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Sample records for bk070045 donor screen

  1. Screening Donors for Rare Antigen Constellations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Franz F

    2009-01-01

    SCREENING BLOOD DONORS FOR RARE ANTIGEN CONSTELLATIONS HAS BEEN IMPLEMENTED USING SIMPLE PCR METHODS: PCR with enzyme digestion has been used to type donor cohorts for Dombrock antigens, and PCR with sequence-specific priming to identify donors negative for antigens of high frequency. The advantages and disadvantages of the methods as well as their current state is discussed.

  2. Improving syphilis screening in deceased organ donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoropoulos, Nicole; Jaramillo, Andrés; Penugonda, Sudhir; Wasik, Carol; Brooks, Katarzyna; Ladner, Daniela P; Jendrisak, Martin D; Ison, Michael G

    2015-02-01

    Current U.S. policy requires screening of all deceased organ donors for syphilis infection. To date, information on syphilis test performance in this population is limited. All donors with a positive rapid plasma reagin (RPR) and matched donors with negative RPR who were evaluated by one organ procurement organization from January 1, 2000, to September 30, 2012, were retrospectively tested, using retained, residual serum, with two alternate RPR tests and four treponemal-specific tests: A fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption test, a microhemagglutination test, a chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA), and a Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TP-PA) test. Thirty-two of 3,555 (0.9%) potential deceased organ donors screened during the study period showed a positive RPR; 61 RPR-negative matched donor samples were studied as well. Thirteen (40.6%) of the RPR-positive donors were found to be false-positive based on confirmatory TP-PA. As compared to TP-PA, the sensitivity of the fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption, microhemagglutination, and CLIA was 87.5%, 91.7% and 100%, respectively. The CLIA and TP-PA results were 100% concordant. Only 17 (53.1%) of the RPR-positive donors had a total of 46 organs recovered for transplantation. Current screening of deceased organ donors by RPR yields a significant number of false-positive results. Use of alternative tests or the routine use of confirmatory tests may reduce the frequency of false-positive results in deceased organ donors.

  3. Attitudes of sperm, egg and embryo donors and recipients towards genetic information and screening of donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amor, David J; Kerr, Annabelle; Somanathan, Nandini; McEwen, Alison; Tome, Marianne; Hodgson, Jan; Lewis, Sharon

    2018-02-09

    Gamete and embryo donors undergo genetic screening procedures in order to maximise the health of donor-conceived offspring. In the era of genomic medicine, expanded genetic screening may be offered to donors for the purpose of avoiding transmission of harmful genetic mutations. The objective of this study was to explore the attitudes of donors and recipients toward the expanded genetic screening of donors. Qualitative interview study with thematic analysis, undertaken in a tertiary fertility centre. Semi-structured in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with eleven recipients and nine donors from three different cohorts (sperm, egg and embryo donors/recipients). Donors and recipients acknowledged the importance of genetic information and were comfortable with the existing level of genetic screening of donors. Recipients recognised some potential benefits of expanded genetic screening of donors; however both recipients and donors were apprehensive about extended genomic technologies, with concerns about how this information would be used and the ethics of genetic selectivity. Participants in donor programs support some level of genetic screening of donors, but are wary of expanding genetic screening beyond current levels.

  4. Prevalence of HIV positive blood donors among screened ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two thousand five hundred and thirty two (2,532) males, aged 25 – 50 years potential blood donors were randomly selected from the total number of volunteer blood donors who satisfied the initial screening criteria for donating blood, and were screened for HIV using Immunocomb II (HIV 1 and 2 Bispot) and Recombigen ...

  5. Unconfirmed reactive screening tests and their impact on donor management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.; Khan, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    To determine the percentage of false positive testing for transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs) using immunochromatographic test (ICT) as first line of screening tests and its effect on loss of volunteer blood donors. Over a period of three months, samples from blood bags of donors undergoing phlebotomy at teaching hospital blood banks in Lahore were screened for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) by immunochromatographic tests. Those found positive on initial screening were re-tested by ELISA method at the screening laboratory of the Institute of Haematology and Blood Transfusion Service, Punjab. Lahore. Out of a total of 62090 voluntary blood donors, 469 donors were found to be initially reactive for either HIV, HBV or HCV. Amongst these 96 (0.15%) blood donors were found to have tested falsely positive for HIV, HBV or HCV as compared to testing by ELISA. False positive testing rate of 0.15% or 96 out of a total of 62090 donors is rather small in terms of loss of voluntary donors and appropriate utilization of available resources. Although immunochromatographic testing is not the gold standard, however it serves an important purpose of initial donor screening. (author)

  6. The History and Challenges of Blood Donor Screening in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Li, Ka Yi; Yan, Ke; Ou, Guojin; Li, Wenhui; Wang, Jue; Song, Ning; Tian, Li; Ji, Xin; Chen, Yongjun; Liang, Xiaohua; Liu, Zhong; Wu, Yanyun

    2017-04-01

    Since the establishment of People's Republic of China in 1949, the Chinese government has encountered several catastrophes related to transfusion transmitted diseases. The government's increasing attention to blood safety has prompted the initiation of a series of policies and measures that have enhanced the level of safety for the blood supply and met the basic clinical demands of blood for 1.3 billion people in the country. Blood donation screening strategies in China predominantly comprise donor screening and donor testing. Donor screening includes selection of low-risk blood donors by the use of a donor history questionnaire, predonation physical examination, and initial rapid donor testing. Donor testing includes direct pathogen detection and serology tests. The year 1998 marked the most transformative change in blood donor selection and screening policies in China. Before 1998, paid donation was the predominant mode of blood donation. Donor screening and donor testing were conducted before donation, and only those who were eligible were allowed to donate. To ensure the safety of blood, donor testing was performed again after donation. After the implementation of the Blood Donation Law in 1998, to promote voluntary and unpaid donation, predonation donor testing was eliminated to reduce the amount of waiting time and to provide a more convenient donation experience for blood donors. However, it is the national requirement that donated blood should undergo 2 rounds of testing using different equipment or reagents, conducted by different personnel. Donor selection has transitioned from paid donation and obligatory donation to voluntary donation with fixed volunteer groups, as the latter mode of donation provides the lowest risks. Donations are currently screened for syphilis, hepatitis C virus, HIV, and hepatitis B virus (HBV). Units, previously typed only for ABO, are now routinely tested for both ABO and Rh(D). Innovations in testing technologies and methods

  7. Effective serological and molecular screening of deceased tissue donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, A D; Newham, J A; Gillan, H L

    2013-12-01

    A comprehensive and effective screening programme is essential to support the banking of tissues from deceased donors. However, the overall quality of the samples obtained from deceased donors, quantity and condition, is often not ideal, and this may lead to problems in achieving accurate and reliable results. Additionally a significant percentage of referrals are still rejected upon receipt as unsuitable for screening. We are actively involved in improving the overall quality of deceased donor screening outcomes, and have specifically evaluated and validated both serological and molecular assays for this purpose, as well as developing a specific screening strategy to minimise the specificity issues associated with serological screening. Here we review the nature and effectiveness of the deceased donor screening programme implemented by National Health Service Blood and Transplant (NHSBT), the organisation with overall responsibility for the supply of tissue products within England. Deceased donor screening data, serological and molecular, from August 2007 until May 2012 have been collated and analysed. Of 10,225 samples referred for serology screening, 5.5 % were reported as reactive; of 2,862 samples referred for molecular screening, 0.1 % were reported as reactive/inhibitory. Overall 20 % of the serological and 100 % of the molecular screen reactivity was confirmed as reflecting true infection. The use of a sequential serology screening algorithm has resulted in a marked reduction of tissues lost unnecessarily due to non-specific screen reactivity. The approach taken by NHSBT has resulted in the development of an effective and specific approach to the screening of deceased tissue donors.

  8. Prevalence of HIV positive blood donors among screened ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2006-04-03

    Apr 3, 2006 ... Department of Physiology, Obafemi Awolowo College of Health Sciences, Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching. Hospital ... screening volunteer donors by initial criteria alone does not fully eliminate all HIV positive donors. The prevalence of HIV ... HIV test criteria alone to qualify for blood donation in the.

  9. [Progress of improving blood donor screening by nucleic acid technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Li-Na; Chen, Bao-An

    2014-08-01

    With increasing application of blood transfusion, the research of side-effects such as transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs) became more and more important. Up to the 90's of the 20th century, the first blood donor screening for pathogens transfected from blood transfusion entirely depended on serological test. At this time, the detection of virus were performed mainly by using method of detecting antibody, except hepatitis B virus (HBV) can be detected by hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Now, the molecular technologies, such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), have been used in clinic. These technologic methods can provide capability of detection for blood donor screening and reduced possibility of infection from blood transfusion. This review summarises the development of nucleic acid amplification technology and describes its current state.

  10. Serum neopterin: a potential marker for screening blood donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashfaq, A.; Ejaz, A.; Abbas, G.

    2017-01-01

    To determine serum neopterin levels in blood donors of local population and its association with transfusion ransmitted infections. Study Design: A cross-sectional observational study. Place and Duration of Study:Department of Physiology, Liaquat National Hospital and Medical College (LNHMC) in collaboration with Basic Medical Sciences Institute (BMSI) and Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre (JPMC), Blood Bank, Karachi, Pakistan, from January to June 2015. Methodology: During this period, a total of 174 blood donors were selected through random sampling technique. All participants fulfilling the inclusion criteria involving apparently healthy blood donors of either gender within the age bracket of 18 - 60 years and consenting to participate were selected. The participants were screened for transfusion transmitted infections as per WHO recommendations through the standard procedures used for screening at the JPMC blood bank. The demographic profile, anthropometric measurements and vitals were recorded for every participant. Serum neopterin was measured using ELISA kits. Data was analysed on SPSS version 21. ANOVA and chi-square tests were applied as tests of significance at a p-value of <0.05. Results: The neopterin content in the sera of disease negative blood donors was 6.23 +-2.19 nmol/l as compared to disease positive blood donors, in whom the neopterin level was increased to 15.10 +-4.93 nmol/l (p =0.001). Conclusion: The neopterin assay has the potential to detect a number of transfusion transmissible viral diseases; which may, or may not be revealed by the usually employed battery of routine tests. We conclude that the risk of transfusion transmitted pathogens in our population can be reduced significantly, using neopterin assay as a routine in blood banks. (author)

  11. Transmission of Hepatitis C Virus From Organ Donors Despite Nucleic Acid Test Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryaprasad, A; Basavaraju, S V; Hocevar, S N; Theodoropoulos, N; Zuckerman, R A; Hayden, T; Forbi, J C; Pegues, D; Levine, M; Martin, S I; Kuehnert, M J; Blumberg, E A

    2015-07-01

    Nucleic acid testing (NAT) for hepatitis C virus (HCV) is recommended for screening of organ donors, yet not all donor infections may be detected. We describe three US clusters of HCV transmission from donors at increased risk for HCV infection. Donor's and recipients' medical records were reviewed. Newly infected recipients were interviewed. Donor-derived HCV infection was considered when infection was newly detected after transplantation in recipients of organs from increased risk donors. Stored donor sera and tissue samples were tested for HCV RNA with high-sensitivity quantitative PCR. Posttransplant and pretransplant recipient sera were tested for HCV RNA. Quasispecies analysis of hypervariable region-1 was used to establish genetic relatedness of recipient HCV variants. Each donor had evidence of injection drug use preceding death. Of 12 recipients, 8 were HCV-infected-6 were newly diagnosed posttransplant. HCV RNA was retrospectively detected in stored samples from donor immunologic tissue collected at organ procurement. Phylogenetic analysis showed two clusters of closely related HCV variants from recipients. These investigations identified the first known HCV transmissions from increased risk organ donors with negative NAT screening, indicating very recent donor infection. Recipient informed consent and posttransplant screening for blood-borne pathogens are essential when considering increased risk donors. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  12. Donor's understanding of the definition of sex as applied to predonation screening questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, S F; Ram, S S; Yi, Q-L; Goldman, M

    2008-05-01

    Predonation screening questions about sexual risk factors should provide an extra layer of safety from recently acquired infections that may be too early to be detected by testing. Donors are required to read a definition of sex as it applies to predonation screening questions each time they come to donate, but how well donors apply such definitions has not been evaluated. We aimed to determine how donors define sex when answering screening questions. In total, 1297 whole blood donors were asked in a private interview to select from a list of sexual activities which ones they believed were being asked about in sexual background questions. Donors' definitions were coded as under-inclusive, correct or over-inclusive in relation to the blood services' definition. Qualitative interviews were carried out with 21 donors to understand reasoning behind definitions. Most donors had an over-inclusive definition (58.7%) or the correct definition (31.9%). Of the 9.4% of donors who had an under-inclusive definition, 95% included both vaginal and anal sex, but not oral sex. About 9% in each group were first-time donors (P > 0.05) who had never read the definition. The qualitative interviews indicated that donors reason their definition based on their own concept of transmissible disease risk. Donors apply a range of definitions of sex when answering questions about their sexual background. This may be due to different concepts of risk activities, and required reading of the definition has little impact.

  13. Transfusion transmitted virus in screened United Arab Emirates blood donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfaresi, Mubarak S.; Alzaabi, Azza S.; Islam, Adeel A.; Elkoush, Abida A.; Elnazer, Ayat M.

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the rate of infection caused by Torque teno virus (TTV) in United Arab Emirates (UAEs) healthy population as a pilot study in detecting TTV DNA in 100 healthy blood donors. We randomly choose a total of 100 healthy blood donors who attended Zayed Military Hospital, Abu Dhabi, UAE from January 20 to May 30, 2005. We carried out a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test to detect TTV DNA. Real-time for TTV was positive in 75 (75%) donors. Eight (73%) non-UAE donors were TTV positive while 67 (75%) were UAEs. Among these donors, 72 (77%) were males and 3 (50%) were females. Our results demonstrated a high prevalence of TTV in UAE. (author)

  14. A novel strategy for screening blood donors for syphilis at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarkodie, F; Ullum, H; Owusu-Dabo, E

    2016-01-01

    not happen at all; or the use of non-specific screening tests, which have high false positive rates, results in many donations being discarded unnecessarily. This can have a critical effect on already inadequate blood supplies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood donors were screened at the time of donation......OBJECTIVE: To implement and describe a novel syphilis screening strategy for blood donors. BACKGROUND: The seroprevalence of syphilis in blood donors is often high in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) although the proportion of infectious donations is probably low. Syphilis screening may...... with an anti-treponemal rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and blood collected irrespective of the result. Units screening negative for syphilis, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B and C were released to stock. RDT screen-positive units were re-tested with rapid plasma reagin (RPR) - units testing...

  15. Screening for HLA antibodies in plateletpheresis donors with a history of transfusion or pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clippel, Dorien; Baeten, Martine; Torfs, Anneleen; Emonds, Marie-Paule; Feys, Hendrik B; Compernolle, Veerle; Vandekerckhove, Philippe

    2014-12-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is known as a life-threatening complication of transfusion. HLA and HNA antibodies have been associated with the immune pathway of TRALI. Since donors with a history of transfusion and/or pregnancy are presumed to have an increased risk of carrying such antibodies, we investigated the association of a history of transfusion or pregnancy with the occurrence of HLA alloimmunization in our donor population. A total of 1018 female plateletpheresis donors and male plateletpheresis donors with a history of transfusion were enrolled in the study. Included donors were systematically screened, using Luminex technology, for anti-HLA Class I and II. The association of donor history with HLA alloimmunization status was analyzed. The overall alloimmunization rate was 20.2%. In 0.0% of the nulliparous transfused female donors and in 1.3% of the transfused male donors, anti-HLA were detected. Thirty-one percent of the parous women versus 4.2% of the nulliparous women screened positive for anti-HLA. The rate of HLA alloimmunization increased with parity. Our data indicate that a history of transfusion is a minor risk factor for immunization against HLA antigens. In contrast, former pregnancies constitute a major risk factor for the development of HLA antibodies. Since HLA alloimmunization rate increases with parity, TRALI risk reduction measures should focus on this particular donor population. Repeated testing of female plateletpheresis donors after each pregnancy is implemented in our blood service. © 2014 AABB.

  16. Impact of screening for metabolic syndrome on the evaluation of obese living kidney donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcusa, Daniel P; Schaubel, Douglas E; Woodside, Kenneth J; Sung, Randall S

    2018-01-01

    We report our experience with metabolic syndrome screening for obese living kidney donor candidates to mitigate the long-term risk of CKD. We retrospectively reviewed 814 obese (BMI≥30) and 993 nonobese living kidney donor evaluations over 12 years. Using logistic regression, we explored interactions between social/clinical variables and candidate acceptance before and after policy implementation. Obese donor candidate acceptance decreased after metabolic syndrome screening began (56.3%, 46.3%, p metabolic syndrome, there was no significant change in how age, sex, race, or BMI affected a donor candidate's probability of acceptance. Metabolic syndrome screening is a simple stratification tool for centers with liberal absolute BMI cut-offs to exclude potentially higher-risk obese candidates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. How do we manage blood donors and recipients after a positive Zika screening result?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Alexandra; Shaz, Beth H; Kessler, Debra; Bloch, Evan M

    2017-09-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that is the focus of an ongoing pandemic. ZIKV is notable for its severe neurologic sequelae in babies born to infected mothers. High rates of subclinical infection, as evidenced by the finding of ZIKV RNA in asymptomatic donors, raise concerns of risk to the blood supply. To date, a total of four suspected cases of transfusion-transmitted ZIKV have been reported (all in Brazil), none of which were associated with clinical infection in the transfusion recipients. In 2016, the US Food and Drug Administration issued a guidance mandating national blood donor screening for ZIKV in the United States. Five days after implementation of donor screening at our facility, we encountered a ZIKV-positive donor. We provide a practical approach to donor, recipient, and blood product management in the setting of a positive donor ZIKV result. Such has been informed by the challenges we faced in the workup of a ZIKV-reactive donation and recipient lookback. © 2017 AABB.

  18. [Screening analysis of irregular antibodies from random donor population in Shaoguan area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jian-Ying; Lan, Jiong-Cai; Luo, Hong-Qing

    2007-06-01

    The study was purposed to analyze the frequency and distribution of irregular antibodies in Shaoguan area. Screening 15 033 random donor antibodies in Shaoguan area by screening cells, polybrene and antiglobulin tests. The results indicated that the irregular antibodies were found in 42 samples. The frequency of irregular antibodies in female was higher than that in male (P antibodies such as anti-D, anti-E, and anti-Ec C were common (47.6%). 2 samples of Le antibodies were failed to be found by polybrene test. 2 samples of irregular antibodies with titer 2 were undiscovered by screening test of 10 pooled samples. In conclusion, because of irregular antibodies resulting in hemolytic transfusion reaction, the investigation of frequency and distribution of irregular antibodies is very important for safe transfusion. Antibody screening must be done for female donors, and especially for massive plasma transfusion of patients with severe and dangerous illness and infants so as to ensure safety.

  19. Follow up Evaluation of Air Force Blood Donors Screening Positive for Chagas Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-05

    evaluation of persons who screen positive in the future. 59th Medical Wing (59th MOW) Institutional Review Board (IRB) 59th Clinical Research Division...59 MDW/SGVU SUBJECT: Professional Presentation Approval 31 JULY2017 Your paper, entitled Follow-up Evaluation of Air Force Blood Donors Screening...Hall Ambulatory Surgical Center (WHASC) internship and residency programs. Please know that if you are a Graduate Health Sciences Education student and

  20. Etiology of anemia of blood donor candidates deferred by hematologic screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Alves da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Iron deficiency is the most common cause of anemia and one of the main factors in the clinical deferral of blood donors. This fact prompted the current study that aimed to determine the prevalence and etiology of anemia in blood donor candidates and to evaluate the hematological screening technique used for the exclusion of these donors. METHODS: This was a prospective study that compared two groups (Anemic and Non-anemic. Initially screening for anemia was performed by manually measuring hemoglobin (Bioclin® Kit; the results were subsequently compared with an automated screening method (Coulter T-890. The etiology was investigated by hemoglobin electrophoresis in alkaline and acid pH, Hb A2 dosage and measurement of the ferritin concentration by immunoagglutination. Differences and associations of interest were analyzed using the Yates and McNemar's Chi-square tests and the Fisher, Mann-Whitney, Wilcoxon and Kruskal-Wallis tests. RESULTS: The deferral rate due to anemia was 4.2%; iron deficiency was identified in 37.5% and beta thalassemia in 9.3% of the excluded candidates. There was a significant discrepancy between the two techniques used to measure hemoglobin with 38.1% of initially deferred donors presenting normal hemoglobin levels by the automated method. CONCLUSION: The results show a high rate of blood donors being deferred for anemia and confirm that iron deficiency is the most prevalent cause. The discrepancies found by comparing screening methods suggest that hemoglobin and hematocrit levels should be confirmed before deferring a donor due to anemia; this may increase supplies in blood banks.

  1. Screening blood donors for diabetes: analysis of use, accuracy, and cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhard, M James; Maser, Raelene E; Kolm, Paul; Healy, Michael J; Seshadri, Prakash

    2013-11-01

    The objective was to determine if a free, voluntary diabetes screening program as a part of the blood donation process might be cost-effective. During the first 6 months of the program, 26,415 donors were screened using a single random plasma glucose (RPG) level. All donors were asked to eat before donation. Low-, moderate-, and high-risk groups were formed based on RPG levels (200 mg/dL). Contact with a telephone questionnaire was made with 139 of 178 (78%) of the persons in the high-risk group with 33 new cases of diabetes diagnosed by the donor's physician and 26 donors indicating that they were not diagnosed with diabetes. Sex- and age-matched donors in the low- and moderate-risk groups were contacted and administered the same questionnaire. The three risk groups were similar, except for body mass index (28.1 ± 5.4 kg/m2 vs. 29.9 ± 5.5 kg/m2 vs. 32.7 ± 5.6 kg/m2 , p RPG cutoff of 200 mg/dL, sensitivity was 100%, specificity was 82%, and positive predictive value was 56%. Cost analyses showed that the mean cost to screen, per donor, was less than $1. Cost per case identified was estimated to be less than $500 for a RPG cutoff of 200 mg/dL. Screening during the blood donation process appears to be accurate, convenient, and inexpensive. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  2. Seroprevalence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus-1/2 in blood donors in northern pakistan: implication for blood donor screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niazi, S.K.

    2015-01-01

    To determine the seroprevalence of Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus-1/2 (HTLV-1/2) in blood donors in Northern Pakistan. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Armed Forces Institute of Transfusion, Rawalpindi, from July to August 2013. Methodology:A total of 2100 blood donors were screened for anti-HTLV-1/2 antibodies during the study period, in a pool of six, on a highly sensitive, Chemiluminiscent Microparticle Immunoassay (CMIA) based system. The screening test reactive donors were recalled, counseled and interviewed, and a fresh sample was obtained for confirmatory testing. Confirmation was performed using additional immunoassays including Line Immunoassay (LIA); with additional testing for HTLV-1 pvDNAPCR. Frequency and percentages were determined. Results: Four donors (0.19%) were repeatedly screening test-reactive and were subsequently confirmed to be HTLV-1 infected by line immunoassay and HTLV-1 pvDNAPCR. All four donors were male with mean age of 27 ± 6.27 years. Two (50%) of the positive donors gave history of Multiple Sexual Partners (MSP). Conclusion: HTLV-1 seroprevalence in Northern Pakistan blood donors was determined to be 0.19%. Large scale studies, including the cost effectiveness of screening blood donations for anti-HTLV-1/2 in Pakistan, are recommended. (author)

  3. Tattoos and transfusion-transmitted disease risk: implications for the screening of blood donors in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio de A. Nishioka

    Full Text Available Having a tattoo has been associated with serological evidence of hepatitis B and C viruses, as well as human immunodeficiency virus infections and syphilis; all of these are known to be transmissible by blood transfusion. These associations are of higher magnitude for individuals with nonprofessionally-applied tattoos and with two or more tattoos. Tattoos are common among drug addicts and prisoners, conditions that are also associated with transfusion-transmitted diseases. We examined the implications of these associations for the screening of blood donors in Brazil. Numbers of individuals who would be correctly or unnecessarily deferred from blood donation on the basis of the presence of tattoos, and on their number and type, were calculated for different prevalence situations based on published odds ratios. If having a tattoo was made a deferral criterion, cost savings (due to a reduced need for laboratory testing and subsequent follow-up would accrue at the expense of the deferral of appropriate donors. Restricting deferral to more `at-risk' sub-groups of tattooed individuals would correctly defer less individuals and would also reduce the numbers of potential donors unnecessarily deferred. Key factors in balancing cost savings and unnecessary deferrals include the magnitude of the pool of blood donors in the population, the prevalence of individuals with tattoos and the `culture' of tattoos in the population. Tattoos can therefore be an efficient criterion for the screening of blood donors in certain settings, a finding that requires corroboration from larger population-based studies.

  4. Jk(a-b-) phenotype screening by the urea lysis test in Thai blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deelert, Suparat; Thippayaboon, Pattrawan; Sriwai, Wimolpak; Sriwanitchrak, Pramote; Tubrod, Jintana; Kupatawintu, Pawinee; Nathalang, Oytip

    2010-01-01

    The Jk(a-b-) phenotype is rare in most populations and often detected after transfusion or pregnancy. After immunisation, anti-Jk3 forms and it can be difficult to find compatible Jk(a-b-) donors. Using anti-Jk(a) and anti-Jk(b) in a conventional tube method is unsuitable for identifying Jk(a-b-) in mass screening of blood donors. Jk(a-b-) phenotypes are associated with the absence of urea transporters on erythrocytes, making red blood cells (RBC) resistant to lysis by 2M urea, while Jk(a+b-), Jk(a-b+) and Jk(a+b+) phenotypes are susceptible to lysis. We screened for Jk(a-b-) phenotypes in blood donors by the urea lysis test using a 96-well microplate. The Jk(a-b-) phenotypes were confirmed by the indirect antiglobulin test (IAT). Altogether, 20,163 blood samples from Thai blood donors were tested and only RBC from five samples were resistant to lysis by 2M urea, while 20,158 samples were completely lysed within 5 min. In an IAT, both anti-Jk(a) and anti-Jk(b) failed to agglutinate RBC from all five samples. Using a micro-titre plate, the direct urea lysis test, costs * 0.01, about 480 times less than IAT. Moreover, the test time for each plate (94 samples) is about 18 times less than that for IAT. Jk(a-b-) phenotype screening by the direct urea lysis test on samples in a micro-titre plate is simple, cost-effective and practical for mass screening of blood donors.

  5. Jk(a−b−) phenotype screening by the urea lysis test in Thai blood donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deelert, Suparat; Thippayaboon, Pattrawan; Sriwai, Wimolpak; Sriwanitchrak, Pramote; Tubrod, Jintana; Kupatawintu, Pawinee; Nathalang, Oytip

    2010-01-01

    Background The Jk(a−b−) phenotype is rare in most populations and often detected after transfusion or pregnancy. After immunisation, anti-Jk3 forms and it can be difficult to find compatible Jk(a−b−) donors. Using anti-Jka and anti-Jkb in a conventional tube method is unsuitable for identifying Jk(a−b−) in mass screening of blood donors. Jk(a−b−) phenotypes are associated with the absence of urea transporters on erythrocytes, making red blood cells (RBC) resistant to lysis by 2M urea, while Jk(a+b−), Jk(a−b+) and Jk(a+b+) phenotypes are susceptible to lysis. Materials and methods. We screened for Jk(a−b−) phenotypes in blood donors by the urea lysis test using a 96-well microplate. The Jk(a−b−) phenotypes were confirmed by the indirect antiglobulin test (IAT). Results Altogether, 20,163 blood samples from Thai blood donors were tested and only RBC from five samples were resistant to lysis by 2M urea, while 20,158 samples were completely lysed within 5 min. In an IAT, both anti-Jka and anti-Jkb failed to agglutinate RBC from all five samples. Using a micro-titre plate, the direct urea lysis test, costs • 0.01, about 480 times less than IAT. Moreover, the test time for each plate (94 samples) is about 18 times less than that for IAT. Conclusion Jk(a−b−) phenotype screening by the direct urea lysis test on samples in a micro-titre plate is simple, cost-effective and practical for mass screening of blood donors. PMID:20104274

  6. [Evaluation of the efficacy of medical screening of blood donors on preventing blood transfusion-transmitted infectious agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seck, M; Dièye, B; Guèye, Y B; Faye, B F; Senghor, A B; Toure, S A; Dieng, N; Sall, A; Toure, A O; Dièye, T N; Diop, S

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of medical screening to retain blood donors in window period by comparing the seroprevalence of infectious agents (HIV, hepatitis B and C, syphilis) in deferred versus accepted blood donors. This prospective and transversal study was performed during 4 months in the National Blood Transfusion Center in Dakar (Senegal). We conducted a convenience sampling comparing the seroprevalence of infectious agents (HIV, HBsAg, HCV and syphilis) in deferred versus accepted blood donors after medical selection. In total, 8219 blood donors were included. Medical selection had authorized 8048 donors (97.92%) and deferred donors were 171 (2.08%). The prevalence of HIV was higher in the deferred than in accepted blood donors (1.75% vs. 0.05%) (P=0.0003; OR=35.91), as well as for HBsAg (12.87% vs. 7.35%) (P=0.006; OR=1.86). HCV antibodies were present in 0.71% of accepted blood donors and 0.58% in deferred blood donors (P=0.65; OR=0.82). Only accepted donors had brought the infection of syphilis (0.34%) (P=0.56; OR=0). Medical selection is efficient to exclude blood donors at high risk of HIV transmission and to a lesser extent of HBV. However, current medical screening procedures do not allow us to exclude donors asymptomatic carriers of HCV and syphilis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Strongyloidiasis in Po valley: serological and parasitological screening in blood donors of Cremona

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    Paolo Mangoni

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Backgroud. Strongyloides stercoralis is a ubiquitous nematode that is present also in Italy in a hypoendemic form, especially in the Po Valley. It is responsable for strongyloidiasis, an intestinal parasitosis usually asymptomatic or paucy-symptomatic that occasionally can cause a hyperinfestation syndrome and disseminated disease. Objectives. To determine the presence of S. stercoralis in asympomatic people afferent to the Cremona hospital by serological screening and direct microscopic search. Study Design. In the period from December 1, 2010 to June 30, 2011 we screened 154 donors with absolute eosinophilia >500/μL and percentage of eosinophils 9%. The research of anti-S. stercoralis antibodies was performed through an ELISA method (S.ratti Bordier Products. Donors positive to the screening test were tested for direct parasite search through with phormol-ethyl acetate stool concentration (FEA and culture on S. stercoralis Agar (Biolife, Milan. Results. 13 donors were positive to the screening test (8.4%. 10 of these 13 donors performed coproparassitologic examination. S. stercoralis was identified in the stools of 3/10 tested patients through culture and in 2/10 through FEA. Conclusions. The study results are in line with the data reported in the literature for similar geographic areas. Among the risk factors are to be counted the type of job (agriculture, and the domicile in the rural environment. The culture in S. stercoralis Agar has proved much more sensitive than FEA. The serological diagnosis represent a valuable contribution to traditional coproparassitologic examination, particularlywhen screening asymptomatic individuals at risk.

  8. Dried blood spots of pooled samples for RHD gene screening in blood donors of mixed ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Malta, M C F; Araujo, N C Fidélis; Vieira, O V Neves; Schmidt, L Cayres; Gonçalves, P de Cassia; Martins, M Lobato

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we present a strategy for RHD gene screening based on real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using dried blood spots of pooled samples. Molecular analysis of blood donors may be used to detect RHD variants among the presumed D-negative individuals. RHD genotyping using pooled samples is a strategy to test a large number of samples at a more reasonable cost. RHD gene detection based on real-time PCR using dried blood spots of pooled samples was standardised and used to evaluate 1550 Brazilian blood donors phenotyped as RhD-negative. Positive results were re-evaluated by retesting single samples using real-time PCR and conventional multiplex PCR to amplify five RHD-specific exons. PCR-sequence-specific primers was used to amplify RHDψ allele. We devised a strategy for RHD gene screening using dried blood spots of five pooled samples. Among 1550 serologically D-negative blood donors, 58 (3.74%) had the RHD gene. The non-functional RHDψ allele was detected in 47 samples (3.02%). The present method is a promising strategy to detect the RHD gene among presumed RhD-negative blood donors, particularly for populations with African ancestry. © 2015 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  9. Techniques used for the screening of hemoglobin levels in blood donors: current insights and future directions

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    Chaudhary R

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Rajendra Chaudhary,1 Anju Dubey,2 Atul Sonker3 1Department of Transfusion Medicine, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, 2Department of Transfusion Medicine, T.S. Misra Medical College and Hospital, 3Department of Transfusion Medicine, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India Abstract: Blood donor hemoglobin (Hb estimation is an important donation test that is performed prior to blood donation. It serves the dual purpose of protecting the donors’ health against anemia and ensuring good quality of blood components, which has an implication on recipients’ health. Diverse cutoff criteria have been defined world over depending on population characteristics; however, no testing methodology and sample requirement have been specified for Hb screening. Besides the technique, there are several physiological and methodological factors that affect accuracy and reliability of Hb estimation. These include the anatomical source of blood sample, posture of the donor, timing of sample and several other biological factors. Qualitative copper sulfate gravimetric method has been the archaic time-tested method that is still used in resource-constrained settings. Portable hemoglobinometers are modern quantitative devices that have been further modified to reagent-free cuvettes. Furthermore, noninvasive spectrophotometry was introduced, mitigating pain to blood donor and eliminating risk of infection. Notwithstanding a tremendous evolution in terms of ease of operation, accuracy, mobility, rapidity and cost, a component of inherent variability persists, which may partly be attributed to pre-analytical variables. Hence, blood centers should pay due attention to validation of test methodology, competency of operating staff and regular proficiency testing of the outputs. In this article, we have reviewed various regulatory guidelines, described the variables that affect the measurements and compared the validated

  10. Screening of post-mortem tissue donors for Coxiella burnetii infection after large outbreaks of Q fever in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijk, Marja J.; Maas, D. Willemijn; Renders, Nicole H. M.; Hermans, Mirjam H. A.; Zaaijer, Hans L.; Hogema, Boris M.

    2014-01-01

    After the largest outbreaks of Q fever ever recorded in history occurred in the Netherlands, concern arose that Coxiella may be transmitted via donated tissues of latent or chronically infected donors. The Dutch Health Council recently advised to screen tissue donors, donating high risk tissues, for

  11. A pilot study on screening blood donors with individual-donation nucleic acid testing in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jie; Wu, Yaling; Zhu, Hong; Li, Gan; Lv, Mengen; Wu, Daxiao; Li, Xiaotao; Zhu, Faming; Lv, Hangjun

    2014-01-01

    Background Nucleic acid amplification testing (NAT) is not yet obligatory in China for blood donor screening and the risk of enzyme immunoassay (EIA)-negative, NAT-reactive donations in Chinese blood donors has rarely been reported. The aim of this study was to screen a population of Chinese blood donors using a triplex individual-donation (ID)-NAT assay and assess the safety benefits of implementing NAT. Materials and methods Between 1st August, 2010 and 31st December, 2011 all donations at a Chinese blood centre were screened individually using the Procleix® Ultrio® assay, a multiplex NAT assay for the detection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA, hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA and human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) RNA. All donations were also screened for HBsAg, anti-HIV and anti-HCV using two different EIA for each marker. Samples with discordant results between NAT and EIA were further tested with an alternative NAT assay (Cobas® TaqMan®). Potential yield cases (serologically negative/NAT-reactive donors) were further evaluated when possible. Results During the study period a total of 178,447 donations were screened by NAT and EIA, among which 169 HBV NAT yield cases (0.095%) were detected. No N AT yield cases were found for HIV-1 or HCV. For the HBV NAT yield cases, follow-up results showed that 11 (6.51%) were probable or confirmed HBV window period infections, 5 (2.96%) were chronic HBV carriers and 153 (90.53%) were probable or confirmed occult HBV infections. There was a statistically significant difference between the NAT-positive rates for first-time vs repeat donations (0.472% vs 0.146%, respectively; P<0.001). Discussion Our data demonstrate that the potential HBV yield rate was 1:1,056 for blood donations in the Zhejiang province of China. Implementation of NAT will provide a significant increment in safety relative to serological screening alone. PMID:24333061

  12. Syphilis detection: evaluation of serological screening and pilot reverse confirmatory assay algorithm in blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommese, Linda; Paolillo, Rossella; Sabia, Chiara; Costa, Dario; De Pascale, Maria Rosaria; Iannone, Carmela; Esposito, Antonella; Schiano, Concetta; Napoli, Claudio

    2016-07-01

    Serological assays are still considered the most useful tests in the diagnosis of syphilis. Since no single serological assay is able to provide a satisfactory result, in our laboratory we have evaluated the usefulness of a commercially-available immunoblot to diagnose syphilis infection among blood donors. From October 2012 to June 2013, 4572 blood donors were screened for syphilis with an automated chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA). To confirm the presence of treponemal antibodies, CMIA-reactive sera were tested by standard Treponema pallidum haemagglutination assay (TPHA). In addition, an alternative confirmatory test - the immunoblot INNO-LIA assay was introduced in our laboratory. Since two additional positives among CMIA-reactive-TPHA-negative samples were found, we concluded that the INNO-LIA immunoblot allowed a better detection of syphilis compared to TPHA. A confirmatory strategy based on the use of two treponemal assays could meet the screening requirements for blood donors as well as in our centre. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Comparing prevalence of Iron Deficiency Anemia and Beta Thalassemia Trait in microcytic and non-microcytic blood donors: suggested algorithm for donor screening

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    Tiwari Aseem

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of microcytosis in donors and Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA and Beta-Thalassemia trait (BTT in microcytic and non-microcytic donors has not been studied in India. The present study aims at finding the same. Materials and Methods: Initially 925 donor samples were evaluated on cell-counter. Of these, 50 were found to be microcytic. These were subjected to Ferritin and HbA2 determination. Subsequently, an additional 51, age-and-sex matched non-microcytic donor samples were selected to serve as controls. These were subjected to the same tests. Results: The prevalence of microcytosis was 5.4% (50/925. Among the microcytic donors, 52% were IDA, 36% BTT, 8% both, and 4% none. In case of non-microcytic donors 29.4% were IDA, 3.9% BTT, and 66.7% none. Conclusions: The study revealed a high prevalence of IDA and BTT in blood donors and a higher probability of finding these in the microcytic samples. This prompted authors to suggest an algorithm for screening of blood donors for IDA and BTT. The algorithm recommends doing an hemogram on all donor samples, routinely. Ferritin could be done only in microcytic samples. At levels lower than15 ng/ml, it is diagnosed as IDA, and therefore, HPLC is performed only for non-IDA samples with Ferritin levels higher than 15 ng/ml. By employing this algorithm, a substantial number of IDA and BTT could be diagnosed while keeping the number of Ferritin tests small and the number of HPLC tests even smaller and thus making it cost efficient.

  14. PREVALENCE OF ANTI-HBC IN SLOVENIAN BLOOD DONORS AND THE IMPACTON BLOOD SCREENING

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    Snežana Levičnik Stezinar

    2008-04-01

    Among screened donors, the anti-HBc incidence rate was 179/5959 (3.00 %. Therewere 55 samples that were anti-HBc positive only (69.83 % of anti-HBc pos, 0.90 % of alldonations. The number of units positive for both antibodies was 124 (2.10 % of all testeddonations. No significant difference was noted in the prevalence between male (3.00 %and female (2.99 %. As expected, there was a raise in frequency from 0.78 % in a group of18–29 years to 5.82 % in a group 50–65 years. In the study group there was one donorwho was HBsAg carrier.Conclusion According to the results of this study, Slovenia is ranged among the countries with mediumanti-HBc prevalence rate. Screening of donors would additionally contribute to the higherblood safety. The higher cost due to testing and destroying units is not acceptable, especiallyafter the implementation of screening for HBV DNA and excluding the units that are reallyinfectious

  15. A SCREENING RESEARCH OF PLASMA BLOOD DONORS FOR MARKERS PARVOVIRUS INFECTION

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    Anastassia Ya. Antipova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Parvovirus B19 (PV B19 replicates predominantly in progenitor cells of human erythrocytes and is transmitted by an airborne, vertical through and through blood or infected tissues. At-risk are pregnant women, people with immunodeficiency of different nature and individuals who need blood transfusions or organ transplantation. The available data indicate a high risk of infection through transfusion of blood containing the DNA of parvovirus B19, with viral load 105 copies/ml and above (Hourfar M.K. et al., 2011. According to the requirements of national regulations, the production of therapeutic drugs from plasma assumes the use of raw materials, free from viruses or with minimal viral load (Filatova E.C. et al., 2011. In some foreign countries a study of donor blood for the presence of DNA PV B19 is required; in our country the need for such screening is discussed (Giburt E.B. et al., 2013. Due to the fact that parvovirus is resistant to the methods of blood products desinfection, it is especially important to assess the quality of donor blood. Objective: To investigate the prevalence of the two markers parvovirus infection (IgG and PV B19 DNA in blood samples from one of the blood centers at St. Petersburg. Plasma samples from 100 blood donors from Military Medical Academy blood centre were tested by ELISA for the presence of IgG antibodies of parvovirus B19. Positive samples were tested by PCR for the DNA of parvovirus B19. ELISA test system recomWell Parvovirus B19 IgG (Microgen GmbH, Germany and diagnostic kits of Federal State Institution of Science «Central research Institute for epidemiology» of Rospotrebnadzor (Moscow, Russia which are approved for use in RF was used according to the manufacturers instructions. It was shown that 78 out of 100 donors aged 18 to 58 years had IgG-antibodies.76 positive blood plasma samples were investigated by PCR, with the 19 donors have found DNA of parvovirus B19 (25%. Viral load of one donor was 106

  16. Ascertainment of iron deficiency and depletion in blood donors through screening questions for pica and restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Barbara J; Yau, Yu Ying; Arceo, Sarah M; Hopkins, Julie A; Leitman, Susan F

    2013-08-01

    Pica and restless legs syndrome (RLS) are associated with iron depletion and deficiency. The presence of pica and RLS was prospectively assessed in blood donors. During a 39-month period, 1236 donors deferred for fingerstick hemoglobin (Hb) level of less than 12.5 g/dL and 400 nondeferred "control" donors underwent health screening and laboratory testing (complete blood count, ferritin, iron, transferrin). Pica and RLS were assessed by direct questioning. Deferred donors and iron-deficient control donors were given 325 mg of ferrous sulfate daily for 60 days. Reassessments were performed and additional iron tablets dispensed at subsequent visits. Pica was reported in 11% of donors with iron depletion or deficiency, compared with 4% of iron-replete donors (p Pagophagia (ice pica) was most common and often of extraordinary intensity. Female sex, younger age, and lower mean cell volume and transferrin saturation values were strongly associated with pica. Donors with pica given iron reported a marked reduction in the desire to consume the nonnutritive substance by Days 5 to 8 of therapy, with disappearance of symptoms by Days 10 to 14. RLS was reported in 16% of subjects with iron depletion or deficiency compared with 11% of iron-replete donors (p = 0.012). Iron replacement generally resulted in improvement of RLS symptoms; however, at least 4 to 6 weeks of iron therapy was necessary. The presence of pica is associated with a high probability of iron depletion or deficiency in blood donors; however, RLS lacks a strong correlation in this population. Screening questions for pagophagia may be useful in the ascertainment of iron deficiency in donors and may identify those who would benefit from oral iron. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  17. Evaluation of positive and false-positive results in syphilis screening of blood donors in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandes, V S; Silva, S G C; Motta, I J F; Velarde, L G C; de Castilho, S R

    2017-06-01

    We propose to analyse the positive and false-positive results of treponemal and nontreponemal tests in blood donors from Brazil and to evaluate possible factors associated with the results of treponemal tests. Treponemal tests have been used widely for syphilis screening in blood banks. The introduction of these tests in donor screening has caused an impact and a loss of donors who need to be assessed. This was a retrospective cross-sectional study of syphilis screening and confirmatory test results of blood donors that were obtained before and after adopting a chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA). A comparative analysis was performed using a second sample drawn from positive donors. The possible factors associated with CLIA-positive or CLIA-false-positive results were investigated in a subgroup. Statistical tests were used to compare the proportions and adjusted estimates of association. The reactivity rate increased from 1·01% (N = 28 158) to 2·66% (N = 25 577) after introducing the new test. Among Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL)- and CLIA-confirmed results, the false-positive rates were 40·5% (N = 180) and 37·4% (N = 359), respectively (P = 0·5266). Older donors (OR = 1·04; P = 0·0010) and donors with lower education levels (OR = 6·59; P = 0·0029) were associated with a higher risk of positivity for syphilis. CLIA represents an improvement in blood bank serological screening. However, its use in a healthy population appears to result in high rates of false positives. Identifying which characteristics can predict false positives, however, remains a challenge. © 2017 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  18. Pre-donation screening of volunteer prisoner blood donors for hepatitis B and C in prisons of punjab pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pervaiz, A.; Sipra, F.S.; Rana, T.H.; Qadeer, I.

    2015-01-01

    Prisoners as a high risk group are never recommended for blood donations. In Pakistan, prisoners are legally allowed to donate blood and get thirty days extra remission. Inspectorate of prisons allowed Alizaib Foundation for blood donation camps subject to pre-donation screening of volunteer prisoner blood donor against infectious diseases. This study was conducted to identify the potential benefits of pre-donation screening. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in October, 2009 in Punjab. Intending volunteer prisoner blood donors from January, 2007 to September, 2009 from prisons of Punjab were included. Physically fit were tested for Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) and B Virus (HBV) by Rapid test kit before bleeding. Data was analysed by Epi-Info. Results: A total of 5894 male volunteer prisoner donors were screened and 1038 (17.6%) were rejected. The mean age was 28 years (range: 17-70 years). Of 5894, 857 (14.5%) were HCV positive and 222 (3.8%) were HBV positive. HCV and HBV co-infection was present among 41 (0.7%). Being convicted prisoner blood donor is significantly associated with higher seroprevalence for HCV (OR 1.35, 95% C.I. 1.17-1.57) and being under trial prisoner is significantly associated with higher seroprevalence for HBV (OR 1.40, 95% C.I. 1.06-1.85). Conclusion: Hepatitis B and C viruses were responsible for almost 18% prisoner blood donor rejection. Pre-donation screening of blood donors is an effective intervention to improve the safety and limit the cost of blood. Treatment of identified cases may contribute to public health. In the international scenario this study findings necessitate the amendments in the relevant prison rules. (author)

  19. Polymerase chain reaction and blood culture in blood donors screened by ELISA test for Chagas' disease

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    Andréa Tieko Kinoshita-Yanaga

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate, through blood culture and PCR, the results of the ELISA for Chagas' disease in the screening of blood donors in the public blood-supply network of the state of Paraná, Brazil, and to map the epidemiological profile of the donors with respect to their risk of infection by Trypanosoma cruzi. The negative and positive results of the ELISA were confirmed by blood culture and PCR for 190/191 individuals (99.5%. For one individual (0.5%, the ELISA was inconclusive, blood culture and IIF were negative, and IHA and PCR positive. Three individuals (1.6% were positive for T. cruzi on all the tests. Donors were predominantly female, and natives of Paraná, of rural origin, had observed or been informed of the presence of the vector in the municipalities where they resided, had never received a blood transfusion, had donated blood 1 to 4 times, and reported no cases of Chagas' disease in their families. We concluded that PCR and blood culturing have excellent potential for confirming the results of the ELISA, and that candidate blood donors with negative or positive tests have a similar risk of infection by T. cruzi, indicating that the ELISA test is sufficiently safe for screening blood prior to use.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar, pela hemocultura e PCR, os resultados do teste ELISA utilizado para doença de Chagas na triagem de doadores de sangue na rede pública do Estado do Paraná, Brasil, e traçar o perfil epidemiológico dos doadores quanto ao risco de infecção pelo Trypanosoma cruzi. Os resultados negativos e positivos do ELISA foram confirmados pela hemocultura e PCR em 190/191 indivíduos (99,5%. Para um indivíduo (0,5%, o teste de ELISA foi inconclusivo, hemocultura e IFI foram negativas, HAI e PCR foram positivas. Três indivíduos (1,6% foram positivos para T. cruzi em todos os testes. A maioria dos doadores era do sexo feminino, oriundos do Estado do Paraná, de origem rural, tinham

  20. PREVENTION OF POST-TRANSFUSION HEPATITIS BY SCREENING OF ANTIBODY TO HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGEN IN HEALTHY BLOOD DONORS

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    Sudha Bhat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Transfusion-associated hepatitis B viral infection continues to be a major problem in India even after adoption of mandatory screening for HBsAg by ELISA method. The high incidence of TAHBV is reported in patients receiving multiple transfusions.

    Objective: To study the seroprevalence of hepatitis B core antibody among healthy voluntary blood donors

    Subjects and Methods: The study was conducted in the department of Transfusion Medicine of a tertiary care referral hospital. A total of 12,232 volunteers after passing through the stringent criteria were selected for blood donation. Donor samples were tested for all mandatory transfusion transmissible infections and anti HBc IgM (Monolisa HBc IgM PLUS:BIO-RAD, France. Reactive results were confirmed by repeat testing in duplicate. Donor data was analyzed using SPSS software and Chi-square test was used to calculate the significance of difference between the groups.

    Results:A total of 12,232 healthy voluntary blood donors were recruited. Majority (93.4% were males. Median age of donor population was 26 years (range: 18-60 years. Eighty six (0.7% were positive for HBsAg, which comes under “low prevalence (<2% zone” as per WHO. On screening for HBcAg Ig M, 15 (0.1% were found to be positive and none were HBsAg reactive. There was no significance of difference in the mean age between reactive and non-reactive donors.

    Conclusion:Evaluating the usefulness of anti-HBc screening is critical. Anti HBcAg IgM screening may be included in routine screening of donors as it is an indicator of occult HBV during window period. The cost and the unnecessary wastage of the blood units when they are positive for anti HBsAg along with the core antibody need to be studied.

     

  1. Validation of a rapid type 1 diabetes autoantibody screening assay for community‐based screening of organ donors to identify subjects at increased risk for the disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, E.; Yu, L.; Michels, A.; Gianani, R.; Pugliese, A.; Nierras, C.; Kaddis, J. S.; Schatz, D. A.; Bonifacio, E.; Atkinson, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The Network for Pancreatic Organ donors with Diabetes (nPOD) programme was developed in response to an unmet research need for human pancreatic tissue obtained from individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus and people at increased risk [i.e. autoantibody (AAb)‐positive] for the disease. This necessitated the establishment of a type 1 diabetes‐specific AAb screening platform for organ procurement organizations (OPOs). Assay protocols for commercially available enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assays (elisas) determining AAb against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA), insulinoma‐associated protein‐2 (IA‐2A) and zinc transporter‐8 (ZnT8A) were modified to identify AAb‐positive donors within strict time requirements associated with organ donation programmes. These rapid elisas were evaluated by the international islet AAb standardization programme (IASP) and used by OPO laboratories as an adjunct to routine serological tests evaluating donors for organ transplantation. The rapid elisas performed well in three IASPs (2011, 2013, 2015) with 98‐100% specificity for all three assays, including sensitivities of 64–82% (GADA), 60–64% (IA‐2A) and 62–68% (ZnT8A). Since 2009, nPOD has screened 4442 organ donors by rapid elisa; 250 (5·6%) were identified as positive for one AAb and 14 (0.3%) for multiple AAb with 20 of these cases received by nPOD for follow‐up studies (14 GADA+, two IA‐2A+, four multiple AAb‐positive). Rapid screening for type 1 diabetes‐associated AAb in organ donors is feasible, allowing for identification of non‐diabetic, high‐risk individuals and procurement of valuable tissues for natural history studies of this disease. PMID:27029857

  2. Validation of a rapid type 1 diabetes autoantibody screening assay for community-based screening of organ donors to identify subjects at increased risk for the disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserfall, C; Montgomery, E; Yu, L; Michels, A; Gianani, R; Pugliese, A; Nierras, C; Kaddis, J S; Schatz, D A; Bonifacio, E; Atkinson, M A

    2016-07-01

    The Network for Pancreatic Organ donors with Diabetes (nPOD) programme was developed in response to an unmet research need for human pancreatic tissue obtained from individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus and people at increased risk [i.e. autoantibody (AAb)-positive] for the disease. This necessitated the establishment of a type 1 diabetes-specific AAb screening platform for organ procurement organizations (OPOs). Assay protocols for commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisas) determining AAb against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA), insulinoma-associated protein-2 (IA-2A) and zinc transporter-8 (ZnT8A) were modified to identify AAb-positive donors within strict time requirements associated with organ donation programmes. These rapid elisas were evaluated by the international islet AAb standardization programme (IASP) and used by OPO laboratories as an adjunct to routine serological tests evaluating donors for organ transplantation. The rapid elisas performed well in three IASPs (2011, 2013, 2015) with 98-100% specificity for all three assays, including sensitivities of 64-82% (GADA), 60-64% (IA-2A) and 62-68% (ZnT8A). Since 2009, nPOD has screened 4442 organ donors by rapid elisa; 250 (5·6%) were identified as positive for one AAb and 14 (0.3%) for multiple AAb with 20 of these cases received by nPOD for follow-up studies (14 GADA+, two IA-2A(+) , four multiple AAb-positive). Rapid screening for type 1 diabetes-associated AAb in organ donors is feasible, allowing for identification of non-diabetic, high-risk individuals and procurement of valuable tissues for natural history studies of this disease. © 2016 British Society for Immunology.

  3. Evaluation of the Procleix Ultrio Elite Assay and the Panther-System for Individual NAT Screening of Blood, Hematopoietic Stem Cell, Tissue and Organ Donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Albert

    2016-05-01

    The performance of the multiplex Procleix Ultrio Elite assay as individual donor nucleic acid test (ID-NAT) for the detection of HIV-1, HIV-2, HCV, and HBV was evaluated in a retrospective, single center study. ID-NAT results of 21,181 blood donors, 984 tissue donors, 293 hematopoietic stem cell donors and 4 organ donors were reviewed in synopsis with results of serological screening and additional discriminatory and repetitive NAT in case of positive donors. Specificity of the initial Procleix Ultrio Elite assay was 99.98% and after discriminatory testing 100.00%. Initially invalid results were observed in 75 of 21,181 blood donors (0.35%) but 16 of 984 tissue donors (1.62%, p donors. All these had valid negative ID-NAT results after repeated testing or testing of 1:5 diluted specimens in case of tissue donors. Occult hepatitis B (defined here as HBV DNAemia without HBsAg detection) was demonstrated by ID-NAT in two anti-HBc-positive tissue donors and suspected in two other tissue donors, where a definite diagnosis was not achieved due to the insufficient sample volumes available. The Procleix Ultrio Elite assay proved to be specific, robust and rapid. Therefore, routine ID-NAT may also be feasible for organ and granulocyte donors.

  4. Risk Factors and Screening for Trypanosoma cruzi Infection of Dutch Blood Donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, Ed; Hogema, Boris M.; Molier, Michel; Bart, Aldert; Zaaijer, Hans L.

    2016-01-01

    Blood donors unaware of Trypanosoma cruzi infection may donate infectious blood. Risk factors and the presence of T. cruzi antibodies in at-risk Dutch blood donors were studied to assess whether specific blood safety measures are warranted in the Netherlands. Birth in a country endemic for Chagas

  5. Recruitment of feces donors among blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl Jørgensen, Simon Mark; Erikstrup, Christian; Dinh, Khoa Manh

    2018-01-01

    As the use of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has gained momentum, an increasing need for continuous access to healthy feces donors has developed. Blood donors constitute a healthy subset of the general population and may serve as an appropriate group for recruitment. In this study, we...... investigated the suitability of blood donors as feces donors. In a prospective cohort study, we recruited blood donors onsite at a public Danish blood bank. Following their consent, the blood donors underwent a stepwise screening process: First, blood donors completed an electronic pre-screening questionnaire...... to rule out predisposing risk factors. Second, eligible blood donors had blood and fecal samples examined. Of 155 blood donors asked to participate, 137 (88%) completed the electronic pre-screening questionnaire, 16 declined, and 2 were excluded. Of the 137 donors who completed the questionnaire, 79 (58...

  6. Recall of symptoms and treatment of syphilis and yaws by healthy blood donors screening positive for syphilis in Kumasi, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkodie, Francis; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Hassall, Oliver; Bates, Imelda; Bygbjerg, Ib C; Ullum, Henrik

    2016-09-01

    To describe the recalled medical history, clinical manifestations, and treatment of yaws and syphilis by syphilis seroreactive blood donors in Kumasi, Ghana. Of the blood donors at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana tested with the syphilis rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and later by rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test, 526 were seroreactive. Four hundred and seventy-one (89.5%) of these subjects were confirmed with the Ortho-Vitros Syphilis TP test as the gold standard and were interviewed to determine past or present clinical manifestations of yaws and syphilis. Of the 471 respondent donors, 28 (5.9%) gave a history of skin lesions and sores; four (14.3%) of these subjects, who were all male and RPR-positive, recalled a diagnosis of syphilis. All four reported having had skin lesions/bumps with slow-healing sores, but only one of them had had these symptoms before the age of 15 years. A small proportion of confirmed seroreactive donors in this sample had any recall of symptoms or treatment for yaws or syphilis. These data suggest that clinical questioning adds little further information to the current screening algorithm. The relative contribution of yaws and syphilis to frequent positive tests in endemic areas remains speculative. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Improving the screening of blood donors with syphilis rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and rapid plasma reagin (RPR) in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkodie, F; Hassall, O; Owusu-Dabo, E; Owusu-Ofori, S; Bates, I; Bygbjerg, I C; Owusu-Ofori, A; Harritshøj, L H; Ullum, H

    2017-02-01

    Syphilis testing conventionally relies on a combination of non-treponemal and treponemal tests. The primary objective of this study was to describe the positive predictive value (PPV) of a screening algorithm in a combination of a treponemal rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH), Ghana. From February 2014 to January 2015, 5 mL of venous blood samples were taken from 16 016 blood donors and tested with a treponemal RDT; 5 mL of venous blood was taken from 526 consenting initial syphilis sero-reactive blood donors. These RDT reactive samples were confirmed with an algorithm, applying the Vitros ® /Abbott-Architect ® algorithm as gold standard. A total of 478 of 526 RDT reactive donors were confirmed positive for syphilis, making a PPV of 90·9%. Of the 172 (32·7%) donors who were also RPR positive, 167 were confirmed, resulting in a PPV of 97·1%. The PPV of the combined RDT and RPR (suspected active syphilis) testing algorithm was highest among donors at an enhanced risk of syphilis, family/replacement donors (99·9%), and among voluntary donors above 25 years (98·6%). Screening of blood donors by combining syphilis RDT and RPR with relatively good PPV may provide a reasonable technology for LMIC that has a limited capacity for testing and can contribute to the improvement of blood safety with a minimal loss of donors. © 2016 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  8. Screening of blood donors for chronic Coxiella burnetii infection after large Q fever outbreaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, Ed; Hogema, Boris M.; Molier, Michel; Zaaijer, Hans L.

    2014-01-01

    The Netherlands experienced major Q fever outbreaks from 2007 through 2009. An increasing number of human chronic Q fever cases has been reported in the affected area. Blood donors unaware of chronic Coxiella burnetii infection might be infectious for transfusion recipients. Local blood donations

  9. An ELPAT definition of the concept ‘Psychosocial’ in the context of Screening Living Organ Donors in Europe: A Concept Mapping approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.Y. Ismail (Sohal); M.M. van der Knoop; N. Duerinckx; L. Timmerman (Lotte); C. Papachristou; I. Ajoulat; W. Weimar (Willem); F. Dobbels; E.K. Massey (Emma); J.J. van Busschbach (Jan)

    2012-01-01

    markdownabstractIntroduction: Across Europe, transplant centers vary in the set of psychosocial screening criteria/guidelines used for the selection of eligible living donors. Our aim was to explore whether a common framework underlies this variation in screening criteria and, based on

  10. Cytomegalovirus disease in a renal transplant recipient: the importance of pre-transplant screening of the donor and recipient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed H Mitwalli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 16-year-old female patient who was born with a single kidney developed chronic kidney disease during her early childhood due to reflux nephropathy and recurrent urinary tract infection. She progressed to end-stage renal disease (ESRD and was commenced on renal replacement therapy in the form of peritoneal dialysis in May 2011. Subsequently, she underwent living unrelated donor kidney transplantation in China. She was hospitalized soon after returning to Saudi Arabia for management of high-grade fever, shortness of breath, and deterioration of renal function, which was found to be due to cytomegalovirus (CMV disease, proved by kidney biopsy and presence of high level of anti-CMV immunoglobulins. Allograft biopsy showed mature viral particles sized between 120 and 149 nm in the nuclei of the glomerular endothelial cells. The patient was treated with valgancyclovir and specific CMV immunoglobulin, as well as by reducing and even stopping the dose of tacrolimus and mycophenolate. Despite all these measures, her condition continued to deteriorate and she finally died. Our study emphasizes that unrelated renal transplantation, especially if unplanned and improperly prepared, is a very risky procedure that might transfer dangerous diseases and increase the morbidity and mortality of the patients. We strongly stress the need for mandatory and proper screening for CMV carrier status among donors as well as recipients prior to transplantation. Also, a recommendation is made to reject CMV-positive donors.

  11. Lot release testing of serological infectious disease assays used for donor and donation screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, A D; Newham, J A

    2010-05-01

    Monitoring of the ongoing performance of infectious disease screening assays is a critical part of any donation screening programme. Although assay sensitivity is formally evaluated prior to implementation, it is essential that this level of performance is maintained from lot-to-lot. In 2002, National Health Service Blood and Transplant developed and implemented a formal system for the lot release testing of serology infectious disease screening assays. Lot release panels were prepared for each of the serological screening markers. They each comprise 10-15 members and include both genuine low-titre and diluted high-titre materials. For each panel member, a minimum reactivity is expected, based upon the formal sensitivity evaluation of each assay. All new lots of the screening assays used are assessed prior to supply of the lot to the organization. Since 2002, a total of 887 different lots of the serology screening assays used have been supplied. Of these, 876 (98.8%) passed lot release and were authorized for supply to the organization. Eleven lots (1.2%) were failed because the lots did not meet the release criteria or were unsuitable for some other reason. The lot release system has proved to be effective in objectively assessing assay performance to ensure that there is no significant lot-to-lot variation such that the performance of the assay may fall below that originally determined at evaluation. The few assays that have failed lot release did have proven performance issues that were subsequently accepted by the manufacturers. CONTENTS SUMMARY: Description of the Lot Release Testing system for serology infectious disease screening assays in use within NHSBT with a critical analysis and review of the data generated in the 7 years that the system has been in use.

  12. Screening of organ and tissue donors for West Nile virus by nucleic acid amplification--a three year experience in Alberta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley, Peter A G; Fox, Julie D; Lee, Bonita; Chui, Linda; Preiksaitis, Jutta

    2008-10-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV)-specific nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) of organ and tissue donors remains controversial. We report three years of WNV donor screening in Alberta Canada using NAAT. Between 2003 and 2005, 1549 initial specimens were received. A valid negative result was issued within the specified turnaround time on 1531 (98.8%). The initial NAAT was successful for 1393 samples (90%), while repeat testing using an alternate NAAT resolved a further 126 samples. For 12 of 14 donors, a second specimen provided a valid negative result. Failure to generate a valid negative result in time resulted in rescheduling of one living related organ transplant, and surgery proceeded in the absence of a final result in one multi-organ donation after risk assessment. For 11 tissue donors, tissues were discarded due to lack of a WNV result. Invalid results usually occurred on postmortem haemolyzed tissue donor samples due to inhibitory reactions. There were no confirmed positive donors, no false-positive results and no solid organs lost due to WNV testing. We conclude that WNV NAAT of organ and tissue donors can be implemented without compromising availability of donors but requires committed laboratory support.

  13. Toward a Conceptualization of the Content of Psychosocial Screening in Living Organ Donors: An Ethical Legal Psychological Aspects of Transplantation Consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Sohal Y; Duerinckx, Nathalie; van der Knoop, Marieke M; Timmerman, Lotte; Weimar, Willem; Dobbels, Fabienne; Massey, Emma K; Busschbach, Jan J J V

    2015-11-01

    Across Europe, transplant centers vary in the content of the psychosocial evaluation for eligible living organ donors. To identify whether a common framework underlies this variation in this evaluation, we studied which psychosocial screening items are most commonly used and considered as most important in current psychosocial screening programs of living organ donors. A multivariate analytic method, concept mapping, was used to generate a visual representation of the "psychosocial" screening items of living kidney and liver donors. A list of 75 potential screening items was derived from a systematic literature review and sorted and rated for their importance and commonness by multidisciplinary affiliated health care professionals from across Europe. Results were discussed and fine-tuned during a consensus meeting. The analyses resulted in a 6-cluster solution. The following clusters on psychosocial screening items were identified, listed from most to least important: (1) personal resources, (2) motivation and decision making, (3) psychopathology, (4) social resources, (5) ethical and legal factors, and (6) information and risk processing. We provided a conceptual framework of the essential elements in psychosocial evaluation of living donors which can serve as a uniform basis for the selection of relevant psychosocial evaluation tools, which can be further tested in prospective studies.

