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Sample records for bivalvia current taxonomy

  1. Current taxonomy of phages infecting lactic acid bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer eMahony

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phages infecting lactic acid bacteria have been the focus of significant research attention over the past three decades. Through the isolation and characterization of hundreds of phage isolates, it has been possible to classify phages of the dairy starter and adjunct bacteria Lactococus lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus, Leuconostoc spp. and Lactobacillus spp. Among these, phages of L. lactis have been most thoroughly scrutinized and serve as an excellent model system to address issues that arise when attempting taxonomic classification of phages infecting other LAB species. Here, we present an overview of the current taxonomy of phages infecting LAB genera of industrial significance, the methods employed in these taxonomic efforts and how these may be employed for the taxonomy of phages of currently underrepresented and emerging phage species.

  2. Taxonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stauffer, Jr., Jay Richard; Madsen, Henry; Konings, Adrianus

    2007-01-01

    , intermediate-host snails, and human schistosomes in southern Lake Malawi could be applied to other areas throughout the lake. More than two-thirds of the cichlid species in Lake Malawi are undescribed, the taxonomy of the Bulinus snails is poorly known, and not all strains of Schistosoma hematobium have been...

  3. Bad taxonomy can kill : molecular reevaluation of Unio mancus Lamarck, 1819 (Bivalvia : Unionidae and its accepted subspecies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prie V.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The conservation status of European unionid species rests on the scientific knowledge of the 1980s, before the current revival of taxonomic reappraisals based on molecular characters. The taxonomic status of Unio mancus Lamarck, 1819, superficially similar to Unio pictorum (Linnaeus, 1758 and often synonymized with it, is re-evaluated based on a random sample of major French drainages and a systematic sample of historical type localities. We confirm the validity of U. mancus as a distinct species occurring in France and Spain, where it is structured into three geographical units here ranked as subspecies: U. m. mancus [Atlantic drainages, eastern Pyrenees, Spanish Mediterranean drainages], U. m. turtonii Payraudeau, 1826 [coastal drainages East of the Rhône and Corsica] and U. m. requienii Michaud, 1831 [Seine, Saône-Rhône, and coastal drainages West of the Rhône]. Many populations of Unio mancus have been extirpated during the 20th century and the remaining populations continue to be under pressure; U. mancus satisfies the criteria to be listed as «Endangered» in the IUCN Red List.

  4. Taxonomy and biology of proteocephalidean cestodes: current state and perspectives

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Scholz, Tomáš; de Chambrier, A.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 2 (2003), s. 65-75 ISSN 0440-6605 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/01/1314 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : Proteocephalidea * taxonomy * phylogeny Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.474, year: 2003

  5. A critique of current methods in nematode taxonomy | Abebe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the past few decades, there have been efforts to integrate molecular methods and digital 3D image-capturing technology in nematode taxonomy, the former to enhance the accuracy of identification of such a taxonomically challenging group and the latter to communicate morphological data. While the employment of ...

  6. My Home is my Bazaar - A Taxonomy and Classification of Current Wireless Home Network Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Theis S.

    2011-01-01

    . First, we review the technical details of a number of established wireless technologies currently sold in the market. Second, a taxonomy is constructed based on the ISO 9126 quality framework. A number of evaluation criteria are determined such as maturity, replaceability, openness, resource efficiency...

  7. Questioning current practice in brown bear, Ursus arctos, conservation in Europe that undervalues taxonomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gippoliti, S.

    2016-07-01

    The present paper highlights problems associated with the currently–accepted taxonomy of brown bear, Ursus arctos, and their consequences for conservation at the European level. The enormous morphological variability within Ursus arctos is not acknowledged in current taxonomy and conservation practice. Seven major clades are recognized in Ursus arctos by molecular researchers, and although Western Europe maintains most of the populations belonging to the relict Clade 1 brown bear lineage, no reference to this is made in current conservation policy. Furthermore, the tiny population of Apennine brown bears, characterized by unique skull morphology, is not even recognized as a distinct ESU (evolutionari significant unit) by current European legislation, nor is it included in the IUCN Red List. This may have serious consequences as brown bear conservation in Western Europe has been mainly based on restocking and reintroduction programs. (Author)

  8. Historical evolution and current status of the taxonomy of genus Pseudomonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peix, Alvaro; Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; Velázquez, Encarna

    2009-12-01

    The genus Pseudomonas was described in 1894 and is one of the most diverse and ubiquitous bacterial genera whose species have been isolated worldwide in all kinds of environments, from the Antarctica to the Tropics, present in sediments, clinical samples, plant, fungi and diseased animal specimens, water, soil, plant rhizosphere, sea, deserts, etc. The taxonomy of the genus has been controversial for years since a lot of bacterial taxa initially included in genus Pseudomonas have been reclassified in other genera or species from a different class of Proteobacteria over the years, as techniques for characterization and classification of microorganisms improved, aiming to set a phylogenetic classification of the species. In this review, the historical evolution of the taxonomy of Pseudomonas is described, and the currently valid criteria and future challenges for taxonomy of the genus and techniques used to achieve the necessary characterization for classifying the species are discussed. Finally, all the validly published Pseudomonas species at present are listed with an overview of their diversity and ecology.

  9. Orobanche caryophyllacea Sm. (Orobanchaceae in Poland: current distribution, taxonomy, plant communities and hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Piwowarczyk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the current distribution of Orobanche caryophyllacea Sm. in Poland based on a critical revision of herbarium and literature data as well as the results of my field studies. The majority of localities are in south and south-eastern Poland: Małopolska Upland, Lublin Upland, Roztocze, Przemyśl Foothills, Pieniny Mts, rarely in the valleys of the Lower Vistula and Oder rivers or Wolin island. The distribution map in Poland is included. The taxonomy, biology and ecology of the species are discussed.

  10. Orobanche flava (Orobanchaceae in Poland: current distribution, taxonomy, hosts and plant communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piwowarczyk Renata

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Orobanche flava is a species of Central European mountain ranges, mainly the Alps and Carpathian Mts. The paper presents the current distribution of O. flava in Poland based on a critical revision of herbarium and literature data as well as results of field investigations conducted between 1999 and 2014. The distribution of species is centered in southern Poland, mainly in the Carpathian Mts., and, sporadically, in the Sudeten Mts. The distribution of O. flava in Poland is mapped. The taxonomy, biology, and ecology are also discussed.

  11. The current status on the taxonomy of Pseudomonas revisited: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peix, Alvaro; Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; Velázquez, Encarna

    2018-01-01

    The genus Pseudomonas described in 1894 is one of the most diverse and ubiquitous bacterial genera which encompass species isolated worldwide. In the last years more than 70 new species have been described, which were isolated from different environments, including soil, water, sediments, air, animals, plants, fungi, algae, compost, human and animal related sources. Some of these species have been isolated in extreme environments, such as Antarctica or Atacama desert, and from contaminated water or soil. Also, some species recently described are plant or animal pathogens. In this review, we revised the current status of the taxonomy of genus Pseudomonas and the methodologies currently used for the description of novel species which includes, in addition to the classic ones, new methodologies such as MALDI-TOF MS, MLSA and genome analyses. The novel Pseudomonas species described in the last years are listed, together with the available genome sequences of the type strains of Pseudomonas species present in different databases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. My home is my bazaar - A taxonomy and classification of current wireless home network protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torbensen, Rune; Hansen, Klaus Marius; Hjorth, Theis Solberg

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in wireless communication have produced a multitude of related protocols, leading to a growing market of products for home automation systems within energy management, elder care, etc. These systems are different from wired ones in terms of architectures and qualities, which leads......, cost, security, etc. Third, a classification based on the taxonomy and the collected data is presented. In the final discussion, we identify a number of key aspects that could be important technology criteria for future development of home automation protocols....

  13. The Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching and Assessing: Current Practices at Polytechnics in Bangladesh and its Effects in Developing Students' Competences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruque A. Haolader

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Polytechnics in Bangladesh endeavour to produce quality graduates for national and international job markets. The quality of graduates depends on several factors. This study examines the implementation process of the polytechnic curriculum with the objectives of determining the current level of practices in learn-ing/teaching material design, in delivering curriculum content, in assessing students and its effect on students' competence development. Data was collected through observation, opinion survey and competence test. Qualitative and quantitative methodologies were used for data interpretation and analysis in this descriptive type of research study. Findings revealed that the learning materials are mainly theory oriented and mostly cover those contents usually common in exams. About half of teachers are aware of the taxonomy for learning, teaching and assessing, but they rarely put importance on it. In the classroom, teachers spend only a little time for delivering content at the level of apply/analyse. However, a significant number of tasks performed in labs are practical and occupation relevant and can be classified at higher levels of the taxonomy. In student assessment, the test-items assess mainly theoretical knowledge at the level of remember. The effect of these practices is reflected in demonstrating student performance in a competence test. The study concludes with some recommendations.

  14. Fauna Europaea: Mollusca – Bivalvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Araujo

    2015-07-01

    European freshwater bivalves belong to the Orders Unionoida and Cardiida. All the European unionoids are included in the superfamily Unionoidea, the freshwater mussels or naiads. The European cardiids belong to the following three superfamilies: Cardioidea, Cyrenoidea and Dreissenoidea. Among the Unionoidea there are the most imperilled animal groups on the planet while the Cardioidea includes the cosmopolitan genus Pisidium, the Cyrenoidea the Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea and the Dreissenoidea the famous invasive zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha. Basic information is summarized on their taxonomy and biology. Tabulations include a complete list of the current estimated families, genera and species.

  15. Taxonomy Icon Data: [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mphii_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Cycas+rumphii&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Cycas+rumphii&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Cycas+rumphii&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Cycas+rumphii&t=NS ...

  16. Taxonomy Icon Data: [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Tyrannosaurus rex Chordata/Vertebrata/Reptilia/Dinosauria,Pterosauromorpha Tyrannosaurus_rex_L.png Tyrannosa...urus_rex_NL.png Tyrannosaurus_rex_S.png Tyrannosaurus_rex_NS.png http://bioscienced...bc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tyrannosaurus+rex&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tyrannosaurus...+rex&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tyrannosaurus+r...ex&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tyrannosaurus+rex&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=109 ...

  17. Taxonomy Icon Data: [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Phaeodactylum tricornutum Phaeodactylum_tricornutum_L.png Phaeodactylum_tricornutum..._NL.png Phaeodactylum_tricornutum_S.png Phaeodactylum_tricornutum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ic...on/icon.cgi?i=Phaeodactylum+tricornutum&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Phaeodactylum+tricorn...utum&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Phaeodactylum+tricorn...utum&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Phaeodactylum+tricornutum&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=213 ...

  18. Taxonomy Icon Data: [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Triceratops+horridus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon.../icon.cgi?i=Triceratops+horridus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon....cgi?i=Triceratops+horridus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Triceratops+horridus&t=NS ... ...ratops_horridus_L.png Triceratops_horridus_NL.png Triceratops_horridus_S.png Triceratops_horridus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxo

  19. Taxonomy Icon Data: [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available la_trichopoda_S.png Amborella_trichopoda_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Amborella+t...richopoda&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Amborella+trichopoda&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Amborella+trichopoda&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Amborella+trichopoda&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=13 ...

  20. Clinical and Laboratory Features of the Nocardia spp. Based on Current Molecular Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Elliott, Barbara A.; Brown, June M.; Conville, Patricia S.; Wallace, Richard J.

    2006-01-01

    The recent explosion of newly described species of Nocardia results from the impact in the last decade of newer molecular technology, including PCR restriction enzyme analysis and 16S rRNA sequencing. These molecular techniques have revolutionized the identification of the nocardiae by providing rapid and accurate identification of recognized nocardiae and, at the same time, revealing new species and a number of yet-to-be-described species. There are currently more than 30 species of nocardiae of human clinical significance, with the majority of isolates being N. nova complex, N. abscessus, N. transvalensis complex, N. farcinica, N. asteroides type VI (N. cyriacigeorgica), and N. brasiliensis. These species cause a wide variety of diseases and have variable drug susceptibilities. Accurate identification often requires referral to a reference laboratory with molecular capabilities, as many newer species are genetically distinct from established species yet have few or no distinguishing phenotypic characteristics. Correct identification is important in deciding the clinical relevance of a species and in the clinical management and treatment of patients with nocardial disease. This review characterizes the currently known pathogenic species of Nocardia, including clinical disease, drug susceptibility, and methods of identification. PMID:16614249

  1. De tweekleppigen van het Noordzeekanaal (Mollusca: Bivalvia).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haaren, van T.; Tempelman, D.

    2006-01-01

    The bivalves of the Noordzeekanaal (Mollusca: Bivalvia) In recent years, the macrobenthos of the Noordzeekanaal area, west of Amsterdam, has been surveyed intensively. The area consists of a main, brackish channel and a set of deep sea harbours. It was discovered that several bivalve species were

  2. ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simmonds, Peter; Becher, Paul; Bukh, Jens

    2017-01-01

    The Flaviviridae is a family of small enveloped viruses with RNA genomes of 9000-13 000 bases. Most infect mammals and birds. Many flaviviruses are host-specific and pathogenic, such as hepatitis C virus in the genus Hepacivirus. The majority of known members in the genus Flavivirus are arthropod...... borne, and many are important human and veterinary pathogens (e.g. yellow fever virus, dengue virus). This is a summary of the current International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) report on the taxonomy of the Flaviviridae, which is available at www.ictv.global/report/flaviviridae....

  3. Taxonomy Icon Data: soybean [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available max_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Glycine+max&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Glycine+max&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Glycine+max&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Glycine+max&t=NS ...

  4. Taxonomy Icon Data: cabbage [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _oleracea_S.png Brassica_oleracea_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Brassica+oleracea&...t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Brassica+oleracea&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Brassica+oleracea&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Brassica+oleracea&t=NS ...

  5. Taxonomy Icon Data: valencia orange [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _sinensis_S.png Citrus_sinensis_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Citrus+sinensis&t=L ...http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Citrus+sinensis&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/...icon.cgi?i=Citrus+sinensis&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Citrus+sinensis&t=NS ...

  6. Taxonomy Icon Data: potato [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available uberosum_S.png Solanum_tuberosum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Solanum+tuberosum&t...=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Solanum+tuberosum&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_...icon/icon.cgi?i=Solanum+tuberosum&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Solanum+tuberosum&t=NS ...

  7. Taxonomy Icon Data: white rhinoceros [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available g http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ceratotherium+simum&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_...icon/icon.cgi?i=Ceratotherium+simum&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ic...on.cgi?i=Ceratotherium+simum&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ceratotherium+simum&t=NS ...

  8. Taxonomy Icon Data: onion [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available a_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Allium+cepa&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_i...con/icon.cgi?i=Allium+cepa&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Allium+cepa&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Allium+cepa&t=NS ...

  9. Taxonomy Icon Data: Danio rerio [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available io_NL.png Danio_rerio_S.png Danio_rerio_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Danio+rerio&...t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Danio+rerio&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/...icon.cgi?i=Danio+rerio&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Danio...+rerio&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=92 ...

  10. Taxonomy Icon Data: Asian Swallowtail [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available png Papilio_xuthus_S.png Papilio_xuthus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papilio+xuth...us&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papilio+xuthus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Papilio+xuthus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cg...i?i=Papilio+xuthus&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=123 ...

  11. Taxonomy Icon Data: Grey heron [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _NL.png Ardea_cinerea_S.png Ardea_cinerea_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ardea+cine...rea&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ardea+cinerea&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Ardea+cinerea&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi...?i=Ardea+cinerea&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=2 ...

  12. Taxonomy Icon Data: Lotus japonicus [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Lotus japonicus Lotus japonicus Lotus_japonicus_L.png Lotus_japonicus_NL.png Lotus_japonicus_S.png Lotus_jap...onicus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lotus+japonicus&t=L ...http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lotus+japonicus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lotus+jap...onicus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lotus+japonicus&t=NS ...

  13. Taxonomy Icon Data: Sitka spruce [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Sitka spruce Picea sitchensis Picea_sitchensis_L.png Picea_sitchensis_NL.png Picea_sitchen...sis_S.png Picea_sitchensis_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Picea+sitchensis&t...=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Picea+sitchensis&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_i...con/icon.cgi?i=Picea+sitchensis&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Picea+sitchensis&t=NS ...

  14. Taxonomy Icon Data: Aquilegia formosa [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Aquilegia formosa Aquilegia formosa Aquilegia_formosa_L.png Aquilegia_formosa_NL.png Aquileg...ia_formosa_S.png Aquilegia_formosa_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aquilegi...a+formosa&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aquilegia+formosa&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.j...p/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aquilegia+formosa&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aquilegia+formosa&t=NS ...

  15. Taxonomy Icon Data: chicken [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available .png Gallus_gallus_S.png Gallus_gallus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Gallus+gallus...&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Gallus+gallus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ic...on/icon.cgi?i=Gallus+gallus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Gallus+gallus&t=NS ...

  16. Taxonomy Icon Data: wild radish [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _NL.png Raphanus_raphanistrum_S.png Raphanus_raphanistrum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon....cgi?i=Raphanus+raphanistrum&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Raphanus+raphanistrum&t=NL ...http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Raphanus+raphanistrum&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Raphanus+raphanistrum&t=NS ...

  17. Taxonomy Icon Data: Bacillus subtilis [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available g Bacillus_subtilis_S.png Bacillus_subtilis_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Bacillus...+subtilis&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Bacillus+subtilis&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Bacillus+subtilis&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Bacillus+subtilis&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=214 ...

  18. Taxonomy Icon Data: Ramazzottius [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ttius_S.png Ramazzottius_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ramazzottius&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ramazzottius&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ra...mazzottius&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ramazzottius&t=NS... http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=203 ...

  19. Taxonomy Icon Data: koji mold [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ergillus_oryzae_S.png Aspergillus_oryzae_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aspergillus...+oryzae&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aspergillus+oryzae&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aspergillus+oryzae&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Aspergillus+oryzae&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=63 ...

  20. Taxonomy Icon Data: Comb jelly [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cucumis_S.png Beroe_cucumis_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Beroe+cucumis&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Beroe+cucumis&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi...?i=Beroe+cucumis&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Beroe+cucum...is&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=30 ...

  1. Taxonomy Icon Data: Guillardia theta [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available illardia_theta_S.png Guillardia_theta_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Guillardia+the...ta&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Guillardia+theta&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Guillardia+theta&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ico...n.cgi?i=Guillardia+theta&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=60 ...

  2. Taxonomy Icon Data: turkey [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gris_gallopavo_NL.png Meleagris_gallopavo_S.png Meleagris_gallopavo_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_...icon/icon.cgi?i=Meleagris+gallopavo&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Meleagris+gallopavo...&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Meleagris+gallopavo&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Meleagris+gallopavo&t=NS ...

  3. Taxonomy Icon Data: Common mormon [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ng Papilio_polytes_S.png Papilio_polytes_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papilio+pol...ytes&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papilio+polytes&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papilio+polytes&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ico...n.cgi?i=Papilio+polytes&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=80 ...

  4. Taxonomy Icon Data: Peanut [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gaea_S.png Arachis_hypogaea_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Arachis+hypogaea&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxo...nomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Arachis+hypogaea&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ic...on.cgi?i=Arachis+hypogaea&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ar...achis+hypogaea&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=207 ...

  5. Taxonomy Icon Data: Atlantic salmon [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _salar_NL.png Salmo_salar_S.png Salmo_salar_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Salmo+sa...lar&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Salmo+salar&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_i...con/icon.cgi?i=Salmo+salar&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Salmo+salar&t=NS ...

  6. Taxonomy Icon Data: phylum Xenoturbellida [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available phylum Xenoturbellida Xenoturbella bocki Xenoturbellida Xenoturbella_bocki_L.png Xenoturbell...a_bocki_NL.png Xenoturbella_bocki_S.png Xenoturbella_bocki_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_...icon/icon.cgi?i=Xenoturbella+bocki&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Xenoturbella+bocki&t...=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Xenoturbella+bocki&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Xenoturbella+bocki&t=NS ...

  7. Taxonomy Icon Data: sorghum [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sorghum Sorghum bicolor Sorghum_bicolor_L.png Sorghum_bicolor_NL.png Sorghum_bicolor_S.png Sorghum_bicolor..._NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Sorghum+bicolor&t=L http://b...iosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Sorghum+bicolor&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Sorghum+bicolor...&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Sorghum+bicolor&t=NS ...

  8. Taxonomy Icon Data: honey bee [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available honey bee Apis mellifera Arthropoda Apis_mellifera_L.png Apis_mellifera_NL.png Apis_mellife...ra_S.png Apis_mellifera_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Apis+mellifera&t=L h...ttp://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Apis+mellifera&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Apis+mellife...ra&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Apis+mellifera&t=NS ...

  9. Taxonomy Icon Data: Arabian camel [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+dromedarius&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+dromedarius&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ic...on/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+dromedarius&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+dromedarius&t=NS ...

  10. Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese serow [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Capricornis+crispus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Capricornis+crispus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_i...con/icon.cgi?i=Capricornis+crispus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Capricornis+crispus&t=NS ...

  11. Taxonomy Icon Data: loblolly pine [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nus_taeda_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Pinus+taeda&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Pinus+taeda&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Pinus+taeda&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Pinus+taeda&t=NS ...

  12. Taxonomy Icon Data: apple [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pumila_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Malus+pumila&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Malus+pumila&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Malus+pumila&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Malus+pumila&t=NS ...

  13. Taxonomy Icon Data: rape [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Brassica_napus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Brassica+napus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Brassica+napus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Brassic...a+napus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Brassica+napus&t=NS ...

  14. Taxonomy Icon Data: peach [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available g Prunus_persica_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Prunus+persica&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Prunus+persica&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Prunus...+persica&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Prunus+persica&t=NS ...

  15. Taxonomy Icon Data: rice [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ativa_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Oryza+sativa&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Oryza+sativa&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Oryza+sativa&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Oryza+sativa&t=NS ...

  16. Taxonomy Icon Data: rabbit [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available g http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Oryctolagus+cuniculus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Oryctolagus+cuniculus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ico...n/icon.cgi?i=Oryctolagus+cuniculus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Oryctolagus+cuniculus&t=NS ...

  17. Taxonomy Icon Data: Planaria [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Planaria Dugesia japonica Platyhelminthes Dugesia_japonica_L.png Dugesia_japonica_NL.png Dugesia_jap...onica_S.png Dugesia_japonica_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Dugesia+jap...onica&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Dugesia+japonica&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.j...p/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Dugesia+japonica&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_...icon/icon.cgi?i=Dugesia+japonica&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=124 ...

  18. Taxonomy Icon Data: Schistosoma japonicum [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Schistosoma japonicum Schistosoma japonicum Platyhelminthes Schistosoma_japonicum_L.png Schistosoma_jap...onicum_NL.png Schistosoma_japonicum_S.png Schistosoma_japonicum_NS.png http://bioscience...dbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Schistosoma+japonicum&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Schistosoma+jap...onicum&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Schistosoma+jap...onicum&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Schistosoma+japonicum&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=132 ...

  19. Taxonomy Icon Data: hamadryas baboon [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available hamadryas baboon Papio hamadryas Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Primate Papio_ham...adryas_L.png Papio_hamadryas_NL.png Papio_hamadryas_S.png Papio_hamadryas_NS.png http://bioscien...cedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papio+hamadryas&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papio+ham...adryas&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papio+hamadryas&...t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papio+hamadryas&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=186 ...

  20. Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese Ratsnake [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Japanese Ratsnake Elaphe climacophora Chordata/Vertebrata/Reptilia/etc Elaphe_climacophora_L.png Elaphe_clim...acophora_NL.png Elaphe_climacophora_S.png Elaphe_climacophora_NS.png http://bioscie...ncedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Elaphe+climacophora&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Elaphe+clima...cophora&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Elaphe+clima...cophora&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Elaphe+climacophora&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=3 ...

  1. Taxonomy Icon Data: Toxoplasma gondii [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii Toxoplasma gondii Toxoplasma_gondii_L.png Toxoplasma_gondii_NL.png Toxoplasma..._gondii_S.png Toxoplasma_gondii_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Toxoplasma...+gondii&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Toxoplasma+gondii&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.j...p/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Toxoplasma+gondii&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Toxoplasma+gondii&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=113 ...

  2. Taxonomy Icon Data: chinese pangolin [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available chinese pangolin Manis pentadactyla Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/etc. Mani...s_pentadactyla_L.png Manis_pentadactyla_NL.png Manis_pentadactyla_S.png Manis_pentadactyla_NS.png htt...p://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Manis+pentadactyla&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Mani...s+pentadactyla&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Mani...s+pentadactyla&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Manis+pentadactyla&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=190 ...

  3. Taxonomy Icon Data: oriental silverfish [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available oriental silverfish Ctenolepisma villosa Arthropoda Ctenolepisma_villosa_L.png Ctenolepisma_villosa..._NL.png Ctenolepisma_villosa_S.png Ctenolepisma_villosa_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxon...omy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ctenolepisma+villosa&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ctenolepisma+villosa...&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ctenolepisma+villosa...&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ctenolepisma+villosa&t=NS ...

  4. Taxonomy Icon Data: Atlantic hagfish [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available L.png Myxine_glutinosa_NL.png Myxine_glutinosa_S.png Myxine_glutinosa_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Myxine+glutinosa&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Myxine+glutinosa&t=N...L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Myxine+glutinosa&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Myxine+glutinosa&t=NS ...

  5. Taxonomy Icon Data: Eastern Gorilla [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available te Gorilla_beringei_L.png Gorilla_beringei_NL.png Gorilla_beringei_S.png Gorilla_beringei_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Gorilla+beringei&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=...Gorilla+beringei&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Gorilla+be...ringei&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Gorilla+beringei&t=NS ...

  6. Taxonomy Icon Data: mandrill [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available drillus_sphinx_L.png Mandrillus_sphinx_NL.png Mandrillus_sphinx_S.png Mandrillus_sphinx_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Mandrillus+sphinx&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=M...andrillus+sphinx&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Mandrillus...+sphinx&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Mandrillus+sphinx&t=NS ...

  7. Taxonomy Icon Data: fruit fly [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available la_melanogaster_NL.png Drosophila_melanogaster_S.png Drosophila_melanogaster_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Drosophila+melanogaster&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Drosop...hila+melanogaster&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Drosophil...a+melanogaster&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Drosophila+melanogaster&t=NS ...

  8. Taxonomy Icon Data: sea urchin [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rotus_lividus_NL.png Paracentrotus_lividus_S.png Paracentrotus_lividus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Paracentrotus+lividus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Paracentrotus+...lividus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Paracentrotus+livid...us&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Paracentrotus+lividus&t=NS ...

  9. Taxonomy Icon Data: southern cassowary [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _L.png Casuarius_casuarius_NL.png Casuarius_casuarius_S.png Casuarius_casuarius_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Casuarius+casuarius&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Casuari...us+casuarius&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Casuarius+casu...arius&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Casuarius+casuarius&t=NS ...

  10. Taxonomy Icon Data: maize [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available maize Zea mays Zea_mays_L.png Zea_mays_NL.png Zea_mays_S.png Zea_mays_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Zea+mays&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Zea...+mays&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Zea+mays&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Zea+mays&t=NS ...

  11. Taxonomy Icon Data: rainbow trout [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ss_L.png Oncorhynchus_mykiss_NL.png Oncorhynchus_mykiss_S.png Oncorhynchus_mykiss_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Oncorhynchus+mykiss&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Oncor...hynchus+mykiss&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Oncorhynchus...+mykiss&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Oncorhynchus+mykiss&t=NS ...

  12. Taxonomy Icon Data: reindeer [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available a Rangifer_tarandus_L.png Rangifer_tarandus_NL.png Rangifer_tarandus_S.png Rangifer_tarandus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Rangifer+tarandus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cg...i?i=Rangifer+tarandus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Rangi...fer+tarandus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Rangifer+tarandus&t=NS ...

  13. Taxonomy Icon Data: Clementine [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available s_clementina_S.png Citrus_clementina_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Citrus+clementi...na&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Citrus+clementina&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Citrus+clementina&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Citrus+clementina&t=NS ...

  14. Taxonomy Icon Data: tomato [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Solanum_lycopersicum_S.png Solanum_lycopersicum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Sola...num+lycopersicum&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Solanum+lycopersicum&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Solanum+lycopersicum&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Solanum+lycopersicum&t=NS ...

  15. Taxonomy Icon Data: wapiti [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Cervus_canadensis_L.png Cervus_canadensis_NL.png Cervus_canadensis_S.png Cervus_canadensis_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Cervus+canadensis&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?...i=Cervus+canadensis&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Cervus+...canadensis&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Cervus+canadensis&t=NS ...

  16. Taxonomy Icon Data: rat [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available egicus_L.png Rattus_norvegicus_NL.png Rattus_norvegicus_S.png Rattus_norvegicus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Rattus+norvegicus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Rattus+no...rvegicus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Rattus+norvegicus&...t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Rattus+norvegicus&t=NS ...

  17. Taxonomy Icon Data: white shark [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available harias_L.png Carcharodon_carcharias_NL.png Carcharodon_carcharias_S.png Carcharodon_carcharias_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Carcharodon+carcharias&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/...icon.cgi?i=Carcharodon+carcharias&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon....cgi?i=Carcharodon+carcharias&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Carcharodon+carcharias&t=NS ...

  18. Taxonomy Icon Data: Aardvark [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available opus_afer_L.png Orycteropus_afer_NL.png Orycteropus_afer_S.png Orycteropus_afer_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Orycteropus+afer&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Orycteropu...s+afer&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Orycteropus+afer&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Orycteropus+afer&t=NS ...

  19. Taxonomy Icon Data: quaking aspen [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available png Populus_tremuloides_S.png Populus_tremuloides_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Po...pulus+tremuloides&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Populus+tremuloides&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Populus+tremuloides&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Populus+tremuloides&t=NS ...

  20. Taxonomy Icon Data: ostrich [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available amelus_NL.png Struthio_camelus_S.png Struthio_camelus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?...i=Struthio+camelus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Struthio+camelus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Struthio+camelus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Struthio+camelus&t=NS ...

  1. Taxonomy Icon Data: wild goat [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Capra_aegagrus_L.png Capra_aegagrus_NL.png Capra_aegagrus_S.png Capra_aegagrus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Capra+aegagrus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Capra+aegagru...s&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Capra+aegagrus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Capra+aegagrus&t=NS ...

  2. Taxonomy Icon Data: water bears [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ng Echiniscus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Echiniscus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Echiniscus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Echiniscus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/tax...onomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Echiniscus&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=58 ...

  3. Taxonomy Icon Data: thale cress [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available .png Arabidopsis_thaliana_S.png Arabidopsis_thaliana_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i...=Arabidopsis+thaliana&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Arabidopsis+thaliana&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Arabidopsis+thaliana&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Arabidopsis+thaliana&t=NS ...

  4. Taxonomy Icon Data: llama [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ma_L.png Lama_glama_NL.png Lama_glama_S.png Lama_glama_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi...?i=Lama+glama&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lama+glama&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lama+glama&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lama+glama&t=NS ...

  5. Taxonomy Icon Data: Australian lungfish [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Neoceratodus+forsteri&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ico...n/icon.cgi?i=Neoceratodus+forsteri&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ico...n.cgi?i=Neoceratodus+forsteri&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Neoceratodus+forsteri&t=NS ... ...dus_forsteri_L.png Neoceratodus_forsteri_NL.png Neoceratodus_forsteri_S.png Neoceratodus_forsteri_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxo

  6. Taxonomy Icon Data: brown bear [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available s_arctos_L.png Ursus_arctos_NL.png Ursus_arctos_S.png Ursus_arctos_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_i...con/icon.cgi?i=Ursus+arctos&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ursus+arctos&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ursus+arctos&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ursus+arctos&t=NS ...

  7. Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese skink [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available utatus_L.png Eumeces_latiscutatus_NL.png Eumeces_latiscutatus_S.png Eumeces_latiscutatus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Eumeces+latiscutatus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi...?i=Eumeces+latiscutatus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Eum...eces+latiscutatus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Eumeces+latiscutatus&t=NS ...

  8. Taxonomy Icon Data: Sugarcane [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available L.png Saccharum_officinarum_S.png Saccharum_officinarum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cg...i?i=Saccharum+officinarum&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Saccharum+officinarum&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/tax...onomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Saccharum+officinarum&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Saccharum+officinarum&t=NS ...

  9. Taxonomy Icon Data: Sympetrum frequens [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _frequens_NL.png Sympetrum_frequens_S.png Sympetrum_frequens_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ic...on.cgi?i=Sympetrum+frequens&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Sympetrum+frequens&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxo...nomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Sympetrum+frequens&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Sympetrum+frequens&t=NS ...

  10. Taxonomy Icon Data: Chile pepper [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available annuum_S.png Capsicum_annuum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Capsicum+annuum&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxo...nomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Capsicum+annuum&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ico...n.cgi?i=Capsicum+annuum&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Capsicum+annuum&t=NS ...

  11. Taxonomy Icon Data: pea aphid [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sum_NL.png Acyrthosiphon_pisum_S.png Acyrthosiphon_pisum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.c...gi?i=Acyrthosiphon+pisum&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Acyrthosiphon+pisum&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxono...my_icon/icon.cgi?i=Acyrthosiphon+pisum&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Acyrthosiphon+pisum&t=NS ...

  12. Taxonomy Icon Data: barrel medic [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ng Medicago_truncatula_S.png Medicago_truncatula_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Med...icago+truncatula&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Medicago+truncatula&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Medicago+truncatula&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Medicago+truncatula&t=NS ...

  13. Taxonomy Icon Data: moose [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available lces_L.png Alces_alces_NL.png Alces_alces_S.png Alces_alces_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ico...n.cgi?i=Alces+alces&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Alces+alces&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Alces+alces&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Alces+alces&t=NS ...

  14. Taxonomy Icon Data: emperor penguin [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available L.png Aptenodytes_forsteri_NL.png Aptenodytes_forsteri_S.png Aptenodytes_forsteri_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aptenodytes+forsteri&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Apte...nodytes+forsteri&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aptenodyte...s+forsteri&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aptenodytes+forsteri&t=NS ...

  15. Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese weasel [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ra Mustela_itatsi_L.png Mustela_itatsi_NL.png Mustela_itatsi_S.png Mustela_itatsi_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Mustela+itatsi&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Mustela+it...atsi&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Mustela+itatsi&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Mustela+itatsi&t=NS ...

  16. Taxonomy Icon Data: Aegilops speltoides [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available es_NL.png Aegilops_speltoides_S.png Aegilops_speltoides_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cg...i?i=Aegilops+speltoides&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aegilops+speltoides&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aegilops+speltoides&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aegilops+speltoides&t=NS ...

  17. Taxonomy Icon Data: Lotus corniculatus [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available L.png Lotus_corniculatus_S.png Lotus_corniculatus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lo...tus+corniculatus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lotus+corniculatus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lotus+corniculatus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lotus+corniculatus&t=NS ...

  18. Taxonomy Icon Data: dugong [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available L.png Dugong_dugon_NL.png Dugong_dugon_S.png Dugong_dugon_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon....cgi?i=Dugong+dugon&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Dugong+dugon&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Dugong+dugon&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Dugong+dugon&t=NS ...

  19. Taxonomy Icon Data: Escherichia coli [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli Escherichia coli Escherichia_coli_L.png Escherichia_coli_NL.png Escherichia..._coli_S.png Escherichia_coli_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Escherichia+co...li&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Escherichia+coli&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxono...my_icon/icon.cgi?i=Escherichia+coli&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Escherichia+coli&t=NS ...

  20. Taxonomy Icon Data: Oryzias javanicus [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oryzias javanicus Oryzias javanicus Chordata/Vertebrata/Pisciformes Oryzias_javanicus_L.png Oryzias_java...nicus_NL.png Oryzias_javanicus_S.png Oryzias_javanicus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/t...axonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Oryzias+javanicus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Oryzias+javan...icus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Oryzias+javanicus&t=S ...http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Oryzias+javanicus&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=77 ...

  1. Taxonomy Icon Data: Chinchilla [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Chinchilla Chinchilla lanigera Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/etc. Chinchill...a_lanigera_L.png Chinchilla_lanigera_NL.png Chinchilla_lanigera_S.png Chinchilla_lanigera_NS.png http...://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Chinchilla+lanigera&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Chinchill...a+lanigera&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Chinchill...a+lanigera&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Chinchilla+lanigera&t=NS ...

  2. Taxonomy Icon Data: Guinea baboon [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Guinea baboon Papio papio Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Primate Papio_papio_L.png Papio_papi...o_NL.png Papio_papio_S.png Papio_papio_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papio+papi...o&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papio+papio&t=NL http://bioscien...cedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papio+papio&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papio+papio&t=NS ...

  3. Taxonomy Icon Data: okapi [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available okapi Okapia johnstoni Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Artiodactyla Okapi...a_johnstoni_L.png Okapia_johnstoni_NL.png Okapia_johnstoni_S.png Okapia_johnstoni_NS.png http://bioscienc...edbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Okapia+johnstoni&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Okapi...a+johnstoni&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Okapia+johnston...i&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Okapia+johnstoni&t=NS ...

  4. Taxonomy Icon Data: Asiatic tapir [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Asiatic tapir Tapirus indicus Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/etc. Tapirus_indicus_L.png Tapi...rus_indicus_NL.png Tapirus_indicus_S.png Tapirus_indicus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc....jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tapirus+indicus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tapirus+ind...icus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tapirus+indicus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tapirus+indicus&t=NS ...

  5. Taxonomy Icon Data: rhesus monkey [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rhesus monkey Macaca mulatta Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Primate Macaca_mulatta_L.png Maca...ca_mulatta_NL.png Macaca_mulatta_S.png Macaca_mulatta_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp.../taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Macaca+mulatta&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Macaca+mulatta...&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Macaca+mulatta&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Macaca+mulatta&t=NS ...

  6. Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese macaque [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Japanese macaque Macaca fuscata Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Primate Maca...ca_fuscata_L.png Macaca_fuscata_NL.png Macaca_fuscata_S.png Macaca_fuscata_NS.png http://biosciencedbc....jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Macaca+fuscata&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Macaca+fusc...ata&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Macaca+fuscata&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Macaca+fuscata&t=NS ...

  7. Taxonomy Icon Data: horse [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available horse Equus caballus Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/etc. Equus_caballus_L.png Equus_caball...us_NL.png Equus_caballus_S.png Equus_caballus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_i...con/icon.cgi?i=Equus+caballus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Equus+caballus&t=NL http:...//biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Equus+caballus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Equus+caballus&t=NS ...

  8. Taxonomy Icon Data: cattle [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rus_L.png Bos_taurus_NL.png Bos_taurus_S.png Bos_taurus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cg...i?i=Bos+taurus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Bos+taurus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Bos+taurus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ico...n.cgi?i=Bos+taurus&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=28 ...

  9. Taxonomy Icon Data: sheep [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available es_L.png Ovis_aries_NL.png Ovis_aries_S.png Ovis_aries_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi...?i=Ovis+aries&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ovis+aries&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ovis+aries&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon....cgi?i=Ovis+aries&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=156 ...

  10. Taxonomy Icon Data: giant panda [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available giant panda Ailuropoda melanoleuca Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Carnivora Ail...uropoda_melanoleuca_L.png Ailuropoda_melanoleuca_NL.png Ailuropoda_melanoleuca_S.png Ailuropoda_me...lanoleuca_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ailuropoda+melanoleuca&t=L http://bioscien...cedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ailuropoda+melanoleuca&t=NL http://biosciencedb...c.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ailuropoda+melanoleuca&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ailuropoda+melanoleuca&t=NS ...

  11. Taxonomy Icon Data: coelacanth [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae Chordata/Vertebrata/Pisciformes Latimeria_chalumnae_L.png Latime...ria_chalumnae_NL.png Latimeria_chalumnae_S.png Latimeria_chalumnae_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.j...p/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Latimeria+chalumnae&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Latimeri...a+chalumnae&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Latimeria+chalu...mnae&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Latimeria+chalumnae&t=NS ...

  12. Taxonomy Icon Data: platypus [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available platypus Ornithorhynchus anatinus Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Prototheria Ornithorhynchus_anatinus_L.png Ornithorhynchus_anatinus_NL.png Ornithorhynchus_anatinus_S.png Ornithorhynchus_anatinus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ornithorhynchus+anatinus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ornithorhynchus+anatinus&

  13. Taxonomy Icon Data: sperm whale [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ephalus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Physeter+macrocephalus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Physeter+macrocephalus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Physeter+macrocephalus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Physeter+macrocephalus&t=NS ...

  14. Taxonomy Icon Data: Australian echidna [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available us_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tachyglossus+aculeatus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tachyglossus+aculeatus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tachyglossus+aculeatus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tachyglossus+aculeatus&t=NS ...

  15. Taxonomy Icon Data: moss [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available moss Physcomitrella patens subsp. patens. Physcomitrella_patens_subsp_patens_L.png Physcomitrella_patens..._subsp_patens_NL.png Physcomitrella_patens_subsp_patens_S.png Physcomitrella_patens_subsp_patens..._NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Physcomitrella+patens+subsp%2e+patens%2e&t...=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Physcomitrella+patens+subsp%2e+patens...%2e&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Physcomitrella+patens+subsp%2e+patens%2e&t

  16. Taxonomy Icon Data: dog [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available dog Canis lupus familiaris Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Carnivora Canis_lupus_familia...ris_L.png Canis_lupus_familiaris_NL.png Canis_lupus_familiaris_S.png Canis_lupus_familiari...s_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Canis+lupus+familiaris&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp.../taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Canis+lupus+familiaris&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/tax...onomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Canis+lupus+familiaris&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Canis+lupus+familiaris&t=NS ...

  17. Taxonomy Icon Data: spotted seal [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available oca_largha_L.png Phoca_largha_NL.png Phoca_largha_S.png Phoca_largha_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Phoca+largha&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Phoca+largha&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Phoca+largha&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Phoca+largha&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=66 ...

  18. Taxonomy Icon Data: house mouse [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ulus_L.png Mus_musculus_NL.png Mus_musculus_S.png Mus_musculus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/...icon.cgi?i=Mus+musculus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Mus+musculus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Mus+musculus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Mus+musculus&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=146 ...

  19. Taxonomy Icon Data: Human [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available s_L.png Homo_sapiens_NL.png Homo_sapiens_S.png Homo_sapiens_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ico...n.cgi?i=Homo+sapiens&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Homo+sapiens&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Homo+sapiens&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Homo+sapiens&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=157 ...

  20. Taxonomy Icon Data: blue whale [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available blue whale Balaenoptera musculus Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Cetacea Balaenoptera..._musculus_L.png Balaenoptera_musculus_NL.png Balaenoptera_musculus_S.png Balaenoptera_musculu...s_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Balaenoptera+musculus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/...taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Balaenoptera+musculus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxon...omy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Balaenoptera+musculus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Balaenoptera+musculus&t=NS ...

  1. Taxonomy Icon Data: pygmy chimpanzee [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pan_paniscus_L.png Pan_paniscus_NL.png Pan_paniscus_S.png Pan_paniscus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Pan+paniscus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Pan+paniscus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxono...my_icon/icon.cgi?i=Pan+paniscus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Pan+paniscus&t=NS ...

  2. Taxonomy Icon Data: alpaca [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gna_pacos_L.png Vicugna_pacos_NL.png Vicugna_pacos_S.png Vicugna_pacos_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Vicugna+pacos&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Vicugna+pacos&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxo...nomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Vicugna+pacos&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Vicugna+pacos&t=NS ...

  3. Characters in Arctostaphylos taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Jon E.; Parker, V. Thomas; Vasey, Michael C.

    2017-01-01

    There is value in understanding the past and how it has affected the present. Science focuses on empirical findings, and we know that our prior experiences and those of our predecessors play important roles in determining how we interpret the present. We learn from accomplishments and foibles of predecessors and appreciate the real life experiences we have gone through. In our studies of the genus Arctostaphylos Adans. we have been struck by the fascinating stories surrounding taxonomists who have played roles in the development of our current understanding of the group. In addition to providing insights, they sometimes provide humor and lessons on the value of competition versus collaboration. We offer this history of the humans that forged the taxonomy behind Arctostaphylos classification in this light.

  4. Taxonomy of Payments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedman, Jonas; Tan, Felix B.; Holst, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    . The approach draws heavily on organizational systematics to better understand payers’ choice of payment instruments. Findings: A four-category taxonomy of payments was developed. The authors refer to the taxonomy as the 4Ps: the purchase, the payer, the payment instrument, and the physical technology......) there are over 12,000 startups in the payment arena. For them, the taxonomy can function as a template for the design of payment instruments, as well as understanding the various factors that influence payer choice of payment instruments. Originality/value: The main contribution of this paper is the 4Ps taxonomy...

  5. EPA Web Taxonomy

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EPA's Web Taxonomy is a faceted hierarchical vocabulary used to tag web pages with terms from a controlled vocabulary. Tagging enables search and discovery of EPA's...

  6. Network Coding Taxonomy

    OpenAIRE

    Adamson , Brian; Adjih , Cédric; Bilbao , Josu; Firoiu , Victor; Fitzek , Frank; Samah , Ghanem ,; Lochin , Emmanuel; Masucci , Antonia; Montpetit , Marie-Jose; Pedersen , Morten V.; Peralta , Goiuri; Roca , Vincent; Paresh , Saxena; Sivakumar , Senthil

    2017-01-01

    Internet Research Task Force - Working document of the Network Coding Research Group (NWCRG), draft-irtf-nwcrg-network-coding-taxonomy-05 (work in progress), https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/draft-irtf-nwcrg-network-coding-taxonomy/; This document summarizes a recommended terminology for Network Coding concepts and constructs. It provides a comprehensive set of terms with unique names in order to avoid ambiguities in future Network Coding IRTF and IETF documents. This document is intended to ...

  7. Reforming the taxonomy in disorders of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayne, Tim; Hohwy, Jakob; Owen, Adrian M

    2017-12-01

    This article examines the serious shortcomings that characterize the current taxonomy of postcomatose disorders of consciousness (DoC), and it provides guidelines for how an improved DoC taxonomy might be developed. In particular, it is argued that behavioral criteria for the application of DoC categories should be supplemented with brain-based criteria (eg, information derived from electroencephalography and functional magnetic resonance imaging), and that the categorical framework that currently characterizes DoC should be replaced by a multidimensional framework that better captures the performance of patients across a range of cognitive and behavioural tasks. Ann Neurol 2017;82:866-872. © 2017 American Neurological Association.

