WorldWideScience

Sample records for bituminous pavements

  1. Development of New Bituminous Pavement Design Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullidtz, Per

    The report and work of COST Action 333 sets in place the foundation for a coherent, cost-effective and harmonised European pavement design method. In order to do this, the work programme focused on information gathering, identification of requirements and the selection of the necessary design...

  2. Application of infrared camera to bituminous concrete pavements: measuring vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janků, Michal; Stryk, Josef

    2017-09-01

    Infrared thermography (IR) has been used for decades in certain fields. However, the technological level of advancement of measuring devices has not been sufficient for some applications. Over the recent years, good quality thermal cameras with high resolution and very high thermal sensitivity have started to appear on the market. The development in the field of measuring technologies allowed the use of infrared thermography in new fields and for larger number of users. This article describes the research in progress in Transport Research Centre with a focus on the use of infrared thermography for diagnostics of bituminous road pavements. A measuring vehicle, equipped with a thermal camera, digital camera and GPS sensor, was designed for the diagnostics of pavements. New, highly sensitive, thermal cameras allow to measure very small temperature differences from the moving vehicle. This study shows the potential of a high-speed inspection without lane closures while using IR thermography.

  3. Water Accumulation and Behavior of Surfactant Associated with Moisture Permeation in Bituminous Pavement on Concrete Deck Bridge

    OpenAIRE

    Sasaki, Iwao; Moriyoshi, Akihiro; Tsunekawa, Masami

    2006-01-01

    Water-related damage is one of the major problems for the durability of the bituminous pavement and concrete slabs of concrete deck bridges. In particular, damage can be drastically accelerated by the intervention of water and some chemicals such as surfactants and salts. Therefore, the mass transfer mechanism of water and the mechanism of chemical absorption in pavement materials are important to study. The authors previously pointed out that water storage in bituminous pavement layers is ca...

  4. A Method to Estimate the Dynamic Displacement and Stress of a Multi-layered Pavement with Bituminous or Concrete Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng LU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research work, a method to estimate the dynamic characteristics of a multilayered pavement with bituminous or concrete materials is proposed. A mechanical model is established to investigate the dynamic displacement and stress of the multi-layered pavement structure. Both the flexible and the rigid pavements, corresponding to bituminous materials and concrete materials, respectively, are studied. The theoretical solutions of the multi-layered pavement structure are deduced considering the compatibility condition at the interface of the structural layers. By introducing FFT (Fast Fourier Transform algorithm, some numerical results are presented. Comparisons of the theoretical and experimental result implied that the proposed method is reasonable in predicting the stress and displacement of a multi-layered pavement with bituminous or concrete materials. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.4.6071

  5. Assessment of the Remaining Life of Bituminous Layers in Road Pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kálmán Adorjányi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a mechanistic-empirical approach is presented for the assessment of bearing capacity condition of asphalt pavement layers by Falling Weight Deflectometer measurements and laboratory fatigue tests. The bearing capacity condition ratio was determined using past traffic data and the remaining fatigue life which was determined from multilayer pavement response model. The traffic growth rate was taken into account with finite arithmetic and geometric progressions. Fatigue resistance of layers’ bituminous materials was obtained with indirect tensile fatigue tests. Deduct curve of condition scores was derived with Weibull distribution.

  6. Review and environmental impact assessment of green technologies for base courses in bituminous pavements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthonissen, Joke; Van den bergh, Wim; Braet, Johan

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a critical review of different approaches applied in the Belgian asphalt sector in order to reduce the environmental impact of bituminous road construction works. The focus is on (1) reusing reclaimed asphalt pavement, (2) reducing the asphalt production temperature, and (3) prolonging the service life of the pavement. Environmental impact assessment of these methods is necessary to be able to compare these approaches and understand better the ability to reduce the environmental impact during the life cycle of the road pavement. Attention should be drawn to the possible shift in environmental impact between various life cycle stages, e.g., raw material production, asphalt production, or waste treatment. Life cycle assessment is necessary to adequately assess the environmental impact of these approaches over the entire service life of the bituminous pavement. The three approaches and their implementation in the road sector in Flanders (region in Belgium) are described and the main findings from life cycle assessment studies on these subjects are discussed. It was found from the review that using reclaimed asphalt pavement in new bituminous mixtures might yield significant environmental gains. The environmental impact of the application of warm mix asphalt technologies, on the other hand, depends on the technique used. - Highlights: • Recycling, lower production temperature and durability of asphalt are investigated. • The use of RAP in new asphalt mixtures yields significant environmental advantages. • It would be beneficial to allow RAP in asphalt mixtures for wearing courses. • The use of particular additives might counteract the environmental gain from WMA. • The service life and the environmental data source influence the LCA results.

  7. Review and environmental impact assessment of green technologies for base courses in bituminous pavements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthonissen, Joke, E-mail: joke.anthonissen@uantwerpen.be [Faculty of Applied Engineering, University of Antwerp, Rodestraat 4, 2000 Antwerp (Belgium); Van den bergh, Wim, E-mail: wim.vandenbergh@uantwerpen.be [Faculty of Applied Engineering, University of Antwerp, Rodestraat 4, 2000 Antwerp (Belgium); Braet, Johan, E-mail: johan.braet@uantwerpen.be [Department Engineering Management, Faculty of Applied Economics, University of Antwerp, Prinsstraat 13, 2000 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2016-09-15

    This paper provides a critical review of different approaches applied in the Belgian asphalt sector in order to reduce the environmental impact of bituminous road construction works. The focus is on (1) reusing reclaimed asphalt pavement, (2) reducing the asphalt production temperature, and (3) prolonging the service life of the pavement. Environmental impact assessment of these methods is necessary to be able to compare these approaches and understand better the ability to reduce the environmental impact during the life cycle of the road pavement. Attention should be drawn to the possible shift in environmental impact between various life cycle stages, e.g., raw material production, asphalt production, or waste treatment. Life cycle assessment is necessary to adequately assess the environmental impact of these approaches over the entire service life of the bituminous pavement. The three approaches and their implementation in the road sector in Flanders (region in Belgium) are described and the main findings from life cycle assessment studies on these subjects are discussed. It was found from the review that using reclaimed asphalt pavement in new bituminous mixtures might yield significant environmental gains. The environmental impact of the application of warm mix asphalt technologies, on the other hand, depends on the technique used. - Highlights: • Recycling, lower production temperature and durability of asphalt are investigated. • The use of RAP in new asphalt mixtures yields significant environmental advantages. • It would be beneficial to allow RAP in asphalt mixtures for wearing courses. • The use of particular additives might counteract the environmental gain from WMA. • The service life and the environmental data source influence the LCA results.

  8. Reuse of bituminous pavements: A mini-review of research, regulations and modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthonissen, Joke; Van den Bergh, Wim; Braet, Johan

    2017-04-01

    Bituminous pavement can be recycled - even multiple times - by reusing it in new bituminous mixtures. If the mechanical properties of the binder get worse, this reclaimed asphalt is often used in the sub-structure of the road. Apparently, up till now, no end-of-life phase exists for the material. Actually, defining the end-of-life and the end-of-waste stage of a material is important for life cycle assessment modelling. Various standards and scientific studies on modelling life cycle assessment are known, but the crucial stages are not yet defined for reclaimed asphalt pavement. Unlike for iron, steel and aluminium scrap, at this moment, no legislative end-of-waste criteria for aggregates are formulated by the European Commission. More research is necessary in order to develop valuable end-of-life criteria for aggregates. This contribution is a mini-review article of the current regulations, standards and studies concerning end-of-life and end-of-waste of reclaimed asphalt pavement. The existing methodology in order to define end-of-waste criteria, a case study on aggregates and the argumentation used in finished legislative criteria are the basis to clarify some modelling issues for reclaimed asphalt material. Hence, this contribution elucidates the assignment of process environmental impacts to a life cycle stage as defined by EN15804, that is, end-of-life stage (C) and the supplementary information Module D with benefits and loads beyond the system boundary.

  9. Assessment of an Impulse GPR Antenna Abilities in Investigation of Transversal Cracks of the Bituminous Pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysiński, L.; Sudyka, J.

    2012-04-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) technique is commonly used for detection of internal singularities of construction structure. The method is particularly efficient in the case of linear horizontal objects when profile scanning is being performed in the direction perpendicular to object elongation and polarization of the electric field is parallel to the elongation. Then the singular object manifests itself in the echogram as a scattering hyperbola. Similar response is generated by an object having shape close to a vertical half plane with horizontal edge, when the edge acts like the scattering linear object. The use of GPR technique for investigation of transversal cracks in the bituminous pavement would seem to be promising, but numerous paradoxes occur just at the beginning tests. Even well visible cracks of more than ten millimeters thickness doesn't generate noticeable GPR response, while thinner ones sometimes can produce strong response but in the deeper interior of the pavement. Thus arise a more general question: what the GPR technique can tell us about the cracks? Trying to study this problem some laboratory tests were performed to estimate efficiency of signal generation by structures simulating idealized cracks' shapes. Next long-term (several years) visual observation and repeated GPR scanning was performed on the three road sections (each one of several hundred meters length) with heavy traffic, where ongoing cracking process occurs. The preliminary measurements were directed to obtain the proper way of scanning. The main aim of the analysis was to find GPR characteristics of cracks that can be noticed on echograms. It was performed by detailed correlation of the visually observed cracks position with echograms using decimeter precision. These efforts provided a list of diagnostic GPR characteristics of cracks and some provisional scale of their intensity. In several cases the cracks were probed by drillings to recognize structures responsible for signal

  10. Saw & seal, airport pavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    Due to extreme cold temperatures, hot bituminous pavements on Maines airports are subject to transverse : or thermal cracking. This can lead to poorly performing pavement structure causing heaving and : settlement problems. Studies have shown that...

  11. Crumb Rubber in cold recycled bituminous mixes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dondi, Giulio; Tataranni, Piergiorgio; Pettinari, Matteo

    2014-01-01

    Today recycling is one of the most innovative and interesting techniques for the rehabilitation of destressed road pavements. In recent years the increased interest in this process, has led to the development of various alternative methods for the recovery and the reuse of road bituminous materials....... Cold recycling is, among the recycling techniques, certainly the most studied and developed: it allows the recovering of bituminous material from an existing pavement without the addition of heat, whilst ensuring the creation of high quality bound base layers. A wide range of materials have been tested...

  12. Overlay design method based on visual pavement distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    A method for designing the thickness of overlays for bituminous concrete pavements in Virginia is described. In this method the thickness is calculated by rating the amount and severity of observed pavement distress and determining the total accumula...

  13. Best practices and performance assessment for preventive maintenance treatments for Virginia pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Preventive maintenance has the potential to improve network condition by retarding future pavement deterioration. This : report outlines guidelines for implementing a preventive maintenance policy for bituminous pavements. : Preventive maintenance tr...

  14. Chemomechanics of Damage Accumulation and Damage-Recovery Healing in Bituminous Asphalt Binders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pauli, A.T.

    2014-01-01

    As a contribution to the development of mutli-scale multi-physics approaches to modelling pavement performance, the present thesis considers the topic of damage accumulation accompanied by damage recover self-healing of the bituminous asphalt phase of pavement systems. It is found insightful that by

  15. Treatments for clays in aggregates used to produce cement concrete, bituminous materials, and chip seals : technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The clay contamination of coarse and fine aggregates and its effects on pavement performance of portland cement concrete, bituminous mixes and chip seals is a major concern for Texas Department of Transportation. We proposed (i) to determine what typ...

  16. Field cracking performance of airfield rigid pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Mehta

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses cracking in airport pavements as studied in Construction Cycle 6 of testing carried out at the National Airport Pavement Testing Facility by the Federal Aviation Administration. Pavements of three different flexural strengths as well as two different subgrades, a soft bituminous layer and a more rigid layer known as econocrete, were tested. In addition to this, cracking near two types of isolated transition joints, a reinforced edge joint and a thickened edge joint, was considered. The pavement sections were tested using a moving load simulating that of an aircraft. It has been determined that the degree of cracking was reduced as the flexural strength of the pavement was increased and that fewer cracks formed over the econocrete base than over the bituminous base. In addition, the thickened edge transition joint was more effective in preventing cracking at the edges compared to the reinforced edge joint.

  17. Skid resistance of bituminous surfaces in Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colony, D. C.

    1984-03-01

    Statistical studies of skid number (SN) on the state highway system in Ohio reveal apparently systematic variations in distributions of SN among the twelve districts in the state. These variations appear to be significantly related to traffic and to geological characteristics of a given district. Regression calculations using traffic index, a function of ADT and age of the pavement surface in months, show a high correlation with SN, although standard errors of estimate were too large to make the equations useful for predicting SN from traffic variables. Similar results were obtained by elating SN to physiographic features in the state. Pavement surface type (bituminous or pcc) and coarse aggregate type (limestone, gravel or slag) are significantly related to SN.

  18. Investigation on Using SBS and Active Carbon Filler to Reduce the VOC Emission from Bituminous Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Peiqiang; Wu, Shaopeng; Li, Fuzhou; Xiao, Yue; Zhang, Honghua

    2014-01-01

    Bituminous materials are playing a vital role in pavement design and the roofing industry because of outstanding properties. Unfortunately, bituminous materials will release volatile organic compounds (VOC), making them non-environmentally friendly. Therefore, technologies that can be used to decrease the VOC emission are urgently required. In this research, the VOC emission and material behaviors were analyzed and compared to investigate the possibility of adding styrene butadiene styrene (S...

  19. 8th RILEM International Symposium on Testing and Characterization of Sustainable and Innovative Bituminous Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Partl, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    This work presents the results of RILEM TC 237-SIB (Testing and characterization of sustainable innovative bituminous materials and systems). The papers have been selected for publication after a rigorous peer review process and will be an invaluable source to outline and clarify the main directions of present and future research and standardization for bituminous materials and pavements. The following topics are covered: - Characterization of binder-aggregate interaction - Innovative testing of bituminous binders, additives and modifiers - Durability and aging of asphalt pavements - Mixture design and compaction analysis - Environmentally sustainable materials and technologies - Advances in laboratory characterization of bituminous materials - Modeling of road materials and pavement performance prediction - Field measurement and in-situ characterization - Innovative materials for reinforcement and interlayer systems - Cracking and damage characterization of asphalt pavements - Rec...