  14. Occult Hepatitis B virus infection in previously screened, blood donors in Ile-Ife, Nigeria: implications for blood transfusion and stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olotu, Amadin A; Oyelese, Adesola O; Salawu, Lateef; Audu, Rosemary A; Okwuraiwe, Azuka P; Aboderin, Aaron O

    2016-05-05

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission through blood transfusion is reduced by screening for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). However this method cannot detect the presence of occult hepatitis B virus infection. This study sought to determine the prevalence of occult hepatitis B virus infection among blood donors in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. For the first time in Nigeria we employed an automated real-time PCR- method to investigate the prevalence of occult HBV in blood donors. Blood donors screened with HBsAg immunochromatographic rapid test kits at the blood transfusion units of two hospitals and found to be negative were recruited into the study. Questionnaires to elicit risk factors for HBV infection were administered and then 10 ml of blood was collected from each donor. Plasma samples obtained from these HBsAg negative blood donors were screened again for HBsAg using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method, and those found negative were screened for the presence of total antibody to the HBV core antigen (anti-HBc) using ELISA method. Those positive to anti-HBc were then tested for HBV DNA, using an automated real-time PCR method. Five hundred and seven blood donors found HBsAg negative by immunochromatographic rapid test kits at both blood transfusion units, were tested for HBsAg using ELISA and 5 (1 %) were HBsAg positive. The 502 found negative were tested for anti-HBc and 354 (70.5 %) were found positive implying previous exposure to HBV and 19 (5.4 %) of the 354 anti-HBc positive had HBV DNA signifying occult HBV infection. No risk factors were found to be associated with the presence of HBV DNA among those who tested positive. Occult HBV infection exists in blood donors in Ile-Ife, Nigeria and the use of HBsAg alone for screening prospective donors will not eliminate the risk of HBV transmission in blood transfusion or stem cell transplantation.

  15. Factors associated with a second deferral among donors eligible for re-entry after a false-positive screening test for syphilis, HCV, HBV and HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grégoire, Y; Germain, M; Delage, G

    2018-03-06

    Since 25 May 2010, all donors at our blood centre who tested false-positive for HIV, HBV, HCV or syphilis are eligible for re-entry after further testing. Donors who have a second false-positive screening test, either during qualification for or after re-entry, are deferred for life. This study reports on factors associated with the occurrence of such deferrals. Rates of second false-positive results were compared by year of deferral, transmissible disease marker, gender, age, donor status (new or repeat) and testing platform (same or different) both at qualification for re-entry and afterwards. Chi-square tests were used to compare proportions. Cox regression was used for multivariate analyses. Participation rates in the re-entry programme were 42·1%: 25·6% failed to qualify for re-entry [different platform: 2·7%; same platform: 42·9% (P entry, rates of deferral for second false-positive results were 8·4% after 3 years [different platform: 1·8%; same platform: 21·4% (P entry, was lower for donors deferred on a different platform; this risk was higher for HIV, HCV and syphilis than for HBV and for new donors if tested on the same platform. Re-entry is more often successful when donors are tested on a testing platform different from the one on which they obtained their first false-positive result. © 2018 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  16. Improving the screening of blood donors with syphilis rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and rapid plasma reagin (RPR) in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarkodie, F.; Hassall, O.; Owusu-Dabo, E.

    2017-01-01

    reagin (RPR) test at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH), Ghana. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From February 2014 to January 2015, 5 mL of venous blood samples were taken from 16 016 blood donors and tested with a treponemal RDT; 5 mL of venous blood was taken from 526 consenting initial syphilis sero...... of blood donors by combining syphilis RDT and RPR with relatively good PPV may provide a reasonable technology for LMIC that has a limited capacity for testing and can contribute to the improvement of blood safety with a minimal loss of donors.......BACKGROUND: Syphilis testing conventionally relies on a combination of non-treponemal and treponemal tests. The primary objective of this study was to describe the positive predictive value (PPV) of a screening algorithm in a combination of a treponemal rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and rapid plasma...

  17. Possibility of using combined treatment of processing and ionizing radiation to eliminate contaminated viruses from non-screened donor of tissue allografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazly Hilmy; Paramita Pandansari

    2008-01-01

    Full text: New emerging and re- emerging infectious diseases caused by viruses are outbreak and re- outbreak around the world. Most of the viruses come from animals ( zoonoses) and jump to human beings ( host jumping ) such as corona virus ( SARS), HIV, bird flu/ Avian flu H5N1, hepatitis viruses, Dengue fever virus, West Nile virus/WNV, Hantavirus, Marburg haemorrhagic fever virus, Hendra virus, Nipah virus etc. Transmission of those diseases through transplantation of contaminated tissue allograft to recipient can happened if the donor could not be screened properly. The donor can be well screened from some of those viruses such as HIV, hepatitis viruses and WNV. Processing of tissue allografts by pasteurization, washing and soaking in H 2 O 2 and soap can eliminate contaminated viruses to a certain amount, have been reported by several authors. Viruses are very small microbes, they have DNA/RNA, resistant to radiation but to a certain degree they can be well eliminated by radiation. Their D10 - values vary from 4 to 13 kGy. This paper discribes briefly the possibility of using combined treatment of processing, lyophilization and sterilisation by radiation to overcome problems of non screened donor from some contaminated viruses. (Author)

  18. The serological screening of deceased tissue donors within the English Blood Service for infectious agents--a review of current outcomes and a more effective strategy for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, A D; Gillan, H L

    2010-04-01

    The overall effectiveness of the NHSBT screening programme for infectious agents in deceased tissue donors is examined and evaluated in terms of current outcomes and how to improve upon these outcomes. The screening results and any subsequent confirmatory results from a total of 1659 samples from NHSBT deceased donors referred to NTMRL for screening for infectious agents were included in the analysis. Overall 1566/1659 (94.4%) of the samples were screen negative. A total of 93 were repeat reactive on screening for one or more of the mandatory markers screened for, of which only 12 (13%) were subsequently confirmed to be positive on confirmatory testing. The majority of the repeat reactive samples were demonstrating non-specific reactivity with the screening assays in use. Overall, the NHSBT screening programme for infectious agents in deceased tissue donors is very effective with a relatively low overall loss of donors because of non-specific reactivity. However, unnecessary loss of tissue products is not acceptable, and although this programme compares favourably with the outcomes of other such programmes, the confirmatory results obtained demonstrate both the need and the potential for improving the outcomes. This is particularly important as one donor may donate more than one product, and can be achieved very easily with a change to the screening algorithm followed, using the confirmatory data obtained to support and validate this change. CONTENTS SUMMARY: Critical analysis of the NHSBT screening programme for infectious agents in deceased tissue donors and a strategy involving the design and use of a different screening algorithm to improve these outcomes.

  19. Recall of symptoms and treatment of syphilis and yaws by healthy blood donors screening positive for syphilis in Kumasi, Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarkodie, Francis; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Hassall, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To describe the recalled medical history, clinical manifestations, and treatment of yaws and syphilis by syphilis seroreactive blood donors in Kumasi, Ghana. Methods: Of the blood donors at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana tested with the syphilis rapid diagnostic test (RDT......) and later by rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test, 526 were seroreactive. Four hundred and seventy-one (89.5%) of these subjects were confirmed with the Ortho-Vitros Syphilis TP test as the gold standard and were interviewed to determine past or present clinical manifestations of yaws and syphilis. Results......: Of the 471 respondent donors, 28 (5.9%) gave a history of skin lesions and sores; four (14.3%) of these subjects, who were all male and RPR-positive, recalled a diagnosis of syphilis. All four reported having had skin lesions/bumps with slow-healing sores, but only one of them had had these symptoms before...

  20. One window-period donation in two years of individual donor-nucleic acid test screening for hepatitis B, hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Eduardo Levi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe general data on nucleic acid/serology testing and report the first hepatitis B-nucleic acid testing yield case of an immunized donor in Brazil. Methods: A total of 24,441 donations collected in 2010 and 2011 were submitted to individual nucleic acid testing for hepatitis B, hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency virus using the TaqMan® MPX kit (Roche on the Cobas s201 platform, in addition to routine screening for serological markers. Nucleic acid testing-reactive donations were further evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction using Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus tests. Results: Thirty-two donations were reactive by nucleic acid testing, 31 were also serologically reactive and one first-time donor was identified as having hepatitis B in the window period. Follow-up samples showed increasing titers of anti-HBs rising from 19 UI/mL in the index donation to 109 IU/mL seven months later attributable to his vaccination history. Curiously, this donor was never reactive for HbsAg nor for anti-HBc. In the yield donation, he was concomitantly reactive for syphilis (enzyme immunoassay and fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorption; venereal disease research laboratory non-reactive. Overall, six donors (0.02% were characterized as occult hepatitis B. A total of 35% of the confirmed (recombinant immunoblot assay positive hepatitis C donations were nucleic acid testing non-reactive and no human immunodeficiency virus "elite controller" was identified. Conclusion: The yield rate (1:24,441; 95% confidence interval: 1:9,537 - 1:89,717 contrasts to the North American rate (1:410,540 donations and strongly advocates the adoption of nucleic acid testing for hepatitis B in Brazil despite the increasing rate of anti-HBs reactive subjects due to the successful immunization program.

  1. Use of Blood Donor Screening Data to Estimate Zika Virus Incidence, Puerto Rico, April-August 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Michelle S; Biggerstaff, Brad J; Basavaraju, Sridhar V; Ocfemia, M Cheryl Bañez; Alsina, Jose O; Climent-Peris, Consuelo; Moseley, Robin R; Chung, Koo-Whang; Rivera-García, Brenda; Bello-Pagán, Melissa; Pate, Lisa L; Galel, Susan A; Williamson, Phillip; Kuehnert, Matthew J

    2017-05-01

    Puerto Rico has been heavily impacted by Zika virus, a mosquitoborne flavivirus that emerged in the Americas during 2015. Although most persons with Zika virus show no symptoms, the virus can cause neurologic and other complications, including fetal microcephaly. Local Zika virus transmission in Puerto Rico has been reported since December 2015. To prevent transfusion-associated transmission, local blood collection ceased in March 2016 but resumed in April 2016 after Zika virus screening of blood donations became available. Using data from screening of blood donations collected by the 2 largest blood centers in Puerto Rico during April 3-August 12, 2016, and assuming a 9.9-day duration of viremia, we estimated that 469,321 persons in Puerto Rico were infected during this period, for an estimated cumulative incidence of 12.9%. Results from blood donation screening during arboviral outbreaks can supplement routine clinical and surveillance data for improved targeting of prevention efforts.

  2. Testing for Partial RhD with a D-Screen Diagast Kit in Moroccan Blood Donors with Weak D Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Kabiri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to search for the partial D phenotype in Moroccan blood donors with weak D expression. The study included 32 samples with weak D phenotype, and partial D category red blood cells were detected with the D-Screen Diagast kit, which consists in 9 monoclonal anti-D antibodies specific for the most common categories of partial D. Among the 32 samples studied, we identified 13 specific reactions to a partial D antigen (3 DVI, 2 DVa, 2 DIII(a,b,c, and 6 DVII, with 8 reactions suggesting a weak D and 11 reactions providing no formal argument in favor of a partial D antigen. This work can be used to validate the performance of the anti-D reagent and to improve the safety of transfusion of red blood cells from donors expressing the partial D antigen by integrating the finding into the recipient file with a recommendation concerning the appropriate care.

  3. Transfusion-transmitted malaria in endemic zone: epidemiological profile of blood donors at the Fundação HEMOAM and use of rapid diagnostic tests for malaria screening in Manaus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Kátia Luz; Dos Santos Moresco, Mônica Nascimento; Sales, Luciane Rodrigues; da Silva Abranches, Josilene; Araújo Alexandre, Márcia Almeida; Malheiro, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    With 99% of the cases in Brazil, malaria is endemic in the Amazon region. Transfusion-transmitted malaria, an important risk in endemic areas, has been reported. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological profile of blood donor candidates at the Fundação de Hematologia e Hemoterapia do Amazonas and evaluate the efficacy of rapid diagnostic tests used for malaria screening of blood donors within endemic regions. Between May 2008 and May 2009, 407 blood donor candidates were selected and grouped based on the Malaria Annual Parasite Index of the geographic area in which they originated: Group 1 (eligible donors - n=265) originated from areas of low to medium risk of exposure to malaria and Group 2 (ineligible donors - n=142) originated from high-risk areas. All samples were concurrently screened using two immunochromatic antigen-based rapid tests and by the thick smear test. All samples were negative by all three methods. The demographic profile indicated that the majority of participants were male, ages ranged from 18 to 39 years and less than half the candidates had only elementary schooling. Two issues need to be addressed: one is the ineligibility of donors and its impact on blood donor centers as, in this study, 22.7% of the donors were considered ineligible. The other is the limited sensitivity of the parasitological tests used, allowing a risk of false-negative results. New methods are needed to ensure transfusion safety without rejecting potential donors, which would ensure safe transfusion without harming the blood supply. Copyright © 2014 Associação Brasileira de Hematologia, Hemoterapia e Terapia Celular. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Synthetic aspects, spectral, thermal studies and antimicrobial screening on bis(N,N-dimethyldithiocarbamato-S,S‧)antimony(III) complexes with oxo or thio donor ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, H. P. S.; Carpenter, Jaswant; Joshi, Sapana

    2014-09-01

    The bis(N,N-dimethyldithiocarbamato-S,S‧)antimony(III) complexes have been obtained by the reaction of chloro bis(N,N-dimethyldithiocarbamato-S,S‧)antimony(III) with corresponding oxo or thio donor ligands such as sodium benzoate 1, sodium thioglycolate 2, phenol 3, sodium 1-propanethiolate 4, potassium thioacetate 5, sodium salicylate 6, ethane-1,2-dithiolate 7 and disodium oxalate 8. These complexes have been characterized by the physicochemical [melting point, molecular weight determination and elemental analysis (C, H, N, S and Sb)], spectral [UV-Visible, FT-IR, far IR, NMR (1H and 13C)], thermogravimetric (TG & DTA) analysis, ESI-Mass and powder X-ray diffraction studies. Thermogravimetric analysis of the complexes confirmed the final decomposition product as highly pure antimony sulfide (Sb2S3) and powder X-ray diffraction studies show that the complexes are in lower symmetry with monoclinic crystal lattice and nano-ranged particle size (11.51-20.82 nm). The complexes have also been screened against some bacterial and fungal strains for their antibacterial and antifungal activities and compared with standard drugs. These show that the complexes have greater activities against some human pathogenic bacteria and fungi than the activities of standard drugs.

  5. Synthetic aspects, spectral, thermal studies and antimicrobial screening on bis(N,N-dimethyldithiocarbamato-S,S')antimony(III) complexes with oxo or thio donor ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, H P S; Carpenter, Jaswant; Joshi, Sapana

    2014-09-15

    The bis(N,N-dimethyldithiocarbamato-S,S')antimony(III) complexes have been obtained by the reaction of chloro bis(N,N-dimethyldithiocarbamato-S,S')antimony(III) with corresponding oxo or thio donor ligands such as sodium benzoate 1, sodium thioglycolate 2, phenol 3, sodium 1-propanethiolate 4, potassium thioacetate 5, sodium salicylate 6, ethane-1,2-dithiolate 7 and disodium oxalate 8. These complexes have been characterized by the physicochemical [melting point, molecular weight determination and elemental analysis (C, H, N, S and Sb)], spectral [UV-Visible, FT-IR, far IR, NMR (1H and 13C)], thermogravimetric (TG & DTA) analysis, ESI-Mass and powder X-ray diffraction studies. Thermogravimetric analysis of the complexes confirmed the final decomposition product as highly pure antimony sulfide (Sb2S3) and powder X-ray diffraction studies show that the complexes are in lower symmetry with monoclinic crystal lattice and nano-ranged particle size (11.51-20.82 nm). The complexes have also been screened against some bacterial and fungal strains for their antibacterial and antifungal activities and compared with standard drugs. These show that the complexes have greater activities against some human pathogenic bacteria and fungi than the activities of standard drugs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Ab initio and density functional theoretical design and screening of model crown ether based ligand (host) for extraction of lithium metal ion (guest): effect of donor and electronic induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boda, Anil; Ali, Sk Musharaf; Rao, Hanmanth; Ghosh, Sandip K

    2012-08-01

    The structures, energetic and thermodynamic parameters of model crown ethers with different donor, cavity and electron donating/ withdrawing functional group have been determined with ab initio MP2 and density functional theory in gas and solvent phase. The calculated values of binding energy/ enthalpy for lithium ion complexation are marginally higher for hard donor based aza and oxa crown compared to soft donor based thia and phospha crown. The calculated values of binding enthalpy for lithium metal ion with 12C4 at MP2 level of theory is in good agreement with the available experimental result. The binding energy is altered due to the inductive effect imparted by the electron donating/ withdrawing group in crown ether, which is well correlated with the values of electron transfer. The role of entropy for extraction of hydrated lithium metal ion by different donor and functional group based ligand has been demonstrated. The HOMO-LUMO gap is decreased and dipole moment of the ligand is increased from gas phase to organic phase because of the dielectric constant of the solvent. The gas phase binding energy is reduced in solvent phase as the solvent molecules weaken the metal-ligand binding. The theoretical values of extraction energy for LiCl salt from aqueous solution in different organic solvent is validated by the experimental trend. The study presented here should contribute to the design of model host ligand and screening of solvent for metal ion recognition and thus can contribute in planning the experiments.

  7. Donor Tag Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Donor Community > Games > Donor Tag Game Donor Tag Game This feature requires version 6 or later of ... of Needles LGBTQ+ Donors Blood Donor Community SleevesUp Games Facebook Avatars and Badges Banners eCards Make a ...

  8. Viremic blood donor found by a rapid screening method in a season of high human parvovirus B19 activity in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Setúbal

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Erythrovirus B19 infection is usually benign but may have serious consequences in patients with hemolytic anemia (transient aplastic crisis, immunodeficiency (in whom persistent infection can lead to chronic bone marrow failure with anemia, or who are in the first or second trimester of gestation (spontaneous abortion, hydrops fetalis, and fetal death. Being non-enveloped, B19 resists most inactivation methods and can be transmitted by transfusion. B19 is difficult to cultivate and native virus is usually obtained from viremic blood. As specific antibodies may be absent, and there is no reliable immunological method for antigen detection, hybridization or polymerase chain reaction are needed for detecting viremia. A rapid method, gel hemagglutination (Diamed ID-Parvovirus B19 Antigen Test, can disclose highly viremic donations, whose elimination lessens the viral burden in pooled blood products and may even render them non-infectious. In order to obtain native antigen and to determine the frequency of viremic donors, we applied this test to blood donors in a period of high viral activity in our community. Positive or indeterminate results were re-tested by dot-blot hybridization. We tested 472 donors in 1998 and 831 ones in 1999. One viremic donor was found in 1999. We suggest that in periods of high community viral activity the gel hemagglutination test may be useful in avoiding highly viremic blood being added to plasma pools or directly transfused to patients under risk.

  9. Testing UK blood donors for exposure to human parvovirus 4 using a time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay to screen sera and Western blot to confirm reactive samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maple, Peter A C; Beard, Stuart; Parry, Ruth P; Brown, Kevin E

    2013-10-01

    Human parvovirus 4 (ParV4), a newly described member of the family Parvoviridae, like B19V, has been found in pooled plasma preparations. The extent, and significance, of ParV4 exposure in UK blood donors remain to be determined and reliable detection of ParV4 immunoglobulin (Ig)G, using validated methods, is needed. With ParV4 virus-like particles a ParV4 IgG time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay (TRFIA) was developed. There is no gold standard or reference assay for measuring ParV4 IgG and the utility of the TRFIA was first examined using a panel of sera from people who inject drugs (PWIDS)--a high-prevalence population for ParV4 infection. Western blotting was used to confirm the specificity of TRFIA-reactive sera. Two cohorts of UK blood donor sera comprising 452 sera collected in 1999 and 156 sera collected in 2009 were tested for ParV4 IgG. Additional testing for B19V IgG, hepatitis C virus antibodies (anti-HCV), and ParV4 DNA was also undertaken. The rate of ParV4 IgG seroprevalence in PWIDS was 20.7% and ParV4 IgG was positively associated with the presence of anti-HCV with 68.4% ParV4 IgG-positive sera testing anti-HCV-positive versus 17.1% ParV4 IgG-negative sera. Overall seropositivity for ParV4 IgG, in 608 UK blood donors was 4.76%. The ParV4 IgG seropositivity for sera collected in 1999 was 5.08%, compared to 3.84% for sera collected in 2009. No ParV4 IgG-positive blood donor sera had detectable ParV4 DNA. ParV4 IgG has been found in UK blood donors and this finding needs further investigation. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  10. Nyretransplantation med levende donor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Løkkegaard, H; Rasmussen, F

    2000-01-01

    In recent years transplantation from living donors has accounted for 25-30% of all kidney transplants in Denmark corresponding to 40-45 per year. Most of these living donors are parents or siblings, although internationally an increasing number are unrelated donors. Donor nephrectomy is associated...

  11. Gonosomal mosaicism for an NF1 deletion in a sperm donor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callum, P; Messiaen, L M; Bower, P V

    2012-01-01

    Screening of gamete donors can reduce but cannot eliminate the risks for medical problems in donor-conceived offspring. We present a case of gonosomal mosaicism discovered in an anonymous sperm donor after receiving two reports of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) in donor-conceived offspring...

  12. Quality evaluation of four hemoglobin screening methods in a blood donor setting along with their comparative cost analysis in an Indian scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tondon Rashmi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the wide range of methods available for measurement of hemoglobin, no single technique has emerged as the most appropriate and ideal for a blood donation setup. Materials and Methods: A prospective study utilizing 1014 blood samples was carried out in a blood donation setting for quality evaluation of four methods of hemoglobin estimation along with cost analysis: Hematology cell analyzer (reference, HCS, CuSO4 method and HemoCue. Results: Mean value of HemoCue (mean ± SD = 14.7 ± 1.49 g/dl was higher by 0.24 compared to reference (mean ± SD = 13.8 ± 1.52 g/dl but not statistically significant ( P > 0.05. HemoCue proved to be the best technique (sensitivity 99.4% and specificity 84.4% whereas HCS was most subjective with 25.2% incorrect estimations. CuSO4 proved to be good with 7.9% false results. Comparative cost analysis of each method was calculated to be 35 INR/test for HemoCue, 0.76 INR /test for HCS and 0.06-0.08 INR /test for CuSO4. Conclusion: CuSO4 method gives accurate results, if strict quality control is applied. HemoCue is too expensive to be used as a primary screening method in an economically restricted country like India.

  13. Negotiating boundaries: Accessing donor gametes in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widge, A; Cleland, J

    2011-01-01

    This paper documents how couples and providers access donor materials for conception in the Indian context and perceptions about using them. The objective is to facilitate understanding of critical issues and relevant concerns. A postal survey was conducted with a sample of 6000 gynaecologists and in-depth interviews were -conducted with 39 gynaecologists in four cities. Donor gametes are relatively more acceptable than a few years ago, especially if confidentiality can be -maintained, though lack of availability of donor materials is sometimes an impediment to infertility treatment. Donor sperms are usually accessed from in-house or commercial sperm banks, pathology laboratories, IVF centres, -professional donors, relatives or friends. There is scepticism about screening procedures of sperm banks. Donor eggs are usually accessed from voluntary donors, friends, relatives, egg sharing programmes, donation from other patients, advertising and commercial donors. There are several concerns regarding informed consent for using donated gametes, using -relatives and friends gametes, the unregulated use of gametes and embryos, record keeping and documentation, -unethical and corrupt practices and commercialisation. These issues need to be addressed by patients, providers and regulatory authorities by providing -information, counselling, ensuring informed consent, addressing exploitation and commercialisation, ensuring -monitoring, proper documentation and transparency.

  14. Frequency of Finding Family Donors: A Single Center Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasar, Mutlu; Yeral, Mahmut; Solmaz, Soner; Büyükkurt, Nurhilal; Asma, Suheyl; Gereklioğlu, Çiğdem; Boğa, Can; Özdoğu, Hakan; Baştürk, Bilkay

    2018-03-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant is a curative treatment option for many hematologic diseases. The existence of a fully compatible donor for recipients is the first condition for minimized transplant-related mortality and morbidity. The best donor for hematopoietic stem cell transplant is an HLA-matched sibling donor. The possibility of finding an HLA-matched sibling is less than 30% worldwide. Hematopoietic stem cell transplant is needed for an increasing number of patients every year, but the ability to find a fully compatible donor has limited its use. From August 2012 to May 2017, we screened 412 adult patients who required AHSCT and their families for HLA tissue groups who were seen at our center (Baskent University Adana Dr. Turgut Noyan Research and Medical Center Hematology Unit). To screen tissue groups at our center, we perform lowresolution typing for HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, and -DQB. If an HLA genotype cannot be identified, verification typing is done using highresolution testing. We found matched family donors in 227 (55%) of 412 patients screened at our center. The ratio of HLAmatched related donors was 83% for 279 patients who received allogeneic stem cell transplant. The likelihood of finding eligible unrelated donors has been gradually increasing, in part due to the development of the National Bone Marrow Bank. However, a careful screening for related donors is still important. Our findings indicate the importance of careful examination of family genealogy and of careful family screening in our region.

  15. Nyretransplantation med levende donor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Løkkegaard, H; Rasmussen, F

    2000-01-01

    In recent years transplantation from living donors has accounted for 25-30% of all kidney transplants in Denmark corresponding to 40-45 per year. Most of these living donors are parents or siblings, although internationally an increasing number are unrelated donors. Donor nephrectomy is associate...... in cadaver transplantation. The ethical and psychological aspects related to transplantation from a living donor are complex and need to be carefully evaluated when this treatment is offered to the patients.......In recent years transplantation from living donors has accounted for 25-30% of all kidney transplants in Denmark corresponding to 40-45 per year. Most of these living donors are parents or siblings, although internationally an increasing number are unrelated donors. Donor nephrectomy is associated...... with only few complications. The long-term outcome for kidney donors is good without increase in mortality or risk for development of hypertension and renal failure; proteinuria may be seen. Living kidney transplantation is the optimal treatment of end-stage renal disease with better graft survival than...

  16. Seroprevalence of Treponema Pallidum in Donor Blood at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the Seroprevalence of Treponema pallidum in Donor blood at University of Benin Teaching Hospital Benin City. Materials and Method: This is a descriptive hospital based study. Donor blood supplied to the hospital blood bank was screened for syphilis. The study was conducted between February ...

  17. Distribution of HIV Infections Among Blood Donors in Abia State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A five-year retrospective study on the distribution of HIV infection among blood donors was conducted at the Nigerian Christian Hospital, Onicha Ngwa. A total of 8862 prospective blood donors (comprising of 6504 males and 2358 females) were screened for HIV using the ELISA technique. Nine hundred and thirty five ...

  18. Hyperbilirubinemia in normal healthy donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arora Veena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in B.A.R.C. Hospital Blood Bank over a span of five years, and includes 2734 donors. All the bags were screened for HIV, HBsAg, HCV and VDRL and the plasma in the pilot tubes of the blood bags was observed to detect any abnormality in color. In 27 cases plasma was found to be icteric and liver function tests were carried out on these samples. Two donors showed higher SGPT level, and were excluded. No significant increases in liver enzymes were recorded in the others. Causes of icteric plasma in these apparently healthy donors are discussed. Differential diagnosis includes Gilbert′s disease, hemolytic anemia, drug-induced anemia and other hepatic causes of hyperbilirubinemia, of which Gilbert′s disease is most probable cause with a prevalence of 0.91% in our population. As there are no studies to document the safety of the recipients receiving such abnormal colored plasma as well as to document the hazards in its transfusion, the question arises whether to transfuse such units or not. This study highlights this dilemma. A reassessment of existing policies and regulations is merited.

  19. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Nitin

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Of the various options for patients with end stage renal disease, kidney transplantation is the treatment of choice for a suitable patient. The kidney for transplantation is retrieved from either a cadaver or a live donor. Living donor nephrectomy has been developed as a method to address the shortfall in cadaveric kidneys available for transplantation. Laparoscopic living donor nephrectomy (LLDN, by reducing postoperative pain, shortening convalescence, and improving the cosmetic outcome of the donor nephrectomy, has shown the potential to increase the number of living kidney donations further by removing some of the disincentives inherent to donation itself. The technique of LLDN has undergone evolution at different transplant centers and many modifications have been done to improve donor safety and recipient outcome. Virtually all donors eligible for an open surgical procedure may also undergo the laparoscopic operation. Various earlier contraindications to LDN, such as right donor kidney, multiple vessels, anomalous vasculature and obesity have been overcome with increasing experience. Laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy can be done transperitoneally or retroperitoneally on either side. The approach is most commonly transperitoneal, which allows adequate working space and easy dissection. A review of literature and our experience with regards to standard approach and the modifications is presented including a cost saving model for the developing countries. An assessment has been made, of the impact of LDN on the outcome of donor and the recipient.

  20. Systems of donor transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.T. de Charro (Frank); J.E.M. Akveld (Hans); E. Hessing (Ellen)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThe development of medical knowledge has resulted in a demand in society for donor organs, but the recruitment of donor organs for transplantation is difficult. This paper aims to provide some general insights into the complex interaction processes involved. A laissez-faire policy, in

  1. Dealing with Donor Anger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamee, Mike

    1995-01-01

    Techniques that reduce donors' resistance to college fund-raising requests, either direct mail or telephone solicitations, are offered. These include: respecting the prospects' concerns about privacy; offering nonintrusive giving options; honesty and clarity of communication; reinforcing donor sense of control; connecting with prospects'…

  2. Prevalence Of Hepatitis B And C Virus Amongst Blood Donors And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was designed to investigate incidences of both Hepatitis B and C Virus and serum activity of alanine aminotransaminase (ALT) amongst professional blood donors. For this study, 100 professional blood donors participated. Using blood samples collected from each donor, screening for HBV and HCV ...

  3. Nucleic Acid Amplification Test For Detection Of West Nile Virus Infection In Pakistani Blood Donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niazi, Saifullah Khan; Alam, Maqbool; Yazdani, Muhammad Sajid; Ghani, Eijaz; Rathore, Muhammad Ali

    2017-01-01

    The study was planned to determine the presence of West Nile Virus (WNV) infection in Pakistani blood donors, using Nucleic Acid Amplification Test (NAT). The blood donors for study were selected on the basis of the standard questionnaire and routine screening results. Six donors were pooled using an automated pipettor and NAT for WNV was performed on Roche Cobas s 201 NAT system. The reactive pools were resolved in Individual Donation-NAT (ID-NAT) format and a sample from FFP bags of reactive donations was retrieved. NAT was again performed on retrieved plasma bag (RPB) sample to confirm the reactive donations. The donors were also recalled and interviewed about history of illness related to recent WNV infection. After serological screening of 1929 donors during the study period, 1860 donors were selected for NAT test for WNV detection. The mean age of the donors was 28±8.77 (range: 18-57 years). 1847 (99.3%) donors were male and 13 (0.7%) were female. NAT for WNV identified six initially reactive pools (0.32%). On follow-up testing with RPB samples, 4 donors (0.21%) were found confirmed reactive for WNV RNA (NAT yield of 1 in 465 blood donors). WNV is a threat to safety of blood products in Pakistan. A screening strategy can be implemented after a large-scale study and financial considerations. One of the reduced cost screening strategies is seasonal screening of blood donors for WNV, with pooling of samples.

  4. A pilot program to evaluate deceased donor disease transmission risk: the New York Organ Donor Network Infectious Disease Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellett Madan, Rebecca; Delli Carpini, Kristin; Huprikar, Shirish; Lerner, Harvey; Patel, Gopi; Ratner, Lloyd E; Goldstein, Michael J; Herold, Betsy C

    2014-10-27

    Recent cases of donor-derived infections raise the question of how best to screen donors without excessive restriction of the donor pool. The New York Organ Donor Network (NYODN) established an Infectious Diseases Working Group (IDWG) in 2008, which established an on-call schedule of voluntary transplant infectious disease physicians to provide remote evaluations for donors at increased risk for disease transmission. Data were reviewed from 40 available IDWG evaluations from 2008 to 2011. Eighteen cases (45%) were considered to be at unacceptable risk for infection transmission. Sixteen of these cases were excluded from donation secondary to IDWG recommendation; there was limited recipient center interest in the remaining two cases. Approximately 22 (55%) cases were categorized by the IDWG as acceptable, with 14 proceeding to recovery of 49 organs. IDWG physician recommendations were conveyed to recipient centers, and screening guidelines for donors were revised based on the IDWG experiences. Establishment of a donation service area disease transmission evaluation service is a valuable program for donor screening and may promote dissemination of more detailed donor information to recipient centers.

  5. Detection of occult disease in tissue donors by routine autopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, J; Fresno, M F; Escudero, D; Seco, M; González, M; Peces, R

    1998-01-01

    The transmission of infectious and neoplastic diseases is a potential risk of tissue allografting. In this study, we analyzed the occurrence of occult disease in tissue donors as detected by standard screening and autopsy. Whereas 18% of the potential donors initially evaluated were eliminated on the basis of their medical and social histories, laboratory screening and autopsy revealed that an additional 9% of tissue donors had undetected, transmissible disease that prohibited tissue donation. This report emphasizes once again the risk of occult disease being transplanted with grafts and the need for autopsy to reduce the likelihood of this occurring. If donor selection, appropriate screening tests, and autopsy are carefully carried out, the risk of transmitting diseases from tissue allografts can be kept to a minimum.

  6. Sero prevalence of hepatitis -C antibodies in blood donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.U.; Akhtar, G.N.; Lodhi, Y.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence of anti HCV antibodies in blood donors. Design: The retrospective sero-epidemiological data of the institute of Hematology and Blood Transfusion Service, Punjab over a period of one year after starting HCV screening, was analyzed to estimate the percentage prevalence. Setting; The data was obtained regularly from the blood units established by this institute at the pablic sector hospitals and retesting on initially reactive serum sample by EIA was done at the Institute. Subjects: A total of 166183 directed first time donors or replacement blood donors aged 18-60 years who donated blood at these blood banks or at mobile sessions have been included in the study. All initially reactive donors who tested non-reactive on EIA were excluded from the study. Main outcome Measures: Assessment of prevalence of HCV in blood donors. Results: 4.45% of the total donors intially tested reactive of these 0.36 % were atsety reactive on intial screening. Further testing by EIA, 4.1%. Conclusions: The blood transfusion service started screening for HCV in April 2000 and the prevalence of HCV, amongst the transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs) being screened for in the Punjab, is the highest. It is almost double the prevalence of HBV and several thousand time that of HIV. Meticulous and total screening coverage is needed to curtail impending catastrophe. With experience, the choice of testing methodology might have to be reviewed. (author)

  7. Marginal kidney donor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh Gopalakrishnan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal transplantation is the treatment of choice for a medically eligible patient with end stage renal disease. The number of renal transplants has increased rapidly over the last two decades. However, the demand for organs has increased even more. This disparity between the availability of organs and waitlisted patients for transplants has forced many transplant centers across the world to use marginal kidneys and donors. We performed a Medline search to establish the current status of marginal kidney donors in the world. Transplant programs using marginal deceased renal grafts is well established. The focus is now on efforts to improve their results. Utilization of non-heart-beating donors is still in a plateau phase and comprises a minor percentage of deceased donations. The main concern is primary non-function of the renal graft apart from legal and ethical issues. Transplants with living donors outnumbered cadaveric transplants at many centers in the last decade. There has been an increased use of marginal living kidney donors with some acceptable medical risks. Our primary concern is the safety of the living donor. There is not enough scientific data available to quantify the risks involved for such donation. The definition of marginal living donor is still not clear and there are no uniform recommendations. The decision must be tailored to each donor who in turn should be actively involved at all levels of the decision-making process. In the current circumstances, our responsibility is very crucial in making decisions for either accepting or rejecting a marginal living donor.

  8. [Is syphilis test necessary in blood donors?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-López, María Rebeca F; Arenas-Esqueda, Alfonso; Ambriz-Fernández, Raúl

    2009-01-01

    A syphilis test is performed in blood donors because the national transfusion law makes it mandatory, nevertheless the blood has not been found as an important vehicle of transmission for Treponema pallidum infection. Our objective was to know the prevalence of syphilis in blood donors. we reviewed tests from blood donors of the "Banco Central de Sangre del Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI" in two periods, the first from July 2001 to April 2003, and the second from March 2005 to June 2006. Both groups went through screening tests, such as VDRL or USR. and a second test for confirmation, FTA-ABS for the first group and TPHA for the second group. in the first group 111 030 blood donors were included. In this group the positive results from VDRL or USR tests were 471 (0.42 %). One hundred and ninety six were confirmed (0.17 %) with FTA-ABS. In the second group results from 80 578 blood donors were included; the positive results from VDRL or USR tests were 279 (0.34 %). In this group, only 0.08 % were confirmed for a syphilis infection.

  9. Independent donor ethical assessment: aiming to standardize donor advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Devasmita; Jotterand, Fabrice; Casenave, Gerald; Smith-Morris, Carolyn

    2014-06-01

    Living organ donation has become more common across the world. To ensure an informed consent process, given the complex issues involved with organ donation, independent donor advocacy is required. The choice of how donor advocacy is administered is left up to each transplant center. This article presents the experience and process of donor advocacy at University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center administered by a multidisciplinary team consisting of physicians, surgeons, psychologists, medical ethicists and anthropologists, lawyers, a chaplain, a living kidney donor, and a kidney transplant recipient. To ensure that advocacy remains fair and consistent for all donors being considered, the donor advocacy team at University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center developed the Independent Donor Ethical Assessment, a tool that may be useful to others in rendering donor advocacy. In addition, the tool may be modified as circumstances arise to improve donor advocacy and maintain uniformity in decision making.

  10. 78 FR 13069 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Recommendations for Screening, Testing, and, Management of Blood...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... of Blood Donors and Blood and Blood Components Based on Screening Tests for Syphilis; Availability... Management of Blood Donors and Blood and Blood Components Based on Screening Tests for Syphilis,'' dated... for Screening, Testing, and Management of Blood Donors and Blood and Blood Components Based on...

  11. The Serologic Screening for Celiac Disease in the General Population (Blood Donors) and in Some High-Risk Groups of Adults (Patients with AutoimmuneDiseases, Osteoporosis and Infertility) in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vančíková, Z.; Chlumecký, Vít; Sokol, Dan; Horáková, Dana; Hamšíková, E.; Fučíková, T.; Janatková, T.; Ulčová-Gallová, Z.; Štěpán, J.; Límanová, Z.; Dvořák, M.; Kocna, P.; Sánchez, Daniel; Tučková, Ludmila; Tlaskalová, Helena

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 6 (2002), s. 753-758 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/01/0933; GA ČR GA303/01/1380; GA AV ČR IBS5020203; GA MZe QD1023 Keywords : blood donors * osteoporosis * infertility Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.979, year: 2002

  12. Causes of iron overload in blood donors - a clinical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, A H; Bjerrum, O W; Friis-Hansen, L

    2018-01-01

    of hyperferritinaemia in the blood donor population and explore the value of extensive HH mutational analyses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-nine consecutive donors (f = 6, m = 43) were included prospectively from the Capital Regional Blood Center. Inclusion criteria were a single ferritin value >1000 μg/l or repeated......BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Despite the obligate iron loss from blood donation, some donors present with hyperferritinaemia that can result from a wide range of acute and chronic conditions including hereditary haemochromatosis (HH). The objective of our study was to investigate the causes...... four donors had apparent alternative causes of hyperferritinaemia. CONCLUSION: HH-related mutations were the most frequent cause of hyperferritinaemia in a Danish blood donor population, and it appears that several different HH-genotypes can contribute to hyperferritinaemia. HH screening in blood...

  13. ِAnalysis of donor motivations in living donor liver transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham eAbdeldayem

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The introduction of the living donor liver transplantation (LDLT in Egypt as in elsewhere, has raised important psychological conflicts and ethical questions. The objective of this study was to get better understanding of the potential donors’ motives towards LDLT.Methods:This study was conducted on consecutive 193 living –liver donors who underwent partial hepatectomy as donors for LDLT during the period between April 2003 and January 2013, at the National Liver Institute Menoufeyia University, Egypt. Potential donors were thoroughly evaluated preoperatively through a screening questionnaire and interviews as regard their demographic data, relationship to the potential recipient and motives towards proceeding to surgery. They were assured that the information shared between them and the transplant centre is confidential. Results.The donors’ mean age was 25.53± 6.39 years with a range of 18-45 years. Males represented 64.7 % and females were 35.3%. The most common donors (32.1%, n_62, were sons and daughters to their parents (sons: n_43, daughters: n_19 while parents to their offsprings represent 15% (mothers: n_21, fathers: n_8. Brothers and sisters represent 16.5 % (brothers: n_22, sisters: n_10. Nephews & nieces giving their uncles or aunts were 14%. The number of wives donating to their husbands was 11 (5.7%. Interestingly, there was no single husband who donated his wife. Among the remaining donors, there were 11 cousins & one uncle. Unrelated donors were 20 (10.4%. Several factors seemed to contribute to motivation for donation: the seriousness of the potential recipient condition, the relationship and personal history of the donor to the potential recipient, the religious beliefs, the trust in the health care system, and family dynamics and obligations.Conclusions. Absolute absence of coercion on the living-liver donor’s motives may not be realistic because of the serious condition of the potential recipient. It is

  14. The Adoption of a One-Day Donor Assessment Model in a Living Kidney Donor Transplant Program: A Quality Improvement Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Judi M; Courtney, Aisling E

    2018-02-01

    Survival of kidney transplants and their recipients is significantly better after living donor than after deceased donor transplantation. However, historically, Northern Ireland has had a low rate of living donor kidney transplantation. The length and complexity of donor evaluation has been one of the main factors contributing to this pattern. Quality improvement project. All people in Northern Ireland expressing an interest in becoming a living kidney donor between 2010 and 2015. Potential donors deemed to be suitable after a screening questionnaire attended a comprehensive 1-day evaluation including all investigations that had been previously been implemented across multiple clinical visits. Change in rate of living donor transplantation following the quality improvement intervention. Demographic data and reasons for nondonation. 431 potential donors underwent a 1-day assessment, with 284 (66%) ultimately donating and 12 (3%) still active in the program. Of the 135 (31%) potential donors who did not donate, 48 were unsuitable due to medical or surgical issues, 2 became pregnant, and 18 withdrew. For 38 (9%) potential donors, intended recipients found an alternative living or deceased donor transplant. For 29 (6%) potential donors, the transplantation did not proceed because of recipient-related issues. The annual rate of living donor kidney transplantation in Northern Ireland increased from a mean of 4.3 per million population (pmp) between 2000 and 2009 to 32.6 pmp between 2011 and 2015. Single geographical region with a potentially unrepresentative population and health care organization. Retrospective observational study. Paucity of data from the preintervention period. Following implementation of a 1-day assessment process, we observed a considerable and sustained increase in the rate of living donor kidney transplantation. Making donor evaluation easier holds promise to increase the number of living donor kidney transplants, potentially optimizing outcomes

  15. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Wednesday 13 November 2002 in restaurant nr 2, from 8.30 to 16.30 hrs will be held a blood donors campaign, organized by the Etablissement de Transfusion de Haute-Savoie If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  16. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    Tuesday 19 March 2002 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion sanguine of Geneva If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  17. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion Sanguine of Geneva will be held at CERN on Tuesday 13 March 2001 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  18. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion d'Annemasse will be held at CERN on Tuesday 14 November 2001 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  19. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    A blood donors campaign, organized by the Établissement de Transfusion de Rhône-Alpes will be held at CERN on Tuesday 14 November 2000 in restaurant nr 2, from 8.30 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  20. Donor transplant programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu Bakar Sulaiman

    1999-01-01

    The transplantation of organs and tissues from one human to another human has become an essential and well established form of therapy for many types of organ and tissue failure. In Malaysia, kidney, cornea and bone marrow transplantation are well established. Recently, liver, bone and heart transplanation have been performed. Unfortunately, because of the lack of cadaveric organ donation, only a limited number of solid organ transplantation have been performed. The cadaveric organ donor rate in Malaysia is low at less than one per million population. The first tissue transplanted in Malaysia was the cornea which was performed in the early 1970s. At that time and even now the majority of corneas came from Sri Lanka. The first kidney transplant was performed in 1975 from a live related donor. The majority of the 629 kidney transplants done at Hospital Kuala Lumpur to date have been from live related donors. Only 35 were from cadaver donors. Similarly, the liver transplantation programme which started in 1995 are from live related donors. A more concerted effort has been made recently to increase the awareness of the public and the health professionals on organ and tissue donation. This national effort to promote organ and tissue donation seems to have gathered momentum in 1997 with the first heart transplant successfully performed at the National Heart Institute. The rate of cadaveric donors has also increased from a previous average of I to 2 per year to 6 per year in the last one year. These developments are most encouraging and may signal the coming of age of our transplantati on programme. The Ministry of Health in conjunction with various institutions, organizations and professional groups, have taken a number of proactive measures to facilitate the development of the cadaveric organ donation programme. Efforts to increase public awareness and to overcome the negative cultural attitude towards organ donation have been intensified. Equally important are efforts

  1. Validation of the haemoglobin colour scale for screening blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background In 2009 Malawi introduced a new protocol to screen potential blood donors for anaemia, using the WHO Haemoglobin Colour Scale (HCS) for initial screening. Published studies of the accuracy of the HCS to screen potential blood donors show varying levels of accuracy and opinion varies whether this is an ...

  2. ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Blood Donor’s Status of HIV, HBV, HCV and Syphilis in this Region of Marathwada, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangrao H. Deshpande

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Aims & Objectives: Blood transfusion can cause the transmission of infections to recipients. This is an important mode of infection. The aim of study was to assess the prevalence of such type of infections among blood donors and to compare the seroprevalence of transfusion transmitted diseases in voluntary donors and replacement donors. Retrospective study of five years from Jan. 2007 to Dec. 2011 was done. This study was conducted at Blood bank, MIMSR Medical College Latur, Govt. Medical College, Latur and Bhalchandra Blood bank, Latur. Material & Methods: Total 10, 4925 donors were tested. Donors were screened for seroprevalence of HIV, HBC, HCV and Syphilis. Screening of HIV, HBV & HCV was done by ELISA method & Syphilis was screened by RPR type. Results: The comparison of seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV & Syphilis in voluntary donors and replacement donors showed significant difference only for HIV in the years 2007, 2010, and 2011. Conclusion: The seroprevalence of transfusion transmitted diseases in the study is very low or negligible in voluntary donors as compared to replacement donors. There was a declining trend of seroprevalence for all the disease screened. But in our study the difference is not significant, which indicates that the selection of donors is of low quality. The selection of high quality voluntary donors should be achieved by creation of awareness by education of the prospective donor populations.

  3. Live nondirected uterus donors: Psychological characteristics and motivation for donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, A M; Testa, G; Anthony, T; McKenna, G J; Klintmalm, G B; Wallis, K; Koon, E C; Gunby, R T; Johannesson, L

    2018-01-24

    Emerging research suggests that uterus transplantation is a viable option for women without a uterus who want to become pregnant and carry a child to term. Currently, no knowledge exists regarding nondirected uterus donors. This study (NCT 02656550) explored the baseline psychological characteristics of nondirected uterus donors at a single study site. Of the 62 potential donors who underwent initial screening, 6 nondirected donors were chosen and participated in uterus donation. Participants received a comprehensive evaluation, which included clinical history and psychological assessments. The mean age of the donors was 42 years; most (83%) were white/not Hispanic, and all had a college degree. Current depression was reported by 2 participants, past depression was reported in 2 participants, and past anxiety was reported in 3 participants. Based on several different psychological measures, donors had a higher general well-being than the normative sample, and none of the participants' scores indicated psychological distress. All 6 women indicated that giving another woman an opportunity to carry her own child was a motivation for pursuing uterus donation. Further research on potential psychological motives and gains for the donor as well as long-term effects on donors is crucial for ethical practice. © 2018 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  4. Donor conversion and procurement failure: the fate of our potential organ donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Bernardino C; Inaba, Kenji; Lam, Lydia; Salim, Ali; Barmparas, Galinos; Teixeira, Pedro G R; Talving, Peep; Demetriades, Demetrios

    2011-02-01

    Donor availability remains the primary limiting factor for organ transplantation today. The purpose of this study was to examine the causes of procurement failure amongst potential organ donors. After Institutional Review Board approval, all surgical intensive care unit (SICU) patients admitted to the LAC+USC Medical Center from 01/2006 to 12/2008 who became potential organ donors were identified. Demographics, clinical data, and procurement data were abstracted. In non-donors, the causes of procurement failure were documented. During the 3-year study period, a total of 254 patients were evaluated for organ donation. Mean age was 44.8±18.7 years; 191 (75.2%) were male, 136 (53.5%) were Hispanic, and 148 (58.3%) were trauma patients. Of the 254 patients, 116 (45.7%) were not eligible for donation: 34 had multi-system organ failure, 24 did not progress to brain death and had support withdrawn, 18 had uncontrolled sepsis, 15 had malignancy, 6 had human immunodeficiency virus or hepatitis B or C, and 19 patients had other contraindications to organ donation. Of the remaining 138 eligible patients, 83 (60.2%) did not donate: 56 because the family denied consent, 9 by their own choice. In six, next of kin could not be located, five died because of hemodynamic instability before organ procurement was possible, four had organs that could not be placed, and three had their organs declined by the organ procurement organization. The overall consent rate was 57.5% (n=67). From the 55 donors, 255 organs were procured (yield 4.6 organs/donor). Of all patients screened for organ donation, only a fifth actually donated. Denial of consent was the major potentially preventable cause of procurement failure, whereas hemodynamic instability accounted for only a small percentage of donor losses. With such low conversion rates, the preventable causes of procurement failure warrant further study.

  5. [Lack of knowledge among blood donors in Burkina Faso (West Africa); potential obstacle to transfusion security].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nébié, K Y; Olinger, C M; Kafando, E; Dahourou, H; Diallo, S; Kientega, Y; Domo, Y; Kienou, K; Ouattara, S; Sawadogo, I; Ky, L; Muller, C P

    2007-11-01

    The measures recommended to reduce TTD include clinical selection of donors, based on a standardized questionnaire which aims to find out antecedents and behaviours predicting transmitted diseases within donors. The effectiveness of this measure is well established in the industrialized countries where the level of education of the population may support a greater receptivity of donors about this procedure. What is happening in developing one? This study was carried out to assess knowledge attitude and behaviours among blood donors regarding blood and transfusion safety in Burkina Faso. A cross sectional study was carried out in the blood bank of the teaching hospital of Ouagadougou. In addition to the routine questionnaire, 544 included blood donors were subjected to additional questions seeking to specify their behaviours, knowledge and attitude towards TTD diseases and screening. Donors were from 16 to 57 years of age (mean age : 28+/-7.9 years). The majority of donors were male (71.2%). Family donors represent 52% and first time donors 55%. About 30.8% were illiterate or of primary school level. A percentage of 14.4 donate to access HIV testing and 30.7% will donate blood immediately to check any contamination in case of exposure. There was no difference between donors having been informed about their HIV status in the past and the other donors regarding HIV, HBs Ag and VHC results. This study suggests that there is some great need for donors' education on transfusion safety. There is also need for staff training in donors' management.

  6. Targeted pathologic evaluation of bone marrow donors identifies previously undiagnosed marrow abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilson, Matthew P; Jones, Richard J; Sexauer, Amy; Griffin, C A; Morsberger, Laura A; Batista, Denise A S; Small, Donald; Burns, Kathleen H; Gocke, Christopher D; Vuica-Ross, Milena; Borowitz, Michael J; Duffield, Amy S

    2013-08-01

    Potential bone marrow donors are screened to ensure the safety of both the donor and recipient. At our institution, potential donors with abnormal peripheral blood cell counts, a personal history of malignancy, or age >60 years are evaluated to ensure that they are viable candidates for donation. Evaluation of the marrow includes morphologic, flow cytometric, and cytogenetic studies. A total of 122 potential donors were screened between the years of 2001 and 2011, encompassing approximately 10% of all donors. Of the screened potential donors, the mean age was 59 years and there were 59 men and 63 women. The donors were screened because of age >60 years (n = 33), anemia (n = 22), cytopenias other than anemia (n = 27), elevated peripheral blood counts without a concurrent cytopenia (n = 20), elevated peripheral blood counts with a concurrent cytopenia (n = 10), history of malignancy (n = 4), abnormal peripheral blood differential (n = 3), prior graft failure (n = 1), history of treatment with chemotherapy (n = 1), and body habitus (n = 1). Marrow abnormalities were detected in 9% (11 of 122) of donors. These donors were screened because of anemia (5 of 22, 23%), age >60 years (2 of 33, 6%), history of malignancy (2 of 4, 50%), elevated peripheral blood counts (1 of 20, 5%), and body habitus (1 of 1, 100%). Abnormalities included plasma cell dyscrasia (n = 3), abnormal marrow cellularity (n = 3), clonal cytogenetic abnormalities (n = 2), low-grade myelodysplastic syndrome (1), a mutated JAK2 V617F allele (n = 1), and monoclonal B cell lymphocytosis (n = 1). Our experience indicates that extended screening of potential donors identifies a significant number of donors with previously undiagnosed marrow abnormalities. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Transmission of Donor-Derived Trypanosoma cruzi and Subsequent Development of Chagas Disease in a Lung Transplant Recipient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Corey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Donor infection status should be considered when accepting an organ for transplant. Here we present a case of Chagas disease developing after a lung transplant where the donor was known to be Trypanosoma cruzi antibody positive. The recipient developed acute Trypanosoma cruzi infection with reactivation after treatment. Chagas disease-positive donors are likely to be encountered in the United States; donor targeted screening is needed to guide decisions regarding organ transplant and posttransplant monitoring.

  8. Prevalence of irregular red blood cell antibodies among healthy blood donors in Delhi population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Neeraj; Sharma, Tanya; Singh, Bharat

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of the anti-red blood cell antibodies among healthy blood donors. Antibody screening of all voluntary blood donor serum was performed as routine immunohematological procedure. Positive sera were further investigated to identify the specificity of irregular erythrocyte antibody by commercially available red cell panel (ID-Dia Panel, Diamed-ID Microtyping System). A total of 47,450 donors were screened for the presence of irregular erythrocyte antibodies. A total of forty-six donors showed presence of alloantibodies in their serum (46/47,450%, 0.09%), yielding a prevalence of 0.09%. Most frequent alloantibodies identified were of MNS blood group system. The results showed statistically a higher prevalence of RBC alloantibodies in females than in males. Screening for presence of alloantibodies in donor blood is important to provide compatible blood products and to avoid transfusion reactions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Nucleic acid amplification test for detection of west nile virus infection in pakistani blood donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niazi, S.K.; Alam, M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The study was planned to determine the presence of West Nile Virus (WNV) infection in Pakistani blood donors, using Nucleic Acid Amplification Test (NAT). Methods: The blood donors for study were selected on the basis of the standard questionnaire and routine screening results. Six donors were pooled using an automated pipettor and NAT for WNV was performed on Roche Cobas s 201 NAT system. The reactive pools were resolved in Individual Donation-NAT (ID-NAT) format and a sample from FFP bags of reactive donations was retrieved. NAT was again performed on retrieved plasma bag (RPB) sample to confirm the reactive donations. The donors were also recalled and interviewed about history of illness related to recent WNV infection. Results: After serological screening of 1929 donors during the study period, 1860 donors were selected for NAT test for WNV detection. The mean age of the donors was 28±8.77 (range: 18–57 years). 1847 (99.3%) donors were male and 13 (0.7%) were female. NAT for WNV identified six initially reactive pools (0.32%). On follow-up testing with RPB samples, 4 donors (0.21%) were found confirmed reactive for WNV RNA (NAT yield of 1 in 465 blood donors). Conclusion: WNV is a threat to safety of blood products in Pakistan. A screening strategy can be implemented after a large-scale study and financial considerations. One of the reduced cost screening strategies is seasonal screening of blood donors for WNV, with pooling of samples. (author)

  10. Donor deferral due to anemia: A tertiary care center-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahadur Shalini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The minimum hemoglobin cutoff for blood donation in India is 12.5 gm% for both male and female donors and the minimum donation interval is 3 months. Donation of one unit of blood results in decrease in hemoglobin by 1 gm% and loss of 200-250 mg of iron. Donor deferral due to anemia is one of the major reasons of temporary rejection of blood donors. In the absence of further workup or advise, it results in loss of valuable donor base. Aim and Objective: To provide baseline information regarding the prevalence and spectrum of anemia in prospective blood donors to help plan a future strategy for donor management. Materials and Methods: Hemoglobin testing of donors was performed using Hemocue and Copper sulfate specific gravity method. Ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid sample of all the donors who failed either or both the screening tests was tested on automated analyzer for evaluation of hemoglobin and red blood cell indices. Results: Of all the donors, 15.5% were deferred due to anemia. Prevalence of anemia in prospective blood donors was 1.8%. It was significantly higher in female donors compared with male donors (34.2% vs 1.2%. The most common type of anemia was normocytic normochromic.

  11. Donor attention to reading materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, S F; Osmond, L; Choquet, K; Yi, Q-L; Goldman, M

    2015-11-01

    Mandatory predonation reading materials inform donors about risk factors for transmissible disease, possible complications of donation and changes to the donation process. We aimed to assess the attention to predonation reading materials and factors which may affect attention. A national survey in 2008 of 18,108 blood donors asked about self-assessed attention to reading the materials. In face-to-face interviews, 441 donors completed additional questions about reading the materials and a literacy test. Qualitative interviews of 27 donors assessed their approach to reading. In the national survey, most of the first-time donors said they read all or most of the materials (90.9% first-time vs. 57.6% repeat donors, P reading them carefully (P read materials carefully, skimmed or did not read, most knew that donors are informed of positive transmissible disease test results (97.1%, 95.5, 98.0 P > 0.05), but fewer recalled seeing the definition of sex (77.2%, 56.9, 24.2 P read materials carefully, skimmed or did not read were compared (P > 0.05). Qualitative interviews showed that donors are reluctant to read any more than necessary and decide based on perceived importance or relevance. Attention to predonation reading materials tends to be better among first-time donors. The effectiveness is limited by low motivation to read, especially for repeat donors, as well as poor literacy. © 2015 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  12. Viral transfusion transmissible infections amongst blood donors in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1 These safety procedures refer to the small preliminary donation made on site. This is firstly cross-matched for compatibility with the intended recipient, if the donor is suitable the blood sample is then screened for the listed infectious agents. It is only those individuals who are clear of infection and compatible with the.

  13. Sexual behaviour and practices among adolescent blood donors in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nevertheless, they also reported on the acceptability of unprotected sex with sexual partners perceived to be HIV negative. Social status ascribed to blood donors, and mandatory HIV screening of donated blood, were protective against risky sexual behaviour. However, socio-economic and cultural factors may override this.

  14. Bartonella spp. bacteremia in blood donors from Campinas, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Helena Urso Pitassi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bartonella species are blood-borne, re-emerging organisms, capable of causing prolonged infection with diverse disease manifestations, from asymptomatic bacteremia to chronic debilitating disease and death. This pathogen can survive for over a month in stored blood. However, its prevalence among blood donors is unknown, and screening of blood supplies for this pathogen is not routinely performed. We investigated Bartonella spp. prevalence in 500 blood donors from Campinas, Brazil, based on a cross-sectional design. Blood samples were inoculated into an enrichment liquid growth medium and sub-inoculated onto blood agar. Liquid culture samples and Gram-negative isolates were tested using a genus specific ITS PCR with amplicons sequenced for species identification. Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana antibodies were assayed by indirect immunofluorescence. B. henselae was isolated from six donors (1.2%. Sixteen donors (3.2% were Bartonella-PCR positive after culture in liquid or on solid media, with 15 donors infected with B. henselae and one donor infected with Bartonella clarridgeiae. Antibodies against B. henselae or B. quintana were found in 16% and 32% of 500 blood donors, respectively. Serology was not associated with infection, with only three of 16 Bartonella-infected subjects seropositive for B. henselae or B. quintana. Bartonella DNA was present in the bloodstream of approximately one out of 30 donors from a major blood bank in South America. Negative serology does not rule out Bartonella spp. infection in healthy subjects. Using a combination of liquid and solid cultures, PCR, and DNA sequencing, this study documents for the first time that Bartonella spp. bacteremia occurs in asymptomatic blood donors. Our findings support further evaluation of Bartonella spp. transmission which can occur through blood transfusions.

  15. International collaborative donor project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos Zambudio, Antonio

    2018-02-01

    The International Donor Collaborative Project (PCID) research group was created in 1996 in Spain with the aim of promoting research in the field of organ donation and transplantation, led by Spanish surgeons. During this period they have developed the questionnaires of the PCID, both the attitude towards cadaver and live donation, which are the most used questionnaires in publications in indexed journals. They have been the driving group of stratified studies representative of the populations under study, and of the performance of multivariate statistical analyzes in the field of psycho-social research in organ donation and transplantation. The main contributions of the group focus on the analysis of health center professionals and emerging migrant groups. In recent years, studies have been extended to the United States, Latin America (mainly Mexico) and Europe. Copyright © 2017 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Negative peri-donation events among whole blood donors in a blood bank in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasola, Foluke A

    2017-12-31

    The existence and sustenance of the blood bank depends on blood donors. It is imperative that the donation experience is satisfactory for the donors. Therefore this study was carried out to determine the frequency of undesirable events experienced by the blood donor as part of donor haemovigilance. This was a retrospective descriptive study of the events that occurred amongst the blood donors of the blood bank of a tertiary institution. The blood donor incident book was reviewed for the period of six months. Negative undesirable events occurred in 2% of the donor populations, of which 45.8% could not complete the blood donation process while only 16.7% completed the blood donation process. Mild vasovagal attack occurred in 0.2% of the donor population. Undisclosed deferrable risk factors/ behaviours were identified by the phlebotomist in the bleeding room which made donors unfit for donation even though they had passed the donor screening criteria. This accounted for 20.8% of those with negative experience. Guidelines are required to identify donors that are not likely to complete donation to avoid wastage of time, blood, resources and reduce undesirable experiences.

  17. Group O low titre only emergency donor panels for small combat teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Heidi; Maguire, A; Fitchett, G; Parker, P

    2017-12-01

    Military elements increasingly operate in small teams in remote areas with no immediate blood product support. Planners and operators may endorse collection of fresh whole blood from pretested donors in emergency situations. The biggest risk of transfusion is the accidental use of ABO incompatible blood which can be fatal. The risk may be mitigated by using only group O LOw (OLO) titre donors with plasma containing low levels of the naturally occurring antibody to group A and B red cells. This paper reviews the ABO blood group distribution in potential blood donors from a high readiness UK medical regiment and explores the feasibility of using only group OLO donors in small teams. A retrospective review of routine volunteer blood donor samples was undertaken at 6 monthly intervals during a 2-year period. Personnel were tested in groups when available during training to create multiple donor panels to simulate small teams. 206 donation samples were collected from 157 potential donors. All donors were acceptable based on the lifestyle questionnaire, serology and microbiology screen. Of the 206 samples reviewed, 85 (41%) were group O (D pos and D neg). 14 group O (16.5%) were shown to have high titre of anti-A or B. Therefore, 71, that is, 34% overall were suitable as OLO donors. The donor panel size varied from 15 to 44. The absolute number of OLO donors in each panel ranged from 4 to 17 and the number of O neg donors was 0-3. A third of samples were suitable as OLO donors; however, there were insufficient 'universal' donors within smaller subgroups (group O and group A donors or the use of a buddy-buddy blood group matrix. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Donor selection criteria and procurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agcaoili, N.R.

    1999-01-01

    Donor selection is one of the most important aspects of tissue banking practice. Without a good donor selection criteria, the results of any effort of trying to preserve tissues will have disastrous outcome for the recipient of these tissues. While with a very good and strict donor selection the Tissue Bank can guarantee safe and effective tissue allografts. There are significant aspects in the history and physical examination of the donor that must be emphasized. A donor exclusion criteria has also been formulated together with a list of all the needed laboratory examinations to eliminate possible diseases that may be transferred from the donor. The methods of procurement of tissue allografts from living and cadaver donors will be described. The limitations and advantages of each will be taken.There are also special restrictions that are important in the practice of removing the tissues from the donors. All the necessary equipment should be ready and the potential risk on the personnel should be known to all doing Tissue Banking

  19. Heart transplantation from older donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Poptsov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current situation of the shortage of suitable donor organs, heart transplantation from older donors is one of the ways to increase the performance of more heart transplants, particularly, in patients with urgent need of transplantation. While planning a heart transplantation from older donor one should consider increased risk of early cardiac allograft dysfunction, preexisting coronary artery disease, accelerated transplant vasculopathy which may adversely affect early and long-term survival of recipients. Subject to careful selection of donor–recipient pairs, effective prevention and treatment of early cardiac allograft dysfunction, pre-existing atherosclerosis and transplant vasculopathy the early and long-term survival of heart transplant recipients from older donors is comparable to heart transplantation from young donors.

