for transfusion transmissible infections (TTIs) in which 80 donors were positive for Hepatitis C infection, constituted 11% of...

  6. Best practice guidelines for the operation of a donor human milk bank in an Australian NICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, B T; Pang, W W; Keil, A D; Hartmann, P E; Simmer, K

    2007-10-01

    Until the establishment of the PREM Bank (Perron Rotary Express Milk Bank) donor human milk banking had not occurred in Australia for the past 20 years. In re-establishing donor human milk banking in Australia, the focus of the PREM Bank has been to develop a formal and consistent approach to safety and quality in processing during the operation of the human milk bank. There is currently no existing legislation in Australia that specifically regulates the operation of donor human milk banks. For this reason the PREM Bank has utilised existing and internationally recognised management practices for managing hazards during food production. These tools (specifically HACCP) have been used to guide the development of Standard Operating Procedures and Good Manufacturing Practice for the screening of donors and processing of donor human milk. Donor screening procedures are consistent with those recommended by other human milk banks operating internationally, and also consistent with the requirements for blood and tissue donation in Australia. Controlled documentation and record keep requirements have also been developed that allow complete traceability from individual donation to individual feed dispensed to recipient and maintain a record of all processing and storage conditions. These operational requirements have been developed to reduce any risk associated with feeding pasteurised donor human milk to hospitalised preterm or ill infants to acceptable levels. PMID:17913402

  7. Comparison of the risk of viral infection between the living and nonliving musculoskeletal tissue donors in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Felix; Seed, Clive; Farrugia, Albert; Morgan, David; Wood, David; Zheng, Ming-Hao

    2008-10-01

    Screening of musculoskeletal tissue donors with nucleic acid testing (NAT) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been implemented in the United States and other developed nations. However, in contrast to the donor demographics in the United States, the majority of Australian musculoskeletal tissue donations are primarily from living surgical donors. The objective of our study was to determine and compare the risk of viral infection associated with musculoskeletal tissue donation from living and nonliving donors in Australia. We studied serum samples from 12 415 consecutive musculoskeletal tissue donors between 1993 and 2004. This included 10 937 surgical donations, and 1478 donations obtained from postmortem organ donation patients and cadaveric donors. Current mandatory retesting of surgical donors 6 months postdonation reduces the risk of viral infection by approximately 95% by eliminating almost all donors in the window period. The addition of nucleic acid amplification testing for nonliving donors would similarly reduce the window period, and consequently the residual risk by approximately 50% for hepatitis B virus, 55% for HIV, and 90% for HCV. NAT, using appropriately validated assays for nonliving donors, would reduce the residual risk to levels comparable to that in living donors (where the 95% reduction for quarantining pending the 180-day re-test is included). PMID:18537922

  8. Clinical study on safety of adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation in both donors and recipients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Liu; Ji-Chun Zhao; Yu-Kui Ma; Jiang-Wen Liu; Hong Wu; Lu-Nan Yan; Wen-Tao Wang; Bo Li; Yong Zeng; Tian-Fu Wen; Ming-Qing Xu; Jia-Yin Yang; Zhe-Yu Chen

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the safety of adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation (A-A LDLT) in both donors and recipients.METHODS: From January 2002 to July 2006, 50 cases of A-A LDLT were performed at West China Hospital, Sichuan University, consisting of 47 cases using right lobe graft without middle hepatic vein (MHV), and 3 cases using dual grafts (one case using two left lobe, 2 using one right lobe and one left lobe). The most common diagnoses were hepatitis B liver cirrosis, 30 (60%) cases; and hepatocellular carcinoma, 15 (30%) cases in adult recipients. Among them, 10 cases had the model of end-stage liver disease (MELD) with a score of more than 25. Donor screening consisted of reconstruction of the hepatic blood vessels and biliary system with 3-dimension computed tomography and volumetry of whole liver and right liver volume. Various improved surgical techniques were adopted in the procedures for both donors and recipients .RESULTS: Forty-nine right lobes and 3 left lobes (2 left lobe grafts for 1 recipient, 1 left lobe graft for 1 recipient who had received right lobe graft donated by relative living donor) were obtained from 52 living donors. The 49 right lobe grafts, without MHV, weighed 400 g-850 g (media 550 g), and the ratio of graft volume to recipient standard liver volume (GV/SLV) ranged from 31.74% to 71.68% (mean 45.35%). All donors' remnant liver volume was over 35% of the whole liver volume. There was no donor mortality. With a follow-up of 2-52 mo (media 9 mo), among 50 adult recipients, complications occurred in 13 (26%) cases and 4 (8%) died postoperatively within 3 mo. Their 1-year actual survival rate was 92%.CONCLUSION: When preoperative CT volumetry shows volume of remnant liver is more than 35%, the ratio of right lobe graft to recipients standard liver volume exceeding 40%, A-A LDLT using right lobe graft without MHV should be a very safe procedure for both donors and recipients, otherwise dual grafts liver transplantation

  9. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

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    Full Text Available ... medical care. “OR-Live,” the vision of improving health. Good evening, I’m Dr. John Colonna, the ... donor, my life really hasn’t changed. My health is just as good now as it ever ...

  10. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Can someone receive a transplant before going into kidney failure?” Absolutely. That’s call a “preemptive transplant.” There are ... donor cleared, and to get everybody together before kidney failure actually occurs. But we do do preemptive transplants ...

  11. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an adult kidney to a child?” Certainly. Our team here works with children’s hospital the King’s Daughters with their ... members of the team. We have a great team here at Norfolk General, particularly Amy who works so hard with the living donors, but really ...

  12. Mass Transfer from Giant Donors

    CERN Document Server

    Pavlovskii, K

    2014-01-01

    The stability of mass transfer in binaries with convective giant donors remains an open question in modern astrophysics. There is a significant discrepancy between what the existing methods predict for a response to mass loss of the giant itself, as well as for the mass transfer rate during the Roche lobe overflow. Here we show that the recombination energy in the superadiabatic layer plays an important and hitherto unaccounted-for role in he donor's response to mass loss, in particular on its luminosity and effective temperature. Our improved optically thick nozzle method to calculate the mass transfer rate via $L_1$ allows us to evolve binary systems for a substantial Roche lobe overflow. We propose a new, strengthened criterion for the mass transfer instability, basing it on whether the donor experiences overflow through its outer Lagrangian point. We find that with the new criterion, if the donor has a well-developed outer convective envelope, the critical initial mass ratio for which a binary would evolv...

  13. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... And we’ll see them again about six months after the surgery, and then about 18 months after just to be sure that the donor ... process was such a whirlwind. It’s been six months since I even knew I had the disease. ...

  14. MRSA Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? MRSA Screening Share this page: Was this page helpful? Formal name: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus Screening Related tests: Wound Culture At a Glance Test ...

  15. DONOR-TRANSMITTED CORONARY ATHEROSCLEROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. L. Mironkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To estimate opportunities, prospects and safety of using heart transplants from aged donors who are at high risk of coronary atherosclerosis.Materials and methods. Over the period from March 1987 to May 2014450 heart transplantations (HTx were performed in V.I.Shumakov Federal Research Center of Transplantology and Artifi cial Organs. During the fi rst month after HTx coronarography was made to 152 (37,8% recipients inorder to exclude/confi rm donor-transmitted coronary atherosclerosis (DTCA and to identify tactics of treatment. Coronary atherosclerosis was detected among 16 patients (3,6% of total number of HTx, 15 (93,8% men and 1 (6,2% women. Mean age of recipients with DTCA at the moment of HTx was 48,3 ± 13,1 years.Results. Hemodynamically relevant coronary atherosclerosis was not detected and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI was not made in the group of patients with the mean age of 42,24 ± 8,91 years. Using heart transplants from aged donors is connected with increasing risk of DTCA among the recipients. DTCA-dependent PCI is not connected with coronary mortality. Actuarial survival rate of patients who underwent PCI is comparable with the same one in the total population of HTx recipients and is equal to 87,5% at 5 years and less.Conclusion. Hearts from aged donors (older than 50 years may be used for HTx with suffi cient level of safety. Due to high level of DTCA using of hearts from such donors is preferable for completing urgent HTx to recipients 1А–В UNOS.

  16. SEROPREVALENCE OF TRANSFUSION TRANSMITTED DISEASES IN VOLUNTARY DONORS IN A TERTIARY CARE CENTRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dheemantha

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In India testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Hepatitis-B Virus, Hepatitis-C Virus and Syphilis is mandatory for all blood donors. Transmission of HIV, HBV, HCV and Syphilis through blood and blood products can be reduced to a great extent by efficient and reliable screening of the blood to be transfused. This study was aimed to find out the seroprevalence of the transfusion transmitted diseases. OBJECTIVES: The present study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of transfusion transmitted infections in voluntary blood donors in Victoria hospital blood bank in Bangalore in India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted with 3910 voluntary blood donors of which 3505 donors were from voluntary blood donation camps and 405 voluntary blood donors donated in blood bank. All donors met the standard inclusion and exclusion criteria followed in India.1 The donors had donated blood to Victoria hospital, Bangalore from 1st January 2013 to 31st December 2013. All voluntary donor’s blood sample were tested for HIV,HBV,HCV and Syphilis by HIV-ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay, HBSAg-ELISA,HCV-ELISA and Venereal Disease Research Laboratory tests respectively by standard procedures. RESULTS: Out of the total 3910 blood samples tested only 1 donor(0.025% was HIV positive, 28 donors (0.7% were HBSAg reactive, none of the samples were HCV reactive, 1 donor (0.025% was VDRL reactive. CONCLUSION: Though prevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and Syphilis have reduced over the years. Blood is still one of the main sources of transmission of infections. HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C viruses and syphilis are prevalent even among voluntary blood donors.

  17. Characterization of human organ donors testing positive for type 1 diabetes-associated autoantibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiberg, A; Granstam, A; Ingvast, S; Härkönen, T; Knip, M; Korsgren, O; Skog, O

    2015-12-01

    In this study we aim to describe the characteristics of non-diabetic organ donors with circulating diabetes-associated autoantibodies collected within the Nordic Network for Islet Transplantation. One thousand and thirty organ donors have been screened in Uppsala for antibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA) and islet antigen-2 (IA-2A). The 32 non-diabetic donors that tested positive for GADA (3.3% of all non-diabetic donors) were studied in more detail, together with 32 matched controls. Mean age among the autoantibody-positive donors was 52.6 (range 21-74), family history of type 1 diabetes (T1D) was unknown, and no donor was genetically predisposed for T1D regarding the human leucocyte antigen (HLA) locus. Subjects were analysed for islet cell antibodies (ICA), insulin autoantibodies (IAA) and zinc transporter 8 antibodies (ZnT8A), and pancreas morphology and clinical data were examined. Eight non-diabetic donors tested positive for two antibodies and one donor tested positive for four antibodies. No insulitis or other signs of a diabetic process were found in any of the donors. While inflammatory cells were present in all donors, subjects with high GADA titres had significantly higher CD45 cell numbers in exocrine tissue than controls. The extent of fibrosis was more pronounced in autoantibody-positive donors, even in subjects with lower GADA titres. Notably, it is possible that events not related directly to T1D (e.g. subclinical pancreatitis) may induce autoantibodies in some cases. PMID:26313035

  18. Cancer screening

    OpenAIRE

    Krishna Prasad

    1987-01-01

    Cancer screening is a means to detect cancer early with the goal of decreasing morbidity and mortality. At present, there is a reasonable consensus regarding screening for breast, cervical and colorectal cances and the role of screening is under trial in case of cancers of the lung,  ovaries and prostate. On the other hand, good screening tests are not available for some of the commonest cancers in India like the oral, pharyngeal, esophageal and stomach cancers.

  19. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

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    Full Text Available ... Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 352 352 Loading... ... considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  20. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... total__ Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 361 361 Loading... ... Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  1. Psychosocial counselling of identifiable sperm donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Visser; M.H. Mochtar; A.A. de Melker; F. van der Veen; S. Repping; T. Gerrits

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: What do identifiable sperm donors feel about psychosocial counselling? SUMMARY ANSWER: Identifiable sperm donors found it important that psychosocial counselling focused on emotional consequences and on rules and regulations and they expected to have access to psychosocial counsellin

  2. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 361 361 Loading... ... considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  3. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... total__ Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 350 350 Loading... ... Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  4. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... total__ Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 350 350 Loading... ... Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  5. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 351 351 Loading... ... considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  6. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... total__ Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 351 351 Loading... ... Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  7. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... total__ Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 360 360 Loading... ... Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  8. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... screen and open the door to informed medical care. “OR-Live,” the vision of improving health. Good evening, I’m Dr. John Colonna, the ... screen and open the door to informed medical care. “OR-Live,” the vision of improving health. 13

  9. Establishment, operation and development of a donor human milk bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasini, Augusto; Stella, Marcello; Malaigia, Laura; China, Mariachiara; Azzalli, Milena; Laguardia, Maria Chiara; Rizzo, Vittoria

    2013-10-01

    Human milk is very valuable in premature infant nutrition. The collection, screening, processing and distribution of donor human milk are described in this report. These activities take place in the Donor Human Milk Bank (DHMB) of the Large Romagna Area (LRA) in Italy, the development of which is also described here. Over the years, the activities of this bank, which is located in Cesena Hospital, in the center of the LRA, have developed from an informal and domestic-level activity to become a multistep controlled process designed to prevent the possibility of disease transmission. This little food-supply industry, run by a multi-disciplinary team with strict rules and diverse responsibilities, complies with the Hazards Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) system. PMID:23891355

  10. Historical perspective of living donor liver transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, See Ching; Fan, Sheung Tat

    2008-01-01

    Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has gone through its formative years and established as a legitimate treatment when a deceased donor liver graft is not timely or simply not available at all. Nevertheless, LDLT is characterized by its technical complexity and ethical controversy. These are the consequences of a single organ having to serve two subjects, the donor and the recipient, instantaneously. The transplant community has a common ground on assuring donor safety while achieving ...

  11. Organ donor problems and their management

    OpenAIRE

    Shah Veena; Bhosale G

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, transplantation has assumed an important role in the treatment of patients with end-stage organ failure. With the passage of Transplantation of Human Organ Act by the Indian parliament, transplantation of organs from brain dead donors has become a reality. Although there are many issues in success of cadaver programme, intensivists can play a crucial role by converting a potential donor into an actual donor. This article reviews the identification of potential organ donor and...

  12. New biologically active hydrogen sulfide donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger, Thomas; Raynaud, Francoise; Bouillaud, Frédéric; Ransy, Céline; Simonet, Serge; Crespo, Christine; Bourguignon, Marie-Pierre; Villeneuve, Nicole; Vilaine, Jean-Paul; Artaud, Isabelle; Galardon, Erwan

    2013-11-25

    Generous donors: The dithioperoxyanhydrides (CH3 COS)2 , (PhCOS)2 , CH3 COSSCO2 Me and PhCOSSCO2 Me act as thiol-activated hydrogen sulfide donors in aqueous buffer solution. The most efficient donor (CH3 COS)2 can induce a biological response in cells, and advantageously replace hydrogen sulfide in ex vivo vascular studies. PMID:24115650

  13. Donor conversion rates depend on the assessment tools used in the evaluation of potential organ donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.J. de Groot (Yorick); E.F.M. Wijdicks (Eelco); M. van der Jagt (Mathieu); J. Bakker (Jan); B. Roozenbeek (Bob); J.N.M. IJzermans (Jan); E.J.O. Kompanje (Erwin)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: It is desirable to identify a potential organ donor (POD) as early as possible to achieve a donor conversion rate (DCR) as high as possible which is defined as the actual number of organ donors divided by the number of patients who are regarded as a potential organ donor. The DC

  14. Reactive donor notification: First error reported

    OpenAIRE

    Urvershi Kotwal; Veena Doda; Satyam Arora; Meena Joshi

    2014-01-01

    Donor notification and post-donation counseling is an essential role of blood bank. If a donor is reactive for any marker, the blood bank counselor, informs the donor and advices him/her to report to the blood bank for further counseling and management. The counselor at our blood bank informed a young female voluntary donor to be reactive for HIV both with ELISA as well as NAT. When the donor reported to blood bank, the repeat testing was negative and no history of high risk behavior could be...

  15. Trends in sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics of HIV antibody-positive blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, P D; Van Devanter, N; Rogers, T F; Singer, E; Avorn, J; Pindyck, J

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the sociodemographic characteristics of people who donated blood to the New York Blood Center between April 1985 and February 1988 and tested positive for antibodies to HIV. Information on HIV-related risk factors and knowledge of blood screening is presented for seropositive donors who participated in an evaluation study. The most commonly reported risk factor among men was sexual contact with another man, and many of the male seropositive donors reported sex with an intravenous (IV) drug user or use of IV drugs. The proportion of men reporting sexual contact with another man decreased over the period of the study, and the proportion reporting use of IV drugs or sex with an IV drug user increased. Awareness of blood screening for HIV antibodies increased over the study period. The greatest increase was among those donating for transfusion, but only about a quarter of seropositive donors used the confidential unit exclusion (CUE) process. PMID:2036292

  16. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

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    Full Text Available ... OR- Live” makes it easy for you to learn more. Just click on the “Request information” button on your webcast screen and open the door to informed medical care. “OR-Live,” ...

  17. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... more than 100 caregiving sites, including seven acute care hospitals, four advanced imaging centers, seven nursing homes, ... screen and open the door to informed medical care. “OR-Live,” the vision of improving health. Good ...

  18. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

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    Full Text Available ... to make referrals, make appointments, or request more information. Just click on the buttons on your screen ... here. And there is quite a bit of information now coming out in studies that preemptive living ...

  19. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Healthcare is a not-for-profit integrated delivery system serving more that two-million residents in southeastern ... to make referrals, make appointments, or request more information. Just click on the buttons on your screen ...

  20. Seroprevalence of HIV and hepatitis C co-infection among blood donors in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, Surendra; Ghimire, Prakash; Tiwari, Bishnu Raj; Shrestha, Ashish Chandra; Gautam, Avhishekh; Rajkarnikar, Manita

    2009-01-01

    We assessed the seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in different categories of blood donors and the hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection rate. A total of 33,255 blood samples were screened for HIV using a third generation ELISA test at the Central Blood Transfusion Service, Nepal Red Cross Society, Kathmandu from December 2006 to September 2007. The seroprevalence of HIV was 0.19% (95% CI= 0.15-0.25) and co-infection with HCV was found in 10.8% (95% CI= 4.4-20.9). There were no significant differences in HIV seroprevalence among the different categories of age, sex, type of donation and time of donation. The study revealed a relatively lower seroprevalence of HIV among blood donors in Kathmandu Valley than reported earlier but a higher HCV co-infection rate. The similar seroprevalence between first time and repeat donors suggests the need for more improved donor education and counselling. PMID:19323036

  1. Kidney Transplantation From Donors with Hepatitis B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veroux, Massimiliano; Ardita, Vincenzo; Corona, Daniela; Giaquinta, Alessia; Ekser, Burcin; Sinagra, Nunziata; Zerbo, Domenico; Patanè, Marco; Gozzo, Cecilia; Veroux, Pierfrancesco

    2016-01-01

    The growing demand for organ donors to supply the increasing number of patients on kidney waiting lists has led most transplant centers to develop protocols that allow safe use of organs from donors with special clinical situations previously regarded as contraindications. Deceased donors with previous hepatitis B may be a safe resource to increase the donor pool even if there is still controversy among transplantation centers regarding the use of hepatitis B surface antigen-positive donors for renal transplantation. However, when allocated to serology-matched recipients, kidney transplantation from donors with hepatitis B may result in excellent short-term outcome. Many concerns may arise in the long-term outcome, and studies must address the evaluation of the progression of liver disease and the rate of reactivation of liver disease in the recipients. Accurate selection and matching of both donor and recipient and correct post-transplant management are needed to achieve satisfactory long-term outcomes. PMID:27123988

  2. Development of Organ-Specific Donor Risk Indices

    OpenAIRE

    Akkina, Sanjeev K.; Asrani, Sumeet K.; Peng, Yi; Stock, Peter; Kim, Ray; Israni, Ajay K.

    2012-01-01

    Due to the shortage of deceased donor organs, transplant centers accept organs from marginal deceased donors, including older donors. Organ-specific donor risk indices have been developed to predict graft survival using various combinations of donor and recipient characteristics. We will review the kidney donor risk index (KDRI) and liver donor risk index (LDRI) and compare and contrast their strengths, limitations, and potential uses. The Kidney Donor Risk Index has a potential role in devel...

  3. 对五种国产核酸筛查试剂检测HIV-1RNA效果的初步评价%Primary Evaluation on the Capacity of Five Domestic NAT Donor Screening Assays in Detecting HIV-1 RNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许四宏; 宋爱京; 聂建辉; 李秀华; 王佑春

    2011-01-01

    目的 对5种国产HBV/HCV/HIV-1核酸筛查试剂(A、B1、B2、C和D)检测HIV-1 RNA的能力进行初步评价.方法 从我国不同地区收集60份HIV-1感染者样品(包含1份HIV-1感染窗口期样品)及540份HIV阴性样品,将60份HIV-1感染者样品随机分布于540份HIV阴性样品中,按照合并检测模式(pool模式)对该600份样品进行检测,将每种试剂检测结果为阳性的pool分别按说明书进一步拆分和/或鉴别试验.结果 A、B1、B2和C四种试剂检测HIV-1RNA的效果较强,其阴性和阳性符合率均为100%;D试剂则较差,其中2份HIV-1感染者样品(基因型分别为BC和B/B′,HIV-1 RNA含量分别为9.70×102 copies/ml和5.20×103 copies/ml)分别处于2个pool中,该2个pool经D试剂检测,均为HIV-1 RNA阴性.对检测结果为阳性的35个pool进行拆分检测时,D试剂检测1份HIV-1感染者样品(B/B′亚型、HIV-1 RNA含量为1.09×103 copies/ml)为HIV-1 RNA阴性,3份HIV-1 RNA阴性样品为HIV-1 RNA阳性.对于1份HIV-1感染窗口期样品,5种试剂均检测为HIV-1 RNA阳性.结论 A、B1、B2和C四种试剂均有较高的一致性,但D试剂具有一定的假阳性和漏检,应进一步提高质量.%Objective To evaluate the capacity of five domestic NAT donor screening assays of HBV DNA, HCV RNA and HIV-1 RNA (A, B1, B2, C and D assays) in detecting HIV-1 RNA. Methods 60 HIV-1 positive plasma were collected from HIV-1-infected individuals and 540 HIV-1 negative plasma were collected from donors with negative for anti-HIV in different regions in China. The 60 samples positive for HIV-1 RNA were randomly distributed into 540 negative samples for HIV-1 RNA. Mini-pool test and further discrimination test were completed according to the manufactures' instruction of the five assays. Results For A, B1, B2 and C assays,the coincidence rates of HIV-1 infected and negative samples for HIV were 100%. However, for D assay, 2 pools containing one HIV-1 genotype BC sample (viral load: 9

  4. Laparoscopic nephrectomy in live donor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuar I. Mitre

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To present the initial experience of videolaparoscopic nephrectomy in live renal donor. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the period from April 2000 to August 2003, 50 left nephrectomies in live donor were performed by videolaparoscopy for transplantation. Twenty-eight patients were male (56% and 22 female (44%. Mean age was 37.2 years, and the mean body mass index (BMI was 27.1 kg/m². RESULTS: Mean surgical time was 179.5 minutes, and warm ischemia time of the graft was 3.79 minutes. The mean estimated bleeding was 141 mL. There was no need of blood transfusion or conversion to open surgery. In 42 cases (84%, the vascular portion of the graft was considered good by the recipient's surgical team and in all cases, the ureter was considered of proper size, though in one of them (2% its vascularization was considered improper. The transplanted kidneys produced urine still in the surgical room in 46 of the 50 transplantations considered. In only 2 cases opioid was required for analgesia. In average, 3.1 doses of dipyrone were used for each patient during hospital stay, and hospital discharge occurred, in average, after 3.2 days post-operatively. Two patients required re-operations and one of them evolved to death. CONCLUSIONS: The laparoscopic nephrectomy in live donor for renal transplantation is an alternative to conventional open surgery. In relation to the graft, no alteration, either anatomic or functional, was detected. Though there is already a large documentation in the international literature regarding this procedure, in our setting a prospective randomized study with the usual surgical study is still necessary in order to prove the advantages and disadvantages of the method.

  5. Laparoscopic nephrectomy in live donor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitre Anuar I.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To present the initial experience of videolaparoscopic nephrectomy in live renal donor. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the period from April 2000 to August 2003, 50 left nephrectomies in live donor were performed by videolaparoscopy for transplantation. Twenty-eight patients were male (56% and 22 female (44%. Mean age was 37.2 years, and the mean body mass index (BMI was 27.1 kg/m². RESULTS: Mean surgical time was 179.5 minutes, and warm ischemia time of the graft was 3.79 minutes. The mean estimated bleeding was 141 mL. There was no need of blood transfusion or conversion to open surgery. In 42 cases (84%, the vascular portion of the graft was considered good by the recipient's surgical team and in all cases, the ureter was considered of proper size, though in one of them (2% its vascularization was considered improper. The transplanted kidneys produced urine still in the surgical room in 46 of the 50 transplantations considered. In only 2 cases opioid was required for analgesia. In average, 3.1 doses of dipyrone were used for each patient during hospital stay, and hospital discharge occurred, in average, after 3.2 days post-operatively. Two patients required re-operations and one of them evolved to death. CONCLUSIONS: The laparoscopic nephrectomy in live donor for renal transplantation is an alternative to conventional open surgery. In relation to the graft, no alteration, either anatomic or functional, was detected. Though there is already a large documentation in the international literature regarding this procedure, in our setting a prospective randomized study with the usual surgical study is still necessary in order to prove the advantages and disadvantages of the method.

  6. Recruitment of aged donor heart with pharmacological stress echo. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bombardini Tonino

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The heart transplant is a treatment of the heart failure, which is not responding to medications, and its efficiency is already proved: unfortunately, organ donation is a limiting step of this life-saving procedure. To counteract heart donor shortage, we should screen aged potential donor hearts for initial cardiomyopathy and functionally significant coronary artery disease. Donors with a history of cardiac disease are generally excluded. Coronary angiography is recommended for most male donors older than 45 years and female donors older than 50 years to evaluate coronary artery stenoses. A simpler way to screen aged potential donor hearts for initial cardiomyopathy and functionally significant coronary artery disease should be stress echocardiography. Case report A marginal donor (A 57 year old woman meeting legal requirements for brain death underwent a transesophageal (TE Dipyridamole stress echo (6 minutes accelerated protocol to rule out moderate or severe heart and coronary artery disease. Wall motion was normal at baseline and at peak stress (WMSI = 1 at baseline and peak stress, without signs of stress inducible ischemia. The pressure/volume ratio was 9.6 mmHg/ml/m2 at baseline, increasing to 14 mmHg/ml/m2 at peak stress, demonstrating absence of latent myocardial dysfunction. The marginal donor heart was transplanted to a recipient "marginal" for co-morbidity ( a 63 year old man with multiple myeloma and cardiac amyloidosis , chronic severe heart failure, NYHA class IV. Postoperative treatment and early immunosuppressant regimen were performed according to standard protocols. The transplanted heart was assessed normal for dimensions and ventricular function at transthoracic (TT echocardiography on post-transplant day 7. Coronary artery disease was ruled out at coronary angiography one month after transplant; left ventriculography showed normal global and segmental LV function of the transplanted heart. Conclusion For

  7. Human immunodeficiency virus test-seeking blood donors in a large blood bank in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    OpenAIRE

    Goncalez, T; Sabino, E; Sales, N; Chen, YH; D. Chamone; Busch, M.; Murphy, E; Custer, B; McFarland, W

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk behaviors are excluded from donation to reduce the risk of transfusion-transmitted infection. Persons donating to be tested for HIV may therefore deny risk behaviors. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A random sample of donors completed a survey on motivations, knowledge, and attitudes on the screening process. Donors were considered test seekers if they agreed with two statements "I think that blood donation is a good, fast, and anonym...

  8. Association of ABO and Rh Blood Groups to Blood-Borne Infections among Blood Donors in Tehran-Iran.

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Mohammadali; Aliakbar Pourfathollah

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV and syphilis infections in blood donors referred to Tehran Blood Transfusion Center (TBTC), and determine any association between blood groups and blood- borne infections between the years of 2005 and 2011. Methods This was a retrospective study conducted at TBTC. All of the donor serum samples were screened for HBV, HCV, HIV and syphilis by using third generation ELISA kits and RPR te...

  9. Breast Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Screening ... cancer screening: Cancer Screening Overview General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...

  10. Reactive donor notification: First error reported

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urvershi Kotwal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Donor notification and post-donation counseling is an essential role of blood bank. If a donor is reactive for any marker, the blood bank counselor, informs the donor and advices him/her to report to the blood bank for further counseling and management. The counselor at our blood bank informed a young female voluntary donor to be reactive for HIV both with ELISA as well as NAT. When the donor reported to blood bank, the repeat testing was negative and no history of high risk behavior could be elicited. The hospital information system (HIS records were checked again immediately for clarification and showed consistency with her demographic profile. But when her manual records and donor questionnaire were retrieved, showed information displayed in the HIS system was wrongly interpreted by the counselor. In this era of information technology being highly advanced, the role of manual record keeping is still the gold standard.

  11. Quality improvement in the care of live liver donors: implementation of the Designated Donor Nurse Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPointe Rudow, Dianne; Cabello, Charlotte C; Rivellini, Denise

    2010-12-01

    Publications on living donor liver transplant have focused on the medical aspects of donor selection, postoperative management, surgical procedures, and outcomes, but little attention has been given to the nursing implications for care of live liver donors during their inpatient stay. Donor advocates from various disciplines are involved during the initial education and evaluation, but most care after surgery is delivered by an inpatient medical team and bedside nursing staff who are not as familiar with the donor and concepts related to donor advocacy. In an effort to improve the overall donor experience and provide safe, high-quality care to patients undergoing elective partial hepatectomy, our academic medical center began a quality improvement project focused on improving the inpatient stay. Inpatient nursing standards and policies and procedures were developed to ensure that consistent care is delivered. However, the infrequency of living donor liver transplantation makes it nearly impossible to have all transplant program staff on a nursing unit be "experts" on donor care. Therefore, our center determined that, similar to the Independent Donor Advocacy Team, a transplant program needs live donor champions on the nursing unit to mirror the goals of the team. To that end, we developed the concept of the Designated Donor Nurse to care for and advocate for live liver donors during the inpatient stay and also to serve as a resource to their colleagues. PMID:21265291

  12. Clinical Practice Guidelines for Potential Donors Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roque Nodal Arruebarrena

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Clinical Practice Guidelines for Potential Donors Management. It has been defined as the patient in Glasgow coma with scale higher or equal to 8 who doesn´t present contradictions for transplant (possible donor and who has been diagnosed of encephalic death. This document reviews and updates concepts, lists indications and contraindications for different organs donation, clinical assessment of the donor and its treatment. It includes assessment guidelines focused on the most important aspects to be accomplished.

  13. Low hemoglobin deferral in blood donors

    OpenAIRE

    Mast, Alan E.

    2013-01-01

    Low hemoglobin deferral occurs in about 10% of attempted whole blood donations and commonly is a consequence of iron deficiency anemia. Pre-menopausal women often have iron deficiency anemia caused by menstruation and pregnancy and have low hemoglobin deferral on their first donation attempt. Frequent donors also develop iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia because blood donation removes a large amount of iron from the donor and the 56-day minimum inter-donation interval for donors in t...

  14. Clinical Practice Guidelines for Potential Donors Management

    OpenAIRE

    José Roque Nodal Arruebarrena; José Noel Marrero Rodríguez; Yenisey Quintero Menéndez; Aida M. Reyes Pérez; Julio Jova Dueñas

    2009-01-01

    Clinical Practice Guidelines for Potential Donors Management. It has been defined as the patient in Glasgow coma with scale higher or equal to 8 who doesn´t present contradictions for transplant (possible donor) and who has been diagnosed of encephalic death. This document reviews and updates concepts, lists indications and contraindications for different organs donation, clinical assessment of the donor and its treatment. It includes assessment guidelines focused on the most important aspect...

  15. Global Aid Allocation: Are Nordic Donors Different?

    OpenAIRE

    Gates, Scott; Hoeffler, Anke

    2004-01-01

    The Nordic development assistance programs have earned a reputation for commitment to human rights and democracy. Is the reputation deserved? We address this question by comparing how much aid donors give and to which recipient countries. Using a global panel data set, spanning the period 1980-99 and 91 recipient countries, we find that individual bilateral donors vary considerably from one another. Nordic aid distribution differs significantly from other bilateral aid donor patterns: Norway,...

  16. Donor Care in Intensive Care Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Erdoğan, Ayşen

    2013-01-01

    Organ transplantation has been increasing day by day. However, there has been still a huge discrepancy between the numbers of potential organ donor and patients candidate for transplant recipient. Therefore, it is most important to gain organ donor pool. A potential organ donor is defined by the presence of either brain death or a catastrophic injury to the brain. It is mandatory to retrieve organs that offer the greatest likelihood of successful outcomes for the recipients. This strategy nec...

  17. Bioethics of living donor liver transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, See-Ching; 陳詩正.

    2013-01-01

    Bioethics has been central to living donor liver transplantation (LDLT), which mandates a high recipient benefit and an acceptably low donor risk. The double equipoise imposes the contextual features of this already technically complex treatment. This research aimed at looking into key bioethical issues of LDLT in the light of the contemporary practice standards. In adult LDLT, in order to provide a partial graft of adequate size, donor right hepatectomy is often required. This procedure...

  18. Screening for Panic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conference & Education Membership Journal & Multimedia Resources Awards Consumers Screening for Panic Disorder Main navigation FAQs Screen Yourself Screening for Depression Screening for Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) ...