  8. Taxonomy Icon Data: yellow fever mosquito [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti Arthropoda Aedes_aegypti_L.png Aedes_aegypti_NL.png Aedes_aegypt...i_S.png Aedes_aegypti_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aedes+aegypti...&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aedes+aegypti&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aedes+aegyp...ti&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aedes+aegypti&t=NS ...

  9. Taxonomy Icon Data: hemichordates (Acorn worm) [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available hemichordates (Acorn worm) Glandiceps hacksi Hemichordata Glandiceps_hacksi_L.png Glandiceps_hack...si_NL.png Glandiceps_hacksi_S.png Glandiceps_hacksi_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ic...on/icon.cgi?i=Glandiceps+hacksi&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Glandiceps+hacksi&t=NL ...http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Glandiceps+hacksi&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Glandiceps+hacksi&t=NS ...

  10. Taxonomy Icon Data: Ciona intestinalis (Sea squirt) [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ttp://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ciona+intestinalis&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon.../icon.cgi?i=Ciona+intestinalis&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cg...i?i=Ciona+intestinalis&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ciona+intestinalis&t=NS ... ...data Ciona_intestinalis_L.png Ciona_intestinalis_NL.png Ciona_intestinalis_S.png Ciona_intestinalis_NS.png h

  11. Taxonomy Icon Data: Kuroda's sea hare [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available .png Aplysia_kurodai_S.png Aplysia_kurodai_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aplysia+k...urodai&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aplysia+kurodai&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aplysia+kurodai&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/i...con.cgi?i=Aplysia+kurodai&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=14 ...

  12. Taxonomy Icon Data: red flour beetle [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _castaneum_NL.png Tribolium_castaneum_S.png Tribolium_castaneum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon.../icon.cgi?i=Tribolium+castaneum&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tribolium+castaneum&t=N...L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tribolium+castaneum&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tribolium+castaneum&t=NS ...

  13. Taxonomy Icon Data: African savanna elephant [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available .png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Loxodonta+africana&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Loxodonta+africana&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/i...con.cgi?i=Loxodonta+africana&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Loxodonta+africana&t=NS ...

  14. Taxonomy Icon Data: gray slender loris [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Loris+lydekkerianus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Loris+lydekkerianus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ic...on/icon.cgi?i=Loris+lydekkerianus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Loris+lydekkerianus&t=NS ...

  15. Comment: 215 [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 215.png Taxonomy icon (c) Database Center for Life Science licensed under CC Attribution2.1 Japan アイコン:電子顕微鏡バージョン bando 2010/02/15 15:30:03 2010/02/15 15:30:03 ...

  16. Taxonomy in Epistemology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Jerry P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper outlines a theoretical paradigm for distinguishing thinking, knowing and believing. A new taxonomy is presented for categorizing levels of knowing and outlines a structure of justification for each level. The paper discusses and explains the importance of such distinctions in decision making and thinking in general.

  17. Comment: 61 [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available .png Taxonomy icon (c) Database Center for Life Science licensed under CC Attribution2.1 Japan イメージを差し替えました(添付は旧イメージ) ttamura 2009/04/21 12:50:03 ...

  18. Taxonomy Icon Data: aye-aye [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available aye-aye Daubentonia madagascariensis Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Primate Daubentonia_madaga...scariensis_L.png Daubentonia_madagascariensis_NL.png Daubentonia_madagascariensis_S.png Daubentonia_madagasc...ariensis_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Daubentonia+madagascar...iensis&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Daubentonia+madagascar...iensis&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Daubentonia+madagascariensis&t=S http://bi

  19. Taxonomy Icon Data: Ciona savignyi (Sea squirt) [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available na_savignyi_L.png Ciona_savignyi_NL.png Ciona_savignyi_S.png Ciona_savignyi_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ciona+savignyi&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ciona+savignyi&t...=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ciona+savignyi&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ciona+savignyi&t=NS ...

  20. Taxonomy Icon Data: Southern elephant seal [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available onomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Mirounga+leonina&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ic...on.cgi?i=Mirounga+leonina&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=M...irounga+leonina&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Mirounga+leonina&t=NS ... ...a/Carnivora Mirounga_leonina_L.png Mirounga_leonina_NL.png Mirounga_leonina_S.png Mirounga_leonina_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/tax

  1. Taxonomy Icon Data: cape rock hyrax [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Procavia_capensis_L.png Procavia_capensis_NL.png Procavia_capensis_S.png Procavia_capensis_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Procavia+capensis&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi...?i=Procavia+capensis&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Procav...ia+capensis&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Procavia+capensis&t=NS ...

  2. Taxonomy Icon Data: Striped bark scorpion [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Centruroides_vittatus_NL.png Centruroides_vittatus_S.png Centruroides_vittatus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Centruroides+vittatus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Centru...roides+vittatus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Centruroide...s+vittatus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Centruroides+vittatus&t=NS ...

  3. Taxonomy Icon Data: wild Bactrian camel [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available odactyla Camelus_ferus_L.png Camelus_ferus_NL.png Camelus_ferus_S.png Camelus_ferus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+ferus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+f...erus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+ferus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+ferus&t=NS ...

  4. Taxonomy Icon Data: African malaria mosquito [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available eles_gambiae_NL.png Anopheles_gambiae_S.png Anopheles_gambiae_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/i...con.cgi?i=Anopheles+gambiae&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Anopheles+gambiae&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxon...omy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Anopheles+gambiae&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Anopheles+gambiae&t=NS ...

  5. Taxonomy Icon Data: Formosan subterranean termite [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nus_L.png Coptotermes_formosanus_NL.png Coptotermes_formosanus_S.png Coptotermes_formosanus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Coptotermes+formosanus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ico...n.cgi?i=Coptotermes+formosanus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cg...i?i=Coptotermes+formosanus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Coptotermes+formosanus&t=NS ...

  6. Comment: 8 [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Tyrannosaurus rex Tyrannosaurus_rex_L.png 8.png Taxonomy icon (c) Database Center for Life Science licensed under CC Attribution2.1 Japan 差し替えようのティラノアイコン(小)をアップしました。 ttamura 2008/11/06 17:02:45 ...

  7. Comment: 219 [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Japanese medaka Oryzias latipes Oryzias_latipes_L.png 219.png Taxonomy icon (c) Database Center for Life Sci...ence licensed under CC Attribution2.1 Japan アイコン:メダカ HNI-Ⅱ系統バージョン bando 2010/02/15 15:31:07 2010/02/16 09:53:27 ...

  8. Taxonomy Icon Data: gold crucian carp [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gold crucian carp Carassius auratus auratus Chordata/Vertebrata/Pisciformes Carassius_auratus_aura...tus_L.png Carassius_auratus_auratus_NL.png Carassius_auratus_auratus_S.png Carassius_auratus_aura...tus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Carassius+auratus+auratus&t=L http://bioscie...ncedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Carassius+auratus+auratus&t=NL http://bioscien...cedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Carassius+auratus+auratus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Carassius+auratus+auratus&t=NS ...

  9. Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese tree frog [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Japanese tree frog Hyla japonica Chordata/Vertebrata/Amphibia Hyla_japonica_L.png Hyla_jap...onica_NL.png Hyla_japonica_S.png Hyla_japonica_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Hyla+jap...onica&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Hyla+japonica&t=NL http://biosciencedbc....jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Hyla+japonica&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Hyla+jap

  10. Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese giant salamander [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Japanese giant salamander Andrias japonicus Chordata/Vertebrata/Amphibia Andrias_japonicus_L.png Andrias_jap...onicus_NL.png Andrias_japonicus_S.png Andrias_japonicus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc....jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Andrias+japonicus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Andrias+jap...onicus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Andrias+japonicus...&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Andrias+japonicus&t=NS ...

  11. Taxonomy Icon Data: Javan tree shrew [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Javan tree shrew Tupaia javanica Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/etc. Tupaia_java...nica_L.png Tupaia_javanica_NL.png Tupaia_javanica_S.png Tupaia_javanica_NS.png http://bioscienced...bc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tupaia+javanica&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tupaia+java...nica&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tupaia+javanica&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tupaia+javanica&t=NS ...

  12. Taxonomy Icon Data: Old world swallowtail [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available aon_NL.png Papilio_machaon_S.png Papilio_machaon_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Pap...ilio+machaon&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papilio+machaon&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papilio+machaon&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_...icon/icon.cgi?i=Papilio+machaon&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=47 ...

  13. Taxonomy Icon Data: common brandling worm [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available L.png Eisenia_fetida_S.png Eisenia_fetida_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Eisenia+fe...tida&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Eisenia+fetida&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Eisenia+fetida&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon....cgi?i=Eisenia+fetida&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=73 ...

  14. Taxonomy Icon Data: Diplazium tomitaroanum Masam [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Diplazium tomitaroanum Masam Diplazium tomitaroanum Masam Diplazium_tomitaroanum_Masam_L.png Diplazium_tomit...aroanum_Masam_NL.png Diplazium_tomitaroanum_Masam_S.png Diplazium_tomitaroanum_Masa...m_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Diplazium+tomitaroanum+Masam&t=L http://bioscience...dbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Diplazium+tomitaroanum+Masam&t=NL http://bioscien...cedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Diplazium+tomitaroanum+Masam&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Diplazium+tomitaroanum+Masam&t=NS ...

  15. Taxonomy Icon Data: California sea lion [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available California sea lion Zalophus californianus Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Carni...vora Zalophus_californianus_L.png Zalophus_californianus_NL.png Zalophus_californianus_S.png Zalophus_californi...anus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Zalophus+californianus&t=L http://...biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Zalophus+californianus&t=NL http://bios...ciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Zalophus+californianus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Zalophus+californianus&t=NS ...

  16. Taxonomy Icon Data: Pacific electric ray [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pacific electric ray Torpedo californica Chordata/Vertebrata/Pisciformes Torpedo_californica_L.png Torpedo..._californica_NL.png Torpedo_californica_S.png Torpedo_californica_NS.png http://biosc...iencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Torpedo+californica&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Torpedo...+californica&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Torpedo...+californica&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Torpedo+californica&t=NS ...

  17. Taxonomy Icon Data: Ptychodera flava Eschscholtz (Acorn worm) [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Ptychodera flava Eschscholtz (Acorn worm) Ptychodera flava Hemichordata Ptychodera_flava_L.png Ptycho...dera_flava_NL.png Ptychodera_flava_S.png Ptychodera_flava_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/t...axonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ptychodera+flava&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ptychodera+fla...va&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ptychodera+flava&t=S htt...p://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ptychodera+flava&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=161 ...

  18. Taxonomy Icon Data: three-spined stickleback [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Gasterosteus+aculeatus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Gasterosteus+aculeatus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Gasterosteus+aculeatus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Gasterosteus+aculeatus&t=NS ...

  19. Tumor taxonomy for the developmental lineage classification of neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berman, Jules J

    2004-01-01

    The new 'Developmental lineage classification of neoplasms' was described in a prior publication. The classification is simple (the entire hierarchy is described with just 39 classifiers), comprehensive (providing a place for every tumor of man), and consistent with recent attempts to characterize tumors by cytogenetic and molecular features. A taxonomy is a list of the instances that populate a classification. The taxonomy of neoplasia attempts to list every known term for every known tumor of man. The taxonomy provides each concept with a unique code and groups synonymous terms under the same concept. A Perl script validated successive drafts of the taxonomy ensuring that: 1) each term occurs only once in the taxonomy; 2) each term occurs in only one tumor class; 3) each concept code occurs in one and only one hierarchical position in the classification; and 4) the file containing the classification and taxonomy is a well-formed XML (eXtensible Markup Language) document. The taxonomy currently contains 122,632 different terms encompassing 5,376 neoplasm concepts. Each concept has, on average, 23 synonyms. The taxonomy populates 'The developmental lineage classification of neoplasms,' and is available as an XML file, currently 9+ Megabytes in length. A representation of the classification/taxonomy listing each term followed by its code, followed by its full ancestry, is available as a flat-file, 19+ Megabytes in length. The taxonomy is the largest nomenclature of neoplasms, with more than twice the number of neoplasm names found in other medical nomenclatures, including the 2004 version of the Unified Medical Language System, the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terminology, the National Cancer Institute's Thesaurus, and the International Classification of Diseases Oncolology version. This manuscript describes a comprehensive taxonomy of neoplasia that collects synonymous terms under a unique code number and assigns each

  20. Taxonomy Icon Data: Aeropyrum pernix strain K1 [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Aeropyrum pernix strain K1 Aeropyrum pernix K1 Aeropyrum_pernix_K1_L.png Aeropyrum_perni...x_K1_NL.png Aeropyrum_pernix_K1_S.png Aeropyrum_pernix_K1_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/...icon.cgi?i=Aeropyrum+pernix+K1&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aeropyrum+pernix+K1&t=NL... http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aeropyrum+pernix+K1&t=S http://...biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Aeropyrum+pernix+K1&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=215 ...

  1. Genomic taxonomy of vibrios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Cristiane C.; Vicente, Ana Carolina P.; Souza, Rangel C.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vibrio taxonomy has been based on a polyphasic approach. In this study, we retrieve useful taxonomic information (i.e. data that can be used to distinguish different taxonomic levels, such as species and genera) from 32 genome sequences of different vibrio species. We use a variety...... > 95% DNA identity in MLSA and supertree analysis, > 96% AAI, 61% proteome identity. Strains of the same species and species of the same genus will form monophyletic groups on the basis of MLSA and supertree. CONCLUSION: The combination of different......-based server. This novel approach to microbial systematics will result in a tremendous advance concerning biodiversity discovery, description, and understanding....

  2. Company Taxonomy development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Haakon; Ørnager, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    (taxonomy). Design/methodology/approach – The study implies the use of both qualitative and quantitative methods. This includes desk review of key documents and interviews with information architecture staff from various WFP units; data collection carried out as semi-structured staff interviews in WFP; log...... and knowledge, greater internal collaborations and stronger links with various sources of knowledge. Staff participating in the various workshops pointed out that work processes as well as the human resources component cannot be left out of a solution development. Originality/value – There has been little...

  3. Reflection and teaching: a taxonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Henk; Cowan, John

    2009-01-01

    A major problem in teaching reflection is that educational objectives for reflection in terms of student behaviour are lacking. Therefore a taxonomy of reflection has been developed based on Bloom’s taxonomy. Reflective assignments can then be better focused on any chosen educational objectives. The

  4. Taxonomy Icon Data: North Pacific right whale [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available North Pacific right whale Eubalaena japonica Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eu...theria/Cetacea Eubalaena_japonica_L.png Eubalaena_japonica_NL.png Eubalaena_japonica_S.png Eubalaena_japonic...a_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Eubalaena+japonica&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/tax...onomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Eubalaena+japonica&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ic...on/icon.cgi?i=Eubalaena+japonica&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Eubalaena+japonica&t=NS ...

  5. Taxonomy Icon Data: Halocynthia roretzi (Sea squirt) [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Halocynthia roretzi (Sea squirt) Halocynthia roretzi Chordata/Urochordata,Cephalochordata Halocynthia_roret...zi_L.png Halocynthia_roretzi_NL.png Halocynthia_roretzi_S.png Halocynthia_roretzi_NS....png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Halocynthia+roretzi&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxono...my_icon/icon.cgi?i=Halocynthia+roretzi&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon.../icon.cgi?i=Halocynthia+roretzi&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Halocynthia+roretzi&t=N

  6. Taxonomy Icon Data: African clawed frog [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available g Xenopus_laevis_NL.png Xenopus_laevis_S.png Xenopus_laevis_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ico...n.cgi?i=Xenopus+laevis&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Xenopus+laevis&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Xenopus+laevis&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Xenopus+laevis&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=11 ...

  7. Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese Bush Warbler [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Cettia_diphone_NL.png Cettia_diphone_S.png Cettia_diphone_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon....cgi?i=Cettia+diphone&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Cettia+diphone&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Cettia+diphone&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Cettia+diphone&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=26 ...

  8. Taxonomy Icon Data: crab-eating macaque [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available crab-eating macaque Macaca fascicularis Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Primate Macaca_fasci...cularis_L.png Macaca_fascicularis_NL.png Macaca_fascicularis_S.png Macaca_fascicularis..._NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Macaca+fascicularis&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/tax...onomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Macaca+fascicularis&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_i...con/icon.cgi?i=Macaca+fascicularis&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Macaca+fascicularis&t=NS ...

  9. Genomic taxonomy of vibrios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iida Tetsuya

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vibrio taxonomy has been based on a polyphasic approach. In this study, we retrieve useful taxonomic information (i.e. data that can be used to distinguish different taxonomic levels, such as species and genera from 32 genome sequences of different vibrio species. We use a variety of tools to explore the taxonomic relationship between the sequenced genomes, including Multilocus Sequence Analysis (MLSA, supertrees, Average Amino Acid Identity (AAI, genomic signatures, and Genome BLAST atlases. Our aim is to analyse the usefulness of these tools for species identification in vibrios. Results We have generated four new genome sequences of three Vibrio species, i.e., V. alginolyticus 40B, V. harveyi-like 1DA3, and V. mimicus strains VM573 and VM603, and present a broad analyses of these genomes along with other sequenced Vibrio species. The genome atlas and pangenome plots provide a tantalizing image of the genomic differences that occur between closely related sister species, e.g. V. cholerae and V. mimicus. The vibrio pangenome contains around 26504 genes. The V. cholerae core genome and pangenome consist of 1520 and 6923 genes, respectively. Pangenomes might allow different strains of V. cholerae to occupy different niches. MLSA and supertree analyses resulted in a similar phylogenetic picture, with a clear distinction of four groups (Vibrio core group, V. cholerae-V. mimicus, Aliivibrio spp., and Photobacterium spp.. A Vibrio species is defined as a group of strains that share > 95% DNA identity in MLSA and supertree analysis, > 96% AAI, ≤ 10 genome signature dissimilarity, and > 61% proteome identity. Strains of the same species and species of the same genus will form monophyletic groups on the basis of MLSA and supertree. Conclusion The combination of different analytical and bioinformatics tools will enable the most accurate species identification through genomic computational analysis. This endeavour will culminate in

  10. NEWT, a new taxonomy portal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, I Q H; Pilbout, S F; Fleischmann, W; Bairoch, A

    2003-07-01

    NEWT is a new taxonomy portal to the SWISS-PROT protein sequence knowledgebase. It contains taxonomy data, which is updated daily, for the complete set of species represented in SWISS-PROT, as well as those stored at the NCBI. Users can navigate through the taxonomy tree and access corresponding SWISS-PROT protein entries. In addition, a manually curated selection of external links allows access to specific information on selected species. NEWT is available at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/newt/.

  11. Current and pending taxonomy of the Pasteurellaceae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angen, Øystein

    on the rrn-operons alone but the existence of two separate species is evident based on AFLP-genotyping. Although 16S sequencing is a versatile tool for taxonomic investigations, its discriminative power for species delineation is in a number of cases limited. DNA-DNA hybridization is still regarded...... as a golden standard for separating species but the sequencing of housekeeping genes represents a promising alternative. Whole genome sequencing will probably accelerate as less labour intensive methods are developed and prices go down. Data from these genome sequencing projects will make a more detailed...

  12. Constructing a Business Model Taxonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Pernille; Nielsen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: The paper proposes a research design recipe capable of leading to future business model taxonomies and discusses the potential benefits and implications of achieving this goal. Design/Methodology/Approach: The paper provides a review of relevant scholarly literature about business...... the quality of business model taxonomy studies in the future are identified. Originality/Value: The paper highlights the benefits and potential implications of designing business model taxonomy studies and makes the case for ensuring the quality of future studies relating to e.g. performance. Reviewing...... models to clarify the subject as well as highlighting the importance of past studies of business model classifications. In addition it reviews the scholarly literature on relevant methodological approaches, such as cluster analysis and latent class analysis, for constructing a business model taxonomy...

  13. The Distributed Wind Cost Taxonomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsyth, Trudy; Jimenez, Tony; Preus, Robert; Tegen, Suzanne; Baring-Gould, Ian

    2017-03-28

    To date, there has been no standard method or tool to analyze the installed and operational costs for distributed wind turbine systems. This report describes the development of a classification system, or taxonomy, for distributed wind turbine project costs. The taxonomy establishes a framework to help collect, sort, and compare distributed wind cost data that mirrors how the industry categorizes information. The taxonomy organizes costs so they can be aggregated from installers, developers, vendors, and other sources without losing cost details. Developing a peer-reviewed taxonomy is valuable to industry stakeholders because a common understanding the details of distributed wind turbine costs and balance of station costs is a first step to identifying potential high-value cost reduction opportunities. Addressing cost reduction potential can help increase distributed wind's competitiveness and propel the U.S. distributed wind industry forward. The taxonomy can also be used to perform cost comparisons between technologies and track trends for distributed wind industry costs in the future. As an initial application and piloting of the taxonomy, preliminary cost data were collected for projects of different sizes and from different regions across the contiguous United States. Following the methods described in this report, these data are placed into the established cost categories.

  14. Comparative genomics of vesicomyid clam (Bivalvia: Mollusca chemosynthetic symbionts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girguis Peter R

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Vesicomyidae (Bivalvia: Mollusca are a family of clams that form symbioses with chemosynthetic gamma-proteobacteria. They exist in environments such as hydrothermal vents and cold seeps and have a reduced gut and feeding groove, indicating a large dependence on their endosymbionts for nutrition. Recently, two vesicomyid symbiont genomes were sequenced, illuminating the possible nutritional contributions of the symbiont to the host and making genome-wide evolutionary analyses possible. Results To examine the genomic evolution of the vesicomyid symbionts, a comparative genomics framework, including the existing genomic data combined with heterologous microarray hybridization results, was used to analyze conserved gene content in four vesicomyid symbiont genomes. These four symbionts were chosen to include a broad phylogenetic sampling of the vesicomyid symbionts and represent distinct chemosynthetic environments: cold seeps and hydrothermal vents. Conclusion The results of this comparative genomics analysis emphasize the importance of the symbionts' chemoautotrophic metabolism within their hosts. The fact that these symbionts appear to be metabolically capable autotrophs underscores the extent to which the host depends on them for nutrition and reveals the key to invertebrate colonization of these challenging environments.

  15. The Pleurobemini (Bivalvia: Unionida) revisited: Molecular species delineation using a mitochondrial DNA gene reveals multiple conspecifics and undescribed species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Kentaro; Hayes, David M.; Harris, John L.; Johnson, Nathan A.; Morrison, Cheryl L.; Eackles, Michael S.; King, Tim; Jones, Jess W.; Hallerman, Eric M.; Christian, Alan D.; Randklev, Charles R.

    2018-01-01

    The Pleurobemini (Bivalvia: Unionida) represent approximately one-third of freshwater mussel diversity in North America. Species identification within this group is challenging due to morphological convergence and phenotypic plasticity. Accurate species identification, including characterization of currently unrecognized taxa, is required to develop effective conservation strategies because many species in the group are imperiled. We examined 573 cox1 sequences from 110 currently recognized species (including 13 Fusconaia and 21 Pleurobema species) to understand phylogenetic relationships among pleurobemine species (mainly Fusconaia and Pleurobema) and to delineate species boundaries. The results of phylogenetic analyses showed no geographic structure within widespread species and illustrated a close relationship between Elliptio lanceolata and Parvaspina collina. Constraint tests supported monophyly of the genera Fusconaia and Pleurobema, including the subgenus P. (Sintoxia). Furthermore, results revealed multiple conspecifics, including P. hanleyianum and P. troschelianum, P. chattanoogaense and P. decisum, P. clava and P. oviforme, P. rubrum and P. sintoxia, F. askewi and F. lananensis, and F. cerina and F. flava. Species delimitation analyses identified three currently unrecognized taxa (two in Fusconaia and one in Pleurobema). Further investigation using additional genetic markers and other lines of evidence (e.g., morphology, life history, ecology) are necessary before any taxonomic changes are formalized.

  16. The integrative future of taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vences Miguel

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taxonomy is the biological discipline that identifies, describes, classifies and names extant and extinct species and other taxa. Nowadays, species taxonomy is confronted with the challenge to fully incorporate new theory, methods and data from disciplines that study the origin, limits and evolution of species. Results Integrative taxonomy has been proposed as a framework to bring together these conceptual and methodological developments. Here we review perspectives for an integrative taxonomy that directly bear on what species are, how they can be discovered, and how much diversity is on Earth. Conclusions We conclude that taxonomy needs to be pluralistic to improve species discovery and description, and to develop novel protocols to produce the much-needed inventory of life in a reasonable time. To cope with the large number of candidate species revealed by molecular studies of eukaryotes, we propose a classification scheme for those units that will facilitate the subsequent assembly of data sets for the formal description of new species under the Linnaean system, and will ultimately integrate the activities of taxonomists and molecular biologists.

  17. Building a taxonomy of GI knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arleth, Mette

    2004-01-01

    of this project is to investigate how and how well non-professional users actually understand GI. For that purpose a taxonomy of GI knowledge is built, drawing on Bloom`s taxonomy. The elements of this taxonomy are described after a presentation of the main research question of the study, the applications chosen...

  18. Instruments and Taxonomy of Workplace Bullying in Health Care Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Jun Park, PhD, RN

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: The current instruments are not comprehensive enough. It is suggested that the modified taxonomy is verified and guide more reliable and inclusive instruments in the future. Furthermore, a formative measurement model, which defines a bullying as an inventory of different types of behaviors, should be used.

  19. DIVERSITAS DAN KERAPATAN MANGROVE, GASTROPODA DAN BIVALVIA DI ESTUARI PERANCAK, BALI

    OpenAIRE

    Susiana; Ali, Syamsu Alam; Rukminasari, Nita

    2011-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan membandingkan diversitas dan kerapatan mangrove dengan kepadatan gastropoda dan bivalvia di mangrove alami dan rehabilitasi. Pengukuran ekosistem mangrove menggunakan transek kuadrat 10 m x 10 m. Kelimpahan dan kepadatan gastropoda dan bialvia menggunakan transek kuadrat berukuran 1 m x 1 m. Analisis nMDS, cluster untuk melihat hubungan karekteristik mangrove alami dan rehabilitasi dianalisis secara deskriptif dan analisis regresi untuk mendetermi...

  20. ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Pleolipoviridae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bamford, D.H.; Pietila, M.K.; Roine, E.; Atanasova, N.S.; Dienstbier, Ana; Oksanen, H.M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 98, č. 12 (2017), s. 2916-2917 ISSN 0022-1317 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Pleolipoviridae * taxonomy * Halorubrum pleomorphic virus 1 Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 2.838, year: 2016

  1. A Taxonomy of Technical Animation

    OpenAIRE

    D. Vaněček; J. Jirsa

    2011-01-01

    The age in which we are living nowadays is characterized by rapid innovation in the development of information and communication technologies (ICT). This innovation has a significant influence on the education process. This article deals with computer animation in technical education. Our aim is to show the taxonomy of education animation. The paper includes practical examples of animation.

  2. A Taxonomy of Technical Animation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Vaněček

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The age in which we are living nowadays is characterized by rapid innovation in the development of information and communication technologies (ICT. This innovation has a significant influence on the education process. This article deals with computer animation in technical education. Our aim is to show the taxonomy of education animation. The paper includes practical examples of animation.

  3. Taxonomy of operculate discomycetes: Synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korf, Richard P.

    1972-01-01

    A general consideration is given on various aspects of the taxonomy of Operculate Discomycetes. The thesis is advanced that the genus, rather than the species, may represent the basic evolutionary unit. More detailed considerations are devoted to a few topics, for instance to the systematic position

  4. Amerind taxonomy and testable hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichardo, M

    1998-06-01

    The acceptance of a 30,000 yr B.P. age for Valsequillo sets new parameters for hypotheses of Paleoindian entry into America. A review of Amerind taxonomy defines the early groups as Otamid-Sundadonts. Isolation in America led to an adaptive radiation that has implications for the origin and dispersal of Pithecanthropus.

  5. Role of genomic typing in taxonomy, evolutionary genetics, and microbial epidemiology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belkum, van A.; Struelens, M.; Visser, de J.A.G.M.; Verburgh, H.; Tibayrenc., M.

    2001-01-01

    Currently, genetic typing of microorganisms is widely used in several major fields of microbiological research. Taxonomy, research aimed at elucidation of evolutionary dynamics or phylogenetic relationships, population genetics of microorganisms, and microbial epidemiology all rely on genetic typing

  6. Role of genomic typing in taxonomy, evolutionary genetics, and microbial epidemiology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.F. van Belkum (Alex); M. Struelens; A. de Visser (Arjan); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); M. Tibayrench

    2001-01-01

    textabstractCurrently, genetic typing of microorganisms is widely used in several major fields of microbiological research. Taxonomy, research aimed at elucidation of evolutionary dynamics or phylogenetic relationships, population genetics of microorganisms, and

  7. Comment: 235 [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available u University (currently National Research Institute of Brewing)) licensed under CC Attribution2.1 Japan 撮影: ...水谷治(東北大学(現 酒類総研)) Photo: Osamu Mizutani (Tohoku University (currently National Research Institute of Brewing)) bando 2010/08/04 09:28:07 2010/08/04 11:18:35 ...

  8. Morphological and molecular diversity of Unionidae (Mollusca, Bivalvia from Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reis, J.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater mussels from the family Unionidae are known to exhibit a high level of ecological phenotypic plasticity that is reflected in their shell shape. This variation has caused uncertainty on systematics and taxonomy of the group. Several naiad populations from nine river basins from Portugal were analyzed genetically, using two mitochondrial gene fragments (16SrRNA and Cytochrome Oxidase I and morphologically, using ANOVA analyses of shell dimmensions. Molecular phylogenetic analyses were used to revise the systematics and to infer an evolutionary hypothesis for the family at the western-most Atlantic Iberian Peninsula. Genetic and morphological data were in agreement and supported the occurrence of 5 species in the region: Anodonta anatina, Anodonta cygnea, Potomida littoralis, Unio tumidiformis and Unio delphinus. The differentiation of all these species, except A. cygnea, is thought to have taken place during the isolation of the Iberian Peninsula and formation of the current river basins in the Tertiary. The possibility of A. cygnea being a relatively recent introduction is discussed. Basic morphometric measures of the shell proved to be useful to separate Unio species, but also seem to be strongly affected by environmental conditions. The high intra-specific morphologic variation was partially related to the species’ high level of phenotypic plasticity, but seems to have an important role in evolutionary processes.Las náyades de la familia Unionidae tienen gran plasticidad fenotípica, lo que se refleja en la forma de su concha. Esta variabilidad morfológica ha sido causa de gran confusión en la taxonomía y sistemática del grupo. Se han estudiado, genética y morfológicamente, numerosas poblaciones de náyades provenientes de nueve cuencas hidrográficas portuguesas. Para ello se han analizando dos fragmentos de genes mitocondriales (ARNr 16S y Citocromo Oxidasa I así como diferentes variables morfológicas de la concha. Se

  9. ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Ophioviridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, María Laura; Bó, Elena Dal; da Graça, John V; Gago-Zachert, Selma; Hammond, John; Moreno, Pedro; Natsuaki, Tomohide; Pallás, Vicente; Navarro, Jose A; Reyes, Carina A; Luna, Gabriel Robles; Sasaya, Takahide; Tzanetakis, Ioannis E; Vaira, Anna María; Verbeek, Martin; Ictv Report Consortium

    2017-06-01

    The Ophioviridae is a family of filamentous plant viruses, with single-stranded negative, and possibly ambisense, RNA genomes of 11.3-12.5 kb divided into 3-4 segments, each encapsidated separately. Virions are naked filamentous nucleocapsids, forming kinked circles of at least two different contour lengths. The sole genus, Ophiovirus, includes seven species. Four ophioviruses are soil-transmitted and their natural hosts include trees, shrubs, vegetables and bulbous or corm-forming ornamentals, both monocots and dicots. This is a summary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the taxonomy of the Ophioviridae, which is available at http://www.ictv.global/report/ophioviridae.

  10. ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Corticoviridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksanen, Hanna M; Ictv Report Consortium

    2017-05-01

    The Corticoviridae is a family of icosahedral, internal-membrane-containing viruses with double-stranded circular DNA genomes of approximately 10 kb. Only one species, Pseudoalteromonas virus PM2, has been recognized. Pseudoalteromonas virus PM2 infects Gram-negative bacteria and was isolated from seawater in 1968. Pseudoalteromonas virus PM2 is the first bacterial virus in which the presence of lipids in the virion has been demonstrated. Viral lipids are acquired selectively during virion assembly from the host cytoplasmic membrane. The outer protein capsid is an icosahedron with a pseudo T=21 symmetry. This is a summary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the taxonomy of the Corticoviridae, which is available at www.ictv.global/report/corticoviridae.

  11. Team errors: definition and taxonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasou, Kunihide; Reason, James

    1999-01-01

    In error analysis or error management, the focus is usually upon individuals who have made errors. In large complex systems, however, most people work in teams or groups. Considering this working environment, insufficient emphasis has been given to 'team errors'. This paper discusses the definition of team errors and its taxonomy. These notions are also applied to events that have occurred in the nuclear power industry, aviation industry and shipping industry. The paper also discusses the relations between team errors and Performance Shaping Factors (PSFs). As a result, the proposed definition and taxonomy are found to be useful in categorizing team errors. The analysis also reveals that deficiencies in communication, resource/task management, excessive authority gradient, excessive professional courtesy will cause team errors. Handling human errors as team errors provides an opportunity to reduce human errors

  12. Taxonomy of the extrasolar planet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plávalová, Eva

    2012-04-01

    When a star is described as a spectral class G2V, we know that the star is similar to our Sun. We know its approximate mass, temperature, age, and size. When working with an extrasolar planet database, it is very useful to have a taxonomy scale (classification) such as, for example, the Harvard classification for stars. The taxonomy has to be easily interpreted and present the most relevant information about extrasolar planets. I propose an extrasolar planet taxonomy scale with four parameters. The first parameter concerns the mass of an extrasolar planet in the form of units of the mass of other known planets, where M represents the mass of Mercury, E that of Earth, N Neptune, and J Jupiter. The second parameter is the planet's distance from its parent star (semimajor axis) described in a logarithm with base 10. The third parameter is the mean Dyson temperature of the extrasolar planet, for which I established four main temperature classes: F represents the Freezing class, W the Water class, G the Gaseous class, and R the Roasters class. I devised one additional class, however: P, the Pulsar class, which concerns extrasolar planets orbiting pulsar stars. The fourth parameter is eccentricity. If the attributes of the surface of the extrasolar planet are known, we are able to establish this additional parameter where t represents a terrestrial planet, g a gaseous planet, and i an ice planet. According to this taxonomy scale, for example, Earth is 1E0W0t, Neptune is 1N1.5F0i, and extrasolar planet 55 Cnc e is 9E-1.8R1.

  13. Balance Sheet Taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecaterina Necsulescu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The general objective of the financial statements is to provide information about the financial position, financial performance and cash flows of an entity, information that is useful for a wide range of users. For the current paper is very interesting to take into account is the presentation of the important role given to assets even in defining the subject of accounting, both in economic and financial concept.

  14. Use of molecular markers in biochemical taxonomy of Tischeriidae (Lepidoptera: Tischerioidea) and Elachistidae (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea)

    OpenAIRE

    Paulavičiūtė, Brigita

    2010-01-01

    The field of molecular biology has expanded greatly in the last ten years and currently many entomologists want to use this technology since it is a new level of carrying out studies of insect ecological systems and taxonomy. The study of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences has become the method for a wide range of taxonomic, population and evolutionary investigations in Lepidoptera (Lunt et al, 1996). The increasing popularity of molecular taxonomy will undoubtedly exert a major impact on co...

  15. Expanding the taxonomy of the diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, C C; Goulet, J-P; Lobbezoo, F; Schiffman, E L; Alstergren, P; Anderson, G C; de Leeuw, R; Jensen, R; Michelotti, A; Ohrbach, R; Petersson, A; List, T

    2014-01-01

    There is a need to expand the current temporomandibular disorders' (TMDs) classification to include less common but clinically important disorders. The immediate aim was to develop a consensus-based classification system and associated diagnostic criteria that have clinical and research utility for less common TMDs. The long-term aim was to establish a foundation, vis-à-vis this classification system, that will stimulate data collection, validity testing and further criteria refinement. A working group [members of the International RDC/TMD Consortium Network of the International Association for Dental Research (IADR), members of the Orofacial Pain Special Interest Group (SIG) of the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP), and members from other professional societies] reviewed disorders for inclusion based on clinical significance, the availability of plausible diagnostic criteria and the ability to operationalise and study the criteria. The disorders were derived from the literature when possible and based on expert opinion as necessary. The expanded TMDs taxonomy was presented for feedback at international meetings. Of 56 disorders considered, 37 were included in the expanded taxonomy and were placed into the following four categories: temporomandibular joint disorders, masticatory muscle disorders, headache disorders and disorders affecting associated structures. Those excluded were extremely uncommon, lacking operationalised diagnostic criteria, not clearly related to TMDs, or not sufficiently distinct from disorders already included within the taxonomy. The expanded TMDs taxonomy offers an integrated approach to clinical diagnosis and provides a framework for further research to operationalise and test the proposed taxonomy and diagnostic criteria. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Een revisie van de taxonomie van gifkikkers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelman, E.H.

    2007-01-01

    Recent kwam het lang verwachte ruim tweehonderdvijftig pagina`s tellende manuscript uit met daarin een revisie van de taxonomie van gifkikkers. De auteurs onder leiding van Taran Grant stellen een nieuwe taxonomie voor, die de familie Dendrobatidae met haar tien algemener geaccepteerde genera

  17. The Cartesian Heritage of Bloom's Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertucio, Brett

    2017-01-01

    This essay seeks to contribute to the critical reception of "Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives" by tracing the Taxonomy's underlying philosophical assumptions. Identifying Bloom's work as consistent with the legacy of Cartesian thought, I argue that its hierarchy of behavioral objectives provides a framework for certainty and…

  18. A taxonomy of systems of corporate governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weimer, J.; Pape, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    This paper argues that debate on corporate governance in an international context is hampered by the lack of a coherent framework. A taxonomy of systems of corporate governance is proposed as a remedy. The taxonomy is based upon eight characteristics: the prevailing concept of the firm, the board

  19. De novo assembly and characterization of two transcriptomes reveal multiple light-mediated functions in the scallop eye (Bivalvia: Pectinidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Autum N Pairett

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The eye has evolved across 13 separate lineages of molluscs. Yet, there have been very few studies examining the molecular machinary underlying eye function of this group, which is due, in part, to a lack of genomic resources. The scallop (Bivalvia: Pectinidae represents a compeling molluscan model to study photoreception due to its morphologically novel and separately evolved mirror-type eye. We sequenced the adult eye transcriptome of two scallop species to: 1 identify the phototransduction pathway components; 2 identify any additional light detection functions; and 3 test the hypothesis that molluscs possess genes not found in other animal lineages. RESULTS: A total of 3,039 contigs from the bay scallop, Argopecten irradians and 26,395 contigs from the sea scallop, Placopecten magellanicus were produced by 454 sequencing. Targeted BLAST searches and functional annotation using Gene Ontology (GO terms and KEGG pathways identified transcripts from three light detection systems: two phototransduction pathways and the circadian clock, a previously unrecognized function of the scallop eye. By comparing the scallop transcriptomes to molluscan and non-molluscan genomes, we discovered that a large proportion of the transcripts (7,776 sequences may be specific to the scallop lineage. Nearly one-third of these contain transmembrane protein domains, suggesting these unannotated transcripts may be sensory receptors. CONCLUSIONS: Our data provide the most comprehensive transcriptomic resource currently available from a single molluscan eye type. Candidate genes potentially involved in sensory reception were identified, and are worthy of further investigation. This resource, combined with recent phylogenetic and genomic data, provides a strong foundation for future investigations of the function and evolution of molluscan photosensory systems in this morphologically and taxonomically diverse phylum.

  20. Population dynamics of freshwater oyster Etheria elliptica (Bivalvia: Etheriidae in the Pendjari River (Benin-Western Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akélé G.D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Etheria elliptica (Bivalvia: Etheriidae is the only freshwater oyster occurring in Africa. The current study provides the first data on the population structure, growth, age, mortality and exploitation status of this species in the Pendjari River. E. elliptica length-frequency data were collected monthly from January to December 2009 and analyzed with FiSAT software. Population parameters including the asymptotic length (L∞ and growth coefficient (K were assessed to evaluate the stock status. The recruitment pattern was modeled with a FiSAT routine. The asymptotic length (L∞ was 14.75 cm, while the growth coefficient (K was 0.38 year-1. The growth performance index (ø′ reached 1.92. Specimens of Etheria elliptica reached a mean size of 4.66 cm and 6.41 cm at the end of one year and 1.5 years, respectively. We estimated total mortality (Z, natural mortality (M and fishing mortality (F to be 2.90 year-1, 1.16 year-1 and 1.74 year-1, respectively. The recruitment pattern was continuous over the year with one major peak event during the rainy season (July. The exploitation rate (E = 0.60 revealed that the freshwater oyster was probably facing overexploitation due to lack of a minimum limit size and also due to an increase in the harvesting effort. Therefore, efficient management methods were urgently required to conserve the species. The return of empty shells into the water to increase the recruitment surface, rotation planning among harvesting sites and the imposition of a minimum limit size were recommendations made in order to ensure the sustainable exploitation of wild stocks.

  1. Generalized metamaterials: Definitions and taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Noori; Yoon, Yong-Jin; Allen, Jont B

    2016-06-01

    This article reviews the development of metamaterials (MM), starting from Newton's discovery of the wave equation, and ends with a discussion of the need for a technical taxonomy (classification) of these materials, along with a better defined definition of metamaterials. It is intended to be a technical definition of metamaterials, based on a historical perspective. The evolution of MMs began with the discovery of the wave equation, traceable back to Newton's calculation of the speed of sound. The theory of sound evolved to include quasi-statics (Helmholtz) and the circuit equations of Kirchhoff's circuit laws, leading to the ultimate development of Maxwell's equations and the equation for the speed of light. Be it light, or sound, the speed of the wave-front travel defines the wavelength, and thus the quasi-static (QS) approximation. But there is much more at stake than QSs. Taxonomy requires a proper statement of the laws of physics, which includes at least the six basic network postulates: (P1) causality (non-causal/acausal), (P2) linearity (non-linear), (P3) real (complex) time response, (P4) passive (active), (P5) time-invariant (time varying), and (P6) reciprocal (non-reciprocal). These six postulates are extended to include MMs.

  2. GEM Building Taxonomy (Version 2.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzev, S.; Scawthorn, C.; Charleson, A.W.; Allen, L.; Greene, M.; Jaiswal, Kishor; Silva, V.

    2013-01-01

    This report documents the development and applications of the Building Taxonomy for the Global Earthquake Model (GEM). The purpose of the GEM Building Taxonomy is to describe and classify buildings in a uniform manner as a key step towards assessing their seismic risk, Criteria for development of the GEM Building Taxonomy were that the Taxonomy be relevant to seismic performance of different construction types; be comprehensive yet simple; be collapsible; adhere to principles that are familiar to the range of users; and ultimately be extensible to non-buildings and other hazards. The taxonomy was developed in conjunction with other GEM researchers and builds on the knowledge base from other taxonomies, including the EERI and IAEE World Housing Encyclopedia, PAGER-STR, and HAZUS. The taxonomy is organized as a series of expandable tables, which contain information pertaining to various building attributes. Each attribute describes a specific characteristic of an individual building or a class of buildings that could potentially affect their seismic performance. The following 13 attributes have been included in the GEM Building Taxonomy Version 2.0 (v2.0): 1.) direction, 2.)material of the lateral load-resisting system, 3.) lateral load-resisting system, 4.) height, 5.) date of construction of retrofit, 6.) occupancy, 7.) building position within a block, 8.) shape of the building plan, 9.) structural irregularity, 10.) exterior walls, 11.) roof, 12.) floor, 13.) foundation system. The report illustrates the pratical use of the GEM Building Taxonomy by discussing example case studies, in which the building-specific characteristics are mapped directly using GEM taxonomic attributes and the corresponding taxonomic string is constructed for that building, with "/" slash marks separating attributes. For example, for the building shown to the right, the GEM Taxonomy string is: DX1/MUR+CLBRS+MOCL2/LWAL3/

  3. Taxonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stauffer, Jr., Jay Richard; Madsen, Henry; Konings, Adrianus

    2007-01-01

    We have observed a dramatic decrease in the abundance of snail-eating fishes and an increase in the prevalence of schistosomiasis among village residents and expatriate tourists at Lake Malawi, Africa, over the past two decades. We hypothesized that these observations were linked by a cause-and-e...

  4. Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball T. Harper; John D. Shane; John R. Jones

    1985-01-01

    Quaking aspen, or trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides), was named and described by Michaux in 1803. It exhibits marked phenotypic variability throughout its transcontinental range. Numerous authors, especially the early ones, tried to give order to the variability by subdividing it taxonomically. Quahng aspen has been subdivided by various...

  5. Tephritid Integrative Taxonomy: Where We Are Now, with a Focus on the Resolution of Three Tropical Fruit Fly Species Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutze, Mark K; Virgilio, Massimiliano; Norrbom, Allen; Clarke, Anthony R

    2017-01-31

    Accurate species delimitation underpins good taxonomy. Formalization of integrative taxonomy in the past decade has provided a framework for using multidisciplinary data to make species delimitation hypotheses more rigorous. We address the current state of integrative taxonomy by using as a case study an international project targeted at resolving three important tephritid species complexes: Bactrocera dorsalis complex, Anastrepha fraterculus complex, and Ceratitis FAR (C. fasciventris, C. anonae, C. rosa) complex. The integrative taxonomic approach has helped deliver significant advances in resolving these complexes: It has been used to identify some taxa as belonging to the same biological species as well as to confirm hidden cryptic diversity under a single taxonomic name. Nevertheless, the general application of integrative taxonomy has not been without issue, revealing challenges that must be considered when undertaking an integrative taxonomy project. Scrutiny of this international case study provides a unique opportunity to document lessons learned for the benefit of not only tephritid taxonomists, but also the wider taxonomic community.