  20. Rutting performance of cold bituminous emulsion mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Ahmad Kamil; Ali, Noor Azilatom; Shaffie, Ekarizan; Hashim, Wardati; Rahman, Zanariah Abd

    2017-10-01

    Cold Bituminous Emulsion Mixture (CBEM) is an environmentally friendly alternative to hot mix asphalt (HMA) for road surfacing, due to its low energy requirements. However, CBEM has generally been perceived to be less superior in performance, compared to HMA. This paper details a laboratory study on the rutting performance of CBEM. The main objective of this study is to determine the Marshall properties of CBEM and to evaluate the rutting performance. The effect of cement in CBEM was also evaluated in this study. The specimens were prepared using Marshall Mix Design Method and rutting performance was evaluated using the Asphalt Pavement Analyzer (APA). Marshall Properties were analysed to confirm compliance with the PWD Malaysia's specification requirements. The rutting performance for specimens with cement was also found to perform better than specimens without cement. It can be concluded that Cold Bituminous Emulsion Mixtures (CBEM) with cement is a viable alternative to Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) as their Marshall Properties and performance obtained from this study meets the requirements of the specifications. It is recommended that further study be conducted on CBEM for other performance criteria such as moisture susceptibility and fatigue.

  1. Reuse of steel slag in bituminous paving mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorlini, Sabrina; Sanzeni, Alex; Rondi, Luca

    2012-03-30

    This paper presents a comprehensive study to evaluate the mechanical properties and environmental suitability of electric arc furnace (EAF) steel slag in bituminous paving mixtures. A variety of tests were executed on samples of EAF slag to characterize the physical, geometrical, mechanical and chemical properties as required by UNI EN specifications, focusing additionally on the volumetric expansion associated with hydration of free CaO and MgO. Five bituminous mixtures of aggregates for flexible road pavement were designed containing up to 40% of EAF slag and were tested to determine Marshall stability and indirect tensile strength. The leaching behaviour of slag samples and bituminous mixtures was evaluated according to the UNI EN leaching test. The tested slag showed satisfactory physical and mechanical properties and a release of pollutants generally below the limits set by the Italian code. Tests on volume stability of fresh materials confirmed that a period of 2-3 months is necessary to reduce effects of oxides hydration. The results of tests performed on bituminous mixtures with EAF slag were comparable with the performance of mixtures containing natural aggregates and the leaching tests provided satisfactory results. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Cold bituminous mixes

    OpenAIRE

    Delak, Boštjan

    2012-01-01

    Asphalt mix (short also asphalt) can be obtained from nature (natural asphalt) or produced technically (artificial asphalt), i. e. as a mix of bituminous binder, stone grain, and other additives that improve the asphalt properties. The beginnings of the use of asphalt can be traced from 6,000 to 4,000 BC since people back then knew some materials that contained bitumen as a binder. A more frequent use of the natural asphalt, however, starts around 3,000 BC. Different peoples used it primar...

  3. Aqueous radioactive waste bituminization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, A.S.

    1980-08-01

    The bituminzation of decontamination and ion exchange resin stripping wastes with four grades of asphalt was investigated to determine the effects of asphalt type on the properties of the final products. All waste forms deformed readily under light loads indicating they would flow if not restrained. It was observed in all cases that product leaching rates increased as the hardness of the asphalt used to treat the waste increased. If bituminization is adopted for any Ontario Hydro aqueous radioactive wastes they should be treated with soft asphalt to obtain optimum leaching resistance and mechanical stability during interim storage should be provided by a corrosion resistant container

  4. The airport pavements reinforced with Mineral-Asphalt Mixtures’ (MAM layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Marszałek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents original solutions, methodology, and procedure for determining the thickness of bituminous overlays for renovation and modernization of the existing airfield pavements.Using the Westergaard method, the algorithm and nomograms were developed in order to determine the edge stress and the loading force. The nomograms are a state of the art solutions that have never been presented in a similar form. After derivation of aforementioned dependencies, the practical way to use the nomograms, depending on the existing bituminous airport pavement, was demonstrated.The plots were developed on the basis of calculations using the derived equations. They will definitely facilitate the procedure of selecting the thickness of the flexible overlay to the airport pavements which require repair or modernization.[b]Keywords[/b]: airport rigid pavements, airport vulnerable pavements, strengthening the pavement

  5. Noise Reduction Properties of an Experimental Bituminous Slurry with Crumb Rubber Incorporated by the Dry Process

    OpenAIRE

    Bueno, Moisés; Luong, Jeanne; Terán, Fernando; Viñuela, Urbano; Vázquez, Víctor; Paje, Santiago

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, cold technology for asphalt pavement in the field of road construction is considered as an alternative solution to conventional procedures from both an economic and environmental point of view. Among these techniques, bituminous slurry surfacing is obtaining an important role due to the properties of the obtained wearing course. The functional performance of this type of surfaces is directly related to its rough texture. Nevertheless, this parameter has a significant influence on th...

  6. Nonlinearity of bituminous mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiafico, S.; Babadopulos, L. F. A. L.; Sauzéat, C.; Di Benedetto, H.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents an experimental characterization of the strain dependency of the complex modulus of bituminous mixtures for strain amplitude levels lower than about 110 μm/m. A series of strain amplitude sweep tests are performed at different temperatures (8, 10, 12 and 14°C) and frequencies (0.3, 1, 3 and 10 Hz), during which complex modulus is monitored. For each combination of temperature and frequency, four maximum strain amplitudes are targeted (50, 75, 100 and 110 μm/m). For each of them, two series of 50 loading cycles are applied, respectively at decreasing and increasing strain amplitudes. Before each decreasing strain sweep and after each increasing strain sweep, 5 cycles are performed at constant maximum targeted strain amplitude. Experimental results show that the behavior of the studied material is strain dependent. The norm of the complex modulus decreases and phase angle increases with strain amplitude. Results are presented in Black and Cole-Cole plots, where characteristic directions of nonlinearity can be identified. Both the effects of nonlinearity in terms of the complex modulus variation and of the direction of nonlinearity in Black space seem to validate the time-temperature superposition principle with the same shift factors as for linear viscoelasticity. The comparison between results obtained during increasing and decreasing strain sweeps suggests the existence of another phenomenon occurring during cyclic loading, which appears to systematically induce a decrease of the norm of the complex modulus and an increase of the phase angle, regardless of the type of the strain sweep (increasing or decreasing).

  7. Investigation on Using SBS and Active Carbon Filler to Reduce the VOC Emission from Bituminous Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peiqiang Cui

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Bituminous materials are playing a vital role in pavement design and the roofing industry because of outstanding properties. Unfortunately, bituminous materials will release volatile organic compounds (VOC, making them non-environmentally friendly. Therefore, technologies that can be used to decrease the VOC emission are urgently required. In this research, the VOC emission and material behaviors were analyzed and compared to investigate the possibility of adding styrene butadiene styrene (SBS and active carbon filler into bituminous materials to develop environmentally-friendly materials. Thermal gravimetric analysis-mass spectrometry (TG-MS and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy testing (UV-Vis were employed to characterize the VOC emission process. Temperature sweep testing and frequency sweep testing were conducted to evaluate the rheological properties of bituminous materials. Research results indicated that the combined introduction of 4 wt% styrene butadiene styrene (SBS and 4 wt% active carbon filler cannot only significantly lower the VOC emission speed and amount, but also improve the deformation resistance behavior at a higher temperature. SBS and active carbon filler can be used to reduce the VOC emission form bituminous materials.

  8. Investigation on Using SBS and Active Carbon Filler to Reduce the VOC Emission from Bituminous Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Peiqiang; Wu, Shaopeng; Li, Fuzhou; Xiao, Yue; Zhang, Honghua

    2014-08-26

    Bituminous materials are playing a vital role in pavement design and the roofing industry because of outstanding properties. Unfortunately, bituminous materials will release volatile organic compounds (VOC), making them non-environmentally friendly. Therefore, technologies that can be used to decrease the VOC emission are urgently required. In this research, the VOC emission and material behaviors were analyzed and compared to investigate the possibility of adding styrene butadiene styrene (SBS) and active carbon filler into bituminous materials to develop environmentally-friendly materials. Thermal gravimetric analysis-mass spectrometry (TG-MS) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy testing (UV-Vis) were employed to characterize the VOC emission process. Temperature sweep testing and frequency sweep testing were conducted to evaluate the rheological properties of bituminous materials. Research results indicated that the combined introduction of 4 wt% styrene butadiene styrene (SBS) and 4 wt% active carbon filler cannot only significantly lower the VOC emission speed and amount, but also improve the deformation resistance behavior at a higher temperature. SBS and active carbon filler can be used to reduce the VOC emission form bituminous materials.

  9. Bituminization of liquid radioactive waste. Part 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G'oshev, G.S.; Gradev, G.D.; Stefanova, I.G.; Milusheva, A.G.; Guteva, E.S.; Stefanov, G.I.

    1991-01-01

    The elaborated technology for bituminization of liquid radioactive wastes (salt concentrates) is characterized by the fact that the bituminization process takes place in two stages: concentration of the liquid residue and evaporation of the water with simultaneous homogeneous incorporation of the salts in the melted bitumen. An experimental installation for bituminization of salt concentrates was designed on the basis of this technology. The experience accumulated during the design and construction of the installation for bituminization of salt concentrates could be used for designing and constructing an industrial installation for bituminization of the liquid residue of the nuclear power plants. 2 tabs., 3 figs., 3 refs

  10. Analysis of the sensitivity of the impact resonance frequency test as a tool to determine the elastic properties of bituminous materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Tauste

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The modulus value of bituminous materials is a key factor in the design of road pavements and the estimation of their life service. This parameter can be measured in laboratory but, unfortunately, this requires the deterioration of the pavement so as the consumption of time and resources. Therefore, this study analyses the feasibility of using impact resonance frequency tests as an alternative to traditional methods for determining the dynamic modulus of bituminous mixtures. The sensitivity of this technique has been studied by analyzing its repeatability and reproducibility, studying the variations in the values measured by modifying the dimensions of the specimens, test temperatures and types of mixture tested. In addition, this non-destructive technique has been compared with other traditional tests used to determine the elastic properties of bituminous materials. The results show that this test could be an interesting tool to characterize the properties and damage state of asphalt layers.

  11. Analysis of the sensitivity of the impact resonance frequency test as a tool to determine the elastic properties of bituminous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauste, R.; Moreno-Navarro, F.; Gallego, R.; Rubio-Gámez, M.C.

    2017-01-01

    The modulus value of bituminous materials is a key factor in the design of road pavements and the estimation of their life service. This parameter can be measured in laboratory but, unfortunately, this requires the deterioration of the pavement so as the consumption of time and resources. Therefore, this study analyses the feasibility of using impact resonance frequency tests as an alternative to traditional methods for determining the dynamic modulus of bituminous mixtures. The sensitivity of this technique has been studied by analyzing its repeatability and reproducibility, studying the variations in the values measured by modifying the dimensions of the specimens, test temperatures and types of mixture tested. In addition, this non-destructive technique has been compared with other traditional tests used to determine the elastic properties of bituminous materials. The results show that this test could be an interesting tool to characterize the properties and damage state of asphalt layers. [es

  12. Noise Reduction Properties of an Experimental Bituminous Slurry with Crumb Rubber Incorporated by the Dry Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Bueno

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, cold technology for asphalt pavement in the field of road construction is considered as an alternative solution to conventional procedures from both an economic and environmental point of view. Among these techniques, bituminous slurry surfacing is obtaining an important role due to the properties of the obtained wearing course. The functional performance of this type of surfaces is directly related to its rough texture. Nevertheless, this parameter has a significant influence on the tire/road noise generation. To reduce this undesirable effect on the sound performance, new designs of elastic bituminous slurries have been developed. Within the FENIX project, this work presents the acoustical characterization of an experimental bituminous slurry with crumb rubber from wasted automobile tires incorporated by the dry process. The obtained results show that, under controlled operational parameters, the close proximity sound levels associated to the experimental slurry are considerably lower than those emitted by a conventional slurry wearing course. However, after one year of supporting traffic loads and different weather conditions, the evaluated bituminous slurry, although it conserves the original noise reduction properties in relation to the conventional one, noticeably increases the generated sound emission. Therefore, it is required to continue improving the design of experimental surfaces in order to enhance its long-term performance.

  13. Towards improved correlations between bitumen properties and rutting resistance of bituminous mixtures - FunDBitS literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Fátima A.; Hofko, Bernhard; De Visscher, Joëlle; Tanghe, Tine; da Costa, Margarida Sá

    2017-09-01

    Bitumen is the most common binder used in the production of bituminous mixtures for road paving, having a fundamental influence on the performance of the pavement. However, it is not yet fully understood which bitumen properties have a significant influence on the behaviour of bituminous mixtures. In this context, the FunDBitS project was developed. Its main objective was to prepare recommendations on the properties of the bitumen to be specified in order to obtain suitable bituminous mixtures, namely in what concerns to its resistance to permanent deformation (rutting), stiffness, low temperature cracking, fatigue cracking and binder/aggregate interaction. In this framework, the research studies that have become internationally available since the BiTVal project were reviewed in order to assess performance-based bitumen characteristics, which may be introduced into bitumen specification standards. This paper specifically presents the main conclusions regarding the properties of bitumen related to the behaviour to permanent deformation of bituminous mixtures. It was concluded that the most promising test is the “non-recoverable creep compliance” (Jnr) from the Multiple Stress Creep and Recovery (MSCR) test method, although Zero/Low Shear Viscosity (ZSV/LSV) by creep or oscillation test method can also give good correlations with permanent deformation of bituminous mixtures.