  19. Nucleic acid-amplification testing for hepatitis B in cornea donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornés, Maria Gema; Jiménez, Maria Angustias; Eisman, Marcela; Gómez Villagrán, Jose Luis; Villalba, Rafael

    2016-06-01

    Careful donor selection and implementation of tests of appropriate sensitivity and specificity are of paramount importance for minimizing the risk of transmitting infectious diseases from donors to corneal allograft recipients. Reported cases of viral transmission with corneal grafts are very unusual. Nevertheless potential virus transmission through the engraftment cannot be ruled out. According to European Guideline 2006/17/EC, screening for antibodies for Hepatitis B core antigen (anti HBc) is mandatory, and when this test is positive, some criteria must be established before using corneas. Despite the continuous progress in screening tests, donors carrying an occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) can cause transplant-transmitted hepatitis B. To date, Nucleic Acid Testing (NAT) is not an obligatory assay in corneal tissue setting neither in our country nor in the rest of European countries. Herein, we report three cornea donors that were rejected with the diagnosis of OBI through the testing of sensitive NAT and the serological profile of Hepatitis B virus. The aim of this report is to emphasize the need to include NAT in new reviews of EU Tissues and Cells Directives in order to increase level of security in tissue donation as well as not to reject a high number of donors with isolated profile of anti HBc in geographical areas with high prevalence of Hepatitis B, that could be rejected without a true criterion of Hepatitis B infection. PMID:26685699

  20. Living-donor liver transplantation: current perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobritto, Steven; Kato, Tomoaki; Emond, Jean

    2012-11-01

    The disparity between the number of available deceased liver donors and the number of patients awaiting transplantation continues to be an ongoing issue predisposing to death on the liver transplant waiting list. Deceased donor shortage strategies including the use of extended donor-criteria deceased donor grafts, split liver transplants, and organs harvested after cardiac death have fallen short of organ demand. Efforts to raise donor awareness are ongoing, but the course has been arduous to date. Living donor transplantation is a means to access an unlimited donor organ supply and offers potential advantages to deceased donation. Donor safety remains paramount demanding improvements and innovations in both the donor and recipient operations to ensure superior outcomes. The specialty operation is best preformed at centers with specific expertise and shuttling of select patients to these centers supported by third party payers is critical. Training future surgeons at centers with this specific experience can help disseminate this technology to improve local availability. Ongoing research in immunosuppression minimization, withdrawal and tolerance induction may make living donation a desired first-line operation rather than a necessary albeit less-desirable option. This chapter summarizes the progress of living liver donation and its potential applications. PMID:23397534

  1. [Kidney transplant from living donors in children?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginevri, Fabrizio; Dello Strologo, Luca; Guzzo, Isabella; Belingheri, Mirco; Ghio, Luciana

    2011-01-01

    A living-donor kidney transplant offers a child at the terminal stages of renal disease better functional recovery and quality of life than an organ from a deceased donor. Before starting the procedure for a living-donor transplant, however, it is necessary to establish if it is really safe. There are diseases, such as focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, atypical HUS and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis with dense deposits, for which living donation is not recommended given the high incidence of recurrence of the disease but also the frequent loss of the graft. Regarding the selection of the donor, an increased risk of acute rejection has been reported for donors older than 60-65 years and a worsening of the renal outcome if the donor's weight is equal to or less than the recipient's. Finally, it is necessary to take into consideration that complications may arise in the donor both in the perioperative period and in the long term. In conclusion, kidney transplant from a living donor is a natural choice within the pediatric setting. The parents, usually young and highly motivated to donate, are the ideal donors. However, although the risks associated with donation are minimal, they are not totally absent, and consequently it is mandatory to follow standardized procedures according to the guidelines issued by the Centro Nazionale Trapianti. PMID:21341241

  2. Historical perspective of living donor liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    See Ching Chan; Sheung Tat Fan

    2008-01-01

    Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has gone through its formative years and established as a legitimate treatment when a deceased donor liver graft is not timely or simply not available at all. Nevertheless,LDLT is characterized by its technical complexity and ethical controversy. These are the consequences of a single organ having to serve two subjects, the donor and the recipient, instantaneously. The transplant community has a common ground on assuring donor safety while achieving predictable recipient success. With this background, a reflection of the development of LDLT may be appropriate to direct future research and patient- care efforts on this life-saving treatment alternative.

  3. Comparison of deferral rates using a computerized versus written blood donor questionnaire: a randomized, cross-over study [ISRCTN84429599

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bourque Ronald

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-administered computer-assisted blood donor screening strategies may elicit more accurate responses and improve the screening process. Methods Randomized crossover trial comparing responses to questions on a computerized hand-held tool (HealthQuiz, or HQ, to responses on the standard written instrument (Donor Health Assessment Questionnaire, or DHAQ. Randomly selected donors at 133 blood donation clinics in the area of Hamilton, Canada participated from 1995 to 1996. Donors were randomized to complete either the HQ or the DHAQ first, followed by the other instrument. In addition to responses of 'yes' and 'no' on both questionnaires, the HQ provided a response option of 'not sure'. The primary outcome was the number of additional donors deferred by the HQ. Results A total of 1239 donors participated. Seventy-one potential donors were deferred as a result of responses to the questionnaires; 56.3% (40/71 were deferred by the DHAQ, and an additional 43.7% (31/71 were deferred due to risks identified by the HQ but not by the DHAQ. Fourteen donors self-deferred; 11 indicated on the HQ that they should not donate blood on that day but did not use the confidential self-exclusion option on the DHAQ, and three used the self-exclusion option on the DHAQ but did not indicate that they should not donate blood on the HQ. The HQ identified a blood contact or risk factor for HIV/AIDS or sexually transmitted infection that was not identified by the DHAQ in 0.1% to 2.7% of donors. Conclusion A self-administered computerized questionnaire may increase risk reporting by blood donors.

  4. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... patient’s abdomen and you can see what we call “trochars.” These are instruments placed into the abdominal ... bottom of the screen. We’re dividing what’s call the “peritoneum,” which is the lining of the ...

  5. Imaging evaluation of potential donors in living-donor liver transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liver transplants, originally obtained from deceased donors, can now be harvested from living donors as well. This technique, called living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT), provides an effective alternative means of liver transplantation and is a method of expanding the donor pool in light of the demand and supply imbalance for organ transplants. Imaging plays an important role in LDLT programmes by providing robust evaluation of potential donors to ensure that only anatomically suitable donors with no significant co-existing pathology are selected and that crucial information that allows detailed preoperative planning is available. Imaging evaluation helps to improve the outcome of LDLT for both donors and recipients, by improving the chances of graft survival and reducing the postoperative complication rate. In this review, we describe the history of LDLT and discuss in detail the application of imaging in donor assessment with emphasis on use of modern computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques

  6. Imaging evaluation of potential donors in living-donor liver transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, G. [Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, University of Alberta Hospital (Canada)], E-mail: timgy@yahoo.com; Wiebe, E. [Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, University of Alberta Hospital (Canada); Walji, A.H. [Division of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Alberta (Canada); Bigam, D.L. [Department of Surgery, University of Alberta Hospital (Canada)

    2008-02-15

    Liver transplants, originally obtained from deceased donors, can now be harvested from living donors as well. This technique, called living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT), provides an effective alternative means of liver transplantation and is a method of expanding the donor pool in light of the demand and supply imbalance for organ transplants. Imaging plays an important role in LDLT programmes by providing robust evaluation of potential donors to ensure that only anatomically suitable donors with no significant co-existing pathology are selected and that crucial information that allows detailed preoperative planning is available. Imaging evaluation helps to improve the outcome of LDLT for both donors and recipients, by improving the chances of graft survival and reducing the postoperative complication rate. In this review, we describe the history of LDLT and discuss in detail the application of imaging in donor assessment with emphasis on use of modern computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques.

  7. Hypertension screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulke, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    An attempt was made to measure the response to an announcement of hypertension screening at the Goddard Space Center, to compare the results to those of previous statistics. Education and patient awareness of the problem were stressed.

  8. Airport Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ionizing radiation for security screening individuals [online]. Health Physics Society Position Statement. 2009. Available at http: / / hps. org/ documents/ securityscreening_ ps017- 1. pdf. Accessed 7 January 2011. Interagency Steering Committee on ...

  9. Donor Retention in Online Crowdfunding Communities: A Case Study of DonorsChoose.org

    OpenAIRE

    Althoff, Tim; Leskovec, Jure

    2015-01-01

    Online crowdfunding platforms like DonorsChoose.org and Kickstarter allow specific projects to get funded by targeted contributions from a large number of people. Critical for the success of crowdfunding communities is recruitment and continued engagement of donors. With donor attrition rates above 70%, a significant challenge for online crowdfunding platforms as well as traditional offline non-profit organizations is the problem of donor retention. We present a large-scale study of millions ...

  10. Donor-Derived Myeloid Sarcoma in Two Kidney Transplant Recipients from a Single Donor

    OpenAIRE

    Amudha Palanisamy; Paul Persad; Koty, Patrick P.; Douglas, Laurie L.; Stratta, Robert J.; Jeffrey Rogers; Reeves-Daniel, Amber M.; Giuseppe Orlando; Farney, Alan C; Beaty, Michael W.; Pettenati, Mark J.; Iskandar, Samy S.; Grier, David D; Scott A. Kaczmorski; Doares, William H.

    2015-01-01

    We report the rare occurrence of donor-derived myeloid sarcoma in two kidney transplant patients who received organs from a single deceased donor. There was no evidence of preexisting hematologic malignancy in the donor at the time of organ recovery. Both recipients developed leukemic involvement that appeared to be limited to the transplanted organ. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and molecular genotyping analyses confirmed that the malignant cells were of donor origin in each pati...

  11. [Liver transplants from living donors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogiers, X; Danninger, F; Malagó, M; Knoefel, W T; Gundlach, M; Bassas, A; Burdelski, M; Broelsch, C E

    1996-03-01

    In this article the authors discuss the advantages of Living Related Liver Transplantation (LRLT), criteria for the selection of donors and the standard operation technique. Among a total of 241 liver transplantation (LTx), 42 LRLT were performed at the University of Hamburg between October 1, 1991 and December 19, 1994. The body weight of recipients for LRLT ranged from 4,6 to 39 kg, with 64,2% having less than 10 kg. The volume of the donor left lateral liver lobe ranged from 100 cc to 350 cc. The average one year survival rate among electively operated patients-status 3-4 (UNOS 1995 classification) was 86.7%, two year survival rate 83.3%. The main advantages of LRLT are consired the following: 1. Absence of mortality on the waiting list, 2. Optimal timing of the transplantation (elective procedure, patient in a good condition), 3. Excellent organ (no primary non function), 4. A possible immunologic advantage, 5. Relief of the waiting list for cadaveric organs, 6. Psychological benefit for the family, 7. Cost effectiveness. Potential candidates for living donation with more than one cardiovascular risk factors were excluded. Social and psychological reasons leading to rejection of candidates were as follows: unstable family structure, expected professional or financial difficulties after living donation or withdrawal from consent. LRLT gives parents of a child with TLD a chance to avoid the risk of death on the waiting list or primary non function of the graft. LRLT has therefore established an important place in pediatric liver transplantation. PMID:8768973

  12. Donor profiles: demographic factors and their influence on the donor career

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuizen, I.J.T.; Doggen, C.J.M.; Atsma, F.; Kort, de W.L.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives  Studying the contribution of demographic factors to the donor career provides important knowledge to be used for donor management. The aim of this study is to gain insight into donor characteristics, more specifically into the demographic profile of active vs. resigned don

  13. Effect of donor GFR on early renal function of recipients with living donor transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯敬财

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the influence of donor GFR on the early renal function in recipients undergoing living donor transplantation. Methods A total of 172 living donor transplant recipients in our kidney transplantation center from 2006 to 2011 were enrolled into this study. Among them,166 were genetically related

  14. Unusual serological response to hepatitis E virus in plasma donors consistent with re-infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylis, S A; Crossan, C; Corman, V M; Blümel, J; Scobie, L; Dalton, H R

    2015-11-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV)-positive plasma donations, identified by a plasma mini-pool screening approach, were analysed using serological methods for the presence of anti-HEV IgM and IgG. Avidity testing was performed on the IgG-reactive donations. Anti-HEV IgG with high avidity was observed in two donors together with high viral loads, but with the absence of anti-HEV IgM. These data are suggestive of re-infection in a small proportion of plasma donors, which has not previously been reported. PMID:26031310

  15. Prevalence of HIV among blood donors in a tertiary care centre of north India

    OpenAIRE

    R N Makroo; Chowdhry, Mohit; Bhatia, Aakanksha; Arora, Bhavna; N L Rosamma

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: India has the second highest HIV population in the world with about 2.5-3.0 million cases. HIV-2 cases among general and blood donor population have also been reported mostly from west and south India. This single centre study was carried out to observe the HIV-1 and HIV-2 prevalence among blood donors from north India. Methods: A total of 2,04,677 people were screened for the presence of HIV infection over the 11 year period (1999 to 2009). Till 2004, a third generat...

  16. Radio Immuno Assay (RIA) for detection of hepatitis B virus in blood donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepatitis B is a blood-borne viral disease which affects more than 250 million people world-wide, mostly in the third world. The disease can cause fatal liver cancer in adult life, if infected when young. This deals with the laboratory techniques used in the detection of hepatitis B virus of the donor blood. Natural blood transfusion service of Sri Lanka screens the hepatitis B surface antigen using the RIA technique to find out whether the normal healthy donors without a history of hepatitis are infected with hepatitis B virus

  17. Screening Donated Blood for Transfusion Transmitted Infections by Serology along with NAT and Response Rate to Notification of Reactive Results: An Indian Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaurasia, Rahul; Zaman, Shamsuz; Das, Bankim; Chatterjee, Kabita

    2014-01-01

    Background. Transfusion safety begins with healthy donors. A fundamental part of preventing transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs) is to notify and counsel reactive donors. Donor notification and counselling protect the health of the donor and prevent secondary transmission of infectious diseases. Methods. 113,014 donations were screened for TTIs, namely, HIV, HBV, HCV, and syphilis, by serology and nucleic acid testing. All reactive donors were retested (wherever possible) and notified of their status by telephone or letter. All initial reactive screens were followed over six months. Results. We evaluated 2,838 (2.51%) cases with reactive screening test results (1.38% HBV, 0.54% HCV, 0.27% HIV, and 0.32% syphilis). Only 23.3% of donors (662) responded to notification. The response among voluntary donors was better as compared to the replacement donors (43.6% versus 21.2%). Only 373 (56.3%) responsive donors followed their first attendance at referral specialties. Over six months, only 176 of 662 (26.6%) reactive donors received treatment. Conclusion. Our study shed light on the importance of proper donor counselling and notification of TTI status to all reactive donors who opt to receive this information. There is also an urgent need to formulate the nationally acceptable guidelines for notification and follow-up of reactive donors. PMID:25485163

  18. Screening Donated Blood for Transfusion Transmitted Infections by Serology along with NAT and Response Rate to Notification of Reactive Results: An Indian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Chaurasia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Transfusion safety begins with healthy donors. A fundamental part of preventing transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs is to notify and counsel reactive donors. Donor notification and counselling protect the health of the donor and prevent secondary transmission of infectious diseases. Methods. 113,014 donations were screened for TTIs, namely, HIV, HBV, HCV, and syphilis, by serology and nucleic acid testing. All reactive donors were retested (wherever possible and notified of their status by telephone or letter. All initial reactive screens were followed over six months. Results. We evaluated 2,838 (2.51% cases with reactive screening test results (1.38% HBV, 0.54% HCV, 0.27% HIV, and 0.32% syphilis. Only 23.3% of donors (662 responded to notification. The response among voluntary donors was better as compared to the replacement donors (43.6% versus 21.2%. Only 373 (56.3% responsive donors followed their first attendance at referral specialties. Over six months, only 176 of 662 (26.6% reactive donors received treatment. Conclusion. Our study shed light on the importance of proper donor counselling and notification of TTI status to all reactive donors who opt to receive this information. There is also an urgent need to formulate the nationally acceptable guidelines for notification and follow-up of reactive donors.

  19. The evaluation of iron deficiency and anemia in male blood donors with other related factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousefinejad Vahid

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Background: Iron deficiency is one of the most common nutritional disorders worldwide and blood donation may cause iron depletion. Limited studies with large sample size have been done on male donors. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia among male donors in the Kurdistan Organization of Blood Transfusion in Iran. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. Sample size was 1184 blood donors selected by systematic random sampling. Hemoglobin, serum iron, serum ferritin, total iron banding capacity (TIBC and transferin saturation were measured in donors. Iron depletion, lack of iron stores, iron deficiency, iron deficiency anemia and anemia were evaluated among them. Data was analyzed with SPSS software and X΂, one-way ANOVA, and LSD test. Results: Iron deficiency, anemia, iron deficiency anemia, iron depletion and lack of iron resources were seen in 2.3, 4.08, 2.14, 22.76 and 4.66 percent respectively. There was a significant relationship of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia with instances of donation and interval from last donation (P < 0.05. A significant relationship was seen between iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia among blood donors with more than ten times blood donation (P < 0.05. Conclusions: This study showed regular male donors require especial attention. Therefore, serum ferritin is recommended as a more adequate index to use for iron deficiency screening and planning purposes for iron supplementation among them.

  20. Longterm clinical and radiological follow-up of living liver donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish Murad, Sarwa; Fidler, Jeff L; Poterucha, John J; Sanchez, William; Jowsey, Sheila G; Nagorney, David; Rosen, Charles B; Heimbach, Julie K

    2016-07-01

    Although short-term risks of living donor hepatectomy have been well defined, little is known about the longterm impact. We aimed to perform a systematic follow-up to screen for unanticipated health consequences of liver donation. All donors who were more than 1 year from donation were invited for a systematic evaluation including physical and laboratory assessment, quality of life questionnaire, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP). Those unable to return were offered the questionnaire and laboratory assessment at home. Out of our total of 97 donors, 45 returned for a full assessment and 23 completed labs and survey locally (total n = 68; 70%) after a median of 5.5 years (1.5-10.9 years) after donation. The only laboratory abnormality was a significant decrease in platelet count (median 198 ×10(9) /L versus 224 ×10(9) /L before donation; P bowel habits. Seven donors (11%) reported problems obtaining insurance. The vast majority (97%) would have donated again. In conclusion, longterm outcome following liver donation appears satisfactory. None of our donors have developed occult biliary strictures, failure of regeneration, abnormal liver function, or other important health consequences after a median of 5.5 years from surgery. These findings can be used when counseling potential donors in the future. Liver Transplantation 22 934-942 2016 AASLD. PMID:27144969

  1. Risk Factors for Hepatitis C Virus Infection among Blood Donors in Georgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Growing awareness about the importance of blood safety for controlling the transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV) has helped to decrease the spread of this virus in many settings. This study was conducted in order to evaluate potential risk factors for HCV infection among blood donors in Georgia. Methods: The study population consisted of 553 blood donors in three major Georgian cities; Tbilisi, the capital city and Batumi and Poti, naval port cities. Risk factors were examined using a behavior questionnaire. All blood samples were initially tested using 3rd generation anti-HCV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and confirmed using recombinant immunoblot assays and nucleic acid testing. Results: Forty-three blood donors, 7.8%, were confirmed HCV positive. Significant risk factors included: drug injection ever (OR: 42; 95% CI: 3.2-550.7); history of hepatitis (OR: 25.9; 95% CI: 4.6-145.5); history of a previous surgical procedure (OR: 148.4; 95% CI: 26.9-817.4); blood transfusion (OR: 25.9; 95% CI: 3.2-210.9). Conclusions: This study found a very high prevalence of HCV among blood donors in Georgia. The main risk factor for HCV infection in this population of blood donors was previous contact with contaminated blood or blood products. Reliable screening of donors and their blood is critical for controlling the further spread of HCV in Georgia

  2. Renal Function Recovery in Donors and Recipients after Live Donor Nephrectomy: Hand-Assisted Laparoscopic vs. Open Procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Bum Soo; Yoo, Eun Sang; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Kwon, Tae Gyun

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy is associated with less postoperative pain and faster recovery times in living kidney donors. However, pneumoperitoneum, which is required in laparoscopic donor nephrectomy, can result in adverse effects on renal function in donors and recipients. We compared renal function in donors and recipients after hand-assisted laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (HALDN) and open donor nephrectomy (ODN). Materials and Methods Between January 1997 and January 2008, 241 ...

  3. HCC screening; HCC-Screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, T. [Charite-Unversitaetsmedizin,Freie Universitaet und Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Klinik und Hochschulambulanz fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin,Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin (Germany)

    2008-01-15

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most frequently diagnosed tumour diseases throughout the world. In the vast majority of cases those affected are high-risk patients with chronic viral hepatitis and/or liver cirrhosis, which means there is a clearly identifiable target group for HCC screening. With resection, transplantation, and interventional procedures for local ablation, following early diagnosis curative treatment options are available with which 5-year survival rates of over 60% can be reached. Such early diagnosis is a reality only in a minority of patients, however, and in the majority of cases the disease is already in an advanced stage at diagnosis. One of the objects of HCC screening is diagnosis in an early stage when curative treatment is still possible. Precisely this is achieved by screening, so that the proportion of patients treated with curative intent is decisively higher. There is not yet any clear evidence as to whether this leads to a lowering of the mortality of HCC. As lower mortality is the decisive indicator of success for a screening programme the benefit of HCC screening has so far been neither documented nor refuted. Nonetheless, in large regions of the world it is the practice for high-risk patients to undergo HCC screening in the form of twice-yearly ultrasound examination and determination of AFP. (orig.) [German] Das hepatozellulaere Karzinom (HCC) ist eine der weltweit haeufigsten Tumorerkrankungen. Es tritt in der grossen Mehrzahl der Faelle bei Hochrisikopatienten mit chronischer Virushepatitis bzw. Leberzirrhose auf, woraus sich eine klar identifizierbare Zielgruppe fuer das HCC-Screening ergibt. Mit der Resektion, der Transplantation und interventionellen lokal ablativen Verfahren stehen bei rechtzeitiger Diagnosestellung kurative Therapieoptionen zur Verfuegung, die 5-Jahres-Ueberlebensraten von >60% erreichen. Diese rechtzeitige Diagnosestellung erfolgt jedoch nur bei einer Minderzahl der Patienten, waehrend die

  4. The value of living donor liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoli; Gong, Junhua; Gong, JianPing

    2012-12-31

    Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is a very successful procedure that develops liver resources in case of worldwide shortages. As the technology has developed so much in the past 2 decades, LDLT has the same good prognosis as DDLT. However, LDLT still has lots of ethical & technical problems. It causes great psychiatric, physical and psychosocial harm to donors. Also, it has some negative effects on society by providing a platform for organ trade. Therefore, there is much controversy about the social value of LDLT. After review of recent papers, we find much progress can be made in inspiring the public to become organ donors and creating donation model new to improve the consent rate for solid organ donation from deceased donors. That is the key strategy for increasing the liver supply. With this serious shortage of organs, liver donor transplantation still has its advantages, but we should not place all our hopes on LDLT to increase the liver supply. We all need to try our best to increase donor awareness and promote organ donor registration--when cadaver organs could meet the needs for liver transplantation, living donor liver transplants would not be necessary. PMID:23274332

  5. Payment for donor kidneys: pros and cons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, E A; Friedman, A L

    2006-03-01

    Continuous growth of the end stage renal disease population treated by dialysis, outpaces deceased donor kidneys available, lengthens the waiting time for a deceased donor transplant. As estimated by the United States Department of Health & Human Services: '17 people die each day waiting for transplants that can't take place because of the shortage of donated organs.' Strategies to expand the donor pool--public relations campaigns and Drivers' license designation--have been mainly unsuccessful. Although illegal in most nations, and viewed as unethical by professional medical organizations, the voluntary sale of purchased donor kidneys now accounts for thousands of black market transplants. The case for legalizing kidney purchase hinges on the key premise that individuals are entitled to control of their body parts even to the point of inducing risk of life. One approach to expanding the pool of kidney donors is to legalize payment of a fair market price of about 40,000 dollars to donors. Establishing a federal agency to manage marketing and purchase of donor kidneys in collaboration with the United Network for Organ Sharing might be financially self-sustaining as reduction in costs of dialysis balances the expense of payment to donors. PMID:16482095

  6. Normothermic machine perfusion for donor liver preservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolboom, H.

    2012-01-01

    Currently, liver transplantation is the only treatment for end-stage liver failure. Unfortunately, a sever shortage of donor organs causes significant mortality amongst patients awaiting transplantation. The donor organ shortage could be alleviated by using organs that are normally not accepted for

  7. Potential organ donor audit in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hegarty, M

    2010-11-01

    As increasing demand for organs is a challenge for transplant services worldwide it is essential to audit the process of organ donation. To address this, a national audit of potential organ donors was undertaken across hospitals with Intensive Care Units (N = 36). Questionnaires were returned on all patients (n = 2073) who died in these units from 1\\/9\\/07-31\\/8\\/08; 200 (10%) of these patients were considered for Brain Stem Testing (BST), 158 patients (79%) were diagnosed Brain Stem Dead (BSD) and 138 patients (87%) became potential donors. Consent for donation was given by 92 (69%) next of kin and 90 potential donors (65%) became organ donors. There was no evidence of a large number of potential organ donors being missed. Recommendations included completion of BSTs on all appropriate patients, development of support on BST, referral of all BSD patients to the Organ Procurement Service; enhanced co-ordination within hospitals and sustained information\\/education campaigns.

  8. PATHOMORPHOLOGY OF ZERO BIOPSIES OF DONOR KIDNEYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Arefjev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is well known fact that kidney transplants from Extended Criteria Donors may increase risk of De- layed Graft Function and Primary Non-Function of transplants. We have collected and tested 65 «zero» kidney biopsies from cadaver donors aged from 19 to 71 years old. In the pool of elderly donors who died from cerebrovascular accident the frequency of nephrosclerosis presentation was higher than in donors of yonger age who died from craniocephalic trauma. Nevertheless in the general donor pool the number of sclerosed glomeruli was no more than 12%. We did not meet at all in the whole volume of material any bi- opsy with the severe degree of arteriosclerosis. The «zero» biopsies of cadaver kidneys is quite usable and unexpensive tool to measure the degree of nephrosclerosis in order to exclude kidneys which are not fitable for transplantation. 

  9. Trends in Transfusion Transmitted Infections Among Replacement Blood Donors in Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Mohammad Irfan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of Hepatitis-B, Hepatitis-C and Human Immunodeficiency infections in replacement blood donors. METHODS: From January 2004 to December 2011, 108,598 apparently healthy donors donated blood at our Blood Bank. Screening was done by Microparticle Enzyme Immuno Assay (MEIA method on Axsym System (Abbott Diagnostic, USA and in year 2011 by Chemiluminescent Immunoassay (CIA method on Architect i2000 (Abbott Diagnostic, USA. From 2010 onward, HIV reactive donors were advised for confirmatory tests and reported back with the results. RESULTS: Of the 108,598 total donors, 108,393 (99.8% were replacement donors with a mean age of 28.92 (17-55 years. Of this, only 164 (0.15% were females. Among the replacement donors, 4,906 (4.5% were found to be reactive for Hepatitis-B, C and Human Immunodeficiency Virus. All the reactive patients, except one, were males. HbsAg was positive in 2,068 (1.90% and anti-HCV in 2832 (2.61% donors, while 111 (0.10% were positive for Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Co-infectivity was observed in 103 (0.09% cases. The prevalence appeared to be higher in younger age group (17-30 yrs. Only 16.6% cases should be patients returned with results of the confirmatory tests for HIV and were found positive. CONCLUSION: Hepatitis-B and C sero-prevalence in our series of replacement donors appears high compared to most studies from neighboring countries and relatively low in comparison to earlier studies from Pakistan. Prevalence of HIV, however, appears low and turn out of HIV positive cases for confirmatory tests is low.

  10. Carotid Artery Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Carotid Artery Screening What is carotid artery screening? Who should consider ... about carotid artery screening? What is carotid artery screening? Screening examinations are tests performed to find disease ...

  11. Preconception Carrier Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Preconception Carrier Screening Home For Patients Search FAQs Preconception Carrier Screening ... Screening FAQ179, August 2012 PDF Format Preconception Carrier Screening Pregnancy What is preconception carrier screening? What is ...

  12. Screening for Specific Phobias

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Screening for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Screening for Social Anxiety Disorder Screening for Specific Phobias Screening for an Anxiety Disorder: Children Screening for an Anxiety Disorder: Family Member Self- ...

  13. TRENDS AND PREVALENCE OF INFECTIOUS MARKERS AMONG BLOOD DONORS FROM BLOOD BANK OF A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Kumbhar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY: Blood transfusion services form an integral part of health care; but simultaneously carries the risk of transmission of transfusion transmissible infections. We conducted a 5yr retrospective cross sectional study to estimate the prevalence of various infectious markers in the blood donors which was found to be 2.04%. INTRODUCTION : Blood safety is a major concern among health care personnel. We undertook this study to assess the prevalence of transfusion transmissible infections (TTI's namely - HIV, Hepatitis C, Syphilis and Malaria among blood donors from blood bank of a tertiary care hospital, in Western Maharashtra, India. METHODS : A total of 21,293 blood units were collected from donors. All blood units were screened for HIV, HBs Ag and HCV using ELISA. Test for syphilis was done by Rapid Plasma Reagin card test and peripheral smear examination was done to detect malarial parasite. RESULTS : A total of 21,293 blood donors were tested, of which 19,940 (93.65% were voluntary donors and 1,353 (6.35% were replacement donors. The highest seroprevalence observed was for HBs Ag (1.55% followed by HIV (0.38%, HCV (0.08% and Syphilis (0.02%. No donor was found to be positive for malaria parasite. CONCLUSION : Strategies need to be implemented to improve donor selection, using highly sensitive and specific screening tests and a better structured voluntary donation system. Nucleic acid amplification test would help to detect donors in window period for HIV infection. In view of high prevalence, effective community based programs and health education with emphasis on sexually transmitted diseases may prove helpful to decrease the seroprevalence.

  14. Luminescent screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luminescent screens which are useful for such purposes as intensifying screens for radiographs are comprised of a support bearing a layer of finely divided particles of a phosphor dispersed in a cross-linked polymeric matrix formed by heat-curing of a coating composition comprising an unsaturated cross-linkable polymer, a polymerizable acrylic monomer, a thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer, and a heat-activatable polymerization initiator. The phosphor layer includes voids formed by evaporation of an evaporable component which is present in the coating composition from which such layer is formed. (author)

  15. Donor research in australia: challenges and promise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masser, Barbara; Smith, Geoff; Williams, Lisa A

    2014-07-01

    Donors are the key to the core business of Blood Collection Agencies (BCAs). However, historically, they have not been a focus of research undertaken by these organizations. This model is now changing, with significant donor research groups established in a number of countries, including Australia. Donor research in the Australian Red Cross Blood Service (Blood Service) is concentrated in the Donor and Community Research (DCR) team. Cognizant of the complex and ever-changing landscape with regard to optimal donor management, the DCR team collaborates with academics located at universities around Australia to coordinate a broad program of research that addresses both short- and-long term challenges to the blood supply. This type of collaboration is not, however, without challenges. Two major collaborative programs of the Blood Service's research, focusing on i) the recruitment and retention of plasmapheresis donors and ii) the role of the emotion pride in donor motivation and return, are showcased to elucidate how the challenges of conducting collaborative BCA research can be met. In so doing, these and the other research programs described herein demonstrate how the Blood Service supports and contributes to research that not only revises operational procedures but also contributes to advances in basic science. PMID:25254025

  16. Hearing Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Curiskis, Nanette

    2012-01-01

    Hearing levels are threatened by modern life--headsets for music, rock concerts, traffic noises, etc. It is crucial we know our hearing levels so that we can draw attention to potential problems. This exercise requires that students receive a hearing screening for their benefit as well as for making the connection of hearing to listening.

  17. Living donor liver transplantation in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwan, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    In Egypt there is no doubt that chronic liver diseases are a major health concern. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence among the 15−59 years age group is estimated to be 14.7%. The high prevalence of chronic liver diseases has led to increasing numbers of Egyptian patients suffering from end stage liver disease (ESLD), necessitating liver transplantation (LT). We reviewed the evolution of LT in Egypt and the current status. A single center was chosen as an example to review the survival and mortality rates. To date, deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT) has not been implemented in any program though Egyptian Parliament approved the law in 2010. Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) seemed to be the only logical choice to save many patients who are in desperate need for LT. By that time, there was increase in number of centers doing LDLT (13 centers) and increase in number of LDLT cases [2,400] with improvement of the results. Donor mortality rate is 1.66 per 1,000 donors; this comprised four donors in the Egyptian series. The exact recipient survival is not accurately known however, and the one-year, three-year and five-year survival were 73.17%, 70.83% and 64.16% respectively in the International Medical Center (IMC) in a series of 145 adult to adult living donor liver transplantation (AALDLT) cases. There was no donor mortality in this series. LDLT are now routinely and successfully performed in Egypt with reasonable donor and recipient outcomes. Organ shortage remains the biggest hurdle facing the increasing need for LT. Although LDLT had reasonable outcomes, it carries considerable risks to healthy donors. For example, it lacks cadaveric back up, and is not feasible for all patients. The initial success in LDLT should drive efforts to increase the people awareness about deceased organ donation in Egypt. PMID:27115003

  18. Living donor liver transplantation in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Khaled E; Marwan, Ibrahim

    2016-04-01

    In Egypt there is no doubt that chronic liver diseases are a major health concern. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence among the 15-59 years age group is estimated to be 14.7%. The high prevalence of chronic liver diseases has led to increasing numbers of Egyptian patients suffering from end stage liver disease (ESLD), necessitating liver transplantation (LT). We reviewed the evolution of LT in Egypt and the current status. A single center was chosen as an example to review the survival and mortality rates. To date, deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT) has not been implemented in any program though Egyptian Parliament approved the law in 2010. Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) seemed to be the only logical choice to save many patients who are in desperate need for LT. By that time, there was increase in number of centers doing LDLT (13 centers) and increase in number of LDLT cases [2,400] with improvement of the results. Donor mortality rate is 1.66 per 1,000 donors; this comprised four donors in the Egyptian series. The exact recipient survival is not accurately known however, and the one-year, three-year and five-year survival were 73.17%, 70.83% and 64.16% respectively in the International Medical Center (IMC) in a series of 145 adult to adult living donor liver transplantation (AALDLT) cases. There was no donor mortality in this series. LDLT are now routinely and successfully performed in Egypt with reasonable donor and recipient outcomes. Organ shortage remains the biggest hurdle facing the increasing need for LT. Although LDLT had reasonable outcomes, it carries considerable risks to healthy donors. For example, it lacks cadaveric back up, and is not feasible for all patients. The initial success in LDLT should drive efforts to increase the people awareness about deceased organ donation in Egypt. PMID:27115003

  19. Interventional radiology in living donor liver transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu-Fan; Ou, Hsin-You; Yu, Chun-Yen; Tsang, Leo Leung-Chit; Huang, Tung-Liang; Chen, Tai-Yi; Hsu, Hsien-Wen; Concerjero, Allan M; Wang, Chih-Chi; Wang, Shih-Ho; Lin, Tsan-Shiun; Liu, Yueh-Wei; Yong, Chee-Chien; Lin, Yu-Hung; Lin, Chih-Che; Chiu, King-Wah; Jawan, Bruno; Eng, Hock-Liew; Chen, Chao-Long

    2014-01-01

    The shortage of deceased donor liver grafts led to the use of living donor liver transplant (LDLT). Patients who undergo LDLT have a higher risk of complications than those who undergo deceased donor liver transplantation (LT). Interventional radiology has acquired a key role in every LT program by treating the majority of vascular and non-vascular post-transplant complications, improving graft and patient survival and avoiding, in the majority of cases, surgical revision and/or re-transplant. The aim of this paper is to review indications, diagnostic modalities, technical considerations, achievements and potential complications of interventional radiology procedures after LDLT. PMID:24876742

  20. Donor policy rules and aid effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars

    2008-01-01

    The present paper examines the macroeconomic impact of aid, by introducing endogenous aid allocations into a neoclassical growth framework. On this basis it is shown that donor policies can have important implications for the trajectory of recipients' GDP per capita. Depending on specific donor...... policy choices, aid disbursements may lead to faster transitional growth, stagnation or cyclical growth. Moreover, the analysis also suggests that donor policies may be part of the reason why foreign aid is not found to be uniformly effective in raising long-run productivity across recipients...

