WorldWideScience

Sample records for bivalvia current taxonomy

  1. Current and pending taxonomy of the Pasteurellaceae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angen, Øystein

    Since the family Pasteurellaceae was established in 1981 the taxonomy of this group of bacteria has undergone significant changes. 16S DNA sequencing showed in the early 1990-ties, that the three original genera were genetically heterogeneous. Presently, the family consists of 13 genetically cohe...

  2. Bad taxonomy can kill : molecular reevaluation of Unio mancus Lamarck, 1819 (Bivalvia : Unionidae and its accepted subspecies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prie V.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The conservation status of European unionid species rests on the scientific knowledge of the 1980s, before the current revival of taxonomic reappraisals based on molecular characters. The taxonomic status of Unio mancus Lamarck, 1819, superficially similar to Unio pictorum (Linnaeus, 1758 and often synonymized with it, is re-evaluated based on a random sample of major French drainages and a systematic sample of historical type localities. We confirm the validity of U. mancus as a distinct species occurring in France and Spain, where it is structured into three geographical units here ranked as subspecies: U. m. mancus [Atlantic drainages, eastern Pyrenees, Spanish Mediterranean drainages], U. m. turtonii Payraudeau, 1826 [coastal drainages East of the Rhône and Corsica] and U. m. requienii Michaud, 1831 [Seine, Saône-Rhône, and coastal drainages West of the Rhône]. Many populations of Unio mancus have been extirpated during the 20th century and the remaining populations continue to be under pressure; U. mancus satisfies the criteria to be listed as «Endangered» in the IUCN Red List.

  3. Current taxonomy of phages infecting lactic acid bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer eMahony

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phages infecting lactic acid bacteria have been the focus of significant research attention over the past three decades. Through the isolation and characterization of hundreds of phage isolates, it has been possible to classify phages of the dairy starter and adjunct bacteria Lactococus lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus, Leuconostoc spp. and Lactobacillus spp. Among these, phages of L. lactis have been most thoroughly scrutinized and serve as an excellent model system to address issues that arise when attempting taxonomic classification of phages infecting other LAB species. Here, we present an overview of the current taxonomy of phages infecting LAB genera of industrial significance, the methods employed in these taxonomic efforts and how these may be employed for the taxonomy of phages of currently underrepresented and emerging phage species.

  4. A critique of current methods in nematode taxonomy | Abebe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the past few decades, there have been efforts to integrate molecular methods and digital 3D image-capturing technology in nematode taxonomy, the former to enhance the accuracy of identification of such a taxonomically challenging group and the latter to communicate morphological data. While the employment of ...

  5. Taxonomy and biology of proteocephalidean cestodes: current state and perspectives

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Scholz, Tomáš; de Chambrier, A.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 2 (2003), s. 65-75 ISSN 0440-6605 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/01/1314 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : Proteocephalidea * taxonomy * phylogeny Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.474, year: 2003

  6. The complete maternally and paternally inherited mitochondrial genomes of the endangered freshwater mussel Solenaia carinatus (Bivalvia: Unionidae and implications for Unionidae taxonomy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Chen Huang

    Full Text Available Doubly uniparental inheritance (DUI is an exception to the typical maternal inheritance of mitochondrial (mt DNA in Metazoa, and found only in some bivalves. In species with DUI, there are two highly divergent gender-associated mt genomes: maternal (F and paternal (M, which transmit independently and show different tissue localization. Solenaia carinatus is an endangered freshwater mussel species exclusive to Poyang Lake basin, China. Anthropogenic events in the watershed greatly threaten the survival of this species. Nevertheless, the taxonomy of S. carinatus based on shell morphology is confusing, and the subfamilial placement of the genus Solenaia remains unclear. In order to clarify the taxonomic status and discuss the phylogenetic implications of family Unionidae, the entire F and M mt genomes of S. carinatus were sequenced and compared with the mt genomes of diverse freshwater mussel species. The complete F and M mt genomes of S. carinatus are 16716 bp and 17102 bp in size, respectively. The F and M mt genomes of S. carinatus diverge by about 40% in nucleotide sequence and 48% in amino acid sequence. Compared to F counterparts, the M genome shows a more compact structure. Different gene arrangements are found in these two gender-associated mt genomes. Among these, the F genome cox2-rrnS gene order is considered to be a genome-level synapomorphy for female lineage of the subfamily Gonideinae. From maternal and paternal mtDNA perspectives, the phylogenetic analyses of Unionoida indicate that S. carinatus belongs to Gonideinae. The F and M clades in freshwater mussels are reciprocal monophyly. The phylogenetic trees advocate the classification of sampled Unionidae species into four subfamilies: Gonideinae, Ambleminae, Anodontinae, and Unioninae, which is supported by the morphological characteristics of glochidia.

  7. Questioning current practice in brown bear, Ursus arctos, conservation in Europe that undervalues taxonomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gippoliti, S.

    2016-07-01

    The present paper highlights problems associated with the currently–accepted taxonomy of brown bear, Ursus arctos, and their consequences for conservation at the European level. The enormous morphological variability within Ursus arctos is not acknowledged in current taxonomy and conservation practice. Seven major clades are recognized in Ursus arctos by molecular researchers, and although Western Europe maintains most of the populations belonging to the relict Clade 1 brown bear lineage, no reference to this is made in current conservation policy. Furthermore, the tiny population of Apennine brown bears, characterized by unique skull morphology, is not even recognized as a distinct ESU (evolutionari significant unit) by current European legislation, nor is it included in the IUCN Red List. This may have serious consequences as brown bear conservation in Western Europe has been mainly based on restocking and reintroduction programs. (Author)

  8. Taxonomy of Campylobacter, Arcobacter, Helicobacter and related bacteria: current status, future prospects and immediate concerns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    On, Stephen L.W.

    2001-01-01

    systematics, there remain a number of important issues concerning the classification of various campylobacterial taxa that require careful consideration. Ultimately, these issues are relevant to many working in the field of applied microbiology, including clinicians, veterinarians, epidemiologists...... and taxonomists. The purpose of this article is briefly to review the major developments in the taxonomy of Campylobacter from its inception to the present day; summarize the most recent changes in the field; analyse current topical issues of special relevance to applied microbiologists, including identification...

  9. Orobanche caryophyllacea Sm. (Orobanchaceae in Poland: current distribution, taxonomy, plant communities and hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Piwowarczyk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the current distribution of Orobanche caryophyllacea Sm. in Poland based on a critical revision of herbarium and literature data as well as the results of my field studies. The majority of localities are in south and south-eastern Poland: Małopolska Upland, Lublin Upland, Roztocze, Przemyśl Foothills, Pieniny Mts, rarely in the valleys of the Lower Vistula and Oder rivers or Wolin island. The distribution map in Poland is included. The taxonomy, biology and ecology of the species are discussed.

  10. Orobanche flava (Orobanchaceae in Poland: current distribution, taxonomy, hosts and plant communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piwowarczyk Renata

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Orobanche flava is a species of Central European mountain ranges, mainly the Alps and Carpathian Mts. The paper presents the current distribution of O. flava in Poland based on a critical revision of herbarium and literature data as well as results of field investigations conducted between 1999 and 2014. The distribution of species is centered in southern Poland, mainly in the Carpathian Mts., and, sporadically, in the Sudeten Mts. The distribution of O. flava in Poland is mapped. The taxonomy, biology, and ecology are also discussed.

  11. Fauna Europaea: Mollusca – Bivalvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Araujo

    2015-07-01

    European freshwater bivalves belong to the Orders Unionoida and Cardiida. All the European unionoids are included in the superfamily Unionoidea, the freshwater mussels or naiads. The European cardiids belong to the following three superfamilies: Cardioidea, Cyrenoidea and Dreissenoidea. Among the Unionoidea there are the most imperilled animal groups on the planet while the Cardioidea includes the cosmopolitan genus Pisidium, the Cyrenoidea the Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea and the Dreissenoidea the famous invasive zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha. Basic information is summarized on their taxonomy and biology. Tabulations include a complete list of the current estimated families, genera and species.

  12. My home is my bazaar - A taxonomy and classification of current wireless home network protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torbensen, Rune; Hansen, Klaus Marius; Hjorth, Theis Solberg

    2011-01-01

    to considerable challenges for developers and integrators in understanding and choosing between the available wireless technologies. To further increase technology adoption and improve business risk assessments, it is necessary to determine the important properties of the technologies in order to compare them......, cost, security, etc. Third, a classification based on the taxonomy and the collected data is presented. In the final discussion, we identify a number of key aspects that could be important technology criteria for future development of home automation protocols....

  13. Current status of the genetics and molecular taxonomy of Echinococcus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, D P

    2013-11-01

    The taxonomy of Echinococcus has long been controversial. Based mainly on differences in morphology and host-parasite specificity characteristics, 16 species and 13 subspecies were originally described. Subsequently, most of these taxa were regarded as synonyms for Echinococcus granulosus and only 4 valid species were recognised: E. granulosus; E. multilocularis; E. oligarthrus and E. vogeli. But, over the past 50 years, laboratory and field observations have revealed considerable phenotypic variability between isolates of Echinococcus, particularly those of E. granulosus, which include differences in: morphology in both larval and adult stages, development in vitro and in vivo, host infectivity and specificity, chemical composition, metabolism, proteins and enzymes, pathogenicity and antigenicity. The application of molecular tools has revealed differences in nucleic acid sequences that reflect this phenotypic variation and the genetic and phenotypic characteristics complement the previous observations made by the descriptive parasitologists many years ago. The fact that some of these variants or strains are poorly or not infective to humans has resulted in a reappraisal of the public health significance of Echinococcus in areas where such variants occur. A revised taxonomy for species in the Echinococcus genus has been proposed that is generally accepted, and is based on the new molecular data and the biological and epidemiological characteristics of host-adapted species and strains.

  14. The Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching and Assessing: Current Practices at Polytechnics in Bangladesh and its Effects in Developing Students' Competences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruque A. Haolader

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Polytechnics in Bangladesh endeavour to produce quality graduates for national and international job markets. The quality of graduates depends on several factors. This study examines the implementation process of the polytechnic curriculum with the objectives of determining the current level of practices in learn-ing/teaching material design, in delivering curriculum content, in assessing students and its effect on students' competence development. Data was collected through observation, opinion survey and competence test. Qualitative and quantitative methodologies were used for data interpretation and analysis in this descriptive type of research study. Findings revealed that the learning materials are mainly theory oriented and mostly cover those contents usually common in exams. About half of teachers are aware of the taxonomy for learning, teaching and assessing, but they rarely put importance on it. In the classroom, teachers spend only a little time for delivering content at the level of apply/analyse. However, a significant number of tasks performed in labs are practical and occupation relevant and can be classified at higher levels of the taxonomy. In student assessment, the test-items assess mainly theoretical knowledge at the level of remember. The effect of these practices is reflected in demonstrating student performance in a competence test. The study concludes with some recommendations.

  15. Taxonomy Icon Data: [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Phaeodactylum tricornutum Phaeodactylum_tricornutum_L.png Phaeodactylum_tricornutum..._NL.png Phaeodactylum_tricornutum_S.png Phaeodactylum_tricornutum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ic...on/icon.cgi?i=Phaeodactylum+tricornutum&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Phaeodactylum+tricorn...utum&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Phaeodactylum+tricorn...utum&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Phaeodactylum+tricornutum&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=213 ...

  16. Taxonomy Icon Data: [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Amborella trichopoda Amborella_trichopoda_L.png Amborella_trichopoda_NL.png Amborella..._trichopoda_S.png Amborella_trichopoda_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Amborella+t...richopoda&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Amborella+trichopoda&t=NL http://biosciencedb...c.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Amborella+trichopoda&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/ta...xonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Amborella+trichopoda&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=13 ...

  17. Clinical and Laboratory Features of the Nocardia spp. Based on Current Molecular Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Elliott, Barbara A.; Brown, June M.; Conville, Patricia S.; Wallace, Richard J.

    2006-01-01

    The recent explosion of newly described species of Nocardia results from the impact in the last decade of newer molecular technology, including PCR restriction enzyme analysis and 16S rRNA sequencing. These molecular techniques have revolutionized the identification of the nocardiae by providing rapid and accurate identification of recognized nocardiae and, at the same time, revealing new species and a number of yet-to-be-described species. There are currently more than 30 species of nocardiae of human clinical significance, with the majority of isolates being N. nova complex, N. abscessus, N. transvalensis complex, N. farcinica, N. asteroides type VI (N. cyriacigeorgica), and N. brasiliensis. These species cause a wide variety of diseases and have variable drug susceptibilities. Accurate identification often requires referral to a reference laboratory with molecular capabilities, as many newer species are genetically distinct from established species yet have few or no distinguishing phenotypic characteristics. Correct identification is important in deciding the clinical relevance of a species and in the clinical management and treatment of patients with nocardial disease. This review characterizes the currently known pathogenic species of Nocardia, including clinical disease, drug susceptibility, and methods of identification. PMID:16614249

  18. Nervous system development in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas (Mollusca: Bivalvia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurchenko, Olga V; Skiteva, Olga I; Voronezhskaya, Elena E; Dyachuk, Vyacheslav A

    2018-01-01

    have not been observed previously in molluscs. Finally, we performed a morphology-based comparative analysis of neuronal structures among bivalve, conchiferan, and aculiferan species. We described the development of the nervous system during the larval development in Crassostrea gigas . These data greatly advance the currently limited understanding of neurodevelopment in bivalves and mollusks, which has hampered the generation of a ground pattern reconstruction of the last common ancestor of Mollusca. Our morphological data support phylogenomic data indicating a closer Bivalvia-Gastropoda sister group relationship than the Bivalvia-Scaphopoda (Diasoma) group relationship.

  19. Asteroid taxonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tholen, D.J.

    1989-01-01

    The spectral reflectivity of asteroid surfaces over the wavelength range of 0.3 to 1.1 μm can be used to classify these objects onto several broad groups with similar spectral characteristics. The three most recently developed taxonomies group the asteroids into 9, 11 or 14 different classes, depending on the technique used to perform the analysis. The distribution of the taxonomic classes shows that darker and redder objects become more dominant at larger heliocentric distances, while the rare asteroid types are found more frequently among the small objects of the planet-crossing population

  20. Taxonomy Icon Data: honey bee [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available honey bee Apis mellifera Arthropoda Apis_mellifera_L.png Apis_mellifera_NL.png Apis_mellife...ra_S.png Apis_mellifera_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Apis+mellifera&t=L h...ttp://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Apis+mellifera&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Apis+mellife...ra&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Apis+mellifera&t=NS ...

  1. Taxonomy Icon Data: thale cress [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available thale cress Arabidopsis thaliana Arabidopsis_thaliana_L.png Arabidopsis_thaliana_NL.png Arabidopsis_thal...iana_S.png Arabidopsis_thaliana_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Arabidopsis+thal...iana&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Arabidopsis+thaliana&t=NL http://...biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Arabidopsis+thaliana&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Arabidopsis+thaliana&t=NS ...

  2. Taxonomy Icon Data: sorghum [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sorghum Sorghum bicolor Sorghum_bicolor_L.png Sorghum_bicolor_NL.png Sorghum_bicolor_S.png Sorg...hum_bicolor_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Sorghum+bicolor&t=L http://b...iosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Sorghum+bicolor&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Sorg...hum+bicolor&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Sorghum+bicolor&t=NS ...

  3. Taxonomy Icon Data: fission yeast [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe Schizosaccharomyces_pombe_L.png Schizosaccharomyce...s_pombe_NL.png Schizosaccharomyces_pombe_S.png Schizosaccharomyces_pombe_NS.png http://biosciencedbc....jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Schizosaccharomyces+pombe&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Schizosaccharomyce...s+pombe&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Schizosaccharomyce...s+pombe&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Schizosaccharomyces+pombe&t=NS

  4. Taxonomy Icon Data: potato [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available potato Solanum tuberosum Solanum_tuberosum_L.png Solanum_tuberosum_NL.png Solanum_tuber...osum_S.png Solanum_tuberosum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Solanum+tuberosum&t...=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Solanum+tuberosum&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_...icon/icon.cgi?i=Solanum+tuberosum&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Solanum+tuberosum&t=NS ...

  5. Taxonomy Icon Data: Lotus corniculatus [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Lotus corniculatus Lotus corniculatus Lotus_corniculatus_L.png Lotus_corniculatus_NL.png Lotus_corn...iculatus_S.png Lotus_corniculatus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lotus+corn...iculatus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lotus+corniculatus&t=NL http://bioscie...ncedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lotus+corniculatus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lotus+corniculatus&t=NS ...

  6. Taxonomy Icon Data: barrel medic [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available barrel medic Medicago truncatula Medicago_truncatula_L.png Medicago_truncatula_NL.png Medi...cago_truncatula_S.png Medicago_truncatula_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Medi...cago+truncatula&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Medicago+truncatula&t=NL http://biosci...encedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Medicago+truncatula&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Medicago+truncatula&t=NS ...

  7. Taxonomy Icon Data: fruit fly [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster Arthropoda Drosophila_melanogaster_L.png Drosophila_mela...nogaster_NL.png Drosophila_melanogaster_S.png Drosophila_melanogaster_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/...taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Drosophila+melanogaster&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Drosophila+mela...nogaster&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Drosophila+mela...nogaster&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Drosophila+melanogaster&t=NS ...

  8. Taxonomy Icon Data: Lotus japonicus [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Lotus japonicus Lotus japonicus Lotus_japonicus_L.png Lotus_japonicus_NL.png Lotus_japonicus_S.png Lotus_jap...onicus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lotus+japonicus&t=L ...http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lotus+japonicus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lotus+jap...onicus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lotus+japonicus&t=NS ...

  9. Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese Ratsnake [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Japanese Ratsnake Elaphe climacophora Chordata/Vertebrata/Reptilia/etc Elaphe_climacophora_L.png Elaphe_clim...acophora_NL.png Elaphe_climacophora_S.png Elaphe_climacophora_NS.png http://bioscie...ncedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Elaphe+climacophora&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Elaphe+clima...cophora&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Elaphe+clima...cophora&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Elaphe+climacophora&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=3 ...

  10. Taxonomy Icon Data: Trypanosoma brucei [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma brucei Trypanosoma brucei Trypanosoma_brucei_L.png Trypanosoma_brucei_NL.png Trypanoso...ma_brucei_S.png Trypanosoma_brucei_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Trypanoso...ma+brucei&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Trypanosoma+brucei&t=NL http://bioscie...ncedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Trypanosoma+brucei&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp.../taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Trypanosoma+brucei&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=121 ...

  11. Taxonomy Icon Data: Schistosoma japonicum [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Schistosoma japonicum Schistosoma japonicum Platyhelminthes Schistosoma_japonicum_L.png Schistoso...ma_japonicum_NL.png Schistosoma_japonicum_S.png Schistosoma_japonicum_NS.png http://bioscience...dbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Schistosoma+japonicum&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Schistoso...ma+japonicum&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Schistoso...ma+japonicum&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Schistosoma+japonicum&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=132 ...

  12. Taxonomy Icon Data: Toxoplasma gondii [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii Toxoplasma gondii Toxoplasma_gondii_L.png Toxoplasma_gondii_NL.png Toxoplasma..._gondii_S.png Toxoplasma_gondii_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Toxoplasma...+gondii&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Toxoplasma+gondii&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.j...p/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Toxoplasma+gondii&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Toxoplas...ma+gondii&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=113 ...

  13. Taxonomy Icon Data: Anopheles stephensi [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Anopheles stephensi Anopheles stephensi Arthropoda Anopheles_stephensi_L.png Anopheles_stephen...si_NL.png Anopheles_stephensi_S.png Anopheles_stephensi_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_i...con/icon.cgi?i=Anopheles+stephensi&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Anopheles+stephensi&...t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Anopheles+stephensi&t=S htt...p://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Anopheles+stephensi&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=149 ...

  14. Taxonomy Icon Data: Planaria [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Planaria Dugesia japonica Platyhelminthes Dugesia_japonica_L.png Dugesia_japonica_NL.png Dugesia_jap...onica_S.png Dugesia_japonica_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Dugesia+jap...onica&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Dugesia+japonica&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.j...p/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Dugesia+japonica&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_...icon/icon.cgi?i=Dugesia+japonica&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=124 ...

  15. Taxonomy Icon Data: coelacanth [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae Chordata/Vertebrata/Pisciformes Latimeria_chalumnae_L.png Latime...ria_chalumnae_NL.png Latimeria_chalumnae_S.png Latimeria_chalumnae_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.j...p/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Latimeria+chalumnae&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Latimeri...a+chalumnae&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Latimeria+chalu...mnae&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Latimeria+chalumnae&t=NS ...

  16. Taxonomy Icon Data: mandrill [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mandrill Mandrillus sphinx Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Primate Mandrillus_sphinx..._L.png Mandrillus_sphinx_NL.png Mandrillus_sphinx_S.png Mandrillus_sphinx_NS.png http://biosci...encedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Mandrillus+sphinx&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Mandrillus+sphinx...&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Mandrillus+sphinx...&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Mandrillus+sphinx&t=NS ...

  17. Taxonomy Icon Data: sperm whale [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sperm whale Physeter macrocephalus Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Cetacea Physeter_macrocephal...us_L.png Physeter_macrocephalus_NL.png Physeter_macrocephalus_S.png Physeter_macrocephal...us_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Physeter+macrocephalus&t=L http://bioscience...dbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Physeter+macrocephalus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc....jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Physeter+macrocephalus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Physeter+macrocephalus&t=NS ...

  18. Taxonomy Icon Data: Oryzias javanicus [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oryzias javanicus Oryzias javanicus Chordata/Vertebrata/Pisciformes Oryzias_javanicus_L.png Oryzias_java...nicus_NL.png Oryzias_javanicus_S.png Oryzias_javanicus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/t...axonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Oryzias+javanicus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Oryzias+javan...icus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Oryzias+javanicus&t=S ...http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Oryzias+javanicus&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=77 ...

  19. Taxonomy Icon Data: Asiatic elephant [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Asiatic elephant Elephas maximus Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/etc. Elephas_maxim...us_L.png Elephas_maximus_NL.png Elephas_maximus_S.png Elephas_maximus_NS.png http://bioscienced...bc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Elephas+maximus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Elephas+maxim...us&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Elephas+maximus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Elephas+maximus&t=NS ...

  20. Taxonomy Icon Data: Asiatic tapir [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Asiatic tapir Tapirus indicus Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/etc. Tapirus_indicus_L.png Tapi...rus_indicus_NL.png Tapirus_indicus_S.png Tapirus_indicus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc....jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tapirus+indicus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tapirus+ind...icus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tapirus+indicus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tapirus+indicus&t=NS ...

  1. Taxonomy Icon Data: okapi [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available okapi Okapia johnstoni Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Artiodactyla Okapi...a_johnstoni_L.png Okapia_johnstoni_NL.png Okapia_johnstoni_S.png Okapia_johnstoni_NS.png http://bioscienc...edbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Okapia+johnstoni&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Okapi...a+johnstoni&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Okapia+johnston...i&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Okapia+johnstoni&t=NS ...

  2. Taxonomy Icon Data: fathead minnow [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available fathead minnow Pimephales promelas Chordata/Vertebrata/Pisciformes Pimephales_promela...s_L.png Pimephales_promelas_NL.png Pimephales_promelas_S.png Pimephales_promelas_NS.png http://bioscienced...bc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Pimephales+promelas&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Pimephales+promela...s&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Pimephales+promela...s&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Pimephales+promelas&t=NS ...

  3. Taxonomy Icon Data: giant panda [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available giant panda Ailuropoda melanoleuca Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Carnivora Ailuropoda_mela...noleuca_L.png Ailuropoda_melanoleuca_NL.png Ailuropoda_melanoleuca_S.png Ailuropoda_mela...noleuca_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ailuropoda+melanoleuca&t=L http://bioscien...cedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ailuropoda+melanoleuca&t=NL http://biosciencedb...c.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ailuropoda+melanoleuca&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ailuropoda+melanoleuca&t=NS ...

  4. Taxonomy Icon Data: Guinea baboon [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Guinea baboon Papio papio Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Primate Papio_papio_L.png Papio_papi...o_NL.png Papio_papio_S.png Papio_papio_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papio+papi...o&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papio+papio&t=NL http://bioscien...cedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papio+papio&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papio+papio&t=NS ...

  5. Taxonomy Icon Data: white shark [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available white shark Carcharodon carcharias Chordata/Vertebrata/Pisciformes Carcharodon_carcharias_L.png Carcharo...don_carcharias_NL.png Carcharodon_carcharias_S.png Carcharodon_carcharias_NS.png http:/.../biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Carcharodon+carcharias&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Carcharo...don+carcharias&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Carcharo...don+carcharias&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Carcharodon+carcharias&t=NS ...

  6. Taxonomies of Educational Objective Domain

    OpenAIRE

    Eman Ghanem Nayef; Nik Rosila Nik Yaacob; Hairul Nizam Ismail

    2013-01-01

    This paper highlights an effort to study the educational objective domain taxonomies including Bloom’s taxonomy, Lorin Anderson’s taxonomy, and Wilson’s taxonomy. In this study a comparison among these three taxonomies have been done. Results show that Bloom’s taxonomy is more suitable as an analysis tool to Educational Objective domain.

  7. Taxonomy Icon Data: moss [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available moss Physcomitrella patens subsp. patens. Physcomitrella_patens_subsp_patens_L.png Physcomitrella_patens..._subsp_patens_NL.png Physcomitrella_patens_subsp_patens_S.png Physcomitrella_patens_subsp_patens..._NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Physcomitrella+patens+subsp%2e+patens%2e&t...=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Physcomitrella+patens+subsp%2e+patens...%2e&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Physcomitrella+patens+subsp%2e+patens%2e&t

  8. Taxonomy Icon Data: Arabian camel [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Arabian camel Camelus dromedarius Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Artiodactyla Camel...us_dromedarius_L.png Camelus_dromedarius_NL.png Camelus_dromedarius_S.png Camelus_dromedarius_...NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+dromedarius&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxo...nomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+dromedarius&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camel...us+dromedarius&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+dromedarius&t=NS ...

  9. Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese serow [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Japanese serow Capricornis crispus Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Artiodactyla Capricorn...is_crispus_L.png Capricornis_crispus_NL.png Capricornis_crispus_S.png Capricornis_crispus..._NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Capricornis+crispus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/tax...onomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Capricornis+crispus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Capricorn...is+crispus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Capricornis+crispus&t=NS ...

  10. Taxonomy Icon Data: dog [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available dog Canis lupus familiaris Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Carnivora Canis_lupus..._familiaris_L.png Canis_lupus_familiaris_NL.png Canis_lupus_familiaris_S.png Canis_lupus_familiari...s_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Canis+lupus+familiaris&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp.../taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Canis+lupus+familiaris&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/tax...onomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Canis+lupus+familiaris&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Canis+lupus+familiaris&t=NS ...

  11. Taxonomy Icon Data: llama [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available llama Lama glama Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Artiodactyla Lama_glama_L.png Lama_glama_NL.png Lama_glama_S.png Lama_glama..._NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lama+glam...a&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lama+glama&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/t...axonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lama+glama&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lama+glama&t=NS ...

  12. Characters in Arctostaphylos taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Jon E.; Parker, V. Thomas; Vasey, Michael C.

    2017-01-01

    There is value in understanding the past and how it has affected the present. Science focuses on empirical findings, and we know that our prior experiences and those of our predecessors play important roles in determining how we interpret the present. We learn from accomplishments and foibles of predecessors and appreciate the real life experiences we have gone through. In our studies of the genus Arctostaphylos Adans. we have been struck by the fascinating stories surrounding taxonomists who have played roles in the development of our current understanding of the group. In addition to providing insights, they sometimes provide humor and lessons on the value of competition versus collaboration. We offer this history of the humans that forged the taxonomy behind Arctostaphylos classification in this light.

  13. EPA Web Taxonomy

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EPA's Web Taxonomy is a faceted hierarchical vocabulary used to tag web pages with terms from a controlled vocabulary. Tagging enables search and discovery of EPA's...

  14. Teaching Taxonomy: How Many Kingdoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Emily

    2008-01-01

    Taxonomy, the identification, naming, and classification of living things, is an indispensable unit in any biology curriculum and indeed, an integral part of biological science. Taxonomy catalogues life's diversity and is an essential tool for communication. Textbook discussions of taxonomy range anywhere from three to eight domains of kingdoms.…

  15. Taxonomy Icon Data: Old world swallowtail [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Old world swallowtail Papilio machaon Arthropoda Papilio_machaon_L.png Papilio_machaon_NL.png Papilio_machao...n_S.png Papilio_machaon_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papilio+machao...n&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papilio+machaon&t=NL http://biosciencedbc....jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papilio+machaon&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_...icon/icon.cgi?i=Papilio+machaon&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=47 ...

  16. Genomic taxonomy of vibrios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Cristiane C.; Vicente, Ana Carolina P.; Souza, Rangel C.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vibrio taxonomy has been based on a polyphasic approach. In this study, we retrieve useful taxonomic information (i.e. data that can be used to distinguish different taxonomic levels, such as species and genera) from 32 genome sequences of different vibrio species. We use a variety of...

  17. Comment: 61 [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available .png Taxonomy icon (c) Database Center for Life Science licensed under CC Attribution2.1 Japan イメージを差し替えました(添付は旧イメージ) ttamura 2009/04/21 12:50:03 ...

  18. Company Taxonomy development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Haakon; Ørnager, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    analyses of search log-files from WFP intranet portal (WFPgo) from September to November 2013, the results were applied and a suggested taxonomy tested at workshops conducted for the staff in headquarters. Findings – The results reveal an organization with a high demand for easier access to information...

  19. Comment: 215 [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 215.png Taxonomy icon (c) Database Center for Life Science licensed under CC Attribution2.1 Japan アイコン:電子顕微鏡バージョン bando 2010/02/15 15:30:03 2010/02/15 15:30:03 ...

  20. Taxonomy of Payments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedman, Jonas; Tan, Felix B.; Holst, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    that impact payers’ choice of payment instruments. Design/methodology/approach: Through in-depth interviews using the repertory grid technique, the authors explored 15 payers’ perceptions of six payment instruments, including coins, banknotes, debit cards, credit cards, mobile payments, and online banking....... The approach draws heavily on organizational systematics to better understand payers’ choice of payment instruments. Findings: A four-category taxonomy of payments was developed. The authors refer to the taxonomy as the 4Ps: the purchase, the payer, the payment instrument, and the physical technology...... or checks. Research limitations/implications: The findings suggest that payers view payment instruments in a much broader sense, including context, control, or cultural beliefs. Consequently, the authors suggest that researchers try to understand the essence of an innovation before assuming any economic...

  1. Taxonomy Icon Data: aye-aye [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available aye-aye Daubentonia madagascariensis Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Primate Daubentonia_madaga...scariensis_L.png Daubentonia_madagascariensis_NL.png Daubentonia_madagascariensis_S.png Daubentonia_madagasc...ariensis_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Daubentonia+madagascar...iensis&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Daubentonia+madagascar...iensis&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Daubentonia+madagascariensis&t=S http://bi

  2. Comment: 219 [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Japanese medaka Oryzias latipes Oryzias_latipes_L.png 219.png Taxonomy icon (c) Database Center for Life Sci...ence licensed under CC Attribution2.1 Japan アイコン:メダカ HNI-Ⅱ系統バージョン bando 2010/02/15 15:31:07 2010/02/16 09:53:27 ...

  3. Taxonomy Icon Data: Diplazium tomitaroanum Masam [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Diplazium tomitaroanum Masam Diplazium tomitaroanum Masam Diplazium_tomitaroanum_Masam_L.png Diplazium_tomit...aroanum_Masam_NL.png Diplazium_tomitaroanum_Masam_S.png Diplazium_tomitaroanum_Masa...m_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Diplazium+tomitaroanum+Masam&t=L http://bioscience...dbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Diplazium+tomitaroanum+Masam&t=NL http://bioscien...cedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Diplazium+tomitaroanum+Masam&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Diplazium+tomitaroanum+Masam&t=NS ...

  4. Taxonomy Icon Data: Javan tree shrew [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Javan tree shrew Tupaia javanica Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/etc. Tupaia_java...nica_L.png Tupaia_javanica_NL.png Tupaia_javanica_S.png Tupaia_javanica_NS.png http://bioscienced...bc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tupaia+javanica&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tupaia+java...nica&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tupaia+javanica&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tupaia+javanica&t=NS ...

  5. Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese Bush Warbler [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Japanese Bush Warbler Cettia diphone Chordata/Vertebrata/Aves Cettia_diphone_L.png Cettia_diphone..._NL.png Cettia_diphone_S.png Cettia_diphone_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Cettia+diphone...&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Cettia+diphone&t=NL http://bioscie...ncedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Cettia+diphone&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/tax...onomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Cettia+diphone&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=26 ...

  6. Taxonomy Icon Data: Ptychodera flava Eschscholtz (Acorn worm) [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Ptychodera flava Eschscholtz (Acorn worm) Ptychodera flava Hemichordata Ptychodera_flava_L.png Ptycho...dera_flava_NL.png Ptychodera_flava_S.png Ptychodera_flava_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/t...axonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ptychodera+flava&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ptychodera+fla...va&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ptychodera+flava&t=S htt...p://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ptychodera+flava&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=161 ...

  7. Taxonomy Icon Data: wild Bactrian camel [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available wild Bactrian camel Camelus ferus Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Artiodactyla Camel...us_ferus_L.png Camelus_ferus_NL.png Camelus_ferus_S.png Camelus_ferus_NS.png http://bioscience...dbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+ferus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+f...erus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+ferus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+ferus&t=NS ...

  8. Taxonomy Icon Data: Pacific electric ray [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pacific electric ray Torpedo californica Chordata/Vertebrata/Pisciformes Torpedo_californica_L.png Torpedo..._californica_NL.png Torpedo_californica_S.png Torpedo_californica_NS.png http://biosc...iencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Torpedo+californica&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Torpedo...+californica&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Torpedo...+californica&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Torpedo+californica&t=NS ...

  9. Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese tree frog [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Japanese tree frog Hyla japonica Chordata/Vertebrata/Amphibia Hyla_japonica_L.png Hyla_jap...onica_NL.png Hyla_japonica_S.png Hyla_japonica_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Hyla+jap...onica&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Hyla+japonica&t=NL http://biosciencedbc....jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Hyla+japonica&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Hyla+jap

  10. Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese giant salamander [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Japanese giant salamander Andrias japonicus Chordata/Vertebrata/Amphibia Andrias_japonicus_L.png Andrias_jap...onicus_NL.png Andrias_japonicus_S.png Andrias_japonicus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc....jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Andrias+japonicus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Andrias+jap...onicus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Andrias+japonicus...&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Andrias+japonicus&t=NS ...

  11. Comparative genomics of vesicomyid clam (Bivalvia: Mollusca chemosynthetic symbionts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girguis Peter R

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Vesicomyidae (Bivalvia: Mollusca are a family of clams that form symbioses with chemosynthetic gamma-proteobacteria. They exist in environments such as hydrothermal vents and cold seeps and have a reduced gut and feeding groove, indicating a large dependence on their endosymbionts for nutrition. Recently, two vesicomyid symbiont genomes were sequenced, illuminating the possible nutritional contributions of the symbiont to the host and making genome-wide evolutionary analyses possible. Results To examine the genomic evolution of the vesicomyid symbionts, a comparative genomics framework, including the existing genomic data combined with heterologous microarray hybridization results, was used to analyze conserved gene content in four vesicomyid symbiont genomes. These four symbionts were chosen to include a broad phylogenetic sampling of the vesicomyid symbionts and represent distinct chemosynthetic environments: cold seeps and hydrothermal vents. Conclusion The results of this comparative genomics analysis emphasize the importance of the symbionts' chemoautotrophic metabolism within their hosts. The fact that these symbionts appear to be metabolically capable autotrophs underscores the extent to which the host depends on them for nutrition and reveals the key to invertebrate colonization of these challenging environments.

  12. Diagnosis - the limiting focus of taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturmberg, Joachim P; Martin, Carmel M

    2016-02-01

    The focus on the diagnosis is a pivotal aspect of medical practice since antiquity. Diagnostic taxonomy helped to categorize ailments to improve medical care, and in its social sense resulted in validation of the sick role for some, but marginalization or stigmatization for others. In the medical industrial complex, diagnostic taxonomy structured health care financing, management and practitioner remuneration. However, with increasing demands from multiple agencies, there are increasing unintended and unwarranted consequences of our current taxonomies and diagnostic processes resulting from the conglomeration of underpinning concepts, theories, information and motivations. We argue that the increasing focus on the diagnosis resulted in excessive compartmentalization - 'partialism' - of medical practice, diminishing medical care and being naively simplistic in light of the emerging understanding of the interconnected nature of the diseasome. The human is a complex organic system of interconnecting dynamics and feedback loops responding to internal and external forces including genetic, epigenetic and environmental attractors, rather than the sum of multiple discrete organs which can develop isolated diseases or multiple morbidities. Solutions to these unintended consequences of many contemporary health system processes involve revisiting the nature of diagnostic taxonomies and the processes of their construction. A dynamic taxonomic framework would shift to more relevant attractors at personal, clinical and health system levels recognizing the non-linear nature of health and disease. Human health at an individual, group and population level is the ability to adapt to internal and external stressors with resilience throughout the life course, yet diagnostic taxonomies are increasingly constructed around fixed anchors. Understanding diagnosis as dissecting, pigeonholing or bean counting (learning by dividing) is no longer useful, the challenge for the future is to

  13. Tumor taxonomy for the developmental lineage classification of neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berman, Jules J

    2004-01-01

    The new 'Developmental lineage classification of neoplasms' was described in a prior publication. The classification is simple (the entire hierarchy is described with just 39 classifiers), comprehensive (providing a place for every tumor of man), and consistent with recent attempts to characterize tumors by cytogenetic and molecular features. A taxonomy is a list of the instances that populate a classification. The taxonomy of neoplasia attempts to list every known term for every known tumor of man. The taxonomy provides each concept with a unique code and groups synonymous terms under the same concept. A Perl script validated successive drafts of the taxonomy ensuring that: 1) each term occurs only once in the taxonomy; 2) each term occurs in only one tumor class; 3) each concept code occurs in one and only one hierarchical position in the classification; and 4) the file containing the classification and taxonomy is a well-formed XML (eXtensible Markup Language) document. The taxonomy currently contains 122,632 different terms encompassing 5,376 neoplasm concepts. Each concept has, on average, 23 synonyms. The taxonomy populates 'The developmental lineage classification of neoplasms,' and is available as an XML file, currently 9+ Megabytes in length. A representation of the classification/taxonomy listing each term followed by its code, followed by its full ancestry, is available as a flat-file, 19+ Megabytes in length. The taxonomy is the largest nomenclature of neoplasms, with more than twice the number of neoplasm names found in other medical nomenclatures, including the 2004 version of the Unified Medical Language System, the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terminology, the National Cancer Institute's Thesaurus, and the International Classification of Diseases Oncolology version. This manuscript describes a comprehensive taxonomy of neoplasia that collects synonymous terms under a unique code number and assigns each

  14. The Pleurobemini (Bivalvia: Unionida) revisited: Molecular species delineation using a mitochondrial DNA gene reveals multiple conspecifics and undescribed species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Kentaro; Hayes, David M.; Harris, John L.; Johnson, Nathan A.; Morrison, Cheryl L.; Eackles, Michael S.; King, Tim; Jones, Jess W.; Hallerman, Eric M.; Christian, Alan D.; Randklev, Charles R.

    2018-01-01

    The Pleurobemini (Bivalvia: Unionida) represent approximately one-third of freshwater mussel diversity in North America. Species identification within this group is challenging due to morphological convergence and phenotypic plasticity. Accurate species identification, including characterization of currently unrecognized taxa, is required to develop effective conservation strategies because many species in the group are imperiled. We examined 573 cox1 sequences from 110 currently recognized species (including 13 Fusconaia and 21 Pleurobema species) to understand phylogenetic relationships among pleurobemine species (mainly Fusconaia and Pleurobema) and to delineate species boundaries. The results of phylogenetic analyses showed no geographic structure within widespread species and illustrated a close relationship between Elliptio lanceolata and Parvaspina collina. Constraint tests supported monophyly of the genera Fusconaia and Pleurobema, including the subgenus P. (Sintoxia). Furthermore, results revealed multiple conspecifics, including P. hanleyianum and P. troschelianum, P. chattanoogaense and P. decisum, P. clava and P. oviforme, P. rubrum and P. sintoxia, F. askewi and F. lananensis, and F. cerina and F. flava. Species delimitation analyses identified three currently unrecognized taxa (two in Fusconaia and one in Pleurobema). Further investigation using additional genetic markers and other lines of evidence (e.g., morphology, life history, ecology) are necessary before any taxonomic changes are formalized.

  15. Taxonomy Icon Data: African savanna elephant [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available African savanna elephant Loxodonta africana Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/etc. Loxodonta_afri...cana_L.png Loxodonta_africana_NL.png Loxodonta_africana_S.png Loxodonta_africana_NS....png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Loxodonta+africana&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Loxodonta+africana&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Loxodonta+afric...ana&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Loxodonta+africana&t=NS ...

  16. Taxonomy Icon Data: North Pacific right whale [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available North Pacific right whale Eubalaena japonica Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eu...theria/Cetacea Eubalaena_japonica_L.png Eubalaena_japonica_NL.png Eubalaena_japonica_S.png Eubalaena_japonic...a_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Eubalaena+japonica&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/tax...onomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Eubalaena+japonica&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ic...on/icon.cgi?i=Eubalaena+japonica&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Eubalaena+japonica&t=NS ...

  17. Genomic taxonomy of vibrios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iida Tetsuya

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vibrio taxonomy has been based on a polyphasic approach. In this study, we retrieve useful taxonomic information (i.e. data that can be used to distinguish different taxonomic levels, such as species and genera from 32 genome sequences of different vibrio species. We use a variety of tools to explore the taxonomic relationship between the sequenced genomes, including Multilocus Sequence Analysis (MLSA, supertrees, Average Amino Acid Identity (AAI, genomic signatures, and Genome BLAST atlases. Our aim is to analyse the usefulness of these tools for species identification in vibrios. Results We have generated four new genome sequences of three Vibrio species, i.e., V. alginolyticus 40B, V. harveyi-like 1DA3, and V. mimicus strains VM573 and VM603, and present a broad analyses of these genomes along with other sequenced Vibrio species. The genome atlas and pangenome plots provide a tantalizing image of the genomic differences that occur between closely related sister species, e.g. V. cholerae and V. mimicus. The vibrio pangenome contains around 26504 genes. The V. cholerae core genome and pangenome consist of 1520 and 6923 genes, respectively. Pangenomes might allow different strains of V. cholerae to occupy different niches. MLSA and supertree analyses resulted in a similar phylogenetic picture, with a clear distinction of four groups (Vibrio core group, V. cholerae-V. mimicus, Aliivibrio spp., and Photobacterium spp.. A Vibrio species is defined as a group of strains that share > 95% DNA identity in MLSA and supertree analysis, > 96% AAI, ≤ 10 genome signature dissimilarity, and > 61% proteome identity. Strains of the same species and species of the same genus will form monophyletic groups on the basis of MLSA and supertree. Conclusion The combination of different analytical and bioinformatics tools will enable the most accurate species identification through genomic computational analysis. This endeavour will culminate in

  18. Taxonomy Icon Data: Synechocystis sp.PCC 6803 [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Synechocystis sp.PCC 6803 Synechocystis sp.PCC 6803 Synechocystis_sp_PCC_6803_L.png Synecho...cystis_sp_PCC_6803_NL.png Synechocystis_sp_PCC_6803_S.png Synechocystis_sp_PCC_6803_NS.png http://bi...osciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Synechocystis+sp%2ePCC+6803&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Synecho...cystis+sp%2ePCC+6803&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Synecho...cystis+sp%2ePCC+6803&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Synechocystis

  19. DIVERSITAS DAN KERAPATAN MANGROVE, GASTROPODA DAN BIVALVIA DI ESTUARI PERANCAK, BALI

    OpenAIRE

    Susiana; Ali, Syamsu Alam; Rukminasari, Nita

    2011-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan membandingkan diversitas dan kerapatan mangrove dengan kepadatan gastropoda dan bivalvia di mangrove alami dan rehabilitasi. Pengukuran ekosistem mangrove menggunakan transek kuadrat 10 m x 10 m. Kelimpahan dan kepadatan gastropoda dan bialvia menggunakan transek kuadrat berukuran 1 m x 1 m. Analisis nMDS, cluster untuk melihat hubungan karekteristik mangrove alami dan rehabilitasi dianalisis secara deskriptif dan analisis regresi untuk mendetermi...

  20. Constructing a Business Model Taxonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Pernille; Nielsen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    the quality of business model taxonomy studies in the future are identified. Originality/Value: The paper highlights the benefits and potential implications of designing business model taxonomy studies and makes the case for ensuring the quality of future studies relating to e.g. performance. Reviewing......Abstract Purpose: The paper proposes a research design recipe capable of leading to future business model taxonomies and discusses the potential benefits and implications of achieving this goal. Design/Methodology/Approach: The paper provides a review of relevant scholarly literature about business...... models to clarify the subject as well as highlighting the importance of past studies of business model classifications. In addition it reviews the scholarly literature on relevant methodological approaches, such as cluster analysis and latent class analysis, for constructing a business model taxonomy...

  1. A taxonomy of inductive problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Charles; Jern, Alan

    2014-02-01

    Inductive inferences about objects, features, categories, and relations have been studied for many years, but there are few attempts to chart the range of inductive problems that humans are able to solve. We present a taxonomy of inductive problems that helps to clarify the relationships between familiar inductive problems such as generalization, categorization, and identification, and that introduces new inductive problems for psychological investigation. Our taxonomy is founded on the idea that semantic knowledge is organized into systems of objects, features, categories, and relations, and we attempt to characterize all of the inductive problems that can arise when these systems are partially observed. Recent studies have begun to address some of the new problems in our taxonomy, and future work should aim to develop unified theories of inductive reasoning that explain how people solve all of the problems in the taxonomy.

  2. A taxonomy for human reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beattie, J.D.; Iwasa-Madge, K.M.

    1984-01-01

    A human interaction taxonomy (classification scheme) was developed to facilitate human reliability analysis in a probabilistic safety evaluation of a nuclear power plant, being performed at Ontario Hydro. A human interaction occurs, by definition, when operators or maintainers manipulate, or respond to indication from, a plant component or system. The taxonomy aids the fault tree analyst by acting as a heuristic device. It helps define the range and type of human errors to be identified in the construction of fault trees, while keeping the identification by different analysts consistent. It decreases the workload associated with preliminary quantification of the large number of identified interactions by including a category called 'simple interactions'. Fault tree analysts quantify these according to a procedure developed by a team of human reliability specialists. The interactions which do not fit into this category are called 'complex' and are quantified by the human reliability team. The taxonomy is currently being used in fault tree construction in a probabilistic safety evaluation. As far as can be determined at this early stage, the potential benefits of consistency and completeness in identifying human interactions and streamlining the initial quantification are being realized

  3. Overview of the taxonomy of zooxanthellate Scleractinia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veron, John

    2013-11-01

    Coral taxonomy has entered a historical phase where nomenclatorial uncertainty is rapidly increasing. The fundamental cause is mandatory adherence to historical monographs that lack essential information of all sorts, and also to type specimens, if they exist at all, that are commonly unrecognizable fragments or are uncharacteristic of the species they are believed to represent. Historical problems, including incorrect subsequent type species designations, also create uncertainty for many well-established genera. The advent of in situ studies in the 1970s revealed these issues; now molecular technology is again changing the taxonomic landscape. The competing methodologies involved must be seen in context if they are to avoid becoming an additional basis for continuing nomenclatorial instability. To prevent this happening, the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) will need to focus on rules that consolidate well-established nomenclature and allow for the designation of new type specimens that are unambiguous, and which include both skeletal material and soft tissue for molecular study. Taxonomic and biogeographic findings have now become linked, with molecular methodologies providing the capacity to re-visit past taxonomic decisions, and to extend both taxonomy and biogeography into the realm of evolutionary theory. It is proposed that most species will ultimately be seen as operational taxonomic units that are human rather than natural constructs, which in consequence will always have fuzzy morphological, genetic, and distribution boundaries. The pathway ahead calls for the integration of morphological and molecular taxonomies, and for website delivery of information that crosses current discipline boundaries.

  4. A Taxonomy of Manufacturing Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey G. Miller; Aleda V. Roth

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the development and analysis of a numerical taxonomy of manufacturing strategies. The taxonomy was developed with standard methods of cluster analysis, and is based on the relative importance attached to eleven competitive capabilities defining the manufacturing task of 164 large American manufacturing business units. Three distinct clusters of manufacturing strategy groups were observed. Though there is an industry effect, all three manufacturing strategy types are obser...

  5. The Distributed Wind Cost Taxonomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsyth, Trudy; Jimenez, Tony; Preus, Robert; Tegen, Suzanne; Baring-Gould, Ian

    2017-03-28

    To date, there has been no standard method or tool to analyze the installed and operational costs for distributed wind turbine systems. This report describes the development of a classification system, or taxonomy, for distributed wind turbine project costs. The taxonomy establishes a framework to help collect, sort, and compare distributed wind cost data that mirrors how the industry categorizes information. The taxonomy organizes costs so they can be aggregated from installers, developers, vendors, and other sources without losing cost details. Developing a peer-reviewed taxonomy is valuable to industry stakeholders because a common understanding the details of distributed wind turbine costs and balance of station costs is a first step to identifying potential high-value cost reduction opportunities. Addressing cost reduction potential can help increase distributed wind's competitiveness and propel the U.S. distributed wind industry forward. The taxonomy can also be used to perform cost comparisons between technologies and track trends for distributed wind industry costs in the future. As an initial application and piloting of the taxonomy, preliminary cost data were collected for projects of different sizes and from different regions across the contiguous United States. Following the methods described in this report, these data are placed into the established cost categories.

  6. The integrative future of taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vences Miguel

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taxonomy is the biological discipline that identifies, describes, classifies and names extant and extinct species and other taxa. Nowadays, species taxonomy is confronted with the challenge to fully incorporate new theory, methods and data from disciplines that study the origin, limits and evolution of species. Results Integrative taxonomy has been proposed as a framework to bring together these conceptual and methodological developments. Here we review perspectives for an integrative taxonomy that directly bear on what species are, how they can be discovered, and how much diversity is on Earth. Conclusions We conclude that taxonomy needs to be pluralistic to improve species discovery and description, and to develop novel protocols to produce the much-needed inventory of life in a reasonable time. To cope with the large number of candidate species revealed by molecular studies of eukaryotes, we propose a classification scheme for those units that will facilitate the subsequent assembly of data sets for the formal description of new species under the Linnaean system, and will ultimately integrate the activities of taxonomists and molecular biologists.

  7. The Pleurobemini (Bivalvia: Unionida) revisited: Molecular species delineation using a mitochondrial DNA gene reveals multiple conspecifics and undescribed species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Kentaro; Hayes, David M.; Harris, John L.; Johnson, Nathan A.; Morrison, Cheryl L.; Eackles, Michael S.; King, Tim; Jones, Jess W.; Hallerman, Eric M.; Christian, Alan D.; Randklev, Charles R.

    2018-01-01

    The Pleurobemini (Bivalvia: Unionida) represent approximately one-third of freshwater mussel diversity in North America. Species identification within this group is challenging due to morphological convergence and phenotypic plasticity. Accurate species identification, including characterisation of currently unrecognised taxa, is required to develop effective conservation strategies because many species in the group are imperiled. We examined 575 cox1 sequences from 110 currently recognised species (including 13 Fusconaia and 21 Pleurobema species) to understand phylogenetic relationships among pleurobemine species (mainly Fusconaia and Pleurobema) and to delineate species boundaries. The results of phylogenetic analyses showed no geographic structure within widespread species and illustrated a close relationship between Elliptio lanceolata and Parvaspina collina. Constraint tests supported monophyly of the genera Fusconaia and Pleurobema, including the subgenus P. (Sintoxia). Furthermore, results revealed multiple conspecifics, including P. hanleyianum and P. troschelianum, P. chattanoogaense and P. decisum, P. clava and P. oviforme, P. rubrum and P. sintoxia, F. askewi and F. lananensis, and F. cerina and F. flava. Species delimitation analyses identified three currently unrecognised taxa (two in Fusconaia and one in Pleurobema). Further investigation using additional genetic markers and other lines of evidence (e.g. morphology, life history, ecology) are necessary before any taxonomic changes are formalised.

  8. Instruments and Taxonomy of Workplace Bullying in Health Care Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Jun Park, PhD, RN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Purpose: This study was aimed to evaluate the methodological issues and comprehensiveness of workplace bullying instruments and to suggest a taxonomy of psychological abuse. Methods: Nineteen instruments applied in health care organizations and 469 questionnaire items mainly regarding psychological abuse were collected through a literature review. Three researchers classified the questionnaire items according to a “taxonomy of psychological abuse in the workplace.” Results: Many instruments of workplace bullying were developed in the 2000s using a reflective measurement model, but their psychometric property was not sufficient and the measurement model is questioned. Based on the questionnaire items, the “taxonomy of psychological abuse in the workplace” was modified by adding two new subcategories (unachievable work and unfair treatment and clarifying some operational definitions. According to the modified taxonomy of 11 (subcategories, the reviewed instruments assessed 6.5 (subcategories on average. No instrument measured all (subcategories. Category 4.2 (disrespect, humiliation, and rejection of the person was measured in all instruments, followed by Categories 5 (professional discredit and denigration and 1.2 (social isolation behaviors. Conclusion: The current instruments are not comprehensive enough. It is suggested that the modified taxonomy is verified and guide more reliable and inclusive instruments in the future. Furthermore, a formative measurement model, which defines a bullying as an inventory of different types of behaviors, should be used. Keywords: aggression, bullying, hostility, mobbing, surveys and questionnaires

  9. ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Rhabdoviridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Peter J; Blasdell, Kim R; Calisher, Charles H; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Kondo, Hideki; Kurath, Gael; Longdon, Ben; Stone, David M; Tesh, Robert B; Tordo, Noël; Vasilakis, Nikos; Whitfield, Anna E; Nbsp Ictv Report Consortium

    2018-04-01

    The family Rhabdoviridae comprises viruses with negative-sense (-) single-stranded RNA genomes of 10.8-16.1 kb. Virions are typically enveloped with bullet-shaped or bacilliform morphology but can also be non-enveloped filaments. Rhabdoviruses infect plants and animals including mammals, birds, reptiles and fish, as well as arthropods which serve as single hosts or act as biological vectors for transmission to animals or plants. Rhabdoviruses include important pathogens of humans, livestock, fish and agricultural crops. This is a summary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the taxonomy of Rhabdoviridae, which is available at www.ictv.global/report/rhabdoviridae.

  10. ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Pleolipoviridae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bamford, D.H.; Pietila, M.K.; Roine, E.; Atanasova, N.S.; Dienstbier, Ana; Oksanen, H.M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 98, č. 12 (2017), s. 2916-2917 ISSN 0022-1317 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Pleolipoviridae * taxonomy * Halorubrum pleomorphic virus 1 Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 2.838, year: 2016

  11. Population dynamics of freshwater oyster Etheria elliptica (Bivalvia: Etheriidae in the Pendjari River (Benin-Western Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akélé G.D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Etheria elliptica (Bivalvia: Etheriidae is the only freshwater oyster occurring in Africa. The current study provides the first data on the population structure, growth, age, mortality and exploitation status of this species in the Pendjari River. E. elliptica length-frequency data were collected monthly from January to December 2009 and analyzed with FiSAT software. Population parameters including the asymptotic length (L∞ and growth coefficient (K were assessed to evaluate the stock status. The recruitment pattern was modeled with a FiSAT routine. The asymptotic length (L∞ was 14.75 cm, while the growth coefficient (K was 0.38 year-1. The growth performance index (ø′ reached 1.92. Specimens of Etheria elliptica reached a mean size of 4.66 cm and 6.41 cm at the end of one year and 1.5 years, respectively. We estimated total mortality (Z, natural mortality (M and fishing mortality (F to be 2.90 year-1, 1.16 year-1 and 1.74 year-1, respectively. The recruitment pattern was continuous over the year with one major peak event during the rainy season (July. The exploitation rate (E = 0.60 revealed that the freshwater oyster was probably facing overexploitation due to lack of a minimum limit size and also due to an increase in the harvesting effort. Therefore, efficient management methods were urgently required to conserve the species. The return of empty shells into the water to increase the recruitment surface, rotation planning among harvesting sites and the imposition of a minimum limit size were recommendations made in order to ensure the sustainable exploitation of wild stocks.