  14. Economy of bituminous coal hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    von Hochstetter, H.

    1944-05-11

    The influence of various factors on the production cost of (Janina) bituminous coal hydrogenation is analyzed briefly. The initial reckoning yielded a production cost of 188 marks per metric ton of gasoline and middle oils. The savings concomitant to changes of one percent in gasification, one percent in utilization of purified coal, one percent raising of space/time yield, one percent increase in throughput, one percent in coal concentration in the paste, and one percent in low temperature carbonization yield are listed. Factors affecting hydrogen consumption are listed in a table. Investigations showed the carbon-richest coal to produce a deviation in the effect of gasification upon the working costs by only 10 percent when compared with the Janina coal. Thus, the values listed were considered as guidelines for all kinds of bituminous coal. The calculations admitted the following conclusions: a maximum concentration of coal in the paste is desirable; one can assume a 2 percent reduction in the utilization with a 10 percent increase in throughput, as long as no changes in low temperature carbonization yield take place by changing the distribution in oil production; this configuration would change if the major concern were gas production instead of working costs, or if hydrogen production were the bottleneck. 1 table.

  15. 30 CFR 716.4 - Special bituminous coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special bituminous coal mines. 716.4 Section... INTERIOR INITIAL PROGRAM REGULATIONS SPECIAL PERFORMANCE STANDARDS § 716.4 Special bituminous coal mines. (a) Definition. Special bituminous coal surface mines as used in this section means those bituminous...

  16. A380 pavement experimental program-rigid campaign : slab pattern, instrumentation, static test procedure, fatigue test introduction

    OpenAIRE

    LERAT, P; FABRE, C; BALAY, JM

    2003-01-01

    The paper describes several experimentations on rigid pavements at Toulouse Blagnac airport, tested with heavy aircraft landing gear simulator developed by Airbus S.A.S. The main contributors of this program are Airbus, the French Civil Aviation Administration (STBA) and the French Road and Bridges Laboratory (LCPC). The first part of the program (1998 2000) deals with bituminous pavement. In 2001-2002-2003 the program has focused on Rigid tests. The main aim has been therefore to improve th...

  17. Leachability of bituminized radioactive waste. Literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimoto, Toshiyuki; Nakayama, Shinichi; Iida, Yoshihisa; Nagano, Tetsushi

    1999-02-01

    Bituminized radioactive waste that will be returned from COGEMA, France is planned to be disposed of in deep geologic repository in Japan. Data on leachability of radionuclides from bituminized waste are required for the performance assessment of the disposal. We made a literature survey on bitumen and bituminized radioactive waste, placing emphasis on leach tests and leach data in terms of geologic disposal. This survey revealed that reliable leach data on transuranium elements and data obtained under reducing conditions that is characteristic to deep underground are lacking. (author). 64 refs

  18. Rigid pavements distresses - pavement condition index evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Tiago David da Costa Prudente

    2014-01-01

    Pavements require maintenance in order to provide good service levels during their life period. Because of the significant costs of this operation and the importance of a proper planning, a pavement evaluation methodology, named Pavement Condition Index (PCI), was created by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. This methodology allows for the evaluation of the pavement condition along the life period, generally yearly, with minimum costs and, in this way, it is possible to plan the maintenance a...

  19. Cold weather paving requirements for bituminous concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Cold weather paving specifications were developed from work by Corlew and Dickson, who used a computer solution to predict the cooling rate of bituminous concrete. Virginia had used a minimum atmospheric temperature as a criterion; however, it was ev...

  20. Adhesion Promoters in Bituminous Road Materials: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Oliviero Rossi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on certain classes of organic compounds known variously in the specific literature of asphalt as adhesion promoters, antistripping agents, wetting agents, antistrips, or adhesion agents. These kinds of organic additives are currently formulated to enhance the bitumen coating of mineral aggregates and improve the workability of asphalt mixtures. In this review, the term “adhesion promoters” includes both synthetic organic compounds as well as those extracted from natural resources, mixed in trace amounts to bitumen. Their main role is to alter the interfacial energy, so that the presence of water, even in trace, does not weaken the bitumen-aggregate bond and tends to favor adhesion. The report also considers the chemical functionalities that play a predominant role in bonding, as well as the effects of surface modification of the aggregate due to the presence of adhesion promoters in pre-blended bituminous mixtures. Although bitumen is widely used in road pavement construction and the discussion is mainly addressed to the improvement of adhesion in road materials, adhesion and wetting properties can also represent a general issue in various bitumen-based industrial products.

  1. The use of whitetopping technology in the aspect of implementation of repairs of flexible pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Rudnicki

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of technical and economic implementation of repairs of bituminous pavements using whitetopping technology at the example of classical jointed solutions and the continuous reinforcement. The problems of repairs of asphalt roads in the context of steadily progressive degradation of flexible pavements in Poland are discussed.The types of pavement constructions were presented, with particular emphasis on characteristics of flexible pavements. There were identified and described significant factors contributing to damage, which consequently lead to surface degradation. Also there have been described the types of concrete pavements and their characteristics, taking into account modern technology of cement concrete overlays made in various technologies. The results of the analysis of technical and economic implementation of repairs of flexible pavements using whitetopping technology are presented at the example of classical jointed solutions and the continuous reinforcement. The benefits and potential difficulties in the implementation of pavements repairs as cement concrete technology are indicated.[b]Keywords[/b]: road, repair, whitetopping, overlay, flexible surface, cement concrete pavement, continuous reinforcement

  2. Development of bituminization process for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segawa, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Masao; Miyao, Hidehiko; Mizuno, Ryukichi

    1973-01-01

    For the bituminization of radioactive wastes from a fuel reprocessing plant, the leachability, irradiation stability and burning property of bitumen products have been studied. Sodium nitrate was used for simulated evaporator concentrate, and mixed with distillation bitumen or blown bitumen; the sodium nitrate content in the mixture was 30 to 60 wt%. The distillation bitumen is superior to the blown bitumen in leachability and flash point, but inferior in the increase of volume by irradiation. Since the volume increase is not large, the distillation bitumen is satisfactory for the bituminization of the evaporator concentrate from a fuel reprocessing plant. (Mori, K.)

  3. Permeable pavement study (Edison)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — While permeable pavement is increasingly being used to control stormwater runoff, field-based, side-by-side investigations on the effects different pavement types...

  4. Pavement Subgrade Performance Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Wei; Ullidtz, Per; Macdonald, Robin

    1998-01-01

    The report describes the second test in the Danish Road Testing Machine (RTM) under the International Pavement Subgrade Performance Study. Pavement response was measured in different layers, and compared to different theroretical values. Performance in terms of plastic strains, rutting...

  5. Quieter pavements guidance document

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    This report provides guidance and better practice recommendations to the National Park : Service for selecting pavement surfaces to minimize tire-pavement noise. The report : contains an overview of common technologies and methods for quieter pavemen...

  6. Concrete pavement joint deterioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Concrete pavements are an important part of our national infrastructure. In recent years the relatively small number of reported joints deteriorating prematurely in concrete pavements around Indiana has increased. Changes over the past 45 years in IN...

  7. Firing a sub-bituminous coal in pulverized coal boilers configured for bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. Spitz; R. Saveliev; M. Perelman; E. Korytni; B. Chudnovsky; A. Talanker; E. Bar-Ziv [Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel)

    2008-07-15

    It is important to adapt utility boilers to sub-bituminous coals to take advantage of their environmental benefits while limiting operation risks. We discuss the performance impact that Adaro, an Indonesian sub-bituminous coal with high moisture content, has on opposite-wall and tangentially-fired utility boilers which were designed for bituminous coals. Numerical simulations were made with GLACIER, a computational-fluid-dynamic code, to depict combustion behavior. The predictions were verified with full-scale test results. For analysis of the operational parameters for firing Adaro coal in both boilers, we used EXPERT system, an on-line supervision system developed by Israel Electric Corporation. It was concluded that firing Adaro coal, compared to a typical bituminous coal, lowers NOx and SO{sub 2} emissions, lowers LOI content and improves fouling behavior but can cause load limitation which impacts flexible operation. 21 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Radioactive wastes bituminization by the pilot-plant equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golinsky, M.; Ferenc, M.; Ksendzak, Z.; Tikal, A.

    1978-01-01

    Operation experience of pilot-plant for bituminization of radioactive wastes by the method of hot mixing is described. The results obtained have conffirmed parameters of the process gained in laboratory conditions for asphalts D-35 and P-60. The results are stated for experiments of bituminization of still residuums obtained as a result of distillation of low and intermediate-level of activity sewage waters. Chemical composition of the still residuums and characteristics of the P-60 asphalt are given. Bituminization of crystal sodium nitrate and supersaturated solutions at 200 centigrades up to 30% contents of salt in the compound was performed. It is shown that bituminization results depend on salts composition of radioactive wastes subject to solidification. The results are described of investigations of bituminization by the method of hot mixing of still residuums of radioactive wastes containing sodium nitrates on the pilot-plant. Parameters are given of bituminization process and characteristics of compounds obtained in bituminization of still residuums in a form of concentrates. Leachind process for wastes solidificated by the method of bituminization has been investigated. Leaching rate for radionuclides incorporated into bituminization products depending on time of storage is given. Results of the spectrometric analysis of solidificated concentrates, bituminization product and gaseous products of radioactive wastes processing by the method of hot mixing are given. (I.T.) [ru

  9. Study of Rheological Properties of Bituminous Binders in Middle and High Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remišová Eva

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The bitumen binders in road pavements are exposed traffic loading effect at different climatic conditions. A resistance to these stresses depends on bitumen properties as well. The paper presents rheological properties (G*, δ, ν* determined and compared for four bituminous binders (unmodified and polymer modified bitumen at temperature 46 – 60 (80 °C and dynamic viscosity at temperature 130 – 190 °C (Brookfield viscometer. On the basis of viscosity results it is possible to set optimal production and compaction temperatures. Elastic and viscous behavior of binder in the middle temperature is determined in rheometers. The higher value of complex modulus, the stiffer bitumen binder is able to resist deformation. The greater content of elastic components (e.g. polymer in bitumen varies mainly elastic-viscous properties of primary bitumen.

  10. Behaviour of bituminized radioactive wastes under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camaro, S.; Gilardi, T.; Vistoli, P.P.

    2000-01-01

    Studies are carried out by the CEA in order to predict the behaviour of bituminized radioactive wastes under self irradiation. Bitumen radiolysis produces gas (mainly H 2 ) which diffuses in the organic matrix. If the hydrogen yield is higher than the diffusion flux through the free surface, hydrogen concentration increases and exceeds its solubility in bitumen. Beyond saturation, bubbles are formed and gas is also evacuated by bubbles drift. The aim of these studies is to evaluate the evacuation capacity of radiolytic gas produced in function of initial bituminized wasteform characteristics. A model was developed to achieve this purpose, by calculating the evolution of bubbles population considering all elementary mechanisms of gas evacuation. (authors)

  11. Time dependent viscoelastic rheological response of pure, modified and synthetic bituminous binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airey, G. D.; Grenfell, J. R. A.; Apeagyei, A.; Subhy, A.; Lo Presti, D.

    2016-08-01

    Bitumen is a viscoelastic material that exhibits both elastic and viscous components of response and displays both a temperature and time dependent relationship between applied stresses and resultant strains. In addition, as bitumen is responsible for the viscoelastic behaviour of all bituminous materials, it plays a dominant role in defining many of the aspects of asphalt road performance, such as strength and stiffness, permanent deformation and cracking. Although conventional bituminous materials perform satisfactorily in most highway pavement applications, there are situations that require the modification of the binder to enhance the properties of existing asphalt material. The best known form of modification is by means of polymer modification, traditionally used to improve the temperature and time susceptibility of bitumen. Tyre rubber modification is another form using recycled crumb tyre rubber to alter the properties of conventional bitumen. In addition, alternative binders (synthetic polymeric binders as well as renewable, environmental-friendly bio-binders) have entered the bitumen market over the last few years due to concerns over the continued availability of bitumen from current crudes and refinery processes. This paper provides a detailed rheological assessment, under both temperature and time regimes, of a range of conventional, modified and alternative binders in terms of the materials dynamic (oscillatory) viscoelastic response. The rheological results show the improved viscoelastic properties of polymer- and rubber-modified binders in terms of increased complex shear modulus and elastic response, particularly at high temperatures and low frequencies. The synthetic binders were found to demonstrate complex rheological behaviour relative to that seen for conventional bituminous binders.

  12. Bituminization of liquid radioactive wastes. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gradev, G.D.; Ivanov, V.I.; Stefanova, I.G.; Milusheva, A.G.; Guteva, E.S.; Zhelyazkov, V.T.; Stefanov, G.I.; G'oshev, G.S.

    1991-01-01

    Salt-bitumen products are produced by the method of 'hot mixing' of some Bulgarian bitumens (road bitumen PB 66/99 and the hydroinsulating bitumen HB 80/25) and salts (chlorides, sulphates, borates, salt mixtures modelling the liquid waste from nuclear power plants) in different ratios to determine the optimum conditions for bituminization of liquid radioactive waste. The penetration, ductility and softening temperature were determined. The sedimentation properties and the thermal resistance of the various bitumen-salt mixtures were studied. The most suitable bitumen for technological research at the Kozloduy NPP was found to be the road bitumen PB 66/90 with softening temperature at 48 o C. The optimum amount of salts incorporated in the bitumen - about 45% - was found. No exothermal effects were observed in the bituminization process in the temperature range of up to 200 o C. The results obtained may be useful in the elaboration of a technology for bituminization of liquid radioactive wastes in the Kozloduy NPP. 4 tabs., 5 figs., 4 refs

  13. Bituminization of low- and medium-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefillatre, G.

    1976-01-01

    French operations are presented concerning mainly: the bituminization of radioactive wastes produced in light water reactors; the direct bituminization of liquid effluents without concentration; the experiments carried out for 18 months on the land burial of concentrates solidified by bitumen into blocks of 100 liters. The knowledge acquired in France is exposed: in Valduc and in Saclay with facilities equipped with thin film evaporators and in Marcoule with the conditioning of trilaurylamine and tributyl-phosphate. At last the Cadarache bituminization [fr

  14. Pavement Testing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Comprehensive Environmental and Structural AnalysesThe ERDC Pavement Testing Facility, located on the ERDC Vicksburg campus, was originally constructed to provide an...