  1. Iron Status in Norwegian Blood Donors

    OpenAIRE

    Røsvik, Anne Synnøve

    2010-01-01

    Background and aims: Blood banks in Norway struggle to close the gap between need and supply of blood. The overall objective of this study was to investigate the iron status in blood donors. The aims of this thesis were first to compare the iron status in new blood donors in 1993-97 and in 2005-06, to describe possible changes in iron status. To describe the effect of four consecutive blood donations without iron supplementation for newly recruited donors was the second aim. Th...

  2. Seroprevalence of transfusion transmissible infections among blood donors at the blood bank of a Medical College of Kolkata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanta Ray Karmakar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Seroprevalence of transfusion transmissible infections (TTIs among blood donors can be used to monitor the prevalence among apparently healthy adult population. The present study was conducted to determine the profile of blood donors and seroprevalence of TTI among them. Retrospective analysis of the donors of a blood bank attached with a tertiary care hospital of Kolkata in 2011 was carried out. Data were analyzed with SPSS version 17. Majority (85% of the donors were male, two-third in the age group of 21-40 years. Among the donors 2.79% were positive for any of the screened TTIs. Seroprevalence was highest for hepatitis B (1.41% followed by human immunodeficiency virus (0.60% and hepatitis C (0.59% and least for syphilis (0.23%. Seropositivity increased with age up to 50 years. There was no significant difference in seropositivity between male and female. Highly sensitive donor screening and public awareness program can make transfusion of blood products safe.

  3. Hepatitis B core antibody in blood donor in sistan-balutuestan province of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Sanei Moghaddam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Safety of blood donor is an important issue for a recipient of blood so all blood donors are to screened for viral such as HBV, HCV, and HIV. Nevertheless, infections sometime occur by blood and its products. Objective: Because we haven′t got any awareness about isolated Hbc Ab from a blood donor who presented of occults B hepatitis which can transmit infection to blood recipient, we decided to evaluate HbcAb in a blood donor in this province. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study on a blood donor in Sistan-Balutuestan province in southeast of Iran in 2010. All individuals referred for blood donation recruited to this. After consent demographic data was recorded from each case, 5 ml blood sample was drawn and centrifuged to separate out the serum and then HbsAb, HbcAb was assayed. Data analyzed by SPSS 16 and frequency, chi- square test, and Fisher exact test was used and if P > 0.05 it was accented as significant association. Result: All individuals were men with age 55 10.5 years. The number of people who had free job was 149 (34.6% and the number of people whose education level was diploma was 159 (36.9%. About 423 (98.1% lived in urban areas. The mean weight of men was 76.6 13.7; about 259 (60.1% men were married. A total of 22 (5.1% had a positive smoking history. HBc Ab was positive in 87 (20.2%. Nearly all people had HBsAb titer more than 10 IU/L. Conclusion:This study showed that some of the blood donors had isolated HbcAb positive therefore we recommend HbcAb screening for blood donation.

  4. Hemodynamic Changes in Blood Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rafiei

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Everyday, millions of people around the world go through phlebotomy, either to donate blood or for therapeutic intention. The most important worrisome adverse effects are hemodynamic alterations. In this study, hemodynamic changes following blood donation were assessed. Methods & Materials: Three hundred laborers who donated blood voluntarily were enrolled in this study. Blood pressure (BP and pulse rate were measured before the procedure, ten minutes afterwards, and one week following phlebotomy. Hemoglobin (Hgb and hematocrit (Hct were also determined prior to and one week after phlebotomy. Finally, results before and after donation were compared with each other. Results: 242 volunteers had normal BP and 58 were hypertensive. The mean systolic blood pressures (SBP before phlebotomy, ten minutes after the procedure, and one week later were 120, 117, and 122 mmHg, respectively. During the same periods of time, the mean of diastolic blood pressures (DBP were 77 , 78 and 78 mmHg , in order , while pulse rates on average were 80 , 82 and 76 beats/minute . None of the aforementioned changes were clinically significant. After one week, Hgb decreased by about 0.3 g/dl (P<0.001 and Hct declined on average of 1.7 (P<0.001. Forty six individuals had high DBP and one week after donation, their DBP was reduced by 7 mmHg. Age, body mass index and smoking did not have any significant effect on hemodynamic status. Conclusion: Hemodynamic changes in healthy blood donors were not clinically significant. It seems that DBP drops desirably in hypertensive individuals. This needs to be evaluated more carefully in future studies.

  5. Comparative study of donor-induced quantum dots in Si nano-channels by single-electron transport characterization and Kelvin probe force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyszka, K. [Research Institute of Electronics, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu 432-8011 (Japan); Institute of Metrology and Biomedical Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Św. A. Boboli 8, 02-525 Warsaw (Poland); Moraru, D.; Samanta, A.; Mizuno, T.; Tabe, M., E-mail: romtabe@rie.shizuoka.ac.jp [Research Institute of Electronics, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu 432-8011 (Japan); Jabłoński, R. [Institute of Metrology and Biomedical Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Św. A. Boboli 8, 02-525 Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-06-28

    We comparatively study donor-induced quantum dots in Si nanoscale-channel transistors for a wide range of doping concentration by analysis of single-electron tunneling transport and surface potential measured by Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). By correlating KPFM observations of donor-induced potential landscapes with simulations based on Thomas-Fermi approximation, it is demonstrated that single-electron tunneling transport at lowest gate voltages (for smallest coverage of screening electrons) is governed most frequently by only one dominant quantum dot, regardless of doping concentration. Doping concentration, however, primarily affects the internal structure of the quantum dot. At low concentrations, individual donors form most of the quantum dots, i.e., “donor-atom” quantum dots. In contrast, at high concentrations above metal-insulator transition, closely placed donors instead of individual donors form more complex quantum dots, i.e., “donor-cluster” quantum dots. The potential depth of these “donor-cluster” quantum dots is significantly reduced by increasing gate voltage (increasing coverage of screening electrons), leading to the occurrence of multiple competing quantum dots.

  6. Comparative study of donor-induced quantum dots in Si nano-channels by single-electron transport characterization and Kelvin probe force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We comparatively study donor-induced quantum dots in Si nanoscale-channel transistors for a wide range of doping concentration by analysis of single-electron tunneling transport and surface potential measured by Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). By correlating KPFM observations of donor-induced potential landscapes with simulations based on Thomas-Fermi approximation, it is demonstrated that single-electron tunneling transport at lowest gate voltages (for smallest coverage of screening electrons) is governed most frequently by only one dominant quantum dot, regardless of doping concentration. Doping concentration, however, primarily affects the internal structure of the quantum dot. At low concentrations, individual donors form most of the quantum dots, i.e., “donor-atom” quantum dots. In contrast, at high concentrations above metal-insulator transition, closely placed donors instead of individual donors form more complex quantum dots, i.e., “donor-cluster” quantum dots. The potential depth of these “donor-cluster” quantum dots is significantly reduced by increasing gate voltage (increasing coverage of screening electrons), leading to the occurrence of multiple competing quantum dots

  7. Comparative study of donor-induced quantum dots in Si nano-channels by single-electron transport characterization and Kelvin probe force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyszka, K.; Moraru, D.; Samanta, A.; Mizuno, T.; Jabłoński, R.; Tabe, M.

    2015-06-01

    We comparatively study donor-induced quantum dots in Si nanoscale-channel transistors for a wide range of doping concentration by analysis of single-electron tunneling transport and surface potential measured by Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). By correlating KPFM observations of donor-induced potential landscapes with simulations based on Thomas-Fermi approximation, it is demonstrated that single-electron tunneling transport at lowest gate voltages (for smallest coverage of screening electrons) is governed most frequently by only one dominant quantum dot, regardless of doping concentration. Doping concentration, however, primarily affects the internal structure of the quantum dot. At low concentrations, individual donors form most of the quantum dots, i.e., "donor-atom" quantum dots. In contrast, at high concentrations above metal-insulator transition, closely placed donors instead of individual donors form more complex quantum dots, i.e., "donor-cluster" quantum dots. The potential depth of these "donor-cluster" quantum dots is significantly reduced by increasing gate voltage (increasing coverage of screening electrons), leading to the occurrence of multiple competing quantum dots.

  8. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... available when the video has been rented. This feature is not available right now. Please try again ... be donors at http://www.marrow.org . Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License Show more Show ...

  9. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... on the use of BMT and PBSCT, see http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/fa... If you are ... registry of volunteers willing to be donors at http://www.marrow.org . Category Science & Technology License Standard ...

  10. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... on Jul 19, 2011 Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this ... Institutes of Health Clinical Center in Bethesda, MD. Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and peripheral blood stem cell ...

  11. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Duration: 3:35. hemaquebec1998 667 views 3:35 Bone Marrow/Stem Cell ... Jeff, peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) donor, explains the donation process - Duration: 3:28. Be The Match 22,203 ...

  12. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood stem cell (PBSC) donor, explains the donation process - Duration: 3:28. Be The Match 22,464 views 3:28 Pain Control: Support for People with Cancer - Duration: 11:58. ...

  13. Living donor liver transplantation in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Giuliano

    2016-01-01

    Living donor liver transplant (LDLT) accounts for a small volume of the transplants in the USA. Due to the current liver allocation system based on the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD), LDLT has a unique role in providing life-saving transplantation for patients with low MELD scores and significant complications from portal hypertension, as well as select patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Donor safety is paramount and has been a topic of much discussion in the transplant community as well as the general media. The donor risk appears to be low overall, with a favorable long-term quality of life. The latest trend has been a gradual shift from right-lobe grafts to left-lobe grafts to reduce donor risk, provided that the left lobe can provide adequate liver volume for the recipient. PMID:27115007

  14. RESULTS OF THE SPECIAL BLOOD DONOR DAY

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    Responding to the HUG (Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève) hospitals’ urgent appeal for blood donations during this summer season, the CERN medical staff organised a day of blood donations for the Swiss bloodbank CTS on 30 July. They were supported by NOVAE (Restaurant No. 1), who provided donors with a free snack. This specially arranged campaign was a success, as the 135 volunteers included 66 first-time donors, and a total of 99 standard bags of blood was collected. (Swiss hospitals need 1300 bags every day!) The CTS and CERN’s medical staff want to thank the donors and all others who helped make the event a success. Upcoming blood donor days at CERN: 12 November 2008 and 10 March 2009.

  15. RESULTS OF THE SPECIAL BLOOD DONOR DAY

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    Responding to the HUG (Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève) hospitals’ urgent appeal for blood donations during this summer season, the CERN medical staff organised a day of blood donations for the Swiss bloodbank CTS on 30 July. They were supported by NOVAE (Restaurant No. 1), who provided donors with a free snack. This specially arranged campaign was a success, as the 135 volunteers included 66 first-time donors, and a total of 99 standard bags of blood were collected. (Swiss hospitals need 1300 bags every day!) The CTS and CERN’s medical staff wish to thank the donors and all others who helped make the event a success. Upcoming blood donor days at CERN: 12 November 2008 and 10 March 2009.

  16. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... on Jul 19, 2011 Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true ... Institutes of Health Clinical Center in Bethesda, MD. Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and peripheral blood stem cell transplantation ( ...

  17. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe ... later? Sign in to add this video to a playlist. Sign in Share More Report Need to ...

  18. SURGICAL TECHNIQUE FOR LIVER DONOR PROCUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lupaşcu

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Transplantation of the liver is one of the most traumatic operations yet deviced and there is a tendency for it to be offered as a possible life-saving therapy to some of the sickest patients that are submitted to surgery. The concept of vascularized liver graft resulted from the pioneering work of Moore (1959 and Starzl (1960. In the last twenty years, the concept of multiorgan donor has been accepted in most European countries and USA, and, where possible, all organs that can be used are transplanted from a given donor, provided permission is forthcoming. Procurement of the whole liver graft from a heart-beating, but brain-dead, donor remains the standard method of liver procurement and is usually carried out as part af a multiple organ retrieval that also includes the kidneys, pancreas and thoracic organs, and occasionally intestinal grafts are being recovered. The author describes the standard approach for donor hepatectomy.

  19. Donor-Derived Myeloid Sarcoma in Two Kidney Transplant Recipients from a Single Donor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amudha Palanisamy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the rare occurrence of donor-derived myeloid sarcoma in two kidney transplant patients who received organs from a single deceased donor. There was no evidence of preexisting hematologic malignancy in the donor at the time of organ recovery. Both recipients developed leukemic involvement that appeared to be limited to the transplanted organ. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH and molecular genotyping analyses confirmed that the malignant cells were of donor origin in each patient. Allograft nephrectomy and immediate withdrawal of immunosuppression were performed in both cases; systemic chemotherapy was subsequently administered to one patient. Both recipients were in remission at least one year following the diagnosis of donor-derived myeloid sarcoma. These cases suggest that restoration of the immune system after withdrawal of immunosuppressive therapy and allograft nephrectomy may be sufficient to control HLA-mismatched donor-derived myeloid sarcoma without systemic involvement.

  20. Iron status of regular voluntary blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahida Vilsu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Our blood bank is a regional blood transfusion centre, which accepts blood only from voluntary donors. Aim: The aim is to study iron status of regular voluntary donors who donated their blood at least twice in a year. Materials and Methods: Prior to blood donation, blood samples of 220 male and 30 female voluntary donors were collected. Control included 100 each male and female healthy individuals in the 18- to 60-year age group, who never donated blood and did not have any chronic infection. In the study and control groups, about 10% subjects consumed non-vegetarian diet. After investigation, 85 males and 56 females having haemoglobin (Hb levels above 12.5 g/dl were selected as controls. Donors were divided into ≤10, 11-20, 21-50 and> 50 blood donation categories. Majority of the donors in> 50 donation category donated blood four times in a year, whereas the remaining donors donated two to three times per year. Haematological parameters were measured on fully automatic haematology analyzer, serum iron and total iron-binding capacity (TIBC by biochemical methods, ferritin using ELISA kits and transferrin using immunoturbidometry kits. Iron/TIBC ratio x 100 gave percentage of transferrin saturation value. Statistical Analysis: Statistical evaluation was done by mean, standard deviation, pair t -test, χ2 and anova ( F -test. Results: Preliminary analysis revealed that there was no significant difference in the iron profile of vegetarian and non-vegetarian subjects or controls and the donors donating < 20 times. Significant increase or decrease was observed in mean values of various haematological and iron parameters in donors who donated blood for> 20 times ( P < 0.001, compared to controls. Anaemia, iron deficiency and depletion of iron stores were more prevalent in female donors ( P < 0.05 compared to males and especially in those male donors who donated their blood for more than 20 times. Conclusion: Regular voluntary blood

  1. Changing Donor Funding and the Challenges of Integrated HIV Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nattrass, Nicoli; Hodes, Rebecca; Cluver, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    Donor financing for HIV prevention and treatment has shifted from supporting disease-specific ("vertical") programs to health systems strengthening ("horizontal") programs intended to integrate all aspects of care. We examine the consequences of shifting resources from three perspectives: first, through a broad analysis of the changing policy context of health care financing; second, through an account of changing priorities for HIV treatment in South Africa; and third, through a description of some clinical consequences that the authors observed in a research study examining adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and sexual health among adolescents. We note that AIDS responses are neither completely vertical nor horizontal but rather increasingly diagonal, as disease-specific protocols operate alongside integrated supply chain management, human resource development, and preventive screening. We conclude that health care programs are better conceived of as networks of policies requiring different degrees of integration into communities. PMID:27437818

  2. Low transfusion transmission of hepatitis E among 25,637 single-donation, nucleic acid-tested blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harritshøj, Lene H.; Holm, Dorte K.; Sækmose, Susanne G.;

    2016-01-01

    investigated among Danish blood donors, and the prevalence of HEV transfusion-transmitted infection (TTI) was investigated among recipients. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Samples from 25,637 consenting donors collected during 1 month in 2015 were screened retrospectively using an individual-donation HEV RNA...... immune response could not be excluded. Phylogenetic analysis showed relatively large sequence differences between HEV from donors, symptomatic patients, and swine. CONCLUSIONS: Despite an HEV RNA prevalence of 0.04% in Danish blood donations, all HEV-positive donations carried low viral loads, and no...... nucleic acid test with a 95% detection probability of 7.9 IU/mL. HEV-positive samples were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction and genotyped. Transmission was evaluated among recipients of HEV RNA-positive blood components. Phylogenetic analyses compared HEV sequences from blood donors...

  3. Assurances of past donor anonymity are meaningless

    OpenAIRE

    Blyth, Eric

    2005-01-01

    The New Scientist recently recounted the story of an American teenager conceived through ostensibly anonymous donor insemination who had been able to identify his donor through DNA testing and an internet genetic database service (also see BioNews issue 333, at http://www.bionews.org.uk/new.lasso?storyid=2808). In fact, we have known since Barry Stevens' remarkable documentary, Offspring, released in 2001, that with some genetic background information, access to DNA testing and the intern...

  4. Rare blood donors with irregular antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krga-Milanović Mirjana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Blood groups are inherited biological characteristics that do not change throughout life in healthy people. Blood groups represent antigens found on the surface of red blood cells. Kell blood group system consists of 31 antigens. Kell antigen (K is present in 0.2% of the population (the rare blood group. Cellano antigen is present in more than 99% (the high-frequency antigen. These antigens have a distinct ability to cause an immune response in the people after blood transfusion or pregnancy who, otherwise, did not have them before. Case Report. This paper presents a blood donor with a rare blood group, who was found to have an irregular antibody against red blood cells by indirect antiglobulin test. Further testing determined the specificity of antibody to be anti-Cellano. The detected antibody was found in high titers (1024 with erythrocyte phenotype Kell-Cellano+. The blood donor was found to have a rare blood group KellKell. This donor was excluded from further blood donation. It is difficult to find compatible blood for a person who has developed an antibody to the high-frequency antigen. The donor’s family members were tested and Cellano antigen was detected in her husband and child. A potential blood donor was not found among the family members. There was only one blood donor in the Register of blood donors who was compatible in the ABO and Kell blood group system. Conclusion. For the successful management of blood transfusion it is necessary to establish a unified national register of donors of rare blood groups and cooperate with the International Blood Group Reference Laboratory in Bristol with the database that registers donors of rare blood groups from around the world.

  5. Fragile African States: What Should Donors Do?

    OpenAIRE

    Collier, Paul

    2014-01-01

    1. IntroductionNecessarily, all donors will focus increasingly on fragile states. The more successful countries in Africa have achieved growing tax bases and are consequently now gaining access to global capital markets. For such countries, aid is becoming marginal. In contrast, fragile states, by the nature of their condition, have small tax bases and face risks which deter private capital: for them aid remains potentially important. Not only do donors provide a substantial proportion of gov...

  6. Therapeutic donor insemination with frozen semen.

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, S G; Mortimer, D.; P J Taylor; Leader, A; Pattinson, H A

    1990-01-01

    Although it is now accepted that cryopreserved semen must, on ethical and medicolegal grounds, be used for donor insemination many clinicians still believe that it has an unacceptably reduced fecundability rate as compared with fresh semen. We studied the outcome of 81 recipients who started therapeutic donor insemination (TDI) treatment during 1986 in a program that used exclusively cryopreserved semen; 55 had never undergone TDI and were receiving the first series (six cycles), 6 were recei...

  7. TRENDS OF TRANSFUSION TRANSMITTABLE INFECTIONS AMONG VOLUNTARY BLOOD DONORS IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL, MANDYA

    OpenAIRE

    Manjunath; Mamatha P; Muralidhar Bhat; Shivakumar

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Transmission of infectious diseases through donated blood is of concern to blood safety as transfusion forms an integral part of medical and surgical therapy. Blood transfusion carries the risk of transfusion-transmissible infections including HIV, hepatitis etc. Screening of voluntary donors who represent healthy population serves as a predictor for these dreadful diseases in healthy population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted a...

  8. Adverse effects to transfusion with red donor blood cells are frequent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Nørgaard, Astrid; Burcharth, Jakob; Larsen, Rune; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    conditions such as transfusion-related acute lung injury and circulatory overload in patients with heart disease. Knowledge of the clinical signs of transfusion-related complications is important for clinicians in order to provide the best possible treatment.......Adverse effects to transfusion with red donor blood cells are potentially life-threatening. Due to screening, transmission of infectious diseases has decreased; however, the risk is still present. Various immune reactions are common including simple allergic reactions as well as devastating...

  9. Colonization Resistance Induced in Mice Orogastrically Dosed with Human Faecal Homogenates from Different Donors

    OpenAIRE

    Henriksson, A; Conway, P L

    2011-01-01

    Human faecal samples from various donors were assessed for the capacity to provide protection against Salmonella typhimurium both in vitro and in vivo. Faecal material was collected from four healthy human subjects. Populations of anaerobic bacteria and enterics were enumerated using selective media and the isolates screened for the capacity to inhibit the in vitro growth of S. typhimurium. Isolates with inhibitory activity against S. typhimurium were detected in two out of four subjects. The...

  10. Metabolic Preconditioning of Donor Organs: Defatting Fatty Livers by Normothermic Perfusion Ex Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Nagrath, Deepak; Xu, Hongzhi; Tanimura, Yoko; Zuo, Rongjun; Berthiaume, François; Yarmush, Martin L.

    2009-01-01

    Fatty liver is a significant risk factor for liver transplantation, and accounts for nearly half of the livers rejected from the donor pool. We hypothesized that metabolic preconditioning via ex vivo perfusion of the liver graft can reduce fat content and increase post-transplant survival to an acceptable range. We describe a perfusate medium containing agents that promote the defatting of hepatocytes and explanted livers. Defatting agents were screened on cultured hepatocytes made fatty by p...

  11. Seroepidemiology of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-I in blood donors of Northeastern Iran, Sabzevar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahtab Maghsudlu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-I (HTLV-I infection is considered as a public health challenge in endemic areas. The virus is associated with severe diseases, such as adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma, and HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. One of the major routes of the HTLV-I transmission includes blood transfusion. Sabzevar is located in the endemic region of HTLV-I infection. The aim of the present study was to determine the seroprevalence of HTLV-I infection in the blood donors in Sabzevar. Materials and Methods: A total of 35,067 blood donors in Sabzevar from March 2009 to April 2012 who were screened with HTLV-I on the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay screening test were included in this survey. Reactive samples that confirmed by western blot were considered to be seropositive cases. The required data were obtained from blood donors′ database of blood transfusion service. Results: The overall prevalence of HTLV-1 based on the positive result of western blot test was 0.14%. The seropositive donors aged 17-59 years with a mean age of 38.10 ± 11.82. The prevalence rates of HTLV-I infection in 3 years of study were 0.19%, 0.14%, and 0.09%, respectively. A significant relation between age, sex, educational level, and history of blood donation was observed with seropositivity of HTLV-I. Conclusion: The improvement of donor selection and laboratory screening caused a decline in the prevalence of infection in blood donors. Given the lower prevalence of infection in regular donors with lower age and higher educational level, more efforts should be done to attract blood donors from these populations.

  12. Selecting suitable solid organ transplant donors: Reducing the risk of donor-transmitted infections

    OpenAIRE

    Jr, Christopher S Kovacs; Koval, Christine E; van Duin, David; de Morais, Amanda Guedes; Gonzalez, Blanca E; Avery, Robin K; Mawhorter, Steven D; Brizendine, Kyle D; Cober, Eric D.; Miranda, Cyndee; Shrestha, Rabin K.; Teixeira, Lucileia; Mossad, Sherif B.

    2014-01-01

    Selection of the appropriate donor is essential to a successful allograft recipient outcome for solid organ transplantation. Multiple infectious diseases have been transmitted from the donor to the recipient via transplantation. Donor-transmitted infections cause increased morbidity and mortality to the recipient. In recent years, a series of high-profile transmissions of infections have occurred in organ recipients prompting increased attention on the process of improving the selection of an...

  13. Sero-prevalence of Human Cytomegalovirus among blood donors in Lahore, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chahat Batool Rizvi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Transfusion-transmitted cytomegalovirus (TT-CMV infection can cause severe illness and even death among immunocompromised patients; therefore, the spread of CMV through blood products should be prevented. To our knowledge, no study has been carried out in Pakistan to determine the seroprevalence of CMV in general population as well as among blood donors. The goal of this study was to determine CMV seropositivity among blood donors at the blood bank of INMOL Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan. Methods: A sero-epidemiological cross-sectional study was conducted. Sera from 91 blood donors were screened for CMV specific IgG antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA based kit. Results: The CMV-specific IgG antibodies were detected in 89 blood donors, which gave seroprevalence rate of 97.8%. The statistical analysis of results was done using pearson chi-square test and appeared non-significant with values 0.625 and 0.705 for different age groups and blood groups of donors. Conclusion: Because of high seroprevalence in this study area, an adequate supply of CMV seronegative blood is difficult to maintain. Therefore, we propose that the future strategies for the prevention of post-transfusion CMV infection in recipients should include the transfusion of leukoreduced blood products. Further a prospective study with much greater population can be done to identify major causative risk factors for such highest prevalence rate.

  14. Donor identification 'kills gamete donation'? A response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Sonia

    2012-12-01

    Two Australian government inquiries have recently called for the release of information to donor-conceived people about their gamete donors. A national inquiry, recommended 'as a matter of priority' that uniform legislation to be passed nationwide. A state-based inquiry argued that all donor-conceived people should have access to information and called for the enactment of retrospective legislation that would override donor anonymity. This paper responds to an opinion piece published in Human Reproduction in October 2012 by Professor Pennings in which he criticized such recommendations and questioned the motives of people that advocate for information release. I answer the arguments of Pennings, and argue that all parties affected by donor conception should be considered, and a compromise reached. The contact veto system is one such compromise. I discuss the education and support services recommended by the Victorian government and question Pennings' assertions that legislation enabling information release will lead to a decrease in gamete donation. Finally, I rebut Pennings' assertion that there is a 'hidden agenda' behind the call for information release. There is no such agenda in my work. If there is from others, then it is their discriminatory views that need to be addressed, not the move toward openness and honesty or the call for information by donor-conceived people. PMID:23034154

  15. Living donor transplant: wider selection criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splendiani, G; Cipriani, S; Valeri, M; Torlone, N; Vega, A; Tullio, T; Condò, S; Dominijanni, S; Casciani, C U

    2004-04-01

    The availability of cadaveric donor organs is insufficient for actual needs. The organ demand increases by 20% per year. Living donor transplant (LDT) may be a valid therapeutical alternative provided one uses proper criteria. LDT provides many advantages, like improved patient and organ survival, short waiting time, and the possibility to carefully plan the procedure. Potential risks include perioperative mortality and renal dysfunction in the kidney donor. At present, kidney LDTs in Italy represent 8% of the total, with an organ survival rate of 97% after 1 year (vs 93% for cadaveric transplants) and donors mortality rate of almost null. Most LDTs are performed from kinsmen. Presently, law no. 458, 26 June 1967, is in force in Italy for kidney LDT and law no. 453, 16 December 1999, for liver LDT. The foundations of LDT are, of course, the recipient's condition, the donor's motivation, and the altruism of the donation. It is desirable that in the future an increasing number of LDT be performed, supported by a careful, widespread health education regarding organ donation from living subjects and by the possibility to obtain insurance for the donor, which has been considered but never provided by actual laws. PMID:15110560

  16. Recent advance in living donor liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashikura, Yasuhiko; Kawasaki, Seiji; Miyagawa, Shinichi; Terada, Masaru; Ikegami, Toshihiko; Nakazawa, Yuichi; Urata, Koichi; Chisuwa, Hisanao; Ogino, Shiro; Makuuchi, Masatoshi

    2002-02-01

    Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT)has been performed in more than 2000 cases around the world. This procedure is considered to have certain advantages over cadaveric liver transplantation, because detailed preoperative evaluation of the donor liver is possible and superior graft quality is available. The indication has recently been widened to include adult patients. The results of LDLT have been reported to be very good. In this article,several considerations on LDLT,including living donor selection and application to adult patients, are discussed. Between June 1990 and March 2001, 143 patients underwent LDLT at Shinshu University Hospital. During this period, 160 patients were determined to be candidates for liver transplantation in our institution, and 185 candidates were evaluated as potential donors for these patients. Thirty-eight of 185 donor candidates were excluded for reasons including liver dysfunction and withdrawal of consent. The recipients included 60 adults, 50 (83%) of whom are currently alive. Taking into account the worldwide shortage of cadaveric organ donation,the importance of LDLT will probably never diminish. This procedure should be established on the basis of profound consideration of donor safety as well as accumulated expertise of hepatobiliary surgery. PMID:11865355

  17. HIV prevalence among blood donors in a blood bank in Curitiba (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade Neto José Luiz

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available There still is no cure for the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. Its etiologic agent is the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, and transmission occurs through sexual relationships, contacts with blood, and vertically (mother to child. In this study, we sought to determine the prevalence of HIV among blood donors at a blood bank in Curitiba. We studied 213,666 blood donations made from March 1, 1992, to April 25, 1999. Each potential blood donor first answered a questionnaire, submitted to a clinical examination, and filled out a self-exclusion card. Blood was collected and analyzed only from the candidates approved by the first two criteria. Two tests were used to detect HIV: ELISA for screening, and Western-Blot for confirmation. The results were analyzed statistically by determining the 95% confidence interval. Of the total number of donors, 156,942 were men, and 56,724 were women. There were 319 cases of HIV infection (244 men, 75 women. There were no significant differences between genders, or among the different age groups, or between first-donation and repeated-donation donors. There was a significant predominance of HIV infection among single individuals compared to married, widowed, and other individuals. The same occurred among married and divorced individuals compared to widowed subjects. The prevalence of HIV among blood donors was 0.149% (0.155% among men and 0.132% among women. The frequency of HIV was statistically identical among new blood donors and repeat donors. A large number of HIV-infected married women was also observed.

  18. Risk factors for deferral due to low hematocrit and iron depletion among prospective blood donors in a Brazilian center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloísa Tedeschi Dauar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Deferral of blood donors due to low hematocrit and iron depletion is commonly reported in blood banks worldwide. This study evaluated the risk factors for low hematocrit and iron depletion among prospective blood donors in a large Brazilian blood center.METHOD: A case-control study of 400 deferred donors due to low hematocrit and 456 eligible whole blood donors was conducted between 2009 and 2011. Participants were interviewed about selected risk factors for anemia, and additional laboratory tests, including serum ferritin, were performed. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess the association between predictors and deferral due to low hematocrit in the studied population and iron depletion in women.RESULTS: Donors taking aspirins or iron supplementation, those who reported stomachache, black tarry stools or hematochezia, and women having more than one menstrual period/month were more likely to be deferred. Risk factors for iron depletion were repeat donation and being deferred at the hematocrit screening. Smoking and lack of menstruation were protective against iron depletion.CONCLUSION: This study found some unusual risk factors related to gastrointestinal losses that were associated with deferral of donors due to low hematocrit. Knowledge of the risk factors can help blood banks design algorithms to improve donor notification and referral.

  19. Expanding the live kidney donor pool: ethical considerations regarding altruistic donors, paired and pooled programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shaneel Rajendra; Chadha, Priyanka; Papalois, Vassilios

    2011-06-01

    In renal transplant, there is a well-known deficiency in organ supply relative to demand. Live donation provides superior results when compared with deceased donation including a better rate of graft success and fewer immunologic complications. This deficiency in organs leads to significant morbidity and mortality rates. Alternative avenues have been extensively explored that may expand the live donor pool. They include altruistic donation as well as paired and pooled exchange programs. Altruistic donation is a truly selfless act from a donor unknown to the recipient. Kidney paired donation involves 2 incompatible donor-recipient pairs swapping donors to produce compatibility. Pooled donation involves at least 2 pairs, and can take the form of domino chains in which altruistic input sets up a chain of transplants, in which each recipient's incompatible donor makes a donation for the next recipient. Despite application of these various methods, there lie extensive ethical issues surrounding them. Misconceptions frequently occur; for instance, the perceived benefit that donating an organ to a loved one is greater for a related donor than for an altruistic one. Additionally, it is frequently believed that immunologic incompatibility offers coerced donors liberation from surgery, and that overcoming these barriers by introducing exchange programs provides vulnerable donors less protection. This article explores these and other complex ethical issues surrounding the various methods of expanding the donor pool. The authors offer opinions that challenge the ethical issues and attempt to overcome those views that hinder progress in the field. PMID:21649566

  20. How Organ Donors are Different from Non-donors: Responsibility, Barriers, and Religious Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Range, Lillian M; Brazda, Geoffrey F

    2015-12-01

    To see if religious involvement, previously linked to various health behaviors, was linked to organ donation, 143 ethnically diverse undergraduates stated whether they were registered donors (53% were), and completed measures of organ donation attitudes and religious involvement. Compared with non-donors, donors reported fewer barriers, more family responsibility, and more willingness to receive donor organs, but were not different in religious involvement. Even in 2014, when being a "good Samaritan" by agreeing to organ donation is as easy as checking one box on a driver's license application, religious involvement does not seem to be a factor in checking this box. PMID:25524413

  1. Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay seroreactivity among healthy Indian donors and its association with other transfusion transmitted diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Pahuja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of syphilis infection by Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay (TPHA among blood donors in Delhi and to study their correlation with other markers of transfusion transmitted infections such as hepatitis C virus (HCV, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg so as to establish the utility of TPHA over and above venereal diseases research laboratory test (VDRL, not only as a marker for testing T. pallidum infection, but also as a marker of high risk behavior. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was carried out in the Regional Blood Transfusion Centre, Lady Hardinge Medical College and associated Sucheta Kriplani Hospital, New Delhi for a period of 2 years. Donated blood was screened for TPHA seroreactivity along with screening for anti HIV I and II, anti-HCV, HBsAg by third generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test. A total of 8082 serum samples of blood donors were collected from healthy blood donors in our blood bank. They were classified into two groups- test group and control group based on TPHA positivity. The co-occurrence of HBsAg, HIV and HCV infection were determined in TPHA positive blood donors (test group in comparison with TPHA negative blood donors (control group. Results: We found the TPHA seroreactivity to be 4.4% in Delhi′s blood donors. Nearly 8.2% (663/8082 of the donated blood had serological evidence of infection by at least one pathogen (syphilis/HIV/hepatitis B virus/HCV and 6.63% (44/663 donors with positive serology had multiple infections (two or more. Quadruple infection was seen in one donor, triple infection was seen in three donors and double infection was seen in 40 donors. Prevalence of HIV seroreactivity was found to be statistically significant and HCV seroreactivity statistically insignificant in TPHA positive group in comparison to TPHA negative group. Discussion: In our study, the

  2. Quadruple screen test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... screen; Multiple marker screening; AFP plus; Triple screen test; AFP maternal; MSAFP; 4-marker screen ... This test is most often done between the 15th and 22nd weeks of the pregnancy. It is most accurate ...