  12. Role of genomic typing in taxonomy, evolutionary genetics, and microbial epidemiology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belkum, van A.; Struelens, M.; Visser, de J.A.G.M.; Verburgh, H.; Tibayrenc., M.

    2001-01-01

    Currently, genetic typing of microorganisms is widely used in several major fields of microbiological research. Taxonomy, research aimed at elucidation of evolutionary dynamics or phylogenetic relationships, population genetics of microorganisms, and microbial epidemiology all rely on genetic typing

  13. Role of genomic typing in taxonomy, evolutionary genetics, and microbial epidemiology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.F. van Belkum (Alex); M. Struelens; A. de Visser (Arjan); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); M. Tibayrench

    2001-01-01

    textabstractCurrently, genetic typing of microorganisms is widely used in several major fields of microbiological research. Taxonomy, research aimed at elucidation of evolutionary dynamics or phylogenetic relationships, population genetics of microorganisms, and

  14. Comment: 235 [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available u University (currently National Research Institute of Brewing)) licensed under CC Attribution2.1 Japan 撮影: ...水谷治(東北大学(現 酒類総研)) Photo: Osamu Mizutani (Tohoku University (currently National Research Institute of Brewing)) bando 2010/08/04 09:28:07 2010/08/04 11:18:35 ...

  15. Team errors: definition and taxonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasou, Kunihide; Reason, James

    1999-01-01

    In error analysis or error management, the focus is usually upon individuals who have made errors. In large complex systems, however, most people work in teams or groups. Considering this working environment, insufficient emphasis has been given to 'team errors'. This paper discusses the definition of team errors and its taxonomy. These notions are also applied to events that have occurred in the nuclear power industry, aviation industry and shipping industry. The paper also discusses the relations between team errors and Performance Shaping Factors (PSFs). As a result, the proposed definition and taxonomy are found to be useful in categorizing team errors. The analysis also reveals that deficiencies in communication, resource/task management, excessive authority gradient, excessive professional courtesy will cause team errors. Handling human errors as team errors provides an opportunity to reduce human errors

  16. ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Pneumoviridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rima, Bert; Collins, Peter; Easton, Andrew; Fouchier, Ron; Kurath, Gael; Lamb, Robert A; Lee, Benhur; Maisner, Andrea; Rota, Paul; Wang, Linfa; Ictv Report Consortium

    2017-12-01

    The family Pneumoviridae comprises large enveloped negative-sense RNA viruses. This taxon was formerly a subfamily within the Paramyxoviridae, but was reclassified in 2016 as a family with two genera, Orthopneumovirus and Metapneumovirus. Pneumoviruses infect a range of mammalian species, while some members of the Metapneumovirus genus may also infect birds. Some viruses are specific and pathogenic for humans, such as human respiratory syncytial virus and human metapneumovirus. There are no known vectors for pneumoviruses and transmission is thought to be primarily by aerosol droplets and contact. This is a summary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the taxonomy of the Pneumoviridae, which is available at www.ictv.global/report/pneumoviridae.

  17. ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Hepeviridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, Michael A; Harrison, Tim J; Jameel, S; Meng, X-J; Okamoto, H; Van der Poel, W H M; Smith, Donald B; Ictv Report Consortium

    2017-11-01

    The family Hepeviridae includes enterically transmitted small non-enveloped positive-sense RNA viruses. It includes the genera Piscihepevirus, whose members infect fish, and Orthohepevirus, whose members infect mammals and birds. Members of the genus Orthohepevirus include hepatitis E virus, which is responsible for self-limiting acute hepatitis in humans and several mammalian species; the infection may become chronic in immunocompromised individuals. Extrahepatic manifestations of Guillain-Barré syndrome, neuralgic amyotrophy, glomerulonephritis and pancreatitis have been described in humans. Avian hepatitis E virus causes hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome in chickens. This is a summary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the taxonomy of the Hepeviridae, which is available at www.ictv.global/report/hepeviridae.

  18. ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Picornaviridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zell, R; Delwart, E; Gorbalenya, A E; Hovi, T; King, A M Q; Knowles, N J; Lindberg, A M; Pallansch, M A; Palmenberg, A C; Reuter, G; Simmonds, P; Skern, T; Stanway, G; Yamashita, T; Ictv Report Consortium

    2017-10-01

    The family Picornaviridae comprises small non-enveloped viruses with RNA genomes of 6.7 to 10.1 kb, and contains >30 genera and >75 species. Most of the known picornaviruses infect mammals and birds, but some have also been detected in reptiles, amphibians and fish. Many picornaviruses are important human and veterinary pathogens and may cause diseases of the central nervous system, heart, liver, skin, gastrointestinal tract or upper respiratory tract. Most picornaviruses are transmitted by the faecal-oral or respiratory routes. This is a summary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the taxonomy of the Picornaviridae, which is available at www.ictv.global/report/picornaviridae.

  19. Taxonomy of the extrasolar planet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plávalová, Eva

    2012-04-01

    When a star is described as a spectral class G2V, we know that the star is similar to our Sun. We know its approximate mass, temperature, age, and size. When working with an extrasolar planet database, it is very useful to have a taxonomy scale (classification) such as, for example, the Harvard classification for stars. The taxonomy has to be easily interpreted and present the most relevant information about extrasolar planets. I propose an extrasolar planet taxonomy scale with four parameters. The first parameter concerns the mass of an extrasolar planet in the form of units of the mass of other known planets, where M represents the mass of Mercury, E that of Earth, N Neptune, and J Jupiter. The second parameter is the planet's distance from its parent star (semimajor axis) described in a logarithm with base 10. The third parameter is the mean Dyson temperature of the extrasolar planet, for which I established four main temperature classes: F represents the Freezing class, W the Water class, G the Gaseous class, and R the Roasters class. I devised one additional class, however: P, the Pulsar class, which concerns extrasolar planets orbiting pulsar stars. The fourth parameter is eccentricity. If the attributes of the surface of the extrasolar planet are known, we are able to establish this additional parameter where t represents a terrestrial planet, g a gaseous planet, and i an ice planet. According to this taxonomy scale, for example, Earth is 1E0W0t, Neptune is 1N1.5F0i, and extrasolar planet 55 Cnc e is 9E-1.8R1.

  20. Evaluating a medical error taxonomy.

    OpenAIRE

    Brixey, Juliana; Johnson, Todd R.; Zhang, Jiajie

    2002-01-01

    Healthcare has been slow in using human factors principles to reduce medical errors. The Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) recognizes that a lack of attention to human factors during product development may lead to errors that have the potential for patient injury, or even death. In response to the need for reducing medication errors, the National Coordinating Council for Medication Errors Reporting and Prevention (NCC MERP) released the NCC MERP taxonomy that provides a stand...

  1. Spumaretroviruses: Updated taxonomy and nomenclature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Arifa S; Bodem, Jochen; Buseyne, Florence; Gessain, Antoine; Johnson, Welkin; Kuhn, Jens H; Kuzmak, Jacek; Lindemann, Dirk; Linial, Maxine L; Löchelt, Martin; Materniak-Kornas, Magdalena; Soares, Marcelo A; Switzer, William M

    2018-03-01

    Spumaretroviruses, commonly referred to as foamy viruses, are complex retroviruses belonging to the subfamily Spumaretrovirinae, family Retroviridae, which naturally infect a variety of animals including nonhuman primates (NHPs). Additionally, cross-species transmissions of simian foamy viruses (SFVs) to humans have occurred following exposure to tissues of infected NHPs. Recent research has led to the identification of previously unknown exogenous foamy viruses, and to the discovery of endogenous spumaretrovirus sequences in a variety of host genomes. Here, we describe an updated spumaretrovirus taxonomy that has been recently accepted by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Executive Committee, and describe a virus nomenclature that is generally consistent with that used for other retroviruses, such as lentiviruses and deltaretroviruses. This taxonomy can be applied to distinguish different, but closely related, primate (e.g., human, ape, simian) foamy viruses as well as those from other hosts. This proposal accounts for host-virus co-speciation and cross-species transmission. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Balance Sheet Taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecaterina Necsulescu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The general objective of the financial statements is to provide information about the financial position, financial performance and cash flows of an entity, information that is useful for a wide range of users. For the current paper is very interesting to take into account is the presentation of the important role given to assets even in defining the subject of accounting, both in economic and financial concept.

  3. A taxonomy of integral reaction path analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grcar, Joseph F.; Day, Marcus S.; Bell, John B.

    2004-12-23

    W. C. Gardiner observed that achieving understanding through combustion modeling is limited by the ability to recognize the implications of what has been computed and to draw conclusions about the elementary steps underlying the reaction mechanism. This difficulty can be overcome in part by making better use of reaction path analysis in the context of multidimensional flame simulations. Following a survey of current practice, an integral reaction flux is formulated in terms of conserved scalars that can be calculated in a fully automated way. Conditional analyses are then introduced, and a taxonomy for bidirectional path analysis is explored. Many examples illustrate the resulting path analysis and uncover some new results about nonpremixed methane-air laminar jets.

  4. Expanding the taxonomy of the diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, C C; Goulet, J-P; Lobbezoo, F; Schiffman, E L; Alstergren, P; Anderson, G C; de Leeuw, R; Jensen, R; Michelotti, A; Ohrbach, R; Petersson, A; List, T

    2014-01-01

    There is a need to expand the current temporomandibular disorders' (TMDs) classification to include less common but clinically important disorders. The immediate aim was to develop a consensus-based classification system and associated diagnostic criteria that have clinical and research utility for less common TMDs. The long-term aim was to establish a foundation, vis-à-vis this classification system, that will stimulate data collection, validity testing and further criteria refinement. A working group [members of the International RDC/TMD Consortium Network of the International Association for Dental Research (IADR), members of the Orofacial Pain Special Interest Group (SIG) of the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP), and members from other professional societies] reviewed disorders for inclusion based on clinical significance, the availability of plausible diagnostic criteria and the ability to operationalise and study the criteria. The disorders were derived from the literature when possible and based on expert opinion as necessary. The expanded TMDs taxonomy was presented for feedback at international meetings. Of 56 disorders considered, 37 were included in the expanded taxonomy and were placed into the following four categories: temporomandibular joint disorders, masticatory muscle disorders, headache disorders and disorders affecting associated structures. Those excluded were extremely uncommon, lacking operationalised diagnostic criteria, not clearly related to TMDs, or not sufficiently distinct from disorders already included within the taxonomy. The expanded TMDs taxonomy offers an integrated approach to clinical diagnosis and provides a framework for further research to operationalise and test the proposed taxonomy and diagnostic criteria. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. A refined taxonomy of behaviour change techniques to help people change their physical activity and healthy eating behaviours: the CALO-RE taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michie, Susan; Ashford, Stefanie; Sniehotta, Falko F; Dombrowski, Stephan U; Bishop, Alex; French, David P

    2011-11-01

    Current reporting of intervention content in published research articles and protocols is generally poor, with great diversity of terminology, resulting in low replicability. This study aimed to extend the scope and improve the reliability of a 26-item taxonomy of behaviour change techniques developed by Abraham and Michie [Abraham, C. and Michie, S. (2008). A taxonomy of behaviour change techniques used in interventions. Health Psychology, 27(3), 379-387.] in order to optimise the reporting and scientific study of behaviour change interventions. Three UK study centres collaborated in applying this existing taxonomy to two systematic reviews of interventions to increase physical activity and healthy eating. The taxonomy was refined in iterative steps of (1) coding intervention descriptions, and assessing inter-rater reliability, (2) identifying gaps and problems across study centres and (3) refining the labels and definitions based on consensus discussions. Labels and definitions were improved for all techniques, conceptual overlap between categories was resolved, some categories were split and 14 techniques were added, resulting in a 40-item taxonomy. Inter-rater reliability, assessed on 50 published intervention descriptions, was good (kappa = 0.79). This taxonomy can be used to improve the specification of interventions in published reports, thus improving replication, implementation and evidence syntheses. This will strengthen the scientific study of behaviour change and intervention development.

  6. An improved Greengenes taxonomy with explicit ranks for ecological and evolutionary analyses of bacteria and archaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Daniel; Price, Morgan N; Goodrich, Julia; Nawrocki, Eric P; DeSantis, Todd Z; Probst, Alexander; Andersen, Gary L; Knight, Rob; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2012-03-01

    Reference phylogenies are crucial for providing a taxonomic framework for interpretation of marker gene and metagenomic surveys, which continue to reveal novel species at a remarkable rate. Greengenes is a dedicated full-length 16S rRNA gene database that provides users with a curated taxonomy based on de novo tree inference. We developed a 'taxonomy to tree' approach for transferring group names from an existing taxonomy to a tree topology, and used it to apply the Greengenes, National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and cyanoDB (Cyanobacteria only) taxonomies to a de novo tree comprising 408,315 sequences. We also incorporated explicit rank information provided by the NCBI taxonomy to group names (by prefixing rank designations) for better user orientation and classification consistency. The resulting merged taxonomy improved the classification of 75% of the sequences by one or more ranks relative to the original NCBI taxonomy with the most pronounced improvements occurring in under-classified environmental sequences. We also assessed candidate phyla (divisions) currently defined by NCBI and present recommendations for consolidation of 34 redundantly named groups. All intermediate results from the pipeline, which includes tree inference, jackknifing and transfer of a donor taxonomy to a recipient tree (tax2tree) are available for download. The improved Greengenes taxonomy should provide important infrastructure for a wide range of megasequencing projects studying ecosystems on scales ranging from our own bodies (the Human Microbiome Project) to the entire planet (the Earth Microbiome Project). The implementation of the software can be obtained from http://sourceforge.net/projects/tax2tree/.

  7. Een revisie van de taxonomie van gifkikkers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelman, E.H.

    2007-01-01

    Recent kwam het lang verwachte ruim tweehonderdvijftig pagina`s tellende manuscript uit met daarin een revisie van de taxonomie van gifkikkers. De auteurs onder leiding van Taran Grant stellen een nieuwe taxonomie voor, die de familie Dendrobatidae met haar tien algemener geaccepteerde genera

  8. A taxonomy of distributed denial of service attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Donno, Michele; Giaretta, Alberto; Dragoni, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks which are now even more powerful and easier to achieve than the past. Understanding how these attacks work, in all their different forms, represents a first crucial step to tackle this urgent issue. To this end, in this paper we propose a new up-to-date taxonomy...... and a comprehensive classification of current DDoS attacks....

  9. Generalized metamaterials: Definitions and taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Noori; Yoon, Yong-Jin; Allen, Jont B

    2016-06-01

    This article reviews the development of metamaterials (MM), starting from Newton's discovery of the wave equation, and ends with a discussion of the need for a technical taxonomy (classification) of these materials, along with a better defined definition of metamaterials. It is intended to be a technical definition of metamaterials, based on a historical perspective. The evolution of MMs began with the discovery of the wave equation, traceable back to Newton's calculation of the speed of sound. The theory of sound evolved to include quasi-statics (Helmholtz) and the circuit equations of Kirchhoff's circuit laws, leading to the ultimate development of Maxwell's equations and the equation for the speed of light. Be it light, or sound, the speed of the wave-front travel defines the wavelength, and thus the quasi-static (QS) approximation. But there is much more at stake than QSs. Taxonomy requires a proper statement of the laws of physics, which includes at least the six basic network postulates: (P1) causality (non-causal/acausal), (P2) linearity (non-linear), (P3) real (complex) time response, (P4) passive (active), (P5) time-invariant (time varying), and (P6) reciprocal (non-reciprocal). These six postulates are extended to include MMs.

  10. GEM Building Taxonomy (Version 2.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzev, S.; Scawthorn, C.; Charleson, A.W.; Allen, L.; Greene, M.; Jaiswal, Kishor; Silva, V.

    2013-01-01

    This report documents the development and applications of the Building Taxonomy for the Global Earthquake Model (GEM). The purpose of the GEM Building Taxonomy is to describe and classify buildings in a uniform manner as a key step towards assessing their seismic risk, Criteria for development of the GEM Building Taxonomy were that the Taxonomy be relevant to seismic performance of different construction types; be comprehensive yet simple; be collapsible; adhere to principles that are familiar to the range of users; and ultimately be extensible to non-buildings and other hazards. The taxonomy was developed in conjunction with other GEM researchers and builds on the knowledge base from other taxonomies, including the EERI and IAEE World Housing Encyclopedia, PAGER-STR, and HAZUS. The taxonomy is organized as a series of expandable tables, which contain information pertaining to various building attributes. Each attribute describes a specific characteristic of an individual building or a class of buildings that could potentially affect their seismic performance. The following 13 attributes have been included in the GEM Building Taxonomy Version 2.0 (v2.0): 1.) direction, 2.)material of the lateral load-resisting system, 3.) lateral load-resisting system, 4.) height, 5.) date of construction of retrofit, 6.) occupancy, 7.) building position within a block, 8.) shape of the building plan, 9.) structural irregularity, 10.) exterior walls, 11.) roof, 12.) floor, 13.) foundation system. The report illustrates the pratical use of the GEM Building Taxonomy by discussing example case studies, in which the building-specific characteristics are mapped directly using GEM taxonomic attributes and the corresponding taxonomic string is constructed for that building, with "/" slash marks separating attributes. For example, for the building shown to the right, the GEM Taxonomy string is: DX1/MUR+CLBRS+MOCL2/LWAL3/

  11. Taxonomy of the ant genus Nesomyrmex Wheeler (Formicidae, Myrmicinae in the Afrotropical region, with a review of current species groups and description of a new species of the N. angulatus group from Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Hita Garcia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reviews the taxonomy of the ant genus Nesomyrmex Wheeler, 1910 in the Afrotropical region. Previous revisionary studies are discussed and four species groups are proposed on the basis of external morphology. The N. angulatus group contains seven species that are widely distributed throughout the whole Afrotropical region, with one species also occurring in the Palaearctic and Malagasy regions. The N. cataulacoides group is monotypic, with one morphologically bizarre species found in Equatorial rain forests. The N. humerosus group is also monotypic and occurs in East Africa. The last and by far most species-rich group is the N. simoni group that contains 17 species, all of which are endemic to South Africa. The four groups are defined for the first time for the region, and an illustrated identification key is provided. Furthermore, the N. angulatus group is more thoroughly reviewed. One new species from Mozambique is described, N. inhaca sp. nov., and species accounts for the other six are provided. Also, an illustrated identification key to the species of the N. angulatus group is presented.

  12. Taxonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stauffer, Jr., Jay Richard; Madsen, Henry; Konings, Adrianus

    2007-01-01

    We have observed a dramatic decrease in the abundance of snail-eating fishes and an increase in the prevalence of schistosomiasis among village residents and expatriate tourists at Lake Malawi, Africa, over the past two decades. We hypothesized that these observations were linked by a cause-and-e...... identified. Before we can identify the interactions among these components of the system and effectively manage snail-eating fishes, we must be able to accurately delimit the taxonomic units (e.g., species, populations, and demes) within each of the above groups....

  13. Taxonomy of oxalotrophic Methylobacterium strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Nurettin; Kato, Yuko; Yilmaz, Ferah

    2008-10-01

    Most of the oxalotrophic bacteria are facultative methylotrophs and play important ecological roles in soil fertility and cycling of elements. This study gives a detailed picture of the taxonomy and diversity of these bacteria and provides new information about the taxonomical variability within the genus Methylobacterium. Twelve mesophilic, pink-pigmented, and facultatively methylotrophic oxalate-oxidizing strains were included in this work that had been previously isolated from the soil and some plant tissues by the potassium oxalate enrichment method. The isolates were characterized using biochemical tests, cellular lipid profiles, spectral characteristics of carotenoid pigments, G+C content of the DNA, and 16S rDNA sequencing. The taxonomic similarities among the strains were analyzed using the simple matching ( S SM) and Jaccard ( S J) coefficients, and the UPGMA clustering algorithm. The phylogenetic position of the strains was inferred by the neighbor-joining method on the basis of the 16S rDNA sequences. All isolates were Gram-negative, facultatively methylotrophic, oxidase and catalase positive, and required no growth factors. Based on the results of numerical taxonomy, the strains formed four closely related clusters sharing ≥85% similarity. Analysis of the 16S rDNA sequences demonstrated that oxalotrophic, pink-pigmented, and facultatively methylotrophic strains could be identified as members of the genus Methylobacterium. Except for M. variabile and M. aquaticum, all of the Methylobacterium type strains tested had the ability of oxalate utilization. Our results indicate that the capability of oxalate utilization seems to be an uncommon trait and could be used as a valuable taxonomic criterion for differentiation of Methylobacterium species.

  14. The evolution of trypanosomatid taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufer, Alexa; Ellis, John; Stark, Damien; Barratt, Joel

    2017-06-08

    Trypanosomatids are protozoan parasites of the class Kinetoplastida predominately restricted to invertebrate hosts (i.e. possess a monoxenous life-cycle). However, several genera are pathogenic to humans, animals and plants, and have an invertebrate vector that facilitates their transmission (i.e. possess a dixenous life-cycle). Phytomonas is one dixenous genus that includes several plant pathogens transmitted by phytophagous insects. Trypanosoma and Leishmania are dixenous genera that infect vertebrates, including humans, and are transmitted by hematophagous invertebrates. Traditionally, monoxenous trypanosomatids such as Leptomonas were distinguished from morphologically similar dixenous species based on their restriction to an invertebrate host. Nonetheless, this criterion is somewhat flawed as exemplified by Leptomonas seymouri which reportedly infects vertebrates opportunistically. Similarly, Novymonas and Zelonia are presumably monoxenous genera yet sit comfortably in the dixenous clade occupied by Leishmania. The isolation of Leishmania macropodum from a biting midge (Forcipomyia spp.) rather than a phlebotomine sand fly calls into question the exclusivity of the Leishmania-sand fly relationship, and its suitability for defining the Leishmania genus. It is now accepted that classic genus-defining characteristics based on parasite morphology and host range are insufficient to form the sole basis of trypanosomatid taxonomy as this has led to several instances of paraphyly. While improvements have been made, resolution of evolutionary relationships within the Trypanosomatidae is confounded by our incomplete knowledge of its true diversity. The known trypanosomatids probably represent a fraction of those that exist and isolation of new species will help resolve relationships in this group with greater accuracy. This review incites a dialogue on how our understanding of the relationships between certain trypanosomatids has shifted, and discusses new knowledge

  15. Building a taxonomy of GI knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arleth, Mette

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on and ongoing study concerning non-professional users` understanding of GI. Online access to GI are offered by many public authorities, in order to make the public able to serve them selves online and gain insight in the physical planning and area administration. The aim...... of this project is to investigate how and how well non-professional users actually understand GI. For that purpose a taxonomy of GI knowledge is built, drawing on Bloom`s taxonomy. The elements of this taxonomy are described after a presentation of the main research question of the study, the applications chosen...

  16. Organising knowledge taxonomies, knowledge and organisational effectiveness

    CERN Document Server

    Lambe, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    Taxonomies are often thought to play a niche role within content-oriented knowledge management projects. They are thought to be 'nice to have' but not essential. In this ground-breaking book, Patrick Lambe shows how they play an integral role in helping organizations coordinate and communicate effectively. Through a series of case studies, he demonstrates the range of ways in which taxonomies can help organizations to leverage and articulate their knowledge. A step-by-step guide in the book to running a taxonomy project is full of practical advice for knowledge managers and business owners ali

  17. Biocenosis de Bivalvia y Polyplacophora del intermareal rocoso en playa Tlacopanocha, Acapulco, Guerrero, México Polyplacophora and Bivalvia biocenosis at rocky intertidal Tlacopanocha beach, Acapulco, Guerrero, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizeth Galeana-Rebolledo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available El Estado de Guerrero, México, tiene regiones marinas prioritarias para la conservación de su biodiversidad y la información acerca de la diversidad de moluscos es escasa, por lo que es necesario realizar inventarios de especies, estudios de ecología de poblaciones y comunidades. Este estudio se efectuó en el intermareal rocoso de la playa Tlacopanocha. Los objetivos fueron: determinar la riqueza, densidad y diversidad de especies; analizar la composición de especies y estructura de tallas. El área de muestreo fue de 10 m² y la unidad de muestreó fue de 1 m². Se identificaron 35 especies, de las cuales tres son nuevos registros para el intermareal rocoso de Guerrero: las familias mejor representadas en riqueza de especies fueron Ischnochitonidae y Arcidae, y en abundancia Chitonidae y Chamidae; la densidad fue de 31,60 ind m-2. Polyplacophora presentó 42,9% de especies dominantes y Bivalvia 19,0%. Chama corallina presentó la mayor talla en longitud y Chama sordida en ancho. La riqueza de especies de moluscos registrada se considera alta y corresponde a lo esperado para un sustrato rocoso en zona tropical. Polyplacophora presentó alta composición de especies, que podría ser resultado de la adaptación de los organismos a las condiciones dinámicas del intermareal rocoso. Los nuevos registros indican la importancia de los inventarios de especies y también del conocimiento de las poblaciones y comunidades de la fauna marina de Guerrero.The State of Guerrero, Mexico, has priority marine areas for conservation of its biodiversity, but information concerning diversity of mollusks is limited, so it is convenient to carry out species inventories, studies of populations and community ecology. This study was conducted in the intertidal rocky beach Tlacopanocha. The objectives were to determine richness, density and species diversity, analyze the species composition and size structure. The sampling area was 10 m² and the sampling unit was

  18. Unravelling the tangled taxonomies of health informatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Barrett

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Even though informatics is a term used commonly in healthcare, it can be a confusing and disengaging one. Many definitions exist in the literature, and attempts have been made to develop a clear taxonomy. Despite this, informatics is still a term that lacks clarity in both its scope and the classification of sub-terms that it encompasses.This paper reviews the importance of an agreed taxonomy and explores the challenges of establishing exactly what is meant by health informatics (HI. It reviews what a taxonomy should do, summarises previous attempts at categorising and organising HI and suggests the elements to consider when seeking to develop a system of classification.The paper does not provide all the answers, but it does clarify the questions. By plotting a path towards a taxonomy of HI, it will be possible to enhance understanding and optimise the benefits of embracing technology in clinical practice.

  19. EPA's Information Architecture and Web Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Information Architecture creates a topical organization of our website, instead of an ownership-based organization. The EPA Web Taxonomy allows audiences easy access to relevant information from EPA programs, by using a common vocabulary.

  20. The Histopathology of the Infection of Tilapia rendalli and Hypostomus regani (Osteichthyes by Lasidium Larvae of Anodontites trapesialis (Mollusca, Bivalvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Teresa Silva-Souza

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available It is described the histopathology of the infection of Tilapia rendalli (Osteichthyes, Perciformes, Cichlidae and Hypostomus regani (Osteichthyes, Siluriformes, Loricariidae by lasidium larvae of Anodontites trapesialis (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Mycetopodidae. The larvae were encysted within the epidermis of the host, being surrounded by a thin hyaline membrane, 3-6 µm thick, of parasite origin. A proliferative host cell reaction did not occur. The histopathology of the infection shows that the lesions induced by the parasites are minimal. However, the numerous small lesions produced by the release of the larvae may provide optimal conditions for the infection by opportunistic pathogens, namely fungus, which may eventually cause the death of the host.

  1. Comparative morphology among representatives of main taxa of Scaphopoda and basal protobranch Bivalvia (Mollusca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Ricardo L. Simone

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with detailed morphology and anatomy of 4 species of Scaphopoda and 5 species of protobranch Bivalvia. Both classes are traditionally grouped in the taxon Diasoma, which has been questioned by different methodologies, such as molecular and developmental. This study is developed under a phylogenetic methodology with the main concern in performing it in an intelligible and testable methodology. The analyzed Scaphopoda species came from the Brazilian coast and belong to the family Dentaliidae [(1 Coccodentalium carduus; (2 Paradentalium disparile] and Gadiliidae; [(3 Polyschides noronhensis, n. sp. from Fernando de Noronha Archipelago; (4 Gadila braziliensis]. These species represent the main branches of the class Scaphopoda. From protobranch bivalves, representatives of the families Solemyidae [(5 Solemya occidentalis, from Florida; S. notialis, n. sp. from S.E. Brazil], Nuculanidae [(6 Propeleda carpentieri from Florida], and Nuculidae [(7 Ennucula puelcha, from south Brazil] are included. These species represent the main branches of the basal Bivalvia. The descriptions on the anatomy of S. occidentalis and of P. carpentieri are published elsewhere. The remaining are included here, for which a complete taxonomical treatment is performed. Beyond these species, representatives of other taxa are operationally included as part of the ingroup (indices are then shared with them, as a procedure to test the morphological monophyly of Diasoma. These taxa are: two lamellibranch bivalves [(8 Barbatia - Arcidae; (9 Serratina - Tellinidae; both published elsewhere;, and Propilidium (10 Patellogastropoda, and (11 Nautilus, basal Cephalopoda, based on basal taxa. The effective outgroups are (12 Neopilina (Monoplacophora and (13 Hanleya (Polyplacophora. The phylogenetic analysis based on morphology revealed that the taxon Diasoma is supported by 14 synapomorphies, and is separated from Cyrtosoma (Gastropoda + Cephalopoda. Although they are not

  2. The taxobook principles and practices of building taxonomies

    CERN Document Server

    Hlava, Marjorie

    2014-01-01

    This book outlines the basic principles of creation and maintenance of taxonomies and thesauri. It also provides step by step instructions for building a taxonomy or thesaurus and discusses the various ways to get started on a taxonomy construction project.Often, the first step is to get management and budgetary approval, so I start this book with a discussion of reasons to embark on the taxonomy journey. From there I move on to a discussion of metadata and how taxonomies and metadata are related, and then consider how, where, and why taxonomies are used.Information architecture has its corner

  3. A taxonomy of anatomical and pathological entities to support commenting on radiographs (preliminary clinical evaluation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosson, Philip; Dash, Robert

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that radiographers have a lot to offer the patient by providing their expert opinion in a timely intervention; including the possibility of Radiographer Led Discharge. Some excellent paper based ‘commenting’ systems have been developed locally and the Society and College of Radiographers has issued national guidance with a pro-forma to support implementation. However, delivery and audit of the PCE service can be burdensome. There is also an ongoing training need linked in to annual reviews. This paper provides a brief introduction to the field of controlled vocabularies and ontologies in radiology and serves to identify their potential for PCE systems. The current work has constructed a prototype taxonomy and accompanying ontology (list of relationships) that enable the generation of radiographer comments using an electronic, fast, and structured web based interface. For example, in the current implementation any one of thousands of possible unique comments could be constructed by making just six selections from filtered lists of terms. The prototype taxonomy has been tested to refine and validate the concept. The resulting taxonomy and its evolution is described here. Finally, the taxonomy was trialled by 23 participants who generated structured PCE's after reviewing 27 cases on DICOM workstations. An analysis of agreement between participants and the ‘gold standard’ is presented. In conclusion, a taxonomy has been created that would provide for: a standardised framework for training staff and students, efficient and robust delivery of the service, and audit of individual practice

  4. Towards an Artificial Space Object Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, M.; Schumacher, P.; Jah, M.; Pfeffer, A.

    2013-09-01

    Object recognition is the first step in positively identifying a resident space object (RSO), i.e. assigning an RSO to a category such as GPS satellite or space debris. Object identification is the process of deciding that two RSOs are in fact one and the same. Provided we have appropriately defined a satellite taxonomy that allows us to place a given RSO into a particular class of object without any ambiguity, one can assess the probability of assignment to a particular class by determining how well the object satisfies the unique criteria of belonging to that class. Ultimately, tree-based taxonomies delineate unique signatures by defining the minimum amount of information required to positively identify a RSO. Therefore, taxonomic trees can be used to depict hypotheses in a Bayesian object recognition and identification process. This work describes a new RSO taxonomy along with specific reasoning behind the choice of groupings. An alternative taxonomy was recently presented at the Sixth Conference on Space Debris in Darmstadt, Germany. [1] The best example of a taxonomy that enjoys almost universal scientific acceptance is the classical Linnaean biological taxonomy. A strength of Linnaean taxonomy is that it can be used to organize the different kinds of living organisms, simply and practically. Every species can be given a unique name. This uniqueness and stability are a result of the acceptance by biologists specializing in taxonomy, not merely of the binomial names themselves. Fundamentally, the taxonomy is governed by rules for the use of these names, and these are laid down in formal Nomenclature Codes. We seek to provide a similar formal nomenclature system for RSOs through a defined tree-based taxonomy structure. Each categorization, beginning with the most general or inclusive, at any level is called a taxon. Taxon names are defined by a type, which can be a specimen or a taxon of lower rank, and a diagnosis, a statement intended to supply characters that

  5. Forensic Taxonomy of Android Social Apps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azfar, Abdullah; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Liu, Lin

    2017-03-01

    An Android social app taxonomy incorporating artifacts that are of forensic interest will enable users and forensic investigators to identify the personally identifiable information (PII) stored by the apps. In this study, 30 popular Android social apps were examined. Artifacts of forensic interest (e.g., contacts lists, chronology of messages, and timestamp of an added contact) were recovered. In addition, images were located, and Facebook token strings used to tie account identities and gain access to information entered into Facebook by a user were identified. Based on the findings, a two-dimensional taxonomy of the forensic artifacts of the social apps is proposed. A comparative summary of existing forensic taxonomies of different categories of Android apps, designed to facilitate timely collection and analysis of evidentiary materials from Android devices, is presented. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  6. Tephritid taxonomy into the 21st century - Research opportunities and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drew, R.A.I.; Romig, M.C.

    2000-01-01

    We write with the firm conviction that taxonomic research forms the essential foundation for all other areas of investigation within the field of biology. This has been well demonstrated in the Tephritidae and is a position at which we have arrived through many years' experience in fruit fly systematic research covering taxonomy, behaviour, biology, ecology and pest control. The importance of sound taxonomic research is highlighted at this time by the known presence of many sibling species complexes across the family. Within the Dacinae, for example, major pest species often occur within groups of closely related species, most of which are not pests. The dorsalis complex of Southeast Asia and the musae complex of Papua New Guinea are examples. Tephritid taxonomy has a long history (over two centuries) and rich heritage with some 4,500 species having been described since the mid-1700s. This research has been carried out in major research centres around the world and particularly in Australia, Europe, Hawaii, mainland USA and South Africa. In Mexico in February 1998, a significant meeting was held on the biology/behaviour and taxonomy of Tephritidae. Specialist researchers in this area presented valuable and interesting data on 'Phylogeny and Evolution of Behaviour' in fruit flies. In summarising current knowledge on the taxonomy and biology of the Tephritidae, the meeting highlighted the outstanding achievements of taxonomy in its contributions to both basic research and pest management programmes over many decades of tephritid studies world-wide. This presentation provides a link between the meetings in Mexico and Penang and enables us to present a summary of our current knowledge and genuine valuable applications of tephritid taxonomy to the overall fruit fly research and pest management effort. In doing this, this presentation also fits into the theme of this conference in Penang, 'Fruit Flies- current global scenario'

  7. A taxonomy of behaviour change methods: an Intervention Mapping approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kok, Gerjo; Gottlieb, Nell H.; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Y.; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Parcel, Guy S.; Ruiter, Robert A.C.; Fern?ndez, Mar?a E.; Markham, Christine; Bartholomew, L. Kay

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this paper, we introduce the Intervention Mapping (IM) taxonomy of behaviour change methods and its potential to be developed into a coding taxonomy. That is, although IM and its taxonomy of behaviour change methods are not in fact new, because IM was originally developed as a tool for intervention development, this potential was not immediately apparent. Second, in explaining the IM taxonomy and defining the relevant constructs, we call attention to the existence of parameters fo...

  8. Constructing a working taxonomy of functional Ada software components for real-time embedded system applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Robert

    1986-01-01

    A major impediment to a systematic attack on Ada software reusability is the lack of an effective taxonomy for software component functions. The scope of all possible applications of Ada software is considered too great to allow the practical development of a working taxonomy. Instead, for the purposes herein, the scope of Ada software application is limited to device and subsystem control in real-time embedded systems. A functional approach is taken in constructing the taxonomy tree for identified Ada domain. The use of modular software functions as a starting point fits well with the object oriented programming philosophy of Ada. Examples of the types of functions represented within the working taxonomy are real time kernels, interrupt service routines, synchronization and message passing, data conversion, digital filtering and signal conditioning, and device control. The constructed taxonomy is proposed as a framework from which a need analysis can be performed to reveal voids in current Ada real-time embedded programming efforts for Space Station.

  9. Cybercrimes: A Proposed Taxonomy and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmandeep Singh Brar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cybersecurity is one of the most important concepts of cyberworld which provides protection to the cyberspace from various types of cybercrimes. This paper provides an updated survey of cybersecurity. We conduct the survey of security of recent prominent researches and categorize the recent incidents in context to various fundamental principles of cybersecurity. We have proposed a new taxonomy of cybercrime which can cover all types of cyberattacks. We have analyzed various cyberattacks as per the updated cybercrime taxonomy to identify the challenges in the field of cybersecurity and highlight various research directions as future work in this field.

  10. A Taxonomy of Human Translation Styles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, Michael; Dragsted, Barbara; Lykke Jakobsen, Arnt

    2011-01-01

    on the translators' activity data, we develop a taxonomy of translation styles. The taxonomy could serve to inform the development of advanced translation assistance tools and provide a basis for a felicitous and grounded integration of human machine interaction in translation.......While the translation profession becomes increasingly technological, we are still far from understanding how humans actually translate and how they could be best supported by machines. In this paper we outline a method which helps to uncover characteristics of human translation processes. Based...

  11. Taxonomies of Educational Technology Uses: Dewey, Chip and Me

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, James A.

    2014-01-01

    In the early 1990s, Chip Bruce created a taxonomy of education technology uses, which the author of the article helped to expand and evaluate. This taxonomy is based on John Dewey's "four impulses of the child": inquiry, construction, communication, and expression. This taxonomy has helped people interested in the uses of…

  12. The genus Gloriosa (Colchicaceae) : ethnobotany, phylogeny and taxonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maroyi, A.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the ethnobotany, phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Gloriosa L. over its distributional range. Some Gloriosa species are known to have economic and commercial value, but the genus is also well known for its complex alpha taxonomy. An appropriate taxonomy for this group is of

  13. A new taxonomy of sublinear keyword pattern matching algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cleophas, L.G.W.A.; Watson, B.W.; Zwaan, G.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents a new taxonomy of sublinear (multiple) keyword pattern matching algorithms. Based on an earlier taxonomy by Watson and Zwaan [WZ96, WZ95], this new taxonomy includes not only suffix-based algorithms related to the Boyer-Moore, Commentz-Walter and Fan-Su algorithms, but

  14. Reconciling taxonomy and phylogenetic inference: formalism and algorithms for describing discord and inferring taxonomic roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsen Frederick A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although taxonomy is often used informally to evaluate the results of phylogenetic inference and the root of phylogenetic trees, algorithmic methods to do so are lacking. Results In this paper we formalize these procedures and develop algorithms to solve the relevant problems. In particular, we introduce a new algorithm that solves a "subcoloring" problem to express the difference between a taxonomy and a phylogeny at a given rank. This algorithm improves upon the current best algorithm in terms of asymptotic complexity for the parameter regime of interest; we also describe a branch-and-bound algorithm that saves orders of magnitude in computation on real data sets. We also develop a formalism and an algorithm for rooting phylogenetic trees according to a taxonomy. Conclusions The algorithms in this paper, and the associated freely-available software, will help biologists better use and understand taxonomically labeled phylogenetic trees.

  15. Role of Genomic Typing in Taxonomy, Evolutionary Genetics, and Microbial Epidemiology

    OpenAIRE

    van Belkum, Alex; Struelens, Marc; de Visser, Arjan; Verbrugh, Henri; Tibayrenc, Michel

    2001-01-01

    Currently, genetic typing of microorganisms is widely used in several major fields of microbiological research. Taxonomy, research aimed at elucidation of evolutionary dynamics or phylogenetic relationships, population genetics of microorganisms, and microbial epidemiology all rely on genetic typing data for discrimination between genotypes. Apart from being an essential component of these fundamental sciences, microbial typing clearly affects several areas of applied microbiogical research. ...

  16. Role of genomic typing in taxonomy, evolutionary genetics, and microbial epidemiology.

    OpenAIRE

    Belkum, Alex; Struelens, M.; Visser, Arjan; Verbrugh, Henri; Tibayrench, M.

    2001-01-01

    textabstractCurrently, genetic typing of microorganisms is widely used in several major fields of microbiological research. Taxonomy, research aimed at elucidation of evolutionary dynamics or phylogenetic relationships, population genetics of microorganisms, and microbial epidemiology all rely on genetic typing data for discrimination between genotypes. Apart from being an essential component of these fundamental sciences, microbial typing clearly affects several areas of applied microbiologi...

  17. An Empirical Taxonomy of Social-Psychological Risk Indicators in Youth Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Toni; Kirkland, John; Bimler, David; Pechtel, Pia

    2005-01-01

    The current study integrates descriptive (though primarily social-psychological) statements about youth suicide into a coherent, empirically supported taxonomy. Drawing from relevant literature, a set of 107 items characterizing these contributions about youth suicide was created. Seventy-two participants sorted these statements according to their…

  18. Molecular phylogeny of pearl oysters and their relatives (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Pterioidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tëmkin Ilya

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The superfamily Pterioidea is a morphologically and ecologically diverse lineage of epifaunal marine bivalves distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical continental shelf regions. This group includes commercially important pearl culture species and model organisms used for medical studies of biomineralization. Recent morphological treatment of selected pterioideans and molecular phylogenetic analyses of higher-level relationships in Bivalvia have challenged the traditional view that pterioidean families are monophyletic. This issue is examined here in light of molecular data sets composed of DNA sequences for nuclear and mitochondrial loci, and a published character data set of anatomical and shell morphological characters. Results The present study is the first comprehensive species-level analysis of the Pterioidea to produce a well-resolved, robust phylogenetic hypothesis for nearly all extant taxa. The data were analyzed for potential biases due to taxon and character sampling, and idiosyncracies of different molecular evolutionary processes. The congruence and contribution of different partitions were quantified, and the sensitivity of clade stability to alignment parameters was explored. Conclusions Four primary conclusions were reached: (1 the results strongly supported the monophyly of the Pterioidea; (2 none of the previously defined families (except for the monotypic Pulvinitidae were monophyletic; (3 the arrangement of the genera was novel and unanticipated, however strongly supported and robust to changes in alignment parameters; and (4 optimizing key morphological characters onto topologies derived from the analysis of molecular data revealed many instances of homoplasy and uncovered synapomorphies for major nodes. Additionally, a complete species-level sampling of the genus Pinctada provided further insights into the on-going controversy regarding the taxonomic identity of major pearl culture species.

  19. Molecular phylogeny of pearl oysters and their relatives (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Pterioidea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The superfamily Pterioidea is a morphologically and ecologically diverse lineage of epifaunal marine bivalves distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical continental shelf regions. This group includes commercially important pearl culture species and model organisms used for medical studies of biomineralization. Recent morphological treatment of selected pterioideans and molecular phylogenetic analyses of higher-level relationships in Bivalvia have challenged the traditional view that pterioidean families are monophyletic. This issue is examined here in light of molecular data sets composed of DNA sequences for nuclear and mitochondrial loci, and a published character data set of anatomical and shell morphological characters. Results The present study is the first comprehensive species-level analysis of the Pterioidea to produce a well-resolved, robust phylogenetic hypothesis for nearly all extant taxa. The data were analyzed for potential biases due to taxon and character sampling, and idiosyncracies of different molecular evolutionary processes. The congruence and contribution of different partitions were quantified, and the sensitivity of clade stability to alignment parameters was explored. Conclusions Four primary conclusions were reached: (1) the results strongly supported the monophyly of the Pterioidea; (2) none of the previously defined families (except for the monotypic Pulvinitidae) were monophyletic; (3) the arrangement of the genera was novel and unanticipated, however strongly supported and robust to changes in alignment parameters; and (4) optimizing key morphological characters onto topologies derived from the analysis of molecular data revealed many instances of homoplasy and uncovered synapomorphies for major nodes. Additionally, a complete species-level sampling of the genus Pinctada provided further insights into the on-going controversy regarding the taxonomic identity of major pearl culture species. PMID:21059254

  20. Factors driving changes in freshwater mussel (Bivalvia, Unionida) diversity and distribution in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieritz, Alexandra; Lopes-Lima, Manuel; Bogan, Arthur E; Sousa, Ronaldo; Walton, Samuel; Rahim, Khairul Adha A; Wilson, John-James; Ng, Pei-Yin; Froufe, Elsa; McGowan, Suzanne

    2016-11-15

    Freshwater mussels (Bivalvia, Unionida) fulfil important ecosystem functions and are one of the most threatened freshwater taxa globally. Knowledge of freshwater mussel diversity, distribution and ecology in Peninsular Malaysia is extremely poor, and the conservation status of half of the species presumed to occur in the region has yet to be assessed. We conducted the first comprehensive assessment of Peninsular Malaysia's freshwater mussels based on species presence/absence and environmental data collected from 155 sites spanning all major river catchments and diverse habitat types. Through an integrative morphological-molecular approach we recognised nine native and one widespread non-native species, i.e. Sinanodonta woodiana. Two species, i.e. Pilsbryoconcha compressa and Pseudodon cambodjensis, had not been previously recorded from Malaysia, which is likely a result of morphological misidentifications of historical records. Due to their restriction to single river catchments and declining distributions, Hyriopsis bialata, possibly endemic to Peninsular Malaysia, Ensidens ingallsianus, possibly already extinct in the peninsula, and Rectidens sumatrensis, particularly require conservation attention. Equally, the Pahang, the Perak and the north-western river catchments are of particular conservation value due to the presence of a globally unique freshwater mussel fauna. Statistical relationships of 15 water quality parameters and mussel presence/absence identified acidification and nutrient pollution (eutrophication) as the most important anthropogenic factors threatening freshwater mussel diversity in Peninsular Malaysia. These factors can be linked to atmospheric pollution, deforestation, oil-palm plantations and a lack of functioning waste water treatment, and could be mitigated by establishing riparian buffers and improving waste water treatment for rivers running through agricultural and residential land. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Classification and taxonomy of vegetable macergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bukola Rhoda Aremu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Macergens are bacteria capable of releasing pectic enzymes (pectolytic bacteria. These enzymatic actions result in the separation of plant tissues leading to total plant destruction. This can be attributed to soft rot diseases in vegetables. These macergens primarily belong to the genus Erwinia and to a range of opportunistic pathogens namely: the Xanthomonas spp, Pseudomonas spp., Clostridium spp., Cytophaga spp. and Bacillus spp. They consist of taxa that displayed considerable heterogeneity and intermingled with members of other genera belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae. They have been classified based on phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic which obviously not necessary in the taxonomy of all bacterial genera for defining bacterial species and describing new ones These taxonomic markers have been used traditionally as a simple technique for identification of bacterial isolates. The most important fields of taxonomy are supposed to be based on clear, reliable and worldwide applicable criteria. Hence, this review clarifies the taxonomy of the macergens to the species level and revealed that their taxonomy is beyond complete. For discovery of additional species, further research with the use modern molecular methods like phylogenomics need to be done. This can precisely define classification of macergens resulting in occasional, but significant changes in previous taxonomic schemes of these macergens.

  2. Constructive Alignment and the SOLO Taxonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Claus; Dahl, Bettina

    2008-01-01

    the science faculties at University of Aarhus, Denmark (AU) and the University of Southern Denmark (SDU) that had been rewritten to explicitly incorporate course objectives, interpreted as intended learning outcomes (ILOs), using the principles of Constructive Alignment and the SOLO Taxonomy. In this paper we...

  3. A Diagnostic Taxonomy of Adult Career Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Robert E.; Cellini, James V.

    1981-01-01

    Developed a taxonomy for the differential diagnosis of adult career development problems. Problem categories identified were: (1) problems in career decision making; (2) problems in implementing career plans; (3) problems in organizational/institutional performance; and (4) problems in organizational/institutional adaption. (Author)

  4. A Taxonomy for Mannerisms of Blind Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichel, Valerie J.

    1979-01-01

    The investigation involving 24 blind children (2-11 years old) set out to develop and validate a coding procedure which employed a set of 34 descriptors with their corresponding definitions. The use of the taxonomy enabled a detailed, systematic study of manneristic behavior in blind children. (Author/SBH)

  5. Towards a taxonomy for project management competences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr Ruben Vrijhoef; Steven Nijhuis; J. Kessels

    2016-01-01

    Presented at Conference: IPMA World Conference 2014, At Rotterdam, The Netherlands, Volume: 28 A taxonomy is used for classifying things in general. For the purpose of this paper it is a systematic classification of competences into hierarchical groups where each sublevel constitutes a breakdown of

  6. An Android Communication App Forensic Taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azfar, Abdullah; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Liu, Lin

    2016-09-01

    Due to the popularity of Android devices and applications (apps), Android forensics is one of the most studied topics within mobile forensics. Communication apps, such as instant messaging and Voice over IP (VoIP), are one popular app category used by mobile device users, including criminals. Therefore, a taxonomy outlining artifacts of forensic interest involving the use of Android communication apps will facilitate the timely collection and analysis of evidentiary materials from such apps. In this paper, 30 popular Android communication apps were examined, where a logical extraction of the Android phone images was collected using XRY, a widely used mobile forensic tool. Various information of forensic interest, such as contact lists and chronology of messages, was recovered. Based on the findings, a two-dimensional taxonomy of the forensic artifacts of the communication apps is proposed, with the app categories in one dimension and the classes of artifacts in the other dimension. Finally, the artifacts identified in the study of the 30 communication apps are summarized using the taxonomy. It is expected that the proposed taxonomy and the forensic findings in this paper will assist forensic investigations involving Android communication apps. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  7. Taxonomy for Common-Cause Failure Vulnerability and Mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Richard Thomas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Korsah, Kofi [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mullens, James Allen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pullum, Laura L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Applying current guidance and practices for common-cause failure (CCF) mitigation to digital instrumentation and control (I&C) systems has proven problematic, and the regulatory environment has been unpredictable. The potential for CCF vulnerability inhibits I&C modernization, thereby challenging the long-term sustainability of existing plants. For new plants and advanced reactor concepts, concern about CCF vulnerability in highly integrated digital I&C systems imposes a design burden that results in higher costs and increased complexity. The regulatory uncertainty in determining which mitigation strategies will be acceptable (e.g., what diversity is needed and how much is sufficient) drives designers to adopt complicated, costly solutions devised for existing plants. To address the conditions that constrain the transition to digital I&C technology by the US nuclear industry, crosscutting research is needed to resolve uncertainty, demonstrate necessary characteristics, and establish an objective basis for qualification of digital technology for nuclear power plant (NPP) I&C applications. To fulfill this research need, Oak Ridge National Laboratory is investigating mitigation of CCF vulnerability for nuclear-qualified applications. The outcome of this research is expected to contribute to a fundamentally sound, comprehensive basis to qualify digital technology for nuclear power applications. This report documents the development of a CCF taxonomy. The basis for the CCF taxonomy was generated by determining consistent terminology and establishing a classification approach. The terminology is based on definitions from standards, guides, and relevant nuclear power industry technical reports. The classification approach is derived from identified classification schemes focused on I&C systems and key characteristics, including failure modes. The CCF taxonomy provides the basis for a systematic organization of key systems aspects relevant to analyzing the potential for

  8. Determination of protein-carbonyls and ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis as biomarkers of oxidative-stress in bivalvia and anthozoa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Stephen Thomas

    2002-01-01

    This study describes the investigation of biomarkers of oxidative-stress in the bivalves Mytilus edulis and Dosinia lupinus, together with host and symbiont tissues of the scleractinian Anthozoa Agaricia agaricites. The biomarkers used were assay of total (via spectrophotometry) and individual (via Western blotting; Oxyblot kit) protein-carbonyls (PC=Os) and content of ubiquitin protein conjugates (UPC) via Western blotting (Bivalvia and Anthozoa) and immunohistochemistry (Anthozoa only). Additional assays for Bivalvia were Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC); and post γ-irradiation survival rates. Experimental stressors for Bivalvia were increased seawater temperature, H 2 O 2 and 60 Co γ-radiation (latter two were used in vivo and in vitro). Comparisons of clean and polluted marine sites are included. Stressors used for Anthozoa were increased solar irradiation concomitant with elevated seawater temperature. Results and conclusions were as follows: individual samples showed considerable variation, pooling of samples improved consistency. Controls for both biomarkers had detectable background levels in each phylum, against which relatively small differences were assessed. In M. edulis, no measurable differences in PC=Os could be determined when elevated seawater temperature or dilute H 2 O 2 ( 2 O 2 (30% v/v) produced a small difference. 60 Co γ-radiation produced clearer differences via Oxyblot and spectrophotometric assays. Comparison of four different tissues from the two bivalves found considerable species-specific and tissue-specific differences. Post-irradiation mortality between species was significantly different (<0.001), D. lupinus was more susceptible than M. edulis. TEAC values generally showed a decrease following irradiation (except for digestive gland). UPCs were clearly different between tissues and between species. PC=Os can be detected by DNPH-reactivity/Western blotting assay in host A. agaricites. UPCs can be assayed via Western

  9. Determination of protein-carbonyls and ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis as biomarkers of oxidative-stress in bivalvia and anthozoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Stephen Thomas

    2002-07-01

    This study describes the investigation of biomarkers of oxidative-stress in the bivalves Mytilus edulis and Dosinia lupinus, together with host and symbiont tissues of the scleractinian Anthozoa Agaricia agaricites. The biomarkers used were assay of total (via spectrophotometry) and individual (via Western blotting; Oxyblot kit) protein-carbonyls (PC=Os) and content of ubiquitin protein conjugates (UPC) via Western blotting (Bivalvia and Anthozoa) and immunohistochemistry (Anthozoa only). Additional assays for Bivalvia were Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC); and post {gamma}-irradiation survival rates. Experimental stressors for Bivalvia were increased seawater temperature, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and {sup 60}Co {gamma}-radiation (latter two were used in vivo and in vitro). Comparisons of clean and polluted marine sites are included. Stressors used for Anthozoa were increased solar irradiation concomitant with elevated seawater temperature. Results and conclusions were as follows: individual samples showed considerable variation, pooling of samples improved consistency. Controls for both biomarkers had detectable background levels in each phylum, against which relatively small differences were assessed. In M. edulis, no measurable differences in PC=Os could be determined when elevated seawater temperature or dilute H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (<30% v/v) stressors were used, nor with between-site comparisons. Concentrated H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (30% v/v) produced a small difference. {sup 60}Co {gamma}-radiation produced clearer differences via Oxyblot and spectrophotometric assays. Comparison of four different tissues from the two bivalves found considerable species-specific and tissue-specific differences. Post-irradiation mortality between species was significantly different (<0.001), D. lupinus was more susceptible than M. edulis. TEAC values generally showed a decrease following irradiation (except for digestive gland). UPCs were clearly different between tissues and

  10. Constructing Taxonomies to Identify Distinctive Forms of Primary Healthcare Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgès Da Silva, Roxane; Pineault, Raynald; Hamel, Marjolaine; Levesque, Jean-Frédéric; Roberge, Danièle; Lamarche, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background. Primary healthcare (PHC) renewal gives rise to important challenges for policy makers, managers, and researchers in most countries. Evaluating new emerging forms of organizations is therefore of prime importance in assessing the impact of these policies. This paper presents a set of methods related to the configurational approach and an organizational taxonomy derived from our analysis. Methods. In 2005, we carried out a study on PHC in two health and social services regions of Quebec that included urban, suburban, and rural areas. An organizational survey was conducted in 473 PHC practices. We used multidimensional nonparametric statistical methods, namely, multiple correspondence and principal component analyses, and an ascending hierarchical classification method to construct a taxonomy of organizations. Results. PHC organizations were classified into five distinct models: four professional and one community. Study findings indicate that the professional integrated coordination and the community model have great potential for organizational development since they are closest to the ideal type promoted by current reforms. Conclusion. Results showed that the configurational approach is useful to assess complex phenomena such as the organization of PHC. The analysis highlights the most promising organizational models. Our study enhances our understanding of organizational change in health services organizations. PMID:24959575

  11. Building a Framework for a Dual Task Taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara L. McIsaac

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of dual task interference has gained increasing attention in the literature for the past 35 years, with six MEDLINE citations in 1979 growing to 351 citations indexed in 2014 and a peak of 454 cited papers in 2013. Increasingly, researchers are examining dual task cost in individuals with pathology, including those with neurodegenerative diseases. While the influence of these papers has extended from the laboratory to the clinic, the field has evolved without clear definitions of commonly used terms and with extreme variations in experimental procedures. As a result, it is difficult to examine the interference literature as a single body of work. In this paper we present a new taxonomy for classifying cognitive-motor and motor-motor interference within the study of dual task behaviors that connects traditional concepts of learning and principles of motor control with current issues of multitasking analysis. As a first step in the process we provide an operational definition of dual task, distinguishing it from a complex single task. We present this new taxonomy, inclusive of both cognitive and motor modalities, as a working model; one that we hope will generate discussion and create a framework from which one can view previous studies and develop questions of interest.