  20. Replacement of HIV p24 Ag test by a multiplex RT-PCR method for primary screening of blood donors Substituição do teste de p24 Ag (HIV por um RT-PCR multiplex na triagem primária de doadores de sangue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Levi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Nucleic Acid Testing (NAT as a tool for primary screening of blood donors became a reality in the end of the 1990 decade. We report here the development of an "in-house" RT-PCR method that allows the simultaneous (multiplex detection of HCV and HIV-RNA in addition to an artificial RNA employed as an external control. This method detects all HIV group M subtypes, plus group N and O, with a detection threshold of 500 IU/mL. After validation, the method replaced p24 Ag testing, in use for blood donation screening since 1996 at our services. From July 2001 to February 2006, 102,469 donations were tested and 41 (0.04% were found HIV-RNA reactive. One NAT-only reactive donation (antibody non-reactive was observed, with subsequent seroconversion of the implied donor, giving a yield of 1:102,469. This rate is in contrast to the international experience that reports a detection of approximately 1:600,000 - 1:3,100,000 of isolated HIV-RNA donations.O uso de testes de ácidos nucleicos (NAT na rotina de triagem de doadores de sangue tornou-se uma realidade ao final da década de 1990. Descreve-se aqui uma metodologia de RT-PCR multiplex "in-house" que permite a detecção simultânea dos RNAs dos vírus HIV e HCV além de uma molécula artificial de RNA usada como controle externo. O método detecta todos os subtipos de HIV do grupo M e também do grupo N e O, com uma sensibilidade de 500 UI/mL. Após validação, este teste substituiu o do antígeno p24, até então na rotina de triagem em nosso laboratório, desde 1996. De julho de 2001 a fevereiro de 2006 foram testadas 102.469 doações e 41 (0.04% foram NAT reativas. Uma doação NAT isoladamente reativa (anticorpo não-reativa foi detectada com soroconversão subseqüente do doador, portanto, o rendimento do NAT nesta população até o presente momento é de 1:102.469. Este número contrasta com a experiência obtida internacionalmente, onde taxas de 1:600.000 - 1:3.100.000 foram descritas.

  1. Voluntary whole-blood donors, and compensated platelet donors and plasma donors: motivation to donate, altruism and aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimmel, Michael; Lattacher, Helene; Janda, Monika

    2005-10-01

    To establish if voluntary whole-blood donors and compensated platelet donors and plasma donors may differ in their motivation to donate, altruism, aggression and autoaggression. Whole-blood (n=51), platelet (n=52) and plasma donors (n=48) completed a battery of validated questionnaires while waiting to donate. Bivariate and multivariate analyses of variance and t-tests were performed to detect differences between groups as noted. Altruism (mean=40.2) was slightly higher in whole-blood donors than in platelet (mean=38.3) and plasma donors (mean=39.1) (p=0.07). Blood donors (mean=2.8) scored lower in the spontaneous aggression measure than platelet (mean=4.1) and plasma donors (mean=4.4) (p=0.01). Plasma donors (mean=4.9) had higher auto-aggression than whole-blood donors and platelet donors (mean for both groups=3.4) (p=0.01). Differences between the three groups were mediated by sociodemographic variables (MANCOVA). Whole-blood donors donated to help others, platelet and plasma donors mostly to receive the compensation. However, those platelet and plasma donors, who would continue to donate without compensation were similar in altruism and aggression to whole-blood donors. While most platelet donors and plasma donors were motivated by the compensation, those who stated that they would continue to donate without compensation had altruism and aggression scores similar to voluntary whole-blood donors.

  2. Hepatitis B virus genotypes and evolutionary profiles from blood donors from the northwest region of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hepatitis B virus (HBV is prevalent in China and screening of blood donors is mandatory. Up to now, ELISA has been universally used by the China blood bank. However, this strategy has sometimes failed due to the high frequency of nucleoside acid mutations. Understanding HBV evolution and strain diversity could help devise a better screening system for blood donors. However, this kind of information in China, especially in the northwest region, is lacking. In the present study, serological markers and the HBV DNA load of 11 samples from blood donor candidates from northwest China were determined. The HBV strains were most clustered into B and C genotypes and could not be clustered into similar types from reference sequences. Subsequent testing showed liver function impairment and increasing virus load in the positive donors. This HBV evolutionary data for China will allow for better ELISA and NAT screening efficiency in the blood bank of China, especially in the northwest region.

  3. Donor-Derived Strongyloides stercoralis Infection in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients in the United States, 2009–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abanyie, F. A.; Gray, E. B.; Delli Carpini, K. W.; Yanofsky, A.; McAuliffe, I.; Rana, M.; Chin-Hong, P. V.; Barone, C. N.; Davis, J. L.; Montgomery, S. P.; Huprikar, S.

    2016-01-01

    Infection with Strongyloides stercoralis is typically asymptomatic in immunocompetent hosts, despite chronic infection. In contrast, immunocompromised hosts such as solid organ transplant recipients are at risk for hyperinfection syndrome and/or disseminated disease, frequently resulting in fatal outcomes. Infection in these recipients may result from reactivation of latent infection or infection through transmission from an infected donor. We describe the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's experience with seven clusters of donor-derived infection from 2009 to 2013. Six of the seven (86%) donors were born in Latin America; donor screening was not performed prior to organ transplantation in any of these investigations. Eleven of the 20 (55%) organ recipients were symptomatic, two of whom died from complications of strongyloidiasis. We also describe the New York Organ Donor Network (NYODN) experience with targeted donor screening from 2010 to 2013. Of the 233 consented potential donors tested, 10 tested positive for Strongyloides antibody; and 18 organs were transplanted. The majority (86%) of the donors were born in Central or South America. Fourteen recipients received prophylaxis after transplantation; no recipients developed strongyloidiasis. The NYODN experience provides evidence that when targeted donor screening is performed prior to transplantation, donor-derived infection can be averted in recipients. PMID:25703251

  4. Donor-derived Strongyloides stercoralis infection in solid organ transplant recipients in the United States, 2009-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abanyie, F A; Gray, E B; Delli Carpini, K W; Yanofsky, A; McAuliffe, I; Rana, M; Chin-Hong, P V; Barone, C N; Davis, J L; Montgomery, S P; Huprikar, S

    2015-05-01

    Infection with Strongyloides stercoralis is typically asymptomatic in immunocompetent hosts, despite chronic infection. In contrast, immunocompromised hosts such as solid organ transplant recipients are at risk for hyperinfection syndrome and/or disseminated disease, frequently resulting in fatal outcomes. Infection in these recipients may result from reactivation of latent infection or infection through transmission from an infected donor. We describe the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's experience with seven clusters of donor-derived infection from 2009 to 2013. Six of the seven (86%) donors were born in Latin America; donor screening was not performed prior to organ transplantation in any of these investigations. Eleven of the 20 (55%) organ recipients were symptomatic, two of whom died from complications of strongyloidiasis. We also describe the New York Organ Donor Network (NYODN) experience with targeted donor screening from 2010 to 2013. Of the 233 consented potential donors tested, 10 tested positive for Strongyloides antibody; and 18 organs were transplanted. The majority (86%) of the donors were born in Central or South America. Fourteen recipients received prophylaxis after transplantation; no recipients developed strongyloidiasis. The NYODN experience provides evidence that when targeted donor screening is performed prior to transplantation, donor-derived infection can be averted in recipients. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  5. Depression Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Depression Screening Substance Abuse Screening Alcohol Use Screening Depression Screening (PHQ-9) - Instructions The following questions are ... this tool, there is also text-only version . Depression Screening - Manual Instructions The following questions are a ...

  6. Donor milk: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliani F

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Francesca Giuliani,1 Ilaria Rovelli,1 Chiara Peila,1 Stefania Alfonsina Liguori,2 Enrico Bertino,1 Alessandra Coscia1 1SCDU Neonatologia, Dipartimento di Scienze Pediatriche e dell'Adolescenza, Università degli Studi di Torino, Torino, Italy; 2SC Neonatologia, Ospedale Maria Vittoria, Torino, Italy Abstract: Mother's own milk is widely recognized as the optimal feeding for term infants, but increasing evidence exists of its benefits also for sick and preterm infants in neonatal intensive care units. However, the nutritional needs for appropriate growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes of such a particular population of infants should be attentively evaluated, considering also the indication to an appropriate fortification of human milk. The target is to achieve growth potential for preterm newborns while ensuring good metabolic outcomes and normal neurological development. When mother's milk is unavailable or in short supply, donor human milk (DHM represents the second best choice and, although somewhat modified by the Holder pasteurization process, it preserves many benefits when compared to formula, as documented by more and more reports, randomized controlled trials, and meta-analyses published in the past few years. Evidence exists of the protection exerted by DHM from necrotizing enterocolitis, while further studies are required to look at possible beneficial effects regarding infections, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, long-term cardiovascular risk factors, feeding tolerance, neurological outcome, and allergy. Finally, the concern that the use of DHM might decrease preterm infant breastfeeding is being raised. Conversely, publications exist showing that the use of DHM in the neonatal unit increases breastfeeding rates at discharge for infants of very low birth weight. Keywords: human milk, preterm infant feeding, milk bank, breast milk, mother's own milk, pasteurized human milk, fortification

  7. Iron deficiency among blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rigas, A S; Pedersen, O B; Magnussen, K

    2017-01-01

    and menopausal status are the strongest predictors of iron deficiency. Only little information on the health effects of iron deficiency in blood donors exits. Possibly, after a standard full blood donation, a temporarily reduced physical performance for women is observed. However, iron deficiency among blood...... donors is not reflected in a reduced self-perceived mental and physical health. In general, the high proportion of iron-deficient donors can be alleviated either by extending the inter-donation intervals or by guided iron supplementation. The experience from Copenhagen, the Capital Region of Denmark......, is that routine ferritin measurements and iron supplementation are feasible and effective ways of reducing the proportion of donors with low haemoglobin levels....

  8. Research Award: Donor Partnerships Division

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Corey Piccioni

    2013-08-07

    . The successful candidate must be willing to work as a member of the DPD team in its ongoing acvies, including providing research analysis and coordinang the producon and disseminaon of informaon related to donor.

  9. Thalassemia and Hemoglobin E in Southern Thai Blood Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manit Nuinoon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thalassemia and hemoglobin E (Hb E are common in Thailand. Individuals with thalassemia trait usually have a normal hemoglobin concentration or mild anemia. Therefore, thalassemic individuals who have minimum acceptable Hb level may be accepted as blood donors. This study was aimed at determining the frequency of α-thalassemia 1 trait, β-thalassemia trait, and Hb E-related syndromes in Southern Thai blood donors. One hundred and sixteen voluntary blood donors, Southern Thailand origin, were recruited for thalassemia and Hb E screening by red blood cell indices/dichlorophenolindophenol precipitation test. β-Thalassemia and Hb E were then identified by high performance liquid chromatography and 4 common α-thalassemia deletions were characterized by a single tube-multiplex gap-polymerase chain reaction. Overall frequency of hemoglobinopathies was 12.9%, classified as follows: homozygous α-thalassemia 2 (1.7%, heterozygous α-thalassemia 1 (1.7%, heterozygous β-thalassemia without α-thalassemia (0.9%, heterozygous Hb E without α-thalassemia (5.2%, double heterozygotes for Hb E/α-thalassemia 1 (1.7%, homozygous Hb E without α-thalassemia (0.9%, and homozygous Hb E with heterozygous α-thalassemia 2 (0.9%. The usefulness of thalassemia screening is not only for receiving highly effective red blood cells in the recipients but also for encouraging the control and prevention program of thalassemia in blood donors.

  10. Triagem de hemoglobinopatias em doadores de sangue de Caxias do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil: prevalência em área de colonização italiana Screening for hemoglobinopathies in blood donors from Caxias do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: prevalence in an Italian colony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Lucia Alberti Lisot

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A alta prevalência de beta-talassemia em italianos e a participação dos mesmos na formação étnica da cidade de Caxias do Sul e arredores, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, conduziram-nos à investigação de hemoglobinopatias em uma amostra de 608 doadores de sangue do Hemocentro Regional de Caxias do Sul. Apesar da influência étnica, encontramos 1,81% de hemoglobinas anormais (0,16% Hb AC, 0,99%, Hb AS e 0,66% Hb AH, um padrão similar com o estudo do interior do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul para alterações qualitativas. Para as talassemias, as técnicas mais comuns, cruzadas com seqüenciamento de DNA, em nossas mãos, não foram capazes de esclarecer anormalidades quantitativas da hemoglobina. Esse resultado pode ser atribuído a alterações genéticas ainda não conhecidas, a limitações técnicas ou, mais simplesmente, à miscigenação.The high prevalence of beta thalassemia among Italians and their participation in the ethnic formation of Caxias do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, and neighboring cities prompted us to investigate hemoglobinopathies in 608 blood donors at the Caxias do Sul Regional Blood Center. Despite the ethnic influence, abnormal hemoglobin levels were found in only 1.81% of the donors (0.16% Hb AC, 0.99% Hb AS, and 0.66% Hb AH, similar to the levels observed in a study on qualitative disorders conducted in the rural area of Rio Grande do Sul. In our setting, the most commonly used screening tests for thalassemia, combined with DNA sequencing, were unable to detect quantitative hemoglobin synthesis disorders. This may be attributable to still-unknown genetic disorders, technical limitations, or simply to miscegenation.

  11. Evaluation of the use of real-time PCR for human T cell lymphotropic virus 1 and 2 as a confirmatory test in screening for blood donors Análise do uso da PCR em tempo real para HTLV-1 e 2 como teste confirmatório na triagem de doadores de sangue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Gomes Andrade

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: HTLV-1/2 screening among blood donors commonly utilizes an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (EIA, followed by a confirmatory method such as Western blot (WB if the EIA is positive. However, this algorithm yields a high rate of inconclusive results, and is expensive. METHODS: Two qualitative real-time PCR assays were developed to detect HTLV-1 and 2, and a total of 318 samples were tested (152 blood donors, 108 asymptomatic carriers, 26 HAM/TSP patients and 30 seronegative individuals. RESULTS: The sensitivity and specificity of PCR in comparison with WB results were 99.4% and 98.5%, respectively. PCR tests were more efficient for identifying the virus type, detecting HTLV-2 infection and defining inconclusive cases. CONCLUSIONS: Because real-time PCR is sensitive and practical and costs much less than WB, this technique can be used as a confirmatory test for HTLV in blood banks, as a replacement for WB.INTRODUÇÃO: A triagem para HTLV-1/2 em doadores de sangue geralmente utiliza imunoensaio enzimático, seguido de um método confirmatório como Western blot quando o EIA é positivo, mas este algoritmo mostra alta taxa de resultados inconclusivos, e elevado custo. MÉTODOS: Dois ensaios qualitativos de PCR em tempo real foram desenvolvidos para detectar HTLV-1 e 2 e um total de 318 amostras foram testadas por PCR (152 de doadores de sangue, 108 de portadores assintomáticos, 26 de pacientes HAM/TSP e 30 de indivíduos soronegativos. RESULTADOS: A sensibilidade e especificidade das PCR em relação aos resultados de WB foram de 99,4% e 98,5%, respectivamente. As PCR foram mais eficientes em identificar o tipo viral, a infecção pelo HTLV-2 e úteis para definir casos inconclusivos. CONCLUSÕES: Por serem sensíveis, práticas e de custo muito inferior ao do WB, as técnicas de PCR em tempo real podem ser usadas como teste confirmatório do HTLV em bancos de sangue, em substituição ao WB.

  12. Prevalence of malaria parasites among blood donors in Kaduna, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas D. Garba; Joseph B. Ameh; Clement M.Z. Whong; Maryam Aminu-Mukhtar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Transmission of malaria parasites through blood transfusion is a well-known serious risk. Screening of blood donors for malaria as recommended by WHO is currently not included in the protocols of many Nigerian blood banks. Presence of asymptomatic Plasmodium species carriers (APCs) in some northern parts of the state has already been demonstrated using rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and microscopic examination of Giemsa stained blood films. This research was undertaken to determine...

  13. Living related donor liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C L; Chen, Y S; Liu, P P; Chiang, Y C; Cheng, Y F; Huang, T L; Eng, H L

    1997-10-01

    Living related liver transplantation (LRLT) has been developed in response to the paediatric organ donor shortage. According to the International Living Donor Registry, 521 transplants had been performed in 515 patients between December 8 1988 and January 19 1996 in 30 centres worldwide. The overall actuarial patient and graft survival rates were 82.7 and 80%, respectively. Between June 17 1994 and November 30 1996, the authors performed 11 LRLT at the Chung Gung Memorial Hospital. The living donors consisted of 10 mothers and one father. The mean graft weight was 303 g and the mean graft recipient weight ratio was 2.2%. Donor hepatectomy was performed without vascular inflow occlusion. The intra-operative blood loss ranged from 30 mL to 120 mL with an average of 61 mL, and blood transfusion was not required in all donors both intra-operatively and during the postoperative period. Underlying diseases of the recipients were biliary atresia (n = 10) and glycogen storage disease (n = 1). The mean graft cold ischaemia time was 106 min, the mean second warm ischaemia time was 51 min and the mean interval between portal and arterial reperfusion was 81 min. The initial LRLT results were promising with all donors having been discharged without complication. The recipients experienced a few complications, all of which were manageable with early intervention. All 11 recipients are alive and well. These are encouraging results and the authors hope to expand the use of live donors for liver transplantation to cope with demand.

  14. Algorithm for recall of HIV reactive Indian blood donors by sequential immunoassays enables selective donor referral for counseling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thakral B

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: HIV/AIDS pandemic brought into focus the importance of safe blood donor pool. Aims: To analyze true seroprevalence of HIV infection in our blood donors and devise an algorithm for donor recall avoiding unnecessary referrals to voluntary counseling and testing centre (VCTC. Materials and Methods: 39,784 blood units were screened for anti-HIV 1/2 using ELISA immunoassay (IA-1. Samples which were repeat reactive on IA-1 were further tested using two different immunoassays (IA-2 and IA-3 and Western blot (WB. Based on results of these sequential IAs and WB, an algorithm for recall of true HIV seroreactive blood donors is suggested for countries like India where nucleic acid testing or p24 antigen assays are not mandatory and given the limited resources may not be feasible. Results: The anti-HIV seroreactivity by repeat IA-1, IA-2, IA-3 and WB were 0.16%, 0.11%, 0.098% and 0.07% respectively. Of the 44 IA-1 reactive samples, 95.2% (20/21 of the seroreactive samples by both IA-2 and IA-3 were also WB positive and 100% (6/6 of the non-reactive samples by these IAs were WB negative. IA signal/cutoff ratio was significantly low in biological false reactive donors. WB indeterminate results were largely due to non-specific reactivity to gag protein (p55. Conclusions: HIV seroreactivity by sequential immunoassays (IA-1, IA-2 and IA-3; comparable to WHO Strategy-III prior to donor recall results in decreased referral to VCTC as compared to single IA (WHO Strategy-I being followed currently in India. Moreover, this strategy will repose donor confidence in our blood transfusion services and strengthen voluntary blood donation program.

  15. Seropositivity for hepatitis B and C in voluntary blood donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, S.M.A.; Ali, A.

    2010-01-01

    After the introduction of blood banks and better storage techniques blood is more widely used in patients for various indications. In Pakistan more than 1.5 million pints of blood are collected each year. Hepatitis B and C virus infections are known to occur in the general population and due to their mode of transmission through blood and blood products, it has made safe blood transfusion difficult and screening of blood absolutely necessary. Objectives of this study were to estimate frequency of Hepatitis B and C in blood donors of local area and recommend measures for safe blood transfusion. Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional study was conduced at the Blood Bank, Department of Pathology, Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar from January 01, 2007 to December 31, 2008. It was carried out on 32,042 voluntary, non-remunerated healthy blood donors. They were screened for Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-hepatitis C antibodies (anti-HCV antibodies) by ELISA. The patients' age ranged from 18-52 years. They were all males. Results: Out of 32,042 donors, 632 (1.97%) patients were positive for HBsAg, and 502 (1.57%).were positive for anti-HCV antibodies. Conclusion: Incidence of Hepatitis B and C is varying in different areas. It is recommended that properly screened blood only, using a reliable method like ELISA, be transfused to the patients. (author)

  16. Why Should Donors Care about Corruption?

    OpenAIRE

    Kolstad, Ivar

    2008-01-01

    Corruption is bad for donor business. Corruption reduces popular support for aid in donor countries. However, aid agencies should pay attention to corruption because it is the right thing to do, rather than just the smart thing to do. Donor anti-corruption policies require a strong grounding in ethics. Corruption produces bad development outcomes. This is the reasoning largely underlying donor anti-corruption efforts. The focus on consequences of corruption makes donor anticorruptioneffo...

  17. Kidney transplant outcomes from older deceased donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pippias, Maria; Jager, Kitty J; Caskey, Fergus

    2018-01-01

    As the median age of deceased kidney donors rises, updated knowledge of transplant outcomes from older deceased donors in differing donor-recipient age groups is required. Using ERA-EDTA Registry data we determined survival outcomes of kidney allografts donated from the same older deceased donor ...... transplanted into differing donor-recipient age groups are better than previously reported. These allografts remain a valuable transplant resource, particularly for similar-aged recipients....

  18. Assessment of a travel question to identify donors with risk of Trypanosoma cruzi: operational validity and field testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Sheila F; Chiavetta, Jo Anne; Fan, Wenli; Xi, Guoliang; Yi, Qi-Long; Goldman, Mindy; Scalia, Vito; Fearon, Margaret A

    2008-04-01

    Because Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) infection in Canada and the United States is largely contracted in endemic countries, targeted testing of blood donors with risk travel may improve safety. The operational validity of a travel question suitable for donor screening was tested, and it was field-tested. After 1331 donors completed a short travel question, operational validity was assessed by detailed travel histories in face-to-face interviews. Two nationwide donor surveys were carried out assessing donor responses to similar travel questions in 2001 (13,623 donors) and in 2006 (20,037 donors). All donors in Toronto, Ontario, answered a travel question in 1997 and those born in or who spent 6 months or more in Mexico, Central America, or South America were tested for antibody to T. cruzi. There was 97.3 percent agreement between the travel question and detailed interviews, with 15 donors (1.1%) failing to acknowledge risk travel (false-negative questioning responses). Of these, 6 donors were born there and 7 others had less than 1 year of cumulative travel. In 2001 and 2006, there were 2.1 and 2.0 percent of donors with risk travel, respectively, but 16.5 and 11.2 percent of these donors were identified only because they were born there (travel not acknowledge). There were 1337 (1.6%) donors in Toronto in 1997 with risk travel and none were positive for the presence of T. cruzi antibody. Donors can answer a short question about cumulative time in Latin America with similar accuracy to detailed questioning, but screening questions should also include country of birth.

  19. Trends in the prevalence of Chagas' disease among first-time blood donors in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabino, Ester C; Gonçalez, Thelma T; Salles, Nanci A; Silva, Guilherme R; Chamone, Dalton F

    2003-07-01

    Screening of blood donors for Chagas' disease is mandatory in Brazil. Data about the prevalence of Chagas' disease among first-time blood donors has not been previously reported. The objective of this study was to report the trends in the prevalence of Chagas' disease among first-time blood donors in São Paulo, Brazil according to gender, age, and type of donation. The data was obtained at Fundação Pró-Sangue/Hemocentro de São Paulo during the period of 1996 to 2001. Samples were considered positive if they were reactive to the three serologic tests used at screening (indirect immunofluorescence, indirect hemagglutination, and EIA). The prevalence of Chagas' disease was two times higher among replacement blood donors than among altruistic donors (52 vs. 25 cases/10,000). The overall prevalence among blood donors decreased at a rate of 1.86 cases per 10,000 per year. An increase in the proportion of altruistic donors and a decrease in the prevalence primarily among younger donors were observed. The prevalence of Chagas' disease is decreasing in the São Paulo population. Differences in the socioeconomic level between altruistic and replacement donors may be the reason for the differences in the prevalence among these groups. It will be important to target for study the population of young seroreactive blood donors to better understand how new infections are occurring.

  20. Seropositivity of TTIs among blood donors in Hail, Saudi Arabia, from 2014 to 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef Abd El Galil Ahmed Sarah

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To detect the seropositivity of transfusion transmitted infections among healthy blood donors in Hail Region, Saudi Arabia. Methods: In the study, about 361 blood donors from different nationalities and ages were tested. Serum samples were collected and tested by ELISA for detection of HIV, HTLV-I/II, hepatitis B virus, syphilis and hepatitis C virus (HCV. Results: Out of 361 donors, 26 were found to be positive for HCV in a percentage of 7.2% while 17 (4.7% of them were infected with HIV. There were eight donors infected with HTLV-I/II, and three donors infected with syphilis. Hepatitis B surface antigen was detected in 10% of donors while hepatitis B surface antibody and hepatitis B core antibody were positive in thirty-one blood donors. Conclusions: The obtained data revealed that the seropositivity of hepatitis B virus, HCV, syphilis, HTLV-I/II, and HIV in Hail Region during the period under study were 8.6%, 7.2%, 4.7%, 2.2% and 0.8%, respectively. It is recommended to continue screening blood donors with highly specific and sensitive tests, to counsel donors who are positive to transfusion transmitted infections.

  1. Donor Hemovigilance with Blood Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekamp, Ulrich; Gneißl, Johannes; Rabe, Angela; Kießig, Stephan T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Reports on unexpected events (UEs) during blood donation (BD) inadequately consider the role of technical UEs. Methods Defined local and systemic UEs were graded by severity; technical UEs were not graded. On January 1, 2008, E.B.P.S.-Logistics (EBPS) installed the UE module for plasma management software (PMS). Donor room physicians entered UEs daily into PMS. Medical directors reviewed entries quarterly. EBPS compiled data on donors, donations, and UEs from January 1, 2008 to June 30, 2011. Results 6,605 UEs were observed during 166,650 BDs from 57,622 donors for a corrected incidence of 4.30% (0.66% local, 1.59% systemic, 2.04% technical UEs). 2.96% of BDs were accompanied by one UE and 0.45% by >1 UE (2-4). 6.3% of donors donating blood for their first time, 3.5% of those giving blood for their second time, and 1.9% of donors giving their third or more BD experienced UEs. Most common UEs were: discontinued collections due to venous access problems, repeated venipuncture, and small hematomas. Severe circulatory UEs occurred at a rate of 16 per 100,000 BDs. Conclusions Technical UEs were common during BD. UEs accompanied first and second donations significantly more often than subsequent donations. PMID:26195932

  2. Newborn Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Laboratory Sciences Office of Public Health Genomics Publications & Articles Newborn Screening Lab Bulletin Laboratory Partners Multimedia Tools Newborn Screening Program – Role of Laboratories Meet the Scientist Newborn Screening: Family Stories Newborn Screening: Public Health ...

  3. [Serological Profiles of Hepatitis-B HBcAb-Positive Blood donors ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Durán, Mauricio; Berrío-Pérez, Maritza; Bermúdez-Forero, María I; Cortés-Buelvas, Armando D; Molina-Guevara, Gloria C; Camacho-Rodríguez, Bernardo A; Forero-Matiz, Sonia P

    2014-01-01

    To assess the serological profiles for HBV in blood donors that were anti-HBc reactive and non-reactive to HBsAg in four Colombian cities. A prospective transversal study was conducted during 17 months, applying a complete serological profile for HBV in samples from blood donors that were anti-HBc reactive and non-reactive to HBsAg, results were analyzed employing descriptive statistics using Microsoft Excel and Epiinfo V. 3.5.1. From donors reactive to anti-HBc, 75.0 % shown some additional infection marker for HBV. 1.3 % of blood donors had serological markers for chronical infection with hepatitis B, and a case had reactivity only for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). 6.1 % of donors showed a vaccination serological profile, only with reactivity to anti-HBsAg antibodies. With this study, anti-HBc blood screening importance was confirmed.

  4. Prevalence of Hepatitis B Cab with or Without Anti Hbsab in Hbsag Seronegative Blood Donors

    OpenAIRE

    H Salman Roughani

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: There are multiple reports of Acute Hepatitis B after blood transfusion inspite of good screening for Hepatitis B before transfusion. Therefore, occult hepatitis B is a serious concern for Blood transfusion. There is a lot of evidence that positive HBCAb in seronegative HBSAg blood donors is associated with occult Hepatitis B. Aim: Evaluation of the prevalence of HBCAb in seronegative HBSAg blood donors. Method: In a cross sectional descriptive study, we evaluated the serum of 1...

  5. Observation of Blood Donor-Recipient Malaria Parasitaemia Patterns in a Malaria Endemic Region

    OpenAIRE

    Jamilu Abdullahi Faruk; Gboye Olufemi Ogunrinde; Aisha Indo Mamman

    2017-01-01

    Background. Asymptomatic malaria parasitaemia has been documented in donor blood in West Africa. However, donated blood is not routinely screened for malaria parasites (MPs). The present study therefore aimed to document the frequency of blood transfusion-induced donor-recipient malaria parasitaemia patterns, in children receiving blood transfusion in a tertiary health-centre. Methodology. A cross-sectional, observational study involving 140 children receiving blood transfusion was carried ou...

  6. Screening blood donors for malaria parasite in Sudan | Ali ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In countries where malaria is endemic, its transmission is a hazard of blood transfusion and could lead to serious if not fatal complications. To assess the likely importance of transfusion induced malaria in Sudan; a descriptive cross sectional facility based study was carried out. Material and Methods: A total ...

  7. Predicting Hepatic Steatosis in Living Liver Donors via Noninvasive Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Man; Ha, Sang Yun; Joh, Jae-Won; Sinn, Dong Hyun; Jeong, Woo Kyung; Choi, Gyu-Seong; Gwak, Geum Youn; Kwon, Choon Hyuck David; Kim, Young Kon; Paik, Yong Han; Lee, Joon Hyeok; Lee, Won Jae; Lee, Suk-Koo; Park, Cheol Keun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Hepatic steatosis assessment is of paramount importance for living liver donor selection because significant hepatic steatosis can affect the postoperative outcome of recipients and the safety of the donor. The validity of various noninvasive imaging methods to assess hepatic steatosis remains controversial. The purpose of our study is to investigate the association between noninvasive imaging methods and pathology to detect steatosis in living liver donors and to propose a prediction model for hepatic steatosis. Liver stiffness measurements (LSMs) and controlled attenuation parameter values in vibration controlled transient elastography, ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging were used as pretransplant screening methods to evaluate living liver donors between 2012 and 2014. Only 1 pathologist assessed tissue sample for hepatic steatosis. The median age of the 79 living donors (53 men and 26 women) was 32 years (16–68 years). The CT liver–spleen attenuation (L–S) difference and the controlled attenuation parameter values were well correlated with the level of hepatic steatosis on liver pathology. Multivariate analysis showed that liver stiffness measurement (LSM) (β = 0.903; 95% CI, 0.105–1.702; P = 0.027) and the CT L to S attenuation difference (β = −3.322; 95% CI, −0.502 to −0.142; P = 0.001) were closely associated with hepatic steatosis. We generated the following equation to predict total hepatic steatosis: Hepatic steatosis = 0.903 × LSM – 0.322 × CT L to S attenuation difference (AUC = 86.6% and P = 0.001). The values predicted by the equation correlated well with the presence of hepatic steatosis (r = 0.509 and P liver donor candidates. PMID:26886612

  8. Predicting Hepatic Steatosis in Living Liver Donors via Noninvasive Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Man; Ha, Sang Yun; Joh, Jae-Won; Sinn, Dong Hyun; Jeong, Woo Kyung; Choi, Gyu-Seong; Gwak, Geum Youn; Kwon, Choon Hyuck David; Kim, Young Kon; Paik, Yong Han; Lee, Joon Hyeok; Lee, Won Jae; Lee, Suk-Koo; Park, Cheol Keun

    2016-02-01

    Hepatic steatosis assessment is of paramount importance for living liver donor selection because significant hepatic steatosis can affect the postoperative outcome of recipients and the safety of the donor. The validity of various noninvasive imaging methods to assess hepatic steatosis remains controversial. The purpose of our study is to investigate the association between noninvasive imaging methods and pathology to detect steatosis in living liver donors and to propose a prediction model for hepatic steatosis. Liver stiffness measurements (LSMs) and controlled attenuation parameter values in vibration controlled transient elastography, ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging were used as pretransplant screening methods to evaluate living liver donors between 2012 and 2014. Only 1 pathologist assessed tissue sample for hepatic steatosis. The median age of the 79 living donors (53 men and 26 women) was 32 years (16-68 years). The CT liver-spleen attenuation (L-S) difference and the controlled attenuation parameter values were well correlated with the level of hepatic steatosis on liver pathology. Multivariate analysis showed that liver stiffness measurement (LSM) (β = 0.903; 95% CI, 0.105-1.702; P = 0.027) and the CT L to S attenuation difference (β = -3.322; 95% CI, -0.502 to -0.142; P = 0.001) were closely associated with hepatic steatosis. We generated the following equation to predict total hepatic steatosis: Hepatic steatosis = 0.903 × LSM - 0.322 × CT L to S attenuation difference (AUC = 86.6% and P = 0.001). The values predicted by the equation correlated well with the presence of hepatic steatosis (r = 0.509 and P The combination of nonenhanced CT L to S attenuation difference and transient elastography using vibration controlled transient elastography provides sufficient information to predict hepatic steatosis in living liver donor candidates.

  9. Being a Living Donor: Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to know FAQ Living donation What is living donation? Organs Types Being a living donor First steps Being ... are considering one of these types of living donation, please talk to your transplant center about the organ-specific risks. Psychological concerns You may also have ...

  10. Factors Influencing Donor Partnership Effectiveness

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    (UN Global Compact Office, 2007); and “an alliance between organizations from two or more ... programs related to the environment, global health, and ..... partnering process and the factors of influence, drawing on an example of a flagship initiative with a bilateral donor for an environment-focused program. As in most joint ...

  11. Physician migration: donor country impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluwihare, A P R

    2005-01-01

    Physician migration from the developing to developed region of a country or the world occurs for reasons of financial, social, and job satisfaction. It is an old phenomenon that produces many disadvantages for the donor region or nation. The difficulties include inequities with the provision of health services, financial loss, loss of educated families, potential employers, and role models and diminished resources with which to conduct medical education. Staff for undergraduate and postgraduate education is depleted. The critical mass for research and development becomes difficult to achieve or maintain, and these disadvantages are not compensated for adequately by increased contacts, the introduction of new ideas, or financial inflow to the donor region or country. The political will of governments and international organizations regarding treaties about the ethics of physician recruitment is called into question by discrepancies between the text of agreements and the ground realities. Amelioration of this situation requires economic development and imaginative schemes by the donors and, ideally, ethical considerations from recipient governments. At the very least, adequate compensation should be made to the donor country for the gain obtained by the host country.

  12. The prevalence of malaria parasitaemia in blood donors in a Nigerian teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okocha, E C; Ibeh, C C; Ele, P U; Ibeh, N C

    2005-03-01

    The present study was undertaken to assess the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia among blood donors and to determine the possible risk of transmission of malaria parasite to recipients of blood in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Anambra State. Four hundred and forty-four subjects were selected randomly and EDTA added blood was collected for screening malaria parasites using Giemsa stain. The data were subjected to chi2 analysis. Prevalence of malaria was 30.2% among blood donors and showed bimodal distribution with significant variation in different months. Due to high prevalence of asymptomatic malaria parasitaemia in this region, all blood samples should be screened for malaria parasites (post-donor screening) and administered with a curative dose of antimalarials prophylactically to all patients transfused with malaria parasite positive blood.

  13. Psychosocial counselling of identifiable sperm donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, M; Mochtar, M H; de Melker, A A; van der Veen, F; Repping, S; Gerrits, T

    2016-05-01

    What do identifiable sperm donors feel about psychosocial counselling? Identifiable sperm donors found it important that psychosocial counselling focused on emotional consequences and on rules and regulations and they expected to have access to psychosocial counselling at the time that donor-offspring actually sought contact. Most studies on sperm donors are on anonymous donors and focus on recruitment, financial compensation, anonymity and motivations. There is limited knowledge on the value that identifiable sperm donors place on psychosocial counselling and what their needs are in this respect. We performed a qualitative study from March until June 2014 with 25 identifiable sperm donors, who were or had been a donor at the Centre for Reproductive Medicine of the Academic Medical Centre in Amsterdam any time between 1989 and 2014. We held semi-structured in-depth interviews with identifiable sperm donors with an average age of 44 years. The interviews were fully transcribed and analysed using the constant comparative method of grounded theory. Twelve out of 15 donors (former donors ITALIC! n = 8, active donors ITALIC! n = 7) who had received a counselling session during their intake procedure found it important that they had been able to talk about issues such as the emotional consequences of donation, disclosure to their own children, family and friends, future contact with donor-offspring and rules and regulations. Of the 10 former donors who had received no counselling session, 8 had regretted the lack of intensive counselling. In the years following their donation, most donors simply wanted to know how many offspring had been born using their sperm and had no need for further counselling. Nevertheless, they frequently mentioned that they were concerned about the well-being of 'their' offspring. In addition, they would value the availability of psychosocial counselling in the event that donor-offspring actually sought contact. A limitation of our study is its

  14. Blood donor recruitment strategies and their impact on blood safety in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Eiman

    2014-02-01

    Because of the high incidence of HCV, blood safety presents a serious challenge in Egypt. Given the constrained economy which limits the implementation of nucleic acid amplification technology, proper recruitment of blood donors becomes of paramount importance. To evaluate the effectiveness of blood donor recruitment strategies, the seroprevalence of positive infectious markers among blood donors was studied. Donors' records covering the period from 2006-2012 were reviewed. Blood donations were screened for HCV antibodies, HBs antigen (HBsAg), HIV-1 and 2 and syphilis antibodies. Of 308,762 donors, 63.4% were voluntary donors (VD). VD of 2011-2012 were significantly younger than family replacement donors (RD) .The overall prevalences of HCV antibodies, HBsAg, HIV and syphilis antibodies were 4.3%, 1.22%, 0.07%, and 0.13%, respectively. All tested markers (except HIV) were significantly higher among RD, when compared to VD (P<0.0001). A consistent steady trend for decrease in HCV seropositivity was observed in RD and VD from 8.9% and 4.2% to 3.8% and 1.5%, respectively. A trend for decrease in HBsAg was demonstrated in VD from 1.2% to 0.53%. The decreasing trends in HCV antibody and HBs antigen is promising and may reflect the improved donor selection criteria. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization of human organ donors testing positive for type 1 diabetes-associated autoantibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiberg, A; Granstam, A; Ingvast, S; Härkönen, T; Knip, M; Korsgren, O; Skog, O

    2015-01-01

    In this study we aim to describe the characteristics of non-diabetic organ donors with circulating diabetes-associated autoantibodies collected within the Nordic Network for Islet Transplantation. One thousand and thirty organ donors have been screened in Uppsala for antibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA) and islet antigen-2 (IA-2A). The 32 non-diabetic donors that tested positive for GADA (3·3% of all non-diabetic donors) were studied in more detail, together with 32 matched controls. Mean age among the autoantibody-positive donors was 52·6 (range 21–74), family history of type 1 diabetes (T1D) was unknown, and no donor was genetically predisposed for T1D regarding the human leucocyte antigen (HLA) locus. Subjects were analysed for islet cell antibodies (ICA), insulin autoantibodies (IAA) and zinc transporter 8 antibodies (ZnT8A), and pancreas morphology and clinical data were examined. Eight non-diabetic donors tested positive for two antibodies and one donor tested positive for four antibodies. No insulitis or other signs of a diabetic process were found in any of the donors. While inflammatory cells were present in all donors, subjects with high GADA titres had significantly higher CD45 cell numbers in exocrine tissue than controls. The extent of fibrosis was more pronounced in autoantibody-positive donors, even in subjects with lower GADA titres. Notably, it is possible that events not related directly to T1D (e.g. subclinical pancreatitis) may induce autoantibodies in some cases. PMID:26313035

  16. Psychosocial counselling of identifiable sperm donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M.; Mochtar, M.H.; de Melker, A.A.; van der Veen, F.; Repping, S.; Gerrits, T.

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: What do identifiable sperm donors feel about psychosocial counselling? SUMMARY ANSWER: Identifiable sperm donors found it important that psychosocial counselling focused on emotional consequences and on rules and regulations and they expected to have access to psychosocial

  17. Psychosocial counselling of identifiable sperm donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M. [=Marja; Mochtar, M. H.; de Melker, A. A.; van der Veen, F.; Repping, S.; Gerrits, T.

    2016-01-01

    What do identifiable sperm donors feel about psychosocial counselling? Identifiable sperm donors found it important that psychosocial counselling focused on emotional consequences and on rules and regulations and they expected to have access to psychosocial counselling at the time that

  18. Low prevalence of antibodies to human T-lymphotropic virus-I/II among blood donors in eastern Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawaz, Naglaa A; Tamim, Hala; Almawi, Wassim Y

    2005-04-01

    The seroprevalence of human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV)-I/II was assessed in 13,443 consecutive blood donors in eastern Saudi Arabia between 1998 and 2001. Screening by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and confirmation by Western blot resulted in 8 (0.060%) positive cases, of which 5 (0.056%) belonged to Saudi and 3 (0.113%) to non-Saudi donors. The majority of the HTLV-positive donations (6/8) were for patients, and none had a history of known risk factor for HTLV-I/II transmission. Although the very low prevalence of HTLV-I/II among Saudi donors does not support routine screening, screening of donors from other nationalities may be initiated, especially those from HTLV-I/II endemic areas.

  19. Predictors of hemoglobin in Danish blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotze, Sebastian Ranzi; Pedersen, Ole B; Petersen, Mikkel S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is well known that blood donors are at increased risk of iron deficiency and subsequent development of iron deficiency anemia. We aimed to investigate the effect of factors influencing hemoglobin (Hb) levels. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Initiated in 2010, the Danish Blood Donor Study...... measurement as a method of risk assessment among blood donors....

  20. 75 FR 58400 - Donor Management Research: Improvements in Clinical Management of Deceased Organ Donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... generally focused on specific organ systems and not on donor management approaches with the goal of... donor management. A Donor Management Task Force was convened in August 2010 to address relevant issues... Management Research: Improvements in Clinical Management of Deceased Organ Donors AGENCY: Health Resources...

  1. Donor conversion rates depend on the assessment tools used in the evaluation of potential organ donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.J. de Groot (Yorick); E.F.M. Wijdicks (Eelco); M. van der Jagt (Mathieu); J. Bakker (Jan); B. Roozenbeek (Bob); J.N.M. IJzermans (Jan); E.J.O. Kompanje (Erwin)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: It is desirable to identify a potential organ donor (POD) as early as possible to achieve a donor conversion rate (DCR) as high as possible which is defined as the actual number of organ donors divided by the number of patients who are regarded as a potential organ donor. The

  2. Resultados de un programa de control de calidad externo del tamizaje serológico de anticuerpos contra Trypanosoma cruzi en donantes de sangre de Brasil The results of an external quality control program for serological screening for antibodies against Trypanosoma cruzi in blood donors in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amadeo Sáez-Alquézar

    2003-03-01

    panel of sera was sent to each participating institution. Each panel consisted of 24 serum samples with different reactivities for the markers for which the serological screening of blood donors is obligatory in Brazil; among the 24 samples were some negative ones. The participants had 60 days to complete their testing and send in their results for evaluation. Later, each participant received an answer key for the sera panel, to use in self-evaluation. RESULTS: The three tests that the participants used most frequently were enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, indirect hemagglutination (IHA, and indirect immunofluorescence (IIF. Of these three, the ELISA was used most often, ranging from 92% to 98% of the laboratories for the eight programs. The screening strategy that was most often used was a combination of an ELISA test and an IHA test (ranging from 58% to 83% of the laboratories for the eight programs. In the various programs, the large majority of participating laboratories (range, 83.6%-98.1% obtained accurate results without any false negative results. Of the 5 406 tests carried out during the eight programs using positive anti-T. cruzi sera samples, 85 (1.6% were reported as negative in 58 laboratories. However, only 14 of those laboratories were unable to identify one or more positive samples after using all their screening tests. There were no significant differences found between the blood banks in the eight programs (P = 0.5936. No association was found between false negative results and any particular sample or any specific diagnostic kit. IHA testing had the highest proportion of false negatives, ranging from 0.7% to 7.9% for the eight programs. Of 32 855 tests performed during the eight programs using negative anti-T. cruzi sera, 106 (0.32% were reported as false positives. The percentage of participating laboratories that had one false positive result per program varied from 1% to 16%, and between 0% and 4% of the labs per program had more than one

  3. Risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus among blood donors in Cameroon: evidence for the design of an Africa-specific donor history questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagny, Claude T; Nguefack-Tsague, Georges; Fopa, Diderot; Ashu, Celestin; Tante, Estel; Ngo Balogog, Pauline; Donfack, Olivier; Mbanya, Dora; Laperche, Syria; Murphy, Edward

    2017-08-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa improving the deferral of at-risk blood donors would be a cost-effective approach to reducing transfusion-transmitted human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. We performed a pilot case-control study to identify the risk factors for HIV infection and to develop an adapted donor history questionnaire (DHQ) for sub-Saharan Africa. We recruited 137 HIV-positive donors (cases) and 256 HIV-negative donors (controls) and gathered risk factor data using audio computer-assisted self-interview. Variables with univariate associations were entered into a logistic regression model to assess independent associations. A scoring scheme to distinguish between HIV-positive and HIV-negative donors was developed using receiver operating characteristics curves. We identified 16 risk factors including sex with sex worker, past history or treatment for sexually transmitted infections, and having a partner who used injected or noninjected illegal drugs. Two novel risks were related to local behavior: polygamy (odds ratio [OR], 22.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.9-86.7) and medical or grooming treatment on the street (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.0-3.0). Using the 16 selected items the mean scores (>100) were 82.6 ± 6.7 (range, 53.2-95.1) and 85.1 ± 5.2 for HIV-negative donors versus 77.9 ± 6.8 for HIV-positive ones (p = 0.000). Donors who scored between 80 and 90 were more likely to be HIV negative than those who scored less (OR, 31.4; 95% CI, 3.1-313.9). We identified both typical and novel HIV risk factors among Cameroonian blood donors. An adapted DHQ and score that discriminate HIV-negative donors may be an inexpensive means of reducing transfusion-transmitted HIV through predonation screening. © 2017 AABB.

  4. [ALAT and viral RNA as risk factors in 68 blood donors with anti-hepatitis C antibodies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tullen, E; De Saussure, P; Soulier-Lauper, M

    1993-01-23

    Determine the risk factors in blood donors with anti hepatitis C antibodies (anti-HCV ab) possible liver involvement and evaluation of their infectious potential by a search for viral RNA in blood. Between July 1990 and October 1991, 19,632 blood donors were screened for hepatitis C. Antibodies to HCV were detected in 74 donors (2nd generation ELISA, Abbott). We evaluated the risk factors, determined ALAT levels and looked for circulating RNA virus by amplification of the non-coding region of the viral genome (RTPCR) in 68 of these 74 donors screened. A control was chosen arbitrarily from 103 donors with high ALAT levels, but with no antibodies to HCV nor detectable circulating viral DNA. The prevalence of anti-HCV ab in blood donors in 0.37%. No risk factor was found in 29 donors (43%). Parenteral exposure (former i.v. drug addiction and history of transfusions) was found to be the mode of transmission of hepatitis C in 23 donors (34%). History of NANB jaundice (non-post transfusion) was reported in 1 donor (1%). The remaining 15 donors (22%) were found to have minor risk factors - either isolated or in combination (exposure, tatoos, multiple sexual partners). Former i.v. drug addiction (p = 0.0000006) as well as a history of transfusions (p = 0.0071) are significantly more frequent in the group of donors with antibodies to HCV. None of the 35 sexual partners of the tested donors proved to be positive. 21 donors (30%) had high ALAT (+2 SD). Viral RNA was detected in blood of 26 donors (38%). The proportion of cases with positive viral RNA was 61% if only those donors with high ALAT levels were taken into consideration (13 positive of 21). Risk factors were found in 39 donors (57%) with antibodies to HCV. History of parenteral exposure was found to be significantly more frequent than in the control group (p = 0.0000054). Sexual transmission within couples was not demonstrated in the population tested. A positive PCR test is a probable indicator of a continuous

  5. Simulation shows that HLA-matched stem cell donors can remain unidentified in donor searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauter, Jürgen; Solloch, Ute V.; Giani, Anette S.; Hofmann, Jan A.; Schmidt, Alexander H.

    2016-02-01

    The heterogeneous nature of HLA information in real-life stem cell donor registries may hamper unrelated donor searches. It is even possible that fully HLA-matched donors with incomplete HLA information are not identified. In our simulation study, we estimated the probability of these unnecessarily failed donor searches. For that purpose, we carried out donor searches in several virtual donor registries. The registries differed by size, composition with respect to HLA typing levels, and genetic diversity. When up to three virtual HLA typing requests were allowed within donor searches, the share of unnecessarily failed donor searches ranged from 1.19% to 4.13%, thus indicating that non-identification of completely HLA-matched stem cell donors is a problem of practical relevance. The following donor registry characteristics were positively correlated with the share of unnecessarily failed donor searches: large registry size, high genetic diversity, and, most strongly correlated, large fraction of registered donors with incomplete HLA typing. Increasing the number of virtual HLA typing requests within donor searches up to ten had a smaller effect. It follows that the problem of donor non-identification can be substantially reduced by complete high-resolution HLA typing of potential donors.

  6. Issues in potential organ donor management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razek, T; Olthoff, K; Reilly, P M

    2000-06-01

    The shortage of organ donors has become a serious problem in modern medicine. Room for improvement exists in our ability to convert potential donors to actual donors based on the available numbers and a significant amount of recent research. A significant percentage of the potential donors represent head-injured patients, so a significant amount of responsibility falls on surgeons to optimize the opportunity for donation. There are clear steps along the pathway from potential to actual donor where physicians can have a significant effect on the rate of successful donation: 1. Identify all potential donors and institute a review system to verify that all potential donors are being identified in your area. 2. Establish an acceptable method to rapidly and accurately determine brain death in potential donors using the local available services. 3. Approach all potential donor families for consent, decouple death notification and consent request, use a member of the hospital team and an OPO representative to approach the family, and make the request in a private setting. 4. Use an aggressive, proactive approach to the medical management of the potential donor using the techniques described to limit the number of medical failures and maximize the number of organs donated per donor. Institute a review process to evaluate any medical failures that occur. Given the difference between the numbers of potential versus actual donors, the authors' significant contact with potential donors, and the clear opportunities for improvement in their approach, the surgical community must address these issues surrounding the optimal management of potential donors and their families.

  7. Prevalence of human T-lymphotropic virus type I and type II antibody among blood donors in Eastern Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ul-Hassan, Zahoor; Al-Bahrani, Ahmad T; Panhotra, Bodh R

    2004-10-01

    Human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus type I and type II (HTLV-I/II) infections can be transfusion associated, leading to tropical paraparesis, myelopathy and other neurological disorders. The aim of this study is to circumvent the risk of transmission through blood transfusion and to describe the prevalence of HTLV-I/II antibody among blood donors of Al-Hasa region and the cost effectiveness of screening blood donors. The study was conducted at the Department of Laboratory and Blood Bank, King Fahad Hospital, Al-Hofuf, Al-Hasa, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the period of 1997 to 2003. A total of 47426 blood donors were screened for HTLV-I/II antibody by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test, during the 7 years of study period. The positive samples were confirmed by western blot analysis. Overall, HTLV-I antibody positivity (confirmed by western blot) was 3/47426 (0.006%). Out of 3 donors positive for HTLV-I antibody during 1997 to 1998, 2 were expatriates (Indian) and one was native Saudi donor. Human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus type I antibody positivity among the native Saudi donors was 1/47426 (0.002%) (2/100000 blood donors). None of the donor were positive for HTLV-II antibody. During the last 5 consecutive years of the study period (1999-2003), none of the donor was positive for HTLV-I/II antibody. Al-Hasa region is non-endemic for HTLV-I/II virus infections. Screening of native Saudi blood donors for these viruses does not appear to be cost effective.

  8. GAMBARAN ANTI HBc POSITIF PADA DONOR DARAH DENGAN HbsAG NEGATIF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susila Sastri

    2009-09-01

    Ag negatif dan antiHbc positif untuk memastikan darah donor tersebut tidak boleh ditransfusikan.Kata kunci: Skrining, HBV, HBsAg, Anti-HBc, donor darah  Abstract            HBsAg examination alone to screen for hepatitis B (HBV has not been able to guarantee freedom from HBV blood donor so that blood donors have not fulfilled the requirements to be transfused. Blood donors will be transfused donors should qualify them have never suffered from HBV. Screening of blood donors against HBV in the PMI only with HBsAg alone where the HBsAg test is negative at certain stages of HBV, in terms of donors suffering or recovering in HBV. Anti-HBc can provide information on HBV trip when combined with other HBV markers and anti-HBc last longer in the blood compared with other markers. HBsAg negative blood donors with anti-HBc positive than some previous research is still exist that contain HBV-DNA and can transmit HBV.Has done research on blood donors with anti-HBc test descriptively against HBsAg negative blood donors (n = 100 on the UTD PMI Branch of Padang in cross sectional study. Samples taken by proportional random sampling. Blood samples were HBsAg negative blood VDRL, HCV, HIV negative, all examined by the ELISA. The aim is to see the picture of positive anti-HBc in blood donors with HBsAg negative and look at the relationship between the index of HBsAg with anti-HBc index. Examination of anti-HBc by ELISA, equipment and reagents the same output. The results showed the frequency of positive anti-HBc in HBsAg negative blood donors by 27%, especially in men aged between 20-29 years (44.4%. There is a positive correlation between the index of negative HBsAg with anti-HBc index (r = 0.02. Anti-HBc positive are found in HBsAg negative index of 0.21 to 0.60 (76%. In conclusion, blood donors with negative HBsAg have been considered safe for transfusion is still likely to transmit HBV proven by the discovery of anti-HBc positive. Because it needs a further examination of HBV

  9. Donor-derived Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection syndrome after simultaneous kidney/pancreas transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Galiano

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Most cases of strongyloidiasis associated with solid organ transplantation have been due to the reactivation of a latent infection in the recipient as a result of the immunosuppressive therapy; however, donor-derived infections are becoming increasingly frequent. The case of a patient who nearly died of a Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection after receiving simultaneous kidney/pancreas transplants is described herein. No specific parasitological tests were performed pre-transplantation, despite the fact that both the recipient and the donor originated from endemic areas. Serological analysis of the donor's serum performed retrospectively revealed the origin of the infection, which if it had been done beforehand would have prevented the serious complications. Current practice guidelines need to be updated to incorporate immunological and molecular techniques for the rapid screening of Strongyloides prior to transplantation, and empirical treatment with ivermectin should be applied systematically when there is the slightest risk of infection in the donor or recipient.

  10. Reducing replacement donors in Sub-Saharan Africa: challenges and affordability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, I; Manyasi, G; Medina Lara, A

    2007-12-01

    In 1975, the World Health Assembly recommended that blood for transfusion should come from voluntary, non-remunerated donors; yet, in Africa, 75-80% of blood for transfusion still comes from hospital-based replacement donors. Although comprehensive economic data are scarce, evidence indicates that blood from voluntary donors recruited and screened at centralized transfusion centres, costs four to eight times as much as blood from a hospital-based, replacement donor system. Donor recruitment, quality assurance systems and distribution mechanisms in the centralized system are major reasons for the cost difference. There are concerns about the sustainability of centralized voluntary donor systems and their compatibility with the levels of health care that exist in many poor countries yet burdening patients' families with the responsibility of finding replacement blood donors will exacerbate poverty and reduce the safety of the blood supply. There are measures that can be introduced into hospital-based systems to improve safe blood supply in Africa but their effectiveness in different contexts needs to be evaluated.

  11. Observation of Blood Donor-Recipient Malaria Parasitaemia Patterns in a Malaria Endemic Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruk, Jamilu Abdullahi; Ogunrinde, Gboye Olufemi; Mamman, Aisha Indo

    2017-01-01

    Asymptomatic malaria parasitaemia has been documented in donor blood in West Africa. However, donated blood is not routinely screened for malaria parasites (MPs). The present study therefore aimed to document the frequency of blood transfusion-induced donor-recipient malaria parasitaemia patterns, in children receiving blood transfusion in a tertiary health-centre. A cross-sectional, observational study involving 140 children receiving blood transfusion was carried out. Blood donor units and patients' blood samples were obtained, for the determination of malaria parasites (MPs). Giemsa staining technique was used to determine the presence of malaria parasitaemia. Malaria parasites were detected in 7% of donor blood and in 8.3% of the recipients' pretransfusion blood. The incidence of posttransfusion MPs was 3%, but none of these were consistent with blood transfusion-induced malaria, as no child with posttransfusion parasitaemia was transfused with parasitized donor blood. Majority of the blood transfusions (89.4%) had no MPs in either donors or recipients, while 6.8% had MPs in both donors and recipients, with the remaining 3.8% showing MPs in recipients alone. In conclusion, the incidence of posttransfusion malaria parasitaemia appears low under the prevailing circumstances.

  12. Laparoscopic nephrectomy in live donor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitre Anuar I.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To present the initial experience of videolaparoscopic nephrectomy in live renal donor. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the period from April 2000 to August 2003, 50 left nephrectomies in live donor were performed by videolaparoscopy for transplantation. Twenty-eight patients were male (56% and 22 female (44%. Mean age was 37.2 years, and the mean body mass index (BMI was 27.1 kg/m². RESULTS: Mean surgical time was 179.5 minutes, and warm ischemia time of the graft was 3.79 minutes. The mean estimated bleeding was 141 mL. There was no need of blood transfusion or conversion to open surgery. In 42 cases (84%, the vascular portion of the graft was considered good by the recipient's surgical team and in all cases, the ureter was considered of proper size, though in one of them (2% its vascularization was considered improper. The transplanted kidneys produced urine still in the surgical room in 46 of the 50 transplantations considered. In only 2 cases opioid was required for analgesia. In average, 3.1 doses of dipyrone were used for each patient during hospital stay, and hospital discharge occurred, in average, after 3.2 days post-operatively. Two patients required re-operations and one of them evolved to death. CONCLUSIONS: The laparoscopic nephrectomy in live donor for renal transplantation is an alternative to conventional open surgery. In relation to the graft, no alteration, either anatomic or functional, was detected. Though there is already a large documentation in the international literature regarding this procedure, in our setting a prospective randomized study with the usual surgical study is still necessary in order to prove the advantages and disadvantages of the method.

  13. Sero-prevalence of brucellosis among blood donors in Ahvaz, Southwest Iran

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    Abdolhussein Shakurnia

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify sero-prevalence of brucellosis among blood donors in Ahvaz city, Southwest Iran. Methods: A total number of 1 450 serum samples from blood donation were collected and were screened for the presence of brucella antibody. Rose Bengal Plate Test, Standard Agglutination Test (SAT, and 2-mercaptoethanol (2ME agglutination were tested in the sample. SAT dilution ≥1/80 and 2ME agglutination ≥1/40 were considered positive. Results: Sero-prevalence of brucellosis among the blood donors was 0.70%, 0.34%, and 0.20% by Rose Bengal Plate Test, SAT, and 2ME respectively. Conclusions: Considering the 1/80 titer of SAT as the criteria of contamination with brucella, routine screening of sero-prevalence of brucella in blood donors is not recommended in this area.

  14. Acute HIV-1 Infection in Antigen/Antibody-negative Blood Donors in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ab) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test used in the current screening of blood donors at the National Blood Transfusion Service centres has limited ability to detect HIV Ag/Ab during the first two weeks of the window period.

  15. Surface antigen-negative hepatitis B virus infection in Dutch blood donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieshout-Krikke, R. W.; Molenaar-de Backer, M. W. A.; van Swieten, P.; Zaaijer, H. L.

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen (HBsAg) is a reliable marker for HBV infection, but HBsAg-negative forms of HBV infection occur. The introduction of HBV DNA screening of Dutch blood donors, which were not preselected for absence of HBV core antibodies, enabled the characterization of

  16. Sero-prevalence of hepatitis C virus among blood donors in Lagos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of Hepatitis C virus (HCV), one of the causative agents of viral hepatitis was investigated. One hundred and sixty-seven (167) blood samples from donors which were sero-negative to hepatitis B virus markers were screened for presence of HCV IgM antibodies using a third generation. ELISA kit. Out of the ...

  17. Prevalence of irregular red cell antibody in healthy blood donors attending a tertiary care hospital in North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makroo, Raj Nath; Rajput, Saroj; Agarwal, Soma; Chowdhry, Mohit; Prakash, Bindu; Karna, Prashant

    2018-01-01

    Alloantibodies may be detected in blood donors who have either been transfused previously or female donors with previous obstetric events. These antibodies can occasionally cause severe transfusion reaction, if a large amount of plasma or whole blood is transfused, as in massive transfusions and pediatric patients. The present study aims to assess the prevalence of red cell antibodies in healthy blood donors at a tertiary care hospital-based blood bank in India. A total of 82,153 donor samples were screened for irregular red cell antibodies between January 2012 and December 2015 at the Department of Transfusion Medicine, Indraprastha Apollo Hospitals, New Delhi. Antibody screening was performed by solid phase method using Immucor Capture-R ready screen (pooled cells) on fully automated immunohematology analyzer Galileo Neo (Immucor Inc., Norcross, GA, USA). Positive tests were further confirmed using Capture-R ready screen (4 cell panel). Advanced investigations to identify the antibody/ies were performed on confirmed positive samples. Antibody identification was conducted using various cell panels (Immucor Capture-R Ready-ID, Panocell-10, Ficin Treated). An advanced technique such as adsorption and elution was performed as per requirement. Screening with pooled cells and 4 cell panel was positive in 227 donors (0.27%), 150 of these donors had autoantibodies, 1 had autoantibodies with underlying alloantibody anti-Jk a (0.001%), and 76 had alloantibodies (0.09%) alone in their plasma. Anti-M was the most common antibody (43 donors) identified, followed by anti-D (21 donors). Anti-N was detected in 4; anti-Jk a , anti-C, and anti-E in two donors each followed by anti-P1 and anti-Le b in 1 donor. Antibodies against red cells can be present in healthy donors detection of which is important in providing safe blood to the patient. The prevalence of red blood cell antibody in healthy donors in this study was found to be 0.27%, while the prevalence of alloantibodies was 0

  18. Donor risk factors for graft failure in the cornea donor study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar, Joel; Montoya, Monty; Dontchev, Mariya; Tanner, Jean Paul; Beck, Roy; Gal, Robin; Gallagher, Shawn; Gaster, Ronald; Heck, Ellen; Holland, Edward J; Kollman, Craig; Malling, Jackie; Mannis, Mark J; Woody, Jason

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between donor factors and 5-year corneal graft survival in the Cornea Donor Study. Donor corneas met criteria established by the Eye Bank Association of America, had an endothelial cell density of 2300 to 3300/mm, and were determined to be of good to excellent quality by the eye banks. Donor corneas were assigned using a random approach and surgeons were masked to information about the donor cornea including donor age. Surgery and postoperative care were performed according to the surgeons' usual routines and subjects were followed for 5 years. Donor and donor cornea factors were evaluated for their association with graft failure, which was defined as a regraft or a cloudy cornea that was sufficiently opaque to compromise vision for a minimum of 3 consecutive months. Graft failure was not significantly associated with the type of tissue retrieval (enucleation versus in situ), processing factors, timing of use of the cornea, or characteristics of the donor or the donor cornea. Adjusting for donor age did not affect the results. Donor and donor cornea characteristics do not impact graft survival rates for corneas comparable in quality to those used in this study.

  19. West Nile Virus workshop: scientific considerations for tissue donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubaker, Scott A; Robert Rigney, P

    2012-08-01

    This report contains selected excerpts, presented as a summary, from a public workshop sponsored by the American Association of Tissue Banks (AATB) held to discuss West Nile Virus (WNV) and scientific considerations for tissue donors. The daylong workshop was held 9 July 2010 at the Ritz-Carlton Hotel at Tyson's Corner in McLean, Virginia, United States (U.S.). The workshop was designed to determine and discuss scientific information that is known, and what is not known, regarding WNV infection and transmission. The goal is to determine how to fill gaps in knowledge of WNV and tissue donation and transplantation by pursuing relevant scientific studies. This information should ultimately support decisions leading to appropriate tissue donor screening and testing considerations. Discussion topics were related to identifying these gaps and determining possible solutions. Workshop participants included subject-matter experts from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Canada, the Public Health Agency of Canada, AATB-accredited tissue banks including reproductive tissue banks, accredited eye banks of the Eye Bank Association of America, testing laboratories, and infectious disease and organ transplantation professionals. After all presentations concluded, a panel addressed this question: "What are the scientific considerations for tissue donors and what research could be performed to address those considerations?" The slide presentations from the workshop are available at: http://www.aatb.org/2010-West-Nile-Virus-Workshop-Presentations.