  6. Taxonomy and conservation of Vietnam's primates: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Mary E; Sterling, Eleanor J; Hurley, Martha M

    2011-11-01

    Vietnam has the highest number of primate taxa overall (24-27) and the highest number of globally threatened primate taxa (minimum 20) in Mainland Southeast Asia. Conservation management of these species depends in part on resolving taxonomic uncertainties, which remain numerous among the Asian primates. Recent research on genetic, morphological, and acoustic diversity in Vietnam's primates has clarified some of these uncertainties, although a number of significant classification issues still remain. Herein, we summarize and compare the major current taxonomic classifications of Vietnam's primates, discuss recent advances in the context of these taxonomies, and suggest key areas for additional research to best inform conservation efforts in a region crucial to global primate diversity. Among the most important next steps for the conservation of Vietnam's primates is a new consensus list of Asian primates that resolves current differences between major taxonomies, incorporates recent research advances, and recognizes units of diversity at scales below the species-level, whether termed populations, morphs, or subspecies. Priority should be placed on recognizing distinct populations, regardless of the species concept in use, in order to foster the evolutionary processes necessary for primate populations to cope with inevitable environmental changes. The long-term conservation of Vietnam's primates depends not only on an accepted and accurate taxonomy but also on funding for on-the-ground conservation activities, including training, and the continued dedication and leadership of Vietnamese researchers and managers. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Taxonomy of energy taxes. [By states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    This report provides the US DOE with a taxonomy of the direct Federal, state, and local taxes that differentially affect energy markets, including features of general taxes that affect energy differentially; and describes some of the important analytical questions associated with the taxes included in the taxonomy. First, the report discusses energy taxation within the broad context of energy production and use. The second part includes the formal taxonomy and a detailed breakdown of energy taxes by taxing authority and suggests the important issues that are likely to arise in an analysis of energy taxation.

  8. Organising knowledge taxonomies, knowledge and organisational effectiveness

    CERN Document Server

    Lambe, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    Taxonomies are often thought to play a niche role within content-oriented knowledge management projects. They are thought to be 'nice to have' but not essential. In this ground-breaking book, Patrick Lambe shows how they play an integral role in helping organizations coordinate and communicate effectively. Through a series of case studies, he demonstrates the range of ways in which taxonomies can help organizations to leverage and articulate their knowledge. A step-by-step guide in the book to running a taxonomy project is full of practical advice for knowledge managers and business owners ali

  9. A Taxonomy of Vision Systems for Ground Mobile Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Martinez-Gomez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a taxonomy of vision systems for ground mobile robots. In the last five years, a significant number of relevant papers have contributed to this subject. Firstly, a thorough review of the papers is proposed to discuss and classify both past and the most current approaches in the field. As a result, a global picture of the state of the art of the last five years is obtained. Moreover, the study of the articles is used to put forward a comprehensive taxonomy based on the most up-to-date research in ground mobile robotics. In this sense, the paper aims at being especially helpful to both budding and experienced researchers in the areas of vision systems and mobile ground robots. The taxonomy described is devised from a novel perspective, namely in order to respond to the main questions posed when designing robotic vision systems: why?, what for?, what with?, how?, and where? The answers are derived from the most relevant techniques described in the recent literature, leading in a natural way to a series of classifications that are discussed and contextualized. The article offers a global picture of the state of the art in the area and discovers some promising research lines.

  10. Unravelling the tangled taxonomies of health informatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Barrett

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Even though informatics is a term used commonly in healthcare, it can be a confusing and disengaging one. Many definitions exist in the literature, and attempts have been made to develop a clear taxonomy. Despite this, informatics is still a term that lacks clarity in both its scope and the classification of sub-terms that it encompasses.This paper reviews the importance of an agreed taxonomy and explores the challenges of establishing exactly what is meant by health informatics (HI. It reviews what a taxonomy should do, summarises previous attempts at categorising and organising HI and suggests the elements to consider when seeking to develop a system of classification.The paper does not provide all the answers, but it does clarify the questions. By plotting a path towards a taxonomy of HI, it will be possible to enhance understanding and optimise the benefits of embracing technology in clinical practice.

  11. EPA's Information Architecture and Web Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Information Architecture creates a topical organization of our website, instead of an ownership-based organization. The EPA Web Taxonomy allows audiences easy access to relevant information from EPA programs, by using a common vocabulary.

  12. Taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales: update 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afonso, Claudio L.; Amarasinghe, Gaya K.; Bányai, Krisztián; Bào, Yīmíng; Basler, Christopher F.; Bavari, Sina; Bejerman, Nicolás; Blasdell, Kim R.; Briand, François-Xavier; Briese, Thomas; Bukreyev, Alexander; Calisher, Charles H.; Chandran, Kartik; Chéng, Jiāsēn; Clawson, Anna N.; Collins, Peter L.; Dietzgen, Ralf G.; Dolnik, Olga; Domier, Leslie L.; Dürrwald, Ralf; Dye, John M.; Easton, Andrew J.; Ebihara, Hideki; Farkas, Szilvia L.; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana; Formenty, Pierre; Fouchier, Ron A. M.; Fù, Yànpíng; Ghedin, Elodie; Goodin, Michael M.; Hewson, Roger; Horie, Masayuki; Hyndman, Timothy H.; Jiāng, Dàohóng; Kitajima, Elliot W.; Kobinger, Gary P.; Kondo, Hideki; Kurath, Gael; Lamb, Robert A.; Lenardon, Sergio; Leroy, Eric M.; Li, Ci-Xiu; Lin, Xian-Dan; Liú, Lìjiāng; Longdon, Ben; Marton, Szilvia; Maisner, Andrea; Mühlberger, Elke; Netesov, Sergey V.; Nowotny, Norbert; Patterson, Jean L.; Payne, Susan L.; Paweska, Janusz T.; Randall, Rick E.; Rima, Bertus K.; Rota, Paul; Rubbenstroth, Dennis; Schwemmle, Martin; Shi, Mang; Smither, Sophie J.; Stenglein, Mark D.; Stone, David M.; Takada, Ayato; Terregino, Calogero; Tesh, Robert B.; Tian, Jun-Hua; Tomonaga, Keizo; Tordo, Noël; Towner, Jonathan S.; Vasilakis, Nikos; Verbeek, Martin; Volchkov, Viktor E.; Wahl-Jensen, Victoria; Walsh, John A.; Walker, Peter J.; Wang, David; Wang, Lin-Fa; Wetzel, Thierry; Whitfield, Anna E.; Xiè, Jiǎtāo; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Zhang, Yong-Zhen; Kuhn, Jens H.

    2016-05-23

    In 2016, the order Mononegavirales was emended through the addition of two new families (Mymonaviridae and Sunviridae), the elevation of the paramyxoviral subfamily Pneumovirinae to family status (Pneumoviridae), the addition of five free-floating genera (Anphevirus, Arlivirus, Chengtivirus, Crustavirus, and Wastrivirus), and several other changes at the genus and species levels. This article presents the updated taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales as now accepted by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV).

  13. Spermatozoa and spermatogenesis in the northern quahaug Mercenaria mercenaria (Mollusca, Bivalvia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Xue-Ping; Yang, Wan-Xi; Dahms, Hans-U.; Lin, Zhihua; Chai, Xueliang

    2008-12-01

    We studied the ultrastructure of spermatogenesis and spermatozoa in the northern quahaug, the clam Mercenaria mercenaria. Spermatogenetic cells gradually elongate. Mitochondria gradually fuse and increase in size and electron density. During spermatid differentiation, proacrosomal vesicles migrate towards the presumptive anterior pole of the nucleus and eventually form the acrosome. The spermatozoon of M. mercenaria is of a primitive type. It is composed of head, mid-piece, and tail. The acrosome shows a subacrosomal space with a short conical contour. The slightly curved nucleus of the spermatozoon contains fine-grained dense chromatin. The middle piece consists of a centriolar complex which is surrounded by four mitochondria. The flagellum has a standard “9 + 2” microtubular structure. The ultrastructure of spermatozoa and spermatogenesis of M. mercenaria shares a number of features with other species of the family Veneridae. M. mercenaria may be a suitable model species for further investigations into the mechanisms of spermatogenesis in the Bivalvia.

  14. A taxonomy of anatomical and pathological entities to support commenting on radiographs (preliminary clinical evaluation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosson, Philip; Dash, Robert

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that radiographers have a lot to offer the patient by providing their expert opinion in a timely intervention; including the possibility of Radiographer Led Discharge. Some excellent paper based ‘commenting’ systems have been developed locally and the Society and College of Radiographers has issued national guidance with a pro-forma to support implementation. However, delivery and audit of the PCE service can be burdensome. There is also an ongoing training need linked in to annual reviews. This paper provides a brief introduction to the field of controlled vocabularies and ontologies in radiology and serves to identify their potential for PCE systems. The current work has constructed a prototype taxonomy and accompanying ontology (list of relationships) that enable the generation of radiographer comments using an electronic, fast, and structured web based interface. For example, in the current implementation any one of thousands of possible unique comments could be constructed by making just six selections from filtered lists of terms. The prototype taxonomy has been tested to refine and validate the concept. The resulting taxonomy and its evolution is described here. Finally, the taxonomy was trialled by 23 participants who generated structured PCE's after reviewing 27 cases on DICOM workstations. An analysis of agreement between participants and the ‘gold standard’ is presented. In conclusion, a taxonomy has been created that would provide for: a standardised framework for training staff and students, efficient and robust delivery of the service, and audit of individual practice

  15. The taxobook principles and practices of building taxonomies

    CERN Document Server

    Hlava, Marjorie

    2014-01-01

    This book outlines the basic principles of creation and maintenance of taxonomies and thesauri. It also provides step by step instructions for building a taxonomy or thesaurus and discusses the various ways to get started on a taxonomy construction project.Often, the first step is to get management and budgetary approval, so I start this book with a discussion of reasons to embark on the taxonomy journey. From there I move on to a discussion of metadata and how taxonomies and metadata are related, and then consider how, where, and why taxonomies are used.Information architecture has its corner

  16. From Genome Sequence to Taxonomy - A Skeptic’s View

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Özen, Asli Ismihan; Vesth, Tammi Camilla; Ussery, David

    2012-01-01

    genome sequences to classify bacteria, and the method of choice, as always, depends on the question asked and the particular need. For example, 16S rRNA can define a bacterial species, and relate species, genera, and higher orders into groups consistent with their known biological properties. However...... many commonly used methods and also describes potential pitfalls if used inappropriately, as well as which questions are best addressed by particular methods. After a brief introduction to the classical methods of taxonomy, a description of the bacterial genomes currently available is given...

  17. Ecogenomics and Taxonomy of Cyanobacteria Phylum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juline M. Walter

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria are major contributors to global biogeochemical cycles. The genetic diversity among Cyanobacteria enables them to thrive across many habitats, although only a few studies have analyzed the association of phylogenomic clades to specific environmental niches. In this study, we adopted an ecogenomics strategy with the aim to delineate ecological niche preferences of Cyanobacteria and integrate them to the genomic taxonomy of these bacteria. First, an appropriate phylogenomic framework was established using a set of genomic taxonomy signatures (including a tree based on conserved gene sequences, genome-to-genome distance, and average amino acid identity to analyse ninety-nine publicly available cyanobacterial genomes. Next, the relative abundances of these genomes were determined throughout diverse global marine and freshwater ecosystems, using metagenomic data sets. The whole-genome-based taxonomy of the ninety-nine genomes allowed us to identify 57 (of which 28 are new genera and 87 (of which 32 are new species different cyanobacterial genera and species, respectively. The ecogenomic analysis allowed the distinction of three major ecological groups of Cyanobacteria (named as i. Low Temperature; ii. Low Temperature Copiotroph; and iii. High Temperature Oligotroph that were coherently linked to the genomic taxonomy. This work establishes a new taxonomic framework for Cyanobacteria in the light of genomic taxonomy and ecogenomic approaches.

  18. Taxonomy and origin of reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knut H. Røed

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Reindeer and caribou was probably the key species for the human immigration and colonization in the Arctic and sub-Arctic by the retreat of the ice in the last glacial period. The close connection between human and reindeer has contributed to great interest and variation in reindeer taxonomy and origin. Through the history several both species, subspecies and types of reindeer and caribou have been described. The early taxonomy of the species is marked by comparisons of individual specimen using traits as body size, skin colour or antler formations - characteristics known to be highly variable and subjected to environmental and nutritional level. During the mid 1900s the taxonomy was more based on variation of morphological traits among populations by analysing a large series of specimens representative of the various geographic populations and a consensus of classification of several subspecies, all belonging to the same species, evolved. During late 1900 the development of modern molecular techniques procured tools for revealing genetic structure of populations reflecting different origin and isolation rather than environmental influences. The genetic structure revealed a major genetic dichotomy between American woodland caribou on the one hand and all other types of reindeer and caribou on the other which gave evidence that the ancestors of present woodland caribou had survived and evolved in ice free refugium south to the glacier in North America and the ancestors of all other types of reindeer and caribou had evolved separated from these in refugium in Eurasia and Beringia. The ancestors of present reindeer in Scandinavia appear furthermore to have evolved from different populations separated during the last glaciation period and the colonization and origin of present wild and domestic reindeer will be discussed in this perspective.Taksonomi og opprinnelse til reinAbstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Rein og caribou har hatt stor betydning

  19. Tephritid taxonomy into the 21st century - Research opportunities and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drew, R.A.I.; Romig, M.C.

    2000-01-01

    We write with the firm conviction that taxonomic research forms the essential foundation for all other areas of investigation within the field of biology. This has been well demonstrated in the Tephritidae and is a position at which we have arrived through many years' experience in fruit fly systematic research covering taxonomy, behaviour, biology, ecology and pest control. The importance of sound taxonomic research is highlighted at this time by the known presence of many sibling species complexes across the family. Within the Dacinae, for example, major pest species often occur within groups of closely related species, most of which are not pests. The dorsalis complex of Southeast Asia and the musae complex of Papua New Guinea are examples. Tephritid taxonomy has a long history (over two centuries) and rich heritage with some 4,500 species having been described since the mid-1700s. This research has been carried out in major research centres around the world and particularly in Australia, Europe, Hawaii, mainland USA and South Africa. In Mexico in February 1998, a significant meeting was held on the biology/behaviour and taxonomy of Tephritidae. Specialist researchers in this area presented valuable and interesting data on 'Phylogeny and Evolution of Behaviour' in fruit flies. In summarising current knowledge on the taxonomy and biology of the Tephritidae, the meeting highlighted the outstanding achievements of taxonomy in its contributions to both basic research and pest management programmes over many decades of tephritid studies world-wide. This presentation provides a link between the meetings in Mexico and Penang and enables us to present a summary of our current knowledge and genuine valuable applications of tephritid taxonomy to the overall fruit fly research and pest management effort. In doing this, this presentation also fits into the theme of this conference in Penang, 'Fruit Flies- current global scenario'

  20. Forensic Taxonomy of Android Social Apps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azfar, Abdullah; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Liu, Lin

    2017-03-01

    An Android social app taxonomy incorporating artifacts that are of forensic interest will enable users and forensic investigators to identify the personally identifiable information (PII) stored by the apps. In this study, 30 popular Android social apps were examined. Artifacts of forensic interest (e.g., contacts lists, chronology of messages, and timestamp of an added contact) were recovered. In addition, images were located, and Facebook token strings used to tie account identities and gain access to information entered into Facebook by a user were identified. Based on the findings, a two-dimensional taxonomy of the forensic artifacts of the social apps is proposed. A comparative summary of existing forensic taxonomies of different categories of Android apps, designed to facilitate timely collection and analysis of evidentiary materials from Android devices, is presented. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  1. Constructing a working taxonomy of functional Ada software components for real-time embedded system applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Robert

    1986-01-01

    A major impediment to a systematic attack on Ada software reusability is the lack of an effective taxonomy for software component functions. The scope of all possible applications of Ada software is considered too great to allow the practical development of a working taxonomy. Instead, for the purposes herein, the scope of Ada software application is limited to device and subsystem control in real-time embedded systems. A functional approach is taken in constructing the taxonomy tree for identified Ada domain. The use of modular software functions as a starting point fits well with the object oriented programming philosophy of Ada. Examples of the types of functions represented within the working taxonomy are real time kernels, interrupt service routines, synchronization and message passing, data conversion, digital filtering and signal conditioning, and device control. The constructed taxonomy is proposed as a framework from which a need analysis can be performed to reveal voids in current Ada real-time embedded programming efforts for Space Station.

  2. A computer network attack taxonomy and ontology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Heerden, RP

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available taxonomy and ontology RP van Heerden1,2, B Irwin2, ID Burke1, L Leenen1 1CSIR, Pretoria, South Africa 2Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South Africa Keywords/ Key Phrases: Network Attack, Network Attack Classification, Taxonomy, Ontology, Attack... Scenario rvheerden@csir.co.za b.irwin@ru.ac.za iburke@csir.co.za lleenen@csir.co.za Abstract: Computer network attacks differ in the motivation of the entity behind the attack, the execution and the end result. The diversity of attacks has a...

  3. A Taxonomy of Human Translation Styles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, Michael; Dragsted, Barbara; Lykke Jakobsen, Arnt

    2011-01-01

    While the translation profession becomes increasingly technological, we are still far from understanding how humans actually translate and how they could be best supported by machines. In this paper we outline a method which helps to uncover characteristics of human translation processes. Based o...... on the translators' activity data, we develop a taxonomy of translation styles. The taxonomy could serve to inform the development of advanced translation assistance tools and provide a basis for a felicitous and grounded integration of human machine interaction in translation....

  4. Reconciling taxonomy and phylogenetic inference: formalism and algorithms for describing discord and inferring taxonomic roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsen Frederick A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although taxonomy is often used informally to evaluate the results of phylogenetic inference and the root of phylogenetic trees, algorithmic methods to do so are lacking. Results In this paper we formalize these procedures and develop algorithms to solve the relevant problems. In particular, we introduce a new algorithm that solves a "subcoloring" problem to express the difference between a taxonomy and a phylogeny at a given rank. This algorithm improves upon the current best algorithm in terms of asymptotic complexity for the parameter regime of interest; we also describe a branch-and-bound algorithm that saves orders of magnitude in computation on real data sets. We also develop a formalism and an algorithm for rooting phylogenetic trees according to a taxonomy. Conclusions The algorithms in this paper, and the associated freely-available software, will help biologists better use and understand taxonomically labeled phylogenetic trees.

  5. The genus Gloriosa (Colchicaceae) : ethnobotany, phylogeny and taxonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maroyi, A.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the ethnobotany, phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Gloriosa L. over its distributional range. Some Gloriosa species are known to have economic and commercial value, but the genus is also well known for its complex alpha taxonomy. An appropriate taxonomy for this group is of

  6. Taxonomies of Educational Technology Uses: Dewey, Chip and Me

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, James A.

    2014-01-01

    In the early 1990s, Chip Bruce created a taxonomy of education technology uses, which the author of the article helped to expand and evaluate. This taxonomy is based on John Dewey's "four impulses of the child": inquiry, construction, communication, and expression. This taxonomy has helped people interested in the uses of…

  7. Role of Genomic Typing in Taxonomy, Evolutionary Genetics, and Microbial Epidemiology

    OpenAIRE

    van Belkum, Alex; Struelens, Marc; de Visser, Arjan; Verbrugh, Henri; Tibayrenc, Michel

    2001-01-01

    Currently, genetic typing of microorganisms is widely used in several major fields of microbiological research. Taxonomy, research aimed at elucidation of evolutionary dynamics or phylogenetic relationships, population genetics of microorganisms, and microbial epidemiology all rely on genetic typing data for discrimination between genotypes. Apart from being an essential component of these fundamental sciences, microbial typing clearly affects several areas of applied microbiogical research. ...

  8. Role of genomic typing in taxonomy, evolutionary genetics, and microbial epidemiology.

    OpenAIRE

    Belkum, Alex; Struelens, M.; Visser, Arjan; Verbrugh, Henri; Tibayrench, M.

    2001-01-01

    textabstractCurrently, genetic typing of microorganisms is widely used in several major fields of microbiological research. Taxonomy, research aimed at elucidation of evolutionary dynamics or phylogenetic relationships, population genetics of microorganisms, and microbial epidemiology all rely on genetic typing data for discrimination between genotypes. Apart from being an essential component of these fundamental sciences, microbial typing clearly affects several areas of applied microbiologi...

  9. Biocenosis de Bivalvia y Polyplacophora del intermareal rocoso en playa Tlacopanocha, Acapulco, Guerrero, México Polyplacophora and Bivalvia biocenosis at rocky intertidal Tlacopanocha beach, Acapulco, Guerrero, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizeth Galeana-Rebolledo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available El Estado de Guerrero, México, tiene regiones marinas prioritarias para la conservación de su biodiversidad y la información acerca de la diversidad de moluscos es escasa, por lo que es necesario realizar inventarios de especies, estudios de ecología de poblaciones y comunidades. Este estudio se efectuó en el intermareal rocoso de la playa Tlacopanocha. Los objetivos fueron: determinar la riqueza, densidad y diversidad de especies; analizar la composición de especies y estructura de tallas. El área de muestreo fue de 10 m² y la unidad de muestreó fue de 1 m². Se identificaron 35 especies, de las cuales tres son nuevos registros para el intermareal rocoso de Guerrero: las familias mejor representadas en riqueza de especies fueron Ischnochitonidae y Arcidae, y en abundancia Chitonidae y Chamidae; la densidad fue de 31,60 ind m-2. Polyplacophora presentó 42,9% de especies dominantes y Bivalvia 19,0%. Chama corallina presentó la mayor talla en longitud y Chama sordida en ancho. La riqueza de especies de moluscos registrada se considera alta y corresponde a lo esperado para un sustrato rocoso en zona tropical. Polyplacophora presentó alta composición de especies, que podría ser resultado de la adaptación de los organismos a las condiciones dinámicas del intermareal rocoso. Los nuevos registros indican la importancia de los inventarios de especies y también del conocimiento de las poblaciones y comunidades de la fauna marina de Guerrero.The State of Guerrero, Mexico, has priority marine areas for conservation of its biodiversity, but information concerning diversity of mollusks is limited, so it is convenient to carry out species inventories, studies of populations and community ecology. This study was conducted in the intertidal rocky beach Tlacopanocha. The objectives were to determine richness, density and species diversity, analyze the species composition and size structure. The sampling area was 10 m² and the sampling unit was

  10. Taxonomy, ecology and biotechnological applications of thraustochytrids: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossier Marchan, Loris; Lee Chang, Kim J; Nichols, Peter D; Mitchell, Wilfrid J; Polglase, Jane L; Gutierrez, Tony

    Thraustochytrids were first discovered in 1934, and since the 1960's they have been increasingly studied for their beneficial and deleterious effects. This review aims to provide an enhanced understanding of these protists with a particular emphasis on their taxonomy, ecology and biotechnology applications. Over the years, thraustochytrid taxonomy has improved with the development of modern molecular techniques and new biochemical markers, resulting in the isolation and description of new strains. In the present work, the taxonomic history of thraustochytrids is reviewed, while providing an up-to-date classification of these organisms. It also describes the various biomarkers that may be taken into consideration to support taxonomic characterization of the thraustochytrids, together with a review of traditional and modern techniques for their isolation and molecular identification. The originality of this review lies in linking taxonomy and ecology of the thraustochytrids and their biotechnological applications as producers of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), carotenoids, exopolysaccharides and other compounds of interest. The paper provides a summary of these aspects while also highlighting some of the most important recent studies in this field, which include the diversity of polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism in thraustochytrids, some novel strategies for biomass production and recovery of compounds of interest. Furthermore, a detailed overview is provided of the direct and current applications of thraustochytrid-derived compounds in the food, fuel, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and aquaculture industries and of some of the commercial products available. This review is intended to be a source of information and references on the thraustochytrids for both experts and those who are new to this field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Combining Taxonomies using Word2vec

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swoboda, Tobias; Hemmje, Matthias; Dascalu, Mihai; Trausan-Matu, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Taxonomies have gained a broad usage in a variety of fields due to their extensibility, as well as their use for classification and knowledge organization. Of particular interest is the digital document management domain in which their hierarchical structure can be effectively employed in order

  12. A Taxonomy of Technical Assistance Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Evelyn; Musumeci, Marilyn

    To operationalize the Technical Assistance Brokerage System, the first major task called for the development of a taxonomy of training and technical assistance services specifying requisite skills and skill clusters by the dimensions of client type, stages of dissemination, and levels of experience. From a literature search approximately 400…

  13. Constructive Alignment and the SOLO Taxonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Claus; Dahl, Bettina

    2008-01-01

    the science faculties at University of Aarhus, Denmark (AU) and the University of Southern Denmark (SDU) that had been rewritten to explicitly incorporate course objectives, interpreted as intended learning outcomes (ILOs), using the principles of Constructive Alignment and the SOLO Taxonomy. In this paper we...

  14. A Taxonomy for Mannerisms of Blind Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichel, Valerie J.

    1979-01-01

    The investigation involving 24 blind children (2-11 years old) set out to develop and validate a coding procedure which employed a set of 34 descriptors with their corresponding definitions. The use of the taxonomy enabled a detailed, systematic study of manneristic behavior in blind children. (Author/SBH)

  15. An Android Communication App Forensic Taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azfar, Abdullah; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Liu, Lin

    2016-09-01

    Due to the popularity of Android devices and applications (apps), Android forensics is one of the most studied topics within mobile forensics. Communication apps, such as instant messaging and Voice over IP (VoIP), are one popular app category used by mobile device users, including criminals. Therefore, a taxonomy outlining artifacts of forensic interest involving the use of Android communication apps will facilitate the timely collection and analysis of evidentiary materials from such apps. In this paper, 30 popular Android communication apps were examined, where a logical extraction of the Android phone images was collected using XRY, a widely used mobile forensic tool. Various information of forensic interest, such as contact lists and chronology of messages, was recovered. Based on the findings, a two-dimensional taxonomy of the forensic artifacts of the communication apps is proposed, with the app categories in one dimension and the classes of artifacts in the other dimension. Finally, the artifacts identified in the study of the 30 communication apps are summarized using the taxonomy. It is expected that the proposed taxonomy and the forensic findings in this paper will assist forensic investigations involving Android communication apps. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  16. Classification and taxonomy of vegetable macergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bukola Rhoda Aremu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Macergens are bacteria capable of releasing pectic enzymes (pectolytic bacteria. These enzymatic actions result in the separation of plant tissues leading to total plant destruction. This can be attributed to soft rot diseases in vegetables. These macergens primarily belong to the genus Erwinia and to a range of opportunistic pathogens namely: the Xanthomonas spp, Pseudomonas spp., Clostridium spp., Cytophaga spp. and Bacillus spp. They consist of taxa that displayed considerable heterogeneity and intermingled with members of other genera belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae. They have been classified based on phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic which obviously not necessary in the taxonomy of all bacterial genera for defining bacterial species and describing new ones These taxonomic markers have been used traditionally as a simple technique for identification of bacterial isolates. The most important fields of taxonomy are supposed to be based on clear, reliable and worldwide applicable criteria. Hence, this review clarifies the taxonomy of the macergens to the species level and revealed that their taxonomy is beyond complete. For discovery of additional species, further research with the use modern molecular methods like phylogenomics need to be done. This can precisely define classification of macergens resulting in occasional, but significant changes in previous taxonomic schemes of these macergens.

  17. Taxonomy for Common-Cause Failure Vulnerability and Mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Richard Thomas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Korsah, Kofi [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mullens, James Allen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pullum, Laura L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Applying current guidance and practices for common-cause failure (CCF) mitigation to digital instrumentation and control (I&C) systems has proven problematic, and the regulatory environment has been unpredictable. The potential for CCF vulnerability inhibits I&C modernization, thereby challenging the long-term sustainability of existing plants. For new plants and advanced reactor concepts, concern about CCF vulnerability in highly integrated digital I&C systems imposes a design burden that results in higher costs and increased complexity. The regulatory uncertainty in determining which mitigation strategies will be acceptable (e.g., what diversity is needed and how much is sufficient) drives designers to adopt complicated, costly solutions devised for existing plants. To address the conditions that constrain the transition to digital I&C technology by the US nuclear industry, crosscutting research is needed to resolve uncertainty, demonstrate necessary characteristics, and establish an objective basis for qualification of digital technology for nuclear power plant (NPP) I&C applications. To fulfill this research need, Oak Ridge National Laboratory is investigating mitigation of CCF vulnerability for nuclear-qualified applications. The outcome of this research is expected to contribute to a fundamentally sound, comprehensive basis to qualify digital technology for nuclear power applications. This report documents the development of a CCF taxonomy. The basis for the CCF taxonomy was generated by determining consistent terminology and establishing a classification approach. The terminology is based on definitions from standards, guides, and relevant nuclear power industry technical reports. The classification approach is derived from identified classification schemes focused on I&C systems and key characteristics, including failure modes. The CCF taxonomy provides the basis for a systematic organization of key systems aspects relevant to analyzing the potential for

  18. The Histopathology of the Infection of Tilapia rendalli and Hypostomus regani (Osteichthyes by Lasidium Larvae of Anodontites trapesialis (Mollusca, Bivalvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva-Souza Ângela Teresa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available It is described the histopathology of the infection of Tilapia rendalli (Osteichthyes, Perciformes, Cichlidae and Hypostomus regani (Osteichthyes, Siluriformes, Loricariidae by lasidium larvae of Anodontites trapesialis (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Mycetopodidae. The larvae were encysted within the epidermis of the host, being surrounded by a thin hyaline membrane, 3-6 µm thick, of parasite origin. A proliferative host cell reaction did not occur. The histopathology of the infection shows that the lesions induced by the parasites are minimal. However, the numerous small lesions produced by the release of the larvae may provide optimal conditions for the infection by opportunistic pathogens, namely fungus, which may eventually cause the death of the host.

  19. The histopathology of the infection of Tilapia rendalli and Hypostomus regani (Osteichthyes) by lasidium larvae of Anodontites trapesialis (Mollusca, Bivalvia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Souza, Angela Teresa; Eiras, Jorge C

    2002-04-01

    It is described the histopathology of the infection of Tilapia rendalli (Osteichthyes, Perciformes, Cichlidae) and Hypostomus regani (Osteichthyes, Siluriformes, Loricariidae) by lasidium larvae of Anodontites trapesialis (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Mycetopodidae). The larvae were encysted within the epidermis of the host, being surrounded by a thin hyaline membrane, 3-6 microm thick, of parasite origin. A proliferative host cell reaction did not occur. The histopathology of the infection shows that the lesions induced by the parasites are minimal. However, the numerous small lesions produced by the release of the larvae may provide optimal conditions for the infection by opportunistic pathogens, namely fungus, which may eventually cause the death of the host.

  20. Susceptibility profiles of Nocardia isolates based on current taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaberg, Robert; Fisher, Mark A; Hanson, Kimberley E

    2014-01-01

    The genus Nocardia has undergone rapid taxonomic expansion in recent years, and an increasing number of species are recognized as human pathogens. Many established species have predictable antimicrobial susceptibility profiles, but sufficient information is often not available for recently described organisms. Additionally, the effectiveness of sulfonamides as first-line drugs for Nocardia has recently been questioned. This led us to review antimicrobial susceptibility patterns for a large number of molecularly identified clinical isolates. Susceptibility results were available for 1,299 isolates representing 39 different species or complexes, including 11 that were newly described, during a 6-year study period. All tested isolates were susceptible to linezolid. Resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) was rare (2%) except among Nocardia pseudobrasiliensis (31%) strains and strains of the N. transvalensis complex (19%). Imipenem susceptibility varied for N. cyriacigeorgica and N. farcinica, as did ceftriaxone susceptibility of the N. nova complex. Resistance to more than one of the most commonly used drugs (amikacin, ceftriaxone, TMP-SMX, and imipenem) was highest for N. pseudobrasiliensis (100%), N. transvalensis complex (83%), N. farcinica (68%), N. puris (57%), N. brasiliensis (51%), N. aobensis (50%), and N. amikacinitolerans (43%). Thus, while antimicrobial resistance can often be predicted, susceptibility testing should still be considered when combination therapy is warranted, for less well characterized species or those with variable susceptibility profiles, and for patients with TMP-SMX intolerance.

  1. How apomictic taxa are treated in current taxonomy: A review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Majeský, L.; Krahulec, František; Vašut, R.J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 5 (2017), s. 1017-1040 ISSN 0040-0262 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : apomixis * hybridization * species concept Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 2.447, year: 2016

  2. Building a Framework for a Dual Task Taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara L. McIsaac

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of dual task interference has gained increasing attention in the literature for the past 35 years, with six MEDLINE citations in 1979 growing to 351 citations indexed in 2014 and a peak of 454 cited papers in 2013. Increasingly, researchers are examining dual task cost in individuals with pathology, including those with neurodegenerative diseases. While the influence of these papers has extended from the laboratory to the clinic, the field has evolved without clear definitions of commonly used terms and with extreme variations in experimental procedures. As a result, it is difficult to examine the interference literature as a single body of work. In this paper we present a new taxonomy for classifying cognitive-motor and motor-motor interference within the study of dual task behaviors that connects traditional concepts of learning and principles of motor control with current issues of multitasking analysis. As a first step in the process we provide an operational definition of dual task, distinguishing it from a complex single task. We present this new taxonomy, inclusive of both cognitive and motor modalities, as a working model; one that we hope will generate discussion and create a framework from which one can view previous studies and develop questions of interest.

  3. Tracking the Taxonomy of the Genus Bifidobacterium Based on a Phylogenomic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugli, Gabriele Andrea; Milani, Christian; Duranti, Sabrina; Mancabelli, Leonardo; Mangifesta, Marta; Turroni, Francesca; Viappiani, Alice; van Sinderen, Douwe; Ventura, Marco

    2018-02-15

    For decades, bacterial taxonomy has been based on in vitro molecular biology techniques and comparison of molecular marker sequences to measure the degree of genetic similarity and deduce phylogenetic relatedness of novel bacterial species to reference microbial taxa. Due to the advent of the genomic era, access to complete bacterial genome contents has become easier, thereby presenting the opportunity to precisely investigate the overall genetic diversity of microorganisms. Here, we describe a high-accuracy phylogenomic approach to assess the taxonomy of members of the genus Bifidobacterium and identify apparent misclassifications in current bifidobacterial taxonomy. The developed method was validated by the classification of seven novel taxa belonging to the genus Bifidobacterium by employing their overall genetic content. The results of this study demonstrate the potential of this whole-genome approach to become the gold standard for phylogenomics-based taxonomic classification of bacteria. IMPORTANCE Nowadays, next-generation sequencing has given access to genome sequences of the currently known bacterial taxa. The public databases constructed by means of these new technologies allowed comparison of genome sequences between microorganisms, providing information to perform genomic, phylogenomic, and evolutionary analyses. In order to avoid misclassifications in the taxonomy of novel bacterial isolates, new (bifido)bacterial taxons should be validated with a phylogenomic assessment like the approach presented here. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  4. PALAEOBIOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS ON THE "COCOONED" MYTILID AMYGDALUM (BIVALVIA, UPPER PLIOCENE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASSUNTA D'ALESSANDRO

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Fossil specimens referred to the extant Atlantic-Mediterranean species Amygdalum politum (Verrill & Smith, 1880, occur in Upper Pliocene mudstones cropping out in northern Puglia (Southern Italy. Amygdalum is an infaunal mytilid living within a cocoon made of byssal threads, sediment and mucus. The examined material occurs in grey clayey silt, mainly massive, and in stratified yellowish clayey silt. The specimens from the grey mudstones are closed, strongly compressed, deformed and obliquely oriented. Also in the yellowish mudstones the shells are closed, compressed and intensely fractured but are concordant to the bedding plane and concentrated in a single pavement. On a whole, the associated macrofauna is indicative of upper slope tending to outer shelf environments. Taphonomic and palaeoecologic observations, together with the few available literature data, suggest that this bivalve lived in a particularly fluid substrate, keeping its vertical life position thanks to the stabilizing effect of the byssal cocoon. Since this species was able to cope with high turbidity waters, as suggested by taphonomic observation, it can be argued that the byssal cocoon acted also as a filter for the inhalant current.

  5. The ACTTION–APS–AAPM Pain Taxonomy (AAAPT) Multidimensional Approach to Classifying Acute Pain Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Michael L.; Tighe, Patrick J.; Belfer, Inna; Brennan, Timothy J.; Bruehl, Stephen; Brummett, Chad M.; Buckenmaier, Chester C.; Buvanendran, Asokumar; Cohen, Robert I.; Desjardins, Paul; Edwards, David; Fillingim, Roger; Gewandter, Jennifer; Gordon, Debra B.; Hurley, Robert W.; Kehlet, Henrik; Loeser, John D.; Mackey, Sean; McLean, Samuel A.; Polomano, Rosemary; Rahman, Siamak; Raja, Srinivasa; Rowbotham, Michael; Suresh, Santhanam; Schachtel, Bernard; Schreiber, Kristin; Schumacher, Mark; Stacey, Brett; Stanos, Steven; Todd, Knox; Turk, Dennis C.; Weisman, Steven J.; Wu, Christopher; Carr, Daniel B.; Dworkin, Robert H.; Terman, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    , despite the advent of modern multimodal analgesic strategies. Mismanaged acute pain has a broad societal impact as significant numbers of patients may progress to suffer from chronic pain. An acute pain taxonomy provides a much-needed standardization of clinical diagnostic criteria, which benefits clinical care, research, education, and public policy. For the purposes of the present taxonomy, acute pain is considered to last up to seven days, with prolongation to 30 days being common. The current understanding of acute pain mechanisms poorly differentiates between acute and chronic pain and is often insufficient to distinguish among many types of acute pain conditions. Given the usefulness of the AAPT multidimensional framework, the AAAPT undertook a similar approach to organizing various acute pain conditions. PMID:28482098

  6. "Communicate to vaccinate": the development of a taxonomy of communication interventions to improve routine childhood vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Natalie; Hill, Sophie; Kaufman, Jessica; Lewin, Simon; Kis-Rigo, John; De Castro Freire, Sara Bensaude; Bosch-Capblanch, Xavier; Glenton, Claire; Lin, Vivian; Robinson, Priscilla; Wiysonge, Charles S

    2013-05-11

    members or volunteers; and health care providers. Our taxonomy illuminates and organises this field and identifies the range of available communication interventions to increase routine childhood vaccination uptake. We have utilised a variety of data sources, capturing information from rigorous evaluations such as randomised trials as well as experiences and knowledge of practitioners and vaccination stakeholders. The taxonomy reflects current public health practice and can guide the future development of vaccination programmes.

  7. The ACTTION-APS-AAPM Pain Taxonomy (AAAPT) Multidimensional Approach to Classifying Acute Pain Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Michael L; Tighe, Patrick J; Belfer, Inna; Brennan, Timothy J; Bruehl, Stephen; Brummett, Chad M; Buckenmaier, Chester C; Buvanendran, Asokumar; Cohen, Robert I; Desjardins, Paul; Edwards, David; Fillingim, Roger; Gewandter, Jennifer; Gordon, Debra B; Hurley, Robert W; Kehlet, Henrik; Loeser, John D; Mackey, Sean; McLean, Samuel A; Polomano, Rosemary; Rahman, Siamak; Raja, Srinivasa; Rowbotham, Michael; Suresh, Santhanam; Schachtel, Bernard; Schreiber, Kristin; Schumacher, Mark; Stacey, Brett; Stanos, Steven; Todd, Knox; Turk, Dennis C; Weisman, Steven J; Wu, Christopher; Carr, Daniel B; Dworkin, Robert H; Terman, Gregory

    2017-05-01

    . Mismanaged acute pain has a broad societal impact as significant numbers of patients may progress to suffer from chronic pain. An acute pain taxonomy provides a much-needed standardization of clinical diagnostic criteria, which benefits clinical care, research, education, and public policy. For the purposes of the present taxonomy, acute pain is considered to last up to seven days, with prolongation to 30 days being common. The current understanding of acute pain mechanisms poorly differentiates between acute and chronic pain and is often insufficient to distinguish among many types of acute pain conditions. Given the usefulness of the AAPT multidimensional framework, the AAAPT undertook a similar approach to organizing various acute pain conditions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Predicting the effects of climate change on population connectivity and genetic diversity of an imperiled freshwater mussel, Cumberlandia monodonta (Bivalvia: Margaritiferidae), in riverine systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Kentaro; Berg, David J

    2017-01-01

    In the face of global climate change, organisms may respond to temperature increases by shifting their ranges poleward or to higher altitudes. However, the direction of range shifts in riverine systems is less clear. Because rivers are dendritic networks, there is only one dispersal route from any given location to another. Thus, range shifts are only possible if branches are connected by suitable habitat, and stream-dwelling organisms can disperse through these branches. We used Cumberlandia monodonta (Bivalvia: Unionoida: Margaritiferidae) as a model species to investigate the effects of climate change on population connectivity because a majority of contemporary populations are panmictic. We combined ecological niche models (ENMs) with population genetic simulations to investigate the effects of climate change on population connectivity and genetic diversity of C. monodonta. The ENMs were constructed using bioclimatic and landscape data to project shifts in suitable habitat under future climate scenarios. We then used forward-time simulations to project potential changes in genetic diversity and population connectivity based on these range shifts. ENM results under current conditions indicated long stretches of highly suitable habitat in rivers where C. monodonta persists; populations in the upper Mississippi River remain connected by suitable habitat that does not impede gene flow. Future climate scenarios projected northward and headwater-ward range contraction and drastic declines in habitat suitability for most extant populations throughout the Mississippi River Basin. Simulations indicated that climate change would greatly reduce genetic diversity and connectivity across populations. Results suggest that a single, large population of C. monodonta will become further fragmented into smaller populations, each of which will be isolated and begin to differentiate genetically. Because C. monodonta is a widely distributed species and purely aquatic, our

  9. Comparative morphology among representatives of main taxa of Scaphopoda and basal protobranch Bivalvia (Mollusca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Ricardo L. Simone

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with detailed morphology and anatomy of 4 species of Scaphopoda and 5 species of protobranch Bivalvia. Both classes are traditionally grouped in the taxon Diasoma, which has been questioned by different methodologies, such as molecular and developmental. This study is developed under a phylogenetic methodology with the main concern in performing it in an intelligible and testable methodology. The analyzed Scaphopoda species came from the Brazilian coast and belong to the family Dentaliidae [(1 Coccodentalium carduus; (2 Paradentalium disparile] and Gadiliidae; [(3 Polyschides noronhensis, n. sp. from Fernando de Noronha Archipelago; (4 Gadila braziliensis]. These species represent the main branches of the class Scaphopoda. From protobranch bivalves, representatives of the families Solemyidae [(5 Solemya occidentalis, from Florida; S. notialis, n. sp. from S.E. Brazil], Nuculanidae [(6 Propeleda carpentieri from Florida], and Nuculidae [(7 Ennucula puelcha, from south Brazil] are included. These species represent the main branches of the basal Bivalvia. The descriptions on the anatomy of S. occidentalis and of P. carpentieri are published elsewhere. The remaining are included here, for which a complete taxonomical treatment is performed. Beyond these species, representatives of other taxa are operationally included as part of the ingroup (indices are then shared with them, as a procedure to test the morphological monophyly of Diasoma. These taxa are: two lamellibranch bivalves [(8 Barbatia - Arcidae; (9 Serratina - Tellinidae; both published elsewhere;, and Propilidium (10 Patellogastropoda, and (11 Nautilus, basal Cephalopoda, based on basal taxa. The effective outgroups are (12 Neopilina (Monoplacophora and (13 Hanleya (Polyplacophora. The phylogenetic analysis based on morphology revealed that the taxon Diasoma is supported by 14 synapomorphies, and is separated from Cyrtosoma (Gastropoda + Cephalopoda. Although they are not

  10. Lack of endosymbiont release by two Lucinidae (Bivalvia) of the genus Codakia: consequences for symbiotic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brissac, Terry; Gros, Olivier; Merçot, Hervé

    2009-02-01

    Associations between marine invertebrates and chemoautotrophic bacteria constitute a wide field for the study of symbiotic associations. In these interactions, symbiont transmission must represent the cornerstone allowing the persistence of the association throughout generations. Within Bivalvia, in families such as Solemyidae or Vesicomyidae, symbiont transmission is undoubtedly vertical. However, in Lucinidae, symbiont transmission is described in the literature as 'environmental', symbionts being acquired from the environment by the new host generations. Hence, if there is transmission, symbionts should be transmitted from adults to juveniles via the environment. Consequently, we should observe a release of the symbiont by adults. We attempted to detect such a release within two Lucinidae species of the genus Codakia. We sampled 10 Codakia orbicularis and 20 Codakia orbiculata distributed in 10 crystallizing dishes containing filtered seawater. During 1 month of investigation, we analyzed water of the dishes in order to detect any release of a symbiont using catalyzed report deposition-FISH techniques. For 140 observations realized during this period, we did not observe any release of symbionts. This suggests that the idea of host-to-host passage in Lucinidae is inaccurate. We could therefore consider that the transmission mode from generation to generation does not occur within Lucinidae, symbiosis appearing to be advantageous in this case only for the host, and constitutes an evolutionary dead-end for the bacteria.

  11. Evolution of sex-dependent mtDNA transmission in freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Davide; Plazzi, Federico; Stewart, Donald T; Bogan, Arthur E; Hoeh, Walter R; Breton, Sophie

    2017-05-08

    Doubly uniparental inheritance (DUI) describes a mode of mtDNA transmission widespread in gonochoric freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Palaeoheterodonta: Unionida). In this system, both female- and male-transmitted mtDNAs, named F and M respectively, coexist in the same species. In unionids, DUI is strictly correlated to gonochorism and to the presence of the atypical open reading frames (ORFans) F-orf and M-orf, respectively inside F and M mtDNAs, which are hypothesized to participate in sex determination. However, DUI is not found in all three Unionida superfamilies (confirmed in Hyrioidea and Unionoidea but not in Etherioidea), raising the question of its origin in these bivalves. To reconstruct the co-evolution of DUI and of ORFans, we sequenced the mtDNAs of four unionids (two gonochoric with DUI, one gonochoric and one hermaphroditic without DUI) and of the related gonochoric species Neotrigonia margaritacea (Palaeoheterodonta: Trigoniida). Our analyses suggest that rearranged mtDNAs appeared early during unionid radiation, and that a duplicated and diverged atp8 gene evolved into the M-orf associated with the paternal transmission route in Hyrioidea and Unionoidea, but not in Etherioidea. We propose that novel mtDNA-encoded genes can deeply influence bivalve sex determining systems and the evolution of the mitogenomes in which they occur.