  15. Pretreatment of bituminous coal for hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupfer, H.

    1943-03-29

    Bituminous coal became plastic at certain temperature ranges and swelled, causing plugging of preheater tubes. With few exceptions, this problem was encountered only when hydrogenating bituminous coal. This swelling often appeared in the coking of coals, and for the majority of the cases it was found that efforts to reduce the baking ability of bituminous coal also reduced the swelling of coal paste in the preheater tubes. Three methods of pretreatment to reduce swelling were preheating, oxidation (anoxidation), and sulfur treatment. The preheating by hot nitrogen at 250 atm for 3 hours showed no improvement in swelling characteristics, but produced a greater asphalt content and a lower amount of gasification. Absorption of oxygen was shown to increase the viscosity of the coal paste, while preheating in a vacuum showed no effects. Oxidation (anoxidation) increased the splitting and gasification and gave higher asphalt content. The baking ability of Saar coal could be destroyed by addition of 2.5% sulfur and heating for 1/sup 1///sub 2/ hours at 110/sup 0/C, in a stream of H/sub 2/S. The volatile content dropped significantly when the same coal was heated to 200/sup 0/ to 250/sup 0/C. When neutralized Saar coal was dried under a stream of H/sub 2/S, only slight deterioration of the yield was noted with equal degree of gasification. It was concluded that a more or less distinct improvement would be observed from the absorption of sulfur, but that residue processing would have to be altered to account for the sulfur content.

  16. Bituminization of radioactive wastes at the Nuclear Research Center Karlsruhe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hild, W.; Kluger, W.; Krause, H.

    1976-05-01

    A summary is given of the main operational experience gained at the Nuclear Research Center Karlsruhe in 4 years operation of the bituminization plant for evaporator concentrates from low- and medium level wastes. At the same time some of the essential results are compiled that have been obtained in the R + D activities on bituminization. (orig.) [de

  17. Response Modelling of Bitumen, Bituminous Mastic and Mortar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldekidan, M.F.

    2011-01-01

    This research focuses on testing and modelling the viscoelastic response of bituminous binders. The main goal is to find an appropriate response model for bituminous binders. The desired model should allow implementation into numerical environments such as ABAQUS. On the basis of such numerical

  18. Simple volatility test for bituminous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, J.A.

    1980-04-01

    A simple, inexpensive test measuring the volatility or fuming propensity of bituminous materials with good repeatability has been devised. The test depends on measuring the mass loss which occurs when a small sample of the material is heated in a shallow open dish on a thermostatic hotplate for a fixed time. A rectilinear inverse relation between the mass losses and the softening points of a series of pitches from one source has been found, and the test has been shown to give results which correlate well with other methods for characterizing pitch volatility. Test results obtained with a range of tar products from pitches to creosotes all showed similarly good repeatability. (4 refs.)

  19. Pervious Pavement System Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porous pavement is a low impact development stormwater control. The Urban Watershed Management Branch is evaluating interlocking concrete pavers as a popular implementation. The pavers themselves are impermeable, but the spaces between the pavers are backfilled with washed, grade...

  20. Desert Pavement Studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haff, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Combining plan view information from aerial photography showing details of stream channels on desert pavement surfaces with process-based erosion models, a high-resolution, synthetic topography DEM...

  1. Processing of bituminous coal tar at high temperature with bituminous coal additive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    von Hartmann, G.B.; Hupfer, H.; Leonhardt, P.

    1943-05-10

    In short tests, results of the effects of a bituminous coal addition to the processing of tar and pitch were obtainable. Coal used was that from the Heinitz Mines (Upper Silesian), saturated with 1--1.2% iron sulphate. On a mixture of bituminous coal tar residue and tar oil, with a relatively low level of solids and asphalt, a substitution was made for the addition of 2% alkalized iron-grude-catalyst with 20% coal. The same yield was reached using a straight-run procedure. The coal gave somewhat more gasification and additional asphalt in the sludge without increasing the solids content correspondingly. In spite of this, the carbonization results were somewhat improved, which led one to conclude that the coal addition fostered the decomposition of the tar asphalt, and, that the asphalt from the coal could be better carbonized than that out of the tar. One found, also, that the tar mixture with coal additive permitted trouble-free hydrogenation to gasoline and middle oil. Still another short test met with success. A bituminous coal tar pitch containing 24% benzene solids and 36% asphalt, which could not be processed with iron catalyst or even molybdenum-grude, was hydrogenated to gasoline and middle oil with a usable yield of .25 by a 20--25% addition of coal. Here too, the carbonization results were good. The addition of coal had no notable influence on the properties of the resulting oils. The document included test procedures. 11 tables.

  2. Bituminization of radioactive wastes: safety problems and application fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefillatre, G.; Leconnetable, J.

    1975-01-01

    The bituminization of low and medium radioactive wastes has many advantages: volume and weight reduction; homogeneity of the solid obtained; good resistance to leaching (biological resistance to microorganisms, resistance to radiations); very favorable characteristics for transport and storage. The latest bituminization facility put into service at the CEA is that of the Saclay Center. The bituminization unit is located after a primary evaporator having a distillation capacity of 2m 3 /h. It enables the coating of effluents at the rate of 60l/h [fr

  3. Permeable pavement study (Edison)

    Science.gov (United States)

    While permeable pavement is increasingly being used to control stormwater runoff, field-based, side-by-side investigations on the effects different pavement types have on nutrient concentrations present in stormwater runoff are limited. In 2009, the U.S. EPA constructed a 0.4-ha parking lot in Edison, New Jersey, that incorporated permeable interlocking concrete pavement (PICP), pervious concrete (PC), and porous asphalt (PA). Each permeable pavement type has four, 54.9-m2, lined sections that direct all infiltrate into 5.7-m3 tanks enabling complete volume collection and sampling. This paper highlights the results from a 12-month period when samples were collected from 13 rainfall/runoff events and analyzed for nitrogen species, orthophosphate, and organic carbon. Differences in infiltrate concentrations among the three permeable pavement types were assessed and compared with concentrations in rainwater samples and impervious asphalt runoff samples, which were collected as controls. Contrary to expectations based on the literature, the PA infiltrate had significantly larger total nitrogen (TN) concentrations than runoff and infiltrate from the other two permeable pavement types, indicating that nitrogen leached from materials in the PA strata. There was no significant difference in TN concentration between runoff and infiltrate from either PICP or PC, but TN in runoff was significantly larger than in the rainwater, suggesting meaningful inter-event dry de

  4. Effects of using silica fume and polycarboxylate-type superplasticizer on physical properties of cementitious grout mixtures for semiflexible pavement surfacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koting, Suhana; Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Mahmud, Hilmi; Mashaan, Nuha S; Ibrahim, Mohd Rasdan; Katman, Herdayati; Husain, Nadiah Md

    2014-01-01

    Semi-flexible pavement surfacing is a composite pavement that utilizes the porous pavement structure of the flexible bituminous pavement, which is subsequently grouted with appropriate cementitious materials. This study aims to investigate the compressive strength, flexural strength, and workability performance of cementitious grout. The grout mixtures are designed to achieve high strength and maintain flow properties in order to allow the cement slurries to infiltrate easily through unfilled compacted skeletons. A paired-sample t-test was carried out to find out whether water/cement ratio, SP percentages, and use of silica fume influence the cementitious grout performance. The findings showed that the replacement of 5% silica fume with an adequate amount of superplasticizer and water/cement ratio was beneficial in improving the properties of the cementitious grout.

  5. Effects of Using Silica Fume and Polycarboxylate-Type Superplasticizer on Physical Properties of Cementitious Grout Mixtures for Semiflexible Pavement Surfacing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhana Koting

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Semi-flexible pavement surfacing is a composite pavement that utilizes the porous pavement structure of the flexible bituminous pavement, which is subsequently grouted with appropriate cementitious materials. This study aims to investigate the compressive strength, flexural strength, and workability performance of cementitious grout. The grout mixtures are designed to achieve high strength and maintain flow properties in order to allow the cement slurries to infiltrate easily through unfilled compacted skeletons. A paired-sample t-test was carried out to find out whether water/cement ratio, SP percentages, and use of silica fume influence the cementitious grout performance. The findings showed that the replacement of 5% silica fume with an adequate amount of superplasticizer and water/cement ratio was beneficial in improving the properties of the cementitious grout.

  6. Consideration of pavement roughness effects on vehicle-pavement interaction

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, WJvdM

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present some of the results of the vehicle-pavement interaction project, mainly in terms of the expected effects of pavement roughness on the moving dynamic effects in pavement analysis and design. Background is provided...

  7. Flexible pavement rehabilitation using pulverization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    Pulverization is a roadway rehabilitation strategy that involves in-place recycling of the entire existing flexible pavement layer and some of the existing granular base layer (Figure 1). Pavement pulverization provides an alternative to conventional...

  8. Training development for pavement preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    This research project strives to help the Iowa Department of Transportation (DOT) fully achieve the full benefits of pavement : preservation through training on proper selection, design, and application of pavement preservation treatments. In some ca...

  9. Effect of antistripping additives on the compaction of bituminous concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to determine the effect of antistripping additives on the compaction of bituminous concrete. To do this, the densities obtained on test sections with and without additive were compared. Comparisons of nuclear d...

  10. Long-term properties of bituminized waste products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snellman, M.; Valkiainen, M.

    1985-10-01

    This study is a survey of the factors of importance for long term behaviour of bituminized ion exchange resins. Phenomena occurring in bituminized waste products affected by the treatment, storage and disposal are identified. Test methods have been developed for characterizing product properties, which are important for the long-term behaviour. The long-term properties of bituminized ion-exchange resins are studied in a repository environment with access of water equilibrated with concrete. In these circumstances the most important properties are ralated to the interactions of bituminized waste with the surrounding barriers. The most important phenomena are water uptake due to rehydration of the resins and subsequent swelling of the product. (author)

  11. Long-term properties of bituminized waste products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snellman, M.; Valkiainen, M.

    1985-10-01

    This study is a survey of the factors of importance for the long term behaviour of bituminized ion exchange resins. Phenomena occurring in bituminized waste products affected by the treatment, storage and disposal are identified. Test methods have been developed for characterizing product properties, which are important for the long-term behaviour. The long-term properties of bituminized ion-exchange resins are studied in a repository environment with access of water equilibrated with concrete. In these circumstances the most important properties are related to the interactions of bituminized waste with the surrounding barriers. The most important phenomena are water uptake due to rehydration of the resins and subsequent swelling of the product

  12. Design of bituminous surface mixes with high skid resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    The Virginia Highway Research Council has proposed a study of the skid resistance of bituminous surfaces incorporating relatively hard and expensive aggregates. The hardness of the aggregates to be used aluminum oxide (Exolon) and calcined kaolin -- ...

  13. Design of bituminous mixes with high skid resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Certain highway locations need exceptionally high skid resistance because of the alignment, geometry, and drainage of the roadway and the complex turning maneuvers required. Several beam specimens made of bituminous mixes incorporating unconventional...

  14. Bituminous and asphaltic membranes for radioactive waste repositories on land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    The aim of the study has been to identify, within generic designs for waste facilities, areas where bituminous materials might be incorporated as a barrier. The report is presented in three sections: Part I - The properties of bitumen are described, with particular reference to the long-term behaviour of the material. The durability of bitumen is discussed, including aspects such as ageing, microbial degradation, chemical resistance and radiation resistance. Part II -The use of bituminous materials in hydraulic engineering is outlined. Much of this section of the report concentrates on the use of bituminous materials in embankment dams and reservoir construction. A review of material technology and construction techniques is presented and a detailed assessment made of the performance of the materials in service. Part III - Generic trench type radioactive waste repository designs incorporating bituminous materials are presented. Material and construction specifications for the designs are detailed, and a performance assessment presented. (author)

  15. Analysis of the use of coal tar as a binder in bituminous mixtures, using Marshall and Ramcodes methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Díaz, R.

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents an alternative use of coal tar, a by-product of the steel industry, given the problems of accumulation and negative environmental impact. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze the incorporation of coal tar as a binder in paving mixtures. First, this paper presents the origin, description of the main characteristics, and properties of tar. Then, this paper evaluates the mix of coal tar by means of the RAMCODES and Marshall methodologies to determine its resistance. The results of the tests explain the physical and mechanical properties of the mix. Taking into account the results of both methods, this paper makes a comparison to determine the suitability of the RAMCODES methodology in the mix design. Finally, it analyzes the alternatives to coal tar that can be used as binders in bituminous mixes for pavement and the advantages of their uses under some specific conditions.

  16. Development of Enhanced Pavement Deterioration Curves

    OpenAIRE

    Ercisli, Safak

    2015-01-01

    Modeling pavement deterioration and predicting the pavement performance is crucial for optimum pavement network management. Currently only a few models exist that incorporate the structural capacity of the pavements into deterioration modeling. This thesis develops pavement deterioration models that take into account, along with the age of the pavement, the pavement structural condition expressed in terms of the Modified Structural Index (MSI). The research found MSI to be a significant input...

  17. Mechanical properties of hot bituminous mixes manufactured with recycled aggregate of Silestone® waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubio, M. C.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a research project which analyzes the viability of incorporating waste material from decorative quartz solid surfacing in the manufacture of hot bituminous mixes. For this purpose, various bituminous mixes were manufactured with waste aggregate in different percentage. A set of tests were carried out that permitted the characterization of the mechanical behavior of these mixes. The results of these tests were similar to the results obtained when conventional mixes made from virgin quarry aggregate were tested. The results for moisture sensitivity as well as for wheel track rutting on mixes showed the optimal performance of this waste material even under very demanding traffic conditions. Laboratory studies showed that the use of this waste material in the manufacture of bituminous mixes is technically viable and can provide high-quality recycled aggregates at a very low cost, which can be used in the pavement of road.