  20. Recruitment of aged donor heart with pharmacological stress echo. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bombardini Tonino

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The heart transplant is a treatment of the heart failure, which is not responding to medications, and its efficiency is already proved: unfortunately, organ donation is a limiting step of this life-saving procedure. To counteract heart donor shortage, we should screen aged potential donor hearts for initial cardiomyopathy and functionally significant coronary artery disease. Donors with a history of cardiac disease are generally excluded. Coronary angiography is recommended for most male donors older than 45 years and female donors older than 50 years to evaluate coronary artery stenoses. A simpler way to screen aged potential donor hearts for initial cardiomyopathy and functionally significant coronary artery disease should be stress echocardiography. Case report A marginal donor (A 57 year old woman meeting legal requirements for brain death underwent a transesophageal (TE Dipyridamole stress echo (6 minutes accelerated protocol to rule out moderate or severe heart and coronary artery disease. Wall motion was normal at baseline and at peak stress (WMSI = 1 at baseline and peak stress, without signs of stress inducible ischemia. The pressure/volume ratio was 9.6 mmHg/ml/m2 at baseline, increasing to 14 mmHg/ml/m2 at peak stress, demonstrating absence of latent myocardial dysfunction. The marginal donor heart was transplanted to a recipient "marginal" for co-morbidity ( a 63 year old man with multiple myeloma and cardiac amyloidosis , chronic severe heart failure, NYHA class IV. Postoperative treatment and early immunosuppressant regimen were performed according to standard protocols. The transplanted heart was assessed normal for dimensions and ventricular function at transthoracic (TT echocardiography on post-transplant day 7. Coronary artery disease was ruled out at coronary angiography one month after transplant; left ventriculography showed normal global and segmental LV function of the transplanted heart. Conclusion For

  1. Prisoners as Living Donors: A Vulnerabilities Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Lainie Friedman; Thistlethwaite, J Richard

    2018-01-01

    Although national guidelines exist for evaluating the eligibility of potential living donors and for procuring their informed consent, no special protections or considerations exist for potential living donors who are incarcerated. Human research subject protections in the United States are codified in the Federal Regulations, 45 CFR 46, and special protections are given to prisoners. Living donor transplantation has parallels with human subject research in that both activities are performed with the primary goal of benefiting third parties. In this article, we describe what special considerations should be provided to prisoners as potential living donors using a vulnerabilities approach adapted from the human research subject protection literature.

  2. Transperitoneal laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy: Current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Srivastava

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal transplantation is the treatment of choice for a suitable patient with end stage renal disease. Unfortunately, the supply of donor organs is greatly exceeded by demand. In many countries the use of kidneys from living donors has been widely adopted as a partial solution. Traditionally donor nephrectomy has been performed via a open flank incision however with some morbidity like pain and a loin scar. Currently, the donor nephrectomy is increasingly being performed laparoscopically with the objective of reducing the morbidity. It is also hoped that this will lead to increasing acceptance of living donation. The first minimally invasive living donor nephrectomy was carried out in 1995 at the Johns Hopkins Medical Center and since then many centers have undertaken laparoscopic living donor nephrectomy. The laparoscopic approach substantially reduces the donor morbidity and wound related problems associated with open nephrectomy. The laparoscopic techniques thus have the potential to increase the number of living kidney donors. The present article attempts to review the safety and efficacy of transperitoneal laparoscopic donor nephrectomy.

  3. Alternative Donor Transplantation for Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelli Bejanyan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT is a potentially curative therapy for adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML, but its use for consolidation therapy after first remission with induction chemotherapy used to be limited to younger patients and those with suitable donors. The median age of AML diagnosis is in the late 60s. With the introduction of reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC, many older adults are now eligible to receive allo-HCT, including those who are medically less fit to receive myeloablative conditioning. Furthermore, AML patients commonly have no human leukocyte antigen (HLA-identical or medically suitable sibling donor available to proceed with allo-HCT. Technical advances in donor matching, suppression of alloreactivity, and supportive care have made it possible to use alternative donors, such as unrelated umbilical cord blood (UCB and partially HLA-matched related (haploidentical donors. Outcomes after alternative donor allo-HCT are now approaching the outcomes observed for conventional allo-HCT with matched related and unrelated donors. Thus, with both UCB and haploidentical donors available, lack of donor should rarely be a limiting factor in offering an allo-HCT to adults with AML.

  4. Hepatitis B viral DNA among HBs antigen negative healthy blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaezjalali, Maryam; Rashidpour, Shabnam; Rezaee, Hanieh; Hajibeigi, Bashir; Zeidi, Majid; Gachkar, Latif; Aghamohamad, Shadi; Najafi, Ronak; Goudarzi, Hossein

    2013-03-01

    Presence of occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) renders HBs antigen (HBsAg) undetectable by ELISA. Therefore it is valuable to evaluate the frequency of OBI among healthy blood donors to improve and perhaps change the strategies of blood screening to reduce the risk of HBV transmission. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of HBcAb and HBV DNA among Iranian HBsAg negative healthy blood donors who donated their blood to the Tehran Blood Transfusion Center during 2011. 1000 serum specimens negative for HBsAg, HCV antibody and HIV antibody were collected from healthy blood donors and tested for HBcAb. Presence of hepatitis B viral DNA was checked in HBcAb positive samples by nested PCR with two sets of primers to amplify part of HBV S gene. There were 64 women and 936 men in the population under study. The mean ± SD age of the donors was 38 ± 11 years. 80 out of 1000 samples (8%) were found to be positive for HBcAb. HBV DNA was detected in 50% of HBcAb positive specimens. The mean ± SD age of donors without HBV DNA was 37.7 ± 10.5 years and for donors with HBV DNA was 40.9 ± 11.2 years (P = 0.05). OBI was prevalent among 50% of HBcAb positive healthy blood donors. The frequency of positive HBcAb among healthy HBsAg negative blood donors was comparable to previous studies reported from Iran. On the other hand, the frequency of HBV DNA in HBsAg negative blood donors was higher than previous reports.

  5. Donor-specific anti-HLA Abs and graft failure in matched unrelated donor hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciurea, Stefan O.; Thall, Peter F.; Wang, Xuemei; Wang, Sa A.; Hu, Ying; Cano, Pedro; Aung, Fleur; Rondon, Gabriela; Molldrem, Jeffrey J.; Korbling, Martin; Shpall, Elizabeth J.; de Lima, Marcos; Champlin, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    Anti-HLA donor-specific Abs (DSAs) have been reported to be associated with graft failure in mismatched hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; however, their role in the development of graft failure in matched unrelated donor (MUD) transplantation remains unclear. We hypothesize that DSAs against a mismatched HLA-DPB1 locus is associated with graft failure in this setting. The presence of anti-HLA Abs before transplantation was determined prospectively in 592 MUD transplantation recipients using mixed-screen beads in a solid-phase fluorescent assay. DSA identification was performed using single-Ag beads containing the corresponding donor's HLA-mismatched Ags. Anti-HLA Abs were detected in 116 patients (19.6%), including 20 patients (3.4%) with anti-DPB1 Abs. Overall, graft failure occurred in 19 of 592 patients (3.2%), including 16 of 584 (2.7%) patients without anti-HLA Abs compared with 3 of 8 (37.5%) patients with DSA (P = .0014). In multivariate analysis, DSAs were the only factor highly associated with graft failure (P = .0001; odds ratio = 21.3). Anti-HLA allosensitization was higher overall in women than in men (30.8% vs 12.1%; P < .0001) and higher in women with 1 (P = .008) and 2 or more pregnancies (P = .0003) than in men. We conclude that the presence of anti-DPB1 DSAs is associated with graft failure in MUD hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. PMID:21967975

  6. Differences in social representation of blood donation between donors and non-donors: an empirical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnaccia, Cinzia; Giannone, Francesca; Falgares, Giorgio; Caligaris, Aldo Ozino; Sales-Wuillemin, Edith

    2015-11-04

    Both donors and non-donors have a positive image of blood donation, so donors and non-donors do not differ regarding their views on donation but do differ in converting their opinion into an active deed of donation. Several studies have identified altruism and empathy as the main factors underlying blood donation. However, a mixture of various motivational factors mould the complex behaviour of donation. This paper presents an exploratory study on differences of social representations of blood donation between blood donors and non-donors, in order to understand the reasons that bring someone to take the decision to become a blood donor. Participants filled in the Adapted Self-Report Altruism Scale, Toronto Empathy Questionnaire and answered a test of verbal association. Descriptive and correlation analyses were carried out on quantitative data, while a prototypic analysis was used for qualitative data. The study was carried out on a convenience sample of 786 individuals, 583 donors (mean age: 35.40 years, SD: 13.01 years; 39.3% female) and 203 non-donors (mean age: 35.10 years, SD: 13.30 years; 67.5% female). Social representations of donors seem to be more complex and articulated than those of non-donors. The terms that appear to be central were more specific in donors (life, needle, blood, help, altruism were the words most associated by non-donors; life, aid, altruism, solidarity, health, love, gift, generosity, voluntary, control, needed, useful, needle were the words most associated by donors). Furthermore, non-donors associated a larger number of terms referring to negative aspects of blood donation. Aspects related to training and the accuracy of any information on blood donation seem to be important in the decision to become a donor and stabilise the behaviour of donation over time, thus ensuring the highest levels of quality and safety in blood establishments.

  7. Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Prasad

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Cancer screening is a means to detect cancer early with the goal of decreasing morbidity and mortality. At present, there is a reasonable consensus regarding screening for breast, cervical and colorectal cances and the role of screening is under trial in case of cancers of the lung,  ovaries and prostate. On the other hand, good screening tests are not available for some of the commonest cancers in India like the oral, pharyngeal, esophageal and stomach cancers.

  8. BLOODR: blood donor and requester mobile application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatikonda, Vamsi Krishna; El-Ocla, Hosam

    2017-01-01

    With rapid increase in the usage of social networks sites across the world, there is also a steady increase in blood donation requests as being noticed in the number of posts on these sites such as Facebook and twitter seeking blood donors. Finding blood donor is a challenging issue in almost every country. There are some blood donor finder applications in the market such as Blood app by Red Cross and Blood Donor Finder application by Neologix. However, more reliable applications that meet the needs of users are prompted. Several software technologies including languages and framework are used to develop our blood-donor web application known as BLOODR application. These technologies comprise Ruby programming language (simply known as Ruby) along with JavaScript and PostgreSQL for database are used. Ruby on Rails (simply known as Rails) is an open source Web framework that makes it possible to quickly and easily create data-based web applications. We show screenshots for the BLOODR application for different types of users including requester, donor, and administrator. Various features of the application are described and their needs of use are analyzed. If a patient needs a blood at a clinic, blood donors in vicinity can be contacted through using a clinic management service provided in this application. Registered donors will get notification for the blood requests only if their blood group is compatible with the requested blood type and in the same city/region. Then matching blood donors can go to the requesting clinic and donate. BLOODR application provides a reliable platform to connect local blood donors with patients. BLOODR creates a communication channel through authenticated clinics whenever a patient needs blood donation. It is a useful tool to find compatible blood donors who can receive blood request posts in their local area. Clinics can use this web application to maintain the blood donation activity. Future improvement of the BLOODR is explained.

  9. Exchange living-donor kidney transplantation: diminution of donor organ shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, K; Lee, J H; Huh, K H; Kim, S I; Kim, Y S

    2004-12-01

    To alleviate the organ shortage, the use of more living donors is strongly recommended world wide. A living donor exchange (swap) program was launched in Korea. After the success of a direct swap program between two families, we have developed the swap-around program to expand the donor pool by enrolling many kinds of unrelated donors. Herein, we report our results of a living donor exchange program. This retrospectively review of 978 recipients of kidney transplants from living donors, included analysis of donor-recipient relationships, mode of donor recruitment, episodes of acute rejection, and 5-year patient/graft survivals. Transplantation was performed in 101 patients (10.3%) by way of the swap program. The proportion of swap patients among the number of unrelated donor renal transplants has been increasing from 4.2% to 46.6%. The incidence of acute rejection and 5-year patient/graft survival rates were comparable between the groups. We have achieved some success in reducing the organ shortage with a swap program in addition to our current unrelated living donor programs without jeopardizing graft survival. Potentially exchangeable donors should undergo strict medical evaluation by physicians and social evaluation by social workers and coordinators as a pre-requisite for kidney transplantation. Expanding the swap around program to a regional or national pool could be an option to reduce the organ donor shortage in the future.

  10. Dedicated donor unit transfusions reduces donor exposure in pediatric surgery patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyam Arora

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many strategies have been explored to reduce multiple donor exposures in neonates such as use of restrictive transfusion protocols, limiting iatrogenic blood loss, use of recombinant erythropoietin and single donor programs. Method: In our study we assessed the feasibility of dedicating single donor units with reserving all the components from the same donor for the specified neonates/ infants undergoing surgery and estimating reduction of donor exposure. Fifty neonates undergoing surgery were included in the prospective study group and the transfusion details were compared with 50 retrospective cases with same inclusion criteria. Results: An intra-operative blood loss of >13 ml/Kg was significantly associated with transfusion (P<0.05 which was most frequently administered in the intra-operative period. Donor exposure rate of overall transfusion was 1.15 in the study group as compared to 4.03 in the retrospective control group. In study group Donor Exposure Rate (DER: Transfusion Rate (TR ratio was 1:1.5 and Transfusion per Donor Unit (TPDU of 1.5, means that one donor unit contributed to 1.5 transfusions in each patient and contributed to 50% reduction in donor exposure in each patient as compared to retrospective control group. Conclusion: Our study showed that by practicing dedicated donor unit transfusion policy, for neonates undergoing surgery we could significantly reduce the donor exposure.

  11. Dedicated donor unit transfusions reduces donor exposure in pediatric surgery patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Satyam; Marwaha, Neelam; Dhawan, Hari Krishan; Rao, K. L. N.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many strategies have been explored to reduce multiple donor exposures in neonates such as use of restrictive transfusion protocols, limiting iatrogenic blood loss, use of recombinant erythropoietin and single donor programs. METHOD: In our study we assessed the feasibility of dedicating single donor units with reserving all the components from the same donor for the specified neonates/infants undergoing surgery and estimating reduction of donor exposure. Fifty neonates undergoing surgery were included in the prospective study group and the transfusion details were compared with 50 retrospective cases with same inclusion criteria. RESULTS: An intra-operative blood loss of >13 ml/Kg was significantly associated with transfusion (P <0.05) which was most frequently administered in the intra-operative period. Donor exposure rate of overall transfusion was 1.15 in the study group as compared to 4.03 in the retrospective control group. In study group Donor Exposure Rate (DER): Transfusion Rate (TR) ratio was 1:1.5 and Transfusion per Donor Unit (TPDU) of 1.5, means that one donor unit contributed to 1.5 transfusions in each patient and contributed to 50% reduction in donor exposure in each patient as compared to retrospective control group. CONCLUSION: Our study showed that by practicing dedicated donor unit transfusion policy, for neonates undergoing surgery we could significantly reduce the donor exposure. PMID:28970679

  12. In Vitro Corneal Tomography of Donor Cornea Using Anterior Segment OCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janunts, Edgar; Langenbucher, Achim; Seitz, Berthold

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a tomographic screening method for revealing potential pathologies in corneal donors before keratoplasty so they may be excluded as candidates for corneal transplantation. Donor corneal tomographies were measured in a viewing chamber filled with preservation medium and with the use of a clinical optical coherence tomography (OCT) device. Custom-written software was developed to extract corneal surfaces from the raw data, which were analyzed in the central and peripheral regions. An adaptive nonlinear edge-enhancement algorithm was used to observe scars within the corneal volume. The thickness distribution map was analyzed to detect keratoconus and corneas with extreme topographic irregularities. Measurements were repeated 5 times to assess reproducibility. Eight corneas were investigated: 6 randomly selected intact donors, unsuitable for implantation because of low endothelial cell densities, and 2 keratoconus corneas, excised from patients during corneal transplantation. A major thickness abnormality was detected in one of the intact donor corneas, so it was excluded from further analysis. The keratoconus corneas were clearly evident in optical coherence tomography cross-sectional images, and similarly, they could easily be identified by analyzing the thickness map. Overall, the measurements were reliable and had a Cronbach's alpha coefficient greater than 0.8. Donor corneal examination using sterile viewing chambers was found to be suitable as a pre-keratoplasty advanced screening routine. A proof of concept was demonstrated, which could identify both irregular corneas and those affected by keratoconus.

  13. Hepatitis E in blood donors: investigation of the natural course of asymptomatic infection, Germany, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Tanja; Diekmann, Juergen; Eberhardt, Matthias; Knabbe, Cornelius; Dreier, Jens

    2016-09-01

    Asymptomatic hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections have been found in blood donors from various European countries, but the natural course is rarely specified. Here, we compared the progression of HEV viraemia, serostatus and liver-specific enzymes in 10 blood donors with clinically asymptomatic genotype 3 HEV infection, measuring HEV RNA concentrations, plasma concentrations of alanine/aspartate aminotransferase, glutamate dehydrogenase and bilirubin and anti-HEV IgA, IgM and IgG antibodies. RNA concentrations ranged from 77.2 to 2.19×10(5) IU/mL, with viraemia lasting from less than 10 to 52 days. Donors showed a typical progression of a recent HEV infection but differed in the first detection of anti-HEV IgA, IgM and IgG and seropositivity of the antibody classes. The diagnostic window between HEV RNA detection and first occurrence of anti-HEV antibodies ranged from eight to 48 days, depending on the serological assay used. The progression of laboratory parameters of asymptomatic HEV infection was largely comparable to the progression of symptomatic HEV infection, but only four of 10 donors showed elevated liver-specific parameters. Our results help elucidate the risk of transfusion-associated HEV infection and provide a basis for development of screening strategies. The diagnostic window illustrates that infectious blood donors can be efficiently identified only by RNA screening. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2016.

  14. Deceased Organ Donors With a History of Increased Risk Behavior for the Transmission of Blood-Borne Viral Infection: The UK Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, Patrick B; Summers, Dominic M; Robb, Matthew; Hulme, William; Ushiro-Lumb, Ines; Watson, Christopher J E; Neuberger, James; Bradley, J Andrew

    2017-07-01

    Deceased organ donors are routinely screened for behaviors that increase the risk of transmissible blood-borne viral (BBV) infection, but the impact of this information on organ donation and transplant outcome is not well documented. Our aim was to establish the impact of such behavior on organ donation and utilization, as well transplant recipient outcomes. We identified all UK deceased organ donors from 2003 to 2015 with a disclosed history of increased risk behavior (IRB) including intravenous drug use (IVDU), imprisonment and increased risk sexual behavior. Of 17 262 potential donors, 659 (3.8%) had IRB for BBV and 285 (1.7%) were seropositive for BBV, of whom half had a history of IRB (mostly IVDU [78.5%]). Of actual donors with IRB, 393 were seronegative for viral markers at time of donation. A history of recent IVDU was associated with fewer potential donors proceeding to become actual organ donors (64% vs 75%, P = 0.007). Donors with IRB provided 1091 organs for transplantation (624 kidneys and 467 other organs). Transplant outcome was similar in recipients of organs from donors with and without IRB. There were 3 cases of unexpected hepatitis C virus transmission, all from an active IVDU donor who was hepatitis C virus seronegative at time of donation, but was found to be viremic on retrospective testing. Donors with a history of IRB provide a valuable source of organs for transplantation with good transplant outcomes and there is scope for increasing the use of organs from such donors.

  15. High prevalence of HIV p24 antigen among HIV antibody negative prospective blood donors in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japhet, Margaret Oluwatoyin; Adewumi, Moses Olubusuyi; Adesina, Olufisayo Adeyemi; Donbraye, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Blood transfusion service centers in Nigeria screen donated blood for markers of HIV infection using antibody- (Ab) based rapid test and in some centers, positives are re-tested using Ab-based ELISA. Paucity of data exists on p24 antigen prevalence among HIV Ab-negative donors in Nigeria. This study aims at detecting HIV p24 antigen among prospective blood donors in Osun State, Nigeria. Prospective blood donors negative for HIV antibodies using Determine test kit were re-tested using BIORAD GENSCREEN Ultra Ag-Ab ELISA kit, a fourth-generation ELISA kit that detects HIV antibodies/p24 antigen. Of the 169 HIV Ab-negative prospective donors, 10 (5.9%) were positive for HIV p24 antigen and 70% (7/10) of them were in the age range 18-30 years. Results of this study show that blood transfusion is still one of the major routes of HIV transmission in Nigeria and a higher proportion is among youth. Inclusion of p24 antigen testing into the blood donor screening will help reduce transfusion associated HIV in Nigeria if Nucleic Acid Testing (NAT) of all blood donor samples is not affordable; also, HIV enlightenment programs tailored toward youth may help reduce this rate among donors since more young people donate blood in low/middle-income countries than in high-income countries.

  16. Pre-donation screening of blood for transfusion transmissible ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All processes and inputs were evaluated and costs calculated for predonation testing by simple rapid techniques and post donation screening by ELISA. Results: 5000 prospective donors were tested in the study period. The cost of single rapid Pre-donation testing was less than that of single ELISA Postdonation screen.

  17. Frequency of HIV type 2 infections among blood donor population from India: A 10-year experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kannangai R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In India, HIV-2 epidemic is alongside with HIV-1. Blood banks are introducing nucleic acid testing (NAT for screening. The limitation of NAT systems is the inability to detect HIV-2. Materials and Method : An analysis of HIV screening of a blood bank at a tertiary care center from 1998 to 2007 was carried out. Results : A total of 175026 donors were screened by serological assays and 789 were reactive for HIV antibody. Only 478 (61% were confirmed positive by Western blot/immunoblot. There were 465 (97.2% donations positive for HIV-1, 6 (1.3% for HIV-2 (monotypic infection and 7 (1.5% for HIV-1 and HIV-2 (dual infection. Conclusion : We show the presence of HIV-2 infection among the blood donors and the need for incorporating HIV-2 detection also in the NAT systems.

  18. [Guidelines for electronic-data-processing-controlled serial diagnosis of donor blood samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer-Fröhlich, C L; Stoll, T; Hanfland, P

    1990-01-01

    Increasing performance figures and the necessity to save expenses oblige transfusion services to automatize their donors' laboratory examination. Sufficient hard- and software for sample distribution and processing is now available. Following aspects should be regarded when switching to automatic serial screening: The identity of blood-donor, donation and laboratory result will be achieved by machine readable labeling and on-line communication between working-stations and central administration. Flexibility: Easy automatic selective laboratory screening will be possible using special barcodes including sample identification and working orders. A modular hardware concept with easily accessible programming control allows it to implement new devices or methods. Ergonomy: Automatic sample processing including selective screening and simultaneous operating robotic sample processors increase working quality, sample output and time benefits. Economy: Improved working conditions will result in saving reagents and compensating staff limitations.

  19. Normothermic machine perfusion for donor liver preservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolboom, H.

    2012-01-01

    Currently, liver transplantation is the only treatment for end-stage liver failure. Unfortunately, a sever shortage of donor organs causes significant mortality amongst patients awaiting transplantation. The donor organ shortage could be alleviated by using organs that are normally not accepted for

  20. and Tetradentate N,O-donor Ligands

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    )], derived from the oxidation reactions (by O2) of trans-[ReCl3(MeCN)(PPh3)2] with the tridentate N2O-donor chelate 2-[((2-pyridinylmethyl)amino)methyl]phenol (Hham) and the N2O2-donor N,N-bis(2-hydroxybenzyl)-aminomethyl- pyridine ...

  1. Posttransplantation Disseminated Coccidioidomycosis Acquired from Donor Lungs

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Melissa B.; Hendren, Ryan; Gilligan, Peter H.

    2004-01-01

    A North Carolinian developed fatal coccidioidomycosis immediately after bilateral lung transplantation. The donor had previously traveled to Mexico, and the recipient had no travel history to an area where Coccidioides immitis is endemic. Immunosuppresive therapy of the transplant recipient likely reactivated latent Coccidioides infection in the donor lungs, leading to posttransplant coccidioidomycosis.

  2. Research Award: Donor Partnership Division | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-09-07

    Sep 7, 2016 ... IDRC's Donor Partnerships division (DPD) initiates, builds, and maintains relationships with donors, international organizations, and research funders ... We are particularly interested in research related to public-private partnerships for development, bilateral investments in research, trends in private ...

  3. Psychosocial counselling in donor sperm treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M.

    2018-01-01

    For decades, donor sperm treatment is offered to men and women to build a family. In daily life, parents, children and donors have to deal with the consequences of this treatment. The studies of this thesis show that there are gaps in knowledge about specialist psychosocial counselling and guidance

  4. Organ donors: deceased or alive? Quo vadis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozental, R

    2006-01-01

    Irrespectively of universal shortage of donor organs there is a tendency of increasing the number of transplantations from living and deceased donors. Each of these two methods has positive and negative features. The main obstacles using living donors are health hazard, necessity to solve certain donor's social and psychological problems, possibility of organ trade and moving. The main problems connected with organ retrieval from deceased donors are possible conflicts with public opinion: difficulties in interpretation of brain death, legislation, obtaining of informed consent from donor's relatives, etc. Future progress in organ transplantation may take place through activation of organ retrieval from deceased donors. The most perspective ways are change to presumed consent in all countries, establishing of centralized system of donor detection and registration, intensification of transplant coordination, active contacts with mass-media, etc. It is necessary to increase (enhance) participation of the members of the public in organ donation process, to develop solidarity among the public members and to involve public authorities to deal with this problem. Bioethical standards should be put in accordance with common progress and some ethical traditions should be changed.

  5. The impact of simple donor education on donor behavioral deferral and infectious disease rates in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalez, Thelma T; Sabino, Ester C; Salles, Nanci Alves; de Almeida-Neto, Cesar; Mendrone, Alfredo; Dorlhiac-Laccer, Pedro E; Liu, Jing; Murphy, Edward L; Schreiber, George B

    2010-04-01

    Studies have shown that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) residual risk is higher in Brazilian than in US and European blood donors, probably due to failure to defer at-risk individuals in Brazil. This study assessed the impact of an educational brochure in enhancing blood donors' knowledge about screening test window phase and reducing at-risk individuals from donating. This trial compared an educational intervention with a blood center's usual practice. The brochure was distributed in alternating months to all donors. After donating, sampled participants completed two questions about their HIV window period knowledge. The impact on HIV risk deferral, leaving without donation, confidential unit exclusion (CUE) use, and test positivity was also analyzed. From August to November 2007 we evaluated 33,940 donations in the main collection center of Fundação Pró-Sangue/Hemocentro de São Paulo in São Paulo, Brazil. A significant (p < 0.001) pamphlet effect was found on correct responses to both questions assessing HIV window phase knowledge (68.1% vs. 52.9%) and transfusion risk (91.1% vs. 87.2%). After adjusting for sex and age, the pamphlet effect was strongest for people with more than 8 years of education. There was no significant pamphlet effect on HIV risk deferral rate, leaving without donation, use of CUE, or infectious disease rates. While the educational pamphlet increased window period knowledge, contrary to expectations this information alone was not enough to make donors self-defer or acknowledge their behavioral risk.

  6. Post-transplantation HTLV-1 myelopathy in three recipients from a single donor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imirizaldu, J; Esteban, J; Axpe, I; Concha, T; Juanes, F; Susaeta, I; Carranceja, J

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: This paper reports for the first time three cases of infection by HTLV-I via organ transplantation; all the organs coming from the same asymptomatic infected donor. The need is considered for the implementation of compulsory screenings for HTLV antibodies on organ donors and on blood banks. Methods: The determination of antibodies for HTLV-I/II on samples of serum and cerebral spinal fluid from the patients and the donor was performed by enzyme immunoassay and western blot. Analysis of proviral DNA was performed by polymerase chain reaction. To detect changes in the sequence of aminoacids, the tax gene was sequentiated, amplified, and compared with ATK prototype stocks. Spinal cord magnetic resonance imaging, cerebral spinal fluid, and somatosensory evoked potential studies were carried out in all patients. Results: All three transplanted patients developed a myelopathy within a very short period of time. In all three patients and donor the virus belonged to the Cosmopolitan A subtype. The homology of HTLV-I sequences recovered from the patients and donor was 100% in all four cases. Proviral load was high in all three patients. The factors that certainly contributed to the infection in the first place, and the development of the disease later, were on the one hand the high proviral load and their immunosupressed condition, and on the other the virus genotype, which proved to be an aggresive variant. However, the analysis of the histocompatibility antigen showed that two of the patients carried an haplotype that has been associated with a lower risk of developing this disease. Conclusions: It is argued that, although in Spain and other European countries there is not compulsory screening for HTLV antibodies because of the studies that show a low seroprevalence, in view of the cases here reported, and to avoid the serious consequences that such infection has on transplanted patients, compulsory screenings, both on organ donors and on blood banks, should

  7. Risk Factors for Hepatitis C Virus Infection among Blood Donors in Georgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaller, Nickolas; Nelson, Kenrad E.; Aladashvili, Malvina; Badridze, Nino; Rio, Carlos del; Tsertsvadze, Tengiz

    2004-01-01

    Background: Growing awareness about the importance of blood safety for controlling the transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV) has helped to decrease the spread of this virus in many settings. This study was conducted in order to evaluate potential risk factors for HCV infection among blood donors in Georgia. Methods: The study population consisted of 553 blood donors in three major Georgian cities; Tbilisi, the capital city and Batumi and Poti, naval port cities. Risk factors were examined using a behavior questionnaire. All blood samples were initially tested using 3rd generation anti-HCV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and confirmed using recombinant immunoblot assays and nucleic acid testing. Results: Forty-three blood donors, 7.8%, were confirmed HCV positive. Significant risk factors included: drug injection ever (OR: 42; 95% CI: 3.2-550.7); history of hepatitis (OR: 25.9; 95% CI: 4.6-145.5); history of a previous surgical procedure (OR: 148.4; 95% CI: 26.9-817.4); blood transfusion (OR: 25.9; 95% CI: 3.2-210.9). Conclusions: This study found a very high prevalence of HCV among blood donors in Georgia. The main risk factor for HCV infection in this population of blood donors was previous contact with contaminated blood or blood products. Reliable screening of donors and their blood is critical for controlling the further spread of HCV in Georgia

  8. Evaluation of low red blood cell mean corpuscular volume in an apheresis donor population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Barbara J; Hopkins, Julie A; Arceo, Sarah M; Leitman, Susan F

    2009-09-01

    Apheresis donors are routinely evaluated with a complete blood count (CBC). Low red blood cell mean corpuscular volume (MCV) values (or=12.5 g/dL) could be due to iron deficiency or hemoglobinopathy. The etiology of a low MCV in a healthy apheresis donor population was assessed. Predonation samples for CBC were obtained from 1162 consecutive apheresis donors. Donors with a MCV of less than 80 fL were evaluated by CBC, iron studies (ferritin, serum iron, transferrin, percentage of transferrin saturation), and hemoglobin (Hb) electrophoresis. Iron deficiency was defined as a ferritin value below the reference range. Beta chain Hb variants were determined by Hb electrophoresis. Alpha thalassemia trait was presumed if the red blood cell (RBC) count was elevated, no variant Hbs were detected, and the iron studies were within normal ranges. In a 19-month period, 33 of 1162 apheresis donors had low MCV values. Iron deficiency was present in 64%; 49% had isolated iron deficiency and 15% had iron deficiency plus hemoglobinopathy. Hemoglobinopathy without concomitant iron deficiency was found in the remaining 36%. Iron deficiency is present in the majority of apheresis donors with repeatedly low MCV values and Hb levels of 12.5 g/dL or more. Hemoglobinopathy is also commonly present but may not be easily recognized in the setting of iron deficiency. The MCV is a useful screening tool to detect iron deficiency and hemoglobinopathy. Low MCV values should be investigated to determine if iron replacement therapy is indicated.

  9. PATHOMORPHOLOGY OF ZERO BIOPSIES OF DONOR KIDNEYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Arefjev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is well known fact that kidney transplants from Extended Criteria Donors may increase risk of De- layed Graft Function and Primary Non-Function of transplants. We have collected and tested 65 «zero» kidney biopsies from cadaver donors aged from 19 to 71 years old. In the pool of elderly donors who died from cerebrovascular accident the frequency of nephrosclerosis presentation was higher than in donors of yonger age who died from craniocephalic trauma. Nevertheless in the general donor pool the number of sclerosed glomeruli was no more than 12%. We did not meet at all in the whole volume of material any bi- opsy with the severe degree of arteriosclerosis. The «zero» biopsies of cadaver kidneys is quite usable and unexpensive tool to measure the degree of nephrosclerosis in order to exclude kidneys which are not fitable for transplantation. 

  10. Non heart-beating donors in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleazar Chaib

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available When transplantation started all organs were retrieved from patients immediately after cardio-respiratory arrest, i.e. from nonheart-beating donors. After the recognition that death resulted from irreversible damage to the brainstem, organ retrieval rapidly switched to patients certified dead after brainstem testing. These heart-beating-donors have become the principal source of organs for transplantation for the last 30 years. The number of heart-beating-donors are declining and this is likely to continue, therefore cadaveric organs from non-heart-beating donor offers a large potential of resources for organ transplantation. The aim of this study is to examine clinical outcomes of non-heart-beating donors in the past 10 years in the UK as an way of decreasing pressure in the huge waiting list for organs transplantation.

  11. Potential organ donor audit in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hegarty, M

    2010-11-01

    As increasing demand for organs is a challenge for transplant services worldwide it is essential to audit the process of organ donation. To address this, a national audit of potential organ donors was undertaken across hospitals with Intensive Care Units (N = 36). Questionnaires were returned on all patients (n = 2073) who died in these units from 1\\/9\\/07-31\\/8\\/08; 200 (10%) of these patients were considered for Brain Stem Testing (BST), 158 patients (79%) were diagnosed Brain Stem Dead (BSD) and 138 patients (87%) became potential donors. Consent for donation was given by 92 (69%) next of kin and 90 potential donors (65%) became organ donors. There was no evidence of a large number of potential organ donors being missed. Recommendations included completion of BSTs on all appropriate patients, development of support on BST, referral of all BSD patients to the Organ Procurement Service; enhanced co-ordination within hospitals and sustained information\\/education campaigns.

  12. Hepatitis B Viral DNA Among HBs Antigen Negative Healthy Blood Donors

    OpenAIRE

    Vaezjalali, Maryam; Rashidpour, Shabnam; Rezaee, Hanieh; Hajibeigi, Bashir; Zeidi, Majid; Gachkar, Latif; Aghamohamad, Shadi; Najafi, Ronak; Goudarzi, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Background Presence of occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) renders HBs antigen (HBsAg) undetectable by ELISA. Therefore it is valuable to evaluate the frequency of OBI among healthy blood donors to improve and perhaps change the strategies of blood screening to reduce the risk of HBV transmission. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the presence of HBcAb and HBV DNA among Iranian HBsAg negative healthy blood donors who donated their blood to the Tehran Blood Transfusion Center du...

  13. West Nile virus lineage 2 infection in a blood donor from Vienna, Austria, August 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungbauer, C; Hourfar, M K; Stiasny, K; Aberle, S W; Cadar, D; Schmidt-Chanasit, J; Mayr, W R

    2015-03-01

    Eastern Austria is neighbouring regions with ongoing West Nile virus (WNV) transmissions. Three human WNV infections had been diagnosed during the past decade in Austria. The Austrian Red Cross Blood Service (ARC-BS) started a first voluntary screening for WNV in blood donors from Eastern Austria by Nucleic Acid Testing (NAT) in June 2014. This is also the most extensive WNV surveillance programme in humans in Austria so far. In August 2014, one autochthonous WNV infection was detected in a blood donor from Vienna. By now, one in 67,800 whole blood donations was found to be positive for WNV RNA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Donor Conception and "Passing," or; Why Australian Parents of Donor-Conceived Children Want Donors Who Look Like Them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Karen-Anne

    2017-03-01

    This article explores the processes through which Australian recipients select unknown donors for use in assisted reproductive technologies and speculates on how those processes may affect the future life of the donor-conceived person. I will suggest that trust is an integral part of the exchange between donors, recipients, and gamete agencies in donor conception and heavily informs concepts of relatedness, race, ethnicity, kinship, class, and visibility. The decision to be transparent (or not) about a child's genetic parentage affects recipient parents' choices of donor, about who is allowed to "know" children's genetic backgrounds, and how important it is to be able to "pass" as an unassisted conception. In this way, recipients must trust the process, institutions, and individuals involved in their treatment, as well as place trust in the future they imagine for their child. The current market for donor gametes reproduces normative conceptions of the nuclear family, kinship, and relatedness by facilitating "matching" donors to recipients by phenotype and cultural affinities. Recipient parents who choose not to prioritize "matching," and actively disclose the process of children's conceptions, may embark on a project of queering heteronormative family structures and place great trust in both their own children and changing social attitudes to reduce stigma and generate acceptance for non-traditional families.

  15. Colon cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screening for colon cancer; Colonoscopy - screening; Sigmoidoscopy - screening; Virtual colonoscopy - screening; Fecal immunochemical test; Stool DNA test; sDNA test; Colorectal cancer - screening; Rectal ...

  16. Donor Human Milk for the High-Risk Infant: Preparation, Safety, and Usage Options in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The use of donor human milk is increasing for high-risk infants, primarily for infants born weighing milk may be considered in situations in which the supply of maternal milk is insufficient. The use of pasteurized donor milk is safe when appropriate measures are used to screen donors and collect, store, and pasteurize the milk and then distribute it through established human milk banks. The use of nonpasteurized donor milk and other forms of direct, Internet-based, or informal human milk sharing does not involve this level of safety and is not recommended. It is important that health care providers counsel families considering milk sharing about the risks of bacterial or viral contamination of nonpasteurized human milk and about the possibilities of exposure to medications, drugs, or herbs in human milk. Currently, the use of pasteurized donor milk is limited by its availability and affordability. The development of public policy to improve and expand access to pasteurized donor milk, including policies that support improved governmental and private financial support for donor milk banks and the use of donor milk, is important. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. DONOR CRITERIA FOR LIVER-TRANSPLANTATION - A COMPARATIVE-STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF DONOR LIVER SELECTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PRUIM, J; TENVERGERT, EM; DEKEMPENAER, MGV; BONSEL, GJ; SLOOFF, MJH

    1993-01-01

    In a case-control study, the relevance of donor parameters used for donor selection on final transplant outcome was studied. Two matched groups of 17 donors were created: one group of 'ideal' donors and a control group not meeting the criteria for 'ideal' donors. Recipients of livers from both

  18. Higher organ donation consent rates by relatives of potential uncontrolled donors versus potential controlled donors after death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wind, J.; Mook, W.N. van; Willems, M.E.; Heurn, L.W. van

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Refusal to consent to organ donation is an important cause of the persisting gap between the number of potential organ donors and effectuated donors. In the Netherlands, organ donors include both uncontrolled donors: donors who die unexpectedly after cardiac death (DCD), after failed

  19. Effect of Aging on the Composition of Fecal Microbiota in Donors for FMT and Its Impact on Clinical Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Rohit; Song, Yang; Garg, Shashank; Girotra, Mohit; Sinha, Amitasha; Sivaraman, Anita; Phillips, Laila; Dutta, Sudhir K

    2017-04-01

    Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is emerging as an effective therapy for the treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (RCDI). Selecting an appropriate donor is vital to the success of FMT. However, the relationship between age of donors and the efficacy of FMT has not been examined to date. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of age of healthy donors on their fecal microbiota and assess the impact of these changes on the clinical efficacy of FMT. This IRB-approved prospective study enrolled donors who were deemed healthy for FMT after careful detailed screening for infectious diseases per institutional protocol. The study was conducted between January 2011 and October 2014. Fecal samples were processed and analyzed using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Differences in relative abundance and diversity of the donor fecal microbiota were analyzed in donors above and below 60 years of age. Effect of fecal microbiota from donors of different age groups on the efficacy of FMT was also evaluated. Twenty-eight healthy human subjects from ages 20-82 years were enrolled as donors for FMT. All patients receiving FMT from their respective donors had resolution of RCDI symptoms and had a negative C. difficile toxin test 4-12 weeks after FMT. Genomic analysis showed that the relative abundance of phylum Actinobacteria and family Bifidobacteriaceae was reduced in the donors ≥60 years of age (p < 0.05). However, Bacteroidetes-to-Fermicutes ratio did not demonstrate a significant change between the two groups. Furthermore, microbial diversity did not change significantly with advancing age. These observations suggest that aging in healthy donors is associated with compositional alterations in the fecal microbiome without change in the overall microbial diversity. These changes do not seem to affect the clinical efficacy of FMT in RCDI patients over 12 months.

  20. Undisclosed Human Immunodeficiency Virus Risk Factors Identified through a Computer-based Questionnaire Program among Blood Donors in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatyta, Paula Fraiman; Custer, Brian; Gonçalez, Thelma Terezinha; Birch, Rebecca; Lopes, Maria Esther; Ferreira, Maria Ines Lopes; Proietti, Anna Barbara Carneiro; Sabino, Ester Cerdeira; Page, Kimberly; de Almeida Neto, Cesar

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV risk factor screening among blood donors remains a cornerstone for the safety of blood supply and is dependent on prospective donor self-disclosure and an attentive predonation interview. Residual risk of HIV transmission through blood transfusion is higher in Brazil than in many other countries. Audio computer-assisted structured-interview (ACASI) has been shown to increase self-reporting of risk behaviors. Study design and methods This cross-sectional study was conducted between January 2009 and March 2011 at four Brazilian blood centers to identify the population of HIV-negative eligible blood donors that answered face-to-face interviews without disclosing risks, but subsequently disclosed deferrable risk factors by ACASI. Compared to the donor interview, the ACASI contained expanded content on demographics, sexual behavior and other HIV risk factors questions. Results 901 HIV-negative blood donors were interviewed. On the ACASI, 13% of donors (N=120) declared a risk factor that would have resulted in deferral that was not disclosed during the face-to-face assessment. The main risk factors identified were recent unprotected sex with an unknown or irregular partner (49 donors), sex with a person with exposure to blood/ fluids (26 donors), multiple sexual partners (19 donors), and male-male sexual behavior (10 donors). Independent factors associated with the disclosure of any risk factor for HIV were age (≥40 years vs. 18–25 years, AOR=0.45; 95% CI 0.23–0.88) and blood center (Hemope vs. Hemominas, AOR=2.51; 95% CI 1.42–4.44). Conclusion ACASI elicited increased disclosure of HIV risk factors among blood donors. ACASI may be a valuable modality of interview to be introduced in Brazilian blood banks. PMID:23521083

  1. Swedish sperm donors are driven by altruism, but shortage of sperm donors leads to reproductive travelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekerhovd, Erling; Faurskov, Anders; Werner, Charlotte

    2008-01-01

    Swedish legislation requires that sperm donors are identifiable to offspring. In Denmark sperm donors remain anonymous. The aim of this study was to examine sperm donation in Sweden by identifying socio-demographic backgrounds, motivations and attitudes among donors and to describe options and plans of sperm recipients. Furthermore, the willingness of Swedish health care providers to assist in treatment abroad, where sperm from an anonymous donor were to be used, was assessed. The extent of travelling to Denmark for reproductive purposes was also examined. Thirty Swedish sperm donors completed a questionnaire and were interviewed about their backgrounds, motivations and attitudes. Thirty couples where the infertility workup had shown azoospermia were interviewed about their options for achieving parenthood. The willingness to assist in fertility treatment abroad and the extent of reproductive cross border travelling were assessed by interviewing health care providers and by contacting Danish clinics. Almost all donors were Caucasian. The main motivation for sperm donors was to help others. Owing to shortage of sperm donors many Caucasian recipients intended to have treatment abroad. For most non-Caucasian recipients sperm from a donor of appropriate ethnicity were not available in Sweden. Whether the sperm donor was anonymous or identifiable was not of major importance to most sperm recipients. Health care providers expressed unanimous willingness to assist in treatment with sperm from an anonymous donor. Our inquiry indicated that more than 250 Swedish sperm recipients travel to Denmark annually. Identifiable sperm donors are driven by altruistic motives, but shortage of sperm donors leads to reproductive travelling. Recruitment strategies to increase the number of sperm donors in Sweden are therefore warranted.

  2. Trends in Transfusion Transmitted Infections Among Replacement Blood Donors in Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Mohammad Irfan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of Hepatitis-B, Hepatitis-C and Human Immunodeficiency infections in replacement blood donors. METHODS: From January 2004 to December 2011, 108,598 apparently healthy donors donated blood at our Blood Bank. Screening was done by Microparticle Enzyme Immuno Assay (MEIA method on Axsym System (Abbott Diagnostic, USA and in year 2011 by Chemiluminescent Immunoassay (CIA method on Architect i2000 (Abbott Diagnostic, USA. From 2010 onward, HIV reactive donors were advised for confirmatory tests and reported back with the results. RESULTS: Of the 108,598 total donors, 108,393 (99.8% were replacement donors with a mean age of 28.92 (17-55 years. Of this, only 164 (0.15% were females. Among the replacement donors, 4,906 (4.5% were found to be reactive for Hepatitis-B, C and Human Immunodeficiency Virus. All the reactive patients, except one, were males. HbsAg was positive in 2,068 (1.90% and anti-HCV in 2832 (2.61% donors, while 111 (0.10% were positive for Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Co-infectivity was observed in 103 (0.09% cases. The prevalence appeared to be higher in younger age group (17-30 yrs. Only 16.6% cases should be patients returned with results of the confirmatory tests for HIV and were found positive. CONCLUSION: Hepatitis-B and C sero-prevalence in our series of replacement donors appears high compared to most studies from neighboring countries and relatively low in comparison to earlier studies from Pakistan. Prevalence of HIV, however, appears low and turn out of HIV positive cases for confirmatory tests is low.

  3. Blood donors at high risk of transmitting the acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, M; Hewitt, P E; Barbara, J A; Mochnaty, P Z

    1985-03-09

    The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) occurs most commonly in homosexual men. This group carries the greatest risk of transmitting AIDS by blood transfusion. Both promiscuous and nonpromiscuous male homosexuals should refrain from giving blood. A leaflet stating this advice was prepared by the Department of Health and Social Security, United Kingdom. In July 1984 a questionnaire was given to all donors attending a blood donor clinic in the west end of London, England. 53% were male. Donors were given a leaflet on AIDS and a questionnaire to complete in private. Those who considered themselves to be in a high risk group were asked to designate their blood for research purposes only. Serum samples from donors who confirmed that they were in the high risk category were tested for antihepatitis B core antigen and anti-human T lymphotropic virus type III (anti-HTLV-III) in addition to the routine screening of donors for hepatitis B surface antigen and syphilis. All high risk donors were men. Homosexuality was the only high risk factor. Of 5000 questionnaires administered between July and October, 614 were not completed or had ambiguous answers. 38 donors who completed the questionnaire beonged to a high risk group. Of these, 7 were positive for antihepatitis B core antigen; none were positive for anti-HTLV-III, T pallidum hemagglatination, or hepatits B surface antigen. Although the homosexual donors had a much lower incidence of sexually transmitted disease than those attending special clinics, this should not encourage complacency. All possible measures must be taken to prevent homosexuals from donating blood.

  4. Development of Organ-Specific Donor Risk Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkina, Sanjeev K.; Asrani, Sumeet K.; Peng, Yi; Stock, Peter; Kim, Ray; Israni, Ajay K.

    2012-01-01

    Due to the shortage of deceased donor organs, transplant centers accept organs from marginal deceased donors, including older donors. Organ-specific donor risk indices have been developed to predict graft survival using various combinations of donor and recipient characteristics. We will review the kidney donor risk index (KDRI) and liver donor risk index (LDRI) and compare and contrast their strengths, limitations, and potential uses. The Kidney Donor Risk Index has a potential role in developing new kidney allocation algorithms. The Liver Donor Risk Index allows for greater appreciation of the importance of donor factors, particularly for hepatitis C-positive recipients; as the donor risk index increases, rates of allograft and patient survival among these recipients decrease disproportionately. Use of livers with high donor risk index is associated with increased hospital costs independent of recipient risk factors, and transplanting livers with high donor risk index into patients with Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scores Significant regional variation in donor quality, as measured by the Liver Donor Risk Index, remains in the United States. We also review other potential indices for liver transplant, including donor-recipient matching and the retransplant donor risk index. While substantial progress has been made in developing donor risk indices to objectively assess donor variables that affect transplant outcomes, continued efforts are warranted to improve these indices to enhance organ allocation policies and optimize allograft survival. PMID:22287036

  5. [Rare blood donors with irregular antibodies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanović, Mirjana Krga; Bujandrić, Nevenka; Knezević, Natasa Milosavljević

    2013-01-01

    Blood groups are inherited biological characteristics that do not change throughout life in healthy people. Blood groups represent antigens found on the surface of red blood cells. Kell blood group system consists of 31 antigens. Kell antigen (K) is present in 0.2% of the population (the rare blood group). Cellano antigen is present in more than 99% (the high-frequency antigen). These antigens have a distinct ability to cause an immune response in the people after blood transfusion or pregnancy who, otherwise, did not have them before. This paper presents a blood donor with a rare blood group, who was found to have an irregular antibody against red blood cells by indirect antiglobulin test. Further testing determined the specificity of antibody to be anti-Cellano. The detected antibody was found in high titers (1024) with erythrocyte phenotype Kell-Cellano+. The blood donor was found to have a rare blood group KellKell. This donor was excluded from further blood donation. It is difficult to find compatible blood for a person who has developed an antibody to the high-frequency antigen. The donor's family members were tested and Cellano antigen was detected in her husband and child. A potential blood donor was not found among the family members. There was only one blood donor in the Register of blood donors who was compatible in the ABO and Kell blood group system. For the successful management of blood transfusion it is necessary to establish a unified national register of donors of rare blood groups and cooperate with the International Blood Group Reference Laboratory in Bristol with the database that registers donors of rare blood groups from around the world.

  6. Adult-to-Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimul A Shah

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present review outlines the principles of living donor liver transplantation, donor workup, procedure and outcomes. Living donation offers a solution to the growing gap between the need for liver transplants and the limited availability of deceased donor organs. With a multidisciplinary team focused on donor safety and experienced surgeons capable of performing complex resection/reconstruction procedures, donor morbidity is low and recipient outcomes are comparable with results of deceased donor transplantation.

  7. Donor policy rules and aid effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars

    2008-01-01

    The present paper examines the macroeconomic impact of aid, by introducing endogenous aid allocations into a neoclassical growth framework. On this basis it is shown that donor policies can have important implications for the trajectory of recipients' GDP per capita. Depending on specific donor...... policy choices, aid disbursements may lead to faster transitional growth, stagnation or cyclical growth. Moreover, the analysis also suggests that donor policies may be part of the reason why foreign aid is not found to be uniformly effective in raising long-run productivity across recipients...

  8. Shallow hydrogen-related donors in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartung, J.; Weber, J.

    1993-01-01

    Photothermal ionization spectroscopy on neutron-irradiated and subsequently hydrogen-plasma-treated silicon reveals the existence of new shallow donors. The binding energies of the observed effective-mass-like donors are between 34 and 53 meV. The optical dipole transitions of the different donors are shifted towards higher energies by ΔE=0.1--0.2 cm -1 , when deuterium is used in the plasma instead of hydrogen. This isotope shift of the optical dipole transitions between the electronic levels of the defects is direct proof of the incorporation of hydrogen in these defects

  9. Simulation Model for DMEK Donor Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Vikas; Mittal, Ruchi; Singh, Swati; Narang, Purvasha; Sridhar, Priti

    2018-04-09

    To demonstrate a simulation model for donor preparation in Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK). The inner transparent membrane of the onion (Allium cepa) was used as a simulation model for human Descemet membrane (DM). Surgical video (see Video, Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/ICO/A663) demonstrating all the steps was recorded. This model closely simulates human DM and helps DMEK surgeons learn the nuances of DM donor preparation steps with ease. The technique is repeatable, and the model is cost-effective. The described simulation model can assist surgeons and eye bank technicians to learn steps in donor preparation in DMEK.

  10. Kidney for sale by live donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahams, D

    1989-02-04

    The capacity to consent to bodily harm is explored in relation to the trade in kidneys obtained from impoverished healthy live donors for cash. The British medical profession has unambiguously condemned the practice, but the law in Britain allows a donor to consent to serious injury where the act had some social purpose, recognized by the law as valid. Allegations against the private Humana Hospital Wellington that indigent Turks were brought to Britain to be paid kidney donors, and similar practices elsewhere, are discussed. Questions are raised about the illegality of such contracts in Britain and the possibility of a Parliamentary Act making brokerage and involvement with such cash transactions a criminal offense.

  11. Predonation psychosocial evaluation of living kidney and liver donor candidates: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerinckx, Nathalie; Timmerman, Lotte; Van Gogh, Johan; van Busschbach, Jan; Ismail, Sohal Y; Massey, Emma K; Dobbels, Fabienne

    2014-01-01

    Evaluating a person's suitability for living organ donation is crucial, consisting not only of a medical but also of a thorough psychosocial screening. We performed a systematic literature review of guidelines, consensus statements, and protocols on the content and process of psychosocial screening of living kidney and liver donor candidates. We searched PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and PsycINFO until June 22, 2011, following the PRISMA guidelines, complemented by scrutinizing guidelines databases and references of identified publications. Thirty-four publications were identified, including seven guidelines, six consensus statements, and 21 protocols or programs. Guidelines and consensus statements were inconsistent and lacked concreteness for both their content and process, possibly explaining the observed variability in center-specific evaluation protocols and programs. Overall, recommended screening criteria are not evidence-based and an operational definition of the concept "psychosocial" is missing, causing heterogeneity in terminology. Variation also exists on methods used to psychosocially evaluate potential donors. The scientific basis of predonation psychosocial evaluation needs to be strengthened. There is a need for high-quality prospective psychosocial outcome studies in living donors, a uniform terminology to label psychosocial screening criteria, and validated instruments to identify risk factors. © 2013 Steunstichting ESOT. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Donor-derived HLA antibody production in patients undergoing SCT from HLA antibody-positive donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, K; Yoshihara, S; Maruya, E; Ikegame, K; Kaida, K; Hayashi, K; Kato, R; Inoue, T; Fujioka, T; Tamaki, H; Okada, M; Onuma, T; Fujii, N; Kusunoki, Y; Soma, T; Saji, H; Ogawa, H

    2012-10-01

    Pre-existing donor-specific HLA antibodies in patients undergoing HLA-mismatched SCT have increasingly been recognized as a risk factor for primary graft failure. However, the clinical implications of the presence of HLA antibodies in donors remain unknown. We prospectively examined 123 related donors for the presence of HLA antibodies by using a Luminex-based single antigen assay. Of these, 1/57 (1.8%) male, 6/27 (22%) parous female and 0/39 (0%) nonparous female donors were HLA antibody-positive. Then, we determined the presence of HLA antibodies in seven patients who received SCT from antibody-positive donors. Of these, four became HLA antibody-positive after SCT. The specificities of the antibodies that emerged in the patients closely resembled those of the antibodies found in the donors, indicating their production by donor-derived plasma cells. Moreover, the kinetics of the HLA antibody levels were similar in all four patients: levels started increasing within 1 week after SCT and peaked at days 10-21, followed by a gradual decrease. These results suggest that donor-derived HLA antibody production frequently occurs in patients undergoing SCT from antibody-positive donors. Further studies are warranted for clarifying the clinical significance of donor-derived HLA antibodies, including the role of these antibodies in post transplant platelet transfusion refractoriness.

  13. Responses to recipient and donor B cells by genetically donor T cells from human haploidentical chimeras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiff, S.; Sampson, H.; Buckley, R.

    1986-01-01

    Following administration of haploidentical stem cells to infants with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), mature T cells of donor karyotype appear later in the recipient without causing graft-versus-host disease. To investigate the effect of the host environment on the responsiveness of these genetically donor T cells, blood B and T lymphocytes from 6 SCID recipients, their parental donors and unrelated controls were purified by double SRBC rosetting. T cells were stimulated by irradiated B cells at a 1:1 ratio in 6 day cultures. Engrafted T cells of donor karyotype gave much smaller responses to irradiated genetically recipient B cells than did fresh donor T cells. Moreover, engrafted T cells of donor karyotype from two of the three SCIDs who are longest post-transplantation responded more vigorously (14,685 and 31,623 cpm) than fresh donor T cells (5141 and 22,709 cpm) to donor B cells. These data indicate that T lymphocytes which have matured from donor stem cells in the recipient microenvironment behave differently from those that have matured in the donor

  14. Donor Retention in Online Crowdfunding Communities: A Case Study of DonorsChoose.org.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althoff, Tim; Leskovec, Jure

    2015-05-01

    Online crowdfunding platforms like DonorsChoose.org and Kick-starter allow specific projects to get funded by targeted contributions from a large number of people. Critical for the success of crowdfunding communities is recruitment and continued engagement of donors. With donor attrition rates above 70%, a significant challenge for online crowdfunding platforms as well as traditional offline non-profit organizations is the problem of donor retention. We present a large-scale study of millions of donors and donations on DonorsChoose.org, a crowdfunding platform for education projects. Studying an online crowdfunding platform allows for an unprecedented detailed view of how people direct their donations. We explore various factors impacting donor retention which allows us to identify different groups of donors and quantify their propensity to return for subsequent donations. We find that donors are more likely to return if they had a positive interaction with the receiver of the donation. We also show that this includes appropriate and timely recognition of their support as well as detailed communication of their impact. Finally, we discuss how our findings could inform steps to improve donor retention in crowdfunding communities and non-profit organizations.

  15. Human decellularized bone scaffolds from aged donors show improved osteoinductive capacity compared to young donor bone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A Smith

    Full Text Available To improve the safe use of allograft bone, decellularization techniques may be utilized to produce acellular scaffolds. Such scaffolds should retain their innate biological and biomechanical capacity and support mesenchymal stem cell (MSC osteogenic differentiation. However, as allograft bone is derived from a wide age-range, this study aimed to determine whether donor age impacts on the ability an osteoinductive, acellular scaffold produced from human bone to promote the osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow MSCs (BM-MSC. BM-MSCs from young and old donors were seeded on acellular bone cubes from young and old donors undergoing osteoarthritis related hip surgery. All combinations resulted in increased osteogenic gene expression, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP enzyme activity, however BM-MSCs cultured on old donor bone displayed the largest increases. BM-MSCs cultured in old donor bone conditioned media also displayed higher osteogenic gene expression and ALP activity than those exposed to young donor bone conditioned media. ELISA and Luminex analysis of conditioned media demonstrated similar levels of bioactive factors between age groups; however, IGF binding protein 1 (IGFBP1 concentration was significantly higher in young donor samples. Additionally, structural analysis of old donor bone indicated an increased porosity compared to young donor bone. These results demonstrate the ability of a decellularized scaffold produced from young and old donors to support osteogenic differentiation of cells from young and old donors. Significantly, the older donor bone produced greater osteogenic differentiation which may be related to reduced IGFBP1 bioavailability and increased porosity, potentially explaining the excellent clinical results seen with the use of allograft from aged donors.

  16. [Guidelines for Chagas disease: Part III. Chagas disease in donors to blood banks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apt B, Werner; Heitmann G, Ingrid; Jercic L, M Isabel; Jotré M, Leonor; Muñoz C del V, Patricia; Noemí H, Isabel; San Martin V, Ana M; Sapunar P, Jorge; Torres H, Marisa; Zulantay A, Inés

    2008-08-01

    In this chapter it is emphasized the importance to guarantee safety and high quality blood transfusions. Besides, the following topics are analyzed: the importance of Trypanosoma cruzi infection acquired by blood transfusions, the obligatory screening implemented in Chilean blood banks and serological diagnostic techniques used that for, the seroprevalence observed, the importance to confirm results and methods recommended in this purpose and, to notify the donor once the infection is confirmed. In addition a facsímil of a letter used to notify the positive donor is included as guidelines to make advice after, attaching a pro-forma of clinical-epidemiological registration to refer the donor to medical evaluation and treatment.

  17. Importance of donor history of restless leg syndrome and pica to asses iron deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ashutosh; Chaudhary, Rajendra; Sonker, Atul; Pandey, Hem Chandra

    2016-04-01

    Iron deficiency is associated with neuropsychological changes such as restless leg syndrome (RLS), pica, hair loss, etc. Our objective was to assess usefulness of history of RLS and pica in relation with iron stores in blood donors. During medical examination, apart from routine questionnaires specific history of RLS and pica was elicited. Along with hemoglobin markers of iron deficiency such as s. iron, s. ferritin and mean corpuscular volume were analyzed. Out of 400 blood donors 41 had h/o pica/RLS/pagophagia. Positive and negative predictive value of above history is 73.17% and 80.5% respectively. We recommend the use of a screening question for pica and/or RLS in blood donor questionnaire. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Measles Virus Neutralizing Antibodies in Intravenous Immunoglobulins: Is an Increase by Revaccination of Plasma Donors Possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modrof, Jens; Tille, Björn; Farcet, Maria R; McVey, John; Schreiner, Jessica A; Borders, Charles M; Gudino, Maria; Fitzgerald, Peter; Simon, Toby L; Kreil, Thomas R

    2017-11-15

    We report a screen of plasma donors confirming that widespread use of childhood measles vaccination since 1963 resulted in a decrease in average measles virus antibody titers among plasma donors, which is reflected in intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIGs). The measles virus antibody titer, however, is a potency requirement for IVIGs, as defined in a Food and Drug Administration regulation. To mitigate the decline in measles virus antibody titers in IVIGs and to ensure consistent product release, revaccination of plasma donors was investigated as a means to boost titers. However, revaccination-induced titer increases were only about 2-fold and short-lived. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. RESULTS OF THE SPECIAL BLOOD DONOR DAY

    CERN Document Server

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    Responding to the HUG (Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève) hospitals’ urgent appeal for blood donations during this summer season, the CERN medical staff organised a day of blood donations for the Swiss bloodbank CTS on 30 July. They were supported by NOVAE (Restaurant No. 1), who provided donors with a free snack. This specially arranged campaign was a success, as the 135 volunteers included 66 first-time donors, and a total of 99 standard bags of blood were collected. (Swiss hospitals need 1300 bags every day!) The CTS and CERN’s medical staff wish to thank the donors and all others who helped make the event a success. Upcoming blood donor days at CERN: 12 November 2008 and 10 March 2009.

  20. RESULTS OF THE SPECIAL BLOOD DONOR DAY

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    Responding to the HUG (Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève) hospitals’ urgent appeal for blood donations during this summer season, the CERN medical staff organised a day of blood donations for the Swiss bloodbank CTS on 30 July. They were supported by NOVAE (Restaurant No. 1), who provided donors with a free snack. This specially arranged campaign was a success, as the 135 volunteers included 66 first-time donors, and a total of 99 standard bags of blood was collected. (Swiss hospitals need 1300 bags every day!) The CTS and CERN’s medical staff want to thank the donors and all others who helped make the event a success. Upcoming blood donor days at CERN: 12 November 2008 and 10 March 2009.

  1. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy increases the supply of living donor kidneys: a center-specific microeconomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, P C; Johnson, L B

    2000-05-27

    A tenet of microeconomics is that new technology will shift the supply curve to the right. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN) is a new technique for removal of living donor kidneys. Centers performing this procedure have noted an increased number of patients presenting for donor evaluation. This has not been previously studied. The records of all LDN performed from May 1998 to February 1999 were reviewed. The following variables were examined: sex, age, related vs. unrelated donation, estimated blood loss, i.v. analgesia, length of stay, and time out of work. Donors undergoing traditional open donor nephrectomy during January 1997 to May 1998 served as the control group. A composite cost index was constructed. LDN significantly decreased length of stay, pain, and time out of work; the supply function shifted to the right. Telephone interviews revealed that 47% donated solely because of the LDN procedure. LDN increases the supply of living donor kidneys.

  2. Donor-Derived Myeloid Sarcoma in Two Kidney Transplant Recipients from a Single Donor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amudha Palanisamy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the rare occurrence of donor-derived myeloid sarcoma in two kidney transplant patients who received organs from a single deceased donor. There was no evidence of preexisting hematologic malignancy in the donor at the time of organ recovery. Both recipients developed leukemic involvement that appeared to be limited to the transplanted organ. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH and molecular genotyping analyses confirmed that the malignant cells were of donor origin in each patient. Allograft nephrectomy and immediate withdrawal of immunosuppression were performed in both cases; systemic chemotherapy was subsequently administered to one patient. Both recipients were in remission at least one year following the diagnosis of donor-derived myeloid sarcoma. These cases suggest that restoration of the immune system after withdrawal of immunosuppressive therapy and allograft nephrectomy may be sufficient to control HLA-mismatched donor-derived myeloid sarcoma without systemic involvement.