  12. MOLLUSCA' BIODIVERSITY (GASTROPODA AND BIVALVIA AS A BIO INDICATOR OF QUALITY OF WATER IN THE COASTAL ISLAND OF TUNDA ISLAND, BANTEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indria Wahyuni

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The research has been done on Juli 2017 in the coastal region of Tunda Island. This study aims to determine the Biodiversity of Mollusca (Gastropoda and Bivalvia As Bioindicator of Water Quality In Coastal Area of Tunda Island, Banten. Sampling consists of 2 observation stations, namely the mangrove coastal area (3 transects and the seagrass coastal area (2 transects determined by purposive sampling. The observation of each station is done by using the quadratic transect method with 100 m transect line distance, and in each transect line there are 5 observation plots measuring 1m2 x 1m2. The data analysis includes density, biodiversity, bio-indicators of water quality based on diversity index. Result of research on 5 transect found 45 type Mollusca which represent 2 class, that is Gastropoda class of 29 species Gastropoda joined in 14 Family. As for Bivalvia class found 16 species incorporated in 9 families. The total density of Mollusca is 541.2 ind / m2 which consists of 392.4 ind / m2 for Gastropoda class and 148.8 ind / m2 for Bivalvia class. Mollusca diversity was calculated using the diversity index of Shannon-Wienner (H '. The results of diversity index ranged from 3.1356 - 3.3314 with high category. Bioindicator of aquatic quality using diversity index indicates that the coastal area of Tunda Island belongs to a very mildly polluted category.

  13. The Upper Miocene of the Rostov Dome (Eastern Paratethys: Implication of the chronostratigraphy and bivalvia-based biostratigraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruban Dmitry A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Rostov Dome is located in the south of the Russian Platform. In the Late Miocene this area was embraced by the Eastern Paratethys. The implications of a recently developed Neogene chronostratigraphy to the studied area are discussed. The Sarmatian regional stage corresponds to the upper part of the Langhian, the entire Serravalian and the lower part of the Tortonian global stages; the Maeotian regional stage corresponds to the upper part of the Tortonian and the lowermost horizons of the Messinian global stages; the Pontian regional stage corresponds to most of the Messinian and the lowermost Zanclean global stages. A first Bivalvia-based bio-stratigraphic framework is proposed for the territory of the Rostov Dome. Five biozones were established within the Serravalian-Messinian: Tapes vitalianus, Cerastoderma fittoni-Cerastoderma subfittoni, Congeria panticapaea, Congeria amygdaloides navicula and Monodacna pseudocatillus-Prosodacna schirvanica.

  14. The ACTTION–APS–AAPM Pain Taxonomy (AAAPT) Multidimensional Approach to Classifying Acute Pain Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Michael L.; Tighe, Patrick J.; Belfer, Inna; Brennan, Timothy J.; Bruehl, Stephen; Brummett, Chad M.; Buckenmaier, Chester C.; Buvanendran, Asokumar; Cohen, Robert I.; Desjardins, Paul; Edwards, David; Fillingim, Roger; Gewandter, Jennifer; Gordon, Debra B.; Hurley, Robert W.; Kehlet, Henrik; Loeser, John D.; Mackey, Sean; McLean, Samuel A.; Polomano, Rosemary; Rahman, Siamak; Raja, Srinivasa; Rowbotham, Michael; Suresh, Santhanam; Schachtel, Bernard; Schreiber, Kristin; Schumacher, Mark; Stacey, Brett; Stanos, Steven; Todd, Knox; Turk, Dennis C.; Weisman, Steven J.; Wu, Christopher; Carr, Daniel B.; Dworkin, Robert H.; Terman, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    , despite the advent of modern multimodal analgesic strategies. Mismanaged acute pain has a broad societal impact as significant numbers of patients may progress to suffer from chronic pain. An acute pain taxonomy provides a much-needed standardization of clinical diagnostic criteria, which benefits clinical care, research, education, and public policy. For the purposes of the present taxonomy, acute pain is considered to last up to seven days, with prolongation to 30 days being common. The current understanding of acute pain mechanisms poorly differentiates between acute and chronic pain and is often insufficient to distinguish among many types of acute pain conditions. Given the usefulness of the AAPT multidimensional framework, the AAAPT undertook a similar approach to organizing various acute pain conditions. PMID:28482098

  15. "Communicate to vaccinate": the development of a taxonomy of communication interventions to improve routine childhood vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Natalie; Hill, Sophie; Kaufman, Jessica; Lewin, Simon; Kis-Rigo, John; De Castro Freire, Sara Bensaude; Bosch-Capblanch, Xavier; Glenton, Claire; Lin, Vivian; Robinson, Priscilla; Wiysonge, Charles S

    2013-05-11

    members or volunteers; and health care providers. Our taxonomy illuminates and organises this field and identifies the range of available communication interventions to increase routine childhood vaccination uptake. We have utilised a variety of data sources, capturing information from rigorous evaluations such as randomised trials as well as experiences and knowledge of practitioners and vaccination stakeholders. The taxonomy reflects current public health practice and can guide the future development of vaccination programmes.

  16. The ACTTION-APS-AAPM Pain Taxonomy (AAAPT) Multidimensional Approach to Classifying Acute Pain Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Michael L; Tighe, Patrick J; Belfer, Inna; Brennan, Timothy J; Bruehl, Stephen; Brummett, Chad M; Buckenmaier, Chester C; Buvanendran, Asokumar; Cohen, Robert I; Desjardins, Paul; Edwards, David; Fillingim, Roger; Gewandter, Jennifer; Gordon, Debra B; Hurley, Robert W; Kehlet, Henrik; Loeser, John D; Mackey, Sean; McLean, Samuel A; Polomano, Rosemary; Rahman, Siamak; Raja, Srinivasa; Rowbotham, Michael; Suresh, Santhanam; Schachtel, Bernard; Schreiber, Kristin; Schumacher, Mark; Stacey, Brett; Stanos, Steven; Todd, Knox; Turk, Dennis C; Weisman, Steven J; Wu, Christopher; Carr, Daniel B; Dworkin, Robert H; Terman, Gregory

    2017-05-01

    . Mismanaged acute pain has a broad societal impact as significant numbers of patients may progress to suffer from chronic pain. An acute pain taxonomy provides a much-needed standardization of clinical diagnostic criteria, which benefits clinical care, research, education, and public policy. For the purposes of the present taxonomy, acute pain is considered to last up to seven days, with prolongation to 30 days being common. The current understanding of acute pain mechanisms poorly differentiates between acute and chronic pain and is often insufficient to distinguish among many types of acute pain conditions. Given the usefulness of the AAPT multidimensional framework, the AAAPT undertook a similar approach to organizing various acute pain conditions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Toward a comprehensive taxonomy of human motives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talevich, Jennifer R.; Walsh, David A.; Iyer, Ravi; Chopra, Gurveen

    2017-01-01

    A major success in personality has been the development of a consensual structure of traits. However, much less progress has been made on the structure of an equally important aspect of human psychology: motives. We present an empirically and theoretically structured hierarchical taxonomy of 161 motives gleaned from a literature review from McDougall to the present and based on the cluster analysis of similarity judgments among these 161 motives, a broader sampling of motives than previous work. At the broadest level were: Meaning, Communion, and Agency. These divided into nine clusters: Morality & Virtue, Religion & Spirituality, Self-Actualization, Avoidance, Social Relating, Family, Health, Mastery & Competence, and Financial & Occupational Success. Each divided into more concrete clusters to form 5 levels. We discuss contributions to research on motives, especially recent work on goal systems, and the aiding of communication and systematization of research. Finally, we compare the taxonomy to other motive organizations. PMID:28231252

  18. How apomictic taxa are treated in current taxonomy: A review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Majeský, L.; Krahulec, František; Vašut, R.J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 5 (2017), s. 1017-1040 ISSN 0040-0262 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : apomixis * hybridization * species concept Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 2.447, year: 2016

  19. Susceptibility profiles of Nocardia isolates based on current taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaberg, Robert; Fisher, Mark A; Hanson, Kimberley E

    2014-01-01

    The genus Nocardia has undergone rapid taxonomic expansion in recent years, and an increasing number of species are recognized as human pathogens. Many established species have predictable antimicrobial susceptibility profiles, but sufficient information is often not available for recently described organisms. Additionally, the effectiveness of sulfonamides as first-line drugs for Nocardia has recently been questioned. This led us to review antimicrobial susceptibility patterns for a large number of molecularly identified clinical isolates. Susceptibility results were available for 1,299 isolates representing 39 different species or complexes, including 11 that were newly described, during a 6-year study period. All tested isolates were susceptible to linezolid. Resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) was rare (2%) except among Nocardia pseudobrasiliensis (31%) strains and strains of the N. transvalensis complex (19%). Imipenem susceptibility varied for N. cyriacigeorgica and N. farcinica, as did ceftriaxone susceptibility of the N. nova complex. Resistance to more than one of the most commonly used drugs (amikacin, ceftriaxone, TMP-SMX, and imipenem) was highest for N. pseudobrasiliensis (100%), N. transvalensis complex (83%), N. farcinica (68%), N. puris (57%), N. brasiliensis (51%), N. aobensis (50%), and N. amikacinitolerans (43%). Thus, while antimicrobial resistance can often be predicted, susceptibility testing should still be considered when combination therapy is warranted, for less well characterized species or those with variable susceptibility profiles, and for patients with TMP-SMX intolerance.

  20. Towards a taxonomy of digital work

    OpenAIRE

    Mrass, Volkmar; Li, Mahei Manhai; Peters, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    Despite the increasing importance of digitization for economy and society, there is few structuring of the very heterogenous kinds of digital work. Representatives from business, politics and science need a basis for the development of strategies to encounter the challenges that result from this digitization. We aim at delivering a contribution to that basis by systematically investigating what different types of digital work exist and by developing a taxonomy. As a first important step towar...

  1. An Empirical Taxonomy of Crowdfunding Intermediaries

    OpenAIRE

    Haas, Philipp; Blohm, Ivo; Leimeister, Jan Marco

    2014-01-01

    Due to the recent popularity of crowdfunding, a broad magnitude of crowdfunding intermediaries has emerged, while research on crowdfunding intermediaries has been largely neglected. As a consequence, existing classifications of crowdfunding intermediaries are conceptual, lack theoretical grounding, and are not empirically validated. Thus, we develop an empirical taxonomy of crowdfunding intermediaries, which is grounded in the theories of two-sided markets and financial intermediation. Integr...

  2. An inclusive taxonomy of behavioral biases

    OpenAIRE

    David Peón; Manel Antelo; Anxo Calvo-Silvosa

    2017-01-01

    This paper overviews the theoretical and empirical research on behavioral biases and their influence in the literature. To provide a systematic exposition, we present a unified framework that takes the reader through an original taxonomy, based on the reviews of relevant authors in the field. In particular, we establish three broad categories that may be distinguished: heuristics and biases; choices, values and frames; and social factors. We then describe the main biases within each category,...

  3. DEVELOPMENTAL TAXONOMY OF CONDUCT DISORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Kostić

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Conduct disorder is a heterogeneous disorder in terms of etiology, course and prognosis, and currently, there is no singular model that would describe the development of the disorder. The results of empirical research on males confirm this heterogeneity, as they point out to two possible developmental pathways: childhood-onset and adolescentonset type. This paper presents the basic elements of developmental taxonomic theory which argues that there are two different developmental pathways to conduct disorder which have different causes and serve as the basis for the current typology of conduct disorders in the classification systems. Such a typology of conduct disorders in the diagnostic classification allows better understanding, prognosis and choice of treatment.

  4. DEVELOPMENTAL TAXONOMY OF CONDUCT DISORDER

    OpenAIRE

    Jelena Kostić; Milkica Nešić; Jasminka Marković; Miodrag Stanković

    2015-01-01

    Conduct disorder is a heterogeneous disorder in terms of etiology, course and prognosis, and currently, there is no singular model that would describe the development of the disorder. The results of empirical research on males confirm this heterogeneity, as they point out to two possible developmental pathways: childhood-onset and adolescentonset type. This paper presents the basic elements of developmental taxonomic theory which argues that there are two different developmental pathways to c...

  5. A Reasoning Technique for Taxonomy Expert System of Living Organisms

    OpenAIRE

    desiani, anita; Firdaus, Firdaus; Maiyanti, Sri Indra

    2016-01-01

    Taxonomy of living organisms can help scientists to sort organisms in order and help them to identify new organisms by finding out which their groups. It also is easier to study organisms when they are sorted in groups. Taxonomy of living organisms system is a important basic part of ecology system. Researcher should know about any organisms that they noted in an ecology. Integration between classification taxonomy of Living Organisms and technology information will have many advantages for ...

  6. Mathematics, curriculum and assessment: The role of taxonomies in the quest for coherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Long

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A challenge encountered when monitoring mathematics teaching and learning at high school is that taxonomies such as Bloom’s, and variations of this work, are not entirely adequate for providing meaningful feedback to teachers beyond very general cognitive categories that are difficult to interpret. Challenges of this nature are also encountered in the setting of examinations, where the requirement is to cover a range of skills and cognitive domains. The contestation as to the cognitive level is inevitable as it is necessary to analyse the relationship between the problem and the learners’ background experience. The challenge in the project described in this article was to find descriptive terms that would be meaningful to teachers. The first attempt at providing explicit feedback was to apply the assessment frameworks that include a content component and a cognitive component, namely knowledge, routine procedures, complex procedures and problem solving, currently used in the South African curriculum documents. The second attempt investigated various taxonomies, including those used in international assessments and in mathematics education research, for constructs that teachers of mathematics might find meaningful. The final outcome of this investigation was to apply the dimensions required to understand a mathematical concept proposed by Usiskin (2012: the skills-algorithm, property-proof, use-application and representation-metaphor dimension. A feature of these dimensions is that they are not hierarchical; rather, within each of the dimensions, the mathematical task may demand recall but may also demand the highest level of creativity. For our purpose, we developed a two-way matrix using Usiskin’s dimensions on one axis and a variation of Bloom’s revised taxonomy on the second axis. Our findings are that this two-way matrix provides an alternative to current taxonomies, is more directly applicable to mathematics and provides the

  7. A Rain Taxonomy for Degraded Visual Environment Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatlin, P. N.; Petersen, W. A.

    2018-01-01

    This Technical Memorandum (TM) provides a description of a rainfall taxonomy that defines the detailed characteristics of naturally occurring rainfall. The taxonomy is based on raindrop size measurements collected around the globe and encompasses several different climate types. Included in this TM is a description of these rainfall observations, an explanation of methods used to process those data, and resultant metrics comprising the rain taxonomy database. Each of the categories in the rain taxonomy are characterized by a unique set of raindrop sizes that can be used in simulations of electromagnetic wave propagation through a rain medium.

  8. Taxonomy and biogeography of Stephanoxis Simon, 1897 (Aves: Trochilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner Cavarzere

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available After the description in the 19th century of two hummingbird species currently allocated to the genus Stephanoxis, Peters (1945 merged both taxa into a single species without providing any rationale. Here we re-evaluate the taxonomy and species limits of the representatives of this genus based on an extensive number of specimens. We demonstrate these taxa are better treated as full species under both the Biological and Phylogenetic Species Concepts due to their well-defined range and plumage patterns and reciprocally diagnosability. They have distinct, allopatric distributions segregated by a 160 km gap between the Serra do Mar, to the east, and Serra de Paranapiacaba, to the west, in the state of São Paulo. Stephanoxis species have ranges which are congruent with other montane bird species’ suggesting shared vicariance events during preterit interglacial periods.

  9. Transporter taxonomy - a comparison of different transport protein classification schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viereck, Michael; Gaulton, Anna; Digles, Daniela; Ecker, Gerhard F

    2014-06-01

    Currently, there are more than 800 well characterized human membrane transport proteins (including channels and transporters) and there are estimates that about 10% (approx. 2000) of all human genes are related to transport. Membrane transport proteins are of interest as potential drug targets, for drug delivery, and as a cause of side effects and drug–drug interactions. In light of the development of Open PHACTS, which provides an open pharmacological space, we analyzed selected membrane transport protein classification schemes (Transporter Classification Database, ChEMBL, IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology, and Gene Ontology) for their ability to serve as a basis for pharmacology driven protein classification. A comparison of these membrane transport protein classification schemes by using a set of clinically relevant transporters as use-case reveals the strengths and weaknesses of the different taxonomy approaches.

  10. Impact of zebra and quagga mussels (Dreissena spp.) on freshwater unionids (Bivalvia: Unionidae) in the Detroit River of the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloesser, D.W.; Kovalak, W.P.; Longton, G.D.; Ohnesorg, K.L.; Smithee, R.D.

    1998-01-01

    To assess the impact of zebra and quagga mussel (Dreissena spp.) infestation on unionids, unionids (Bivalvia: Unionidae) were sampled in the Detroit River in 1982-1983, before mussels invaded the river, and in 1992 and 1994, after mussels invaded the river. Live unionids at four stations along the southeastern shore accounted for 97% (20 species) of all shells collected in 1982-1983, whereas live unionids accounted for only 10% (13 species) in 1992. A similar decline in live unionids occurred at nine stations along the northwestern shore, except the decline occurred over the three sampling periods: in 1982-83, 84% (22 species) were live; in 1992, 65% (26 species) were live; and, in 1994, only 3% (13 species) were live. The difference in time to near-total mortality of unionids along the southeastern and northwestern shores is attributed to differences in the time of invasion and abundance of zebra mussel veligers in distinct water masses emanating from Lake St. Clair located immediately upstream of the Detroit River. Although individuals of all species of all unionid subfamilies declined between 1982 and 1992/1994, members of the subfamilies Anodontinae and Lampsilinae declined more than Ambleminae. Between 1986 and 1992/1994, five Anodontinae, three Lampsilinae and 0 Ambleminae species have been extirpated from the river due to dreissenid mussel infestation. Numbers of individuals of commonly found species declined more than numbers of individuals of uncommonly found species. However, the number of uncommon species declined 47% (17 to 9) along both the southeastern and northwestern shores, whereas common species remained the same (3 species) along the southeastern shore and declined only 40% (5 to 3 species) along the northwestern shore. This study, and others, suggest that high mortality of unionids can occur between 4 and 6 yr after initial invasion by dreissenids or up to 8 yr depending on water current patterns. Infestation-induced mortality of unionids in the

  11. Expanding the Taxonomy of the Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (DC/TMD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Christopher C.; Goulet, Jean-Paul; Lobbezoo, Frank; Schiffman, Eric L.; Alstergren, Per; Anderson, Gary C.; de Leeuw, Reny; Jensen, Rigmor; Michelotti, Ambra; Ohrbach, Richard; Petersson, Arne; List, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a need to expand the current temporomandibular disorder (TMD) classification to include less common, but clinically important disorders. The immediate aim was to develop a consensus-based classification system and associated diagnostic criteria that have clinical and research utility for less common TMDs. The long-term aim was to establish a foundation, vis-à-vis this classification system, that will stimulate data collection, validity testing, and further criteria refinement. Methods A working group [members of the International RDC/TMD Consortium Network of the International Association for Dental Research (IADR), members of the Orofacial Pain Special Interest Group (SIG) of the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP), and members from other professional societies] reviewed disorders for inclusion based on clinical significance, the availability of plausible diagnostic criteria, and the ability to operationalize and study the criteria. The disorders were derived from the literature when possible and based on expert opinion as necessary. The expanded TMD taxonomy was presented for feedback at international meetings. Results Of 56 disorders considered, 37 were included in the expanded taxonomy and were placed into the following four categories: temporomandibular joint disorders, masticatory muscle disorders, headache disorders, and disorders affecting associated structures. Those excluded were extremely uncommon, lacking operationalized diagnostic criteria, not clearly related to TMDs, or not sufficiently distinct from disorders already included within the taxonomy. Conclusions The expanded TMD taxonomy offers an integrated approach to clinical diagnosis and provides a framework for further research to operationalize and test the proposed taxonomy and diagnostic criteria. PMID:24443898

  12. Taxonomy of the nuclear plant operator's role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisner, R.A.; Fullerton, A.M.; Frey, P.R.; Dougherty, E.M.

    1981-01-01

    A program is presently under way at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to define the functional design requirements of operational aids for nuclear power plant operators. A first and important step in defining these requirements is to develop an understanding of the operator's role or function. This paper describes a taxonomy of operator functions that applies during all operational modes and conditions of the plant. Other topics such as the influence of automation, role acceptance, and the operator's role during emergencies are also discussed. This systematic approach has revealed several areas which have potential for improving the operator's ability to perform his role

  13. Constructive Alignment and the SOLO Taxonomy:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Claus; Dahl, Bettina

    2008-01-01

    explain and discuss these principles, give examples of how the new syllabi were constructed, and describe the process by which they were formed. We also explain and discuss the results of a comparative study comparing the competences of Computer Science with those of Mathematics (and classical Natural...... the science faculties at University of Aarhus, Denmark (AU) and the University of Southern Denmark (SDU) that had been rewritten to explicitly incorporate course objectives, interpreted as intended learning outcomes (ILOs), using the principles of Constructive Alignment and the SOLO Taxonomy. In this paper we...

  14. An inclusive taxonomy of behavioral biases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Peón

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper overviews the theoretical and empirical research on behavioral biases and their influence in the literature. To provide a systematic exposition, we present a unified framework that takes the reader through an original taxonomy, based on the reviews of relevant authors in the field. In particular, we establish three broad categories that may be distinguished: heuristics and biases; choices, values and frames; and social factors. We then describe the main biases within each category, and revise the main theoretical and empirical developments, linking each bias with other biases and anomalies that are related to them, according to the literature.

  15. Taxonomy of Streptomyces strains isolated from rhizospheres of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Taxonomy of Streptomyces strains isolated from rhizospheres of various plant species grown in Taif region, KSA, having antagonistic activities against some microbial tissue ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Keywords: Taxonomy, Streptomyces, microbial tissue culture contaminants, antagonistic activities, 16S rRNA

  16. Understanding the Advising Learning Process Using Learning Taxonomies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehleck, Jeanette K.; Smith, Cathleen L.; Allen, Janine M.

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the learning that transpires in advising, we used Anderson et al.'s (2001) revision of Bloom's (1956) taxonomy and Krathwohl, Bloom, and Masia's (1964) affective taxonomy to analyze eight student-reported advising outcomes from Smith and Allen (2014). Using the cognitive processes and knowledge domains of Anderson et al.'s…

  17. Rethinking Bloom's Taxonomy: Implications for Testing and Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lorin W.

    This paper describes a work in progress on a second edition of "Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, The Classification of Educational Goals, Handbook I: Cognitive Domain," also known as "Bloom's Taxonomy" (B. Bloom and others, Eds., 1956). The new edition will be grounded in the collective wisdom of the original…

  18. Gastropoda-Bivalvia Fauna And Neogene-Quaternary Stratigraphy of the Southwest of Dardanelles (Çanakkale-NWAnatolia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapan, Sevinç; Kabasakal, Sinem

    2016-04-01

    Gastropoda-Bivalvia Fauna And Neogene-Quaternary Stratigraphy of the Southwest of Dardanelles (Çanakkale-NWAnatolia) Sevinç KAPAN, Sinem KABASAKAL, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Engineering Faculty, Geological Engineering Department sevinckapan_yesilyurt@hotmail.com In this study, paleontology and stratigraphy of Neogene and Quaternary units around south of the Dardanelles have been examined using Gastropoda and Bivalvia fauna. In the investigation area, the base of the sediments that belongs to Neogene, consist of the volcanics which are formed with basalts, andesites and tuff. Neogene begins unconformity with basal conglomerate which are formed with basalt and tuff gravels. The measurable thickness of the Neogene sediments is approximately 200meters in total. First fossiliferius level which consist of Lymnocardium (Euxinicardium) nobile Sabba has showed similarities with the Pontian (Late Miocene) fauna of the Eastern Paratethys. The existence of Melanopsis and Psidium species indicate that the basin has been brackish water feeding by fresh water in the Early Pliocene. Theodoxus fluviatilis (Linne), Theodoxus (Calvertia) aff. imbricata Brusina, Theodoxus (Calvertia) licherdopoli scriptus (Stefanescu), Viviparus mammatus (Stefanescu), Valvata (Valavata) sulekiana Brusina, Valvata (Cincinna) crusitensis Fontannes, Hydrobia cf grandis Cobalcescu, Hydrobia ventrosa Monfort, Melanopsis (Melanopsis) cf. bergeroni Stefanescu, , Melanopsis (Melanopsis) sandbergeri rumana Tournouer, Melanopsis (Canthidomus) hybostoma anili Taner, Melanopsis (Canthidomus) hybostoma amaradica Fontannes, Melanopsis (Canthidomus) lanceolata Neumayr, Amphimelania fossariformis (Tournouer), Melanoides tuberculata monolithica (Bukowski), Radix (Radix) peregra (Müller), Planorbarius thiollierei (Michaud), Potamida (Potamida) craiovensis craiovensis (Tournouer), Potamida (Potamida) berbestiensis (Fontannes), Unio pristinus davilai Porumbaru, Unio subexquisitus Jatzko, Anadonta zmaji

  19. A preliminary taxonomy of medical errors in family practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovey, S M; Meyers, D S; Phillips, R L; Green, L A; Fryer, G E; Galliher, J M; Kappus, J; Grob, P

    2002-09-01

    To develop a preliminary taxonomy of primary care medical errors. Qualitative analysis to identify categories of error reported during a randomized controlled trial of computer and paper reporting methods. The National Network for Family Practice and Primary Care Research. Family physicians. Medical error category, context, and consequence. Forty two physicians made 344 reports: 284 (82.6%) arose from healthcare systems dysfunction; 46 (13.4%) were errors due to gaps in knowledge or skills; and 14 (4.1%) were reports of adverse events, not errors. The main subcategories were: administrative failure (102; 30.9% of errors), investigation failures (82; 24.8%), treatment delivery lapses (76; 23.0%), miscommunication (19; 5.8%), payment systems problems (4; 1.2%), error in the execution of a clinical task (19; 5.8%), wrong treatment decision (14; 4.2%), and wrong diagnosis (13; 3.9%). Most reports were of errors that were recognized and occurred in reporters' practices. Affected patients ranged in age from 8 months to 100 years, were of both sexes, and represented all major US ethnic groups. Almost half the reports were of events which had adverse consequences. Ten errors resulted in patients being admitted to hospital and one patient died. This medical error taxonomy, developed from self-reports of errors observed by family physicians during their routine clinical practice, emphasizes problems in healthcare processes and acknowledges medical errors arising from shortfalls in clinical knowledge and skills. Patient safety strategies with most effect in primary care settings need to be broader than the current focus on medication errors.

  20. Digital Libraries: The Challenge of Integrating Instagram with a Taxonomy for Content Management

    OpenAIRE

    Simona Ibba; Filippo Eros Pani

    2016-01-01

    Interoperability and social implication are two current challenges in the digital library (DL) context. To resolve the problem of interoperability, our work aims to find a relationship between the main metadata schemas. In particular, we want to formalize knowledge through the creation of a metadata taxonomy built with the analysis and the integration of existing schemas associated with DLs. We developed a method to integrate and combine Instagram metadata and hashtags. The final result is a ...

  1. Planetary Taxonomy: Label Round Bodies "Worlds"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margot, Jean-Luc; Levison, H. F.

    2009-05-01

    The classification of planetary bodies is as important to Astronomy as taxonomy is to other sciences. The etymological, historical, and IAU definitions of planet rely on a dynamical criterion, but some authors prefer a geophysical criterion based on "roundness". Although the former criterion is superior when it comes to classifying newly discovered objects, the conflict need not exist if we agree to identify the subset of "round" planetary objects as "worlds". This addition to the taxonomy would conveniently recognize that "round" objects such as Earth, Europa, Titan, Triton, and Pluto share some common planetary-type processes regardless of their distance from the host star. Some of these worlds are planets, others are not. Defining how round is round and handling the inevitable transition objects are non-trivial tasks. Because images at sufficient resolution are not available for the overwhelming majority of newly discovered objects, the degree of roundness is not a directly observable property and is inherently problematic as a basis for classification. We can tolerate some uncertainty in establishing the "world" status of a newly discovered object, and still establish its planet or satellite status with existing dynamical criteria. Because orbital parameters are directly observable, and because mass can often be measured either from orbital perturbations or from the presence of companions, the dynamics provide a robust and practical planet classification scheme. It may also be possible to determine which bodies are dynamically dominant from observations of the population magnitude/size distribution.

  2. A literature review on the levels of automation during the years. What are the different taxonomies that have been proposed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagia, Marialena; Transeth, Aksel A; Fjerdingen, Sigurd A

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we present a literature review of the evolution of the levels of autonomy from the end of the 1950s up until now. The motivation of this study was primarily to gather and to compare the literature that exists, on taxonomies on levels of automation. Technical developments within both computer hardware and software have made it possible to introduce autonomy into virtually all aspects of human-machine systems. The current study, is focusing on how different authors treat the problem of different levels of automation. The outcome of this study is to present the differences between the proposed levels of automation and the various taxonomies, giving the potential users a number of choices in order to decide which taxonomy satisfies their needs better. In addition, this paper surveys deals with the term adaptive automation, which seems to be a new trend in the literature on autonomy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  3. Does the name really matter? The importance of botanical nomenclature and plant taxonomy in biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Bradley C; Balick, Michael J

    2014-03-28

    Medical research on plant-derived compounds requires a breadth of expertise from field to laboratory and clinical skills. Too often basic botanical skills are evidently lacking, especially with respect to plant taxonomy and botanical nomenclature. Binomial and familial names, synonyms and author citations are often misconstrued. The correct botanical name, linked to a vouchered specimen, is the sine qua non of phytomedical research. Without the unique identifier of a proper binomial, research cannot accurately be linked to the existing literature. Perhaps more significant, is the ambiguity of species determinations that ensues of from poor taxonomic practices. This uncertainty, not surprisingly, obstructs reproducibility of results-the cornerstone of science. Based on our combined six decades of experience with medicinal plants, we discuss the problems of inaccurate taxonomy and botanical nomenclature in biomedical research. This problems appear all too frequently in manuscripts and grant applications that we review and they extend to the published literature. We also review the literature on the importance of taxonomy in other disciplines that relate to medicinal plant research. In most cases, questions regarding orthography, synonymy, author citations, and current family designations of most plant binomials can be resolved using widely-available online databases and other electronic resources. Some complex problems require consultation with a professional plant taxonomist, which also is important for accurate identification of voucher specimens. Researchers should provide the currently accepted binomial and complete author citation, provide relevant synonyms, and employ the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group III family name. Taxonomy is a vital adjunct not only to plant-medicine research but to virtually every field of science. Medicinal plant researchers can increase the precision and utility of their investigations by following sound practices with respect to botanical

  4. Digital Libraries: The Challenge of Integrating Instagram with a Taxonomy for Content Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Ibba

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Interoperability and social implication are two current challenges in the digital library (DL context. To resolve the problem of interoperability, our work aims to find a relationship between the main metadata schemas. In particular, we want to formalize knowledge through the creation of a metadata taxonomy built with the analysis and the integration of existing schemas associated with DLs. We developed a method to integrate and combine Instagram metadata and hashtags. The final result is a taxonomy, which provides innovative metadata with respect to the classification of resources, as images of Instagram and the user-generated content, that play a primary role in the context of modern DLs. The possibility of Instagram to localize the photos inserted by users allows us to interpret the most relevant and interesting informative content for a specific user type and in a specific location and to improve access, visibility and searching of library content.

  5. Norms for environmentally responsible behaviour: An extended taxonomy and a preliminary assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    The currently used concept of personal or moral norms is ambiguous with regard to its motivational content. Therefore, a revision of the norm taxonomy is suggested, implying a distinction between three types of personal norms, called introjected, identified, and integrated norms. A preliminary as...... is also supported, with the reservation that the different behavioural references are more than just different methods of measuring the same latent construct(s). People evidently hold different norms for different environmentally responsible behaviours.......The currently used concept of personal or moral norms is ambiguous with regard to its motivational content. Therefore, a revision of the norm taxonomy is suggested, implying a distinction between three types of personal norms, called introjected, identified, and integrated norms. A preliminary...... assessment of the taxonomy is carried out based of a survey of a random sample of Danish residents 18 years or older. A range of norm constructs were measured with regard to four environmentally relevant behaviours: buying organic milk, buying energy saving light bulbs, source-separating compostable kitchen...

  6. The Preliminary Study of Organochlorine Pesticide Residues on Sediments of Bivalvia Fishing Ground at Eastern Part of Coastal Semarang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhi Suryono, Chrisna; Subagyo; Setyati, Wilis Ari; Sri Susilo, Endang; Rochaddi, Baskoro; Triaji Mahendrajaya, Robertus

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents the occurrence level of organochlorine contamination in marine sediments of Semarang coastal areas as a fishing ground of Bivalvia. Five compounds (Heptachlor, Aldrin, Endosulfan, Endrin and pp-DDT) of contaminant have been determined in the sediments surface of Semarang coastal waters. The samples were then analyzed by using gas chromatography and followed by using the method of Standard Method Examination. The result showed that the average concentration of organochlorine pesticides Heptachlor, Aldrin, Endosulfan, Endrin and pp-DDT were 25.5, bellow detected, 7.1, 37.2, 28.6 μ g/L, respectively. The high concentration of pesticide showed on Endrin (65,84 ppb), pp-DDT (29,53 μ g/L), and heptachlor (25,45 μ g/L). The low concentrations were detected on aldrin (bellow detected) and endosulfan (0,92 μ g/L). The concentration of organochlorine pesticides in these areas might contribute on four rivers which deposited the sediment in these coastal waters

  7. Comparative studies on the morphometry and physiology of European populations of the lagoon specialist Cerastoderma glaucum (Bivalvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Tarnowska

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal changes in the morphometric and physiological parameters of the cockle Cerastoderma glaucum (Bivalvia from the Baltic Sea (GD, the North Sea (LV, and the Mediterranean Sea (BL were investigated. The cockles from GD were much smaller than those from other populations due to osmotic stress. The female to male ratios did not differ significantly from 1:1. The northern populations (GD, LV had a monocyclic reproductive pattern, whereas the southern population (BL seemed to reproduce throughout the year. Seasonal changes in the contents of biochemical components appeared to be correlated with changes in trophic conditions and the reproductive cycle. Protein content was the highest in spring for all the populations. The highest lipid contents and lowest carbohydrate contents were noted in GD and BL in spring, while no marked differences were noted among seasons in LV (probably because the data from both sexes were pooled. Respiration rates in GD were the highest among the populations, which could have been due to osmotic stress. High metabolic rates expressed by high respiration rates in GD and LV in spring and autumn could have resulted from gamete development (in spring and phytoplankton blooms (in spring and autumn.

  8. The effect of temperature and body size on filtration rates of Limnoperna fortunei (Bivalvia, Mytilidae under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Pestana

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The golden mussel (Limnoperna fortunei, Mollusca: Bivalvia is an invasive species that has been causing considerable environmental and economic problems in South America. In the present study, filtration rates of L. fortunei were determined in the laboratory under different temperatures (10, 15, 20, 25, 28, and 30 ºC and two types of food (Algamac-2000® and the chlorophycean alga Scenedesmus sp.. There was a statistically significant relationship between time and filtration rates in the experiment using Scenedesmus sp., regardless of temperature. However, this pattern was absent in the experiment using Algamac, suggesting that the relationship between filtration rates and temperature might depend on the size of the filtered particles. In addition, there was no correlation between filtration rates and either shell size or condition index (the relationship between the weight and the length of a mussel. The filtration rate measured in the present study (724.94 ml/h was one of the highest rates recorded among invasive bivalves to date. Given that the colonies of the golden mussel could reach hundreds of thousands of individuals per square meter, such filtration levels could severely impact the freshwater environments in its introduced range.

  9. Taxonomi för databashanterare

    OpenAIRE

    Österberg, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Syftet med denna undersökning är att ta fram en taxonomi för databashanteringssystem (DBMS) som kan förenkla valet av DBMS, då det kan vara en lång och komplicerad process. Taxonomin klassificerar kriterier hos DBMS som anses viktiga i en litteraturstudie av flertalet artiklar. Arbetet visar även på en strukturerad process för att gå från krav till val av databashanterare i form av ett poängsystem som använder sig av taxonomin och DBMS rangordning på olika kriterier. Valprocessen tar ställnin...

  10. Taxonomy for competency-based dental curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Neira, Roberto J; Beltrán-Aguilar, Eugenio D

    2004-09-01

    The objective of this article is to propose a classification of dental competencies. Interest in dental competencies has grown consistently during the last three decades. However, the dental education literature suggests that the term "competency" is understood and used differently by dental schools around the world. The taxonomic classification of dental competencies we propose follows a systematic approach starting at the highest level of complexity, i.e., the professional profile the teaching institution envisions for its graduates, and following in a decreasing degree of complexity to competency function, task, step, movement, and moment. This taxonomy has proved to be useful for more than thirty years in the Dental School of the Peruvian University Cayetano Heredia. Graduates of this school are successful practitioners, teachers, and researchers in Peru and other countries. The classification proposed here should clarify terms, facilitate curriculum design and learning assessment, stimulate further discussion on the matter, and facilitate communication among the dental education establishment.

  11. Nematode taxonomy: from morphology to metabarcoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M.; Sapp, M.; Prior, T.; Karssen, G.; Back, M.

    2015-11-01

    Nematodes represent a species rich and morphologically diverse group of metazoans inhabiting both aquatic and terrestrial environments. Their role as biological indicators and as key players in nutrient cycling has been well documented. Some groups of nematodes are also known to cause significant losses to crop production. In spite of this, knowledge of their diversity is still limited due to the difficulty in achieving species identification using morphological characters. Molecular methodology has provided very useful means of circumventing the numerous limitations associated with classical morphology based identification. We discuss herein the history and the progress made within the field of nematode systematics, the limitations of classical taxonomy and how the advent of high throughput sequencing is facilitating advanced ecological and molecular studies.

  12. COPD: time to improve its taxonomy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartolomé R. Celli

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to well-conducted epidemiological studies and advances in genetics, molecular biology, translational research, the advent of computed tomography of the lungs and bioinformatics, the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD as a single entity caused by susceptibility to cigarette smoke is no longer tenable. Furthermore, the once-accepted concept that COPD results from a rapid and progressive loss of lung function over time is not true for a sizeable proportion of adults with the disease. Now we know that some genetic predisposition and/or different environmental interactions (nutritional, infectious, pollution and immunological may negatively modulate post-natal lung development and lead to poorly reversible airflow limitation later in life, consistent with COPD. We believe it is time to rethink the taxonomy of this disease based on the evidence at hand. To do so, we have followed the principles outlined in the 1980s by J.D. Scadding who proposed that diseases can be defined by four key characteristics: 1 clinical description (syndrome, 2 disorder of structure (morbid anatomy, 3 disorder of function (pathophysiology and 4 causation (aetiology. Here, we propose a pragmatic approach to the taxonomy of COPD based on different processes that result in a similar syndromic presentation. It can accommodate changes over time, as the pathobiology that may lead to COPD expands. We hope that stakeholders in the field may find it useful to better define the patients now boxed into one single entity, so that specific studies can be designed and conducted for each type of COPDs.

  13. Ontologies, taxonomies and thesauri in systems science and systematics

    CERN Document Server

    Currás, Emilia

    2010-01-01

    The originality of this book, which deals with such a new subject matter, lies in the application of methods and concepts never used before - such as ontologies and taxonomies, as well as thesauri - to the ordering of knowledge based on primary information. Chapters in the book also examine the study of ontologies, taxonomies and thesauri from the perspective of systematics and general systems theory. Ontologies, Taxonomies and Thesauri in Systems Science and Systematics will be extremely useful to those operating within the network of related fields, which includes documentation and informati

  14. A review of the taxonomy of chondrichthyan fishes: a modern perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, W T; Last, P R

    2012-04-01

    Taxonomic clarity is a fundamental requirement as it forms the foundation of all other life sciences. In the last decade, chondrichthyan taxonomy has undergone a scientific renaissance with >180 new species formally described. This effort encompasses c. 15% of the global chondrichthyan fauna, which consists of 1185 currently recognized species. The important role of chondrichthyan taxonomy for conservation management has been highlighted in recent years with new species descriptions or taxonomic resolution of a number of threatened species. These include Australian gulper (genus Centrophorus) and speartooth sharks (genus Glyphis) in coastal waters of Australia and Borneo. Closer examination of other wide-ranging species, for which the taxonomy was thought to be stable, has shown that they consist of species complexes, e.g. manta rays (Manta spp.) and spotted eagle rays (the Aetobatus narinari complex), and highlights the need for critical re-examination of other wide-ranging species. Molecular methods have provided another useful tool to taxonomists and they have proven to assist greatly with identifying cryptic species and species complexes. The limitations of particular molecular methods being used need, however, to be carefully considered and there are some concerns about how these are being integrated with classical taxonomy. The fundamental importance of taxonomic nomenclature to life sciences is often poorly understood but striving for nomenclatural stability is a critical component of taxonomy. Similarly, biological collections are an extremely vital asset to both taxonomists and the broader scientific community. These collections are becoming increasingly important due in part to molecular species identification initiatives such as the Barcode of Life which has resulted in a large number of voucher specimens linked to tissue samples being deposited. Biological collections are also proving to be imperative in biodiversity studies as they contain a 'gold mine

  15. Fish Ontology framework for taxonomy-based fish recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Najib M.; Khan, Haris A.; Then, Amy Y-Hui; Ving Ching, Chong; Gaur, Manas

    2017-01-01

    Life science ontologies play an important role in Semantic Web. Given the diversity in fish species and the associated wealth of information, it is imperative to develop an ontology capable of linking and integrating this information in an automated fashion. As such, we introduce the Fish Ontology (FO), an automated classification architecture of existing fish taxa which provides taxonomic information on unknown fish based on metadata restrictions. It is designed to support knowledge discovery, provide semantic annotation of fish and fisheries resources, data integration, and information retrieval. Automated classification for unknown specimens is a unique feature that currently does not appear to exist in other known ontologies. Examples of automated classification for major groups of fish are demonstrated, showing the inferred information by introducing several restrictions at the species or specimen level. The current version of FO has 1,830 classes, includes widely used fisheries terminology, and models major aspects of fish taxonomy, grouping, and character. With more than 30,000 known fish species globally, the FO will be an indispensable tool for fish scientists and other interested users. PMID:28929028

  16. Fish Ontology framework for taxonomy-based fish recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najib M. Ali

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Life science ontologies play an important role in Semantic Web. Given the diversity in fish species and the associated wealth of information, it is imperative to develop an ontology capable of linking and integrating this information in an automated fashion. As such, we introduce the Fish Ontology (FO, an automated classification architecture of existing fish taxa which provides taxonomic information on unknown fish based on metadata restrictions. It is designed to support knowledge discovery, provide semantic annotation of fish and fisheries resources, data integration, and information retrieval. Automated classification for unknown specimens is a unique feature that currently does not appear to exist in other known ontologies. Examples of automated classification for major groups of fish are demonstrated, showing the inferred information by introducing several restrictions at the species or specimen level. The current version of FO has 1,830 classes, includes widely used fisheries terminology, and models major aspects of fish taxonomy, grouping, and character. With more than 30,000 known fish species globally, the FO will be an indispensable tool for fish scientists and other interested users.

  17. Towards a new taxonomy of idiopathic orofacial pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woda, Alain; Tubert-Jeannin, Stéphanie; Bouhassira, Didier; Attal, Nadine; Fleiter, Bernard; Goulet, Jean-Paul; Gremeau-Richard, Christelle; Navez, Marie Louise; Picard, Pascale; Pionchon, Paul; Albuisson, Eliane

    2005-08-01

    There is no current consensus on the taxonomy of the different forms of idiopathic orofacial pain (stomatodynia, atypical odontalgia, atypical facial pain, facial arthromyalgia), which are sometimes considered as separate entities and sometimes grouped together. In the present prospective multicentric study, we used a systematic approach to help to place these different painful syndromes in the general classification of chronic facial pain. This multicenter study was carried out on 245 consecutive patients presenting with chronic facial pain (>4 months duration). Each patient was seen by two experts who proposed a diagnosis, administered a 111-item questionnaire and filled out a standardized 68-item examination form. Statistical processing included univariate analysis and several forms of multidimensional analysis. Migraines (n=37), tension-type headache (n=26), post-traumatic neuralgia (n=20) and trigeminal neuralgia (n=13) tended to cluster independently. When signs and symptoms describing topographic features were not included in the list of variables, the idiopathic orofacial pain patients tended to cluster in a single group. Inside this large cluster, only stomatodynia (n=42) emerged as a distinct homogenous subgroup. In contrast, facial arthromyalgia (n=46) and an entity formed with atypical facial pain (n=25) and atypical odontalgia (n=13) could only be individualised by variables reflecting topographical characteristics. These data provide grounds for an evidence-based classification of idiopathic facial pain entities and indicate that the current sub-classification of these syndromes relies primarily on the topography of the symptoms.

  18. A Taxonomy of Information Technology-Enhanced Pricing Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dixit, A.; Whipple, T.W.; Zinkhan, G.M.; Gailey, E.

    2008-01-01

    As a result of evolving technology, opportunities for innovative pricing strategies continuously emerge. The authors provide an updated taxonomy to show how such emerging strategies relate to recent technological advances. Specifically, they cite increased availability of information, enhanced

  19. The HCBS Taxonomy- A New Language for Classifying Home...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The home- and community-based services (HCBS) taxonomy provides a common language for describing and categorizing HCBS across Medicaid programs. Prior to the...

  20. A taxonomy of behaviour change methods: an Intervention Mapping approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Gerjo; Gottlieb, Nell H; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Y; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Parcel, Guy S; Ruiter, Robert A C; Fernández, María E; Markham, Christine; Bartholomew, L Kay

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we introduce the Intervention Mapping (IM) taxonomy of behaviour change methods and its potential to be developed into a coding taxonomy. That is, although IM and its taxonomy of behaviour change methods are not in fact new, because IM was originally developed as a tool for intervention development, this potential was not immediately apparent. Second, in explaining the IM taxonomy and defining the relevant constructs, we call attention to the existence of parameters for effectiveness of methods, and explicate the related distinction between theory-based methods and practical applications and the probability that poor translation of methods may lead to erroneous conclusions as to method-effectiveness. Third, we recommend a minimal set of intervention characteristics that may be reported when intervention descriptions and evaluations are published. Specifying these characteristics can greatly enhance the quality of our meta-analyses and other literature syntheses. In conclusion, the dynamics of behaviour change are such that any taxonomy of methods of behaviour change needs to acknowledge the importance of, and provide instruments for dealing with, three conditions for effectiveness for behaviour change methods. For a behaviour change method to be effective: (1) it must target a determinant that predicts behaviour; (2) it must be able to change that determinant; (3) it must be translated into a practical application in a way that preserves the parameters for effectiveness and fits with the target population, culture, and context. Thus, taxonomies of methods of behaviour change must distinguish the specific determinants that are targeted, practical, specific applications, and the theory-based methods they embody. In addition, taxonomies should acknowledge that the lists of behaviour change methods will be used by, and should be used by, intervention developers. Ideally, the taxonomy should be readily usable for this goal; but alternatively, it should be

  1. Accuracy of taxonomy prediction for 16S rRNA and fungal ITS sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C. Edgar

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of taxonomy for marker gene sequences such as 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA is a fundamental task in microbiology. Most experimentally observed sequences are diverged from reference sequences of authoritatively named organisms, creating a challenge for prediction methods. I assessed the accuracy of several algorithms using cross-validation by identity, a new benchmark strategy which explicitly models the variation in distances between query sequences and the closest entry in a reference database. When the accuracy of genus predictions was averaged over a representative range of identities with the reference database (100%, 99%, 97%, 95% and 90%, all tested methods had ≤50% accuracy on the currently-popular V4 region of 16S rRNA. Accuracy was found to fall rapidly with identity; for example, better methods were found to have V4 genus prediction accuracy of ∼100% at 100% identity but ∼50% at 97% identity. The relationship between identity and taxonomy was quantified as the probability that a rank is the lowest shared by a pair of sequences with a given pair-wise identity. With the V4 region, 95% identity was found to be a twilight zone where taxonomy is highly ambiguous because the probabilities that the lowest shared rank between pairs of sequences is genus, family, order or class are approximately equal.

  2. Adoption of geodemographic and ethno-cultural taxonomies for analysing Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard James Webber

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is intended to contribute to the discussion of the differential level of adoption of Big Data among research communities. Recognising the impracticality of conducting an audit across all forms and uses of Big Data, we have restricted our enquiry to one very specific form of Big Data, namely general purpose taxonomies, of which Mosaic, Acorn and Origins are examples, that rely on data from a variety of Big Data feeds. The intention of these taxonomies is to enable the records of consumers and citizens held on Big Data datasets to be coded according to type of residential neighbourhood or ethno-cultural heritage without any use of questionnaires. Based on our respective experience in the academic social sciences, in government and in the design and marketing of these taxonomies, we identify the features of these classifications which appear to render them attractive or problematic to different categories of potential user or researcher depending on how the relationship is conceived. We conclude by identifying seven classifications of user or potential user who, on account of their background, current position and future career expectations, tend to respond in different ways to the opportunity to adopt these generic systems as aids for understanding social processes.

  3. Identifying the true oysters (Bivalvia: Ostreidae) with mitochondrial phylogeny and distance-based DNA barcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Li, Qi; Kong, Lingfeng; Yu, Hong; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2011-09-01

    Oysters (family Ostreidae), with high levels of phenotypic plasticity and wide geographic distribution, are a challenging group for taxonomists and phylogenetics. As a useful tool for molecular species identification, DNA barcoding might offer significant potential for oyster identification and taxonomy. This study used two mitochondrial fragments, cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) and the large ribosomal subunit (16S rDNA), to assess whether oyster species could be identified by phylogeny and distance-based DNA barcoding techniques. Relationships among species were estimated by the phylogenetic analyses of both genes, and then pairwise inter- and intraspecific genetic divergences were assessed. Species forming well-differentiated clades in the molecular phylogenies were identical for both genes even when the closely related species were included. Intraspecific variability of 16S rDNA overlapped with interspecific divergence. However, average intra- and interspecific genetic divergences for COI were 0-1.4% (maximum 2.2%) and 2.6-32.2% (minimum 2.2%), respectively, indicating the existence of a barcoding gap. These results confirm the efficacy of species identification in oysters via DNA barcodes and phylogenetic analysis. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. “Communicate to vaccinate”: the development of a taxonomy of communication interventions to improve routine childhood vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    -to-be-parents; communities, community members or volunteers; and health care providers. Conclusions Our taxonomy illuminates and organises this field and identifies the range of available communication interventions to increase routine childhood vaccination uptake. We have utilised a variety of data sources, capturing information from rigorous evaluations such as randomised trials as well as experiences and knowledge of practitioners and vaccination stakeholders. The taxonomy reflects current public health practice and can guide the future development of vaccination programmes. PMID:23663327

  5. New Augmented Reality Taxonomy: Technologies and Features of Augmented Environment.

    OpenAIRE

    Hugues , Olivier; Fuchs , Philippe; Nannipieri , Olivier

    2011-01-01

    978-1-4614-0063-9; This article has a dual aim: firstly to define augmented reality (AR) en- vironments and secondly, based on our definition, a new taxonomy enabling these environments to be classified. After briefly reviewing existing classifica- tions, we define AR by its purpose, ie. to enable someone to create sensory- motor and cognitive activities in a new space combining the real environment and a virtual environment. Below we present our functional taxonomy of AR environments. We div...

  6. Norms for environmentally responsible behaviour: An extended taxonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2006-01-01

    and shopping. Also the frequency of the four behaviours was measured. The revised taxonomy has content, discriminant, predictive, and nomological validity and satisfactory test-retest reliability. The most internalized of the new norm constructs, integrated norms, is most strongly correlated with conventional...... measures of personal and moral norms. However, other constructs in the proposed taxonomy still contribute significantly to predicting conventional norm measures after controlling for integrated norms. This documents the motivational ambiguity of the conventional personal norm construct. The patterns...

  7. A Taxonomy of Medical Uncertainties in Clinical Genome Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Paul K. J.; Umstead, Kendall L.; Bernhardt, Barbara A.; Green, Robert C.; Joffe, Steven; Koenig, Barbara; Krantz, Ian; Waterston, Leo B.; Biesecker, Leslie G.; Biesecker, Barbara B.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Clinical next generation sequencing (CNGS) is introducing new opportunities and challenges into the practice of medicine. Simultaneously, these technologies are generating uncertainties of unprecedented scale that laboratories, clinicians, and patients are required to address and manage. We describe in this report the conceptual design of a new taxonomy of uncertainties around the use of CNGS in health care. Methods Interviews to delineate the dimensions of uncertainty in CNGS were conducted with genomics experts, and themes were extracted in order to expand upon a previously published three-dimensional taxonomy of medical uncertainty. In parallel we developed an interactive website to disseminate the CNGS taxonomy to researchers and engage them in its continued refinement. Results The proposed taxonomy divides uncertainty along three axes: source, issue, and locus, and further discriminates the uncertainties into five layers with multiple domains. Using a hypothetical clinical example, we illustrate how the taxonomy can be applied to findings from CNGS and used to guide stakeholders through interpretation and implementation of variant results. Conclusion The utility of the proposed taxonomy lies in promoting consistency in describing dimensions of uncertainty in publications and presentations, to facilitate research design and management of the uncertainties inherent in the implementation of CNGS. PMID:28102863

  8. A value-based taxonomy of improvement approaches in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colldén, Christian; Gremyr, Ida; Hellström, Andreas; Sporraeus, Daniella

    2017-06-19

    Purpose The concept of value is becoming increasingly fashionable in healthcare and various improvement approaches (IAs) have been introduced with the aim of increasing value. The purpose of this paper is to construct a taxonomy that supports the management of parallel IAs in healthcare. Design/methodology/approach Based on previous research, this paper proposes a taxonomy that includes the dimensions of view on value and organizational focus; three contemporary IAs - lean, value-based healthcare, and patient-centered care - are related to the taxonomy. An illustrative qualitative case study in the context of psychiatric (psychosis) care is then presented that contains data from 23 interviews and focuses on the value concept, IAs, and the proposed taxonomy. Findings Respondents recognized the dimensions of the proposed taxonomy and indicated its usefulness as support for choosing and combining different IAs into a coherent management model, and for facilitating dialog about IAs. The findings also suggested that the view of value as "health outcomes" is widespread, but healthcare professionals are less likely than managers to also view value as a process. Originality/value The conceptual contribution of this paper is to delineate some important characteristics of IAs in relation to the emerging "value era". It also highlights the coexistence of different IAs in healthcare management practice. A taxonomy is proposed that can help managers choose, adapt, and combine IAs in local management models.