  3. Autism Screening and Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Websites About Us Information For... Media Policy Makers Screening and Diagnosis Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... two steps: Developmental Screening Comprehensive Diagnostic Evaluation Developmental Screening Developmental screening is a short test to tell ...

  4. Clinical and epidemiological profile of female blood donors with positive serology for viral hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Luz Narciso-Schiavon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTINTRODUCTION:Since women are frequently the minority among blood donors worldwide, studies evaluating this population usually reflect male features. We assessed the features of female blood donors with positive serology for HBV and compared them with those of men.METHODS The study comprised consecutive blood donors referred to a specialized liver disease center to be evaluated due to HBsAg- and/or anti-HBc-positive tests.RESULTS: The study encompassed 1,273 individuals, 219 (17.2% of whom were referred due to positive HBsAg test and 1,054 (82.8% due to reactive anti-HBc test. Subjects' mean age was 36.8±10.9 years, and 28.7% were women. Female blood donors referred for positive HBsAg screening tests demonstrated higher prevalence of healthcare workers (9.3% vs 2.5% and lower prevalence of sexual risk behaviors (15.1% vs 41.1% and alcohol abuse (1.9% vs 19.8% compared to men. Women had lower ALT (0.6 vs 0.8×ULN, AST (0.6 vs 0.8×ULN, direct bilirubin (0.2 vs 0.3mg/dL, and alkaline phosphatase (0.5 vs 0.6×ULN levels and higher platelet count (223,380±50,293 vs 195,020±53,060/mm3. Women also had a higher prevalence of false-positive results (29.6% vs 17.0%. No differences were observed with respect to liver biopsies. Female blood donors referenced for reactive anti-HBc screening tests presented similar clinical, epidemiological, and biochemical characteristics to those reported for positive HBsAg screening tests and similarly had a higher prevalence of false-reactive results.CONCLUSIONS: Compared to men, female blood donors with positive HBsAg and/or anti-HBc screening tests demonstrated higher prevalence of professional risk and false-positive results and reduced alteration of liver chemistry.

  5. Screening neonatal

    OpenAIRE

    Urbón Artero, Alfonso; Reig del Moral, Celia

    2006-01-01

    Los autores de este artículo revisan el screening neonatal, desde la descripción por Wilson y Jungner en 1968 de los criterios que hansido aplicados en la detección precoz de enfermedades enel recién nacido, hasta los avances actuales en la medicina genómica que han modificado sustancialmente estas bases. Se comentan los métodos diagnósticos prenatales más utilizados como los analíticos y ultrasonografia prenatal. Se describen los procedimientos que se aplican en la actualidad y se describen ...

  6. Electrostatic screening in nanostructures with multicomponent electron plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalev, V M; Chaplik, A V [Institute of Semiconductor Physics, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)], E-mail: chaplik@isp.nsc.ru

    2008-10-15

    Screening of the Coulumb interaction accounting for the Friedel oscillations in the structures with multicomponent low-dimensional electron plasma is considered. Calculations are made for nanotubes, double quantum wells (DQW) and superlattices. The binding energy of a donor in DQW is found as a function of the subbands occupation numbers.

  7. Electrostatic screening in nanostructures with multicomponent electron plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, V. M.; Chaplik, A. V.

    2008-10-01

    Screening of the Coulumb interaction accounting for the Friedel oscillations in the structures with multicomponent low-dimensional electron plasma is considered. Calculations are made for nanotubes, double quantum wells (DQW) and superlattices. The binding energy of a donor in DQW is found as a function of the subbands occupation numbers.

  8. Evaluation of the medically complex living kidney donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliskan, Yasar; Yildiz, Alaattin

    2012-01-01

    Due to organ shortage and difficulties for availability of cadaveric donors, living donor transplantation is an important choice for having allograft. Live donor surgery is elective and easier to organize prior to starting dialysis thereby permitting preemptive transplantation as compared to cadaveric transplantation. Because of superior results with living kidney transplantation, efforts including the usage of "Medically complex living donors" are made to increase the availability of organs for donation. The term "Complex living donor" is probably preferred for all suboptimal donors where decision-making is a problem due to lack of sound medical data or consensus guidelines. Donors with advanced age, obesity, asymptomatic microhematuria, proteinuria, hypertension, renal stone disease, history of malignancy and with chronic viral infections consist of this complex living donors. This medical complex living donors requires careful evaluation for future renal risk. In this review we would like to present the major issues in the evaluation process of medically complex living kidney donor. PMID:22655169

  9. Trend of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg) among blood donors at the blood bank of a tertiary care referral teaching hospital in Southern India

    OpenAIRE

    Yashovardhan A.; Sreedhar Babu K.V.; Jothi Bai D.S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Blood is a scarce, but lifesaving resource; it is also the most efficient vehicle for the transmission of Hepatitis B virus (HBV). Hence there is a need for accurate screening of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) among blood donors. The present study was designed to assess the seroprevalence of HBsAg, among the voluntary and replacement blood donors in the blood bank of a tertiary care referral teaching hospital in Andhra Pradesh. Methods: This is a prospective cross sectiona...

  10. Individual donor-nucleic acid testing for human immunodeficiency virus-1, hepatitis C virus and hepatitis B virus and its role in blood safety

    OpenAIRE

    Rajesh Kumar; Sonia Gupta; Amarjit Kaur; Manvi Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Background: Transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs) are one of the biggest threats to blood transfusion safety. Nucleic acid testing (NAT) in blood donor screening has been implemented in many countries to reduce the risk of TTIs. NAT shortens this window period, thereby offering blood centers a much higher sensitivity for detecting viral infections. Aims: The objective was to assess the role of individual donor-NAT (ID-NAT) for human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1), hepatitis C virus (HCV...

  11. Sibling stem cell donor experiences at a single institution†

    OpenAIRE

    Wiener, Lori S.; Steffen-Smith, Emilie; Battles, Haven B.; Wayne, Alan; Love, Cynthia P.; Fry, Terry

    2008-01-01

    Allogeneic bone marrow (BM) and cytokine mobilized peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) transplantation can be curative for patients with malignant and nonmalignant hematologic diseases. Siblings are most often selected as a donor match; however, research on sibling donors is limited and has focused primarily on conventional BM donors. This exploratory study describes the experiences of PBSC sibling donors at a single institution. Through retrospective interviews, 14 sibling donors shared their ...

  12. International rare donor panels: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nance, S; Scharberg, E A; Thornton, N; Yahalom, V; Sareneva, I; Lomas-Francis, C

    2016-04-01

    International rare blood donor panels or registries are important in the consistent availability of rare blood for patients who need this scarce resource. In countries where it has been possible to commit resources to this effort and often where the need is great, donors have been entered into a registry. The ISBT leadership recognized the importance of this very challenging inventory management activity and created a Working Party to support it. Individual countries support the WHO International Rare Donor Panel by submitting their donors' phenotype or genotype information to be catalogued into the database. It is extremely important that this database be cultivated and grown. The contributing countries keep their list updated and supply the blood product as they can when requested. It is known that some blood types are extremely scarce worldwide and requests for these are particularly difficult to fulfil. Thus, it is important to have a protocol to identify and recruit donors with rare blood types. It is equally or perhaps more important to ensure that the patients who need the rare blood are being managed appropriately in the presence and absence of rare blood products being available. PMID:26689301

  13. Are live kidney donors at risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To share experience of live donor nephrectomy (including intraoperative variables, morbidity and ethical aspects) and to give an overview of surgical technique being practiced. Results: Majority of the donors (58.5%) were 31-50 years old and 70.6% were first-degree relatives. Left sided kidney was taken in 96.5% cases. Mean operative time was 145 minutes. Mean renal warm ischemia time from cross clamping of renal vessels to cold perfusion on the bench was 1.5 minutes per operation. Operative complications encountered were injury to lumbar veins in 5.1 % cases, slipping of satinsky clamp on vena cava stump in 1.7 % and accidental pleural damage in 5.1 % cases. Postoperative morbid complications found were urinary retention in 6.4 % cases, epididymo-orchitis in 1.7 %, prolonged lymph drain in 3.4 %, stitch infection in 1.7 % and prolonged wound discomfort in 5.1 % patients. Conclusions: Open live donor nepherectomy appears to be safe procedure for harvesting kidney. Related or emotionally related donors must be the choice in all cases. Non-related donors may be entertained in selected cases despite the probability of organ vending in our society. (author)

  14. Prevalence of Treponema pallidum DNA among blood donors with two different serologic tests profiles for syphilis in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, S C; de Almeida-Neto, C; Nishiya, A S; Di-Lorenzo-Oliveira, C; Ferreira, J E; Alencar, C S; Levi, J E; Salles, N A; Mendrone-Junior, A; Sabino, E C

    2014-05-01

    The presence of Treponema pallidum DNA was assessed by real-time PCR in samples of blood donors with reactive serologic tests for syphilis. Treponema pallidum DNA was detected in two (1·02%) of 197 samples of VDRL>8, EIA+ and FTA-ABS+ donors, and in no sample from 80 VDRL−, EIA+ and FTA-ABS+ donors. Donors VDRL−, EIA+ and FTA-ABS+ lack demonstrable T. pallidum DNA in their blood and are unlike to transmit syphilis. Donors VDRL>8, EIA+ and FTA-ABS+ carry the risk of syphilis infectivity even in concomitance to antibodies detection. Serologic screening for syphilis may still play a role to prevent its transfusion transmission. PMID:24877236

  15. The Psychosocial and Independent Living Donor Advocate Evaluation and Post-surgery Care of Living Donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudow, Dianne LaPointe; Swartz, Kathleen; Phillips, Chelsea; Hollenberger, Jennifer; Smith, Taylor; Steel, Jennifer L

    2015-09-01

    Solid organ transplantation as a treatment for end stage organ failure has been an accepted treatment option for decades. Despite advances in medicine and technology, and increased awareness of organ donation and transplantation, the gap between supply and demand continues to widen. Living donation has been an option that has increased the number of transplants despite the continued shortage of deceased organs. In the early 2000s live donor transplantation reached an all-time high in the United States. As a result, a consensus meeting was convened in 2000 to increase the oversight of living donor transplantation. Both the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services and the United Network for Organ Sharing developed regulations that transplant programs performing live donor transplantation. These regulations and guidelines involve the education, evaluation, informed consent process and living donor follow-up care. Two areas in which had significant changes included the psychosocial and the independent living donor advocate (ILDA) evaluation. The purpose of this paper was to outline the current regulations and guidelines associated with the psychosocial and ILDA evaluation as well as provide further recommendations for the administration of a high quality evaluation of living donors. The goals and timing of the evaluation and education of donors; qualifications of the health care providers performing the evaluation; components of the evaluation; education provided to donors; documentation of the evaluation; participation in the selection committee meeting; post-decline and post-donation care of donors is described. Caveats including the paired donor exchange programs and non-directed and directed donation are also considered. PMID:26293351

  16. Presence of anti-Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis antibodies in blood donors in the West-Central region of the State of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lais de Souza Braga

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTINTRODUCTION:Serological screening in blood banks does not include all transmittable diseases. American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL has a high detection rate in the municipalities of the State of Paraná.METHODS:This study analyzed the presence of anti- Leishmania braziliensisantibodies in 176 blood donors who live in these endemic areas. The variables were analyzed with the χ2 test and Stata 9.1 software. RESULTS: Twenty (11.4% samples were positive for the presence of anti- L. braziliensisantibodies. CONCLUSIONS: The high percentage of donors with anti- Leishmania spp. antibodies indicates the need to study the risk of ACL transmission through blood donors.

  17. Seroprevalence of hepatitis b in healthy blood donors at a teaching hospital of Kashmir (skims medical college and hospital Bemina, Srinagar): a restrospective study of five years

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Younus Shah; Mohd Mubarik Naqash; Faizan Younus Shah

    2016-01-01

    Background: The study was conducted at the blood bank of the hospital. It was a retrospective analysis of blood donors over a period of five years from April 2008 to March 2013. Methods: 5ml blood sample was collected from the blood bag of each donor. 2ml blood was kept for testing hepatitis B. Bioelisa HBsAg color (a 3rd generation ELISA kit) was used for the screening of donor blood for Hepatitis B. All reactive samples were tested again using the same ELISA kit. Samples showing repeat t...

  18. Comparison of hepatitis B, core, HBc, and hepatitis B antibody, anti HBs, in a presumed low risk donor population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, Ellen; Cavanagh, H Dwight

    2014-09-01

    Donors screened by medical social history interview negative for high risk behavior or communicable disease history, but subsequently exhibiting reactive serological markers, emphasize importance of duel safe guarding factors for determining donor suitability. This report examines a relationship between two immunoabsorption assay tests, hepatitis B core (HBc) antibody, a required food and drug administration (FDA) test, and hepatitis B antibody (anti HBs), non-required test. Reactive serology results, 129 cases, 3,581 donors (2008-2012) for HBc as the only initially positive serological marker were subjected to anti HBs testing in this history pre-screened donor population. Enzyme linked immunoabsorption assay kits hepatitis B, core and antibody, were used in this study. All samples were initially tested for human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C, utilizing nucleic acid testing and antigen antibody immunoabsorption assay. Testing was performed by a FDA-registered CLEA-certified reference laboratory. Samples were deceased donor blood samples and a limited number of pre-mortem samples, separated, stored and analyzed according to manufacturer recommendation and FDA regulations. 129 reactive HBc only samples, were subsequently tested for anti HBs. Of these 129, 94 were found to be reactive for anti HBs. This represented 72 % of samples tested for antibody, a higher percentage than anticipated for a medical history negative, low risk population. PMID:24374389

  19. AN ANDROID APPLICATION FOR VOLUNTEER BLOOD DONORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan Turhan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There is an expectation that the blood will always be there when it is really needed. Blood donor volunteers constitute the main supply source in an effective blood supply chain management. They feed blood stocks through their donation. In an emergency situation, if the stocks are insufficient, the only source of blood supply will be the people who come to the health center and donate the blood on a voluntary basis. It is certain that time is a very important component in such situation. For this reason, the health care center should call the nearest available donor in order to ensure to get the service as quickly as possible. A smart phone application is developed to facilitate the identification of the nearest available blood donor volunteer and the communication with him/her in the emergency situations where the blood can’t be supplied through the blood banks’ stocks. In this paper this application will be presented.

  20. Electrocardiographic abnormalities in Trypanosoma cruzi seropositive and seronegative former blood donors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio L Ribeiro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Blood donor screening leads to large numbers of new diagnoses of Trypanosoma cruzi infection, with most donors in the asymptomatic chronic indeterminate form. Information on electrocardiogram (ECG findings in infected blood donors is lacking and may help in counseling and recognizing those with more severe disease. OBJECTIVES: To assess the frequency of ECG abnormalities in T.cruzi seropositive relative to seronegative blood donors, and to recognize ECG abnormalities associated with left ventricular dysfunction. METHODS: The study retrospectively enrolled 499 seropositive blood donors in São Paulo and Montes Claros, Brazil, and 483 seronegative control donors matched by site, gender, age, and year of blood donation. All subjects underwent a health clinical evaluation, ECG, and echocardiogram (Echo. ECG and Echo were reviewed blindly by centralized reading centers. Left ventricular (LV dysfunction was defined as LV ejection fraction (EF<0.50%. RESULTS: Right bundle branch block and left anterior fascicular block, isolated or in association, were more frequently found in seropositive cases (p<0.0001. Both QRS and QTc duration were associated with LVEF values (correlation coefficients -0.159,p<0.0003, and -0.142,p = 0.002 and showed a moderate accuracy in the detection of reduced LVEF (area under the ROC curve: 0.778 and 0.790, both p<0.0001. Several ECG abnormalities were more commonly found in seropositive donors with depressed LVEF, including rhythm disorders (frequent supraventricular ectopic beats, atrial fibrillation or flutter and pacemaker, intraventricular blocks (right bundle branch block and left anterior fascicular block and ischemic abnormalities (possible old myocardial infarction and major and minor ST abnormalities. ECG was sensitive (92% for recognition of seropositive donors with depressed LVEF and had a high negative predictive value (99% for ruling out LV dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS: ECG abnormalities are more

  1. Donor-recipient matching: myths and realities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briceño, Javier; Ciria, Ruben; de la Mata, Manuel

    2013-04-01

    Liver transplant outcomes keep improving, with refinements of surgical technique, immunosuppression and post-transplant care. However, these excellent results and the limited number of organs available have led to an increasing number of potential recipients with end-stage liver disease worldwide. Deaths on waiting lists have led liver transplant teams maximize every organ offered and used in terms of pre and post-transplant benefit. Donor-recipient (D-R) matching could be defined as the technique to check D-R pairs adequately associated by the presence of the constituents of some patterns from donor and patient variables. D-R matching has been strongly analysed and policies in donor allocation have tried to maximize organ utilization whilst still protecting individual interests. However, D-R matching has been written through trial and error and the development of each new score has been followed by strong discrepancies and controversies. Current allocation systems are based on isolated or combined donor or recipient characteristics. This review intends to analyze current knowledge about D-R matching methods, focusing on three main categories: patient-based policies, donor-based policies and combined donor-recipient systems. All of them lay on three mainstays that support three different concepts of D-R matching: prioritarianism (favouring the worst-off), utilitarianism (maximising total benefit) and social benefit (cost-effectiveness). All of them, with their pros and cons, offer an exciting controversial topic to be discussed. All of them together define D-R matching today, turning into myth what we considered a reality in the past. PMID:23104164

  2. Donor safety in living donor liver transplantation: a single-center analysis of 300 cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyong Lei

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the safety to donors of living-donor liver transplantation. METHODS: This study included 300 consecutive living liver tissue donors who underwent operations at our center from July 2002 to December 2012. We evaluated the safety of donors with regard to three aspects complications were recorded prospectively and stratified by grade according to Clavien's classification, and the data were compared in two stages (the first 5 years' experience (pre-January 2008 and the latter 5 years' experience (post-January 2008; laboratory tests such as liver function and blood biochemistry were performed; and the health-related quality of life was evaluated. RESULTS: There was no donor mortality at our center, and the overall morbidity rate was 25.3%. Most of the complications of living donors were either grade I or II. There were significantly fewer complications in the latter period of our study than in the initial period (19.9% vs 32.6%, P<0.001, and biliary complications were the most common complications, with an incidence of 9%. All of the liver dysfunction was temporary; however, the post-operative suppression of platelet count lasted for years. Although within the normal range, eight years after operation, 22 donors showed lower platelet levels (189 × 10(9/L compared with the pre-operative levels (267 × 10(9/L (P<0.05. A total of 98.4% of donors had returned to their previous levels of social activity and work, and 99.2% of donors would donate again if it was required and feasible. With the exception of two donors who experienced grade III complications (whose recipients died and a few cases of abdominal discomfort, fatigue, chronic pain and scar itching, none of the living donors were affected by physical problems. CONCLUSION: With careful donor selection and specialized patient care, low morbidity rates and satisfactory long-term recovery can be achieved after hepatectomy for living-donor liver transplantation.

  3. Anisotropic donor states in electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakrzewski, Adam J. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland)

    2009-06-15

    In this paper we consider the application of the stabilization method to calculations of the ground state energy and resonance width of shallow donors in a uniform electric field. We show for the first time that within our formulation of this method it is very easy to include various factors influencing electronic structure of shallow impurities, like effective mass anisotropy or magnetic field. We demonstrate that the effective mass anisotropy significantly changes the lifetime of donor bound electrons. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. [Attitude of blood donors towards cholesterol measurement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flesland, O; Botten, G; Solheim, B G; Orjasaeter, H

    1992-05-20

    In analyses of cost-effectiveness it is customary to count knowledge of having a high serum cholesterol level as a negative factor. There is little support for this practice in the literature. We have studied the attitude of 305 Norwegian blood donors towards cholesterol testing. 63% stated that they were interested in their serum cholesterol level, and 40% said they knew their own serum cholesterol level. The attitude towards cholesterol testing was clearly positive, both among men and among women, regardless of age. Only one donor stated that she did not want to have her serum cholesterol tested in conjunction with blood donation. PMID:1509430

  5. Risks for donors in uterus transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisu, Iori; Mihara, Makoto; Banno, Kouji; Umene, Kiyoko; Araki, Jun; Hara, Hisako; Suganuma, Nobuhiko; Aoki, Daisuke

    2013-12-01

    Uterus transplantation (UTx) is an alternative to gestational surrogacy and adoption for patients with absolute uterine infertility. Studies have been conducted in animals, and UTx is now within the reach of clinical application in humans. Procedures in humans have been published, but many medical, ethical, and social problems and risks of UTx require discussion prior to widespread clinical application, from the perspectives of donors, recipients, families, and newborns. In this article, we summarize the burdens and risks of UTx, with a focus on donors who provide the uterus. PMID:23793471

  6. Prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and sickle cell trait among blood donors in Riyadh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alabdulaali Mohammed

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Blood donation from glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD-deficient and sickle cell trait (SCT donors might alter the quality of the donated blood during processing, storage or in the recipient′s circulatory system. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of G6PD deficiency and SCT among blood donors coming to King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH in Riyadh. It was also reviewed the benefits and risks of transfusing blood from these blood donors. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 1150 blood samples obtained from blood donors that presented to KKUH blood bank during the period April 2006 to May 2006. All samples were tested for Hb-S by solubility test, alkaline gel electrophoresis; and for G6PD deficiency, by fluorescent spot test. Results: Out of the 1150 donors, 23 (2% were diagnosed for SCT, 9 (0.78% for G6PD deficiency and 4 (0.35% for both conditions. Our prevalence of SCT and G6PD deficiency is higher than that of the general population of Riyadh. Conclusion: We recommend to screen all units for G6PD deficiency and sickle cell trait and to defer donations from donors with either of these conditions, unless if needed for special blood group compatibility, platelet apheresis or if these are likely to affect the blood bank inventory. If such blood is to be used, special precautions need to be undertaken to avoid complications in high-risk recipients.

  7. Sero - Prevalence of Viral Transfusion-transmissible Infections amongst voluntary Blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashida Elrashid Mohamed Ali

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the Sero-prevalence of viral transfusion-transmissible Infectious diseases among blood donors, namely immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B and C transmissible infections (TTIs like HBV, HCV. HIV (Human immune viruses.. sero-prevalence of viral transmissible infections. The donated blood for specific antibodies for infections agents. Can largely reduce the risk of TTIs, virus among blood donors. The study was carried out in the blood bank at Khartoum Teaching Hospital, centre, Sudan. Screening of blood samples for hepatitis B surface Antigen (HBsAg, Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV Antibodies were done using (ELISA enzyme link immunoassay. The study included (1184 voluntary Blood donors, all were males. The overall prevalence of viral transfusion transmissible Infections were (11.84%. The sero-prevalence for antibody against HIV (6 and hepatitis C Virus was positive in 8 (0.06 and (0.08% donors respectively while HBsAg was detected in 98 (9.8% donors.  situation that need for strict criteria for selection of blood donors and also methods of laboratory assays. Services are high in Sudan due to the endemicity of infections like malaria, nutritional problem and obstetrical emergencies associated with blood loss. Little is known about the level of these infections in Sudan so; this study was conducted to investigate the sero-prevalence of transfusion transmissible viral infectious diseases in particular human B and hepatitis Immunodeficiency, hepatitis C viruses. The mode of transmission for HIV, HBV and HCV is the same and includes unsafe Sexual sharp materials Contact, using contaminated with body fluid, mother to Child and transfusion of blood and blood Products.

  8. [Prevalence for seropositivity for HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C in blood donors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-López, María Rebeca F; Zavala-Méndez, Celia; Arenas-Esqueda, Alfonso

    2004-01-01

    Despite utilizing different actions to render blood safe for transfusions, we continue to have the risk of transmitting some viral infections. For this reason, it is important to determine prevalence of infections due to HIV and hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses in blood donors. Previous studies from Mexico indicate that HIV prevalence is 0.01 to 0.13%, while it is 0.11 to 1.22% for hepatitis B, and for hepatitis C, prevalence is 0.47 to 1.47%. We are checking the results of the screening tests (ELISA 3rd generation and chemiluminescent immunoassays) from blood donors studied at the Central Blood Bank (Banco Central de Sangre) at the Mexican Institute of Social Security's (IMSS) Twentieth First Century National Medical Center in Mexico City from 1995 to 2002. Reactive results were studied by confirmatory tests, Western Blot for HIV, AgHBs neutralization test for hepatitis B, and RIBA-HCV3.0 for hepatitis C. Reactive results from 513,062 blood donors confirmed for HV were 0.07%, reactive results and confirmation of hepatitis B from 511,733 blood donors were 0.13%, and reactive results and confirmation of hepatitis C from 511,115 blood donors were 0.31%. Rates obtained are low when compared with results of previous studies in Mexico for HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C. It may be possible than these low rates indicate the positive impact obtained from preventive actions, better strategies of detection of blood donors with high risk, and the advantage of working with a fully automated test system with state-of-the-art technology. PMID:15633577

  9. Positive serology for viral hepatitis and donor self-exclusion in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia De Luca Maccarini

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Despite the great advances in serological testing for transfusion-transmitted infections, the selection of blood donors by blood bank operators remains the only way to avoid transmission within the testing window period. Part of this selection is the self-exclusion form, on which the donors can exclude their blood from donation without any explanation. This study assessed the clinical and epidemiological characteristics related to positivity for viral hepatitis and to the use of the confidential self-exclusion (CSE form. Methods This transversal study analyzed the data collected from blood donors' files in a hospital in Southern Brazil. Univariate and multivariate analyses identified the clinical and epidemiological variables related to positive serologies of viral hepatitis and to whether the donor was self-excluded. Results Of the 3,180 donors included in this study, 0.1% tested positive for HBsAg, 2.1% for anti-HBc, and 0.9% for anti-HCV. When the 93 donors with positive serologies for viral hepatitis were compared with those who were negative, a greater proportion of the positive serology group was found to have had a history of blood transfusions (OR=4.908; 95%CI=1.628 - 14.799; p<0.01, had repeatedly donated (OR=2.147; 95%CI=1.236 - 3.729; p<0.01, and used the CSE form for self-exclusion (OR=7.139; 95%CI=2.045 - 24.923; p<0.01. No variables were independently associated with self-exclusion. Conclusions A history of blood transfusion, repeated donations, and self-exclusion are factors that should be considered during viral hepatitis screenings in blood banks.

  10. Measures to decrease the risk of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome transmission by blood transfusion. Evidence of volunteer blood donor cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pindyck, J; Waldman, A; Zang, E; Oleszko, W; Lowy, M; Bianco, C

    1985-01-01

    We studied whether volunteers giving blood to the Greater New York Blood Program (GNYBP) cooperated with procedures implementing public health recommendations intended to decrease the risk of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) transmission by blood transfusion. Predonation medical screening was expanded to exclude donors who might be ill with AIDS. To exclude possible asymptomatic carriers of the disease, members of groups at increased risk of AIDS were asked either not to give blood or to give it for laboratory studies. A confidential questionnaire, administered to all donors after medical screening, provided the vehicle for donors to advise the GNYBP whether their donation was for laboratory studies or for patient transfusion. We found that the number of male donors decreased; AIDS-related questions in medical history led to a 2 percent increase in donor rejections; 97 percent of donors said their blood could be used for transfusions; 1.4 percent said their blood could be used for laboratory studies only; and 1.6 percent did not respond. Only units designated for transfusion were released to hospitals. People who indicated that their donation was for laboratory studies had a higher prevalence of markers for hepatitis B virus and of antibodies to cytomegalovirus. White cell counts and helper/suppressor T lymphocyte ratios were not significantly different in the two groups. We conclude that volunteer donors have cooperated with the established procedures. None of the laboratory assays identified blood units donated by individuals who, based on information about AIDS high-risk groups, designated their donation for laboratory studies. PMID:3969698

  11. When 'sperm' becomes 'donor': transitions in parents' views of the sperm donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indekeu, Astrid; D'Hooghe, Thomas; Daniels, Ken R; Dierickx, Kris; Rober, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Abstract Little is known about recipients' views of their sperm donor. This study aimed to examine the possible transitions or consistencies in donor sperm recipients' (DSRs') view on the sperm donor over time. A longitudinal qualitative study of 19 Belgian heterosexual DSRs was undertaken. Interviews took place with both partners of the couple during pregnancy, at birth and 1.5-2 years after birth, and were analysed using a grounded theory approach. Recipients who intended to disclose exhibited a transition in their awareness of the donor from being of minimal importance to one who was increasingly seen as part of their family narrative. This was partly triggered by the offspring's life, remarks about resemblance and the socio-cultural context. The perceived position of the donor changed for most recipients from a threatening rival to a 'distractor'. This change was supported by the emerging father-child bond and the confidence that stemmed from it. These observations were applicable to those recipients who intended to disclose their donor conception; for those recipients who intended not to disclose, little or no transition was observed. This study describes and analyses the transitions and consistencies in recipients' views of the donor over different stages of the family life-cycle (pregnancy, birth, toddler stage) and could help the fertility clinics tailor their counselling to the specific stages of parenthood. PMID:24851674

  12. Donor Hemodynamics as a Predictor of Outcomes After Kidney Transplantation From Donors After Cardiac Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M B; Billig, E; Reese, P P; Shults, J; Hasz, R; West, S; Abt, P L

    2016-01-01

    Donation after cardiac death is an important source of transplantable organs, but evidence suggests donor warm ischemia contributes to inferior outcomes. Attempts to predict recipient outcome using donor hemodynamic measurements have not yielded statistically significant results. We evaluated novel measures of donor hemodynamics as predictors of delayed graft function and graft failure in a cohort of 1050 kidneys from 566 donors. Hemodynamics were described using regression line slopes, areas under the curve, and time beyond thresholds for systolic blood pressure, oxygen saturation, and shock index (heart rate divided by systolic blood pressure). A logistic generalized estimation equation model showed that area under the curve for systolic blood pressure was predictive of delayed graft function (above median: odds ratio 1.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06-1.90). Multivariable Cox regression demonstrated that slope of oxygen saturation during the first 10 minutes after extubation was associated with graft failure (below median: hazard ratio 1.30, 95% CI 1.03-1.64), with 5-year graft survival of 70.0% (95%CI 64.5%-74.8%) for donors above the median versus 61.4% (95%CI 55.5%-66.7%) for those below the median. Among older donors, increased shock index slope was associated with increased hazard of graft failure. Validation of these findings is necessary to determine the utility of characterizing donor warm ischemia to predict recipient outcome. PMID:26361242

  13. Tissue banking: relationship with blood donor and organ donor card status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Kenneth D; Fitzpatrick, Patricia E; Sheehan, John D

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the relationships among altruistic health acts may serve to aid therapeutic research advances. In this paper, we report on the links between two such behaviours-donating blood and carrying an organ donor card-and willingness to donate urological tissue to a tissue bank. Reasons for the differential willingness to do so are examined in this paper. A systematic sample of 259 new and returning attendees at a tertiary urology referral clinic in Ireland completed a self-report questionnaire in an outpatient setting. In addition to demographic details, details of known diagnosis of malignancy and family history of cancer; attitudes to tissue donation for research purposes were gauged using a 5-point Likert scale. Both blood donors and organ donor card carriers were more likely to be willing to donate tissue for research purposes. Blood donors were more likely want to know their overall results in comparison to nonblood donors and want their samples to be used for nonprofit research. Our hypothesis that being a blood donor would be a better predictor to donate urological tissue than being an organ donor card carrier borne out by the trends reported above. PMID:22567418

  14. Trends in Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, HIV, and Syphilis Infections in Iranian Blood Donors from 2003 to 2005

    OpenAIRE

    Farahnaz Fallahian; Bashir Hajibeigi; Farshid Alaeddini; Hassan Abolghasemi; Mohsen Amini; Seyyed-Mohammad Miri; Hossein Khedmat; Seyed-Moayed Alavian

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims: To determine changes (trends) in infection rates of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis C virus (HCV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and syphilis in Iranian blood donor population.Methods: Specimens of 1,004,889 volunteer blood donors in Tehran blood transfusion service from 2003 to 2005 were screened for HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV1/2, and VDRL (venereal disease research laboratory) reactivity in a cross-sectional survey. Reactive samples were verified usi...

  15. Efficient synthesis of glycosylated phenazine natural products and analogs with DISAL (methyl 3,5-dinitrosalicylate) glycosyl donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Jane B.; Petersen, Lars; Jensen, K.J.;

    2003-01-01

    Inspired by the occurrence and function of phenazines in natural products, new glycosylated analogs were designed and synthesized. DISAL (methyl 3,5-dinitrosalicylate) glycosyl donors were used in an efficient and easily-handled glycosylation protocol compatible with combinatorial chemistry....... Benzoylated D-glucose, D-galactose and L-quinovose DISAL glycosyl donors were synthesized in high yields and used under mild conditions to glycosylate methyl saphenate and 2-hydroxyphenazine. The glycosides were screened for biological activity and one compound showed inhibitory activity towards topoisomerase...

  16. Seroprevalence and Incidence of hepatitis E in blood donors in Upper Austria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Fischer

    Full Text Available In recent years various studies showed, that hepatitis E virus (HEV is a growing public health problem in many developed countries. Therefore, HEV infections might bear a transmission risk by blood transfusions. The clinical relevance still requires further investigations. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of acute HEV infections in Upper Austrian blood donors as well as a risk estimation of this transfusion-related infection.A total of 58,915 blood donors were tested for HEV RNA using a commercial HEV RT-PCR Kit. 7 of these donors (0.01% were PCR-positive with normal laboratory parameters in absence of clinical signs of hepatitis. Viral load determined by quantitative real-time PCR showed a HEV nucleic acid concentration of 2,217 293,635 IU/ml. At follow-up testing (2-11 weeks after donation all blood donors had negative HEV RNA results. Additionally, genotyping was performed by amplification and sequencing of the ORF1 or ORF2 region of the HEV genome. All HEV RNA positive donor samples revealed a genotype 3 isolate. For the antibody screening, anti-HEV IgM and IgG were detected by ELISA. Follow up serological testing revealed that no donor was seropositive for HEV IgM or IgG antibodies at time of donation. Moreover, we verified the prevalence of anti-HEV IgG in 1,203 of the HEV RNA negative tested blood donors. Overall 13.55% showed positive results for anti-HEV IgG.In the presented study, we investigated HEV infections in blood donations of Upper Austria over 1 year. We concluded that 1 out of 8,416 blood donations is HEV RNA positive. Seroprevalence of anti HEV IgG results in an age-related increase of 13.55%. Therefore, based on this data, we recommend HEV-PCR screening to prevent transmission of hepatitis E virus by transfusion.