  12. Poliquetos (Annelida: Polychaeta epibiontes de Spondylus americanus (Bivalvia: Spondylidae en el Parque Nacional Mochima, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildefonso Liñero Arana

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Se recolectaron poliquetos epibiontes de ostiones (Spondylus americanus Hermann, 1781 recolectados entre 10 y 30 m de profundidad en el Parque Nacional Mochima, Venezuela, empleando equipo de buceo autónomo. Se analizaron 32 ostiones, identificándose 43 especies de poliquetos; 51.3% del Atlántico, 28.2% cosmopolitas, 17.9% anfiamericanas y 2.6% "disyuntas".Polychaetes (Annelida: Polychaeta epibiont on Spondylus americanus (Bivalvia: Spondylidae from Mochima National Park, Venezuela. The polychaetes epibiontic on the mollusk Spondylus americanus Hermann, 1781 were extracted from mollusks hand-collected at a depth of 10-30 m in Mochima National Park, Venezuela (10º21’00" N - 63º23’36" W, using scuba diving gear. Forty-three polychaete species were identified on the 32 bivalve specimens analyzed. The Serpulidae included 17 especies, Eunicidae six and Terebellidae four species. The most abundant species were Hydroides dirampha Mörch, 1863, Pileolaria militaris Claparède, 1868 (Serpulidae, and Notaulax nudicollis Krøyer, 1856 (Sabellidae. Their geographic affinitie were: 51.3% Atlantic, 28.2% widely distributed, 17.9% Amphiamericans, and 2.6% have a disjunct distribution. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (3: 765-772. Epub 2006 Sept. 29.

  13. Taxonomy, distribution and population structure of invasive Corbiculidae (Mollusca, Bivalvia in the Suquía River basin, Córdoba, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola B. Reyna

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Invasive species are one of the most significant causes of biodiversity loss and changes in ecosystem services, which underlines the importance of their detection and their study. The Asian clams (Corbiculidae are invasive organisms that accidentally entered the La Plata River, Argentina, presumably in the 1960s. The objectives of the present study were to identify the corbiculid species and to determine their distribution at several locations along the Suquía River basin, an extended area in central Argentina. In addition, population structure was evaluated monthly during one year, at a site in the city of Córdoba that is characterized by high human influence. The presence of Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774 and Corbicula largillierti (Philippi, 1844 in the Suquía River basin is reported for the first time. The former species was found only in a lentic environment (San Roque reservoir, while the latter was also found along the tributary rivers and brooks of the basin. Corbicula largillierti showed variations in average density between the different sites and also in biomass and size classes throughout the study period at the site at Córdoba city. The relative composition of the sediments, flow fluctuation and human pollution may be responsible for the observed differences.

  14. Toward a comprehensive taxonomy of human motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talevich, Jennifer R; Read, Stephen J; Walsh, David A; Iyer, Ravi; Chopra, Gurveen

    2017-01-01

    A major success in personality has been the development of a consensual structure of traits. However, much less progress has been made on the structure of an equally important aspect of human psychology: motives. We present an empirically and theoretically structured hierarchical taxonomy of 161 motives gleaned from a literature review from McDougall to the present and based on the cluster analysis of similarity judgments among these 161 motives, a broader sampling of motives than previous work. At the broadest level were: Meaning, Communion, and Agency. These divided into nine clusters: Morality & Virtue, Religion & Spirituality, Self-Actualization, Avoidance, Social Relating, Family, Health, Mastery & Competence, and Financial & Occupational Success. Each divided into more concrete clusters to form 5 levels. We discuss contributions to research on motives, especially recent work on goal systems, and the aiding of communication and systematization of research. Finally, we compare the taxonomy to other motive organizations.

  15. Toward a comprehensive taxonomy of human motives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talevich, Jennifer R.; Walsh, David A.; Iyer, Ravi; Chopra, Gurveen

    2017-01-01

    A major success in personality has been the development of a consensual structure of traits. However, much less progress has been made on the structure of an equally important aspect of human psychology: motives. We present an empirically and theoretically structured hierarchical taxonomy of 161 motives gleaned from a literature review from McDougall to the present and based on the cluster analysis of similarity judgments among these 161 motives, a broader sampling of motives than previous work. At the broadest level were: Meaning, Communion, and Agency. These divided into nine clusters: Morality & Virtue, Religion & Spirituality, Self-Actualization, Avoidance, Social Relating, Family, Health, Mastery & Competence, and Financial & Occupational Success. Each divided into more concrete clusters to form 5 levels. We discuss contributions to research on motives, especially recent work on goal systems, and the aiding of communication and systematization of research. Finally, we compare the taxonomy to other motive organizations. PMID:28231252

  16. Towards an Artificial Space Object Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    plans (e.g. box- wing, cubesat , solar sail). Whatever taxonomy is initially decided upon, it will by necessity change over time. For example, solar...controlled attitude and/or spin state? • Has a controlled orbit? Here we skip the traditional biological classification of “Order” intentionally...size, placement, and orientation of solar panels • Type of attitude control (CMGs, torque rods, reaction wheels, etc) • Type of orbit control

  17. Taxonomy of Challenges for Digital Forensics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karie, Nickson M; Venter, Hein S

    2015-07-01

    Since its inception, over a decade ago, the field of digital forensics has faced numerous challenges. Despite different researchers and digital forensic practitioners having studied and analysed various known digital forensic challenges, as of 2013, there still exists a need for a formal classification of these challenges. This article therefore reviews existing research literature and highlights the various challenges that digital forensics has faced for the last 10 years. In conducting this research study, however, it was difficult for the authors to review all the existing research literature in the digital forensic domain; hence, sampling and randomization techniques were employed to facilitate the review of the gathered literature. Taxonomy of the various challenges is subsequently proposed in this paper based on our review of the literature. The taxonomy classifies the large number of digital forensic challenges into four well-defined and easily understood categories. The proposed taxonomy can be useful, for example, in future developments of automated digital forensic tools by explicitly describing processes and procedures that focus on addressing specific challenges identified in this paper. However, it should also be noted that the purpose of this paper was not to propose any solutions to the individual challenges that digital forensics face, but to serve as a survey of the state of the art of the research area. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  18. DEVELOPMENTAL TAXONOMY OF CONDUCT DISORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Kostić

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Conduct disorder is a heterogeneous disorder in terms of etiology, course and prognosis, and currently, there is no singular model that would describe the development of the disorder. The results of empirical research on males confirm this heterogeneity, as they point out to two possible developmental pathways: childhood-onset and adolescentonset type. This paper presents the basic elements of developmental taxonomic theory which argues that there are two different developmental pathways to conduct disorder which have different causes and serve as the basis for the current typology of conduct disorders in the classification systems. Such a typology of conduct disorders in the diagnostic classification allows better understanding, prognosis and choice of treatment.

  19. DEVELOPMENTAL TAXONOMY OF CONDUCT DISORDER

    OpenAIRE

    Jelena Kostić; Milkica Nešić; Jasminka Marković; Miodrag Stanković

    2015-01-01

    Conduct disorder is a heterogeneous disorder in terms of etiology, course and prognosis, and currently, there is no singular model that would describe the development of the disorder. The results of empirical research on males confirm this heterogeneity, as they point out to two possible developmental pathways: childhood-onset and adolescentonset type. This paper presents the basic elements of developmental taxonomic theory which argues that there are two different developmental pathways to c...

  20. Mathematics, curriculum and assessment: The role of taxonomies in the quest for coherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Long

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A challenge encountered when monitoring mathematics teaching and learning at high school is that taxonomies such as Bloom’s, and variations of this work, are not entirely adequate for providing meaningful feedback to teachers beyond very general cognitive categories that are difficult to interpret. Challenges of this nature are also encountered in the setting of examinations, where the requirement is to cover a range of skills and cognitive domains. The contestation as to the cognitive level is inevitable as it is necessary to analyse the relationship between the problem and the learners’ background experience. The challenge in the project described in this article was to find descriptive terms that would be meaningful to teachers. The first attempt at providing explicit feedback was to apply the assessment frameworks that include a content component and a cognitive component, namely knowledge, routine procedures, complex procedures and problem solving, currently used in the South African curriculum documents. The second attempt investigated various taxonomies, including those used in international assessments and in mathematics education research, for constructs that teachers of mathematics might find meaningful. The final outcome of this investigation was to apply the dimensions required to understand a mathematical concept proposed by Usiskin (2012: the skills-algorithm, property-proof, use-application and representation-metaphor dimension. A feature of these dimensions is that they are not hierarchical; rather, within each of the dimensions, the mathematical task may demand recall but may also demand the highest level of creativity. For our purpose, we developed a two-way matrix using Usiskin’s dimensions on one axis and a variation of Bloom’s revised taxonomy on the second axis. Our findings are that this two-way matrix provides an alternative to current taxonomies, is more directly applicable to mathematics and provides the

  1. Taxonomy Icon Data - Taxonomy Icon | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available .nbdc00805-001 Description of data contents Illustrations (icons) of biological species. Four different type...se image files of illustrations and also place icons on a website using URLs of the icons.... In a simple search table, you can narrow down the icons using a taxonomy tree view, located on top...ogodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_en Data acquisition method Illustrations (icons) are create...ion which were used to refine icons in original database interface. Icon (Large) File name of the large-size

  2. Taxonomy and biogeography of Stephanoxis Simon, 1897 (Aves: Trochilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner Cavarzere

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available After the description in the 19th century of two hummingbird species currently allocated to the genus Stephanoxis, Peters (1945 merged both taxa into a single species without providing any rationale. Here we re-evaluate the taxonomy and species limits of the representatives of this genus based on an extensive number of specimens. We demonstrate these taxa are better treated as full species under both the Biological and Phylogenetic Species Concepts due to their well-defined range and plumage patterns and reciprocally diagnosability. They have distinct, allopatric distributions segregated by a 160 km gap between the Serra do Mar, to the east, and Serra de Paranapiacaba, to the west, in the state of São Paulo. Stephanoxis species have ranges which are congruent with other montane bird species’ suggesting shared vicariance events during preterit interglacial periods.

  3. Expanding the taxonomy of the diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peck, C C; Goulet, J-P; Lobbezoo, F

    2014-01-01

    There is a need to expand the current temporomandibular disorders' (TMDs) classification to include less common but clinically important disorders. The immediate aim was to develop a consensus-based classification system and associated diagnostic criteria that have clinical and research utility...... for less common TMDs. The long-term aim was to establish a foundation, vis-à-vis this classification system, that will stimulate data collection, validity testing and further criteria refinement. A working group [members of the International RDC/TMD Consortium Network of the International Association...... in the expanded taxonomy and were placed into the following four categories: temporomandibular joint disorders, masticatory muscle disorders, headache disorders and disorders affecting associated structures. Those excluded were extremely uncommon, lacking operationalised diagnostic criteria, not clearly related...

  4. A Rain Taxonomy for Degraded Visual Environment Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatlin, P. N.; Petersen, W. A.

    2018-01-01

    This Technical Memorandum (TM) provides a description of a rainfall taxonomy that defines the detailed characteristics of naturally occurring rainfall. The taxonomy is based on raindrop size measurements collected around the globe and encompasses several different climate types. Included in this TM is a description of these rainfall observations, an explanation of methods used to process those data, and resultant metrics comprising the rain taxonomy database. Each of the categories in the rain taxonomy are characterized by a unique set of raindrop sizes that can be used in simulations of electromagnetic wave propagation through a rain medium.

  5. Mollusca: Bivalvia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1987-06-05

    Jun 5, 1987 ... During spermatogenesis the pattern of nuclear chrornatin condensation is granular. The acrosome is formed by a single Golgi body. and the five large mitochondria of the mid-piece are probably formed by fusion of several small mitochondria. Die struktuur van die spermatozoa en spermatogenese in Solen ...

  6. Factors driving changes in freshwater mussel (Bivalvia, Unionida) diversity and distribution in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieritz, Alexandra; Lopes-Lima, Manuel; Bogan, Arthur E; Sousa, Ronaldo; Walton, Samuel; Rahim, Khairul Adha A; Wilson, John-James; Ng, Pei-Yin; Froufe, Elsa; McGowan, Suzanne

    2016-11-15

    Freshwater mussels (Bivalvia, Unionida) fulfil important ecosystem functions and are one of the most threatened freshwater taxa globally. Knowledge of freshwater mussel diversity, distribution and ecology in Peninsular Malaysia is extremely poor, and the conservation status of half of the species presumed to occur in the region has yet to be assessed. We conducted the first comprehensive assessment of Peninsular Malaysia's freshwater mussels based on species presence/absence and environmental data collected from 155 sites spanning all major river catchments and diverse habitat types. Through an integrative morphological-molecular approach we recognised nine native and one widespread non-native species, i.e. Sinanodonta woodiana. Two species, i.e. Pilsbryoconcha compressa and Pseudodon cambodjensis, had not been previously recorded from Malaysia, which is likely a result of morphological misidentifications of historical records. Due to their restriction to single river catchments and declining distributions, Hyriopsis bialata, possibly endemic to Peninsular Malaysia, Ensidens ingallsianus, possibly already extinct in the peninsula, and Rectidens sumatrensis, particularly require conservation attention. Equally, the Pahang, the Perak and the north-western river catchments are of particular conservation value due to the presence of a globally unique freshwater mussel fauna. Statistical relationships of 15 water quality parameters and mussel presence/absence identified acidification and nutrient pollution (eutrophication) as the most important anthropogenic factors threatening freshwater mussel diversity in Peninsular Malaysia. These factors can be linked to atmospheric pollution, deforestation, oil-palm plantations and a lack of functioning waste water treatment, and could be mitigated by establishing riparian buffers and improving waste water treatment for rivers running through agricultural and residential land. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Expanding the Taxonomy of the Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (DC/TMD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Christopher C.; Goulet, Jean-Paul; Lobbezoo, Frank; Schiffman, Eric L.; Alstergren, Per; Anderson, Gary C.; de Leeuw, Reny; Jensen, Rigmor; Michelotti, Ambra; Ohrbach, Richard; Petersson, Arne; List, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a need to expand the current temporomandibular disorder (TMD) classification to include less common, but clinically important disorders. The immediate aim was to develop a consensus-based classification system and associated diagnostic criteria that have clinical and research utility for less common TMDs. The long-term aim was to establish a foundation, vis-à-vis this classification system, that will stimulate data collection, validity testing, and further criteria refinement. Methods A working group [members of the International RDC/TMD Consortium Network of the International Association for Dental Research (IADR), members of the Orofacial Pain Special Interest Group (SIG) of the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP), and members from other professional societies] reviewed disorders for inclusion based on clinical significance, the availability of plausible diagnostic criteria, and the ability to operationalize and study the criteria. The disorders were derived from the literature when possible and based on expert opinion as necessary. The expanded TMD taxonomy was presented for feedback at international meetings. Results Of 56 disorders considered, 37 were included in the expanded taxonomy and were placed into the following four categories: temporomandibular joint disorders, masticatory muscle disorders, headache disorders, and disorders affecting associated structures. Those excluded were extremely uncommon, lacking operationalized diagnostic criteria, not clearly related to TMDs, or not sufficiently distinct from disorders already included within the taxonomy. Conclusions The expanded TMD taxonomy offers an integrated approach to clinical diagnosis and provides a framework for further research to operationalize and test the proposed taxonomy and diagnostic criteria. PMID:24443898

  8. Reverse taxonomy for elucidating diversity of insect-associated nematodes: a case study with termites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natsumi Kanzaki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The molecular operational taxonomic unit (MOTU has recently been applied to microbial and microscopic animal biodiversity surveys. However, in many cases, some of the MOTUs cannot be definitively tied to any of the taxonomic groups in current databases. To surmount these limitations, the concept of "reverse taxonomy" has been proposed, i.e. to primarily list the MOTUs with morphological information, and then identify and/or describe them at genus/species level using subsamples or by re-isolating the target organisms. Nevertheless, the application of "reverse taxonomy" has not been sufficiently evaluated. Therefore, the practical applicability of "reverse taxonomy" is tested using termite-associated nematodes as a model system for phoretic/parasitic organisms which have high habitat specificity and a potential handle (their termite host species for re-isolation attempts. METHODOLOGY: Forty-eight species (from 298 colonies of termites collected from the American tropics and subtropics were examined for their nematode associates using the reverse taxonomy method and culturing attempts (morphological identification and further sequencing efforts. The survey yielded 51 sequence types ( =  MOTUs belonging to 19 tentatively identified genera. Within these, four were identified based on molecular data with preliminary morphological observation, and an additional seven were identified or characterized from successful culturing, leaving eight genera unidentified. CONCLUSIONS: That 1/3 of the genera were not successfully identified suggests deficiencies in the depth of available sequences in the database and biological characters, i.e. usually isolated as phoretic/parasitic stages which are not available for morphological identification, and too many undiscovered lineages of nematodes. Although there still is the issue of culturability of nematodes, culturing attempts could help to make reverse taxonomy methods more effective. However

  9. Towards a more molecular taxonomy of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jisoo; Hescott, Benjamin J; Slonim, Donna K

    2017-07-27

    Disease taxonomies have been designed for many applications, but they tend not to fully incorporate the growing amount of molecular-level knowledge of disease processes, inhibiting research efforts. Understanding the degree to which we can infer disease relationships from molecular data alone may yield insights into how to ultimately construct more modern taxonomies that integrate both physiological and molecular information. We introduce a new technique we call Parent Promotion to infer hierarchical relationships between disease terms using disease-gene data. We compare this technique with both an established ontology inference method (CliXO) and a minimum weight spanning tree approach. Because there is no gold standard molecular disease taxonomy available, we compare our inferred hierarchies to both the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) category C forest of diseases and to subnetworks of the Disease Ontology (DO). This comparison provides insights about the inference algorithms, choices of evaluation metrics, and the existing molecular content of various subnetworks of MeSH and the DO. Our results suggest that the Parent Promotion method performs well in most cases. Performance across MeSH trees is also correlated between inference methods. Specifically, inferred relationships are more consistent with those in smaller MeSH disease trees than larger ones, but there are some notable exceptions that may correlate with higher molecular content in MeSH. Our experiments provide insights about learning relationships between diseases from disease genes alone. Future work should explore the prospect of disease term discovery from molecular data and how best to integrate molecular data with anatomical and clinical knowledge. This study nonetheless suggests that disease gene information has the potential to form an important part of the foundation for future representations of the disease landscape.

  10. The relationship between complexity (taxonomy) and difficulty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yih Tyng; Othman, Abdul Rahman

    2013-04-01

    Difficulty and complexity are important factors that occur in every test questions. These two factors will also affect the reliability of the test. Hence, difficulty and complexity must be considered by educators during preparation of the test questions. The relationship between difficulty and complexity is studied. Complexity is defined as the level in Bloom's Taxonomy. Difficulty is represented by the proportion of students scoring between specific score intervals. A chi-square test of independence between difficulty and complexity was conducted on the results of a continuous assessment of a third year undergraduate course, Probability Theory. The independence test showed that the difficulty and complexity are related. However, this relationship is small.

  11. An inclusive taxonomy of behavioral biases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Peón

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper overviews the theoretical and empirical research on behavioral biases and their influence in the literature. To provide a systematic exposition, we present a unified framework that takes the reader through an original taxonomy, based on the reviews of relevant authors in the field. In particular, we establish three broad categories that may be distinguished: heuristics and biases; choices, values and frames; and social factors. We then describe the main biases within each category, and revise the main theoretical and empirical developments, linking each bias with other biases and anomalies that are related to them, according to the literature.

  12. Constructive Alignment and the SOLO Taxonomy:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Claus; Dahl, Bettina

    2008-01-01

    explain and discuss these principles, give examples of how the new syllabi were constructed, and describe the process by which they were formed. We also explain and discuss the results of a comparative study comparing the competences of Computer Science with those of Mathematics (and classical Natural...... the science faculties at University of Aarhus, Denmark (AU) and the University of Southern Denmark (SDU) that had been rewritten to explicitly incorporate course objectives, interpreted as intended learning outcomes (ILOs), using the principles of Constructive Alignment and the SOLO Taxonomy. In this paper we...

  13. Taxonomy of the nuclear plant operator's role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisner, R.A.; Fullerton, A.M.; Frey, P.R.; Dougherty, E.M.

    1981-01-01

    A program is presently under way at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to define the functional design requirements of operational aids for nuclear power plant operators. A first and important step in defining these requirements is to develop an understanding of the operator's role or function. This paper describes a taxonomy of operator functions that applies during all operational modes and conditions of the plant. Other topics such as the influence of automation, role acceptance, and the operator's role during emergencies are also discussed. This systematic approach has revealed several areas which have potential for improving the operator's ability to perform his role

  14. Photographic taxonomy: a methodological proposal for the research of selfies in social media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hertz Wendel de Camargo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The complexities that involve selfies could not be contemplated in a single article. Thus, our goals are to provide a brief epistemological framework that allows a plausible interpretation of this photographic genre and to present the methodological approaches to the selection of a corpus for a possible self-portrait analysis on Instagram. We conclude that, despite the polysemic nature of social networks, it is possible a taxonomy of selfie applicable to other current photographic genres in media culture.

  15. Understanding the Advising Learning Process Using Learning Taxonomies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehleck, Jeanette K.; Smith, Cathleen L.; Allen, Janine M.

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the learning that transpires in advising, we used Anderson et al.'s (2001) revision of Bloom's (1956) taxonomy and Krathwohl, Bloom, and Masia's (1964) affective taxonomy to analyze eight student-reported advising outcomes from Smith and Allen (2014). Using the cognitive processes and knowledge domains of Anderson et al.'s…

  16. The Evolution of Educational Objectives: Bloom's Taxonomy and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahi, Carolyn R.; LaMonaca, Frank H., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    It is crucial for teachers to communicate effectively about educational objectives to students, colleagues, and others in education. In 1956, Bloom developed a cognitive learning taxonomy to enhance communication between college examiners. The Bloom taxonomy consists of 6 hierarchical levels of learning (knowledge, comprehension, application,…

  17. Recent taxonomy changes and their impact on biocontrol agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    The revolution in DNA sequencing technology has led to and improved understanding of genetics and taxonomy of biocontrol agents. Our lab recently reported the genomes of some important Bacillus bacterial biocontrol agents, which in turn resulted in a change of taxonomy for these commercially importa...

  18. Taxonomy of Streptomyces strains isolated from rhizospheres of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Taxonomy of Streptomyces strains isolated from rhizospheres of various plant species grown in Taif region, KSA, having antagonistic activities against some microbial tissue ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Keywords: Taxonomy, Streptomyces, microbial tissue culture contaminants, antagonistic activities, 16S rRNA

  19. A new occurrence of Anodontites tenebricosus (Bivalvia: Mycetopodidae) in the Sapucaí river basin, São Paulo, Brazil: environmental and conchological aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Troncon, EK.; Avelar, WEP

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to register the occurrence of Anodontites tenebricosus (Bivalvia: Mycetopodidae) in the Sapucaí river basin, municipality of São Joaquim da Barra, São Paulo state, Brazil, associating its occurrence to the environment in which they are found, besides providing conchological data to contribute to the identification of the species. Fifty one specimens of Anodontites tenebricosus were studied regarding their conchological and morphometrical aspects. Strong correlations w...

  20. A literature review on the levels of automation during the years. What are the different taxonomies that have been proposed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagia, Marialena; Transeth, Aksel A; Fjerdingen, Sigurd A

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we present a literature review of the evolution of the levels of autonomy from the end of the 1950s up until now. The motivation of this study was primarily to gather and to compare the literature that exists, on taxonomies on levels of automation. Technical developments within both computer hardware and software have made it possible to introduce autonomy into virtually all aspects of human-machine systems. The current study, is focusing on how different authors treat the problem of different levels of automation. The outcome of this study is to present the differences between the proposed levels of automation and the various taxonomies, giving the potential users a number of choices in order to decide which taxonomy satisfies their needs better. In addition, this paper surveys deals with the term adaptive automation, which seems to be a new trend in the literature on autonomy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  1. MOLLUSCA' BIODIVERSITY (GASTROPODA AND BIVALVIA AS A BIO INDICATOR OF QUALITY OF WATER IN THE COASTAL ISLAND OF TUNDA ISLAND, BANTEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indria Wahyuni

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The research has been done on Juli 2017 in the coastal region of Tunda Island. This study aims to determine the Biodiversity of Mollusca (Gastropoda and Bivalvia As Bioindicator of Water Quality In Coastal Area of Tunda Island, Banten. Sampling consists of 2 observation stations, namely the mangrove coastal area (3 transects and the seagrass coastal area (2 transects determined by purposive sampling. The observation of each station is done by using the quadratic transect method with 100 m transect line distance, and in each transect line there are 5 observation plots measuring 1m2 x 1m2. The data analysis includes density, biodiversity, bio-indicators of water quality based on diversity index. Result of research on 5 transect found 45 type Mollusca which represent 2 class, that is Gastropoda class of 29 species Gastropoda joined in 14 Family. As for Bivalvia class found 16 species incorporated in 9 families. The total density of Mollusca is 541.2 ind / m2 which consists of 392.4 ind / m2 for Gastropoda class and 148.8 ind / m2 for Bivalvia class. Mollusca diversity was calculated using the diversity index of Shannon-Wienner (H '. The results of diversity index ranged from 3.1356 - 3.3314 with high category. Bioindicator of aquatic quality using diversity index indicates that the coastal area of Tunda Island belongs to a very mildly polluted category.

  2. Does the name really matter? The importance of botanical nomenclature and plant taxonomy in biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Bradley C; Balick, Michael J

    2014-03-28

    Medical research on plant-derived compounds requires a breadth of expertise from field to laboratory and clinical skills. Too often basic botanical skills are evidently lacking, especially with respect to plant taxonomy and botanical nomenclature. Binomial and familial names, synonyms and author citations are often misconstrued. The correct botanical name, linked to a vouchered specimen, is the sine qua non of phytomedical research. Without the unique identifier of a proper binomial, research cannot accurately be linked to the existing literature. Perhaps more significant, is the ambiguity of species determinations that ensues of from poor taxonomic practices. This uncertainty, not surprisingly, obstructs reproducibility of results-the cornerstone of science. Based on our combined six decades of experience with medicinal plants, we discuss the problems of inaccurate taxonomy and botanical nomenclature in biomedical research. This problems appear all too frequently in manuscripts and grant applications that we review and they extend to the published literature. We also review the literature on the importance of taxonomy in other disciplines that relate to medicinal plant research. In most cases, questions regarding orthography, synonymy, author citations, and current family designations of most plant binomials can be resolved using widely-available online databases and other electronic resources. Some complex problems require consultation with a professional plant taxonomist, which also is important for accurate identification of voucher specimens. Researchers should provide the currently accepted binomial and complete author citation, provide relevant synonyms, and employ the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group III family name. Taxonomy is a vital adjunct not only to plant-medicine research but to virtually every field of science. Medicinal plant researchers can increase the precision and utility of their investigations by following sound practices with respect to botanical

  3. The Upper Miocene of the Rostov Dome (Eastern Paratethys: Implication of the chronostratigraphy and bivalvia-based biostratigraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruban Dmitry A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Rostov Dome is located in the south of the Russian Platform. In the Late Miocene this area was embraced by the Eastern Paratethys. The implications of a recently developed Neogene chronostratigraphy to the studied area are discussed. The Sarmatian regional stage corresponds to the upper part of the Langhian, the entire Serravalian and the lower part of the Tortonian global stages; the Maeotian regional stage corresponds to the upper part of the Tortonian and the lowermost horizons of the Messinian global stages; the Pontian regional stage corresponds to most of the Messinian and the lowermost Zanclean global stages. A first Bivalvia-based bio-stratigraphic framework is proposed for the territory of the Rostov Dome. Five biozones were established within the Serravalian-Messinian: Tapes vitalianus, Cerastoderma fittoni-Cerastoderma subfittoni, Congeria panticapaea, Congeria amygdaloides navicula and Monodacna pseudocatillus-Prosodacna schirvanica.

  4. Digital Libraries: The Challenge of Integrating Instagram with a Taxonomy for Content Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Ibba

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Interoperability and social implication are two current challenges in the digital library (DL context. To resolve the problem of interoperability, our work aims to find a relationship between the main metadata schemas. In particular, we want to formalize knowledge through the creation of a metadata taxonomy built with the analysis and the integration of existing schemas associated with DLs. We developed a method to integrate and combine Instagram metadata and hashtags. The final result is a taxonomy, which provides innovative metadata with respect to the classification of resources, as images of Instagram and the user-generated content, that play a primary role in the context of modern DLs. The possibility of Instagram to localize the photos inserted by users allows us to interpret the most relevant and interesting informative content for a specific user type and in a specific location and to improve access, visibility and searching of library content.

  5. Benchmarking of methods for genomic taxonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Voldby; Cosentino, Salvatore; Lukjancenko, Oksana

    2014-01-01

    ; (ii) Reads2Type that searches for species-specific 50-mers in either the 16S rRNA gene or the gyrB gene (for the Enterobacteraceae family); (iii) the ribosomal multilocus sequence typing (rMLST) method that samples up to 53 ribosomal genes; (iv) TaxonomyFinder, which is based on species......-specific functional protein domain profiles; and finally (v) KmerFinder, which examines the number of cooccurring k-mers (substrings of k nucleotides in DNA sequence data). The performances of the methods were subsequently evaluated on three data sets of short sequence reads or draft genomes from public databases....... In total, the evaluation sets constituted sequence data from more than 11,000 isolates covering 159 genera and 243 species. Our results indicate that methods that sample only chromosomal, core genes have difficulties in distinguishing closely related species which only recently diverged. The Kmer...

  6. Ontologies, taxonomies and thesauri in systems science and systematics

    CERN Document Server

    Currás, Emilia

    2010-01-01

    The originality of this book, which deals with such a new subject matter, lies in the application of methods and concepts never used before - such as ontologies and taxonomies, as well as thesauri - to the ordering of knowledge based on primary information. Chapters in the book also examine the study of ontologies, taxonomies and thesauri from the perspective of systematics and general systems theory. Ontologies, Taxonomies and Thesauri in Systems Science and Systematics will be extremely useful to those operating within the network of related fields, which includes documentation and informati

  7. COPD: time to improve its taxonomy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartolomé R. Celli

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to well-conducted epidemiological studies and advances in genetics, molecular biology, translational research, the advent of computed tomography of the lungs and bioinformatics, the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD as a single entity caused by susceptibility to cigarette smoke is no longer tenable. Furthermore, the once-accepted concept that COPD results from a rapid and progressive loss of lung function over time is not true for a sizeable proportion of adults with the disease. Now we know that some genetic predisposition and/or different environmental interactions (nutritional, infectious, pollution and immunological may negatively modulate post-natal lung development and lead to poorly reversible airflow limitation later in life, consistent with COPD. We believe it is time to rethink the taxonomy of this disease based on the evidence at hand. To do so, we have followed the principles outlined in the 1980s by J.D. Scadding who proposed that diseases can be defined by four key characteristics: 1 clinical description (syndrome, 2 disorder of structure (morbid anatomy, 3 disorder of function (pathophysiology and 4 causation (aetiology. Here, we propose a pragmatic approach to the taxonomy of COPD based on different processes that result in a similar syndromic presentation. It can accommodate changes over time, as the pathobiology that may lead to COPD expands. We hope that stakeholders in the field may find it useful to better define the patients now boxed into one single entity, so that specific studies can be designed and conducted for each type of COPDs.

  8. Impact of zebra and quagga mussels (Dreissena spp.) on freshwater unionids (Bivalvia: Unionidae) in the Detroit River of the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloesser, D.W.; Kovalak, W.P.; Longton, G.D.; Ohnesorg, K.L.; Smithee, R.D.

    1998-01-01

    To assess the impact of zebra and quagga mussel (Dreissena spp.) infestation on unionids, unionids (Bivalvia: Unionidae) were sampled in the Detroit River in 1982-1983, before mussels invaded the river, and in 1992 and 1994, after mussels invaded the river. Live unionids at four stations along the southeastern shore accounted for 97% (20 species) of all shells collected in 1982-1983, whereas live unionids accounted for only 10% (13 species) in 1992. A similar decline in live unionids occurred at nine stations along the northwestern shore, except the decline occurred over the three sampling periods: in 1982-83, 84% (22 species) were live; in 1992, 65% (26 species) were live; and, in 1994, only 3% (13 species) were live. The difference in time to near-total mortality of unionids along the southeastern and northwestern shores is attributed to differences in the time of invasion and abundance of zebra mussel veligers in distinct water masses emanating from Lake St. Clair located immediately upstream of the Detroit River. Although individuals of all species of all unionid subfamilies declined between 1982 and 1992/1994, members of the subfamilies Anodontinae and Lampsilinae declined more than Ambleminae. Between 1986 and 1992/1994, five Anodontinae, three Lampsilinae and 0 Ambleminae species have been extirpated from the river due to dreissenid mussel infestation. Numbers of individuals of commonly found species declined more than numbers of individuals of uncommonly found species. However, the number of uncommon species declined 47% (17 to 9) along both the southeastern and northwestern shores, whereas common species remained the same (3 species) along the southeastern shore and declined only 40% (5 to 3 species) along the northwestern shore. This study, and others, suggest that high mortality of unionids can occur between 4 and 6 yr after initial invasion by dreissenids or up to 8 yr depending on water current patterns. Infestation-induced mortality of unionids in the

  9. Fish Ontology framework for taxonomy-based fish recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Najib M.; Khan, Haris A.; Then, Amy Y-Hui; Ving Ching, Chong; Gaur, Manas

    2017-01-01

    Life science ontologies play an important role in Semantic Web. Given the diversity in fish species and the associated wealth of information, it is imperative to develop an ontology capable of linking and integrating this information in an automated fashion. As such, we introduce the Fish Ontology (FO), an automated classification architecture of existing fish taxa which provides taxonomic information on unknown fish based on metadata restrictions. It is designed to support knowledge discovery, provide semantic annotation of fish and fisheries resources, data integration, and information retrieval. Automated classification for unknown specimens is a unique feature that currently does not appear to exist in other known ontologies. Examples of automated classification for major groups of fish are demonstrated, showing the inferred information by introducing several restrictions at the species or specimen level. The current version of FO has 1,830 classes, includes widely used fisheries terminology, and models major aspects of fish taxonomy, grouping, and character. With more than 30,000 known fish species globally, the FO will be an indispensable tool for fish scientists and other interested users. PMID:28929028

  10. Simbiontes associados com Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Veneridae na Ilha de Santa Catarina e região continental adjacente, Santa Catarina, Brasil Symbionts associated with Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Veneridae on Santa Catarina Island and adjacent continental region, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guisla Boehs

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Berbigões, Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin, 1791, de bancos naturais da Ilha de Santa Catarina e região continental adjacente (SC, Brasil, foram examinados quanto a presença de simbiontes. Holothuriophilus tomentosus (Ortmann, 1894 (Brachyura, Sphenia antillensis Dall & Simpson, 1901 (Bivalvia e poliquetos espionídeos (Polychaeta foram observados macroscopicamente. A análise das secções histológicas evidenciou esporocistos de trematódeos (Digenea, um metacestóide (Cestoda e dois ciliados (Ciliophora.Pointed venus, Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin, 1791, from natural beds of Santa Catarina Island and adjacent continental region (SE Brazil were examined in respect of symbiotic associations. Holothuriophilus tomentosus (Ortmann, 1894 (Brachyura, Sphenia antillensis Dall & Simpson, 1901 (Bivalvia, and polychaete worms (Polychaeta were found by macroscopic diagnosis. By analysis of histological sections, it was noted trematode sporocysts (Digenea, a metacestode (Cestoda and two ciliates (Ciliophora.

  11. Accuracy of taxonomy prediction for 16S rRNA and fungal ITS sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C. Edgar

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of taxonomy for marker gene sequences such as 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA is a fundamental task in microbiology. Most experimentally observed sequences are diverged from reference sequences of authoritatively named organisms, creating a challenge for prediction methods. I assessed the accuracy of several algorithms using cross-validation by identity, a new benchmark strategy which explicitly models the variation in distances between query sequences and the closest entry in a reference database. When the accuracy of genus predictions was averaged over a representative range of identities with the reference database (100%, 99%, 97%, 95% and 90%, all tested methods had ≤50% accuracy on the currently-popular V4 region of 16S rRNA. Accuracy was found to fall rapidly with identity; for example, better methods were found to have V4 genus prediction accuracy of ∼100% at 100% identity but ∼50% at 97% identity. The relationship between identity and taxonomy was quantified as the probability that a rank is the lowest shared by a pair of sequences with a given pair-wise identity. With the V4 region, 95% identity was found to be a twilight zone where taxonomy is highly ambiguous because the probabilities that the lowest shared rank between pairs of sequences is genus, family, order or class are approximately equal.

  12. Biology in bloom: implementing Bloom's Taxonomy to enhance student learning in biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Alison; Dirks, Clarissa; Wenderoth, Mary Pat

    2008-01-01

    We developed the Blooming Biology Tool (BBT), an assessment tool based on Bloom's Taxonomy, to assist science faculty in better aligning their assessments with their teaching activities and to help students enhance their study skills and metacognition. The work presented here shows how assessment tools, such as the BBT, can be used to guide and enhance teaching and student learning in a discipline-specific manner in postsecondary education. The BBT was first designed and extensively tested for a study in which we ranked almost 600 science questions from college life science exams and standardized tests. The BBT was then implemented in three different collegiate settings. Implementation of the BBT helped us to adjust our teaching to better enhance our students' current mastery of the material, design questions at higher cognitive skills levels, and assist students in studying for college-level exams and in writing study questions at higher levels of Bloom's Taxonomy. From this work we also created a suite of complementary tools that can assist biology faculty in creating classroom materials and exams at the appropriate level of Bloom's Taxonomy and students to successfully develop and answer questions that require higher-order cognitive skills.

  13. Adoption of geodemographic and ethno-cultural taxonomies for analysing Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard James Webber

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is intended to contribute to the discussion of the differential level of adoption of Big Data among research communities. Recognising the impracticality of conducting an audit across all forms and uses of Big Data, we have restricted our enquiry to one very specific form of Big Data, namely general purpose taxonomies, of which Mosaic, Acorn and Origins are examples, that rely on data from a variety of Big Data feeds. The intention of these taxonomies is to enable the records of consumers and citizens held on Big Data datasets to be coded according to type of residential neighbourhood or ethno-cultural heritage without any use of questionnaires. Based on our respective experience in the academic social sciences, in government and in the design and marketing of these taxonomies, we identify the features of these classifications which appear to render them attractive or problematic to different categories of potential user or researcher depending on how the relationship is conceived. We conclude by identifying seven classifications of user or potential user who, on account of their background, current position and future career expectations, tend to respond in different ways to the opportunity to adopt these generic systems as aids for understanding social processes.

  14. “Communicate to vaccinate”: the development of a taxonomy of communication interventions to improve routine childhood vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    -to-be-parents; communities, community members or volunteers; and health care providers. Conclusions Our taxonomy illuminates and organises this field and identifies the range of available communication interventions to increase routine childhood vaccination uptake. We have utilised a variety of data sources, capturing information from rigorous evaluations such as randomised trials as well as experiences and knowledge of practitioners and vaccination stakeholders. The taxonomy reflects current public health practice and can guide the future development of vaccination programmes. PMID:23663327

  15. The HCBS Taxonomy- A New Language for Classifying Home...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The home- and community-based services (HCBS) taxonomy provides a common language for describing and categorizing HCBS across Medicaid programs. Prior to the...

  16. Identification of bacterial strains in viili by molecular taxonomy and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identification of bacterial strains in viili by molecular taxonomy and their synergistic effects on milk curd and exopolysaccharides production. T Chen, Q Tan, M Wang, S Xiong, S Jiang, Q Wu, S Li, C Luo, H Wei ...

  17. A Taxonomy of Information Technology-Enhanced Pricing Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dixit, A.; Whipple, T.W.; Zinkhan, G.M.; Gailey, E.

    2008-01-01

    As a result of evolving technology, opportunities for innovative pricing strategies continuously emerge. The authors provide an updated taxonomy to show how such emerging strategies relate to recent technological advances. Specifically, they cite increased availability of information, enhanced

  18. A taxonomy of behaviour change methods: an Intervention Mapping approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Gerjo; Gottlieb, Nell H; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Y; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Parcel, Guy S; Ruiter, Robert A C; Fernández, María E; Markham, Christine; Bartholomew, L Kay

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we introduce the Intervention Mapping (IM) taxonomy of behaviour change methods and its potential to be developed into a coding taxonomy. That is, although IM and its taxonomy of behaviour change methods are not in fact new, because IM was originally developed as a tool for intervention development, this potential was not immediately apparent. Second, in explaining the IM taxonomy and defining the relevant constructs, we call attention to the existence of parameters for effectiveness of methods, and explicate the related distinction between theory-based methods and practical applications and the probability that poor translation of methods may lead to erroneous conclusions as to method-effectiveness. Third, we recommend a minimal set of intervention characteristics that may be reported when intervention descriptions and evaluations are published. Specifying these characteristics can greatly enhance the quality of our meta-analyses and other literature syntheses. In conclusion, the dynamics of behaviour change are such that any taxonomy of methods of behaviour change needs to acknowledge the importance of, and provide instruments for dealing with, three conditions for effectiveness for behaviour change methods. For a behaviour change method to be effective: (1) it must target a determinant that predicts behaviour; (2) it must be able to change that determinant; (3) it must be translated into a practical application in a way that preserves the parameters for effectiveness and fits with the target population, culture, and context. Thus, taxonomies of methods of behaviour change must distinguish the specific determinants that are targeted, practical, specific applications, and the theory-based methods they embody. In addition, taxonomies should acknowledge that the lists of behaviour change methods will be used by, and should be used by, intervention developers. Ideally, the taxonomy should be readily usable for this goal; but alternatively, it should be

  19. New Augmented Reality Taxonomy: Technologies and Features of Augmented Environment.

    OpenAIRE

    Hugues , Olivier; Fuchs , Philippe; Nannipieri , Olivier

    2011-01-01

    978-1-4614-0063-9; This article has a dual aim: firstly to define augmented reality (AR) en- vironments and secondly, based on our definition, a new taxonomy enabling these environments to be classified. After briefly reviewing existing classifica- tions, we define AR by its purpose, ie. to enable someone to create sensory- motor and cognitive activities in a new space combining the real environment and a virtual environment. Below we present our functional taxonomy of AR environments. We div...

  20. Bloom’s taxonomy of cognitive learning objectives

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Nancy E

    2015-01-01

    Information professionals who train or instruct others can use Bloom’s taxonomy to write learning objectives that describe the skills and abilities that they desire their learners to master and demonstrate. Bloom’s taxonomy differentiates between cognitive skill levels and calls attention to learning objectives that require higher levels of cognitive skills and, therefore, lead to deeper learning and transfer of knowledge and skills to a greater variety of tasks and contexts.

  1. Bloom’s taxonomy of cognitive learning objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Nancy E

    2015-01-01

    Information professionals who train or instruct others can use Bloom’s taxonomy to write learning objectives that describe the skills and abilities that they desire their learners to master and demonstrate. Bloom’s taxonomy differentiates between cognitive skill levels and calls attention to learning objectives that require higher levels of cognitive skills and, therefore, lead to deeper learning and transfer of knowledge and skills to a greater variety of tasks and contexts. PMID:26213509

  2. Norms for environmentally responsible behaviour: An extended taxonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2006-01-01

    and shopping. Also the frequency of the four behaviours was measured. The revised taxonomy has content, discriminant, predictive, and nomological validity and satisfactory test-retest reliability. The most internalized of the new norm constructs, integrated norms, is most strongly correlated with conventional...... measures of personal and moral norms. However, other constructs in the proposed taxonomy still contribute significantly to predicting conventional norm measures after controlling for integrated norms. This documents the motivational ambiguity of the conventional personal norm construct. The patterns...

  3. Výsledky průzkumu měkkýšů (Mollusca: Gastropoda, Bivalvia) v okolí města Blatná v jihozápadních Čechách

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bogusch, P.; Dvořák, L.; Hlaváč, Jaroslav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 7, - (2008), s. 33-46 ISSN 1336-6939 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Mollusca * Gastropoda * Bivalvia * faunistics * Blatná, Bohemia Subject RIV: EG - Zoology http://mollusca.sav.sk/pdf/7/7.Bogusch.pdf

  4. Surfacing the deep data of taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderic Page

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomic databases are perpetuating approaches to citing literature that may have been appropriate before the Internet, often being little more than digitised 5 × 3 index cards. Typically the original taxonomic literature is either not cited, or is represented in the form of a (typically abbreviated text string. Hence much of the “deep data” of taxonomy, such as the original descriptions, revisions, and nomenclatural actions are largely hidden from all but the most resourceful users. At the same time there are burgeoning efforts to digitise the scientific literature, and much of this newly available content has been assigned globally unique identifiers such as Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs, which are also the identifier of choice for most modern publications. This represents an opportunity for taxonomic databases to engage with digitisation efforts. Mapping the taxonomic literature on to globally unique identifiers can be time consuming, but need be done only once. Furthermore, if we reuse existing identifiers, rather than mint our own, we can start to build the links between the diverse data that are needed to support the kinds of inference which biodiversity informatics aspires to support. Until this practice becomes widespread, the taxonomic literature will remain balkanized, and much of the knowledge that it contains will linger in obscurity.