  9. DNA barcoding and traditional taxonomy unified through Integrative Taxonomy: a view that challenges the debate questioning both methodologies

    OpenAIRE

    Pires, Amanda Ciprandi; Marinoni, Luciane

    2010-01-01

    The taxonomic crisis, emphasized in recent years, is marked by the lack of popularity (lack of interest in taxonomy) and financial incentives to study biodiversity. This situation, coupled with the issues involved with the necessity of knowing many yet undiscovered species, has meant that new technologies, including the use of DNA, have emerged to revitalize taxonomy. Part of the scientific community, however, has rejected the use of these innovative ideas. DNA barcoding has especially been t...

  10. Molecular phylogenetic analysis supports a Gondwanan origin of the Hyriidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionida) and the paraphyly of Australasian taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Daniel L; Jones, Hugh; Geneva, Anthony J; Pfeiffer, John M; Klunzinger, Michael W

    2015-04-01

    The freshwater mussel family Hyriidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionida) has a disjunct trans-Pacific distribution in Australasia and South America. Previous phylogenetic analyses have estimated the evolutionary relationships of the family and the major infra-familial taxa (Velesunioninae and Hyriinae: Hyridellini in Australia; Hyriinae: Hyriini, Castaliini, and Rhipidodontini in South America), but taxon and character sampling have been too incomplete to support a predictive classification or allow testing of biogeographical hypotheses. We sampled 30 freshwater mussel individuals representing the aforementioned hyriid taxa, as well as outgroup species representing the five other freshwater mussel families and their marine sister group (order Trigoniida). Our ingroup included representatives of all Australian genera. Phylogenetic relationships were estimated from three gene fragments (nuclear 28S, COI and 16S mtDNA) using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference, and we applied a Bayesian relaxed clock model calibrated with fossil dates to estimate node ages. Our analyses found good support for monophyly of the Hyriidae and the subfamilies and tribes, as well as the paraphyly of the Australasian taxa (Velesunioninae, (Hyridellini, (Rhipidodontini, (Castaliini, Hyriini)))). The Hyriidae was recovered as sister to a clade comprised of all other Recent freshwater mussel families. Our molecular date estimation supported Cretaceous origins of the major hyriid clades, pre-dating the Tertiary isolation of South America from Antarctica/Australia. We hypothesize that early diversification of the Hyriidae was driven by terrestrial barriers on Gondwana rather than marine barriers following disintegration of the super-continent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of uptake and chronic toxicity of virgin polystyrene microbeads in freshwater zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha (Mollusca: Bivalvia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magni, Stefano; Gagné, François; André, Chantale; Della Torre, Camilla; Auclair, Joëlle; Hanana, Houda; Parenti, Camilla Carla; Bonasoro, Francesco; Binelli, Andrea

    2018-08-01

    Microplastics (MPs), plastic debris smaller than 5mm, are widely found in both marine and freshwater ecosystems. However, few studies regarding their hazardous effects on inland water organisms, have been conducted. For this reason, the aim of our research was the evaluation of uptake and chronic toxicity of two mixtures (MIXs) of virgin polystyrene microbeads (PMs) of 10μm and 1μm in size (MIX 1, with 5×10 5 of 1μmsizePMs/L and 5×10 5 of 10μmsizePMs/L, and MIX 2 with 2×10 6 of 1μmsizePMs/L and 2×10 6 of 10μmsizePMs/L) on freshwater zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha (Mollusca: Bivalvia) during 6 exposure days. The PM uptake in the mussel body and hemolymph was assessed using confocal microscopy, while the chronic toxicity of PMs was evaluated on exposed mussels using a comprehensive battery of biomarkers of cellular stress, oxidative damage and neuro- genotoxicity. Confocal microscopy analyses showed that MPs concentrated in the gut lumen of exposed mussels, absorbed and transferred firstly in the tissues and then in the hemolymph. The results revealed that PMs do not produce oxidative stress and genetic damage, with the exception of a significant modulation of catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities in mussels exposed to MIX 1. Regarding neurotoxicity, we observed only a significant increase of dopamine concentration in mussels exposed to both MIXs, suggesting a possible implication of this neurotransmitter in an elimination process of accumulated PMs. This research represents a first study about the evaluation of virgin MP toxicity in zebra mussel and more research is warranted concerning the long term neurological effects of virgin MPs. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A taxonomy of control in intensified processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barzin, R.; Abd Shukor, S.R.; Ahmad, A.L.

    2006-01-01

    Process Intensification (PI) is a revolutionary approach to design, development and implementation of process and plant. PI technology offers improved environment in a chemical process in terms of better products, and processes which are safer, cleaner, smaller - and cheaper. PI is a strategy of making dramatic reductions in the size of unit operations within chemical plants, in order to achieve given production objectives. However, PI technology would be handicapped if such system is not properly controlled. There are some foreseeable problems in order to control such processes for instance, dynamic interaction between components that make up a control loop, response time of the instrumentations, availability of proper sensor and etc. In some cases, in order to control these systems, advanced control solutions have been applied i.e. model predictive controllers (MPC) and its different algorithms such as quadratic generalized predictive control (QGPC) and self tuning quadratic generalized predictive control (STQGPC). Nevertheless in some cases simpler solutions could be applied to control such system for example proportional integral controller in the control of reactive distillation systems. As mentioned, conventional control systems like proportional-integral, proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers and their different structures can be used in PI systems but due to inherent nonlinearity and fast responsiveness of PI systems, digital controllers-regarding to their robustness-are mostly applied in order to control PI systems. Regarding to the fact that choosing the appropriate control strategy is the most essential part of making PI systems possible to be handle easily, taxonomy of the usage of various control structure in controlling PI systems is proposed. This paper offers an overview and discussion on identifying potential problems of instrumentation in PI technology and available control strategies

  13. Climbing Bloom's taxonomy pyramid: Lessons from a graduate histology course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Nikki B; Hwang, Charles; Scott, Sara; Stallard, Stefanie; Purkiss, Joel; Hortsch, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Bloom's taxonomy was adopted to create a subject-specific scoring tool for histology multiple-choice questions (MCQs). This Bloom's Taxonomy Histology Tool (BTHT) was used to analyze teacher- and student-generated quiz and examination questions from a graduate level histology course. Multiple-choice questions using histological images were generally assigned a higher BTHT level than simple text questions. The type of microscopy technique (light or electron microscopy) used for these image-based questions did not result in any significant differences in their Bloom's taxonomy scores. The BTHT levels for teacher-generated MCQs correlated positively with higher discrimination indices and inversely with the percent of students answering these questions correctly (difficulty index), suggesting that higher-level Bloom's taxonomy questions differentiate well between higher- and lower-performing students. When examining BTHT scores for MCQs that were written by students in a Multiple-Choice Item Development Assignment (MCIDA) there was no significant correlation between these scores and the students' ability to answer teacher-generated MCQs. This suggests that the ability to answer histology MCQs relies on a different skill set than the aptitude to construct higher-level Bloom's taxonomy questions. However, students significantly improved their average BTHT scores from the midterm to the final MCIDA task, which indicates that practice, experience and feedback increased their MCQ writing proficiency. Anat Sci Educ 10: 456-464. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  14. An Analytical Overview of Spirituality in NANDA-I Taxonomies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Ana Cláudia; Caldeira, Sílvia; Chaves, Erika; Carvalho, Emilia Campos de

    2017-03-01

    To discuss the approach of spirituality in NANDA-I taxonomies, based on the elements that characterize this phenomenon. This study was based on concepts that are usually adopted in the literature for defining spirituality and on the analysis of the NANDA-I taxonomies from I to III. Spirituality is included in all taxonomies but all three are missing some attributes to guarantee the completeness of this dimension for nursing diagnosis. Taxonomy III makes different approaches to spirituality and some inconsistencies. Contribute to the development and review of the new proposal for taxonomy. Discutir a abordagem à espiritualidade nas taxonomias da NANDA-I, baseada nos elementos que caracterizam este fenômeno. MÉTODOS: Este estudo foi baseado em conceitos usualmente adotados na literatura de enfermagem para definir espiritualidade e na análise das taxonomias da NANDA-I, desde a I à III. A espiritualidade está incluída nas taxonomias, porém estas carecem de atributos do seu conceito. CONCLUSÕES: A taxonomia III faz diferentes abordagens à espiritualidade, porém com algumas inconsistências identificadas. IMPLICAÇÕES PARA A ENFERMAGEM: Esta análise pode contribuir para o desenvolvimento e revisão da taxonomia III. © 2017 NANDA International, Inc.

  15. The ACTTION-American Pain Society Pain Taxonomy (AAPT): an evidence-based and multidimensional approach to classifying chronic pain conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillingim, Roger B; Bruehl, Stephen; Dworkin, Robert H; Dworkin, Samuel F; Loeser, John D; Turk, Dennis C; Widerstrom-Noga, Eva; Arnold, Lesley; Bennett, Robert; Edwards, Robert R; Freeman, Roy; Gewandter, Jennifer; Hertz, Sharon; Hochberg, Marc; Krane, Elliot; Mantyh, Patrick W; Markman, John; Neogi, Tuhina; Ohrbach, Richard; Paice, Judith A; Porreca, Frank; Rappaport, Bob A; Smith, Shannon M; Smith, Thomas J; Sullivan, Mark D; Verne, G Nicholas; Wasan, Ajay D; Wesselmann, Ursula

    2014-03-01

    Current approaches to classification of chronic pain conditions suffer from the absence of a systematically implemented and evidence-based taxonomy. Moreover, existing diagnostic approaches typically fail to incorporate available knowledge regarding the biopsychosocial mechanisms contributing to pain conditions. To address these gaps, the Analgesic, Anesthetic, and Addiction Clinical Trial Translations Innovations Opportunities and Networks (ACTTION) public-private partnership with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the American Pain Society (APS) have joined together to develop an evidence-based chronic pain classification system called the ACTTION-APS Pain Taxonomy. This paper describes the outcome of an ACTTION-APS consensus meeting, at which experts agreed on a structure for this new taxonomy of chronic pain conditions. Several major issues around which discussion revolved are presented and summarized, and the structure of the taxonomy is presented. ACTTION-APS Pain Taxonomy will include the following dimensions: 1) core diagnostic criteria; 2) common features; 3) common medical comorbidities; 4) neurobiological, psychosocial, and functional consequences; and 5) putative neurobiological and psychosocial mechanisms, risk factors, and protective factors. In coming months, expert working groups will apply this taxonomy to clusters of chronic pain conditions, thereby developing a set of diagnostic criteria that have been consistently and systematically implemented across nearly all common chronic pain conditions. It is anticipated that the availability of this evidence-based and mechanistic approach to pain classification will be of substantial benefit to chronic pain research and treatment. The ACTTION-APS Pain Taxonomy is an evidence-based chronic pain classification system designed to classify chronic pain along the following dimensions: 1) core diagnostic criteria; 2) common features; 3) common medical comorbidities; 4) neurobiological, psychosocial

  16. Reads2Type: a web application for rapid microbial taxonomy identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saputra, Dhany; Rasmussen, Simon; Larsen, Mette Voldby

    2015-01-01

    genome of microbial isolates. Therefore we have developed Reads2Type, a web-based tool for taxonomy identification based on whole bacterial genome sequence data. Raw sequencing data provided by the user are mapped against a set of marker probes that are derived from currently available bacteria complete......, as the entire computational analysis is done on the computer of whom utilizes the web application. This also prevents data privacy issues to arise. The Reads2Type tool is available at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/~dhany/reads2type.html ....

  17. DNA Taxonomy - the Riddle of Oxychloë (Juncaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Kim Anker; Cilieborg, Malene Skovsted; Drábková, Lenka

    2005-01-01

    is fatal, but if no voucher exists, bad sequences and bad taxonomy may be forever linked. Previous phylogenetic analyses of rbcL sequences have indicated that the small, south hemisphere, genus Oxychloë (Juncaceae) surprisingly either is embedded within or is a sister group to the Cyperaceae....... This is not in accordance with traditional or current morphological data. By studying five new accessions, representing four species of Oxychloë, and re-examining the two vouchers of O. andina that were used in previous phylogenies, it has been possible to show that these two sequences are erroneous. One is a chimeric...

  18. The Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) : A Dimensional Alternative to Traditional Nosologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotov, Roman; Krueger, Robert F.; Watson, David; Achenbach, Thomas M.; Althoff, Robert R.; Bagby, R. Michael; Brown, Timothy A.; Carpenter, William T.; Caspi, Avshalom; Clark, Lee Anna; Eaton, Nicholas R.; Forbes, Miriam K.; Forbush, Kelsie T.; Goldberg, David; Hasin, Deborah; Hyman, Steven E.; Ivanova, Masha Y.; Lynam, Donald R.; Markon, Kristian; Miller, Joshua D.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Morey, Leslie C.; Mullins-Sweatt, Stephanie N.; Ormel, Johan; Patrick, Christopher J.; Regier, Darrel A.; Rescorla, Leslie; Ruggero, Camilo J.; Samuel, Douglas B.; Sellbom, Martin; Simms, Leonard J.; Skodol, Andrew E.; Slade, Tim; South, Susan C.; Tackett, Jennifer L.; Waldman, Irwin D.; Waszczuk, Monika A.; Widiger, Thomas A.; Wright, Aidan G. C.; Zimmerman, Mark

    The reliability and validity of traditional taxonomies are limited by arbitrary boundaries between psychopathology and normality, often unclear boundaries between disorders, frequent disorder co-occurrence, heterogeneity within disorders, and diagnostic instability. These taxonomies went beyond

  19. Let’s rise up to unite taxonomy and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    What do you think of when you think of taxonomy? An 18th century gentlemen in breeches? Or perhaps botany drawings hung on the walls of a boutique hotel? Such old-fashioned conceptions to the contrary, taxonomy is alive today although constantly struggling for survival and recognition. The scientific community is losing valuable resources as taxonomy experts age and retire, and funding for morphological studies and species descriptions remains stagnant. At the same time, organismal knowledge (morphology, ecology, physiology) has never been more important: genomic studies are becoming more taxon focused, the scientific community is recognizing the limitations of traditional “model” organisms, and taxonomic expertise is desperately needed to fight against global biodiversity declines resulting from human impacts. There has never been a better time for a taxonomic renaissance. PMID:28820884

  20. Let's rise up to unite taxonomy and technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly M Bik

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available What do you think of when you think of taxonomy? An 18th century gentlemen in breeches? Or perhaps botany drawings hung on the walls of a boutique hotel? Such old-fashioned conceptions to the contrary, taxonomy is alive today although constantly struggling for survival and recognition. The scientific community is losing valuable resources as taxonomy experts age and retire, and funding for morphological studies and species descriptions remains stagnant. At the same time, organismal knowledge (morphology, ecology, physiology has never been more important: genomic studies are becoming more taxon focused, the scientific community is recognizing the limitations of traditional "model" organisms, and taxonomic expertise is desperately needed to fight against global biodiversity declines resulting from human impacts. There has never been a better time for a taxonomic renaissance.

  1. Let's rise up to unite taxonomy and technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bik, Holly M

    2017-08-01

    What do you think of when you think of taxonomy? An 18th century gentlemen in breeches? Or perhaps botany drawings hung on the walls of a boutique hotel? Such old-fashioned conceptions to the contrary, taxonomy is alive today although constantly struggling for survival and recognition. The scientific community is losing valuable resources as taxonomy experts age and retire, and funding for morphological studies and species descriptions remains stagnant. At the same time, organismal knowledge (morphology, ecology, physiology) has never been more important: genomic studies are becoming more taxon focused, the scientific community is recognizing the limitations of traditional "model" organisms, and taxonomic expertise is desperately needed to fight against global biodiversity declines resulting from human impacts. There has never been a better time for a taxonomic renaissance.

  2. On some Indo-Pacific boring endolithic Bivalvia species introduced into the Mediterranean Sea with their host – spread of Sphenia rueppelli A. Adams, 1850

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. ZENETOS

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of the endolithic molluscs found on/in living alien Spondylusshells collected in the Gulf of Iskenderun (Turkey brought to light three more alien bivalvia species namely Petricola hemprichi, Gastrochaena cymbium and Sphenia rueppelli. The presence of Sphenia rueppellideserves attention as it constitutes the first record of this species as living in the Mediterranean Sea. The definitive establishment and spreading of these bivalves in the basin seems to be also attested by careful analysis of specimens sampled in other southern Turkish localities and previously retained in local private collections. The present records raise some questions on the vector of arrival of the species in the Mediterranean Sea that could be strictly connected with their hosts.

  3. VecScreen_plus_taxonomy: imposing a tax(onomy) increase on vector contamination screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäffer, Alejandro A; Nawrocki, Eric P; Choi, Yoon; Kitts, Paul A; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; McVeigh, Richard

    2018-03-01

    Nucleic acid sequences in public databases should not contain vector contamination, but many sequences in GenBank do (or did) contain vectors. The National Center for Biotechnology Information uses the program VecScreen to screen submitted sequences for contamination. Additional tools are needed to distinguish true-positive (contamination) from false-positive (not contamination) VecScreen matches. A principal reason for false-positive VecScreen matches is that the sequence and the matching vector subsequence originate from closely related or identical organisms (for example, both originate in Escherichia coli). We collected information on the taxonomy of sources of vector segments in the UniVec database used by VecScreen. We used that information in two overlapping software pipelines for retrospective analysis of contamination in GenBank and for prospective analysis of contamination in new sequence submissions. Using the retrospective pipeline, we identified and corrected over 8000 contaminated sequences in the nonredundant nucleotide database. The prospective analysis pipeline has been in production use since April 2017 to evaluate some new GenBank submissions. Data on the sources of UniVec entries were included in release 10.0 (ftp://ftp.ncbi.nih.gov/pub/UniVec/). The main software is freely available at https://github.com/aaschaffer/vecscreen_plus_taxonomy. aschaffe@helix.nih.gov. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. Published by Oxford University Press 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and are in the public domain in the US.

  4. Reestablecimiento de Choromytilus chorus (Molina, 1782 (Bivalvia: Mytilidae en el norte de Chile Reestablishment of Choromytilus chorus (Molina, 1782 (Bivalvia: Mytilidae in northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Avendaño

    2011-07-01

    later extended to the Tarapaca region. Thus, we hypothesize that the dynamics of these shoals correspond to a metapopulation structure that has allowed larval advection, given the current system and predominant winds in the northern zone, from populations existing in the Coquimbo region.

  5. Taxonomy of the genus Brachyteles Spix, 1823 and its phylogenetic position within the subfamily Atelinae Gray, 1825

    OpenAIRE

    José Eduardo Serrano Villavicencio

    2016-01-01

    Muriquis, genus Brachyteles Spix, 1823, are the largest of the extant New World primates, and they are one of the three extant genera of the subfamily Atelinae along with Ateles (spider monkeys) and Lagothrix (wooly monkeys). The taxonomy of Brachyteles has constantly changed since its first description in the 19th century. First treated as a monotypic genus, and after several modifications in the number of species, Brachyteles currently contains two species, B. arachnoides (Southern muriqui)...

  6. A Practitioner's Perspective on Taxonomy, Ontology and Findability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the presenters perspective on developing a taxonomy for JSC to capitalize on the accomplishments of yesterday, while maintaining the flexibility needed for the evolving information of today. A clear vision and scope for the semantic system is integral to its success. The vision for the JSC Taxonomy is to connect information stovepipes to present a unified view for information and knowledge across the Center, across organizations, and across decades. Semantic search at JSC means seamless integration of disparate information sets into a single interface. Ever increasing use, interest, and organizational participation mark successful integration and provide the framework for future application.

  7. Taxonomy, Ontology and Semantics at Johnson Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Sarah Ann

    2011-01-01

    At NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC), the Chief Knowledge Officer has been developing the JSC Taxonomy to capitalize on the accomplishments of yesterday while maintaining the flexibility needed for the evolving information environment of today. A clear vision and scope for the semantic system is integral to its success. The vision for the JSC Taxonomy is to connect information stovepipes to present a unified view for information and knowledge across the Center, across organizations, and across decades. Semantic search at JSC means seemless integration of disparate information sets into a single interface. Ever increasing use, interest, and organizational participation mark successful integration and provide the framework for future application.

  8. Web analytics as tool for improvement of website taxonomies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonasen, Tanja Svarre; Ådland, Marit Kristine; Lykke, Marianne

    The poster examines how web analytics can be used to provide information about users and inform design and redesign of taxonomies. It uses a case study of the website Cancer.dk by the Danish Cancer Society. The society is a private organization with an overall goal to prevent the development...... provides information about e.g. subjects of interest, searching behaviour, browsing patterns in website structure as well as tag clouds, page views. The poster discusses benefits and challenges of the two web metrics, with a model of how to use search and tag data for the design of taxonomies, e.g. choice...

  9. Modern Grid Initiative Distribution Taxonomy Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Kevin P.; Chen, Yousu; Chassin, David P.; Pratt, Robert G.; Engel, David W.; Thompson, Sandra E.

    2008-11-01

    This is the final report for the development of a toxonomy of prototypical electrical distribution feeders. Two of the primary goals of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Modern Grid Initiative (MGI) are 'to accelerate the modernization of our nation's electricity grid' and to 'support demonstrations of systems of key technologies that can serve as the foundation for an integrated, modern power grid'. A key component to the realization of these goals is the effective implementation of new, as well as existing, 'smart grid technologies'. Possibly the largest barrier that has been identified in the deployment of smart grid technologies is the inability to evaluate how their deployment will affect the electricity infrastructure, both locally and on a regional scale. The inability to evaluate the impacts of these technologies is primarily due to the lack of detailed electrical distribution feeder information. While detailed distribution feeder information does reside with the various distribution utilities, there is no central repository of information that can be openly accessed. The role of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in the MGI for FY08 was to collect distribution feeder models, in the SynerGEE{reg_sign} format, from electric utilities around the nation so that they could be analyzed to identify regional differences in feeder design and operation. Based on this analysis PNNL developed a taxonomy of 24 prototypical feeder models in the GridLAB-D simulations environment that contain the fundamental characteristics of non-urban core, radial distribution feeders from the various regions of the U.S. Weighting factors for these feeders are also presented so that they can be used to generate a representative sample for various regions within the United States. The final product presented in this report is a toolset that enables the evaluation of new smart grid technologies, with the ability to aggregate their effects

  10. A PROPOSED TAXONOMY OF THE PERCEPTUAL DOMAIN AND SOME SUGGESTED APPLICATIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MOORE, MAXINE R.

    THIS PROPOSAL FOR A PRELIMINARY TAXONOMY OF THE PERCEPTUAL DOMAIN, ORGANIZED ON THE PRINCIPLE OF INTEGRATION, DREW ON GUILFORD'S THEORETICAL AND FACTOR-ANALYTICAL WORK, ON WITKIN'S FIGURE-GROUND STUDIES, AND ON THE "TAXONOMY OF EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES" MODELS. THE TAXONOMY CATEGORIES ARE SENSATION, FIGURE PERCEPTION, SYMBOL PERCEPTION, PERCEPTION…

  11. Bloom's Taxonomy: Improving Assessment and Teaching-Learning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandio, Muhammad Tufail; Pandhiani, Saima Murtaza; Iqbal, Rabia

    2016-01-01

    This research study critically analyzes the scope and contribution of Bloom's Taxonomy in both assessment and teaching-learning process. Bloom's Taxonomy consists of six stages, namely; remembering, understanding, applying, analyzing, evaluating and creating and moves from lower degree to the higher degree. The study applies Bloom's Taxonomy to…

  12. Social Media Use in Chronic Disease: A Systematic Review and Novel Taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rajesh; Chang, Tammy; Greysen, S Ryan; Chopra, Vineet

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate clinical outcomes from applications of contemporary social media in chronic disease; to develop a conceptual taxonomy to categorize, summarize, and then analyze the current evidence base; and to suggest a framework for future studies on this topic. We performed a systematic review of MEDLINE via PubMed (January 2000 to January 2015) of studies reporting clinical outcomes on leading contemporary social media (ie, Facebook, Twitter, Wikipedia, YouTube) use in 10 chronic diseases. Two reviewers independently performed data extraction and quality assessment; characterization of study outcomes as positive, negative, neutral, or undefined impact; and inductive, thematic analysis to develop our taxonomy. Of 378 citations identified, 42 studies examining the use of Facebook (n = 16), blogs (n = 13), Twitter (n = 8), wikis (n = 5), and YouTube (n = 4) on outcomes in cancer (n = 14), depression (n = 13), obesity (n = 9), diabetes (n = 4), heart disease (n = 3), stroke (n = 2), and chronic lower respiratory tract infection (n = 1) were included. Studies were classified as support (n = 16), patient education (n = 10), disease modification (n = 6), disease management (n = 5), and diagnosis (n = 5) within our taxonomy. The overall impact of social media on chronic disease was variable, with 48% of studies indicating benefit, 45% neutral or undefined, and 7% suggesting harm. Among studies that showed benefit, 85% used either Facebook or blogs, and 40% were based within the domain of support. Using social media to provide social, emotional, or experiential support in chronic disease, especially with Facebook and blogs, appears most likely to improve patient care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. a Comparison of Morphological Taxonomy and Next Generation DNA Sequencing for the Assessment of Zooplankton Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, J.; Fisher, J. L.; Johnson, S.; Morgan, S.; Peterson, W. T.; Satterthwaite, E. V.; Vrijenhoek, R. C.

    2016-02-01

    Our ability to accurately characterize the diversity of planktonic organisms is affected by both the methods we use to collect water samples and our approaches to assessing sample contents. Plankton nets collect organisms from high volumes of water, but integrate sample contents along the net's path. In contrast, plankton pumps collect water from discrete depths. Autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) can collect water samples with pinpoint accuracy from physical features such as upwelling fronts or biological features such as phytoplankton blooms, but sample volumes are necessarily much smaller than those possible with nets. Characterization of plankton diversity and abundances in water samples may also vary with the assessment method we apply. Morphological taxonomy provides visual identification and enumeration of organisms via microscopy, but is labor intensive. Next generation DNA sequencing (NGS) shows great promise for assessing plankton diversity in water samples but accurate assessment of relative abundances may not be possible in all cases. Comparison of morphological taxonomy to molecular approaches is necessary to identify areas of overlap and also areas of disagreement between these methods. We have compared morphological taxonomic assessments to mitochondrial COI and nuclear 28S ribosomal RNA NGS results for plankton net samples collected in Monterey bay, California. We have made a similar comparison for plankton pump samples, and have also applied our NGS methods to targeted, small volume water samples collected by an AUV. Our goal is to communicate current results and lessons learned regarding application of traditional taxonomy and novel molecular approaches to the study of plankton diversity in spatially and temporally variable, coastal marine environments.

  14. Towards Web 3.0: taxonomies and ontologies for medical education -- a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaum, Wolf E; Jarczweski, Anne; Balzer, Felix; Stötzner, Philip; Ahlers, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    Both for curricular development and mapping, as well as for orientation within the mounting supply of learning resources in medical education, the Semantic Web ("Web 3.0") poses a low-threshold, effective tool that enables identification of content related items across system boundaries. Replacement of the currently required manual with an automatically generated link, which is based on content and semantics, requires the use of a suitably structured vocabulary for a machine-readable description of object content. Aim of this study is to compile the existing taxonomies and ontologies used for the annotation of medical content and learning resources, to compare those using selected criteria, and to verify their suitability in the context described above. Based on a systematic literature search, existing taxonomies and ontologies for the description of medical learning resources were identified. Through web searches and/or direct contact with the respective editors, each of the structured vocabularies thus identified were examined in regards to topic, structure, language, scope, maintenance, and technology of the taxonomy/ontology. In addition, suitability for use in the Semantic Web was verified. Among 20 identified publications, 14 structured vocabularies were identified, which differed rather strongly in regards to language, scope, currency, and maintenance. None of the identified vocabularies fulfilled the necessary criteria for content description of medical curricula and learning resources in the German-speaking world. While moving towards Web 3.0, a significant problem lies in the selection and use of an appropriate German vocabulary for the machine-readable description of object content. Possible solutions include development, translation and/or combination of existing vocabularies, possibly including partial translations of English vocabularies.

  15. Jaguar taxonomy and genetic diversity for southern Arizona, United States, and Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culver, Melanie; Hein, Alexander Ochoa

    2016-06-28

    Executive SummaryThe jaguar is the largest Neotropical felid and the only extant representative of the genus Panthera in the Americas. In recorded history, the jaguars range has extended from the Southern United States, throughout Mexico, to Central and South America, and they occupy a wide variety of habitats. A previous jaguar genetic study found high historical levels of gene flow among jaguar populations over broad areas but did not include any samples of jaguar from the States of Arizona, United States, or Sonora, Mexico. Arizona and Sonora have been part of the historical distribution of jaguars; however, poaching and habitat fragmentation have limited their distribution until they were declared extinct in the United States and endangered in Sonora. Therefore, a need was apparent to have this northernmost (Arizona/Sonora) jaguar population included in an overall jaguar molecular taxonomy and genetic diversity analyses. In this study, we used molecular genetic markers to examine diversity and taxonomy for jaguars in the Northwestern Jaguar Recovery Unit (NJRU; Sonora, Sinaloa, and Jalisco, Mexico; and southern Arizona and New Mexico, United States) relative to jaguars in other parts of the jaguar range (Central and South America). The objectives of this study were to:Collect opportunistic jaguar samples (hide, blood, hair, saliva, and scat), from historical and current individuals, that originated in NJRU areas of Arizona, New Mexico, and Sonora;Use these samples to assess molecular taxonomy of NJRU jaguars compared to data from a previous study of jaguars rangewide; andDevelop suggestions for conservation of NJRU jaguars based on the results.

  16. Taxonomy, distribution and ecology of Bolboschoenus in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hroudová, Zdenka; Zákravský, Petr; Ducháček, M.; Marhold, K.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 2 (2007), s. 81-102 ISSN 0003-3847 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6005905; GA ČR GA521/04/0997 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : taxonomy * distribution * ecology Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.408, year: 2007

  17. Computer-assisted tree taxonomy by automated image recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pauwels, E.J.; Zeeuw, P.M.de; Ranguelova, E.B.

    2009-01-01

    We present an algorithm that performs image-based queries within the domain of tree taxonomy. As such, it serves as an example relevant to many other potential applications within the field of biodiversity and photo-identification. Unsupervised matching results are produced through a chain of

  18. Use of Bloom's Taxonomy in Developing Reading Comprehension Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebke, Stephen; Lorie, James

    2013-01-01

    This article is a brief account of the use of Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (Bloom, Engelhart, Furst, Hill, & Krathwohl, 1956) by staff of the Law School Admission Council in the 1990 development of redesigned specifications for the Reading Comprehension section of the Law School Admission Test. Summary item statistics for the…

  19. Developing Learning Objectives for Accounting Ethics Using Bloom's Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, Linda A.; Fisher, Dann G.; Braun, Robert L.; Swanson, Diane L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of our article is to offer a set of core knowledge learning objectives for accounting ethics education. Using Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives, we develop learning objectives in six content areas: codes of ethical conduct, corporate governance, the accounting profession, moral development, classical ethics theories, and…

  20. Development of a Taxonomy of Keywords for Engineering Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finelli, Cynthia J.; Borrego, Maura; Rasoulifar, Golnoosh

    2016-01-01

    The diversity of engineering education research provides an opportunity for cross-fertilisation of ideas and creativity, but it also can result in fragmentation of the field and duplication of effort. One solution is to establish a standardised taxonomy of engineering education terms to map the field and communicate and connect research…

  1. The construction of a joint taxonomy of traits and situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berge, Maarten; De Raad, B.

    2001-01-01

    This study implements the first steps to be taken in the Construction of a taxonomy of situations front a trait psychological perspective. Taking the AB(5)C model of personality characteristics (De Raad et al., 1992) as a point of departure, a collection of situations that is linked to the

  2. Taxonomy for complexity theory in the context of maternity care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuize, M.; Downe, S.; Gottfreðsdóttir, H.; Rijnders, M.; Preez, A. du; Vaz Rebelo, P.

    2015-01-01

    Background The linear focus of ‘normal science’ is unable toadequately take account of the complex interactions that direct health care systems. There is a turn towards complexity theory as a more appropriate framework for understanding system behaviour. However, a comprehensive taxonomy for

  3. Soil Taxonomy and land evaluation for forest establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruyoshi Ikawa

    1992-01-01

    Soil Taxonomy, the United States system of soil classification, can be used for land evaluation for selected purposes. One use is forest establishment in the tropics, and the soil family category is especially functional for this purpose. The soil family is a bionomial name with descriptions usually of soil texture, mineralogy, and soil temperature classes. If the...

  4. Taxonomies of Educational Objectives and Theories of Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, Robert M. W.

    1980-01-01

    Classification is the taxonomic science in which a system of categories is established and in which the categories have some logical structure. Scientific classifications have included those by Aristotle, Linnaeus, and Lavoisier. Educational taxonomies include those developed by Bloom, Herbart, Dewey, and Piaget. The problems of taxonomy…

  5. Applying a Knowledge Management Taxonomy to Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thambi, Melinda; O'Toole, Paddy

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the relevance of a corporate-based taxonomy of knowledge management to secondary schooling. Do the principles of knowledge management from the corporate world translate to the world of education; specifically, secondary schooling? This article examines categories of knowledge management articulated in…

  6. On Dramatic Instruction: Towards a Taxonomy of Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Richard

    1987-01-01

    Examines the many possible methods used by instructors who work with dramatic action: in educational drama, drama therapy, social drama, and theater. Discusses an emergent taxonomy whereby instructors choose either spontaneous/formal, overt/covert/, or intrinsic/extrinsic methods. (JC)

  7. The International Association for Plant Taxonomy (IAPT) Announces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The International Association for Plant Taxonomy (IAPT) Announces: Registration of Plant Names, Test and Trial Phase (1998-1999). KL Wilson. Abstract. Journal of East African Natural History Vol. 85 (1&2) 1996: 91-93. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

  8. Taxonomies, Folksonomies, and Semantics: Establishing Functional Meaning in Navigational Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacha, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    This article argues for the establishment of a usability process that incorporates the study of "words" and "word phrases." It demonstrates how semantically mapping a navigational taxonomy can help the developers of digital environments establish a more focused sense of functional meaning for the users of their digital designs.

  9. Taxonomy of Lecture Note-Taking Skills and Subskills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Musalli, Alaa M.

    2015-01-01

    Note taking (NT) in lectures is as active a skill as listening, which stimulates it, and as challenging as writing, which is the end product. Literature on lecture NT misses an integration of the processes involved in listening with those in NT. In this article, a taxonomy is proposed of lecture NT skills and subskills based on a similar list…

  10. An error taxonomy system for analysis of haemodialysis incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiuzhu; Itoh, Kenji; Suzuki, Satoshi

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes the development of a haemodialysis error taxonomy system for analysing incidents and predicting the safety status of a dialysis organisation. The error taxonomy system was developed by adapting an error taxonomy system which assumed no specific specialty to haemodialysis situations. Its application was conducted with 1,909 incident reports collected from two dialysis facilities in Japan. Over 70% of haemodialysis incidents were reported as problems or complications related to dialyser, circuit, medication and setting of dialysis condition. Approximately 70% of errors took place immediately before and after the four hours of haemodialysis therapy. Error types most frequently made in the dialysis unit were omission and qualitative errors. Failures or complications classified to staff human factors, communication, task and organisational factors were found in most dialysis incidents. Device/equipment/materials, medicine and clinical documents were most likely to be involved in errors. Haemodialysis nurses were involved in more incidents related to medicine and documents, whereas dialysis technologists made more errors with device/equipment/materials. This error taxonomy system is able to investigate incidents and adverse events occurring in the dialysis setting but is also able to estimate safety-related status of an organisation, such as reporting culture. © 2014 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  11. Redesign of a Life Span Development Course Using Fink's Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahi, Carolyn R.

    2008-01-01

    This study compared a traditional lecture-based life span development course to the same course redesigned using Fink's (2003) taxonomy of significant learning. The goals, activities, and feedback within the course corresponded to Fink's 6 taxa (knowledge, application, integration, human dimension, caring, learning how to learn). Undergraduates in…

  12. Regional floras, a significant modern trend in plant taxonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1959-01-01

    Besides through monographic work plant taxonomy has a second way of framing synthetic attempts and that is by compiling Florulas and Floras, containing a complete account of the flora of parts of the globe, of cities, islets, islands, states, countries, or continents. Irrespective of their style,

  13. A Taxonomy of Human-Agent Team Collaborations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neef, R.M.

    2006-01-01

    Future command teams will be heavily supported by artificial actors. This paper introduces a taxonomy of collaboration types in human – agent teams. Using two classifying dimensions, coordination type and collaboration type, eight different classes of human – agent collaborations transpire. These

  14. A Taxonomy of Privacy Constructs for Privacy-Sensitive Robotics

    OpenAIRE

    Rueben, Matthew; Grimm, Cindy M.; Bernieri, Frank J.; Smart, William D.

    2017-01-01

    The introduction of robots into our society will also introduce new concerns about personal privacy. In order to study these concerns, we must do human-subject experiments that involve measuring privacy-relevant constructs. This paper presents a taxonomy of privacy constructs based on a review of the privacy literature. Future work in operationalizing privacy constructs for HRI studies is also discussed.

  15. Taxonomies of Higher Educational Institutions Predicted from Organizational Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysons, Art

    1990-01-01

    Application of the Perceived Climate Questionnaire involving senior-level staff from Australian institutions used climate factors as the basis for testing hypothesized taxonomies of the institutions. Results reinforce the relevance of contemporary management theories and demonstrate the importance of leadership styles in organizational…

  16. Conception of Learning Outcomes in the Bloom's Taxonomy Affective Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savickiene, Izabela

    2010-01-01

    The article raises a problematic issue regarding an insufficient base of the conception of learning outcomes in the Bloom's taxonomy affective domain. The search for solutions introduces the conception of teaching and learning in the affective domain as well as presents validity criteria of learning outcomes in the affective domain. The…

  17. The Unfortunate Consequences of Bloom's Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Roland

    2013-01-01

    The sequenced levels of thinking articulated in Bloom's original taxonomy (or in the multitude of subsequent variations) is the most widely known list in education. In addition to enduring popularity, it is arguably one of the most destructive theories in education. In this article, the author explains what makes it so damaging and how…

  18. Taxonomy of the family Arenaviridae and the order Bunyavirales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maes, Piet; Alkhovsky, Sergey V.; Bào, Yīmíng; Beer, Martin; Birkhead, Monica; Briese, Thomas; Buchmeier, Michael J.; Calisher, Charles H.; Charrel, Rémi N.; Choi, Il Ryong; Clegg, Christopher S.; Torre, de la Juan Carlos; Delwart, Eric; DeRisi, Joseph L.; Bello, Di Patrick L.; Serio, Di Francesco; Digiaro, Michele; Dolja, Valerian V.; Drosten, Christian; Druciarek, Tobiasz Z.; Du, Jiang; Ebihara, Hideki; Elbeaino, Toufic; Gergerich, Rose C.; Gillis, Amethyst N.; Gonzalez, Jean Paul J.; Haenni, Anne Lise; Hepojoki, Jussi; Hetzel, Udo; Hồ, Thiện; Hóng, Ní; Jain, Rakesh K.; Jansen van Vuren, Petrus; Jin, Qi; Jonson, Miranda Gilda; Junglen, Sandra; Keller, Karen E.; Kemp, Alan; Kipar, Anja; Kondov, Nikola O.; Koonin, Eugene V.; Kormelink, Richard; Korzyukov, Yegor; Krupovic, Mart; Lambert, Amy J.; Laney, Alma G.; LeBreton, Matthew; Lukashevich, Igor S.; Marklewitz, Marco; Markotter, Wanda; Martelli, Giovanni P.; Martin, Robert R.; Mielke-Ehret, Nicole; Mühlbach, Hans Peter; Navarro, Beatriz; Ng, Terry Fei Fan; Nunes, Márcio Roberto Teixeira; Palacios, Gustavo; Pawęska, Janusz T.; Peters, Clarence J.; Plyusnin, Alexander; Radoshitzky, Sheli R.; Romanowski, Víctor; Salmenperä, Pertteli; Salvato, Maria S.; Sanfaçon, Hélène; Sasaya, Takahide; Schmaljohn, Connie; Schneider, Bradley S.; Shirako, Yukio; Siddell, Stuart; Sironen, Tarja A.; Stenglein, Mark D.; Storm, Nadia; Sudini, Harikishan; Tesh, Robert B.; Tzanetakis, Ioannis E.; Uppala, Mangala; Vapalahti, Olli; Vasilakis, Nikos; Walker, Peter J.; Wáng, Guópíng; Wáng, Lìpíng; Wáng, Yànxiăng; Wèi, Tàiyún; Wiley, Michael R.; Wolf, Yuri I.; Wolfe, Nathan D.; Wú, Zhìqiáng; Xú, Wénxìng; Yang, Li; Yāng, Zuòkūn; Yeh, Shyi Dong; Zhāng, Yǒng Zhèn; Zhèng, Yàzhōu; Zhou, Xueping; Zhū, Chénxī; Zirkel, Florian; Kuhn, Jens H.

    2018-01-01

    In 2018, the family Arenaviridae was expanded by inclusion of 1 new genus and 5 novel species. At the same time, the recently established order Bunyavirales was expanded by 3 species. This article presents the updated taxonomy of the family Arenaviridae and the order Bunyavirales as now accepted by

  19. Taxonomy, phylogeny, and coevolution of pines and their stem rusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. I. Millar; B. B. Kinloch

    1991-01-01

    We review and reinterpret major events in the evolution of pines and their stem rusts using information from their taxonomy, genetics, biogeography, and fossil history. Understanding of pine evolution has been significantly revised in the last 20 years. Pines appear to have evolved early in the Mesozoic and to have diversified and migrated throughout middle latitudes...

  20. Fail Better: Toward a Taxonomy of E-Learning Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priem, Jason

    2010-01-01

    The study of student error, important across many fields of educational research, has begun to attract interest in the field of e-learning, particularly in relation to usability. However, it remains unclear when errors should be avoided (as usability failures) or embraced (as learning opportunities). Many domains have benefited from taxonomies of…

  1. Merlin C. Wittrock and the Revision of Bloom's Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krathwohl, David R.; Anderson, Lorin W.

    2010-01-01

    Merl Wittrock, a cognitive psychologist who had proposed a generative model of learning, was an essential member of the group that over a period of 5 years revised the "Taxonomy of Educational Objectives," originally published in 1956. This article describes the development of that 2001 revision (Anderson and Krathwohl, Editors) and Merl's…

  2. Application of Modern Experimental Technique to Solve Morphological Complexity in Plants Taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SURANTO

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern taxonomy has two approaches, i.e. classical and experimental taxonomy. Classical taxonomy uses morphological characters, while experimental taxonomy uses broader methods including chemistry, physics and mathematics, in the form of laboratory data that are revealed together with the progress of optical technique (microscope, chemistry methods (chromatography, electrophoresis, etc. Modern taxonomy tends to use series of interrelated data. More data used would result in more validity and give better clarification of taxonomic status. A lot of modern taxonomic data such as palynology, cytotaxonomy (cytology, chemical constituent (chemotaxonomy, isozyme and DNA sequencing were used recently.

  3. A philosophical taxonomy of ethically significant moral distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Tessy A; McCullough, Laurence B

    2015-02-01

    Moral distress is one of the core topics of clinical ethics. Although there is a large and growing empirical literature on the psychological aspects of moral distress, scholars, and empirical investigators of moral distress have recently called for greater conceptual clarity. To meet this recognized need, we provide a philosophical taxonomy of the categories of what we call ethically significant moral distress: the judgment that one is not able, to differing degrees, to act on one's moral knowledge about what one ought to do. We begin by unpacking the philosophical components of Andrew Jameton's original formulation from his landmark 1984 work and identify two key respects in which that formulation remains unclear: the origins of moral knowledge and impediments to acting on that moral knowledge. We then selectively review subsequent literature that shows that there is more than one concept of moral distress and that explores the origin of the values implicated in moral distress and impediments to acting on those values. This review sets the stage for identifying the elements of a philosophical taxonomy of ethically significant moral distress. The taxonomy uses these elements to create six categories of ethically significant moral distress: challenges to, threats to, and violations of professional integrity; and challenges to, threats to, and violations of individual integrity. We close with suggestions about how the proposed philosophical taxonomy of ethically significant moral distress sheds light on the concepts of moral residue and crescendo effect of moral distress and how the proposed taxonomy might usefully guide prevention of and future qualitative and quantitative empirical research on ethically significant moral distress. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Operationalizing value-based pricing of medicines : a taxonomy of approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussex, Jon; Towse, Adrian; Devlin, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    The UK Government is proposing a novel form of price regulation for branded medicines, which it has dubbed 'value-based pricing' (VBP). The specifics of how VBP will work are unclear. We provide an account of the possible means by which VBP of medicines might be operationalized, and a taxonomy to describe and categorize the various approaches. We begin with a brief discussion of the UK Government's proposal for VBP and proceed to define a taxonomy of approaches to VBP. The taxonomy has five main dimensions: (1) what is identified as being of value, (2) how each element is measured, (3) how it is valued, (4) how the different elements of value are aggregated, and (5) how the result is then used to determine the price of a medicine. We take as our starting point that VBP will include a measure of health gain and that, as proposed by the UK Government, this will be built on the QALY. Our principal interest is in the way criteria other than QALYs are taken into account, including severity of illness, the extent of unmet need, and wider societal considerations such as impacts on carers. We set out to: (1) identify and describe the full range of alternative means by which 'value' might be measured and valued, (2) identify and describe the options available for aggregating the different components of value to establish a maximum price, and (3) note the challenges and relative advantages associated with these approaches. We review the means by which aspects of VBP are currently operationalized in a selection of countries and place these, and proposals for the UK, in the context of our taxonomy. Finally, we give an initial assessment of the challenges, pros and cons of each approach. We conclude that identifying where VBP should lie on each of the five dimensions entails value judgements: there are no simple 'right or wrong' solutions. If a wider definition of value than incremental QALYs gained is adopted, as is desirable, then a pragmatic way to aggregate the different

  5. A Taxonomy for Enhancing Usability, Flexibility, and Security of User Authentication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Gottschlich

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Two technology trends – a move toward software defined capabilities and toward networked devices – support both unprecedented innovations and requirements for security. A fundamental aspect of security is user authentication, which allows devices and software applications to establish their user’s identity and identity is in turn used to establish which of its capabilities the user is authorized to access. While multiple authentication steps, known as multifactor authentication, are being used more widely throughout the military, government, businesses, and consumer sectors, the selection and implementation of which authentication factors to require is typically defined by security policy. Security policy is in turn typically established by a security organization that may have no formal metrics or means to guide its selection of authentication factors. This paper will present a taxonomy for describing authentication factors including important attributes that characterize authentication robustness to aid in the selection of factors that are consistent with the user’s mission. One particular authentication factor that I have developed will be discussed in the context of this taxonomy to motivate the need to broaden current definitions and security policies. The ultimate goal of this paper is to inspire the development of standards for authentication technologies to both support mission aware authentication innovation and to inform decision making about security policies concerning user authentication and authorization. Further, this paper aims to demonstrate that such an approach will fundamentally enhance both security and usability of increasingly networked, software-defined devices, equipment and software applications.

  6. A Systems Approach to Refine Disease Taxonomy by Integrating Phenotypic and Molecular Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuezhong Zhou

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The International Classification of Diseases (ICD relies on clinical features and lags behind the current understanding of the molecular specificity of disease pathobiology, necessitating approaches that incorporate growing biomedical data for classifying diseases to meet the needs of precision medicine. Our analysis revealed that the heterogeneous molecular diversity of disease chapters and the blurred boundary between disease categories in ICD should be further investigated. Here, we propose a new classification of diseases (NCD by developing an algorithm that predicts the additional categories of a disease by integrating multiple networks consisting of disease phenotypes and their molecular profiles. With statistical validations from phenotype-genotype associations and interactome networks, we demonstrate that NCD improves disease specificity owing to its overlapping categories and polyhierarchical structure. Furthermore, NCD captures the molecular diversity of diseases and defines clearer boundaries in terms of both phenotypic similarity and molecular associations, establishing a rational strategy to reform disease taxonomy. Keywords: Disease taxonomy, Network medicine, Disease phenotypes, Molecular profiles, Precision medicine

  7. Synthesis of phylogeny and taxonomy into a comprehensive tree of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchliff, Cody E.; Smith, Stephen A.; Allman, James F.; Burleigh, J. Gordon; Chaudhary, Ruchi; Coghill, Lyndon M.; Crandall, Keith A.; Deng, Jiabin; Drew, Bryan T.; Gazis, Romina; Gude, Karl; Hibbett, David S.; Katz, Laura A.; Laughinghouse, H. Dail; McTavish, Emily Jane; Midford, Peter E.; Owen, Christopher L.; Ree, Richard H.; Rees, Jonathan A.; Soltis, Douglas E.; Williams, Tiffani; Cranston, Karen A.

    2015-01-01

    Reconstructing the phylogenetic relationships that unite all lineages (the tree of life) is a grand challenge. The paucity of homologous character data across disparately related lineages currently renders direct phylogenetic inference untenable. To reconstruct a comprehensive tree of life, we therefore synthesized published phylogenies, together with taxonomic classifications for taxa never incorporated into a phylogeny. We present a draft tree containing 2.3 million tips—the Open Tree of Life. Realization of this tree required the assembly of two additional community resources: (i) a comprehensive global reference taxonomy and (ii) a database of published phylogenetic trees mapped to this taxonomy. Our open source framework facilitates community comment and contribution, enabling the tree to be continuously updated when new phylogenetic and taxonomic data become digitally available. Although data coverage and phylogenetic conflict across the Open Tree of Life illuminate gaps in both the underlying data available for phylogenetic reconstruction and the publication of trees as digital objects, the tree provides a compelling starting point for community contribution. This comprehensive tree will fuel fundamental research on the nature of biological diversity, ultimately providing up-to-date phylogenies for downstream applications in comparative biology, ecology, conservation biology, climate change, agriculture, and genomics. PMID:26385966

  8. Role of Genomic Typing in Taxonomy, Evolutionary Genetics, and Microbial Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Belkum, Alex; Struelens, Marc; de Visser, Arjan; Verbrugh, Henri; Tibayrenc, Michel

    2001-01-01

    Currently, genetic typing of microorganisms is widely used in several major fields of microbiological research. Taxonomy, research aimed at elucidation of evolutionary dynamics or phylogenetic relationships, population genetics of microorganisms, and microbial epidemiology all rely on genetic typing data for discrimination between genotypes. Apart from being an essential component of these fundamental sciences, microbial typing clearly affects several areas of applied microbiogical research. The epidemiological investigation of outbreaks of infectious diseases and the measurement of genetic diversity in relation to relevant biological properties such as pathogenicity, drug resistance, and biodegradation capacities are obvious examples. The diversity among nucleic acid molecules provides the basic information for all fields described above. However, researchers in various disciplines tend to use different vocabularies, a wide variety of different experimental methods to monitor genetic variation, and sometimes widely differing modes of data processing and interpretation. The aim of the present review is to summarize the technological and fundamental concepts used in microbial taxonomy, evolutionary genetics, and epidemiology. Information on the nomenclature used in the different fields of research is provided, descriptions of the diverse genetic typing procedures are presented, and examples of both conceptual and technological research developments for Escherichia coli are included. Recommendations for unification of the different fields through standardization of laboratory techniques are made. PMID:11432813

  9. Advances in molecular identification, taxonomy, genetic variation and diagnosis of Toxocara spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Nisbet, Alasdair J; Xu, Min-Jun; Huang, Si-Yang; Li, Ming-Wei; Wang, Chun-Ren; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2012-10-01

    The genus Toxocara contains parasitic nematodes of human and animal health significance, such as Toxocara canis, Toxocara cati and Toxocara vitulorum. T. canis and T. cati are among the most prevalent parasites of dogs and cats with a worldwide distribution. Human infection with T. canis and T. cati, which can cause a number of clinical manifestations such as visceral larva migrans (VLMs), ocular larva migrans (OLMs), eosinophilic meningoencephalitis (EME), covert toxocariasis (CT) and neurotoxocariasis, is considered the most prevalent neglected helminthiasis in industrialized countries. The accurate identification Toxocara spp. and their unequivocal differentiation from each other and from other ascaridoid nematodes causing VLMs and OLMs has important implications for studying their taxonomy, epidemiology, population genetics, diagnosis and control. Due to the limitations of traditional (morphological) approaches for identification and diagnosis of Toxocara spp., PCR-based techniques utilizing a range of genetic markers in the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes have been developed as useful alternative approaches because of their high sensitivity, specificity, rapidity and utility. In this article, we summarize the current state of knowledge and advances in molecular identification, taxonomy, genetic variation and diagnosis of Toxocara spp. with prospects for further studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Making US Soil Taxonomy more scientifically applicable to environmental and food security issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monger, Curtis; Lindbo, David L.; Wysocki, Doug; Schoeneberger, Phil; Libohova, Zamir

    2017-04-01

    US Department of Agriculture began mapping soils in the 1890s on a county-by-county basis until most of the conterminous United States was mapped by the late 1930s. This first-generation mapping was followed by a second-generation that re-mapped the US beginning in the 1940s. Soil classification during these periods evolved into the current system of Soil Taxonomy which is based on (1) soil features as natural phenomena and on (2) soil properties important for agriculture and other land uses. While this system has enabled communication among soil surveyors, the scientific applicability of Soil Taxonomy to address environmental and food security issues has been under-utilized. In particular, little effort has been exerted to understand how soil taxa interact and function together as larger units—as soil systems. Thus, much soil-geomorphic understanding that could be applied to process-based modeling remains unexploited. The challenge for soil taxonomists in the United States and elsewhere is to expand their expertise and work with modelers to explore how soil taxa are linked to each other, how they influence water, nutrient, and pollutant flow through the landscape, how they interact with ecology, and how they change with human land use.

  11. Toward a clarification of the taxonomy of "bias" in epidemiology textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Sharon; Campbell, Ulka B; Gatto, Nicolle M; Gordon, Kirsha

    2015-03-01

    Epidemiology textbooks typically divide biases into 3 general categories-confounding, selection bias, and information bias. Despite the ubiquity of this categorization, authors often use these terms to mean different things. This hinders communication among epidemiologists and confuses students who are just learning about the field. To understand the sources of this problem, we reviewed current general epidemiology textbooks to examine how the authors defined and categorized biases. We found that much of the confusion arises from different definitions of "validity" and from a mixing of 3 overlapping organizational features in defining and differentiating among confounding, selection bias, and information bias: consequence, the result of the problem; cause, the processes that give rise to the problem; and cure, how these biases can be addressed once they occur. By contrast, a consistent taxonomy would provide (1) a clear and consistent definition of what unites confounding, selection bias, and information bias and (2) a clear articulation and consistent application of the feature that distinguishes these categories. Based on a distillation of these textbook discussions, we provide an example of a taxonomy that we think meets these criteria.