  3. [Seroprevalence of hepatitis B and C viruses, HIV-1/2 and syphilis among blood donors in the Yaoundé Central Hospital in the centre region of Cameroon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankouane, F; Noah Noah, D; Atangana, M M; Kamgaing Simo, R; Guekam, P R; Biwolé Sida, M

    2016-05-01

    Prevention of blood transfusion-transmitted infections includes blood donor screening and effective infectious markers screening for donated blood. This study had two main objectives: to determine seroprevalence of HBV, HCV, HIV and syphilis in blood donors of the Yaoundé Central Hospital and to study sociodemographic factors of blood donors. A retrospective study of consecutive blood donors' records from January to December 2013 was conducted. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C, human immunodeficiency viruses and syphilis were determined in 9024 whole blood donations collected in the Yaoundé Central Hospital in the centre region, Cameroon using Elisa kits. Mean age of donors was 28 years. The male to female ratio was 14.8. Most of blood donors were replacement donors (97.2%) and first-time donors (76.8%). Up to 19.3% of the donors tested positive for at least one infectious agent, in which 0.1% presented a positive test for three viruses (HIV, HCV and HBV). The overall seroprevalence in blood donors was 12.6% for HBsAg, 3.2% for hepatitis C antibody, 3.3% for HIV-1/2 antibodies and 0.2% for syphilis. The prevalence of HBsAg was significantly higher in men (P=0.001), among first-time donors (P=0.003), in blood group A (P=0.01) and those with the rhesus positive blood (P=0.01). The prevalence of anti-HCV was significantly higher among first-time donors (P=0.05). The prevalence of anti-HIV was significantly higher in first-time donors (3.7% vs 2.2%, P=0.02). First-time blood donors and replacement donors are the two types of donors in Cameroon. Replacement donors are considered as having a major risk of transmission of infections to recipients. The seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV, and syphilis among these donors is high and reflects how much these agents are present in Cameroon. Effective infectious markers screening and organization of blood donors into an association of volunteer's donors are necessary to secure blood transfusion in Cameroon

  4. Promoting Organ Donor Registries Through Public Education: What Is the Cost of Securing Organ Donors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razdan, Manik; Smith, Kenneth J; Bryce, Cindy L; Degenholtz, Howard B

    2016-06-01

    Transplant medicine's impact on America's public health is seriously limited by acute shortage of transplantable organs. Consequently, the United Sates has witnessed considerable investment in the promotion of organ donor registries. Although there is no evidence to support that donor registry promotion alleviates organ shortage, this belief continues to drive investments into registry promotion. In this study, return on investment in donor registry promotion was examined using cost-outcomes analysis. Cost of promoting the donor registry was estimated in US dollars whereas the outcome was measured as the number of individuals who join the registry (registrants) and their value in terms of organ donors. The study was conducted from the perspective of a regional Organ Procurement Organization (OPO). Costs were directly obtained from the OPO. The number of new registrants was obtained from the OPO and the departments of motor vehicles that maintain the donor registry. The value of registrants in terms of organ donors was computed based on a registrant's age-dependent risk of dying and age-dependent probability of becoming an organ donor. Six thousand seven hundred eight individuals joined the organ donor registry (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 5429-7956) at a cost of $455 per registrant (95% CI, US $383-US $562). These individuals result in 4.2 present-day donors (95% CI, 2.5-6.6) at a cost of US $726 000 (95% CI, US $462000-US $1.2 million). Because the cost per registrant and cost per donor is less than society's willingness to pay, donor registry promotion offers positive return on investment. Investment in registry promotion should at the minimum be maintained at current levels.

  5. Impact of the cornea donor study on acceptance of corneas from older donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar, Alan; Montoya, Monty M; Beck, Roy; Cowden, John W; Dontchev, Mariya; Gal, Robin L; Kollman, Craig; Malling, Jackie; Mannis, Mark J; Tennant, Bradley

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate retrospectively whether the findings from the Cornea Donor Study (CDS) led to changes in the transplantation of corneas from older donors. Eye banks in United States provided complete data on donor age and placement (domestic or international) for 86,273 corneas from 1998 to 2009. The data were analyzed by 3 periods, preceding CDS (1998-1999), during CDS (2000-2007), and after publication of CDS 5-year results (2008-2009), and separately for corneas placed within versus outside the United States. For corneal tissues transplanted in the United States, the percentage of donors who were 66 years or older increased from 19% before CDS to 21% during CDS and 25% after CDS (Pcorneas distributed outside the United States, with the percentage of donors 66 years and older decreasing from 56% to 42% to 34%, respectively. Donor age trends over time varied by eye bank. There was a modest overall increase in the donor age of corneas transplanted in the United States from 1998 to 2009, but the retrospective nature of the study limits our ability to attribute this change to the CDS. The modest increases in the donor age of corneas transplanted is a positive finding, but wider acceptance of older corneal donor tissue should be encouraged based on the 5-year evidence generated by the CDS.

  6. Impact of the Cornea Donor Study (CDS) on Acceptance of Corneas from Older Donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar, Alan; Montoya, Monty M.; Beck, Roy; Cowden, John W.; Dontchev, Mariya; Gal, Robin L.; Kollman, Craig; Malling, Jackie; Mannis, Mark J.; Tennant, Bradley

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Evaluate retrospectively whether findings from the Cornea Donor Study (CDS) led to changes in the transplantation of corneas from older donors. Methods United States eye banks provided complete data on donor age and placement (domestic or international) for 86,273 corneas from 1998 to 2009. The data were analyzed by 3 time periods: preceding CDS (1998–1999), during CDS (2000–2007) and after publication of CDS 5 year results (2008–2009), and separately for corneas placed within vs. outside the United States. Results For corneal tissues transplanted in the United States, the percentage of donors ≥66 years old increased from 19% before CDS to 21% during CDS and 25% after CDS (pcorneas distributed outside the United States with the percentage of donors ≥66 years old decreasing from 56% to 42% to 34%, respectively. Donor age trends over time varied by eye bank. Conclusions There was a modest overall increase in the donor age of corneas transplanted in the United States from 1998 to 2009, but the retrospective nature of the study limits our ability to attribute this change to the CDS. The modest increases in the donor age of corneas transplanted is a positive finding, but wider acceptance of older corneal donor tissue should be encouraged based on the five-year evidence generated by the CDS. PMID:22262218

  7. Short Term Donor Outcomes After Hepatectomy in Living Donor Liver Transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dar, F. S.; Zia, H.; Bhatti, A. B. H.; Kazmi, R.; Rana, A.; Nazer, R.; Khan, E. U. D.; Khan, N. A.; Salih, M.; Shah, N. H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the outcome of living-donor liver transplant (LDLT) donors from the first liver transplant program in Pakistan. Study Design: Cohort study. Place and Duration of Study: Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, from April 2012 to August 2014. Methodology: A total of 100 live donors who underwent hepatectomy were included. Demographics, etiologies, graft characteristics and operative variables were retrospectively assessed. Outcome was assessed based on morbidity and mortality. Results: Median donor age was 28 (17 - 45) years and median body mass index (BMI) was 24 kg/m2 (15 - 36). Male to female ratio was 1.5:1. Hepatitis B and C were the most common underlying etiologies and accounted for 79/100 (79%) of LDLT's. Overall, 93/100 (93%) donors donated a right lobe graft. Median estimated graft weight to recipient body weight (GW/BW) ratio was 1.03 (0.78 - 2). Standard arterial anatomy was present in 56% donors. The 90-day morbidity was 13/100 (13%) and overall morbidity was 17/100 (17%). Bile leak was encountered in 3 (3%) patients. There was no donor mortality. Conclusion: Acceptable short-term donor outcomes were achieved in an LDLT program in Pakistan with careful donor selection and planning. (author)

  8. Donor registries, first-person consent legislation, and the supply of deceased organ donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callison, Kevin; Levin, Adelin

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we exploit the varied timing in state adoption of organ donor registries and first-person consent (FPC) legislation to examine corresponding changes in the supply of deceased organ donors. Results indicate that the establishment of a state organ donor registry leads to an increase in donation rates of approximately 8%, while the adoption of FPC legislation has no effect on the supply of organ donors. These results reinforce the need to encourage individuals to communicate their donation preferences, either explicitly via a registry or by discussing them with family. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Risk of Exposure to Zika Virus and Impact on Cord Blood Banking and Adult Unrelated Donors in Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: The Canadian Blood Services Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Zachary; Morris, Gail; Campbell, Todd; Mostert, Karen; Dibdin, Nicholas; Fearon, Margaret; Elmoazzen, Heidi; Mercer, Dena; Young, Kimberly; Allan, David

    2018-04-01

    Zika virus has emerged as a potential threat to the Canadian blood supply system. Stem cell donors within Canadian Blood Services' Cord Blood Bank (CBB) and OneMatch Stem Cell and Marrow Network (OM) now undergo screening measures designed to reduce the risk of Zika virus transmission. The impact these screening measures have on cord blood and unrelated adult stem cell donations is currently unknown. Among 146 donor workups initiated by OM between July 2016 and May 2017, 102 were completed and 44 workups were canceled. There were 17 potential donors (11.6%) with a risk of Zika virus exposure identified by the donor questionnaire (13 completed, 4 canceled workups). None of the workups involved a donor diagnosed with confirmed Zika virus within the past 6 months. Only 1 of the 44 canceled workups (and only 1 of 4 cases with a risk of Zika transmission) was canceled because of the risk of Zika transmission, and a backup donor was selected. Canadian Blood Services' CBB identified 25 of 875 cord blood units (2.9%) from women who donated their infants' cord blood and underwent screening that otherwise met the initial cell number thresholds for banking and had at least 1 risk factor for exposure to Zika virus. No women were diagnosed with Zika virus at any point of their pregnancy. All 25 units were discarded. Unrelated donors at OM have a higher incidence of a risk of exposure to Zika virus compared with cord blood donors. Only rarely did transplant centers cancel donor workups due to potential Zika virus exposure. The impact of screening for Zika virus exposure risk on cord blood banking was minor. Continued vigilance and surveillance is recommended. Copyright © 2017 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. An evaluation of asymptomatic Dengue infections among blood donors during the 2014 Dengue outbreak in Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Qiao; Shan, Zhengang; Wang, Min; Huang, Jieting; Xu, Ru; Huang, Ke; Tang, Xi; Zhang, Weiyun; Nelson, Kenrad; Li, Chengyao; Fu, Yongshui; Rong, Xia

    2017-11-01

    In 2014, an outbreak of dengue virus (DENV) infection led to 45 171 clinical cases diagnosed in Guangdong province, Southern China. However, the potential risk of blood donors asymptomatically infected with DENV has not been evaluated . In the current study we detected anti-DENV IgG antibody and RNA in volunteer Chinese blood donors. We found that anti-DENV IgG antibody was positively detected in 3.4% (51/1500) and two donors were detected as being DENV RNA positive out of 3000 blood samples. We concluded that the presence of potential DENV in blood donors might be potential risk for blood safety. Therefore, screening for DENV infection should be considered in blood donations during a period of dengue outbreak in high epidemic area of China. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Prevalence of Hepatitis B Cab with or Without Anti Hbsab in Hbsag Seronegative Blood Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Salman Roughani

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are multiple reports of Acute Hepatitis B after blood transfusion inspite of good screening for Hepatitis B before transfusion. Therefore, occult hepatitis B is a serious concern for Blood transfusion. There is a lot of evidence that positive HBCAb in seronegative HBSAg blood donors is associated with occult Hepatitis B. Aim: Evaluation of the prevalence of HBCAb in seronegative HBSAg blood donors. Method: In a cross sectional descriptive study, we evaluated the serum of 1230 Blood donors for HBCAb, HCVAb and Aminotranferase levels. HBSAg or AntiHIV Ab positive cases were excluded from the study. Detection of Anti HBSAb was done in HBCAb positive patients and liver biopsy was performed in all HCVAb positive cases. Results: 15.1% of blood donors were positive for HBCAb and 51.6% of them had Anti HBSAb. Aminotranferase levels were normal in all people who were positive for HBCAb ,but about 50% of HCVAb positive persons had elevated aminotransferase levels and liver biopsy of all these patients showed inflammation Conclusion: Prevalence of HBCAb is high in our seronegative HBSAg Blood donors and biomolecular studies such as PCR for HBV DNA is indicated in HBCAb positive people, especially in people with isolated HBCAb .

  12. Intravital imaging of donor allogeneic effector and regulatory T cells with host dendritic cells during GVHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kaifeng Lisa; Fulton, LeShara M; Berginski, Matthew; West, Michelle L; Taylor, Nicholas A; Moran, Timothy P; Coghill, James M; Blazar, Bruce R; Bear, James E; Serody, Jonathan S

    2014-03-06

    Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a systemic inflammatory response due to the recognition of major histocompatibility complex disparity between donor and recipient after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). T-cell activation is critical to the induction of GVHD, and data from our group and others have shown that regulatory T cells (Tregs) prevent GVHD when given at the time of HSCT. Using multiphoton laser scanning microscopy, we examined the single cell dynamics of donor T cells and dendritic cells (DCs) with or without Tregs postallogeneic transplantation. We found that donor conventional T cells (Tcons) spent very little time screening host DCs. Tcons formed stable contacts with DCs very early after transplantation and only increased velocity in the lymph node at 20 hours after transplant. We also observed that Tregs reduced the interaction time between Tcons and DCs, which was dependent on the generation of interleukin 10 by Tregs. Imaging using inducible Tregs showed similar disruption of Tcon-DC contact. Additionally, we found that donor Tregs induce host DC death and down-regulate surface proteins required for donor T-cell activation. These data indicate that Tregs use multiple mechanisms that affect host DC numbers and function to mitigate acute GVHD.

  13. Screen dealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlow, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    The screen dealing system provides a facility whereby buyers and sellers of spot thermal coal can make bids and offers via the medium of the Reuters screen. A sale results when a market participant notifies his acceptance of a price to a central dealing desk. Use of the system is available to all genuine participants in the coal trade. This paper reports that it provides a focus for information and for the visible making of coal prices. For years screen trading has been used successfully to trade other commodities. At last coal is being traded electronically. It makes sense. It works. Users like it

  14. Risk factors for deferral due to low hematocrit and iron depletion among prospective blood donors in a Brazilian center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloísa Tedeschi Dauar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Deferral of blood donors due to low hematocrit and iron depletion is commonly reported in blood banks worldwide. This study evaluated the risk factors for low hematocrit and iron depletion among prospective blood donors in a large Brazilian blood center.METHOD: A case-control study of 400 deferred donors due to low hematocrit and 456 eligible whole blood donors was conducted between 2009 and 2011. Participants were interviewed about selected risk factors for anemia, and additional laboratory tests, including serum ferritin, were performed. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess the association between predictors and deferral due to low hematocrit in the studied population and iron depletion in women.RESULTS: Donors taking aspirins or iron supplementation, those who reported stomachache, black tarry stools or hematochezia, and women having more than one menstrual period/month were more likely to be deferred. Risk factors for iron depletion were repeat donation and being deferred at the hematocrit screening. Smoking and lack of menstruation were protective against iron depletion.CONCLUSION: This study found some unusual risk factors related to gastrointestinal losses that were associated with deferral of donors due to low hematocrit. Knowledge of the risk factors can help blood banks design algorithms to improve donor notification and referral.

  15. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositivity and hepatitis B surface antigenemia (HBSAG) among blood donors in Benin city, Edo state, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umolu, Patience Idia; Okoror, Lawrence Ehis; Orhue, Philip

    2005-03-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis B virus are blood borne pathogens that can be transmitted through blood transfusion and could pose a huge problem in areas where mechanisms of ensuring blood safety are suspect. This study became necessary in a population where most of the blood for transfusion is from commercial blood donors. A total of 130 donors comprising 120 commercial donors and 10 voluntary donors were tested for antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B surface antigen in Benin city using Immunocomb HIV - 1 and 2 Biospot kit and Quimica Clinica Aplicada direct latex agglutination method respectively. Thirteen (10%) samples were HIV seropositive and 7(5.8%) were HBsAg positive. The age bracket 18 - 25years had the highest numbers of donors and also had the highest number of HBsAg positive cases (7.8%) while the age group 29 - 38years had highest number of HIV seropositive cases. High prevalence of HIV antibodies and Hepatitis B surface antigen was found among commercial blood donors. Appropriate and compulsory screening of blood donors using sensitive methods, must be ensured to prevent post transfusion hepatitis and HIV.

  16. Metagenomic profiling of the viromes of plasma collected from blood donors with elevated serum alanine aminotransferase levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Rika A; Sakamoto, Hirotaka; Kuroishi, Ayumu; Yasiui, Kazuta; Matsukura, Harumichi; Hirayama, Fumiya

    2015-08-01

    In Japanese Red Cross (JRC) blood centers, blood collected from donors with serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels of more than 60 U/L are disqualified even if serologically negative for transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs). To assess potential risks of TTIs in plasma with elevated serum ALT levels in the current donor screening program of the JRC, we conducted a metagenomic analysis (MGA) of virome profiles in the plasma of blood donors with or without elevated serum ALT levels. Based on serum ALT levels, donors were classified into three groups: "high," more than 79 U/L; "middle," 61 to 79 U/L; and "low," less than 61 U/L. We individually analyzed 100 plasma samples from each group by MGA, employing shotgun sequencing. Viral sequences detected using MGA were partly confirmed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Donors with high and middle ALT levels were significantly younger than those with low ALT levels, and more than 90% were males. Herpesviridae, Anelloviridae, Picornaviridae, and Flaviviridae sequences were identified in plasma samples, and their distribution and frequency were not significantly different among the three groups. The serum ALT test may be unsuitable for monitoring for additional risks of TTIs in blood donors who were negative for typical TTIs using serologic and nucleic acid tests. Although MGA is less sensitive than PCR, it remains the best technology to detect known viruses in these donors. © 2015 AABB.

  17. A high risk of hepatitis C infection among Egyptian blood donors: the role of parenteral drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassily, S; Hyams, K C; Fouad, R A; Samaan, M D; Hibbs, R G

    1995-06-01

    To determine the prevalence and risk factors of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among Egyptian blood donors, 188 consecutive adult blood donors from four hospitals and one temporary donor center located in Cairo, Egypt were evaluated. Sera were tested for HCV antibodies (anti-HCV) using second-generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test kits. Sera that were repeatedly reactive by ELISA were further verified by a second-generation recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA). Antibodies to HCV were detected by RIBA in 26.6% of the blood donors, which is higher than the 10-19% prevalence of antibody found in other studies of Egyptian blood donors. A history of selling blood (odds ratio [OR] = 12.1) and the use of illicit parenteral drugs (OR = 2.5) were significantly associated with anti-HCV seropositivity after controlling for age and gender. These data indicate that the use of illicit drugs may be one reason for high levels of reported HCV infection among Egyptian blood donors. These findings also indicate that Egyptian blood donors should be screened for anti-HCV and individuals who have a history of drug abuse should be deferred from donating blood.

  18. Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay seroreactivity among healthy Indian donors and its association with other transfusion transmitted diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Pahuja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of syphilis infection by Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay (TPHA among blood donors in Delhi and to study their correlation with other markers of transfusion transmitted infections such as hepatitis C virus (HCV, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg so as to establish the utility of TPHA over and above venereal diseases research laboratory test (VDRL, not only as a marker for testing T. pallidum infection, but also as a marker of high risk behavior. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was carried out in the Regional Blood Transfusion Centre, Lady Hardinge Medical College and associated Sucheta Kriplani Hospital, New Delhi for a period of 2 years. Donated blood was screened for TPHA seroreactivity along with screening for anti HIV I and II, anti-HCV, HBsAg by third generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test. A total of 8082 serum samples of blood donors were collected from healthy blood donors in our blood bank. They were classified into two groups- test group and control group based on TPHA positivity. The co-occurrence of HBsAg, HIV and HCV infection were determined in TPHA positive blood donors (test group in comparison with TPHA negative blood donors (control group. Results: We found the TPHA seroreactivity to be 4.4% in Delhi′s blood donors. Nearly 8.2% (663/8082 of the donated blood had serological evidence of infection by at least one pathogen (syphilis/HIV/hepatitis B virus/HCV and 6.63% (44/663 donors with positive serology had multiple infections (two or more. Quadruple infection was seen in one donor, triple infection was seen in three donors and double infection was seen in 40 donors. Prevalence of HIV seroreactivity was found to be statistically significant and HCV seroreactivity statistically insignificant in TPHA positive group in comparison to TPHA negative group. Discussion: In our study, the

  19. Parvovirus B19 viraemia in Dutch blood donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaaijer, H. L.; Koppelman, M. H. G. M.; Farrington, C. P.

    2004-01-01

    Blood, donated by asymptomatic donors, may contain and transmit parvovirus B19. To investigate the dynamics of parvovirus viraemia in asymptomatic blood donors, we studied the amounts of parvovirus DNA in pools of donor plasma, the prevalence of parvovirus antibodies among blood donors in relation

  20. Prevalence of malaria parasitaemia among blood donors in Owerri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia among blood donors in the Federal Medical Centre, Owerri, Imo State, was carried out between December, 2003 and April, 2004. A total of 500 blood samples were collected from blood donors consisting of 262 commercial donors and 238 relation-donors, using ...

  1. Seroepidemiology of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-I in blood donors of Northeastern Iran, Sabzevar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahtab Maghsudlu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-I (HTLV-I infection is considered as a public health challenge in endemic areas. The virus is associated with severe diseases, such as adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma, and HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. One of the major routes of the HTLV-I transmission includes blood transfusion. Sabzevar is located in the endemic region of HTLV-I infection. The aim of the present study was to determine the seroprevalence of HTLV-I infection in the blood donors in Sabzevar. Materials and Methods: A total of 35,067 blood donors in Sabzevar from March 2009 to April 2012 who were screened with HTLV-I on the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay screening test were included in this survey. Reactive samples that confirmed by western blot were considered to be seropositive cases. The required data were obtained from blood donors′ database of blood transfusion service. Results: The overall prevalence of HTLV-1 based on the positive result of western blot test was 0.14%. The seropositive donors aged 17-59 years with a mean age of 38.10 ± 11.82. The prevalence rates of HTLV-I infection in 3 years of study were 0.19%, 0.14%, and 0.09%, respectively. A significant relation between age, sex, educational level, and history of blood donation was observed with seropositivity of HTLV-I. Conclusion: The improvement of donor selection and laboratory screening caused a decline in the prevalence of infection in blood donors. Given the lower prevalence of infection in regular donors with lower age and higher educational level, more efforts should be done to attract blood donors from these populations.

  2. Feasibility of liver graft procurement with donor gallbladder preservation in living donor liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jia-Hong; Ye, Sheng; Duan, Wei-Dong; Ji, Wen-Bing; Liang, Yu-Rong

    2015-10-01

    Cholecystectomy is routinely performed at most transplant centers during living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). This study was performed to evaluate the feasibility of liver graft procurement with donor gallbladder preservation in LDLT. Eighty-nine LDLTs (from June 2006 to Dec 2012) were retrospectively analyzed at our hospital. The surgical approach for liver graft procurement with donor gallbladder preservation was assessed, and the anatomy of the cystic artery, the morphology and contractibility of the preserved gallbladder, postoperative symptoms, and vascular and biliary complications were compared among donors with or without gallbladder preservation. Twenty-eight donors (15 right and 13 left-liver grafts) successfully underwent liver graft procurement with gallbladder preservation. Among the 15 right lobectomy donors, for 12 cases (80.0 %) the cystic artery originated from right hepatic artery. From the left hepatic artery and proper hepatic artery accounted for 6.7 % (1/15), respectively. Postoperative symptoms among these 28 donors were slight, although donors with cholecystectomy often complained of fatty food aversion, dyspepsia, and diarrhea during an average follow-up of 58.6 (44-78) months. The morphology and contractibility of the preserved gallbladders were comparable with normal status; the rate of contraction was 53.8 and 76.7 %, respectively, 30 and 60 min after ingestion of a fatty meal. Biliary and vascular complications among donors and recipients, irrespective of gallbladder preservation, were not significantly different. These data suggest that for donors compliant with anatomical requirements, liver graft procurement with gallbladder preservation for the donor is feasible and safe. The preserved gallbladder was assessed as functioning well and postoperative symptoms as a result of cholecystectomy were significantly reduced during long-term follow-up.

  3. Adverse effects to transfusion with red donor blood cells are frequent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Nørgaard, Astrid; Burcharth, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    Adverse effects to transfusion with red donor blood cells are potentially life-threatening. Due to screening, transmission of infectious diseases has decreased; however, the risk is still present. Various immune reactions are common including simple allergic reactions as well as devastating...... conditions such as transfusion-related acute lung injury and circulatory overload in patients with heart disease. Knowledge of the clinical signs of transfusion-related complications is important for clinicians in order to provide the best possible treatment....

  4. Detection of HTLV-I and -II in Scottish blood donor samples and archive donations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, F; Lycett, C; Jarvis, L M; Kerr, D; Lumley, S; Petrik, J; Dow, B C

    2006-10-01

    Positive samples identified during routine serological screening for HCV (hepatitis C virus), HBV (hepatitis B virus) and HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) are confirmed by nucleic acid testing in the SNBTS (Scottish National Blood Transfusion Service) PCR Reference laboratory. Serological screening for HTLV-I (human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I) and -II was implemented in Scotland in November 2002, at which time a PCR assay was not available for confirmation. Our aim was to develop a real-time PCR assay that could be used for the confirmation of samples showing HTLV-I serological positive or indeterminate reactivity and to investigate whether a serologically silent carrier status exists ('Tax' only) in the Scottish donor population. A real-time HTLV PCR was devised using a lymphoblastoid cell line which has HTLV-I sequence integrated in the genome (C8166 cells). These were spiked into peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The assay was evaluated on archived serologically confirmed HTLV-positive samples and new positives identified since implementation of screening. HTLV-I and -II were detected in cells and plasma from stored donations and a serological positive donation identified in routine screening. HTLV DNA can also be amplified from the plasma obtained from plasma preparation tubes. There was no evidence of a carrier status ('Tax' only) in 100 serologically negative blood donors tested. The PCR assay developed is reliable and sensitive, capable of identifying one copy of HTLV-I. The HTLV PCR is a useful addition for HTLV confirmation, especially in serologically indeterminate samples and for look-back studies. HTLV PCR confirmation will provide additional useful information for donor medical staff for counselling donors.

  5. Hypertension screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulke, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    An attempt was made to measure the response to an announcement of hypertension screening at the Goddard Space Center, to compare the results to those of previous statistics. Education and patient awareness of the problem were stressed.

  6. Airport Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... travel continues, especially given the ongoing threat of terrorism. The technology used in screening people and their ... can be found on the Radiation Terms and Definitions page on the Health Physics Society website at ...

  7. Toxicology screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the type and approximate amount of legal and illegal drugs a person has taken. How the Test is ... prescription medicines that have not been prescribed, and illegal drugs have not been detected. A blood toxicology screen ...

  8. Streptococcal screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    A streptococcal screen is a test to detect group A streptococcus. This bacteria is the most common cause of ... throat swab. The swab is tested to identify group A streptococcus. It takes about 7 minutes to get the ...

  9. Efficient synthesis of glycosylated phenazine natural products and analogs with DISAL (methyl 3,5-dinitrosalicylate) glycosyl donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Jane B.; Petersen, Lars; Jensen, K.J.

    2003-01-01

    . Benzoylated D-glucose, D-galactose and L-quinovose DISAL glycosyl donors were synthesized in high yields and used under mild conditions to glycosylate methyl saphenate and 2-hydroxyphenazine. The glycosides were screened for biological activity and one compound showed inhibitory activity towards topoisomerase...

  10. DETERMINATION OF A MAXIMUM NUMBER OF ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATIONS BY DONOR CHILDREN PER SPERM DONOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEBOER, A; Oosterwijk, JC; RIGTERSARIS, CAE

    Objective: To determine a safe maximum number of artificial insemination (donor insemination [DI]) children per anonymous sperm donor. Design: Multiparameter calculation model of contribution of DI to inbreeding. Setting: Data of the collaborative DI centers and demographic population data of The

  11. The blood donor identity survey: a multidimensional measure of blood donor motivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Christopher R; Kowalsky, Jennifer M; France, Janis L; Himawan, Lina K; Kessler, Debra A; Shaz, Beth H

    2014-08-01

    Evidence indicates that donor identity is an important predictor of donation behavior; however, prior studies have relied on diverse, unidimensional measures with limited psychometric support. The goals of this study were to examine the application of self-determination theory to blood donor motivations and to develop and validate a related multidimensional measure of donor identity. Items were developed and administered electronically to a sample of New York Blood Center (NYBC) donors (n=582) and then to a sample of Ohio University students (n=1005). Following initial confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) on the NYBC sample to identify key items related to self-determination theory's six motivational factors, a revised survey was administered to the university sample to reexamine model fit and to assess survey reliability and validity. Consistent with self-determination theory, for both samples CFAs indicated that the best fit to the data was provided by a six-motivational-factor model, including amotivation, external regulation, introjected regulation, identified regulation, integrated regulation, and intrinsic regulation. The Blood Donor Identity Survey provides a psychometrically sound, multidimensional measure of donor motivations (ranging from unmotivated to donate to increasing levels of autonomous motivation to donate) that is suitable for nondonors as well as donors with varying levels of experience. Future research is needed to examine longitudinal changes in donor identity and its relationship to actual donation behavior. © 2014 AABB.

  12. Oocyte cryopreservation for donor egg banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobo, Ana; Remohí, José; Chang, Ching-Chien; Nagy, Zsolt Peter

    2011-09-01

    Oocyte donation is an efficient alternative to using own oocytes in IVF treatment for different indications. Unfortunately, 'traditional' (fresh) egg donations are challenged with inefficiency, difficulties of synchronization, very long waiting periods and lack of quarantine measures. Given the recent improvements in the efficiency of oocyte cryopreservation, it is reasonable to examine if egg donation through oocyte cryopreservation has merits. The objective of the current manuscript is to review existing literature on this topic and to report on the most recent outcomes from two established donor cryobank centres. Reports on egg donation using slow freezing are scarce and though results are encouraging, outcomes are not yet comparable to a fresh egg donation treatment. Vitrification on the other hand appears to provide high survival rates (90%) of donor oocytes and comparable fertilization, embryo development, implantation and pregnancy rates to traditional (fresh) egg donation. Besides the excellent outcomes, the ease of use for both donors and recipients, higher efficiency, lower cost and avoiding the problem of synchronization are all features associated with the benefit of a donor egg cryobank and makes it likely that this approach becomes the future standard of care. Oocyte donation is one of the last resorts in IVF treatment for couples challenged with infertility problems. However, traditional (fresh) egg donation, as it is performed today, is not very efficient, as typically all eggs from one donor are given to only one recipient, it is arduous as it requires an excellent synchronization between the donor and recipient and there are months or years of waiting time. Because of the development of an efficient oocyte cryopreservation technique, it is now possible to cryo-store donor (as well as non-donor) eggs, maintaining their viability and allowing their use whenever there is demand. Therefore, creating a donor oocyte cryobank would carry many advantages

  13. Donor type semiconductor at low temperature as maser active medium

    OpenAIRE

    Kornyushin, Yuri

    2007-01-01

    In some semiconductors donor impurity atoms can attract additional electrons, forming negative donor impurity ions. Thus we have 3 energy levels for electrons: zero energy levels at the bottom of the conductivity band, negative energy levels of the bounded electrons of the negative donor impurity ions, and deeper negative energy levels of the outer electrons of the neutral donor impurity atoms. So the donor impurity atoms could serve as active centres for a maser. The maximum achievable relat...

  14. Living uterus donation and transplantation: experience of interest and screening in a single center in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannesson, Liza; Wallis, Kristin; Koon, E Colin; McKenna, Greg J; Anthony, Tiffany; Leffingwell, Sara G; Klintmalm, Goran B; Gunby, Robert T; Testa, Giuliano

    2018-03-01

    Little is known about attitudes toward uterus donation and transplantation in society and the interest of the women the treatment is aimed to assist. This study examined the interest of recipients and living donors in our uterus transplantation program; it describes the screening protocol we developed and the results of the screening and reports demographic data and characteristics of screened candidates. Initial screening and evaluation included physical examinations by a gynecologist and a transplant surgeon; psychological evaluation; imaging (x-ray, computed tomography, ultrasound); blood tests; immunological testing; viral, bacterial, and fungal testing; drug screen; hormonal testing; Papanicolau smear; urinalysis; and electrocardiogram. For selected recipients, the process also included in vitro fertilization. A total of 351 women contacted our department with interest in participating in uterus transplantation; 272 were potential recipients and 79 were potential donors. Among these women, 179 potential recipients and 62 potential donors continued the evaluation after the initial telephone screening. The mean age of the donor candidates was 40 years; all had completed their own family, and 80% were nondirected. Most recipient candidates (92%) had an anatomical lack of the uterus, and of these, 36% had a congenital malformation. The women with a congenital uterine absence were in general younger than the women in the group whose uterus had been removed (mean of 28 and 33 years, respectively). In every step of the initial screening and evaluation process, there were donor and recipient candidates that chose not to continue the process. The reasons for self-withdrawal after expressing interest were not returning phone calls or e-mails (17 donors and 76 recipients); after initial phone screening, no longer interested (1 donor and 9 recipients); in step 1, health history questionnaire not returned after 1 reminder (10 donors and 9 recipients); step 2, not right in

  15. Increasing the donor pool in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, J M

    1998-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate organ donation in Chile following the creation of the "Corporación Nacional de Fomento de Trasplantes." The corporation was created in 1991 as a private, nonprofit organization whose main purpose was to increase the number of actual donors and multiorgan procurement. The organization is independent of the national government and acts as a link between the needs of patients and society and those of the National Ministry of Health. Following the creation of the corporation, the number of actual donors increased from 32 to 98. The number of potential donors increased 3-fold. Family refusal for organ donation was between 28% and 53.4%. Pediatric and marginal donors increased from 2% to 15%. Ninety-five percent of the donors came from Santiago, where 33% of the population lives and most of the efforts were concentrated. The corporation is working to increase organ donation throughout the rest of the country by organizing public campaigns; promoting knowledge about transplantation among medical and nursing personnel at hospitals, schools, universities, and social gatherings; evaluating technical and financial results; and helping with the processes of organ procurement.

  16. Ex-vivo partial nephrectomy after living donor nephrectomy: Surgical technique for expanding kidney donor pool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaw A Nyame

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal transplantation has profound improvements in mortality, morbidity, and overall quality of life compared to renal replacement therapy. This report aims to illustrate the use of ex-vivo partial nephrectomy in a patient with a renal angiomyolipoma prior to living donor transplantation. The surgical outcomes of the donor nephrectomy and recipient transplantation are reported with 2 years of follow-up. Both the donor and recipient are healthy and without any significant comorbidities. In conclusion, urologic techniques such as partial nephrectomy can be used to expand the living donor pool in carefully selected and well informed transplant recipients. Our experience demonstrated a safe and positive outcome for both the recipient and donor, and is consistent with other reported outcomes in the literature.

  17. Blood donation and blood donor mortality after adjustment for a healthy donor effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullum, Henrik; Rostgaard, Klaus; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads

    2015-01-01

    investigated the relation between blood donation frequency and mortality within a large cohort of blood donors. In addition, our analyses also took into consideration the effects of presumed health differences linked to donation behavior. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Using the Scandinavian Donation......BACKGROUND: Studies have repeatedly demonstrated that blood donors experience lower mortality than the general population. While this may suggest a beneficial effect of blood donation, it may also reflect the selection of healthy persons into the donor population. To overcome this bias, we...... and Transfusion database (SCANDAT), we assessed the association between annual number of donations in 5-year windows and donor mortality by means of Poisson regression analysis. The analyses included adjustment for demographic characteristics and for an internal healthy donor effect, estimated among elderly...

  18. Erythrocyte Alloimmunization and Autoimmunization among Blood Donors and Recipients visiting a Tertiary Care Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Daljit; Bains, Lovenish; Kandwal, Manoj; Parmar, Indu

    2017-03-01

    The ultimate aim of pretransfusion testing is the acceptable survival of donor red cells in recipient's body and antibody detection plays a critical role in achieving the same. The cornerstone of antibody detection method is detecting an unexpected antibody as against the expected antibodies of ABO blood group system. Autoantibodies can also interfere with the detection of clinically significant alloantibodies. To study the frequency of alloantibodies and autoantibodies in the healthy blood donors and patient population visiting our hospital. The Column Agglutination Technology (CAT) was used for ABO RhD blood grouping, Direct Antiglobulin Test (DAT), Autocontrol (AC), Indirect Antiglobulin Test (IAT) and red cell antibody screening and the unexpected reactions in any of these tests were recorded for further evaluation. Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic Acid (EDTA) blood samples were used for all these tests for both blood donors and admitted patients. The CAT was exercised for the blood grouping (using ABD-Reverse Diluent cassettes) and antibody screening (using 0.8% Surgiscreen, Ortho Clinical Diagnostics Limited, USA and Low Ionic Strength Saline Ortho BLISS with AHG cassettes) on the automated immunohaematology platform ORTHO AutoVue ® Innova system (Ortho Clinical Diagnostics Limited, USA). Among all blood donors (n=6350), seven (0.11%) donors had showed unexpected reaction. Of these, four had positive antibody screen (three having naturally occuring antibodies 2=anti-M, 1=anti-Le a and 1=inconclusive) and the other three had positive DAT. Of all the patient samples (n=6136) screened for irregular red cell antibodies, four (0.06%) patients were found to have unexpected reaction revealing one (0.02%) with anti-M antibody and the other three (0.05%) had autoantibodies in their serum. The combined prevalence for both blood donor and recipient population (n=12,486) was found to be 0.11% at our center. The alloimmunisation among patient population was found to be

  19. The Auckland experience with laparoscopic donor nephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthu, Carl; McCall, John; Windsor, John; Harman, Richard; Dittmer, Ian; Smith, Pat; Munn, Stephen

    2003-07-25

    To examine the initial experience of laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN) in New Zealand and compare it with open donor nephrectomy (ODN). All LDNs performed between June 2000 and June 2002 were reviewed. An equal number of ODNs were reviewed. Data were also collected on the recipients of the grafts. Key clinical data were prospectively collected; remaining data were collected by retrospectively reviewing patient charts. Auckland Hospital databases were accessed for costing analysis. Thirty five cases of each procedure had been performed. There has been 100% LDN graft survival. There was no significant difference in graft function (serum creatinine) at one and 12 months (p = 0.25 and 0.35) between the two groups. There was no significant difference in donor morbidity (26% vs 31%, p = 0.59). LDN resulted in a shorter hospital stay (3 vs 6.5 days, p disadvantage of LDN is its higher cost compared with ODN.

  20. Eye bank procedures: donor selection criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Sidney Júlio de Faria E; Sousa, Stella Barretto de Faria E

    2018-01-01

    Eye banks use sterile procedures to manipulate the eye, antiseptic measures for ocular surface decontamination, and rigorous criteria for donor selection to minimize the possibility of disease transmission due to corneal grafting. Donor selection focuses on analysis of medical records and specific post-mortem serological tests. To guide and standardize procedures, eye bank associations and government agencies provide lists of absolute and relative contraindications for use of the tissue based on donor health history. These lists are guardians of the Hippocratic principle "primum non nocere." However, each transplantation carries risk of transmission of potentially harmful agents to the recipient. The aim of the procedures is not to eliminate risk, but limit it to a reasonable level. The balance between safety and corneal availability needs to be maintained by exercising prudence without disproportionate rigor.

  1. Compensatory Hypertrophy After Living Donor Nephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, K W; Wu, M W F; Chen, Z; Tai, B C; Goh, Y S B; Lata, R; Vathsala, A; Tiong, H Y

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that kidney volume enhances the estimation of glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in kidney donors. This study aimed to describe the phenomenon of compensatory hypertrophy after donor nephrectomy as measured on computerized tomographic (CT) scans. An institutional Domain Specific Review Board (DSRB)-approved study involved approaching kidney donors to have a follow up CT scan from 6 months to 1 year after surgery; 29 patients participated; 55% were female. Clinical chart review was performed, and the patient's remaining kidney volume was measured before and after surgery based on CT scans. eGFR was determined with the use of the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation. Mean parenchymal volume of the remaining kidney for this population (mean age, 44.3 ± 8.5 y) was 204.7 ± 82.5 cc before surgery and 250.5 ± 113.3 cc after donor nephrectomy. Compensatory hypertrophy occurred in 79.3% of patients (n = 23). Mean increase in remaining kidney volume was 22.4 ± 23.2% after donor nephrectomy in healthy individuals. Over a median follow-up of 52.9 ± 19.8 months, mean eGFR was 68.9 ± 12.4 mL/min/1.73 m(2), with 24.1% of patients (n = 7) in chronic kidney disease grade 3. Absolute and relative change in kidney volume was not associated with sex, race, surgical approach, or background of hypertension (P = NS). There was a trend of decreased hypertrophy with increasing age (P = .5; Spearman correlation, -0.12). In healthy kidney donors, compensatory hypertrophy of the remaining kidney occurs in 79.3% of the patients, with an average increment of about 22.4%. Older patients may have a blunted compensatory hypertrophy response after surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Prevalence of Treponema pallidum DNA among blood donors with two different serologic tests profiles for syphilis in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, S C; de Almeida-Neto, C; Nishiya, A S; Di-Lorenzo-Oliveira, C; Ferreira, J E; Alencar, C S; Levi, J E; Salles, N A; Mendrone-Junior, A; Sabino, E C

    2014-05-01

    The presence of Treponema pallidum DNA was assessed by real-time PCR in samples of blood donors with reactive serologic tests for syphilis. Treponema pallidum DNA was detected in two (1·02%) of 197 samples of VDRL>8, EIA+ and FTA-ABS+ donors, and in no sample from 80 VDRL−, EIA+ and FTA-ABS+ donors. Donors VDRL−, EIA+ and FTA-ABS+ lack demonstrable T. pallidum DNA in their blood and are unlike to transmit syphilis. Donors VDRL>8, EIA+ and FTA-ABS+ carry the risk of syphilis infectivity even in concomitance to antibodies detection. Serologic screening for syphilis may still play a role to prevent its transfusion transmission.

  3. Virological and epidemiological features of hepatitis delta infection among blood donors in Nouakchott, Mauritania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Wael; Bollahi, Mohamed-Abdellahi; Hamed, Cheikh-Tijani; Brichler, Ségolène; Le Gal, Frédéric; Ducancelle, Alexandra; Lô, Baidy; Gordien, Emmanuel; Rosenheim, Michel; Lunel, Françoise

    2012-09-01

    In Mauritania, some authors have described a possible high prevalence of hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection in the 1990s in studies of small-size samples. The aims of our study were to assess the prevalence of HDV in HBsAg positive blood donors in Mauritania, to identify the main risk factors for HDV transmission and to analyze genetic diversity of HDV strains. From October 2008 to December 2009, 11,100 consecutive blood donors were considered in this study. Among them, 1700 (15.3%) were HBsAg positive and 455 accepted to participate in this study. Demographic, epidemiological, ethnical, clinical and biological data were recorded. HDV screening, i.e., antibodies (HDVAb) and RNA (HDV-RNA) detection, was performed for all of them as well as HDV and HBV genotyping. Ninety/455 (19.78%) donors were HDVAb positive and HDV-RNA was detectable in 56 (62.2%) of them. HDV infection was significantly associated with older age, number of marriages, military profession, residence in the desert and a history of hospitalization. The HDV genotypes of the circulating strains were HDV-1 (89.3%) and HDV-5 (10.7%). HDV is highly endemic in Mauritanian blood donors indicating that a high number of them will develop chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. Associated risk factors support nosocomial transmission of HDV. These data underline the need to reinforce HBV vaccination in newborns and in blood donors without HBV markers, together with screening for HDV in HBV-infected individuals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. P. falciparum malaria prevalence among blood donors in Bamako, Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouriba, B; Diarra, A B; Douyon, I; Diabaté, D T; Kamissoko, F; Guitteye, H; Baby, M; Guindo, M A; Doumbo, O K

    2017-06-01

    Malaria parasite is usually transmitted to humans by Anopheles mosquitoes but it can also be transmitted through blood transfusion. Usually malaria transmission is low in African urban settings. In West Africa where the P. falciparum is the most predominant malaria species, there are limited measures to reduce the risk of blood transfusion malaria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of P. falciparum malaria carriage among blood donors in the National Blood Center of Bamako, capital city of Mali. The study was conducted using a random sample of 946 blood donors in Bamako, Mali, from January to December 2011. Screening for malaria was performed by thick smear and rapid diagnostic test (RDT). Blood group was typed by Beth-Vincent and Simonin techniques. The frequency of malaria infection was 1.4% by thick smear and 0.8% by the RDT. The pick prevalence of P. falciparum malaria was in rainy season, indicating a probable high seasonal risk of malaria by blood transfusion, in Mali. The prevalence of P. falciparum infection was 2% among donors of group O the majority being in this group. There is a seasonal prevalence of malaria among blood donors in Bamako. A prevention strategy of transfusion malaria based on the combination of selection of blood donors through the medical interview, promoting a voluntary low-risk blood donation and screening all blood bags intended to be transfused to children under 5, pregnant women and immune-compromised patients during transmission season using thick smear will reduce the risk of transfusion malaria in Mali. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Electrocardiographic abnormalities in Trypanosoma cruzi seropositive and seronegative former blood donors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio L Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Blood donor screening leads to large numbers of new diagnoses of Trypanosoma cruzi infection, with most donors in the asymptomatic chronic indeterminate form. Information on electrocardiogram (ECG findings in infected blood donors is lacking and may help in counseling and recognizing those with more severe disease.To assess the frequency of ECG abnormalities in T.cruzi seropositive relative to seronegative blood donors, and to recognize ECG abnormalities associated with left ventricular dysfunction.The study retrospectively enrolled 499 seropositive blood donors in São Paulo and Montes Claros, Brazil, and 483 seronegative control donors matched by site, gender, age, and year of blood donation. All subjects underwent a health clinical evaluation, ECG, and echocardiogram (Echo. ECG and Echo were reviewed blindly by centralized reading centers. Left ventricular (LV dysfunction was defined as LV ejection fraction (EF<0.50%.Right bundle branch block and left anterior fascicular block, isolated or in association, were more frequently found in seropositive cases (p<0.0001. Both QRS and QTc duration were associated with LVEF values (correlation coefficients -0.159,p<0.0003, and -0.142,p = 0.002 and showed a moderate accuracy in the detection of reduced LVEF (area under the ROC curve: 0.778 and 0.790, both p<0.0001. Several ECG abnormalities were more commonly found in seropositive donors with depressed LVEF, including rhythm disorders (frequent supraventricular ectopic beats, atrial fibrillation or flutter and pacemaker, intraventricular blocks (right bundle branch block and left anterior fascicular block and ischemic abnormalities (possible old myocardial infarction and major and minor ST abnormalities. ECG was sensitive (92% for recognition of seropositive donors with depressed LVEF and had a high negative predictive value (99% for ruling out LV dysfunction.ECG abnormalities are more frequent in seropositive than in seronegative blood donors

  6. Electrocardiographic Abnormalities in Trypanosoma cruzi Seropositive and Seronegative Former Blood Donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Antonio L.; Sabino, Ester C.; Marcolino, Milena S.; Salemi, Vera M. C.; Ianni, Barbara M.; Fernandes, Fábio; Nastari, Luciano; Antunes, André; Menezes, Márcia; Oliveira, Cláudia Di Lorenzo; Sachdev, Vandana; Carrick, Danielle M.; Busch, Michael P.; Murphy, Eduard L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Blood donor screening leads to large numbers of new diagnoses of Trypanosoma cruzi infection, with most donors in the asymptomatic chronic indeterminate form. Information on electrocardiogram (ECG) findings in infected blood donors is lacking and may help in counseling and recognizing those with more severe disease. Objectives To assess the frequency of ECG abnormalities in T.cruzi seropositive relative to seronegative blood donors, and to recognize ECG abnormalities associated with left ventricular dysfunction. Methods The study retrospectively enrolled 499 seropositive blood donors in São Paulo and Montes Claros, Brazil, and 483 seronegative control donors matched by site, gender, age, and year of blood donation. All subjects underwent a health clinical evaluation, ECG, and echocardiogram (Echo). ECG and Echo were reviewed blindly by centralized reading centers. Left ventricular (LV) dysfunction was defined as LV ejection fraction (EF)<0.50%. Results Right bundle branch block and left anterior fascicular block, isolated or in association, were more frequently found in seropositive cases (p<0.0001). Both QRS and QTc duration were associated with LVEF values (correlation coefficients −0.159,p<0.0003, and −0.142,p = 0.002) and showed a moderate accuracy in the detection of reduced LVEF (area under the ROC curve: 0.778 and 0.790, both p<0.0001). Several ECG abnormalities were more commonly found in seropositive donors with depressed LVEF, including rhythm disorders (frequent supraventricular ectopic beats, atrial fibrillation or flutter and pacemaker), intraventricular blocks (right bundle branch block and left anterior fascicular block) and ischemic abnormalities (possible old myocardial infarction and major and minor ST abnormalities). ECG was sensitive (92%) for recognition of seropositive donors with depressed LVEF and had a high negative predictive value (99%) for ruling out LV dysfunction. Conclusions ECG abnormalities are more frequent in

  7. Initial experience with purely laparoscopic living-donor right hepatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, S K; Lee, K W; Choi, Y; Kim, H S; Ahn, S W; Yoon, K C; Kim, H; Yi, N J; Suh, K S

    2018-03-26

    There may be concerns about purely laparoscopic donor right hepatectomy (PLDRH) compared with open donor right hepatectomy, especially when performed by surgeons accustomed to open surgery. This study aimed to describe technical tips and pitfalls in PLDRH. Data from donors who underwent PLDRH at Seoul National University Hospital between December 2015 and July 2017 were analysed retrospectively. Endpoints analysed included intraoperative events and postoperative complications. All operations were performed by a single surgeon with considerable experience in open living donor hepatectomy. A total of 26 donors underwent purely laparoscopic right hepatectomy in the study interval. No donor required transfusion during surgery, whereas two underwent reoperation. In two donors, the dissection plane at the right upper deep portion of the midplane was not correct. One donor experienced portal vein injury during caudate lobe transection, and one developed remnant left hepatic duct stenosis. One donor experienced remnant portal vein angulation owing to a different approach angle, and one experienced arterial damage associated with the use of a laparoscopic energy device. One donor had postoperative bleeding due to masking of potential bleeding foci owing to intra-abdominal pressure during laparoscopy. Two donors experienced right liver surface damage caused by a xiphoid trocar. Purely laparoscopic donor hepatectomy differs from open donor hepatectomy in terms of angle and caudal view. Therefore, surgeons experienced in open donor hepatectomy must gain adequate experience in laparoscopic liver surgery and make adjustments when performing PLDRH. © 2018 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Luminescent screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, C.-I.

    1982-01-01

    Luminescent screens which are useful for such purposes as intensifying screens for radiographs are comprised of a support bearing a layer of finely divided particles of a phosphor dispersed in a cross-linked polymeric matrix formed by heat-curing of a coating composition comprising an unsaturated cross-linkable polymer, a polymerizable acrylic monomer, a thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer, and a heat-activatable polymerization initiator. The phosphor layer includes voids formed by evaporation of an evaporable component which is present in the coating composition from which such layer is formed. (author)

  9. The effect of a protocol of aggressive donor management: Implications for the national organ donor shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Ali; Martin, Matthew; Brown, Carlos; Rhee, Peter; Demetriades, Demetrios; Belzberg, Howard

    2006-08-01

    The disparity between the number of people awaiting organ transplantation and the number of organs available has become a public health crisis. As many as 25% of potential donors are lost as a result of cardiovascular collapse (CVC) before organ harvest. A policy of aggressive donor management (ADM) may decrease the number of cadaveric donors lost as a result of CVC. Retrospective analysis of potential brain-dead donors evaluated from January 1995 to December 2003 at nine American College of Surgeons-verified Level I trauma centers covered by a regional organ procurement agency. One center (Los Angeles County + University of Southern California Medical Center [LAC]) had an ADM protocol in place instituted January 1999; the remaining eight centers with no ADM protocol were grouped as Center A. The incidence of CVC and organ donation demographics were compared between centers and within LAC before (LAC-Pre) and after (LAC-Post) adoption of ADM. ADM consists of early identification of potential organ donors, a dedicated team that provides medical management, and aggressive fluid resuscitation as well as hormone replacement therapy with solumedrol and thyroxin. The incidence of CVC was significantly higher in LAC-Pre (odds ratio [OR] 15.0, p organs harvested per potential donor for LAC-Post (2.4) was significantly higher than LAC-Pre (2.0, p = 0.02) and Center A (2.1, p organs per potential donor.

  10. Peer-to-peer milk donors' and recipients' experiences and perceptions of donor milk banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribble, Karleen D

    2013-07-01

    To explore the intersection of peer-to-peer milk sharing and donor milk banks. A descriptive survey design containing closed and open-ended questions was used to examine women's perceptions of peer-to-peer milk sharing and milk banking. Closed-ended questions were analyzed using descriptive statistics and conventional qualitative content analysis was used to analyze open-ended responses. Participants were recruited via the Facebook sites of two online milk-sharing networks (Human Milk 4 Human Babies and Eats on Feet). Ninety-eight milk donors and 41 milk recipients who had donated or received breast milk in an arrangement that was facilitated via the Internet. One half of donor recipients could not donate to a milk bank because there were no banks local to them or they did not qualify as donors. Other respondents did not donate to a milk bank because they viewed the process as difficult, had philosophical objections to milk banking, or had a philosophical attraction to peer sharing. Most donor respondents felt it was important to know the circumstances of their milk recipients. No recipient respondents had obtained milk from a milk bank; it was recognized that they would not qualify for banked milk or that banked milk was cost prohibitive. Peer-to-peer milk donors and recipients may differ from milk bank donors and recipients in significant ways. Cooperation between milk banks and peer sharing networks could benefit both groups. © 2013 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  11. Comparison of donor, and early and late recipient outcomes following hand assisted and laparoscopic donor nephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Steven M; Liaw, Aron; Mhapsekar, Rishi; Yelfimov, Daniel; Goggins, William C; Powelson, John A; Png, Keng Siang; Sundaram, Chandru P

    2013-02-01

    While laparoscopic donor nephrectomy has encouraged living kidney donation, debate exists about the safest laparoscopic technique. We compared purely laparoscopic and hand assisted laparoscopic donor nephrectomies in terms of donor outcome, early graft function and long-term graft outcome. We reviewed the records of consecutive laparoscopic and hand assisted laparoscopic donor nephrectomies performed by a single surgeon from 2002 to 2011. Donor operative time and perioperative morbidity were compared. Early graft function for kidneys procured by each technique was evaluated by rates of delayed graft function, need for dialysis and recipient discharge creatinine. Long-term outcomes were evaluated by graft function. A total of 152 laparoscopic donor nephrectomies were compared with 116 hand assisted laparoscopic donor nephrectomies. Hand assisted procedures were more often done for the right kidney (41.1% vs 17.1%, p recipient outcomes were also similar. Delayed function occurred after 0% hand assisted vs 0.9% purely laparoscopic nephrectomies, dialysis was required in 0.9% vs 1.7% and rejection episodes developed in 9.7% vs 18.4% (p >0.05). At last followup the organ was nonfunctioning in 6.1% of hand assisted and 7.7% of purely laparoscopic cases (p >0.05). The recipient glomerular filtration rate at discharge home was similar in the 2 groups. Hand assisted laparoscopic donor nephrectomy had shorter warm ischemia time but perioperative donor morbidity and graft outcome were comparable. The choice of technique should be based on patient and surgeon preference. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Survey of blood donors on the topic of "reimbursement for blood donors"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiler, T; Kretschmer, V

    1995-02-01

    Remuneration for blood donors, in the way as presently handled by governmental and communal blood transfusion services in Germany, is not generally accepted. It is feared that donors are recruited with increased risk to transmit infectious diseases, especially AIDS. Alternative incentives are discussed. After the so-called AIDS scandal in Germany, a change in the donor motivation was to be expected, associated with an increased willingness to renounce remuneration. Therefore, we performed the present survey, in which we evaluated the donor's willingness to renounce remuneration, possibilities of cashless remuneration and other alternative incentives. During March and April 1994, a total of 1,157 blood donors of the University Blood Bank Marburg were questioned anonymously by a questionnaire in the framework of whole-blood donations. Beside the above-mentioned aspects demoscopic data were included (age, sex, profession, journey). Cutting of remuneration without any other compensation was refused by 86.1% of the donors, 77% would not want to further donate blood in this case. Transfer of money to a bank account instead of cash payment was accepted by 78.6%, the use of non-negotiable cheques by 68.7%. Alternative compensation by tickets for theater, concert, cinema or coupons for restaurants met with the approval of only 27.3%; under these circumstances, 36.9% would be willing to continue blood donation. With increasing age and number of donations, but largely independent of social status, donors attached greater importance to retention of remuneration. Cutting of remuneration would result in a considerable reduction of the willingness to donate blood within the population of donors of the governmental and communal blood transfusion services. However, an increase of virus safety of the blood products would not be reached in this way, since especially the long-term donors would be driven away. Considerable bottlenecks, particularly in the specific blood supply of

  13. Alcohol Use Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Depression Screening Substance Abuse Screening Alcohol Use Screening Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Instructions The following questions ... this tool, there is also text-only version . Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Manual Instructions The following ...

  14. Prevalence of Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 and 2 among blood donors in Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Poinho EncarnaçÃo de Morais

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 and 2 (HTLV-1/2 is endemic in Brazil, but few studies have investigated the seroprevalence of HTLV and its subtypes among blood donors in the capital city Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil. Aim: To estimate the seroprevalence of HTLV-1/2 and to identify circulating subtypes among blood donors in Manaus. Materials and Methods: Blood donors (2001-2003 were screened for HTLV-1/2 antibodies by ELISA. Positive results were confirmed and subtyped by Western blot assays. Prevalence rates were calculated and compared with demographic data. Results: Among the 87,402 individuals screened, 116 (0.13% were seropositive for HTLV-1/2. A second sample (76/116 was collected and retested by HTLV-1/2 ELISA, of which only 41/76 were positive. Western blot confirmed HTLV infection in 24/41 retested blood donors [HTLV-1 (n=16, HTLV-2 (n=5 and HTLV-untypable (n=3]. Discussion: HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 are prevalent among blood donors in Manaus. However, additional studies are needed to comprehend the epidemiology of HTLV-1/2 in Amazonas not only to understand the pathophysiology of the disease providing adequate medical assistance, but also to reduce or block virus transmission.

  15. Prevalence of Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 and 2 among blood donors in Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Márcia Poinho EncarnaçÃo de; Gato, Cynara Melo; Maciel, Lucinei Alves; Lalwani, Pritesh; Costa, Cristóvão Alves; Lalwani, Jaila Dias Borges

    2017-12-21

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 and 2 (HTLV-1/2) is endemic in Brazil, but few studies have investigated the seroprevalence of HTLV and its subtypes among blood donors in the capital city Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil. To estimate the seroprevalence of HTLV-1/2 and to identify circulating subtypes among blood donors in Manaus. Blood donors (2001-2003) were screened for HTLV-1/2 antibodies by ELISA. Positive results were confirmed and subtyped by Western blot assays. Prevalence rates were calculated and compared with demographic data. Among the 87,402 individuals screened, 116 (0.13%) were seropositive for HTLV-1/2. A second sample (76/116) was collected and retested by HTLV-1/2 ELISA, of which only 41/76 were positive. Western blot confirmed HTLV infection in 24/41 retested blood donors [HTLV-1 (n=16), HTLV-2 (n=5) and HTLV-untypable (n=3)]. HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 are prevalent among blood donors in Manaus. However, additional studies are needed to comprehend the epidemiology of HTLV-1/2 in Amazonas not only to understand the pathophysiology of the disease providing adequate medical assistance, but also to reduce or block virus transmission.

  16. Prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and sickle cell trait among blood donors in Riyadh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alabdulaali Mohammed

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Blood donation from glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD-deficient and sickle cell trait (SCT donors might alter the quality of the donated blood during processing, storage or in the recipient′s circulatory system. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of G6PD deficiency and SCT among blood donors coming to King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH in Riyadh. It was also reviewed the benefits and risks of transfusing blood from these blood donors. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 1150 blood samples obtained from blood donors that presented to KKUH blood bank during the period April 2006 to May 2006. All samples were tested for Hb-S by solubility test, alkaline gel electrophoresis; and for G6PD deficiency, by fluorescent spot test. Results: Out of the 1150 donors, 23 (2% were diagnosed for SCT, 9 (0.78% for G6PD deficiency and 4 (0.35% for both conditions. Our prevalence of SCT and G6PD deficiency is higher than that of the general population of Riyadh. Conclusion: We recommend to screen all units for G6PD deficiency and sickle cell trait and to defer donations from donors with either of these conditions, unless if needed for special blood group compatibility, platelet apheresis or if these are likely to affect the blood bank inventory. If such blood is to be used, special precautions need to be undertaken to avoid complications in high-risk recipients.

  17. Positive serology for viral hepatitis and donor self-exclusion in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia De Luca Maccarini

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Despite the great advances in serological testing for transfusion-transmitted infections, the selection of blood donors by blood bank operators remains the only way to avoid transmission within the testing window period. Part of this selection is the self-exclusion form, on which the donors can exclude their blood from donation without any explanation. This study assessed the clinical and epidemiological characteristics related to positivity for viral hepatitis and to the use of the confidential self-exclusion (CSE form. Methods This transversal study analyzed the data collected from blood donors' files in a hospital in Southern Brazil. Univariate and multivariate analyses identified the clinical and epidemiological variables related to positive serologies of viral hepatitis and to whether the donor was self-excluded. Results Of the 3,180 donors included in this study, 0.1% tested positive for HBsAg, 2.1% for anti-HBc, and 0.9% for anti-HCV. When the 93 donors with positive serologies for viral hepatitis were compared with those who were negative, a greater proportion of the positive serology group was found to have had a history of blood transfusions (OR=4.908; 95%CI=1.628 - 14.799; p<0.01, had repeatedly donated (OR=2.147; 95%CI=1.236 - 3.729; p<0.01, and used the CSE form for self-exclusion (OR=7.139; 95%CI=2.045 - 24.923; p<0.01. No variables were independently associated with self-exclusion. Conclusions A history of blood transfusion, repeated donations, and self-exclusion are factors that should be considered during viral hepatitis screenings in blood banks.

  18. [Prevalence for seropositivity for HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C in blood donors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-López, María Rebeca F; Zavala-Méndez, Celia; Arenas-Esqueda, Alfonso

    2004-01-01

    Despite utilizing different actions to render blood safe for transfusions, we continue to have the risk of transmitting some viral infections. For this reason, it is important to determine prevalence of infections due to HIV and hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses in blood donors. Previous studies from Mexico indicate that HIV prevalence is 0.01 to 0.13%, while it is 0.11 to 1.22% for hepatitis B, and for hepatitis C, prevalence is 0.47 to 1.47%. We are checking the results of the screening tests (ELISA 3rd generation and chemiluminescent immunoassays) from blood donors studied at the Central Blood Bank (Banco Central de Sangre) at the Mexican Institute of Social Security's (IMSS) Twentieth First Century National Medical Center in Mexico City from 1995 to 2002. Reactive results were studied by confirmatory tests, Western Blot for HIV, AgHBs neutralization test for hepatitis B, and RIBA-HCV3.0 for hepatitis C. Reactive results from 513,062 blood donors confirmed for HV were 0.07%, reactive results and confirmation of hepatitis B from 511,733 blood donors were 0.13%, and reactive results and confirmation of hepatitis C from 511,115 blood donors were 0.31%. Rates obtained are low when compared with results of previous studies in Mexico for HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C. It may be possible than these low rates indicate the positive impact obtained from preventive actions, better strategies of detection of blood donors with high risk, and the advantage of working with a fully automated test system with state-of-the-art technology.

  19. Compliance with donor age recommendations in oocyte donor recruitment advertisements in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta, Hillary B; Berry, Roberta M; Levine, Aaron D

    2013-04-01

    IVF using donated oocytes offers benefits to many infertile patients, yet the technique also raises a number of ethical concerns, including worries about potential physical and psychological risks to oocyte donors. In the USA, oversight of oocyte donation consists of a combination of federal and state regulations and self-regulatory guidelines promulgated by the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. This study assesses compliance with one of these self-regulatory guidelines - specifically, ASRM's preferred minimum age for donors of 21. To assess compliance, 539 oocyte donor recruitment advertisements from two recruitment channels (Craigslist and college newspapers) were collected and evaluated. Of these, 61% in the Craigslist dataset and 43% in the college newspaper dataset listed minimum ages between 18 and 20, which is inconsistent with ASRM's preferred minimum age recommendation of 21. Advertisements placed by oocyte donor recruitment agencies were more likely than advertisements placed by clinics to specify minimum ages between 18 and 20. These results indicate that ASRM should evaluate and consider revising its donor age guidelines. IVF using donated human eggs can help many patients who have difficulty having children. However, the technique also raises ethical concerns, including concerns about potential physical and psychological harms to egg donors. In the USA, oversight of egg donation relies on a combination of federal and state regulation and professional self-regulation. Governmental regulations address only limited aspects of egg donation, such as the potential spread of infectious diseases and the reporting of success rates, leaving voluntary guidelines developed by an association of medical professionals to address most issues, including ethical concerns raised by the practice. One of these voluntary guidelines recommends that egg donors should be at least 21 years of age. In this article, we analysed 539 egg donor recruitment advertisements

  20. 78 FR 66366 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Use of Donor Screening Tests To Test Donors of Human Cells, Tissues...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ... Treponema pallidum (Syphilis); Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice... Cellular and Tissue-Based Products (HCT/Ps) for Infection with Treponema pallidum (Syphilis),'' dated... for evidence of Treponema pallidum (T. pallidum) infection, the etiologic agent of syphilis. HCT/P...