  17. Electrostatically defined silicon quantum dots with counted antimony donor implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, M., E-mail: msingh@sandia.gov; Luhman, D. R.; Lilly, M. P. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87175 (United States); Pacheco, J. L.; Perry, D.; Garratt, E.; Ten Eyck, G.; Bishop, N. C.; Wendt, J. R.; Manginell, R. P.; Dominguez, J.; Pluym, T.; Bielejec, E.; Carroll, M. S. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2016-02-08

    Deterministic control over the location and number of donors is crucial to donor spin quantum bits (qubits) in semiconductor based quantum computing. In this work, a focused ion beam is used to implant antimony donors in 100 nm × 150 nm windows straddling quantum dots. Ion detectors are integrated next to the quantum dots to sense the implants. The numbers of donors implanted can be counted to a precision of a single ion. In low-temperature transport measurements, regular Coulomb blockade is observed from the quantum dots. Charge offsets indicative of donor ionization are also observed in devices with counted donor implants.

  18. Electrostatically defined silicon quantum dots with counted antimony donor implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deterministic control over the location and number of donors is crucial to donor spin quantum bits (qubits) in semiconductor based quantum computing. In this work, a focused ion beam is used to implant antimony donors in 100 nm × 150 nm windows straddling quantum dots. Ion detectors are integrated next to the quantum dots to sense the implants. The numbers of donors implanted can be counted to a precision of a single ion. In low-temperature transport measurements, regular Coulomb blockade is observed from the quantum dots. Charge offsets indicative of donor ionization are also observed in devices with counted donor implants

  19. Syntheses of donor-acceptor-functionalized dihydroazulenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broman, Søren Lindbæk; Jevric, Martyn; Bond, Andrew;

    2014-01-01

    The dihydroazulene (DHA)/vinylheptafulvene (VHF) photo/thermoswitch has been of interest for use in molecular electronics and advanced materials. The switching between the two isomers has previously been found to depend strongly on the presence of donor and acceptor groups. The fine-tuning of opt...

  20. Properties of Excitons Bound to Ionized Donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skettrup, Torben; Suffczynski, M.; Gorzkowski, W.

    1971-01-01

    Binding energies, interparticle distances, oscillator strengths, and exchange corrections are calculated for the three-particle complex corresponding to an exciton bound to an ionized donor. The results are given as functions of the mass ratio of the electron and hole. Binding of the complex is...

  1. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be donors at http://www.marrow.org . Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License Show more Show ... Press Copyright Creators Advertise Developers +YouTube Terms Privacy Policy & Safety Send feedback Try something new! Loading... Working... ...

  2. Electron shuttling in phosphorus donor qubit systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, N. Tobias; Gamble, John King; Nielsen, Erik; Muller, Richard P.; Witzel, Wayne M.; Montano, Ines; Carroll, Malcolm S.

    2014-03-01

    Phosphorus donors in silicon are a promising qubit architecture, due in large part to their long nuclear coherence times and the recent development of atomically precise fabrication methods. Here, we investigate issues related to implementing qubits with phosphorus donors in silicon, employing an effective mass theory that non-phenomenologically takes into account inter-valley coupling. We estimate the significant sources of decoherence and control errors in this system to compute the fidelity of primitive gates and gate timescales. We include the effects of valley repopulation during the process of shuttling an electron between a donor and nearby interface or between neighboring donors, evaluating the control requirements for ensuring adiabaticity with respect to the valley sector. This work was supported in part by the LDRD program at Sandia National Labs, a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corp, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corp, for the U.S. DOE NNSA under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  3. Case 1: chronic infected donor site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Following a coronary bypass surgery, a vein donor site became infected and failed to heal despite use of antibiotics and a variety of topical treatments. Octenilin Wound Gel not only helped to promote healing, but also increased the patient's ability to tolerate dressing changes. PMID:26949845

  4. South Korea as an emerging donor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chun, Hong-Min; Munyi, Elijah Nyaga; Lee, Heejin

    2010-01-01

    South Korea's official development assistance (ODA) has been increasing rapidly and will continue to do so. Korea is one of the few countries which have successfully transitioned from a recipient to a donor. It became a member of DAC (development assistance committee), OECD in November 2009. Korea...

  5. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be donors at http://www.marrow.org . Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License Show more Show ... 41. Annabelle Monks 3,487 views 4:41 Science Friction: Stem Cell Research - Duration: 54:44. Irishstemcell ...

  6. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be donors at http://www.marrow.org . Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License Show more Show ... views 4:25 Susan Solomon: The promise of research with stem cells - Duration: 14:59. TED 55, ...

  7. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be donors at http://www.marrow.org . Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License Show more Show ... Monks 3,700 views 4:41 Stem Cell Basics - How Blood is Made. - Duration: 10:58. Vernon ...

  8. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the use of BMT and PBSCT, see http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/fa... If you are interested ... of volunteers willing to be donors at http://www.marrow.org . Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube ...

  9. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood stem cell (PBSC) donor, explains the donation process - Duration: 3:28. Be The Match 23,393 ... Copyright Creators Advertise Developers +YouTube Terms Privacy Policy & Safety Send feedback Try something new! Loading... Working... Sign ...

  10. Dilemma over live-donor transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Garwood, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Organ transplants save thousands of lives each year, but put many live donors at risk due to an unregulated organ trade that exploits the vulnerable in developing countries and complicates legitimate organ donation efforts. Countries face a dilemma: how they can increase the supply of organs in a manner that is ethical and humane.

  11. Comparison of performance of two Treponema pallidum automated chemiluminescent immunoassays in blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommese, Linda; Sabia, Chiara; Esposito, Antonella; Iannone, Carmela; Montesano, Maria Lourdes; Napoli, Claudio

    2016-06-01

    The recrudescence of syphilis is leading to the development of new serological tests. The goal of this study was to compare the performance of the more recent Elecsys Syphilis assay, the Electro Chemiluminescence Immunoassay (ECLIA), with the former Architect Syphilis TP assay, the Chemiluminescent Microparticle Immunoassay (CMIA), for the detection of antibodies against Treponema pallidum in blood donors. Serum samples of 5543 voluntary blood donors were screened in parallel with two tests. All repeatedly reactive (RR) samples by one or both assays were further analysed for confirmation by immmunoblot INNO-LIA and TPHA. Of 32 RR samples by CMIA, 21 were confirmed positive; of 21 RR samples by ECLIA, 20 were confirmed positive. The sensitivities of CMIA and ECLIA were 100% and 95.24% (95% CI = 85.71-100), respectively, not significant (p > 0.05). The specificity and predictive positive value (PPV) of CMIA were 99.86% (95% CI = 99.74-99.94) and 72.41%, respectively, while the specificity and PPV of ECLIA were both 100%, being statistically significant (p = 0.01 for both). The overall agreement was 99.80% and the Cohen's kappa coefficients was 0.79. In conclusion, the recent Elecsys Syphilis assay could represent another reliable assay for blood donor screening. PMID:27030921

  12. Donor-Specific Anti-HLA Antibodies in Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin-Zorman, Sarah; Loiseau, Pascale; Taupin, Jean-Luc; Caillat-Zucman, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT) is a curative treatment for a wide variety of hematological diseases. In 30% of the cases, a geno-identical donor is available. Any other situation displays some level of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) incompatibility between donor and recipient. Deleterious effects of anti-HLA immunization have long been recognized in solid organ transplant recipients. More recently, anti-HLA immunization was shown to increase the risk of primary graft failure (PGF), a severe complication of AHSCT that occurs in 3–4% of matched unrelated donor transplantation and up to 15% in cord blood transplantation and T-cell depleted haplo-identical stem cell transplantation. Rates of PGF in patients with DSA were reported to be between 24 and 83% with the highest rates in haplo-identical and cord blood transplantation recipients. This led to the recommendation of anti-HLA antibody screening to detect donor-specific antibodies (DSA) in recipients prior to AHSCT. In this review, we highlight the role of anti-HLA antibodies in AHSCT and the mechanisms that may lead to PGF in patients with DSA, and discuss current issues in the field.

  13. Screening for Sexually Transmitted Infection Pathogens in Semen Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RW Peeling

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The transmission of sexually transmitted infection (STI pathogens from an infected donor to the recipient of a semen donation in assisted conception may result not only in acute infection but also in long-term reproductive complications or adverse outcomes of pregnancy, including infection of the offspring. Screening for bacterial STI pathogens, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae is strongly recommended because these pathogens can cause serious reproductive complications in the recipients of semen donations and infection in their offspring. Screening for these pathogens should be performed using the most sensitive methods, such as nucleic acid amplified tests. False-negative results due to inhibitory substances in the semen sample should be monitored using amplification controls. Where specimen transport is not a problem and culture facilities are available, N gonorrhoeae can also be detected by culture. Laboratories performing screening should subscribe to proficiency programs and have strict quality controls. Although Trichomonas vaginalis, group B streptococcus and genital mycoplasmas have been associated with adverse outcomes of pregnancy, the frequent finding of these organisms in healthy individuals brings into question the validity of mandatory inclusion of these organisms in the screening panel. Although viral STI pathogens and Treponema pallidum -- the causative agent of syphilis -- may be detected in semen, their presence may be more sensitively detected through antibody testing of the donor. Screening donors for HIV, hepatitis B and syphilis by serology is uniformly recommended in all of the guidelines, but the value of screening either donors or semen samples for cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex viruses and human papilloma viruses is less clear.

  14. Neonatal screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pàmpols, Teresa

    2003-01-01

    Neonatal screening (NS) is a medical act in the context of preventive medicine aimed at the early identification of infants affected by certain conditions that threaten their life and long-term health, for which a timely intervention can lead to a significant reduction of morbidity, mortality and associated disabilities. It emerged three decades ago in the context of prevention of mental retardation. Since then, around 600 inborn metabolic disorders have been described and technological progress has been impressive; nevertheless only around 5% of the disorders have been the object of NS. The most frequently cited reasons for the limitation are low prevalence and the lack of treatment. The tandem mass spectrometry has come in place in recent years across the globe, expanding NS to include several disorders of intermediary metabolism. This has shown, in addition to a prevalence much higher than previously thought, the benefits of early detection. The present work is a review of NS, not only from the point of view of technological/medical achievements, but also considering other factors which will affect specific disease selection, according to the social and organizational infrastructure that may expand the borders of NS. PMID:12921292

  15. Screening of multiparous women to avoid transfusion-related acute lung injury: a single centre experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, U J H; Link, E; Hofmann, C; Wasel, W; Bein, G

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate which approach for serological testing of multiparous donors might be feasible and effective to reduce the risk of transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI). TRALI is a serious adverse event of blood transfusion. Antibodies to granulocytes and human leucocyte antigens (HLAs) are frequently detected in sera of implicated donors. These donors are often multiparous women. A general deferral of female plasma or screening strategies for leucocyte antibodies has been proposed to increase blood safety. A prospective study was initiated in 2003. Until 2006, serum samples from all female donors reporting three or more pregnancies (n = 229) were screened for the presence of antibodies against granulocytes and HLAs by immunofluorescence and agglutination tests as well as by a commercial HLA enzyme immunoassay. In total, 40% of all multiparous women were reactive in one of the assays. Twenty-nine percent of the reactive sera contained antibodies to granulocytes but not to HLAs. During the observation period, three TRALI reactions occurred in our hospital, two of which would have been prevented if the screening program had been extended to all previously pregnant donors. We conclude from these data that, not unexpectedly, the number of previous pregnancies is not a reliable indicator for the likelihood of inducing TRALI. More importantly, screening strategies for antibodies that might induce TRALI should probably not be reduced to HLA antibody screening. This finding awaits further research. PMID:19140817

  16. Frequency of hepatitis C viral RNA in anti-hepatitis C virus non-reactive blood donors with normal alanine aminotransferase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the frequency of HCV RNA in an anti-HCV non-reactive blood donor population with normal ALT, and its cost effectiveness. Study Design: An observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Baqai Institute of Haematology, Baqai Medical University, Karachi, and Combined Military Hospital, Malir Cantt, Karachi, from May 2006 to April 2008. Methodology: After initial interview and mini-medical examination, demographic data of blood donors was recorded, and anti-HCV, HBsAg and HIV were screened by third generation ELISA. Those reactive to anti-HCV, HbsAg and/or HIV were excluded. Four hundred consecutive donors with ALT within the reference range of 15-41 units/L were included in study. HCV RNA RT-PCR was performed on 5 sample mini-pools using Bio-Rad Real time PCR equipment. Results: All 400 donors were male, with mean age 27 years SD + 6.2. ALT of blood donors varied between 15-41 U/L with mean of 31.5+6.4 U/L, HCV RNA was detected in 2/400 (0.5%) blood donors. Screening one blood bag for HCV RNA costs Rs 4,000.00 equivalent to 50 US dollars, while screening through 5 sample mini-pools was Rs. 800.00 equivalent to approximately 10 US dollars. Conclusion: HCV RNA frequency was 0.5% (2/400) in the studied anti-HCV non-reactive normal ALT blood donors. Screening through mini-pools is more cost-effective. (author)

  17. Blood donation and blood donor mortality after adjustment for a healthy donor effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullum, Henrik; Rostgaard, Klaus; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have repeatedly demonstrated that blood donors experience lower mortality than the general population. While this may suggest a beneficial effect of blood donation, it may also reflect the selection of healthy persons into the donor population. To overcome this bias, we...... investigated the relation between blood donation frequency and mortality within a large cohort of blood donors. In addition, our analyses also took into consideration the effects of presumed health differences linked to donation behavior. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Using the Scandinavian Donation and...... and mortality. The magnitude of the association was reduced after adjustment for an estimate of self-selection in the donor population. Our observations indicate that repeated blood donation is not associated with premature death, but cannot be interpreted as conclusive evidence of a beneficial health...

  18. Donor safety and remnant liver volume in living donor liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng-Rong Shi; Lu-Nan Yan; Cheng-You Du

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the relationship between donor safety and remnant liver volume in right lobe living donor liver transplantation (LDLT).METHODS:From July 2001 to January 2009,our liver transplant centers carried out 197 LDLTs.The clinical data from 151 cases of adult right lobe living donors (not including the middle hepatic vein) were analyzed.The conditions of the three groups of donors were well matched in terms of the studied parameters.The donors' preoperative data,intraoperative and postoperative data were calculated for the three groups:Group 1 remnant liver volume (RLV) < 35%,group 2 RLV 36%-40%,and group 3 RLV > 40%.Comparisons included the different remnant liver volumes on postoperative liver function recovery and the impact of systemic conditions.Correlations between remnant liver volume and post-operative complications were also analyzed.RESULTS:The donors' anthroposomatology data,operation time,and preoperative donor blood test indicators were calculated for the three groups.No significant differences were observed between the donors' gender,age,height,weight,and operation time.According to the Chengdu standard liver volume formula,the total liver volume of group 1 was 1072.88 ± 131.06 mL,group 2 was 1043.84 ± 97.11 mL,and group 3 was 1065.33 ± 136.02 mL.The three groups showed no statistically significant differences.When the volume of the remnant liver was less than 35% of the total liver volume,the volume of the remnant had a significant effect on the recovery of liver function and intensive care unit time.In addition,the occurrence of complications was closely related to the remnant liver volume.When the volume of the remnant liver was more than 35% of the total liver volume,the remnant volume change had no significant effect on donor recovery.CONCLUSION:To ensure donor safety,the remnant liver volume should be greater than the standard liver volume (35%) in right lobe living donor liver transplantation.

  19. Molecular assembly of amino acid interlinked, topologically symmetric, π-complementary donor-acceptor-donor triads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avinash, M B; Sandeepa, K V; Govindaraju, T

    2013-01-01

    Amino acid interlinked pyrene and naphthalenediimide (NDI) based novel donor-acceptor-donor (D-A-D) triads are designed to exploit their topological symmetry and complementary π-character for facile charge-transfer complexation. Consequently, free-floating high-aspect-ratio supercoiled nanofibres and hierarchical helical bundles of triads are realized by modulating the chemical functionality of interlinking amino acids. PMID:23946856

  20. Screen time and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    "Screen time" is a term used for activities done in front of a screen, such as watching TV, working on a computer, or playing video games. Screen time is sedentary activity, meaning you are being physically ...

  1. Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Lung Cancer Key Points Lung cancer is a disease in ...

  2. What Is Carrier Screening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you want to learn. Search form Search Carrier screening You are here Home Testing & Services Testing for ... help you make the decision. What Is Carrier Screening? Carrier screening checks if a person is a " ...

  3. Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease in ...

  4. Donor biopsy in living donor liver transplantation: is it still relevant in a developing country?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorwal, P; Gautam, D; Sharma, D; Singh, D R; Raina, V

    2015-04-01

    Liver transplantation is an important modality of treatment for end-stage liver disease. Liver biopsy evaluation has been an important aspect of the donor evaluation protocol. With the advent of newer modalities of donor evaluation such as high resolution CT scan, fibroscan and NMR spectroscopy, the relevance of the liver biopsy appears to be diminishing. We investigated the usefulness of donor liver biopsy evaluation in patients who had been cleared by radiological investigations. We evaluated 184 donor liver biopsies performed over a one-year period and found that 18% showed >5% steatosis and around 40% showed portal inflammation, which was, however, minimal to mild. Fibrosis was detected in 10 cases (5.4%), 7 being in stage 1 and 3 in stage 2. Donors with these findings were not considered for transplantation. We conclude that the liver biopsy still continues to be relevant especially in a developing country and does add additional information to the diagnostic work-up of a liver donor. PMID:25890612

  5. Donor-Specific HLA Antibodies in Living Versus Deceased Donor Liver Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitsky, J; Kaneku, H; Jie, C; Walsh, R C; Abecassis, M; Tambur, A R

    2016-08-01

    With less ischemia, improved donor selection and controlled procedures, living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) might lead to less HLA donor-specific antibody (DSA) formation or fewer adverse outcomes than deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT). Using the multicenter A2ALL (Adult-to-Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation Cohort Study) biorepository, we compared the incidence and outcomes of preformed and de novo DSAs between LDLT and DDLT. In total, 129 LDLT and 66 DDLT recipients were identified as having serial samples. The prevalence of preformed and de novo DSAs was not different between DDLT and LDLT recipients (p = 0.93). There was no association between patient survival and the timing (preformed vs. de novo), class (I vs. II) and relative levels of DSA between the groups; however, preformed DSA was associated with higher graft failure only in DDLT recipients (p = 0.01). De novo DSA was associated with graft failure regardless of liver transplant type (p = 0.005) but with rejection only in DDLT (p = 0.0001). On multivariate analysis, DSA was an independent risk factor for graft failure regardless of liver transplant type (p = 0.017, preformed; p = 0.002, de novo). In conclusion, although similar in prevalence, DSA may have more impact in DDLT than LDLT recipients. Although our findings need further validation, future research should more robustly test the effect of donor type and strategies to mitigate the impact of DSA. PMID:26896194

  6. Development and evaluation of a multiplex screening assay for Plasmodium falciparum exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Micha Phill Grønholm; Röser, Dennis; Christiansen, Michael;

    2012-01-01

    Transfusion transmitted malaria (TTM) in non-endemic countries is reduced by questioning blood donors and screening of donated blood. Conventional screening is performed by Indirect Fluorescence Antibody Test (IFAT). This method is manual and difficult to standardize. Here we study the diagnostic...... performance of a multiplex assay for detection of antibodies against Plasmodium falciparum in donor blood using IFAT as a comparator. A multiplex assay (MPA) containing the antigens GLURP-R0, GLURP-R2, MSP3, MSP1 hybrid and AMA1 was constructed using xMAP® technology. A discrimination index for exposure to P....... falciparum malaria was calculated by comparing travelers with clinical malaria (n=52) and non-exposed blood donors (n=119). The index was evaluated on blood donors with suspected malaria exposure (n=249) and compared to the diagnostic performance of IFAT. At a specificity of 95.8 %, the MPA discrimination...

  7. Alteration of the Donor/Acceptor Spectrum of the (S-Amine Transaminase from Vibrio fluvialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maika Genz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To alter the amine donor/acceptor spectrum of an (S-selective amine transaminase (ATA, a library based on the Vibrio fluvialis ATA targeting four residues close to the active site (L56, W57, R415 and L417 was created. A 3DM-derived alignment comprising fold class I pyridoxal-5′-phosphate (PLP-dependent enzymes allowed identification of positions, which were assumed to determine substrate specificity. These positions were targeted for mutagenesis with a focused alphabet of hydrophobic amino acids to convert an amine:α-keto acid transferase into an amine:aldehyde transferase. Screening of 1200 variants revealed three hits, which showed a shifted amine donor/acceptor spectrum towards aliphatic aldehydes (mainly pentanal, as well as an altered pH profile. Interestingly, all three hits, although found independently, contained the same mutation R415L and additional W57F and L417V substitutions.

  8. Lipid profile of regular blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uche EI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available EI Uche,1 A Adediran,2 OD Damulak,3 TA Adeyemo,2 AA Akinbami,4 AS Akanmu21Department of Hematology and Blood Transfusion, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria; 2Department of Hematology and Blood Transfusion, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria; 3Department of Hematology and Blood Transfusion, Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria; 4Department of Hematology and Blood Transfusion, Lagos State University, Ikeja, NigeriaIntroduction: A few reports have linked regular blood donation to the lowering of parameters of lipid profile. Estimating the lipid profile is an accepted method of assessing an individual’s risk for coronary heart disease, particularly if there is evidence of lipid peroxidation. Regular blood donation may lower iron stores, and this in turn lowers lipid peroxidation. This study was carried out to determine the effect of blood donation on lipid profile.Materials and methods: Eighty-two participants consented to participate and were enrolled into the study, 52 of whom were regular blood donors (study group and 30 were non-donors (control group. Venous blood (10 mL was drawn from each subject into new plain screw-capped disposable plastic tubes. This was allowed to clot and the serum was used to determine total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein.Results: The mean total cholesterol (4.66 ± 0.86 mmol/L, triglycerides (1.22 ± 0.64 mmol/L, and low-density lipoprotein (2.32 ± 0.73 mmol/L were significantly lower in the regular blood donors than the control group (5.61 ± 1.26 mmol/L, 1.77 ± 2.9 mmol/L, and 3.06 ± 0.89 mmol/L, respectively; P < 0.05 in all cases. Also, while 42% of the study group had a low/high-density lipoprotein ratio of at least three, about 57% of the control group had a ratio of at least three (P = 0.21.Conclusion: Regular blood donation may be protective against cardiovascular disease as reflected by significantly lower mean total

  9. Transvaginal Route for Kidney Extraction in Laparoscopic Donor Nephrectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Gurluler, Ercument; Berber, Ibrahim; Cakir, Ulkem; Gurkan, Alihan

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The aim of this retrospective study was to compare conventional laparoscopic living-donor nephrectomy with transvaginal natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery–assisted living-donor nephrectomy in terms of feasibility and reproducibility. Methods: A total of 115 consecutive female patients who underwent laparoscopic living-donor nephrectomy (n = 70) or transvaginal natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery–assisted living-donor nephrectomy (n = 45) wer...

  10. Mini-donor nephrectomy: A viable and effective alternative

    OpenAIRE

    Guleria, Sandeep

    2010-01-01

    Live kidney donation is an excellent way of increasing the donor pool. The introduction of the laparoscopic donor nephrectomy has resulted in an increase in live organ donation in the western hemisphere. There is no data on its impact on organ donation in India. However attractive as it may seem, the procedure is associated with a definite learning curve and does compromise donor safety. The procedure is also expensive in terms of the equipment required. The mini-donor nephrectomy is an excel...

  11. Explaining differences between hospitals in number of organ donors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friele, R.D.; Coppen, R.; Marquet, R.L.; Gevers, J.K.M.

    2006-01-01

    The shortage of donor organs calls for a careful examination of all improvement options. In this study, 80 Dutch hospitals were compared. They provided 868 donors in a 5-year period, constituting 91% of all donors in that period in The Netherlands. Multilevel regression analysis was used to explain

  12. Donors and archives a guidebook for successful programs

    CERN Document Server

    Purcell, Aaron D

    2015-01-01

    Donors and Archives: A Guidebook for Successful Programs highlights the importance of development and fundraising for archives, while focusing on the donor and potential donor. Their interest, their support, their enthusiasm, and their stuff are vital to the success of archival programs.

  13. The evaluation of blood donor deferral causes in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mafirakureva, N.; Khoza, S.; Van Hulst, M.; Postma, M.J.; Mvere, D.A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Donor selection is one of the first steps in blood donation aimed at improving the safety of blood and blood products. It is the only line of protection for donors and against certain infections for which testing is not performed. There is paucity of published data on reasons for donor d

  14. Unique early gene expression patterns in human adult to adult living donor liver grafts compared to deceased donor grafts

    OpenAIRE

    Jonge, Jeroen; Kurian, Sunil; Shaked, Abraham; Reddy, K. Rajendar; Hancock, Wayne; Salomon, Daniel R.; Olthoff, Kim M.

    2009-01-01

    Because of inherent differences between deceased donor (DD) and living donor (LD) liver grafts, we hypothesize that the molecular signatures will be unique, correlating with specific biologic pathways and clinical patterns.

  15. Prenatal screening and genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alderson, P; Aro, A R; Dragonas, T;

    2001-01-01

    Although the term 'genetic screening' has been used for decades, this paper discusses how, in its most precise meaning, genetic screening has not yet been widely introduced. 'Prenatal screening' is often confused with 'genetic screening'. As we show, these terms have different meanings, and we...... examine definitions of the relevant concepts in order to illustrate this point. The concepts are i) prenatal, ii) genetic screening, iii) screening, scanning and testing, iv) maternal and foetal tests, v) test techniques and vi) genetic conditions. So far, prenatal screening has little connection...... with precisely defined genetics. There are benefits but also disadvantages in overstating current links between them in the term genetic screening. Policy making and professional and public understandings about screening could be clarified if the distinct meanings of prenatal screening and genetic screening were...

  16. Customer Relationship Management Untuk Pengelolaan Donor Darah

    OpenAIRE

    Matin Aziz Saputra; Bambang Setiawan

    2014-01-01

    Palang Merah Indonesia (PMI) Surabaya bergerak di pelayanan donor darah. Oleh karena itu PMI berkaitan erat dengan pelayanan kepada pendonor darah. Karena itu perlu dijaga dan ditingkatkan pelayanan kepada pendonor. Upaya yang dilakukan adalah dengan menerapkan Customer Relationship Management berbasis Teknologi Informasi.PMI menerapkan 3 siklus CRM yaitu acquitition, enhancement dan retain. Ketiga siklus tersebut diterapkan ke 3 kategori pelanggan yaitu lingkungan perusahaan, lingkungan seko...

  17. Hemochromatosis Patients as Voluntary Blood Donors

    OpenAIRE

    Power, Tara E.; Paul C Adams

    2004-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate hemochromatosis patients' suitability as blood donors as well as their perceptions and experience with the current public donation system. Participants were gathered from a list of current hemochromatosis patients (n=120) and members of the Canadian Hemochromatosis Society (n=1000). Of the 1120 surveys mailed out to these groups, 801 surveys were returned completed. The sample respondents had a mean age of 57.44 years (SD=12.73; range 19 to 87 yea...

  18. AN ANDROID APPLICATION FOR VOLUNTEER BLOOD DONORS

    OpenAIRE

    Sultan Turhan

    2015-01-01

    There is an expectation that the blood will always be there when it is really needed. Blood donor volunteers constitute the main supply source in an effective blood supply chain management. They feed blood stocks through their donation. In an emergency situation, if the stocks are insufficient, the only source of blood supply will be the people who come to the health center and donate the blood on a voluntary basis. It is certain that time is a very important component in such ...

  19. Grandparents’ Stories of Family Life After Donor Conception (Parents of heterosexual couples with children conceived using donor sperm or eggs)

    OpenAIRE

    Hazel Burke, Petra Nordqvist and Carol Smart

    2015-01-01

    This leaflet is written for the parents of heterosexual couples who have, or areplanning, children using donor conception. It is based on many hours of research interviews, during which parents and grandparents of donor-conceived children told usabout their experiences of family life after donor conception.This leaflet is one of a series of four, written for parents and grandparents with donor-conceived children. They are based on research from the Relative Strangers project.

  20. Grandparents’ Stories of Family Life After Donor Conception (Parents of lesbian couples with children conceived using donor sperm)

    OpenAIRE

    Hazel Burke, Petra Nordqvist and Carol Smart

    2015-01-01

    This leaflet is written for the parents of lesbian couples who have, or are planning, children using donor conception. It is based on many hours of research interviews, during which parents and grandparents of donor conceived children told us abouttheir experiences of family life after donor conception.This leaflet is one of a four part series written for parents and grandparents of donor-conceived children. It is based on research from the 'Relative Strangers' project, which was funded by th...

  1. Pre-transplant Evaluation of Donor Urinary Biomarkers can Predict Reduced Graft Function After Deceased Donor Kidney Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Koo, Tai Yeon; Jeong, Jong Cheol; Lee, Yonggu; Ko, Kwang-Pil; Lee, Kyoung-Bun; Lee, Sik; Park, Suk Joo; Park, Jae Berm; Han, Miyeon; Lim, Hye Jin; Ahn, Curie; Yang, Jaeseok

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Several recipient biomarkers are reported to predict graft dysfunction, but these are not useful in decision making for the acceptance or allocation of deceased donor kidneys; thus, it is necessary to develop donor biomarkers predictive of graft dysfunction. To address this issue, we prospectively enrolled 94 deceased donors and their 109 recipients who underwent transplantation between 2010 and 2013 at 4 Korean transplantation centers. We investigated the predictive values of donor ...

  2. Increasing the Supply of Kidneys for Transplantation by Making Living Donors the Preferred Source of Donor Kidneys

    OpenAIRE

    Testa, Giuliano; Siegler, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Abstract At the present time, increasing the use of living donors offers the best solution to the organ shortage problem. The clinical questions raised when the first living donor kidney transplant was performed, involving donor risk, informed consent, donor protection, and organ quality, have been largely answered. We strongly encourage a wider utilization of living donation and recommend that living donation, rather than deceased donation, become the first choice for kidney transplantation....

  3. Taking a Step Forward in Laparoscopic Donor Nephrectomy: Transvaginal Retrieval of Donor's Kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ying Hao; Lim, Yu Ming Joel; Ng, Ying Woo; Tiong, Ho Yee

    2016-09-01

    Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy has been broadly recognized as the gold standard for kidney procurement used in kidney transplantation where it is not uncommon for donors to experience discomfort and aesthetic dissatisfaction over larger incision site. Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery is a surgical approach that allows scarless intraabdominal operations through natural orifices, such as the vagina. In this case report, we describe the first case of transvaginal retrieval of donor's kidney at the National University Hospital, Singapore. A 51-year-old Malay lady with no significant medical history volunteered to a living-related kidney donor. Perioperative antibiotics were administered. A 12 mm Excel port was placed over the left iliac fossa with camera insertion. Two additional ports were inserted over the left rectus sheath edge and left costal margin under direct vision. An additional 5 mm port at the left loin was placed for lateral retraction. A vaginal probe was then inserted to facilitate posterior colpotomy and transection of the left uterosacral ligament. Pneumoperitoneum was subsequently maintained with a LiNA McCartney(®) Tube. A 15 mm Endocatch(®) bag was inserted for retrieval of the kidney. The left kidney was placed in the Endocatch bag after transection of the hilar vessels where the kidney was retrieved vaginally with ease. Colpotomy was closed vaginally using Vicryl-0 continuous suture. Total blood loss was noted as 50 mL with warm ischemia time being 7 minutes and the entire retrieval taking totally 20 minutes. Postoperative recovery was uneventful and the donor was discharged stable 3 days postoperation. The transplanted kidney retained normal graft function. Colpotomy retrieval for donor nephrectomy presents an innovative method for specimen retrieval with minimal disruption of donor anatomy. Doing away with laparotomy for kidney retrieval has indeed shown a reduction in recovery time, reduced postoperative pain, and

  4. Living-donor kidney transplantation: a review of the current practices for the live donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Connie L; Delmonico, Francis L

    2005-07-01

    The first successful living-donor kidney transplant was performed 50 yr ago. Since then, in a relatively brief period of medical history, living kidney transplantation has become the preferred treatment for those with ESRD. Organ replacement from either a live or a deceased donor is preferable to dialysis therapy because transplantation provides a better quality of life and improved survival. The advantages of live versus deceased donor transplantation now are readily apparent as it affords earlier transplantation and the best long-term survival. Live kidney donation has also been fostered by the technical advance of laparoscopic nephrectomy and immunologic maneuvers that can overcome biologic obstacles such as HLA disparity and ABO or cross-match incompatibility. Congressional legislation has provided an important model to remove financial disincentives to being a live donor. Federal employees now are afforded paid leave and coverage for travel expenses. Candidates for renal transplantation are aware of these developments, and they have become less hesitant to ask family members, spouses, or friends to become live kidney donors. Living donation as practiced for the past 50 yr has been safe with minimal immediate and long-term risk for the donor. However, the future experience may not be the same as our society is becoming increasingly obese and developing associated health problems. In this environment, predicting medical futures is less precise than in the past. Even so, isolated abnormalities such as obesity and in some instances hypertension are no longer considered absolute contraindications to donation. These and other medical risks bring additional responsibility in such circumstances to track the unknown consequences of a live-donor nephrectomy. PMID:15930096

  5. [The protocol for multi organ donor management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucewicz, Ewa; Wojarski, Jacek; Zegleń, Sławomir; Saucha, Wojciech; Maciejewski, Tomasz; Pacholewicz, Jerzy; Przybylski, Roman; Knapik, Piotr; Zembala, Marian

    2009-01-01

    Identification and preparation of a potential organ donor requires careful and meticulous intensive care, so that the organs may be harvested in the best possible condition for transplantation. The protocol consists of three key elements: (1) monitoring and haemodynamicstabilisation, (2) hormonal therapy, and (3) adequate mechanical ventilation and nosocomial pneumonia prophylaxis. Standard haemodynamic monitoring should consist of a 12 lead EGG, and direct monitoring of arterial and central venous pressures. Pulmonary artery catheterisation is indicated in donors with a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) below 45%. PCWP should be kept at around 12 mm Hg, Cl at greater than 2.4 L m(-2), and SVR between 800 and 1200 dyn s(-1) cm(-5). When a vasopressor is necessary, vasopressin should be used as the drug of choice. If vasopressin is not available, noradrenaline or adrenaline may be used. Haemoglobin concentration should be maintained between 5.5-6.2 mmol L(-1). In a potential heart donor, troponin concentration should be checked daily. Neutral thermal conditions should be maintained using a warm air blower. A brain dead patient cannot maintain adequate pituitary function, therefore hormone replacement therapy with methylprednisolone, thyroxin and desmopressin is indicated. Glucose concentrations should be kept within the normal range, using insulin if necessary. The lung harvesting protocol should be similarto ARDS treatment guidelines (optimal PEEP, low tidal volumes). Lung recruitment manoeuvres, and aggressive prevention and treatment of nosocomial infection are essential. PMID:20201348

  6. Living donor bone banking: processing and discarding--from procurement to therapeutic use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovanyecz, Paula; Lorenti, Alicia; Lucero, José Manuel Juan; Gorla, Adrián; Castiglioni, Alejandro Enrique

    2015-12-01

    Skeletal muscle and osteoarticular tissue banks are responsible to procure, process, store and distribute tissues, from living and cadaveric donors. The procedures involve the application of protocols covering all aspects of the banking, ensuring the best tissue quality and maximum safety for the recipient. An analysis on the causes of bone tissue discarded by Biotar Tissue Bank between January 2005 and December 2012 was carried. Bone tissue was obtained from both hip and knee replacement (femoral heads and tibial plateau respectively) in living donors treated at different medical-surgical institutions in Argentina. These tissues were processed at the Bank to produce both frozen and lyophilized cancellous bone. Out of 3413 donated bones received by the Bank, 77.55 % resulted in final product, while the remaining 22.44 % was discarded in compliance with the quality standards of both the Bank and the regulatory authority. Comparing the last and the first year of the studied period, the number of discarded tissue increased 3.6 times, while the number of collected bones was approximately 10 times higher. Related to total disposed tissue, reactive serology was the most frequent cause (62.14 %), followed by inappropriate collection/storage of blood sample (30.81 %). A progressive reduction in the percentages of total discard was observed, and this was proportional to inappropriate collection/storage of blood sample. No significant differences were found in the discard rates due to positive serology throughout all the years studied. The success of a tissue bank requires full commitment of all the personnel especially the team members responsible for donor selection and the processing of allografts. It is important to critically screen donors in the early stages of donor recruitment. All of the procedures carried out by the tissue bank are parts of the quality control system which must be strictly carried out. Biotar Tissue Bank is continuously committed to ensure

  7. Low Prevalence of Brucella Agglutinins in Blood Donors in Central Province of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoomeh Sofian

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease of worldwide distribution and has great economic importance. Despite its control in many countries, it remains endemic in Iran. Brucellosis was investigated in many high risk occupational groups; however, few studies on the prevalence of brucellosis among blood donors are available. To determine the seroprevalence of brucellosis antibodies in blood donors, a serological study was carried out in central province of Iran.Materials and Methods: A total of 897 healthy blood donors with mean age 37.23 ± 10.9 years were enrolled in the study. Laboratory tests including Standard Tube Agglutination Test (STA and 2-mercaptoethanol (2ME agglutination were checked in all samples. STA dilution ≥ 1:80, and in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol (2ME agglutination ≥ 20 was considered positive.Results: Out of 897 cases, 11.9% were inhabitants of rural areas. 41.5% had history of consumption of unpasteurized dairy products and 9.3% had history of contact with domestic animals. A very low level of Brucella agglutinins was present in 3(0.33% of the samples and only one sample (0.11% was found to be truly positive for Brucella agglutinins. 2ME was negative in all samples. None of these 4 subjects showed signs and symptoms of brucellosis in 6 months follow-up.Conclusion: On the basis of our data, brucellosis has no epidemiological and clinical importance in our blood donors; therefore, it is not recommended to perform screening tests such as, STA and 2ME to identify brucellosis antibodies in the sera of blood donors.