  12. Taxonomy of Means and Ends in Aquaculture Production—Part 2: The Technical Solutions of Controlling Solids, Dissolved Gasses and pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjorgvin Vilbergsson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In engineering design, knowing the relationship between the means (technique and the end (desired function or outcome is essential. The means in Aquaculture are technical solutions like airlifts that are used to achive desired functionality (an end like controlling dissolved gasses. In previous work, the authors identified possible functions by viewing aquaculture production systems as transformation processes in which inputs are transformed by treatment techniques (means and produce outputs (ends. The current work creates an overview of technical solutions of treatment functions for both design and research purposes. A comprehensive literature review of all areas of technical solutions is identified and categorized into a visual taxonomy of the treatment functions for controlling solids, controlling dissolved gasses and controlling pH alkalinity and hardness. This article is the second in a sequence of four and partly presents the treatments functions in the taxonomy. The other articles in this series present complementary aspects of this research: Part 1, A transformational view on aquaculture and functions divided into input, treatment and output functions; Part 2, The current taxonomy paper; Part 3, The second part of the taxonomy; and Part 4, Mapping of the means (techniques for multiple treatment functions.

  13. Developing "Personality" Taxonomies: Metatheoretical and Methodological Rationales Underlying Selection Approaches, Methods of Data Generation and Reduction Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uher, Jana

    2015-12-01

    Taxonomic "personality" models are widely used in research and applied fields. This article applies the Transdisciplinary Philosophy-of-Science Paradigm for Research on Individuals (TPS-Paradigm) to scrutinise the three methodological steps that are required for developing comprehensive "personality" taxonomies: 1) the approaches used to select the phenomena and events to be studied, 2) the methods used to generate data about the selected phenomena and events and 3) the reduction principles used to extract the "most important" individual-specific variations for constructing "personality" taxonomies. Analyses of some currently popular taxonomies reveal frequent mismatches between the researchers' explicit and implicit metatheories about "personality" and the abilities of previous methodologies to capture the particular kinds of phenomena toward which they are targeted. Serious deficiencies that preclude scientific quantifications are identified in standardised questionnaires, psychology's established standard method of investigation. These mismatches and deficiencies derive from the lack of an explicit formulation and critical reflection on the philosophical and metatheoretical assumptions being made by scientists and from the established practice of radically matching the methodological tools to researchers' preconceived ideas and to pre-existing statistical theories rather than to the particular phenomena and individuals under study. These findings raise serious doubts about the ability of previous taxonomies to appropriately and comprehensively reflect the phenomena towards which they are targeted and the structures of individual-specificity occurring in them. The article elaborates and illustrates with empirical examples methodological principles that allow researchers to appropriately meet the metatheoretical requirements and that are suitable for comprehensively exploring individuals' "personality".

  14. Developing Integrated Taxonomies for a Tiered Information Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Jayne E.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the concept of developing taxonomies for an information architecture. In order to assist people in accessing information required to access information and retrieval, including cross repository searching, a system of nested taxonomies is being developed. Another facet of this developmental project is collecting and documenting attributes about people, to allow for several uses: access management, i.e., who are you and what can you see?; targeted content delivery i.e., what content helps you get your work done?; w ork force planning i.e., what skill sets do you have that we can appl y to work?; and IT Services i.e., How can we provision you with the proper IT services?

  15. NASA Taxonomies for Searching Problem Reports and FMEAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Jane T.; Throop, David R.

    2006-01-01

    Many types of hazard and risk analyses are used during the life cycle of complex systems, including Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA), Hazard Analysis, Fault Tree and Event Tree Analysis, Probabilistic Risk Assessment, Reliability Analysis and analysis of Problem Reporting and Corrective Action (PRACA) databases. The success of these methods depends on the availability of input data and the analysts knowledge. Standard nomenclature can increase the reusability of hazard, risk and problem data. When nomenclature in the source texts is not standard, taxonomies with mapping words (sets of rough synonyms) can be combined with semantic search to identify items and tag them with metadata based on a rich standard nomenclature. Semantic search uses word meanings in the context of parsed phrases to find matches. The NASA taxonomies provide the word meanings. Spacecraft taxonomies and ontologies (generalization hierarchies with attributes and relationships, based on terms meanings) are being developed for types of subsystems, functions, entities, hazards and failures. The ontologies are broad and general, covering hardware, software and human systems. Semantic search of Space Station texts was used to validate and extend the taxonomies. The taxonomies have also been used to extract system connectivity (interaction) models and functions from requirements text. Now the Reconciler semantic search tool and the taxonomies are being applied to improve search in the Space Shuttle PRACA database, to discover recurring patterns of failure. Usual methods of string search and keyword search fall short because the entries are terse and have numerous shortcuts (irregular abbreviations, nonstandard acronyms, cryptic codes) and modifier words cannot be used in sentence context to refine the search. The limited and fixed FMEA categories associated with the entries do not make the fine distinctions needed in the search. The approach assigns PRACA report titles to problem classes in

  16. Benchmarking of methods for genomic taxonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Voldby; Cosentino, Salvatore; Lukjancenko, Oksana

    2014-01-01

    . Nevertheless, the method has been found to have a number of shortcomings. In the current study, we trained and benchmarked five methods for whole-genome sequence-based prokaryotic species identification on a common data set of complete genomes: (i) SpeciesFinder, which is based on the complete 16S rRNA gene...

  17. Research into the development of a knowledge acquisition taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Pamela K.; Herren, L. Tandy

    1991-01-01

    The focus of the research was on the development of a problem solving taxonomy that can support and direct the knowledge engineering process during the development of an intelligent tutoring system. The results of the research are necessarily general. Being only a small initial attempt at a fundamental problem in artificial intelligence and cognitive psychology, the process has had to be bootstrapped and the results can only provide pointers to further, more formal research designs.

  18. Evaluating ILI Advanced Series through Bloom's Revised Taxonomy

    OpenAIRE

    MAHDIPOUR, Nasim; SADEGHI, Bahador

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. This study investigated Iran Language Institute Advanced Series in terms of learning objectives based on Bloom's Revised Taxonomy. It examined the cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains to see how the critical thinking skills are used and to what extent these books are different from each other. For these purposes, the frequencies, percentages and Standard Residual were analyzed. Results revealed that the lower-order cognitive skills (i.e. remembering, understanding and applyi...

  19. Building the Layers of a New Manufacturing Taxonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapetaniou, Chrystalla; Rieple, Alison; Pilkington, Alan

    2017-01-01

    Recent innovations in 3D printing technologies and processes have influenced how products are designed, built and delivered. However, there is a significant gap in our knowledge of how 3D printing is impacting on manufacturing eco-systems within different industries and contexts. Drawing...... inspiration from earlier manufacturing taxonomies as well as the competitive dynamics literature which provides insights into industries' moves from straightforwardly rivalrous frameworks, through competitive-cooperative exemplars, into the more recent relational-based competition. Basing our analysis...

  20. Using HET taxonomy to help stop human error

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Wen-Chin; Harris, Don; Stanton, Neville A.; Hsu, Yueh-Ling; Chang, Danny; Wang, Thomas; Young, Hong-Tsu

    2010-01-01

    Flight crews make positive contributions to the safety of aviation operations. Pilots have to assess continuously changing situations, evaluate potential risks, and make quick decisions. However, even well-trained and experienced pilots make errors. Accident investigations have identified that pilots’ performance is influenced significantly by the design of the flightdeck interface. This research applies hierarchical task analysis (HTA) and utilizes the Human Error Template (HET) taxonomy to ...

  1. A Hierarchical Causal Taxonomy of Psychopathology across the Life Span

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahey, Benjamin B.; Krueger, Robert F.; Rathouz, Paul J.; Waldman, Irwin D.; Zald, David H.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a taxonomy of psychopathology based on patterns of shared causal influences identified in a review of multivariate behavior genetic studies that distinguish genetic and environmental influences that are either common to multiple dimensions of psychopathology or unique to each dimension. At the phenotypic level, first-order dimensions are defined by correlations among symptoms; correlations among first-order dimensions similarly define higher-order domains (e.g., internalizing or externalizing psychopathology). We hypothesize that the robust phenotypic correlations among first-order dimensions reflect a hierarchy of increasingly specific etiologic influences. Some nonspecific etiologic factors increase risk for all first-order dimensions of psychopathology to varying degrees through a general factor of psychopathology. Other nonspecific etiologic factors increase risk only for all first-order dimensions within a more specific higher-order domain. Furthermore, each first-order dimension has its own unique causal influences. Genetic and environmental influences common to family members tend to be nonspecific, whereas environmental influences unique to each individual are more dimension-specific. We posit that these causal influences on psychopathology are moderated by sex and developmental processes. This causal taxonomy also provides a novel framework for understanding the heterogeneity of each first-order dimension: Different persons exhibiting similar symptoms may be influenced by different combinations of etiologic influences from each of the three levels of the etiologic hierarchy. Furthermore, we relate the proposed causal taxonomy to transdimensional psychobiological processes, which also impact the heterogeneity of each psychopathology dimension. This causal taxonomy implies the need for changes in strategies for studying the etiology, psychobiology, prevention, and treatment of psychopathology. PMID:28004947

  2. Taxonomy of the genus Arachis (Leguminosae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Krapovickas

    2007-01-01

    the ideas presented. It is evident that the genetic distances separating the sections are far from being of the same magnitude. The presumably older sections (Triseminatae, Trierectoides, Erectoides, Extranervosae and Heteranthae, except for section Erectoides, are much more isolated from the remaining sections and from each other than those taken to be of more recent origin (Procumbentes, Caulorrhizae, Rhizomatosae and Arachis. Section Arachis is by far the largest, containing about 40% of the species described. Species of this section appear to be spreading into new territory and to be invading areas occupied by species of other sections. They grow intermixed with populations of Extranervosae in the upper Paraguay basin and occupy common ground with section Procumbentes in the Gran Pantanal. They have reached the shores of La Plata and the southeastern coast of Brazil and grow from Yala in NW Argentina to the Tocantins in NE Brazil. They include the worldwide cultivar, A. hypogaea. Essentially every published work on the botanical history and taxonomy of Arachis is presented here in the individual specimen references and in the general bibliography. The history of A. hypogaeafrom the early 16th Century to more recent times, along with the common names in several native American languages, provide a perspective on the antiquity of this cultivar and the level of civilization required for its creation. Six appendices provide supporting data and matters of record. Diagnostic keys to the sections and to the species within each section select the more sharply distinguishing characteristics of the sections and species. Nineteen line drawings capture the sectional and species structures of whole plants, root systems, fruit orientations, agametic reproductions from fruiting structures, carpel shapes and surface features of leaves and stems.

  3. Scientific Teaching: Defining a Taxonomy of Observable Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, Brian A.; Brown, Tanya L.; Schelpat, Tyler J.; Graham, Mark J.; Knight, Jennifer K.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past several decades, numerous reports have been published advocating for changes to undergraduate science education. These national calls inspired the formation of the National Academies Summer Institutes on Undergraduate Education in Biology (SI), a group of regional workshops to help faculty members learn and implement interactive teaching methods. The SI curriculum promotes a pedagogical framework called Scientific Teaching (ST), which aims to bring the vitality of modern research into the classroom by engaging students in the scientific discovery process and using student data to inform the ongoing development of teaching methods. With the spread of ST, the need emerges to systematically define its components in order to establish a common description for education researchers and practitioners. We describe the development of a taxonomy detailing ST’s core elements and provide data from classroom observations and faculty surveys in support of its applicability within undergraduate science courses. The final taxonomy consists of 15 pedagogical goals and 37 supporting practices, specifying observable behaviors, artifacts, and features associated with ST. This taxonomy will support future educational efforts by providing a framework for researchers studying the processes and outcomes of ST-based course transformations as well as a concise guide for faculty members developing classes. PMID:25713097

  4. A taxonomy of dignity: a grounded theory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobson Nora

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper has its origins in Jonathan Mann's insight that the experience of dignity may explain the reciprocal relationships between health and human rights. It follows his call for a taxonomy of dignity: "a coherent vocabulary and framework to characterize dignity." Methods Grounded theory procedures were use to analyze literature pertaining to dignity and to conduct and analyze 64 semi-structured interviews with persons marginalized by their health or social status, individuals who provide health or social services to these populations, and people working in the field of health and human rights. Results The taxonomy presented identifies two main forms of dignity–human dignity and social dignity–and describes several elements of these forms, including the social processes that violate or promote them, the conditions under which such violations and promotions occur, the objects of violation and promotion, and the consequences of dignity violation. Together, these forms and elements point to a theory of dignity as a quality of individuals and collectives that is constituted through interaction and interpretation and structured by conditions pertaining to actors, relationships, settings, and the broader social order. Conclusion The taxonomy has several implications for work in health and human rights. It suggests a map to possible points of intervention and provides a language in which to talk about dignity.

  5. Thermophilic fungi in the new age of fungal taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Tássio Brito; Gomes, Eleni; Rodrigues, Andre

    2015-01-01

    Thermophilic fungi are of wide interest due to their potential to produce heat-tolerant enzymes for biotechnological processes. However, the taxonomy of such organisms remains obscure, especially given new developments in the nomenclature of fungi. Here, we examine the taxonomy of the thermophilic fungi most commonly used in industry in light of the recent taxonomic changes following the adoption of the International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi and Plants and also based on the movement One Fungus = One Name. Despite the widespread use of these fungi in applied research, several thermotolerant fungi still remain classified as thermophiles. Furthermore, we found that while some thermophilic fungi have had their genomes sequenced, many taxa still do not have barcode sequences of reference strains available in public databases. This lack of basic information is a limiting factor for the species identification of thermophilic fungi and for metagenomic studies in this field. Based on next-generation sequencing, such studies generate large amounts of data, which may reveal new species of thermophilic fungi in different substrates (composting systems, geothermal areas, piles of plant material). As discussed in this study, there are intrinsic problems associated with this method, considering the actual state of the taxonomy of thermophilic fungi. To overcome such difficulties, the taxonomic classification of this group should move towards standardizing the commonly used species names in industry and to assess the possibility of including new systems for describing species based on environmental sequences.

  6. Quality control for terms and definitions in ontologies and taxonomies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüegg Alexander

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ontologies and taxonomies are among the most important computational resources for molecular biology and bioinformatics. A series of recent papers has shown that the Gene Ontology (GO, the most prominent taxonomic resource in these fields, is marked by flaws of certain characteristic types, which flow from a failure to address basic ontological principles. As yet, no methods have been proposed which would allow ontology curators to pinpoint flawed terms or definitions in ontologies in a systematic way. Results We present computational methods that automatically identify terms and definitions which are defined in a circular or unintelligible way. We further demonstrate the potential of these methods by applying them to isolate a subset of 6001 problematic GO terms. By automatically aligning GO with other ontologies and taxonomies we were able to propose alternative synonyms and definitions for some of these problematic terms. This allows us to demonstrate that these other resources do not contain definitions superior to those supplied by GO. Conclusion Our methods provide reliable indications of the quality of terms and definitions in ontologies and taxonomies. Further, they are well suited to assist ontology curators in drawing their attention to those terms that are ill-defined. We have further shown the limitations of ontology mapping and alignment in assisting ontology curators in rectifying problems, thus pointing to the need for manual curation.

  7. Taxonomy, Physiology, and Natural Products of Actinobacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Barka, Essaid Ait; Vatsa, Parul; Sanchez, Lisa; Gaveau-Vaillant, Nathalie; Jacquard, Cedric; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Clément, Christophe; Ouhdouch, Yder; van Wezel, Gilles P.

    2015-01-01

    Actinobacteria are Gram-positive bacteria with high G+C DNA content that constitute one of the largest bacterial phyla, and they are ubiquitously distributed in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Many Actinobacteria have a mycelial lifestyle and undergo complex morphological differentiation. They also have an extensive secondary metabolism and produce about two-thirds of all naturally derived antibiotics in current clinical use, as well as many anticancer, anthelmintic, and antifungal c...

  8. Pragmatic Strategies and Linguistic Structures in Making ‘Suggestions’: Towards Comprehensive Taxonomies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Abolfathiasl

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses and upgrades taxonomies of strategies and structures for the speech act of suggesting based on existing taxonomies and classifications in the pragmatics research literature. Previous studies have focused mainly on linguistic structures used to perform the speech act of suggesting. Thus, there seems to be a need to provide a more comprehensive set of taxonomies for structures as well as strategies that can be used in EFL/ESL classrooms and for research on the speech act of suggesting. To this end, the speech act of suggesting is defined first and the features of this speech act are discussed. Second, the most recent classifications proposed for structures and linguistic realization strategies for suggestions were analysed and contrasted and a more comprehensive taxonomy of structures and linguistic realization strategies is provided, based on previous taxonomies. Finally, taxonomy of politeness strategies in making suggestions are provided, based on recent studies in cross-cultural pragmatics research.

  9. The Complete Maternally and Paternally Inherited Mitochondrial Genomes of a Freshwater Mussel Potamilus alatus (Bivalvia: Unionidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai B Wen

    Full Text Available Doubly uniparental inheritance (DUI of mitochondrial DNA, found only in some bivalve families and characterized by the existence of gender-associated mtDNA lineages that are inherited through males (M-type or females (F-type, is one of the very few exceptions to the general rule of strict maternal mtDNA inheritance in animals. M-type sequences are often undetected and hence still underrepresented in the GenBank, which hinders the progress of the understanding of the DUI phenomenon. We have sequenced and analyzed the complete M and F mitogenomes of a freshwater mussel, Potamilus alatus. The M-type was 493 bp longer (M = 16 560, F = 16 067 bp. Gene contents, order and the distribution of genes between L and H strands were typical for unionid mussels. Candidates for the two ORFan genes (forf and morf were found in respective mitogenomes. Both mitogenomes had a very similar A+T bias: F = 61% and M = 62.2%. The M mitogenome-specific cox2 extension (144 bp is much shorter than in other sequenced unionid mitogenomes (531-576 bp, which might be characteristic for the Potamilus genus. The overall topology of the phylogenetic tree is in very good agreement with the currently accepted phylogenetic relationships within the Unionidae: both studied sequences were placed within the Ambleminae subfamily clusters in the corresponding M and F clades.

  10. Microbial taxonomy in the post-genomic era: Rebuilding from scratch?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Cristiane C. [Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) (Brazil); Amaral, Gilda R. [Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) (Brazil); Campeão, Mariana [Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) (Brazil); Edwards, Robert A. [Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) (Brazil); San Diego State Univ., CA (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Polz, Martin F. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Dutilh, Bas E. [Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) (Brazil); Radbould Univ., Nijmegen (Netherlands); Ussery, David W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sawabe, Tomoo [Hokkaido Univ., Hakodate (Japan); Swings, Jean [Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) (Brazil); Ghent Univ. (Belgium); Thompson, Fabiano L. [Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) (Brazil); Advanced Systems Laboratory Production Management COPPE / UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2014-12-23

    Microbial taxonomy should provide adequate descriptions of bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic microbial diversity in ecological, clinical, and industrial environments. We re-evaluated the prokaryote species twice. It is time to revisit polyphasic taxonomy, its principles, and its practice, including its underlying pragmatic species concept. We will be able to realize an old dream of our predecessor taxonomists and build a genomic-based microbial taxonomy, using standardized and automated curation of high-quality complete genome sequences as the new gold standard.

  11. Technology and Bloom's Taxonomy: Tools to Facilitate Higher-Level Learning in Chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morgan, Matthew

    1997-01-01

    This research project ties together chemistry data acquisition technology, introductory chemistry laboratory experiments, and Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives into a unified learning model...

  12. Factorial microarray analysis of zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha: Dreissenidae, Bivalvia adhesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Mohamed

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha has been well known for its expertise in attaching to substances under the water. Studies in past decades on this underwater adhesion focused on the adhesive protein isolated from the byssogenesis apparatus of the zebra mussel. However, the mechanism of the initiation, maintenance, and determination of the attachment process remains largely unknown. Results In this study, we used a zebra mussel cDNA microarray previously developed in our lab and a factorial analysis to identify the genes that were involved in response to the changes of four factors: temperature (Factor A, current velocity (Factor B, dissolved oxygen (Factor C, and byssogenesis status (Factor D. Twenty probes in the microarray were found to be modified by one of the factors. The transcription products of four selected genes, DPFP-BG20_A01, EGP-BG97/192_B06, EGP-BG13_G05, and NH-BG17_C09 were unique to the zebra mussel foot based on the results of quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR. The expression profiles of these four genes under the attachment and non-attachment were also confirmed by qRT-PCR and the result is accordant to that from microarray assay. The in situ hybridization with the RNA probes of two identified genes DPFP-BG20_A01 and EGP-BG97/192_B06 indicated that both of them were expressed by a type of exocrine gland cell located in the middle part of the zebra mussel foot. Conclusions The results of this study suggested that the changes of D. polymorpha byssogenesis status and the environmental factors can dramatically affect the expression profiles of the genes unique to the foot. It turns out that the factorial design and analysis of the microarray experiment is a reliable method to identify the influence of multiple factors on the expression profiles of the probesets in the microarray; therein it provides a powerful tool to reveal the mechanism of zebra mussel underwater attachment.

  13. Factorial microarray analysis of zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha: Dreissenidae, Bivalvia) adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Faisal, Mohamed

    2010-05-28

    The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) has been well known for its expertise in attaching to substances under the water. Studies in past decades on this underwater adhesion focused on the adhesive protein isolated from the byssogenesis apparatus of the zebra mussel. However, the mechanism of the initiation, maintenance, and determination of the attachment process remains largely unknown. In this study, we used a zebra mussel cDNA microarray previously developed in our lab and a factorial analysis to identify the genes that were involved in response to the changes of four factors: temperature (Factor A), current velocity (Factor B), dissolved oxygen (Factor C), and byssogenesis status (Factor D). Twenty probes in the microarray were found to be modified by one of the factors. The transcription products of four selected genes, DPFP-BG20_A01, EGP-BG97/192_B06, EGP-BG13_G05, and NH-BG17_C09 were unique to the zebra mussel foot based on the results of quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). The expression profiles of these four genes under the attachment and non-attachment were also confirmed by qRT-PCR and the result is accordant to that from microarray assay. The in situ hybridization with the RNA probes of two identified genes DPFP-BG20_A01 and EGP-BG97/192_B06 indicated that both of them were expressed by a type of exocrine gland cell located in the middle part of the zebra mussel foot. The results of this study suggested that the changes of D. polymorpha byssogenesis status and the environmental factors can dramatically affect the expression profiles of the genes unique to the foot. It turns out that the factorial design and analysis of the microarray experiment is a reliable method to identify the influence of multiple factors on the expression profiles of the probesets in the microarray; therein it provides a powerful tool to reveal the mechanism of zebra mussel underwater attachment.

  14. Orobanche lutea Baumg. (Orobanchaceae in Poland: revised distribution, taxonomy, phytocoenological and host relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piwowarczyk Renata

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents current distribution of Orobanche lutea Baumg. in Poland based on a critical revision of herbarium and literature data as well as results of field investigations conducted between 1999-2014. Majority of localities are centred around the Silesia-Cracow, Małopolska and Lublin-Lviv Uplands. The greatest density of sites with probably the most abundant populations in Europe is in the central part of Silesia-Cracow Upland, which, by several hundred years, was heavily exploited for calamine mining (rich in zinc, lead and silver. This resulted in the formation of large areas of gangue containing toxic heavy metals. Since limestone, dolomite, marl and postglacial calcareous clay and sands occur there in most places, the soil is often strongly calcareous. Populations of O. lutea contain here many thousands of shoots. The distribution of the species in Poland is mapped. The taxonomy, biology, ecology and threats are also discussed.

  15. A massive ingression of the alien species Mytilus edulis L. (Bivalvia: Mollusca into the Mediterranean Sea following the Costa Concordia cruise-ship disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. CASOLI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Costa Concordia cruise-ship disaster occurred just off the coast of Italy on January 13th, 2012, and entailed the largest marine salvage operation in history. The salvage employed vessels from different European harbours, providing an unexpected means for transporting alien species into the Mediterranean. In this work we identified mussel species using fragments length polymorphism of a nuclear locus and report the first evidence of the transport of the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis Linnaeus, 1758 (Bivalvia: Mollusca, into the Mediterranean Sea, as a part of the fouling community of the hull of an accommodation barge arrived from a NE Atlantic location in October 2012. Furthermore, we describe the rapid growth of this species, under the ASV Pioneer, until its almost total extinction during the summer of 2013, which left a covering of mussel shells on the underlying Posidonia oceanica (Linnaeus Delile, 1813. meadow. This high mortality rate indicated that M. edulis had been exposed to high stress conditions, probably due to different salinity, temperature, and oligotrophic conditions from its place of origin, and there was no spawning event or known settlement on the nearest infralittoral natural habitats. This event reminds us of how the Mediterranean Sea is constantly under alien-species pressure, due to human activities.

  16. The influence of fish cage culture on δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N of filter-feeding Bivalvia (Mollusca)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedito, E.; Takeda, A.M., E-mail: eva@nupelia.uem.br [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Nucleo de Pesquisas em Limnologia, Ictiologia e Aquicultura; Figueroa, L. [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Pos-Graduacao em Ecologia de Ambientes Aquaticos Continentais; Manetta, GI. [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Pos-Graduacao em Biologia Comparada

    2013-11-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Oreochromis niloticus cage culture promoted variations in the δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N in Corbicula fluminea (Mollusca; Bivalvia) and in the sediment of an aquatic food web. Samples were taken before and after net cage installation in the Rosana Reservoir (Paranapanema River, PR-SP). Samples of specimens of the bivalve filter C. fluminea and samples of sediment were collected using a modified Petersen grab. All samples were dried in an oven (60 °C) for 72 hours, macerated to obtain homogenous fine powders and sent for carbon (δ{sup 13}C) and nitrogen (δ{sup 15}N) isotopic value analysis in a mass spectrometer. There were significant differences in the δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N values of the invertebrate C. fluminea between the beginning and the end of the experiment. There were no differences between the δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N values of sediment. These results indicate that the installation of fish cage culture promoted impacts in the isotopic composition of the aquatic food web organisms, which could exert influence over the native species and the ecosystem. (author)

  17. Taxonomy, Physiology, and Natural Products of Actinobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barka, Essaid Ait; Vatsa, Parul; Sanchez, Lisa; Gaveau-Vaillant, Nathalie; Jacquard, Cedric; Meier-Kolthoff, Jan P; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Clément, Christophe; Ouhdouch, Yder; van Wezel, Gilles P

    2016-03-01

    Actinobacteria are Gram-positive bacteria with high G+C DNA content that constitute one of the largest bacterial phyla, and they are ubiquitously distributed in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Many Actinobacteria have a mycelial lifestyle and undergo complex morphological differentiation. They also have an extensive secondary metabolism and produce about two-thirds of all naturally derived antibiotics in current clinical use, as well as many anticancer, anthelmintic, and antifungal compounds. Consequently, these bacteria are of major importance for biotechnology, medicine, and agriculture. Actinobacteria play diverse roles in their associations with various higher organisms, since their members have adopted different lifestyles, and the phylum includes pathogens (notably, species of Corynebacterium, Mycobacterium, Nocardia, Propionibacterium, and Tropheryma), soil inhabitants (e.g., Micromonospora and Streptomyces species), plant commensals (e.g., Frankia spp.), and gastrointestinal commensals (Bifidobacterium spp.). Actinobacteria also play an important role as symbionts and as pathogens in plant-associated microbial communities. This review presents an update on the biology of this important bacterial phylum. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Systematics of the grey mullets (Teleostei: Mugiliformes: Mugilidae): molecular phylogenetic evidence challenges two centuries of morphology-based taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, J-D; Shen, K-N; Chen, W-J; Jamandre, B W; Blel, H; Diop, K; Nirchio, M; Garcia de León, F J; Whitfield, A K; Chang, C-W; Borsa, P

    2012-07-01

    The family Mugilidae comprises mainly coastal marine species that are widely distributed in all tropical, subtropical and temperate seas. Mugilid species are generally considered to be ecologically important and they are a major food resource for human populations in certain parts of the world. The taxonomy and systematics of the Mugilidae are still much debated and based primarily on morphological characters. In this study, we provide the first comprehensive molecular systematic account of the Mugilidae using phylogenetic analyses of nucleotide sequence variation at three mitochondrial loci (16S rRNA, cytochrome oxidase I, and cytochrome b) for 257 individuals from 55 currently recognized species. The study covers all 20 mugilid genera currently recognized as being valid. The family comprises seven major lineages that radiated early on from the ancestor to all current forms. All genera that were represented by two species or more, except Cestraeus, turned out to be paraphyletic or polyphyletic. Thus, the present phylogenetic results generally disagree with the current taxonomy at the genus level and imply that the anatomical characters used for the systematics of the Mugilidae may be poorly informative phylogenetically. The present results should provide a sound basis for a taxonomic revision of the mugilid genera. A proportion of the species with large distribution ranges (including Moolgarda seheli, Mugil cephalus and M. curema) appear to consist of cryptic species, thus warranting further taxonomic and genetic work at the infra-generic level. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Scientific teaching: defining a taxonomy of observable practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, Brian A; Brown, Tanya L; Schelpat, Tyler J; Graham, Mark J; Knight, Jennifer K

    2015-03-02

    Over the past several decades, numerous reports have been published advocating for changes to undergraduate science education. These national calls inspired the formation of the National Academies Summer Institutes on Undergraduate Education in Biology (SI), a group of regional workshops to help faculty members learn and implement interactive teaching methods. The SI curriculum promotes a pedagogical framework called Scientific Teaching (ST), which aims to bring the vitality of modern research into the classroom by engaging students in the scientific discovery process and using student data to inform the ongoing development of teaching methods. With the spread of ST, the need emerges to systematically define its components in order to establish a common description for education researchers and practitioners. We describe the development of a taxonomy detailing ST's core elements and provide data from classroom observations and faculty surveys in support of its applicability within undergraduate science courses. The final taxonomy consists of 15 pedagogical goals and 37 supporting practices, specifying observable behaviors, artifacts, and features associated with ST. This taxonomy will support future educational efforts by providing a framework for researchers studying the processes and outcomes of ST-based course transformations as well as a concise guide for faculty members developing classes. © 2015 B. A. Couch et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2015 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  20. Fast reactor knowledge preservation system: Taxonomy and basic requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The IAEA has taken the initiative to coordinate efforts of Member States in the preservation of knowledge in the area of fast reactors. In the framework of this initiative, the IAEA intends to create an international database compiling information from different Member States on fast reactors through a web portal. Other activities related to this initiative are being designed to accumulate and exchange information on the fast reactor area, to facilitate access to this information by users in different countries and to assist Member States in preserving the experience gained in their countries. The purpose of this publication is to develop a taxonomy of the Fast Reactor Knowledge Preservation System (FRKPS) that will facilitate the preservation of the world's fast reactor knowledge base, to identify basic requirements of this taxonomy on the basis of the experience gained in the fast reactor area, as well as results of previous IAEA activities on fast reactor knowledge preservation. The need for such taxonomy arises from the fact that during the past 15 years there has been stagnation in the development of fast reactors in the industrialized countries that were involved, earlier, in intensive development of this area. All studies on fast reactors have been stopped in countries such as Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom and the United States of America and the only work being carried out is related to the decommissioning of fast reactors. Many specialists who were involved in the studies and development work in this area in these countries have already retired or are close to retirement. In countries such as France, Japan and the Russian Federation that are still actively pursuing the evolution of fast reactor technology, the situation is aggravated by the lack of young scientists and engineers moving into this branch of nuclear power

  1. Penetration Testing Professional Ethics: a conceptual model and taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Pierce

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In an environment where commercial software is continually patched to correct security flaws, penetration testing can provide organisations with a realistic assessment of their security posture. Penetration testing uses the same principles as criminal hackers to penetrate corporate networks and thereby verify the presence of software vulnerabilities. Network administrators can use the results of a penetration test to correct flaws and improve overall security. The use of hacking techniques, however, raises several ethical questions that centre on the integrity of the tester to maintain professional distance and uphold the profession. This paper discusses the ethics of penetration testing and presents our conceptual model and revised taxonomy.

  2. License - Taxonomy Icon | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us Taxonomy Icon License License to Use This Database Last updated : 2013/3/21 You may use this database...the license terms regarding the use of this database and the requirements you must follow in using this database.... The license for this database is specified in the Creative Commons Attribut...ion 2.1 Japan . If you use data from this database, please be sure attribute this database as follows: Taxon...ative Commons Attribution 2.1 Japan is found here . With regard to this database,

  3. A taxonomy for user-healthcare robot interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bzura, Conrad; Im, Hosung; Liu, Tammy; Malehorn, Kevin; Padir, Taskin; Tulu, Bengisu

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates existing taxonomies aimed at characterizing the interaction between robots and their users and modifies them for health care applications. The modifications are based on existing robot technologies and user acceptance of robotics. Characterization of the user, or in this case the patient, is a primary focus of the paper, as they present a unique new role as robot users. While therapeutic and monitoring-related applications for robots are still relatively uncommon, we believe they will begin to grow and thus it is important that the spurring relationship between robot and patient is well understood.

  4. Taxonomy and antifungal susceptibility of clinically important Rasamsonia species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houbraken, J.; Giraud, S.; Meijer, M.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, Geosmithia argillacea has been increasingly reported in humans and animals and can be considered an emerging pathogen. The taxonomy of Geosmithia was recently studied, and Geosmithia argillacea and related species were transferred to the new genus Rasamsonia. The diversity among...... reported clinical isolates from animal or human patients. Susceptibility tests showed that the antifungal susceptibility profiles of the four members of the R. argillacea complex are similar, and caspofungin showed significant activity in vitro, followed by amphotericin B and posaconazole. Voriconazole...

  5. Taxonomy of interstate conflicts: is South America a peaceful region?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tássio Franchi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This article revisits theoretical efforts to classify interstate conflicts. It analyses South America and discuss the adequacy of influential interpretations about the intensity of interstate conflicts in the region as compared to global or other regions ones. The literature takes for granted that South America is a peaceful region. Such interpretation results from the indicators adopted. We argue that traditional indicators do not fully capture latent tensions and the actual level of conflicts in the region. The article suggests an alternative taxonomy that better fits the South America context and argues that a research agenda on the extent and nature of interstate conflics is needed.

  6. (Lamark) (Mollusca: Bivalvia)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Figure 2 Mean monthly surface water temperature and salinity values ..... Excluding the effect of the flood, the progression of the .... Growth and metabolism of Mactra lilacea. Abstract ... tolerance and osmoregulation in some estuarine bivalves.

  7. Unpacking the Revised Bloom's Taxonomy: Developing Case-Based Learning Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkhoma, Mathews Zanda; Lam, Tri Khai; Sriratanaviriyakul, Narumon; Richardson, Joan; Kam, Booi; Lau, Kwok Hung

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose the use of case studies in teaching an undergraduate course of Internet for Business in class, based on the revised Bloom's taxonomy. The study provides the empirical evidence about the effect of case-based teaching method integrated the revised Bloom's taxonomy on students' incremental learning,…

  8. Interpersonal lexicon : Structural evidence from two independently constructed verb-based taxonomies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Raad, B.

    1999-01-01

    In this study the structure of interpersonal behavior is investigated according to the principles of the so-called psycholexical approach. As bases for this study, we used the data from a taxonomy of interpersonal behavior verbs and a subset of data from a taxonomy of interpersonal tl-nir verbs. The

  9. A Taxonomy for In-depth Evaluation of Normalization for User Generated Content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Goot, Rob; van Noord, Rik; van Noord, Gertjan

    2018-01-01

    In this work we present a taxonomy of error categories for lexical normalization, which is the task of translating user generated content to canonical language. We annotate a recent normalization dataset to test the practical use of the taxonomy and read a near-perfect agreement. This annotated

  10. A Taxonomy of Latent Structure Assumptions for Probability Matrix Decomposition Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulders, Michel; De Boeck, Paul; Van Mechelen, Iven

    2003-01-01

    Proposed a taxonomy of latent structure assumptions for probability matrix decomposition (PMD) that includes the original PMD model and a three-way extension of the multiple classification latent class model. Simulation study results show the usefulness of the taxonomy. (SLD)

  11. Developing a taxonomy of coordination behaviours in nuclear power plant control rooms during emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dunxing; Gao, Qin; Li, Zhizhong; Song, Fei; Ma, Liang

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to develop a taxonomy of coordination behaviours during emergencies in nuclear power plants (NPPs). We summarised basic coordination behaviours from literature in aviation, health care and nuclear field and identified coordination behaviours specific to the nuclear domain by interviewing and surveying control crew operators. The established taxonomy includes 7 workflow stages and 24 basic coordination behaviours. To evaluate the reliability and feasibility of the taxonomy, we analysed 12 videos of operators' training sessions by coding coordination behaviours with the taxonomy and the inter-rater reliability was acceptable. Further analysis of the frequency, the duration and the direction of the coordination behaviours revealed four coordination problems. This taxonomy provides a foundation of systematic observation of coordination behaviours among NPP crews, advances researchers' understanding of the coordination mechanism during emergencies in NPPs and facilitate the possibility to deepen the understanding of the relationships between coordination behaviours and team performance. Practitioner Summary: A taxonomy of coordination behaviours during emergencies in nuclear power plants was developed. Reliability and feasibility of the taxonomy was verified through the analysis of 12 training sessions. The taxonomy can serve as an observation system for analysis of coordination behaviours and help to identify coordination problems of control crews.

  12. Taxonomy in biomedical resources of the Exclusive Economic Zone of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parulekar, A.H.

    stream_size 9 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Taxonomy_Environ_Biol_1990_49.pdf.txt stream_source_info Taxonomy_Environ_Biol_1990_49.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  13. Taxonomy for Education and Training in Clinical Neuropsychology: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, Scott A; Cimino, Cynthia R; Stricker, Nikki H; Heffelfinger, Amy K; Gess, Jennifer L; Osborn, Katie E; Roper, Brad L

    2017-07-01

    Historically, the clinical neuropsychology training community has not clearly or consistently defined education or training opportunities. The lack of consistency has limited students' and trainees' ability to accurately assess and compare the intensity of neuropsychology-specific training provided by programs. To address these issues and produce greater 'truth in advertising' across programs, CNS, with SCN's Education Advisory Committee (EAC), ADECN, AITCN, and APPCN constructed a specialty-specific taxonomy, namely, the Taxonomy for Education and Training in Clinical Neuropsychology. The taxonomy provides consensus in the description of training offered by doctoral, internship, and postdoctoral programs, as well as at the post-licensure stage. Although the CNS approved the taxonomy in February 2015, many programs have not adopted its language. Increased awareness of the taxonomy and the reasons behind its development and structure, as well as its potential benefits, are warranted. In 2016, a working group of clinical neuropsychologists from the EAC and APPCN, all authors of this manuscript, was created and tasked with disseminating information about the taxonomy. Group members held regular conference calls, leading to the generation of this manuscript. This manuscript is the primary byproduct of the working group. Its purpose is to (1) outline the history behind the development of the taxonomy, (2) detail its structure and utility, (3) address the expected impact of its adoption, and (4) call for its adoption across training programs. This manuscript outlines the development and structure of the clinical neuropsychology taxonomy and addresses the need for its adoption across training programs.

  14. A Faceted Taxonomy for Rating Student Bibliographies in an Online Information Literacy Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeder, Chris; Markey, Karen; Yakel, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This study measured the quality of student bibliographies through creation of a faceted taxonomy flexible and fine-grained enough to encompass the variety of online sources cited by today's students. The taxonomy was developed via interviews with faculty, iterative refinement of categories and scoring, and testing on example student…

  15. A Preliminary Bloom's Taxonomy Assessment of End-of-Chapter Problems in Business School Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jennings B.; Carson, Charles M.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines textbook problems used in a sampling of some of the most common core courses found in schools of business to ascertain what level of learning, as defined by Bloom's Taxonomy, is required to provide a correct answer. A set of working definitions based on Bloom's Taxonomy (Bloom & Krathwohl, 1956) was developed for the six…

  16. Climbing Bloom's Taxonomy Pyramid: Lessons from a Graduate Histology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Nikki B.; Hwang, Charles; Scott, Sara; Stallard, Stefanie; Purkiss, Joel; Hortsch, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Bloom's taxonomy was adopted to create a subject-specific scoring tool for histology multiple-choice questions (MCQs). This Bloom's Taxonomy Histology Tool (BTHT) was used to analyze teacher- and student-generated quiz and examination questions from a graduate level histology course. Multiple-choice questions using histological images were…

  17. Phylogeny and taxonomy of the scab and spot anthracnose fungus Elsinoë (Myriangiales, Dothideomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, X L; Barreto, R W; Groenewald, J Z; Bezerra, J D P; Pereira, O L; Cheewangkoon, R; Mostert, L; Tian, C M; Crous, P W

    2017-06-01

    Species of Elsinoë are phytopathogens causing scab and spot anthracnose on many plants, including some economically important crops such as avocado, citrus, grapevines, and ornamentals such as poinsettias, field crops and woody hosts. Disease symptoms are often easily recognisable, and referred to as signature-bearing diseases, for the cork-like appearance of older infected tissues with scab-like appearance. In some Elsinoë -host associations the resulting symptoms are better described as spot anthracnose. Additionally the infected plants may also show mild to severe distortions of infected organs. Isolation of Elsinoë in pure culture can be very challenging and examination of specimens collected in the field is often frustrating because of the lack of fertile structures. Current criteria for species recognition and host specificity in Elsinoë are unclear due to overlapping morphological characteristics, and the lack of molecular and pathogenicity data. In the present study we revised the taxonomy of Elsinoë based on DNA sequence and morphological data derived from 119 isolates, representing 67 host genera from 17 countries, including 64 ex-type cultures. Combined analyses of ITS, LSU, rpb2 and TEF1-α DNA sequence data were used to reconstruct the backbone phylogeny of the genus Elsinoë . Based on the single nomenclature for fungi, 26 new combinations are proposed in Elsinoë for species that were originally described in Sphaceloma . A total of 13 species are epitypified with notes on their taxonomy and phylogeny. A further eight new species are introduced, leading to a total of 75 Elsinoë species supported by molecular data in the present study. For the most part species of Elsinoë appear to be host specific, although the majority of the species treated are known only from a few isolates, and further collections and pathogenicity studies will be required to reconfirm this conclusion.

  18. Phylogeny and taxonomy of the scab and spot anthracnose fungus Elsinoë (Myriangiales, Dothideomycetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X.L. Fan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Species of Elsinoë are phytopathogens causing scab and spot anthracnose on many plants, including some economically important crops such as avocado, citrus, grapevines, and ornamentals such as poinsettias, field crops and woody hosts. Disease symptoms are often easily recognisable, and referred to as signature-bearing diseases, for the cork-like appearance of older infected tissues with scab-like appearance. In some Elsinoë-host associations the resulting symptoms are better described as spot anthracnose. Additionally the infected plants may also show mild to severe distortions of infected organs. Isolation of Elsinoë in pure culture can be very challenging and examination of specimens collected in the field is often frustrating because of the lack of fertile structures. Current criteria for species recognition and host specificity in Elsinoë are unclear due to overlapping morphological characteristics, and the lack of molecular and pathogenicity data. In the present study we revised the taxonomy of Elsinoë based on DNA sequence and morphological data derived from 119 isolates, representing 67 host genera from 17 countries, including 64 ex-type cultures. Combined analyses of ITS, LSU, rpb2 and TEF1-α DNA sequence data were used to reconstruct the backbone phylogeny of the genus Elsinoë. Based on the single nomenclature for fungi, 26 new combinations are proposed in Elsinoë for species that were originally described in Sphaceloma. A total of 13 species are epitypified with notes on their taxonomy and phylogeny. A further eight new species are introduced, leading to a total of 75 Elsinoë species supported by molecular data in the present study. For the most part species of Elsinoë appear to be host specific, although the majority of the species treated are known only from a few isolates, and further collections and pathogenicity studies will be required to reconfirm this conclusion.

  19. Towards a taxonomy of common factors in psychotherapy-results of an expert survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschacher, Wolfgang; Junghan, Ulrich Martin; Pfammatter, Mario

    2014-01-01

    How change comes about is hotly debated in psychotherapy research. One camp considers 'non-specific' or 'common factors', shared by different therapy approaches, as essential, whereas researchers of the other camp consider specific techniques as the essential ingredients of change. This controversy, however, suffers from unclear terminology and logical inconsistencies. The Taxonomy Project therefore aims at contributing to the definition and conceptualization of common factors of psychotherapy by analyzing their differential associations to standard techniques. A review identified 22 common factors discussed in psychotherapy research literature. We conducted a survey, in which 68 psychotherapy experts assessed how common factors are implemented by specific techniques. Using hierarchical linear models, we predicted each common factor by techniques and by experts' age, gender and allegiance to a therapy orientation. Common factors differed largely in their relevance for technique implementation. Patient engagement, Affective experiencing and Therapeutic alliance were judged most relevant. Common factors also differed with respect to how well they could be explained by the set of techniques. We present detailed profiles of all common factors by the (positively or negatively) associated techniques. There were indications of a biased taxonomy not covering the embodiment of psychotherapy (expressed by body-centred techniques such as progressive muscle relaxation, biofeedback training and hypnosis). Likewise, common factors did not adequately represent effective psychodynamic and systemic techniques. This taxonomic endeavour is a step towards a clarification of important core constructs of psychotherapy. This article relates standard techniques of psychotherapy (well known to practising therapists) to the change factors/change mechanisms discussed in psychotherapy theory. It gives a short review of the current debate on the mechanisms by which psychotherapy works. We

  20. The ACTTION-APS-AAPM Pain Taxonomy (AAAPT) Multidimensional Approach to Classifying Acute Pain Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kent, Michael L; Tighe, Patrick J; Belfer, Inna

    2017-01-01

    the Analgesic, Anesthetic, and Addiction Clinical Trial Translations, Innovations, Opportunities, and Networks (ACTTION), American Pain Society (APS), and American Academy of Pain Medicine (AAPM). METHODS: As a complement to a taxonomy recently developed for chronic pain, the ACTTION public-private partnership...... with the US Food and Drug Administration, the APS, and the AAPM convened a consensus meeting of experts to develop an acute pain taxonomy using prevailing evidence. Key issues pertaining to the distinct nature of acute pain are presented followed by the agreed-upon taxonomy. The ACTTION-APS-AAPM Acute Pain...... Taxonomy will include the following dimensions: 1) core criteria, 2) common features, 3) modulating factors, 4) impact/functional consequences, and 5) putative pathophysiologic pain mechanisms. Future efforts will consist of working groups utilizing this taxonomy to develop diagnostic criteria...

  1. Adaptability in the workplace: development of a taxonomy of adaptive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulakos, E D; Arad, S; Donovan, M A; Plamondon, K E

    2000-08-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop a taxonomy of adaptive job performance and examine the implications of this taxonomy for understanding, predicting, and training adaptive behavior in work settings. Two studies were conducted to address this issue. In Study 1, over 1,000 critical incidents from 21 different jobs were content analyzed to identify an 8-dimension taxonomy of adaptive performance. Study 2 reports the development and administration of an instrument, the Job Adaptability Inventory, that was used to empirically examine the proposed taxonomy in 24 different jobs. Exploratory factor analyses using data from 1,619 respondents supported the proposed 8-dimension taxonomy from Study 1. Subsequent confirmatory factor analyses on the remainder of the sample (n = 1,715) indicated a good fit for the 8-factor model. Results and implications are discussed.

  2. Toward A Unifying Taxonomy and Definition for Meditation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan David Nash

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the well-documented concerns confronting scholarly discourse about meditation is the plethora of semantic constructs and the lack of a unified definition and taxonomy. In recent years there have been several notable attempts to formulate new lexicons in order to define and categorize meditation methods. While these constructs have been useful and have encountered varying degrees of acceptance, they have also been subject to misinterpretation and debate, leaving the field devoid of a consensual paradigm. This paper attempts to influence this ongoing discussion by proposing two new models which hold the potential for enhanced scientific reliability and acceptance. Regarding the quest for a universally acceptable taxonomy, we suggest a paradigm shift away from the fabrication of categories based exclusively on first-person perspectives. As an alternative, we propose a new taxonomic system based on a third-person paradigm borrowed, in part, from the psychological and cognitive sciences. With regard to the elusive definitional problem, we propose a model of meditation as a dynamic process composed of several related but distinct stages. The overall goal is to provide researchers with a reliable nomenclature with which to categorize and classify diverse meditation methods, and a conceptual framework which can provide direction for their research and a theoretical basis for their findings.

  3. Threat and error management for anesthesiologists: a predictive risk taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruskin, Keith J.; Stiegler, Marjorie P.; Park, Kellie; Guffey, Patrick; Kurup, Viji; Chidester, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Patient care in the operating room is a dynamic interaction that requires cooperation among team members and reliance upon sophisticated technology. Most human factors research in medicine has been focused on analyzing errors and implementing system-wide changes to prevent them from recurring. We describe a set of techniques that has been used successfully by the aviation industry to analyze errors and adverse events and explain how these techniques can be applied to patient care. Recent findings Threat and error management (TEM) describes adverse events in terms of risks or challenges that are present in an operational environment (threats) and the actions of specific personnel that potentiate or exacerbate those threats (errors). TEM is a technique widely used in aviation, and can be adapted for the use in a medical setting to predict high-risk situations and prevent errors in the perioperative period. A threat taxonomy is a novel way of classifying and predicting the hazards that can occur in the operating room. TEM can be used to identify error-producing situations, analyze adverse events, and design training scenarios. Summary TEM offers a multifaceted strategy for identifying hazards, reducing errors, and training physicians. A threat taxonomy may improve analysis of critical events with subsequent development of specific interventions, and may also serve as a framework for training programs in risk mitigation. PMID:24113268

  4. SIFTS: Structure Integration with Function, Taxonomy and Sequences resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velankar, Sameer; Dana, José M.; Jacobsen, Julius; van Ginkel, Glen; Gane, Paul J.; Luo, Jie; Oldfield, Thomas J.; O’Donovan, Claire; Martin, Maria-Jesus; Kleywegt, Gerard J.

    2013-01-01

    The Structure Integration with Function, Taxonomy and Sequences resource (SIFTS; http://pdbe.org/sifts) is a close collaboration between the Protein Data Bank in Europe (PDBe) and UniProt. The two teams have developed a semi-automated process for maintaining up-to-date cross-reference information to UniProt entries, for all protein chains in the PDB entries present in the UniProt database. This process is carried out for every weekly PDB release and the information is stored in the SIFTS database. The SIFTS process includes cross-references to other biological resources such as Pfam, SCOP, CATH, GO, InterPro and the NCBI taxonomy database. The information is exported in XML format, one file for each PDB entry, and is made available by FTP. Many bioinformatics resources use SIFTS data to obtain cross-references between the PDB and other biological databases so as to provide their users with up-to-date information. PMID:23203869

  5. Taxonomy of Rhagoletis population associated with wild plums in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frias, Daniel; Alvina, Andres

    2000-01-01

    In South America, there are about fifteen Rhagoletis species that live in association with wild and cultivated Solanaceae host plants (Foote 1981, Frias 1992). The principal information on taxonomy for these species is the morphology of adults. Thus, in the genus Rhagoletis, in general, there is little information about immature stages especially on first and second larva instars (Steck et al. 1990, Carrol and Wharton 1989, Steck and Wharton 1988, Persson 1963, White and Elson-Harris 1992, Hernandez-Ortiz 1992, 1993, Frias et al. 1993). Presently, in Chile, there are 4 species associated with Solanaceae host plants. R. tomatis Foote and R. nova (Schiner) are associated with cultivated Solanaceae Lycopersicum esculentum Miller or cultivated tomatoes and Solanum muricatum Aiton or sweet cucumber respectively. R. conversa Bethes has two Solanum host plants, S. nigrum L. and S. tomatillo (Remy) Phil. F. (Frias et al. 1984). The host for R. penela Foote is unknown. Moreover, in the last few years, a population on wild plums of the Myrobalan variety (Rosaceae) was detected (Gonzalez 1989). At present, there is no information about the origin and taxonomy of this population. In this work, we have studied the morphology of eggs, three instar larvae, pupae and adults of this population associated with wild plums as well as aspects of its geographical distribution in Chile

  6. Toward a unifying taxonomy and definition for meditation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Jonathan D.; Newberg, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    One of the well-documented concerns confronting scholarly discourse about meditation is the plethora of semantic constructs and the lack of a unified definition and taxonomy. In recent years there have been several notable attempts to formulate new lexicons in order to define and categorize meditation methods. While these constructs have been useful and have encountered varying degrees of acceptance, they have also been subject to misinterpretation and debate, leaving the field devoid of a consensual paradigm. This paper attempts to influence this ongoing discussion by proposing two new models which hold the potential for enhanced scientific reliability and acceptance. Regarding the quest for a universally acceptable taxonomy, we suggest a paradigm shift away from the norm of fabricatIng new terminology from a first-person perspective. As an alternative, we propose a new taxonomic system based on the historically well-established and commonly accepted third-person paradigm of Affect and Cognition, borrowed, in part, from the psychological and cognitive sciences. With regard to the elusive definitional problem, we propose a model of meditation which clearly distinguishes “method” from “state” and is conceptualized as a dynamic process which is inclusive of six related but distinct stages. The overall goal is to provide researchers with a reliable nomenclature with which to categorize and classify diverse meditation methods, and a conceptual framework which can provide direction for their research and a theoretical basis for their findings. PMID:24312060

  7. The past, the present and the future of eutardigrade taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Pilato

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Author first recalls the past of eutardigrade taxonomy and indicates the main factors that for a long time restrained its progress. One consequence of a superficial analysis is that very wide individual variability has been erroneously attributed to many species, and this has become the main problem for tardigrade taxonomists. The situation began to change after 1969 because of the first attempts to eliminate the above mentioned problems. Novelties gave impetus to the revision of tardigrade taxonomy, and genuine systematics, finally based on phylogenetics, became popular. Today the morphological characters are considered more in depth and studies utilising DNA sequences are more in fashion; they are surely useful and allow the distinction of morphologically very similar species. However, in the author’s opinion, this progress will be possible only if the molecular studies are always associated with careful morphological studies, which, in the meantime, will be more and more detailed also thanks to the use of the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM.