    Este artículo muestra los resultados de un proyecto de investigación que tiene por objeto analizar la viabilidad de incorporación de residuos procedentes de piedra decorativa en la fabricación de mezclas bituminosas en caliente. Para ello se fabricaron mezclas con áridos reciclados de residuos procedentes de piedra decorativa en distintos porcentajes, realizando un conjunto de ensayos que posibilitaron caracterizar el comportamiento mecánico de dichas mezclas. Los resultados obtenidos fueron similares a los de las mezclas convencionales fabricadas con áridos vírgenes procedentes de cantera. Los valores de resistencia conservada ante la acción del agua y deformación en pista, pusieron de manifiesto la aptitud del residuo incluso ante las condiciones de tráfico más exigentes. Los trabajos realizados en el laboratorio indican que la utilización del residuo en la fabricación de mezclas bituminosas es técnicamente viable, pudiendo obtenerse áridos reciclados de gran calidad y

  18. Case study: dynamic modulus characterization of naturally occurring bituminous sands for sustainable pavement applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available . The presence of high bitumen content makes oil sand materials problematic for field operations of off-road haul trucks and shovels during the warm spring and summer months. The behavior of oil sand materials is primarily dependent upon stress states...

  19. Creep recovery behaviour of bituminous binders - relevance to permanent deformation of asphalt pavements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mturi, GAJ

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available to differentiate the resistance to permanent deformation of different road binders. The MSCR test is essentially a repeated creep-recovery test at a fixed loading/unloading interval. This paper aims to highlight the limitations of the MSCR test but also show how...

  20. Deformation Properties and Fatigue of Bituminous Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frantisek Schlosser

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Deformation properties and fatigue performance are important characteristics of asphalt bound materials which are used for construction of pavement layers. Viscoelastic asphalt mixtures are better characterized via dynamic tests. This type of tests allows us to collate materials with regard to axle vibrations which lie usually in the range of 6 Hz–25 Hz for standard conditions. Asphalt modified for heat sensitivity in the range from −20°C to +60°C has significant impact on the overall characteristics of the mixture. Deformation properties are used as inputs for empirical mixture design, and fatigue performance of asphalt mixtures reflects the parameters of functional tests. Master curves convey properties of asphalt mixtures for various conditions and allow us to evaluate them without the need of time expensive testing.

  1. Solar Radiation effect on the bituminous binder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadeo Rico, A.; Torres Perez, A.

    2010-01-01

    Asphalt, used as binder in road construction, becomes more brittle and harder during working life on the surface of the road pavement, conducting toward their deterioration. This is caused by the oxidation of the molecular functional groups of the asphalt molecular structure. Moreover, it is observed that ultraviolet radiation increases the oxidation process. However, the effect of solar light on the asphalt degradation has been poorly researched. The aim of this work is to study asphalt ageing caused by effect of solar radiation, by using standard test. Four commercial asphalts from different companies were selected: two with penetration number 50/70, and the other two polymer modified asphalts. From each of the asphalts forty samples were taken off and placed in four different aging conditions of temperature and radiation for a period ranging from 40 to 500 days. Ring and Ball test, and Fraass breaking Point test, were used to analyse the changes of asphalt properties after exposition to solar radiation. The results of the four analyzed asphalts showed a distinct behaviour; not only in the test temperature increase but also in the rate. Another experiment was carried out. Samples from a hot mix asphalt batch were placed under solar radiation, and were compacted by the Marshall procedure after increasing periods of time. Density and resistance to plastic flow using Marshall Apparatus were measured. Results showed an increase in the stability of samples under radiation. Both experiments show that the solar radiation is enough to cause changes in the asphalt molecular structure due to oxidation. So that, the study of the effect of the solar radiation on the asphalt properties could be a good tool to asses the performances of asphalt pavement. (Author) 26 refs.

  2. Recycling of polyethylene terephthalate (PET plastic bottle wastes in bituminous asphaltic concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebayo Olatunbosun Sojobi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research sheds light on the concept of eco-friendly road construction which comprises eco-design, eco-extraction, eco-manufacturing, eco-construction, eco-rehabilitation, eco-maintenance, eco-demolition, and socioeconomic empowerment. It also revealed the challenges being faced in its adoption and the benefits derivable from its application. Furthermore, the effects of recycling PET plastic bottle wastes produced in North Central Nigeria in bituminous asphaltic concrete (BAC used in flexible pavement construction were also evaluated. The mix design consists of 60/70 penetration-grade asphaltic concrete (5%, 68% coarse aggregate, 6% fine aggregate, and 21% filler using the dry process at 170°C. The optimum bitumen content (OBC for conventional BAC was obtained as 4% by weight of total aggregates and filler. Polymer-coated aggregate (PCA-modified BAC seems preferable because it has the potential to utilize more plastic wastes with a higher optimum plastic content (OPC of 16.7% by weight of total aggregates and filler compared to that of 9% by weight of OBC achieved by PMB-BAC. For both PMB- and PCA-modified BAC, an increase in air void, void in mineral aggregate, and Marshall stability were observed. Eco-friendly road construction which recycles PET wastes should be encouraged by government considering its potential environmental and economic benefits.

  3. Optimization and standardization of pavement management processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-01

    This report addresses issues related to optimization and standardization of current pavement management processes in Kentucky. Historical pavement management records were analyzed, which indicates that standardization is necessary in future pavement ...

  4. Permeable Pavements at Purdue

    OpenAIRE

    Knapp, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Two case studies will be presented describing sustainable drainage alternatives. The processes used for the 2nd Street project in Seymour will provide a comparison of the design processes for conventional and green infrastructure solutions. Purdue University will discuss a number of permeable pavement installations on campus and provide a map for viewing. Asphalt, concrete, and permeable paver options will be discussed.

  5. Measurement of heat generation from simulated bituminized product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Yoshiyuki; Yoneya, Masayuki [TRP Safety Evaluation and Analysis team, Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    The fire and explosion incident occurred at Bituminization Demonstration Facility of PNC Tokai Works on March 11, 1997. In order to ascertain the cause of incident, the investigation has been pushed forward. For the investigation, we prepared simulated bituminized product of measurement of heat generation in low temperature region less than 200degC. We used calvet Calorimeter MS80 for the heat generation measurement. Result of measurement, we were able to catch the feeble heat generation from bituminized product. The maximum calorific value that was able to detect it in isothermal measurement was approximately 1 mW/g in 160degC. It was approximately 2 mW/g in 200degC. And, as the another measurement, the measurement condition went heat rate by 0.01degC/minute, the highest temperature 190degC. As a result, the maximum generation of heat value that was able to detect it was approximately 0.5 mW/g. I changed simulated bituminized products and measured these. A difference of condition is salt particle size, salt content rate (45%, 60%), addition of the simulated precipitate. But there was not a difference in the generation of heat characteristic detected. (author)

  6. Incorporating Traffic Speed Deflection Data in Pavement Management Decision Making for Flexible Pavements

    OpenAIRE

    Thyagarajan, Senthilmurugan; Sivaneswaran, Nadarajah; Petros, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Systematic pavement condition evaluation and development of an optimized set of pavement treatment strategies are two key tasks in the pavement management process that assists in making informed decisions on future construction actions. Current State Highway Agency's pavement management systems are primarily based on surface condition data, and surface cracking is mainly used as an indicator of the pavement structural condition. However, with effective pavement preservation activities that in...

  7. Properties of bituminization product from Olkiluoto power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkiainen, M.; Vuorinen, U.

    1985-09-01

    In Finland, disposal into repositories excavated into bedrock on the present power plant sites is considered to be the most feasible alternative for the low- and intermediate level wastes. The Nuclear Waste Commission of the Finnish power companies has sponsored mainly experimental research work on long-term properties of bituminized ion exchange resin performed in the Reactor Laboratory of the Technical Research Centre of Finland since 1981. This report presents results on follow-up measurements of the leach tests started in 1981 and results on new leach tests with cement equilibrated water. Swelling of the bituminization product caused by water uptake is considered important. Both unrestricted and restricted swelling measurements were performed and are reported here. In addition to leaching and swelling also radiolytic gas generation and pH-changes of the leachant are discussed

  8. Pulp and paper plant wastes valorisation in bituminous mixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modolo, R; Benta, A; Ferreira, V M; Machado, L M

    2010-04-01

    Nowadays, the increasing amount of wastes is a concerning reality and the environmental aspects has become a major priority. Following this worry, the purpose of this experimental study was to investigate the possibility of using pulp and paper inorganic wastes, named dregs and grits, in bituminous mixtures as aggregate replacement to reduce environmental effects of these wastes disposal. First, the wastes were chemically and physically characterized and also tested primarily taking into account the requirements for aggregates in bituminous mixtures. Then, formulations were prepared replacing aggregates with wastes in different amounts. The mechanical properties of these mixtures containing wastes were compared with reference samples based on standard methods. According to the results it was possible to verify that grits had a good performance and it might be directly tested industrially as an aggregate in road construction. On the other hand, dregs need to be treated before incorporation to guarantee stable mixes in terms of water sensitivity. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Solidification of radioactive wastes by bituminization technology. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuchlik, S.; Brzobohaty, J.

    1985-01-01

    The bituminization line consists of a rotor film evaporator, a condenser, reserve tanks of bitumen emulsion and model concentrates, a roller train, a vapour concentrate tank, a control console, a bitumen emulsion pump, a model concentrates pump, and a tank for model concentrate preparation. Anion-active emulsion Silembit S-60 produced by Paramo Pardubice was chosen as the bitumen emulsion. A block diagram is given of the experimental bituminization line and its processing is described of model nonactive concentrates whose composition corresponds to that of actual wastes from the V-1 nuclear power plant. Successful tests of the line showed that it could be used for the disposal of radioactive wastes. (E.S.)

  10. Comparison of the performances of several modified bituminous mix formulas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saoula, Samia; Haddadi, Smail; Mokhtar, Khedidja Ait

    2012-09-01

    The mechanical behaviour of several formulas of bituminous concrete containing polymer (HDPE), polymer-bitumens (EVA) and waste of sole of shoes (containing copolymer butadiene-styrene-SBR noted DSBR and ethylene and vinyl acetate-EVA noted DEVA) were studied. The aim of this work is to improvement of the poor mechanicals performances of a bituminous concrete formula (0/14) which isn't conforming to the Algerian standards. Also, the mechanical tests showed that the permanent deformations and the indirect tensile strength at the temperatures of service resistances are improved. At high-temperature service, formulas of asphalt bitumen-EVA most resistant against the average temperature in service, it mixes made with waste are best resistant. All the formulas have a good behaviour with water.

  11. Tire-Pavement Friction Characteristics with Elastic Properties of Asphalt Pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Yu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The skid-resisting performance of pavement is a critical factor in traffic safety. Recent studies primarily analyze this behavior by examining the macro or micro texture of the pavement. It is inevitable that skid-resistance declines with time because the texture of pavement deteriorates throughout its service life. The primary objective of this paper is to evaluate the use of different asphalt pavements, varying in resilience, to optimize braking performance on pavement. Based on the systematic dynamics of tire-pavement contact, and analysis of the tire-road coupled friction mechanism and the effect of enlarging the tire-pavement contact area, road skid resistance was investigated by altering the elastic modulus of asphalt pavement. First, this research constructed the kinetic contact model to simulate tire-pavement friction. Next, the following aspects of contact behaviors were studied when braking: tread deformation in the tangential pavement interface, actual tire-pavement contact in the course, and the frictional braking force transmitted from the pavement to the tires. It was observed that with improvements in pavement elasticity, the actual tire-pavement contact area increased, which gives us the ability to effectively strengthen the frictional adhesion of the tire to the pavement. It should not be overlooked that the improvement in skid resistance was caused by an increase in pavement elasticity. This research approach provides a theoretical basis and design reference for the anti-skid research of asphalt pavements.

  12. Nigerian bituminous coal as a fuel-coal. | OGUGBUAJA | Global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian bituminous coal as a fuel-coal. V O OGUGBUAJA, C L NDIOKWERE, G A DIMARI. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/gjpas.v6i2.16113 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL ...

  13. Identification of aggregates for Tennessee bituminous surface courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauter, Heather Jean

    Tennessee road construction is a major venue for federal and state spending. Tax dollars each year go to the maintenance and construction of roads. One aspect of highway construction that affects the public is the safety of its state roads. There are many factors that affect the safety of a given road. One factor that was focused on in this research was the polish resistance capabilities of aggregates. Several pre-evaluation methods have been used in the laboratory to predict what will happen in a field situation. A new pre-evaluation method was invented that utilized AASHTO T 304 procedure upscaled to accommodate surface bituminous aggregates. This new method, called the Tennessee Terminal Textural Condition Method (T3CM), was approved by Tennessee Department of Transportation to be used as a pre-evaluation method on bituminous surface courses. It was proven to be operator insensitive, repeatable, and an accurate indication of particle shape and texture. Further research was needed to correlate pre-evaluation methods to the current field method, ASTM E 274-85 Locked Wheel Skid Trailer. In this research, twenty-five in-place bituminous projects and eight source evaluations were investigated. The information gathered would further validate the T3CM and find the pre-evaluation method that best predicted the field method. In addition, new sources of aggregates for bituminous surface courses were revealed. The results of this research have shown T3CM to be highly repeatable with an overall coefficient of variation of 0.26% for an eight sample repeatability test. It was the best correlated pre-evaluation method with the locked wheel skid trailer method giving an R2 value of 0.3946 and a Pearson coefficient of 0.710. Being able to predict field performance of aggregates prior to construction is a powerful tool capable of saving time, money, labor, and possibly lives.

  14. Gamma radiation hazard to miners in bituminous coal mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skubacz, K.

    1986-01-01

    Radiation hazard to miners working in 16 bituminous coal mines was determined by a thermoluminescence method. While the miners exposure to gamma radiation is higher than that of the general population, the yearly dose was never found to exceed 5 mSv in any investigated person. Factors contributing to the estimate of the exposure hazard and the need for individual dose monitoring in mines are discussed in more detail. 3 refs., 4 figs. (author)

  15. An experimental evaluation of coke production from bituminous coal tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaloc, M.; Janik, M.; Rojak, A.

    1981-01-01

    Results of studies of laboratory coking of bituminous coal tar are presented, which verify the technical feasibility and suitability of this engineering process for coke production. Thanks to the closed-system character of the process, it is suitable for technological and hygienic reasons. The yield of pitch coke is higher by comparison with that from chamber coking; also the properties of this coke are better; it is suitable for more varied applications, including the production of large-diameter graphite electrodes.