  8. Non-injected illicit drug use and infectious disease risk of donor tissue: a single institution retrospective review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Mark D; Qureshi, Amir; Vijapura, Anita; Temple, H Thomas

    2015-12-01

    This study assessed the relationship of non-injected illicit drug use and infectious disease seropositivity for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and Syphilis. In a retrospective review of 986 donor charts recovered from 2009 to 2011 at a single tissue bank, the absence of reported non-injected illicit drug use corresponded with seropositivity in 6.61 %, of recovered donors while reported illicit drug use in the medical and social history corresponded with seropositivity in 11.25 %, representing a 70 % increased risk. There was no significant difference noted for overall seropositivity rates between types on noninjected illicit drugs, although donors that used cocaine had a higher incidence of HIV, while marijuana use was associated with a higher rate of HBV, HCV, and syphilis positivity. Toxicology screening results were not an accurate predictor of seropositivity (PPV = 3.77 %; NPV = 91.56 %). Further, the degree of relationship between the donor and the next of kin had no bearing on the veracity of actual drug use when comparing the response of the medical-social history and the toxicology screen. PMID:26006785

  9. Transport through a single donor in p-type silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, J. A.; Mol, J. A.; Salfi, J.; Rogge, S.; Simmons, M. Y.

    2013-07-01

    Single phosphorus donors in silicon are promising candidates as qubits in the solid state. Here, we present low temperature scanning probe microscopy and spectroscopy measurements of individual phosphorus dopants deliberately placed in p-type silicon ˜1 nm below the surface. The ability to image individual dopants combined with scanning tunnelling spectroscopy allows us to directly study the transport mechanism through the donor. We show that for a single P donor, transport is dominated by a minority carrier recombination process with the surrounding p-type matrix. The understanding gained will underpin future studies of atomically precise mapping of donor-donor interactions in silicon.

  10. Spin noise spectroscopy on donors in GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernien, Hannes; Mueller, Georg; Roemer, Michael; Huebner, Jens; Oestreich, Michael [Institute for Solid State Physics, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz University Hannover (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    In recent experiments spin noise spectroscopy (SNS) has proven to be a very sensitive technique to study electron spin dynamics in semiconductors at thermal equilibrium. Here we present SNS-measurements on donor bound electrons in very low doped bulk GaAs. In this environment the donors do not interact with each other and form artificial atoms. We discuss the detection of single donor bound electron spins, which should have extremely long spin relaxation times compared to ensemble spin relaxation times. In further experiments the electron bound to the donor will be used to probe and study the local nuclear magnetic field at the donor site.

  11. Health-related quality of life among blood donors with hepatitis B and hepatitis C: longitudinal study before and after diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Augusto Porto Ferreira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: There is evidence that patients suffering from chronic hepatic diseases, including chronic hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis C, have a reduced health-related quality of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the notification of test results for hepatitis B and hepatitis C on the quality of life of blood donors. Methods: Over a 29-month period, this study assessed the quality of life of 105 blood donors with positive serological screening tests for hepatitis B and hepatitis C and donors who presented false-positive test results. The Medical Outcome Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey Questionnaire was applied at three time points: (1 when an additional blood sample was collected for confirmatory tests; (2 when donors were notified about their serological status; and (3 when donors, positive for hepatitis B and hepatitis C, started clinical follow- up. Quality of life scores for the confirmed hepatitis B and hepatitis C groups were compared to the false-positive control group. Results: The domains bodily pain, general health perception, social function, and mental health and the physical component improved significantly in donors with hepatitis C from Time Point 1 to Time Point 3. Health-related quality of life scores of donors diagnosed with hepatitis B and hepatitis C were significantly lower in six and four of the eight domains, respectively, compared to the false-positive control group. Conclusion: A decreased quality of life was detected before and after diagnosis in blood donors with hepatitis B and hepatitis C. Contrary to hepatitis B positive donors, the pos- sibility of medical care may have improved the quality of life among hepatitis C positive donors.

  12. Prenatal screening and genetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alderson, P.; Aro, A.R.; Dragonas, T.; Ettorre, E.; Hemminki, E.; Jalinoja, P.; Santalahti, P.; Tijmstra, T.

    2001-01-01

    Although the term 'genetic screening' has been used for decades, this paper discusses how, in its most precise meaning, genetic screening has not yet been widely introduced. 'Prenatal screening' is often confused with 'genetic screening'. As we show, these terms have different meanings, and we exami

  13. Co-infection rate of HIV, HBV and Syphilis among HCV seropositive identified blood donors in Kathmandu, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Shrestha, Ashish Chandra; Ghimire, Prakash; Tiwar, Bishnu Raj; Rajkarnikar, Manita

    2012-01-01

    Background: HIV, HBV, Syphilis and HCV share common modes of transmission. Objective: The study was aimed to determine the co-infection rate of HIV, HBV and Syphilis among HCV seropositive identified blood donors. Methods: The study was conducted on blood samples screened as HCV seropositive at Nepal Red Cross Society, Central Blood Transfusion Service, Kathmandu, Nepal. HCV seropositive samples were further tested for HIV, HBV and Syphilis. Results: Eight co-infections were observed in 139 H...

  14. Exposure to vector-borne pathogens in candidate blood donor and free-roaming dogs of northeast Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Vascellari, Marta; Ravagnan, Silvia; Carminato, Antonio; Cazzin, Stefania; Carli, Erika; Da Rold, Graziana; Lucchese, Laura; Natale, Alda; Otranto, Domenico; Capelli, Gioia

    2016-01-01

    Background Many vector-borne pathogens including viruses, bacteria, protozoa and nematodes occur in northeast Italy, representing a potential threat to animal and human populations. Little information is available on the circulation of the above vector-borne pathogens in dogs. This work aims to (i) assess exposure to and circulation of pathogens transmitted to dogs in northeast Italy by ticks, sandflies, and mosquitoes, and (ii) drive blood donor screening at the newly established canine bloo...

  15. PROPHYLAXIS AGAINST DENOVO HEPATITIS B FOR LIVER TRANSPLANTATION UTILIZING HEP B CORE (+) DONORS: DOES HBIG PROVIDE A SURVIVAL ADVANTAGE?

    OpenAIRE

    Brock, Guy N; Mostajabi, Farida; Ferguson, Nicole; Carrubba, Christopher J.; Eng, Mary; Buell, Joseph F.; Marvin, Michael R

    2011-01-01

    Donor liver allografts with positive serology for Hepatitis B core antibody (HBc (+)) have been increasingly used for liver transplantation. However the optimal prophylactic regimen to prevent development of denovo hepatitis B has not been determined. To evaluate this, we screened UNOS STAR registry data for adult recipients of HBc (+) organs who were HBsAg (-), and evaluated the effects of using prophylactic anti-viral therapies (HBIG and Lamivudine) on patient and graft survival. Out of a t...

  16. Acute Rejection Associated with Donor-Specific Anti-MICA Antibody in a Highly Sensitized Pediatric Renal Transplant Recipient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Shoba; Tsai, Eileen W.; Zhang, Qiuheng; Wallace, William D.; Reed, Elaine F.; Ettenger, Robert B.

    2013-01-01

    Allograft rejection in HLA identical transplant recipients and in patients without detectable donor specific anti-HLA antibodies has lead to the identification of non-HLA antigens as targets of the alloimmune response. Major Histocompatibility Complex class I-related chain A (MICA) antigen has been recognized as an important non-HLA target in renal transplantation. Recent studies have shown that anti-MICA antibodies are associated with acute renal allograft rejection and failure. Current cross match procedures using donor lymphocytes fail to detect MICA antibodies. Transplant candidates are not routinely tested for pre-sensitization to MICA antigens nor are transplant donors typed for MICA alleles. Optimal classification and treatment of acute rejection associated with MICA antibody remains unknown. In this case report, we are the first to describe the clinical course and treatment of donor specific MICA antibody associated with both Banff type II A acute cellular rejection (ACR) and antibody mediated rejection (AMR) in a highly sensitized pediatric renal re-transplant recipient. This case also emphasizes the importance of pre-transplant screening for donor specific MICA antibody especially in highly sensitized renal transplant patients.. PMID:21199204

  17. Second-opinion stress tele-echocardiography for the Adonhers (Aged donor heart rescue by stress echo project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serra Walter

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To resolve the current shortage of donor hearts, we established the Adonhers protocol. An upward shift of the donor age cut-off limit (from the present 55 to 65 years is acceptable if a stress echo screening on the candidate donor heart is normal. This study aimed to verify feasibility of a "second opinion" of digitally transferred images of stress echo results to minimize technical variability in selection of aged donor hearts for heart transplant. Methods The informatics infrastructure was created for a core lab reading with a second opinion from the Pisa stress echo lab. To test the system, simulation standard stress echo cineloops were sent digitally from 5 peripheral labs to the central core lab. Starting January 2009, real marginal donor stress echos were sent via internet to the central core echo lab, Pisa, for a second opinion before heart transplant. Results In the simulation protocol, 30 dipyridamole stress echocardiograms were sent from the five peripheral echo labs to the central core lab in Pisa. Both the echo images and reports were correctly uploaded in the web system and sent to the core echo lab; the second opinion evaluation was obtained in all cases (100% feasibility. In the transplant protocol, eight donor cases were sent to the Pisa core lab for the second opinion protocol, and six of them were transplanted in marginal recipients. Conclusions Second-Opinion Stress Tele-Echocardiography can effectively be performed in a network aimed to safely expand the heart donor pool for heart transplant.

  18. Blood donors on teratogenic drugs and donor deferral periods in a clinical situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, S Y; Shin, Y H; Lee, S W; Shin, J Y; Kim, C H

    2012-05-01

    Deferral of blood donors taking teratogenic drugs is critical. From March 2008 to January 2009, we analysed stored blood specimens from donors who had taken teratogenic drugs and whose blood was transfused to women of childbearing age to determine the plasma concentration at the time of donation using high-performance liquid chromatography. In total, 167 specimens were examined. The numbers of specimens exceeding the quantification limit were 7, 39, 4, 2 and 1 for finasteride, isotretinoin, acitretin, etretinate and dutasteride, respectively. Finasteride was beyond the recommended drug deferral period in one specimen. These results may help create practical deferral policies. PMID:22211799

  19. Effect of donor age on graft function and long-term survival of recipients undergoing living donor liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kai Wang; Wen-Tao Jiang; Yong-Lin Deng; Cheng Pan; Zhong-Yang Shen

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Donor shortage is the biggest obstacle in organ transplantation. Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has been considered as a valuable approach to short-ening waiting time. The objectives of this study were to inves-tigate the feasibility of utilizing donors older than 50 years in LDLT and to evaluate the graft function and recipient survival. METHODS: All LDLT cases (n=159) were divided into the older (donor age ≥50 years, n=10) and younger (donor age RESULTS: The median donor age was 58.5 (52.5-60.0) years in the older donor group and 25.0 (23.0-32.0) in the younger do-nor group. There was no significant difference in cold ischemic time, anhepatic phase and operation time between the older and younger donor groups (P>0.05). However, the volume of red blood cell transfused in operation was greater in the older donor group than in the younger donor group (1900 vs 1200 mL, P=0.023). The 1-, 3- and 5-year graft survival rates were 90%, 80% and 80% for the older donor group, and 92%, 87%and 87% for the younger donor group, respectively (P=0.459). The 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rates were 100%, 90% and 90%for recipients with older grafts, and 93%, 87% and 87% for those with younger grafts, respectively (P=0.811). CONCLUSION: It is safe for a LDLT recipient to receive liver from donors older than 50 years, and there is no significant adverse effect on graft function and long-term patients' survival.

  20. [Non-heart-beating donors are ineligible].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heide, W

    2016-02-01

    The death of the donor is a mandatory prerequisite for organ transplantation (dead donor rule) worldwide. It is a medical, legal and ethical consensus to accept the concept of brain death, as first proposed in 1968 by the ad hoc committee of the Harvard Medical School, as a certain criterion of death. In isolated cases where the diagnosis of brain death was claimed to be wrong, it could be demonstrated that the diagnostic procedure for brain death had not been correctly performed. In March 2014 a joint statement by the German neuromedical societies emphasized that 1) the diagnosis of brain death is one of the safest diagnoses in medicine if performed according to accepted medical standards and criteria and 2) the concept of non-heart-beating donors (NHBD, i. e. organ donation after an arbitrarily defined duration of circulatory and cardiac arrest) practiced in some European countries must be absolutely rejected because it implicates a high risk of diagnostic error. According to the current literature it is unclear at what time cardiac and circulatory arrest is irreversible and leads to irreversible cessation of all functions of the entire brain including the brainstem, even though clinical signs of cessation of brain functions are always found after 10 min. Furthermore, is it often an arbitrary decision to exactly define the duration of cardiac arrest if continuous echocardiographic monitoring has not been carried out from the very beginning. Last but not least there are ethical concerns against the concept of NHBD because it might influence therapeutic efforts to resuscitate a patient with cardiac arrest. Therefore, the German Medical Council (BÄK) has repeatedly rejected the concept of NHBD for organ transplantation since 1995. PMID:26830897

  1. Embryo Transfer (Techniques, Donors, and Recipients).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Patrick E; Jahnke, Marianna M

    2016-07-01

    Commercial embryo transfer has evolved as an art and as a science since the early 1970s. Today's multiple ovulation embryo transfer is a widely used reproductive tool on many farms and is performed by veterinarians throughout the world. Propagation of the female genomes of select donors, through embryo transfer, has allowed a rapid progression of genetic gain in many breeds, much like what happened with artificial insemination since the 1940s. Advancement of this technology is migrating to in vitro fertilization technology today, allowing a higher volume of offspring to be produced with sex selection in the laboratory. PMID:27140299

  2. Predictors of hemoglobin in Danish blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotzé, Sebastian R; Pedersen, Ole B; Petersen, Mikkel S;

    2015-01-01

    is a population-based study and biobank. We performed multivariable linear regression analysis to assess the effects of donation activity, physiologic and lifestyle factors, and diet on Hb levels among 15,197 donors. We also performed multivariable logistic regression to evaluate the effects of these...... factors on the risk of having low Hb (defined as Hb below the 10th percentile among men and women, respectively) and of a decrease in Hb greater than 0.5 mmol/L (0.8 g/dL) between successive donations. All analyses were performed stratified for sex and smoking status. We also tested a previously used...

  3. Potential donor segregation to promote blood donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Santana, Josefa D; Beerli-Palacio, Asunción

    2008-04-01

    This work is set in the field of social marketing and more specifically in the context of blood donation. Its principal objective focuses on segregating potential donors by using the inhibitors or barriers to a blood donation behaviour as criteria. Moreover, an analysis of the predisposition to donate blood, the intrinsic and extrinsic motivations for donating blood, and the incentives that may stimulate their donation conduct was conducted for each of the four identified groups. The results reveal that the four segments differ significantly in their predisposition to donate, in their motivations and in the incentives that encourage them to donate blood. PMID:18343199

  4. Attitudes and motives of potential sperm donors in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedrih Anđelka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. For curing infertility, sperm donors and their donations are important source of benefits for the society. Attitudes of sperm donors towards different recipient categories and relation with offspring become more important. The aim of our study was to explore sperm donation related attitudes and motives among potential sperm donors in Serbia. Methods. The study included 303 participants from Serbia, age from 20 to 40. Measures of personality traits were obtained by using the Big Five Inventory. For measuring attitudes and motivation regarding sperm donation the Attitudes and Motivation of Sperm Donors questionnaire was applied. Results. A total of 244 participants stated that they would be willing to be sperm donors. The results showed no statistically significant differences in personality traits between people who claimed that they would be willing to become sperm donors, and those claiming otherwise, but a number of differences in personality traits were found when various attitudes regarding sperm donation process, possible users of donated sperm and relations between the donor and his biological offspring were considered. Conclusion. There are no statistically significant differences in personality traits between people who claimed that they would and those that would not be willing to become sperm donors. It is possible that some other factors (e.g. cultural values influence the decision to become sperm donor, but personality traits play an important role in making decisions regarding sperm donation process, possible receivers of donation and relations between the donor and his biological offspring.

  5. How important is donor age in liver transplantation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lué, Alberto; Solanas, Estela; Baptista, Pedro; Lorente, Sara; Araiz, Juan J; Garcia-Gil, Agustin; Serrano, M Trinidad

    2016-06-01

    The age of liver donors has been increasing in the past several years because of a donor shortage. In the United States, 33% of donors are age 50 years or older, as are more than 50% in some European countries. The impact of donor age on liver transplantation (LT) has been analyzed in several studies with contradictory conclusions. Nevertheless, recent analyses of the largest databases demonstrate that having an older donor is a risk factor for graft failure. Donor age is included as a risk factor in the more relevant graft survival scores, such as the Donor Risk Index, donor age and Model for End-stage Liver Disease, Survival Outcomes Following Liver Transplantation, and the Balance of Risk. The use of old donors is related to an increased rate of biliary complications and hepatitis C virus-related graft failure. Although liver function does not seem to be significantly affected by age, the incidence of several liver diseases increases with age, and the capacity of the liver to manage or overcome liver diseases or external injuries decreases. In this paper, the importance of age in LT outcomes, the role of donor age as a risk factor, and the influence of aging on liver regeneration are reviewed. PMID:27275089

  6. A Risk Index for Living Donor Kidney Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massie, A B; Leanza, J; Fahmy, L M; Chow, E K H; Desai, N M; Luo, X; King, E A; Bowring, M G; Segev, D L

    2016-07-01

    Choosing between multiple living kidney donors, or evaluating offers in kidney paired donation, can be challenging because no metric currently exists for living donor quality. Furthermore, some deceased donor (DD) kidneys can result in better outcomes than some living donor kidneys, yet there is no way to compare them on the same scale. To better inform clinical decision-making, we created a living kidney donor profile index (LKDPI) on the same scale as the DD KDPI, using Cox regression and adjusting for recipient characteristics. Donor age over 50 (hazard ratio [HR] per 10 years = 1.15 1.241.33 ), elevated BMI (HR per 10 units = 1.01 1.091.16 ), African-American race (HR = 1.15 1.251.37 ), cigarette use (HR = 1.09 1.161.23 ), as well as ABO incompatibility (HR = 1.03 1.271.58 ), HLA B (HR = 1.03 1.081.14 ) mismatches, and DR (HR = 1.04 1.091.15 ) mismatches were associated with greater risk of graft loss after living donor transplantation (all p DD kidney), and 4.4% of donors had LKDPI > 50 (more risk than the median DD kidney). The LKDPI is a useful tool for comparing living donor kidneys to each other and to deceased donor kidneys. PMID:26752290

  7. How important is donor age in liver transplantation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lué, Alberto; Solanas, Estela; Baptista, Pedro; Lorente, Sara; Araiz, Juan J; Garcia-Gil, Agustin; Serrano, M Trinidad

    2016-01-01

    The age of liver donors has been increasing in the past several years because of a donor shortage. In the United States, 33% of donors are age 50 years or older, as are more than 50% in some European countries. The impact of donor age on liver transplantation (LT) has been analyzed in several studies with contradictory conclusions. Nevertheless, recent analyses of the largest databases demonstrate that having an older donor is a risk factor for graft failure. Donor age is included as a risk factor in the more relevant graft survival scores, such as the Donor Risk Index, donor age and Model for End-stage Liver Disease, Survival Outcomes Following Liver Transplantation, and the Balance of Risk. The use of old donors is related to an increased rate of biliary complications and hepatitis C virus-related graft failure. Although liver function does not seem to be significantly affected by age, the incidence of several liver diseases increases with age, and the capacity of the liver to manage or overcome liver diseases or external injuries decreases. In this paper, the importance of age in LT outcomes, the role of donor age as a risk factor, and the influence of aging on liver regeneration are reviewed.

  8. Transfusion transmittable infections - Seroprevalence among blood donors in a tertiary care hospital of Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Pathak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Transfusion transmittable infections (TTI continue to be a major threat to safe transfusion practices. Blood is one of the major sources of transmission of infectious diseases viz. human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV, syphilis, malaria, and many other infections in India. Screening assays for the infectious diseases with excellent sensitivity and specificity helps to enhance the safety of the blood transfusions reducing the diagnostic window period as much as possible. Aims: The present study was designed to determine the seroprevalence of TTIs viz., HIV, HCV, and HBV, among the blood donors in Max Super Specialty Hospital, New Delhi, India based on dual testing strategy using high sensitive screening assays such as enhanced chemiluminescence assay and nucleic acid testing (NAT. Materials and Methods: A total of 41207 blood units collected from the donors (both voluntary and replacement donors were screened for the TTI s, viz., anti HIV 1 and 2 antibody, anti HCV antibody, anti HBcore antibody, and HBsAg by enhanced chemiluminescence assay on VITROS ® ECiQ immunodiagnostics system. NAT was performed using Roche Cobas ® TaqScreen MPX assay, which can detect simultaneously HIV 1 (groups M and O, HIV-2, HCV, and HBV on Roche Cobas ® s201 system. Results: The seroprevalence of HIV, HBsAg, anti HBcore antibody, and HCV based on enhanced chemiluminescence assay was found to be 0.25, 0.2, 7.06, and 0.7%, respectively. A total number of 6587 samples from July 2010 to December 2010 were tested on NAT, of which 3 samples were reactive for HBV in NAT; this was missed by enhanced chemiluminescence assay. Conclusions: Based on the seroprevalence study of infectious diseases viz., HIV, HBV, and HCV, we conclude that screening of blood and blood components by dual testing strategy using high sensitivity serological assay like enhanced chemiluminescence technology and NAT helps in detecting the

  9. Prevalence of p24 antigen among a cohort of HIV antibody negative blood donors in Sokoto, North Western Nigeria - the question of safety of blood transfusion in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaro, Erhabor; Mohammed, Ndakotsu; Zama, Isaac; Yakubu, Abdulrahaman; Dorcas, Ikhuenbor; Festus, Aghedo; Kwaifa, Ibrahim; Sani, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Blood transfusions remain a substantial source of HIV in SSA particularly among children and pregnant women. Aims and objectives: This aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the prevalence of p24 antigen among HIV antibody seronegative blood donors in Sokoto, North West Nigeria. Methods A total of 15,061 HIV antibody negative blood donors with mean age and age range (29.2 ± 8.18 and 18-50 years) were screened for p24 antigen between January 2010 to July 2013 using the Diapro Diagnostic immunoassay kit for P24 antigen (King Hawk Pharmaceuticals Beijing China). Results The overall prevalence of p24 antigen among the HIV antibody negative donors sample was 5.84%. The yearly prevalence was 9.79, 8.12, 2.7 and 2.84% respectively in 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013. Of the total number of blood donor tested, 14,968 (99.38%) were males while 93 (0.62%) were females. The prevalence of P24 antigen was significantly higher among male blood donors 873 (5.8%) compared to females 7(0.05%), (p= 0.001). P24 positivity was significantly higher among blood group O blood donors compared to A, B and AB donors (494 (3.29%) compared to 184 (1.89%), 196 (1.30%) and 6 (0.04%)) respectively, p = 0.001). The prevalence of P24 antigen was significantly higher among Rhesus positive blood donors compared to Rhesus negative (807 (5.36%) versus 73 (0.48%), p =0.001). Conclusion Blood transfusion in Nigeria is associated with increased risk of HIV transmission. There is the urgent need to optimize the screening of blood donors in Nigeria by the inclusion of p24 antigen testing into the blood donor screening menu. The Nigerian government urgently need to adopt the WHO blood safety strategies to reduce the risk of transmission of HIV through blood transfusion. PMID:25419301

  10. Q-FISH measurement of hepatocyte telomere lengths in donor liver and graft after pediatric living-donor liver transplantation: donor age affects telomere length sustainability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youichi Kawano

    Full Text Available Along with the increasing need for living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT, the issue of organ shortage has become a serious problem. Therefore, the use of organs from elderly donors has been increasing. While the short-term results of LDLT have greatly improved, problems affecting the long-term outcome of transplant patients remain unsolved. Furthermore, since contradictory data have been reported with regard to the relationship between donor age and LT/LDLT outcome, the question of whether the use of elderly donors influences the long-term outcome of a graft after LT/LDLT remains unsettled. To address whether hepatocyte telomere length reflects the outcome of LDLT, we analyzed the telomere lengths of hepatocytes in informative biopsy samples from 12 paired donors and recipients (grafts of pediatric LDLT more than 5 years after adult-to-child LDLT because of primary biliary atresia, using quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (Q-FISH. The telomere lengths in the paired samples showed a robust relationship between the donor and grafted hepatocytes (r = 0.765, p = 0.0038, demonstrating the feasibility of our Q-FISH method for cell-specific evaluation. While 8 pairs showed no significant difference between the telomere lengths for the donor and the recipient, the other 4 pairs showed significantly shorter telomeres in the recipient than in the donor. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the donors in the latter group were older than those in the former (p = 0.001. Despite the small number of subjects, this pilot study indicates that donor age is a crucial factor affecting telomere length sustainability in hepatocytes after pediatric LDLT, and that the telomeres in grafted livers may be elongated somewhat longer when the grafts are immunologically well controlled.

  11. Cysticercus antibodies and antigens in serum from blood donors from Pondicherry, India Antígenos e anticorpos de Cysticercus em soro de doadores de sangue de Pondicherry, Índia

    OpenAIRE

    Subhash Chandra Parija; N. Balamurungan; Priyadarshi Soumyaranjan Sahu; S.P. Subbaiah

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to screen the serum of blood donors, which are apparently healthy and residing in Pondicherry or its neighboring districts of Tamil Nadu State, for specific detection of Cysticercus antigens and antibodies. A total of 216 blood samples were collected from blood donors at the Central Blood Bank, JIPMER Hospital, Pondicherry, India during January and February 2004. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to demonstrate anti-Cysticercus antibodies and ...

  12. Safety evaluation of donors for living-donor liver transplantation in Chinese mainland: A single-center report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To discuss the safety of donors during living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) and the authors' experience with 50 cases.METHODS: Between January 1995 and March 2006, 50 patients with end-stage liver disease received LDLT in our department. Donors (at the age of 27-58 years) were healthy and antibody (ABO)-compatible. The protocol of evaluation and selection of donors, choice of surgical methods and strategy applied in the safety evaluation of donors were analyzed.RESULTS: A total of 115 candidate donors were evaluated for LDLT at our center. Of these, 50 underwent successful hepatectomy for living donation.The elimination rate for donors was 43.5%. Positive hepatitis serology and ABO incompatibility were the main factors for excluding candidates. All donors recovered uneventfully. The follow-up time ranged from 3 to 135 mo. The incidence of major and minor medical complications was 12.0% and 28.0%, respectively.CONCLUSION: LDLT provides an excellent approach to the problem of donor shortage in China. With a thorough and complete preoperative workup and meticulous intraand postoperative management, LDLT can be performed with minimal donor morbidity.

  13. Approach to the Pretransplant Evaluation of the Living Kidney Donor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mala Sachdeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of the potential kidney donor is a complex activity that differs substantially from other types of preoperative assessments. The well being of the donor, who derives no medical benefit from this surgery, must be assured in both the short term and long term, and the potential adverse consequences to the recipient must be determined as well. The criteria that must be met for a person to donate a kidney are rigorous and include medical, social, psychosocial, ethical, and legal issues. Donor evaluation can be divided into assessments to protect the health and safety of the donor and assessments to protect the health and safety of the recipient. This article provides an approach to evaluating a donor, focusing on the complex issues that an evaluator is faced with. A careful assessment of risks and benefits to both the donor and recipient can lead to favorable outcomes.

  14. Consequences of dietary methyl donor supplements: Is more always better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorter, Kimberly R; Felder, Michael R; Vrana, Paul B

    2015-07-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms are now recognized to play roles in disease etiology. Several diseases increasing in frequency are associated with altered DNA methylation. DNA methylation is accomplished through metabolism of methyl donors such as folate, vitamin B12, methionine, betaine (trimethylglycine), and choline. Increased intake of these compounds correlates with decreased neural tube defects, although this mechanism is not well understood. Consumption of these methyl donor pathway components has increased in recent years due to fortification of grains and high supplemental levels of these compounds (e.g. vitamins, energy drinks). Additionally, people with mutations in one of the enzymes that assists in the methyl donor pathway (5-MTHFR) are directed to consume higher amounts of methyl donors to compensate. Recent evidence suggests that high levels of methyl donor intake may also have detrimental effects. Individualized medicine may be necessary to determine the appropriate amounts of methyl donors to be consumed, particularly in women of child bearing age. PMID:25841986

  15. Prostate cancer screenings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000846.htm Prostate cancer screenings To use the sharing features on this ... Intern Med . 2011;155(11):762-71. National Cancer Institute. Prostate Cancer Screening -- for health professionals. Revised April 2, ...

  16. Screening for hypertension.

    OpenAIRE

    Tomson, P R V

    1983-01-01

    In an open access screening campaign for hypertension lasting six weeks 6259 individuals were screened with a Vita-Stat blood pressure computer and an estimated 4.2% to 5.4% of new cases were detected.

  17. Breast cancer screenings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000837.htm Breast cancer screenings To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Breast cancer screenings can help find breast cancer early, before ...

  18. Colon cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... screening; Virtual colonoscopy - screening; Fecal immunochemical test; Stool DNA test; sDNA test ... called the fecal immunochemical test (FIT) and stool DNA test (sDNA). Sigmoidoscopy : This test uses a small flexible ...

  19. Screening for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Internal Medicine Summaries for Patients Screening for Prostate Cancer: A Guidance Statement From the Clinical Guidelines Committee ... Physicians The full report is titled “Screening for Prostate Cancer: A Guidance Statement From the Clinical Guidelines Committee ...

  20. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases HPV-Associated Cancers Gynecologic Cancers Redirect CDC - Screening Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir You are being redirected to the HPV Cancer Screening page. Please update your bookmarks to the link ...

  1. Prostate Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... man's bladder that produces fluid for semen. Cancer screening is looking for cancer before you have any ... be easier to treat. There is no standard screening test for prostate cancer. Researchers are studying different ...

  2. Screen Practice in Curating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Tanya Søndergaard

    2014-01-01

    During the past one and a half decade, a curatorial orientation towards "screen practice" has expanded the moving image and digital art into the public domain, exploring alternative artistic uses of the screen. The emergence of urban LED screens in the late 1990s provided a new venue that allowed...... for digital art to expand into public space. It also offered a political point of departure, inviting for confrontation with the Spectacle and with the politics and ideology of the screen as a mass communication medium that instrumentalized spectator positions. In this article I propose that screen...... practice in curating has emerged from a critical discourse in response to a particular "screen topos", which has relied on a Foucauldian, apparatus-theoretical mechanism of the screen as a broadcasting medium of mass entertainment. This topos, I argue, has transferred the dispositif of the screen apparatus...

  3. Screening for Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Ovarian Cancer The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final recommendation on Screening for Ovarian Cancer . This recommendation is ...

  4. Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer found early may be easier to treat. Cervical cancer screening is usually part of a woman's health ... may do more tests, such as a biopsy. Cervical cancer screening has risks. The results can sometimes be ...

  5. Screening Tests and Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Us Text size | Print | Screening Tests and Vaccines This information in Spanish ( en español ) Getting important screening tests and vaccines can save your life. Check this section of ...

  6. Video Screen Capture Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This article is an introduction to video screen capture. Basic information of two software programs, QuickTime for Mac and BlueBerry Flashback Express for PC, are also discussed. Practical applications for video screen capture are given.