  8. A taxonomy of accountable care organizations for policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortell, Stephen M; Wu, Frances M; Lewis, Valerie A; Colla, Carrie H; Fisher, Elliott S

    2014-12-01

    To develop an exploratory taxonomy of Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs) to describe and understand early ACO development and to provide a basis for technical assistance and future evaluation of performance. Data from the National Survey of Accountable Care Organizations, fielded between October 2012 and May 2013, of 173 Medicare, Medicaid, and commercial payer ACOs. Drawing on resource dependence and institutional theory, we develop measures of eight attributes of ACOs such as size, scope of services offered, and the use of performance accountability mechanisms. Data are analyzed using a two-step cluster analysis approach that accounts for both continuous and categorical data. We identified a reliable and internally valid three-cluster solution: larger, integrated systems that offer a broad scope of services and frequently include one or more postacute facilities; smaller, physician-led practices, centered in primary care, and that possess a relatively high degree of physician performance management; and moderately sized, joint hospital-physician and coalition-led groups that offer a moderately broad scope of services with some involvement of postacute facilities. ACOs can be characterized into three distinct clusters. The taxonomy provides a framework for assessing performance, for targeting technical assistance, and for diagnosing potential antitrust violations. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  9. A taxonomy for disease management: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Disease Management Taxonomy Writing Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumholz, Harlan M; Currie, Peter M; Riegel, Barbara; Phillips, Christopher O; Peterson, Eric D; Smith, Renee; Yancy, Clyde W; Faxon, David P

    2006-09-26

    Disease management has shown great promise as a means of reorganizing chronic care and optimizing patient outcomes. Nevertheless, disease management programs are widely heterogeneous and lack a shared definition of disease management, which limits our ability to compare and evaluate different programs. To address this problem, the American Heart Association's Disease Management Taxonomy Writing Group developed a system of classification that can be used both to categorize and compare disease management programs and to inform efforts to identify specific factors associated with effectiveness. The AHA Writing Group began with a conceptual model of disease management and its components and subsequently validated this model over a wide range of disease management programs. A systematic MEDLINE search was performed on the terms heart failure, diabetes, and depression, together with disease management, case management, and care management. The search encompassed articles published in English between 1987 and 2005. We then selected studies that incorporated (1) interventions designed to improve outcomes and/or reduce medical resource utilization in patients with heart failure, diabetes, or depression and (2) clearly defined protocols with at least 2 prespecified components traditionally associated with disease management. We analyzed the study protocols and used qualitative research methods to develop a disease management taxonomy with our conceptual model as the organizing framework. The final taxonomy includes the following 8 domains: (1) Patient population is characterized by risk status, demographic profile, and level of comorbidity. (2) Intervention recipient describes the primary targets of disease management intervention and includes patients and caregivers, physicians and allied healthcare providers, and healthcare delivery systems. (3) Intervention content delineates individual components, such as patient education, medication management, peer support, or some

  10. The linked units of 5S rDNA and U1 snDNA of razor shells (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Pharidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierna, J; Jensen, K T; Martínez-Lage, A; González-Tizón, A M

    2011-08-01

    The linkage between 5S ribosomal DNA and other multigene families has been detected in many eukaryote lineages, but whether it provides any selective advantage remains unclear. In this work, we report the occurrence of linked units of 5S ribosomal DNA (5S rDNA) and U1 small nuclear DNA (U1 snDNA) in 10 razor shell species (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Pharidae) from four different genera. We obtained several clones containing partial or complete repeats of both multigene families in which both types of genes displayed the same orientation. We provide a comprehensive collection of razor shell 5S rDNA clones, both with linked and nonlinked organisation, and the first bivalve U1 snDNA sequences. We predicted the secondary structures and characterised the upstream and downstream conserved elements, including a region at -25 nucleotides from both 5S rDNA and U1 snDNA transcription start sites. The analysis of 5S rDNA showed that some nontranscribed spacers (NTSs) are more closely related to NTSs from other species (and genera) than to NTSs from the species they were retrieved from, suggesting birth-and-death evolution and ancestral polymorphism. Nucleotide conservation within the functional regions suggests the involvement of purifying selection, unequal crossing-overs and gene conversions. Taking into account this and other studies, we discuss the possible mechanisms by which both multigene families could have become linked in the Pharidae lineage. The reason why 5S rDNA is often found linked to other multigene families seems to be the result of stochastic processes within genomes in which its high copy number is determinant.

  11. Genetic Population Structure and Demographic History of the Widespread Common Shipworm Teredo navalis Linnaeus 1758 (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Teredinidae in European Waters Inferred from Mitochondrial COI Sequence Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronny Weigelt

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The first documented scientific reports of the common marine shipworm Teredo navalis (Bivalvia for Central European waters date back to the time between 1700 and 1730 in the Netherlands. During the following centuries there were several irregular mass occurrences reported for both the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. These events were accompanied by massive destruction of wooden ships and coastal protection structures. In this study, the first population analysis of T. navalis is presented with the aim to detect the genetic population structure in the waters of Central Europe. The mtDNA COI (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I locus was found as suitable molecular marker and hence a 675 bp gene fragment was studied. A total of 352 T. navalis specimens from 13 different sampling sites distributed across Central Europe were examined. Subsequently, various population genetic indices including FST values and an AMOVA analysis were applied for the description of the population structure. To visualize the distribution of haplotypes at the different sampling sites two median-joining networks were calculated. In addition, the past demographic structure of the T. navalis population was analyzed, among others by calculating Tajima's D, Fu's F and the mismatch distribution. Finally, all computations of the population genetic indices could not reveal differentiated populations or any kind of distinct population structure in T. navalis. The network analyses revealed “star-like” patterns without differentiated substructures or demes. Therefore, it can be assumed that a sudden expansion of this species took place without any indications of neither a bottleneck nor a founder effect for the study area. The results of this study support the concept of a regional panmictic population in the waters of Central Europe with unhindered migration of individuals (e.g., via pelagic larvae between the various sampling sites as reflected by a high gene flow.

  12. A taxonomy and discussion of software attack technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Sheila B.; Stytz, Martin R.

    2005-03-01

    Software is a complex thing. It is not an engineering artifact that springs forth from a design by simply following software coding rules; creativity and the human element are at the heart of the process. Software development is part science, part art, and part craft. Design, architecture, and coding are equally important activities and in each of these activities, errors may be introduced that lead to security vulnerabilities. Therefore, inevitably, errors enter into the code. Some of these errors are discovered during testing; however, some are not. The best way to find security errors, whether they are introduced as part of the architecture development effort or coding effort, is to automate the security testing process to the maximum extent possible and add this class of tools to the tools available, which aids in the compilation process, testing, test analysis, and software distribution. Recent technological advances, improvements in computer-generated forces (CGFs), and results in research in information assurance and software protection indicate that we can build a semi-intelligent software security testing tool. However, before we can undertake the security testing automation effort, we must understand the scope of the required testing, the security failures that need to be uncovered during testing, and the characteristics of the failures. Therefore, we undertook the research reported in the paper, which is the development of a taxonomy and a discussion of software attacks generated from the point of view of the security tester with the goal of using the taxonomy to guide the development of the knowledge base for the automated security testing tool. The representation for attacks and threat cases yielded by this research captures the strategies, tactics, and other considerations that come into play during the planning and execution of attacks upon application software. The paper is organized as follows. Section one contains an introduction to our research

  13. DNA barcoding and traditional taxonomy: an integrated approach for biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Bhavisha P; Thaker, Vrinda S

    2017-07-01

    Biological diversity is depleting at an alarming rate. Additionally, a vast amount of biodiversity still remains undiscovered. Taxonomy has been serving the purpose of describing, naming, and classifying species for more than 250 years. DNA taxonomy and barcoding have accelerated the rate of this process, thereby providing a tool for conservation practice. DNA barcoding and traditional taxonomy have their own inherent merits and demerits. The synergistic use of both methods, in the form of integrative taxonomy, has the potential to contribute to biodiversity conservation in a pragmatic timeframe and overcome their individual drawbacks. In this review, we discuss the basics of both these methods of biological identification (traditional taxonomy and DNA barcoding), the technical advances in integrative taxonomy, and future trends. We also present a comprehensive compilation of published examples of integrative taxonomy that refer to nine topics within biodiversity conservation. Morphological and molecular species limits were observed to be congruent in ∼41% of the 58 source studies. The majority of the studies highlighted the description of cryptic diversity through the use of molecular data, whereas research areas like endemism, biological invasion, and threatened species were less discussed in the literature.

  14. The status of taxonomy and venom in sea snakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Redsted Rasmussen, Arne; Sanders, Kate L.

    2017-01-01

    The status of taxonomy and venom in sea snakesArne R Rasmussen1, Kate L Sanders21 The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Architecture, Design & Conservation, Copenhagen, Denmark2 School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5000, AustraliaSea...... snakes form two aquatic groups of snakes with a flat vertically paddle-form tail (sea kraits and viviparous sea snakes). Sea snakes belong to the same family Elapidae, which also includes the terrestrial mambas, cobra, kraits, taipan and brown snake. All elapids are characterized by the anterior position...... of the poison-fangs on the maxillary bone (proteroglyphous). Globally there are some 70 species of sea snake found in the tropical and subtropical waters of the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean. Most species are found in the Indo-Malayan Archipelago, the China Sea, Indonesia, and the Australian region...

  15. The status of taxonomy and venom in sea snakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Redsted Rasmussen, Arne; Sanders, Kate L.

    2017-01-01

    The status of taxonomy and venom in sea snakesArne R Rasmussen1, Kate L Sanders21 The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Architecture, Design & Conservation, Copenhagen, Denmark2 School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5000, Australia......, the Aipysurus group was separated from the other viviparous sea snakes at around 5.8 million years before present and in the Hydrophis lineage the Hydrophis group was separated from the three semi-marine lineages at around 4.4 million years before present. The venoms of sea snakes are rather simple, typically...... containing a-neurotoxins and phospholipases A2 (PLA2s), and in terms of lethality are known to be more potent than the venoms from terrestrial snakes....

  16. Smart farming technologies - description, taxonomy and economic impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balafoutis, Athanasios T.; Beck, Bert; Tsiropoulos, Zisis

    2017-01-01

    Precision Agriculture is a cyclic optimization process where data have to be collected from the field, analysed and evaluated and finally used for decision making for site-specific management of the field. Smart farming technologies (SFT ) cover all these aspects of precision agriculture and can...... comprise the delineation of management zones, decision support systems and farm management information system s. Finally, precision application technologies embrace variable-rate application technologies, precision irrigation and weeding and machine guidance. In this chapter, the reader can find...... a technical description of the technologies included in each category accompanied by a taxonomy of all SFT in terms of farming system type, cropping system, availability, level of investment and farmers’ motives to adopt them. Finally, the economic impact that each SFT has compared to conventional...

  17. A Taxonomy for Differentiating Entrepreneurship Education Across Disciplines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warhuus, Jan P.; Blenker, Per

    of courses and curricula. At the core of this framework is a taxonomy for discipline-specific entrepreneurship education content and learning goals—different educations have varying inherent strengths and weakness vis-à-vis entrepreneurship, and thus have different pathways and barriers to develop......Entrepreneurship education (E-Ed) is maturing—from debate about whether or not it can be done, to how it should be done (Katz, 2003; Kuratko, 2005); from business schools teaching start-ups through a business plan format, toward converging upon a broader attitudechanging framework (Mwasalwiba, 2010......, and the need for a tailored, discipline-specific approach to E-Ed is becoming rapidly apparent. As a first step toward differentiating E-Ed across disciplines, we propose the establishment of an E-Ed framework that can guide and align stakeholders, program designers, and educators in the construction...

  18. Revisiting the genus Photobacterium: taxonomy, ecology and pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labella, Alejandro M; Arahal, David R; Castro, Dolores; Lemos, Manuel L; Borrego, Juan J

    2017-03-01

    The genus Photobacterium, one of the eight genera included in the family Vibrionaceae, contains 27 species with valid names and it has received attention because of the bioluminescence and pathogenesis mechanisms that some of its species exhibit. However, the taxonomy and phylogeny of this genus are not completely elucidated; for example, P. logei and P. fischeri are now considered members of the genus Aliivibrio, and previously were included in the genus Vibrio. In addition, P. damselae subsp. piscicida was formed as a new combination for former Vibrio damsela and Pasteurella piscicida. Moreover, P. damselae subsp. damselae is an earlier heterotypic synonym of P. histaminum. To avoid these incovenences draft and complete genomic sequences of members of Photobacterium are increasingly becoming available and their use is now routine for many research laboratories to address diverse goals: species delineation with overall genomic indexes, phylogenetic analyses, comparative genomics, and phenotypic inference. The habitats and isolation source of the Photobacterium species include seawater, sea sediments, saline lake waters, and a variety of marine organisms with which the photobacteria establish different relationships, from symbiosis to pathogenic interactions. Several species of this genus contain bioluminescent strains in symbiosis with marine fish and cephalopods; in addition, other species enhance its growth at pressures above 1 atmosphere, by means of several high-pressure adaptation mechanisms and for this, they may be considered as piezophilic (former barophilic) bacteria. Until now, only P. jeanii, P. rosenbergii, P. sanctipauli, and the two subspecies of P. damselae have been reported as responsible agents of several pathologies on animal hosts, such as corals, sponges, fish and homeothermic animals. In this review we have revised and updated the taxonomy, ecology and pathogenicity of several members of this genus. [Int Microbiol 20(1): 1-10 (2017

  19. Physiology and taxonomy of lactobacilli surviving radurization of meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastings, J.W.

    1986-02-01

    The aim of this study was to isolate radiation-resistant lacto-bacilli from radurized (5 kGy) vacuum-packaged meat and subject them to biochemical, metabolic and physiological testing in order to gain a clearer understanding of the taxonomy of this group as well as determine characteristics which may be of technological significance. All 113 of the lactobacilli isolated were homofermentative, aciduric and were allocated to the sub-genus Streptobacterium. Numerical taxonomy by unweighted pair-group average linkage analysis revealed the existence of 5 clusters of the isolates. The same 113 isolates were classified using a purely classical taxonomic approach where the isolates were divided into 4 groups according to species designation. The basis upon which they were identified as a particular species was mainly their carbohydrate fermentation pattern. Several of the 113 isolates were selected for tests to determine characteristics of technological importance. All L.sake isolates exhibited the phenomenon of being more resistant to irradiation in the logarithmic phase than in the stationary phase of their growth cycle. This phenomenon was not characteristic of all the bacteria and was not always related to high radiation-resistance. Four L. sake isolates and three authentic strains were subjected to radiation-sensitivity testing in a natural food system where the bacteria were irradiated in minced meat packaged under four different conditions. The organisms exhibited the highest death rates under CO 2 packaging but resistance seemed to increase under N 2 -packaging. The radiation-resistance of the isolates was greater than that of the reference strains and all strains were approximately twice as resistant in the meat microenvironment than in a synthetic medium

  20. Application of the ultrametric distance to portfolio taxonomy. Critical approach and comparison with other methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skórnik-Pokarowska, Urszula; Orłowski, Arkadiusz

    2004-12-01

    We calculate the ultrametric distance between the pairs of stocks that belong to the same portfolio. The ultrametric distance allows us to distinguish groups of shares that are related. In this way, we can construct a portfolio taxonomy that can be used for constructing an efficient portfolio. We also construct a portfolio taxonomy based not only on stock prices but also on economic indices such as liquidity ratio, debt ratio and sales profitability ratio. We show that a good investment strategy can be obtained by applying to the portfolio chosen by the taxonomy method the so-called Constant Rebalanced Portfolio.

  1. The Effects of Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy on Measurement and Evaluation in Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İrfan Yurdabakan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to discuss the revision of the original version of Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives under the leadership of Krathwohl and Anderson and its reflections on testing and assessment in education. Fort his purpose, international database was scanned to analyze the publications on “Bloom’s revised taxonomy and relationships between the revised taxonomy and testing and assessment”. The reasons for revision, the results that emerged following the revision and the reflections of those results on measurement and evaluation in education are described within the scope of those publications obtained

  2. The New Cannabis Policy Taxonomy on APIS: Making Sense of the Cannabis Policy Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klitzner, Michael D; Thomas, Sue; Schuler, Jonathan; Hilton, Michael; Mosher, James

    2017-06-01

    The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism's Alcohol Policy Information System (APIS) is, for the first time, adding legal data pertaining to recreational cannabis use to its current offerings on alcohol policy. Now that Colorado, Washington, Oregon, Alaska, and the District of Columbia have legalized aspects of recreational cannabis, and more states are considering it, there is an urgency to provide high-quality, multi-dimensional legal data to the public health community. This article introduces the Cannabis Policy Taxonomy recently posted on APIS, and explores its theoretical and empirical contributions to the substance abuse literature and its potential for use in policy research. We also present results of interviews with public health experts in alcohol and cannabis policy, which sought to determine the most important variables to address in the initial release of cannabis policy data. From this process, we found that pricing controls emerged as the variable singled out by the largest number of experts. This analysis points to a host of vital policies that are of increasing importance to public health policy scholars and their current and future research.

  3. Toward genetics-based virus taxonomy: comparative analysis of a genetics-based classification and the taxonomy of picornaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauber, Chris; Gorbalenya, Alexander E

    2012-04-01

    Virus taxonomy has received little attention from the research community despite its broad relevance. In an accompanying paper (C. Lauber and A. E. Gorbalenya, J. Virol. 86:3890-3904, 2012), we have introduced a quantitative approach to hierarchically classify viruses of a family using pairwise evolutionary distances (PEDs) as a measure of genetic divergence. When applied to the six most conserved proteins of the Picornaviridae, it clustered 1,234 genome sequences in groups at three hierarchical levels (to which we refer as the "GENETIC classification"). In this study, we compare the GENETIC classification with the expert-based picornavirus taxonomy and outline differences in the underlying frameworks regarding the relation of virus groups and genetic diversity that represent, respectively, the structure and content of a classification. To facilitate the analysis, we introduce two novel diagrams. The first connects the genetic diversity of taxa to both the PED distribution and the phylogeny of picornaviruses. The second depicts a classification and the accommodated genetic diversity in a standardized manner. Generally, we found striking agreement between the two classifications on species and genus taxa. A few disagreements concern the species Human rhinovirus A and Human rhinovirus C and the genus Aphthovirus, which were split in the GENETIC classification. Furthermore, we propose a new supergenus level and universal, level-specific PED thresholds, not reached yet by many taxa. Since the species threshold is approached mostly by taxa with large sampling sizes and those infecting multiple hosts, it may represent an upper limit on divergence, beyond which homologous recombination in the six most conserved genes between two picornaviruses might not give viable progeny.

  4. Evolutionary and geographical history of the Leishmania donovani complex with a revision of current taxonomy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukeš, Julius; Mauricio, I. L.; Schönian, G.; Dujardin, J.-C.; Soteriadou, K.; Dedet, J.-P.; Kuhls, K.; QuispeTintaya, K. W.; Jirků, Milan; Chocholová, Eva; Haralambous, C.; Pratlong, F.; Oborník, Miroslav; Horák, Aleš; Ayala, F. J.; Miles, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 22 (2007), s. 9375-9380 ISSN 0027-8424 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06129; GA MŠk LC07032 Grant - others:EU(EU) QLK2-CT-2001-01810 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : leishmaniasis * parasitic protozoa * phylogeny * population genetics Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 9.598, year: 2007

  5. New distribution records for four mammal species, with notes on their taxonomy and ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.N. Bronner

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available New distribution records for four small mammal species (Georychus capensis, Galerella pulverulenta, Rhinolophus swinnyi and Amblysomus julianae are presented, along with relevant notes on the taxonomy, karyology and ecology of these species.

  6. An Evidence-based Forensic Taxonomy of Windows Phone Dating Apps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahyani, Niken Dwi Wahyu; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Ab Rahman, Nurul Hidayah; Ashman, Helen

    2018-05-21

    Advances in technologies including development of smartphone features have contributed to the growth of mobile applications, including dating apps. However, online dating services can be misused. To support law enforcement investigations, a forensic taxonomy that provides a systematic classification of forensic artifacts from Windows Phone 8 (WP8) dating apps is presented in this study. The taxonomy has three categories, namely: Apps Categories, Artifacts Categories, and Data Partition Categories. This taxonomy is built based on the findings from a case study of 28 mobile dating apps, using mobile forensic tools. The dating app taxonomy can be used to inform future studies of dating and related apps, such as those from Android and iOS platforms. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  7. Computer aided taxonomy (CAT): Approach for understanding systematics of marine biota

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chavan, V.S.; Kavlekar, D.P.; Chandramohan, D.

    Computer aided taconomy (CAT) is gaining importance day by day. In order to familiarise the taxonomy and its continuing usage an attempt has made to develop a module for knowing the systematics of organisms and to generate automatic numerical code...

  8. Morphology and taxonomy of an almost forgotten fossil diatom Gaillonella sculpta EHRENBERG (Bacillariophyceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Usoltseva, M.; Houk, Václav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 1 (2016), s. 39-49 ISSN 0269-249X Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Miocene * Gaillonella * Pseudoaulacosira * taxonomy * valve ultrastructure. * Bacillariophyceae Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.677, year: 2016

  9. Lingua franca of personality - Taxonomies and structures based on the psycholexical approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Raad, B; Perugini, M; Hrebickova, M; Szarota, P

    Data sets from seven original trait taxonomies from different languages, American English, Dutch, German, Hungarian, Italian, Czech, and Polish, are used for a crosscultural study. The taxonomic procedures, involving culling trait terms from the various lexicons and the construction Of

  10. Molecular taxonomy of scopulariopsis-like fungi with description of new clinical and environmental species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagielski, Tomasz; Sandoval-Denis, Marcelo; Yu, Jin; Yao, Limin; Bakuła, Zofia; Kalita, Joanna; Skóra, Magdalena; Krzyściak, Paweł; de Hoog, G Sybren; Guarro, Josep; Gené, Josepa

    The taxonomy of scopulariopsis-like fungi, comprising numerous human opportunistic species, has recently been reassessed with delineation of the genera Microascus, Pithoascus, Pseudoscopulariopsis, and Scopulariopsis, using morphological data and multilocus sequence analysis based on four loci (ITS,

  11. Mathematics Teachers’ Interpretation of Higher-Order Thinking in Bloom’s Taxonomy

    OpenAIRE

    Tony Thompson

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated mathematics teachers’ interpretation of higher-order thinking in Bloom’s Taxonomy. Thirty-two high school mathematics teachers from the southeast U.S. were asked to (a) define lower- and higher-order thinking, (b) identify which thinking skills in Bloom’s Taxonomy represented lower- and higher-order thinking, and (c) create an Algebra I final exam item representative of each thinking skill. Results indicate that mathematics teachers have difficulty interpreting the thi...

  12. Liberalisation and Corporate Strategic Behaviours: A Taxonomy of the European Electric Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Schiavone Francesco; Quintano Michele

    2012-01-01

    Liberalisation in the European electricity market greatly increased the number of corporate mergers and acquisitions. This article proposes a taxonomy of the strategic behaviours of European electricity firms after the recent continental industry liberalisation. We analysed the operations of mergers and acquisitions of these companies. The «five competitive forces» model by Michael Porter was used in order to develop the taxonomy. Our analysis outlines three main strategic types: "omnivorou"s...

  13. Surfacing the Iceberg of Leadership: A New Taxonomy of Leadership Concepts and Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufman, EK; Cletzer, DA

    2017-01-01

    Leadership scholars have long sought to impose order on the numerous theories in leadership literature. While mid-level theories abound, no taxonomy exists to provide hierarchy and a mechanism for explaining how theories interrelate. This poster offers a new taxonomy for organizing leadership theories and concepts based on the metaphor of an iceberg. It invites leadership scholars to vet their own leadership courses and undergraduate leadership programs to determine the depth to which they ex...

  14. A topographic feature taxonomy for a U.S. national topographic mapping ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanka, Dalia E.

    2013-01-01

    Using legacy feature lists from the U.S. National Topographic Mapping Program of the twentieth century, a taxonomy of features is presented for purposes of developing a national topographic feature ontology for geographic mapping and analysis. After reviewing published taxonomic classifications, six basic classes are suggested; terrain, surface water, ecological regimes, built-up areas, divisions, and events. Aspects of ontology development are suggested as the taxonomy is described.

  15. A Taxonomy of Consumer Motives through Preferred Brand Personality : Empirical Findings for 11 Countries

    OpenAIRE

    N. GEEROMS; I. VERMEIR; P. VAN KENHOVE; H. HENDRICKX

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a circumplex taxonomy of related consumer motives based on valence ratings of 34 preferred brand personality traits. Results of INDSCAL analysis reveal a consistent, replicable preferred brand personality structure across 11 different countries and four different product categories. As preferred brand personality dimensions are considered as behavioral expressions of underlying motives, the found structure was reformulated in terms of a taxonomy of eight fundamental consum...

  16. Development of a consensus taxonomy of sedentary behaviors (SIT: report of Delphi Round 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien Francois Martin Chastin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over the last decade, sedentary behaviors have emerged as a distinctive behavioral paradigm with deleterious effects on health independent of physical activity. The next phase of research is to establish dose response between sedentary behaviors and health outcomes and improve understanding of context and determinants of these behaviors. Establishing a common taxonomy of these behaviors is a necessary step in this process. AIM: The Sedentary behavior International Taxonomy project was developed to establish a classification of sedentary behaviors by use of a formal consensus process. METHODS: The study follows a Delphi process in three Rounds. A preparatory stage informed the development of terms of reference documents. In Round 1, experts were asked to make statements about the taxonomy; 1 its purpose and use ; 2 the domains, categories or facets that should be consider and include; 3 the structure/architecture to arrange and link these domains and facets. In Round 2 experts will be presented with a draft taxonomy emerging from Round 1 and invited to comment and propose alterations. The taxonomy will then be finalised at the outset of this stage. RESULTS: Results of Round 1 are reported here. There is a general consensus that a taxonomy will help advances in research by facilitating systematic and standardised: 1 investigation and analysis; 2 reporting and communication; 3 data pooling, comparison and meta-analysis; 4 development of measurement tools; 4 data descriptions, leading to higher quality in data querying and facilitate discoveries. There is also a consensus that such a taxonomy should be flexible to accommodate diverse purposes of use, and future advances in the field and yet provide a cross-disciplinary common language. A consensual taxonomy structure emerged with nine primary facets (Purpose, Environment, Posture, Social, Measurement, Associated behavior, Status, Time, Type and the draft structure presented here for

  17. Taxonomy of the family Arenaviridae and the order Bunyavirales: update 2018.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Piet; Alkhovsky, Sergey V; Bào, Yīmíng; Beer, Martin; Birkhead, Monica; Briese, Thomas; Buchmeier, Michael J; Calisher, Charles H; Charrel, Rémi N; Choi, Il Ryong; Clegg, Christopher S; de la Torre, Juan Carlos; Delwart, Eric; DeRisi, Joseph L; Di Bello, Patrick L; Di Serio, Francesco; Digiaro, Michele; Dolja, Valerian V; Drosten, Christian; Druciarek, Tobiasz Z; Du, Jiang; Ebihara, Hideki; Elbeaino, Toufic; Gergerich, Rose C; Gillis, Amethyst N; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul J; Haenni, Anne-Lise; Hepojoki, Jussi; Hetzel, Udo; Hồ, Thiện; Hóng, Ní; Jain, Rakesh K; Jansen van Vuren, Petrus; Jin, Qi; Jonson, Miranda Gilda; Junglen, Sandra; Keller, Karen E; Kemp, Alan; Kipar, Anja; Kondov, Nikola O; Koonin, Eugene V; Kormelink, Richard; Korzyukov, Yegor; Krupovic, Mart; Lambert, Amy J; Laney, Alma G; LeBreton, Matthew; Lukashevich, Igor S; Marklewitz, Marco; Markotter, Wanda; Martelli, Giovanni P; Martin, Robert R; Mielke-Ehret, Nicole; Mühlbach, Hans-Peter; Navarro, Beatriz; Ng, Terry Fei Fan; Nunes, Márcio Roberto Teixeira; Palacios, Gustavo; Pawęska, Janusz T; Peters, Clarence J; Plyusnin, Alexander; Radoshitzky, Sheli R; Romanowski, Víctor; Salmenperä, Pertteli; Salvato, Maria S; Sanfaçon, Hélène; Sasaya, Takahide; Schmaljohn, Connie; Schneider, Bradley S; Shirako, Yukio; Siddell, Stuart; Sironen, Tarja A; Stenglein, Mark D; Storm, Nadia; Sudini, Harikishan; Tesh, Robert B; Tzanetakis, Ioannis E; Uppala, Mangala; Vapalahti, Olli; Vasilakis, Nikos; Walker, Peter J; Wáng, Guópíng; Wáng, Lìpíng; Wáng, Yànxiăng; Wèi, Tàiyún; Wiley, Michael R; Wolf, Yuri I; Wolfe, Nathan D; Wú, Zhìqiáng; Xú, Wénxìng; Yang, Li; Yāng, Zuòkūn; Yeh, Shyi-Dong; Zhāng, Yǒng-Zhèn; Zhèng, Yàzhōu; Zhou, Xueping; Zhū, Chénxī; Zirkel, Florian; Kuhn, Jens H

    2018-04-21

    In 2018, the family Arenaviridae was expanded by inclusion of 1 new genus and 5 novel species. At the same time, the recently established order Bunyavirales was expanded by 3 species. This article presents the updated taxonomy of the family Arenaviridae and the order Bunyavirales as now accepted by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) and summarizes additional taxonomic proposals that may affect the order in the near future.

  18. A cyber kill chain based taxonomy of banking Trojans for evolutionary computational intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Kiwia, D; Dehghantanha, A; Choo, K-KR; Slaughter, J

    2017-01-01

    Malware such as banking Trojans are popular with financially-motivated cybercriminals. Detection of banking Trojans remains a challenging task, due to the constant evolution of techniques used to obfuscate and circumvent existing detection and security solutions. Having a malware taxonomy can facilitate the design of mitigation strategies such as those based on evolutionary computational intelligence. Specifically, in this paper, we propose a cyber kill chain based taxonomy of banking Trojans...

  19. Product Engineering Class in the Software Safety Risk Taxonomy for Building Safety-Critical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Janice; Victor, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    When software safety requirements are imposed on legacy safety-critical systems, retrospective safety cases need to be formulated as part of recertifying the systems for further use and risks must be documented and managed to give confidence for reusing the systems. The SEJ Software Development Risk Taxonomy [4] focuses on general software development issues. It does not, however, cover all the safety risks. The Software Safety Risk Taxonomy [8] was developed which provides a construct for eliciting and categorizing software safety risks in a straightforward manner. In this paper, we present extended work on the taxonomy for safety that incorporates the additional issues inherent in the development and maintenance of safety-critical systems with software. An instrument called a Software Safety Risk Taxonomy Based Questionnaire (TBQ) is generated containing questions addressing each safety attribute in the Software Safety Risk Taxonomy. Software safety risks are surfaced using the new TBQ and then analyzed. In this paper we give the definitions for the specialized Product Engineering Class within the Software Safety Risk Taxonomy. At the end of the paper, we present the tool known as the 'Legacy Systems Risk Database Tool' that is used to collect and analyze the data required to show traceability to a particular safety standard

  20. The structure of observed learning outcome (SOLO) taxonomy: a model to promote dental students' learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucander, H; Bondemark, L; Brown, G; Knutsson, K

    2010-08-01

    Selective memorising of isolated facts or reproducing what is thought to be required - the surface approach to learning - is not the desired outcome for a dental student or a dentist in practice. The preferred outcome is a deep approach as defined by an intention to seek understanding, develop expertise and relate information and knowledge into a coherent whole. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the structure of observed learning outcome (SOLO) taxonomy could be used as a model to assist and promote the dental students to develop a deep approach to learning assessed as learning outcomes in a summative assessment. Thirty-two students, participating in course eight in 2007 at the Faculty of Odontology at Malmö University, were introduced to the SOLO taxonomy and constituted the test group. The control group consisted of 35 students participating in course eight in 2006. The effect of the introduction was measured by evaluating responses to a question in the summative assessment by using the SOLO taxonomy. The evaluators consisted of two teachers who performed the assessment of learning outcomes independently and separately on the coded material. The SOLO taxonomy as a model for learning was found to improve the quality of learning. Compared to the control group significantly more strings and structured relations between these strings were present in the test group after the SOLO taxonomy had been introduced (P SOLO taxonomy is recommended as a model for promoting and developing a deeper approach to learning in dentistry.

  1. An Optimized Player Taxonomy Model for Mobile MMORPGs with Millions of Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang You

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs have great potential as sites for research within the social and human-computer interaction. In the MMORPGs, a stability player taxonomy model is very important for game design. It helps to balance different types of players and improve business strategy of the game. The players in mobile MMORPGs are also connected with social networks; many studies only use the player's own attributes statistics or questionnaire survey method to predict player taxonomy, so lots of social network relations' information will be lost. In this paper, by analyzing the impacts of player's social network, commercial operating data from mobile MMORPGs is used to establish our player taxonomy model (SN model. From the model results, social network-related information in mobile MMORPGs will be considered as important factors to pose this optimized player taxonomy model. As experimental results showed, compared with another player taxonomy model (RA model, our proposed player taxonomy model can achieve good results: classification is more stable.

  2. Towards the Development of a Taxonomy for Visualisation of Streamed Geospatial Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibolla, B. H.; Van Zyl, T.; Coetzee, S.

    2016-06-01

    Geospatial data has very specific characteristics that need to be carefully captured in its visualisation, in order for the user and the viewer to gain knowledge from it. The science of visualisation has gained much traction over the last decade as a response to various visualisation challenges. During the development of an open source based, dynamic two-dimensional visualisation library, that caters for geospatial streaming data, it was found necessary to conduct a review of existing geospatial visualisation taxonomies. The review was done in order to inform the design phase of the library development, such that either an existing taxonomy can be adopted or extended to fit the needs at hand. The major challenge in this case is to develop dynamic two dimensional visualisations that enable human interaction in order to assist the user to understand the data streams that are continuously being updated. This paper reviews the existing geospatial data visualisation taxonomies that have been developed over the years. Based on the review, an adopted taxonomy for visualisation of geospatial streaming data is presented. Example applications of this taxonomy are also provided. The adopted taxonomy will then be used to develop the information model for the visualisation library in a further study.

  3. Relación entre las capturas de Megapitaria squalida (Bivalvia: Veneridae y la temperatura superficial del mar en la Bahía de la Paz, Baja California Sur, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Vázquez Hurtado

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available La almeja chocolate Megapitaria squalida es un recurso pesquero con creciente importancia en el noroeste de México al registrarse un incremento en los volúmenes de captura. Sin embargo, esta pesquería ha observado variaciones importantes en las capturas que podrían estar relacionadas con factores ambientales. Se obtuvieron datos mensuales de producción de M. squalida durante 2002- 2005 y se estimaron series de tiempo de temperatura superficial del mar en la Bahía de La Paz B.C.S. a partir de imágenes mensuales derivadas del sensor MODIS-Aqua. Los resultados indican una relación positiva significativa entre la temperatura superficial del mar y los volúmenes de captura, razón por la cual nuestro trabajo tiene como objetivo estudiar las relaciones entre capturas de Megapitaria squalida (Bivalvia: Veneridae y la temperatura superficial del mar en La Bahía de la Paz, Baja California Sur, México.Megapitaria squalida (Bivalvia: Veneridae fishery landings and temperature relationship in Bahía de la Paz, México. The clam Megapitaria squalida is a fishing resource with increasing importance in Northwestern Mexico. Nevertheless, this fishery has shown important variations that could be related to environmental factors. To assess this, monthly landings of M. squalida were analyzed during 2002-2005 for Bahía de La Paz, B.C.S., and were related with monthly time series of sea surface temperature, derived from MODIS-Aqua Sensor. The results showed a positive and significant relationship between sea surface temperature and clam landings. The likely impact of anomalous conditions of sea temperature on this resource is discussed. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (1: 151-157. Epub 2011 March 01.

  4. Revisiting the taxonomy of the Rattini tribe: a phylogeny-based delimitation of species boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waengsothorn Surachit

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rodents are recognized as hosts for at least 60 zoonotic diseases and may represent a serious threat for human health. In the context of global environmental changes and increasing mobility of humans and animals, contacts between pathogens and potential animal hosts and vectors are modified, amplifying the risk of disease emergence. An accurate identification of each rodent at a specific level is needed in order to understand their implications in the transmission of diseases. Among the Muridae, the Rattini tribe encompasses 167 species inhabiting South East Asia, a hotspot of both biodiversity and emerging and re-emerging diseases. The region faces growing economical development that affects habitats, biodiversity and health. Rat species have been demonstrated as significant hosts of pathogens but are still difficult to recognize at a specific level using morphological criteria. DNA-barcoding methods appear as accurate tools for rat species identification but their use is hampered by the need of reliable identification of reference specimens. In this study, we explore and highlight the limits of the current taxonomy of the Rattini tribe. Results We used the DNA sequence information itself as the primary information source to establish group membership and estimate putative species boundaries. We sequenced two mitochondrial and one nuclear genes from 122 rat samples to perform phylogenetic reconstructions. The method of Pons and colleagues (2006 that determines, with no prior expectations, the locations of ancestral nodes defining putative species was then applied to our dataset. To give an appropriate name to each cluster recognized as a putative species, we reviewed information from the literature and obtained sequences from a museum holotype specimen following the ancient DNA criteria. Conclusions Using a recently developed methodology, this study succeeds in refining the taxonomy of one of the most difficult groups of

  5. Appraising Pre-service EFL Teachers' Assessment in Language Testing Course Using Revised Bloom's Taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Mohammadi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The teachers need to be conceived as a “change agent” and not as a mere transmitter of knowledge and culture. In developing countries like Iran, one of the most significant concerns in the field of teachers’ education is efficiency of pre-service programs. To this aim, the current descriptive-evaluative study intended to describe the state of pre-service teachers' assessment in the field of language testing by (a examining the exam questions to find out whether they are aligned with curriculum objectives and syllabus (content validity, (b exploring whether they take care of higher order cognitive processes and (c finding what combinations of cognitive process levels and knowledge types in Revised Bloom's Taxonomy are prevalent in the questions. The results exhibited an unbalanced coverage of content in exams. Also the questions were found to be inadequate in terms of measuring complex cognitive skills (Analyze and Evaluate; Remember and Understand domains take up 91.6 % of all questions and no item was found for Create. Three combinations of cognitive process level and knowledge type was dominant in the data set: (1 Remember Factual Knowledge, (2 Understand Conceptual Knowledge, and (3 Apply Procedural Knowledge. These associations confirm the Anderson and Krathwohl's (2001 proposition.

  6. A Survey on the Taxonomy of Cluster-Based Routing Protocols for Homogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeimi, Soroush; Ghafghazi, Hamidreza; Chow, Chee-Onn; Ishii, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    The past few years have witnessed increased interest among researchers in cluster-based protocols for homogeneous networks because of their better scalability and higher energy efficiency than other routing protocols. Given the limited capabilities of sensor nodes in terms of energy resources, processing and communication range, the cluster-based protocols should be compatible with these constraints in either the setup state or steady data transmission state. With focus on these constraints, we classify routing protocols according to their objectives and methods towards addressing the shortcomings of clustering process on each stage of cluster head selection, cluster formation, data aggregation and data communication. We summarize the techniques and methods used in these categories, while the weakness and strength of each protocol is pointed out in details. Furthermore, taxonomy of the protocols in each phase is given to provide a deeper understanding of current clustering approaches. Ultimately based on the existing research, a summary of the issues and solutions of the attributes and characteristics of clustering approaches and some open research areas in cluster-based routing protocols that can be further pursued are provided. PMID:22969350

  7. Multilevel Hierarchy of Economic Space: Formation of Evolutionary Taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniil Petrovich Frolov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers methodological problems of hierarchical structuring of economic space. The evolution survey of multilevel analysis concepts reveals a dominant role of two-level (micro- macro neoclassical models because of the path dependence effect. In institutional and evolutionary theories the application of mesoanalysis and three-level models gradually becomes more active, but conventions in the field of taxonomy are extremely inert. The main methodological problems of a hierarchical taksonomization of economic space include the problem of taxonomical «rupture» of a subject and a method of Economics, the problem of an identification of the level (rank and scale of economic phenomena, the problem of an identification of subjects and business location, the problem of terminological unification. The author›s hierarchical model of economic space is developed in a context of the generalized evolutionary theory on the basis of multilevel population thinking. The model offers differentiation of industrial and territorial (spatial division and cooperation of labour and, more widely, economic activity. Branches and generation are treated as objects of the industrial analysis, population and ecocenosis – objects of the spatial analysis that allows reintegration of spatial formations in the system of economic analysis. The study of mesolevels and interlevel relations is particularly important. Institutionalism can be considered as metanarrative, i.e. one of universal languages of Economics. Scales and ranks of the functions assigned to subjects and objects of transactions define level differentiation of institutions’ forms in economic space

  8. Spinosaur taxonomy and evolution of craniodental features: Evidence from Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos A F Sales

    Full Text Available Fossil sites from Brazil have yielded specimens of spinosaurid theropods, among which the most informative include the cranial remains of Irritator, Angaturama, and Oxalaia. In this work some of their craniodental features are reinterpreted, providing new data for taxonomic and evolutionary issues concerning this particular clade of dinosaurs. The mesial-most tooth of the left maxilla of the holotype of Irritator is regarded as representing the third tooth position, which is also preserved in the holotype of Angaturama. Thus, both specimens cannot belong to the same individual, contrary to previous assumptions, although they could have been the same taxon. In addition, the position of the external nares of Irritator is more comparable to those of Baryonyx and Suchomimus instead of other spinosaurine spinosaurids. In fact, with regards to some craniodental features, Brazilian taxa represent intermediate conditions between Baryonychinae and Spinosaurinae. Such a scenario is corroborated by our cladistic results, which also leave open the possibility of the former subfamily being non-monophyletic. Furthermore, the differences between spinosaurids regarding the position and size of the external nares might be related to distinct feeding habits and degrees of reliance on olfaction. Other issues concerning the evolution and taxonomy of Spinosauridae require descriptions of additional material for their clarification.

  9. Dynamics of market correlations: taxonomy and portfolio analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onnela, J-P; Chakraborti, A; Kaski, K; Kertész, J; Kanto, A

    2003-11-01

    The time dependence of the recently introduced minimum spanning tree description of correlations between stocks, called the "asset tree" has been studied in order to reflect the financial market taxonomy. The nodes of the tree are identified with stocks and the distance between them is a unique function of the corresponding element of the correlation matrix. By using the concept of a central vertex, chosen as the most strongly connected node of the tree, an important characteristic is defined by the mean occupation layer. During crashes, due to the strong global correlation in the market, the tree shrinks topologically, and this is shown by a low value of the mean occupation layer. The tree seems to have a scale-free structure where the scaling exponent of the degree distribution is different for "business as usual" and "crash" periods. The basic structure of the tree topology is very robust with respect to time. We also point out that the diversification aspect of portfolio optimization results in the fact that the assets of the classic Markowitz portfolio are always located on the outer leaves of the tree. Technical aspects such as the window size dependence of the investigated quantities are also discussed.

  10. Shedding subspecies: The influence of genetics on reptile subspecies taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torstrom, Shannon M; Pangle, Kevin L; Swanson, Bradley J

    2014-07-01

    The subspecies concept influences multiple aspects of biology and management. The 'molecular revolution' altered traditional methods (morphological traits) of subspecies classification by applying genetic analyses resulting in alternative or contradictory classifications. We evaluated recent reptile literature for bias in the recommendations regarding subspecies status when genetic data were included. Reviewing characteristics of the study, genetic variables, genetic distance values and noting the species concepts, we found that subspecies were more likely elevated to species when using genetic analysis. However, there was no predictive relationship between variables used and taxonomic recommendation. There was a significant difference between the median genetic distance values when researchers elevated or collapsed a subspecies. Our review found nine different concepts of species used when recommending taxonomic change, and studies incorporating multiple species concepts were more likely to recommend a taxonomic change. Since using genetic techniques significantly alter reptile taxonomy there is a need to establish a standard method to determine the species-subspecies boundary in order to effectively use the subspecies classification for research and conservation purposes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Consumer Preferences for Local Food: Testing an Extended Norm Taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Wenzig

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Consumer attitudes toward consuming and buying locally produced food are well studied. By contrast, the topic of consumer preferences for local food, with a special emphasis on the role of norms, still lacks empirical evidence. To study the influence of norms and morals on the intention to buy local food products, a quantitative study (N = 327 focusing on external social and internalized moral norms was conducted using the constructs of the theory of planned behavior in combination with an extended norm taxonomy and the perceived consumer effectiveness measure. The norm constructs consisted of two different personal norms, integrated and introjected, and two social norms, descriptive and injunctive. In a factor analysis, two factors for social norms but only one for personal norms were obtained. Multiple regressions explained 50 percent of the variance in intentions and 29 percent of the variance in past behavior. Norm constructs were proven important in the model, as personal norms had the largest effect among all constructs on intentions, and descriptive norms strongly influenced past behavior. An additional mediation analysis showed that personal norms were internalized social injunctive norms and that intentions mediated the relationship between all constructs. The implications of the findings and recommendations for future research are given accordingly.

  12. Microstructure taxonomy based on spatial correlations: Application to microstructure coarsening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast, Tony; Wodo, Olga; Ganapathysubramanian, Baskar; Kalidindi, Surya R.

    2016-01-01

    To build materials knowledge, rigorous description of the material structure and associated tools to explore and exploit information encoded in the structure are needed. These enable recognition, categorization and identification of different classes of microstructure and ultimately enable to link structure with properties of materials. Particular interest lies in the protocols capable of mining the essential information in large microstructure datasets and building robust knowledge systems that can be easily accessed, searched, and shared by the broader materials community. In this paper, we develop a protocol based on automated tools to classify microstructure taxonomies in the context of coarsening behavior which is important for long term stability of materials. Our new concepts for enhanced description of the local microstructure state provide flexibility of description. The mathematical description of microstructure that capture crucial attributes of the material, although central to building materials knowledge, is still elusive. The new description captures important higher order spatial information, but at the same time, allows down sampling if less information is needed. We showcase the classification protocol by studying coarsening of binary polymer blends and classifying steady state structures. We study several microstructure descriptions by changing the microstructure local state order and discretization and critically evaluate their efficacy. Our analysis revealed the superior properties of microstructure representation is based on the first order-gradient of the atomic fraction.

  13. Dynamics of market correlations: Taxonomy and portfolio analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onnela, J.-P.; Chakraborti, A.; Kaski, K.; Kertész, J.; Kanto, A.

    2003-11-01

    The time dependence of the recently introduced minimum spanning tree description of correlations between stocks, called the “asset tree” has been studied in order to reflect the financial market taxonomy. The nodes of the tree are identified with stocks and the distance between them is a unique function of the corresponding element of the correlation matrix. By using the concept of a central vertex, chosen as the most strongly connected node of the tree, an important characteristic is defined by the mean occupation layer. During crashes, due to the strong global correlation in the market, the tree shrinks topologically, and this is shown by a low value of the mean occupation layer. The tree seems to have a scale-free structure where the scaling exponent of the degree distribution is different for “business as usual” and “crash” periods. The basic structure of the tree topology is very robust with respect to time. We also point out that the diversification aspect of portfolio optimization results in the fact that the assets of the classic Markowitz portfolio are always located on the outer leaves of the tree. Technical aspects such as the window size dependence of the investigated quantities are also discussed.

  14. Molecular Phylogenetic: Organism Taxonomy Method Based on Evolution History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.L.P Indi Dharmayanti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic is described as taxonomy classification of an organism based on its evolution history namely its phylogeny and as a part of systematic science that has objective to determine phylogeny of organism according to its characteristic. Phylogenetic analysis from amino acid and protein usually became important area in sequence analysis. Phylogenetic analysis can be used to follow the rapid change of a species such as virus. The phylogenetic evolution tree is a two dimensional of a species graphic that shows relationship among organisms or particularly among their gene sequences. The sequence separation are referred as taxa (singular taxon that is defined as phylogenetically distinct units on the tree. The tree consists of outer branches or leaves that represents taxa and nodes and branch represent correlation among taxa. When the nucleotide sequence from two different organism are similar, they were inferred to be descended from common ancestor. There were three methods which were used in phylogenetic, namely (1 Maximum parsimony, (2 Distance, and (3 Maximum likehoood. Those methods generally are applied to construct the evolutionary tree or the best tree for determine sequence variation in group. Every method is usually used for different analysis and data.

  15. Conservation of biodiversity through taxonomy, data publication, and collaborative infrastructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Mark J; Vanhoorne, Bart; Appeltans, Ward

    2015-08-01

    Taxonomy is the foundation of biodiversity science because it furthers discovery of new species. Globally, there have never been so many people involved in naming species new to science. The number of new marine species described per decade has never been greater. Nevertheless, it is estimated that tens of thousands of marine species, and hundreds of thousands of terrestrial species, are yet to be discovered; many of which may already be in specimen collections. However, naming species is only a first step in documenting knowledge about their biology, biogeography, and ecology. Considering the threats to biodiversity, new knowledge of existing species and discovery of undescribed species and their subsequent study are urgently required. To accelerate this research, we recommend, and cite examples of, more and better communication: use of collaborative online databases; easier access to knowledge and specimens; production of taxonomic revisions and species identification guides; engagement of nonspecialists; and international collaboration. "Data-sharing" should be abandoned in favor of mandated data publication by the conservation science community. Such a step requires support from peer reviewers, editors, journals, and conservation organizations. Online data publication infrastructures (e.g., Global Biodiversity Information Facility, Ocean Biogeographic Information System) illustrate gaps in biodiversity sampling and may provide common ground for long-term international collaboration between scientists and conservation organizations. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  16. Governance of Interoperability in Intergovernmental Services - Towards an Empirical Taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Kubicek

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available High quality and comfortable online delivery of governmental services often requires the seamless exchange of data between two or more government agencies. Smooth data exchange, in turn, requires interoperability of the databases and workflows in the agencies involved. Interoperability (IOP is a complex issue covering purely technical aspects such as transmission protocols and data exchange formats, but also content-related semantic aspects such as identifiers and the meaning of codes as well as organizational, contractual or legal issues. Starting from IOP frameworks which provide classifications of what has to be standardized, this paper, based on an ongoing research project, adopts a political and managerial view and tries to clarify the governance of achieving IOP, i.e. where and by whom IOPstandards are developed and established and how they are put into operation. By analyzing 32 cases of successful implementation of IOP in E-Government services within the European Union empirical indicators for different aspects of governance are proposed and applied to develop an empirical taxonomy of different types of IOP governance which can be used for future comparative research regarding success factors, barriers etc.

  17. Revolutionary thoughts on taxonomy: declarations of independence and interdependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin D. Wheeler

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Credible biological research depends on accurate species identifications, reliable scientific names, and an evolutionary context provided by a phylogeny or phylogenetic classification. The emphasis on such taxonomic services has detracted from the fundamental taxonomic research necessary to create and sustain such knowledge systems. A taxonomic declaration of independence is presented, emphasizing the unique mission, goals, and needs of taxonomists and taxonomic (collection-based institutions and the non-experimental yet scientifically rigorous epistemology of taxonomy. At the same time taxonomic interdependence is declared. Questions pursued by taxonomists are planetary in scale and can only be answered given international collaboration and coordination in the growth and development of natural history collections and taxonomic hypotheses. Reciprocity of open access is urged between all nations and the taxonomic community creating information. Countries home to species diversity should allow access to taxon experts so that the world's species are discovered and described. In exchange all specimens collected should be in publicly accessible museums and all resultant taxonomic data, information, and knowledge should be openly available to all who can use them.

  18. Leaf arrangements are invalid in the taxonomy of orchid species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Jakubska-Busse

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The selection and validation of proper distinguishing characters are of crucial importance in taxonomic revisions. The modern classifications of orchids utilize the molecular tools, but still the selection and identification of the material used in these studies is for the most part related to general species morphology. One of the vegetative characters quoted in orchid manuals is leaf arrangement. However, phyllotactic diversity and ontogenetic changeability have not been analysed in detail in reference to particular taxonomic groups. Therefore, we evaluated the usefulness of leaf arrangements in the taxonomy of the genus Epipactis Zinn, 1757. Typical leaf arrangements in shoots of this genus are described as distichous or spiral. However, in the course of field research and screening of herbarium materials, we indisputably disproved the presence of distichous phyllotaxis in the species Epipactis purpurata Sm. and confirmed the spiral Fibonacci pattern as the dominant leaf arrangement. In addition, detailed analyses revealed the presence of atypical decussate phyllotaxis in this species, as well as demonstrated the ontogenetic formation of pseudowhorls. These findings confirm ontogenetic variability and plasticity in E. purpurata. Our results are discussed in the context of their significance in delimitations of complex taxa within the genus Epipactis.

  19. An overview of the taxonomy of Attalea (Arecaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe Pintaud

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Attalea (Arecaceae is distributed in continental habitats of the Neotropical region and in some Caribbean islands. Life forms of Attalea species vary from small acaulescent palms to tall and massive palms, always solitary. The ecological range of the genus encompasses most of the Neotropical ecosystems, from coastal sand dunes to sub-Andean forests up to 1600 m in elevation, lowland wet to dry forests, savannas, swamps, etc. The taxonomy of the genus has been poorly understood due to conflicting genus and species concepts that exist since the last decades. Taxonomical problems have been caused by the lack of adequate material, especially species of large size, loss of many types and difficulties in interpreting hybrids. In this article, I review the most recent taxonomic literature on Attalea. The number of species in Attalea varies from 29 to 67 depending on different authors, with a maximum estimate of 73 species when combining the revised publications. There is a consensus for the validity of 20 species among modern palm taxonomists. The most conflicting species or group of species are discussed in detail as well as the taxonomic significance of some characters such as the pattern of insertion of staminate flowers on rachillae, insertion of pinnae on rachis, and arrangement of fibrous strands in the endocarp.

  20. Conceptual clustering and its relation to numerical taxonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, D.; Langley, P.

    1986-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) methods for machine learning can be viewed as forms of exploratory data analysis, even though they differ markedly from the statistical methods generally connoted by the term. The distinction between methods of machine learning and statistical data analysis is primarily due to differences in the way techniques of each type represent data and structure within data. That is, methods of machine learning are strongly biased toward symbolic (as opposed to numeric) data representations. The authors explore this difference within a limited context, devoting the bulk of our chapter to the explication of conceptual clustering, an extension to the statistically based methods of numerical taxonomy. In conceptual clustering the formation of object cluster is dependent on the quality of 'higher level' characterization, termed concepts, of the clusters. The form of concepts used by existing conceptual clustering systems (sets of necessary and sufficient conditions) is described in some detail. This is followed by descriptions of several conceptual clustering techniques, along with sample output. They conclude with a discussion of how alternative concept representations might enhance the effectiveness of future conceptual clustering systems

  1. Otoliths as an integral part in fossil fish taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Gierl

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Otoliths are small structures in the skull of fishes. They are responsible for hearing and orientation in the 3-dimensional space. They also hold valuable information regarding the taxonomy. Their outline, the shape of the sulcus and other features allow the determination of a fish even to the species level. A lot of fossil species are solely based on otoliths because of their good chance of preservation. Gobies are in this case no different. An additional challenge in gobies is their high similarity between species concerning the preservable parts. Fossil skeletons that are 20 Million years old can show only few differences compared to recent gobies. These features are often hardly recognizable due to their preservation. As a consequence many fossil gobies have been assigned to the genus Gobius sensu lato. Examples are two gobies from the Miocene of Southern Germany. They have a unique combination of characters (six branchiostegals, palatine resembling a “T”, no entopterygoid that allows the rectification of a new fossil genus but the two species are hardly distinguishable based only on the skeleton. The key hints in having two species are the otoliths. They show slight but consistent differences in their outline. This shows that otoliths can be a key feature in species identification. They should also be taken into consideration by recent fish species. Not to mention their possible phylogenetic potential that remains to be explored.

  2. Reexamining organizational configurations: an update, validation, and expansion of the taxonomy of health networks and systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubbs, Nicole L; Bazzoli, Gloria J; Shortell, Stephen M; Kralovec, Peter D

    2004-02-01

    To (a) assess how the original cluster categories of hospital-led health networks and systems have changed over time; (b) identify any new patterns of cluster configurations; and (c) demonstrate how additional data can be used to refine and enhance the taxonomy measures. DATA SOURCES; 1994 and 1998 American Hospital Association (AHA) Annual Survey of Hospitals. As in the original taxonomy, separate cluster solutions are identified for health networks and health systems by applying three strategic/structural dimensions (differentiation, integration, and centralization) to three components of the health service/product continuum (hospital services, physician arrangements, and provider-based insurance activities). Factor, cluster, and discriminant analyses are used to analyze the 1998 data. Descriptive and comparative methods are used to analyze the updated 1998 taxonomy relative to the original 1994 version. The 1998 cluster categories are similar to the original taxonomy, however, they reveal some new organizational configurations. For the health networks, centralization of product/service lines is occurring more selectively than in the past. For the health systems, participation has grown in and dispersed across a more diverse set of decentralized organizational forms. For both networks and systems, the definition of centralization has changed over time. In its updated form, the taxonomy continues to provide policymakers and practitioners with a descriptive and contextual framework against which to assess organizational programs and policies. There is a need to continue to revisit the taxonomy from time to time because of the persistent evolution of the U.S. health care industry and the consequent shifting of organizational configurations in this arena. There is also value in continuing to move the taxonomy in the direction of refinement/expansion as new opportunities become available.

  3. Dynamic taxonomies applied to a web-based relational database for geo-hydrological risk mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, G. M.; Nigrelli, G.; Bosio, A.; Chiarle, M.; Luino, F.