  16. Biodegradation of bituminous products from processing liquid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tibensky, L.; Krejci, F.; Hladky, E.; Halama, D.

    1988-01-01

    One of the possible ways of disturbing the stability of bituminous products from liquid radioactive waste processing, is biodegradation caused by common microorganisms. Pseudomonas bacteria and a Bacillus cereus culture were selected for experimental study of cultivation of microorganisms. Experiments with mixed cultures were also performed. Pitches, ajatin and imidazoline were used as inhibitors. The thin layer and the emulsion methods were used in assessing biological corrosion. The results of the experiments are discussed with respect to the dependence of bacterial growth on bitumen biodegradation, the effect of pH on bitumen degradation and the effect of inhibitors on bitumen biodegradation. The salts contained in bituminous products were not found to significantly affect the rate of destruction. The degree of degradation was found to mainly depend on the bitumen, its chemical composition, and on the conditions of storage. It was also found that inhibitor additions in some cases modified the properties of the matrix such that it became more liquid. The coefficient of extractibility thus increased of matrix salts. The recultivation of bacteria on a full-value medium resulted in the loss of the inhibitory effect. In some cases, the inhibitor even stimulated the growth of microorganisms. The use of inhibitors in an effort to achieve biostability of bituminous products thus did not solve the problem. (Z.M.). 2 tabs., 9 refs

  17. Pervious Pavement System Evaluation- Abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porous pavement is a low impact development stormwater control. The Urban Watershed Management Branch is evaluating interlocking concrete pavers as a popular implementation. The pavers themselves are impermeable, but the spaces between the pavers are backfilled with washed, gra...

  18. Premature asphalt concrete pavement cracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Recently, the Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) has identified hot mix asphalt concrete : (HMAC) pavements that have displayed top-down cracking within three years of construction. The objective of : the study was to evaluate the top-down cr...

  19. Pavement management using hyperspectral imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayalew, Balehager; Gomez, Richard B.; Roper, William E.; Carrasco, Oscar

    2003-08-01

    Public Works facilities require up-to-date information on the health status of the road network they maintain. However, roadway maintenance and rehabilitation involves the greatest portion of a municipality's annual operating budget. Government officials use various technologies such as a pavement management system to assist in making better decisions about their roadways systems, pavement condition, history, and projects. Traditionally, manual surveying has served as the method of obtaining this information. To better assist in decision-making, a regionally specific spectral library for urban areas is being developed and used in conjunction with hyperspecrtal imaging, to map urban materials and pavement conditions. A Geographical Information and Positioning System (GIS/GPS) will also be implemented to overlay relative locations. This paper will examine the benefits of using hyperspectral imaging over traditional methods of roadway maintenance and rehabilitation for pavement management applications. In doing so, we will identify spatial and spectral requirements for successful large-scale road feature extraction.

  20. Environmentally Friendly Pavements: final report

    OpenAIRE

    Aksnes, Jostein

    2009-01-01

    This final report presents the main results, advice and recommendations from the research and development program Environmentally Friendly Pavements run by the Norwegian Public Roads Administration (NPRA) in the period 2004-2009. The main focus of the project has been to optimise the environmental properties of road surfaces with respect to low road tyre noise and road dust emissions. The project has shown that: The tested environmentally friendly pavements give an initial noise r...

  1. Fracture mechanics in pavement design

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Denneman, E

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available MODELLING FRACTURE IN PAVEMENT MATERIALS The cohesive crack approach can be incorporated in finite element method (FEM) to simulate fracture in pavement materials. In this paper an embedded discontinuity method (EDM) based on the work by Sancho et al... through elements, in other words, independent of nodal positions and element boundaries. The EDM was used for the numerical simulation of two examples of fracture tests on road materials from the literature. The model is applied to reproduce...

  2. Intelligent system for pavement management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira Brega, Jose R.; Alba Soria, Manoel H.; Marar, Joao F.; Sementille, Antonio C.

    1998-03-01

    This paper describes a method for the evaluation of pavement condition through artificial neural networks using the MLP backpropagation technique. Two of the most used procedures for detecting the pavement conditions were applied: the 'overall severity index' and the 'irregularity index.' Tests with the model demonstrated that the simulation with the neural network gives better results than the procedures recommended by the highway officials. This network may also be applied for the construction of a graphic computer environment.

  3. Calibration of PMIS pavement performance prediction models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Improve the accuracy of TxDOTs existing pavement performance prediction models through calibrating these models using actual field data obtained from the Pavement Management Information System (PMIS). : Ensure logical performance superiority patte...

  4. Appraisal of the Causes of Pavement

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    used environmental observations in addition to geotechnical test to study ... 1Department of Applied Geophysics, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria ... have contributed to the pavement failure. Keywords: Remote Sensing, Geotechnical Investigation, Road Pavement Failure, Basement Complex. Environment.

  5. Pervious Pavement System Evaluation-Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervious pavement is a low impact development stormwater control. The Environmental Protection Agency's Urban Watershed Management Branch is evaluating interlocking concrete pavingstone pervious pavement systems. The pavingstones themselves are impermeable, but the spaces between...

  6. Equivalent damage of loads on pavements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Prozzi, JA

    2009-05-26

    Full Text Available This report describes a new methodology for the determination of Equivalent Damage Factors (EDFs) of vehicles with multiple axle and wheel configurations on pavements. The basic premise of this new procedure is that "equivalent pavement response...

  7. Dynamic contracting mechanism for pavement maintenance management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demirel, H.C.; De Ridder, H.A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Technological advances, financial possibilities and changes of demands have increasingly affected the pavement maintenance environment for outsourcing in recent years. This induces complexity in the contracting methods of pavement maintenance activities. Despite the fact that current contracting

  8. Minimization of reflection cracks in flexible pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    This report describes the performance of fabrics used under overlays in an effort to minimize longitudinal and alligator cracking in flexible pavements. It is concluded, although the sample size is small, that the treatments will extend the pavement ...

  9. Evaluation of pavement surface friction treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    The implementation of a pavement preservation program involves a learning curve with not only a determination to succeed, but : also the courage to fail. Also, successful implementation of pavement preservation program requires knowledge of the perfo...

  10. Serviceable pavement marking retroreflectivity levels : technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    This research addressed an array of issues related to measuring pavement markings retroreflectivity, factors : related to pavement marking performance, subjective evaluation process, best practices for using mobile : retroreflectometers, sampling pav...

  11. An approach to pavement management in Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The report summarizes the objectives and benefits of formal pavement management systems and outlines an approach believed by the author to be practical for Virginia. The management of Virginia interstate pavements and a proposed random-sampling plan ...

  12. Sustainable concrete pavements : a manual of practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Developed as a more detailed follow-up to a 2009 briefing document, Building Sustainable Pavement with Concrete, this guide provides a clear, concise, and cohesive discussion of pavement sustainability concepts and of recommended practices for maximi...

  13. Pavement performance evaluation, phase II : data collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Phase I and II of this study tested approximately 1500 rehabilitated pavements (asphalt and PCC) : throughout the State. These pavements ranged from 5 to 15 years old and were intended to develop a : snapshot of how various rehabilitations were perfo...

  14. Quantifying Evaporation in a Permeable Pavement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies quantifying evaporation from permeable pavement systems are limited to a few laboratory studies and one field application. This research quantifies evaporation for a larger-scale field application by measuring the water balance from lined permeable pavement sections. Th...

  15. High Performance Concrete Pavement in Indiana

    OpenAIRE

    Nantung, Tommy E

    2011-01-01

    Until the early 1990s, curling and warping of Portland cement concrete pavement did not concern pavement engineers in many transportation agencies. Since beginning construction of the interstate system in the United States in the late 1950s through the late 1980s, the performance of Portland cement concrete pavement has been associated with properties of concrete as a pavement material. In those years developed standards and design guidelines emphasized better concrete materials and construct...

  16. Full depth bituminous recycling of I-70, Thomas County, Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    In 1990, 13 full depth asphalt pavement test sections were built on a portion of I-70 in Thomas County, Kansas. Various combinations of hot mix and cold recycle mixes with different additives were used to build the test sections. Two of the test sect...

  17. Impact of pavement conditions on crash severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingfeng; Liu, Chunxiao; Ding, Liang

    2013-10-01

    Pavement condition has been known as a key factor related to ride quality, but it is less clear how exactly pavement conditions are related to traffic crashes. The researchers used Geographic Information System (GIS) to link Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) Crash Record Information System (CRIS) data and Pavement Management Information System (PMIS) data, which provided an opportunity to examine the impact of pavement conditions on traffic crashes in depth. The study analyzed the correlation between several key pavement condition ratings or scores and crash severity based on a large number of crashes in Texas between 2008 and 2009. The results in general suggested that poor pavement condition scores and ratings were associated with proportionally more severe crashes, but very poor pavement conditions were actually associated with less severe crashes. Very good pavement conditions might induce speeding behaviors and therefore could have caused more severe crashes, especially on non-freeway arterials and during favorable driving conditions. In addition, the results showed that the effects of pavement conditions on crash severity were more evident for passenger vehicles than for commercial vehicles. These results provide insights on how pavement conditions may have contributed to crashes, which may be valuable for safety improvement during pavement design and maintenance. Readers should notice that, although the study found statistically significant effects of pavement variables on crash severity, the effects were rather minor in reality as suggested by frequency analyses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Wetting of bituminized ion-exchangers under simulated repository conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aalto, H.; Valkiainen, M.

    2001-01-01

    According to the present plans the spent nuclear fuel from four Finnish nuclear power units will be transferred after interim storage to the final disposal site where it will be encapsulated and disposed of in a final repository constructed into the bedrock at a depth of 500 meters. Low and medium level waste generated at nuclear power plants will be finally disposed of in caverns constructed in the bedrock at the power plant site. The safety of the final disposal is based on a multibarrier concept and the degree of safety is estimated by using predictive models. The properties of the waste form are taken into account in the design of the repository construction. Bitumen has been chosen as an immobilisation agent for the wet wastes at Olkiluoto Power Plant, where two BWR units, TVO 1 and TVO 2, have separate bituminization facilities designed by Asea-Atom. Properties of bituminized spent ion-exchange resins from Olkiluoto power plant have been studied by VTT Chemical Technology since the late 70's. These studies have concentrated mainly on determining the long-term behaviour of the bituminization product under the repository conditions. Current interest lies on wetted product as a diffusion barrier. For this purpose a microscopic method for the visualisation of the structure of the wetted product has been developed. The equilibration of the samples in simulated concrete groundwater is currently going on at a temperature of 5-8 deg. C. Preliminary results are presented in this paper. Diffusion experiments have been planned for the further characterising of the wetted product as a release barrier for radionuclides including modelling. (author)

  19. Pavement noise measurements in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zofka, Ewa; Zofka, Adam; Mechowski, Tomasz

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility of the On-Board Sound Intensity (OBSI) system to measure tire-pavement noise in Poland. In general, sources of noise emitted by the modern vehicles are the propulsion noise, aerodynamic resistance and noise generated at the tire-pavement interface. In order to capture tire-pavement noise, the OBSI system uses a noise intensity probe installed in the close proximity of that interface. In this study, OBSI measurements were performed at different types of pavement surfaces such as stone mastic asphalt (SMA), regular asphalt concrete (HMA) as well as Portland cement concrete (PCC). The influence of several necessary OBSI measurement conditions were recognized as: testing speed, air temperature, tire pressure and tire type. The results of this study demonstrate that the OBSI system is a viable and robust tool that can be used for the quality evaluation of newly built asphalt pavements in Poland. It can be also applied to generate reliable input parameters for the noise propagation models that are used to assess the environmental impact of new and existing highway corridors.

  20. Low NOx firing systems for bituminous coal and lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knyrim, W.; Scheffknecht, G.

    1997-01-01

    In the case of lignite fluidized boilers the denitrification down to less than 200 mg/m 3 was possible with primary measures on the firing side only. On account of the excellent results achieved with the reconstructed plants the firing systems for the new generation of brown coal fire steam generators with a capacity of 800 MW and more is designed in a similar way. For bituminous coal fire steam generators the primary measures on the firing side are nor sufficient to keep the German NO x emission limit. Therefore these units had to be retrofitted with a SCR-DENOX plant. The experience with the new firing system made in a 110 MW steam generator in Austria with a wide range of fuels is introduced. One of the largest bituminous coal fired once-trough steam generator built by EVT is the boiler for the power station Bexbach I (750 MW). The firing system is designed as a tangential firing system with 32 jet burners. These are arranged in pairs in the corners and divided into 4 burner levels with 4 burner pairs each. One mill is allocated to each burner level. An important characteristic feature is that the four bowl mills are arranged on one side of the steam generator. The plant is constructed with upper air nozzles which are arranged above the top burner level for the reduced of nitrogen oxides. During tests at steam generator with similar design, the nO x formation could be reduced from 750 to 500 mg/m 3 s.t.p. (dry, 6% O 2 ) with an addition of upper air of 20% at 100% unit capacity and constant total flow. As a main approach for the further reduction of the primary NO x emission at bituminous coal fired steam generators with tangential firing systems, the experience gained from the firing of brown coal has also been taken into account. A fundamental aspect in this respect was the vertical air staging in the direction of the furnace height. The results of many tests in a test reactor have shown that the differences of the achievable NO x values of brown and

  1. The effect of Cryogenic Crumb Rubber in cold recycled mixes for road pavements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pettinari, Matteo; Dondi, Giulio; Sangiorgi, Cesare

    2014-01-01

    of cold recycled mixes for road bases is considerable. Furthermore, new products are continuously being introduced or developed for recycling purposes. The objective of this research project was to test the effects, both mechanically and environmentally, of crumb rubber included in 100% Reclaimed Asphalt...... in Italy, is also moving in this direction, lowering the manufacturing temperatures of bituminous mixes and reducing or ultimately eliminating the use of virgin raw materials. Currently, a wide range of materials are used and, consequently, the number of variables to be considered in the mix-design process...... Pavement cold mixes for road bases, bound with bitumen emulsion and cement. The crumb rubber is produced cryogenically with granulometric selection, which together with the bitumen, the cement and the fine fractions of the mix forms a resilient mastic capable of imparting significant fatigue resistance...