  7. Seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B and C viruses and syphilis infections among blood donors at the Muhimbili National Hospital in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyamuya Eligius F

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background According to the latest Tanzanian National AIDS Control Programme (NACP report a total of 147,271 individuals donated blood during the year 2002. However, blood safety remains an issue of major concern in transfusion medicine in Tanzania where national blood transfusion services and policies, appropriate infrastructure, trained personnel and financial resources are inadequate. Most of the donated blood is screened for HIV alone. Methods We determined among blood donors at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH, the seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and syphilis by donor type, sex and age and to determine association, if any, in the occurrence of the pathogens. The sample included 1599 consecutive donors, 1424(89.1% males and 175 (10.9% females, who donated blood between April 2004 and May, 2005. Most of them 1125 (70.4% were replacement donors and a few 474 (29.6% voluntary donors. Their age (in years ranged from 16 to 69, and most (72.2% were between 20–39 years. Results Two hundred and fifty four (15.9% of the donated blood had serological evidence of infection with at least one pathogen and 28 (1.8% had multiple infections. The current seroprevalence of HIV, HBsAg, HCV and syphilis among blood donors at MNH in Dar es Salaam was found to be 3.8%, 8.8%, 1.5% and 4.7%, respectively. Respective seroprevalences among HIV seronegative blood donors were 8.7% for HBV, 1.6% for HCV and 4.6% for syphilis. The differences in the prevalence of HIV and syphilis infections between replacement and voluntary donors were statistically significant (P 2 = 58.5 df = 5, P Conclusion The high (15.9% seroprevalence of blood-borne infections in blood donated at MNH calls for routine screening of blood donors for HBV, HCV, HIV and syphilis and for strict selection criteria of donors, with emphasis on getting young voluntary donors and for establishment of strict guidelines

  8. Biotechnological aspects of sulfate reduction with methane as electron donor

    OpenAIRE

    Meulepas, R.J.W.; Stams, A.J.M.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2010-01-01

    Biological sulfate reduction can be used for the removal and recovery of oxidized sulfur compounds and metals from waste streams. However, the costs of conventional electron donors, like hydrogen and ethanol, limit the application possibilities. Methane from natural gas or biogas would be a more attractive electron donor. Sulfate reduction with methane as electron donor prevails in marine sediments. Recently, several authors succeeded in cultivating the responsible microorganisms in vitro. In...

  9. CHANGES IN DONOR SUPPORT FOR HIGHER EDUCATION IN KENYA

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    For decades donors have played an important role in supporting higher education the world over. Kenya has not been an exception. There have been changes in donor investments in Kenyan higher education over the past 30 years. These changes have impacted the sector in various ways. From independence the responsibility for higher education in Kenya was borne by the state. This changed when two decades later the government introduced cost sharing, due to the influence of donors. This study di...

  10. Questionnaire-Related Deferrals in Regular Blood Donors in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håkon Reikvam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Voluntary donation is a key issue in transfusion medicine. To ensure the safety of blood transfusions, careful donor selection is important. Although new approaches to blood safety have dramatically reduced the risks for infectious contamination of blood components, the quality and the availability of blood components depend on the willingness to donate and the reliability of the information given by the donors about their own health, including risk behavior. As donors who are deferred by the blood bank will be less motivated to return for donation, it is important to reduce the number of deferrals. The aims of the present study were to investigate the reasons for deferral of registered donors coming to the blood bank for donation, in order to identify areas of importance for donor education—as these deferrals potentially could be avoided by better donor comprehension. Deferral related to testing of donors is not included in this study as these deferrals are dependent on laboratory results and cannot be indentified by questionnaire or interview. Data were collected from all blood donors in a period for 18 months who came for blood donation at a large university hospital in Norway. 1 163 of the 29 787 regular donors, who showed up for donation, were deferred (3.9%. The main reasons were intercurrent illness (n=182 (15.6%, skin ulcers (n=170 (14.6%, and risk behaviour (n=127 (10.9%. In a community, intercurrent illnesses, skin ulcers, and potential risk behavior are the most frequent reasons for deferral of regular donors. Strategized effort on donor education is needed, as “failure to donate” reduces donor motivation.

  11. Donors with renal artery stenosis: Fit to donate

    OpenAIRE

    Vemuru Sunil K Reddy; Sandeep Guleria; Bora, Girdhar S.

    2012-01-01

    Kidney donation from hypertensive donors is now an accepted norm in live related kidney transplantation. The use of hypertensive donors with renal artery stenosis due to athero-sclerosis and fibromuscular dysplasia is still debated. The prime concern is about the deleterious effect of hypertension on the donor and the risk of recurrence of such lesions in the solitary kidney. Even as the response of atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis to revascularisation is unpredictable, there is an impro...

  12. Questionnaire-Related Deferrals in Regular Blood Donors in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Håkon Reikvam; Kjersti Svendheim; Anne S. Røsvik; Tor Hervig

    2012-01-01

    Voluntary donation is a key issue in transfusion medicine. To ensure the safety of blood transfusions, careful donor selection is important. Although new approaches to blood safety have dramatically reduced the risks for infectious contamination of blood components, the quality and the availability of blood components depend on the willingness to donate and the reliability of the information given by the donors about their own health, including risk behavior. As donors who are deferred by the...

  13. Risk Factors of Viral Hepatitis B among Egyptian Blood Donors

    OpenAIRE

    Awadalla, HI; Ragab, MH; Osman, MA; Nassar, NA; Cairo, Egypt.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Surveillance of infectious disease markers in the blood donor population is important in recognizing trends in prevalence and incidence of transfusion related infections in asymptomatic volunteer blood donors. Subjects & Methods: It is a community base cross sectional study. Subjects of study are volunteers to donate blood. Samples were collected from blood donors and questionnaire was designed to collect the risk factors data. The prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HB...

  14. Deconstructing Giving: Donor Types and How They Give

    OpenAIRE

    Lata Gangadharan; Philip J. Grossman; Kristy Jones

    2014-01-01

    We examine the extent to which individual donors are warm glow or altruistic givers and whether this distinction motivates giving decisions, particularly paternalism. Results from our experiment suggest that motivations for giving are heterogeneous, ranging from pure altruism to impure altruism to pure warm glow. Of 115 donors, in our setting 30 are purely altruistic givers, 36 are impure givers and up to 17 could be considered pure warm-glow givers. We find that donors are predominantly pate...

  15. Applicability of available methods for incidence estimation among blood donors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shtmian Zou; Edward P.Notari IV; Roger Y.Dodd

    2010-01-01

    @@ Abstract Incidence rates of major transfusion transmissible viral infections have been estimated threugh widely used sereconversion approaches and recently developed methods.A quality database for blood donors and donations with the capacity to track donation history of each donor is the basis for incidence estimation and many other epidemiological studies.Depending on available data,difierent ways have been used to determine incidence rates based on conversion from uninfected to infected status among repeat donors.

  16. Do affective attitudes predict organ donor registration? A prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Shepherd, Lee; O'Carroll, Ronan

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed whether people's affective attitudes predicted organ donor registration at a later time. People who were not registered as an organ donor prior to completing the study (N = 150) first rated their affective attitudes towards organ donation. We then measured whether they clicked on a hyperlink to register as an organ donor. Believing that the body should be kept whole for burial (bodily integrity) was the only affective attitude to predict this organ donation behaviour. Futu...

  17. Anticipated regret and organ donor registration: a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    O'Carroll, Ronan; Shepherd, Lee; Hayes, Peter; Ferguson, Eamonn

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To test whether simply asking people to rate the extent to which they anticipate feeling regret for not registering as an organ donor after death increases subsequent verified organ donor registration. Methods: 14,509 members of the general public (both registered and non-registered donors) were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 arms, each receiving different questionnaires. The no-questionnaire control (NQC) arm received a survey measuring demographics and whether or not they were...

  18. Addressing the Donor Liver Shortage with EX VIVO Machine Perfusion

    OpenAIRE

    Maria-Louisa Izamis; Berendsen, Tim A.; Korkut Uygun; Yarmush, Martin L.

    2012-01-01

    Despite a critical shortage of viable donor livers for transplantation, only a fraction of the available organs are used. Donor organ defects, which in the majority of cases are caused by extensive exposure to ischemia, cannot be reversed by static cold storage, the current gold standard of organ preservation. In this review, the role of machine perfusion (MP) in the recovery of non-transplantable ischemic donor organs is discussed. Though still in the experimental phase, various models of MP...

  19. Xenotransplantation: A Potential Solution to the Critical Organ Donor Shortage

    OpenAIRE

    Sim, K Howe; Marinov, Anton; Levy, Gary A.

    1999-01-01

    The success of allotransplantation as a treatment for end-stage organ failure has resulted in the need for an increasing number of organ donors. Attempts to meet this need include the use of organs from living related and unrelated donors, financial or other incentives for the donor family, and even the reuse of transplanted organs. Despite these initiatives, the supply of organs for transplantation still falls far short of the demand, as evidenced by longer waiting times for transplantation ...

  20. Evaluation of the Medically Complex Living Kidney Donor

    OpenAIRE

    Yasar Caliskan; Alaattin Yildiz

    2012-01-01

    Due to organ shortage and difficulties for availability of cadaveric donors, living donor transplantation is an important choice for having allograft. Live donor surgery is elective and easier to organize prior to starting dialysis thereby permitting preemptive transplantation as compared to cadaveric transplantation. Because of superior results with living kidney transplantation, efforts including the usage of “Medically complex living donors” are made to increase the availability of organs ...

  1. Changes in risk factors of HBsAg positive blood donors in Zahedan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Alavi-Naini

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hepatitis B viral infection is a great global problem. According to high prevalence of infection in some parts of Iran, identifying etiologies and risk factors of the disease is an important issue in controlling infection in the community. The objective of this study is to compare the risk factors of HBsAg positive blood donors during a 10 year-period time-course.Materials and Method: We conducted a retrospective study in 1200 HBsAg positive blood donors referring to blood bank center in Zahedan during the years 1378, 1383 and 1387. Demographic variables and several risk factors were evaluated and compared during those years.Results: Our findings revealed significant statistical changes in age and education. Age was decreased and the disease was increased in illiterate cases during the study years. Risk factors that showed significant increasing changes during that time-period were history of dental procedures, surgery, hospitalization, endoscopy, positive family history for HBsAg, addiction to non-injectable drugs, living with positive HBsAg partners and intra-venous drug users. Conclusion: Decreasing the mean age of the patients during those years reflects increasing high risk behaviors among young people. Neonatal and family vaccination and screening family members, especially mothers could prevent this devastating disease. Following hygienic rules in the hospital is another important preventive measure. Premarital screening especially in high risk individuals is an effective preventive way to decrease the disease in the society.

  2. TRENDS OF TRANSFUSION TRANSMITTABLE INFECTIONS AMONG VOLUNTARY BLOOD DONORS IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL, MANDYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunath

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Transmission of infectious diseases through donated blood is of concern to blood safety as transfusion forms an integral part of medical and surgical therapy. Blood transfusion carries the risk of transfusion-transmissible infections including HIV, hepatitis etc. Screening of voluntary donors who represent healthy population serves as a predictor for these dreadful diseases in healthy population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted at the blood bank of MIMS, Mandya. Data were analyzed for a period of 5 years from Jan 2009 to Dec 2013. All voluntary donors reporting to the blood bank were screened for hepatitis B (HBV, Hepatitis C Virus (HCV, HIV by using ELISA. The Rapid plasma regain test (RPR test was used for estimation of syphilis infection. RESULTS: The most common infection was hepatitis B (1.2% followed by HIV infection (0.27% and HCV (0.09% in our study. CONCLUSION: This study has shown a decrease in seroprevalence of HIV and increase in seroprevalence of HCV over the 5 year study period.

  3. Donor risk indices in pancreas allocation in the Eurotransplant region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Wouter H; de Vries, Erwin; de Boer, Jan; Putter, Hein; Schareck, Wolfgang; Samuel, Undine; Braat, Andries E

    2016-08-01

    Pancreas donor selection and recognition are important to cope with increasing organ shortage. We aim to show that the PDRI is more useful than the P-PASS to predict acceptance and should thus be preferred over P-PASS. Eurotransplant donors from 2004 until 2014 were included in this study. PDRI logistical factors were set to reference to purely reflect donor quality (PDRI donor ). PDRI and P-PASS association with allocation outcome was studied using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC). Regional differences in donor quality were also investigated. Of the 10 444 pancreata that were reported, 6090 (58.3%) were accepted and 2947 (28.2%) were transplanted. We found that P-PASS was inferior to PDRIdonor in its ability to predict organ reporting, acceptance, and transplantation: AUC 0.63, 0.67 and 0.73 for P-PASS vs. 0.78, 0.79 and 0.84 for PDRIdonor , respectively. Furthermore, there were significant differences in donor quality among different Eurotransplant countries, both in reported donors and in transplanted organs. PDRI is a powerful predictor of allocation outcome and should be preferred over P-PASS. Proper donor selection and recognition, and possibly a more liberal approach toward inferior quality donors, may increase donation and transplant rates. PMID:27188797

  4. Paid Living Donation and Growth of Deceased Donor Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahramani, Nasrollah

    2016-06-01

    Limited organ availability in all countries has stimulated discussion about incentives to increase donation. Since 1988, Iran has operated the only government-sponsored paid living donor (LD) kidney transplant program. This article reviews aspects of the Living Unrelated Donor program and development of deceased donation in Iran. Available evidence indicates that in the partially regulated Iranian Model, the direct negotiation between donors and recipients fosters direct monetary relationship with no safeguards against mutual exploitation. Brokers, the black market and transplant tourism exist, and the waiting list has not been eliminated. Through comparison between the large deceased donor program in Shiraz and other centers in Iran, this article explores the association between paid donation and the development of a deceased donor program. Shiraz progressively eliminated paid donor transplants such that by 2011, 85% of kidney transplants in Shiraz compared with 27% across the rest of Iran's other centers were from deceased donors. Among 26 centers, Shiraz undertakes the largest number of deceased donor kidney transplants, most liver transplants, and all pancreas transplants. In conclusion, although many patients with end stage renal disease have received transplants through the paid living donation, the Iranian Model now has serious flaws and is potentially inhibiting substantial growth in deceased donor organ transplants in Iran. PMID:27203584

  5. Characterization of blood donors with high haemoglobin concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, K; Hasselbalch, H C; Ullum, H;

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives  The literature contains little on the prevalence and causes of high predonation haemoglobin levels among blood donors. This study aimed to characterize and develop an algorithm to manage would-be donors with polycythaemia. Materials and Methods  Between November 2009...... and November 2011, we offered haematology consultations to blood donors with repeated haemoglobin concentration (Hb) above the WHO limit for polycythaemia vera (PV) (10·2 and 11·5 mm/16·5 and 18·5 g/dl for women and men, respectively). Investigation of such donors included Hb, haematocrit, mean cell volume...

  6. Correlation of hepatitis C RNA and serum alanine aminotransferase in hepatitis B and C seronegative healthy blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Natasha

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Historically, serum alanine transaminase (ALT has been used as a surrogate marker in the detection of hepatitis viruses in blood donors. With the availability of newer sensitive technologies for the detection of seroconversion, the value of ALT becomes questionable but continues to be used for this purpose with subsequent discarding of ALT elevated blood units. Objective: The present study aims to evaluate the significance and cost effectiveness of ALT as a surrogate marker for hepatitis C virus infection in healthy asymptomatic blood donors who were serologically negative. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at clinical laboratory of a tertiary care hospital for a period of one year from November 2006 to October 2007. All donors were screened serologically for hepatitis B, C and HIV I and II, syphilis and malaria and those tested positive were excluded from further evaluation. Gender-wise reference ranges and minimal and markedly raised results for ALT (described respectively as one and two folds increase above reference range were defined and, accordingly, donors were grouped into three. Two hundred seronegative blood donors were randomly selected from all three groups of ALT results and tested for hepatitis C nucleic acid through Amplicor; HCV RNA test. The cost of discarding an ALT -only elevated blood unit was also assessed. During the study period, 25117 subjects donated blood. Eight hundred and Results: seventy two donors (3.4% were positive for one or more serological tests. ALT of all donors ranged from 0-1501 U/L (Mean ± SD; 33.4 ± 25.45U/L. The donors seronegative for all disease markers were 24245 (96.6%. Of these, 21164 (87.2% donors had their ALT within reference range while 2874 (11.8% and 207 (0.8% of donors had minimal and markedly elevated results. Thus, 621 blood bags (red cells, platelets and plasma costing $ 39200.0 were discarded based on ALT results alone. Of 200 seronegative donors evaluated

  7. Dengue viremia in blood donors in Northern India: Challenges of emerging dengue outbreaks to blood transfusion safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadhana Mangwana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Backdround: Emerging infectious diseases pose threats to the general human population; including recipients of blood transfusions. Dengue is spreading rapidly to new areas and with increasing frequency of major outbreaks. Screening blood for dengue antigens in dengue-endemic countries would be costly and should, therefore, be recommended only after careful assessment of risk for infection and cost. Aim: A prospective study was conducted to establish the magnitude of the threat that dengue poses to blood safety where it is sporadic with seasonal variations, to quantify risk and to assess that whether screening is feasible and cost-effective. Materials and Methods: Nonstructural protein 1 (NS1 antigen test was done on 1709 donations during dengue outbreak in the months August to November 2013 as an additional test using Bio-Rad Platelia Dengue NS1AG test kit which is one step sandwich format microplate enzyme immunoassay using murine monoclonal antibodies for capture and revelation. Chi-square test was used to find statistical significance. Results and Conclusions: Majority cases were whole blood, replacement, male donors with 76.10% donors in <35 years age group. About 17.85% were single donor platelet donations. NS1 antigen in all donors was negative. In the past, dengue affected mainly children who do not donate blood. With the changing trend, mean age of infection increased affecting the population that does donate blood, further reducing blood donation pool. Further studies need to be done in different geographic regions of the country during dengue transmission season to establish maximum incidence of viremic donations, rates of transfusion transmission and clinical consequences in recipients. If risk is found to be substantial, decision will be taken by the policymakers at what threshold screening should be instituted to ensure safe blood transfusion.

  8. Risk Factors for Bartonella species Infection in Blood Donors from Southeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Pedro Paulo Vissotto de Paiva; Velho, Paulo Eduardo Neves Ferreira; Pitassi, Luiza Helena Urso; Drummond, Marina Rovani; Lania, Bruno Grosselli; Barjas-Castro, Maria Lourdes; Sowy, Stanley; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Scorpio, Diana Gerardi

    2016-03-01

    Bacteria from the genus Bartonella are emerging blood-borne bacteria, capable of causing long-lasting infection in marine and terrestrial mammals, including humans. Bartonella are generally well adapted to their main host, causing persistent infection without clinical manifestation. However, these organisms may cause severe disease in natural or accidental hosts. In humans, Bartonella species have been detected from sick patients presented with diverse disease manifestations, including cat scratch disease, trench fever, bacillary angiomatosis, endocarditis, polyarthritis, or granulomatous inflammatory disease. However, with the advances in diagnostic methods, subclinical bloodstream infection in humans has been reported, with the potential for transmission through blood transfusion been recently investigated by our group. The objective of this study was to determine the risk factors associated with Bartonella species infection in asymptomatic blood donors presented at a major blood bank in Southeastern Brazil. Five hundred blood donors were randomly enrolled and tested for Bartonella species infection by specialized blood cultured coupled with high-sensitive PCR assays. Epidemiological questionnaires were designed to cover major potential risk factors, such as age, gender, ethnicity, contact with companion animals, livestock, or wild animals, bites from insects or animal, economical status, among other factors. Based on multivariate logistic regression, bloodstream infection with B. henselae or B. clarridgeiae was associated with cat contact (adjusted OR: 3.4, 95% CI: 1.1-9.6) or history of tick bite (adjusted OR: 3.7, 95% CI: 1.3-13.4). These risk factors should be considered during donor screening, as bacteremia by these Bartonella species may not be detected by traditional laboratory screening methods, and it may be transmitted by blood transfusion. PMID:26999057

  9. National blood requirement, serum ALT and hepatitis in Ethiopian blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawde, D; Sisay, Y

    1991-10-01

    To appraise the national blood requirement and supply, and to determine the impact of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) screening on the blood supply, 407 random blood donor sera were tested for HBsAg, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and ALT activity. HBsAg and anti-HIV antibody were determined by the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique using Hepanostica and Welcozyme kits, respectively. The Western Blot test was performed to confirm anti-HIV positive sera by the ELISA technique. ALT was determined by an automated photometer using ALAT kits and serologic testing for syphilis was done by the rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test. The amount of blood required in Ethiopia and the actual supply was calculated on the basis of the number and type of hospital beds in Addis Abeba and the amount of blood transfusions in units per hospital bed. The results showed that the combined donor and unit rejection rate was 34.6%. The annual blood requirement was 7 units for emergency and 4 units for nonemergency beds. The national blood requirement in 1989 was 64,350-80,000 units, but the supply met only a third of the requirement. The mean and 2SD cut off ALT levels were 28 and 69 IU/L, respectively. ALT was elevated in 9.1% of HBsAg positive but apparently healthy donors, while HBsAg screening eliminated 25% of those with elevated ALT activity. This data suggests that there is a serious blood shortage in Ethiopia and that the currently supplied blood is relatively unsafe in terms of hepatitis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1659534

  10. Living Related Donor Kidney Transplantation in Libya: A Single Center Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elusta Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to report the experience from a single center in Libya, on the prevailing live-related kidney transplantation program. The results of three years work on kidney transplantation at the Tripoli Central Hospital (National Organ Transplant Program in Libya were evaluated. The transplant program was launched on 17 th August, 2004 and 135 patients have been transplanted since then till 17 th August, 2007. All donors and recipients were screened thoroughly prior to transplant and monitored closely in the post-transplant period. Our immuno-suppressive protocol was cyclosporine-based. Among the 135 accepted pairs, donors and reci-pients were genetically-related in 133 cases (98.5% and emotionally-related in two others. The mean donor age was 37 ± 9.5 years (range 18-56 years and recipient age 37 ± 13.6 years (range 7-67 years. There were 95 males (70.4% and 40 females (29.6% among the recipients while among the donors, there were 102 males (75.6% and 33 females (24.4%. Delayed graft function was seen in three patients (2.2%, acute rejection in six (4.4%, post-transplant urinary tract infection in six (4.4%, pneumonia in three (2.2%, ureteric kink in two (1.5% and urine leak in four (3.0%. Graft survival at 36 months was 93.3% while patient survival at the same period was 96.3%. This report indicates that the results of our transplant program are good and comparable with other international programs.

  11. OCCULT HEPATITIS B VIRUS INFECTION AMONG BLOOD DONORS WITH ANTIBODIES TO HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jafarzadeh

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of hepatitis B is routinely based on of serological assay of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg. Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is generally defined as the detection of HBV -DNA in the serum or tissues of subjects who have negative test for HBsAg. Transmission of HBV infection has been documented from HBsAg negative, anti-HBc positive blood and organ donors. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of occult HBV infection among HBsAg negative and anti-HBc positive blood donors of Rafsanjan blood transfusion center. ‎ Sera from 270 healthy blood donors who were negative for both HBsAg and anti-HCV, were tested for anti-HBc antibodies by use of ELISA technique. The samples that were negative for HBsAg but positive for anti-HBc markers also examined for the presence of HBV-DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. ‎ Out of 270 HBsAg negative blood samples, 14 samples (5.18% were positive for anti-HBc antibodies. HBV-DNA was detected in 4/14 (28.57% of HBsAg negative and anti-HBc positive samples. Moreover, anti-HBs antibody was detected in 2/4 (50% of HBV-DNA positive samples. ‎ These results indicated that HBV-DNA found in the majority of HBsAg negative and anti-HBc-positive donors. In addition, the present study recommend the incorporation of routine anti-HBc screening of blood as a surrogate marker of occult HBV infection to prevent some transfusion-transmitted HBV infections.

  12. Hepatitis B, HIV, and Syphilis Seroprevalence in Pregnant Women and Blood Donors in Cameroon

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    Jodie Dionne-Odom

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We estimated seroprevalence and correlates of selected infections in pregnant women and blood donors in a resource-limited setting. Methods. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of laboratory seroprevalence data from pregnant women and voluntary blood donors from facilities in Cameroon in 2014. Rapid tests were performed to detect hepatitis B surface antigen, syphilis treponemal antibodies, and HIV-1/2 antibodies. Blood donations were also tested for hepatitis C and malaria. Results. The seroprevalence rates and ranges among 7069 pregnant women were hepatitis B 4.4% (1.1–9.6%, HIV 6% (3.0–10.2%, and syphilis 1.7% (1.3–3.8% with significant variability among the sites. Correlates of infection in pregnancy in adjusted regression models included urban residence for hepatitis B (aOR 2.9, CI 1.6–5.4 and HIV (aOR 3.5, CI 1.9–6.7. Blood donor seroprevalence rates and ranges were hepatitis B 6.8% (5.0–8.8%, HIV 2.2% (1.4–2.8%, syphilis 4% (3.3–4.5%, malaria 1.9%, and hepatitis C 1.7% (0.5–2.5%. Conclusions. Hepatitis B, HIV, and syphilis infections are common among pregnant women and blood donors in Cameroon with higher rates in urban areas. Future interventions to reduce vertical transmission should include universal screening for these infections early in pregnancy and provision of effective prevention tools including the birth dose of univalent hepatitis B vaccine.

  13. Hepatitis B, HIV, and Syphilis Seroprevalence in Pregnant Women and Blood Donors in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbah, Rahel; Rembert, Nicole J.; Tancho, Samuel; Halle-Ekane, Gregory E.; Enah, Comfort; Welty, Thomas K.; Tih, Pius M.; Tita, Alan T. N.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated seroprevalence and correlates of selected infections in pregnant women and blood donors in a resource-limited setting. Methods. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of laboratory seroprevalence data from pregnant women and voluntary blood donors from facilities in Cameroon in 2014. Rapid tests were performed to detect hepatitis B surface antigen, syphilis treponemal antibodies, and HIV-1/2 antibodies. Blood donations were also tested for hepatitis C and malaria. Results. The seroprevalence rates and ranges among 7069 pregnant women were hepatitis B 4.4% (1.1–9.6%), HIV 6% (3.0–10.2%), and syphilis 1.7% (1.3–3.8%) with significant variability among the sites. Correlates of infection in pregnancy in adjusted regression models included urban residence for hepatitis B (aOR 2.9, CI 1.6–5.4) and HIV (aOR 3.5, CI 1.9–6.7). Blood donor seroprevalence rates and ranges were hepatitis B 6.8% (5.0–8.8%), HIV 2.2% (1.4–2.8%), syphilis 4% (3.3–4.5%), malaria 1.9%, and hepatitis C 1.7% (0.5–2.5%). Conclusions. Hepatitis B, HIV, and syphilis infections are common among pregnant women and blood donors in Cameroon with higher rates in urban areas. Future interventions to reduce vertical transmission should include universal screening for these infections early in pregnancy and provision of effective prevention tools including the birth dose of univalent hepatitis B vaccine.

  14. Hepatitis B, HIV, and Syphilis Seroprevalence in Pregnant Women and Blood Donors in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionne-Odom, Jodie; Mbah, Rahel; Rembert, Nicole J; Tancho, Samuel; Halle-Ekane, Gregory E; Enah, Comfort; Welty, Thomas K; Tih, Pius M; Tita, Alan T N

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated seroprevalence and correlates of selected infections in pregnant women and blood donors in a resource-limited setting. Methods. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of laboratory seroprevalence data from pregnant women and voluntary blood donors from facilities in Cameroon in 2014. Rapid tests were performed to detect hepatitis B surface antigen, syphilis treponemal antibodies, and HIV-1/2 antibodies. Blood donations were also tested for hepatitis C and malaria. Results. The seroprevalence rates and ranges among 7069 pregnant women were hepatitis B 4.4% (1.1-9.6%), HIV 6% (3.0-10.2%), and syphilis 1.7% (1.3-3.8%) with significant variability among the sites. Correlates of infection in pregnancy in adjusted regression models included urban residence for hepatitis B (aOR 2.9, CI 1.6-5.4) and HIV (aOR 3.5, CI 1.9-6.7). Blood donor seroprevalence rates and ranges were hepatitis B 6.8% (5.0-8.8%), HIV 2.2% (1.4-2.8%), syphilis 4% (3.3-4.5%), malaria 1.9%, and hepatitis C 1.7% (0.5-2.5%). Conclusions. Hepatitis B, HIV, and syphilis infections are common among pregnant women and blood donors in Cameroon with higher rates in urban areas. Future interventions to reduce vertical transmission should include universal screening for these infections early in pregnancy and provision of effective prevention tools including the birth dose of univalent hepatitis B vaccine. PMID:27578957

  15. On the effect of nuclear bridge modes on donor-acceptor electronic coupling in donor-bridge-acceptor molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a theoretical study of intra-molecular electronic coupling in a symmetric DBA (donor-bridge-acceptor) complex, in which a donor electronic site is coupled to an acceptor site by way of intervening orbitals of a molecular bridge unit. In the off-resonant (deep tunneling) regime of electronic transport, the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (MO's) of the DBA system are split into distinguishable donor/acceptor and bridge orbitals. The effect of geometrical changes at the bridge on the donor/acceptor electronic energy manifold is studied for local stretching and bending modes. It is demonstrated that the energy splitting in the manifold of donor/acceptor unoccupied MOs changes in response to such changes, as assumed in simple McConnell-type models. Limitations of the simple models are revealed where the electronic charging of the bridge orbitals correlates with increasing donor/acceptor orbital energy splitting only for stretching but not for bending bridge modes.

  16. Cost-Effectiveness of Blood Donation Screening for Trypanosoma cruzi in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-González, Gilberto; Figueroa-Lara, Alejandro; Elizondo-Cano, Miguel; Wilson, Leslie; Novelo-Garza, Barbara; Valiente-Banuet, Leopoldo; Janine M Ramsey

    2016-01-01

    An estimated 2 million inhabitants are infected with Chagas disease in Mexico, with highest prevalence coinciding with highest demographic density in the southern half of the country. After vector-borne transmission, Trypanosoma cruzi is principally transmitted to humans via blood transfusion. Despite initiation of serological screening of blood donations or donors for T. cruzi since 1990 in most Latin American countries, Mexico only finally included mandatory serological screening nationwide...

  17. Cost-Effectiveness of Blood Donation Screening for Trypanosoma cruzi in Mexico.

    OpenAIRE

    Gilberto Sánchez-González; Alejandro Figueroa-Lara; Miguel Elizondo-Cano; Leslie Wilson; Barbara Novelo-Garza; Leopoldo Valiente-Banuet; Janine M Ramsey

    2016-01-01

    An estimated 2 million inhabitants are infected with Chagas disease in Mexico, with highest prevalence coinciding with highest demographic density in the southern half of the country. After vector-borne transmission, Trypanosoma cruzi is principally transmitted to humans via blood transfusion. Despite initiation of serological screening of blood donations or donors for T. cruzi since 1990 in most Latin American countries, Mexico only finally included mandatory serological screening nationwide...

  18. Adoptive T-cell Immunotherapy from third-party donors: Characterization of donors and set up of a T-cell donor registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britta eEiz-Vesper

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection with and reactivation of human cytomegalovirus (CMV, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV, and adenovirus (ADV are frequent and severe complications in immunocompromised recipients after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT or solid organ transplantation (SOT. These serious adverse events are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Donor lymphocyte infusions (DLIs are often used to treat both viral infections and leukemia relapses after transplantation but are associated with potentially life-threatening graft-versus-host disease (GvHD. Adoptive immunotherapy with virus-specific cytotoxic effector T cells (CTLs derived from seropositive donors can rapidly reconstitute antiviral immunity after HSCT and organ transplantation. Therefore, it can effectively prevent the clinical manifestation of these viruses with no significant acute toxicity or increased risk of GvHD. In conditions, where patients receiving an allogeneic cord blood transplant or a transplant from a virus-seronegative donor and since donor blood is generally not available for solid organ recipients, allogeneic third party T-cell donors would offer an alternative option. Recent studies showed that during granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF mobilization, the functional activity of antiviral memory T cells is impaired for a long period. This finding suggests that even stem cell donors may not be the best source of T cells.Under these circumstances, partially human leukocyte antigen (HLA-matched virus-specific CTLs from healthy seropositive individuals may be a promising option. Therefore frequency assessments of virus-specific memory T cells in HLA-typed healthy donors as well as in HSCT/SOT donors using a high throughput T-cell assay were performed over a period of 4 years at Hannover Medical School. This chapter will address the relevance and potential of a third-party T-cell donor registry and will discuss its clinical implication for adoptive T

  19. A study on patterns of co-infections among blood donors at the blood bank of a tertiary care referral teaching hospital in South India

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    Suresh B

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Blood serves as a vehicle for transmission of blood-borne pathogens including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV, malaria parasite (MP and syphilis. Safe blood and blood products should be transfused to all patients in need for blood transfusion. Material and Methods: All blood donors attending to the blood bank during the period January 2009 to December 2014 were screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg, anti HCV antibody, anti HIV-1, 2 antibodies and HIV p24 antigen by using the appropriate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA method and further confirmed using an ELISA kit from a different manufacturer. Malarial antigen testing was done by rapid diagnostic device, which is based on immunochromatographic technique. The rapid plasma reagin (RPR test was used for estimation of syphilis infection and further confirmed by Treponema pallidum haemagglutination assay (TPHA. Results: Of the 41,785 donors who were screened during the study period, 20 (0.05% were reactive for different combination of infections. The various combination of infections seen were as follows; HBV+HCV and HBV+HIV (6/20 each, HIV+HCV (3/20, HIV + syphilis (2/20 and HBV+HIV+HCV, HBV+MP, HBV+syphilis (1/20 each; and HIV+Syphilis constituted for 10% (2/20. Conclusion: A properly conducted donor screening, notification and counseling of permanently deferred donors will help in reducing these co-infection rates.

  20. Screening for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jin; Efron, Jonathan E

    2011-01-01

    March is national colorectal cancer awareness month. It is estimated that as many as 60% of colorectal cancer deaths could be prevented if all men and women aged 50 years or older were screened routinely. In 2000, Katie Couric's televised colonoscopy led to a 20% increase in screening colonoscopies across America, a stunning rise called the "Katie Couric Effect". This event demonstrated how celebrity endorsement affects health behavior. Currently, discussion is ongoing about the optimal strategy for CRC screening, particularly the costs of screening colonoscopy. The current CRC screening guidelines are summarized in Table 2. Debates over the optimum CRC screening test continue in the face of evidence that 22 million Americans aged 50 to 75 years are not screened for CRC by any modality and 25,000 of those lives may have been saved if they had been screened for CRC. It is clear that improving screening rates and reducing disparities in underscreened communities and population subgroups could further reduce colorectal cancer morbidity and mortality. National Institutes of Health consensus identified the following priority areas to enhance the use and quality of colorectal cancer screening: Eliminate financial barriers to colorectal cancer screening and appropriate follow-up of positive results of colorectal cancer screening. Develop systems to ensure the high quality of colorectal cancer screening programs. Conduct studies to determine the comparative effectiveness of the various colorectal cancer screening methods in usual practice settings. Encouraging population adherence to screening tests and allowing patients to select the tests they prefer may do more good (as long as they choose something) than whatever procedure is chosen by the medical profession as the preferred test. PMID:21954677

  1. Trends in Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, HIV, and Syphilis Infections in Iranian Blood Donors from 2003 to 2005

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    Farahnaz Fallahian

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: To determine changes (trends in infection rates of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg, hepatitis C virus (HCV, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, and syphilis in Iranian blood donor population.Methods: Specimens of 1,004,889 volunteer blood donors in Tehran blood transfusion service from 2003 to 2005 were screened for HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV1/2, and VDRL (venereal disease research laboratory reactivity in a cross-sectional survey. Reactive samples were verified using a recognized confirmatory test which consisted of a second independent HBsAg enzyme immunoassay (EIA, and neutralization assay; an additional independent anti-HCV EIA and HCV-RIBA assay; a second independent anti-HIV1/2 test, and HIV Western blot; and a confirmatory fluorescent Treponemal antibody absorbed (FTA-ABS test, respectively. Results: The seroprevalence of HBsAg, anti-HCV, HIV Ab1/2, and VDRL was 0.9%, 2.1%, 0.2%, and 0.04%, respectively, in all blood donors. Prevalence of confirmed positivity was 0.6%, for HBsAg, 0.1%, for HCV RNA, 0.004%, for HIV western blot and 0.004% for FTA-ABS. Between 2003 to 2005, a decreasing trend was observed in HBsAg frequency. HCV frequency decreased in 2005 compared to 2003. The trend of HIV infection frequency had no increasing or decreasing pattern, and was relatively stable while the trend of syphilis infection frequency increased.Conclusions: Although the frequency of transfusion-transmitted infections is low, it is still far from ideal in the volunteer blood donors. Reduction of trends of infections could be achieved through more scrutiny in donor selection, improved sensitivity of serological tests, and re-evaluation of infection routes in donors.