  1. Electrostatically defined silicon quantum dots with counted antimony donor implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, M., E-mail: msingh@sandia.gov; Luhman, D. R.; Lilly, M. P. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87175 (United States); Pacheco, J. L.; Perry, D.; Garratt, E.; Ten Eyck, G.; Bishop, N. C.; Wendt, J. R.; Manginell, R. P.; Dominguez, J.; Pluym, T.; Bielejec, E.; Carroll, M. S. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2016-02-08

    Deterministic control over the location and number of donors is crucial to donor spin quantum bits (qubits) in semiconductor based quantum computing. In this work, a focused ion beam is used to implant antimony donors in 100 nm × 150 nm windows straddling quantum dots. Ion detectors are integrated next to the quantum dots to sense the implants. The numbers of donors implanted can be counted to a precision of a single ion. In low-temperature transport measurements, regular Coulomb blockade is observed from the quantum dots. Charge offsets indicative of donor ionization are also observed in devices with counted donor implants.

  2. Hearing Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Curiskis, Nanette

    2012-01-01

    Hearing levels are threatened by modern life--headsets for music, rock concerts, traffic noises, etc. It is crucial we know our hearing levels so that we can draw attention to potential problems. This exercise requires that students receive a hearing screening for their benefit as well as for making the connection of hearing to listening.

  3. Opportunistische screening...

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, M.J.; Welte, R.; Van Den Hoek, J.A.R.; Van Doornum, G.J.J.; Coutinho, R.A.; Jager, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    Objective. To estimate the cost effectiveness of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) screening of young women visiting general practitioners. Design. Economic model analysis. Methods. Data on the health care needs for CT complications were derived from various sources; costing was done using estimated cost

  4. Vision Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an efficient and cost-effective method to identify children with visual impairment or eye conditions that are likely to lead ... main goal of vision screening is to identify children who have or are at ... visual impairment unless treated in early childhood. Other problems that ...

  5. Syntheses of donor-acceptor-functionalized dihydroazulenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broman, Søren Lindbæk; Jevric, Martyn; Bond, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The dihydroazulene (DHA)/vinylheptafulvene (VHF) photo/thermoswitch has been of interest for use in molecular electronics and advanced materials. The switching between the two isomers has previously been found to depend strongly on the presence of donor and acceptor groups. The fine-tuning of opt...

  6. Hyperpolarizability studies of some nonconjugated twin donor ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Nonlinear optics; oscillator strength; optical gap; polarizability. 1. Introduction. The design of materials with large ... strength and optical gaps of the twin donor acceptor sys- tems by varying the number of alkyl groups .... The microscopic first hyperpolarizability, β is a 3rd rank tensor, which has 27 tensor components.

  7. BLOOD DONOR HAEMATOLOGY PARAMETERS IN TWO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2005-03-03

    Mar 3, 2005 ... Objectives: To determine the status of blood donor haematology in two regional sites in Kenya and to assess the potential role of automated haematology in National blood bank process control. Design: A cross sectional descriptive study. Setting: Two regional blood banks - Nairobi and its environs (Blood ...

  8. Organ Donor Recognition: Practical and Ethical Considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.J. de Groot (Yorick)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe brain dead patient is the ideal multiorgan donor. Conditions that can lead to the state of brain death are limited. A subarachnoid haemorrhage, intracerebral haemorrhage or traumatic brain injury precede in 83% of the cases the state of brain death. Because of better prevention and

  9. The Dutch Living Donor Kidney Exchange Program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. de Klerk (Marry)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractKidney transplantation is the optimal option for patients with an end-stage renal disease. The first successful transplantation with a living genetically related donor has been performed since 26 October 1954, when an identical twin transplant was performed in Boston. In the years that

  10. FORUM Paediatric living donor liver transplantation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    biliary anatomy. In general, children are well served by receiving a left lateral segment graft. Donor safety is the over-riding concern and has been excellent after left lateral segmentectomy, with a usually quoted .... Langnas AN, Marujo WC, Inagaki M, Stratta RJ, Wood RP, Shaw BW Jr. The results of reduced-size.

  11. Cancellous bone autografts: Donor sites, indications, techniques ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A prospective study of patients who had cancellous bone-graft was conducted to identify the indications and complications related to the techniques used in harvesting such grafts from the ilium, distal femur and proximal tibia. The commonest indication for cancellous bone graft was non-union. Donor site pain was the most ...

  12. Potential Pediatric Organ Donors After Cardiac Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregernig, A; Karam, O

    2016-10-01

    More than 50 people die each year on the Swiss transplant waiting list. To increase their organ donors pool, some centers have developed a post-cardiac death organ donation program. Information about its impact in the pediatric population is still scarce. The aim of this work was to determine the potential impact of a program of organ donation after cardiac in a pediatric population. This was a retrospective study of all children deceased from 2005 to 2014 in a tertiary pediatric and neonatal intensive care unit. The deceased were categorized as brain dead, deceased despite maximal resuscitation, deceased after withholding of care, and deceased after withdrawal of care. Potential organ donors were identified by the absence of medical contraindication and agonal time organ donors. A further 67 (35%) died despite maximal resuscitation, 31 (16%) after withholding of care, and 55 (29%) after withdrawal of care. Regarding the latter category, median agonal time was 16 minutes. Eighteen children could potentially have given ≥1 organ each. Development of organ donation after cardiac death in children could generate a 4-fold increase of the donor population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Electron Donor Acceptor Interactions. Final Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Ana L. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

    2002-08-16

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on Electron Donor Acceptor Interactions was held at Salve Regina University, Newport, Rhode Island, 8/11-16/02. Emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field.

  14. Choosing the order of deceased donor and living donor kidney transplantation in pediatric recipients: a Markov decision process model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Arendonk, Kyle J; Chow, Eric K H; James, Nathan T; Orandi, Babak J; Ellison, Trevor A; Smith, Jodi M; Colombani, Paul M; Segev, And Dorry L

    2015-02-01

    Most pediatric kidney transplant recipients eventually require retransplantation, and the most advantageous timing strategy regarding deceased and living donor transplantation in candidates with only 1 living donor remains unclear. A patient-oriented Markov decision process model was designed to compare, for a given patient with 1 living donor, living-donor-first followed if necessary by deceased donor retransplantation versus deceased-donor-first followed if necessary by living donor (if still able to donate) or deceased donor (if not) retransplantation. Based on Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients data, the model was designed to account for waitlist, graft, and patient survival, sensitization, increased risk of graft failure seen during late adolescence, and differential deceased donor waiting times based on pediatric priority allocation policies. Based on national cohort data, the model was also designed to account for aging or disease development, leading to ineligibility of the living donor over time. Given a set of candidate and living donor characteristics, the Markov model provides the expected patient survival over a time horizon of 20 years. For the most highly sensitized patients (panel reactive antibody > 80%), a deceased-donor-first strategy was advantageous, but for all other patients (panel reactive antibody Markov model illustrates how patients, families, and providers can be provided information and predictions regarding the most advantageous use of deceased donor versus living donor transplantation for pediatric recipients.

  15. Successful unintentional ABO-incompatible renal transplantation: Blood group A1B donor into an A2B recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadeyi, Emmanuel A; Stratta, Robert J; Farney, Alan C; Pomper, Gregory J

    2014-05-01

    To report a successful unintentional transplantation of a deceased donor kidney from an "incompatible" A1B donor into a recipient who was blood group A2B with unsuspected preformed anti-A1 antibodies. The donor and recipient were both typed for ABO antigens. The recipient was tested for ABO and non-ABO antibodies. The recipient was typed for HLA class I and class II antigens, including HLA antibody screen. The T-and B-flow cytometry crossmatch test was performed using standard protocol. The donor-recipient pair was a complete six-antigen human leukocyte antigen mismatch, but final T- and B-flow cytometry cross-match tests were compatible. The recipient was a 65-year-old woman with a medical history of end-stage renal disease secondary to diabetic nephropathy who underwent kidney transplantation from a 46-year-old brain-dead standard criteria donor. The recipient's RBCs were negative with A1 lectin, and the recipient was thus typed as an A2 subgroup. Anti-A1 could be demonstrated in the recipient's plasma. The donor's RBCs were positive with A1 lectin, thereby conferring an A1 blood type. It is safe to transplant across the A1/A2 blood group barrier provided that the preformed antibodies are not reactive at 37°C and with anti-human globulin.

  16. Seroprevalence and Incidence of hepatitis E in blood donors in Upper Austria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Fischer

    Full Text Available In recent years various studies showed, that hepatitis E virus (HEV is a growing public health problem in many developed countries. Therefore, HEV infections might bear a transmission risk by blood transfusions. The clinical relevance still requires further investigations. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of acute HEV infections in Upper Austrian blood donors as well as a risk estimation of this transfusion-related infection.A total of 58,915 blood donors were tested for HEV RNA using a commercial HEV RT-PCR Kit. 7 of these donors (0.01% were PCR-positive with normal laboratory parameters in absence of clinical signs of hepatitis. Viral load determined by quantitative real-time PCR showed a HEV nucleic acid concentration of 2,217 293,635 IU/ml. At follow-up testing (2-11 weeks after donation all blood donors had negative HEV RNA results. Additionally, genotyping was performed by amplification and sequencing of the ORF1 or ORF2 region of the HEV genome. All HEV RNA positive donor samples revealed a genotype 3 isolate. For the antibody screening, anti-HEV IgM and IgG were detected by ELISA. Follow up serological testing revealed that no donor was seropositive for HEV IgM or IgG antibodies at time of donation. Moreover, we verified the prevalence of anti-HEV IgG in 1,203 of the HEV RNA negative tested blood donors. Overall 13.55% showed positive results for anti-HEV IgG.In the presented study, we investigated HEV infections in blood donations of Upper Austria over 1 year. We concluded that 1 out of 8,416 blood donations is HEV RNA positive. Seroprevalence of anti HEV IgG results in an age-related increase of 13.55%. Therefore, based on this data, we recommend HEV-PCR screening to prevent transmission of hepatitis E virus by transfusion.

  17. Donor-derived aspergillosis from use of a solid organ recipient as a multiorgan donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, N J; Weisser, M; Fehr, T; Wüthrich, R P; Müllhaupt, B; Lehmann, R; Imhof, A; Aubert, J-D; Genoni, M; Kunz, R; Weber, M; Steiger, J

    2010-02-01

    The growing need for organs and the scarcity of donors has resulted in an increased use of extended criteria donors. We report a case where a recipient of a cardiac graft was used as an organ donor. Death of the recipient occurred 9 days after transplantation and was attributed to presumed cerebral hemorrhage, which post mortem was diagnosed as invasive aspergillosis of the brain. One recipient of a kidney transplant lost the graft due to infection with Aspergillus fumigatus, whereas prompt initiation of therapy successfully prevented disseminated aspergillosis in the other recipients. Despite the pressure to extend the use of organs by lowering the acceptance criteria, organs should only be accepted if the cause of death of the donors is unequivocally explained.

  18. Living donor hepatectomy in female donors with ongoing menstruation: Safety and ethical issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horng-Ren Yang

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Our study shows safety of right lobe living donation in female donors with ongoing menstruation with no increased risk of intraoperative excessive bleeding and postoperative physiological impact on their general health.

  19. Donors, Acceptors, and Traps in AlGaN and AlGaN/GaN Epitaxial Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-31

    satellite (TES) region. By assuming that the DBE and TES lines represented, respectively, n=l and n=2 final states of the same donor, it was concluded that...present sample is 1.25 x 1016 cm-3. Using the screening formula, ED = EDO - CLND1/3 , with a = 2.1 x 10-5 meV-cm,15 we get an unscreened energy EDO = 75 6...two-electron satellite (TES) line of the new DBE line at 3.4732. (Note that TES lines result from bound-exciton transitions in which the donor is left

  20. Efficient synthesis of glycosylated phenazine natural products and analogs with DISAL (methyl 3,5-dinitrosalicylate) glycosyl donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Jane B.; Petersen, Lars; Jensen, K.J.

    2003-01-01

    Inspired by the occurrence and function of phenazines in natural products, new glycosylated analogs were designed and synthesized. DISAL (methyl 3,5-dinitrosalicylate) glycosyl donors were used in an efficient and easily-handled glycosylation protocol compatible with combinatorial chemistry....... Benzoylated D-glucose, D-galactose and L-quinovose DISAL glycosyl donors were synthesized in high yields and used under mild conditions to glycosylate methyl saphenate and 2-hydroxyphenazine. The glycosides were screened for biological activity and one compound showed inhibitory activity towards topoisomerase...

  1. Lung Transplantation From Donors After Previous Cardiac Surgery: Ideal Graft in Marginal Donor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palleschi, A; Mendogni, P; Tosi, D; Montoli, M; Carrinola, R; Mariolo, A V; Briganti, F; Nosotti, M

    2017-05-01

    Lung transplantation is a limited by donor pool shortage. Despite the efforts to extend the graft acceptability with recurrent donor criteria reformulations, previous cardiothoracic surgery is still considered a contraindication. A donor who underwent cardiac surgery could potentially provide an ideal lung but high intraoperative risks and intrinsic technical challenges are expected during the graft harvesting. The purpose of this study is to present our dedicated protocol and four clinical cases of successful lung procurements from donors who had a previous major cardiac surgery. One donor had ascending aortic root (AAR) substitution, another had mitral valve substitution, and two had coronary artery bypass surgery. The others' eligibility criteria for organ allocation, such as ABO compatibility, PaO 2 /FiO 2 ratio, absence of aspiration, or sepsis were respected. In one of the cases with previous coronary bypass grafting, the donor had a veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support. Consequently, the grafts required an ex vivo lung perfusion evaluation. We report the technical details of procurement and postoperative courses of recipients. All procurements were uneventful, without lung damage or waste of abdominal organs related to catastrophic intraoperative events. All recipients had a successful clinical outcome. We believe that successful transplantation is achievable even in a complicated setting, such as cases involving donors with previous cardiac surgery frequently are. Facing lung donor shortage, we strongly support any effort to avoid the loss of possible acceptable lungs. In particular, previous major cardiac surgery does not strictly imply a poor quality of lungs as well as unsustainable graft procurement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Donor anti-Jk(a) causing hemolysis in a liver transplant recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hareuveni, Mara; Merchav, Hadar; Austerlitz, Neomi; Rahimi-Levene, Naomi; Ben-Tal, Ofira; Rahimi-Leveen, Neomi

    2002-03-01

    Hemolytic transfusion reactions have been observed in recipients of ABO- and/or D-mismatched marrow, peripheral blood, and solid organs. Passenger lymphocyte syndrome occurs when immunocompetent donor lymphocytes transferred during transplantation produce alloantibodies against host antigens. The first case of a delayed, anti-Jk(a)-mediated hemolytic reaction in a liver transplant recipient, caused by passenger donor lymphocytes, is reported here. A 43-year-old man underwent liver transplantation. Six weeks later, the patient underwent a second liver transplant. On Day 10 of the second transplant, clinical hemolysis ensued; anti-Jk(a) was detected. The patient's DAT became positive, and anti-Jk(a) was eluted from his RBCs. On Day 35 of the patient's second transplant, 3 weeks after the last blood transfusion, the patients' DAT was still weakly positive with anti-Jk(a) in the eluate. Six months later, serum antibody screening was negative, but the DAT was still weakly positive. The patient's RBCs tested Jk(a+), whereas the second donor's RBCs were Jk(a-). This is the first documentation of clinically significant hemolysis caused by anti-Jk(a), produced by passenger lymphocytes transferred from the donor's liver to the transplant recipient.

  3. Liver Transplantation With Older Donors: A Comparison With Younger Donors in a Context of Organ Shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Louise; Cesaretti, Manuela; Dondero, Federica; Cauchy, François; Khoy-Ear, Linda; Aoyagi, Takeshi; Weiss, Emmanuel; Roux, Olivier; Dokmak, Safi; Francoz, Claire; Paugam-Burtz, Catherine; Sepulveda, Ailton; Belghiti, Jacques; Durand, François; Soubrane, Olivier

    2016-11-01

    Older liver grafts have been considered in the past decade due to organ shortage. The aim was to compare outcomes after liver transplantation with either younger or older donors. Patients transplanted in our center between 2004 and 2014 with younger donors (younger than 60 years; n = 253) were compared with older donors (older than 75 years; n = 157). Multiorgan transplantations, split grafts, or non-heart-beating donors were not included. Donors in the older group were mostly women deceased from stroke, and only 3 patients had experienced cardiac arrest. Liver tests were significantly better in the older group than in the younger group. There was no difference regarding cold ischemia time, model for end-stage liver disease score, and steatosis. There was no significant difference regarding primary nonfunction and dysfunction, hepatic artery and biliary complications, and retransplantation rates. Graft survival was not different (65% and 64% in the older and younger groups, P = 0.692). Within the older group, hepatitis C infection, retransplantation, and emergency transplantation were associated with poor graft survival. Provided normal liver tests and the absence of cardiac arrest in donors, older liver grafts (>75 years) may be safely attributed to non-hepatitis C-infected recipients in the setting of a first and nonurgent transplantation.

  4. Comparison of performance of two Treponema pallidum automated chemiluminescent immunoassays in blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommese, Linda; Sabia, Chiara; Esposito, Antonella; Iannone, Carmela; Montesano, Maria Lourdes; Napoli, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    The recrudescence of syphilis is leading to the development of new serological tests. The goal of this study was to compare the performance of the more recent Elecsys Syphilis assay, the Electro Chemiluminescence Immunoassay (ECLIA), with the former Architect Syphilis TP assay, the Chemiluminescent Microparticle Immunoassay (CMIA), for the detection of antibodies against Treponema pallidum in blood donors. Serum samples of 5543 voluntary blood donors were screened in parallel with two tests. All repeatedly reactive (RR) samples by one or both assays were further analysed for confirmation by immmunoblot INNO-LIA and TPHA. Of 32 RR samples by CMIA, 21 were confirmed positive; of 21 RR samples by ECLIA, 20 were confirmed positive. The sensitivities of CMIA and ECLIA were 100% and 95.24% (95% CI = 85.71-100), respectively, not significant (p > 0.05). The specificity and predictive positive value (PPV) of CMIA were 99.86% (95% CI = 99.74-99.94) and 72.41%, respectively, while the specificity and PPV of ECLIA were both 100%, being statistically significant (p = 0.01 for both). The overall agreement was 99.80% and the Cohen's kappa coefficients was 0.79. In conclusion, the recent Elecsys Syphilis assay could represent another reliable assay for blood donor screening.

  5. Computer Algorithms in the Search for Unrelated Stem Cell Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Steiner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT is a medical procedure in the field of hematology and oncology, most often performed for patients with certain cancers of the blood or bone marrow. A lot of patients have no suitable HLA-matched donor within their family, so physicians must activate a “donor search process” by interacting with national and international donor registries who will search their databases for adult unrelated donors or cord blood units (CBU. Information and communication technologies play a key role in the donor search process in donor registries both nationally and internationaly. One of the major challenges for donor registry computer systems is the development of a reliable search algorithm. This work discusses the top-down design of such algorithms and current practice. Based on our experience with systems used by several stem cell donor registries, we highlight typical pitfalls in the implementation of an algorithm and underlying data structure.

  6. Seroprevalence of infectious markers & their trends in blood donors in a hospital based blood bank in north india

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makroo, R.N.; Hegde, Vikas; Chowdhry, Mohit; Bhatia, Aakanksha; Rosamma, N.L.

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Hepatitis B virus (HBV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and syphilis infections pose a great threat to blood safety. This study was undertaken to investigate the seroprevalence of serologic markers for transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs) among blood donors at a hospital based blood centre in north India over a period of nine years. Methods: The results of serologic markers for TTIs (HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV and syphilis) of all blood donations (both voluntary and replacement) at our hospital from January 2005 to December 2013 were screened. Additional analysis was conducted to examine the prevalence trends associated with each of the positive marker. Results: The data of 180,477 donors [173,019 (95.86%) males and 7,458 (4.13%) females] were analyzed. Replacement donations [174,939 (96.93%)] represented the majority whereas, only 5,538 (3.06%) donations were from the voluntary donors. The risk of blood being reactive was three times higher in male donors when compared with the female donors. The risk of blood being reactive for one or more infectious markers was 2.1 times higher in replacement donors when compared with the voluntary donors. Seropositivity of HIV, HBsAg, HBcAb, syphilis showed a significant decreasing trend (P<0.05) while there was an increasing trend in HCV infection which was insignificant. Interpretation & conclusions: This study reflects that the risk of TTIs has been decreased over time with respect to HIV, HBV and syphilis, but the trends for HCV remains almost the same in blood donors. Blood transfusion remains a risk factor for the spread of blood-borne infections. Therefore, improvements are needed to strengthen both safety and availability of blood. PMID:26458348

  7. Seroprevalence of infectious markers & their trends in blood donors in a hospital based blood bank in north India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R N Makroo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Hepatitis B virus (HBV, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV and syphilis infections pose a great threat to blood safety. This study was undertaken to investigate the seroprevalence of serologic markers for transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs among blood donors at a hospital based blood centre in north India over a period of nine years. Methods: The results of serologic markers for TTIs (HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV and syphilis of all blood donations (both voluntary and replacement at our hospital from January 2005 to December 2013 were screened. Additional analysis was conducted to examine the prevalence trends associated with each of the positive marker. Results: The data of 180,477 donors [173,019 (95.86% males and 7,458 (4.13% females] were analyzed. Replacement donations [174,939 (96.93%] represented the majority whereas, only 5,538 (3.06% donations were from the voluntary donors. The risk of blood being reactive was three times higher in male donors when compared with the female donors. The risk of blood being reactive for one or more infectious markers was 2.1 times higher in replacement donors when compared with the voluntary donors. Seropositivity of HIV, HBsAg, HBcAb, syphilis showed a significant decreasing trend (P<0.05 while there was an increasing trend in HCV infection which was insignificant. Interpretation & conclusions: This study reflects that the risk of TTIs has been decreased over time with respect to HIV, HBV and syphilis, but the trends for HCV remains almost the same in blood donors. Blood transfusion remains a risk factor for the spread of blood-borne infections. Therefore, improvements are needed to strengthen both safety and availability of blood.

  8. Vision Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The Visi Screen OSS-C, marketed by Vision Research Corporation, incorporates image processing technology originally developed by Marshall Space Flight Center. Its advantage in eye screening is speed. Because it requires no response from a subject, it can be used to detect eye problems in very young children. An electronic flash from a 35 millimeter camera sends light into a child's eyes, which is reflected back to the camera lens. The photorefractor then analyzes the retinal reflexes generated and produces an image of the child's eyes, which enables a trained observer to identify any defects. The device is used by pediatricians, day care centers and civic organizations that concentrate on children with special needs.

  9. pre-donation screening of blood for transfusion transmissible

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-09-01

    Sep 1, 2014 ... All processes and inputs were evaluated and costs calculated for pre- donation testing by simple rapid techniques and post donation screening by ELISA. Results: 5000 prospective donors were tested in the study period. The cost of single rapid Pre-donation testing was less than that of single ELISA Post-.

  10. Seroprevalence and diagnosis of HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis infections among blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafesse, Tadesse Bekele; Gebru, Addis Adera; Gobalee, Semgne; Belay, Gosaye Degu; Belew, Molla Teferi; Ataro, Demelash; Ebrahim, Belay Ali; Shebeshi, Getachew Mekonnon; Yimam, Yonas

    2017-01-01

    Blood transfusion is one of the most important therapeutic options of life-saving intervention for recipients who are in diseased or non-diseased conditions with severe blood loss. However, it is associated with certain risks which can lead to adverse consequences that may cause acute or delayed complications and bring the risk of transfusion-transmissible infections including HIV, Hepatitis B & C and Syphilis. So, there might be a fatal risk instead of life saving. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive and reliable tabulation of available data on seroprevalence and diagnosis of HIV, HBV, HCV and Syphilis infections among blood donors. We searched studies reporting the prevalence rate of HIV, HBV, HCV and Syphilis infections among blood donors that were published between October 2009 and June 2016, using databases of PubMed, Scopus, MEDLINE, Elsevier, ScienceDirect, EBSCO, Google Scholar, EMBASE, and Web of Science with keywords: ``Hepatitis C Virus'', ``Hepatitis B Virus'', ``HIV'', ``Syphilis'', ``Seroprevalence'', and ``blood donor''. The seroprevalence of HBV and HCV was highest in African countries as compared to others continents, predominantly the West African region with a range of 10.0% to 14.96% and 1.5% to 8.69%, respectively, while the overall seropositivity of HIV and syphilis infection show a significant declining pattern through successive years globally, even though relatively higher prevalence rate was observed among older age and those with low level of education. There is a problem during selection, diagnoses and screening process in developing nations primarily due to shortage of sensitive screening test kits, highly qualified human resource and lack of proper standard operating procedures and hence, the safety of blood and blood products are the primary threats in the region. Proper clinical diagnosis and screening method should be applied during blood donation and therefore, all the donated blood should be screened properly for

  11. Trends in organ donor management: 2002 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Devon S; Kim, Dennis; Bricker, Scott; Neville, Angela; Putnam, Brant; Smith, Jennifer; Bongard, Frederic; Plurad, David

    2014-10-01

    Refinements in donor management have resulted in increased numbers and quality of grafts after neurologic death. We hypothesize that the increased use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) has been accompanied by improved outcomes over time. Using the Organ Procurement and Transplant Network donor database, all brain-dead donors procured from July 1, 2001 to June 30, 2012 were studied. Hormone replacement therapy was identified by an infusion of thyroid hormone. An expanded criteria donor was defined as age 60 years or older. Incidence of HRT administration and number of donors and organs recovered were calculated. Using the Organ Procurement and Transplant Network thoracic recipient database transplant list, wait times were examined. There were 74,180 brain-dead donors studied. Hormone replacement therapy use increased substantially from 25.6% to 72.3% of donors. However, mean number of organs procured per donor remained static (3.51 to 3.50; p = 0.083), and the rate of high-yield donors decreased (46.4% to 43.1%; p donors decreased (42.1% to 33.9%; p donors (22.1% to 26%). Despite this, there has been an increase in the raw number of donors (20,558 to 24,308; p organs (5,857 to 6,945; p organs per traumatic brain injury donor (4.02 to 4.12; p = 0.002) and a decrease in days on the waiting list (462.2 to 170.4 days; p donors has been accompanied by increased organ availability overall. Potential mechanisms might include successful conversion of previously unacceptable donors and improved recovery in certain subsets of donors. Copyright © 2014 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Prenatal Genetic Screening Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FAQs Prenatal Genetic Screening Tests Page Navigation ▼ ACOG Pregnancy Book Prenatal Genetic Screening Tests Patient Education FAQs Prenatal Genetic Screening Tests Patient Education Pamphlets - ...

  13. Donors and archives a guidebook for successful programs

    CERN Document Server

    Purcell, Aaron D

    2015-01-01

    Donors and Archives: A Guidebook for Successful Programs highlights the importance of development and fundraising for archives, while focusing on the donor and potential donor. Their interest, their support, their enthusiasm, and their stuff are vital to the success of archival programs.

  14. Explaining differences between hospitals in number of organ donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friele, R. D.; Coppen, R.; Marquet, R. L.; Gevers, J. K. M.

    2006-01-01

    The shortage of donor organs calls for a careful examination of all improvement options. In this study, 80 Dutch hospitals were compared. They provided 868 donors in a 5-year period, constituting 91% of all donors in that period in The Netherlands. Multilevel regression analysis was used to explain

  15. When disaster strikes: death of a living organ donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratner, L E; Sandoval, P R

    2010-12-01

    Donor safety is of paramount importance in living donor transplantation. Yet, living donor deaths occur. We believe that problems exist in our system of live donor transplantation that can be summarized in a series of simple statements: (1) Donor mortality can never be completely eliminated; (2) Live donor risk has not been mitigated so that it is as low as possible; (3) After a donor death, systematic reviews are not routinely performed to identify correctable causes; (4) The lessons learned from any donor death are not adequately communicated to other programs and (5) The administrative mechanisms and resources are not universally available at all transplant centers to implement lessons learned. To rectify these problems, we propose the following: (1) A national living donor death task force be established with the purpose of performing systematic reviews of any donor death. (2) Findings of these reviews be disseminated to all institutions performing live donor transplants on a secure, password-protected website. (3) A no-fault donor death indemnity fund be established to provide a financial imperative for institutions to cooperate with this external peer-review. These measures will serve the best interests of the involved institutions, the transplant community, and most importantly, the patients and their families.

  16. Viral Infectivity Markers in Donor Blood: A Retrospective Study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 12,540 homologous donors seen between 1993 and 1999 at the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital (U.M.T.H) blood bank were analysed with respect to the frequency of viral infectivity markers (HBsAg and HIV antibodies) as it relates to donor categories. Fifteen percent and 4.07% of voluntary donors were ...

  17. 21 CFR 640.66 - Immunization of donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Immunization of donors. 640.66 Section 640.66 Food... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.66 Immunization of donors. If specific immunization of a donor is to be performed, the selection and scheduling of the injection of the...

  18. Noneligible Donors as a Strategy to Decrease the Organ Shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croome, K P; Lee, D D; Keaveny, A P; Taner, C B

    2017-06-01

    Organ procurement organization (OPO) performance is generally evaluated by the number of organ procurement procedures divided by the number of eligible deaths (donation after brain death [DBD] donors aged donation after cardiac death donors and DBD donors aged >70 years) is not tracked. The present study aimed to investigate the variability in the proportion of noneligible liver donors by the 58 donor service areas (DSAs). Patients undergoing liver transplant (LT) between 2011 and 2015 were obtained from the United Network for Organ Sharing Standard Transplant Analysis and Research file. LTs from noneligible and eligible donors were compared. The proportion of noneligible liver donors by DSA varied significantly, ranging from 0% to 19.6% of total liver grafts used. In transplant programs, the proportion of noneligible liver donors used ranged from 0% to 35.3%. On linear regression there was no correlation between match Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score for programs in a given DSA and proportion of noneligible donors used from the corresponding DSA (p = 0.14). Noneligible donors remain an underutilized resource in many OPOs. Policy changes to begin tracking noneligible donors and learning from OPOs that have high noneligible donor usage are potential strategies to increase awareness and pursuit of these organs. © 2016 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  19. Exploring the Mental Health of Living Kidney Donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Timmerman (Lotte)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Living donor kidney transplantation is the best option for extending and improving the lives of patients with end-stage renal disease. The benefits for the donor are less straightforward: a donor is a healthy person who undergoes a surgery in the first place for the

  20. [Towards the development of living donor kidney transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macher, Marie-Alice

    2016-12-01

    Living donor kidney transplantation has been increasing since 2008. Living donors represent a significant potential for organ transplants, in a context where the needs outstrip the availability of organs from deceased donors. However, patients are still poorly informed regarding the conditions in which these transplants are possible. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Prediction models for hemoglobin deferral in whole blood donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baart, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Each year, a relevant proportion of the invited blood donors is eventually deferred from donation because of low hemoglobin (Hb) levels. Deferrals are meant to protect donors from developing iron deficiency anemia after a blood donation, however, they may increase the risk of donor lapse, even

  2. Diet and Asthma: Vitamins and Methyl Donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yueh-Ying; Blatter, Josh; Brehm, John M.; Forno, Erick; Litonjua, Augusto A; Celedón, Juan C.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Dietary changes may partly explain the high burden of asthma in industrialized nations. Experimental studies have motivated a significant number of observational studies of the relation between vitamins (A, C, D, and E) or nutrients acting as methyl donors (folate, vitamin B12, and choline) and asthma. Because observational studies are susceptible to several sources of bias, well-conducted randomized controlled trials (RCTs) remain the “gold standard” to determine whether a vitamin or nutrient has an effect on asthma. Evidence from observational studies and/or relatively few RCTs most strongly justify ongoing and future RCTs of: 1) vitamin D to prevent or treat asthma, 2) choline supplementation as adjuvant treatment for asthma, and 3) vitamin E to prevent the detrimental effects of air pollution in subjects with asthma. At this time, there is insufficient evidence to recommend supplementation with any vitamin or nutrient acting as a methyl donor to prevent or treat asthma. PMID:24461761

  3. South Korea as an emerging donor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chun, Hong-Min; Munyi, Elijah Nyaga; Lee, Heejin

    2010-01-01

    South Korea's official development assistance (ODA) has been increasing rapidly and will continue to do so. Korea is one of the few countries which have successfully transitioned from a recipient to a donor. It became a member of DAC (development assistance committee), OECD in November 2009. Korea......'s ODA policy, along with its growth in quantity, is at a crossroads for the enhancement of its quality. Discussions and debates are going on regarding the reforms in Korea's ODA activities, and this paper examines key issues raised. It first reviews the past and present of Korea's ODA, and identifies...... like the objective of ODA, positioning of Korea's ODA as an emerging donor and the nature of aid to North Korea. We also argue that a shift of ODA policy is required to promote reform, based on a thorough reflection on the role of ODA in the alleviation of poverty and promoting sustainable development...

  4. External validation of the Donor Risk Index and the Eurotransplant Donor Risk Index on the French liver transplantation registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Audrey; Féray, Cyrille; Audureau, Etienne; Écochard, René; Jacquelinet, Christian; Roudot-Thoraval, Françoise; Duvoux, Christophe; Daurès, Jean-Pierre; Landais, Paul

    2017-08-01

    A major limitation to liver transplantation is organ shortage leading to the use of non-optimal liver grafts. The Donor Risk Index has been validated and recommended to select donors/organs. The Eurotransplant Donor Risk Index was derived from the Donor Risk Index. The objective of our study was to perform an external validation of both Donor Risk Index and Eurotransplant-Donor Risk Index against the French liver transplantation Cristal registry according to recommendations of the Transparent Reporting of a multivariable prediction model for Individual Prognosis Or Diagnosis. Liver transplantations performed in France between 2009 and 2013 were used to perform the validation study for the Donor Risk Index and the Eurotransplant-Donor Risk Index respectively. We applied on the French data the models used to construct the Donor Risk Index and the Eurotransplant-Donor Risk Index respectively. Neither the Donor Risk Index nor the Eurotransplant-Donor Risk Index were validated against this dataset. Discrimination and calibration of these scores were not preserved according to our data. Important donor and candidates differences between our dataset and the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network or the Eurotransplant datasets may explain why the Donor Risk Index and the Eurotransplant-Donor Risk Index appeared unadapted to the French transplant registry. Neither of these risk indexes were suitable to optimize the French liver allocation system. Thus, our next step will be to propose a general adaptive model for a Donor Risk Index. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Increasing the Supply of Kidneys for Transplantation by Making Living Donors the Preferred Source of Donor Kidneys

    OpenAIRE

    Testa, Giuliano; Siegler, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Abstract At the present time, increasing the use of living donors offers the best solution to the organ shortage problem. The clinical questions raised when the first living donor kidney transplant was performed, involving donor risk, informed consent, donor protection, and organ quality, have been largely answered. We strongly encourage a wider utilization of living donation and recommend that living donation, rather than deceased donation, become the first choice for kidney transplantation....

  6. Higher organ donation consent rates by relatives of potential uncontrolled donors versus potential controlled donors after death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind, Jentina; van Mook, Walther N K A; Willems, Monique E C; van Heurn, L W Ernest

    2012-11-01

    Refusal to consent to organ donation is an important cause of the persisting gap between the number of potential organ donors and effectuated donors. In the Netherlands, organ donors include both uncontrolled donors: donors who die unexpectedly after cardiac death (DCD), after failed resuscitation and donors in whom death can be expected and donors after brain death, and controlled DCD donors: those who die after the withdrawal of treatment. Different donor type implies a different setting in which relatives are requested to consent to organ donation. It is unknown whether the setting influences the eventual decision for donation or not. Therefore, we compared the consent rate in potential donors who died unexpectedly (UD group) and in whom death was expected. A total of 523 potential organ donors between 2003 and 2011 in the 715-bed Maastricht University Medical Centre, the Netherlands were included. Both the patients' registration in the national donor register (DR) and the relatives' refusal rate in the two groups were retrospectively assessed using data from the donation application database. There were 109 unexpected and 414 expected potential donors The potential donors in the UD group were younger (mean age 52 versus 55 years, P = 0.032) and more often male (68 versus 52%, P = 0.003). There were no significant differences in registration in the DR between the groups. The relatives' consent rate in non-registered potential donors, or those who mandated the relatives for that decision, was higher in the UD group (53 versus 29%, P organ donation. The relatives of potential donors who died unexpectedly consented more often to donation than those in whom death was expected.

  7. Cardiovascular and demographic characteristics in whole blood and plasma donors: results from the Donor InSight study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atsma, Femke; Veldhuizen, Ingrid; de Vegt, Femmie; Doggen, Carine; de Kort, Wim

    2011-02-01

    Within blood establishments little comparative information is available about donors versus the general population. In this study, a description of the donor pool was made in terms of demographic factors and cardiovascular risk factors. The general Dutch population was used as a reference group. The Donor InSight study provided information on donors. Extensive information has been gathered by a self-administered questionnaire addressing various topics, like demographics, lifestyle, and health. Aggregated donor responses were compared with general population summary data. The study population consisted of 15,076 donors. The median age was 46.3 years and 47.3% were men. Donors were more likely to be highly educated (34.6%), married (71.7%), and of Dutch origin (97.4%), when compared to the general population. Donors were less often smokers (donors, 17.1%; general population, 31.8%), more often moderate drinkers (donors, 82.8%; general population, 74.7%), and physically more active (donors, 2.0 hr/week; general population, 1.0 hr/week). Male donors were more often moderately overweight (47.7%) than men from the general population (39.9%). In donors, 0.9% reported to have Type 2 diabetes versus 1.9% in the general population. In donors, 3.4% reported high cholesterol versus 4.6% in the general population. The study provided important knowledge about demographic distributions and cardiovascular risk factors within donors. A proper understanding of demographic characteristics of donors will help us to focus recruitment and retention strategies. The reported beneficial cardiovascular profile suggests a need for further research on the role of blood donation in cardiovascular risk reduction. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.

  8. Hemochromatosis Patients as Voluntary Blood Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara E Power

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate hemochromatosis patients' suitability as blood donors as well as their perceptions and experience with the current public donation system. Participants were gathered from a list of current hemochromatosis patients (n=120 and members of the Canadian Hemochromatosis Society (n=1000. Of the 1120 surveys mailed out to these groups, 801 surveys were returned completed. The sample respondents had a mean age of 57.44 years (SD=12.73; range 19 to 87 years, and 57% were men. It was found that 20% (160 of the respondents have donated blood since their diagnosis; however, only 12% of the respondents indicated that they use voluntary blood donation as a means of maintaining their iron levels. Forty per cent of the respondents indicated that they had been refused from voluntary donation. Despite the fact that in May 2001 the Canadian Blood Services, in collaboration with the Canadian Hemochromatosis Society, began a promotion campaign to encourage hemochromatosis patients to become voluntary blood donors, the present study found that 15% of the respondents reported having been refused from the voluntary blood donation service due to the diagnosis of hemochromatosis. With respect to quality of life, it was found that individuals who donate blood were generally healthier with respect to physical functioning and bodily pain, however, these findings may indicate that hemochromatosis patients who are healthier are better able to donate at public blood banks, rather than that voluntary blood donation has an effect on the donors' physical functioning over phlebotomy clinic users. These study findings suggest that although there may be other medical factors limiting individuals from donating, hemochromatosis patients are interested in being voluntary blood donors and this potential resource is currently under-used.

  9. The effect of World Blood Donor Day on digital information seeking and donor recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranenburg, Floris J; Kreuger, Aukje L; Arbous, M Sesmu; Laeijendecker, Daphne; van Kraaij, Marian G J

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of World Blood Donor Day (WBDD) is to raise awareness for the importance of blood donation. The aim of this study was to quantify the impact of WBDD on digital information seeking and donor recruitment. Google Trends data were used to quantify seeking behavior on "blood donation" and "blood donor." Differences in relative search volume (RSV) between the 3 weeks surrounding WBDD and the rest of the year were calculated. Second, mean differences in RSV were compared to assess the additional effect of hosting using translated search terms. Third, we compared the period around WBDD with the control period regarding page views of the Sanquin website and Facebook likes and number of newly registered donors in 2016. The mean RSV for "blood donation" in the period of interest was 78.6, compared to 72.1 in the control period (difference, 6.5; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.2-11.8). For "blood donor" this was 78.9 compared to 65.9 (difference, 12.9; 95% CI, 8.1-17.8). We found no additional effect of hosting. In the period of interest, the website of Sanquin was visited 6862 times a day and 4293 times in the control period (difference, 2569; 95% CI, 1687-3451). In June 2016, 54.6% (95% CI, 53.0-56.2) more new donors were registered compared to the control period. An international campaign like WBDD raises the awareness of blood donation and is effective in convincing people to register as blood donors. © 2017 AABB.

  10. Seroprevalence of transfusion transmitted infection among blood donors at Jijiga blood bank, Eastern Ethiopia: retrospective 4 years study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Yusuf; Bekele, Alemayehu

    2016-02-27

    A transfusion transmissible infection (TTI) is any infection that is transmissible from person to- person through parenteral administration of blood or blood products. The magnitude of transfusion-transmitted infections (TTI) varies from country to country depending on TTI's load in that particular population. Measuring their severity, WHO (World Health Organization) has recommended pre-transfusion blood test for Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Hepatitis B virus (HBV), Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) and Syphilis as mandatory. The aim of the current study was to assess the trend and prevalence of TTI among blood donors in Jijiga Blood Bank between 2010 and 2013. A Retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted by reviewing the records from 2010 to 2013 at Jijiga Blood Bank. All blood donors who presented to the blood bank and screened for TTI during the study period were included. The data was collected, entered and analyzed using Epi Info 3.5.1 & Microsoft Excel 2007. The descriptive statistics were determined in means of percentages. Chi-square was used for trend analysis and p-value was used to declare the statistical significance between the variable. There were a total of 4224 people donated blood during study period. Males formed the majority of the donor population accounting for 4171 (98.7%). Majority 4139 (98%) of donors were Replacement donors. The overall prevalence of transfusion-transmitted infection was 487/4224 (11.5%). The prevalence for HBsAg, HCV, HIV, & Syphilis antibodies was 460 (10. 9%), 17 (0.4%), 6 (0.1%) and 4 (0.1%) respectively. Majority 460/487 (94.5%) of infection was HBsAg. Statistically significant difference was observed in number of donation as well as sero-positivity from year 2010 to 2013 (Chi-square 9.24, p value = 0.02), in Trends of HBsAg from year to year (Chi-square 11.14, p value = 0.01), HIV virus was seen as the age of donors increases (Chi-square 8.37, p value = 0.01) and There was also statistically significance

  11. Uterus retrieval process from brain dead donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Tristan; Piver, Pascal; Pichon, Nicolas; Bibes, Romain; Guillaudeau, Angelique; Piccardo, Alessandro; Pesteil, Francis; Tricard, Jeremy; Gardet, Emmanuel; Laskar, Marc; Lalloué, Fabrice; Marquet, Pierre; Aubard, Yves

    2014-08-01

    To describe the feasibility of human uterus retrieval after donation after brain death. Single-center, prospective study. University hospital. Female brain dead donors. The families of female brain dead donors were informed about consent to uterus donation. A specific organ retrieval procedure was performed. At the end of the procedure the uterus was removed together with the hypogastric vessels, parametria, and vaginal fornix. The tolerance of the uterus to cold ischemia was evaluated with histology and TUNEL reaction up to 24 hours. Rate of uterus donation refusal. Between August 1, 2012 and July 31, 2013, seven uteri were retrieved from 14 female multiorgan donors. No refusal to uterus donation occurred. Our surgical protocol did not interfere with vital organ retrieval and was readily accepted by the other transplantation teams. The hypogastric vessels could be preserved in all cases but for one vein loss in the first retrieval. Histology studies did not find major morphologic changes after 24 hours of cold ischemia. Apoptosis was rare. Uterus retrieval could be part of a reproducible multiorgan procurement procedure. Uterus donation seems readily accepted. This preliminary study is a necessary step before any transplantation project. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Donor Tissue Preparation for Bowman Layer Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groeneveld-van Beek, Esther A; Parker, Jack; Lie, Jessica T; Bourgonje, Vincent; Ham, Lisanne; van Dijk, Korine; van der Wees, Jacqueline; Melles, Gerrit R J

    2016-12-01

    To describe and compare 2 preparation techniques for Bowman layer (BL) grafts for use in BL transplantation. A retrospective evaluation of the 2 methods for preparing BL grafts was performed, that is, BL graft preparation from donor globes not eligible for penetrating keratoplasty or endothelial keratoplasty (technique I, n = 36) and BL graft preparation from previously excised corneoscleral buttons (technique II, n = 36) that could not be used for PK or had been denuded of Descemet membrane and endothelium for Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty graft preparation. BL graft preparation difficulties were recorded, and the preparation failure rate was examined and compared between the techniques. Overall, BL graft preparation was successful in 51 cases (51/72; 70.8%), of which 25 preparations were successful using technique I, and 26 using technique II, representing a success rate of 69.4% (25/36) and 72.2% (26/36) for techniques I and II, respectively. Reasons for discarding a BL graft were tearing of the BL tissue during the preparation (n = 19) and stroma attached to the graft (n = 2). Isolated BL grafts can be prepared from both whole donor globes and corneoscleral rims with equivalent success. Preparation from corneoscleral rims may offer the advantage that, from one donor cornea, the posterior layers can be used for Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty graft preparation and the anterior part for BL graft preparation.

  13. Donor human milk for preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wight, N E

    2001-06-01

    As survival rates for preterm infants improve, more attention is being focused on improving the quality of survival through optimal nutritional management. The benefits of human milk for term infants are well recognized, with current research suggesting that human milk may especially benefit the preterm infant. Some mothers are unable or unwilling to provide breastmilk for their infants. Although not as well studied as mother's own milk, pasteurized donor human milk can provide many of the components and benefits of human milk while eliminating the risk of transmission of infectious agents. Pasteurization does affect some of the nutritional and immunologic components of human milk, but many immunoglobulins, enzymes, hormones, and growth factors are unchanged or minimally decreased. In California donor human milk costs approximately $3.00 per ounce to purchase. A reduction in length of stay, necrotizing enterocolitis and sepsis may result in a relative saving of approximately $11 to the NICU or healthcare plan for each $1 spent for pasteurized donor milk.

  14. Higher refusal rates for organ donation among older potential donors in the Netherlands: impact of the donor register and relatives.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leiden, H.A. van; Jansen, N.E.; Haase-Kromwijk, B.J.; Hoitsma, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The availability of donor organs is considerably reduced by relatives refusing donation after death. There is no previous large-scale evaluation of the influence of the Donor Register (DR) consultation and the potential donor's age on this refusal in The Netherlands. METHODS: This study

  15. Low transfusion transmission of hepatitis E among 25,637 single-donation, nucleic acid-tested blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harritshøj, Lene H.; Holm, Dorte K.; Sækmose, Susanne G.

    2016-01-01

    was investigated among Danish blood donors, and the prevalence of HEV transfusion-transmitted infection (TTI) was investigated among recipients. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Samples from 25,637 consenting donors collected during 1 month in 2015 were screened retrospectively using an individual-donation HEV RNA......BACKGROUND: Hepatitis E virus genotype-3 (HEV-gt-3) causes autochthonous infections in western countries, with a primary reservoir in animals, especially pigs. HEV transfusion transmission has been reported, and HEV-gt-3 prevalence is high in some European countries. The prevalence of HEV RNA...... nucleic acid test with a 95% detection probability of 7.9 IU/mL. HEV-positive samples were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction and genotyped. Transmission was evaluated among recipients of HEV RNA-positive blood components. Phylogenetic analyses compared HEV sequences from blood donors...

  16. Water screen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutepov, A.I.; Fedotov, I.N.; Prokopov, O.I.

    1981-01-01

    The invention refers to ventilation and can be used for repair-fitting operations in a blasting-dangerous gas condition, for example, during elimination of gas-oil gushers, repair of gas-oil pipelines, equipment etc. In order to improve safety of labor, the nozzle adapters of the water collector are oriented towards each other. The collector is installed on a support with the possibility of rotating and vertical movement. The proposed screen excludes the possibility of blasting-dangerous concentrations of gases and guarantees extinguishing of the impact spark during operation of the tool.

  17. Capillary versus Venous Hemoglobin Determination in the Assessment of Healthy Blood Donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Abhilasha J.; Wesley, Robert; Leitman, Susan F.; Bryant, Barbara J.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives To determine the accuracy of fingerstick hemoglobin assessment in blood donors, the performance of a portable hemoglobinometer (HemoCue Hb 201+) was prospectively compared with that of an automated hematology analyzer (Cell-Dyn 4000). Hemoglobin values obtained by the latter were used as the “true” result. Material and Methods Capillary fingerstick samples were assayed by HemoCue in 150 donors. Fingerstick samples from two sites, one on each hand, were obtained from a subset of 50 subjects. Concurrent venous samples were tested using both HemoCue and Cell-Dyn devices. Results Capillary hemoglobin values (HemoCue) were significantly greater than venous hemoglobin values (HemoCue), which in turn were significantly greater than venous hemoglobin values by Cell-Dyn (mean ± SD: 14.05 ± 1.51, 13.89 ± 1.31, 13.62 ± 1.23, respectively; phemoglobin screening criteria (≥12.5 g/dL) by capillary HemoCue, but were deferred by Cell-Dyn values (false-pass). Five donors (3%) were deferred by capillary sampling, but passed by Cell-Dyn (false-fail). Substantial variability in repeated fingerstick HemoCue results was seen (mean hemoglobin 13.72 vs. 13.70 g/dL, absolute mean difference between paired samples 0.76 g/dL). Hand dominance was not a factor. Conclusions Capillary samples assessed via a portable device yielded higher hemoglobin values than venous samples assessed on an automated analyzer. False-pass and false-fail rates were low and acceptable in the donor screening setting, with “true” values not differing by a clinically significant degree from threshold values used to assess acceptability for blood donation. PMID:23294266

  18. Prevalence and characterization of occult hepatitis B infection among blood donors in central Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshayea, Areej I; Eid, Gamal E; El-Hazmi, Malak M; Alhetheel, Abdulkarim F

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of occult hepatitis B viral infections (OBIs)  among blood donors considering the clinical and epidemiological importance of identifying OBIs. A cross-sectional study conducted at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between January 2011 and January 2012. Blood donors (n=8501) were screened for Hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B core antibodies (HBcAb). All HBsAg-negative and HBcAb-positive samples were tested further for hepatitis B surface antibodies (HBsAb), hepatitis B virus (HBV)-DNA, and HBV genotyping.   Of the 8501 serum samples tested, 56 (0.7%) were positive and 8445 (99.3%) were negative for HBsAg. Among the HBsAg-negative samples, 198 (2.3%) were positive for HBcAb and these patients were suspected to have OBIs. Among the HBcAb-positive samples, 119 (60.1%) were positive while 79 (39.9%) were negative for HBsAb. Analysis of HBV-DNA for the suspected OBIs showed that 17 out of 198 samples (8.6%) yielded positive results, and all of them were HBsAb-negative. The viral load was low (less than 20-186 IU/mL) in all OBIs. Hepatitis B virus genotyping showed that 15 out of 17 samples (88.2%) were genotype D, and the other 2 samples (11.8%) were genotype E.  The prevalence of OBIs among blood donors in Riyadh was 0.2%. Therefore, it is recommended that HBV molecular testing should be incorporated with serological assays for screening of blood donors.

  19. Mental Health Screening Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Important security updates for DBSAlliance.org. Read more... Mental Health Screening Center These online screening tools are not ... you have any concerns, see your doctor or mental health professional. Depression Screening for Adult Depression Screening for ...

  20. RBC Antibody Screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... C Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Gene Mutations Testing Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Tests D-dimer Dengue Fever Testing Des-gamma- ... Index of Screening Recommendations Not Listed? Not Listed? Newborn Screening Screening Tests for Infants Screening Tests for ...

  1. Breast cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammogram - breast cancer screening; Breast exam - breast cancer screening; MRI - breast cancer screening ... performed to screen women to detect early breast cancer when it is more likely to be cured. ...

  2. Spin noise spectroscopy on donors in GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernien, Hannes; Mueller, Georg; Roemer, Michael; Huebner, Jens; Oestreich, Michael [Institute for Solid State Physics, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz University Hannover (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    In recent experiments spin noise spectroscopy (SNS) has proven to be a very sensitive technique to study electron spin dynamics in semiconductors at thermal equilibrium. Here we present SNS-measurements on donor bound electrons in very low doped bulk GaAs. In this environment the donors do not interact with each other and form artificial atoms. We discuss the detection of single donor bound electron spins, which should have extremely long spin relaxation times compared to ensemble spin relaxation times. In further experiments the electron bound to the donor will be used to probe and study the local nuclear magnetic field at the donor site.

  3. The donor advocacy team: a risk management program for living organ, tissue, and cell transplant donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, Susumu; Soyama, Akihiko; Nagai, Kazuhiro; Miyazaki, Yasushi; Kurihara, Shintaro; Hidaka, Masaaki; Ono, Shinichiro; Adachi, Tomohiko; Natsuda, Koji; Hara, Takanobu; Fujita, Fumihiko; Kanetaka, Kengo; Takatsuki, Mistuhisa

    2017-08-01

    Although the incidence of living donor death is low in Japan, statistics show one living liver donor death in more than 7000 living liver transplants. Thus, medical transplant personnel must recognize that the death of a living organ or tissue transplant donor can occur and develop an appropriate risk management program. We describe how Nagasaki University Hospital established and implemented a Donor Advocacy Team (DAT) program: a risk management program for initiation in the event of serious, persistent, or fatal impairment of an organ, tissue, or cell transplantation from a living donor. The purposes of the DAT program are as follows: 1. To disclose official information without delay. 2. To provide physical and psychological care to the patient experiencing impairment and their family. 3. To provide psychological care to the medical staff in charge of the transplant. 4. To standardize the responses of the diagnosis and treatment department staff and other hospital staff. 5. To minimize the damage that the whole medical transplantation system may suffer and leverage the occurrence for improvement. To address (1) and (5), actions, such as reporting and responses to the government, mass media, transplant-related societies, and organ transplant networks, have been established to ensure implementation.

  4. Substantial increase in cadaveric organ donors in hospitals implementing the donor action program in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höckerstedt, K; Heikkiläl, M-L; Holmberg, C

    2005-10-01

    The results of solid organ transplantation have improved during the last decade. Five-year patient survivals over 80% and graft survivals over 70% are common in many transplant centers. Also, quality-of-life assessments show that not only adults but even small children have a good quality of life after successful organ transplantation. Furthermore, transplantation programs have proved to be cost-effective. However, the organ shortage is a worldwide problem, which has in many countries led to prolonged waiting times, deaths on the waiting list, increased living related donations, acceptance of lower-quality organs, and in some instances even commercialization of the organ supply. Thus, it is extremely important to find strategies that increase the number of cadaveric organs for donation. In Finland organ transplantation is concentrated in one center with about 250 transplantations of different organs performed annually. The number of patients needing a new cadaveric organ is steadily increasing, but the number of donors has remained the same during the last decade. To improve cadaveric organ procurement the Donor Action (DA) program, which consists of a Hospital Attitude Survey and a medical records review performed by the donor hospital, has proved to increase the number of cadaveric donors. We introduced the DA program in Finland in 2000. Here in we report the results of this program in terms of its impact on the availability of cadaveric donors.

  5. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy: effect of perirenal fat upon donor operative time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kirk M; Lindler, Tekisha U; Lamberton, Gregory R; Baron, Pedro W; Ojogho, Okechukwu K; Baldwin, D Duane

    2008-10-01

    Previous attempts to correlate preoperative patient characteristics with operative complexity and operative time prior to laparoscopic donor nephrectomy have found few consistent relationships. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of abdominal and perirenal fat measured with preoperative computerized tomography (CT) upon subsequent operative time and complexity during hand-assisted laparoscopic donor nephrectomy. A retrospective chart, database, and CT angiogram review was conducted on 103 consecutive patients who underwent a hand-assisted laparoscopic donor nephrectomy. Perirenal fat and abdominal wall fat were correlated with a variety of parameters including operative time. Univariate and multivariate regression analysis was performed and p valuesfat measurements, or spleno-renal distance. There was a significant positive correlation between operative time and anterior perirenal fat (r=0.28, p=0.005), posterior perirenal fat (r=0.20, p=0.05), and donor CPK levels (r=0.53, pperirenal fat, while women had greater abdominal fat. A multivariate model including anterior perirenal fat measurement accounted for 20% of the variance in operative time. This is the first study to demonstrate that increased perirenal fat increases operative complexity as measured by operative time. This information may potentially be used to help predict operative complexity based upon measurable preoperative variables and help improve operating room efficiency and donor and recipient outcomes.

  6. Anonymous living liver donation: donor profiles and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichman, T W; Fox, A; Adcock, L; Wright, L; Abbey, S E; Levy, G; Grant, D R

    2010-09-01

    There are no published series of the assessment process, profiles and outcomes of anonymous, directed or nondirected live liver donation. The outcomes of 29 consecutive potential anonymous liver donors at our center were assessed. We used our standard live liver assessment process, augmented with the following additional acceptance criteria: a logical rationale for donation, a history of social altruism, strong social supports and a willingness to maintain confidentiality of patient information. Seventeen potential donors were rejected and 12 donors were ultimately accepted (six male, six female). All donors were strongly motivated by a desire and sense of responsibility to help others. Four donations were directed toward recipients who undertook media appeals. The donor operations included five left lateral segmentectomies and seven right hepatectomies. The overall donor morbidity was 40% with one patient having a transient Clavien level 3 complication (a pneumothorax). All donors are currently well. None expressed regret about their decision to donate, and all volunteered the opinion that donation had improved their lives. The standard live liver donor assessment process plus our additional requirements appears to provide a robust assessment process for the selection of anonymous live liver donors. Acceptance of anonymous donors enlarges the donor liver pool. © 2010 The Authors Journal compilation © 2010 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  7. Transplantation and differentiation of donor cells in the cloned pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Arata; Tomii, Ryo; Kano, Koichiro; Nagashima, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    The application of nuclear transfer technology is an interesting approach to investigate stem and progenitor cell transplantation therapy. If stem cells are used as a nuclear donor, donor cells can engraft into cloned animals without histocompatible problems. However, it is still uncertain whether donor cells can engraft to cloned animal and differentiate in vivo. To address this problem, we transplanted donor cells to dermal tissues of cloned pigs developed by using preadipocytes as donor cells. Preadipocytes are adipocytic progenitor which can differentiate to mature adipocytes in vitro. We showed that the donor preadipocytes were successfully transplanted into the cloned pigs without immune rejection and they differentiated into mature adipocytes in vivo 3 weeks after transplantation. In contrast, allogenic control preadipocytes, which can differentiate in vitro, did not differentiate in vivo. These results indicate that donor progenitor cells can differentiate in cloned animal

  8. Prevalence of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus among blood donors at a tertiary care hospital in India: a five-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, Monika; Jindal, Tarun; Hazarika, Anjali

    2011-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are important transfusion-transmissible infections. This study was performed to assess the prevalence of HBV and HCV seropositivity among blood donors at a tertiary care hospital-based blood bank in India. The blood donation records over 5 years (2005-2009) were reviewed, retrospectively, for the prevalence and yearly trends of HBV and HCV seropositivity. A total of 94,716 donations were received. The overall number of HBV-seropositive donations was 1353 and that for HCV was 537, with the prevalence rates of 1.43% for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and 0.57% for HCV. The seropositivity rate was higher in the replacement donors compared to the voluntary donors. The annual rates showed decreasing trends in case of HBsAg, but in case of HCV, there was a linear increase. Our study raises serious concerns regarding the HBV and HCV prevalence in our country. Although HBV showed decreasing trends, it cannot be relied upon because the donors were screened only for HBsAg. HCV is clearly on the rise. Stringent measures need to be taken on urgent basis including dissemination of information, strict screening of blood, inclusion of antibody to hepatitis B core antigen and other sensitive markers to the screening protocol, and better donor recruitment. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.

  9. Emergency department referral for organ donation: more organ donors and more organs per donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lisabeth D; Gardiner, Stuart K; Gubler, K Dean

    2014-05-01

    This study sought to determine whether early referral from the emergency department (ED) would increase the number of organ donors and the number of organs transplanted per donor (OTPD). This is a retrospective cohort analysis of all patients referred to a single organ procurement organization for a period of 60 months. Patients referred for organ donation evaluation from the ED were more likely to become organ donors than patients referred from the intensive care unit (19.3% vs 5.2%, P organ donation from the ED is associated with an increased likelihood of organ recovery and with an increased number of OTPD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. RESULTS OF GENOTYPING HEPATITIS VIRUS B IN HBsAg-NEGATIVE BLOOD DONORS IN ASTANA, KAZAKHSTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Ostankova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of HBV infection is estimated by the frequency of occurrence of HBsAg and varies depending on the geographic region. Chronic infection is characterized by a stable presence of HBsAg for 6 months, with the exception of the occult form of the disease, characterized by the absence of HBsAg, an extremely low level of HBV DNA in the blood serum. The problem of identifying occult HBV (ocHBV is especially relevant because of the development of transplantology and transfusiology. However, serological screening of donor blood used in the Russian Federation and Central Asian countries does not reveal HBV seronegative donors. Since HBV infection is possible with the introduction of small doses of the virus, the importance of using complex molecular methods for detecting donor ocHBV is obvious, despite the low viral load, since donor blood is used predominantly in patients with severe course of various diseases characterized by increased susceptibility to HBV because of immunosuppression. The aim of our work was to study the characteristics of the genetic structure of the ocHBV in donors in Astana, Kazakhstan. A total of 500 blood plasma samples from HBsAg-negative donors were obtained in 2012 from residents of Kazakhstan, Astana. Using the method, we proposed to detect HBV DNA with a low viral load, HBV was detected in 9.4% of donors. Serological markers were found in 12.7% of patients with HBV DNA, 8.5% had HBcor IgG antibodies, 4.2% had HBcor IgG and HBe IgG antibodies at the same time. Thus, in 41 (87.3% of the blood donor, ocHBV was seronegative. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of the 47 isolates showed that the HBV of genotype D (95.75% prevails in the examined group in comparison with HBV of genotype A (4.25%. HBV subgenotypes are represented in the following ratios: D1 — 46.8%, D2 — 17.05%, D3 — 31.9%, A2 — 4.25%. In a comparative analysis, the distribution of HBV subgenotypes in the group with ocHBV and in the case of the

  11. Why search for a sperm donor online? The experiences of women searching for and contacting sperm donors on the internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadva, Vasanti; Freeman, Tabitha; Tranfield, Erika; Golombok, Susan

    2017-04-28

    Whilst studies have examined the experiences of women who use clinic donors, to date there has been limited research investigating women's motivations and experiences of searching for a sperm donor online. A total of 429 women looking for a sperm donor on Pride Angel (a website that facilitates contact between donors and recipients) completed an online survey. Fifty-eight percent (249) saw advantages of obtaining donated sperm online with the most common advantage reported as being able to connect with and meet the donor (n = 50 (24%)). A third (n = 157 (37%)) of the participants gave disadvantages, the most common reported was encountering 'dishonest donors' (n = 63 (40%)). Most recipients (n = 181 (61%)) wanted the donor to be 'just a donor' (i.e. to provide sperm and have no further contact). Whilst it was important for recipients to know the identity of the donor, some did not see this as important for the child and thus the level of information that parents have about the donor, and that which the child has, can differ. Finding a donor online blurs the distinction between categories of 'anonymous', 'known' and 'identity release' donations. Whilst the survey had a large sample size, the representativeness of the sample is not known.

  12. Kidney-Failure Risk Projection for the Living Kidney-Donor Candidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grams, Morgan E; Sang, Yingying; Levey, Andrew S; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Ballew, Shoshana; Chang, Alex R; Chow, Eric K H; Kasiske, Bertram L; Kovesdy, Csaba P; Nadkarni, Girish N; Shalev, Varda; Segev, Dorry L; Coresh, Josef; Lentine, Krista L; Garg, Amit X

    2016-02-04

    Evaluation of candidates to serve as living kidney donors relies on screening for individual risk factors for end-stage renal disease (ESRD). To support an empirical approach to donor selection, we developed a tool that simultaneously incorporates multiple health characteristics to estimate a person's probable long-term risk of ESRD if that person does not donate a kidney. We used risk associations from a meta-analysis of seven general population cohorts, calibrated to the population-level incidence of ESRD and mortality in the United States, to project the estimated long-term incidence of ESRD among persons who do not donate a kidney, according to 10 demographic and health characteristics. We then compared 15-year projections with the observed risk among 52,998 living kidney donors in the United States. A total of 4,933,314 participants from seven cohorts were followed for a median of 4 to 16 years. For a 40-year-old person with health characteristics that were similar to those of age-matched kidney donors, the 15-year projections of the risk of ESRD in the absence of donation varied according to race and sex; the risk was 0.24% among black men, 0.15% among black women, 0.06% among white men, and 0.04% among white women. Risk projections were higher in the presence of a lower estimated glomerular filtration rate, higher albuminuria, hypertension, current or former smoking, diabetes, and obesity. In the model-based lifetime projections, the risk of ESRD was highest among persons in the youngest age group, particularly among young blacks. The 15-year observed risks after donation among kidney donors in the United States were 3.5 to 5.3 times as high as the projected risks in the absence of donation. Multiple demographic and health characteristics may be used together to estimate the projected long-term risk of ESRD among living kidney-donor candidates and to inform acceptance criteria for kidney donors. (Funded by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and

  13. Identification of a cyclin B1-derived CTL epitope eliciting spontaneous responses in both cancer patients and healthy donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke Sick; Sørensen, Rikke Bæk; Ritter, Cathrin

    2011-01-01

    . Furthermore, blood from cancer patients and healthy donors was screened for spontaneous T-cell reactivity against the peptide in IFN-¿ ELISPOT assays. Patients with breast cancer, malignant melanoma, or renal cell carcinoma hosted powerful and high-frequency T-cell responses against the peptide. In addition......With the aim to identify cyclin B1-derived peptides with high affinity for HLA-A2, we used three in silico prediction algorithms to screen the protein sequence for possible HLA-A2 binders. One peptide scored highest in all three algorithms, and the high HLA-A2-binding affinity of this peptide......, a high-affinity cyclin B1-derived HLA-A2-restricted CTL epitope was identified, which was presented on the cell surface of cancer cells, and elicited spontaneous T-cell responses in cancer patients and healthy donors....