  2. Geo synthetic-reinforced Pavement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zornberg, J. G.

    2014-01-01

    Geo synthetics have been used as reinforcement inclusions to improve pavement performance. while there are clear field evidence of the benefit of using geo synthetic reinforcements, the specific conditions or mechanisms that govern the reinforcement of pavements are, at best, unclear and have remained largely unmeasured. Significant research has been recently conducted with the objectives of: (i) determining the relevant properties of geo synthetics that contribute to the enhanced performance of pavement systems, (ii) developing appropriate analytical, laboratory and field methods capable of quantifying the pavement performance, and (iii) enabling the prediction of pavement performance as a function of the properties of the various types of geo synthetics. (Author)

  3. Pavement thickness evaluation using ground penetrating radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Dwayne Arthur

    Accurate knowledge of pavement thickness is important information to have both at a network and project level. This information aids in pavement management and design. Much of the time this information is missing, out of date, or unknown for highway sections. Current technologies for determining pavement thickness are core drilling, falling weight deflectometer (FWD), and ground penetrating radar (GPR). Core drilling provides very accurate pin point pavement thickness information; however, it is also time consuming, labor intensive, intrusive to traffic, destructive, and limited in coverage. FWD provides nondestructive estimates of both a surface thickness and total pavement structure thickness, including pavement, base and sub-base. On the other hand, FWD is intrusive to traffic and affected by the limitations and assumptions the method used to estimate thickness. GPR provides pavement surface course thickness estimates with excellent data coverage at highway speed. Yet, disadvantages include the pavement thickness estimation being affected by the electrical properties of the pavement, limitations of the system utilized, and heavy post processing of the data. Nevertheless, GPR has been successfully utilized by a number of departments of transportation (DOTs) for pavement thickness evaluation. This research presents the GPR thickness evaluation methods, develops GPRPAVZ the software used to implement the methodologies, and addresses the quality of GPR pavement thickness evaluation.

  4. Pretreatment of bituminous coal for hydrogenation (older experiments)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupfer, H.

    1943-03-29

    The tendency for coal paste to become plastic inside a certain temperature range, which sometimes caused plugging in the preheater tubes, was observed only in bituminous coal. This phenomenon, called swelling, was seen as parallel to the increase in volume of the coal in coking or carbonization, which had been observed with melting bituminous coal. Although the parallel did not hold for all cases, the frequent simultaneous occurrence of the two phenomena suggested the possibility that those treatments of coal which reduced its baking ability would also improve its behavior in the preheater. Unequivocal results were not obtained, but certain predictions could be made about a pretreatment of coal for hydrogenation. (1) With preheating, no influence with regard to pressure plugging was detected in Brassert coal, although Saar coal Louisenthal, preheated, produced a better asphalt content and lower gasification experimentally. (2) Change in coal due to anoxidation increased the viscosity of the coal paste, while preheating in vacuum had no effect. (3) The baking ability of Saar coal could be destroyed by a sulfur treatment, without appreciably diminishing the volatile content. In general, a distinct improvement was observed with the absorption of sulfur.

  5. Co-pyrolysis characteristic of biomass and bituminous coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuaidan; Chen, Xueli; Liu, Aibin; Wang, Li; Yu, Guangsuo

    2015-03-01

    Co-pyrolysis characteristics of biomass and bituminous coal have been studied in this work. The temperature was up to 900°C with the heating rates of 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30°C/min. Rice straw, saw dust, microcrystalline cellulose, lignin and Shenfu bituminous coal were chosen as samples. Six different biomass ratios were used. The individual thermal behavior of each sample was obtained. The experimental weight fractions of the blended samples and the calculated values were compared. The results show that the weight fractions of the blended samples behave differently with calculated ones during the co-pyrolysis process. With the increasing biomass ratio, relative deviations between experimental weight fractions and calculated ones are larger. H/C molar ratio, heat transfer properties of biomass would affect to the interaction between biomass and coal. The maximum degradation rates are slower than the calculated ones. The activation energy distributions also changed by adding some biomass into coal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Natural radioactivity associated with bituminous coal mining in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balogun, F.A.; Mokobia, C.E.; Fasasi, M.K.; Ogundare, F.O.

    2003-01-01

    Gamma spectroscopic method was used to determine the natural radioactivity associated with the mining of Nigerian bituminous coal for the purpose of determining the radiological implications of coal mining in the country. The activity concentrations of the radionuclides detected range from 0.20±0.002 to 48.42±5.32 Bq kg -1 . The overall natural radionuclide contribution to the radioactivity of the environment was found to be 404.16±23.44 Bq kg -1 . Of this, coal waste (tailing) alone contributed 49.5% representing the largest contribution. Coal contributed just 5.5%. A comparison of the concentrations obtained in this work for coal with those from other parts of the world indicates that the radioactivity content of the Nigerian bituminous coal is not significantly different. The outdoor and indoor exposure rates in air 1 m above the ground are estimated to be (6.31±1.20)x10 -8 and (7.57±1.20) x10 -8 Gy h -1 , respectively, for the mining environment. These values compare very well with the global values reported by UNSCEAR: 5x10 -8 and 6x10 -8 Gy h -1 , respectively. The resulting annual effective dose equivalent estimated is (4.49±0.74)x10 -4 Sv yr -1 . This also compares favourably with the global value -4x10 -4 Sv yr -1 , reported by UNSCEAR

  7. Comparison of winter temperature profiles in asphalt and concrete pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The objectives of this research were to 1) determine which pavement type, asphalt or concrete, has : higher surface temperatures in winter and 2) compare the subsurface temperatures under asphalt and : concrete pavements to determine the pavement typ...

  8. Minnesota Local Agency Pavement Marking : Mining Existing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Pavement marking is important for safety. Maximizing pavement marking performance in terms of increased retroreflectivity, within limited budget constraints, allows agencies to make better decisions toward providing more effective pavement marking pe...

  9. Texas flexible pavements overlays : review and analysis of existing databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Proper calibration of pavement design and rehabilitation performance models to : conditions in Texas is essential for cost-effective flexible pavement design. The degree of : excellence with which TxDOTs pavement design models is calibrated will d...

  10. Tuning in to pavement radio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, S.D.K.

    1989-01-01

    This article describes a phenomenon known all over Africa, for which there is no really satisfactory term in English but which is summed up in the French term 'radio trottoir', literally 'pavement radio'. It may be defined as the popular and unofficial discussion of current affairs in Africa,

  11. The Concrete and Pavement Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    The modern world is characterized by the extensive use of concrete and asphalt pavement. Periodically, these materials are replaced and the old materials disposed of. In this challenge, students will be asked to develop ways to reuse the old materials. It is important for students to understand how concrete and asphalt are made and applied, as…

  12. Feasibility of reclaimed asphalt pavement as aggregate in portland cement concrete pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    This research effort was focused on evaluating the feasibility of using minimally processed reclaimed : asphalt pavement (RAP) as aggregate replacement in concrete pavements. This research demonstrated : that concretes with up to 50 percent of the fi...

  13. Comparison of accelerated pavement test results with long term pavement behaviour and performance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jooste, FJ

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the following:how accelerated pavement testing predictions compare with actual road behaviour and performance the relative influences of load and environmental factors on pavement deterioration and how well...

  14. An integrated pavement data management and feedback system (PAMS) : evaluation of pavement condition rating procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-01

    This report describes an evaluation of a method for use in the Highway Needs Study pavement condition rating. The methods by which the Department generates and manages pavement condition data in the overall process of providing a network of highways ...

  15. Integration and Evaluation of Automated Pavement Distress Data in INDOT’s Pavement Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    This study was in two parts. The first part established and demonstrated a framework for pavement data integration. This is critical for fulfilling QC/QA needs of INDOTs pavement management system, because the precision of the physical location re...

  16. Long-term pavement performance information management system : pavement performance database user reference guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-01

    This document provides information to aid in understanding and using the Long-Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) program pavement performance database. This document provides an introduction to the structure of the LTPP program, the relational structur...

  17. Long-term pavement performance pavement loading user guide (LTPP PLUG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    "This guide addresses the selection and use of axle loading defaults for Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design : Guide (MEPDG) applications. The defaults were developed based on weigh-in-motion (WIM) data from the Long- : Term Pavement Performance (L...

  18. Application of the portable pavement seismic analyser (PSPA) for pavement analysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, WJVDM

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available of pavement types, including Long-Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) sections and Heavy Vehicle Simulator (HVS) test sites. The data are analysed for repeatability, variability, isotropy, and ranges of seismic stiffness values. Information is provided...

  19. Advanced Pavement Design: Finite Element Modeling for Rigid Pavement Joints, Report II: Model Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hammons, Michael

    1998-01-01

    .... The objective of this research was to obtain data on the response of the ng'id pavement slab-joint-foundation system by conducting laboratory-scale experiments on jointed rigid pavement models...

  20. MoDOT pavement preservation research program volume IV, pavement evaluation tools-data collection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The overarching goal of the MoDOT Pavement Preservation Research Program, Task 3: Pavement Evaluation Tools Data : Collection Methods was to identify and evaluate methods to rapidly obtain network-level and project-level information relevant to :...

  1. Study of thermal reactivity during bituminization of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouffe, Sh.

    2004-10-01

    This work deals with the study of chemical reactions and phases transitions which can occur between magnesium nitrate, sodium nitrate, cobalt sulphur product, and nickel potassium ferrocyanide, when they are heated together during bituminization process of nuclear waste. The applied methodology associates a few techniques: temperature, enthalpy, and kinetics of reaction are determined by calorimetry, reaction products are characterised by chemical analyses, mass spectrometry and XRD analysis. Three fields of temperature and energy are observed in function of composition (one compound or a mixture of compounds). The study of reactions between NaNO 3 and cobalt sulphur product shows that the presence of water has got an effect on reaction temperature. The study of Mg(NO 3 ) 2 , 6 H 2 O and CoS shows an overlapping of different signals, and that the reaction rate is very slow (a few hours). (author)

  2. Environmental problems caused by bituminous schist and possible solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmas, N.; Aykul, H.; Erarslan, K.; Ediz, I.G.

    1998-01-01

    Schist, as a disposal of mine, has harmful effects on environment. however, several manners can be utilized to prevent the environmental destruction as well as an economical benefit is gained. In this study, environmental problems caused by bituminous schist and other disposals have been investigated on a specific lignite coal mine where schist is disposed as waste material. Pollution and damage on land and in water sources around the coal district and the villages have been observed, recorded and several solutions to environmental problems have been proposed. Discussed proposals will not only solve the environmental pollution problem but also provide waste management facility. Industrial structure of the district enables such a disposal to be used as an economical raw material. Besides, general effects of the coal mine and the power plant nearby have been discussed from environmental point of view, too. 7 refs

  3. Optimization of the encapsulation process of bituminized radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Jarine E.C.; Tello, Clédola C.O.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to propose alternatives for the deposition of bituminized waste in metallic packages coated with a cementitious matrix for surface repository, aiming to meet the standards criteria and increasing the integrity of the metallic packaging during the planned storage time, transportation and disposal. For this purpose, tests will be carried out to evaluate cement pastes and mortar with cementitious additives, aiming at the durability and reduction of pores. Leaching tests with different thicknesses will also be carried out, where optimization of the encapsulation can meet safety, durability and economy standards for the repository, as well as practices that contribute to reduce environmental impacts and the economic burden imposed on future generations

  4. Ultrasound data for laboratory calibration of an analytical model to calculate crack depth on asphalt pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franesqui, Miguel A; Yepes, Jorge; García-González, Cándida

    2017-08-01

    This article outlines the ultrasound data employed to calibrate in the laboratory an analytical model that permits the calculation of the depth of partial-depth surface-initiated cracks on bituminous pavements using this non-destructive technique. This initial calibration is required so that the model provides sufficient precision during practical application. The ultrasonic pulse transit times were measured on beam samples of different asphalt mixtures (semi-dense asphalt concrete AC-S; asphalt concrete for very thin layers BBTM; and porous asphalt PA). The cracks on the laboratory samples were simulated by means of notches of variable depths. With the data of ultrasound transmission time ratios, curve-fittings were carried out on the analytical model, thus determining the regression parameters and their statistical dispersion. The calibrated models obtained from laboratory datasets were subsequently applied to auscultate the evolution of the crack depth after microwaves exposure in the research article entitled "Top-down cracking self-healing of asphalt pavements with steel filler from industrial waste applying microwaves" (Franesqui et al., 2017) [1].

  5. Ultrasound data for laboratory calibration of an analytical model to calculate crack depth on asphalt pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Franesqui

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This article outlines the ultrasound data employed to calibrate in the laboratory an analytical model that permits the calculation of the depth of partial-depth surface-initiated cracks on bituminous pavements using this non-destructive technique. This initial calibration is required so that the model provides sufficient precision during practical application. The ultrasonic pulse transit times were measured on beam samples of different asphalt mixtures (semi-dense asphalt concrete AC-S; asphalt concrete for very thin layers BBTM; and porous asphalt PA. The cracks on the laboratory samples were simulated by means of notches of variable depths. With the data of ultrasound transmission time ratios, curve-fittings were carried out on the analytical model, thus determining the regression parameters and their statistical dispersion. The calibrated models obtained from laboratory datasets were subsequently applied to auscultate the evolution of the crack depth after microwaves exposure in the research article entitled “Top-down cracking self-healing of asphalt pavements with steel filler from industrial waste applying microwaves” (Franesqui et al., 2017 [1].

  6. Inverted base pavements: construction and performance

    KAUST Repository

    Papadopoulos, Efthymios

    2017-05-11

    Inverted base pavements involve a well-compacted granular aggregate base built between a thin asphalt concrete layer and a cement-treated base. Inverted base pavements can be constructed using conventional equipment and procedures but require proper quality control. This study reviews the extensive South African experience and case histories in the USA. Accumulating evidence suggests that inverted base pavements are a viable alternative and can outperform conventional pavements at a lower cost. Inverted base pavements rely on the complementary interaction between layers. The cement-treated base provides a stiff foundation for efficient compaction and constrains the deformation of the stress-sensitive granular aggregate base. The thin asphalt surface layer deforms as a membrane and develops low tensile stress. Additional large-scale field tests should be conducted to assess the performance of inverted base pavement designs in a wide range of conditions relevant to the USA.