  5. Taxonomy and Chemotaxonomy of the Genus Hypericum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Sara L; Robson, Norman K B

    2011-01-01

    The genus Hypericum L. (St. John's Wort, Hypericaceae) includes, at the most recent count, 469 species that are either naturally occurring on, or which have been introduced to, every continent in the world, except Antarctica. These species occur as herbs, shrubs, and infrequently trees, and are found in a variety of habitats in temperate regions and in high mountains in the tropics, avoiding only zones of extreme aridity, temperature and/or salinity. Monographic work on the genus has resulted in the recognition and description of 36 taxonomic sections, delineated by specific combinations of morphological characteristics and biogeographic distribution ranges. Hypericum perforatum L. (Common St. John's wort, section Hypericum), one of the best-known members of the genus, is an important medicinal herb of which extracts are taken for their reported activity against mild to moderate depression. Many other species have been incorporated in traditional medicine systems in countries around the world, or are sold as ornamentals. Several classes of interesting bioactive secondary metabolites, including naphthodianthrones (e.g. hypericin and pseudohypericin), flavonol glycosides (e.g. isoquercitrin and hyperoside), biflavonoids (e.g. amentoflavone), phloroglucinol derivatives (e.g. hyperforin and adhyperforin) and xanthones have been identified from members of the genus. A general overview of the taxonomy of the genus and the distribution of relevant secondary metabolites is presented.

  6. Crustaceans associated with Cnidaria, Bivalvia, Echinoidea and Pisces at São Tomé and Príncipe islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirtz, P.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Symbiotic crustaceans were searched for at sea anemones (Actiniaria, encrusting anemones (Zoantharia, horny coral (Gorgonaria, black coral (Antipatharia, bivalves (Bivalvia, and sea urchins (Echinoidea at São Tomé and Príncipe Islands (Gulf of Guinea, eastern central Atlantic. Sixteen species of crustaceans were found in association with these invertebrate hosts; eleven of them were new records for the area and two species, belonging to the genera Hippolyte and Heteromysis, were new for science. The thalassinid Axiopsis serratifrons was occasionally associated with an undescribed species of gobiid fish.

  7. The ACTTION-American Pain Society Pain Taxonomy (AAPT): an evidence-based and multidimensional approach to classifying chronic pain conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillingim, Roger B; Bruehl, Stephen; Dworkin, Robert H; Dworkin, Samuel F; Loeser, John D; Turk, Dennis C; Widerstrom-Noga, Eva; Arnold, Lesley; Bennett, Robert; Edwards, Robert R; Freeman, Roy; Gewandter, Jennifer; Hertz, Sharon; Hochberg, Marc; Krane, Elliot; Mantyh, Patrick W; Markman, John; Neogi, Tuhina; Ohrbach, Richard; Paice, Judith A; Porreca, Frank; Rappaport, Bob A; Smith, Shannon M; Smith, Thomas J; Sullivan, Mark D; Verne, G Nicholas; Wasan, Ajay D; Wesselmann, Ursula

    2014-03-01

    Current approaches to classification of chronic pain conditions suffer from the absence of a systematically implemented and evidence-based taxonomy. Moreover, existing diagnostic approaches typically fail to incorporate available knowledge regarding the biopsychosocial mechanisms contributing to pain conditions. To address these gaps, the Analgesic, Anesthetic, and Addiction Clinical Trial Translations Innovations Opportunities and Networks (ACTTION) public-private partnership with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the American Pain Society (APS) have joined together to develop an evidence-based chronic pain classification system called the ACTTION-APS Pain Taxonomy. This paper describes the outcome of an ACTTION-APS consensus meeting, at which experts agreed on a structure for this new taxonomy of chronic pain conditions. Several major issues around which discussion revolved are presented and summarized, and the structure of the taxonomy is presented. ACTTION-APS Pain Taxonomy will include the following dimensions: 1) core diagnostic criteria; 2) common features; 3) common medical comorbidities; 4) neurobiological, psychosocial, and functional consequences; and 5) putative neurobiological and psychosocial mechanisms, risk factors, and protective factors. In coming months, expert working groups will apply this taxonomy to clusters of chronic pain conditions, thereby developing a set of diagnostic criteria that have been consistently and systematically implemented across nearly all common chronic pain conditions. It is anticipated that the availability of this evidence-based and mechanistic approach to pain classification will be of substantial benefit to chronic pain research and treatment. The ACTTION-APS Pain Taxonomy is an evidence-based chronic pain classification system designed to classify chronic pain along the following dimensions: 1) core diagnostic criteria; 2) common features; 3) common medical comorbidities; 4) neurobiological, psychosocial

  8. Evolution, Diversity, and Taxonomy of the Peronosporaceae, with Focus on the Genus Peronospora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thines, Marco; Choi, Young-Joon

    2016-01-01

    Downy mildews are a notorious group of oomycete plant pathogens, causing high economic losses in various crops and ornamentals. The most species-rich genus of oomycetes is the genus Peronospora. This review provides a wide overview of these pathogens, ranging from macro- and micro-evolutionary patterns, their biodiversity and ecology to short overviews for the currently economically most important pathogens and potential emerging diseases. In this overview, the taxonomy of economically relevant species is also discussed, as the application of the correct names and species concepts is a prerequisite for effective quarantine regulations and phytosanitary measures.

  9. An Analytical Overview of Spirituality in NANDA-I Taxonomies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Ana Cláudia; Caldeira, Sílvia; Chaves, Erika; Carvalho, Emilia Campos de

    2017-03-01

    To discuss the approach of spirituality in NANDA-I taxonomies, based on the elements that characterize this phenomenon. This study was based on concepts that are usually adopted in the literature for defining spirituality and on the analysis of the NANDA-I taxonomies from I to III. Spirituality is included in all taxonomies but all three are missing some attributes to guarantee the completeness of this dimension for nursing diagnosis. Taxonomy III makes different approaches to spirituality and some inconsistencies. Contribute to the development and review of the new proposal for taxonomy. Discutir a abordagem à espiritualidade nas taxonomias da NANDA-I, baseada nos elementos que caracterizam este fenômeno. MÉTODOS: Este estudo foi baseado em conceitos usualmente adotados na literatura de enfermagem para definir espiritualidade e na análise das taxonomias da NANDA-I, desde a I à III. A espiritualidade está incluída nas taxonomias, porém estas carecem de atributos do seu conceito. CONCLUSÕES: A taxonomia III faz diferentes abordagens à espiritualidade, porém com algumas inconsistências identificadas. IMPLICAÇÕES PARA A ENFERMAGEM: Esta análise pode contribuir para o desenvolvimento e revisão da taxonomia III. © 2017 NANDA International, Inc.

  10. Climbing Bloom's taxonomy pyramid: Lessons from a graduate histology course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Nikki B; Hwang, Charles; Scott, Sara; Stallard, Stefanie; Purkiss, Joel; Hortsch, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Bloom's taxonomy was adopted to create a subject-specific scoring tool for histology multiple-choice questions (MCQs). This Bloom's Taxonomy Histology Tool (BTHT) was used to analyze teacher- and student-generated quiz and examination questions from a graduate level histology course. Multiple-choice questions using histological images were generally assigned a higher BTHT level than simple text questions. The type of microscopy technique (light or electron microscopy) used for these image-based questions did not result in any significant differences in their Bloom's taxonomy scores. The BTHT levels for teacher-generated MCQs correlated positively with higher discrimination indices and inversely with the percent of students answering these questions correctly (difficulty index), suggesting that higher-level Bloom's taxonomy questions differentiate well between higher- and lower-performing students. When examining BTHT scores for MCQs that were written by students in a Multiple-Choice Item Development Assignment (MCIDA) there was no significant correlation between these scores and the students' ability to answer teacher-generated MCQs. This suggests that the ability to answer histology MCQs relies on a different skill set than the aptitude to construct higher-level Bloom's taxonomy questions. However, students significantly improved their average BTHT scores from the midterm to the final MCIDA task, which indicates that practice, experience and feedback increased their MCQ writing proficiency. Anat Sci Educ 10: 456-464. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  11. Taxonomy of particles in Ising spin chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dan; Lu, Ping; Müller, Gerhard; Karbach, Michael

    2011-08-01

    The statistical mechanics of particles with shapes on a one-dimensional lattice is investigated in the context of the s=1 Ising chain with uniform nearest-neighbor coupling, quadratic single-site potential, and a magnetic field, which supports four distinct ground states: |↑↓↑↓⋯>, |∘∘⋯>, |↑↑⋯>, |↑∘↑∘⋯>. The complete spectrum is generated from each ground state by particles from a different set of six or seven species. Particles and elements of the pseudovacuum are characterized by motifs (patterns of several consecutive site variables). Particles are floating objects that can be placed into open slots on the lattice. Open slots are recognized as permissible links between motifs. The energy of a particle varies between species but is independent of where it is placed. Placement of one particle changes the open-slot configuration for particles of all species. This statistical interaction is encoded in a generalized Pauli principle, from which the multiplicity of states for a given particle combination is determined and used for the exact statistical mechanical analysis. Particles from all species belong to one of four categories: compacts, hosts, tags, or hybrids. Compacts and hosts find open slots in segments of pseudovacuum. Tags find open slots inside hosts. Hybrids are tags with hosting capability. In the taxonomy of particles proposed here, "species" is indicative of structure and "category" indicative of function. The hosting function splits the Pauli principle into exclusion and accommodation parts. Near phase boundaries, the state of the Ising chain at low temperature is akin to that of miscible or immiscible liquids with particles from one species acting as surfactant molecules.

  12. Peruvian Children's Folk Taxonomy of Marine Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pizarro-Neyra

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Free listing was used to obtain names of marine animals from 234 Peruvian children with families involved in fishing activities. They live in the fishing towns of Vila-vila, Morro Sama and Ilo, located in Southern Peru. Fishes, birds and the category “other marine animal” were used for the classification of marine fauna by children. The group of 6-8 year-olds shows a mean frequency of 19.7 names per child, while the group of 9-11 year-olds shows a mean frequency of 25.7 names per child. Folk species of fish is the most frequently recorded category with a predominance of coastal species and with a mean frequency of 7.56 and 11.51 names per child for the groups of 6-8 year-olds and 9-11 year-olds, respectively. In contrast, bird names are less frequently recorded in the lists. Some bird and mollusc names have lexical under-differentiation at a generic level and apparently have lower cultural significance than fish. Children’s classification in different levels of organization is evidence of a folk biology. The folk taxonomy of marine animals could be influenced by the lesser cognitive development of younger children and the ecological salience of some species. Some species with coastal habitat exhibit a high dominance index of folk names. Cultural transmission of knowledge about birds could be failing due to the recent occupancy of the study sites by migratory people and the sexual division of work in the children’s families.

  13. Chinese pond mussel Sinanodonta woodiana (Lea, 1834 (Bivalvia: origin of the Polish population and GenBank data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Soroka

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available DDNA sequences of the mitochondrial cox1 gene were analysed in 4 new local populations of Sinanodonta woodiana (Bivalvia in Poland, in the first reported Polish population, and in a population from Hungary. The gene sequences of Polish specimens were identical to those of specimens from Hungary, Italy and Ukraine, but different from those of Romanian specimens (data from GenBank. According to fish farm documentation, S. woodiana had spread in Poland by 2 routes: i direct import of fish infected by glochidia of S. woodiana from Hungary; and ii indirectly, by the major distributor of thermophilous fish in Poland, Gosławice Fish Farm, which started to import Hungarian fish in the 1960s. The genetic analysis and available documentation unambiguously confirm that Polish populations of S. woodiana derive from a source population in Hungary. In addition, we noticed doubtful identification of this species in GenBank data and further research is needed to resolve this problem. 

  14. The influence of fish cage culture on δ13C and δ15N of filter-feeding Bivalvia (Mollusca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Benedito

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Oreochromis niloticus cage culture promoted variations in the δ13C and δ15N in Corbicula fluminea (Mollusca; Bivalvia and in the sediment of an aquatic food web. Samples were taken before and after net cage installation in the Rosana Reservoir (Paranapanema River, PR-SP. Samples of specimens of the bivalve filterer C. fluminea and samples of sediment were collected using a modified Petersen grab. All samples were dried in an oven (60 °C for 72 hours, macerated to obtain homogenous fine powders and sent for carbon (δ13C and nitrogen (δ15N isotopic value analysis in a mass spectrometer. There were significant differences in the δ13C and δ15N values of the invertebrate C. fluminea between the beginning and the end of the experiment. There were no differences between the δ13C and δ15N values of sediment. These results indicate that the installation of fish cage culture promoted impacts in the isotopic composition of the aquatic food web organisms, which could exert influence over the native species and the ecosystem.

  15. The effect of temperature and body size on filtration rates of Limnoperna fortunei (Bivalvia, Mytilidae under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Pestana

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The golden mussel (Limnoperna fortunei, Mollusca: Bivalvia is an invasive species that has been causing considerable environmental and economic problems in South America. In the present study, filtration rates of L. fortunei were determined in the laboratory under different temperatures (10, 15, 20, 25, 28, and 30 ºC and two types of food (Algamac-2000® and the chlorophycean alga Scenedesmus sp.. There was a statistically significant relationship between time and filtration rates in the experiment using Scenedesmus sp., regardless of temperature. However, this pattern was absent in the experiment using Algamac, suggesting that the relationship between filtration rates and temperature might depend on the size of the filtered particles. In addition, there was no correlation between filtration rates and either shell size or condition index (the relationship between the weight and the length of a mussel. The filtration rate measured in the present study (724.94 ml/h was one of the highest rates recorded among invasive bivalves to date. Given that the colonies of the golden mussel could reach hundreds of thousands of individuals per square meter, such filtration levels could severely impact the freshwater environments in its introduced range.

  16. The Preliminary Study of Organochlorine Pesticide Residues on Sediments of Bivalvia Fishing Ground at Eastern Part of Coastal Semarang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhi Suryono, Chrisna; Subagyo; Setyati, Wilis Ari; Sri Susilo, Endang; Rochaddi, Baskoro; Triaji Mahendrajaya, Robertus

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents the occurrence level of organochlorine contamination in marine sediments of Semarang coastal areas as a fishing ground of Bivalvia. Five compounds (Heptachlor, Aldrin, Endosulfan, Endrin and pp-DDT) of contaminant have been determined in the sediments surface of Semarang coastal waters. The samples were then analyzed by using gas chromatography and followed by using the method of Standard Method Examination. The result showed that the average concentration of organochlorine pesticides Heptachlor, Aldrin, Endosulfan, Endrin and pp-DDT were 25.5, bellow detected, 7.1, 37.2, 28.6 μ g/L, respectively. The high concentration of pesticide showed on Endrin (65,84 ppb), pp-DDT (29,53 μ g/L), and heptachlor (25,45 μ g/L). The low concentrations were detected on aldrin (bellow detected) and endosulfan (0,92 μ g/L). The concentration of organochlorine pesticides in these areas might contribute on four rivers which deposited the sediment in these coastal waters

  17. Comparative studies on the morphometry and physiology of European populations of the lagoon specialist Cerastoderma glaucum (Bivalvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Tarnowska

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal changes in the morphometric and physiological parameters of the cockle Cerastoderma glaucum (Bivalvia from the Baltic Sea (GD, the North Sea (LV, and the Mediterranean Sea (BL were investigated. The cockles from GD were much smaller than those from other populations due to osmotic stress. The female to male ratios did not differ significantly from 1:1. The northern populations (GD, LV had a monocyclic reproductive pattern, whereas the southern population (BL seemed to reproduce throughout the year. Seasonal changes in the contents of biochemical components appeared to be correlated with changes in trophic conditions and the reproductive cycle. Protein content was the highest in spring for all the populations. The highest lipid contents and lowest carbohydrate contents were noted in GD and BL in spring, while no marked differences were noted among seasons in LV (probably because the data from both sexes were pooled. Respiration rates in GD were the highest among the populations, which could have been due to osmotic stress. High metabolic rates expressed by high respiration rates in GD and LV in spring and autumn could have resulted from gamete development (in spring and phytoplankton blooms (in spring and autumn.

  18. Reproductive biology of blood cockle Anadara granosa (Bivalvia: Arcidae) in the northern region of the Strait of Malacca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Munawar; Yasin, Zulfigar; Hwai, Tan Shau

    2017-03-01

    A study on the reproductive cycle of the blood cockle Anadara granosa (Bivalvia: Arcidae) was conducted at three different areas in the northern region of the Strait of Malacca. A total of 1,920 samples of adult A. granosa (38-71 mm length) were collected from June 2009 until September 2010. Qualitative techniques (gonadal microscopic fresh smear test and histology analysis) as well as quantitative techniques (analysis of condition index and gonadal index) were used to predict monthly gonadal development stages of A. granosa. The gonadal index of A. granosa from Banda Aceh (Indonesia) ( r = 0.469, P > 0.05) and Pulau Pinang (Malaysia) ( r = 0.123, P > 0.05) did not show any correlation to their condition index, whereas the gonadal index of A. granosa from Lhokseumawe (Indonesia) ( r = 0.609, P granosa reproduction was affected by interaction between internal physiological factors and indigenous environmental factors. In all sampling areas, phytoplankton density played a key role in the reproductive cycle in A. granosa. Information on the reproductive biology of this species is essential for species management and to improve the sustainability practices of the fisheries industry. These findings will provide basic information on the biology of the blood cockle A. granosa for stock management in the region.

  19. The Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) : A Dimensional Alternative to Traditional Nosologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotov, Roman; Krueger, Robert F.; Watson, David; Achenbach, Thomas M.; Althoff, Robert R.; Bagby, R. Michael; Brown, Timothy A.; Carpenter, William T.; Caspi, Avshalom; Clark, Lee Anna; Eaton, Nicholas R.; Forbes, Miriam K.; Forbush, Kelsie T.; Goldberg, David; Hasin, Deborah; Hyman, Steven E.; Ivanova, Masha Y.; Lynam, Donald R.; Markon, Kristian; Miller, Joshua D.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Morey, Leslie C.; Mullins-Sweatt, Stephanie N.; Ormel, Johan; Patrick, Christopher J.; Regier, Darrel A.; Rescorla, Leslie; Ruggero, Camilo J.; Samuel, Douglas B.; Sellbom, Martin; Simms, Leonard J.; Skodol, Andrew E.; Slade, Tim; South, Susan C.; Tackett, Jennifer L.; Waldman, Irwin D.; Waszczuk, Monika A.; Widiger, Thomas A.; Wright, Aidan G. C.; Zimmerman, Mark

    The reliability and validity of traditional taxonomies are limited by arbitrary boundaries between psychopathology and normality, often unclear boundaries between disorders, frequent disorder co-occurrence, heterogeneity within disorders, and diagnostic instability. These taxonomies went beyond

  20. Implementing Black Box Warnings (BBWs) in Health Information Systems: An Organizing Taxonomy Identifying Opportunities and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikezuagu, M; Yang, E; Daghstani, A; Kaelber, D C

    2012-01-01

    To develop a practical approach for implementing clinical decision support (CDS) for medication black box warnings (BBWs) into health information systems (HIS). We reviewed all existing medication BBWs and organized them into a taxonomy that identifies opportunities and challenges for implementing CDS for BBWs into HIS. Of the over 400 BBWs that currently exist, they can be organized into 4 categories with 9 sub-categories based on the types of information contained in the BBWs, who should be notified, and potential actions to that could be taken by the person receiving the BBW. Informatics oriented categories and sub-categories of BBWs include - interactions (13%) (drug-drug (4%) and drug-diagnosis (9%)), testing (21%) (baseline (9%) and on-going (12%)), notifications (29%) (drug prescribers (7%), drug dispensers (2%), drug administrators (9%), patients (10%), and third parties (1%)), and non-actionable (37%). This categorization helps identify BBWs for which CDS can be easily implemented into HIS today (such as drug-drug interaction BBWs), those that cannot be easily implemented into HIS today (such as non-actionable BBWs), and those where advanced and/or integrated HIS need to be in place to implement CDS for BBWs (such a drug dispensers BBWs). HIS have the potential to improve patient safety by implementing CDS for BBWs. A key to building CDS for BBWs into HIS is developing a taxonomy to serve as an organizing roadmap for implementation. The informatics oriented BBWs taxonomy presented here identified types of BBWs in which CDS can be implemented easily into HIS currently (a minority of the BBWs) and those types of BBWs where CDS cannot be easily implemented today (a majority of BBWs).

  1. Understanding gambling related harm: a proposed definition, conceptual framework, and taxonomy of harms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langham, Erika; Thorne, Hannah; Browne, Matthew; Donaldson, Phillip; Rose, Judy; Rockloff, Matthew

    2016-01-27

    Harm from gambling is known to impact individuals, families, and communities; and these harms are not restricted to people with a gambling disorder. Currently, there is no robust and inclusive internationally agreed upon definition of gambling harm. In addition, the current landscape of gambling policy and research uses inadequate proxy measures of harm, such as problem gambling symptomology, that contribute to a limited understanding of gambling harms. These issues impede efforts to address gambling from a public health perspective. Data regarding harms from gambling was gathered using four separate methodologies, a literature review, focus groups and interviews with professionals involved in the support and treatment of gambling problems, interviews with people who gamble and their affected others, and an analysis of public forum posts for people experiencing problems with gambling and their affected others. The experience of harm related to gambling was examined to generate a conceptual framework. The catalogue of harms experienced were organised as a taxonomy. The current paper proposes a definition and conceptual framework of gambling related harm that captures the full breadth of harms that gambling can contribute to; as well as a taxonomy of harms to facilitate the development of more appropriate measures of harm. Our aim is to create a dialogue that will lead to a more coherent interpretation of gambling harm across treatment providers, policy makers and researchers.

  2. Taxonomy of the genus Brachyteles Spix, 1823 and its phylogenetic position within the subfamily Atelinae Gray, 1825

    OpenAIRE

    José Eduardo Serrano Villavicencio

    2016-01-01

    Muriquis, genus Brachyteles Spix, 1823, are the largest of the extant New World primates, and they are one of the three extant genera of the subfamily Atelinae along with Ateles (spider monkeys) and Lagothrix (wooly monkeys). The taxonomy of Brachyteles has constantly changed since its first description in the 19th century. First treated as a monotypic genus, and after several modifications in the number of species, Brachyteles currently contains two species, B. arachnoides (Southern muriqui)...

  3. Let's rise up to unite taxonomy and technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly M Bik

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available What do you think of when you think of taxonomy? An 18th century gentlemen in breeches? Or perhaps botany drawings hung on the walls of a boutique hotel? Such old-fashioned conceptions to the contrary, taxonomy is alive today although constantly struggling for survival and recognition. The scientific community is losing valuable resources as taxonomy experts age and retire, and funding for morphological studies and species descriptions remains stagnant. At the same time, organismal knowledge (morphology, ecology, physiology has never been more important: genomic studies are becoming more taxon focused, the scientific community is recognizing the limitations of traditional "model" organisms, and taxonomic expertise is desperately needed to fight against global biodiversity declines resulting from human impacts. There has never been a better time for a taxonomic renaissance.

  4. Let's rise up to unite taxonomy and technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bik, Holly M

    2017-08-01

    What do you think of when you think of taxonomy? An 18th century gentlemen in breeches? Or perhaps botany drawings hung on the walls of a boutique hotel? Such old-fashioned conceptions to the contrary, taxonomy is alive today although constantly struggling for survival and recognition. The scientific community is losing valuable resources as taxonomy experts age and retire, and funding for morphological studies and species descriptions remains stagnant. At the same time, organismal knowledge (morphology, ecology, physiology) has never been more important: genomic studies are becoming more taxon focused, the scientific community is recognizing the limitations of traditional "model" organisms, and taxonomic expertise is desperately needed to fight against global biodiversity declines resulting from human impacts. There has never been a better time for a taxonomic renaissance.

  5. The genomic underpinnings of eukaryotic virus taxonomy: creating a sequence-based framework for family-level virus classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiewsakun, Pakorn; Simmonds, Peter

    2018-02-20

    The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) classifies viruses into families, genera and species and provides a regulated system for their nomenclature that is universally used in virus descriptions. Virus taxonomic assignments have traditionally been based upon virus phenotypic properties such as host range, virion morphology and replication mechanisms, particularly at family level. However, gene sequence comparisons provide a clearer guide to their evolutionary relationships and provide the only information that may guide the incorporation of viruses detected in environmental (metagenomic) studies that lack any phenotypic data. The current study sought to determine whether the existing virus taxonomy could be reproduced by examination of genetic relationships through the extraction of protein-coding gene signatures and genome organisational features. We found large-scale consistency between genetic relationships and taxonomic assignments for viruses of all genome configurations and genome sizes. The analysis pipeline that we have called 'Genome Relationships Applied to Virus Taxonomy' (GRAViTy) was highly effective at reproducing the current assignments of viruses at family level as well as inter-family groupings into orders. Its ability to correctly differentiate assigned viruses from unassigned viruses, and classify them into the correct taxonomic group, was evaluated by threefold cross-validation technique. This predicted family membership of eukaryotic viruses with close to 100% accuracy and specificity potentially enabling the algorithm to predict assignments for the vast corpus of metagenomic sequences consistently with ICTV taxonomy rules. In an evaluation run of GRAViTy, over one half (460/921) of (near)-complete genome sequences from several large published metagenomic eukaryotic virus datasets were assigned to 127 novel family-level groupings. If corroborated by other analysis methods, these would potentially more than double the number of

  6. Critical Examination of a Revision of Bloom's Taxonomy for the Development of Art Education Curriculum

    OpenAIRE

    中村, 和世; 大和, 浩子; 中島, 敦夫; 吉川, 和生

    2011-01-01

    This paper is aimed at developing Art Education Taxonomy Table through critically examining a revision of Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives contrived by Anderson and Krathwohl. First, the overview of the history of Bloom's Taxonomy is provided in relation to art education. Second, the influence of Bloom's theory of educational evaluation and Taxonomy on the classroom practice of art education in Japan is discussed. Third, aiming at using for the development of art education curriculu...

  7. VecScreen_plus_taxonomy: imposing a tax(onomy) increase on vector contamination screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäffer, Alejandro A; Nawrocki, Eric P; Choi, Yoon; Kitts, Paul A; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; McVeigh, Richard

    2018-03-01

    Nucleic acid sequences in public databases should not contain vector contamination, but many sequences in GenBank do (or did) contain vectors. The National Center for Biotechnology Information uses the program VecScreen to screen submitted sequences for contamination. Additional tools are needed to distinguish true-positive (contamination) from false-positive (not contamination) VecScreen matches. A principal reason for false-positive VecScreen matches is that the sequence and the matching vector subsequence originate from closely related or identical organisms (for example, both originate in Escherichia coli). We collected information on the taxonomy of sources of vector segments in the UniVec database used by VecScreen. We used that information in two overlapping software pipelines for retrospective analysis of contamination in GenBank and for prospective analysis of contamination in new sequence submissions. Using the retrospective pipeline, we identified and corrected over 8000 contaminated sequences in the nonredundant nucleotide database. The prospective analysis pipeline has been in production use since April 2017 to evaluate some new GenBank submissions. Data on the sources of UniVec entries were included in release 10.0 (ftp://ftp.ncbi.nih.gov/pub/UniVec/). The main software is freely available at https://github.com/aaschaffer/vecscreen_plus_taxonomy. aschaffe@helix.nih.gov. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. Published by Oxford University Press 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and are in the public domain in the US.

  8. Nursing diagnosis taxonomy across the Atlantic Ocean: congruence between nurses' charting and the NANDA taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoroddsen, Asta; Thorsteinsson, Hrund Sch

    2002-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse expressions or terms used by nurses in Iceland to describe patient problems. The classification of NANDA was used as reference. The research questions were: (a) Does NANDA terminology represent patient problems documented by Icelandic nurses? (b) If so, what kind of nursing diagnoses does it represent? (c) What kind of patient problems are not represented by NANDA terminology? (d) What are the most frequent nursing diagnoses used? A retrospective chart review was conducted in a 400 bed acute care hospital in Iceland. The sample was defined as nursing diagnosis statements in charts of patients hospitalized in two 6-month periods in two separate years. The data were analysed according to a predefined grading system based on the PES format or Problem -- (A)aetiology -- Signs and symptoms. A total of 1217 charts were used for the study, which yielded 2171 nursing diagnoses statements for analysis. Charts with at least one nursing diagnosis documented were 60.1% and the number of diagnoses per patient ranged from 0 to 10, with 65% of charts with three diagnoses or less. The number of diagnoses correlated with patients' length of stay, but not with increased age of the patients. The average number of statements per patient was 3.28. Almost 60% of the diagnoses were according to NANDA terminology, another 20% were stated as procedures, medical diagnoses or risks for complications. The 20 most frequently used nursing diagnoses accounted for 80% of all diagnoses documented. Discrepancy between nurses' documentation on emotional problems and availability of diagnosis in the NANDA taxonomy was evident. It can be concluded that the NANDA taxonomy seems to be culturally relevant for nurses in different cultures.

  9. Towards A Taxonomy Of Attacks Against Energy Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Terry; Khurana, Himanshu; Welch, Von

    Control systems in the energy sector (e.g., supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems) involve a hierarchy of sensing, monitoring and control devices connected to centralized control stations or centers. The incorporation of commercial off-the-shelf technologies in energy control systems makes them vulnerable to cyber attacks. A taxonomy of cyber attacks against control systems can assist the energy sector in managing the cyber threat. This paper takes the first step towards a taxonomy by presenting a comprehensive model of attacks, vulnerabilities and damage related to control systems. The model is populated based on a survey of the technical literature from industry, academia and national laboratories.

  10. A Practitioner's Perspective on Taxonomy, Ontology and Findability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the presenters perspective on developing a taxonomy for JSC to capitalize on the accomplishments of yesterday, while maintaining the flexibility needed for the evolving information of today. A clear vision and scope for the semantic system is integral to its success. The vision for the JSC Taxonomy is to connect information stovepipes to present a unified view for information and knowledge across the Center, across organizations, and across decades. Semantic search at JSC means seamless integration of disparate information sets into a single interface. Ever increasing use, interest, and organizational participation mark successful integration and provide the framework for future application.

  11. Taxonomy, Ontology and Semantics at Johnson Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Sarah Ann

    2011-01-01

    At NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC), the Chief Knowledge Officer has been developing the JSC Taxonomy to capitalize on the accomplishments of yesterday while maintaining the flexibility needed for the evolving information environment of today. A clear vision and scope for the semantic system is integral to its success. The vision for the JSC Taxonomy is to connect information stovepipes to present a unified view for information and knowledge across the Center, across organizations, and across decades. Semantic search at JSC means seemless integration of disparate information sets into a single interface. Ever increasing use, interest, and organizational participation mark successful integration and provide the framework for future application.

  12. Medical Parasitology Taxonomy Update: January 2012 to December 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simner, P J

    2017-01-01

    Parasites of medical importance have long been classified taxonomically by morphological characteristics. However, molecular-based techniques have been increasingly used and relied on to determine evolutionary distances for the basis of rational hierarchal classifications. This has resulted in several different classification schemes for parasites and changes in parasite taxonomy. The purpose of this Minireview is to provide a single reference for diagnostic laboratories that summarizes new and revised clinically relevant parasite taxonomy from January 2012 through December 2015. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Microbiology.

  13. Conchological Variability of Anadara Inaequivalvis (Bivalvia, Arcidae In the Black–Azov Sea Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anistratenko V. V.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Конхологическая изменчивость Anadara inaequivalvis (Bivalvia, Arcidae в Азово-Черноморском бассейне. Анистратенко В. В., Анистратенко О. Ю., Халиман И. А. - Показан широкий диа- пазон изменчивости раковины Anadara inaequivalvis (Bruguiere, 1789 - вида-вселенца в Азово- Черноморском бассейне. В изученном материале (более 900 створок выделены 6 основных форм комиссурального просвета раковины, которые, однако, не являются дискретными состояниями. Наличие промежуточных вариантов свидетельствует о плавной (непрерывной изменчивости и принадлежности всех изученных популяций к одному виду. Обсуждается варьирование некото- рых других признаков раковины Anadara: количество и скульптированность рёбер на поверхно- сти створок, количество шевронов на лигаментной площадке, форма замочного края и количество зубов замка. Сопоставление морфологических характеристик раковины Anadara из Чёрного и Азовского морей и A. inaequivalvis из юго-восточной Индии подтверждает, что границы и харак- тер изменчивости моллюсков рода Anadara, обитающих в азово-черноморском бассейне, вполне соответствуют изменчивости A. inaequivalvis из типовой

  14. Bloom's Taxonomy: Improving Assessment and Teaching-Learning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandio, Muhammad Tufail; Pandhiani, Saima Murtaza; Iqbal, Rabia

    2016-01-01

    This research study critically analyzes the scope and contribution of Bloom's Taxonomy in both assessment and teaching-learning process. Bloom's Taxonomy consists of six stages, namely; remembering, understanding, applying, analyzing, evaluating and creating and moves from lower degree to the higher degree. The study applies Bloom's Taxonomy to…

  15. Update History of This Database - Taxonomy Icon | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data ...List Contact us Taxonomy Icon Update History of This Database Date Update contents 2013/06/19 Taxonomy Icon ...About This Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Update History of This Database - Taxonomy Icon | LSDB Archive ...

  16. A PROPOSED TAXONOMY OF THE PERCEPTUAL DOMAIN AND SOME SUGGESTED APPLICATIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MOORE, MAXINE R.

    THIS PROPOSAL FOR A PRELIMINARY TAXONOMY OF THE PERCEPTUAL DOMAIN, ORGANIZED ON THE PRINCIPLE OF INTEGRATION, DREW ON GUILFORD'S THEORETICAL AND FACTOR-ANALYTICAL WORK, ON WITKIN'S FIGURE-GROUND STUDIES, AND ON THE "TAXONOMY OF EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES" MODELS. THE TAXONOMY CATEGORIES ARE SENSATION, FIGURE PERCEPTION, SYMBOL PERCEPTION, PERCEPTION…

  17. Towards Web 3.0: taxonomies and ontologies for medical education -- a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaum, Wolf E; Jarczweski, Anne; Balzer, Felix; Stötzner, Philip; Ahlers, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    Both for curricular development and mapping, as well as for orientation within the mounting supply of learning resources in medical education, the Semantic Web ("Web 3.0") poses a low-threshold, effective tool that enables identification of content related items across system boundaries. Replacement of the currently required manual with an automatically generated link, which is based on content and semantics, requires the use of a suitably structured vocabulary for a machine-readable description of object content. Aim of this study is to compile the existing taxonomies and ontologies used for the annotation of medical content and learning resources, to compare those using selected criteria, and to verify their suitability in the context described above. Based on a systematic literature search, existing taxonomies and ontologies for the description of medical learning resources were identified. Through web searches and/or direct contact with the respective editors, each of the structured vocabularies thus identified were examined in regards to topic, structure, language, scope, maintenance, and technology of the taxonomy/ontology. In addition, suitability for use in the Semantic Web was verified. Among 20 identified publications, 14 structured vocabularies were identified, which differed rather strongly in regards to language, scope, currency, and maintenance. None of the identified vocabularies fulfilled the necessary criteria for content description of medical curricula and learning resources in the German-speaking world. While moving towards Web 3.0, a significant problem lies in the selection and use of an appropriate German vocabulary for the machine-readable description of object content. Possible solutions include development, translation and/or combination of existing vocabularies, possibly including partial translations of English vocabularies.

  18. Jaguar taxonomy and genetic diversity for southern Arizona, United States, and Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culver, Melanie; Hein, Alexander Ochoa

    2016-06-28

    Executive SummaryThe jaguar is the largest Neotropical felid and the only extant representative of the genus Panthera in the Americas. In recorded history, the jaguars range has extended from the Southern United States, throughout Mexico, to Central and South America, and they occupy a wide variety of habitats. A previous jaguar genetic study found high historical levels of gene flow among jaguar populations over broad areas but did not include any samples of jaguar from the States of Arizona, United States, or Sonora, Mexico. Arizona and Sonora have been part of the historical distribution of jaguars; however, poaching and habitat fragmentation have limited their distribution until they were declared extinct in the United States and endangered in Sonora. Therefore, a need was apparent to have this northernmost (Arizona/Sonora) jaguar population included in an overall jaguar molecular taxonomy and genetic diversity analyses. In this study, we used molecular genetic markers to examine diversity and taxonomy for jaguars in the Northwestern Jaguar Recovery Unit (NJRU; Sonora, Sinaloa, and Jalisco, Mexico; and southern Arizona and New Mexico, United States) relative to jaguars in other parts of the jaguar range (Central and South America). The objectives of this study were to:Collect opportunistic jaguar samples (hide, blood, hair, saliva, and scat), from historical and current individuals, that originated in NJRU areas of Arizona, New Mexico, and Sonora;Use these samples to assess molecular taxonomy of NJRU jaguars compared to data from a previous study of jaguars rangewide; andDevelop suggestions for conservation of NJRU jaguars based on the results.

  19. Social Media Use in Chronic Disease: A Systematic Review and Novel Taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rajesh; Chang, Tammy; Greysen, S Ryan; Chopra, Vineet

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate clinical outcomes from applications of contemporary social media in chronic disease; to develop a conceptual taxonomy to categorize, summarize, and then analyze the current evidence base; and to suggest a framework for future studies on this topic. We performed a systematic review of MEDLINE via PubMed (January 2000 to January 2015) of studies reporting clinical outcomes on leading contemporary social media (ie, Facebook, Twitter, Wikipedia, YouTube) use in 10 chronic diseases. Two reviewers independently performed data extraction and quality assessment; characterization of study outcomes as positive, negative, neutral, or undefined impact; and inductive, thematic analysis to develop our taxonomy. Of 378 citations identified, 42 studies examining the use of Facebook (n = 16), blogs (n = 13), Twitter (n = 8), wikis (n = 5), and YouTube (n = 4) on outcomes in cancer (n = 14), depression (n = 13), obesity (n = 9), diabetes (n = 4), heart disease (n = 3), stroke (n = 2), and chronic lower respiratory tract infection (n = 1) were included. Studies were classified as support (n = 16), patient education (n = 10), disease modification (n = 6), disease management (n = 5), and diagnosis (n = 5) within our taxonomy. The overall impact of social media on chronic disease was variable, with 48% of studies indicating benefit, 45% neutral or undefined, and 7% suggesting harm. Among studies that showed benefit, 85% used either Facebook or blogs, and 40% were based within the domain of support. Using social media to provide social, emotional, or experiential support in chronic disease, especially with Facebook and blogs, appears most likely to improve patient care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Taxonomy of ant species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) collected by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Taxonomy of ant species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) collected by pitfall traps from Sinai and the Delta region, Egypt. Salwa Mohamed, Samy Zalat, Hassan Fadl, Sohair Gadalla, Moustafa Sharaf. Abstract. Egyptian Journal of Natural History Vol.1 1999: 40-61. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  1. Taxonomy of Lecture Note-Taking Skills and Subskills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Musalli, Alaa M.

    2015-01-01

    Note taking (NT) in lectures is as active a skill as listening, which stimulates it, and as challenging as writing, which is the end product. Literature on lecture NT misses an integration of the processes involved in listening with those in NT. In this article, a taxonomy is proposed of lecture NT skills and subskills based on a similar list…

  2. Taxonomies of situations from a trait psychological perspective. A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Berge, MA; De Raad, B

    1999-01-01

    In this article we review studies of situations and situation taxonomies from the perspective of trait psychology. Objections to trait psychology are discussed and several refutations are recapitulated The relation between traits and situations is analysed, as well as the affinity that both concepts

  3. Pollen morphology of the Euphorbiaceae with special reference to taxonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punt, W.

    1962-01-01

    In the present study pollen morphology of the Euphorbeaceae is treated as an additional character in taxonomy. Besides the greater part of the genera occurring in the system of PAX and K. HOFFMANN (1931), most of the genera published after 1931 are studied. The pollen grains have been described with

  4. Was Bloom's Taxonomy Pointed in the Wrong Direction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wineburg, Sam; Schneider, Jack

    2010-01-01

    Bloom's Taxonomy usually is depicted as a pyramid with knowledge at the lowest level and evaluation at the top. For the history classroom, however, that arrangement might be upside down. In history, evaluation is often necessary before new knowledge can be learned. (Contains 1 figure.)

  5. Developing Learning Objectives for Accounting Ethics Using Bloom's Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, Linda A.; Fisher, Dann G.; Braun, Robert L.; Swanson, Diane L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of our article is to offer a set of core knowledge learning objectives for accounting ethics education. Using Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives, we develop learning objectives in six content areas: codes of ethical conduct, corporate governance, the accounting profession, moral development, classical ethics theories, and…

  6. Conception of Learning Outcomes in the Bloom's Taxonomy Affective Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savickiene, Izabela

    2010-01-01

    The article raises a problematic issue regarding an insufficient base of the conception of learning outcomes in the Bloom's taxonomy affective domain. The search for solutions introduces the conception of teaching and learning in the affective domain as well as presents validity criteria of learning outcomes in the affective domain. The…

  7. Use of Bloom's Taxonomy in Developing Reading Comprehension Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebke, Stephen; Lorie, James

    2013-01-01

    This article is a brief account of the use of Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (Bloom, Engelhart, Furst, Hill, & Krathwohl, 1956) by staff of the Law School Admission Council in the 1990 development of redesigned specifications for the Reading Comprehension section of the Law School Admission Test. Summary item statistics for the…

  8. Using Bloom's Taxonomy to Teach Students about Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosen, Melissa A.

    2008-01-01

    Melissa A. Vosen outlines a unit she has designed to help students comprehend the often unclear boundaries and issues surrounding plagiarism. Using Bloom's taxonomy of the cognitive domain, students complete increasingly complex tasks, learning to construct a works cited page and assess scholarly opinions. They also research the consequences of…

  9. Taxonomy for the Network and Service Management Research Field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raniery Paula dos Santos, Carlos; Famaey, Jeroen; Schönwälder, Jürgen; Zambenedetti Granville, Lisandro; Pras, Aiko; De Turck, Filip

    Network and service management has established itself as a research field in the general area of computer networks. However, up to now, no appropriate organization of the field has been carried out in terms of a comprehensive list of terms and topics. In this paper, we introduce a taxonomy for

  10. A Taxonomy of Multiple-Choice Item-Writing Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haladyna, Thomas M.; Downing, Steven M.

    1989-01-01

    A taxonomy of 43 rules for writing multiple-choice test items is presented, based on a consensus of 46 textbooks. These guidelines are presented as complete and authoritative, with solid consensus apparent for 33 of the rules. Four rules lack consensus, and 5 rules were cited fewer than 10 times. (SLD)

  11. A Taxonomy of Consumer Satisfaction/Dissatisfaction Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreasen, Alan R.

    1977-01-01

    Government and business have become more concerned with measuring market performance in terms of consumer satisfactions and dissatisfactions (CS/D). This research is concerned with the question of how one ought to measure CS/D. Offers a taxonomy of alternative CS/D measures and presents data from a national urban study of consumer complaints to…

  12. Soil Taxonomy and land evaluation for forest establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruyoshi Ikawa

    1992-01-01

    Soil Taxonomy, the United States system of soil classification, can be used for land evaluation for selected purposes. One use is forest establishment in the tropics, and the soil family category is especially functional for this purpose. The soil family is a bionomial name with descriptions usually of soil texture, mineralogy, and soil temperature classes. If the...

  13. An alternative to soil taxonomy for describing key soil characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duniway, Michael C.; Miller, Mark E.; Brown, Joel R.; Toevs, Gordon

    2013-01-01

    We are pleased to see the letter by Schimel and Chadwick (Front Ecol Environ 2013; 11[8]: 405–06), highlighting the importance of soil characterization in ecological and biogeochemical research and explaining the value of soil taxonomy, and we agree with the authors that reporting soil

  14. Science Academies' Refresher Course in Plant Taxonomy and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 22; Issue 10. Science Academies' Refresher Course in Plant Taxonomy and Ethnobotany. Information and Announcements Volume 22 Issue 10 October 2017 pp 975-975. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  15. The relation between taxonomy and chemistry of plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weevers, Th.

    1943-01-01

    The first question in this field of science is: can we say, that there is actually any relation between taxonomy and chemistry of plants? Nearly a century ago the worker in chemistry Rochleder (10) attempted to show the possibility of this relation and called that branch of science phytochemistry.

  16. The New Bloom's Taxonomy: Implications for Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Wendell

    2007-01-01

    Academic programs use objective and standardized assessment criteria. Music education programs have avoided such objective assessments via the assertion of subjectivity and aesthetics in music learning. In this article, the author introduces the revised Bloom's taxonomy as a tool to translate music education outcomes into objective educational…

  17. Taxonomy, phylogeny, and coevolution of pines and their stem rusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. I. Millar; B. B. Kinloch

    1991-01-01

    We review and reinterpret major events in the evolution of pines and their stem rusts using information from their taxonomy, genetics, biogeography, and fossil history. Understanding of pine evolution has been significantly revised in the last 20 years. Pines appear to have evolved early in the Mesozoic and to have diversified and migrated throughout middle latitudes...

  18. Taxonomies of Higher Educational Institutions Predicted from Organizational Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysons, Art

    1990-01-01

    Application of the Perceived Climate Questionnaire involving senior-level staff from Australian institutions used climate factors as the basis for testing hypothesized taxonomies of the institutions. Results reinforce the relevance of contemporary management theories and demonstrate the importance of leadership styles in organizational…

  19. Science Academies' Refresher Course in Plant Taxonomy and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Refresher Course in 'Plant Taxonomy and Ethnobotany' will be held in the Department of Botany,. Yogi Vemana University, Kadapa, from 18 to 31 January 2018 for the benefits of faculty involved in teaching undergraduate and postgraduate courses. Participants in this course will gain practical and theoretical experience ...

  20. Applying a Knowledge Management Taxonomy to Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thambi, Melinda; O'Toole, Paddy

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the relevance of a corporate-based taxonomy of knowledge management to secondary schooling. Do the principles of knowledge management from the corporate world translate to the world of education; specifically, secondary schooling? This article examines categories of knowledge management articulated in…

  1. Taxonomy, distribution and ecology of Bolboschoenus in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hroudová, Zdenka; Zákravský, Petr; Ducháček, M.; Marhold, K.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 2 (2007), s. 81-102 ISSN 0003-3847 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6005905; GA ČR GA521/04/0997 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : taxonomy * distribution * ecology Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.408, year: 2007

  2. Some misapplied nomina nova in reef coral taxonomy (Scleractinia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeksema, B.W.