    2012-02-01

    In its 40 years of activity, the Research Institute for Geo-hydrological Protection of the Italian National Research Council has amassed a vast and varied collection of historical documentation on landslides, muddy-debris flows, and floods in northern Italy from 1600 to the present. Since 2008, the archive resources have been maintained through a relational database management system. The database is used for routine study and research purposes as well as for providing support during geo-hydrological emergencies, when data need to be quickly and accurately retrieved. Retrieval speed and accuracy are the main objectives of an implementation based on a dynamic taxonomies model. Dynamic taxonomies are a general knowledge management model for configuring complex, heterogeneous information bases that support exploratory searching. At each stage of the process, the user can explore or browse the database in a guided yet unconstrained way by selecting the alternatives suggested for further refining the search. Dynamic taxonomies have been successfully applied to such diverse and apparently unrelated domains as e-commerce and medical diagnosis. Here, we describe the application of dynamic taxonomies to our database and compare it to traditional relational database query methods. The dynamic taxonomy interface, essentially a point-and-click interface, is considerably faster and less error-prone than traditional form-based query interfaces that require the user to remember and type in the "right" search keywords. Finally, dynamic taxonomy users have confirmed that one of the principal benefits of this approach is the confidence of having considered all the relevant information. Dynamic taxonomies and relational databases work in synergy to provide fast and precise searching: one of the most important factors in timely response to emergencies.

  4. Bioactivity of fungal endophytes as a function of endophyte taxonomy and the taxonomy and distribution of their host plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Higginbotham

    Full Text Available Fungal endophytes--fungi that grow within plant tissues without causing immediate signs of disease--are abundant and diverse producers of bioactive secondary metabolites. Endophytes associated with leaves of tropical plants are an especially exciting and relatively untapped source of novel compounds. However, one major challenge in drug discovery lies in developing strategies to efficiently recover highly bioactive strains. As part of a 15-year drug discovery project, foliar endophytes were isolated from 3198 plant samples (51 orders, 105 families and at least 232 genera of angiosperms and ferns collected in nine geographically distinct regions of Panama. Extracts from culture supernatants of >2700 isolates were tested for bioactivity (in vitro percent inhibition of growth, % IG against a human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7 and the causative agents of malaria, leishmaniasis, and Chagas' disease. Overall, 32.7% of endophyte isolates were highly active in at least one bioassay, including representatives of diverse fungal lineages, host lineages, and collection sites. Up to 17% of isolates tested per assay were highly active. Most bioactive strains were active in only one assay. Fungal lineages differed in the incidence and degree of bioactivity, as did fungi from particular plant taxa, and greater bioactivity was observed in endophytes isolated from plants in cloud forests vs. lowland forests. Our results suggest that using host taxonomy and forest type to tailor plant collections, and selecting endophytes from specific orders or families for cultivation, will markedly increase the efficiency and efficacy of discovering bioactive metabolites for particular pharmaceutical targets.

  5. A taxonomy of nursing care organization models in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Carl-Ardy; D'Amour, Danielle; Tchouaket, Eric; Rivard, Michèle; Clarke, Sean; Blais, Régis

    2012-08-28

    Over the last decades, converging forces in hospital care, including cost-containment policies, rising healthcare demands and nursing shortages, have driven the search for new operational models of nursing care delivery that maximize the use of available nursing resources while ensuring safe, high-quality care. Little is known, however, about the distinctive features of these emergent nursing care models. This article contributes to filling this gap by presenting a theoretically and empirically grounded taxonomy of nursing care organization models in the context of acute care units in Quebec and comparing their distinctive features. This study was based on a survey of 22 medical units in 11 acute care facilities in Quebec. Data collection methods included questionnaire, interviews, focus groups and administrative data census. The analytical procedures consisted of first generating unit profiles based on qualitative and quantitative data collected at the unit level, then applying hierarchical cluster analysis to the units' profile data. The study identified four models of nursing care organization: two professional models that draw mainly on registered nurses as professionals to deliver nursing services and reflect stronger support to nurses' professional practice, and two functional models that draw more significantly on licensed practical nurses (LPNs) and assistive staff (orderlies) to deliver nursing services and are characterized by registered nurses' perceptions that the practice environment is less supportive of their professional work. This study showed that medical units in acute care hospitals exhibit diverse staff mixes, patterns of skill use, work environment design, and support for innovation. The four models reflect not only distinct approaches to dealing with the numerous constraints in the nursing care environment, but also different degrees of approximations to an "ideal" nursing professional practice model described by some leaders in the

  6. Genome-Based Microbial Taxonomy Coming of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugenholtz, Philip; Skarshewski, Adam; Parks, Donovan H

    2016-06-01

    Reconstructing the complete evolutionary history of extant life on our planet will be one of the most fundamental accomplishments of scientific endeavor, akin to the completion of the periodic table, which revolutionized chemistry. The road to this goal is via comparative genomics because genomes are our most comprehensive and objective evolutionary documents. The genomes of plant and animal species have been systematically targeted over the past decade to provide coverage of the tree of life. However, multicellular organisms only emerged in the last 550 million years of more than three billion years of biological evolution and thus comprise a small fraction of total biological diversity. The bulk of biodiversity, both past and present, is microbial. We have only scratched the surface in our understanding of the microbial world, as most microorganisms cannot be readily grown in the laboratory and remain unknown to science. Ground-breaking, culture-independent molecular techniques developed over the past 30 years have opened the door to this so-called microbial dark matter with an accelerating momentum driven by exponential increases in sequencing capacity. We are on the verge of obtaining representative genomes across all life for the first time. However, historical use of morphology, biochemical properties, behavioral traits, and single-marker genes to infer organismal relationships mean that the existing highly incomplete tree is riddled with taxonomic errors. Concerted efforts are now needed to synthesize and integrate the burgeoning genomic data resources into a coherent universal tree of life and genome-based taxonomy. Copyright © 2016 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  7. A taxonomy of nursing care organization models in hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Over the last decades, converging forces in hospital care, including cost-containment policies, rising healthcare demands and nursing shortages, have driven the search for new operational models of nursing care delivery that maximize the use of available nursing resources while ensuring safe, high-quality care. Little is known, however, about the distinctive features of these emergent nursing care models. This article contributes to filling this gap by presenting a theoretically and empirically grounded taxonomy of nursing care organization models in the context of acute care units in Quebec and comparing their distinctive features. Methods This study was based on a survey of 22 medical units in 11 acute care facilities in Quebec. Data collection methods included questionnaire, interviews, focus groups and administrative data census. The analytical procedures consisted of first generating unit profiles based on qualitative and quantitative data collected at the unit level, then applying hierarchical cluster analysis to the units’ profile data. Results The study identified four models of nursing care organization: two professional models that draw mainly on registered nurses as professionals to deliver nursing services and reflect stronger support to nurses’ professional practice, and two functional models that draw more significantly on licensed practical nurses (LPNs) and assistive staff (orderlies) to deliver nursing services and are characterized by registered nurses’ perceptions that the practice environment is less supportive of their professional work. Conclusions This study showed that medical units in acute care hospitals exhibit diverse staff mixes, patterns of skill use, work environment design, and support for innovation. The four models reflect not only distinct approaches to dealing with the numerous constraints in the nursing care environment, but also different degrees of approximations to an “ideal” nursing professional practice

  8. Toward a Novel Multilocus Phylogenetic Taxonomy for the Dermatophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hoog, G Sybren; Dukik, Karolina; Monod, Michel; Packeu, Ann; Stubbe, Dirk; Hendrickx, Marijke; Kupsch, Christiane; Stielow, J Benjamin; Freeke, Joanna; Göker, Markus; Rezaei-Matehkolaei, Ali; Mirhendi, Hossein; Gräser, Yvonne

    2017-02-01

    Type and reference strains of members of the onygenalean family Arthrodermataceae have been sequenced for rDNA ITS and partial LSU, the ribosomal 60S protein, and fragments of β-tubulin and translation elongation factor 3. The resulting phylogenetic trees showed a large degree of correspondence, and topologies matched those of earlier published phylogenies demonstrating that the phylogenetic representation of dermatophytes and dermatophyte-like fungi has reached an acceptable level of stability. All trees showed Trichophyton to be polyphyletic. In the present paper, Trichophyton is restricted to mainly the derived clade, resulting in classification of nearly all anthropophilic dermatophytes in Trichophyton and Epidermophyton, along with some zoophilic species that regularly infect humans. Microsporum is restricted to some species around M. canis, while the geophilic species and zoophilic species that are more remote from the human sphere are divided over Arthroderma, Lophophyton and Nannizzia. A new genus Guarromyces is proposed for Keratinomyces ceretanicus. Thirteen new combinations are proposed; in an overview of all described species it is noted that the largest number of novelties was introduced during the decades 1920-1940, when morphological characters were used in addition to clinical features. Species are neo- or epi-typified where necessary, which was the case in Arthroderma curreyi, Epidermophyton floccosum, Lophophyton gallinae, Trichophyton equinum, T. mentagrophytes, T. quinckeanum, T. schoenleinii, T. soudanense, and T. verrucosum. In the newly proposed taxonomy, Trichophyton contains 16 species, Epidermophyton one species, Nannizzia 9 species, Microsporum 3 species, Lophophyton 1 species, Arthroderma 21 species and Ctenomyces 1 species, but more detailed studies remain needed to establish species borderlines. Each species now has a single valid name. Two new genera are introduced: Guarromyces and Paraphyton. The number of genera has increased, but

  9. Nuclear and original DNA application in Oryza taxonomy and phylogeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, Gabriel O.

    1998-01-01

    Conventional taxonomy and phylogeny of germplasm are based on the tedious characterization of morphological variation. The ability to assay DNA variation that underlies morphological variation offers great promise as a convenient alternative for the genetic characterization of germplasm. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) was used to survey DNA variation in 22 species of the genus Oryza. At the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) multigene family, 15 rDNA spacer length (sl) variants were identified using restriction enzyme Sst1 and wheatrDNA unit as probe. Particular sl variants predominated in certain isozyme groups of O. sativa, indicating a potential of sl ploymorphism in varietal classification. The distribution of sl variants supports the origin of O. sativa and O. nivara from O. rufipogon, and that O. spontanea arose from introgressions among O. sativa, O. nivara, and O. rufipogon. The distribution also suggests that the CCgenome, of all the genomes in the Officinalis complex, may be closest to the Sativa complex genomes, and it affirms the genetic position of the Officinalis complex intermediate between the Sativa and Ridleyi complexes. Variation at the Oryza organelle genomes was probed with a maize mitochondrial gene, atpA, a wheat chloroplast inverted repeat segment, p6. Results indicated that the complexes can be differentiated by their mitochondrial genome, but not their chloroplast genome when digested by Sst1 or BamH1. Therefore, the natural DNA variation in the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes has demonstrated great potential in complementing the conventional basis of taxa classification and phylogeny in the genus Oryza. (Author)

  10. Systematic comparative content analysis of 17 psychosocial work environment questionnaires using a new taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kop, Jean-Luc; Althaus, Virginie; Formet-Robert, Nadja; Grosjean, Vincent

    2016-04-01

    Many questionnaires have been developed to measure how psychosocial characteristics are perceived in a work environment. But the content validity of these questionnaires has rarely been questioned due to the absence of a reference taxonomy for characteristics of work environments. To propose an exhaustive taxonomy of work environment characteristics involved in psychosocial risks and to apply this taxonomy to questionnaires on workplace psychosocial factors. The taxonomy was developed by categorizing factors present in the main theoretical models of the field. Questionnaire items most frequently cited in scientific literature were retained for classification. The taxonomy was structured into four hierarchical levels and comprises 53 categories. The 17 questionnaires analyzed included 927 items: 59 from the "physical environment" category, 116 from the "social environment" category, 236 from the "work activity" category, 255 from the "activity management" category, and 174 from the "organizational context" category. There are major content differences among analyzed questionnaires. This study offers a means for selecting a scale on the basis of content.

  11. Implementation of a novel taxonomy based on cognitive work analysis in the assessment of safety performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niskanen, Toivo

    2017-12-12

    The aim of this study was to examine how the developed taxonomy of cognitive work analysis (CWA) can be applied in combination with statistical analysis regarding different sociotechnical categories. This study applied a combination of quantitative and qualitative methodologies. Workers (n = 120) and managers (n = 85) in the chemical industry were asked in a questionnaire how different occupational safety and health (OSH) measures were being implemented. The exploration of the qualitative CWA taxonomy consisted of an analysis of the following topics: (a) work domain; (b) control task; (c) strategies; (d) social organization and cooperation; (e) worker competencies. The following hypotheses were supported - activities of the management had positive impacts on the aggregated variables: near-accident investigation and instructions (H 1 ); OSH training (H 2 ); operations, technical processes and safe use of chemicals (H 3 ); use of personal protective equipment (H 4 ); measuring, follow-up and prevention of major accidents (H 5 ). The CWA taxonomy was applied in mixed methods when testing H 1 -H 5 . A special approach is to analyze the work demands of complex sociotechnical systems with the taxonomy of CWA. In problem-solving, the CWA taxonomy should seek to capitalize on the strengths and minimize the limitations of safety performance.

  12. Abstraction of complex concepts with a refined partial-area taxonomy of SNOMED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Halper, Michael; Wei, Duo; Perl, Yehoshua; Geller, James

    2012-01-01

    An algorithmically-derived abstraction network, called the partial-area taxonomy, for a SNOMED hierarchy has led to the identification of concepts considered complex. The designation “complex” is arrived at automatically on the basis of structural analyses of overlap among the constituent concept groups of the partial-area taxonomy. Such complex concepts, called overlapping concepts, constitute a tangled portion of a hierarchy and can be obstacles to users trying to gain an understanding of the hierarchy’s content. A new methodology for partitioning the entire collection of overlapping concepts into singly-rooted groups, that are more manageable to work with and comprehend, is presented. Different kinds of overlapping concepts with varying degrees of complexity are identified. This leads to an abstract model of the overlapping concepts called the disjoint partial-area taxonomy, which serves as a vehicle for enhanced, high-level display. The methodology is demonstrated with an application to SNOMED’s Specimen hierarchy. Overall, the resulting disjoint partial-area taxonomy offers a refined view of the hierarchy’s structural organization and conceptual content that can aid users, such as maintenance personnel, working with SNOMED. The utility of the disjoint partial-area taxonomy as the basis for a SNOMED auditing regimen is presented in a companion paper. PMID:21878396

  13. ORION-VIRCAT: a tool for mapping ICTV and NCBI taxonomies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivia-Granda, Willy; Larson, Francis

    2009-01-01

    Viruses, viroids and prions are the smallest infectious biological entities that depend on their host for replication. The number of pathogenic viruses is considerably large and their impact in human global health is well documented. Currently, the International Committee on the Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) has classified approximately 4379 virus species while the National Center for Biotechnology Information Viral Genomes Resource (NCBI-VGR) database has mapped 617 705 proteins to eight large taxonomic groups. Despite these efforts, an automated approach for mapping the ICTV master list and its officially accepted virus naming to the NCBI-VGR's taxonomical classification is not available. Due to metagenomic sequencing, it is likely that the discovery and naming of new viral species will increase by at least ten fold. Unfortunately, existing viral databases are not adequately prepared to scale, maintain and annotate automatically ultra-high throughput sequences and place this information into specific taxonomic categories. ORION-VIRCAT is a scalable and interoperable object-relational database designed to serve as a resource for the integration and verification of taxonomical classifications generated by the ICTV and NCBI-VGR. The current release (v1.0) of ORION-VIRCAT is implemented in PostgreSQL and it has been extended to ORACLE, MySQL and SyBase. ORION-VIRCAT automatically mapped and joined 617 705 entries from the NCBI-VGR to the viral naming of the ICTV. This detailed analysis revealed that 399 095 entries from the NCBI-VGR can be mapped to the ICTV classification and that one Order, 10 families, 35 genera and 503 species listed in the ICTV disagree with the the NCBI-VGR classification schema. Nevertheless, we were eable to correct several discrepancies mapping 234 000 additional entries.Database URL:http://www.orionbiosciences.com/research/orion-vircat.html.

  14. Taxonomies of Cyber Adversaries and Attacks: A Survey of Incidents and Approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, C A; Powers, S S; Faissol, D M

    2009-10-08

    In this paper we construct taxonomies of cyber adversaries and methods of attack, drawing from a survey of the literature in the area of cyber crime. We begin by addressing the scope of cyber crime, noting its prevalence and effects on the US economy. We then survey the literature on cyber adversaries, presenting a taxonomy of the different types of adversaries and their corresponding methods, motivations, maliciousness, and skill levels. Subsequently we survey the literature on cyber attacks, giving a taxonomy of the different classes of attacks, subtypes, and threat descriptions. The goal of this paper is to inform future studies of cyber security on the shape and characteristics of the risk space and its associated adversaries.

  15. A new taxonomy for stakeholder engagement in patient-centered outcomes research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concannon, Thomas W; Meissner, Paul; Grunbaum, Jo Anne; McElwee, Newell; Guise, Jeanne-Marie; Santa, John; Conway, Patrick H; Daudelin, Denise; Morrato, Elaine H; Leslie, Laurel K

    2012-08-01

    Despite widespread agreement that stakeholder engagement is needed in patient-centered outcomes research (PCOR), no taxonomy exists to guide researchers and policy makers on how to address this need. We followed an iterative process, including several stages of stakeholder review, to address three questions: (1) Who are the stakeholders in PCOR? (2) What roles and responsibilities can stakeholders have in PCOR? (3) How can researchers start engaging stakeholders? We introduce a flexible taxonomy called the 7Ps of Stakeholder Engagement and Six Stages of Research for identifying stakeholders and developing engagement strategies across the full spectrum of research activities. The path toward engagement will not be uniform across every research program, but this taxonomy offers a common starting point and a flexible approach.

  16. The Bootstrap, the Jackknife, and the Randomization Test: A Sampling Taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, J L

    1999-10-01

    A simple sampling taxonomy is defined that shows the differences between and relationships among the bootstrap, the jackknife, and the randomization test. Each method has as its goal the creation of an empirical sampling distribution that can be used to test statistical hypotheses, estimate standard errors, and/or create confidence intervals. Distinctions between the methods can be made based on the sampling approach (with replacement versus without replacement) and the sample size (replacing the whole original sample versus replacing a subset of the original sample). The taxonomy is useful for teaching the goals and purposes of resampling schemes. An extension of the taxonomy implies other possible resampling approaches that have not previously been considered. Univariate and multivariate examples are presented.

  17. Values in a Cross-Cultural Triangle : A Comparison of Value Taxonomies in the Netherlands, Austria, and Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Raad, Boele; Morales-Vives, Fabia; Barelds, Dick P.H.; Van Oudenhoven, Jan Pieter; Walter, Renner; Timmerman, Marieke E.

    This study aimed at finding the kernel structure common to three different value taxonomies in European languages (Dutch with 641 values and 634 participants, Austrian with 496 values and 456 participants, and Spanish with 566 values and 532 participants). Values from those three taxonomies were

  18. A human error taxonomy for analysing healthcare incident reports: assessing reporting culture and its effects on safety perfomance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Itoh, Kenji; Omata, N.; Andersen, Henning Boje

    2009-01-01

    The present paper reports on a human error taxonomy system developed for healthcare risk management and on its application to evaluating safety performance and reporting culture. The taxonomy comprises dimensions for classifying errors, for performance-shaping factors, and for the maturity...

  19. On the conversion of functional models : Bridging differences between functional taxonomies in the modeling of user actions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Eck, D.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, I discuss a methodology for the conversion of functional models between functional taxonomies developed by Kitamura et al. (2007) and Ookubo et al. (2007). They apply their methodology to the conversion of functional models described in terms of the Functional Basis taxonomy into

  20. Psychological Benefits of Leisure Participation: A Taxonomy of Leisure Activities Based on Their Need-Gratifying Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinsley, Howard E. A.; Eldredge, Barbara D.

    1995-01-01

    Proposes a needs-based taxonomy of leisure activities. Study participants (n=3,771) indicated the extent to which leisure activities met different psychological needs. Results support theories that leisure experiences affect individuals' physical and mental health. Provides a taxonomy of 12 leisure activity clusters so as to allow greater…

  1. Variación estacional de la composición proximal del mejillón Tagelus peruvianus (Bivalvia: Solecurtidae del Golfo de Nicoya, Puntarenas, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Fonseca Rodríguez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La extracción del mejillón Tagelus peruvianus representa una actividad económica complementaria de los pescadores artesanales, es una de las especies de mayor pesca y consumo ya que son una fuente importante de proteína, minerales y vitaminas esenciales para la población humana. Por lo tanto, se estudió la variación estacional de su composición proximal, índice de condición y contenido energético. Mensualmente, entre noviembre de 2007 y octubre de 2008, se recolectaron de 35 a 40 especímenes. La composición proximal se determinó siguiendo la metodología recomendada por la AOAC. Los resultados mostraron que el índice de condición disminuyó en los meses de diciembre, enero y mayo, lo que indica que hay dos periodos de desove y una fase de reposo gonadal. El componente principal del mejillón es la proteína (61.9±4.3%, seguido de carbohidratos (15.7±2.4%, cenizas (14.0±1.9% y lípidos (8.5±1.7%. El contenido calórico promedio fue de 5.0±0.1kcal/g. La disminución en los valores de proteínas, lípidos y calorías coinciden con los periodos de desove. Se puede concluir que T. peruvianus presenta valores nutricionales óptimos para el consumo humano, por su bajo contenido de grasa y su aceptable contenido proteico.Seasonal variation in proximate composition of mussels Tagelus peruvianus (Bivalvia: Solecurtidae from the Gulf of Nicoya, Puntarenas, Costa Rica. Marine bivalves are a very important food source for human consumption, and species that has not been of traditional use as a fishery resource are gaining interest. Seasonal variation in proximate composition, condition index and energy or caloric content of the mussel Tagelus peruvianus were studied in the Gulf of Nicoya, Puntarenas, Costa Rica. From November 2007 to October 2008, a total of 35 to 40 specimens per month were collected. The proximate composition using the AOAC methods was determined. Results showed that the condition index during December, January and May

  2. Efecto de bacterias probióticas en el cultivo larvario del ostión de placer Crassostrea corteziensis (Bivalvia: Ostreidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Isidro Campa-Córdova

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available El ostión de placer u ostra del Cortés (Crassostrea corteziensis se considera como una especie con potencial para ser cultivada en gran escala. Sin embargo, al igual que en otros bivalvos, la alta mortalidad que se presenta durante la etapa larvaria y juvenil, es el principal problema que limita el desarrollo del cultivo en el laboratorio. Un método que está ganando aceptación en la acuicultura es el uso de bacterias probióticas para controlar patógenos microbianos. Este estudio analiza el efecto de estas bacterias en la supervivencia y talla final de larvas de ostión de placer Crassostrea corteziensis. Se utilizó una cepa de bacterias ácido lácticas (cepa NS61 aisladas N. subnodosus, así como de bacilos aislados de L. vannamei (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, cepa YC58 y de C. corteziensis (Burkholderia cepacia, cepa Y021. Las cepas se evaluaron por inmersión en cultivos larvarios de C. corteziensis a dos concentraciones diferentes, hasta completar el estadio pediveliger. Los organismos se trataron con bacterias ácido lácticas (Lb, una mezcla de bacilos (Lb en proporción 1:1 y un grupo control. La concentración de 1x10(4UFC/ml registró una mayor supervivencia con Lb y Mb respecto al grupo control. La supervivencia con Mb a una concentración de 1x10(5UFC/ml fue mayor que la del grupo control y del grupo tratado con Lb. Los resultados mostraron que las larvas de C. corteziensis tratadas con probióticos no incrementaron significativamente su talla respecto a las larvas del grupo control. Mientras que las tratadas con Lb a la concentración mayor, 1x10(5UFC/ml, mostraron una disminución de la supervivencia respecto a las tratadas con 1x10(4UFC/ml. Este estudio demostró el efecto benéfico de cepas probióticas utilizadas individualmente o en mezcla en el cultivo larvario de C. corteziensis.Effect of probiotic bacteria on survival and growth of Cortez oyster larvae, Crassostrea corteziensis (Bivalvia: Ostreidae. Disease control

  3. PRE-SERVICE MATHEMATICS TEACHERS’ CONCEPTION OF HIGHER-ORDER THINKING LEVEL IN BLOOM'S TAXONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    Damianus D Samo

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore pre-service mathematics teachers' conception of higher-order thinking in Bloom's Taxonomy, to explore pre-service mathematics teachers' ability in categorizing six cognitive levels of Bloom's Taxonomy as lower-order thinking and higher-order thinking, and pre-service mathematics teachers' ability in identifying some questionable items as lower-order and higher-order thinking. The higher-order thinking is the type of non-algorithm thinking which include ...

  4. The role of enterprise systems in supply chain networks: a taxonomy of supply chain strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Charles

    2006-01-01

    in the supply chain and to choose the right supply chain strategy. The work is based on a comprehensive study of the Supply Chain Management (SCM) and Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) literature and the study suggests that there is an emerging new research potential for Enterprise Systems (ES) in the supply......This paper proposes a taxonomy for supply chain integration strategies. The taxonomy is based on the contingencies of supply chain network coupling and the Extended Enterprise Systems (EES) architecture in the supply chain. The purpose of this model is to map the portfolio of relations...

  5. A Taxonomy for Modeling Flexibility and a Computationally Efficient Algorithm for Dispatch in Smart Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mette Højgaard; Edlund, Kristian; Hansen, Lars Henrik

    2013-01-01

    The word flexibility is central to Smart Grid literature, but still a formal definition of flexibility is pending. This paper present a taxonomy for flexibility modeling denoted Buckets, Batteries and Bakeries. We consider a direct control Virtual Power Plant (VPP), which is given the task...... of servicing a portfolio of flexible consumers by use of a fluctuating power supply. Based on the developed taxonomy we first prove that no causal optimal dispatch strategies exist for the considered problem. We then present two heuristic algorithms for solving the balancing task: Predictive Balancing...

  6. An updated taxonomy for characterizing hackers according to their threat properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Sara Ligaard; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to give an up-to-date terminology for and categorization of hackers on the Internet, and to characterize each category of hackers by their threat properties. To be able to prioritize defense efforts, security experts need an accurate taxonomy of attackers...... for the production of detailed and precise threat assessments. We take an existing taxonomy for hackers and update it to correspond to the terminology used by hackers and security experts. Also, the categories of hackers are updated to reflect the threat properties demonstrated in recent attacks, and each category...

  7. A taxonomy of epithelial human cancer and their metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Moor Bart

    2009-12-01

    . Moreover, a signature was developed based on our unsupervised clustering of breast tumors and this was predictive for disease-specific survival in three independent studies. Next, the metastases from ovarian, breast, lung and vulva cluster with their tissue of origin while metastases from colon showed a bimodal distribution. A significant part clusters with tissue of origin while the remaining tumors cluster with the tissue of destination. Conclusion Our molecular taxonomy of epithelial human cancer indicates surprising correlations over tissues. This may have a significant impact on the classification of many cancer sites and may guide pathologists, both in research and daily practice. Moreover, these results based on unsupervised analysis yielded a signature predictive of clinical outcome in breast cancer. Additionally, we hypothesize that metastases from gastrointestinal origin either remember their tissue of origin or adapt to the tissue of destination. More specifically, colon metastases in the liver show strong evidence for such a bimodal tissue specific profile.

  8. A tripartite taxonomy of character: Evidence for intrapersonal, interpersonal, and intellectual competencies in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Daeun; Tsukayama, Eli; Goodwin, Geoffrey P; Patrick, Sarah; Duckworth, Angela L

    2017-01-01

    Other than cognitive ability, what competencies should schools promote in children? How are they organized, and to what extent do they predict consequential outcomes? Separate theoretical traditions have suggested interpersonal, intrapersonal, and intellectual dimensions, reflecting how children relate to other people, manage their own goals and impulses, and engage with ideas, respectively. However, very little work has examined character empirically. In the current investigation, we partnered with middle schools that had previously identified character strengths relevant in their communities. Across three longitudinal, prospective studies, we examined the factor structure of character, associations with intelligence and Big Five personality traits, and predictive validity for consequential outcomes like peer relations, class participation, and report card grades. In Study 1, teachers rated their students on behaviors exemplifying character strengths as they played out in students' daily lives. Exploratory factor analyses yielded a three-factor structure consisting of interpersonal (interpersonal self-control, gratitude, social intelligence), intellectual (zest, curiosity), and intrapersonal (academic self-control, grit) factors of character. In Study 2, children rated their own behavior and completed a test of cognitive ability. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the same three-factor structure, and these factors were only weakly associated with cognitive ability. In Study 3, teachers provided character ratings; in parallel, students completed measures of character as well as Big Five personality factors. As expected, intellectual, interpersonal, and intrapersonal character factors related to Big Five openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness, respectively. Across studies, positive peer relations were most consistently predicted by interpersonal character, class participation by intellectual character, and report card grades by

  9. Seasonal variation in larval density of Limnoperna fortunei (Bivalvia, Mytilidae in the Iguaçu and Paraná rivers, in the region of Foz do Iguaçu, Paraná, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Pestana

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The larval density of the invasive mussel Limnoperna fortunei (Bivalvia, Mytilidae was monitored from January 2005 to February 2006 at two points along the Paraná and the Iguaçu Rivers, near Foz do Iguaçu, PR, Brazil. The results indicated two density peaks in the Paraná River: a lower peak between March and June and a higher peak in October. In the Iguaçu River, the values were much lower, yet they also showed a peak between September and October. A reduction in the reproductive activity was observed in both the rivers between July and August. The average larval density at the collection point in the Paraná reached 948.5 larvae/m³, with a peak of 2,999.5 larvae/m³ in October. The present study represented the first quantification of the larval density of L. fortunei in the lower reaches of the Iguaçu River, downstream of the Iguaçu falls.A densidade larval do molusco invasor Limnoperna fortunei (Bivalvia, Mytilidae foi monitorada entre janeiro de 2005 e fevereiro de 2006 em dois pontos dos rios Paraná e Iguaçu, na região de Foz do Iguaçu, PR. Os resultados registraram dois picos de densidade no rio Paraná: entre março e junho e um maior em outubro. No rio Iguaçu, os valores foram muito inferiores, mas também com um pico entre setembro-outubro. Em ambos os rios foi verificada uma pausa reprodutiva entre os meses de julho-agosto. A densidade média de larvas de L. fortunei no ponto amostrado no rio Paraná chegou a 948.5 larvas/m³, com pico de 2.999,5 larvas/m³ em outubro. O presente estudo representa a primeira quantificação da densidade larval de L. fortunei no rio Iguaçu, a jusante das Cataratas do Iguaçu.

  10. Social Search: A Taxonomy of, and a User-Centred Approach to, Social Web Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Michael; Shiri, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to introduce the notion of social search as a new concept, drawing upon the patterns of web search behaviour. It aims to: define social search; present a taxonomy of social search; and propose a user-centred social search method. Design/methodology/approach: A mixed method approach was adopted to investigate…

  11. Revised Bloom's Taxonomy and Integral Calculus: Unpacking the Knowledge Dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radmehr, Farzad; Drake, Michael

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the knowledge dimension for Revised Bloom's taxonomy (RBT) is unpacked for integral calculus. As part of this work, the 11 subtypes of the knowledge dimension are introduced, and through document analysis of chapter 4 of the RBT handbook, these subtypes are defined. Then, by consulting materials frequently used for teaching integral…

  12. Tiselius’ Potamogeton exsiccates: changes in taxonomy and nomenclature from one-century perspective

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaplan, Zdeněk

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 5 (2010), s. 373-393 ISSN 0003-3847 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0291 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : taxonomy * nomenclature * typifications Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.510, year: 2010

  13. Taxonomy of Strategic Games with Information Leaks and Corruption of Simultaneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriu Ungureanu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We consider pseudo-simultaneous normal form games - strategic games with rules violated by information leaks and simultaneity corruption. We provide classification and construction of a game taxonomy based on applicable solution principles. Existence conditions are highlighted, formulated and analysed.

  14. Charophytes (Characeae, Charophyta) in the Czech Republic: taxonomy, autecology and distribution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Caisová, Lenka; Gabka, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 1 (2009), s. 1-43 ISSN 1802-5439 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0697 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Charophytes * distribution * taxonomy Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.762, year: 2009

  15. Taxonomy of Conflict Detection and Resolution Approaches for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle in an Integrated Airspace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenie, Y.I.; van Kampen, E.; Ellerbroek, J.; Hoekstra, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a taxonomy of Conflict Detection and Resolution (CD&R) approaches for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) operation in an integrated airspace. Possible approaches for UAVs are surveyed and broken down based on their types of surveillance, coordination, maneuver, and autonomy. The

  16. Capacity for DNA-barcode based taxonomy in support of Great Lakes biological monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enumerating organisms collected via nets and sediment grabs is a mainstay of aquatic ecology. Since morphological taxonomy can require considerable resources and expertise, DNA barcode-based identification of mixed-organism samples offers a valuable tool in support of biological...

  17. Postacute Stroke Rehabilitation Utilization: Are There Differences between Rural-Urban Patients and Taxonomies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Huanguang; Cowper, Diane C.; Tang, Yuhong; Litt, Eric; Wilson, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the association between Veterans Affairs (VA) stroke patients' poststroke rehabilitation utilization and their residential settings by using 2 common rural-urban taxonomies. Methods: This retrospective study included all VA stroke inpatients in 2001 and 2002. Rehabilitation utilization referred to rehabilitation therapy received…

  18. Taxonomy of Trauma Leadership Skills: A Framework for Leadership Training and Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenstra, Nico F; Jung, Oliver C; Johnson, Addie; Wendt, Klaus W; Tulleken, Jaap E

    2016-02-01

    Good leadership is essential for optimal trauma team performance, and targeted training of leadership skills is necessary to achieve such leadership proficiency. To address the need for a taxonomy of leadership skills that specifies the skill components to be learned and the behaviors by which they can be assessed across the five phases of trauma care, the authors developed the Taxonomy of Trauma Leadership Skills (TTLS). Critical incident interviews were conducted with trauma team leaders and members from different specialties-emergency physicians, trauma surgeons, anesthesiologists, and emergency ward nurses-at three teaching hospitals in the Netherlands during January-June 2013. Data were iteratively analyzed for examples of excellent leadership skills at each phase of trauma care. Using the grounded theory approach, elements of excellent leadership skills were identified and classified. Elements and behavioral markers were sorted and categorized using multiple raters. In a two-round verification process in late 2013, the taxonomy was reviewed and rated by trauma team leaders and members from the multiple specialties for its coverage of essential items. Data were gathered from 28 interviews and 14 raters. The TTLS details 5 skill categories (information coordination, decision making, action coordination, communication management, and coaching and team development) and 37 skill elements. The skill elements are captured by 67 behavioral markers. The three-level taxonomy is presented according to five phases of trauma care. The TTLS provides a framework for teaching, learning, and assessing team leadership skills in trauma care and other complex, acute care situations.

  19. .i.Aspergillus viridinutans./i. complex: polyphasic taxonomy, mating behaviour and antifungal susceptibility testing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dudová, Z.; Hubka, V.; Svobodová, L.; Hamal, P.; Nováková, Alena; Matsuzawa, T.; Yaguchi, T.; Kubátová, A.; Kolařík, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 56, Suppl. 3 (2013), s. 162-163 ISSN 0933-7407. [Trends in Medical Mycology /6./. 11.10.2013-14.10.2013, Copenhagen] Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : Aspergillus viridinutans * polyphasic taxonomy * mating behaviour * antifungal susceptibility testing Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  20. Notes on the taxonomy and ecology of the genus Hoya (Asclepiadaceae) in Central Sulawesi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijn, David; Donkelaar, van Ruurd

    2001-01-01

    The taxonomy and ecology of the genus Hoya R.Br, are unclear, especially in the core area of its distribution: Sumatra, Borneo, Sulawesi and Irian Jaya. This paper summarises the available information on the ecology of Hoya species, and describes eight species from central Sulawesi. An important

  1. Effect of Multiple Intelligence Theory Practice on Student Success by Bloom's Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzunoz, Abdulkadir

    2011-01-01

    In this study, it is aimed to determine the effects of the "Multiple Intelligence Theory" on the retention and achievement of the students according to Bloom Taxonomy. This study is a research as an experimental model. Research in academic year of 2008/2009 in Foca Izmir Lesbos Reha Country High School 9 Class is conducted on students.…

  2. Culture, Leadership, and Activism: Translating Fink's Taxonomy of Significant Learning into Pedagogical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Toby S.

    2016-01-01

    Through the article, I share the theoretical foundations, structure, knowledge acquisition, and outcomes of a cultural leadership course. The process for course development integrates several theories and research methods into practice: L. Dee Fink's Taxonomy of Significant Learning, Feminist Theory, Critical Race Theory, and…

  3. Transforming Taxonomies into Rubrics: Using SOLO in Social Science and Inclusive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rembach, Lauren; Dison, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Designing assessment rubrics has become an important pedagogical practice for lecturers in the Wits School of Education (WsoE) in the recognition of writing as a valuable tool for teaching and learning across disciplines. This paper describes and reflects on the process of adapting the SOLO taxonomy (Structure of Observed Learning Outcomes)…

  4. Assessing Quality of Data Standards: Framework and Illustration Using XBRL GAAP Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongwei; Wu, Harris

    The primary purpose of data standards or metadata schemas is to improve the interoperability of data created by multiple standard users. Given the high cost of developing data standards, it is desirable to assess the quality of data standards. We develop a set of metrics and a framework for assessing data standard quality. The metrics include completeness and relevancy. Standard quality can also be indirectly measured by assessing interoperability of data instances. We evaluate the framework using data from the financial sector: the XBRL (eXtensible Business Reporting Language) GAAP (Generally Accepted Accounting Principles) taxonomy and US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) filings produced using the taxonomy by approximately 500 companies. The results show that the framework is useful and effective. Our analysis also reveals quality issues of the GAAP taxonomy and provides useful feedback to taxonomy users. The SEC has mandated that all publicly listed companies must submit their filings using XBRL. Our findings are timely and have practical implications that will ultimately help improve the quality of financial data.

  5. Interactive web-taxonomy for the Araceae: www.cate-araceae.org

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haigh, A.; Mayo, S.J.; Croat, T.; Reynolds, L.; Mora Pinto, M.; Boyce, P.C.; Lay, L.; Bogner, J.; Clark, B.; Kostelac, C.; Hay, A.

    2009-01-01

    CATE (Creating a Taxonomic E-science) is a pilot project funded by the UK Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) to test a model of internet taxonomy which aims to construct and maintain online a full descriptive taxonomic revision as a collective enterprise carried out by the specialist

  6. Developing a Taxonomy of Helpful and Harmful Practices for Clinical Work with Boys and Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalik, James R.; Good, Glenn E.; Tager, David; Levant, Ronald F.; Mackowiak, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    This study drew upon the knowledge base of member practitioners of the American Psychological Association (APA) to develop a taxonomy of helpful and harmful practices for treatment with boys and men. Four hundred seventy-five APA-member practitioners solicited from practice-related divisions provided responses to 4 open-ended questions about…

  7. Benchmarking U.S. Small Wind Costs with the Distributed Wind Taxonomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orrell, Alice C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-10-04

    The objective of this report is to benchmark costs for small wind projects installed in the United States using a distributed wind taxonomy. Consequently, this report is a starting point to help expand the U.S. distributed wind market by informing potential areas for small wind cost-reduction opportunities and providing a benchmark to track future small wind cost-reduction progress.

  8. Cooper's Taxonomy of Literature Reviews Applied to Meta-Analyses in Educational Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipe, Theresa Ann; Stallings, William M.

    H. M. Cooper (1988) has developed a taxonomy that classified literature reviews based on six characteristics: (1) focus of attention; (2) goal of the synthesis; (3) perspective on the literature; (4) coverage of the literature; (5) organization of the perspective; and (6) intended audience. One hundred and three meta-analyses identified from the…

  9. A polyphasic approach for the taxonomy of cyanobacteria: principles and applications.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Komárek, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 3 (2016), s. 346-353 ISSN 0967-0262 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-00113S; GA ČR GAP506/12/1818 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : cyanobacteria * taxonomy * polyphasic approach Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.412, year: 2016

  10. Diversity and taxonomy of freshwater and subaerial members of Ulvales/Ulotrichales (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klimešová, M.; Škaloud, P.; Malavasi, V.; Lukešová, Alena

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 56, Suppl. 4 (2017), s. 100 ISSN 0031-8884. [International Phycological Congress /11./. 13.08.2017-19.08.2017, Szczecin] Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : diversity * taxonomy * frreshwater * Ulvales/Ulotrichales Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology

  11. Links between Bloom's Taxonomy and Gardener's Multiple Intelligences: The Issue of Textbook Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabari, Mahmoud Abdi; Tabari, Iman Abdi

    2015-01-01

    The major thrust of this research was to investigate the cognitive aspect of the high school textbooks and interchange series, due to their extensive use, through content analysis based on Bloom's taxonomy and Gardner's Multiple Intelligences (MI). This study embraced two perspectives in a grid in order to broaden and deepen the analysis by…

  12. Studies in Phylogeny. I. On the relation of Taxonomy, Phylogeny and Biogeography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lam, H.J.

    1938-01-01

    Taxonomy is static, its symbols are therefore two-dimensional, representing 1. differences or resemblances and 2. diversity (eventually are also area). Phylogeny is dynamic and its symbols are three-dimensional, representing 1. Time, 2. differences or resemblances and 3. diversity (eventually also

  13. Taxonomy of Trauma Leadership Skills : A Framework for Leadership Training and Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenstra, Nico F; Jung, Oliver C; Johnson, Addie; Wendt, Klaus W; Tulleken, Jaap E

    PURPOSE: Good leadership is essential for optimal trauma team performance, and targeted training of leadership skills is necessary to achieve such leadership proficiency. To address the need for a taxonomy of leadership skills that specifies the skill components to be learned and the behaviors by

  14. Are Faculty Predictions or Item Taxonomies Useful for Estimating the Outcome of Multiple-Choice Examinations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibble, Jonathan D.; Johnson, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether multiple-choice item difficulty could be predicted either by a subjective judgment by the question author or by applying a learning taxonomy to the items. Eight physiology faculty members teaching an upper-level undergraduate human physiology course consented to participate in the study. The…

  15. Towards a Model of School-Based Curriculum Development and Assessment Using the SOLO Taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, John

    1989-01-01

    One factor preventing the wider acceptance of school-based curriculum development and assessment is the problem of comparing performances of different students, in different schools. The SOLO taxonomy is used to describe the complexity of learning outcomes in a language that is generally applicable across the curriculum. (Author/MLW)

  16. Developing a Gap Taxonomy to Address Crew Health Risks in NASA's Human Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundrot, Craig E.; Edwards, J. Michelle

    2009-01-01

    The mission of NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) is to understand and reduce the risk to crew health and performance in exploration missions. The HRP addresses 27 specific risks by identifying and then filling gaps in understanding the risks and in the ability to disposition the risks. The primary bases for identifying gaps have been past experience and requirements definition. This approach has been very effective in identifying some important, relevant gaps, but may be inadequate for identifying gaps outside the past experience base. We are exploring the use of a gap taxonomy as a comprehensive, underlying conceptual framework that allows a more systematic identification of gaps. The taxonomy is based on these stages in medical care: prediction, prevention, detection/diagnosis, treatment, monitoring, rehabilitation, and lifetime surveillance. This gap taxonomy approach identifies new gaps in HRP health risks. Many of the new gaps suggest risk reduction approaches that are more cost effective than present approaches. A major benefit of the gap taxonomy approach is to identify new, economical approaches that reduce the likelihood and/or consequence of a risk.

  17. Herbarium-based studies on taxonomy, biogeography and ecology of Psilochilus (Orchidaceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolanowska, Marta; Naczk, A. M.; Jaskuła, R.

    nov, č. 11 (2016), č. článku 2600. ISSN 2167-8359 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Biodiversity * Ecological niche modeling * Neotropic ecozone * New species * Phytogeography * Psilochilus * Species richness * Taxonomy Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.177, year: 2016

  18. Encouraging Higher-Order Thinking in General Chemistry by Scaffolding Student Learning Using Marzano's Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Santiago; Dubas, Justin M.

    2016-01-01

    An emphasis on higher-order thinking within the curriculum has been a subject of interest in the chemical and STEM literature due to its ability to promote meaningful, transferable learning in students. The systematic use of learning taxonomies could be a practical way to scaffold student learning in order to achieve this goal. This work proposes…

  19. New Approach to Analyzing Physics Problems: A Taxonomy of Introductory Physics Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodorescu, Raluca E.; Bennhold, Cornelius; Feldman, Gerald; Medsker, Larry

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes research on a classification of physics problems in the context of introductory physics courses. This classification, called the Taxonomy of Introductory Physics Problems (TIPP), relates physics problems to the cognitive processes required to solve them. TIPP was created in order to design educational objectives, to develop…

  20. Using Bloom's Taxonomy to Evaluate the Cognitive Levels of Master Class Textbook's Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaly, Ibtihal R.; Smadi, Oqlah M.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the cognitive levels of the questions following the reading texts of Master Class textbook. A checklist based on Bloom's Taxonomy was the instrument used to categorize the cognitive levels of these questions. The researchers used proper statistics to rank the cognitive levels of the comprehension questions. The…

  1. Early life history and spatiotemporal changes in distribution of the rediscovered Suwannee moccasinshell Medionidus walkeri (Bivalvia: Unionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nathan A.; Mcleod, John; Holcomb, Jordan; Rowe, Matthew T.; Williams, James D.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate distribution data are critical to the development of conservation and management strategies for imperiled species, particularly for narrow endemics with life history traits that make them vulnerable to extinction. Medionidus walkeri is a rare freshwater mussel endemic to the Suwannee River Basin in southeastern North America. This species was rediscovered in 2012 after a 16-year hiatus between collections and is currently proposed for listing under the Endangered Species Act. Our study fills knowledge gaps regarding changes in distribution and early life history requirements of M. walkeri. Spatiotemporal changes in M. walkeri distribution were displayed using a conservation status assessment map incorporating metadata from 98 historical (1916–1999) and 401 recent (2000–2015) site surveys from museums and field notes representing records for 312 specimens. Recent surveys detected M. walkeri only in the middle Suwannee subbasin (n = 86, 22 locations) and lower Santa Fe subbasin (n = 2, 2 locations), and it appears the species may be extirpated from 67% of historically occupied 10-digit HUCs. In our laboratory experiments, M. walkeri successfully metamorphosed on Percina nigrofasciata (56.2% ± 8.9) and Etheostoma edwini (16.1% ± 7.9) but not on Trinectes maculatus, Lepomis marginatus, Notropis texanus, Noturus leptacanthus, Etheostoma fusiforme, or Gambusia holbrooki. We characterize M. walkeri as a lure-displaying host fish specialist and a long-term brooder (bradytictic), gravid from fall to early summer of the following year. The early life history and distribution data presented here provide the baseline framework for listing decisions and future efforts to conserve and recover the species.

  2. Development of new taxonomy of inappropriate communication and its application to operating teams in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ar Ryum; Lee, Seung Woo; Jang, In Seok; Kang, Hyun Gook; Seong, Poong Hyun; Park, Jin Kyun

    2012-01-01

    Inappropriate communications can cause a lack of necessary information exchange between operators and lead to serious consequences in large process systems such as nuclear power plants (NPPs). In this regard, various kinds of taxonomies of inappropriate communications have been developed to prevent inappropriate communications. However, there seems to be difficult to identify inappropriate communications from verbal protocol data between operators. Because the existing taxonomies were developed for use in report analysis, there is a problem of 'uncertainty'. In consequence, this paper proposes a new taxonomy of inappropriate communications and provides some insights to prevent inappropriate communications. In order to develop the taxonomy, existing taxonomies for four industries from 1980 to 2010 were collected and a new taxonomy is developed based on the simplified one-way communication model. In addition, the ratio of inappropriate communications from 8 samples of audio-visual format verbal protocol data recorded during emergency training sessions by operating teams is compared with performance scores calculated based on the task analysis. As a result, inappropriate communications can be easily identified from the verbal protocol data using the suggested taxonomy, and teams with a higher ratio of inappropriate communications tend to have a lower performance score.

  3. Development of new taxonomy of inappropriate communication and its application to operating teams in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ar Ryum; Lee, Seung Woo; Jang, In Seok; Kang, Hyun Gook; Seong, Poong Hyun [Dept. of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin Kyun [Integrated Safety Assessment Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    Inappropriate communications can cause a lack of necessary information exchange between operators and lead to serious consequences in large process systems such as nuclear power plants (NPPs). In this regard, various kinds of taxonomies of inappropriate communications have been developed to prevent inappropriate communications. However, there seems to be difficult to identify inappropriate communications from verbal protocol data between operators. Because the existing taxonomies were developed for use in report analysis, there is a problem of 'uncertainty'. In consequence, this paper proposes a new taxonomy of inappropriate communications and provides some insights to prevent inappropriate communications. In order to develop the taxonomy, existing taxonomies for four industries from 1980 to 2010 were collected and a new taxonomy is developed based on the simplified one-way communication model. In addition, the ratio of inappropriate communications from 8 samples of audio-visual format verbal protocol data recorded during emergency training sessions by operating teams is compared with performance scores calculated based on the task analysis. As a result, inappropriate communications can be easily identified from the verbal protocol data using the suggested taxonomy, and teams with a higher ratio of inappropriate communications tend to have a lower performance score.

  4. Failure mode taxonomy for assessing the reliability of Field Programmable Gate Array based Instrumentation and Control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNelles, Phillip; Zeng, Zhao Chang; Renganathan, Guna; Chirila, Marius; Lu, Lixuan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The use FPGAs in I&C systems in Nuclear Power Plants is an important issue (IAEA). • OECD-NEA published a failure mode taxonomy for software-based digital I&C systems. • This paper extends the OECD-NEA taxonomy to model FPGA-based systems. • FPGA failure modes, failure effects, uncovering methods are categorized/described. • Provides an example of modelling an FPGA-Based RTS/ESFAS using the FPGA taxonomy. - Abstract: Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) are a form of programmable digital hardware configured to perform digital logic functions. This configuration (programming) is performed using Hardware Description Language (HDL), making FPGAs a form of HDL Programmed Device (HPD). In the nuclear field, FPGAs have seen use in upgrades and replacements of obsolete Instrumentation and Control (I&C) systems. This paper expands upon previous work that resulted in extensive FPGA failure mode data, to allow for the application of the OECD-NEA failure modes taxonomy. The OECD-NEA taxonomy presented a method to model digital (software-based) I&C systems, based on the hardware and software failure modes, failure uncovering effects and levels of abstraction, using a Reactor Trip System/Engineering Safety Feature Actuation System (RTS/ESFAS) as an example system. To create the FPGA taxonomy, this paper presents an additional “sub-component” level of abstraction, to demonstrate the effect of the FPGA failure modes and failure categories on an FPGA-based system. The proposed FPGA taxonomy is based on the FPGA failure modes, failure categories, failure effects and uncovering situations. The FPGA taxonomy is applied to the RTS/ESFAS test system, to demonstrate the effects of the anticipated FPGA failure modes on a digital I&C system, and to provide a modelling example for this proposed taxonomy.

  5. Behavioral responses of Arctica islandica (Bivalvia: Arcticidae) to simulated leakages of carbon dioxide from sub-sea geological storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamber, Shaw D.; Westerlund, Stig

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Valve pumping activity in A. islandica significantly increased at pH 6.2 seawater. • Changes in valve movements were not related to attempted burrowing activities. • Valve activity returned to control levels after 5 days of continuous exposure. • A. islandica tolerate pH reductions likely to follow leakage of sub-sea stored CO_2. - Abstract: Sub-sea geological storage of carbon dioxide (CO_2) provides a viable option for the Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) approach for reducing atmospheric emissions of this greenhouse gas. Although generally considered to offer a low risk of major leakage, it remains relevant to establish the possible consequences for marine organisms that live in or on sediments overlying these storage areas if such an event may occur. The present study has used a series of laboratory exposures and behavioral bioassays to establish the sensitivity of Arctica islandica to simulated leakages of CO_2. This long-lived bivalve mollusc is widely distributed throughout the North Sea, an area where geological storage is currently taking place and where there are plans to expand this operation significantly. A recently published model has predicted a maximum drop of 1.9 pH units in seawater at the point source of a substantial escape of CO_2 from sub-sea geological storage in this region. Valve movements of A. islandica exposed to reduced pH seawater were recorded continuously using Hall effect proximity sensors. Valve movement regulation is important for optimising the flow of water over the gills, which supplies food and facilitates respiration. A stepwise reduction in seawater pH showed an initial increase in both the rate and extent of valve movements in the majority of individuals tested when pH fell to 6.2 units. Exposing A. islandica to pH 6.2 seawater continuously for seven days resulted in a clear increase in valve movements during the first 40 h of exposure, followed by a gradual reduction in activity intensity over the

  6. Behavioral responses of Arctica islandica (Bivalvia: Arcticidae) to simulated leakages of carbon dioxide from sub-sea geological storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bamber, Shaw D., E-mail: shaw.bamber@iris.no; Westerlund, Stig, E-mail: sw@iris.no

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Valve pumping activity in A. islandica significantly increased at pH 6.2 seawater. • Changes in valve movements were not related to attempted burrowing activities. • Valve activity returned to control levels after 5 days of continuous exposure. • A. islandica tolerate pH reductions likely to follow leakage of sub-sea stored CO{sub 2}. - Abstract: Sub-sea geological storage of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) provides a viable option for the Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) approach for reducing atmospheric emissions of this greenhouse gas. Although generally considered to offer a low risk of major leakage, it remains relevant to establish the possible consequences for marine organisms that live in or on sediments overlying these storage areas if such an event may occur. The present study has used a series of laboratory exposures and behavioral bioassays to establish the sensitivity of Arctica islandica to simulated leakages of CO{sub 2}. This long-lived bivalve mollusc is widely distributed throughout the North Sea, an area where geological storage is currently taking place and where there are plans to expand this operation significantly. A recently published model has predicted a maximum drop of 1.9 pH units in seawater at the point source of a substantial escape of CO{sub 2} from sub-sea geological storage in this region. Valve movements of A. islandica exposed to reduced pH seawater were recorded continuously using Hall effect proximity sensors. Valve movement regulation is important for optimising the flow of water over the gills, which supplies food and facilitates respiration. A stepwise reduction in seawater pH showed an initial increase in both the rate and extent of valve movements in the majority of individuals tested when pH fell to 6.2 units. Exposing A. islandica to pH 6.2 seawater continuously for seven days resulted in a clear increase in valve movements during the first 40 h of exposure, followed by a gradual reduction in activity

  7. Relación entre las capturas de Megapitaria squalida (Bivalvia: Veneridae y la temperatura superficial del mar en la Bahía de la Paz, Baja California Sur, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Vázquez Hurtado

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available La almeja chocolate Megapitaria squalida es un recurso pesquero con creciente importancia en el noroeste de México al registrarse un incremento en los volúmenes de captura. Sin embargo, esta pesquería ha observado variaciones importantes en las capturas que podrían estar relacionadas con factores ambientales. Se obtuvieron datos mensuales de producción de M. squalida durante 2002- 2005 y se estimaron series de tiempo de temperatura superficial del mar en la Bahía de La Paz B.C.S. a partir de imágenes mensuales derivadas del sensor MODIS-Aqua. Los resultados indican una relación positiva significativa entre la temperatura superficial del mar y los volúmenes de captura, razón por la cual nuestro trabajo tiene como objetivo estudiar las relaciones entre capturas de Megapitaria squalida (Bivalvia: Veneridae y la temperatura superficial del mar en La Bahía de la Paz, Baja California Sur, México.