  14. Identification of a cyclin B1-derived CTL epitope eliciting spontaneous responses in both cancer patients and healthy donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke Sick; Sørensen, Rikke Bæk; Ritter, Cathrin

    2011-01-01

    . Furthermore, blood from cancer patients and healthy donors was screened for spontaneous T-cell reactivity against the peptide in IFN-γ ELISPOT assays. Patients with breast cancer, malignant melanoma, or renal cell carcinoma hosted powerful and high-frequency T-cell responses against the peptide. In addition......With the aim to identify cyclin B1-derived peptides with high affinity for HLA-A2, we used three in silico prediction algorithms to screen the protein sequence for possible HLA-A2 binders. One peptide scored highest in all three algorithms, and the high HLA-A2-binding affinity of this peptide......, a high-affinity cyclin B1-derived HLA-A2-restricted CTL epitope was identified, which was presented on the cell surface of cancer cells, and elicited spontaneous T-cell responses in cancer patients and healthy donors....

  15. Cornea preservation time study: methods and potential impact on the cornea donor pool in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lass, Jonathan H; Szczotka-Flynn, Loretta B; Ayala, Allison R; Benetz, Beth A; Gal, Robin L; Aldave, Anthony J; Corrigan, Michelle M; Dunn, Steven P; McCall, Ty L; Pramanik, Sudeep; Rosenwasser, George O; Ross, Kevin W; Terry, Mark A; Verdier, David D

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the aims, methods, donor and recipient cohort characteristics, and potential impact of the Cornea Preservation Time Study (CPTS). The CPTS is a randomized clinical trial conducted at 40 clinical sites (70 surgeons) designed to assess the effect of donor cornea preservation time (PT) on graft survival 3 years after Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK). Eyes undergoing surgery for Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy or pseudophakic/aphakic corneal edema were randomized to receive donor corneas stored ≤7 days or 8 to 14 days. Donor and patient characteristics, tissue preparation and surgical parameters, recipient and donor corneal stroma clarity, central corneal thickness, intraocular pressure, complications, and a reading center-determined central endothelial cell density were collected. Surveys were conducted to evaluate pre-CPTS PT practices. The 1330 CPTS donors were: 49% >60 years old, 27% diabetic, had a median eye bank-determined screening endothelial cell density of 2688 cells/mm, and 74% eye bank prepared for DSAEK. A total of 1090 recipients (1330 eyes including 240 bilateral cases) had: median age of 70 years, were 60% female, 90% white, 18% diabetic, 52% phakic, and 94% had Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy. Before the CPTS, 19 eye banks provided PT data on 20,852 corneas domestically placed for DSAEK in 2010 to 2011; 96% were preserved ≤7 days. Of 305 American Academy of Ophthalmology members responding to a pre-CPTS survey, 233 (76%) set their maximum PT preference at 8 days or less. The CPTS will increase understanding of factors related to DSAEK success and, if noninferiority of longer PT is shown, will have great potential to extend the available pool of endothelial keratoplasty donors.Clinical Trial Registration-URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01537393.

  16. Blood Donor Test-Seeking Motivation and Prior HIV Testing Experiences in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Hong-Ha M; Blatyta, Paula F; Santos, Fernanda M; Montebello, Sandra; Esposti, Sandra P D; Hangai, Fatima N; Salles, Nanci Alves; Mendrone, Alfredo; Sabino, Ester C; McFarland, Willi; Gonçalez, Thelma T

    2015-09-01

    HIV test-seeking behavior among blood donors has been observed worldwide and may pose a threat to the safety of the blood supply. We evaluated current test-seeking motivations and prior alternative HIV testing experiences among blood donors in São Paulo, Brazil. All candidate or potential blood donors were consecutively approached and recruited to participate in the study upon presentation at Fundação Pró-Sangue Hemocentro, the largest blood bank in Brazil. Participants were recruited between August 2012 and May 2013 after they were screened for donor eligibility. Questionnaires were administered through audio computer-assisted self-interview. Among 11,867 donors, 38 % previously tested for HIV apart from blood donation, of whom 47.7 % tested at public facilities and 2.7 % acknowledged getting tested for HIV as the primary reason for donating. Dissatisfaction with prior alternative testing experience was reported by 2.5 % of donors. Current test-seeking motivation was associated with dissatisfaction with prior alternative testing experience and testing at a public alternative facility. The most common reasons for dissatisfaction were too long of a wait to get tested and for results, counseling was too long, lack of privacy, and low confidence in the equipment and accuracy of the test. Lack of awareness about the availability of free and confidential public HIV testing services as well as dissatisfaction with past HIV testing and counseling experiences motivate some individuals to test at blood banks. Test-seeking behavior among blood donors may be best addressed by improving alternative testing programs, particularly with respect to time delays, privacy and perceptions about test accuracy. Educational campaigns on safe blood donation and HIV testing for diagnosis, risk counseling and referral to care are also needed for the general public and for health care providers.

  17. Association of ABO and Rh Blood Groups to Blood-Borne Infections among Blood Donors in Tehran-Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadali, Fatemeh; Pourfathollah, Aliakbar

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV and syphilis infections in blood donors referred to Tehran Blood Transfusion Center (TBTC), and determine any association between blood groups and blood- borne infections between the years of 2005 and 2011. This was a retrospective study conducted at TBTC. All of the donor serum samples were screened for HBV, HCV, HIV and syphilis by using third generation ELISA kits and RPR test. Initial reactive samples were tested in duplicate. Confirmatory tests were performed on all repeatedly reactive donations. Blood group was determined by forward and reverse blood grouping. The results were subjected to chi square analysis for determination of statistical difference between the values among different categories according to SPSS program. Overall, 2031451 donor serum samples were collected in 2005-2011. Totally, 10451 were positive test for HBV, HCV, HIV and syphilis. The overall seroprevalence of HBV, HCV, HIV, and syphilis was 0.39%, 0.11%, 0.005%, and 0.010%, respectively. Hepatitis B and HIV infections were significantly associated with blood group of donors (P blood group "A" and percentage of HBs Ag was lower in donors who had blood group O. There was no significant association between Hepatitis C and syphilis infections with ABO and Rh blood groups (P>0.05). Compared with neighboring countries and the international standards, prevalence of blood-borne infections is relatively low.

  18. Occurrence of Leishmania infantum Parasitemia in Asymptomatic Blood Donors Living in an Area of Endemicity in Southern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    le Fichoux, Yves; Quaranta, Jean-François; Aufeuvre, Jean-Pierre; Lelievre, Alain; Marty, Pierre; Suffia, Isabelle; Rousseau, Deborah; Kubar, Joanna

    1999-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniosis (VL) due to Leishmania infantum (L. chagasi) is a lethal disease if untreated, but asymptomatic L. infantum infections have been reported previously. A better understanding of parasite transmission, dissemination, and survival in the human host is needed. The purpose of this study was to assess whether L. infantum circulated in peripheral blood of subjects with no history of VL. Sera from 565 blood donors were screened by Western blotting to detect Leishmania-specific antibodies and identify individuals with probable past exposure to Leishmania. Seropositivity was found in 76 donors whose buffy coats were examined by PCR and direct culture. The parasite minicircle kinetoplast DNA was amplified from blood samples of nine donors. Promastigotes were detected by culture in blood samples from nine donors. Only two donors were PCR and culture positive. These results indicate that L. infantum circulates intermittently and at low density in the blood of healthy seropositive individuals, who thus appear to be asymptomatic carriers. Implications for the safety of blood transfusion are discussed. PMID:10325353

  19. Accuracy of a probabilistic record-linkage methodology used to track blood donors in the Mortality Information System database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuani, Ligia; Bierrenbach, Ana Luiza; Abreu, Fatima; Takecian, Pedro Losco; Ferreira, João Eduardo; Sabino, Ester Cerdeira

    2014-08-01

    The probabilistic record linkage (PRL) is based on a likelihood score that measures the degree of similarity of several matching variables. Screening test results for different diseases are available for the blood donor population. In this paper, we describe the accuracy of a PRL process used to track blood donors from the Fundação Pró-Sangue (FPS) in the Mortality Information System (SIM), in order that future studies might determine the blood donor's cause of death. The databases used for linkage were SIM and the database made up of individuals that were living (200 blood donors in 2007) and dead (196 from the Hospital das Clinicas de São Paulo that died in 2001-2005). The method consists of cleaning and linking the databases using three blocking steps comparing the variables "Name/Mother's Name/ Date of Birth" to determine a cut-off score. For a cut-off score of 7.06, the sensitivity and specificity of the method is 94.4% (95%CI: 90.0-97.0) and 100% (95%CI: 98.0-100.0), respectively. This method can be used in studies that aim to track blood donors from the FPS database in SIM.

  20. Screening for Sexually Transmitted Infection Pathogens in Semen Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RW Peeling

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The transmission of sexually transmitted infection (STI pathogens from an infected donor to the recipient of a semen donation in assisted conception may result not only in acute infection but also in long-term reproductive complications or adverse outcomes of pregnancy, including infection of the offspring. Screening for bacterial STI pathogens, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae is strongly recommended because these pathogens can cause serious reproductive complications in the recipients of semen donations and infection in their offspring. Screening for these pathogens should be performed using the most sensitive methods, such as nucleic acid amplified tests. False-negative results due to inhibitory substances in the semen sample should be monitored using amplification controls. Where specimen transport is not a problem and culture facilities are available, N gonorrhoeae can also be detected by culture. Laboratories performing screening should subscribe to proficiency programs and have strict quality controls. Although Trichomonas vaginalis, group B streptococcus and genital mycoplasmas have been associated with adverse outcomes of pregnancy, the frequent finding of these organisms in healthy individuals brings into question the validity of mandatory inclusion of these organisms in the screening panel. Although viral STI pathogens and Treponema pallidum -- the causative agent of syphilis -- may be detected in semen, their presence may be more sensitively detected through antibody testing of the donor. Screening donors for HIV, hepatitis B and syphilis by serology is uniformly recommended in all of the guidelines, but the value of screening either donors or semen samples for cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex viruses and human papilloma viruses is less clear.

  1. INFECTIONS IN THE POOL OF POTENTIAL ORGAN DONORS: IS IT ALWAYS CONTRAINDICATION TO DONATION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Minina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of certain infection in potential organ donors is significant problem for Russian Transplantology. The increase in detection of donor’s infections could be due to increase in general donor’s pool and also to utili- zation of modern diagnostic screening. We should strictly define which infections carry a real threat to recipients and which are not. In the present paper we did the literature review which we believe will help us to solve the problem. 

  2. Communicating identifiability risks to biobank donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, T. J.; Gjerris, Mickey; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2018-01-01

    can track individuals across multiple databases. This article focuses on the communication of identifiability risks in the process of obtaining consent for donation and research. Most ethical discussions of identifiability risks have focused on the severity of the risk and how it might be mitigated......, and what precisely is at stake in pervasive data sharing. However, there has been little discussion of whether and how to communicate the risk to potential donors. We review the ethical arguments behind favoring different types of risk communication in the consent process, and outline how identifiability...... concerns can be incorporated into either a detailed or a simplified method of communicating risks during the consent process....

  3. Brain-Dead Donors on Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronchard, Régis; Durand, Louise; Legeai, Camille; Cohen, Johana; Guerrini, Patrice; Bastien, Olivier

    2017-10-01

    To describe donors after brain death with ongoing extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and to analyze the outcome of organs transplanted from these donors. Retrospective analysis of the national information system run by the French Biomedicine Agency (CRISTAL database). National registry data of all donors after brain death in France and their organ recipients between 2007 and 2013. Donors after brain death and their organ recipients. None. During the study period, there were 22,270 brain-dead patients diagnosed in France, of whom 161 with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Among these patients, 64 donors on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and 10,805 donors without extracorporeal membrane oxygenation had at least one organ retrieved. Donors on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation were significantly younger and had more severe intensive care medical conditions (hemodynamic, biological, renal, and liver insults) than donors without extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. One hundred nine kidneys, 37 livers, seven hearts, and one lung were successfully transplanted from donors on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. We found no significant difference in 1-year kidney graft survival (p = 0.24) and function between recipients from donors on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (92.7% [85.9-96.3%]) and matching recipients from donors without extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (95.4% [93.0-97.0%]). We also found no significant difference in 1-year liver recipient survival (p = 0.91): 86.5% (70.5-94.1) from donors on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation versus 80.7% (79.8-81.6) from donors without extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Brain-dead patients with ongoing extracorporeal membrane oxygenation have more severe medical conditions than those without extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. However, kidney graft survival and function were no different than usual. Brain-dead patients with ongoing extracorporeal membrane oxygenation are suitable for organ procurement.

  4. Reevaluation of confirmatory tests for human T-cell leukemia virus Type 1 using a luciferase immunoprecipitation system in blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Rika A; Ma, Guangyong; Matsuoka, Masao; Otani, Satoshi; Matsukura, Harumichi; Hirayama, Fumiya

    2015-04-01

    Recently, Japanese Red Cross blood centers have changed the confirmatory test method from an indirect immunofluorescence (IF) technique to Western blotting (WB) for antibodies against human T-cell leukemia virus Type 1 (HTLV-1). In this study, these HTLV-1 tests were assessed using another sensitive method, that is, a luciferase immunoprecipitation system (LIPS), to identify a better confirmatory test for HTLV-1 infection. Plasma samples from 54 qualified donors and 114 HTLV-1 screening-positive donors were tested by LIPS for antibodies against HTLV-1 Gag, Tax, Env, and HBZ recombinant proteins. The donors were categorized into six groups, namely, (Group I) qualified donors, screening positive; (Group II) IF positive; (Group III) IF negative; (Group IV) WB positive; (Group V) WB negative; and (Group VI) screening positive in the previous blood donation, but WB-indeterminate during this study period. In Groups II and IV, all plasma samples tested positive by LIPS for antibodies against Gag and Env proteins. In Group V, all samples tested negative by LIPS, whereas some Group III samples reacted with single or double antigens in LIPS. In Group VI, the LIPS test identified a donor with suspected HTLV-1 infection. The first case of a blood donor with plasma that reacted with HBZ was identified by LIPS. Reevaluation of the current HTLV-1 screening method using the LIPS test showed that both confirmatory tests had similar sensitivity and specificity only when WB indeterminate results were eliminated. LIPS is a promising method for detecting and characterizing HTLV-1 antibodies. © 2014 AABB.

  5. Q-FISH measurement of hepatocyte telomere lengths in donor liver and graft after pediatric living-donor liver transplantation: donor age affects telomere length sustainability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youichi Kawano

    Full Text Available Along with the increasing need for living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT, the issue of organ shortage has become a serious problem. Therefore, the use of organs from elderly donors has been increasing. While the short-term results of LDLT have greatly improved, problems affecting the long-term outcome of transplant patients remain unsolved. Furthermore, since contradictory data have been reported with regard to the relationship between donor age and LT/LDLT outcome, the question of whether the use of elderly donors influences the long-term outcome of a graft after LT/LDLT remains unsettled. To address whether hepatocyte telomere length reflects the outcome of LDLT, we analyzed the telomere lengths of hepatocytes in informative biopsy samples from 12 paired donors and recipients (grafts of pediatric LDLT more than 5 years after adult-to-child LDLT because of primary biliary atresia, using quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (Q-FISH. The telomere lengths in the paired samples showed a robust relationship between the donor and grafted hepatocytes (r = 0.765, p = 0.0038, demonstrating the feasibility of our Q-FISH method for cell-specific evaluation. While 8 pairs showed no significant difference between the telomere lengths for the donor and the recipient, the other 4 pairs showed significantly shorter telomeres in the recipient than in the donor. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the donors in the latter group were older than those in the former (p = 0.001. Despite the small number of subjects, this pilot study indicates that donor age is a crucial factor affecting telomere length sustainability in hepatocytes after pediatric LDLT, and that the telomeres in grafted livers may be elongated somewhat longer when the grafts are immunologically well controlled.

  6. Counted Sb donors in Si quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Meenakshi; Pacheco, Jose; Bielejec, Edward; Perry, Daniel; Ten Eyck, Gregory; Bishop, Nathaniel; Wendt, Joel; Luhman, Dwight; Carroll, Malcolm; Lilly, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Deterministic control over the location and number of donors is critical for donor spin qubits in semiconductor based quantum computing. We have developed techniques using a focused ion beam and a diode detector integrated next to a silicon MOS single electron transistor to gain such control. With the diode detector operating in linear mode, the numbers of ions implanted have been counted and single ion implants have been detected. Poisson statistics in the number of ions implanted have been observed. Transport measurements performed on samples with counted number of implants have been performed and regular coulomb blockade and charge offsets observed. The capacitances to various gates are found to be in agreement with QCAD simulations for an electrostatically defined dot. This work was performed, in part, at the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, a U.S. DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences user facility. The work was supported by Sandia National Laboratories Directed Research and Development Program. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the U. S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  7. Bone Marrow Donors Worldwide: a successful exercise in international cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudshoorn, M; van Leeuwen, A; vd Zanden, H G; van Rood, J J

    1994-07-01

    Bone marrow transplantation using unrelated donors has become a clinical reality but a large number of challenges remain. One of the most important and a crucial one is locating a suitable donor. To cope with this very large registries have been formed but each of these lacks donors with phenotypes which occur in other registries. To facilitate the search process a collation system designated Bone Marrow Donors Worldwide (BMDW) was started. Several times a year it collects the phenotypes of all donors from all participating registries on a worldwide basis. The data are sorted by phenotype number of the broad antigens; the splits are specified immediately after the broad phenotypes. Here the experience with the first 11 editions is summarized. Although there is a steady increase in the numbers of donors and phenotypes included in BMDW, origin.

  8. Addressing the Donor Liver Shortage with EX VIVO Machine Perfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Louisa Izamis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite a critical shortage of viable donor livers for transplantation, only a fraction of the available organs are used. Donor organ defects, which in the majority of cases are caused by extensive exposure to ischemia, cannot be reversed by static cold storage, the current gold standard of organ preservation. In this review, the role of machine perfusion (MP in the recovery of non-transplantable ischemic donor organs is discussed. Though still in the experimental phase, various models of MP have consistently demonstrated that ischemic donor organs can be recovered to a transplantable state through continuous perfusion. MP can also provide dynamic quantitative assessments of the extent of ischemia, in addition to predicting the likelihood of organ recovery. Continued endeavors to translate MP into clinical use and eventually incorporate it into routine donor organ care will have a significant impact on the quality and availability of transplantable donor organs.

  9. How to kill gamete donation: retrospective legislation and donor anonymity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennings, Guido

    2012-10-01

    Victoria (Australia) is considering retrospective legislation on the abolition of gamete donor anonymity. Retrospective legislation evokes many negative emotions mainly because it is considered unfair. It also makes it impossible for citizens to organize their life with reasonable certainty of the consequences. Introduction of this law for donor anonymity is defended by the right of the child to know its genetic origins. Against this law, people appeal to the right to privacy and confidentiality of the donor. This paper analyses the arguments for and against a retrospective law on donor anonymity by looking at the conditions that should be respected when two principles (the donor's right to privacy and the child's right to genetic information) have to be balanced. It is concluded that the justification for introducing retrospective law is lacking: the conditions are not fulfilled. Moreover, retroactive laws in the context of gamete donation may jeopardize the whole practice by destroying the trust of candidate donors and recipients in the government.

  10. Deceased donor uterus retrieval: A novel technique and workflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, G; Anthony, T; McKenna, G J; Koon, E C; Wallis, K; Klintmalm, G B; Reese, J C; Johannesson, L

    2018-03-01

    Uterus transplantation has proven successful when performed with a living donor. Subsequently, interest in the novel field of reproductive transplantation is growing. The procedure is still considered experimental, with fewer than 25 cases performed worldwide, and the techniques of both uterus procurement and transplantation are still developing. We detail a new approach to deceased donor uterus procurement. In contrast to reported techniques and our own initial experience, in which the deceased donor uterus was procured post cross-clamp and after other organs were procured, our approach now is to perform the uterus procurement prior to the procurement of other organs in a multiorgan donor and hence prior to cross-clamp. We describe our practical experience in developing and implementing the logistical workflow for deceased donor uterus procurement in a deceased multiorgan donor setting. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  11. Approach to the Pretransplant Evaluation of the Living Kidney Donor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mala Sachdeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of the potential kidney donor is a complex activity that differs substantially from other types of preoperative assessments. The well being of the donor, who derives no medical benefit from this surgery, must be assured in both the short term and long term, and the potential adverse consequences to the recipient must be determined as well. The criteria that must be met for a person to donate a kidney are rigorous and include medical, social, psychosocial, ethical, and legal issues. Donor evaluation can be divided into assessments to protect the health and safety of the donor and assessments to protect the health and safety of the recipient. This article provides an approach to evaluating a donor, focusing on the complex issues that an evaluator is faced with. A careful assessment of risks and benefits to both the donor and recipient can lead to favorable outcomes.

  12. Mini-donor nephrectomy: A viable and effective alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Guleria

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Live kidney donation is an excellent way of increasing the donor pool. The introduction of the laparoscopic donor nephrectomy has resulted in an increase in live organ donation in the western hemisphere. There is no data on its impact on organ donation in India. However attractive as it may seem, the procedure is associated with a definite learning curve and does compromise donor safety. The procedure is also expensive in terms of the equipment required. The mini-donor nephrectomy is an excellent alternative, has no learning curve and is ideally suited for donors in India who have a low BMI. The procedure is also relatively inexpensive. We are in need of a donor registry rather than reports from single institutions to fully evaluate the risks and benefits of both procedures.

  13. Thalassemia and Hemoglobin E in Southern Thai Blood Donors

    OpenAIRE

    Nuinoon, Manit; Kruachan, Kwanta; Sengking, Warachaya; Horpet, Dararat; Sungyuan, Ubol

    2014-01-01

    Thalassemia and hemoglobin E (Hb E) are common in Thailand. Individuals with thalassemia trait usually have a normal hemoglobin concentration or mild anemia. Therefore, thalassemic individuals who have minimum acceptable Hb level may be accepted as blood donors. This study was aimed at determining the frequency of α-thalassemia 1 trait, β-thalassemia trait, and Hb E-related syndromes in Southern Thai blood donors. One hundred and sixteen voluntary blood donors, Southern Thailand origin, were ...

  14. Xenotransplantation: A Potential Solution to the Critical Organ Donor Shortage

    OpenAIRE

    K Howe Sim; Anton Marinov; Gary A Levy

    1999-01-01

    The success of allotransplantation as a treatment for end-stage organ failure has resulted in the need for an increasing number of organ donors. Attempts to meet this need include the use of organs from living related and unrelated donors, financial or other incentives for the donor family, and even the reuse of transplanted organs. Despite these initiatives, the supply of organs for transplantation still falls far short of the demand, as evidenced by longer waiting times for transplantation ...

  15. Human body donation in Thailand: Donors at Khon Kaen University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techataweewan, N; Panthongviriyakul, C; Toomsan, Y; Mothong, W; Kanla, P; Chaichun, A; Amarttayakong, P; Tayles, N

    2018-03-01

    Culture, society and spirituality contribute to variability in the characteristics of human body donors and donation programmes worldwide. The donors and the body donation programme at Khon Kaen University, northeast Thailand, reflect all these aspects of Thailand, including the status accorded to the donors and the ceremonial acknowledgement of the donors and their families. Data from the programme records and from surveys of samples of currently registering donors and recently received donor bodies are analysed to define the characteristics of both registering and received donors, including motivation, demography, socio-economic status, health, and use of the bodies. The body donation programme at Khon Kaen University currently has a very high rate of registration of body donors, with gender and age differences in the patterns of donation. Registrants include more females than males, a long-standing pattern, and are an average age of 50 years. The bodies of 12% of registrants are received after death and include more males than females. Both sexes are of an average age of 69 years. Males had registered their donation eight years prior to death and females ten years prior. Current registrants identified altruistic motives for their decision to donate, although the coincidence of body donation by a highly revered monk with a surge in donations in 2015 suggests that Buddhism plays a primary role in motivation. The opportunity to make merit for donors and their families, and respect shown to donors and the nature of the ceremonies acknowledging the donors and their families, including the use of the Royal Flame at the cremation ceremony, all contribute to decisions to donate. The characteristics of body donors and the body donation programme at Khon Kaen University are reflective of Thai society and the centrality of Buddhism to Thai culture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. HTLV-I/II and blood donors: determinants associated with seropositivity in a low risk population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadette Catalan Soares

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Blood donors in Brazil have been routinely screened for HTLV-I/II since 1993. A study was performed to estimate the prevalence of HTLV-I/II infection in a low risk population and to better understand determinants associated with seropositivity. METHODS: HTLV-I/II seropositive (n=135, indeterminate (n=167 and seronegative blood donors (n=116 were enrolled in an open prevalence prospective cohort study. A cross-sectional epidemiological study of positive, indeterminate and seronegative HTLV-I/II subjects was conducted to assess behavioral and environmental risk factors for seropositivity. HTLV-I/II serological status was confirmed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (EIA and Western blot (WB. RESULTS: The three groups were not homogeneous. HTLV-I/II seropositivity was associated to past blood transfusion and years of schooling, a marker of socioeconomic status, and use of non-intravenous illegal drugs. CONCLUSIONS: The study results reinforce the importance of continuous monitoring and improvement of blood donor selection process.

  17. Avaliação laboratorial da deficiência de ferro em doadoras de sangue Laboratory analysis of iron deficiency in female blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo D. Cançado

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a freqüência da deficiência de ferro em doadoras de sangue do Hemocentro da Santa Casa de São Paulo segundo o tipo de doador, o número total de doações anteriores e a freqüência de doações realizadas nos últimos 12 meses. No período de 05 a 20 de outubro de 2004 foram estudadas 100 doadoras de sangue utilizando-se a determinação da ferritina sérica e dos índices eritrocitários. A freqüência de doadoras de sangue que apresentavam deficiência de ferro foi de 16,0 %. Para as doadoras de primeira vez, 10,5% delas já apresentavam deficiência de ferro à primeira doação de sangue e, para aquelas que não eram de primeira vez, essa freqüência foi de 17,7% (pThe aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of iron deficiency in blood donors at the Santa Casa Blood Bank and to establish the frequency of iron deficient blood donors according to first-time and multiple donors, the total number of lifetime donations and the frequency of donations per year. Between 5th and 20th October 2004, one hundred blood donors were studied using the biochemical measurement of serum ferritin and red blood cell indices. The frequency of iron deficiency in blood donors was 16.0%. The frequency of iron deficiency was higher in non-first-time than in first-time female blood donors (10.5% versus 17.7%; p<0.05. The frequency of iron deficiency was higher in the multiple blood donors and this difference was statistically significative in female blood donors after more than four donations (p<0.05 and among female blood donors with two or more donations per year (p<0.05. We conclude that blood donation is a very important factor of iron deficiency in female blood donors, particularly in multiple donors. The high frequency of blood donors with iron deficiency found in this study suggests the necessity for more accurate laboratory screening, as the hemoglobin or hematocrit measurements alone are insufficient to

  18. Quality of life of elderly live kidney donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klop, Karel W J; Dols, Leonienke F C; Weimar, Willem; Dooper, Ine M; IJzermans, Jan N M; Kok, Niels F M

    2013-10-15

    Expanding the use of elderly live donors may help meet the demand for kidney transplants. The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of the surgical procedure on the quality of life (QOL) of elderly donors compared with younger donors. Alongside three prospective studies (two randomized) running between May 2001 and October 2010, we asked 501 live donors to fill out the Short Form-36 questionnaire preoperatively and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. We defined live donors 60 years or older as elderly. Between-group analyses regarding QOL were adjusted for baseline values and gender. One hundred thirty-five donors were older and 366 donors were younger than 60 years. The response rate was high, with 87% at 12 months postoperatively. Elderly donors less often scored as American Society of Anaesthesiology classification 1 (60% vs. 81%; Pvitality" (5 points; P=0.008). At 3 months, "bodily pain" (3 points, P=0.04) and "role physical" (8 points, P=0.02) were still in favor of the older group. At 6 and 12 months, "physical function" was in favor of the younger group (3 and 5 points, respectively; P=0.04 and P<0.001). This study demonstrates that elderly donors recover relatively fast. The perspective of excellent postoperative QOL may help convince elderly individuals to donate.

  19. Characterization of blood donors with high haemoglobin concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, K; Hasselbalch, H C; Ullum, H

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives  The literature contains little on the prevalence and causes of high predonation haemoglobin levels among blood donors. This study aimed to characterize and develop an algorithm to manage would-be donors with polycythaemia. Materials and Methods  Between November 2009...... and November 2011, we offered haematology consultations to blood donors with repeated haemoglobin concentration (Hb) above the WHO limit for polycythaemia vera (PV) (10·2 and 11·5 mm/16·5 and 18·5 g/dl for women and men, respectively). Investigation of such donors included Hb, haematocrit, mean cell volume...

  20. Improving the organ donor card system in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, David

    2013-08-22

    This paper analyses the current organ donor card system in Switzerland and identifies five problems that may be partially responsible for the country's low deceased organ donation rates. There are two minor issues concerning the process of obtaining a donor card: the Swisstransplant website understates the prospective benefits of donation, and the ease with which donor cards can be obtained raises questions regarding whether any consent to donation provided is truly informed. Furthermore, there are two major practical problems that might affect those who carry an organ donor card: the lack of a central donor registry increases the likelihood that donors' wishes will be "lost", and there is a high probability that family members will veto organ donation. The fact that these two practical problems are not mentioned to potential donors by Swisstransplant constitutes the fifth problem. Donation rates would probably improve if more accurate information about the benefits of donation were provided to potential donors, a central donor registry were created, and families were not permitted to veto donation from those on the registry.

  1. Epigenetic Modification of the Repair Donor Regulates Targeted Gene Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Humbert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimizing design of vectors is critical to effective gene therapy. In targeted gene correction (TGC, cleavage of chromosomal DNA near a mutation stimulates homology-directed repair of a target gene using a donor provided in trans. We have systematically addressed epigenetic parameters of donor design, using a flow-based assay to quantify correction frequencies and expression levels of a green fluorescent protein (GFP reporter gene in a human cell line. We show that active transcription of the donor increased correction frequency by threefold, establishing that a proximal promoter enhances donor use. Conversely, CpG methylation of the donor diminished correction frequency and reduced expression of the repaired gene. However, bisulfite sequencing of the target revealed no transfer of methylation marks during repair with a methylated donor. Treatment with histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors can partially compensate for epigenetic inactivation, suggesting a role for class I and II HDACs in regulation of donor use. These results establish that epigenetic status of a trans-donor determines both the efficiency and outcome of gene correction, and identify and clarify parameters that should guide donor design for targeted gene therapy.

  2. The influence of donor factors on corneal organ culture contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruenert, Anja K; Rosenbaum, Katja; Geerling, Gerd; Fuchsluger, Thomas A

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the contamination rate and the corresponding spectrum of microbes and to identify donor risk factors for corneal organ culture contaminations. A total of 3306 organ-cultured donor corneas were included in the study. We performed a retrospective database analysis to evaluate donor factors such as gender, age, death-to-explantation interval (DEI), procurement site and cause of death and to determine their influence on donor cornea contaminations. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated for each factor. The overall contamination rate was 7.8% (n = 259). Younger donor age (OR: 2.2, p = 0.003, chi-squared test), a DEI of more than 24 hr (OR: 1.6, p donor gender did not have an effect on donor cornea contaminations. The most frequently isolated microbes were Enterococci (19%), Staphylococci (10.8%) and Candida (37.4%). This study helps to estimate the contamination risk of a cultured cornea based on specific donor factors. However, donors with risk factors should not be generally excluded from cornea donation. Further studies including antibiograms might clarify whether a change in the antibiotic composition of the culture medium would be useful to deal with the increasing number of multi-resistant microbes. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Donor management parameters and organ yield: single center results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, George Ryne; Mangus, Richard S; Powelson, John A; Fridell, Jonathan A; Kubal, Chandrashekhar A; Tector, A Joseph

    2014-09-01

    Management of organ donors in the intensive care unit is an emerging subject in critical care and transplantation. This study evaluates organ yield outcomes for a large number of patients managed by the Indiana Organ Procurement Organization. This is a retrospective review of intensive care unit records from 2008-2012. Donor demographic information and seven donor management parameters (DMP) were recorded at admission, consent, 12 h after consent, and before procurement. Three study groups were created: donors meeting 0-3, 4, or 5-7 DMP. Active donor Organ Procurement Organization management began at consent; so, data analysis focuses on the 12-h postconsent time point. Outcomes included organs transplanted per donor (OTPD) and transplantation of individual solid organs. Complete records for 499 patients were reviewed. Organ yield was 1415 organs of 3992 possible (35%). At 12 h, donors meeting more DMP had more OTPD: 2.2 (0-3) versus 3.0 (4) versus 3.5 (5-7) (P organ except intestine. Oxygen tension, vasopressor use, and central venous pressure were the most frequent independent predictors of organ usage. There were significantly more organs transplanted for donors meeting all three of these parameters (4.5 versus 2.7, P organs, with analysis of individual parameters suggesting that appropriate management of oxygenation, volume status, and vasopressor use could lead to more organs procured per donor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Increasing the supply of kidneys for transplantation by making living donors the preferred source of donor kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Giuliano; Siegler, Mark

    2014-12-01

    At the present time, increasing the use of living donors offers the best solution to the organ shortage problem. The clinical questions raised when the first living donor kidney transplant was performed, involving donor risk, informed consent, donor protection, and organ quality, have been largely answered. We strongly encourage a wider utilization of living donation and recommend that living donation, rather than deceased donation, become the first choice for kidney transplantation. We believe that it is ethically sound to have living kidney donation as the primary source for organs when the mortality and morbidity risks to the donor are known and kept extremely low, when the donor is properly informed and protected from coercion, and when accepted national and local guidelines for living donation are followed.

  5. Liver transplantation from maastricht category 2 non-heart-beating donors: a source to increase the donor pool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, A; Gómez-Gutiérrez, M; Suárez, F; Arnal, F; Fernández-García, A; Aguirrezabalaga, J; García-Buitrón, J; Alvarez, J; Máñez, R

    2004-04-01

    The demand for liver transplantation has increasingly exceeded the supply of cadaver donor organs. Non-heart-beating donors (NHBDs) may be an alternative to increase the cadaver donor pool. The outcome of 20 liver transplants from Maastricht category 2 NHBD was compared with that of 40 liver transplants from heart-beating donors (HBDs). After unsuccessful cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), cardiopulmonary support with simultaneous application of chest and abdominal compression (CPS; n = 6) or cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB; n = 14) was used to maintain the donors. At a minimum follow-up of 2 years, actuarial patient and graft survival rates with livers from Maastricht category 2 NHBD were 80% and 55%, respectively. Transplantation of organs from these donors was associated with a significantly higher incidence of primary nonfunction, biliary complications, and more severe initial liver dysfunction compared with organs from HBDs. The graft survival rates was 83% for livers from NHBDs preserved with CPS and 42% in those maintained with CPB.

  6. Prevalence, incidence, and residual risk of human immunodeficiency virus among community and replacement first-time blood donors in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Claudia C; Sabino, Ester C; Gonçalez, Thelma T; Laycock, Megan E; Pappalardo, Brandee L; Salles, Nanci A; Wright, David J; Chamone, Dalton F; Busch, Michael P

    2005-11-01

    Concerted efforts have been directed toward recruitment of community rather than replacement donors in Brazil. Time trends and demographic correlates of human immunodeficiency (HIV) prevalence and incidence among first-time (FT) donors in Brazil were examined by donation type. HIV residual risk from FT-donor transfusions, and projected yield of p24 antigen and nucleic acid test (NAT) screening were estimated. HIV prevalence data and seroreactive specimens were obtained at Fundação Pró-Sangue/Hemocentro-de-São Paulo from 1995 to 2001. To estimate incidence, confirmed-positive samples from July 1998 through December 2001 were tested with a less-sensitive (detuned) enzyme immunoassay to detect recent seroconversions. Incidence data were used to estimate residual risk and p24 and NAT yield based on published window periods (WPs). HIV prevalence was 22 percent higher among the FT community donors than replacement donors (19.6 vs. 16.1 per 10,000; p < 0.01) and 48 percent higher among men than women (19.1 vs. 12.9; p < 0.01). In the multivariable logistic regression, both variables remained significant predictors of HIV prevalence. HIV prevalence decreased from 20.4 (1995) to 13.1 per 10,000 FT donations (2001). HIV incidence was 2.7 per 10,000 person-years. The estimated rate of infected antibody-negative donations was 14.9 per 1,000,000 units (95% confidence interval, 9.8-20.0). It was estimated that addition of p24 antigen, minipool NAT, and individual-donation NAT assays would detect 3.9 (2.0-5.8), 8.3 (5.3-11.3), and 10.8 (7.1-14.5) WP units per 1,000,000 FT donations, respectively. HIV incidence and residual transfusion risk estimates are approximately 10 times higher in Brazil FT donors compared to US and European FT donors. Community FT donors had higher HIV prevalence than replacement FT donors. The yield of p24 antigen or RNA screening will be low in Brazilian donors, but substantially higher than in US donors.

  7. Living-Donor Liver Transplant: An Analysis of Postoperative Outcome and Health-Related Quality of Life in Liver Donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzing, Christian; Schmelzle, Moritz; Oellinger, Robert; Gruettner, Katharina; Muehlisch, Anja-Kathrin; Raschzok, Nathanael; Sauer, Igor; Bahra, Marcus; Pratschke, Johann; Guel-Klein, Safak

    2018-01-02

    Living-donor liver transplant represents an established alternative to deceased-donor liver transplant. The procedure is considered safe for donors; however, concerns about the donors' health-related quality of life and health status have not been fully addressed. Here, we aimed to assess the health-related quality of life and postoperative and 1-year clinical outcomes in living liver transplant donors. All patients undergoing liver resection for adult-to-adult living-donor liver transplant at our center between December 1999 and March 2013 were evaluated retrospectively. Health-related quality of life was evaluated in a second assessment through written health-related quality of life questionnaires (the Short Form 36 assessment tool) sent to all patients who underwent liver resection for living-donor liver transplant between 1989 and 2012. We identified 104 patients who underwent liver resection for living-donor liver donation between December 1999 and March 2013. Postoperative morbidity was 35.9%, with 56.8% of patients having minor complications. No postoperative, 30-day, or 90-day mortality was evident. At year 1 after transplant, 30 patients (28.8%) had (ongoing) complications, of which 80% were considered minor according to Clavien-Dindo classification. Regarding health-related quality of life, liver donors were characterized as having significantly higher scores in the general health perception component in the Short Form 36 assessment tool (P .05). Liver donors are characterized by an excellent health-related quality of life that is comparable to the general population. Because some donors tend to have concerns regarding their employment status after the procedure, a comprehensive and critical evaluation of potential donors is needed.

  8. Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Lung Cancer Key Points Lung cancer is a disease in ...

  9. Screening for Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer screening is checking for cancer in people who don't have symptoms. Screening tests can help doctors find and treat several types of cancer early, but cancer screening can have harms as well as benefits.

  10. Screen time and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000355.htm Screen time and children To use the sharing features on ... videos is considered unhealthy screen time. Current Screen Time Guidelines Children under age 2 should have no ...

  11. Dual kidney transplants from adult marginal donors successfully expand the limited deceased donor organ pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratta, Robert J; Farney, Alan C; Orlando, Giuseppe; Farooq, Umar; Al-Shraideh, Yousef; Palanisamy, Amudha; Reeves-Daniel, Amber; Doares, William; Kaczmorski, Scott; Gautreaux, Michael D; Iskandar, Samy S; Hairston, Gloria; Brim, Elizabeth; Mangus, Margaret; El-Hennawy, Hany; Khan, Muhammad; Rogers, Jeffrey

    2016-04-01

    The need to expand the organ donor pool remains a formidable challenge in kidney transplantation (KT). The use of expanded criteria donors (ECDs) represents one approach, but kidney discard rates are high because of concerns regarding overall quality. Dual KT (DKT) may reduce organ discard and optimize the use of kidneys from marginal donors. We conducted a single-center retrospective review of outcomes in adult recipients of DKTs from adult marginal deceased donors (DD) defined by limited renal functional capacity. If the calculated creatinine clearance in an adult DD was donors, and 10 from standard criteria donors (SCD). Mean adult DD and recipient ages were both 60 yr, including 29 DDs and 26 recipients ≥65 yr of age. Mean pre-DKT waiting and dialysis vintage times were 12 months and 25 months, respectively. Actual patient and graft survival rates were 84.7% and 70.8%, respectively, with a mean follow-up of 58 months. One yr and death-censored graft survival rates were 90% and 80%, respectively. Outcomes did not differ by DD category, recipient age, or presence of delayed graft function (DGF). Eleven patients died at a mean of 32 months post-DKT (eight with functioning grafts) and 13 other patients experienced graft losses at a mean of 33 months. The incidence of DGF was 25%; there were two cases (2.8%) of primary non-function. Mean length of initial hospital stay was 7.2 d. Mean serum creatinine and glomerular filtration rate levels at 12 and 24 months were 1.5 and 53 and 1.5 mg/dL and 51 mL/min/1.73 m(2) , respectively. DKT graft survival and function were superior to concurrent single ECD and similar to concurrent SCD KTs. Two patients underwent successful kidney retransplantation, so the dialysis-free rate in surviving patients was 87%. The proportion of total renal function transplanted from adult DD to DKT recipients was 77% compared to 56% for patients receiving single KTs. Dual kidney transplantation using kidneys from adult marginal DDs that

  12. Higher refusal rates for organ donation among older potential donors in the Netherlands: impact of the donor register and relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leiden, Hendrik A; Jansen, Nichon E; Haase-Kromwijk, Bernadette J J M; Hoitsma, Andries J

    2010-09-27

    The availability of donor organs is considerably reduced by relatives refusing donation after death. There is no previous large-scale evaluation of the influence of the Donor Register (DR) consultation and the potential donor's age on this refusal in The Netherlands. This study examines 2101 potential organ donors identified in intensive care units between 2005 and 2008 and analyzes the association of DR consultation and subsequent refusal by relatives and the relationship with the potential donor's age. Of the 1864 potential donor cases where the DR was consulted, the DR revealed no registration in 56%, 20% registration of consent, and 18% objection. In the other 6.5% of cases, where the DR indicated that relatives had to decide, the relatives' refusal rate was significantly lower than in the absence of a DR registration (46% vs. 63%). In 6% of the cases where the DR recorded donation consent, relatives still refused donation. DR registration, objection in the DR, and the relatives' refusal rate if the DR was not decisive increased with donor age. Despite the introduction of a DR, relatives still play an equally important role in the final decision for organ donation. The general public should be encouraged to register their donation preferences in the DR and also to discuss their preferences with their families. The higher refusal rate of older potential donors means that this group should receive more information about organ donation, especially because the cohort of available donors is ageing.

  13. Multiple organ procurement from one donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodman, R F; Veith, F J; Goldsmith, J; Sisto, D A; Montefusco, C M

    1985-02-01

    To maximize organ utilization, we assessed the feasibility of retrieving the heart and two single lungs or the heart and a separate bilateral lung block for transplantation into multiple recipients. In eight dogs the excision of the heart-lung block or of the left lung was followed by six hours of lung preservation. Four of these lungs and all eight hearts were transplanted successfully. In addition, satisfactory retrieval of the three separate organs or of the heart and a separate bilateral lung block was done in six human cadavers. An appropriate division of the left atrial wall provided suitable cuffs for individual transplantation of the three organs or for the heart and bilateral lung block. This study demonstrates the feasibility of multiple organ donation from a single donor followed by separate organ transplantation.

  14. Serological survey of Leishmania infection in blood donors in Salvador, Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukutani, Kiyoshi F; Figueiredo, Virgínia; Celes, Fabiana S; Cristal, Juqueline R; Barral, Aldina; Barral-Netto, Manoel; de Oliveira, Camila I

    2014-07-30

    Visceral Leishmaniasis is endemic to Brazil, where it is caused by Leishmania infantum (syn. Leishmania chagasi). Following parasite inoculation, individuals may experience asymptomatic infection, raising the possibility of parasite transmission through the transfusion of contaminated blood products. In the present work, we evaluated the prevalence of asymptomatic Leishmania infection among blood donors in Salvador, northeastern Brazil. Peripheral blood was collected from 700 blood donors attending the Blood Bank of Bahia (HEMOBA/SESAB), from January to September 2010. We evaluated anti-Leishmania serology by ELISA, employing Soluble Leishmania Antigen (sensitivity 90% and specificity 95%). The presence of parasite DNA was determined by qPCR, targeting a single copy gene (G6PD), and by end-point PCR, targeting multiple targets, namely a segment located in the Leishmania rRNA locus (ITS) and the conserved region of kinetoplastid DNA (kDNA) minicircles. The blood-donor population was comprised of 74.5% of males with a mean age of 34 years. Anti-Leishmania serology by ELISA was positive in 5.4% (38/700) individuals. One individual was also positive for Chagas' disease and another tested positive for Syphilis. Employing qPCR, parasite DNA was not found in any of 38 seropositive samples. However, by ITS PCR, 8/38 (21%) samples were positive and this positivity increased to 26/38 (68%) when we targeted kDNA amplification. Agreement between both techniques (ITS and kDNA PCR) was fair (kappa = 0.219). These results indicate that asymptomatic infection is present among the blood donor population of Salvador, a finding that warrants a broader discussion regarding the need to implement specific screening strategies.

  15. Living Related Donor Kidney Transplantation in Libya: A Single Center Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elusta Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to report the experience from a single center in Libya, on the prevailing live-related kidney transplantation program. The results of three years work on kidney transplantation at the Tripoli Central Hospital (National Organ Transplant Program in Libya were evaluated. The transplant program was launched on 17 th August, 2004 and 135 patients have been transplanted since then till 17 th August, 2007. All donors and recipients were screened thoroughly prior to transplant and monitored closely in the post-transplant period. Our immuno-suppressive protocol was cyclosporine-based. Among the 135 accepted pairs, donors and reci-pients were genetically-related in 133 cases (98.5% and emotionally-related in two others. The mean donor age was 37 ± 9.5 years (range 18-56 years and recipient age 37 ± 13.6 years (range 7-67 years. There were 95 males (70.4% and 40 females (29.6% among the recipients while among the donors, there were 102 males (75.6% and 33 females (24.4%. Delayed graft function was seen in three patients (2.2%, acute rejection in six (4.4%, post-transplant urinary tract infection in six (4.4%, pneumonia in three (2.2%, ureteric kink in two (1.5% and urine leak in four (3.0%. Graft survival at 36 months was 93.3% while patient survival at the same period was 96.3%. This report indicates that the results of our transplant program are good and comparable with other international programs.

  16. Motivation and Social Capital among prospective blood donors in three large blood centers in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalez, Thelma T.; Di Lorenzo Oliveira, Claudia; Carneiro-Proietti, Anna Barbara F.; Moreno, Elizabeth C.; Miranda, Carolina; Larsen, Nina; Wright, David; Leão, Silvana; Loureiro, Paula; de Almeida-Neto, Cesar; Lopes, Maria-Inês; Proietti, Fernando A.; Custer, Brian; Sabino, Ester

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies analyzing motivation factors that lead to blood donation have found altruism to be the primary motivation factor; however social capital has not been analyzed in this context. Our study examines the association between motivation factors (altruism, self-interest and response to direct appeal) and social capital (cognitive and structural) across three large blood centers in Brazil. Study Design and Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 7,635 donor candidates from October 15 through November 20, 2009. Participants completed self-administered questionnaires on demographics, previous blood donation, HIV testing and knowledge, social capital and donor motivations. Enrollment was determined prior to the donor screening process. Results Among participants, 43.5% and 41.7% expressed high levels of altruism and response to direct appeal respectively, while only 26.9% expressed high levels of self-interest. More high self-interest was observed at Hemope-Recife (41.7%). Of participants, 37.4% expressed high levels of cognitive social capital while 19.2% expressed high levels of structural social capital. More high cognitive and structural social capital was observed at Hemope-Recife (47.3% and 21.3%, respectively). High cognitive social capital was associated with high levels of altruism, self-interest and response to direct appeal. Philanthropic and high social altruism was associated with high levels of altruism and response to direct appeal. Conclusion Cognitive and structural social capital and social altruism are associated with altruism and response to direct appeal, while only cognitive social capital is associated with self-interest. Designing marketing campaigns with these aspects in mind may help blood banks attract potential blood donors more efficiently. PMID:22998740

  17. Hepatitis B, HIV, and Syphilis Seroprevalence in Pregnant Women and Blood Donors in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodie Dionne-Odom

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We estimated seroprevalence and correlates of selected infections in pregnant women and blood donors in a resource-limited setting. Methods. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of laboratory seroprevalence data from pregnant women and voluntary blood donors from facilities in Cameroon in 2014. Rapid tests were performed to detect hepatitis B surface antigen, syphilis treponemal antibodies, and HIV-1/2 antibodies. Blood donations were also tested for hepatitis C and malaria. Results. The seroprevalence rates and ranges among 7069 pregnant women were hepatitis B 4.4% (1.1–9.6%, HIV 6% (3.0–10.2%, and syphilis 1.7% (1.3–3.8% with significant variability among the sites. Correlates of infection in pregnancy in adjusted regression models included urban residence for hepatitis B (aOR 2.9, CI 1.6–5.4 and HIV (aOR 3.5, CI 1.9–6.7. Blood donor seroprevalence rates and ranges were hepatitis B 6.8% (5.0–8.8%, HIV 2.2% (1.4–2.8%, syphilis 4% (3.3–4.5%, malaria 1.9%, and hepatitis C 1.7% (0.5–2.5%. Conclusions. Hepatitis B, HIV, and syphilis infections are common among pregnant women and blood donors in Cameroon with higher rates in urban areas. Future interventions to reduce vertical transmission should include universal screening for these infections early in pregnancy and provision of effective prevention tools including the birth dose of univalent hepatitis B vaccine.

  18. Toxoplasmosis in Blood Donors: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroutan-Rad, Masoud; Majidiani, Hamidreza; Dalvand, Sahar; Daryani, Ahmad; Kooti, Wesam; Saki, Jasem; Hedayati-Rad, Faezeh; Ahmadpour, Ehsan

    2016-07-01

    Transfusion-transmissible infections include pathogens that may cause severe and debilitating diseases. Toxoplasmosis is a cosmopolitan neglected parasitic infection that can lead to severe complications including death in immune-compromised patients or following infection in utero. Multiple studies have demonstrated the transmission of Toxoplasma gondii by blood transfusion. The objective of this review was to comprehensively assess the seroprevalence rate of Toxoplasma in blood donors from a worldwide perspective. Seven electronic databases (PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, Scopus, Cochrane, Ovid, and Google Scholar) were searched using medical subject headings terms. A total of 43 records met the inclusion criteria in which 20,964 donors were tested during the period from January 1980 to June 2015. The overall weighted prevalence of exposure to toxoplasmosis in blood donors was 33% (95% confidence interval [CI], 28%-39%). The seroprevalences of immunoglobulin (Ig)M and both IgG and IgM antibodies were 1.8% (95% CI, 1.1%-2.4%) and 1.1% (95% CI, 0.3%-1.8%), respectively. The highest and the lowest seroprevalences of toxoplasmosis were observed in Africa (46%; 95% CI, 14%-78%) and in Asia (29%; 95% CI, 23%-35%), respectively. Brazil (75%) and Ethiopia (73%) were identified as countries with high seroprevalence. Because positive serology does not imply infectiousness and because seroprevalence is high in some nations, a positive serology test result alone cannot be used as an effective method for donor screening. Future research for methods to prevent transfusion-transmitted toxoplasmosis may derive benefit from studies conducted in areas of high endemicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. OCCULT HEPATITIS B VIRUS INFECTION AMONG BLOOD DONORS WITH ANTIBODIES TO HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jafarzadeh

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of hepatitis B is routinely based on of serological assay of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg. Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is generally defined as the detection of HBV -DNA in the serum or tissues of subjects who have negative test for HBsAg. Transmission of HBV infection has been documented from HBsAg negative, anti-HBc positive blood and organ donors. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of occult HBV infection among HBsAg negative and anti-HBc positive blood donors of Rafsanjan blood transfusion center. ‎ Sera from 270 healthy blood donors who were negative for both HBsAg and anti-HCV, were tested for anti-HBc antibodies by use of ELISA technique. The samples that were negative for HBsAg but positive for anti-HBc markers also examined for the presence of HBV-DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. ‎ Out of 270 HBsAg negative blood samples, 14 samples (5.18% were positive for anti-HBc antibodies. HBV-DNA was detected in 4/14 (28.57% of HBsAg negative and anti-HBc positive samples. Moreover, anti-HBs antibody was detected in 2/4 (50% of HBV-DNA positive samples. ‎ These results indicated that HBV-DNA found in the majority of HBsAg negative and anti-HBc-positive donors. In addition, the present study recommend the incorporation of routine anti-HBc screening of blood as a surrogate marker of occult HBV infection to prevent some transfusion-transmitted HBV infections.

  20. Motivation and social capital among prospective blood donors in three large blood centers in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalez, Thelma T; Di Lorenzo Oliveira, Claudia; Carneiro-Proietti, Anna Barbara F; Moreno, Elizabeth C; Miranda, Carolina; Larsen, Nina; Wright, David; Leão, Silvana; Loureiro, Paula; de Almeida-Neto, Cesar; Lopes, Maria-Inês; Proietti, Fernando A; Custer, Brian; Sabino, Ester

    2013-06-01

    Studies analyzing motivation factors that lead to blood donation have found altruism to be the primary motivation factor; however, social capital has not been analyzed in this context. Our study examines the association between motivation factors (altruism, self-interest, and response to direct appeal) and social capital (cognitive and structural) across three large blood centers in Brazil. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 7635 donor candidates from October 15 through November 20, 2009. Participants completed self-administered questionnaires on demographics, previous blood donation, human immunodeficiency virus testing and knowledge, social capital, and donor motivations. Enrollment was determined before the donor screening process. Among participants, 43.5 and 41.7% expressed high levels of altruism and response to direct appeal, respectively, while only 26.9% expressed high levels of self-interest. More high self-interest was observed at Hemope-Recife (41.7%). Of participants, 37.4% expressed high levels of cognitive social capital while 19.2% expressed high levels of structural social capital. More high cognitive and structural social capital was observed at Hemope-Recife (47.3 and 21.3%, respectively). High cognitive social capital was associated with high levels of altruism, self-interest, and response to direct appeal. Philanthropic and high social altruism were associated with high levels of altruism and response to direct appeal. Cognitive and structural social capital and social altruism are associated with altruism and response to direct appeal, while only cognitive social capital is associated with self-interest. Designing marketing campaigns with these aspects in mind may help blood banks attract potential blood donors more efficiently. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  1. Estimated organ donor potential in German maximum care hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, C; Raduenz, S; Fruehauf, N R; Heuer, M; Juntermanns, B; Paul, A; Kaiser, G M

    2013-05-01

    The decreasing number of organ donors in Germany remains a major issue in transplantation medicine. The aim of this study was to estimate the organ donor potential at German maximum care hospitals. To critically review potential in comparison with organ donation rates in 2010. We separated Maximum care hospitals into university institutions (A-level) and centers with a neurosurgical unit (B-level) based upon the size of hospital as indicated by the total number of beds. To estimate the number of possible organ donors, we adopted the American model previously published by Sheehy et al: the potential was 0.015 organ donors/bed/year for hospitals with more than 350 beds. In 2010 overall in Germany there were 1296 organ donations resulting in 4205 transplanted organs. University hospitals realized 397 organ donations namely 0.008 organ donors/bed/year (57% of calculated organ donor potential), whereas B-level hospitals accounted for 555 of organ donors with a rate of 0.007 organ donors/bed/year (48% of calculated organ donor potential). Large variations in realizing organ donations occurred among single hospitals. Our results indicated a substantial potential to increase organ donation rates in German maximum care hospitals. These hospitals (n = 145) are responsible for 73% (non-maximum care hospital n = 1195) of the absolute organ donor pool. Further studies are needed to evaluate possibilities to address the organ shortage particularly with regard to donor detection in intensive care units and also the refusal rate by families. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Stability of Organ Donor Designations on Driver's Licenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, N K R; Sullivan, C; Figueroa, M; Pencak, J A; Thornton, J D

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the stability of decisions that people make to be organ donors. We sought to determine the rate of stability of organ donor designations on driver's licenses. With the use of a cross-sectional study design, we reviewed the health records of 2500 randomly selected primary-care patients at a large urban safety-net medical system to obtain their demographic and medical characteristics. We also examined the two most recent unique driver's licenses, state identification cards, or learner's permits that were scanned into electronic health records as part of the patient registration process. We obtained organ donor designations from these documents for each patient. Of all patients, 1174 (47%) had two driver's licenses, identification cards, or permits in their electronic medical records. The two documents were issued an average of 3.5 years apart. Overall, 114 (10%) patients had differing organ donor designations on their two documents. Among the 502 patients who were designated as organ donors on the first document, 32 (6%) were not designated as organ donors on the second document. Among the 672 patients who were not designated as organ donors on the first document, 82 (12%) were designated as organ donors on the second document. There was little relationship between stability of organ donor designations and patient demographic and medical characteristics. About 1 of every 10 patients changed their organ donor designation, but stability was not associated with any demographic or medical factors. Further work is needed to understand why individuals change their organ donor designation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Use of computed tomography assessed kidney length to predict split renal GFR in living kidney donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaillard, Francois; Fournier, Catherine; Leon, Carine; Legendre, Christophe; Pavlov, Patrik; Tissier, Anne-Marie; Correas, Jean-Michel; Harache, Benoit; Hignette, Chantal; Weinmann, Pierre; Eladari, Dominique; Timsit, Marc-Olivier; Mejean, Arnaud; Friedlander, Gerard; Courbebaisse, Marie; Houillier, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Screening of living kidney donors may require scintigraphy to split glomerular filtration rate (GFR). To determine the usefulness of computed tomography (CT) to split GFR, we compared scintigraphy-split GFR to CT-split GFR. We evaluated CT-split GFR as a screening test to detect scintigraphy-split GFR lower than 40 mL/min/1.73 m 2 /kidney. This was a monocentric retrospective study on 346 potential living donors who had GFR measurement, renal scintigraphy, and CT. We predicted GFR for each kidney by splitting GFR using the following formula: Volume-split GFR for a given kidney = measured GFR*[volume of this kidney/(volume of this kidney + volume of the opposite kidney)]. The same formula was used for length-split GFR. We compared length- and volume-split GFR to scintigraphy-split GFR at donation and with a 4-year follow-up. A better correlation was observed between length-split GFR and scintigraphy-split GFR (r = 0.92) than between volume-split GFR and scintigraphy-split GFR (r = 0.89). A length-split GFR threshold of 45 mL/min/1.73 m 2 /kidney had a sensitivity of 100 % and a specificity of 75 % to detect scintigraphy-split GFR less than 40 mL/min/1.73 m 2 /kidney. Both techniques with their respective thresholds detected living donors with similar eGFR evolution during follow-up. Length-split GFR can be used to detect patients requiring scintigraphy. (orig.)

  4. Use of computed tomography assessed kidney length to predict split renal GFR in living kidney donors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaillard, Francois; Fournier, Catherine; Leon, Carine; Legendre, Christophe [Paris Descartes University, AP-HP, Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, Renal Transplantation Department, Paris (France); Pavlov, Patrik [Linkoeping University, Linkoeping (Sweden); Tissier, Anne-Marie; Correas, Jean-Michel [Paris Descartes University, AP-HP, Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, Radiology Department, Paris (France); Harache, Benoit; Hignette, Chantal; Weinmann, Pierre [Paris Descartes University, AP-HP, Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, Nuclear Medicine Department, Paris (France); Eladari, Dominique [Paris Descartes University, and INSERM, Unit 970, AP-HP, Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, Physiology Department, Paris (France); Timsit, Marc-Olivier; Mejean, Arnaud [Paris Descartes University, AP-HP, Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, Urology Department, Paris (France); Friedlander, Gerard; Courbebaisse, Marie [Paris Descartes University, and INSERM, Unit 1151, AP-HP, Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, Physiology Department, Paris (France); Houillier, Pascal [Paris Descartes University, INSERM, Unit umrs1138, and CNRS Unit erl8228, AP-HP, Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, Physiology Department, Paris (France)

    2017-02-15

    Screening of living kidney donors may require scintigraphy to split glomerular filtration rate (GFR). To determine the usefulness of computed tomography (CT) to split GFR, we compared scintigraphy-split GFR to CT-split GFR. We evaluated CT-split GFR as a screening test to detect scintigraphy-split GFR lower than 40 mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2}/kidney. This was a monocentric retrospective study on 346 potential living donors who had GFR measurement, renal scintigraphy, and CT. We predicted GFR for each kidney by splitting GFR using the following formula: Volume-split GFR for a given kidney = measured GFR*[volume of this kidney/(volume of this kidney + volume of the opposite kidney)]. The same formula was used for length-split GFR. We compared length- and volume-split GFR to scintigraphy-split GFR at donation and with a 4-year follow-up. A better correlation was observed between length-split GFR and scintigraphy-split GFR (r = 0.92) than between volume-split GFR and scintigraphy-split GFR (r = 0.89). A length-split GFR threshold of 45 mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2}/kidney had a sensitivity of 100 % and a specificity of 75 % to detect scintigraphy-split GFR less than 40 mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2}/kidney. Both techniques with their respective thresholds detected living donors with similar eGFR evolution during follow-up. Length-split GFR can be used to detect patients requiring scintigraphy. (orig.)

  5. Dengue viremia in blood donors in Northern India: Challenges of emerging dengue outbreaks to blood transfusion safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadhana Mangwana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Backdround: Emerging infectious diseases pose threats to the general human population; including recipients of blood transfusions. Dengue is spreading rapidly to new areas and with increasing frequency of major outbreaks. Screening blood for dengue antigens in dengue-endemic countries would be costly and should, therefore, be recommended only after careful assessment of risk for infection and cost. Aim: A prospective study was conducted to establish the magnitude of the threat that dengue poses to blood safety where it is sporadic with seasonal variations, to quantify risk and to assess that whether screening is feasible and cost-effective. Materials and Methods: Nonstructural protein 1 (NS1 antigen test was done on 1709 donations during dengue outbreak in the months August to November 2013 as an additional test using Bio-Rad Platelia Dengue NS1AG test kit which is one step sandwich format microplate enzyme immunoassay using murine monoclonal antibodies for capture and revelation. Chi-square test was used to find statistical significance. Results and Conclusions: Majority cases were whole blood, replacement, male donors with 76.10% donors in <35 years age group. About 17.85% were single donor platelet donations. NS1 antigen in all donors was negative. In the past, dengue affected mainly children who do not donate blood. With the changing trend, mean age of infection increased affecting the population that does donate blood, further reducing blood donation pool. Further studies need to be done in different geographic regions of the country during dengue transmission season to establish maximum incidence of viremic donations, rates of transfusion transmission and clinical consequences in recipients. If risk is found to be substantial, decision will be taken by the policymakers at what threshold screening should be instituted to ensure safe blood transfusion.