    1993-01-01

    Nomina nova should be used only to denote replacement names for preoccupied names, i.e. in the case of homonymy. Three examples of incorrect applications of nomina nova in scleractinian taxonomy are given. Coincidentally, in the cases discussed each wrongly proposed nomen novum concerns a new

  3. Fail Better: Toward a Taxonomy of E-Learning Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priem, Jason

    2010-01-01

    The study of student error, important across many fields of educational research, has begun to attract interest in the field of e-learning, particularly in relation to usability. However, it remains unclear when errors should be avoided (as usability failures) or embraced (as learning opportunities). Many domains have benefited from taxonomies of…

  4. An error taxonomy system for analysis of haemodialysis incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiuzhu; Itoh, Kenji; Suzuki, Satoshi

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes the development of a haemodialysis error taxonomy system for analysing incidents and predicting the safety status of a dialysis organisation. The error taxonomy system was developed by adapting an error taxonomy system which assumed no specific specialty to haemodialysis situations. Its application was conducted with 1,909 incident reports collected from two dialysis facilities in Japan. Over 70% of haemodialysis incidents were reported as problems or complications related to dialyser, circuit, medication and setting of dialysis condition. Approximately 70% of errors took place immediately before and after the four hours of haemodialysis therapy. Error types most frequently made in the dialysis unit were omission and qualitative errors. Failures or complications classified to staff human factors, communication, task and organisational factors were found in most dialysis incidents. Device/equipment/materials, medicine and clinical documents were most likely to be involved in errors. Haemodialysis nurses were involved in more incidents related to medicine and documents, whereas dialysis technologists made more errors with device/equipment/materials. This error taxonomy system is able to investigate incidents and adverse events occurring in the dialysis setting but is also able to estimate safety-related status of an organisation, such as reporting culture. © 2014 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  5. Application of Modern Experimental Technique to Solve Morphological Complexity in Plants Taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SURANTO

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern taxonomy has two approaches, i.e. classical and experimental taxonomy. Classical taxonomy uses morphological characters, while experimental taxonomy uses broader methods including chemistry, physics and mathematics, in the form of laboratory data that are revealed together with the progress of optical technique (microscope, chemistry methods (chromatography, electrophoresis, etc. Modern taxonomy tends to use series of interrelated data. More data used would result in more validity and give better clarification of taxonomic status. A lot of modern taxonomic data such as palynology, cytotaxonomy (cytology, chemical constituent (chemotaxonomy, isozyme and DNA sequencing were used recently.

  6. Molecular phylogenetic analysis supports a Gondwanan origin of the Hyriidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionida) and the paraphyly of Australasian taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Daniel L; Jones, Hugh; Geneva, Anthony J; Pfeiffer, John M; Klunzinger, Michael W

    2015-04-01

    The freshwater mussel family Hyriidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionida) has a disjunct trans-Pacific distribution in Australasia and South America. Previous phylogenetic analyses have estimated the evolutionary relationships of the family and the major infra-familial taxa (Velesunioninae and Hyriinae: Hyridellini in Australia; Hyriinae: Hyriini, Castaliini, and Rhipidodontini in South America), but taxon and character sampling have been too incomplete to support a predictive classification or allow testing of biogeographical hypotheses. We sampled 30 freshwater mussel individuals representing the aforementioned hyriid taxa, as well as outgroup species representing the five other freshwater mussel families and their marine sister group (order Trigoniida). Our ingroup included representatives of all Australian genera. Phylogenetic relationships were estimated from three gene fragments (nuclear 28S, COI and 16S mtDNA) using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference, and we applied a Bayesian relaxed clock model calibrated with fossil dates to estimate node ages. Our analyses found good support for monophyly of the Hyriidae and the subfamilies and tribes, as well as the paraphyly of the Australasian taxa (Velesunioninae, (Hyridellini, (Rhipidodontini, (Castaliini, Hyriini)))). The Hyriidae was recovered as sister to a clade comprised of all other Recent freshwater mussel families. Our molecular date estimation supported Cretaceous origins of the major hyriid clades, pre-dating the Tertiary isolation of South America from Antarctica/Australia. We hypothesize that early diversification of the Hyriidae was driven by terrestrial barriers on Gondwana rather than marine barriers following disintegration of the super-continent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of uptake and chronic toxicity of virgin polystyrene microbeads in freshwater zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha (Mollusca: Bivalvia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magni, Stefano; Gagné, François; André, Chantale; Della Torre, Camilla; Auclair, Joëlle; Hanana, Houda; Parenti, Camilla Carla; Bonasoro, Francesco; Binelli, Andrea

    2018-08-01

    Microplastics (MPs), plastic debris smaller than 5mm, are widely found in both marine and freshwater ecosystems. However, few studies regarding their hazardous effects on inland water organisms, have been conducted. For this reason, the aim of our research was the evaluation of uptake and chronic toxicity of two mixtures (MIXs) of virgin polystyrene microbeads (PMs) of 10μm and 1μm in size (MIX 1, with 5×10 5 of 1μmsizePMs/L and 5×10 5 of 10μmsizePMs/L, and MIX 2 with 2×10 6 of 1μmsizePMs/L and 2×10 6 of 10μmsizePMs/L) on freshwater zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha (Mollusca: Bivalvia) during 6 exposure days. The PM uptake in the mussel body and hemolymph was assessed using confocal microscopy, while the chronic toxicity of PMs was evaluated on exposed mussels using a comprehensive battery of biomarkers of cellular stress, oxidative damage and neuro- genotoxicity. Confocal microscopy analyses showed that MPs concentrated in the gut lumen of exposed mussels, absorbed and transferred firstly in the tissues and then in the hemolymph. The results revealed that PMs do not produce oxidative stress and genetic damage, with the exception of a significant modulation of catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities in mussels exposed to MIX 1. Regarding neurotoxicity, we observed only a significant increase of dopamine concentration in mussels exposed to both MIXs, suggesting a possible implication of this neurotransmitter in an elimination process of accumulated PMs. This research represents a first study about the evaluation of virgin MP toxicity in zebra mussel and more research is warranted concerning the long term neurological effects of virgin MPs. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Sine systemate chaos? A versatile tool for earthworm taxonomy: non-destructive imaging of freshly fixed and museum specimens using micro-computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Rosa; Kvist, Sebastian; Lenihan, Jennifer; Giribet, Gonzalo; Ziegler, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    In spite of the high relevance of lumbricid earthworms ('Oligochaeta': Lumbricidae) for soil structure and functioning, the taxonomy of this group of terrestrial invertebrates remains in a quasi-chaotic state. Earthworm taxonomy traditionally relies on the interpretation of external and internal morphological characters, but the acquisition of these data is often hampered by tedious dissections or restricted access to valuable and rare museum specimens. The present state of affairs, in conjunction with the difficulty of establishing primary homologies for multiple morphological features, has led to an almost unrivaled instability in the taxonomy and systematics of certain earthworm groups, including Lumbricidae. As a potential remedy, we apply for the first time a non-destructive imaging technique to lumbricids and explore the future application of this approach to earthworm taxonomy. High-resolution micro-computed tomography (μCT) scanning of freshly fixed and museum specimens was carried out using two cosmopolitan species, Aporrectodea caliginosa and A. trapezoides. By combining two-dimensional and three-dimensional dataset visualization techniques, we demonstrate that the morphological features commonly used in earthworm taxonomy can now be analyzed without the need for dissection, whether freshly fixed or museum specimens collected more than 60 years ago are studied. Our analyses show that μCT in combination with soft tissue staining can be successfully applied to lumbricid earthworms. An extension of the approach to other families is poised to strengthen earthworm taxonomy by providing a versatile tool to resolve the taxonomic chaos currently present in this ecologically important, but taxonomically neglected group of terrestrial invertebrates.

  9. Role of Genomic Typing in Taxonomy, Evolutionary Genetics, and Microbial Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Belkum, Alex; Struelens, Marc; de Visser, Arjan; Verbrugh, Henri; Tibayrenc, Michel

    2001-01-01

    Currently, genetic typing of microorganisms is widely used in several major fields of microbiological research. Taxonomy, research aimed at elucidation of evolutionary dynamics or phylogenetic relationships, population genetics of microorganisms, and microbial epidemiology all rely on genetic typing data for discrimination between genotypes. Apart from being an essential component of these fundamental sciences, microbial typing clearly affects several areas of applied microbiogical research. The epidemiological investigation of outbreaks of infectious diseases and the measurement of genetic diversity in relation to relevant biological properties such as pathogenicity, drug resistance, and biodegradation capacities are obvious examples. The diversity among nucleic acid molecules provides the basic information for all fields described above. However, researchers in various disciplines tend to use different vocabularies, a wide variety of different experimental methods to monitor genetic variation, and sometimes widely differing modes of data processing and interpretation. The aim of the present review is to summarize the technological and fundamental concepts used in microbial taxonomy, evolutionary genetics, and epidemiology. Information on the nomenclature used in the different fields of research is provided, descriptions of the diverse genetic typing procedures are presented, and examples of both conceptual and technological research developments for Escherichia coli are included. Recommendations for unification of the different fields through standardization of laboratory techniques are made. PMID:11432813

  10. Making US Soil Taxonomy more scientifically applicable to environmental and food security issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monger, Curtis; Lindbo, David L.; Wysocki, Doug; Schoeneberger, Phil; Libohova, Zamir

    2017-04-01

    US Department of Agriculture began mapping soils in the 1890s on a county-by-county basis until most of the conterminous United States was mapped by the late 1930s. This first-generation mapping was followed by a second-generation that re-mapped the US beginning in the 1940s. Soil classification during these periods evolved into the current system of Soil Taxonomy which is based on (1) soil features as natural phenomena and on (2) soil properties important for agriculture and other land uses. While this system has enabled communication among soil surveyors, the scientific applicability of Soil Taxonomy to address environmental and food security issues has been under-utilized. In particular, little effort has been exerted to understand how soil taxa interact and function together as larger units—as soil systems. Thus, much soil-geomorphic understanding that could be applied to process-based modeling remains unexploited. The challenge for soil taxonomists in the United States and elsewhere is to expand their expertise and work with modelers to explore how soil taxa are linked to each other, how they influence water, nutrient, and pollutant flow through the landscape, how they interact with ecology, and how they change with human land use.

  11. Evolutionary history and taxonomy of a short-horned grasshopper subfamily: the Melanoplinae (Orthoptera: Acrididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintauan-Marquier, Ioana C; Jordan, Steve; Berthier, Pierre; Amédégnato, Christiane; Pompanon, François

    2011-01-01

    The Melanoplinae is one of the largest subfamilies of the Acrididae grasshoppers, with a Holarctic-Neotropical distribution. To investigate its controversial taxonomy and evolutionary history, we studied 19 species representative of its main tribes, and 7 Acridoidea outgroup species. More than 1650 base pairs of three regions of nuclear rDNA (18S, ITS1, 28S) and one mitochondrial rDNA (12S) were combined and used to construct parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenies. Our results correspond with the present geographical distribution of the taxa rather than the existing taxonomy based on morphological characters. The morphologically unclassified and atypical taxa group with the Neotropical Melanoplinae. The currently recognized Melanoplinae appear to be polyphyletic due to inclusion of the Mexican genus Netrosoma. The distribution of the American and Eurasiatic Melanoplinae fauna can be explained by climatic and geological events, such as the Andean uplift, that would have affected the diversification and migration of Neotropical taxa. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A Taxonomy for Enhancing Usability, Flexibility, and Security of User Authentication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Gottschlich

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Two technology trends – a move toward software defined capabilities and toward networked devices – support both unprecedented innovations and requirements for security. A fundamental aspect of security is user authentication, which allows devices and software applications to establish their user’s identity and identity is in turn used to establish which of its capabilities the user is authorized to access. While multiple authentication steps, known as multifactor authentication, are being used more widely throughout the military, government, businesses, and consumer sectors, the selection and implementation of which authentication factors to require is typically defined by security policy. Security policy is in turn typically established by a security organization that may have no formal metrics or means to guide its selection of authentication factors. This paper will present a taxonomy for describing authentication factors including important attributes that characterize authentication robustness to aid in the selection of factors that are consistent with the user’s mission. One particular authentication factor that I have developed will be discussed in the context of this taxonomy to motivate the need to broaden current definitions and security policies. The ultimate goal of this paper is to inspire the development of standards for authentication technologies to both support mission aware authentication innovation and to inform decision making about security policies concerning user authentication and authorization. Further, this paper aims to demonstrate that such an approach will fundamentally enhance both security and usability of increasingly networked, software-defined devices, equipment and software applications.

  13. Summary statistics for fossil spider species taxonomy

    OpenAIRE

    Penney, David; Dunlop, Jason; Marusik, Yuri

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Spiders (Araneae) are one of the most species-rich orders on Earth today, and also have one of the longest geological records of any terrestrial animal groups, as demonstrated by their extensive fossil record. There are currently around 1150 described fossil spider species, representing 2.6% of all described spiders (i.e. extinct and extant). Data for numbers of fossil and living spider taxa described annually (and various other metrics for the fossil taxa) were compiled from current...

  14. Taxonomy of Means and Ends in Aquaculture Production—Part 2: The Technical Solutions of Controlling Solids, Dissolved Gasses and pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjorgvin Vilbergsson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In engineering design, knowing the relationship between the means (technique and the end (desired function or outcome is essential. The means in Aquaculture are technical solutions like airlifts that are used to achive desired functionality (an end like controlling dissolved gasses. In previous work, the authors identified possible functions by viewing aquaculture production systems as transformation processes in which inputs are transformed by treatment techniques (means and produce outputs (ends. The current work creates an overview of technical solutions of treatment functions for both design and research purposes. A comprehensive literature review of all areas of technical solutions is identified and categorized into a visual taxonomy of the treatment functions for controlling solids, controlling dissolved gasses and controlling pH alkalinity and hardness. This article is the second in a sequence of four and partly presents the treatments functions in the taxonomy. The other articles in this series present complementary aspects of this research: Part 1, A transformational view on aquaculture and functions divided into input, treatment and output functions; Part 2, The current taxonomy paper; Part 3, The second part of the taxonomy; and Part 4, Mapping of the means (techniques for multiple treatment functions.

  15. Developing "Personality" Taxonomies: Metatheoretical and Methodological Rationales Underlying Selection Approaches, Methods of Data Generation and Reduction Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uher, Jana

    2015-12-01

    Taxonomic "personality" models are widely used in research and applied fields. This article applies the Transdisciplinary Philosophy-of-Science Paradigm for Research on Individuals (TPS-Paradigm) to scrutinise the three methodological steps that are required for developing comprehensive "personality" taxonomies: 1) the approaches used to select the phenomena and events to be studied, 2) the methods used to generate data about the selected phenomena and events and 3) the reduction principles used to extract the "most important" individual-specific variations for constructing "personality" taxonomies. Analyses of some currently popular taxonomies reveal frequent mismatches between the researchers' explicit and implicit metatheories about "personality" and the abilities of previous methodologies to capture the particular kinds of phenomena toward which they are targeted. Serious deficiencies that preclude scientific quantifications are identified in standardised questionnaires, psychology's established standard method of investigation. These mismatches and deficiencies derive from the lack of an explicit formulation and critical reflection on the philosophical and metatheoretical assumptions being made by scientists and from the established practice of radically matching the methodological tools to researchers' preconceived ideas and to pre-existing statistical theories rather than to the particular phenomena and individuals under study. These findings raise serious doubts about the ability of previous taxonomies to appropriately and comprehensively reflect the phenomena towards which they are targeted and the structures of individual-specificity occurring in them. The article elaborates and illustrates with empirical examples methodological principles that allow researchers to appropriately meet the metatheoretical requirements and that are suitable for comprehensively exploring individuals' "personality".

  16. Determinants of selective reporting: A taxonomy based on content analysis of a random selection of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Steen, Jenny T; van den Bogert, Cornelis A; van Soest-Poortvliet, Mirjam C; Fazeli Farsani, Soulmaz; Otten, René H J; Ter Riet, Gerben; Bouter, Lex M

    2018-01-01

    Selective reporting is wasteful, leads to bias in the published record and harms the credibility of science. Studies on potential determinants of selective reporting currently lack a shared taxonomy and a causal framework. To develop a taxonomy of determinants of selective reporting in science. Inductive qualitative content analysis of a random selection of the pertinent literature including empirical research and theoretical reflections. Using search terms for bias and selection combined with terms for reporting and publication, we systematically searched the PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO and Web of Science databases up to January 8, 2015. Of the 918 articles identified, we screened a 25 percent random selection. From eligible articles, we extracted phrases that mentioned putative or possible determinants of selective reporting, which we used to create meaningful categories. We stopped when no new categories emerged in the most recently analyzed articles (saturation). Saturation was reached after analyzing 64 articles. We identified 497 putative determinants, of which 145 (29%) were supported by empirical findings. The determinants represented 12 categories (leaving 3% unspecified): focus on preferred findings (36%), poor or overly flexible research design (22%), high-risk area and its development (8%), dependence upon sponsors (8%), prejudice (7%), lack of resources including time (3%), doubts about reporting being worth the effort (3%), limitations in reporting and editorial practices (3%), academic publication system hurdles (3%), unfavorable geographical and regulatory environment (2%), relationship and collaboration issues (2%), and potential harm (0.4%). We designed a taxonomy of putative determinants of selective reporting consisting of 12 categories. The taxonomy may help develop theory about causes of selection bias and guide policies to prevent selective reporting.

  17. Phylogeny and androgenesis in the invasive Corbicula clams (Bivalvia, Corbiculidae in Western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Descy Jean-Pierre

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Corbicula is one of the most invasive groups of molluscs. It includes both sexual and androgenetic lineages. The present study re-assessed the different morphotypes and haplotypes of West European Corbicula in order to clarify their taxonomic identification and phylogenetic relationships with American and Asian Corbicula clams. We studied several populations from West European river basins (Meuse, Seine, Rhine and Rhône through an "integrative taxonomy" approach. We combined morphology, partial mitochondrial COI and cyt b sequences and eleven microsatellite loci. Furthermore, we looked for discrepancies between mtDNA and nrDNA/morphology, indicative of androgenesis between lineages. Results There are three Corbicula morphotypes in Western Europe associated to three mitochondrial lineages and three genotypes. Form R shares the same COI haplotype as the American form A and the Japanese C. leana. Form S and the American form C have the same haplotype, although their morphologies seem divergent. The European form Rlc belongs to the same mitochondrial lineage as both the American form B and the Asian C. fluminea. Interestingly, within each haplotype/genotype or lineage, no genetic diversity was found although their invasive success is high. Moreover, we detected rare mismatches between mtDNA and nrDNA/morphology, indicative of androgenesis and mitochondrial capture between form R and form S and therefore challenging the phylogenetic relatedness and the species status within this genus. The global phylogenetic analysis revealed that the sexual Corbicula lineages seem restricted to the native areas while their androgenetic relatives are widespread and highly invasive. Conclusions We clarified the discrepancies and incongruent results found in the literature about the European morphotypes of Corbicula and associated mitochondrial lineages. The three West European morphotypes belong to three distinct nuclear and

  18. Phylogeny and androgenesis in the invasive Corbicula clams (Bivalvia, Corbiculidae) in Western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The genus Corbicula is one of the most invasive groups of molluscs. It includes both sexual and androgenetic lineages. The present study re-assessed the different morphotypes and haplotypes of West European Corbicula in order to clarify their taxonomic identification and phylogenetic relationships with American and Asian Corbicula clams. We studied several populations from West European river basins (Meuse, Seine, Rhine and Rhône) through an "integrative taxonomy" approach. We combined morphology, partial mitochondrial COI and cyt b sequences and eleven microsatellite loci. Furthermore, we looked for discrepancies between mtDNA and nrDNA/morphology, indicative of androgenesis between lineages. Results There are three Corbicula morphotypes in Western Europe associated to three mitochondrial lineages and three genotypes. Form R shares the same COI haplotype as the American form A and the Japanese C. leana. Form S and the American form C have the same haplotype, although their morphologies seem divergent. The European form Rlc belongs to the same mitochondrial lineage as both the American form B and the Asian C. fluminea. Interestingly, within each haplotype/genotype or lineage, no genetic diversity was found although their invasive success is high. Moreover, we detected rare mismatches between mtDNA and nrDNA/morphology, indicative of androgenesis and mitochondrial capture between form R and form S and therefore challenging the phylogenetic relatedness and the species status within this genus. The global phylogenetic analysis revealed that the sexual Corbicula lineages seem restricted to the native areas while their androgenetic relatives are widespread and highly invasive. Conclusions We clarified the discrepancies and incongruent results found in the literature about the European morphotypes of Corbicula and associated mitochondrial lineages. The three West European morphotypes belong to three distinct nuclear and mitochondrial lineages. However

  19. Web analytics as tool for improvement of website taxonomies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonasen, Tanja Svarre; Ådland, Marit Kristine; Lykke, Marianne

    The poster examines how web analytics can be used to provide information about users and inform design and redesign of taxonomies. It uses a case study of the website Cancer.dk by the Danish Cancer Society. The society is a private organization with an overall goal to prevent the development...... provides information about e.g. subjects of interest, searching behaviour, browsing patterns in website structure as well as tag clouds, page views. The poster discusses benefits and challenges of the two web metrics, with a model of how to use search and tag data for the design of taxonomies, e.g. choice...... of cancer, improve patients’ chances of recovery, and limit the physical, psychological and social side-effects of cancer. The website is the main channel for communication and knowledge sharing with patients, their relatives and professionals. The present study consists of two independent analyses, one...

  20. A Taxonomy of Representation Strategies in Iconic Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Carlos; Zeng-Treitler, Qing

    2012-01-01

    Predicting whether the intended audience will be able to recognize the meaning of an icon or pictograph is not an easy task. Many icon recognition studies have been conducted in the past. However, their findings cannot be generalized to other icons that were not included in the study, which, we argue, is their main limitation. In this paper, we propose a comprehensive taxonomy of icons that is intended to enable the generalization of the findings of recognition studies. To accomplish this, we analyzed a sample of more than eight hundred icons according to three axes: lexical category, semantic category, and representation strategy. Three basic representation strategies were identified: visual similarity; semantic association; and arbitrary convention. These representation strategies are in agreement with the strategies identified in previous taxonomies. However, a greater number of subcategories of these strategies were identified. Our results also indicate that the lexical and semantic attributes of a concept influence the choice of representation strategy. PMID:22754274

  1. NASA Taxonomies for Searching Problem Reports and FMEAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Jane T.; Throop, David R.

    2006-01-01

    Many types of hazard and risk analyses are used during the life cycle of complex systems, including Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA), Hazard Analysis, Fault Tree and Event Tree Analysis, Probabilistic Risk Assessment, Reliability Analysis and analysis of Problem Reporting and Corrective Action (PRACA) databases. The success of these methods depends on the availability of input data and the analysts knowledge. Standard nomenclature can increase the reusability of hazard, risk and problem data. When nomenclature in the source texts is not standard, taxonomies with mapping words (sets of rough synonyms) can be combined with semantic search to identify items and tag them with metadata based on a rich standard nomenclature. Semantic search uses word meanings in the context of parsed phrases to find matches. The NASA taxonomies provide the word meanings. Spacecraft taxonomies and ontologies (generalization hierarchies with attributes and relationships, based on terms meanings) are being developed for types of subsystems, functions, entities, hazards and failures. The ontologies are broad and general, covering hardware, software and human systems. Semantic search of Space Station texts was used to validate and extend the taxonomies. The taxonomies have also been used to extract system connectivity (interaction) models and functions from requirements text. Now the Reconciler semantic search tool and the taxonomies are being applied to improve search in the Space Shuttle PRACA database, to discover recurring patterns of failure. Usual methods of string search and keyword search fall short because the entries are terse and have numerous shortcuts (irregular abbreviations, nonstandard acronyms, cryptic codes) and modifier words cannot be used in sentence context to refine the search. The limited and fixed FMEA categories associated with the entries do not make the fine distinctions needed in the search. The approach assigns PRACA report titles to problem classes in

  2. Building the Layers of a New Manufacturing Taxonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapetaniou, Chrystalla; Rieple, Alison; Pilkington, Alan

    2017-01-01

    Recent innovations in 3D printing technologies and processes have influenced how products are designed, built and delivered. However, there is a significant gap in our knowledge of how 3D printing is impacting on manufacturing eco-systems within different industries and contexts. Drawing...... inspiration from earlier manufacturing taxonomies as well as the competitive dynamics literature which provides insights into industries' moves from straightforwardly rivalrous frameworks, through competitive-cooperative exemplars, into the more recent relational-based competition. Basing our analysis...... on a systematic review of organisations' use of 3D printing, we develop a new taxonomy explaining the many areas the technology can impact. In addition to offering a comprehensive framework to conceptualise the impact of 3D printing, we emphasise the role of users in co-creation and personalisation. While 3D...

  3. Multiplex versus multiple taxonomy of paraphilia: case example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehne, Gregory K; Money, John

    2003-01-01

    Several different paraphilias are presently diagnosed in some individuals whereas a more parsimonious taxonomy would be that of one multiplex paraphilia. A multiplex paraphilia may be expressed by variations of content at different times in an individual's life or in different situations. The present case example shows the unfolding of a multiplex paraphilia over a lifetime. At age 7 the subject was dressed in public as a girl wearing a diaper as a humiliation for bed-wetting. This experience had 3 paraphilic components that were separately manifested at different times in his life: fetishistic transvestism, pedophilic incest, and infantilism. A multiplex paraphilia taxonomy may lead to improved identification of etiology, prognosis, and treatment of paraphilia.

  4. Taxonomy and conservation of Philippine Cycads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madulid, D.A.; Agoo, E.M.G.

    2009-01-01

    Six species of cycads are recorded in the Philippines, three of which are endemic. The different species of cycads can be recognized by the characters of the microsporophylls, megasporophylls, and seeds. The current conservation status of the different species of Cycas is assessed and categorized

  5. A new occurrence of Anodontites tenebricosus (Bivalvia: Mycetopodidae in the Sapucaí river basin, São Paulo, Brazil: environmental and conchological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EK. Troncon

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to register the occurrence of Anodontites tenebricosus (Bivalvia: Mycetopodidae in the Sapucaí river basin, municipality of São Joaquim da Barra, São Paulo state, Brazil, associating its occurrence to the environment in which they are found, besides providing conchological data to contribute to the identification of the species. Fifty one specimens of Anodontites tenebricosus were studied regarding their conchological and morphometrical aspects. Strong correlations were found between the morphometric variables, the correlation between 'length and height of the shell' being the most significant. The characteristics of the shells of A. tenebricosus found in the Sapucaí river basin resemble the descriptions of the species found in the literature; therefore, we are able to expand the area of occurrence of the species for the state of São Paulo.

  6. A new occurrence of Anodontites tenebricosus (Bivalvia: Mycetopodidae) in the Sapucaí river basin, São Paulo, Brazil: environmental and conchological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troncon, E K; Avelar, W E P

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this work was to register the occurrence of Anodontites tenebricosus (Bivalvia: Mycetopodidae) in the Sapucaí river basin, municipality of São Joaquim da Barra, São Paulo state, Brazil, associating its occurrence to the environment in which they are found, besides providing conchological data to contribute to the identification of the species. Fifty one specimens of Anodontites tenebricosus were studied regarding their conchological and morphometrical aspects. Strong correlations were found between the morphometric variables, the correlation between 'length and height of the shell' being the most significant. The characteristics of the shells of A. tenebricosus found in the Sapucaí river basin resemble the descriptions of the species found in the literature; therefore, we are able to expand the area of occurrence of the species for the state of São Paulo.

  7. A hierarchical causal taxonomy of psychopathology across the life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahey, Benjamin B; Krueger, Robert F; Rathouz, Paul J; Waldman, Irwin D; Zald, David H

    2017-02-01

    We propose a taxonomy of psychopathology based on patterns of shared causal influences identified in a review of multivariate behavior genetic studies that distinguish genetic and environmental influences that are either common to multiple dimensions of psychopathology or unique to each dimension. At the phenotypic level, first-order dimensions are defined by correlations among symptoms; correlations among first-order dimensions similarly define higher-order domains (e.g., internalizing or externalizing psychopathology). We hypothesize that the robust phenotypic correlations among first-order dimensions reflect a hierarchy of increasingly specific etiologic influences . Some nonspecific etiologic factors increase risk for all first-order dimensions of psychopathology to varying degrees through a general factor of psychopathology. Other nonspecific etiologic factors increase risk only for all first-order dimensions within a more specific higher-order domain. Furthermore, each first-order dimension has its own unique causal influences. Genetic and environmental influences common to family members tend to be nonspecific, whereas environmental influences unique to each individual are more dimension-specific. We posit that these causal influences on psychopathology are moderated by sex and developmental processes. This causal taxonomy also provides a novel framework for understanding the heterogeneity of each first-order dimension: Different persons exhibiting similar symptoms may be influenced by different combinations of etiologic influences from each of the 3 levels of the etiologic hierarchy. Furthermore, we relate the proposed causal taxonomy to transdimensional psychobiological processes, which also impact the heterogeneity of each psychopathology dimension. This causal taxonomy implies the need for changes in strategies for studying the etiology, psychobiology, prevention, and treatment of psychopathology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights

  8. A Taxonomy for Insourcing in the Aerospace Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    1 A TAXONOMY FOR INSOURCING IN THE AEROSPACE INDUSTRY Chapter 1 Introduction A 2010 study by Forbes and Lederman ...trying to attract new business (Forbes and Lederman 2010). If insourcing is better when adaptability, flexibility, and cost are needed; why do...May 2011. Forbes, Silke, and Mara Lederman . “Does Vertical Integration Affect Firm ? Evidence from the Airline Industry,” Rand Journal of

  9. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Mishap Taxonomy for Range Safety Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Safety Group Published by Secretariat Range Commanders Council White Sands Missile Range New Mexico 88002-5100 This page...gear failure to deploy  Tail damage due to the vehicle’s sudden stop and backwards tilt on an inclined taxiway In one instance, runway operations... Technology . (19 March 2007.):44. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Mishap Taxonomy for Range Safety Reviews, RCC 326-16, February 2016 6-4 This page intentionally

  10. A Hierarchical Causal Taxonomy of Psychopathology across the Life Span

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahey, Benjamin B.; Krueger, Robert F.; Rathouz, Paul J.; Waldman, Irwin D.; Zald, David H.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a taxonomy of psychopathology based on patterns of shared causal influences identified in a review of multivariate behavior genetic studies that distinguish genetic and environmental influences that are either common to multiple dimensions of psychopathology or unique to each dimension. At the phenotypic level, first-order dimensions are defined by correlations among symptoms; correlations among first-order dimensions similarly define higher-order domains (e.g., internalizing or externalizing psychopathology). We hypothesize that the robust phenotypic correlations among first-order dimensions reflect a hierarchy of increasingly specific etiologic influences. Some nonspecific etiologic factors increase risk for all first-order dimensions of psychopathology to varying degrees through a general factor of psychopathology. Other nonspecific etiologic factors increase risk only for all first-order dimensions within a more specific higher-order domain. Furthermore, each first-order dimension has its own unique causal influences. Genetic and environmental influences common to family members tend to be nonspecific, whereas environmental influences unique to each individual are more dimension-specific. We posit that these causal influences on psychopathology are moderated by sex and developmental processes. This causal taxonomy also provides a novel framework for understanding the heterogeneity of each first-order dimension: Different persons exhibiting similar symptoms may be influenced by different combinations of etiologic influences from each of the three levels of the etiologic hierarchy. Furthermore, we relate the proposed causal taxonomy to transdimensional psychobiological processes, which also impact the heterogeneity of each psychopathology dimension. This causal taxonomy implies the need for changes in strategies for studying the etiology, psychobiology, prevention, and treatment of psychopathology. PMID:28004947

  11. Taxonomy of the genus Arachis (Leguminosae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Krapovickas

    2007-01-01

    the ideas presented. It is evident that the genetic distances separating the sections are far from being of the same magnitude. The presumably older sections (Triseminatae, Trierectoides, Erectoides, Extranervosae and Heteranthae, except for section Erectoides, are much more isolated from the remaining sections and from each other than those taken to be of more recent origin (Procumbentes, Caulorrhizae, Rhizomatosae and Arachis. Section Arachis is by far the largest, containing about 40% of the species described. Species of this section appear to be spreading into new territory and to be invading areas occupied by species of other sections. They grow intermixed with populations of Extranervosae in the upper Paraguay basin and occupy common ground with section Procumbentes in the Gran Pantanal. They have reached the shores of La Plata and the southeastern coast of Brazil and grow from Yala in NW Argentina to the Tocantins in NE Brazil. They include the worldwide cultivar, A. hypogaea. Essentially every published work on the botanical history and taxonomy of Arachis is presented here in the individual specimen references and in the general bibliography. The history of A. hypogaeafrom the early 16th Century to more recent times, along with the common names in several native American languages, provide a perspective on the antiquity of this cultivar and the level of civilization required for its creation. Six appendices provide supporting data and matters of record. Diagnostic keys to the sections and to the species within each section select the more sharply distinguishing characteristics of the sections and species. Nineteen line drawings capture the sectional and species structures of whole plants, root systems, fruit orientations, agametic reproductions from fruiting structures, carpel shapes and surface features of leaves and stems.

  12. A taxonomy of dignity: a grounded theory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobson Nora

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper has its origins in Jonathan Mann's insight that the experience of dignity may explain the reciprocal relationships between health and human rights. It follows his call for a taxonomy of dignity: "a coherent vocabulary and framework to characterize dignity." Methods Grounded theory procedures were use to analyze literature pertaining to dignity and to conduct and analyze 64 semi-structured interviews with persons marginalized by their health or social status, individuals who provide health or social services to these populations, and people working in the field of health and human rights. Results The taxonomy presented identifies two main forms of dignity–human dignity and social dignity–and describes several elements of these forms, including the social processes that violate or promote them, the conditions under which such violations and promotions occur, the objects of violation and promotion, and the consequences of dignity violation. Together, these forms and elements point to a theory of dignity as a quality of individuals and collectives that is constituted through interaction and interpretation and structured by conditions pertaining to actors, relationships, settings, and the broader social order. Conclusion The taxonomy has several implications for work in health and human rights. It suggests a map to possible points of intervention and provides a language in which to talk about dignity.

  13. Scientific Teaching: Defining a Taxonomy of Observable Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, Brian A.; Brown, Tanya L.; Schelpat, Tyler J.; Graham, Mark J.; Knight, Jennifer K.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past several decades, numerous reports have been published advocating for changes to undergraduate science education. These national calls inspired the formation of the National Academies Summer Institutes on Undergraduate Education in Biology (SI), a group of regional workshops to help faculty members learn and implement interactive teaching methods. The SI curriculum promotes a pedagogical framework called Scientific Teaching (ST), which aims to bring the vitality of modern research into the classroom by engaging students in the scientific discovery process and using student data to inform the ongoing development of teaching methods. With the spread of ST, the need emerges to systematically define its components in order to establish a common description for education researchers and practitioners. We describe the development of a taxonomy detailing ST’s core elements and provide data from classroom observations and faculty surveys in support of its applicability within undergraduate science courses. The final taxonomy consists of 15 pedagogical goals and 37 supporting practices, specifying observable behaviors, artifacts, and features associated with ST. This taxonomy will support future educational efforts by providing a framework for researchers studying the processes and outcomes of ST-based course transformations as well as a concise guide for faculty members developing classes. PMID:25713097

  14. UNIFIED TAXONOMY OF COMPETENCES FOR VERIFICATION OF STUDENT'S SKILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragica Pešaković

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Skills, which students have to manage, are divided on a lower and higher taxonomic (»competent« level, which allows differentiation and individualization in the lessons. It also allows easier monitoring and verifying of skills. The combination of taxonomies in all three fields, cognitive, affective and psychomotor has been searched and combined in competent taxonomic levels, which allows development and verification of student's skills on a lower and higher taxonomic level. Special attention was on verification and assessment of student's knowledge, where it can be found out once more that the greatest emphasis is on the knowledge, whereas skills are put in the background. Derived from introduced taxonomies, Bloom's cognitive and affective and Dave's and Simpson's psychomotor the lower and higher competent taxonomic level were defined and unified taxonomy of competences was developed. The paraphernalia was made, which allows monitoring and evaluating of student's skills on cognitive, affective and psychomotor field at technical subjects. Paraphernalia is transferable also on those fields of education, where student's skills are important.

  15. Pragmatic Strategies and Linguistic Structures in Making ‘Suggestions’: Towards Comprehensive Taxonomies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Abolfathiasl

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses and upgrades taxonomies of strategies and structures for the speech act of suggesting based on existing taxonomies and classifications in the pragmatics research literature. Previous studies have focused mainly on linguistic structures used to perform the speech act of suggesting. Thus, there seems to be a need to provide a more comprehensive set of taxonomies for structures as well as strategies that can be used in EFL/ESL classrooms and for research on the speech act of suggesting. To this end, the speech act of suggesting is defined first and the features of this speech act are discussed. Second, the most recent classifications proposed for structures and linguistic realization strategies for suggestions were analysed and contrasted and a more comprehensive taxonomy of structures and linguistic realization strategies is provided, based on previous taxonomies. Finally, taxonomy of politeness strategies in making suggestions are provided, based on recent studies in cross-cultural pragmatics research.

  16. Developing genome-wide microsatellite markers of bamboo and their applications on molecular marker assisted taxonomy for accessions in the genus Phyllostachys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hansheng; Yang, Li; Peng, Zhenhua; Sun, Huayu; Yue, Xianghua; Lou, Yongfeng; Dong, Lili; Wang, Lili; Gao, Zhimin

    2015-01-26

    Morphology-based taxonomy via exiguously reproductive organ has severely limitation on bamboo taxonomy, mainly owing to infrequent and unpredictable flowering events of bamboo. Here, we present the first genome-wide analysis and application of microsatellites based on the genome of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) to assist bamboo taxonomy. Of identified 127,593 microsatellite repeat-motifs, the primers of 1,451 microsatellites were designed and 1,098 markers were physically mapped on the genome of moso bamboo. A total of 917 markers were successfully validated in 9 accessions with ~39.8% polymorphic potential. Retrieved from validated microsatellite markers, 23 markers were selected for polymorphic analysis among 78 accessions and 64 alleles were detected with an average of 2.78 alleles per primers. The cluster result indicated the majority of the accessions were consistent with their current taxonomic classification, confirming the suitability and effectiveness of the developed microsatellite markers. The variations of microsatellite marker in different species were confirmed by sequencing and in silico comparative genome mapping were investigated. Lastly, a bamboo microsatellites database (http://www.bamboogdb.org/ssr) was implemented to browse and search large information of bamboo microsatellites. Consequently, our results of microsatellite marker development are valuable for assisting bamboo taxonomy and investigating genomic studies in bamboo and related grass species.

  17. Microbial taxonomy in the post-genomic era: Rebuilding from scratch?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Cristiane C. [Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) (Brazil); Amaral, Gilda R. [Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) (Brazil); Campeão, Mariana [Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) (Brazil); Edwards, Robert A. [Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) (Brazil); San Diego State Univ., CA (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Polz, Martin F. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Dutilh, Bas E. [Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) (Brazil); Radbould Univ., Nijmegen (Netherlands); Ussery, David W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sawabe, Tomoo [Hokkaido Univ., Hakodate (Japan); Swings, Jean [Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) (Brazil); Ghent Univ. (Belgium); Thompson, Fabiano L. [Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) (Brazil); Advanced Systems Laboratory Production Management COPPE / UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2014-12-23

    Microbial taxonomy should provide adequate descriptions of bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic microbial diversity in ecological, clinical, and industrial environments. We re-evaluated the prokaryote species twice. It is time to revisit polyphasic taxonomy, its principles, and its practice, including its underlying pragmatic species concept. We will be able to realize an old dream of our predecessor taxonomists and build a genomic-based microbial taxonomy, using standardized and automated curation of high-quality complete genome sequences as the new gold standard.

  18. Reestablecimiento de Choromytilus chorus (Molina, 1782 (Bivalvia: Mytilidae en el norte de Chile Reestablishment of Choromytilus chorus (Molina, 1782 (Bivalvia: Mytilidae in northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Avendaño

    2011-07-01

    later extended to the Tarapaca region. Thus, we hypothesize that the dynamics of these shoals correspond to a metapopulation structure that has allowed larval advection, given the current system and predominant winds in the northern zone, from populations existing in the Coquimbo region.

  19. Orobanche lutea Baumg. (Orobanchaceae in Poland: revised distribution, taxonomy, phytocoenological and host relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piwowarczyk Renata

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents current distribution of Orobanche lutea Baumg. in Poland based on a critical revision of herbarium and literature data as well as results of field investigations conducted between 1999-2014. Majority of localities are centred around the Silesia-Cracow, Małopolska and Lublin-Lviv Uplands. The greatest density of sites with probably the most abundant populations in Europe is in the central part of Silesia-Cracow Upland, which, by several hundred years, was heavily exploited for calamine mining (rich in zinc, lead and silver. This resulted in the formation of large areas of gangue containing toxic heavy metals. Since limestone, dolomite, marl and postglacial calcareous clay and sands occur there in most places, the soil is often strongly calcareous. Populations of O. lutea contain here many thousands of shoots. The distribution of the species in Poland is mapped. The taxonomy, biology, ecology and threats are also discussed.

  20. Reads2Type: a web application for rapid microbial taxonomy identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saputra, Dhany; Rasmussen, Simon; Larsen, Mette Voldby

    2015-01-01

    genome of microbial isolates. Therefore we have developed Reads2Type, a web-based tool for taxonomy identification based on whole bacterial genome sequence data. Raw sequencing data provided by the user are mapped against a set of marker probes that are derived from currently available bacteria complete......, as the entire computational analysis is done on the computer of whom utilizes the web application. This also prevents data privacy issues to arise. The Reads2Type tool is available at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/~dhany/reads2type.html ....... genomes. Using a dataset of 1003 whole genome sequenced bacteria from various sequencing platforms, Reads2Type was able to identify the species with 99.5 % accuracy and on the minutes time scale. In comparison with other tools, Reads2Type offers the advantage of not needing to transfer sequencing files...

  1. Technology and Bloom's Taxonomy: Tools to Facilitate Higher-Level Learning in Chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morgan, Matthew

    1997-01-01

    This research project ties together chemistry data acquisition technology, introductory chemistry laboratory experiments, and Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives into a unified learning model...

  2. An examination of geographic patterns of soil climate and its classification in the U.S. system of soil taxonomy

    OpenAIRE

    Winzeler, Hans Edwin

    2016-01-01

    Soil climate, the record of temporal patterns of soil moisture and temperature, is an important component of the structure of U.S. Soil Taxonomy. The U.S. Soil Survey has used the Newhall Simulation Model (NSM) for estimating soil climate from atmospheric climate records at weather stations since the 1970s. The current soil climate map of the U.S. was published in 1994 by using NSM runs from selected weather stations along with knowledge-based hand-drawn mapping procedures. We developed a rev...

  3. Scientific teaching: defining a taxonomy of observable practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, Brian A; Brown, Tanya L; Schelpat, Tyler J; Graham, Mark J; Knight, Jennifer K

    2015-03-02

    Over the past several decades, numerous reports have been published advocating for changes to undergraduate science education. These national calls inspired the formation of the National Academies Summer Institutes on Undergraduate Education in Biology (SI), a group of regional workshops to help faculty members learn and implement interactive teaching methods. The SI curriculum promotes a pedagogical framework called Scientific Teaching (ST), which aims to bring the vitality of modern research into the classroom by engaging students in the scientific discovery process and using student data to inform the ongoing development of teaching methods. With the spread of ST, the need emerges to systematically define its components in order to establish a common description for education researchers and practitioners. We describe the development of a taxonomy detailing ST's core elements and provide data from classroom observations and faculty surveys in support of its applicability within undergraduate science courses. The final taxonomy consists of 15 pedagogical goals and 37 supporting practices, specifying observable behaviors, artifacts, and features associated with ST. This taxonomy will support future educational efforts by providing a framework for researchers studying the processes and outcomes of ST-based course transformations as well as a concise guide for faculty members developing classes. © 2015 B. A. Couch et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2015 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  4. On the taxonomy and morphology of Leuthneria ruficincta (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbunov, Oleg G

    2017-03-17

    In this paper I place the type species Eublepharis ruficincta Felder et Felder, 1874 presently assigned to the genus Leuthneria Dalla Torre, 1925 to the genus Melittia Hübner, 1819 ["1816"]. The adults and the male genitalia Melittia ruficincta (Felder et Felder, 1874) comb. rev. are described and illustrated. The taxonomy of the genera Eublepharis Felder et Felder, 1874 and Leuthneria Dalla Torre, 1925 is discussed. Both genera are synonymized under the genus Melittia Hübner, 1819 ["1816"]. New distribution records from Ethiopia and Kenya for Melittia ruficincta are presented.

  5. [Soil taxonomy on the basis of reflectance spectral characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan-Jun; Zhang, Bai; Zhang, Yuan-Zhi; Song, Kai-Shan; Wang, Zong-Ming; Li, Fang; Hu, Mao-Gui

    2008-03-01

    Soil spectral reflectance is the comprehensive representation of soil physical and chemical parameters, and its study is the physical basis for soil remote sensing and provides a new way and standard for soil properties themselves' research. Soil room spectra significantly correlate with that derived from hyperspectral images. So the room spectra are very important for soil taxonomy and investigation. To seek for the feasibility of soil taxonomy on the basis of topsoil reflectance spectral characteristics, and provide the theory foundation for quick soil taxonomy based on remote sensing methods, the spectral reflectance in the visible and near infrared region (400-2 500 nm) of 248 soil samples (black soil, chernozem, meadow soil, blown soil, alluvial soil) collected from Nongan county, Jilin province was measured with a hyperspectral device in room, and the soil spectral characteristics were determined with continuum removal method, and soil spectral indices (spectral absorption area, depth and asymmetry) were computed, which were introduced into BP network models as external input variables. The models consist of three layers (input, output and hidden layer), the training function is "TRAINLM", learning function "LEARNGDM", and transferring function "TAN SIG". The results showed that: (1) There are some differences among different soils in their spectral characteristics, but with similar parental matrix and climate, the spectral differences of soils in Nongan county are not significant. So it's difficult to analyze soil spectral characteristics based on soil reflectance. (2) The curves after continuum removal strengthened soil spectral absorption characteristics, and simplified soil spectral analysis. The soil spectral curves in Nongan county mainly have five spectral absorption vales at 494, 658, 1 415, 1 913 and 2 206 nm, and the former two vales are caused by soil organic matter, Fe and mechanical composition, the latter three are due to soil moisture; the

  6. A Nonmetric Scaling Approach To Taxonomies Of Employee Work Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronen, S; Kraut, A I; Lingoes, J C; Aranya, N

    1979-10-01

    A nonmetric scaling method was used to test several taxonomies of work motivation. The intercorrelations among the importance ratings of 14 work goals, made by 800 salesmen and 1,800 repairmen were analyzed. A two-space solution was deemed adequate to reflect both the empirical and theoretical interrelationships among the variables. These results were consistent with an intrinsic-extrinsic grouping of the variables, but more complex relationships of motivational variables were also revealed. In particular, Alderfer's tripartite classification and Maslow's five-fold hierarchy were strongly supported by the smallest space analyses for both salesmen and repairmen.