  2. Prevalence and Trends of Transfusion-Transmissible Viral Infections among Blood Donors in South of Iran: An Eleven-Year Retrospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farshadpour, Fatemeh; Taherkhani, Reza; Tajbakhsh, Saeed; Gholizadeh Tangestani, Marziyeh; Hajiani, Gholamreza; Sharifi, Nasrin; Taherkhani, Sakineh; Nejadbolkheyr, Abdolreza

    2016-01-01

    Background Blood transfusion is considered a potential risk factor for transmission of life-threatening viral infections, including HIV, HCV and HBV infections. This study was performed to find out the prevalence and trends of these infections among blood donors in Southern Iran. Methods The blood donor data recorded in twelve regional blood transfusion centers from 2004 to 2014 were analyzed in an anonymous way with respect to the results of serological screening for HBV, HCV, and HIV infections. Overall, 293454 donors were screened for viral infections. Results Most of the donors were male, married, aged between 20–40 years, educated, and regular donors. The overall seroprevalence rates of HBV, HCV and HIV were 0.15%, 0.1% and 0.004%, respectively. The highest seroprevalence was found for HBV, followed by HCV and HIV. These infections were more prevalent in male, low educated and first time donors. The highest HCV seroprevalence was observed among donors aged 20 to 40 years, while HBV seroprevalence increased with age. The seroprevalence rates of HBV and HCV from 2004 to 2014 showed significant decreasing trends from 0.460% to 0.060% (P < 0.001) and 0.329% to 0.045% (P < 0.001), respectively. Whereas HIV infection had a slight but not significant decline from 0.0173% in 2004 to 0.0028% in 2014 (P = 0.087). Conclusions The decreasing trends of transfusion-transmissible viral infections in blood donations indicate that the attempts of IBTO were successful in improving the safety of the blood supply, since the prevalence rates of viral infections have been reduced to very low levels in blood donations over the years. However, still more effective techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are needed to guarantee blood safety. PMID:27309959

  3. Seroprevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus, and Treponema pallidum Infections among Blood Donors on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-De Xie

    Full Text Available Regular screening of transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus (HBV and HCV, respectively, and Treponema pallidum, in blood donors is essential to guaranteeing clinical transfusion safety. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of four TTIs among blood donors on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea (EG.A retrospective survey of blood donors from January 2011 to April 2013 was conducted to assess the presence of HIV, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum. The medical records were analyzed to verify the seroprevalence of these TTIs among blood donations stratified by gender, age and geographical region.Of the total 2937 consecutive blood donors, 1098 (37.39% had a minimum of one TTI and 185 (6.29% harbored co-infections. The general seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum were 7.83%, 10.01%, 3.71% and 21.51%, respectively. The most frequent TTI co-infections were HBV-T. pallidum 60 (2.04% and HIV-T. pallidum 46 (1.57%. The seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum were highest among blood donors 38 to 47 years, 18 to 27 years and ≥ 48 years age, respectively (P<0.05. The seroprevalence of TTIs varied according to the population from which the blood was collected on Bioko Island.Our results firstly provide a comprehensive overview of TTIs among blood donors on Bioko Island. Strict screening of blood donors and improved hematological examinations using standard operating procedures are recommended.

  4. Informed consent--suggested procedures for informed consent for unrelated haematopoietic stem cell donors at various stages of recruitment, donor evaluation, and donor workup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenmayr, A; Hartwell, L; Egeland, T

    2003-04-01

    The Ethics Working Group of the World Marrow Donor Association (WMDA) was established to address the increasing and complex number of ethical issues surrounding unrelated haematopoietic stem cell donation where the selected donor and recipient reside in different countries. This paper considers the topic of informed donor consent, but recognises that the recommendations contained within the paper may be subject to cultural variances in interpretation, and to adjustment to meet the legal requirements of individual countries. Nevertheless, the extent of international cooperation establishes sufficient common denominators for the recommendations to be widely adhered to in the interests of best practice. PMID:12692618

  5. Pre-transplant Evaluation of Donor Urinary Biomarkers can Predict Reduced Graft Function After Deceased Donor Kidney Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Tai Yeon; Jeong, Jong Cheol; Lee, Yonggu; Ko, Kwang-Pil; Lee, Kyoung-Bun; Lee, Sik; Park, Suk Joo; Park, Jae Berm; Han, Miyeon; Lim, Hye Jin; Ahn, Curie; Yang, Jaeseok

    2016-03-01

    Several recipient biomarkers are reported to predict graft dysfunction, but these are not useful in decision making for the acceptance or allocation of deceased donor kidneys; thus, it is necessary to develop donor biomarkers predictive of graft dysfunction. To address this issue, we prospectively enrolled 94 deceased donors and their 109 recipients who underwent transplantation between 2010 and 2013 at 4 Korean transplantation centers. We investigated the predictive values of donor urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), and L-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) for reduced graft function (RGF). We also developed a prediction model of RGF using these donor biomarkers. RGF was defined as delayed or slow graft function. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to generate a prediction model, which was internally validated using a bootstrapping method. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to assess the association of biomarkers with 1-year graft function. Notably, donor urinary NGAL levels were associated with donor AKI (P = 0.014), and donor urinary NGAL and L-FABP were predictive for RGF, with area under the receiver-operating characteristic curves (AUROC) of 0.758 and 0.704 for NGAL and L-FABP, respectively. The best-fit model including donor urinary NGAL, L-FABP, and serum creatinine conveyed a better predictive value for RGF than donor serum creatinine alone (P = 0.02). In addition, we generated a scoring method to predict RGF based on donor urinary NGAL, L-FABP, and serum creatinine levels. Diagnostic performance of the RGF prediction score (AUROC 0.808) was significantly better than that of the DGF calculator (AUROC 0.627) and the kidney donor profile index (AUROC 0.606). Donor urinary L-FABP levels were also predictive of 1-year graft function (P = 0.005). Collectively, these findings suggest donor urinary NGAL and L-FABP to be useful biomarkers for RGF, and support the use of

  6. Donor safety in adult living donor liver transplantation using the right lobe:Single center experience in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu-Gui Li; Lu-Nan Yan; Yong Zeng; Jia-Yin Yang; Qi-Yuan Lin; Xiao-Zhong Jiang; Bin Liu

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the safety of donors in adult living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) using the right lobe in a single liver transplantation center in China.METHODS: We investigated retrospectively 52 living donor liver resections performed from October 2003 to July 2006. All patients were evaluated by blood tests and abdominal CT. The mean donor age was 28.2±7.4years. Residual liver volume was 42.1%±4.7%. Mean operative time was 420±76.2 min; mean ICU stay, less than 36 h; mean hospital stay, 16.4±8.6 d; and mean follow-up period, 6 mo.RESULTS: There was no mortality. The overall complication rate was 40% (21 donors). Major complications included biliary leak in two, and pneumonia in 2 donors. Minor complications included mild pleural effusion in 12 donors, transient ascites in 6, mild depression in 4, intra-abdominal collections in 2,and wound infections in 1 donor. Residual liver volume did not affect the complication rate. None required reoperation. Return to pre-donation activity occurred within 5-8 wk.CONCLUSION: Right hemi-hepatectomy can be performed safely with minimal risk in cases of careful donor selection. Major complications occurred in only 7.7% of our series.

  7. Clinical experience in the use of marginal donor hearts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Ai-ni; DONG Nian-guo; ZHANG Kai-lun; XIA Jia-hong; XIAO Shi-liang; SUN Zong-quan

    2011-01-01

    Background Although heart transplantation has become a standard therapy for end-stage heart disease, there are few published studies regarding the use of transplant organs from marginal donors. Here we describe the clinical outcome we have obtained using marginal donor hearts.Methods We analyzed 21 cases of orthotropic heart transplantation for end-stage heart disease performed in our department between September 2008 and July 2010. Of these patients, six received hearts from marginal donors and the remainder received standard-donor hearts. The two groups were compared in terms of both mortality and the incidence of perioperative complications such as infection, acute rejection, and right heart insufficiency.Results The 1-year survival rate of both groups was 100%. Only one death was recorded in standard-donor group during follow-up. Patients who received marginal donor hearts (83%) experienced more early complications than did the standard-donor-heart group (13%), but the mortality of the two groups was the same. The duration of post-ICU stay was greater in the marginal donor group than in the standard-donor group, (35.5±17.4) days and (21.7±2.6) days, respectively (P <0.05).Conclusions The use of marginal donor hearts increases the number of patients who can receive and benefit from transplants. However, it may introduce an increased risk of early complications, thus care should be taken both in the choice of patients who will receive marginal donor hearts and in the perioperative treatment of those for whom the procedure is performed.

  8. Health-related quality of life among blood donors with hepatitis B and hepatitis C: longitudinal study before and after diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Francisco Augusto Porto; de Almeida-Neto, Cesar; Teixeira, Maria Cristina Dias; STRAUSS Edna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction There is evidence that patients suffering from chronic hepatic diseases, including chronic hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis C, have a reduced health-related quality of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the notification of test results for hepatitis B and hepatitis C on the quality of life of blood donors. Methods Over a 29-month period, this study assessed the quality of life of 105 blood donors with positive serological screening tests for hepatitis B an...

  9. Health-related quality of life among blood donors with hepatitis B and hepatitis C: longitudinal study before and after diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Augusto Porto Ferreira; Cesar de Almeida-Neto; Maria Cristina Dias Teixeira; Edna Strauss

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: There is evidence that patients suffering from chronic hepatic diseases, including chronic hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis C, have a reduced health-related quality of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the notification of test results for hepatitis B and hepatitis C on the quality of life of blood donors. Methods: Over a 29-month period, this study assessed the quality of life of 105 blood donors with positive serological screening tests for ...

  10. Prevalence of antibody to Hepatitis B core antigen and Hepatitis B virus DNA in HBsAg negative healthy blood donors

    OpenAIRE

    Karimi, Gharib; Zadsar, Maryam; Vafaei, Nasrin; SHARIFI, Zohreh; FalahTafti, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B virus is one of the most important blood born viruses. Although the sensitivity of screening tests has been considerably increased, transmission may still occur due to window period or occult hepatitis B infections (OBIs). This study was aimed at evaluating the prevalence of the anti-HBc and identifying the HBV DNA in HBsAg negative blood donors. Methods The Blood samples from 2031 HBsAg-negative blood donors were divided into three aliquots and tested for anti-HBc, ant...

  11. Risks of Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Cervical Cancer Prevention Cervical Cancer Screening Research Cervical Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Screening ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Cervical Cancer Key Points Cervical cancer is a disease in ...

  12. Tattoos and transfusion-transmitted disease risk: implications for the screening of blood donors in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    NISHIOKA Sérgio de A.; Gyorkos, Theresa W.; MacLean, J D

    2002-01-01

    Having a tattoo has been associated with serological evidence of hepatitis B and C viruses, as well as human immunodeficiency virus infections and syphilis; all of these are known to be transmissible by blood transfusion. These associations are of higher magnitude for individuals with nonprofessionally-applied tattoos and with two or more tattoos. Tattoos are common among drug addicts and prisoners, conditions that are also associated with transfusion-transmitted diseases. We examined the imp...

  13. Blood group genotyping: from patient to high-throughput donor screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Veldhuisen; C.E. van der Schoot; M. de Haas

    2009-01-01

    Blood group antigens, present on the cell membrane of red blood cells and platelets, can be defined either serologically or predicted based on the genotypes of genes encoding for blood group antigens. At present, the molecular basis of many antigens of the 30 blood group systems and 17 human platele

  14. Tissue Banking: Relationship with Blood Donor and Organ Donor Card Status

    OpenAIRE

    McKenzie, Kenneth D.; Fitzpatrick, Patricia E.; Sheehan, John D.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the relationships among altruistic health acts may serve to aid therapeutic research advances. In this paper, we report on the links between two such behaviours—donating blood and carrying an organ donor card—and willingness to donate urological tissue to a tissue bank. Reasons for the differential willingness to do so are examined in this paper. A systematic sample of 259 new and returning attendees at a tertiary urology referral clinic in Ireland completed a self-report questi...

  15. Ploidy of Bovine Nuclear Transfer Blastocysts Blastomere Donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booth, P J; VIUFF, D; THOMSEN, P D;

    2000-01-01

    reconstructed from in vitro produced embryo donors. In vitro matured oocytes were enucleated and then activated using calcium ionophore A23187 followed by 6- dimethylaminopurine (6-DMAP). Subsequently, embryos were reconstructed using blas- tomeres from day 4–5 in vitro produced donors. The embryos were...

  16. The electron-ionized donor recombination in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A calculation is presented of the recombination cross section of a conduction electron and a donor impurity. Donor states are described in a many-valley model. It is shown that, for Si, the main contribution comes from the intravalley terms and that the intervalley terms are completely negligible. (author)

  17. New Actors in Health Financing: Implications for a Donor Darling

    OpenAIRE

    Denis Drechsler; Felix Zimmermann

    2007-01-01

    With concern about how to finance the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) widespread, recent donor pledges to raise aid volumes are welcome. However, aid alone will not suffice – bringing in new actors and sources of development finance will be essential. In many developing countries, this is already happening, creating new opportunities and challenges for their governments and donors....

  18. Crowd Around: Expanding Your Donor Pool with Crowdfunding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrell, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    At most institutions, annual fund-giving is down. Crowdfunding sites allow people with a great idea or worthy cause to bypass traditional funding methods and take their case directly to web-savvy investors and donors. This article describes how higher education institutions are expanding their donor pool through such crowdfunding sites as USEED,…

  19. A Comparative Analysis of Educational Donors in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Russell N., III; Wiepking, Pamala

    2008-01-01

    Using data from 1,373 households participating in the 2005 Giving in the Netherlands Panel Survey, this paper examines the characteristics of educational donors in comparison with other types of charitable donors and with nondonors. Charitable giving is quite common in the Netherlands, but there is no established higher education advancement…

  20. Aromatic donor-acceptor interactions in non-polar environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Giles M; Pascu, Sofia I; Filip, Sorin V; West, Kevin R; Pantoş, G Dan

    2015-05-14

    We have evaluated the strength of aromatic donor-acceptor interactions between dialkyl naphthalenediimide and dialkoxynaphthalene in non-polar environments. (1)H NMR, UV-vis spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry were used to characterise this interaction. We concluded that the strength of donor-acceptor interactions in heptane is sufficient to drive supramolecular assemblies in this and other aliphatic solvents. PMID:25875729

  1. Blood Test May Rule Out Too Many Donor Hearts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... finding ways to sign up more people as organ donors, but there is also a problem in that ... based solely on elevated troponin I if the organ is otherwise suitable. At our institution it has already changed how we evaluate donors, and I think this data will lead to ...

  2. Evaluation of the Medically Complex Living Kidney Donor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasar Caliskan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to organ shortage and difficulties for availability of cadaveric donors, living donor transplantation is an important choice for having allograft. Live donor surgery is elective and easier to organize prior to starting dialysis thereby permitting preemptive transplantation as compared to cadaveric transplantation. Because of superior results with living kidney transplantation, efforts including the usage of “Medically complex living donors” are made to increase the availability of organs for donation. The term “Complex living donor” is probably preferred for all suboptimal donors where decision-making is a problem due to lack of sound medical data or consensus guidelines. Donors with advanced age, obesity, asymptomatic microhematuria, proteinuria, hypertension, renal stone disease, history of malignancy and with chronic viral infections consist of this complex living donors. This medical complex living donors requires careful evaluation for future renal risk. In this review we would like to present the major issues in the evaluation process of medically complex living kidney donor.

  3. Photoinduced Intramolecular Charge Transfer in Donor-acceptor Dyad and Donor-bridge-acceptor Triad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Ding; Yuan-zuo Li; Feng-cai Ma

    2008-01-01

    The ground and excited state properties of the [60]fullerene,diphenylbenzothiadiazole-triphenylamine (PBTDP-TPA) dyad and fullerene-diphenylbenzothiadiazole-triphenylamine (fullerene-PBTDP-TPA) triad were investigated theoretically using density functional theory with B3LYP functional and 3-21G basis set and time-dependent density functional theory with B3LYP functional and STO-3G basis set as well as 2D and 3D real space analysis methods.The 2D site representation reveals the electron-hole coherence on exci- tation.The 3D transition density shows the orientation and strength of the transition dipole moment,and the 3D charge difference density gives the orientation and result of the intramolecular charge transfer.Also, photoinduced intermolecular charge transfer (ICT) in PBTDP-TPA-fullerene triad are identified with 2D and 3D representations,which reveals the mechanisms of ICT in donor-bridge-acceptor triad on excitation. Besides that we also found that the direct superexchange ICT from donor to acceptor (tunneling through the bridge) strongly promotes the ICT in the donor-bridge-acceptor triad.

  4. Factors influencing liver and spleen volume changes after donor hepatectomy for living donor liver transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Ji Hee; Ryeom, Hunku; Song, Jung Hup [Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    To define the changes in liver and spleen volumes in the early postoperative period after partial liver donation for living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) and to determine factors that influence liver and spleen volume changes. 27 donors who underwent partial hepatectomy for LDLT were included in this study. The rates of liver and spleen volume change, measured with CT volumetry, were correlated with several factors. The analyzed factors included the indocyanine green (ICG) retention rate at 15 minutes after ICG administration, preoperative platelet count, preoperative liver and splenic volumes, resected liver volume, resected-to-whole liver volume ratio (LV{sub R}/LV{sub W}), resected liver volume to the sum of whole liver and spleen volume ratio [LV{sub R}/(LV{sub W} + SV{sub 0})], and pre and post hepatectomy portal venous pressures. In all hepatectomy donors, the volumes of the remnant liver and spleen were increased (increased rates, 59.5 ± 50.5%, 47.9 ± 22.6%). The increment rate of the remnant liver volume revealed a positive correlation with LV{sub R}/LV{sub W} (r = 0.759, p < 0.01). The other analyzed factors showed no correlation with changes in liver and spleen volumes. The spleen and remnant liver volumes were increased at CT volumetry performed 2 weeks after partial liver donation. Among the various analyzed factors, LV{sub R}/LV{sub W} influences the increment rate of the remnant liver volume.

  5. Factors influencing liver and spleen volume changes after donor hepatectomy for living donor liver transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To define the changes in liver and spleen volumes in the early postoperative period after partial liver donation for living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) and to determine factors that influence liver and spleen volume changes. 27 donors who underwent partial hepatectomy for LDLT were included in this study. The rates of liver and spleen volume change, measured with CT volumetry, were correlated with several factors. The analyzed factors included the indocyanine green (ICG) retention rate at 15 minutes after ICG administration, preoperative platelet count, preoperative liver and splenic volumes, resected liver volume, resected-to-whole liver volume ratio (LVR/LVW), resected liver volume to the sum of whole liver and spleen volume ratio [LVR/(LVW + SV0)], and pre and post hepatectomy portal venous pressures. In all hepatectomy donors, the volumes of the remnant liver and spleen were increased (increased rates, 59.5 ± 50.5%, 47.9 ± 22.6%). The increment rate of the remnant liver volume revealed a positive correlation with LVR/LVW (r = 0.759, p R/LVW influences the increment rate of the remnant liver volume.

  6. Prevalence and Viral Load of Human Parvovirus B19 (B19V) Among Blood Donors in South-East Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavov, Svetoslav Nanev; Otaguiri, Katia Kaori; Covas, Dimas Tadeu; Kashima, Simone

    2016-06-01

    The infection of human parvovirus B19 (B19V) is a common event in the general population, including volunteer blood donors. In some cases it can be asymptomatic and can remain persistent for a long period of time. The objective of this study was to examine the B19V DNA prevalence and viral load in first-time volunteer blood donors. Blood samples were collected from 91 primary blood donors at the Regional Blood Center of Ribeirão Preto, Southeast Brazil. Viral detection and quantitation was performed by an in-house TaqMan(®) real-time PCR with high sensitivity. B19V DNA was detected in one male blood donor (1.0 %) and was characterized by a very low viral load (537.36 copies/mL). Our studies demonstrate that B19V DNA at low titer may be present in apparently healthy individuals. Sensitive molecular diagnostic tools can be applied for the screening of fresh blood derived products in order to prevent transfusion-transmitted B19V infection. PMID:27408426

  7. Accuracy of a probabilistic record-linkage methodology used to track blood donors in the Mortality Information System database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuani, Ligia; Bierrenbach, Ana Luiza; Abreu, Fatima; Takecian, Pedro Losco; Ferreira, João Eduardo; Sabino, Ester Cerdeira

    2016-01-01

    The probabilistic record linkage (PRL) is based on a likelihood score that measures the degree of similarity of several matching variables. Screening test results for different diseases are available for the blood donor population. In this paper, we describe the accuracy of a PRL process used to track blood donors from the Fundação Pró-Sangue (FPS) in the Mortality Information System (SIM), in order that future studies might determine the blood donor’s cause of death. The databases used for linkage were SIM and the database made up of individuals that were living (200 blood donors in 2007) and dead (196 from the Hospital das Clinicas de São Paulo that died in 2001–2005). The method consists of cleaning and linking the databases using three blocking steps comparing the variables “Name/Mother’s Name/ Date of Birth” to determine a cut-off score. For a cut-off score of 7.06, the sensitivity and specificity of the method is 94.4% (95%CI: 90.0–97.0) and 100% (95%CI: 98.0–100.0), respectively. This method can be used in studies that aim to track blood donors from the FPS database in SIM. PMID:25210903

  8. Association of ABO and Rh Blood Groups to Blood-Borne Infections among Blood Donors in Tehran-Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Mohammadali

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV and syphilis infections in blood donors referred to Tehran Blood Transfusion Center (TBTC, and determine any association between blood groups and blood- borne infections between the years of 2005 and 2011.This was a retrospective study conducted at TBTC. All of the donor serum samples were screened for HBV, HCV, HIV and syphilis by using third generation ELISA kits and RPR test. Initial reactive samples were tested in duplicate. Confirmatory tests were performed on all repeatedly reactive donations. Blood group was determined by forward and reverse blood grouping. The results were subjected to chi square analysis for determination of statistical difference between the values among different categories according to SPSS program.Overall, 2031451 donor serum samples were collected in 2005-2011. Totally, 10451 were positive test for HBV, HCV, HIV and syphilis. The overall seroprevalence of HBV, HCV, HIV, and syphilis was 0.39%, 0.11%, 0.005%, and 0.010%, respectively. Hepatitis B and HIV infections were significantly associated with blood group of donors (P 0.05.Compared with neighboring countries and the international standards, prevalence of blood-borne infections is relatively low.

  9. The clinical value of glomerular filtration rate with 99Tcm-DTPA on living kidney transplantation donor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the normal reference range of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in different ages with 99Tcm-DTPA renal dynamic imaging on living kidney transplantation donor, and to evaluate the clinical value of GFR in living kidney transplantation. Methods: 99Tcm-DTPA renal dynamic imaging was performed in 300 patients on living kidney transplantation donor. The image was processed according to Gates' method to obtain GFR. The normal reference range of GFR was obtained in different ages and the relationship between GFR and gender, age and body mass index was also analyzed. Results: The left, right and total renal GFR of 300 living kidney transplantation donors were 49.25±10.34 ml/min. 49.27±9.69 ml/min and 98.52±19.03 ml/min, respectively. The GFR in the group of age 4 0 was higher significantly than that of age ≥50 (P 0.05). The study of logistic regression showed that the age was the only important impact factor on GFR. Conclusions: GFR obtained by 99Tcm-DTPA is simple and reliable, which can be used to accurately assess the individual renal filterability and the urinary drainage function, This affords an useful method on screening the living relative kidney transplantation donor. (authors)

  10. Lung Cancer Screening Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchalski, Kathleen L; Brown, Kathleen

    2016-07-01

    Since the release of the US Preventive Services Task Force and Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services recommendations for lung cancer screening, low-dose chest computed tomography screening has moved from the research arena to clinical practice. Lung cancer screening programs must reach beyond image acquisition and interpretation and engage in a multidisciplinary effort of clinical shared decision-making, standardization of imaging and nodule management, smoking cessation, and patient follow-up. Standardization of radiologic reports and nodule management will systematize patient care, provide quality assurance, further reduce harm, and contain health care costs. Although the National Lung Screening Trial results and eligibility criteria of a heavy smoking history are the foundation for the standard guidelines for low-dose chest computed tomography screening in the United States, currently only 27% of patients diagnosed with lung cancer would meet US lung cancer screening recommendations. Current and future efforts must be directed to better delineate those patients who would most benefit from screening and to ensure that the benefits of screening reach all socioeconomic strata and racial and ethnic minorities. Further optimization of lung cancer screening program design and patient eligibility will assure that lung cancer screening benefits will outweigh the potential risks to our patients. PMID:27306387

  11. Defect Donor and Acceptor in GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-energy (0.7 endash 1MeV) electron irradiation in GaN grown on sapphire produces shallow donors and deep or shallow acceptors at equal rates, 1±0.2 cm-1. The data, in conjunction with theory, are consistent only with the shallow donor being the N vacancy, and the acceptor the N interstitial. The N-vacancy donor energy is 64±10 meV, much larger than the value of 18meV found for the residual donor (probably Si) in this material. The Hall-effect measurements also reveal a degenerate n -type layer at the GaN/sapphire interface which must be accounted for to get the proper donor activation energy. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  12. Accumulation of GC donor splice signals in mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koonin Eugene V

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The GT dinucleotide in the first two intron positions is the most conserved element of the U2 donor splice signals. However, in a small fraction of donor sites, GT is replaced by GC. A substantial enrichment of GC in donor sites of alternatively spliced genes has been observed previously in human, nematode and Arabidopsis, suggesting that GC signals are important for regulation of alternative splicing. We used parsimony analysis to reconstruct evolution of donor splice sites and inferred 298 GT > GC conversion events compared to 40 GC > GT conversion events in primate and rodent genomes. Thus, there was substantive accumulation of GC donor splice sites during the evolution of mammals. Accumulation of GC sites might have been driven by selection for alternative splicing. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Jerzy Jurka and Anton Nekrutenko. For the full reviews, please go to the Reviewers' Reports section.

  13. Transplantation With Livers From Deceased Donors Older Than 75 Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Trygve; Aandahl, Einar Martin; Bennet, William;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The availability of donor organs limits the number of patients in need who are offered liver transplantation. Measures to expand the donor pool are crucial to prevent on-list mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of livers from deceased donors who were older than 75...... years. METHODS: Fifty-four patients who received a first liver transplant (D75 group) from 2001 to 2011 were included. Donor and recipient data were collected from the Nordic Liver Transplant Registry and medical records. The outcome was compared with a control group of 54 patients who received a liver...... higher in the D75 group (29.6/13%, P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Selected livers from donors over age 75 years should not be excluded based on age, which does not compromise patient or graft survival despite a higher frequency of biliary complications....

  14. Screening in liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Poggio, Paolo; Mazzoleni, Marzio

    2006-09-01

    A disease is suitable for screening if it is common, if the target population can be identified and reached and if both a good screening test and an effective therapy are available. Of the most common liver diseases only viral hepatitis and genetic hemochromatosis partially satisfy these conditions. Hepatitis C is common, the screening test is good and the therapy eliminates the virus in half of the cases, but problems arise in the definition of the target population. In fact generalized population screening is not endorsed by international guidelines, although some recommend screening immigrants from high prevalence countries. Opportunistic screening (case finding) of individuals with classic risk factors, such as transfusion before 1992 and drug addiction, is the most frequently used strategy, but there is disagreement whether prison inmates, individuals with a history of promiscuous or traumatic sex and health care workers should be screened. In a real practice setting the performance of opportunistic screening by general practitioners is low but can be ameliorated by training programs. Screening targeted to segments of the population or mass campaigns are expensive and therefore interventions should be aimed to improve opportunistic screening and the detection skills of general practitioners. Regarding genetic hemochromatosis there is insufficient evidence for population screening, but individual physicians can decide to screen racial groups with a high prevalence of the disease, such as people in early middle age and of northern European origin. In the other cases opportunistic screening of high risk individuals should be performed, with a high level of suspicion in case of unexplained liver disease, diabetes, juvenile artropathy, sexual dysfunction and skin pigmentation. PMID:16981254

  15. Screening in liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paolo Del Poggio; Marzio Mazzoleni

    2006-01-01

    A disease is suitable for screening if it is common, if the target population can be identified and reached and if both a good screening test and an effective therapy are available. Of the most common liver diseases only viral hepatitis and genetic hemochromatosis partially satisfy these conditions. Hepatitis C is common, the screening test is good and the therapy eliminates the virus in half of the cases, but problems arise in the definition of the target population. In fact generalized population screening is not endorsed by international guidelines,although some recommend screening immigrants from high prevalence countries. Opportunistic screening (case finding) of individuals with classic risk factors,such as transfusion before 1992 and drug addiction,is the most frequently used strategy, but there is disagreement whether prison inmates, individuals with a history of promiscuous or traumatic sex and health care workers should be screened. In a real practice setting the performance of opportunistic screening by general practitioners is low but can be ameliorated by training programs. Screening targeted to segments of the population or mass campaigns are expensive and therefore interventions should be aimed to improve opportunistic screening and the detection skills of general practitioners. Regarding genetic hemochromatosis there is insufficient evidence for population screening, but individual physicians can decide to screen racial groups with a high prevalence of the disease, such as people in early middle age and of northern European origin. In the other cases opportunistic screening of high risk individuals should be performed, with a high level of suspicion in case of unexplained liver disease, diabetes, juvenile artropathy, sexual dysfunction and skin pigmentation.

  16. Cardiovascular and demographic characteristics in whole blood and plasma donors: results from the Donor InSight study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atsma, Femke; Veldhuizen, Ingrid; Vegt, de Femmie; Doggen, Carine; Kort, de Wim

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Within blood establishments little comparative information is available about donors versus the general population. In this study, a description of the donor pool was made in terms of demographic factors and cardiovascular risk factors. The general Dutch population was used as a referenc

  17. Cardiovascular and demographic characteristics in whole blood and plasma donors: results from the Donor InSight study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atsma, F.; Veldhuizen, I.; Vegt, F. de; Doggen, C.J.; Kort, W. de

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Within blood establishments little comparative information is available about donors versus the general population. In this study, a description of the donor pool was made in terms of demographic factors and cardiovascular risk factors. The general Dutch population was used as a referenc

  18. Diaphragmatic hernia after right donor and hepatectomy:a rare donor complication of partial hepatectomy for transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alan M. Hawxby; David P. Mason; Andrew S. Klein

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Because of the critical worldwide shortage of cadaveric organ donors, transplant professionals have increasingly turned to living donors. Partial hepatectomy for adult living donor liver transplantation has been performed since the late 1990s. Most often, the complications of living donor hepatectomy have been related to the biliary tract, speciifcally biliary leaks. METHODS: A 54-year-old man underwent donor right hepatectomy for living donor liver transplantation. Three years after liver donation he presented with upper abdominal pain and fullness. Radiographic workup revealed a diaphragmatic hernia of the right hemithorax. RESULTS: After thoracoscopic evaluation of the right hemithorax, diaphragmatic hernia was repaired. Currently the patient remains well several months after the repair with complete resolution of abdominal pain, normal chest X-ray examination demonstrating no recurrence of diaphragmatic hernia, and normal liver functions tests. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple complications of living donor liver transplantation have been described the transplant literature. Diaphragmatic hernia is a formerly-undescribed complication of right donor hepatectomy for transplantation.

  19. Selective Immunoglobulin A Deficiency in Iranian Blood Donors: Prevalence, Laboratory and Clinical Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saghafi Shiva

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Selective deficiency of immunoglobulin A (IgA is the most frequent primary hypogammaglobulinemia. As some IgA-deficient patients have IgA antibodies in their plasma which may cause anaphylactic reactions, blood centers usually maintain a list of IgA-deficient blood donors to prepare compatible blood components. In this study we determined the incidence of selective IgA deficiency (SIgAD in normal adult Iranian population. 13022 normal Iranian blood donors were included in this study. The assay which we used was adapted to the manual pipetting system and ELISA reader was used for screening. Other classes of immunoglobulins (G, M, as well as secretory IgA and IgG subclasses were tested in IgA deficient cases by ELISA. SPSS was used for statistical analysis.Among 13022 studied cases, 11608 blood donors were males (89.14% and 1414 were females (10.86%. Their mean (±SD age and weight were 38.5±11 years and 82±12 Kg respectively. Twenty of the screened samples were found by means of ELISA to be IgA-deficient (less than 5mg/dl, (frequency; 1:651. The data could indicate a compensation for IgA deficiency by serum IgM in one of our IgA deficient cases (Patient 5. We observed a correlation between IgG3 and serum IgA in deficient cases (r=0.498, P=0.025. Our results indicate that in present study the prevalence of S IgA D is in agreement with data from other Caucasians populations (from 1:300 to 1:700. In conclusion, Selective IgA Deficiency could be almost asymptomatic in most cases in general population. Our study suggests that; due to high frequency of IgA deficiency in Iran, it seems necessary to measure IgA levels for every blood donor and blood recipient to find IgA deficient cases.

  20. Diabetes Screening Among Immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Creatore, Maria I.; Gillian L Booth; Manuel, Douglas G.; Moineddin, Rahim; Glazier, Richard H.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine diabetes screening, predictors of screening, and the burden of undiagnosed diabetes in the immigrant population and whether these estimates differ by ethnicity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A population-based retrospective cohort linking administrative health data to immigration files was used to follow the entire diabetes-free population aged 40 years and up in Ontario, Canada (N = 3,484,222) for 3 years (2004–2007) to determine whether individuals were screened for diabe...