  6. The impact of meeting donor management goals on the number of organs transplanted per donor: results from the United Network for Organ Sharing Region 5 prospective donor management goals study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinoski, Darren J; Patel, Madhukar S; Daly, Michael C; Oley-Graybill, Chrystal; Salim, Ali

    2012-10-01

    Many organ procurement organizations have implemented critical care end points as donor management goals in efforts to increase organs transplanted per donor after neurologic determination of death. Although retrospective studies have demonstrated an association between meeting donor management goals and organ yield, prospective studies are lacking. In June 2008, nine donor management goals were prospectively implemented as a checklist and every donor after neurologic determination of death was managed to meet them. The donor management goals represented normal cardiovascular, pulmonary, renal, and endocrine end points. Data were collected for 7 months. Donor management goals "met" was defined a priori as achieving any seven of the nine donor management goals, and this was recorded at the time of consent, 12-18 hrs later, and prior to organ recovery. The primary outcome measure was ≥4 organs transplanted per donor, and binary logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of this outcome with a porgan procurement organizations in the five Southwestern United States (United Network for Organ Sharing Region 5). All standard criteria donors after neurologic determination of deaths. Prospective implementation of a donor management goal checklist. There were 380 standard criteria donors with 3.6±1.7 organs transplanted per donor. Fifteen percent had donor management goals met at the time of consent, 33% at 12-18 hrs, and 38% prior to organ recovery. Forty-eight percent had ≥4 organs transplanted per donor. Donors with ≥4 organs transplanted per donor had significantly more individual donor management goals met at all three time points. Independent predictors of ≥4 organs transplanted per donor were age (odds ratio=0.95 per year), final creatinine (odds ratio=0.75 per 1-unit increase), donor management goals "met" at consent (odds ratio=2.03), donor management goals "met" prior to organ recovery (odds ratio=2.34), and a change in the number of

  7. Improving first-time donor attendance rates through the use of enhanced donor preparation materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masser, Barbara; France, Christopher R; Foot, Jayne; Rozsa, Amy; Hayman, Jane; Waller, Daniel; Hunder, Everard

    2016-06-01

    Many nondonors are positive about blood donation and this motivates booking an appointment to donate. However, as their appointment approaches barriers to donating-such as anxiety-may become salient and deter attendance. Building on research of France and colleagues demonstrating the positive effect of enhanced preparation materials on donor recruitment, this study sought to determine whether these materials could effectively boost first donation appointment attendance. A field study comprising a 3 (brochure: none, e-mail, hard copy) × 2 (national call center [NCC] contact: none, call) between-subjects design was conducted with 3646 nondonors who had scheduled their first appointment. Participants in the brochure conditions received either a hard copy or an e-mailed link to electronic materials modeled on the donor preparation research of France and colleagues. Participants in the NCC call condition also received a call scripted in line with these preparation materials. The key outcome was new donor attendance rate. Although first-appointment attendance rates were high in the control (no additional contact) condition at 85.07% of those not canceling in advance, dual exposure to the preparation materials through a NCC call and an electronic brochure boosted attendance. The relative risk of attending in the NCC call and electronic brochure condition was 1.0836 (95% confidence interval, 1.0352-1.1343; p = 0.0006), with attendance 8.36% higher than in the control. This gain in attendance came at a relative increase in recruitment costs of 2%. The use of tailored communication to address new donors' concerns and prepare them for donating bolsters attendance rates. © 2016 AABB.

  8. Prenatal screening and genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alderson, P; Aro, A R; Dragonas, T

    2001-01-01

    Although the term 'genetic screening' has been used for decades, this paper discusses how, in its most precise meaning, genetic screening has not yet been widely introduced. 'Prenatal screening' is often confused with 'genetic screening'. As we show, these terms have different meanings, and we...... examine definitions of the relevant concepts in order to illustrate this point. The concepts are i) prenatal, ii) genetic screening, iii) screening, scanning and testing, iv) maternal and foetal tests, v) test techniques and vi) genetic conditions. So far, prenatal screening has little connection...... with precisely defined genetics. There are benefits but also disadvantages in overstating current links between them in the term genetic screening. Policy making and professional and public understandings about screening could be clarified if the distinct meanings of prenatal screening and genetic screening were...

  9. Current status of malaria parasite among blood donors in Port ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Donors having the blood group O were more infected (60.70%) than the other blood groups and the lowest was blood group AB (5.40%). This result shows that there is a relatively high prevalence of malaria parasite among the blood donors in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. It is, therefore, recommended that malaria parasite ...

  10. The Prevalence of Syphilis Among Blood Donors in a Centralized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Syphilis is one of the mandatory transfusion transmissible infections to be tested for in any unit of blood for homologous transfusion. The paucity of voluntary blood donors in Nigeria has compelled health care providers to rely on paid and family replacement donors for blood. AIMS: This study was carried ...

  11. Transfusion of the dangerous universal donor blood leading to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In a health-care setting in which group-identical donor blood is not always available for transfusion, group O whole blood, in the obsolete concept of its being a universal donor, is sometimes given to group A and B recipients without necessary precautions. Objectives: The objective is to draw attention to the ...

  12. Seroprevalence of hiv and hepatitis viruses in directed blood donors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims: To determine the seroprevalence of HIV and Hepatitis B viruses in directed blood donors in Nguru and also to see if there is co-infection of these viruses in this category of donor population. Method: This is a prospective study carried out at the blood bank of the Federal Medical Centre Nguru, Yobe State between ...

  13. Adverse reactions in voluntary whole blood donors: Experience at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and methods: A prospective study was conducted and data collected from January 2006 to December 2012 at the National Blood Transfusion Centre in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. In this centre, all blood donors are voluntary and blood donation is only of whole blood. All donor events and ...

  14. Haemoglobin variants among voluntary blood donors in Jos, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to determine the haemoglobin variants among voluntary blood donors in Jos. METHOD: Records of the age, sex, Haemoglobin level, and the haemoglobin genotype of all voluntary blood donors who donated blood at the National Blood Transfusion Service Centre, Jos, Nigeria between January 2011 and ...

  15. 21 CFR 640.63 - Suitability of donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the plasma; (9) Freedom from any disease, other than malaria, transmissible by blood transfusion... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.63 Suitability of donor. (a) Method of determining. The suitability of a donor for Source Plasma shall be determined by a qualified...

  16. 21 CFR 640.3 - Suitability of donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Whole Blood § 640.3 Suitability of donor. (a) Method of determining. The suitability of a donor as a source of Whole Blood shall be determined by a... transmissible by blood transfusion, insofar as can be determined by history and examinations indicated above...

  17. Optimized donor management and organ preservation before kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundt, Heiko M; Yard, Benito A; Krämer, Bernhard K; Benck, Urs; Schnülle, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Kidney transplantation is a major medical improvement for patients with end-stage renal disease, but organ shortage limits its widespread use. As a consequence, the proportion of grafts procured from extended criteria donors (ECD) has increased considerably, but this comes along with increased rates of delayed graft function (DGF) and a higher incidence of immune-mediated rejection that limits organ and patient survival. Furthermore, most grafts are derived from brain dead organ donors, but the unphysiological state of brain death is associated with significant metabolic, hemodynamic, and pro-inflammatory changes, which further compromise patient and graft survival. Thus, donor interventions to preserve graft quality are fundamental to improve long-term transplantation outcome, but interventions must not harm other potentially transplantable grafts. Several donor pretreatment strategies have provided encouraging results in animal models, but evidence from human studies is sparse, as most clinical evidence is derived from single-center or nonrandomized trials. Furthermore, ethical matters have to be considered especially concerning consent from donors, donor families, and transplant recipients to research in the field of donor treatment. This review provides an overview of clinically proven and promising preclinical strategies of donor treatment to optimize long-term results after kidney transplantation. © 2015 Steunstichting ESOT.

  18. Evaluation of the Medically Complex Living Kidney Donor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasar Caliskan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to organ shortage and difficulties for availability of cadaveric donors, living donor transplantation is an important choice for having allograft. Live donor surgery is elective and easier to organize prior to starting dialysis thereby permitting preemptive transplantation as compared to cadaveric transplantation. Because of superior results with living kidney transplantation, efforts including the usage of “Medically complex living donors” are made to increase the availability of organs for donation. The term “Complex living donor” is probably preferred for all suboptimal donors where decision-making is a problem due to lack of sound medical data or consensus guidelines. Donors with advanced age, obesity, asymptomatic microhematuria, proteinuria, hypertension, renal stone disease, history of malignancy and with chronic viral infections consist of this complex living donors. This medical complex living donors requires careful evaluation for future renal risk. In this review we would like to present the major issues in the evaluation process of medically complex living kidney donor.

  19. Lung procurement for transplantation: new criteria for lung donor selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, M P; Betto, C; Gambacorta, M; Vesconi, S; Scalamogna, M; Benazzi, E; Ravini, M

    2010-05-01

    In Italy, like everywhere in the world, the organ shortage for transplantation is a real problem. It is well known that lung donors (LD) are particularly difficult to procure and that management of the organ do not care during the diagnosis of cerebral death represents a difficult challenge. In this context, the salvage of the so-called "marginal donors" may increase the pool of donors, favoring organ retrieval. To increase lung procurement, the intensivist must recognize "marginal donors," optimizing organ selection and function. The aim of our study was to review LD procured in 2008, as identified by the unrestricted criteria, of the Nord Italian Transplant program Center (NITp). Particularly, the age and habits of donors and the presence of a parenchyma contusion were not sufficient per se to exclude donation. We revisited lung ventilation and monitoring modalities during cerebral death before retrieval. In 2008, the application of enlarged criteria for LD enabled us to collect 21 LD, namely 33% of all cerebral deaths, versus 13% in 2007. Seeking to maintain good gas exchange and lung function, we implemented a safe ventilation program avoided high peak pressures, and fluid therapy properly guided by the cardiac index and extravascular lung water index monitoring. Specific actions to improve LD procurement may help cope with the organ-donor shortage. Although our series was small, our results were encouraging; they underline the necessity to continuously review donor criteria and care, allowing good donor/recipient matching. Copyright (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Spectroscopic Studies of the Electron Donor-Acceptor Interaction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The electron donor-acceptor interaction between drugs which act as electron donors and some electron-deficient compounds (π acceptors) has severally been utilized as an analytical tool for the quantitation and qualitative assessment of such drugs. The objective of this study, therefore, was to develop an assay ...

  1. Effect of different donors and a polymer environment on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The effect of different donors on the energy transfer technique using C540 as acceptor, in polymer matrix and monomer compositions, was studied in detail. The results obtained for the energy transfer technique in two binary dye mixtures containing different donors but same acceptor, in solid and liquid media, were ...

  2. Hypoalbuminaemia in brain-dead donors for liver transplantation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nicky

    Liver transplantation has become established as the treat- ment of choice for most patients with end-stage liver disease and is performed on a routine basis in most major centres throughout the world. The majority of donors for liver trans- plantation are brain-dead cadaver donors following either a severe head injury or a ...

  3. Retroperitoneoscopic live donor nephrectomy: Review of the first 50 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Retroperitoneoscopic live donor nephrectomy: Review of the first 50 cases at Tygerberg Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa. ... Mean WIT was significantly longer for right-sided than left-sided nephrectomy (213 v. ... Our initial 50 retroperitoneoscopic live donor nephrectomies were performed without major complications.

  4. Prevalence of haemolysins in blood donors in Nnamdi Azikiwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The presence of high titres of haemolysins (lytic antibodies) in the sera of donors could predispose to adverse blood transfusion reactions. Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of haemolysins among blood donors at the Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Anambra State. Methodology: A ...

  5. Potential use and perspectives of nitric oxide donors in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvasi, Massimiliano

    2017-03-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has emerged in the last 30 years as a key molecule involved in many physiological processes in plants, animals and bacteria. Current research has shown that NO can be delivered via donor molecules. In such cases, the NO release rate is dependent on the chemical structure of the donor itself and on the chemical environment. Despite NO's powerful signaling effect in plants and animals, the application of NO donors in agriculture is currently not implemented and research remains mainly at the experimental level. Technological development in the field of NO donors is rapidly expanding in scope to include controlling seed germination, plant development, ripening and increasing shelf-life of produce. Potential applications in animal production have also been identified. This concise review focuses on the use of donors that have shown potential biotechnological applications in agriculture. Insights are provided into (i) the role of donors in plant production, (ii) the potential use of donors in animal production and (iii) future approaches to explore the use and applications of donors for the benefit of agriculture. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Malaria parasitaemia among blood donors in Ilorin, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The prevalence of malaria parasitaemia among blood donors in Ilorin has not been documented. In this study, we determined the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia among blood donors in Ilorin, as well as, the sociodemographic and other factors associated with it. Method: This was a hospital- based cross ...

  7. HIV prevalence and demographic risk factors in blood donors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To estimate HIV prevalence in various blood donor populations, to identity sociodemographic risk factors associated with prevalent HIV and to assess the feasibility of offering routine voluntary counselling services to blood donors. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Thyolo district, Malawi. Methods: Data ...

  8. Dengue virus exposure among blood donors in Ghana | Narkwa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The samples were further tested for dengue virus RNA using RT-PCR. Dengue virus IgG was positive for 43.6% of all the 188 blood donor samples tested but all donors were negative for anti-dengue IgM antibody and dengue virus RNA. The rate of dengue virus total antibody exposure did not differ statistically between ...

  9. Parasitological profile of perstans filariasis among blood donors in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted at Ile – Ife, in Osun State Southwest Nigeria between March and September, 2009 with a view to determine the prevalence of blood filariasis among blood donors. The blood samples of 250 blood donors were parasitologically examined directly with wet preparation, while the thick and thin films ...

  10. Modeling charge transfer at organic donor-acceptor semiconductor interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cakir, Deniz; Bokdam, Menno; de Jong, Machiel Pieter; Fahlman, M.; Brocks, G.

    2012-01-01

    We develop an integer charge transfer model for the potential steps observed at interfaces between donor and acceptor molecular semiconductors. The potential step can be expressed as the difference between the Fermi energy pinning levels of electrons on the acceptor material and holes on the donor

  11. An Evaluation of a Donor Funded Information and Communication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the role of donors in the establishment, implementation and sustainability of information and communication technology centres in indigenous communities. This was achieved by looking at success factors and challenges experienced at the Bhamshela donor-funded telecentre in South Africa.

  12. Effects of Donor diets, breed and increasing level of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, when testing a supplementation strategy in vitro, it should be important that donor animals are fed the same components (roughage and supplement) that will be combined at different levels in vitro, whilst the breed of donor animals may be of second importance. This work provides conclusive evidence that in vitro ...

  13. Crowd Around: Expanding Your Donor Pool with Crowdfunding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrell, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    At most institutions, annual fund-giving is down. Crowdfunding sites allow people with a great idea or worthy cause to bypass traditional funding methods and take their case directly to web-savvy investors and donors. This article describes how higher education institutions are expanding their donor pool through such crowdfunding sites as USEED,…

  14. How African Americans express their intentions to be organ donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korda, Holly; Wagstaff, David A; McCleary, Karl J

    2007-12-01

    As part of an organ sharing network's outreach, African American adults were interviewed to assess their awareness of the network's efforts and willingness to donate their organs after death. To describe (1) the proportion who expressed their intentions to be an organ donor, (2) the means they had used, and (3) sociodemographic characteristics of the participants who used a particular means. A repeated, cross-sectional, random-digit dialing telephone interview was conducted from July 2005 (start of wave 1) to April 2006 (end of wave 3). Each interview averaged 7 minutes and consisted of 60 items. Trained interviewers placed telephone calls to the residences of African Americans who resided in 1 of 4 New Jersey locales: East Orange/Orange, Irvington, Jersey City/Newark, and Trenton. One thousand five hundred sixty-seven African Americans, aged 18 to 95 years. Five Yes/No items were used to determine if participants had declared their intention to be an organ donor via driver's license application, donor card, donor registry, will/healthcare directive, or discussion with a family member. Twenty-seven percent of the participants had expressed their intentions to be an organ donor with an organ donor card, driver's license, donor registry, or will/healthcare directive. The participants who had used one or more of these formal means were 14.4 times more likely to have discussed their intention to be an organ donor with a family member than were the participants who had not.

  15. Living-donor kidney transplant from a type a donor to a type a subgroup recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Norichika; Nishimura, Kenji; Yoshida, Yasuyuki; Hirai, Toshiaki; Kishikawa, Hidefumi; Ichikawa, Yasuji

    2015-04-01

    Type A subgroup is rare in Japan, and kidney transplant to a type A subgroup recipient is rare worldwide. A 65-year-old man presented for living-donor kidney transplant. Blood group testing showed that his wife (kidney donor) had blood group type A. The patient (recipient) had a type A subgroup because reverse blood grouping showed a weak reaction with A1 antigen. Further testing showed that the recipient had type A subgroup between Ax and Ael because adsorption elution experiments and flow cytometry showed a few A antigens that were not detected on forward grouping, and DNA analysis was not consistent with Ael. The patient was given a milder protocol for immunosuppressive preoperative therapy than typically used for ABO-incompatible kidney transplant; mycophenolate mofetil and prednisolone were started 3 weeks and cyclosporine 2 weeks before transplant, rituximab (100 mg) was given once, and double filtration plasmapheresis and plasma exchange were not used. Follow-up at 9 months after transplant showed stable clinical status and no allograft rejection. In summary, the present case showed that when type A subgroup recipient has low level of anti-A1 antibody and is receiving a kidney transplant from a blood type A donor, milder immunosuppressive preoperative therapy appears safe.

  16. Factors influencing liver and spleen volume changes after donor hepatectomy for living donor liver transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Ji Hee; Ryeom, Hunku; Song, Jung Hup

    2013-01-01

    To define the changes in liver and spleen volumes in the early postoperative period after partial liver donation for living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) and to determine factors that influence liver and spleen volume changes. 27 donors who underwent partial hepatectomy for LDLT were included in this study. The rates of liver and spleen volume change, measured with CT volumetry, were correlated with several factors. The analyzed factors included the indocyanine green (ICG) retention rate at 15 minutes after ICG administration, preoperative platelet count, preoperative liver and splenic volumes, resected liver volume, resected-to-whole liver volume ratio (LV R /LV W ), resected liver volume to the sum of whole liver and spleen volume ratio [LV R /(LV W + SV 0 )], and pre and post hepatectomy portal venous pressures. In all hepatectomy donors, the volumes of the remnant liver and spleen were increased (increased rates, 59.5 ± 50.5%, 47.9 ± 22.6%). The increment rate of the remnant liver volume revealed a positive correlation with LV R /LV W (r = 0.759, p R /LV W influences the increment rate of the remnant liver volume.

  17. Seroprevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus, and Treponema pallidum Infections among Blood Donors on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dong-De; Li, Jian; Chen, Jiang-Tao; Eyi, Urbano Monsuy; Matesa, Rocio Apicante; Obono, Maximo Miko Ondo; Ehapo, Carlos Sala; Yang, Li-Ye; Yang, Hui; Yang, Hui-Tian; Lin, Min

    2015-01-01

    Regular screening of transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs), such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus (HBV and HCV, respectively), and Treponema pallidum, in blood donors is essential to guaranteeing clinical transfusion safety. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of four TTIs among blood donors on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea (EG). A retrospective survey of blood donors from January 2011 to April 2013 was conducted to assess the presence of HIV, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum. The medical records were analyzed to verify the seroprevalence of these TTIs among blood donations stratified by gender, age and geographical region. Of the total 2937 consecutive blood donors, 1098 (37.39%) had a minimum of one TTI and 185 (6.29%) harbored co-infections. The general seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum were 7.83%, 10.01%, 3.71% and 21.51%, respectively. The most frequent TTI co-infections were HBV-T. pallidum 60 (2.04%) and HIV-T. pallidum 46 (1.57%). The seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum were highest among blood donors 38 to 47 years, 18 to 27 years and ≥ 48 years age, respectively (P<0.05). The seroprevalence of TTIs varied according to the population from which the blood was collected on Bioko Island. Our results firstly provide a comprehensive overview of TTIs among blood donors on Bioko Island. Strict screening of blood donors and improved hematological examinations using standard operating procedures are recommended.

  18. Seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B and C viruses, and Treponema pallidum infections among blood donors at Shiyan, Central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuguo; Jiao, Danmei; Liu, Changjun; Lv, Ming; Li, Shan; Chen, Zongyun; Deng, Yao; Zhao, Yanqing; Li, Jian

    2016-10-01

    Ordinary screening of transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs) among blood donors is essential for blood transfusion. Although there is several TTIs studies focus on human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B and C viruses, and Treponema pallidum infections in China, it is no data to illustrate any firm conclusion from Shiyan City, Central China. It aims to verify the seroprevalence of TTIs among blood donors at Shiyan. A retrospective analysis of blood donors' information was conducted for the presence of HIV, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum. Logistic regression analysis was used to demonstrate risk factors including age, gender and occupation associated with them. The variation tendency in seroprevalence of these TTIs over the study period was evaluated by Cochran-Armitage trend test. Of 211 639 blood donors, 2 858 (1.35 %) had serological evidence of TTIs. The seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum were 0.08 %, 0.51 %, 0.20 % and 0.57 %, respectively. However, the co-infection prevalence of TTIs has not been detected. The HIV seropositivity significantly increased among female donors (OR = 1.63, P pallidum seroprevalence was notably increased among female (OR = 1.54, P pallidum (Z = -1.36, P < 0.01) seropositivity were observed over the study period. It originally offers a substantial prevalence of TTIs among blood donors at Shiyan, Central China. Severe blood donor selection and all-inclusive screening of blood are highly recommended. It might be helpful for developing and updating guidance for blood safety. Retrospectively registered.

  19. Prevalence and Trends of Transfusion-Transmissible Viral Infections among Blood Donors in South of Iran: An Eleven-Year Retrospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farshadpour, Fatemeh; Taherkhani, Reza; Tajbakhsh, Saeed; Gholizadeh Tangestani, Marziyeh; Hajiani, Gholamreza; Sharifi, Nasrin; Taherkhani, Sakineh; Nejadbolkheyr, Abdolreza

    2016-01-01

    Background Blood transfusion is considered a potential risk factor for transmission of life-threatening viral infections, including HIV, HCV and HBV infections. This study was performed to find out the prevalence and trends of these infections among blood donors in Southern Iran. Methods The blood donor data recorded in twelve regional blood transfusion centers from 2004 to 2014 were analyzed in an anonymous way with respect to the results of serological screening for HBV, HCV, and HIV infections. Overall, 293454 donors were screened for viral infections. Results Most of the donors were male, married, aged between 20–40 years, educated, and regular donors. The overall seroprevalence rates of HBV, HCV and HIV were 0.15%, 0.1% and 0.004%, respectively. The highest seroprevalence was found for HBV, followed by HCV and HIV. These infections were more prevalent in male, low educated and first time donors. The highest HCV seroprevalence was observed among donors aged 20 to 40 years, while HBV seroprevalence increased with age. The seroprevalence rates of HBV and HCV from 2004 to 2014 showed significant decreasing trends from 0.460% to 0.060% (P transfusion-transmissible viral infections in blood donations indicate that the attempts of IBTO were successful in improving the safety of the blood supply, since the prevalence rates of viral infections have been reduced to very low levels in blood donations over the years. However, still more effective techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are needed to guarantee blood safety. PMID:27309959

  20. Seroprevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus, and Treponema pallidum Infections among Blood Donors on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiang-Tao; Eyi, Urbano Monsuy; Matesa, Rocio Apicante; Obono, Maximo Miko Ondo; Ehapo, Carlos Sala; Yang, Li-Ye; Yang, Hui; Yang, Hui-Tian; Lin, Min

    2015-01-01

    Background Regular screening of transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs), such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus (HBV and HCV, respectively), and Treponema pallidum, in blood donors is essential to guaranteeing clinical transfusion safety. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of four TTIs among blood donors on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea (EG). Methods A retrospective survey of blood donors from January 2011 to April 2013 was conducted to assess the presence of HIV, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum. The medical records were analyzed to verify the seroprevalence of these TTIs among blood donations stratified by gender, age and geographical region. Results Of the total 2937 consecutive blood donors, 1098 (37.39%) had a minimum of one TTI and 185 (6.29%) harbored co-infections. The general seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum were 7.83%, 10.01%, 3.71% and 21.51%, respectively. The most frequent TTI co-infections were HBV-T. pallidum 60 (2.04%) and HIV-T. pallidum 46 (1.57%). The seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum were highest among blood donors 38 to 47 years, 18 to 27 years and ≥ 48 years age, respectively (P<0.05). The seroprevalence of TTIs varied according to the population from which the blood was collected on Bioko Island. Conclusions Our results firstly provide a comprehensive overview of TTIs among blood donors on Bioko Island. Strict screening of blood donors and improved hematological examinations using standard operating procedures are recommended. PMID:26448460

  1. Seroprevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus, and Treponema pallidum Infections among Blood Donors on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-De Xie

    Full Text Available Regular screening of transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus (HBV and HCV, respectively, and Treponema pallidum, in blood donors is essential to guaranteeing clinical transfusion safety. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of four TTIs among blood donors on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea (EG.A retrospective survey of blood donors from January 2011 to April 2013 was conducted to assess the presence of HIV, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum. The medical records were analyzed to verify the seroprevalence of these TTIs among blood donations stratified by gender, age and geographical region.Of the total 2937 consecutive blood donors, 1098 (37.39% had a minimum of one TTI and 185 (6.29% harbored co-infections. The general seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum were 7.83%, 10.01%, 3.71% and 21.51%, respectively. The most frequent TTI co-infections were HBV-T. pallidum 60 (2.04% and HIV-T. pallidum 46 (1.57%. The seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum were highest among blood donors 38 to 47 years, 18 to 27 years and ≥ 48 years age, respectively (P<0.05. The seroprevalence of TTIs varied according to the population from which the blood was collected on Bioko Island.Our results firstly provide a comprehensive overview of TTIs among blood donors on Bioko Island. Strict screening of blood donors and improved hematological examinations using standard operating procedures are recommended.

  2. The Impact of Total Ischemic Time, Donor Age and the Pathway of Donor Death on Graft Outcomes After Deceased Donor Kidney Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Germaine; Teixeira-Pinto, Armando; Chapman, Jeremy R; Craig, Jonathan C; Pleass, Henry; McDonald, Stephen; Lim, Wai H

    2017-06-01

    Prolonged ischemia is a known risk factor for delayed graft function (DGF) and its interaction with donor characteristics, the pathways of donor death, and graft outcomes may have important implications for allocation policies. Using data from the Australian and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant registry (1994-2013), we examined the relationship between total ischemic time with graft outcomes among recipients who received their first deceased donor kidney transplants. Total ischemic time (in hours) was defined as the time of the donor renal artery interruption or aortic clamp, until the time of release of the clamp on the renal artery in the recipient. A total of 7542 recipients were followed up over a median follow-up time of 5.3 years (interquartile range of 8.2 years). Of these, 1823 (24.6%) experienced DGF and 2553 (33.9%) experienced allograft loss. Recipients with total ischemic time of 14 hours or longer experienced an increased odd of DGF compared with those with total ischemic time less than 14 hours. This effect was most marked among those with older donors (P value for interaction = 0.01). There was a significant interaction between total ischemic time, donor age, and graft loss (P value for interaction = 0.03). There was on average, a 9% increase in the overall risk of graft loss per hour increase in the total ischemic time (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.09; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.18; P = 0.02) in recipients with older donation after circulatory death grafts. There is a clinically important interaction between donor age, the pathway of donor death, and total ischemic time on graft outcomes, such that the duration of ischemic time has the greatest impact on graft survival in recipients with older donation after circulatory death kidneys.

  3. Deceased tissue donor serology and molecular testing for HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses: a lack of cadaveric validated tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victer, Thayssa Neiva da Fonseca; Dos Santos, Cris Stéphany Rodrigues; Báo, Sônia Nair; Sampaio, Thatiane Lima

    2016-12-01

    Vital to patient safety is the accurate assessment and minimization of risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Hepatitis C (HCV), and Hepatitis B (HBV) virus transmission by deceased donor organ and tissue transplantation. The pathogens are tested by serological kits based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), chemiluminescence (CLIA) and eletrochemiluminescence (ECLIA) immunoassays. Organ transplantation is a highly successful life-saving treatment in Brazil, but the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency currently mandates that all deceased organ donors are screened for HIV, HCV and HBV following living donor policies. In this review, six ELISA (Wama ® , Bio-Rad ® , Biomerieux ® , DiaSorin ® , Acon Biotech ® and Biokit ® ), three CLIA (Abbott ® , Siemens ® , Diasorin ® ) and one ECLIA (Roche ® ) were utilized for evaluating the effectiveness of those serological tests for deceased donors in Brazil according to manufacturer's guidelines. NAT for HIV, HCV and HBV can assist with detection of pre-seroconversion for those infections, and only Cobas ® TaqScreen MPX ® test, the Tigris System ® Procleix Ultrio Assay ® and the Bio-Manguinhos ® HIV/HCV/HBV NAT are commercially available. Between all the tests, only the manufacturer Abbott ® and Cobas ® TaqScreen MPX ® test are currently validated for cadaver samples.

  4. Silicon quantum dots with counted antimony donor implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Meenakshi; Pacheco, Jose; Perry, Daniel; Wendt, Joel; Manginell, Ronald; Dominguez, Jason; Pluym, Tammy; Luhman, Dwight; Bielejec, Edward; Lilly, Michael; Carroll, Malcolm

    Antimony donor implants next to silicon quantum dots have been detected with integrated solid-state diode detectors with single ion precision. Devices with counted number of donors have been fabricated and low temperature transport measurements have been performed. Charge offsets, indicative of donor ionization and coupling to the quantum dot, have been detected in these devices. The number of offsets corresponds to 10-50% of the number of donors counted. We will report on tunneling time measurements and spin readout measurements on the donor offsets. This work was performed, in part, at the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, a U.S. DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences user facility. The work was supported by Sandia National Laboratories Directed Research and Development Program. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the U. S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  5. Using fertile couples as embryo donors: An ethical dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Leila; Omani Samani, Reza

    2014-03-01

    The use of donated embryos has offered hope for infertile couples who have no other means to have children. In Iran, fertility centers use fertile couples as embryo donors. In this paper, the advantages and disadvantages of this procedure will be discussed. We conclude that embryo-donation should be performed with frozen embryos thus preventing healthy donors from being harmed by fertility drugs. There must be guidelines for choosing the appropriate donor families. In countries where commercial egg donation is acceptable, fertile couples can be procured as embryo donors thus fulfilling the possible shortage of good quality embryos. Using frozen embryos seems to have less ethical, religious and legal problems when compared to the use of fertile embryo donors.

  6. Zn vacancy-donor impurity complexes in ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frodason, Y. K.; Johansen, K. M.; Bjørheim, T. S.; Svensson, B. G.; Alkauskas, A.

    2018-03-01

    Results from hybrid density functional theory calculations on the thermodynamic stability and optical properties of the Zn vacancy (VZn) complexed with common donor impurities in ZnO are reported. Complexing VZn with donors successively removes its charge-state transition levels in the band gap, starting from the most negative one. Interestingly, the presence of a donor leads only to modest shifts in the positions of the VZn charge-state transition levels, the sign and magnitude of which can be interpreted from a polaron energetics model by taking hole-donor repulsion into account. By employing a one-dimensional configuration coordinate model, luminescence lineshapes and positions were calculated. Due to the aforementioned effects, the isolated VZn gradually changes from a mainly nonradiative defect with transitions in the infrared region in n -type material, to a radiative one with broad emission in the visible range when complexed with shallow donors.

  7. Accumulation of GC donor splice signals in mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koonin Eugene V

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The GT dinucleotide in the first two intron positions is the most conserved element of the U2 donor splice signals. However, in a small fraction of donor sites, GT is replaced by GC. A substantial enrichment of GC in donor sites of alternatively spliced genes has been observed previously in human, nematode and Arabidopsis, suggesting that GC signals are important for regulation of alternative splicing. We used parsimony analysis to reconstruct evolution of donor splice sites and inferred 298 GT > GC conversion events compared to 40 GC > GT conversion events in primate and rodent genomes. Thus, there was substantive accumulation of GC donor splice sites during the evolution of mammals. Accumulation of GC sites might have been driven by selection for alternative splicing. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Jerzy Jurka and Anton Nekrutenko. For the full reviews, please go to the Reviewers' Reports section.

  8. Syphilis screening practices in blood transfusion facilities in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarkodie, Francis; Hassall, Oliver; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this study was to compare laboratory practices for screening blood donors for syphilis at blood transfusion facilities in Ghana with the recommendations of the World Health Organization and the National Blood Service, Ghana (NBSG). The prevalence of syphilis...... antibodies in blood donors in Ghana was also estimated. METHODS: Over an 11-month period, from February 2014 to January 2015, a semi-structured questionnaire was administered to 122 laboratory technical heads out of a total of 149 transfusion facilities in Ghana. The response rate was 81.9%. RESULTS: A total.......9%, compared to 4.0% in family donations (p=0.001). Only 6.9% of the health facilities were using standard operating procedures (SOPs). CONCLUSIONS: Despite international and national recommendations, more than half of the studied health facilities that provide blood transfusions in Ghana are not screening...

  9. Transfusion-transmitted hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection from an individual-donation nucleic acid (ID-NAT) non-reactive donor.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Flaherty, N

    2018-02-14

    Lookback was initiated upon notification of an acute HBV infection in a repeat Irish donor, 108 days post-donation. The donation screened non-reactive by individual-donation nucleic acid testing (ID-NAT) using the Procleix Ultrio Elite multiplex assay and again when the archived sample was retested, but the discriminatory assay for HBV was reactive. The immunocompromised recipient of the implicated red cell component was tested 110 days post-transfusion, revealing a HBV DNA viral load of 470 IU\\/ml. Genotype C2 sequences identical across two regions of the HBV genome were found in samples from the donor and recipient.

  10. Psychosocial impact of pediatric living-donor kidney and liver transplantation on recipients, donors, and the family : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thys, Kristof; Schwering, Karl-Leo; Siebelink, Marion; Dobbels, Fabienne; Borry, Pascal; Schotsmans, Paul; Aujoulat, Isabelle

    Living-donor kidney and liver transplantation intend to improve pediatric recipients' psychosocial well-being, but psychosocial impact in recipients strongly depends upon the impact on the donor and the quality of family relations. We systematically reviewed quantitative and qualitative studies

  11. Cardiovascular and demographic characteristics in whole blood and plasma donors: Results from the Donor InSight study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atsma, Femke; Veldhuizen, Ingrid; de Vegt, Femmie; Doggen, Catharina Jacoba Maria; de Kort, Wim

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Within blood establishments little comparative information is available about donors versus the general population. In this study, a description of the donor pool was made in terms of demographic factors and cardiovascular risk factors. The general Dutch population was used as a

  12. Cardiovascular and demographic characteristics in whole blood and plasma donors: results from the Donor InSight study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atsma, F.; Veldhuizen, I.; Vegt, F. de; Doggen, C.J.; Kort, W. de

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Within blood establishments little comparative information is available about donors versus the general population. In this study, a description of the donor pool was made in terms of demographic factors and cardiovascular risk factors. The general Dutch population was used as a

  13. Prenatal screening and genetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alderson, P.; Aro, A.R.; Dragonas, T.; Ettorre, E.; Hemminki, E.; Jalinoja, P.; Santalahti, P.; Tijmstra, T.

    Although the term 'genetic screening' has been used for decades, this paper discusses how, in its most precise meaning, genetic screening has not yet been widely introduced. 'Prenatal screening' is often confused with 'genetic screening'. As we show, these terms have different meanings, and we

  14. Pilot Cross-Sectional Study of Three Zoonoses (Lyme Disease, Tularaemia, Leptospirosis) among Healthy Blood Donors in Eastern Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zákutná, Ľubica; Dorko, Erik; Rimárová, Kvetoslava; Kizeková, Marianna

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the seroprevalence of three zoonotic infections among healthy blood donors/volunteers in Eastern Slovakia. Sera from 124 blood donors were investigated for the presence of antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi, Francisella tularensis and Leptospira pomona. The participants also completed the questionnaire about demographic, exposure and epidemiological characteristics. Two serological methods were used for the diagnosis: the enzyme linked protein A/G assay (ELPAGA) and the Western blot (WB). First, sera were screened by ELPAGA (except for leptospirosis). The observed seroprevalence was 15% for Lyme borreliosis (LB) and 4% for tularaemia (TUL). The results were confirmed by WB. Positive IgG antibodies (WB method) were detected only in 1.6% of examined for LB and 0.8% for TUL. Our results did not identify any antibodies against Leptospira pomona agent in the examined healthy blood donors group. ELPAGA seroprevalence for TUL was significantly higher in blood donors working in the agricultural area in the direct contact with hay, straw, manure, and agricultural land. Our outputs determine tick bite as a significant risk factor for LB. The study confirms the explosion of tick-borne diseases in the healthy population of people. The exposure risk for leptospirosis seems to be minimal. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2015.

  15. Comparison of neutralization profiles for anti-HCV reactive donor samples with or without detectable HCV RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroishi, A; Yasui, K; Matsukura, H; Tani, Y; Furuta, R A

    2015-11-01

    At Japanese Red Cross (JRC) Blood Centers, all donated blood is screened for hepatitis C virus (HCV) by serological and nucleic acid amplification testing. Donor plasma that tested reactive for anti-HCV by serological test is disqualified even if the donor tests negative for HCV RNA. These test results reflect both true-positive results because of past HCV infection and false-positive results because the cross-reactivity of plasma IgG, which current testing methods are unable to distinguish. To characterize these antibody test results, we examined the neutralizing activity of these plasma samples. Donor plasma samples that tested reactive for anti-HCV by serological test but negative for HCV RNA (n = 43) were analysed for determining their neutralizing activities measured by the inhibition of the cellular entry of pseudoparticles harbouring HCV envelope glycoproteins (HCVpp). Strong and broad neutralizing activities against HCVpp entry similar to the samples that tested reactive for anti-HCV serological test and positive for HCV RNA (considered to be derived from individuals with chronic HCV infection) were observed in three of 43 plasma samples from donors who tested anti-HCV reactive but HCV RNA negative. By examining the neutralizing activities of plasma samples, we identified individuals with a past HCV infection from those in whom we were unable to confirm HCV infection according to the current testing algorithms of JRC, which do not perform anti-HCV confirmatory tests. © 2015 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  16. Interface Si donor control to improve dynamic performance of AlGaN/GaN MIS-HEMTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Song

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this letter, we have studied the performance of AlGaN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor high electron mobility transistors (MIS-HEMTs with different interface Si donor incorporation which is tuned during the deposition process of LPCVD-SiNx which is adopted as gate dielectric and passivation layer. Current collapse of the MIS-HEMTs without field plate is suppressed more effectively by increasing the SiH2Cl2/NH3 flow ratio and the normalized dynamic on-resistance (RON is reduced two orders magnitude after off-state VDS stress of 600 V for 10 ms. Through interface characterization, we have found that the interface deep-level traps distribution with high Si donor incorporation by increasing the SiH2Cl2/NH3 flow ratio is lowered. It’s indicated that the Si donors are most likely to fill and screen the deep-level traps at the interface resulting in the suppression of slow trapping process and the virtual gate effect. Although the Si donor incorporation brings about the increase of gate leakage current (IGS, no clear degradation of breakdown voltage can be seen by choosing appropriate SiH2Cl2/NH3 flow ratio.

  17. The clinical value of glomerular filtration rate with 99Tcm-DTPA on living kidney transplantation donor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Jianjun; Yang Aimin; Deng Huixing; Ran Hongde; Cheng Hu

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine the normal reference range of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in different ages with 99 Tc m -DTPA renal dynamic imaging on living kidney transplantation donor, and to evaluate the clinical value of GFR in living kidney transplantation. Methods: 99 Tc m -DTPA renal dynamic imaging was performed in 300 patients on living kidney transplantation donor. The image was processed according to Gates' method to obtain GFR. The normal reference range of GFR was obtained in different ages and the relationship between GFR and gender, age and body mass index was also analyzed. Results: The left, right and total renal GFR of 300 living kidney transplantation donors were 49.25±10.34 ml/min. 49.27±9.69 ml/min and 98.52±19.03 ml/min, respectively. The GFR in the group of age 4 0 was higher significantly than that of age ≥50 (P 0.05). The study of logistic regression showed that the age was the only important impact factor on GFR. Conclusions: GFR obtained by 99 Tc m -DTPA is simple and reliable, which can be used to accurately assess the individual renal filterability and the urinary drainage function, This affords an useful method on screening the living relative kidney transplantation donor. (authors)

  18. Determine The Factors Affecting The Blood Donors Of Selecting Blood Donor Program Me In Western Province Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perera D. A. K.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Blood and blood component transfusion is one of the major therapeutic practices throughout the world. National Blood Transfusion Service NBTS in Sri Lanka requires approximately 300000 blood units annually. After initiating mobile donor programme there have been two types of blood donation programs in Sri Lanka since 1980. Since second half of first decade of 21st century Sri Lanka shifted to 100 non-replacement blood transfusion policy. That means whole blood and blood component requirement of NBTS has to be collected through mobile blood donor program and voluntary In-house blood donor program. Therefore the objective of this study was to determine the factors affecting the blood donors of selecting blood donor program in Western province Sri Lanka. Methodology This was a cross sectional descriptive study. The study composed of two components. .First the factors that cause the blood donor to select a blood donor programme second the facility survey of blood banks In-house donation. An interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect data from a sample of 410 Mobile blood donors. Facility survey was done using a checklist. The dependant variables were the attendance of the blood donors to Mobile blood donation and In-house blood donation. Independent variables included were the factors related to socio demography service quality accessibility availability and intrinsic extrinsic motivation. The analytical statistics applied for testing the association of factors with the blood donor programme was chi-square test. The study has shown some important findings. There was significant association between income level and donating blood. Only 3.3 of In-house blood donor population was female. Majority of In-house population belonged to 30-41 age group. A statistically significant association exists between age and repeat blood donation. The female blood donors tendency of becoming repeat donors was very low. Distance problem and non

  19. Synthesis of thiazolium salts and their screening for catalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seul Ki; Kim, Do Joong; Park, Jin Kyoon [Dept. of Chemistry and Institute of Functional Materials, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    A facile synthetic method to prepare thiazolium-based ionic liquids in high yield was developed. The direct alkylation of thiazole was performed using a trialkyl orthoester as both the alkyl donor and the solvent. The synthesized thiazolium salts were subsequently screened for their ability to catalyze the benzoin condensation reaction. Of the salts that were tested, 3-butyl,4,5-dimethyl thiazolium salt, was found to be the best catalyst.

  20. Transmission of dengue virus from deceased donors to solid organ transplant recipients: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, Fernando; Pineda, Juan C; Sanz, Ana M; Cedano, Jorge A; Caicedo, Luis A

    Dengue fever is a vector-transmitted viral infection. Non-vectorial forms of transmission can occur through organ transplantation. We reviewed medical records of donors and recipients with suspected dengue in the first post-transplant week. We used serologic and molecular analysis to confirm the infection. Herein, we describe four cases of dengue virus transmission through solid organ transplantation. The recipients had positive serology and RT-PCR. Infection in donors was detected through serology. All cases presented with fever within the first week after transplantation. There were no fatal cases. After these cases, we implemented dengue screening with NS1 antigen detection in donors during dengue outbreaks, and no new cases were detected. In the literature review, additional cases had been published through August 2017. Transmission of Dengue virus can occur through organ donation. In endemic regions, it is important to suspect and screen for dengue in febrile and thrombocytopenic recipients in the postoperative period. Copyright © 2018 Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. PHOSPHATE METABOLISM IN KIDNEY DONORS: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayakumar Edathedathe

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM To study the changes in phosphate metabolism in kidney donors, to study the correlation of albuminuria, fractional excretion of phosphorus [FE Pi] and estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] with fibroblast growth factor 23 [FGF 23] in kidney donors, to study the early tubule interstitial injury in the remnant kidney of donors by measuring urine transforming growth factor beta [TGF beta] levels. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cross-sectional study in which kidney donors with 1 year or more after donation were included. 69 kidney donors with a mean duration of 5.86 years after kidney donation were studied. Serum phosphate level, fractional excretion of phosphorus [FE Pi] and serum levels of parathyroid hormone were measured. Plasma levels of FGF 23 were measured by a second generation enzyme linked immune sorbent assay [ELISA]. Renal function was assessed by estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] and degree of albuminuria. Urine levels of transforming growth factor beta [TGF beta] were measured by ELISA. A hypothesis that in kidney donors with reduced nephron number, the single nephron excretion of phosphorus will be increased to maintain normal phosphorus homeostasis and that this increase in single nephron phosphorus excretion may be mediated by FGF 23 was proposed. Testing of this hypothesis was done by studying the correlation between parameters of phosphorus metabolism, FGF 23 and the renal function of the donors. RESULTS The mean eGFR was 70.36 mL/min/1.73 m2 . 52.2% of donors had moderate increase in albuminuria [microalbuminuria], Serum phosphorus, fractional excretion of phosphorus and serum PTH levels were in the normal range. FGF 23 levels were in the normal reference range and showed no correlation with FE pi, eGFR or albuminuria, Urine TGF-beta levels were undetectable in all the donors. DISCUSSION Normal phosphorus homeostasis is maintained in kidney donors. There was no correlation between FE pi and FGF 23 levels. Kidney

  2. 77 FR 68133 - Guidance for Industry: Use of Nucleic Acid Tests on Pooled and Individual Samples From Donors of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-15

    ... donor requalification, and product labeling. In addition, the guidance provides notification that FDA... for product testing and disposition, donor management, methods for donor requalification, and product...

  3. Incidence of clinically significant antibodies in patients and healthy blood donors: a prospective cross-sectional study from a tertiary healthcare center in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Aseem K; Pandey, Prashant; Sharma, Jyoti; Shailja, Kumari; Dixit, Surbhi; Raina, Vimarsh

    2014-04-01

    Since there is scarce data available on incidence and type of irregular antibodies in patients and donors in India, a study was undertaken to find the incidence of irregular antibodies in patients and irregular antibodies and a positive Direct Antiglobulin Test (DAT) in blood donors. Antibody screening was performed using commercial pooled "O" cells and three-cell panel for donors and patients respectively and an 11-cell panel for identification using Column Agglutination Technology (CAT) with Low-Ionic-Strength Saline-Indirect Antiglobulin Test (LISS-IAT) technique (Ortho Clinical Diagnostics, Johnson & Johnson, USA). The cassettes used were Anti-human Globulin (AHG) type. DAT on donors was also performed using the AHG cassettes. Cumulative incidence of irregular antibodies amongst patients (n=32,560) and donors (n=31,367) were 0.12-0.009%, respectively. In patients, the commonest antibodies were from Rh system with anti-D being the most common antibody type (14/40; 35%) while in donors it was the MNS system with anti M (2/3) being the most common. Incidence of a positive DAT amongst the healthy blood donors was 0.04% (n=13/32,560). Incidence of irregular antibodies in patients at 0.12% was slightly lower than published reports and could be because of the fact that the patient population studied comprised largely of surgical patients many of whom have never received blood transfusion. This data could also be more representative since the number of patients studied was much higher as compared to the previous Indian studies (32,560 vs. 531-2026). The report on incidence of irregular antibodies and DAT (0.009-0.04%) in blood donors was first such attempt in India. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Italian national survey of blood donors: external quality assessment (EQA) of syphilis testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulcano, Francesca; Milazzo, Luisa; Volpi, Sabrina; Battista, Mara Maria; Barca, Alessandra; Hassan, Hamisa Jane; Pimpinelli, Fulvia; Giampaolo, Adele

    2010-03-01

    The detection of syphilis among blood donors may reveal high-risk sexual behavior, which can go unreported at the time of donor selection and compromise the safety of the donated blood. In Italy, blood is collected, tested, and distributed by transfusion services (TSs), which also perform outpatient transfusions. Although the TSs must screen for syphilis by law, there are no indications of the specific type of method to be used, generating discrepancies in the results obtained by the different TSs. To determine the proficiency of the TSs in screening for syphilis, we performed an external quality assessment (EQA). The EQA was based on two shipments of serum panels; 133 and 118 of the 326 existing TSs participated in the first and second shipments, respectively. Each panel consisted of both positive and negative serum samples. The results confirmed that the use of a single nontreponemal test (the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory [VDRL] and the rapid plasma reagin [RPR] tests) is the least sensitive means of identifying samples that are positive for syphilis antibodies. We also found that the interpretation of the results of manual techniques, such as the RPR test, the VDRL test, the Treponema pallidum hemagglutination (TPHA) assay, and the T. pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) assay, can vary greatly among different TSs and operators. Total Ig enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) are the most sensitive. However, the determination of syphilis on the basis of the results of a single test is not sufficient for an accurate screening; and all blood units should thus be assessed by two distinct treponemal tests, that is, a total Ig EIA and the TPHA or the TPPA assay.

  5. Occult Hbv Infection in Hbsag Negative and Anti-Hbc Positive Blood Donors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Shebanizadeh

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In recent years with introduction of better screening tests, the risk of infection with transfusion-transmitted viruses has been reduced remarkably, although obtaining a zero-risk blood supply still remains international blood transfusion services goal. The routine test for detection of HBV infected blood samples is examination of HBsAg with ELISA method but in occult HBV infection, HBsAg is not detectable by ELISA. Therefore, a more sensitive or complementary test is needed. Some international blood transfusion services have introduced anti-HBc screening as a surrogate test for the presence of HBV infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of occult HBV infection in Isfahanian blood donors and the potential value of anti-HBc testing of donors as a screening test to detect occult HBV infection. Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 545 blood units were collected (from Isfahan blood center and tested by HBsAg ELISA kit from April to June 2004 and then all HBsAg negative samples were tested by anti-HBc ELISA kit. To detect occult HBV infection, all HBsAg negative and anti-HBc positive samples were tested by PCR method. Results: All samples were negative for HBsAg while 43 blood units were anti-HBc positive (8%. These HBsAg negative and anti-HBc positive blood units were tested for HBV DNA of which five units (%11.6 were HBV DNA positive. Conclusion: Occult HBV infection is a clinical form of HBV infection that cannot be detected by usual method (ELISA for HBsAg and therefore more sensitive techniques are needed for detection of HBV infection. PCR is a sensitive technique that detects HBV DNA even in a trace mounts. Our results identified that more sensitive and complementary tests such as, PCR and anti-HBc, are essential and helpful to ensure safety of blood units.

  6. Comparison of laparoscopic and mini incision open donor nephrectomy: single blind, randomised controlled clinical trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, N.F.; Lind, M.Y.; Hansson, B.M.; Pilzecker, D.; Mertens zur Borg, I.R.; Knipscheer, B.C.; Hazebroek, E.J.; Dooper, P.M.M.; Weimar, W.; Hop, W.C.J.; Adang, E.M.M.; Wilt, G.J. van der; Bonjer, H.J.; Vliet, J.A. van der; Ijzermans, J.N.M.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the best approach for live donor nephrectomy to minimise discomfort to the donor and to provide good graft function. DESIGN: Single blind, randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Two university medical centres, the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: 100 living kidney donors.

  7. Transport Measurements on Si Nanostructures with Counted Sb Donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Meenakshi; Bielejec, Edward; Garratt, Elias; Ten Eyck, Gregory; Bishop, Nathaniel; Wendt, Joel; Luhman, Dwight; Carroll, Malcolm; Lilly, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Donor based spin qubits are a promising platform for quantum computing. Single qubits using timed implant of donors have been demonstrated.1 Extending this to multiple qubits requires precise control over the placement and number of donors. Such control can be achieved by using a combination of low-energy heavy-ion implants (to reduce depth straggle), electron-beam lithography (to define position), focused ion beam (to localize implants to one lithographic site) and counting the number of implants with a single ion detector.2 We report transport measurements on MOS quantum dots implanted with 5, 10 and 20 Sb donors using the approach described above. A donor charge transition is identified by a charge offset in the transport characteristics. Correlation between the number of donors and the charge offsets is studied. These results are necessary first steps towards fabricating donor nanostructures for two qubit interactions. This work was performed, in part, at the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, a U.S. DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences user facility. The work was supported by Sandia National Laboratories Directed Research and Development Program. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the U. S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000. 1J. J. Pla et al., Nature 496, 334 (2013) 2J. A. Seamons et al., APL 93, 043124 (2008).

  8. Evaluation of the return rate of volunteer blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana de Fátima Lourençon

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To convert first-time blood donors into regular volunteer donors is a challenge to transfusion services. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to estimate the return rate of first time donors of the Ribeirão Preto Blood Center and of other blood centers in its coverage region. METHODS: The histories of 115,553 volunteer donors between 1996 and 2005 were analyzed. Statistical analysis was based on a parametric long-term survival model that allows an estimation of the proportion of donors who never return for further donations. RESULTS: Only 40% of individuals return within one year after the first donation and 53% return within two years. It is estimated that 30% never return to donate. Higher return rates were observed among Black donors. No significant difference was found in non-return rates regarding gender, blood type, Rh blood group and blood collection unit. CONCLUSIONS: The low percentage of first-time donors who return for further blood donation reinforces the need for marketing actions and strategies aimed at increasing the return rates.

  9. Use of robotics in liver donor right hepatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Da; Wu, Chao-Yin; Wu, Yao-Ming

    2017-10-01

    Liver transplantation is the best solution for end stage liver disease, and has been widely accepted and rapidly developed in the past decades. Along with the improved outcomes of liver transplantation, living-related donor transplantation has been conducted to overcome the shortage of the deceased donor. The most important aspects of the living-related liver transplantation are donor safety and fast recovery after graft procurement. Meanwhile, the rapid progress of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) in general surgery has generated heated debate regarding the appropriateness of MIS in living-related donor graft hepatectomy. Technical innovations and instrument enhancements have been allowing recruitment of more potential candidates through smaller wounds and better surgical experience. Although MIS has been documented with safety and feasibility in complex liver surgery, the progress is slow in regard to the application of MIS in donor graft hepatectomy. Pioneer surgeons have devoted themselves to develop the pure MIS approach for the liver donor surgery, but the steep learning curve for pure MIS major hepatectomy remains a major barrier for wide adoption. The introduction of robotic system may lower the barrier for entry for practice into MIS donor hepatectomy.

  10. Living donor kidney transplantation: "beauty and the beast"!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danovitch, Gabriel M

    2013-01-01

    The report by Terasaki and colleagues in 1995 that the outcomes of spousal and biologically unrelated transplants were essentially the same as for 1-haplotype matched living related transplants changed the course of clinical transplantation. This article, entitled metaphorically "Beauty and the Beast", describes the dramatic change in the practice of living donor transplantation that followed. In the ensuing two decades, biologically unrelated living donor transplantation became commonplace in the developed world and reached its apotheosis in cross-country living donor paired exchange programs that have made transplantation accessible to many whose donors were deemed "incompatible". Such exchanges can indeed be thought of as a "thing of beauty". Sadly, the same observation was abused to exploit vulnerable donors, and the "beast" in the form of transplant tourism became a feature of transplantation in the developing world. The responsibility of the transplant community to protect the welfare of living donors and their recipients and the key role of trust in the evaluation of living donors is discussed.

  11. Selective immunoglobulin A deficiency in Iranian blood donors: prevalence, laboratory and clinical findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghafi, Shiva; Pourpak, Zahra; Aghamohammadi, Asghar; Pourfathollah, Ali Akbar; Samadian, Azam; Farghadan, Maryam; Attarchi, Zohreh; Zeidi, Majid; Asgaripour, Fariba; Rajabi, Tajbakhsh; Kardar, Gholam Ali; Moin, Mostafa

    2008-09-01

    Selective deficiency of immunoglobulin A (IgA) is the most frequent primary hypogammaglobulinemia. As some IgA-deficient patients have IgA antibodies in their plasma which may cause anaphylactic reactions, blood centers usually maintain a list of IgA-deficient blood donors to prepare compatible blood components. In this study we determined the incidence of selective IgA deficiency (SIgAD) in normal adult Iranian population. 13022 normal Iranian blood donors were included in this study. The assay which we used was adapted to the manual pipetting system and ELISA reader was used for screening. Other classes of immunoglobulins (G, M), as well as secretory IgA and IgG subclasses were tested in IgA deficient cases by ELISA. SPSS was used for statistical analysis.Among 13022 studied cases, 11608 blood donors were males (89.14%) and 1414 were females (10.86%). Their mean (+/-SD) age and weight were 38.5+/-11 years and 82+/-12 Kg respectively. Twenty of the screened samples were found by means of ELISA to be IgA-deficient (less than 5mg/dl), (frequency; 1:651). The data could indicate a compensation for IgA deficiency by serum IgM in one of our IgA deficient cases (Patient 5). We observed a correlation between IgG3 and serum IgA in deficient cases (r=0.498, P=0.025). Our results indicate that in present study the prevalence of S IgA D is in agreement with data from other Caucasians populations (from 1:300 to 1:700). In conclusion, Selective IgA Deficiency could be almost asymptomatic in most cases in general population. Our study suggests that; due to high frequency of IgA deficiency in Iran, it seems necessary to measure IgA levels for every blood donor and blood recipient to find IgA deficient cases.

  12. Real-time PCR diagnosis of Plasmodium vivax among blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batista-dos-Santos Sergio

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When selecting blood donors in transfusion centres, one important problem is to identify, during screening, individuals with infectious diseases that can be transmitted by blood, such as malaria, especially when the parasite densities are very low. This problem is particularly severe in endemic areas, such as the Brazilian Amazon. In the present study, molecular diagnostic (real-time PCR of Plasmodium vivax was used to identify blood donors infected with malaria parasites. Methods Samples from 595 blood donors were collected in seven haemotherapy centres in northern Brazil located in areas at risk for malaria transmission, and the analyses were performed by real-time PCR with TaqMan probes on 7500 Real-Time PCR Systems, to genotype the mitochondrial DNA region specific to P. vivax. The experiment was designed for hybridization of the cytochrome c oxidase genes of the mitochondrial genome (GenBank GI63022502. The serological data were obtained using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay - ELISA (Anti-HIV, Anti-HTLV I-II; Anti-HVC, HBsAg, Anti-HBc, Chagas disease and VDRL (Syphilis from the Blood Bank System of the Haematology and Haemotherapy Centre of Pará. Results The assay identified eight individuals in the sample (1.34% infected with P. vivax at the time of blood donation. This percentage was higher than the altered serological results (reactive or inconclusive of the prevalence of anti-HIV (0.67%, anti-hepatitis C virus (0.34%, anti-hepatitis B surface antigen (0.67%, anti-human T-lymphotropic virus I/II (1.18%, anti-Chagas disease (0.17% and syphilis (VDRL (0.50%, but not higher than anti-hepatitis B core antigen antibodies (4.37%. This result indicates the need to use more sensitive methods of diagnosing malaria in blood banks. Conclusion The real-time PCR with TaqMan probes enabled the identification of P. vivax in a high proportion of clinically healthy donors, highlighting the potential risk for transfusion

  13. Blood group genotyping: from patient to high-throughput donor screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuisen, B.; van der Schoot, C. E.; de Haas, M.

    2009-01-01

    Blood group antigens, present on the cell membrane of red blood cells and platelets, can be defined either serologically or predicted based on the genotypes of genes encoding for blood group antigens. At present, the molecular basis of many antigens of the 30 blood group systems and 17 human

  14. Follow-up Evaluation of Air Force Blood Donors Screening Positive for Chagas Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-27

    59 MDW/SGVU SUBJECT: Professional Presentation Approval \\I 70 . .. .., -- 22 JUNE 2017 1. Your paper, entitled Follow-up Evaluation of Air Force...that if you are a Graduate Health Sciences Education student and your department bas told you they cannot fund your publication, the 59th Clinical... Education (GHSE) (SGS O&M); SGS R&D; Tri-Service Nursing Research Program (TSNRP); Defense Medical Research & Development Program (DMRDP); NIH

  15. Polymerase chain reaction and blood culture in blood donors screened by ELISA test for Chagas' disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kinoshita-Yanaga, Andréa Tieko; Bértoli, Marta; Martins, Vanessa Aparecida; Mizutani, Angélica Sayuri; Toledo, Max Jean de Ornelas; Araújo, Silvana Marques de; Gomes, Mônica Lúcia

    2011-01-01

    This work evaluates the central nervous effects in ICR strain mice of 2-ethylthio-7-methyl-4-(4-methylphenyl)pyrazolo[1,5-a][1,3,5]triazine (MH4b1), a compound obtained by an efficient one-step reaction of S,S-diethyl 4-methylbenzoylimidodithiocarbonate with 5-amino-3-methyl-1H-pyrazole, in order to assess its neuro-pharmacological profile. The tests applied were: maximal electroshock seizure (MES), pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) seizures, forced swimming, plus maze, marble burying, sleeping time, ...

  16. An adapted postdonation motivational interview enhances blood donor retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Kadian S; Campbell, Tavis S; Carey, Patricia M; Langevin, Eric; Bowser, Brent; France, Christopher R

    2010-08-01

    Blood donors may hold conflicting thoughts about future donation. While they may perceive the direct benefit to themselves and others, they often report compelling reasons not to give again. As a result the standard encouragements to return may not be sufficient to motivate some donors. This study examined the effects of a postdonation adapted motivational interview (AMI) on blood donor attitudes and repeat donation behavior. Donors (n = 215) were randomly assigned to either an AMI or a no-interview control group. Approximately 1 month after their index donation, donors in the AMI group completed a brief telephone interview to clarify individual-specific motivations and values concerning blood donation and address potential barriers. They were then asked to complete questionnaires regarding donation attitudes, anxiety, self-efficacy, and intention to donate. Donors in the control group were also contacted 1 month after donation and asked to complete the same series of questionnaires. Donors in the AMI group reported greater intention to provide a future donation (F = 8.13, p < 0.05), more positive donation attitudes (F = 4.59, p < 0.05), and greater confidence in their ability to avoid adverse reactions (F = 10.26, p < 0.01). Further, AMI was associated with higher rates of attempted donation at 12 months (odds ratio, 2.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.27-4.87). Application of an AMI may be an effective strategy to increase the donor pool by enhancing retention of existing donors. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.

  17. How membrane permeation is affected by donor delivery solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binks, Bernard P; Fletcher, Paul D I; Johnson, Andrew J; Elliott, Russell P

    2012-11-28

    We investigate theoretically and experimentally how the rate and extent of membrane permeation is affected by switching the donor delivery solvent from water to squalane for different permeants and membranes. In a model based on rate-limiting membrane diffusion, we derive explicit equations showing how the permeation extent and rate depend mainly on the membrane-donor and membrane-receiver partition coefficients of the permeant. Permeation results for systems containing all combinations of hydrophilic or hydrophobic donor solvents (aqueous solution or squalane), permeants (caffeine or testosterone) and polymer membranes (cellulose or polydimethylsiloxane) have been measured using a cell with stirred donor and re-circulating receiver compartments and continuous monitoring of the permeant concentration in the receiver phase. Relevant partition coefficients are also determined. Quantitative comparison of model and experimental results for the widely-differing permeation systems successfully enables the systematic elucidation of all possible donor solvent effects in membrane permeation. For the experimental conditions used here, most of the permeation systems are in agreement with the model, demonstrating that the model assumptions are valid. In these cases, the dominant donor solvent effects arise from changes in the relative affinities of the permeant for the donor and receiver solvents and the membrane and are quantitatively predicted using the separately measured partition coefficients. We also show how additional donor solvent effects can arise when switching the donor solvent causes one or more of the model assumptions to be invalid. These effects include a change in rate-limiting step, permeant solution non-ideality and others.

  18. Organ transplantation from deceased donors with cancer: is it safe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalesnik MA

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Michael A Nalesnik1, Michael G Ison21Division of Transplantation and Hepatic Pathology, Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburg, PA, USA; 2Divisions of Infectious Diseases and Organ Transplantation, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: The availability of donor organs continues to be insufficient to meet the needs of patients actively waiting for transplant. Consequently, there is continuing pressure to increase the donor organ pool while simultaneously assuring safety for the recipient population. The complication of donor malignancy transmission has been documented almost from the beginning of transplantation, and continues to be a concern today. The anecdotal nature of case reports and compiled series ensures that clinical decisions related to organ use from donors with malignancy will of necessity continue to be made on the basis of low-level evidence. Despite this limitation, the literature indicates that not all donor neoplasms have the same risk for transmission to the recipient, and it is necessary to consider the specific malignancy affecting the donor, as well as the condition of the recipient, before a decision is made to transplant or discard a given organ. Published cases suggest that certain forms of neoplasia, such as melanoma, choriocarcinoma, sarcoma, small cell carcinoma, or metastatic carcinomas serve as strong contraindications to organ donation. In contrast, considerable experience exists to suggest that certain tumors of the central nervous system, small subclinical prostate carcinomas, or small renal cell carcinomas resected prior to transplant, among other tumors, should not in themselves disqualify an individual from donating organs in the appropriate circumstance. This review presents the case for considering organ transplantation in the setting of certain donor malignancies and discusses factors to be weighed in such decisions. Additionally

  19. Whole genome comparison of donor and cloned dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hak-Min; Cho, Yun Sung; Kim, Hyunmin; Jho, Sungwoong; Son, Bongjun; Choi, Joung Yoon; Kim, Sangsoo; Lee, Byeong Chun; Bhak, Jong; Jang, Goo

    2013-10-21

    Cloning is a process that produces genetically identical organisms. However, the genomic degree of genetic resemblance in clones needs to be determined. In this report, the genomes of a cloned dog and its donor were compared. Compared with a human monozygotic twin, the genome of the cloned dog showed little difference from the genome of the nuclear donor dog in terms of single nucleotide variations, chromosomal instability, and telomere lengths. These findings suggest that cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer produced an almost identical genome. The whole genome sequence data of donor and cloned dogs can provide a resource for further investigations on epigenetic contributions in phenotypic differences.

  20. Radioimmunoassay of serum β2-microglobulin in donor's blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Shihua; Song Shiyun; Li Kelin; Chen Guanglian; Liu Fengmin

    1993-01-01

    Serum β 2 -microglobulin (β 2 -MG) was tested by radioimmunoassay in 149 donors' and 54 healthy volunteers' blood. The results were 203 +- 33.0 nmol/l and 176 +- 26.2 nmol/l, respectively. There was significant difference statistically between them (P 2 -MG content. In order to increase the quality of donated blood and to keep the health of blood donor, it is suggested that the high content of serum β 2 -MG is the indicator of too frequent blood donating. The results also showed that the content of β 2 -MG in donor's blood is not a normal reference value