  7. Problem Reporting Taxonomy and Data Preparation Tool Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beil, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    A member of the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Systems Engineering Office (SEO) Technical Discipline Team (TDT) requested a SEO-managed activity to perform a gap analysis on the proposed NASA Standard 0006, "Common NASA Taxonomy for Problem Reporting, Analysis, and Resolution", and to create an input filter and set of instructions for using the data-mining/data-cleansing tool TechOasis1 with Space Shuttle Program (SSP) problem reporting data. The work that achieved these objectives and deployment of TechOasis are discussed in this report.

  8. Penetration Testing Professional Ethics: a conceptual model and taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Pierce

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In an environment where commercial software is continually patched to correct security flaws, penetration testing can provide organisations with a realistic assessment of their security posture. Penetration testing uses the same principles as criminal hackers to penetrate corporate networks and thereby verify the presence of software vulnerabilities. Network administrators can use the results of a penetration test to correct flaws and improve overall security. The use of hacking techniques, however, raises several ethical questions that centre on the integrity of the tester to maintain professional distance and uphold the profession. This paper discusses the ethics of penetration testing and presents our conceptual model and revised taxonomy.

  9. License - Taxonomy Icon | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us Taxonomy Icon License License to Use This Database Last updated : 2013/3/21 You may use this database...the license terms regarding the use of this database and the requirements you must follow in using this database.... The license for this database is specified in the Creative Commons Attribut...ion 2.1 Japan . If you use data from this database, please be sure attribute this database as follows: Taxon...ative Commons Attribution 2.1 Japan is found here . With regard to this database,

  10. A polyphasic taxonomy of Daldinia (Xylariaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Marc; Læssøe, Thomas; Fournier, Jacques; Decock, Cony; Schmieschek, Beata; Tichy, Hans-Volker; Peršoh, Derek

    2014-03-15

    . A preliminary molecular phylogeny based on 5.8S/ITS nrDNA including numerous representatives of all hitherto described taxa for which cultures are extant, was found basically in agreement with the above mentioned segregation of the genus, based on morphological and chemotaxonomic evidence. In the rDNA based phylogenetic tree, Daldinia appears clearly distinct from members of the genera Annulohypoxylon and Hypoxylon; nevertheless, representatives of small genera of predominantly tropical origin (Entonaema, Phylacia, Ruwenzoria, Rhopalostroma, Thamnomyces) appear to have evolved from daldinioid ancestors and are nested inside the Daldinia clade. Interestingly, these findings correlate with chemotaxonomic characters to a great extent, especially regarding the distribution of marker metabolites in their mycelial cultures. Hence, the current study revealed for the first time that fungal secondary metabolite profiles can have taxonomic value beyond the species rank and even coincide with phylogenetic data. Daldinia andina sp. nov., D. australis sp. nov., D. hausknechtii sp. nov., D. rehmii sp. nov., D. starbaeckii sp. nov., D. theissenii sp. nov., D. cahuchosa comb. nov., D. nemorosa comb. nov.

  11. A polyphasic taxonomy of Daldinia (Xylariaceae)1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Marc; Læssøe, Thomas; Fournier, Jacques; Decock, Cony; Schmieschek, Beata; Tichy, Hans-Volker; Peršoh, Derek

    2014-01-01

    . A preliminary molecular phylogeny based on 5.8S/ITS nrDNA including numerous representatives of all hitherto described taxa for which cultures are extant, was found basically in agreement with the above mentioned segregation of the genus, based on morphological and chemotaxonomic evidence. In the rDNA based phylogenetic tree, Daldinia appears clearly distinct from members of the genera Annulohypoxylon and Hypoxylon; nevertheless, representatives of small genera of predominantly tropical origin (Entonaema, Phylacia, Ruwenzoria, Rhopalostroma, Thamnomyces) appear to have evolved from daldinioid ancestors and are nested inside the Daldinia clade. Interestingly, these findings correlate with chemotaxonomic characters to a great extent, especially regarding the distribution of marker metabolites in their mycelial cultures. Hence, the current study revealed for the first time that fungal secondary metabolite profiles can have taxonomic value beyond the species rank and even coincide with phylogenetic data. Taxonomic novelties: Daldinia andina sp. nov., D. australis sp. nov., D. hausknechtii sp. nov., D. rehmii sp. nov., D. starbaeckii sp. nov., D. theissenii sp. nov., D. cahuchosa comb. nov., D. nemorosa comb. nov. PMID:24790283

  12. Towards a taxonomy of common factors in psychotherapy-results of an expert survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschacher, Wolfgang; Junghan, Ulrich Martin; Pfammatter, Mario

    2014-01-01

    How change comes about is hotly debated in psychotherapy research. One camp considers 'non-specific' or 'common factors', shared by different therapy approaches, as essential, whereas researchers of the other camp consider specific techniques as the essential ingredients of change. This controversy, however, suffers from unclear terminology and logical inconsistencies. The Taxonomy Project therefore aims at contributing to the definition and conceptualization of common factors of psychotherapy by analyzing their differential associations to standard techniques. A review identified 22 common factors discussed in psychotherapy research literature. We conducted a survey, in which 68 psychotherapy experts assessed how common factors are implemented by specific techniques. Using hierarchical linear models, we predicted each common factor by techniques and by experts' age, gender and allegiance to a therapy orientation. Common factors differed largely in their relevance for technique implementation. Patient engagement, Affective experiencing and Therapeutic alliance were judged most relevant. Common factors also differed with respect to how well they could be explained by the set of techniques. We present detailed profiles of all common factors by the (positively or negatively) associated techniques. There were indications of a biased taxonomy not covering the embodiment of psychotherapy (expressed by body-centred techniques such as progressive muscle relaxation, biofeedback training and hypnosis). Likewise, common factors did not adequately represent effective psychodynamic and systemic techniques. This taxonomic endeavour is a step towards a clarification of important core constructs of psychotherapy. This article relates standard techniques of psychotherapy (well known to practising therapists) to the change factors/change mechanisms discussed in psychotherapy theory. It gives a short review of the current debate on the mechanisms by which psychotherapy works. We

  13. An empirically-derived taxonomy of interaction primitives for interactive cartography and geovisualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Robert E

    2013-12-01

    Proposals to establish a 'science of interaction' have been forwarded from Information Visualization and Visual Analytics, as well as Cartography, Geovisualization, and GIScience. This paper reports on two studies to contribute to this call for an interaction science, with the goal of developing a functional taxonomy of interaction primitives for map-based visualization. A semi-structured interview study first was conducted with 21 expert interactive map users to understand the way in which map-based visualizations currently are employed. The interviews were transcribed and coded to identify statements representative of either the task the user wished to accomplish (i.e., objective primitives) or the interactive functionality included in the visualization to achieve this task (i.e., operator primitives). A card sorting study then was conducted with 15 expert interactive map designers to organize these example statements into logical structures based on their experience translating client requests into interaction designs. Example statements were supplemented with primitive definitions in the literature and were separated into two sorting exercises: objectives and operators. The objective sort suggested five objectives that increase in cognitive sophistication (identify, compare, rank, associate, & delineate), but exhibited a large amount of variation across participants due to consideration of broader user goals (procure, predict, & prescribe) and interaction operands (space-alone, attributes-in-space, & space-in-time; elementary & general). The operator sort suggested five enabling operators (import, export, save, edit, & annotate) and twelve work operators (reexpress, arrange, sequence, resymbolize, overlay, pan, zoom, reproject, search, filter, retrieve, & calculate). This taxonomy offers an empirically-derived and ecologically-valid structure to inform future research and design on interaction.

  14. Bioinformatics strategies for taxonomy independent binning and visualization of sequences in shotgun metagenomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Sedlar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of main steps in a study of microbial communities is resolving their composition, diversity and function. In the past, these issues were mostly addressed by the use of amplicon sequencing of a target gene because of reasonable price and easier computational postprocessing of the bioinformatic data. With the advancement of sequencing techniques, the main focus shifted to the whole metagenome shotgun sequencing, which allows much more detailed analysis of the metagenomic data, including reconstruction of novel microbial genomes and to gain knowledge about genetic potential and metabolic capacities of whole environments. On the other hand, the output of whole metagenomic shotgun sequencing is mixture of short DNA fragments belonging to various genomes, therefore this approach requires more sophisticated computational algorithms for clustering of related sequences, commonly referred to as sequence binning. There are currently two types of binning methods: taxonomy dependent and taxonomy independent. The first type classifies the DNA fragments by performing a standard homology inference against a reference database, while the latter performs the reference-free binning by applying clustering techniques on features extracted from the sequences. In this review, we describe the strategies within the second approach. Although these strategies do not require prior knowledge, they have higher demands on the length of sequences. Besides their basic principle, an overview of particular methods and tools is provided. Furthermore, the review covers the utilization of the methods in context with the length of sequences and discusses the needs for metagenomic data preprocessing in form of initial assembly prior to binning.

  15. Phylogeny and taxonomy of the scab and spot anthracnose fungus Elsinoë (Myriangiales, Dothideomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, X L; Barreto, R W; Groenewald, J Z; Bezerra, J D P; Pereira, O L; Cheewangkoon, R; Mostert, L; Tian, C M; Crous, P W

    2017-06-01

    Species of Elsinoë are phytopathogens causing scab and spot anthracnose on many plants, including some economically important crops such as avocado, citrus, grapevines, and ornamentals such as poinsettias, field crops and woody hosts. Disease symptoms are often easily recognisable, and referred to as signature-bearing diseases, for the cork-like appearance of older infected tissues with scab-like appearance. In some Elsinoë -host associations the resulting symptoms are better described as spot anthracnose. Additionally the infected plants may also show mild to severe distortions of infected organs. Isolation of Elsinoë in pure culture can be very challenging and examination of specimens collected in the field is often frustrating because of the lack of fertile structures. Current criteria for species recognition and host specificity in Elsinoë are unclear due to overlapping morphological characteristics, and the lack of molecular and pathogenicity data. In the present study we revised the taxonomy of Elsinoë based on DNA sequence and morphological data derived from 119 isolates, representing 67 host genera from 17 countries, including 64 ex-type cultures. Combined analyses of ITS, LSU, rpb2 and TEF1-α DNA sequence data were used to reconstruct the backbone phylogeny of the genus Elsinoë . Based on the single nomenclature for fungi, 26 new combinations are proposed in Elsinoë for species that were originally described in Sphaceloma . A total of 13 species are epitypified with notes on their taxonomy and phylogeny. A further eight new species are introduced, leading to a total of 75 Elsinoë species supported by molecular data in the present study. For the most part species of Elsinoë appear to be host specific, although the majority of the species treated are known only from a few isolates, and further collections and pathogenicity studies will be required to reconfirm this conclusion.

  16. Taxonomy of the psychosocial consequences caused by the violence of persecution of ETA's network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin-Peña, Javier; Rodríguez-Carballeira, Alvaro; Escartín, Jordi; Porrúa, Clara; Olff, Miranda

    2011-01-01

    This paper delimits and analyzes the effects of the harassment perpetrated by ETA's terrorist network in the Basque Country. The aim was to provide a taxonomy of the consequences of psychological violence and to validate this taxonomy, by means of a content analysis of 37 testimonies of victims of

  17. A Faceted Taxonomy for Rating Student Bibliographies in an Online Information Literacy Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeder, Chris; Markey, Karen; Yakel, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This study measured the quality of student bibliographies through creation of a faceted taxonomy flexible and fine-grained enough to encompass the variety of online sources cited by today's students. The taxonomy was developed via interviews with faculty, iterative refinement of categories and scoring, and testing on example student…

  18. Developing a taxonomy of coordination behaviours in nuclear power plant control rooms during emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dunxing; Gao, Qin; Li, Zhizhong; Song, Fei; Ma, Liang

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to develop a taxonomy of coordination behaviours during emergencies in nuclear power plants (NPPs). We summarised basic coordination behaviours from literature in aviation, health care and nuclear field and identified coordination behaviours specific to the nuclear domain by interviewing and surveying control crew operators. The established taxonomy includes 7 workflow stages and 24 basic coordination behaviours. To evaluate the reliability and feasibility of the taxonomy, we analysed 12 videos of operators' training sessions by coding coordination behaviours with the taxonomy and the inter-rater reliability was acceptable. Further analysis of the frequency, the duration and the direction of the coordination behaviours revealed four coordination problems. This taxonomy provides a foundation of systematic observation of coordination behaviours among NPP crews, advances researchers' understanding of the coordination mechanism during emergencies in NPPs and facilitate the possibility to deepen the understanding of the relationships between coordination behaviours and team performance. Practitioner Summary: A taxonomy of coordination behaviours during emergencies in nuclear power plants was developed. Reliability and feasibility of the taxonomy was verified through the analysis of 12 training sessions. The taxonomy can serve as an observation system for analysis of coordination behaviours and help to identify coordination problems of control crews.

  19. A Preliminary Bloom's Taxonomy Assessment of End-of-Chapter Problems in Business School Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jennings B.; Carson, Charles M.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines textbook problems used in a sampling of some of the most common core courses found in schools of business to ascertain what level of learning, as defined by Bloom's Taxonomy, is required to provide a correct answer. A set of working definitions based on Bloom's Taxonomy (Bloom & Krathwohl, 1956) was developed for the six…

  20. Unpacking the Revised Bloom's Taxonomy: Developing Case-Based Learning Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkhoma, Mathews Zanda; Lam, Tri Khai; Sriratanaviriyakul, Narumon; Richardson, Joan; Kam, Booi; Lau, Kwok Hung

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose the use of case studies in teaching an undergraduate course of Internet for Business in class, based on the revised Bloom's taxonomy. The study provides the empirical evidence about the effect of case-based teaching method integrated the revised Bloom's taxonomy on students' incremental learning,…

  1. Climbing Bloom's Taxonomy Pyramid: Lessons from a Graduate Histology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Nikki B.; Hwang, Charles; Scott, Sara; Stallard, Stefanie; Purkiss, Joel; Hortsch, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Bloom's taxonomy was adopted to create a subject-specific scoring tool for histology multiple-choice questions (MCQs). This Bloom's Taxonomy Histology Tool (BTHT) was used to analyze teacher- and student-generated quiz and examination questions from a graduate level histology course. Multiple-choice questions using histological images were…

  2. Validity of a Taxonomy of Multiple-Choice Item-Writing Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haladyna, Thomas M.; Downing, Steven M.

    1989-01-01

    Results of 96 theoretical/empirical studies were reviewed to see if they support a taxonomy of 43 rules for writing multiple-choice test items. The taxonomy is the result of an analysis of 46 textbooks dealing with multiple-choice item writing. For nearly half of the rules, no research was found. (SLD)

  3. Self-Awareness and Personal Growth: Theory and Application of Bloom's Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugur, Hasan; Constantinescu, Petru-Madalin; Stevens, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Problem Statement: In this article, we summarize a group-based, self-development curriculum based on humanistic principles, framed by contemporary self-determination theory (SDT), and designed in accordance with Bloom's Taxonomy. The processes of awareness and integration are common to SDT and Bloom's Taxonomy, and to our knowledge, have not been…

  4. DNA Taxonomy - the Riddle of Oxychloë (Juncaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Kim Anker; Cilieborg, Malene Skovsted; Drábková, Lenka

    2005-01-01

    Recently, advocates of DNA taxonomy have complained that there is inadequate control of the taxonomy in databases such as GenBank. This is correct, but the uncertainty may be extended to the sequences themselves. The present study shows that as long as vouchers are available neither problem is fa...

  5. Taxonomy for Education and Training in Clinical Neuropsychology: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, Scott A; Cimino, Cynthia R; Stricker, Nikki H; Heffelfinger, Amy K; Gess, Jennifer L; Osborn, Katie E; Roper, Brad L

    2017-07-01

    Historically, the clinical neuropsychology training community has not clearly or consistently defined education or training opportunities. The lack of consistency has limited students' and trainees' ability to accurately assess and compare the intensity of neuropsychology-specific training provided by programs. To address these issues and produce greater 'truth in advertising' across programs, CNS, with SCN's Education Advisory Committee (EAC), ADECN, AITCN, and APPCN constructed a specialty-specific taxonomy, namely, the Taxonomy for Education and Training in Clinical Neuropsychology. The taxonomy provides consensus in the description of training offered by doctoral, internship, and postdoctoral programs, as well as at the post-licensure stage. Although the CNS approved the taxonomy in February 2015, many programs have not adopted its language. Increased awareness of the taxonomy and the reasons behind its development and structure, as well as its potential benefits, are warranted. In 2016, a working group of clinical neuropsychologists from the EAC and APPCN, all authors of this manuscript, was created and tasked with disseminating information about the taxonomy. Group members held regular conference calls, leading to the generation of this manuscript. This manuscript is the primary byproduct of the working group. Its purpose is to (1) outline the history behind the development of the taxonomy, (2) detail its structure and utility, (3) address the expected impact of its adoption, and (4) call for its adoption across training programs. This manuscript outlines the development and structure of the clinical neuropsychology taxonomy and addresses the need for its adoption across training programs.

  6. Taxonomy in biomedical resources of the Exclusive Economic Zone of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parulekar, A.H.

    stream_size 9 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Taxonomy_Environ_Biol_1990_49.pdf.txt stream_source_info Taxonomy_Environ_Biol_1990_49.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  7. Adaptability in the workplace: development of a taxonomy of adaptive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulakos, E D; Arad, S; Donovan, M A; Plamondon, K E

    2000-08-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop a taxonomy of adaptive job performance and examine the implications of this taxonomy for understanding, predicting, and training adaptive behavior in work settings. Two studies were conducted to address this issue. In Study 1, over 1,000 critical incidents from 21 different jobs were content analyzed to identify an 8-dimension taxonomy of adaptive performance. Study 2 reports the development and administration of an instrument, the Job Adaptability Inventory, that was used to empirically examine the proposed taxonomy in 24 different jobs. Exploratory factor analyses using data from 1,619 respondents supported the proposed 8-dimension taxonomy from Study 1. Subsequent confirmatory factor analyses on the remainder of the sample (n = 1,715) indicated a good fit for the 8-factor model. Results and implications are discussed.

  8. Integrative taxonomy: Where we are now, with a focus on the resolution of three tropical fruit fly species complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurate species delimitation underpins good taxonomy. Formalisation of integrative taxonomy in the last decade has provided a framework for using multidisciplinary data to increase rigor in species delimitation hypotheses. We address the state of integrative taxonomy by using an international proje...

  9. Taxonomy of Rhagoletis population associated with wild plums in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frias, Daniel; Alvina, Andres

    2000-01-01

    In South America, there are about fifteen Rhagoletis species that live in association with wild and cultivated Solanaceae host plants (Foote 1981, Frias 1992). The principal information on taxonomy for these species is the morphology of adults. Thus, in the genus Rhagoletis, in general, there is little information about immature stages especially on first and second larva instars (Steck et al. 1990, Carrol and Wharton 1989, Steck and Wharton 1988, Persson 1963, White and Elson-Harris 1992, Hernandez-Ortiz 1992, 1993, Frias et al. 1993). Presently, in Chile, there are 4 species associated with Solanaceae host plants. R. tomatis Foote and R. nova (Schiner) are associated with cultivated Solanaceae Lycopersicum esculentum Miller or cultivated tomatoes and Solanum muricatum Aiton or sweet cucumber respectively. R. conversa Bethes has two Solanum host plants, S. nigrum L. and S. tomatillo (Remy) Phil. F. (Frias et al. 1984). The host for R. penela Foote is unknown. Moreover, in the last few years, a population on wild plums of the Myrobalan variety (Rosaceae) was detected (Gonzalez 1989). At present, there is no information about the origin and taxonomy of this population. In this work, we have studied the morphology of eggs, three instar larvae, pupae and adults of this population associated with wild plums as well as aspects of its geographical distribution in Chile

  10. Phylogeny of the Pluteaceae (Agaricales, Basidiomycota): taxonomy and character evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justo, Alfredo; Vizzini, Alfredo; Minnis, Andrew M; Menolli, Nelson; Capelari, Marina; Rodríguez, Olivia; Malysheva, Ekaterina; Contu, Marco; Ghignone, Stefano; Hibbett, David S

    2011-01-01

    The phylogeny of the genera traditionally classified in the family Pluteaceae (Agaricales, Basidiomycota) was investigated using molecular data from nuclear ribosomal genes (nSSU, ITS, nLSU) and consequences for taxonomy and character evolution were evaluated. The genus Volvariella is polyphyletic, as most of its representatives fall outside the Pluteoid clade and shows affinities to some hygrophoroid genera (Camarophyllus, Cantharocybe). Volvariella gloiocephala and allies are placed in a different clade, which represents the sister group of Pluteus, and a new generic name, Volvopluteus, is proposed to accommodate these taxa. Characters such as basidiospore size and pileipellis structure can be used to separate Pluteus, Volvariella and Volvopluteus. The genus Pluteus is monophyletic and includes species with partial veil traditionally classified in the genus Chamaeota. The evolution of morphological features used in the infrageneric taxonomy of the genus, such as metuloid cystidia and pileipellis structure, was analyzed. Agreement between the molecular phylogeny and morphological subdivision of Pluteus is, generally speaking, good, though some rearrangements are necessary: (i) species with non-metuloid pleurocystidia and pileipellis as a cutis are placed either in sect. Celluloderma, together with the species characterized by a hymenidermal pipeipellis, or in sect. Pluteus, with the metuloid bearing species; (ii) subdivision of sect. Celluloderma according to the presence/absence of cystidioid elements in the pileipellis is not supported by molecular data. Copyright © 2010 The British Mycological Society. All rights reserved.

  11. SIFTS: Structure Integration with Function, Taxonomy and Sequences resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velankar, Sameer; Dana, José M.; Jacobsen, Julius; van Ginkel, Glen; Gane, Paul J.; Luo, Jie; Oldfield, Thomas J.; O’Donovan, Claire; Martin, Maria-Jesus; Kleywegt, Gerard J.

    2013-01-01

    The Structure Integration with Function, Taxonomy and Sequences resource (SIFTS; http://pdbe.org/sifts) is a close collaboration between the Protein Data Bank in Europe (PDBe) and UniProt. The two teams have developed a semi-automated process for maintaining up-to-date cross-reference information to UniProt entries, for all protein chains in the PDB entries present in the UniProt database. This process is carried out for every weekly PDB release and the information is stored in the SIFTS database. The SIFTS process includes cross-references to other biological resources such as Pfam, SCOP, CATH, GO, InterPro and the NCBI taxonomy database. The information is exported in XML format, one file for each PDB entry, and is made available by FTP. Many bioinformatics resources use SIFTS data to obtain cross-references between the PDB and other biological databases so as to provide their users with up-to-date information. PMID:23203869

  12. A taxonomy of surgeons' guiding behaviors in the operating room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaodong Phoenix; Williams, Reed G; Sanfey, Hilary A; Smink, Douglas S

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the nature and the intention of attending surgeons' guiding behaviors performed in the operating room (OR) in order to build taxonomy of OR guiding behavior. Nine attending surgeons and 8 surgical residents were invited to observe 8 prerecorded surgical cases from 4 common procedures and completed semistructured interviews. All video-based observations were videotaped. Thematic analysis was applied to identify surgeons' OR guiding behavior. Seven hundred eighty minutes of video-based observations with interviews were conducted. Sixteen types of OR guiding behaviors in 3 intention-based categories were identified: 3 of the 16 was "teaching" (18.75%), 8 of the 16 was "directing" (50%), and 5 of the 16 was "assisting" (31.25%). Surgeons' OR guiding behaviors were grounded in 3 behavioral intentions: teaching, directing, and assisting. This taxonomy of OR guiding behavior can be used as a basis for developing OR guiding strategy to improve residents' intraoperative competency, autonomy, and independence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Toward A Unifying Taxonomy and Definition for Meditation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan David Nash

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the well-documented concerns confronting scholarly discourse about meditation is the plethora of semantic constructs and the lack of a unified definition and taxonomy. In recent years there have been several notable attempts to formulate new lexicons in order to define and categorize meditation methods. While these constructs have been useful and have encountered varying degrees of acceptance, they have also been subject to misinterpretation and debate, leaving the field devoid of a consensual paradigm. This paper attempts to influence this ongoing discussion by proposing two new models which hold the potential for enhanced scientific reliability and acceptance. Regarding the quest for a universally acceptable taxonomy, we suggest a paradigm shift away from the fabrication of categories based exclusively on first-person perspectives. As an alternative, we propose a new taxonomic system based on a third-person paradigm borrowed, in part, from the psychological and cognitive sciences. With regard to the elusive definitional problem, we propose a model of meditation as a dynamic process composed of several related but distinct stages. The overall goal is to provide researchers with a reliable nomenclature with which to categorize and classify diverse meditation methods, and a conceptual framework which can provide direction for their research and a theoretical basis for their findings.

  14. A taxonomy for disease management: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Disease Management Taxonomy Writing Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumholz, Harlan M; Currie, Peter M; Riegel, Barbara; Phillips, Christopher O; Peterson, Eric D; Smith, Renee; Yancy, Clyde W; Faxon, David P

    2006-09-26

    Disease management has shown great promise as a means of reorganizing chronic care and optimizing patient outcomes. Nevertheless, disease management programs are widely heterogeneous and lack a shared definition of disease management, which limits our ability to compare and evaluate different programs. To address this problem, the American Heart Association's Disease Management Taxonomy Writing Group developed a system of classification that can be used both to categorize and compare disease management programs and to inform efforts to identify specific factors associated with effectiveness. The AHA Writing Group began with a conceptual model of disease management and its components and subsequently validated this model over a wide range of disease management programs. A systematic MEDLINE search was performed on the terms heart failure, diabetes, and depression, together with disease management, case management, and care management. The search encompassed articles published in English between 1987 and 2005. We then selected studies that incorporated (1) interventions designed to improve outcomes and/or reduce medical resource utilization in patients with heart failure, diabetes, or depression and (2) clearly defined protocols with at least 2 prespecified components traditionally associated with disease management. We analyzed the study protocols and used qualitative research methods to develop a disease management taxonomy with our conceptual model as the organizing framework. The final taxonomy includes the following 8 domains: (1) Patient population is characterized by risk status, demographic profile, and level of comorbidity. (2) Intervention recipient describes the primary targets of disease management intervention and includes patients and caregivers, physicians and allied healthcare providers, and healthcare delivery systems. (3) Intervention content delineates individual components, such as patient education, medication management, peer support, or some

  15. GROUP PSYCHOLOGICAL ABUSE: TAXONOMY AND SEVERITY OF ITS COMPONENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Rodríguez-Carballeira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to delimit group psychological abuse through a psychosocial approach. An operational definition of the phenomenon and a taxonomy of group psychological abuse strategies were proposed based on a review of the scientific literature. A panel of 31 experts in the area evaluated the content of the taxonomy and judged the severity of the strategies through a Delphi study. Group psychological abuse was defined by the application of abusive strategies, their continued duration, and their ultimate aim, i.e., subjugation of the individual. The taxonomy showed adequate content validity. Experts’ judgments allowed for hierarchically organizing the strategies based on their severity, being the most severe those directed to the emotional area. Operationalizing, classifying, and organizing the strategies hierarchically contributes to a better delimitation of the phenomenon, which is useful for both the academic and applied fields. Se diseñó un estudio con el propósito de delimitar el abuso psicológico en grupos desde una aproximación psicosocial. A partir de una revisión de la literatura científica, se propuso una definición del fenómeno y una taxonomía de las estrategias de abuso psicológico en grupos. Un panel de 31 expertos evaluó el contenido de la taxonomía y juzgó la severidad de las estrategias a través de un estudio Delphi. El abuso psicológico en grupos es definido por la aplicación de estrategias abusivas, su duración continuada y su objetivo último, el sometimiento del individuo. La taxonomía mostró una adecuada validez de contenido. El juicio de expertos permitió jerarquizar las estrategias en función de su severidad, siendo las más severas aquellas que inciden en el ámbito emocional. Operativizar, clasificar y jerarquizar las estrategias contribuye a una mejor delimitación del fenómeno, útil tanto en el campo académico como en el aplicado.

  16. A taxonomy and discussion of software attack technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Sheila B.; Stytz, Martin R.

    2005-03-01

    Software is a complex thing. It is not an engineering artifact that springs forth from a design by simply following software coding rules; creativity and the human element are at the heart of the process. Software development is part science, part art, and part craft. Design, architecture, and coding are equally important activities and in each of these activities, errors may be introduced that lead to security vulnerabilities. Therefore, inevitably, errors enter into the code. Some of these errors are discovered during testing; however, some are not. The best way to find security errors, whether they are introduced as part of the architecture development effort or coding effort, is to automate the security testing process to the maximum extent possible and add this class of tools to the tools available, which aids in the compilation process, testing, test analysis, and software distribution. Recent technological advances, improvements in computer-generated forces (CGFs), and results in research in information assurance and software protection indicate that we can build a semi-intelligent software security testing tool. However, before we can undertake the security testing automation effort, we must understand the scope of the required testing, the security failures that need to be uncovered during testing, and the characteristics of the failures. Therefore, we undertook the research reported in the paper, which is the development of a taxonomy and a discussion of software attacks generated from the point of view of the security tester with the goal of using the taxonomy to guide the development of the knowledge base for the automated security testing tool. The representation for attacks and threat cases yielded by this research captures the strategies, tactics, and other considerations that come into play during the planning and execution of attacks upon application software. The paper is organized as follows. Section one contains an introduction to our research

  17. DNA barcoding and traditional taxonomy: an integrated approach for biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Bhavisha P; Thaker, Vrinda S

    2017-07-01

    Biological diversity is depleting at an alarming rate. Additionally, a vast amount of biodiversity still remains undiscovered. Taxonomy has been serving the purpose of describing, naming, and classifying species for more than 250 years. DNA taxonomy and barcoding have accelerated the rate of this process, thereby providing a tool for conservation practice. DNA barcoding and traditional taxonomy have their own inherent merits and demerits. The synergistic use of both methods, in the form of integrative taxonomy, has the potential to contribute to biodiversity conservation in a pragmatic timeframe and overcome their individual drawbacks. In this review, we discuss the basics of both these methods of biological identification (traditional taxonomy and DNA barcoding), the technical advances in integrative taxonomy, and future trends. We also present a comprehensive compilation of published examples of integrative taxonomy that refer to nine topics within biodiversity conservation. Morphological and molecular species limits were observed to be congruent in ∼41% of the 58 source studies. The majority of the studies highlighted the description of cryptic diversity through the use of molecular data, whereas research areas like endemism, biological invasion, and threatened species were less discussed in the literature.

  18. Development and verification of a taxonomy of assessment metrics for surgical technical skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Connie C; DaRosa, Debra; Sullivan, Maura E; Meyerson, Shari; Yoshida, Ken; Korndorffer, James R

    2014-01-01

    To create and empirically verify a taxonomy of metrics for assessing surgical technical skills, and to determine which types of metrics, skills, settings, learners, models, and instruments were most commonly reported in the technical skills assessment literature. In 2011-2012, the authors used a rational analysis of existing and emerging metrics to create the taxonomy, and used PubMed to conduct a systematic literature review (2001-2011) to test the taxonomy's comprehensiveness and verifiability. Using 202 articles identified from the review, the authors classified metrics according to the taxonomy and coded data concerning their context and use. Frequencies (counts, percentages) were calculated for all variables. The taxonomy contained 12 objective and 4 subjective categories. Of 567 metrics identified in the literature, 520 (92%) were classified using the new taxonomy. Process metrics outnumbered outcome metrics by 8:1. The most frequent metrics were "time," "manual techniques" (objective and subjective), "errors," and "procedural steps." Only one new metric, "learning curve," emerged. Assessments of basic motor skills and skills germane to laparoscopic surgery dominated the literature. Novices, beginners, and intermediate learners were the most frequent subjects, and box trainers and virtual reality simulators were the most frequent models used for assessing performance. Metrics convey what is valued in human performance. This taxonomy provides a common nomenclature. It may help educators and researchers in procedurally oriented disciplines to use metrics more precisely and consistently. Future assessments should focus more on bedside tasks and open surgical procedures and should include more outcome metrics.

  19. MO-G-BRE-08: Taxonomy of Corrective Actions in Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutlief, S; Brown, D

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Various causal taxonomies have been developed for healthcare incidents and for radiation therapy in particular. The causal analysis of incidents leads to corrective actions which can also be organized into a taxonomy. Such a corrective action classification system would provide information about the situational context, the action type, and the leverage of the action in order to detect patterns in the corrective actions frequently employed in radiation therapy. It would also provide practical guidance to the radiation therapy community for determining the appropriateness and potential effectiveness of proposed corrective actions. Materials: A review of causal analysis reports and corrective action plans was conducted using the following sources: US NRC medical event reports, IAEA reports, ROSIS submissions, US Veterans Health Administration reports, and singleincident report sources. The corrective actions presented in the published sources were then mapped onto four corrective action taxonomy prototypes: role-based, safety-context-based, responsibility-based, and hierarchy of hazard control. The resulting corrective action taxonomy was then validated through use of the published sources. Results: The responsibility-based taxonomy and hierarchy of hazard taxonomy provided more intuitive and sensible categories than the role-based taxonomy or the safety-context taxonomy. The most frequent corrective actions were added safety barriers, training, process standardization, and development of a quality improvement program where one was lacking. Conclusion: Published corrective action statements in radiation therapy emphasize what to do more so than whom the recipient is or which process step is affected. The hierarchy of hazard taxonomy provides a suitable framework for radiation therapy and has the advantage of providing insight into the likelihood that a particular corrective action will mitigate the recurrence of the error it was meant to correct. This

  20. [Status of the taxonomy of Leishmania from the Mediterranean basin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradoni, L; Gramiccia, M; Pozio, E

    1984-12-01

    Isoenzyme analysis, carried out on some hundreds of Leishmania isolates from the Mediterranean basin by specialized identification Centres, has provided new data on the taxonomy of this parasite in the area. Three complexes of zymodemes have been identified: L. infantum s.l., L. tropica s.l. and L. major s.l. L. infantum is the agent of human and canine visceral leishmaniasis and it is distributed throughout the Mediterranean area. Furthermore, this parasite is the only responsible for human cutaneous leishmaniasis in Central-Western Europe, including Italy. The distribution of L. tropica, agent of urban, or anthroponotic, cutaneous leishmaniasis, appears to be very limited, being restricted to Middle East, Tunisia and Greece. On the other hand, L. major, which causes rural, or zoonotic, cutaneous leishmaniasis, is widespread throughout North Africa and Middle East. In some countries, such as Tunisia and Israel, leishmaniases are caused by all the three complexes.

  1. Taxonomy and antifungal susceptibility of clinically important Rasamsonia species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houbraken, J.; Giraud, S.; Meijer, M.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, Geosmithia argillacea has been increasingly reported in humans and animals and can be considered an emerging pathogen. The taxonomy of Geosmithia was recently studied, and Geosmithia argillacea and related species were transferred to the new genus Rasamsonia. The diversity among...... the presence of four species in the Rasamsonia argillacea complex, two of which are newly described here: R. piperina sp. nov. and R. aegroticola sp. nov. In contrast to other related genera, all Rasamsonia species can be identified with ITS sequences. A retrospective identification was performed on recently...... was the least active of the antifungals tested. The phenotypically similar species R. brevistipitata and R. cylindrospora had different antifungal susceptibility profiles, and this indicates that correct species identification is important to help guide appropriate antifungal therapy....

  2. A taxonomy for differentiating entrepreneurship education across disciplines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warhuus, Jan P.; Blenker, Per

    of courses and curricula. At the core of this framework is a taxonomy for discipline-specific entrepreneurship education content and learning goals—different educations have varying inherent strengths and weakness vis-à-vis entrepreneurship, and thus have different pathways and barriers to develop......Entrepreneurship education (E-Ed) is maturing—from debate about whether or not it can be done, to how it should be done (Katz, 2003; Kuratko, 2005); from business schools teaching start-ups through a business plan format, toward converging upon a broader attitudechanging framework (Mwasalwiba, 2010......, and the need for a tailored, discipline-specific approach to E-Ed is becoming rapidly apparent. As a first step toward differentiating E-Ed across disciplines, we propose the establishment of an E-Ed framework that can guide and align stakeholders, program designers, and educators in the construction...

  3. Taxonomy of Armillaria in the Patagonian forests of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pildain, María B; Coetzee, Martin P A; Wingfield, Brenda D; Wingfield, Michael J; Rajchenberg, Mario

    2010-01-01

    The taxonomy of Armillaria in southern South America has received little attention since the work of Singer and others. In this study we examine the morphological traits and cultural features for taxa representing the lineages revealed based on molecular phylogeny, and we link them to previously described taxa based on morphology. Lineages I-IV were identified as Armillaria novae-zelandiae, A. montagnei, A. umbrinobrunnea comb. nov. and A. sparrei respectively. They could be differentiated morphologically based on dimension, features of the epicutis, annulus, stipe, hymenophoral trama and flavor and characteristics in culture. Furthermore there was no evidence of host preference for the species recognized. This is the first study integrating the phylogeny and morphology of Armillaria species from Patagonia, and it provides a foundation for future research on these fungi in South America.

  4. Smart farming technologies - description, taxonomy and economic impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balafoutis, Athanasios T.; Beck, Bert; Tsiropoulos, Zisis

    2017-01-01

    Precision Agriculture is a cyclic optimization process where data have to be collected from the field, analysed and evaluated and finally used for decision making for site-specific management of the field. Smart farming technologies (SFT ) cover all these aspects of precision agriculture and can...... comprise the delineation of management zones, decision support systems and farm management information system s. Finally, precision application technologies embrace variable-rate application technologies, precision irrigation and weeding and machine guidance. In this chapter, the reader can find...... a technical description of the technologies included in each category accompanied by a taxonomy of all SFT in terms of farming system type, cropping system, availability, level of investment and farmers’ motives to adopt them. Finally, the economic impact that each SFT has compared to conventional...

  5. Automated Bone Age Assessment: Motivation, Taxonomies, and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Mansourvar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone age assessment (BAA of unknown people is one of the most important topics in clinical procedure for evaluation of biological maturity of children. BAA is performed usually by comparing an X-ray of left hand wrist with an atlas of known sample bones. Recently, BAA has gained remarkable ground from academia and medicine. Manual methods of BAA are time-consuming and prone to observer variability. This is a motivation for developing automated methods of BAA. However, there is considerable research on the automated assessment, much of which are still in the experimental stage. This survey provides taxonomy of automated BAA approaches and discusses the challenges. Finally, we present suggestions for future research.

  6. Automated Bone Age Assessment: Motivation, Taxonomies, and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Maizatul Akmar; Herawan, Tutut; Gopal Raj, Ram; Abdul Kareem, Sameem; Nasaruddin, Fariza Hanum

    2013-01-01

    Bone age assessment (BAA) of unknown people is one of the most important topics in clinical procedure for evaluation of biological maturity of children. BAA is performed usually by comparing an X-ray of left hand wrist with an atlas of known sample bones. Recently, BAA has gained remarkable ground from academia and medicine. Manual methods of BAA are time-consuming and prone to observer variability. This is a motivation for developing automated methods of BAA. However, there is considerable research on the automated assessment, much of which are still in the experimental stage. This survey provides taxonomy of automated BAA approaches and discusses the challenges. Finally, we present suggestions for future research. PMID:24454534

  7. The status of taxonomy and venom in sea snakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Redsted Rasmussen, Arne; Sanders, Kate L.

    2017-01-01

    The status of taxonomy and venom in sea snakesArne R Rasmussen1, Kate L Sanders21 The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Architecture, Design & Conservation, Copenhagen, Denmark2 School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5000, Australia......, the Aipysurus group was separated from the other viviparous sea snakes at around 5.8 million years before present and in the Hydrophis lineage the Hydrophis group was separated from the three semi-marine lineages at around 4.4 million years before present. The venoms of sea snakes are rather simple, typically...... containing a-neurotoxins and phospholipases A2 (PLA2s), and in terms of lethality are known to be more potent than the venoms from terrestrial snakes....

  8. The status of taxonomy and venom in sea snakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Redsted Rasmussen, Arne; Sanders, Kate L.

    2017-01-01

    The status of taxonomy and venom in sea snakesArne R Rasmussen1, Kate L Sanders21 The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Architecture, Design & Conservation, Copenhagen, Denmark2 School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5000, AustraliaSea...... snakes form two aquatic groups of snakes with a flat vertically paddle-form tail (sea kraits and viviparous sea snakes). Sea snakes belong to the same family Elapidae, which also includes the terrestrial mambas, cobra, kraits, taipan and brown snake. All elapids are characterized by the anterior position...... of the poison-fangs on the maxillary bone (proteroglyphous). Globally there are some 70 species of sea snake found in the tropical and subtropical waters of the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean. Most species are found in the Indo-Malayan Archipelago, the China Sea, Indonesia, and the Australian region...

  9. Enterprise Architecture Management: Toward a Taxonomy of Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahimi, Fatemeh; Gøtze, John; Møller, Charles

    2017-01-01

    architecture management based on three classes of enterprise architecture scope. Organizations may adopt enterprise architecture management to support IT strategy formation, planning and implementation; facilitate business strategy planning and implementation; or further complement the business strategy...... formation process. The findings challenge the traditional IT-centric view of enterprise architecture management application and suggest enterprise architecture management as an approach that could support consistent design and evolution of an organization as a whole.......Despite the growing interest in enterprise architecture management, researchers and practitioners lack a shared understanding of its applications in organizations. Building on findings from a literature review and eight case studies, we develop a taxonomy that categorizes applications of enterprise...

  10. Prebiotic RNA Network Formation: A Taxonomy of Molecular Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, Cole; Ramprasad, Sanjay N; Walker, Sara Imari; Lehman, Niles

    2017-10-16

    Cooperation is essential for evolution of biological complexity. Recent work has shown game theoretic arguments, commonly used to model biological cooperation, can also illuminate the dynamics of chemical systems. Here we investigate the types of cooperation possible in a real RNA system based on the Azoarcus ribozyme, by constructing a taxonomy of possible cooperative groups. We construct a computational model of this system to investigate the features of the real system promoting cooperation. We find triplet interactions among genotypes are intrinsically biased towards cooperation due to the particular distribution of catalytic rate constants measured empirically in the real system. For other distributions cooperation is less favored. We discuss implications for understanding cooperation as a driver of complexification in the origin of life.

  11. Questioning current practice in brown bear, Ursus arctos, conservation in Europe that undervalues taxonomy

    OpenAIRE

    Gippoliti, S.

    2016-01-01

    Cuestionamiento de la actual estrategia de conservación del oso pardo, Ursus arctos, en Europa, que infravalora la taxonomía En este trabajo se ponen de relieve los problemas relacionados con la taxonomía actualmente aceptada del oso pardo, Ursus arctos, y sus consecuencias para la conservación en el ámbito europeo. En la actualidad, ni la taxonomía ni las prácticas de conservación reconocen la enorme variabilidad morfológica existente dentro de la especie Ursus arctos. Los investigadores ...

  12. Stingless bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini) of the Indian subcontinent: Diversity, taxonomy and current status of knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Claus

    2013-01-01

    Eight named species of stingless bees are known from the Indian subcontinent: Lepidotrigona arcifera (Cockerell), Lisotrigona cacciae (Nurse), Lisotrigona mohandasi Jobiraj & Narendran, Tetragonula aff. laeviceps (Smith), Tetragonula bengalensis (Cameron), Tetragonula gressitti (Sakagami), Tetragonula iridipennis (Smith), Tetragonula praeterita (Walker), and Tetragonula ruficornis (Smith). Lectotypes are newly designated for T. bengalensis and T. ruficornis. Keys, comparative notes, and illustrations for species identification are provided. The distribution of stingless bees throughout the Indian subcontinent are summarized and concluding that they are found in most parts of the Indian subcontinent, except at higher elevation or the drier interior regions. Additional collections and studies are urgently needed to clearly define the species limits of the complex "iridipennis" species group.

  13. Evolutionary and geographical history of the Leishmania donovani complex with a revision of current taxonomy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukeš, Julius; Mauricio, I. L.; Schönian, G.; Dujardin, J.-C.; Soteriadou, K.; Dedet, J.-P.; Kuhls, K.; QuispeTintaya, K. W.; Jirků, Milan; Chocholová, Eva; Haralambous, C.; Pratlong, F.; Oborník, Miroslav; Horák, Aleš; Ayala, F. J.; Miles, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 22 (2007), s. 9375-9380 ISSN 0027-8424 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06129; GA MŠk LC07032 Grant - others:EU(EU) QLK2-CT-2001-01810 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : leishmaniasis * parasitic protozoa * phylogeny * population genetics Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 9.598, year: 2007

  14. Taxonomy of Campylobacter, Arcobacter, Helicobacter and related bacteria: current status, future prospects and immediate concerns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    On, Stephen L.W.

    2001-01-01

    systematics, there remain a number of important issues concerning the classification of various campylobacterial taxa that require careful consideration. Ultimately, these issues are relevant to many working in the field of applied microbiology, including clinicians, veterinarians, epidemiologists...