  8. A molecular phylogeny of the Australian huntsman spiders (Sparassidae, Deleninae): implications for taxonomy and social behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnarsson, Ingi; Rayor, Linda S

    2013-12-01

    Huntsman spiders (Sparassidae) are a diverse group with a worldwide distribution, yet are poorly known both taxonomically and phylogenetically. They are particularly diverse in Australia where an endemic lineage, Deleninae, has diversified to form nearly 100 species. One unusual species, Delena cancerides, has been believed to be the sole group-living sparassid. Unlike all of the other subsocial and social spiders which are capture-web based or live in silken tunnels, D. cancerides are non-web building spiders that live in large matrilineal colonies of a single adult female and her offspring from multiple clutches of under the bark of dead trees. Here we report the discovery of two additional prolonged subsocial sparassid species, currently in Eodelena but here formally proposed as a synonomy of Delena (new synonoymy), Delena (Eodelena) lapidicola and D. (E.) melanochelis. We briefly describe their social demographics, behavior, and habitat use. In order to understand the evolutionary relationships among these species, and thus origin of sociality and other traits in this group, we also offer the first molecular phylogeny of Deleninae and relatives. We employ model based phylogenetic analyses on two mtDNA and three nuDNA loci using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, including both 'classical' concatenation approach as well as coalescent-based analysis of species trees from gene trees. Our results support the hypothesis that the delenine huntsman spiders are a monophyletic Australian radiation, approximately 23 million year old, and indicate that the current ten genera should be merged to six genera in four clades. Our findings are inconsistent with some relatively recent changes in the taxonomy of Deleninae. The three known group-living delenine species are related and likely represent a single origin of sociality with a single reversal to solitary life-styles. Our results provide strong support for the classical Isopeda, but not for the recent splitting of

  9. A Review of Current and Prospective Factors for Classification of Civil Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayhurst, Kelly J.; Maddalon, Jeffrey M.; Morris, A. Terry; Neogi, Natasha; Verstynen, Harry A.

    2014-01-01

    While progress is being made on integrating unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) into our national airspace on a broad scale, much work remains to establish appropriate certification standards and operational procedures, particularly with respect to routine commercial operations. This paper summarizes research to examine the extent to which today's civil aircraft taxonomy applies to UAS, and, if needed, how that taxonomy could be amended to better cover different UAS designs and operations. Factors that shape the current taxonomy, as defined in the Federal Aviation Regulations, were assessed for applicability to UAS, potential incompatibilities were identified, and additional factors were proposed that might be useful for an updated aircraft taxonomy intended to cover UAS. The results suggest the possibility of constructing new groups in the taxonomy for UAS under a restricted category that share common airworthiness standards. Establishing distinct groups for UAS and associated standards that enable low risk operations for compensation or hire could be a timely step toward full integration. Such a step would allow the civil aviation industry and regulators to gain valuable experience with UAS while carefully controlling access and potential harm to the aviation system as a whole.

  10. Ciclo reproductivo del ostión de manglar Crassostrea rhizophorae (Bivalvia: Ostreidae en la Bahía de Camamu, Bahia, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Lenz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available El ostión de manglar es un importante recurso pesquero que se distribuye por toda la costa brasileña y una de las especies nativas con mayor potencial para maricultura. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo conocer las características reproductivas del ostión de manglar Crassostrea rhizophorae en el estero del Río Maraú, Bahía de Camamu, Bahia, Brasil. Las muestras fueran recolectadas mensualmente, entre agosto de 2006 y septiembre de 2007, en dos sitios. Las metodologías utilizadas fueron el análisis histológico de las gónadas y el cálculo de rendimiento de carne. La temperatura del agua durante el período de estudio varió de 23.5°C a 30°C y la salinidad osciló entre 15 y 35ups. La altura de los ostiones examinados varió de 27 a 102mm (n=437. Hubo predominancia de hembras en las poblaciones de ambos sitios. Los análisis de estadios gonádicos demostraron que el proceso de reproducción de C. rhizophorae en el estero del Río Maraú es continuo durante el año, sin período de reposo sexual. El rendimiento de carne (R fue de 8.0% a 17.7% (n=669. Los resultados de este estudio proveen informaciones para la captación de semilla e implantación de la ostricultura en la Bahía de Camamu.Reproductive cycle of the mangrove oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae (Bivalvia: Ostreidae in Camamu Bay, Bahia, Brasil. The mangrove oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae is important fishery resource along the entire Brasilian coast with excellent potential for marine culture. The purpose of this paper was to examine the reproductive characteristics of the oyster of the Maraú river estuary in Camamu Bay, Bahia, Brasil. The samples were collected monthly, from September 2006 to August 2007, at two points (I and II in Camamu Bay. At each site 20 oysters were collected for histological analysis, fixed in Davidson’s solution, embedded in paraffin, dehydrated in an ethanol series, sectioned (7μm thick and stained with Harris hematoxylin and Eosin (HE

  11. Revision of the characters of Centrolenidae (Amphibia : Anura : Athesphatanura), with comments on its taxonomy and the description of new taxa of glassfrogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisneros-Heredia, D.F.; McDiarmid, Roy W.

    2007-01-01

    Anurans of the family Centrolenidae are a diverse clade of arboreal frogs distributed across tropical America. Knowledge of their taxonomy, systematics, ecology, behavior, morphology, and other evolutionary aspects of their biology is deficient. Relationships among centrolenid species remain largely unresolved, with no satisfactory phylogenetic hypothesis, and none of the current genera has compelling evidence of monophyly. Further, understanding the phylogeny of glassfrogs is constrained by species-level taxonomic problems, including incorrect description of characters, incomplete analyses of intraspecific variation, and lack of appreciation of species diversity. Herein, we define and analyze the 23 characters that are useful, in combination, in diagnosing centrolenid species, and thereby provide a reference for the use of future workers. We propose revised classifications for the parietal and visceral peritoneal pigmentation, liver form and coloration of its associated hepatic peritoneum, nuptial excrescences, and hand ornamentation. We comment on the generic and species-level taxonomy of Centrolenidae, proposing the recognition of a new genus and describing a new species from Ecuador. We treat Hyla ocellifera Boulenger as a synonym of Centrolene prosoblepon (Boettger), Hyalinobatrachium cardiacalyptum McCranie & Wilson as a synonym of Hyalinobatrachium chirripoi (Taylor), and Hyalinobatrachium crybetes McCranie and Wilson as a synonym of Hyalinobatrachium colymbiphyllum (Taylor). We also present an annotated list of the species of glassfrogs from the Republic of Ecuador with some distributional remarks.

  12. Molecular evolution inferred from small subunit rRNA sequences: what does it tell us about phylogenetic relationships and taxonomy of the parabasalids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viscogliosi, E.; Edgcomb, V. P.; Gerbod, D.; Noel, C.; Delgado-Viscogliosi, P.; Sogin, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    The Parabasala are a primitive group of protists divided into two classes: the trichomonads and the hypermastigids. Until recently, phylogeny and taxonomy of parabasalids were mainly based on the comparative analysis of morphological characters primarily linked to the development of their cytoskeleton. Recent use of molecular markers, such as small subunit (SSU) rRNA has led to now insights into the systematics of the Parabasala and other groups of prolists. An updated phylogeny based on SSU rRNA is provided and compared to that inferred from ultrastructural data. The SSU rRNA phylogeny contradicts the dogma equating simple characters with pumitive characters. Hypermastigids, possessing a hyperdeveloped cytoskeleton, exhibit the most basal emergence in the parabasalid lineage. Other observations emerge from the SSU rRNA analysis, such as the secondary loss of some cytoskeleton structures in all representatives of the Monocercomonadidae, the existence of secondarily free living taxa (reversibility of parasitism) and the evidence against the co-evolution of the endobiotic parabasalids and their animal hosts. According to phylogenies based on SSU rRNA, all the trichomonad families are not monophyletic groups, putting into question the validity of current taxonomic assignments. The precise branching order of some taxa remains unclear, but this issue can possibly be addressed by the molecular analysis of additional parabasalids. The goal of such additional analyses would be to propose, in a near future, a revision of the taxonomy of this group of protists that takes into account both molecular and morphological data.

  13. ClassyFire: automated chemical classification with a comprehensive, computable taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djoumbou Feunang, Yannick; Eisner, Roman; Knox, Craig; Chepelev, Leonid; Hastings, Janna; Owen, Gareth; Fahy, Eoin; Steinbeck, Christoph; Subramanian, Shankar; Bolton, Evan; Greiner, Russell; Wishart, David S

    2016-01-01

    Scientists have long been driven by the desire to describe, organize, classify, and compare objects using taxonomies and/or ontologies. In contrast to biology, geology, and many other scientific disciplines, the world of chemistry still lacks a standardized chemical ontology or taxonomy. Several attempts at chemical classification have been made; but they have mostly been limited to either manual, or semi-automated proof-of-principle applications. This is regrettable as comprehensive chemical classification and description tools could not only improve our understanding of chemistry but also improve the linkage between chemistry and many other fields. For instance, the chemical classification of a compound could help predict its metabolic fate in humans, its druggability or potential hazards associated with it, among others. However, the sheer number (tens of millions of compounds) and complexity of chemical structures is such that any manual classification effort would prove to be near impossible. We have developed a comprehensive, flexible, and computable, purely structure-based chemical taxonomy (ChemOnt), along with a computer program (ClassyFire) that uses only chemical structures and structural features to automatically assign all known chemical compounds to a taxonomy consisting of >4800 different categories. This new chemical taxonomy consists of up to 11 different levels (Kingdom, SuperClass, Class, SubClass, etc.) with each of the categories defined by unambiguous, computable structural rules. Furthermore each category is named using a consensus-based nomenclature and described (in English) based on the characteristic common structural properties of the compounds it contains. The ClassyFire webserver is freely accessible at http://classyfire.wishartlab.com/. Moreover, a Ruby API version is available at https://bitbucket.org/wishartlab/classyfire_api, which provides programmatic access to the ClassyFire server and database. ClassyFire has been used to

  14. Interruption of People in Human-Computer Interaction: A General Unifying Definition of Human Interruption and Taxonomy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McFarlane, Daniel

    1997-01-01

    .... This report asserts that a single unifying definition of user-interruption and the accompanying practical taxonomy would be useful theoretical tools for driving effective investigation of this crucial...

  15. Pectinoidea (Mollusca: Bivalvia) from Iceland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, H.H.; Waren, A.; Gudmundsson, G.

    2009-01-01

    The Icelandic pectinoid fauna is reviewed, based on material from the benthic survey programme BIOICE and 17 species are recorded. Similipecten oskarssoni is proposed as a replacement name for Pecten groenlandicus var. minor Locard, 1898 (Propeamussiidae), which is considered a valid species.

  16. Development and evaluation of a specialized task taxonomy for spatial planning - A map literacy experiment with topographic maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautenbach, Victoria; Coetzee, Serena; Çöltekin, Arzu

    2017-05-01

    Topographic maps are among the most commonly used map types, however, their complex and information-rich designs depicting natural, human-made and cultural features make them difficult to read. Regardless of their complexity, spatial planners make extensive use of topographic maps in their work. On the other hand, various studies suggest that map literacy among the development planning professionals in South Africa is not very high. The widespread use of topographic maps combined with the low levels of map literacy presents challenges for effective development planning. In this paper we address some of these challenges by developing a specialized task taxonomy based on systematically assessed map literacy levels; and conducting an empirical experiment with topographic maps to evaluate our task taxonomy. In such empirical studies if non-realistic tasks are used, the results of map literacy tests may be skewed. Furthermore, experience and familiarity with the studied map type play a role in map literacy. There is thus a need to develop map literacy tests aimed at planners specifically. We developed a taxonomy of realistic map reading tasks typically executed during the planning process. The taxonomy defines six levels tasks of increasing difficulty and complexity, ranging from recognising symbols to extracting knowledge. We hypothesized that competence in the first four levels indicates functional map literacy. In this paper, we present results from an empirical experiment with 49 map literate participants solving a subset of tasks from the first four levels of the taxonomy with a topographic map. Our findings suggest that the proposed taxonomy is a good reference for evaluating topographic map literacy. Participants solved the tasks on all four levels as expected and we therefore conclude that the experiment based on the first four levels of the taxonomy successfully determined the functional map literacy of the participants. We plan to continue the study for the

  17. Evaluation of the levels of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca Bivalvia) collected in the coast of Sao Paulo state, Brazil; Avaliacao dos teores de Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn e V em mexilhoes Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca Bivalvia) coletados no litoral do estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Daniele

    2012-07-01

    The coastal environment has been heavily altered by multiple environmental impacts of human activities, such as disposal of sewage from urban areas, the release of numerous chemical industries, agriculture and the flow of vessels, which can lead to accidental spills of oil and oil products, fuels and other products transported by sea. In this context, a means of determining concentrations of these potentially toxic substances in the sea water is the biomonitoring by means of different types of bivalves, which have been used by various researchers, in Brazil and other countries. With regard to bivalve mollusks, particularly mussels, their use in monitoring the marine contamination is mainly due to their wide geographic distribution, sessile habit and ability to concentrate toxic metals to 102-105 times in relation to the concentrations detected in water. In the present study, we employed the passive biomonitoring using the Perna perna bivalve mollusk with respect to the elements Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V. These elements were chosen since they can be determined by INAA method (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis), by means of short irradiation which provides faster analyzes and also due to their importance from the standpoint of environmental or nutritional studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in samples of Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca, Bivalvia) collected in coastal regions of Sao Paulo subject to anthropogenic contamination (Ponta de Itaipu and Palmas Island, in Santos), comparing the values obtained in sites potentially impacted with the values of the control site in Praia da Cocanha, in Caraguatatuba. The collection points located in Sao Paulo coast are located in the geographical areas 23 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 37'S - 45 Degree-Sign 24' W (Caraguatatuba) and 23 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 57'S - 46 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 20' W (Santos). The collection of organisms

  18. Evaluation of the levels of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca Bivalvia) collected in the coast of Sao Paulo state, Brazil; Avaliacao dos teores de Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn e V em mexilhoes Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca Bivalvia) coletados no litoral do estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Daniele

    2012-07-01

    The coastal environment has been heavily altered by multiple environmental impacts of human activities, such as disposal of sewage from urban areas, the release of numerous chemical industries, agriculture and the flow of vessels, which can lead to accidental spills of oil and oil products, fuels and other products transported by sea. In this context, a means of determining concentrations of these potentially toxic substances in the sea water is the biomonitoring by means of different types of bivalves, which have been used by various researchers, in Brazil and other countries. With regard to bivalve mollusks, particularly mussels, their use in monitoring the marine contamination is mainly due to their wide geographic distribution, sessile habit and ability to concentrate toxic metals to 102-105 times in relation to the concentrations detected in water. In the present study, we employed the passive biomonitoring using the Perna perna bivalve mollusk with respect to the elements Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V. These elements were chosen since they can be determined by INAA method (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis), by means of short irradiation which provides faster analyzes and also due to their importance from the standpoint of environmental or nutritional studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in samples of Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca, Bivalvia) collected in coastal regions of Sao Paulo subject to anthropogenic contamination (Ponta de Itaipu and Palmas Island, in Santos), comparing the values obtained in sites potentially impacted with the values of the control site in Praia da Cocanha, in Caraguatatuba. The collection points located in Sao Paulo coast are located in the geographical areas 23 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 37'S - 45 Degree-Sign 24' W (Caraguatatuba) and 23 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 57'S - 46 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 20' W (Santos). The collection of organisms was performed in all

  19. Analysing learning outcomes in an Electrical Engineering curriculum using illustrative verbs derived from Bloom's Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meda, Lawrence; Swart, Arthur James

    2018-05-01

    Learning outcomes are essential to any curriculum in education, where they need to be clear, observable and measurable. However, some academics structure learning outcomes in a way that does not promote student learning. The purpose of this article is to present the analyses of learning outcomes of an Electrical Engineering curriculum offered at a University of Technology in South Africa, in order to determine if academics are structuring them in a way that enables student learning. A qualitative case study is used where the learning outcomes from 33 study guides are reviewed using illustrative verbs derived from Bloom's Taxonomy. Results indicate that 9% of all the learning outcomes are unclear, 10% are unobservable and 23% are unmeasurable. A key recommendation is to provide regular workshops to assist academics in reviewing their learning outcomes using the illustrative verbs derived from Bloom's Taxonomy, thereby ensuring that their learning outcomes promote student learning.

  20. Why Do People Regulate Their Emotions? A Taxonomy of Motives in Emotion Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamir, Maya

    2016-08-01

    Emotion regulation involves the pursuit of desired emotional states (i.e., emotion goals) in the service of superordinate motives. The nature and consequences of emotion regulation, therefore, are likely to depend on the motives it is intended to serve. Nonetheless, limited attention has been devoted to studying what motivates emotion regulation. By mapping the potential benefits of emotion to key human motives, this review identifies key classes of motives in emotion regulation. The proposed taxonomy distinguishes between hedonic motives that target the immediate phenomenology of emotions, and instrumental motives that target other potential benefits of emotions. Instrumental motives include behavioral, epistemic, social, and eudaimonic motives. The proposed taxonomy offers important implications for understanding the mechanism of emotion regulation, variation across individuals and contexts, and psychological function and dysfunction, and points to novel research directions. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  1. Applying Blooms Digital Taxonomy to Address Creativity and Second Order Digital Divide in Internet Skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Purushothaman, Aparna

    2016-01-01

    Internet technologies play a significant role to enhance creativity of the students in learning environments. Internet literacy is vital to effectively use the Internet tools to enhance creative learning environments. In the developing countries Internet literacy is still an unfulfilled dream...... for students coming from underprivileged backgrounds thus bringing a digital divide in skills. The chapter draws upon an empirical study done in India on how an intervention comprised of Internet training designed on Bloom’s Digital Taxonomy and action research workshops based on the learning domains...... of the digital taxonomy was an effective approach for empowering women students through learning to use the Internet. The chapter puts forward the argument that an intervention for learning to use the Internet can be effective where focus is on the reflective and conceptual skills in using the Internet than...

  2. A Taxonomy for Heavy-Duty Telemanipulation Tasks Using Elemental Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Owen-Hill

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the maintenance of large scientific facilities, telemanipulation procedures can involve various subprocedures which in turn are made up of a sequence of subtasks. This work presents a taxonomy which describes a set of elemental actions for heavy-duty telemanipulation, along with an example of these actions in a standard maintenance subprocedure. As maintenance tasks are often very different at high-level, this generalized way of deconstructing tasks allows a highly adaptable approach to describe the sequence of any procedure, which can then be used for such applications as task monitoring, automation or detection of incomplete tasks. We describe in detail the properties of each elemental action and apply the taxonomy to an example subprocedure to show how the process can be generalizable. An automatic state-machine creation stage is shown, which would be used at the task scheduling stage to simplify calculations carried out during the moment-by-moment execution of the task.

  3. An Evidence-Based Forensic Taxonomy of Windows Phone Communication Apps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahyani, Niken Dwi Wahyu; Martini, Ben; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Ab Rahman, Nurul Hidayah; Ashman, Helen

    2018-05-01

    Communication apps can be an important source of evidence in a forensic investigation (e.g., in the investigation of a drug trafficking or terrorism case where the communications apps were used by the accused persons during the transactions or planning activities). This study presents the first evidence-based forensic taxonomy of Windows Phone communication apps, using an existing two-dimensional Android forensic taxonomy as a baseline. Specifically, 30 Windows Phone communication apps, including Instant Messaging (IM) and Voice over IP (VoIP) apps, are examined. Artifacts extracted using physical acquisition are analyzed, and seven digital evidence objects of forensic interest are identified, namely: Call Log, Chats, Contacts, Locations, Installed Applications, SMSs and User Accounts. Findings from this study would help to facilitate timely and effective forensic investigations involving Windows Phone communication apps. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  4. Application of a Consumer Health Information Needs Taxonomy to Questions in Maternal-Fetal Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenson, Jared A; Ingram, Ebone; Colon, Nadja; Jackson, Gretchen Purcell

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy is a time when expectant mothers may have numerous questions about their unborn children, especially when congenital anomalies are diagnosed prenatally. We sought to characterize information needs of pregnant women seen in the Vanderbilt Children's Hospital Fetal Center. Participants recorded questions from diagnosis through delivery. Questions were categorized by two researchers using a hierarchical taxonomy describing consumer health information needs. Consensus category assignments were made, and inter-rater reliability was measured with Cohen's Kappa. Sixteen participants reported 398 questions in 39 subcategories, of which the most common topics were prognosis (53 questions; 13.3%) and indications for intervention (31 questions; 7.8%). Inter-rater reliability of assignments showed moderate (κ=0.57) to substantial (κ=0.75) agreement for subcategories and primary categories, respectively. Pregnant women with prenatal diagnoses have diverse unmet information needs; a taxonomy of consumer health information needs may improve the ability to meet such needs through content and system design.

  5. Antecedents and outcomes of a fourfold taxonomy of work-family balance in Chinese employed parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jia-Fang; Siu, Oi-Ling; Spector, Paul E; Shi, Kan

    2009-04-01

    The study provided validity evidence for a fourfold taxonomy of work-family balance that comprises direction of influence (work to family vs. family to work) and types of effect (work-family conflict vs. work-family facilitation). Data were collected from 189 employed parents in China. The results obtained from a confirmatory factor analysis supported the factorial validity of the fourfold taxonomy of work-family balance with a Chinese sample. Child care responsibilities, working hours, monthly salary, and organizational family-friendly policy were positively related to the conflict component of work-family balance; whereas new parental experience, spouse support, family-friendly supervisors and coworkers had significant positive effects on the facilitation component of work-family balance. In comparison with the inconsistent effects of work-family conflict, work to family facilitation had consistent positive effects on work and life attitudes. The implications of findings in relation to China and other countries are discussed in the paper.

  6. Fuzzy Similarity Measures Approach in Benchmarking Taxonomies of Threats against SMEs in Developing Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yeboah-Boateng, Ezer Osei

    2013-01-01

    There are various threats that militate against SMEs in developing economies. However, most SMEs fall on the conservative “TV News Effect” of most-publicized cyber-threats or incidences, with disproportionate mitigation measures. This paper endeavors to establish a taxonomy of threat agents to fill...... in the void. Various fuzzy similarity measures based on multi-attribute decision-making techniques have been employed in the evaluation. The taxonomy offers a panoramic view of cyber-threats in assessing mission-critical assets, and serves as a benchmark for initiating appropriate mitigation strategies. SMEs...... in developing economies were strategically interviewed for their expert opinions on various business and security metrics. The study established that natural disasters, which are perennial in most developing economies, are the most critical cyber-threat agent, whilst social engineering is the least critical...

  7. The chemotaxonomic classification of Rhodiola plants and its correlation with morphological characteristics and genetic taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenli; Liu, Yuanyan; Liu, Chunsheng; Song, Zhiqian; Li, Qing; Zha, Qinglin; Lu, Cheng; Wang, Chun; Ning, Zhangchi; Zhang, Yuxin; Tian, Cheng; Lu, Aiping

    2013-07-12

    Rhodiola plants are used as a natural remedy in the western world and as a traditional herbal medicine in China, and are valued for their ability to enhance human resistance to stress or fatigue and to promote longevity. Due to the morphological similarities among different species, the identification of the genus remains somewhat controversial, which may affect their safety and effectiveness in clinical use. In this paper, 47 Rhodiola samples of seven species were collected from thirteen local provinces of China. They were identified by their morphological characteristics and genetic and phytochemical taxonomies. Eight bioactive chemotaxonomic markers from four chemical classes (phenylpropanoids, phenylethanol derivatives, flavonoids and phenolic acids) were determined to evaluate and distinguish the chemotaxonomy of Rhodiola samples using an HPLC-DAD/UV method. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were applied to compare the two classification methods between genetic and phytochemical taxonomy. The established chemotaxonomic classification could be effectively used for Rhodiola species identification.

  8. A Comparative Taxonomy of Parallel Algorithms for RNA Secondary Structure Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khatib, Ra’ed M.; Abdullah, Rosni; Rashid, Nur’Aini Abdul

    2010-01-01

    RNA molecules have been discovered playing crucial roles in numerous biological and medical procedures and processes. RNA structures determination have become a major problem in the biology context. Recently, computer scientists have empowered the biologists with RNA secondary structures that ease an understanding of the RNA functions and roles. Detecting RNA secondary structure is an NP-hard problem, especially in pseudoknotted RNA structures. The detection process is also time-consuming; as a result, an alternative approach such as using parallel architectures is a desirable option. The main goal in this paper is to do an intensive investigation of parallel methods used in the literature to solve the demanding issues, related to the RNA secondary structure prediction methods. Then, we introduce a new taxonomy for the parallel RNA folding methods. Based on this proposed taxonomy, a systematic and scientific comparison is performed among these existing methods. PMID:20458364

  9. Taxonaut: an application software for comparative display of multiple taxonomies with a use case of GBIF Species API.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ytow, Nozomi

    2016-01-01

    The Species API of the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) provides public access to taxonomic data aggregated from multiple data sources. Each data source follows its own classification which can be inconsistent with classifications from other sources. Even with a reference classification e.g. the GBIF Backbone taxonomy, a comprehensive method to compare classifications in the data aggregation is essential, especially for non-expert users. A Java application was developed to compare multiple taxonomies graphically using classification data acquired from GBIF's ChecklistBank via the GBIF Species API. It uses a table to display taxonomies where each column represents a taxonomy under comparison, with an aligner column to organise taxa by name. Each cell contains the name of a taxon if the classification in that column contains the name. Each column also has a cell showing the hierarchy of the taxonomy by a folder metaphor where taxa are aligned and synchronised in the aligner column. A set of those comparative tables shows taxa categorised by relationship between taxonomies. The result set is also available as tables in an Excel format file.

  10. Expanding the taxonomy of the diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peck, C.C.; Goulet, J-P; Lobbezoo, F.; Schiffman, E.L.; Alstergren, P.; Anderson, G.C.; De Leeuw, R.; Jensen, R.; Michelotti, A.; Ohrbach, R.; Petersson, A.; List, T.

    2014-01-01

    There is a need to expand the current temporomandibular disorders' (TMDs) classification to include less common but clinically important disorders. The immediate aim was to develop a consensus-based classification system and associated diagnostic criteria that have clinical and research utility for

  11. Expanding the taxonomy of the diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peck, C C; Goulet, J-P; Lobbezoo, F

    2014-01-01

    There is a need to expand the current temporomandibular disorders' (TMDs) classification to include less common but clinically important disorders. The immediate aim was to develop a consensus-based classification system and associated diagnostic criteria that have clinical and research utility f...

  12. The genus Machaerium (Fabaceae): taxonomy, phytochemistry, traditional uses and biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amen, Yhiya M; Marzouk, Amani M; Zaghloul, Mona G; Afifi, Mohamed S

    2015-01-01

    Machaerium, in the family Fabaceae, predominantly is a genus of a Neotropical distribution of trees, shrubs, and lianas occurring from southern Mexico to Brazil and northern Argentina and as far as South America. Several Machaerium species are widely used in traditional medicine and are considered to have multiple medicinal properties. This review aims to provide up-to-date and comprehensive information on the taxonomy, phytochemistry, traditional uses and biological activities of plants in the genus Machaerium.

  13. Application of the Taxonomy of Injuries: Analysis of Army Recruit Injuries, CY 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-31

    Assessing Fitness for Military Enlistment: Physical , Medical, and Mental Health Standards. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. 13. U.S. Army...Public Health Information Paper Application of the Taxonomy of Injuries: Analysis of Army Recruit Injuries, CY 2016 PHIP No. 12-01-0118...Recruit Injuries, CY2016; Public Health Information Paper 12-01-0118 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER n/a 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  14. Studies on taxonomy and distribution of Acridoidea (Orthoptera of Bihar, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.K. Usmani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Thirty seven species of locusts and grasshoppers representing 26 genera, four tribes and 12 subfamilies belonging to the families Pyrgomorphidae, Catantopidae and Acrididae are reported from different localities of Bihar. Their distinguishing characters and bio-ecological data are provided along with keys to tribes and subfamilies. This paper comprising of distribution and field observation along with taxonomy of Acridoid fauna is the first of its kind from the state.

  15. Taxonomy of Cyrtochilum-alliance (Orchidaceae) in the light of molecular and morphological data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Szlachetko, D. L.; Kolanowska, Marta; Naczk, A.; Gorniak, M.; Dudek, M.; Rutkowski, P.; Chiron, G.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 58, JAN (2017), č. článku 8. ISSN 1999-3110 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : ribosomal-rna genes * hybrid speciation * chloroplast dna * allopolyploid speciation * reconstructing patterns * phylogenetic inference * reticulate evolution * concerted evolution * horizontal transfer * sequence alignment * Cyrtochilum * Monophyly * New combinations * New species * Oncidiinae * Paraphyly * Taxonomy Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 1.452, year: 2016

  16. Taxonomy and Traditional Medicinal Uses of Apocynaceae (Dogbane) Family of Rajshahi District, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Mahbubur Rahman AHM; Mahfuza Akter

    2015-01-01

    Taxonomy and traditional medicinal uses on the family Apocynaceae growing throughout the Rajshahi district has been made. A total of 14 species under 12 genera belonging to the family Apocynaceae were collected and identified. Out of the total number of species Allamanda cathartica Linn, Alstonia scholaris (L.) R.Br. Carissa carandas Linn, Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don, Ichnocarpus frutescens (L.) R. Br., Nerium oleander Linn., Plumeria alba Linn., Plumeria rubra Linn., Rauvolfia serpentina...

  17. TEACHERS PERCEPTIONS OF CLASSROOM PRACTICES BASED ON SOLO TAXONOMY IN SECONDARY SCHOOL SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    P. H. Kusumawathie; Norhisham Mohamad; Ferdous Azam

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore the conceptual awareness of accounting teachers in their teaching learning process based on SOLO Taxonomy curriculum approach in secondary level schools. Further, the study explored the relationship between the curriculum development inputs and the SOLO based curriculum development process. The curriculum development inputs are teacher effectiveness, school community, school environment and technology availability. Method: Data was collected th...

  18. Developing a taxonomy for the science of improvement in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, William; Lownik, Beth; Halverson, Paul; Parrotta, Carmen; Godsall, Jonathan R; Gyllstrom, Elizabeth; Gearin, Kimberly J; Mays, Glen

    2012-11-01

    Quality improvement (QI) methods have been used for almost a decade in public health departments to increase effectiveness and efficiency. Although results are rapidly accumulating, the evidence for the science of improvement is shallow and limited. To advance the use and effectiveness of QI in public health, it is important to develop a science of improvement using practice-based research to build an evidence base for QI projects. This purpose of this study is to advance the science of improvement in public health departments with 3 objectives: (1) establish a taxonomy of QI projects in public health, (2) categorize QI projects undertaken in health departments using the taxonomy, and (3) create an opportunity modes and effects analysis. This study is a qualitative analysis of archival data from 2 separate large databases consisting of 51 QI projects undertaken in public health departments over the last 5 years. The study involves 2 separate QI collaboratives. One includes Minnesota health departments; the other is a national collaborative. We propose a standardized case definition, common metrics, and a taxonomy of QI projects to begin building the evidence base for QI in public health and to advance the science of continuous quality improvement. All projects created an aim statement and used metrics while 53% used a specific QI model with an average of 3.25 QI techniques per project. Approximately 40% of the projects incorporated a process control methodology, and 60% of the projects identified the process from beginning to end, while 11 of 12 PHAB (Public Health Accreditation Board) domains were included. The findings provide a baseline for QI taxonomy to operationalize a science of improvement for public health departments.

  19. XbD Video 2, Taxonomy of Experience (ToE) [Online

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    This is the second video in the Experience-based Designing series: It describes the Taxonomy of Experience, a structural way of looking at human experiences of almost any kind.This hierarchical model is useful to researchers and decision makers as a general method or tool for guiding the collection......, processing and categorisation of field data about an everyday experience. Researchers using this model often referred to the process as 'doing a ToE'...

  20. The use of the SACADA taxonomy to analyze simulation records: Insights and suggestions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.; Chang, Y.J.; Kim, Y.; Choi, S.; Kim, S.; Jung, W.

    2017-01-01

    It is evident that diverse human reliability analysis (HRA) methods are effective for enhancing the safety of socio-technical systems through identifying the most vulnerable tasks to human errors with the associated human error probabilities. This means that reliable human performance data is an important factor affecting HRA quality. Therefore, many researchers have developed technical underpinnings (such as guidelines and taxonomies) that specify what and how HRA data can be collected from simulator experiments. Here, SACADA (Scenario Authoring, Characterization, and Debriefing Application) taxonomy recently developed by US NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) is worth emphasizing, because it is constructed on the basis of a cognitive model (i.e., a top-down approach) while most of the technical underpinnings are developed by a bottom-up approach (i.e., the intensive review of existing literature). For this reason, in this study, the SACADA taxonomy is used to analyze several audio-visual records collected from the full scope simulators of nuclear power plants in the Republic of Korea. The results indicate that the SACADA taxonomy is useful to collect operator performance data in simulator training for HRA. Certain human performance information that can be provided by SACADA data provided are difficult to be covered by the bottom-up approach. - Highlights: • HRA is important for enhancing the safety of socio-technical systems. • HRA quality is largely dependent on the availability of HRA data. • One of the HRA data sources is to use a full-scope simulator. • Data contents to be collected from the full-scope simulator should be clarified. • SACADA is helpful for clarifying data contents from the cognitive perspective.

  1. An Optimized Player Taxonomy Model for Mobile MMORPGs with Millions of Users

    OpenAIRE

    You, Fang; Liu, Jianping; Guan, Xinjian; Wang, Jianmin; Zheng, Zibin; Tam, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) have great potential as sites for research within the social and human-computer interaction. In the MMORPGs, a stability player taxonomy model is very important for game design. It helps to balance different types of players and improve business strategy of the game. The players in mobile MMORPGs are also connected with social networks; many studies only use the player's own attributes statistics or questionnaire survey method to predi...

  2. Principles of Work Sample Testing. 1. A Non-Empirical Taxonomy of Test Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-04-01

    UNIVERSITY % ’ Bowling Green , Ohio 43403 e April 1979 Contract DAHC 19-77-C-0007 Cj Prepared for U.S. ARMY RESEARCH INSTITUTEfor the BEHAVIORAL and...inferring changes in enotionality, and GSR is said to be a measure of emotion . Much of psychological measurement is derived measurement, but it is...ARI TECHNICAL REPORT TR-79-A8 Principles of Work Sample Testingi I. A Non-Empirical Taxonomy of Test Uses b y Robert M. Guion BOWLING GREEN STATE

  3. Development of a taxonomy of behaviour change techniques used in individual behavioural support for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michie, Susan; Hyder, Natasha; Walia, Asha; West, Robert

    2011-04-01

    Individual behavioural support for smoking cessation is effective but little is known about the 'active ingredients'. As a first step to establishing this, it is essential to have a consistent terminology for specifying intervention content. This study aimed to develop for the first time a reliable taxonomy of behaviour change techniques (BCTs) used within individual behavioural support for smoking cessation. Two source documents describing recommended practice were identified and analysed by two coders into component BCTs. The resulting taxonomy of BCTs was applied to 43 treatment manuals obtained from the English Stop Smoking Services (SSSs). In the first 28 of these, pairs of coders applied the taxonomy independently and inter-coder reliability was assessed. The BCTs were also categorised by two coders according to their main function and inter-coder reliability for this was assessed. Forty-three BCTs were identified which could be classified into four functions: 1) directly addressing motivation e.g. providing rewards contingent on abstinence, 2) maximising self-regulatory capacity or skills e.g. facilitating barrier identification and problem solving, 3) promoting adjuvant activities e.g. advising on stop-smoking medication, and 4) supporting other BCTs e.g. building general rapport. Percentage agreement in identifying BCTs and of categorising BCTs into their functions ranged from 86% to 95% and discrepancies were readily resolved through discussion. It is possible to develop a reliable taxonomy of BCTs used in behavioural support for smoking cessation which can provide a starting point for investigating the association between intervention content and outcome and can form a basis for determining competences required to undertake the role of stop smoking specialist. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. eVITAL: A Preliminary Taxonomy and Electronic Toolkit of Health-Related Habits and Lifestyle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Salvador-Carulla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To create a preliminary taxonomy and related toolkit of health-related habits (HrH following a person-centered approach with a focus on primary care. Methods. From 2003–2009, a working group (n=6 physicians defined the knowledge base, created a framing document, and selected evaluation tools using an iterative process. Multidisciplinary focus groups (n=29 health professionals revised the document and evaluation protocol and participated in a feasibility study and review of the model based on a demonstration study with 11 adult volunteers in Antequera, Spain. Results. The preliminary taxonomy contains 6 domains of HrH and 1 domain of additional health descriptors, 3 subdomains, 43 dimensions, and 141 subdimensions. The evaluation tool was completed by the 11 volunteers. The eVITAL toolkit contains history and examination items for 4 levels of engagement: self-assessment, basic primary care, extended primary care, and specialty care. There was positive feedback from the volunteers and experts, but concern about the length of the evaluation. Conclusions. We present the first taxonomy of HrH, which may aid the development of the new models of care such as the personal contextual factors of the International Classification of Functioning (ICF and the positive and negative components of the multilevel person-centered integrative diagnosis model.

  5. Stability of an empirical psychosocial taxonomy across type of diabetes and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouwen, A; Breton, M-C; Urquhart Law, G; Descôteaux, J

    2007-01-01

    The aims of the study were (i) to examine whether an empirical psychosocial taxonomy, based on key diabetes-related variables, is independent of type of diabetes and treatment, and (ii) to further establish the external validation of the taxonomy. In a cross-sectional study, 82 patients with Type 1 and 86 patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus were assigned to one of three psychosocial patient profiles based on their Multidimensional Diabetes Questionnaire (MDQ) scores. General psychological and diabetes-specific measures were obtained through self-report and HbA(1c) was measured. Equal proportions of Type 1 and Type 2 patients, and of patients using insulin and oral medication/diet only were classified within each of the three psychosocial profiles. External validation confirmed the validity and distinctiveness of the patients' profiles. The patient profiles were independent of demographic variables, body mass index, duration of diabetes, complexity of treatment, number of complications, social desirability, and major stress levels. The Psychosocial Taxonomy for Patients with Diabetes provides a new way to categorize individuals who may have more in common than just their type of diabetes and/or its treatment and can help target interventions to individual patients' needs.

  6. Functionality versus dimensionality in psychological taxonomies, and a puzzle of emotional valence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofimova, Irina

    2018-04-19

    This paper applies evolutionary and functional constructivism approaches to the discussion of psychological taxonomies, as implemented in the neurochemical model Functional Ensemble of Temperament (FET). FET asserts that neurochemical systems developed in evolution to regulate functional-dynamical aspects of construction of actions: orientation, selection (integration), energetic maintenance, and management of automatic behavioural elements. As an example, the paper reviews the neurochemical mechanisms of interlocking between emotional dispositions and performance capacities. Research shows that there are no specific neurophysiological systems of positive or negative affect, and that emotional valence is rather an integrative product of many brain systems during estimations of needs and the capacities required to satisfy these needs. The interlocking between emotional valence and functional aspects of performance appears to be only partial since all monoamine and opioid receptor systems play important roles in non-emotional aspects of behaviour, in addition to emotionality. This suggests that the Positive/Negative Affect framework for DSM/ICD classifications of mental disorders oversimplifies the structure of non-emotionality symptoms of these disorders. Contingent dynamical relationships between neurochemical systems cannot be represented by linear statistical models searching for independent dimensions (such as factor analysis); nevertheless, these relationships should be reflected in psychological and psychiatric taxonomies.This article is part of the theme issue 'Diverse perspectives on diversity: multi-disciplinary approaches to taxonomies of individual differences'. © 2018 The Authors.

  7. Qualitative data analysis for health services research: developing taxonomy, themes, and theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Elizabeth H; Curry, Leslie A; Devers, Kelly J

    2007-08-01

    To provide practical strategies for conducting and evaluating analyses of qualitative data applicable for health services researchers. DATA SOURCES AND DESIGN: We draw on extant qualitative methodological literature to describe practical approaches to qualitative data analysis. Approaches to data analysis vary by discipline and analytic tradition; however, we focus on qualitative data analysis that has as a goal the generation of taxonomy, themes, and theory germane to health services research. We describe an approach to qualitative data analysis that applies the principles of inductive reasoning while also employing predetermined code types to guide data analysis and interpretation. These code types (conceptual, relationship, perspective, participant characteristics, and setting codes) define a structure that is appropriate for generation of taxonomy, themes, and theory. Conceptual codes and subcodes facilitate the development of taxonomies. Relationship and perspective codes facilitate the development of themes and theory. Intersectional analyses with data coded for participant characteristics and setting codes can facilitate comparative analyses. Qualitative inquiry can improve the description and explanation of complex, real-world phenomena pertinent to health services research. Greater understanding of the processes of qualitative data analysis can be helpful for health services researchers as they use these methods themselves or collaborate with qualitative researchers from a wide range of disciplines.

  8. Increasing educational attainment and mortality reduction: a systematic review and taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byhoff, Elena; Hamati, Mary C; Power, Robyn; Burgard, Sarah A; Chopra, Vineet

    2017-09-18

    Understanding the relationship between increasing educational attainment and mortality reduction has important policy and public health implications. This systematic review of the literature establishes a taxonomy to facilitate evaluation of the association between educational attainment and early mortality. Following PRISMA guidelines, we searched Ovid Medline, Embase, PubMed and hand searches of references for English-language primary data analyses using education as an independent variable and mortality as a dependent variable. Initial searches were undertaken in February 2015 and updated in April 2016. One thousand, seven hundred and eleven unique articles were identified, 418 manuscripts were screened and 262 eligible studies were included in the review. After an iterative review process, the literature was divided into four study domains: (1) all-cause mortality (n = 68, 26.0%), (2) outcome-specific mortality (n = 89, 34.0%), (3) explanatory pathways (n = 51, 19.5%), and (4) trends over time (n = 54, 20.6%). These four domains comprise a novel taxonomy that can be implemented to better quantify the relationship between education and mortality. We propose an organizational taxonomy for the education-mortality literature based upon study characteristics that will allow for a more in-depth understanding of this association. Our review suggests that studies that include mediators or subgroups can explain part, but not all, of the relationship between education and early mortality. PROSPERO registration # CRD42015017182 .

  9. Classifying orofacial pains: a new proposal of taxonomy based on ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    NIXDORF, D. R.; DRANGSHOLT, M. T.; ETTLIN, D. A.; GAUL, C.; DE LEEUW, R.; SVENSSON, P.; ZAKRZEWSKA, J. M.; DE LAAT, A.; CEUSTERS, W.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Propose a new taxonomy model based on ontological principles for disorders that manifest themselves through the symptom of persistent orofacial pain and are commonly seen in clinical practice and difficult to manage. Consensus meeting of eight experts from various geographic areas representing different perspectives (orofacial pain, headache, oral medicine and ontology) as an initial step towards improving the taxonomy. Ontological principles were introduced, reviewed and applied during the consensus building process. Diagnostic criteria for persistent dento-alveolar pain disorder (PDAP) were formulated as an example to be used to model the taxonomical structure of all orofacial pain conditions. These criteria have the advantage of being (i) anatomically defined, (ii) in accordance with other classification systems for the provision of clinical care, (iii) descriptive and succinct, (iv) easy to adapt for applications in varying settings, (v) scalable and (vi) transferable for the description of pain disorders in other orofacial regions of interest. Limitations are that the criteria introduce new terminology, do not have widespread acceptance and have yet to be tested. These results were presented to the greater conference membership and were unanimously accepted. Consensus for the diagnostic criteria of PDAP was established within this working group. This is an initial first step towards developing a coherent taxonomy for orofacial pain disorders, which is needed to improve clinical research and care. PMID:21848527

  10. Classifying orofacial pains: a new proposal of taxonomy based on ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixdorf, D R; Drangsholt, M T; Ettlin, D A; Gaul, C; De Leeuw, R; Svensson, P; Zakrzewska, J M; De Laat, A; Ceusters, W

    2012-03-01

    We propose a new taxonomy model based on ontological principles for disorders that manifest themselves through the symptom of persistent orofacial pain and are commonly seen in clinical practice and difficult to manage. Consensus meeting of eight experts from various geographic areas representing different perspectives (orofacial pain, headache, oral medicine and ontology) as an initial step towards improving the taxonomy. Ontological principles were introduced, reviewed and applied during the consensus building process. Diagnostic criteria for persistent dento-alveolar pain disorder (PDAP) were formulated as an example to be used to model the taxonomical structure of all orofacial pain conditions. These criteria have the advantage of being (i) anatomically defined, (ii) in accordance with other classification systems for the provision of clinical care, (iii) descriptive and succinct, (iv) easy to adapt for applications in varying settings, (v) scalable and (vi) transferable for the description of pain disorders in other orofacial regions of interest. Limitations are that the criteria introduce new terminology, do not have widespread acceptance and have yet to be tested. These results were presented to the greater conference membership and were unanimously accepted. Consensus for the diagnostic criteria of PDAP was established within this working group. This is an initial first step towards developing a coherent taxonomy for orofacial pain disorders, which is needed to improve clinical research and care. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Taxonomy for science and engineering indicators: a reassessment

    OpenAIRE

    Mary Kathleen Feeney; Barry Bozeman

    2005-01-01

    Science policy researchers and scientists themselves know reflexively that differences among scientific fields matter. However, sets of government-sponsored science and engineering (S&E) indicators are quite general and in most instances do not report differences among fields. We evaluate the current limitations of S&E indicators, identifying particular data needs about scientific fields. We suggest developing a disaggregated, flexible S&E classification. We argue that disaggregating S&E indi...

  12. Application of phase-change materials in memory taxonomy

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lei; Tu, Liang; Wen, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Phase-change materials are suitable for data storage because they exhibit reversible transitions between crystalline and amorphous states that have distinguishable electrical and optical properties. Consequently, these materials find applications in diverse memory devices ranging from conventional optical discs to emerging nanophotonic devices. Current research efforts are mostly devoted to phase-change random access memory, whereas the applications of phase-change materials in other...

  13. A New Generic Taxonomy on Hybrid Malware Detection Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Robiah, Y.; Rahayu, S. Siti; Zaki, M. Mohd; Shahrin, S.; Faizal, M. A.; Marliza, R.

    2009-01-01

    Malware is a type of malicious program that replicate from host machine and propagate through network. It has been considered as one type of computer attack and intrusion that can do a variety of malicious activity on a computer. This paper addresses the current trend of malware detection techniques and identifies the significant criteria in each technique to improve malware detection in Intrusion Detection System (IDS). Several existing techniques are analyzing from 48 various researches and...

  14. Resolving prokaryotic taxonomy without rRNA: longer oligonucleotide word lengths improve genome and metagenome taxonomic classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsop, Eric B; Raymond, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Oligonucleotide signatures, especially tetranucleotide signatures, have been used as method for homology binning by exploiting an organism's inherent biases towards the use of specific oligonucleotide words. Tetranucleotide signatures have been especially useful in environmental metagenomics samples as many of these samples contain organisms from poorly classified phyla which cannot be easily identified using traditional homology methods, including NCBI BLAST. This study examines oligonucleotide signatures across 1,424 completed genomes from across the tree of life, substantially expanding upon previous work. A comprehensive analysis of mononucleotide through nonanucleotide word lengths suggests that longer word lengths substantially improve the classification of DNA fragments across a range of sizes of relevance to high throughput sequencing. We find that, at present, heptanucleotide signatures represent an optimal balance between prediction accuracy and computational time for resolving taxonomy using both genomic and metagenomic fragments. We directly compare the ability of tetranucleotide and heptanucleotide world lengths (tetranucleotide signatures are the current standard for oligonucleotide word usage analyses) for taxonomic binning of metagenome reads. We present evidence that heptanucleotide word lengths consistently provide more taxonomic resolving power, particularly in distinguishing between closely related organisms that are often present in metagenomic samples. This implies that longer oligonucleotide word lengths should replace tetranucleotide signatures for most analyses. Finally, we show that the application of longer word lengths to metagenomic datasets leads to more accurate taxonomic binning of DNA scaffolds and have the potential to substantially improve taxonomic assignment and assembly of metagenomic data.

  15. Resolving prokaryotic taxonomy without rRNA: longer oligonucleotide word lengths improve genome and metagenome taxonomic classification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric B Alsop

    Full Text Available Oligonucleotide signatures, especially tetranucleotide signatures, have been used as method for homology binning by exploiting an organism's inherent biases towards the use of specific oligonucleotide words. Tetranucleotide signatures have been especially useful in environmental metagenomics samples as many of these samples contain organisms from poorly classified phyla which cannot be easily identified using traditional homology methods, including NCBI BLAST. This study examines oligonucleotide signatures across 1,424 completed genomes from across the tree of life, substantially expanding upon previous work. A comprehensive analysis of mononucleotide through nonanucleotide word lengths suggests that longer word lengths substantially improve the classification of DNA fragments across a range of sizes of relevance to high throughput sequencing. We find that, at present, heptanucleotide signatures represent an optimal balance between prediction accuracy and computational time for resolving taxonomy using both genomic and metagenomic fragments. We directly compare the ability of tetranucleotide and heptanucleotide world lengths (tetranucleotide signatures are the current standard for oligonucleotide word usage analyses for taxonomic binning of metagenome reads. We present evidence that heptanucleotide word lengths consistently provide more taxonomic resolving power, particularly in distinguishing between closely related organisms that are often present in metagenomic samples. This implies that longer oligonucleotide word lengths should replace tetranucleotide signatures for most analyses. Finally, we show that the application of longer word lengths to metagenomic datasets leads to more accurate taxonomic binning of DNA scaffolds and have the potential to substantially improve taxonomic assignment and assembly of metagenomic data.

  16. A review of issues of nomenclature and taxonomy of Hypericum perforatum L. and Kew's Medicinal Plant Names Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauncey, Elizabeth Anne; Irving, Jason Thomas Whitley; Allkin, Robert

    2017-10-16

    To review which names are used to refer to Hypericum perforatum L. in health regulation and medicinal plant references, and the potential for ambiguity or imprecision. Structured searches of Kew's Medicinal Plant Names Services Resource, supplemented with other online bibliographic resources, found that the scientific name Hypericum perforatum L. is used consistently in the literature, but variation between subspecies is rarely considered by researchers. Research is still published using only the common name 'St John's wort' despite it being imprecise; at least 80 other common names are also used for this plant in multiple languages. Ambiguous and alternative plant names can lead to ineffective regulation, misinterpretation of literature, substitution of raw material or the failure to locate all published research. Kew's Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) maps all names used for each plant in medicinal plant references onto current taxonomy, thereby providing for disambiguation and comprehensive access to the regulations and references that cite that plant, regardless of the name used. MPNS also supplies the controlled vocabulary for plant names now required for compliance with a new standard (Identification of Medicinal Products, IDMP) adopted by medicines regulators worldwide. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  17. Biogeography and taxonomy of racket-tail hummingbirds (Aves: Trochilidae: Ocreatus): evidence for species delimitation from morphology and display behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuchmann, Karl-L; Weller, André-A; Jürgens, Dietmar

    2016-11-27

    We analyzed geographic variation, biogeography, and intrageneric relationships of racket-tail hummingbirds Ocreatus (Aves, Trochilidae). Presently, the genus is usually considered monospecific, with O. underwoodii including eight subspecies (polystictus, discifer, underwoodii, incommodus, melanantherus, peruanus, annae, addae), although up to three species have been recognized by some authors. In order to evaluate the current taxonomy we studied geographic variation in coloration, mensural characters, and behavioral data of all Ocreatus taxa. We briefly review the taxonomic history of the genus. Applying the Biological Species Concept, species delimitation was based on a qualitative-quantitative criteria analysis including an evaluation of character states. Our results indicate that the genus should be considered a superspecies with four species, the monotypic Ocreatus addae, O. annae, and O. peruanus, and the polytypic O. underwoodii (including the subspecies underwoodii, discifer, incommodus, melanantherus, polystictus). In this taxonomic treatment, O. annae becomes an endemic species to Peru and O. addae is endemic to Bolivia. We recommend additional sampling of distributional, ethological, and molecular data for an improved resolution of the evolutionary history of Ocreatus.

  18. Folk taxonomy and use of mushrooms in communities around Ngorongoro and Serengeti National Park, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibuhwa, Donatha Damian

    2012-09-21

    Maasai and Kurya form two main communities around the Serengeti National Park in Tanzania which are mainly pastoralists. Changing climate to excessive drought, have recently forced them to start practicing subsistence farming which is severely affected by wild animals. This study explored status of the folk taxonomy and uses of mushrooms in the two communities as a pave way for possibilities of introducing mushroom cultivation, an alternative crop which is hardly affected by wild animals. Folk taxonomy and use mushrooms by the Kurya and Maasai communities were investigated. Information was collected by face to face interviews with 150 individuals in 6 selected villages. Using descriptive statistics by Statistic Package for the Social Science (SPSS) version 17.0, the demographic characteristics of informants were evaluated and cross relationships with the recorded data were analysed. Kurya are mycophilic with 94% of the informants recognizing utilization of the wild mushroom either as foodstuff or as tonics while the Maasai are mycophobic with 99% being unaware of the edibility of mushroom although 28% recognized mushrooms as tonic. For both communities, the knowledge of mushroom utilization and folk taxonomy increased with age of the informants, while it decreases with formal education level of the informants which imply that the basis of knowledge is mainly traditional. Comparing the two communities, the Maasai use mushrooms only for medicinal purposes and never sought them for food while the Kurya were well knowledgeable on the edibility and folk classification especially the Termitomyces species. Characters used in folkal taxonomy included color and size of the basidiomata, shape and size of the pseudorrhiza, habitats and edibility information. A new use of ascospores whereby they anaesthaesia bees during honey harvesting was discovered, and mushroom cultivation was widely welcomed (94.7%) as an alternative crop which is rarely affected by wild animals. In order

  19. Folk taxonomy and use of mushrooms in communities around Ngorongoro and Serengeti National Park, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibuhwa Donatha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maasai and Kurya form two main communities around the Serengeti National Park in Tanzania which are mainly pastoralists. Changing climate to excessive drought, have recently forced them to start practicing subsistence farming which is severely affected by wild animals. This study explored status of the folk taxonomy and uses of mushrooms in the two communities as a pave way for possibilities of introducing mushroom cultivation, an alternative crop which is hardly affected by wild animals. Methods Folk taxonomy and use mushrooms by the Kurya and Maasai communities were investigated. Information was collected by face to face interviews with 150 individuals in 6 selected villages. Using descriptive statistics by Statistic Package for the Social Science (SPSS version 17.0, the demographic characteristics of informants were evaluated and cross relationships with the recorded data were analysed. Results Kurya are mycophilic with 94% of the informants recognizing utilization of the wild mushroom either as foodstuff or as tonics while the Maasai are mycophobic with 99% being unaware of the edibility of mushroom although 28% recognized mushrooms as tonic. For both communities, the knowledge of mushroom utilization and folk taxonomy increased with age of the informants, while it decreases with formal education level of the informants which imply that the basis of knowledge is mainly traditional. Comparing the two communities, the Maasai use mushrooms only for medicinal purposes and never sought them for food while the Kurya were well knowledgeable on the edibility and folk classification especially the Termitomyces species. Characters used in folkal taxonomy included color and size of the basidiomata, shape and size of the pseudorrhiza, habitats and edibility information. A new use of ascospores whereby they anaesthaesia bees during honey harvesting was discovered, and mushroom cultivation was widely welcomed (94.7% as an alternative

  20. Phylogeny of Lagos bat virus: challenges for lyssavirus taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markotter, W; Kuzmin, I; Rupprecht, C E; Nel, L H

    2008-07-01

    Lagos bat virus (LBV) belongs to genotype 2 of the Lyssavirus genus. The complete nucleoprotein (N), phosphoprotein (P), matrixprotein (M) and glycoprotein (G) genes of 13 LBV isolates were sequenced and phylogenetically compared with other lyssavirus representatives. The results identified three different lineages of LBV. One of these lineages demonstrated sufficient sequence diversity to be considered a new lyssavirus genotype (Dakar bat lyssavirus). The suggested quantitative separation of lyssavirus genotypes using the N, P, M and G genes was also investigated using P-distances matrixes. Results indicated that the current criteria should be revised since overlaps between intergenotypic and intragenotypic variation occur.