  15. The complete mitochondrial genome of the grooved carpet shell, Ruditapes decussatus (Bivalvia, Veneridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Ghiselli

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the large number of animal complete mitochondrial genomes currently available in public databases, knowledge about mitochondrial genomics in invertebrates is uneven. This paper reports, for the first time, the complete mitochondrial genome of the grooved carpet shell, Ruditapes decussatus, also known as the European clam. Ruditapes decussatus is morphologically and ecologically similar to the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum, which has been recently introduced for aquaculture in the very same habitats of Ruditapes decussatus, and that is replacing the native species. Currently the production of the European clam is almost insignificant, nonetheless it is considered a high value product, and therefore it is an economically important species, especially in Portugal, Spain and Italy. In this work we: (i assembled Ruditapes decussatus mitochondrial genome from RNA-Seq data, and validated it by Sanger sequencing; (ii analyzed and characterized the Ruditapes decussatus mitochondrial genome, comparing its features with those of other venerid bivalves; (iii assessed mitochondrial sequence polymorphism (SP and copy number variation (CNV of tandem repeats across 26 samples. Despite using high-throughput approaches we did not find evidence for the presence of two sex-linked mitochondrial genomes, typical of the doubly uniparental inheritance of mitochondria, a phenomenon known in ∼100 bivalve species. According to our analyses, Ruditapes decussatus is more genetically similar to species of the Genus Paphia than to the congeneric Ruditapes philippinarum, a finding that bolsters the already-proposed need of a taxonomic revision. We also found a quite low genetic variability across the examined samples, with few SPs and little variability of the sequences flanking the control region (Largest Unassigned Regions (LURs. Strikingly, although we found low nucleotide variability along the entire mitochondrial genome, we observed high levels of length

  16. The Effects of Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy on Measurement and Evaluation in Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İrfan Yurdabakan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to discuss the revision of the original version of Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives under the leadership of Krathwohl and Anderson and its reflections on testing and assessment in education. Fort his purpose, international database was scanned to analyze the publications on “Bloom’s revised taxonomy and relationships between the revised taxonomy and testing and assessment”. The reasons for revision, the results that emerged following the revision and the reflections of those results on measurement and evaluation in education are described within the scope of those publications obtained

  17. Should there be a "Wet" Soil Order in Soil Taxonomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabenhorst, Martin; Wessel, Barret; Stolt, Mark; Lindbo, David

    2017-04-01

    Early soil classification systems recognized wet soils at the highest categorical level. Among the Intrazonal Soils of the US classification utilized between the 1920s and 1960, were included as Great Soil Groups, the Wiesenboden, Bog, Half-Bog, Ground-Water Podzols and Ground-Water Laterites. In other systems, groups named with such terms as ground water gley and pseudogley were also used. With the advent of Soil Taxonomy and it's precursor (1960, 1975), Histosols (organic soils) were distinguished as one of the initial 10 soil orders, and while many of these organic soils are wet soils, some are not (Folists for example). Thus, for over 50 years, with the exception of Histosols, wet soils (which typically represent the wettest end of subaerial wet soils) have not been collectively recognized within taxa at the highest categorical level (order) in the US soil classification system. Rather, the wettest soils were designated at the second categorical level as wet (Aqu) suborders among the various soil orders, and more recently, subaqueous soils as "Wass" suborders of Entisols and Histosols. Soils with less-wet conditions have been recognized at the subgroup (4th) level. Further, in impoundments and regions of transgressing coastlines, submerged upland soils have been found that still classify in soil orders that do not accommodate subaqueous soils ("Wass" suborders). Notwithstanding, other contemporary soil classification systems do (have continued to) recognize wet soils at the highest level. In the World Reference Base (WRB) for example, wet soils are designated as Gleysols or Stagnosols. As efforts are underway to revisit, simplify, and revise Soil Taxonomy, questions have been raised regarding whether wet soils should again be moved back with a place among taxa at the highest category using a name such as Hydrasols, Aquasols, etc. This paper will explore and consider the questions and arguments for and against such proposals and the difficult question regarding

  18. Physiology and taxonomy of lactobacilli surviving radurization of meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastings, J.W.

    1986-02-01

    The aim of this study was to isolate radiation-resistant lacto-bacilli from radurized (5 kGy) vacuum-packaged meat and subject them to biochemical, metabolic and physiological testing in order to gain a clearer understanding of the taxonomy of this group as well as determine characteristics which may be of technological significance. All 113 of the lactobacilli isolated were homofermentative, aciduric and were allocated to the sub-genus Streptobacterium. Numerical taxonomy by unweighted pair-group average linkage analysis revealed the existence of 5 clusters of the isolates. The same 113 isolates were classified using a purely classical taxonomic approach where the isolates were divided into 4 groups according to species designation. The basis upon which they were identified as a particular species was mainly their carbohydrate fermentation pattern. Several of the 113 isolates were selected for tests to determine characteristics of technological importance. All L.sake isolates exhibited the phenomenon of being more resistant to irradiation in the logarithmic phase than in the stationary phase of their growth cycle. This phenomenon was not characteristic of all the bacteria and was not always related to high radiation-resistance. Four L. sake isolates and three authentic strains were subjected to radiation-sensitivity testing in a natural food system where the bacteria were irradiated in minced meat packaged under four different conditions. The organisms exhibited the highest death rates under CO 2 packaging but resistance seemed to increase under N 2 -packaging. The radiation-resistance of the isolates was greater than that of the reference strains and all strains were approximately twice as resistant in the meat microenvironment than in a synthetic medium

  19. Revisiting the genus Photobacterium: taxonomy, ecology and pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labella, Alejandro M; Arahal, David R; Castro, Dolores; Lemos, Manuel L; Borrego, Juan J

    2017-03-01

    The genus Photobacterium, one of the eight genera included in the family Vibrionaceae, contains 27 species with valid names and it has received attention because of the bioluminescence and pathogenesis mechanisms that some of its species exhibit. However, the taxonomy and phylogeny of this genus are not completely elucidated; for example, P. logei and P. fischeri are now considered members of the genus Aliivibrio, and previously were included in the genus Vibrio. In addition, P. damselae subsp. piscicida was formed as a new combination for former Vibrio damsela and Pasteurella piscicida. Moreover, P. damselae subsp. damselae is an earlier heterotypic synonym of P. histaminum. To avoid these incovenences draft and complete genomic sequences of members of Photobacterium are increasingly becoming available and their use is now routine for many research laboratories to address diverse goals: species delineation with overall genomic indexes, phylogenetic analyses, comparative genomics, and phenotypic inference. The habitats and isolation source of the Photobacterium species include seawater, sea sediments, saline lake waters, and a variety of marine organisms with which the photobacteria establish different relationships, from symbiosis to pathogenic interactions. Several species of this genus contain bioluminescent strains in symbiosis with marine fish and cephalopods; in addition, other species enhance its growth at pressures above 1 atmosphere, by means of several high-pressure adaptation mechanisms and for this, they may be considered as piezophilic (former barophilic) bacteria. Until now, only P. jeanii, P. rosenbergii, P. sanctipauli, and the two subspecies of P. damselae have been reported as responsible agents of several pathologies on animal hosts, such as corals, sponges, fish and homeothermic animals. In this review we have revised and updated the taxonomy, ecology and pathogenicity of several members of this genus. [Int Microbiol 20(1): 1-10 (2017

  20. The biology and functional morphology of Macoma biota (Bivalvia: Tellinidae: Macominae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Ribeiro Piffer

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Macoma biota Arruda & Domaneschi, 2005, is a recently described species known only from the intertidal zone of Praia da Cidade, Caraguatatuba Bay, in the state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. The main purpose of the present paper is to describe the biology of M. biota, beginning with a detailed analysis of its anatomy and functional morphology and how these attributes are correlated with its habitat and life history. The morphology of the organs in the pallial cavity and their sorting devices indicate that this species has efficient mechanisms to process large amounts of particles that enter this cavity via the inhalant current. M. biota can rapidly select the material suitable for ingestion and direct the undesired excess to the rejection mantle tracts. These characteristics along with the siphon's behavior and the digestive tract configuration reveal that this species can be classified primarily as a deposit feeder, like other species of the genus; however, it can also behave as a suspension feeder, depending on the environmental conditions.

  1. The influence of fish cage culture on δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N of filter-feeding Bivalvia (Mollusca)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedito, E.; Takeda, A.M., E-mail: eva@nupelia.uem.br [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Nucleo de Pesquisas em Limnologia, Ictiologia e Aquicultura; Figueroa, L. [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Pos-Graduacao em Ecologia de Ambientes Aquaticos Continentais; Manetta, GI. [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Pos-Graduacao em Biologia Comparada

    2013-11-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Oreochromis niloticus cage culture promoted variations in the δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N in Corbicula fluminea (Mollusca; Bivalvia) and in the sediment of an aquatic food web. Samples were taken before and after net cage installation in the Rosana Reservoir (Paranapanema River, PR-SP). Samples of specimens of the bivalve filter C. fluminea and samples of sediment were collected using a modified Petersen grab. All samples were dried in an oven (60 °C) for 72 hours, macerated to obtain homogenous fine powders and sent for carbon (δ{sup 13}C) and nitrogen (δ{sup 15}N) isotopic value analysis in a mass spectrometer. There were significant differences in the δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N values of the invertebrate C. fluminea between the beginning and the end of the experiment. There were no differences between the δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N values of sediment. These results indicate that the installation of fish cage culture promoted impacts in the isotopic composition of the aquatic food web organisms, which could exert influence over the native species and the ecosystem. (author)

  2. A massive ingression of the alien species Mytilus edulis L. (Bivalvia: Mollusca into the Mediterranean Sea following the Costa Concordia cruise-ship disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. CASOLI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Costa Concordia cruise-ship disaster occurred just off the coast of Italy on January 13th, 2012, and entailed the largest marine salvage operation in history. The salvage employed vessels from different European harbours, providing an unexpected means for transporting alien species into the Mediterranean. In this work we identified mussel species using fragments length polymorphism of a nuclear locus and report the first evidence of the transport of the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis Linnaeus, 1758 (Bivalvia: Mollusca, into the Mediterranean Sea, as a part of the fouling community of the hull of an accommodation barge arrived from a NE Atlantic location in October 2012. Furthermore, we describe the rapid growth of this species, under the ASV Pioneer, until its almost total extinction during the summer of 2013, which left a covering of mussel shells on the underlying Posidonia oceanica (Linnaeus Delile, 1813. meadow. This high mortality rate indicated that M. edulis had been exposed to high stress conditions, probably due to different salinity, temperature, and oligotrophic conditions from its place of origin, and there was no spawning event or known settlement on the nearest infralittoral natural habitats. This event reminds us of how the Mediterranean Sea is constantly under alien-species pressure, due to human activities.

  3. The New Cannabis Policy Taxonomy on APIS: Making Sense of the Cannabis Policy Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klitzner, Michael D; Thomas, Sue; Schuler, Jonathan; Hilton, Michael; Mosher, James

    2017-06-01

    The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism's Alcohol Policy Information System (APIS) is, for the first time, adding legal data pertaining to recreational cannabis use to its current offerings on alcohol policy. Now that Colorado, Washington, Oregon, Alaska, and the District of Columbia have legalized aspects of recreational cannabis, and more states are considering it, there is an urgency to provide high-quality, multi-dimensional legal data to the public health community. This article introduces the Cannabis Policy Taxonomy recently posted on APIS, and explores its theoretical and empirical contributions to the substance abuse literature and its potential for use in policy research. We also present results of interviews with public health experts in alcohol and cannabis policy, which sought to determine the most important variables to address in the initial release of cannabis policy data. From this process, we found that pricing controls emerged as the variable singled out by the largest number of experts. This analysis points to a host of vital policies that are of increasing importance to public health policy scholars and their current and future research.

  4. An integrative taxonomy on the locally endangered species of the Korean Scarabaeus (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Taeman; Kim, Jin Ill; Yi, Dae-Am; Jeong, Jongchel; An, Seung Lak; Park, In Gyun; Park, Haechul

    2016-07-22

    The ball-rolling dung beetles of the genus Scarabaeus are very ecologically important for the recycling of feces of large herbivores and the related nature management. There has been a significant decline, however, in the numbers of many species at the population and individual levels. S. typhon is currently thought to be the sole member of Scarabaeus distributed in Korea; however, that species underwent serious local extinctions in the 1970s. Before planning a full-scale species recovery, it is important to have an understanding of the exact species diversity and genetic structures of the focal species. We therefore attempted an integrative taxonomy focused on the Korean population of S. typhon and also on S. pius and S. sacer, which were once thought to be distributed in Korea, using both morphological and molecular approaches. The results of both approaches reveal the Korean species of Scarabaeus to be S. typhon and S. pius. In particular, our molecular results inferred from cytochrome c oxidase subunit I genetic analysis show that S. typhon should be considered a single species despite having various haplotypes throughout its wide geographical range from Europe to Korea. We identified two distinct lineages of S. pius (groups A and B) across a wide distributional range. We conclude that the Korean specimens of S. pius belong to group A and that S. pius is new to Korea under the current taxonomic treatment.

  5. Factorial microarray analysis of zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha: Dreissenidae, Bivalvia adhesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Mohamed

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha has been well known for its expertise in attaching to substances under the water. Studies in past decades on this underwater adhesion focused on the adhesive protein isolated from the byssogenesis apparatus of the zebra mussel. However, the mechanism of the initiation, maintenance, and determination of the attachment process remains largely unknown. Results In this study, we used a zebra mussel cDNA microarray previously developed in our lab and a factorial analysis to identify the genes that were involved in response to the changes of four factors: temperature (Factor A, current velocity (Factor B, dissolved oxygen (Factor C, and byssogenesis status (Factor D. Twenty probes in the microarray were found to be modified by one of the factors. The transcription products of four selected genes, DPFP-BG20_A01, EGP-BG97/192_B06, EGP-BG13_G05, and NH-BG17_C09 were unique to the zebra mussel foot based on the results of quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR. The expression profiles of these four genes under the attachment and non-attachment were also confirmed by qRT-PCR and the result is accordant to that from microarray assay. The in situ hybridization with the RNA probes of two identified genes DPFP-BG20_A01 and EGP-BG97/192_B06 indicated that both of them were expressed by a type of exocrine gland cell located in the middle part of the zebra mussel foot. Conclusions The results of this study suggested that the changes of D. polymorpha byssogenesis status and the environmental factors can dramatically affect the expression profiles of the genes unique to the foot. It turns out that the factorial design and analysis of the microarray experiment is a reliable method to identify the influence of multiple factors on the expression profiles of the probesets in the microarray; therein it provides a powerful tool to reveal the mechanism of zebra mussel underwater attachment.

  6. Factorial microarray analysis of zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha: Dreissenidae, Bivalvia) adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Faisal, Mohamed

    2010-05-28

    The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) has been well known for its expertise in attaching to substances under the water. Studies in past decades on this underwater adhesion focused on the adhesive protein isolated from the byssogenesis apparatus of the zebra mussel. However, the mechanism of the initiation, maintenance, and determination of the attachment process remains largely unknown. In this study, we used a zebra mussel cDNA microarray previously developed in our lab and a factorial analysis to identify the genes that were involved in response to the changes of four factors: temperature (Factor A), current velocity (Factor B), dissolved oxygen (Factor C), and byssogenesis status (Factor D). Twenty probes in the microarray were found to be modified by one of the factors. The transcription products of four selected genes, DPFP-BG20_A01, EGP-BG97/192_B06, EGP-BG13_G05, and NH-BG17_C09 were unique to the zebra mussel foot based on the results of quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). The expression profiles of these four genes under the attachment and non-attachment were also confirmed by qRT-PCR and the result is accordant to that from microarray assay. The in situ hybridization with the RNA probes of two identified genes DPFP-BG20_A01 and EGP-BG97/192_B06 indicated that both of them were expressed by a type of exocrine gland cell located in the middle part of the zebra mussel foot. The results of this study suggested that the changes of D. polymorpha byssogenesis status and the environmental factors can dramatically affect the expression profiles of the genes unique to the foot. It turns out that the factorial design and analysis of the microarray experiment is a reliable method to identify the influence of multiple factors on the expression profiles of the probesets in the microarray; therein it provides a powerful tool to reveal the mechanism of zebra mussel underwater attachment.

  7. Phylogeny of Comatulidae (Echinodermata: Crinoidea: Comatulida): a new classification and an assessment of morphological characters for crinoid taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Mindi M; Messing, Charles G; Rouse, Greg W

    2014-11-01

    Comatulidae Fleming, 1828 (previously, and incorrectly, Comasteridae A.H. Clark, 1908a), is a group of feather star crinoids currently divided into four accepted subfamilies, 21 genera and approximately 95 nominal species. Comatulidae is the most commonly-encountered and species-rich crinoid group on shallow tropical coral reefs, particularly in the Indo-western Pacific region (IWP). We conducted a molecular phylogenetic analysis of the group with concatenated data from up to seven genes for 43 nominal species spanning 17 genera and all subfamilies. Basal nodes returned low support, but maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony, and Bayesian analyses were largely congruent, permitting an evaluation of current taxonomy and analysis of morphological character transformations. Two of the four current subfamilies were paraphyletic, whereas 15 of the 17 included genera returned as monophyletic. We provide a new classification with two subfamilies, Comatulinae and Comatellinae n. subfamily Summers, Messing, & Rouse, the former containing five tribes. We revised membership of analyzed genera to make them all clades and erected Anneissia n. gen. Summers, Messing, & Rouse. Transformation analyses for morphological features generally used in feather star classification (e.g., ray branching patterns, articulations) and those specifically for Comatulidae (e.g., comb pinnule form, mouth placement) were labile with considerable homoplasy. These traditional characters, in combination, allow for generic diagnoses, but in most cases we did not recover apomorphies for subfamilies, tribes, and genera. New morphological characters that will be informative for crinoid taxonomy and identification are still needed. DNA sequence data currently provides the most reliable method of identification to the species-level for many taxa of Comatulidae. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Critiquing the mathematical literacy assessment taxonomy: Where is the reasoning and the problem solving?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamsa Venkat

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider the ways in which the Mathematical Literacy (ML assessment taxonomy provides spaces for the problem solving and reasoning identified as critical to mathematical literacy competence. We do this through an analysis of the taxonomy structure within which Mathematical Literacy competences are assessed. We argue that shortcomings in this structure in relation to the support and development of reasoning and problem solving feed through into the kinds of questions that are asked within the assessment of Mathematical Literacy. Some of these shortcomings are exemplified through the questions that appeared in the 2008 Mathematical Literacy examinations. We conclude the paper with a brief discussion of the implications of this taxonomy structure the development of the reasoning and problem–solving competences that align with curricular aims. This paper refers to the assessment taxonomy in the Mathematical Literacy Curriculum Statement (Deparment of Education (DOE, 2007.

  9. Morphology and taxonomy of an almost forgotten fossil diatom Gaillonella sculpta EHRENBERG (Bacillariophyceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Usoltseva, M.; Houk, Václav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 1 (2016), s. 39-49 ISSN 0269-249X Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Miocene * Gaillonella * Pseudoaulacosira * taxonomy * valve ultrastructure. * Bacillariophyceae Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.677, year: 2016

  10. New distribution records for four mammal species, with notes on their taxonomy and ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.N. Bronner

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available New distribution records for four small mammal species (Georychus capensis, Galerella pulverulenta, Rhinolophus swinnyi and Amblysomus julianae are presented, along with relevant notes on the taxonomy, karyology and ecology of these species.

  11. Revision of the genus Cunninghamites (fossil conifers), with special reference to nomenclature, taxonomy and geological age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, H.F.; Kunzmann, L.; Kvacek, J.; van Konijnenburg-van Cittert, J.H.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/140562044

    2012-01-01

    The genus Cunninghamites was originally described for fossil sterile foliage. The inclusion of fertile material, and the debate about the nomenclature and taxonomy of Cunninghamites have initiated its revision. Revision has shown that only six species undoubtedly belong to Cunninghamites.

  12. The Diversity of Enterprise Modeling – a Taxonomy for Enterprise Modeling Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf Seigerroth

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Both researchers and practitioners have recognized the need for developed knowledge about enterprise modeling. Therefore it is necessary to increase the understanding of various actions that are performed during enterprise modeling, their meaning, and their diversity. This paper proposes a taxonomy with a conceptual structure in two dimensions (hierarchy and process that could be used to increase the knowledge about enterprise modeling actions. The taxonomy introduces a terminology that enables a better understanding of the modeling actions for a clear purpose. One important aspect of the taxonomy is to create visibility and traceability of decisions made during enterprise modeling activities. These modeling decisions have previously been of a more tacit nature and the taxonomy is supposed to make the rationale behind different modeling decisions explicit and understandable.

  13. Lingua franca of personality - Taxonomies and structures based on the psycholexical approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Raad, B; Perugini, M; Hrebickova, M; Szarota, P

    Data sets from seven original trait taxonomies from different languages, American English, Dutch, German, Hungarian, Italian, Czech, and Polish, are used for a crosscultural study. The taxonomic procedures, involving culling trait terms from the various lexicons and the construction Of

  14. Computer aided taxonomy (CAT): Approach for understanding systematics of marine biota

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chavan, V.S.; Kavlekar, D.P.; Chandramohan, D.

    Computer aided taconomy (CAT) is gaining importance day by day. In order to familiarise the taxonomy and its continuing usage an attempt has made to develop a module for knowing the systematics of organisms and to generate automatic numerical code...

  15. Surfacing the Iceberg of Leadership: A New Taxonomy of Leadership Concepts and Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufman, EK; Cletzer, DA

    2017-01-01

    Leadership scholars have long sought to impose order on the numerous theories in leadership literature. While mid-level theories abound, no taxonomy exists to provide hierarchy and a mechanism for explaining how theories interrelate. This poster offers a new taxonomy for organizing leadership theories and concepts based on the metaphor of an iceberg. It invites leadership scholars to vet their own leadership courses and undergraduate leadership programs to determine the depth to which they ex...

  16. A topographic feature taxonomy for a U.S. national topographic mapping ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanka, Dalia E.

    2013-01-01

    Using legacy feature lists from the U.S. National Topographic Mapping Program of the twentieth century, a taxonomy of features is presented for purposes of developing a national topographic feature ontology for geographic mapping and analysis. After reviewing published taxonomic classifications, six basic classes are suggested; terrain, surface water, ecological regimes, built-up areas, divisions, and events. Aspects of ontology development are suggested as the taxonomy is described.

  17. Mathematics Teachers’ Interpretation of Higher-Order Thinking in Bloom’s Taxonomy

    OpenAIRE

    Tony Thompson

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated mathematics teachers’ interpretation of higher-order thinking in Bloom’s Taxonomy. Thirty-two high school mathematics teachers from the southeast U.S. were asked to (a) define lower- and higher-order thinking, (b) identify which thinking skills in Bloom’s Taxonomy represented lower- and higher-order thinking, and (c) create an Algebra I final exam item representative of each thinking skill. Results indicate that mathematics teachers have difficulty interpreting the thi...

  18. The Taxonomy of Corruption on the relation of Public corporation-Local community

    OpenAIRE

    Štefan Šuman; Edita Mahič

    2016-01-01

    There are many researches of corruption inpublic sector, especially in the health care and in the public management. But in public corporations that areimportant part of the public sector, it cannot be found. That is the reason that according to the research of different archives the primary taxonomy of corruption has been done and it can appear in relationship between the Public sector and Local community, where many authors detect the possibility of creation of corruption risks. In taxonomy...

  19. Development of a consensus taxonomy of sedentary behaviors (SIT: report of Delphi Round 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien Francois Martin Chastin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over the last decade, sedentary behaviors have emerged as a distinctive behavioral paradigm with deleterious effects on health independent of physical activity. The next phase of research is to establish dose response between sedentary behaviors and health outcomes and improve understanding of context and determinants of these behaviors. Establishing a common taxonomy of these behaviors is a necessary step in this process. AIM: The Sedentary behavior International Taxonomy project was developed to establish a classification of sedentary behaviors by use of a formal consensus process. METHODS: The study follows a Delphi process in three Rounds. A preparatory stage informed the development of terms of reference documents. In Round 1, experts were asked to make statements about the taxonomy; 1 its purpose and use ; 2 the domains, categories or facets that should be consider and include; 3 the structure/architecture to arrange and link these domains and facets. In Round 2 experts will be presented with a draft taxonomy emerging from Round 1 and invited to comment and propose alterations. The taxonomy will then be finalised at the outset of this stage. RESULTS: Results of Round 1 are reported here. There is a general consensus that a taxonomy will help advances in research by facilitating systematic and standardised: 1 investigation and analysis; 2 reporting and communication; 3 data pooling, comparison and meta-analysis; 4 development of measurement tools; 4 data descriptions, leading to higher quality in data querying and facilitate discoveries. There is also a consensus that such a taxonomy should be flexible to accommodate diverse purposes of use, and future advances in the field and yet provide a cross-disciplinary common language. A consensual taxonomy structure emerged with nine primary facets (Purpose, Environment, Posture, Social, Measurement, Associated behavior, Status, Time, Type and the draft structure presented here for

  20. [Quality of psychological strain in police work--development of a taxonomy of sources of stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinecke, Stefan; Runde, Bernd; Bastians, Frauke; Weiss, Udo; Heuft, Gereon; Bär, Olaf

    2007-01-01

    Police officers frequently face traumatic stressors of different origins and thus bear an increased risk of developing a post-traumatic stress disorder. The most mentally burdening situations range from shootings, death of fellow officers, dealing with dead bodies in general, the effects of shift work, time pressure or discontent with management due to mobbing. Part of the present study examines the quality of stress in police work with the goal of developing a taxonomy of the origins of stress. A stratified sample of 109 police officers participated in the study. They were interviewed about stressful situations in their work life. In the interviews participants generated incidents describing stressful or straining situations. These incidents were used to develop a taxonomy of stressful situations in everyday police work. A further 22 interviews with officers of the federal police were carried out to examine the transferability of the developed taxonomy to other occupational groups. The taxonomy distinguishes between five sources of strain. Strain can arise from (1.) the task itself, (2.) the organization and structure of work, (3.) the temporal conditions and (4.) the social conditions. The fifth category describes the source of strain based on other conditions. The results also show that the taxonomy is transferable to other occupational groups. This taxonomy leads to the systematisation of the differences among the stress phenomena which occur in police work. The results can help in the development of practical prevention, counselling and therapeutic programs.

  1. Product Engineering Class in the Software Safety Risk Taxonomy for Building Safety-Critical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Janice; Victor, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    When software safety requirements are imposed on legacy safety-critical systems, retrospective safety cases need to be formulated as part of recertifying the systems for further use and risks must be documented and managed to give confidence for reusing the systems. The SEJ Software Development Risk Taxonomy [4] focuses on general software development issues. It does not, however, cover all the safety risks. The Software Safety Risk Taxonomy [8] was developed which provides a construct for eliciting and categorizing software safety risks in a straightforward manner. In this paper, we present extended work on the taxonomy for safety that incorporates the additional issues inherent in the development and maintenance of safety-critical systems with software. An instrument called a Software Safety Risk Taxonomy Based Questionnaire (TBQ) is generated containing questions addressing each safety attribute in the Software Safety Risk Taxonomy. Software safety risks are surfaced using the new TBQ and then analyzed. In this paper we give the definitions for the specialized Product Engineering Class within the Software Safety Risk Taxonomy. At the end of the paper, we present the tool known as the 'Legacy Systems Risk Database Tool' that is used to collect and analyze the data required to show traceability to a particular safety standard

  2. Developing an integrative level-dimensional taxonomy model for rehabilitation psychology research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mermis, Bernie J

    2018-02-01

    The present article concerns the development of a taxonomy model for organizing and classifying all aspects of rehabilitation psychology from an integrative level-dimensional conceptualization. This conceptualization is presented as an alternative to a primarily categorical approach to classification. It also assumes a continuity perspective for all aspects of behavior and experience. Development of this taxonomy model involves organizing information relevant to levels/domains of all aspects of behavior and experience, and to constructs describing their underlying components conceptually as well as dimensions which constitute the measurable basis of constructs. A taxonomy model with levels/domains, representative examples of constructs and dimensions is presented as a foundation for development of the present taxonomy model, with specific relevance to rehabilitation psychology. This integrative level-dimensional taxonomy model provides a structure for organizing all aspects of rehabilitation psychology relevant to understanding, assessing, and influencing the rehabilitation process. Suggestions for development and research are provided for the taxonomy model. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. An Optimized Player Taxonomy Model for Mobile MMORPGs with Millions of Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang You

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs have great potential as sites for research within the social and human-computer interaction. In the MMORPGs, a stability player taxonomy model is very important for game design. It helps to balance different types of players and improve business strategy of the game. The players in mobile MMORPGs are also connected with social networks; many studies only use the player's own attributes statistics or questionnaire survey method to predict player taxonomy, so lots of social network relations' information will be lost. In this paper, by analyzing the impacts of player's social network, commercial operating data from mobile MMORPGs is used to establish our player taxonomy model (SN model. From the model results, social network-related information in mobile MMORPGs will be considered as important factors to pose this optimized player taxonomy model. As experimental results showed, compared with another player taxonomy model (RA model, our proposed player taxonomy model can achieve good results: classification is more stable.

  4. Combining taxonomy and function in the study of stream macroinvertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth W. Cummins

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last fifty years, research on freshwater macroinvertebrates has been driven largely by the state of the taxonomy of these animals. In the great majority of studies conducted during the 2000s macroinvertebrates have been operationally defined by investigators as invertebrates retained by a 250 μ mesh in field sampling devices. Significant advances have been and continue to be made in developing ever more refined keys to macroinvertebrate groups. The analysis by function is a viable alternative when advances in macroinvertebrate ecological research is restricted by the level of detail in identifications. Focus on function, namely adaptations of macroinvertebrates to habitats and the utilization of food resources, has facilitated ecological evaluation of freshwater ecosystems (Functional feeding groups; FFG. As the great stream ecologist Noel Hynes observed, aquatic insects around the world exhibit similar morphologies and behaviors, even though they are in very different taxonomic groups. This is the basis for the FFG analysis that was initially developed in the early 1970s. FFG analysis applies taxonomy only to the level of detail that allows assignment to one of six FFG categories: scrapers adapted to feed on periphyton, detrital shredders adapted to feed on coarse (CPOM riparian-derived plant litter that has been colonized by microbes, herbivore shredders that feed on live, rooted aquatic vascular plants, filtering collectors adapted to remove fine particle detritus (FPOM from the water column, gathering collectors adapted to feed on FPOM where it is deposited on surfaces or in crevices in the sediments, and predators that capture live prey. The interacting roles of these FFGs in stream ecosystems were originally depicted in a conceptual model. Thus, there are a limited number of adaptations exhibited by stream macroinvertebrates that exploit these habitats and food resources. This accounts for the wide range of macroinvertebrate taxa

  5. Appraising Pre-service EFL Teachers' Assessment in Language Testing Course Using Revised Bloom's Taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Mohammadi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The teachers need to be conceived as a “change agent” and not as a mere transmitter of knowledge and culture. In developing countries like Iran, one of the most significant concerns in the field of teachers’ education is efficiency of pre-service programs. To this aim, the current descriptive-evaluative study intended to describe the state of pre-service teachers' assessment in the field of language testing by (a examining the exam questions to find out whether they are aligned with curriculum objectives and syllabus (content validity, (b exploring whether they take care of higher order cognitive processes and (c finding what combinations of cognitive process levels and knowledge types in Revised Bloom's Taxonomy are prevalent in the questions. The results exhibited an unbalanced coverage of content in exams. Also the questions were found to be inadequate in terms of measuring complex cognitive skills (Analyze and Evaluate; Remember and Understand domains take up 91.6 % of all questions and no item was found for Create. Three combinations of cognitive process level and knowledge type was dominant in the data set: (1 Remember Factual Knowledge, (2 Understand Conceptual Knowledge, and (3 Apply Procedural Knowledge. These associations confirm the Anderson and Krathwohl's (2001 proposition.

  6. Global population structure and taxonomy of the wandering albatross species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burg, T M; Croxall, J P

    2004-08-01

    A recent taxonomic revision of wandering albatross elevated each of the four subspecies to species. We used mitochondrial DNA and nine microsatellite markers to study the phylogenetic relationships of three species (Diomedea antipodensis, D. exulans and D. gibsoni) in the wandering albatross complex. A small number of samples from a fourth species, D. dabbenena, were analysed using mitochondrial DNA only. Mitochondrial DNA sequence analyses indicated the presence of three distinct groups within the wandering albatross complex: D. exulans, D. dabbenena and D. antipodensis/D. gibsoni. Although no fixed differences were found between D. antipodensis and D. gibsoni, a significant difference in the frequency of a single restriction site was detected using random fragment length polymorphism. Microsatellite analyses using nine variable loci, showed that D. exulans, D. antipodensis and D. gibsoni were genetically differentiated. Despite the widespread distribution of D. exulans, we did not detect any genetic differentiation among populations breeding on different island groups. The lower level of genetic differentiation between D. antipodensis and D. gibsoni should be reclassified as D. antipodensis. Within the context of the current taxonomy, these combined data support three species: D. dabbenena, D. exulans and D. antipodensis. Copyright 2004 Blackwell Publishing Ltd

  7. A survey on the taxonomy of cluster-based routing protocols for homogeneous wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeimi, Soroush; Ghafghazi, Hamidreza; Chow, Chee-Onn; Ishii, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    The past few years have witnessed increased interest among researchers in cluster-based protocols for homogeneous networks because of their better scalability and higher energy efficiency than other routing protocols. Given the limited capabilities of sensor nodes in terms of energy resources, processing and communication range, the cluster-based protocols should be compatible with these constraints in either the setup state or steady data transmission state. With focus on these constraints, we classify routing protocols according to their objectives and methods towards addressing the shortcomings of clustering process on each stage of cluster head selection, cluster formation, data aggregation and data communication. We summarize the techniques and methods used in these categories, while the weakness and strength of each protocol is pointed out in details. Furthermore, taxonomy of the protocols in each phase is given to provide a deeper understanding of current clustering approaches. Ultimately based on the existing research, a summary of the issues and solutions of the attributes and characteristics of clustering approaches and some open research areas in cluster-based routing protocols that can be further pursued are provided.

  8. A Survey on the Taxonomy of Cluster-Based Routing Protocols for Homogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Ishii

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The past few years have witnessed increased interest among researchers in cluster-based protocols for homogeneous networks because of their better scalability and higher energy efficiency than other routing protocols. Given the limited capabilities of sensor nodes in terms of energy resources, processing and communication range, the cluster-based protocols should be compatible with these constraints in either the setup state or steady data transmission state. With focus on these constraints, we classify routing protocols according to their objectives and methods towards addressing the shortcomings of clustering process on each stage of cluster head selection, cluster formation, data aggregation and data communication. We summarize the techniques and methods used in these categories, while the weakness and strength of each protocol is pointed out in details. Furthermore, taxonomy of the protocols in each phase is given to provide a deeper understanding of current clustering approaches. Ultimately based on the existing research, a summary of the issues and solutions of the attributes and characteristics of clustering approaches and some open research areas in cluster-based routing protocols that can be further pursued are provided.

  9. Fauna Europaea: Mollusca - Bivalvia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araujo, R.; de Jong, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The

  10. (Born, 1778) (Mollusca: Bivalvia)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-05-27

    May 27, 1988 ... settled animals reached a total length of 19 mm in their first year. ..... showing maximum, mean and minimum growth with the mean growth equation. The curves are extrapolated beyond five years to show the estimated age of the largest individuals .... possibility of differential growth within Dwesa cannot be.

  11. (Lamark) (Mollusca: Bivalvia)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Approximately eight species of burrowing bivalves are fairly common in the .... bombed in an adiabatic bomb calorimeter. Duplicates were ..... the same species. Its initial rate of growth was faster, while that for the fourth and fifth years was much slower. The estimated maximum potential life span of 8 - 9 years for D. hepatica ...

  12. Molecular Phylogenetic: Organism Taxonomy Method Based on Evolution History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.L.P Indi Dharmayanti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic is described as taxonomy classification of an organism based on its evolution history namely its phylogeny and as a part of systematic science that has objective to determine phylogeny of organism according to its characteristic. Phylogenetic analysis from amino acid and protein usually became important area in sequence analysis. Phylogenetic analysis can be used to follow the rapid change of a species such as virus. The phylogenetic evolution tree is a two dimensional of a species graphic that shows relationship among organisms or particularly among their gene sequences. The sequence separation are referred as taxa (singular taxon that is defined as phylogenetically distinct units on the tree. The tree consists of outer branches or leaves that represents taxa and nodes and branch represent correlation among taxa. When the nucleotide sequence from two different organism are similar, they were inferred to be descended from common ancestor. There were three methods which were used in phylogenetic, namely (1 Maximum parsimony, (2 Distance, and (3 Maximum likehoood. Those methods generally are applied to construct the evolutionary tree or the best tree for determine sequence variation in group. Every method is usually used for different analysis and data.

  13. Leaf arrangements are invalid in the taxonomy of orchid species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Jakubska-Busse

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The selection and validation of proper distinguishing characters are of crucial importance in taxonomic revisions. The modern classifications of orchids utilize the molecular tools, but still the selection and identification of the material used in these studies is for the most part related to general species morphology. One of the vegetative characters quoted in orchid manuals is leaf arrangement. However, phyllotactic diversity and ontogenetic changeability have not been analysed in detail in reference to particular taxonomic groups. Therefore, we evaluated the usefulness of leaf arrangements in the taxonomy of the genus Epipactis Zinn, 1757. Typical leaf arrangements in shoots of this genus are described as distichous or spiral. However, in the course of field research and screening of herbarium materials, we indisputably disproved the presence of distichous phyllotaxis in the species Epipactis purpurata Sm. and confirmed the spiral Fibonacci pattern as the dominant leaf arrangement. In addition, detailed analyses revealed the presence of atypical decussate phyllotaxis in this species, as well as demonstrated the ontogenetic formation of pseudowhorls. These findings confirm ontogenetic variability and plasticity in E. purpurata. Our results are discussed in the context of their significance in delimitations of complex taxa within the genus Epipactis.

  14. An overview of the taxonomy of Attalea (Arecaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe Pintaud

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Attalea (Arecaceae is distributed in continental habitats of the Neotropical region and in some Caribbean islands. Life forms of Attalea species vary from small acaulescent palms to tall and massive palms, always solitary. The ecological range of the genus encompasses most of the Neotropical ecosystems, from coastal sand dunes to sub-Andean forests up to 1600 m in elevation, lowland wet to dry forests, savannas, swamps, etc. The taxonomy of the genus has been poorly understood due to conflicting genus and species concepts that exist since the last decades. Taxonomical problems have been caused by the lack of adequate material, especially species of large size, loss of many types and difficulties in interpreting hybrids. In this article, I review the most recent taxonomic literature on Attalea. The number of species in Attalea varies from 29 to 67 depending on different authors, with a maximum estimate of 73 species when combining the revised publications. There is a consensus for the validity of 20 species among modern palm taxonomists. The most conflicting species or group of species are discussed in detail as well as the taxonomic significance of some characters such as the pattern of insertion of staminate flowers on rachillae, insertion of pinnae on rachis, and arrangement of fibrous strands in the endocarp.

  15. Fossil freshwater sponges: Taxonomy, geographic distribution, and critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Pronzato

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sponges are one of the most ancient animal phyla with about 8850 living species and about 5000 described fossil taxa. Most sponges are marine and live at all depths of all oceans. Freshwater bodies (lakes, rivers are inhabited only by a small minority of species, ca. 240 (<3% comprising the order Spongillida (Demospongiae most of which are able to produce specialized resting bodies to survive harsh terrestrial environmental conditions. This highly disproportionate ratio of marine and freshwater sponges is even more accentuated in the field of palaeontology with rare records reported up to the Miocene (<0.4% of all known fossil sponges. Only a few fossil taxa were correctly supported by strong and convincing taxonomic morphotraits at genus and species level, thus we provide here an overview of fossil freshwater sponges focusing on their morphotraits and distribution in time and space. Each recorded taxon is described in detail following the modern taxonomy and nomenclature. All fossil data suggest a clear trend of long term conservative morphology in the evolutionary history of Spongillida, although some traits of Recent gemmules evolved in a wide array of adaptive morpho-functional novelties. The majority of accepted fossil species belongs to the cosmopolitan family Spongillidae. The genera Oncosclera and Potamophloios of the family Potamolepidae seem to have had, in the past, a much larger geographic range than today. A synthesis of fossil taxa morphotraits is also provided in an Appendix 1.

  16. Governance of Interoperability in Intergovernmental Services - Towards an Empirical Taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Kubicek

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available High quality and comfortable online delivery of governmental services often requires the seamless exchange of data between two or more government agencies. Smooth data exchange, in turn, requires interoperability of the databases and workflows in the agencies involved. Interoperability (IOP is a complex issue covering purely technical aspects such as transmission protocols and data exchange formats, but also content-related semantic aspects such as identifiers and the meaning of codes as well as organizational, contractual or legal issues. Starting from IOP frameworks which provide classifications of what has to be standardized, this paper, based on an ongoing research project, adopts a political and managerial view and tries to clarify the governance of achieving IOP, i.e. where and by whom IOPstandards are developed and established and how they are put into operation. By analyzing 32 cases of successful implementation of IOP in E-Government services within the European Union empirical indicators for different aspects of governance are proposed and applied to develop an empirical taxonomy of different types of IOP governance which can be used for future comparative research regarding success factors, barriers etc.

  17. Spinosaur taxonomy and evolution of craniodental features: Evidence from Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos A F Sales

    Full Text Available Fossil sites from Brazil have yielded specimens of spinosaurid theropods, among which the most informative include the cranial remains of Irritator, Angaturama, and Oxalaia. In this work some of their craniodental features are reinterpreted, providing new data for taxonomic and evolutionary issues concerning this particular clade of dinosaurs. The mesial-most tooth of the left maxilla of the holotype of Irritator is regarded as representing the third tooth position, which is also preserved in the holotype of Angaturama. Thus, both specimens cannot belong to the same individual, contrary to previous assumptions, although they could have been the same taxon. In addition, the position of the external nares of Irritator is more comparable to those of Baryonyx and Suchomimus instead of other spinosaurine spinosaurids. In fact, with regards to some craniodental features, Brazilian taxa represent intermediate conditions between Baryonychinae and Spinosaurinae. Such a scenario is corroborated by our cladistic results, which also leave open the possibility of the former subfamily being non-monophyletic. Furthermore, the differences between spinosaurids regarding the position and size of the external nares might be related to distinct feeding habits and degrees of reliance on olfaction. Other issues concerning the evolution and taxonomy of Spinosauridae require descriptions of additional material for their clarification.

  18. Conservation of biodiversity through taxonomy, data publication, and collaborative infrastructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Mark J; Vanhoorne, Bart; Appeltans, Ward

    2015-08-01

    Taxonomy is the foundation of biodiversity science because it furthers discovery of new species. Globally, there have never been so many people involved in naming species new to science. The number of new marine species described per decade has never been greater. Nevertheless, it is estimated that tens of thousands of marine species, and hundreds of thousands of terrestrial species, are yet to be discovered; many of which may already be in specimen collections. However, naming species is only a first step in documenting knowledge about their biology, biogeography, and ecology. Considering the threats to biodiversity, new knowledge of existing species and discovery of undescribed species and their subsequent study are urgently required. To accelerate this research, we recommend, and cite examples of, more and better communication: use of collaborative online databases; easier access to knowledge and specimens; production of taxonomic revisions and species identification guides; engagement of nonspecialists; and international collaboration. "Data-sharing" should be abandoned in favor of mandated data publication by the conservation science community. Such a step requires support from peer reviewers, editors, journals, and conservation organizations. Online data publication infrastructures (e.g., Global Biodiversity Information Facility, Ocean Biogeographic Information System) illustrate gaps in biodiversity sampling and may provide common ground for long-term international collaboration between scientists and conservation organizations. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  19. Otoliths as an integral part in fossil fish taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Gierl

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Otoliths are small structures in the skull of fishes. They are responsible for hearing and orientation in the 3-dimensional space. They also hold valuable information regarding the taxonomy. Their outline, the shape of the sulcus and other features allow the determination of a fish even to the species level. A lot of fossil species are solely based on otoliths because of their good chance of preservation. Gobies are in this case no different. An additional challenge in gobies is their high similarity between species concerning the preservable parts. Fossil skeletons that are 20 Million years old can show only few differences compared to recent gobies. These features are often hardly recognizable due to their preservation. As a consequence many fossil gobies have been assigned to the genus Gobius sensu lato. Examples are two gobies from the Miocene of Southern Germany. They have a unique combination of characters (six branchiostegals, palatine resembling a “T”, no entopterygoid that allows the rectification of a new fossil genus but the two species are hardly distinguishable based only on the skeleton. The key hints in having two species are the otoliths. They show slight but consistent differences in their outline. This shows that otoliths can be a key feature in species identification. They should also be taken into consideration by recent fish species. Not to mention their possible phylogenetic potential that remains to be explored.

  20. [A study on taxonomy of Rhizobia isolated from Astragalus sp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S; Chen, W

    1997-10-01

    Thirty-six strains isolated from root nodule of Astragalus spp., in comparison with 31 reference strains of Rhizobium, Bradyrhizobium and Sinorhizobium species, and some other strains isolated from legumes in Xinjiang and Hainian Province, were classified by performing numberical taxonomy, DNA-DNA hybrization and partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Results of herichical analysis showed most of trains isolated from Astragalus spp. fell into subgroups 8 and 9, Also the DNA homolgy among strains of subgroups 8 and 9 are more than 70%, with the exception of strains CA8593 and SX044, and the DNA homology between strain CA8561, JL84 and type strains of all described rhizobial species are less than 56%. These results indicated that these two subgroups 8 and 9 were unique DNA homologous groups, distinguishing from all described rhizobial species. Sequencing of partial 16S rRNA gene showed that cetrostrain CA8561 of subgroup 8 is phylogenetically far from all know species of Rhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, Sinorhizobium, Azorhizobium and Agrobacterium, and it is a unique geneline. The cetrostrain JL84 of subgroup 9 has a unique position in the phylogenetic branch consisted of species of Rhizobium and Agrobacterium.