  7. Cracking of open traffic rigid pavement

    OpenAIRE

    Niken Chatarina; Siswanto Yudi; Widodo; Tjahjono Elly

    2017-01-01

    The research is done by observing the growth of real structure cracking in Natar, Lampung, Indonesia compared to C. Niken’s et al research and literature study. The rigid pavement was done with open traffic system. There are two main crack types on Natar rigid pavement: cracks cross the road, and cracks spreads on rigid pavement surface. The observation of cracks was analyzed by analyzing material, casting, curing, loading and shrinkage mechanism. The relationship between these analysis and s...

  8. Influence of association of "EVA-NBR" on indirect tensile strength of modified bituminous concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinoun, M.; Soudani, K.; Haddadi, S.

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work is to contribute to the improvement of the mechanical properties of bituminous concrete by modification of bituminous concrete. In this study, we present the results of the indirect tensile strength "ITS" of modified bituminous concrete by the combination of two modifiers, one is a plastomer EVA (Ethylene Vinyl Acetate) and the other is a industrial waste from the shoe soles grinding NBR (Nitrile Butadiene Rubber) as crumb rubber. To modify the bitumen a wet process was used. The results show that the modification of bitumen by EVA-NBR combination increases their resistance to the indirect traction "ITS" compared to the bituminous concrete control. The mixture of 5% [50% EVA+ 50% NBR] is given the best result among the other associations.

  9. State of the art report on bituminized waste forms of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Kook; Shon, Jong Sik; Kim, Kil Jeong; Lee, Kang Moo; Jung, In Ha

    1998-03-01

    In this report, research and development results on the bituminization of radioactive wastes are closely reviewed, especially those regarding waste treatment technologies, waste solidifying procedures and the characteristics of asphalt and solidified forms. A new concept of the bituminization method is suggested in this report which can improve the characteristics of solidified forms. Stable solid forms with high leach resistance, high thermal resistance and good compression strength were produced by the suggested bituminization method, in which spent polyethylene from agricultural farms was added. This report can help further research and development of improved bituminized forms of radioactive wastes that will maintain long term stabilities in disposal sites. (author). 59 refs., 19 tabs., 18 figs

  10. A new radiometric instrument designed to measure the parameters of bituminous coal on transport belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubicek, P.

    1993-01-01

    A new radiometric instrument developed in Czechoslovakia, for the measurement of ash content of bituminous coal, and for the determination of approximate values of moisture and weight is described. (Author)

  11. Investigation and analytical results of bituminized products in drums at filing room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Atsuhiro; Kato, Yoshiyuki; Sano, Yuichi; Kitajima, Takafumi; Fujita, Hideto

    1999-09-01

    This report describes the results of investigation of the bituminized products in drums, liquid waste in the receiving tank V21 and the bituminized mixture in the extruder. The investigation of the products in drums showed most of the unburned products filled after 28B had abnormality, such as hardened surfaces, caves and porous brittle products. The particle sizes of the salt fixed in bituminized products depended neither on batch number nor on feed rate. It indicates the fining of the salt particle caused by the decreased feed rate did not occur. The measured concentrations of metals and anions in the bituminized products showed no abnormality. The catalytic content was not recognized in the products. The infrared absorption spectra obtained with the bituminized products show the oxidation at the incident occurred without oxygen. There was no organic phase on the surface of liquid waste in V21. Chemical analysis and thermal analysis on the precipitate in V21 showed no abnormality. Concentration of sodium nitrate/nitrite in the mixture collected from the extruder was lower than normal products. These results show no chemical activation of the bituminized products. It can be concluded that the chemical characteristics of the products had little abnormality even around the incident. (author)

  12. Evaluating life cycle costs of perpetual pavements in China using operational pavement management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saud A. Sultan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Highway transportation is considered as vital factor in China’s economic growth; many high grade highways have been constructed in China during the last decades. The research and application of perpetual asphalt pavement (PP technology have been deployed in China since 2000. The semi-rigid pavement has been normally considered as typical pavement of high class highways in the design according to the Chinese experience. The objective of this research is to evaluate the performance of different Chinese perpetual pavements using operational pavement management system and to examine its suitability for use in the design and construction of more economical and durable pavements. It has been found that the use of thin asphalt layers over semi-rigid pavement foundation in PP structure will create more sustainable, economical, and durable PP structures in comparison with typical thick asphalt layers PP structures.

  13. Bituminous reference document: synthesis of knowledge on the long time behavior of bituminous packages; Dossier de reference bitume: synthese des connaissances sur le comportement a long terme des colis bitumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sercombe, J.; Adenot, F.; Vistoli, P.P.; Parraud, S.; Riglet-Martial, C.; Gwinner, B.; Felines, I.; Tiffreau, C.; Libert, M

    2004-07-01

    This document is a synthesis of the knowledge acquired at the CEA on the behavior of bituminous packages. In this framework, the CEA studied bituminous packages in generic conditions of a package lifetime. The main factors, the evolution mechanisms and influential parameters have been determined and quantitative s simulation have been developed. After a description of the main initial bituminous packages characterizations, the evolutions in saturated and un-saturated environment are exposed. (A.L.B.)

  14. Appraisal of the Causes of Pavement

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INTRODUCTION. Pavement failures are very common features on. Nigeria in roads after few years of performance and often before attaining the design age. These roads are continuously reconstructed or rehabilitated without any effort made to identify factor(s) responsible for their perpetual failure. Pavement failures can ...

  15. Load Response Analysis of Asphalt Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Zhijun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the filed data of Fuzhou test road, load response regulation of nonlinear pavement structure was analyzed in this paper; Mechanics software was adopted to analyze linear elastic and nonlinear of the pavement structure, analyzed results and road filed data were compared, and determine the correlation between them and the field data.

  16. Pervious Pavement System Evaluation-Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of a pervious pavement can be effective as a low impact development stormwater control. The Urban Watershed Management Branch is evaluating interlocking concrete paver systems as a type of porous pavement. Although the pavers are impermeable, the spaces between the pave...

  17. Numerical Simulation of Tire-Pavement Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Srirangam, S.K.

    2015-01-01

    Good skid resistance of a pavement surface is essential for road safety. Loss of skid resistance can lead to property damage and loss of lives. Ever increasing need of driver safety poses challenges to the highway authorities to evaluate pavement conditions even more precisely under different

  18. Crackscope : automatic pavement cracking inspection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    The CrackScope system is an automated pavement crack rating system consisting of a : digital line scan camera, laser-line illuminator, and proprietary crack detection and classification : software. CrackScope is able to perform real-time pavement ins...

  19. Modelling Flexible Pavement Response and Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullidtz, Per

    This textbook is primarily concerned with models for predicting the future condition of flexible pavements, as a function of traffic loading, climate, materials, etc., using analytical-empirical methods.......This textbook is primarily concerned with models for predicting the future condition of flexible pavements, as a function of traffic loading, climate, materials, etc., using analytical-empirical methods....

  20. Fatigue and rutting lives in flexible pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Ebrahim Abu El-Maaty Behiry

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Flexible pavement is designed based on axle load limits and climatic conditions. The Egyptian code has specified certain load limits that should not be exceeded. The overweight trucks cause severe deterioration to the pavement and thus reduce its life. The study aims at studying the effect of axle load increase, and the variation in pavement modulus, on the overall pavement life. The research uses the BISAR software and the Egyptian environmental and pavement materials conditions to estimate the tensile strains occurring under the asphalt concrete (AC layer and the compressive strains above the subgrade surface. The results revealed that tensile and compressive strain increased with increasing axle loads and decreased with increasing asphalt layer modulus thus the violating trucks should be unloaded when their weights exceed certain limits. Base thickness and subgrade resilient modulus were the key elements which control the equilibrium between fatigue and rutting lives.

  1. Development of bituminous coal chambers with respect to throughput

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schappert, H.

    1942-10-17

    This short report compared three coal liquefaction plants in Germany which operated principally on bituminous coal and which had been built a few years apart in time. From the earliest plant (Scholven) to the latest (Blechhammer), the liquid-phase throughput had been almost tripled, partly because of the change from 300-atm to 700-atm operation, and partly because of the use of heat exchange to heat the coal paste part way to reaction temperature. This introduction of coal paste heat exchange reduced the load on preheaters so much that the amount of heat necessary in the preheater to heat one (metric) ton of coal paste to reaction temperature was reduced from 320,000 kcal to 170,000 kcal. Another development in the middle plant (Gelsenberg) was the addition of a portion of the cold coal paste at the input to the second reaction oven in each chamber, letting the heat of reaction itself heat that paste to reaction temperature (and at the same time regulating the temperature of the reaction better). Finally it was noted that for the production of a given amount of synthetic fuel, Blechhammer needed only about half as many reaction chambers as did Scholven.

  2. The hydrogasification of lignite and sub-bituminous coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, B.; Fallon, P. T.; Steinberg, M.

    1981-02-01

    A North Dakota lignite and a New Mexico sub-bituminous coal have been hydrogenated at up to 900°C and 2500 psi hydrogen pressure. Yields of gaseous hydrocarbons and aromatic liquids have been studied as a function of temperature, pressure, residence time, feed rates and H2/coal ratio. Coal feed rates in excess of 10 lb/hr have been achieved in the 1 in. I. D.×8 ft reactor and methane concentration as high as 55% have been observed. A four-step reaction model was developed for the production and decomposition of the hydrocarbon products. A single object function formulated from the weighted errors for the four dependent process, variables, CH4, C2H6, BTX, and oil yields, was minimized using a program containing three independent iterative techniques. The results of the nonlinear regression analysis for lignite show that a first-order chemical reaction model with respect to C conversion satisfactorily describes the dilute phase hydrogenation. The activation energy for the initial products formation was estimated to be 42,700 cal/gmole and the power of hydrogen partial pressure was found to be +0.14. The overall correlation coefficient was 0.83. The mechanism, the rate expressions, and the design curves developed can be used for scale-up and reactor design.

  3. A process for the bituminization of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bar-Ziv, E.; Manor, D.; Levin, I.

    1977-06-01

    A process is described for the incorporation of sodium nitrate solutions in bitumen, with a view to the bituminization of radioactive wastes. This process has involved the development of a chemical process and its technological application. A double jacket reactor equipped with an anchor-type stirrer has been built. Sodium nitrate (NaNO 3 ) solutions with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) are fed into the reactor simultaneously with a bitumen emulsion while heated oil is circulated through the double jacket. After all the water has evaporated, the mixture is ''simmered'' at 170/180 deg C for up to 5 hours in order to get a homogeneous product which will be suitable for final storage. The product contains small salt crystals (10/50 μm) and has high viscosity (200/2000 poise at 160 deg C and 12 rpm), so that the possibility of sedimentation is eliminated. In comparative experiments with molten bitumen, large salt aggregates, inhomogeneously distributed, make the product unsuitable. It has been found that NaOH is responsible for the polimerization of the bitumen, which raises its viscosity. The degree of polimerization depends on the NaOH concentration and ''simmering'' time and temperature. NaOH is added to NaNO 3 in order to raise the mixture's viscosity and thereby prevent sedimentation

  4. Chemical and Pyrolytic Thermogravimetric Characterization of Nigerian Bituminous Coals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyakuma Bemgba Bevan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of new coal deposits in Nigeria presents solutions for nation’s energy crises and prospects for socioeconomic growth and sustainable development. Furthermore, the quest for sustainable energy to limit global warming, climate change, and environmental degradation has necessitated the exploration of alternatives using cleaner technologies such as coal pyrolysis. However, a lack of comprehensive data on physico-chemical and thermal properties of Nigerian coals has greatly limited their utilization. Therefore, the physico-chemical properties, rank (classification, and thermal decomposition profiles of two Nigerian bituminous coals – Afuze (AFZ and Shankodi-Jangwa (SKJ – were examined in this study. The results indicate that the coals contain high proportions of C, H, N, S, O and a sufficiently high heating value (HHV for energy conversion. The coal classification revealed that the Afuze (AFZ coal possesses a higher rank, maturity, and coal properties compared to the Shankodi-Jangwa (SKJ coal. A thermal analysis demonstrated that coal pyrolysis in both cases occurred in three stages; drying (30-200 °C, devolatilization (200-600 °C, and char decomposition (600-1000 °C. The results also indicated that pyrolysis at 1000 °C is not sufficient for complete pyrolysis. In general, the thermochemical and pyrolytic fuel properties indicate that the coal from both places can potentially be utilized for future clean energy applications.

  5. Gasification of high ash, high ash fusion temperature bituminous coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guohai; Vimalchand, Pannalal; Peng, WanWang

    2015-11-13

    This invention relates to gasification of high ash bituminous coals that have high ash fusion temperatures. The ash content can be in 15 to 45 weight percent range and ash fusion temperatures can be in 1150.degree. C. to 1500.degree. C. range as well as in excess of 1500.degree. C. In a preferred embodiment, such coals are dealt with a two stage gasification process--a relatively low temperature primary gasification step in a circulating fluidized bed transport gasifier followed by a high temperature partial oxidation step of residual char carbon and small quantities of tar. The system to process such coals further includes an internally circulating fluidized bed to effectively cool the high temperature syngas with the aid of an inert media and without the syngas contacting the heat transfer surfaces. A cyclone downstream of the syngas cooler, operating at relatively low temperatures, effectively reduces loading to a dust filtration unit. Nearly dust- and tar-free syngas for chemicals production or power generation and with over 90%, and preferably over about 98%, overall carbon conversion can be achieved with the preferred process, apparatus and methods outlined in this invention.

  6. Theoretical Relationships Between Moduli for Soil Layers Beneath Concrete Pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    method of analysis used for rigid pavements and the elastic layer method of analysis used for both rigid and flexible pavements. Twenty-three pavement sections were selected to illustrate the usage of these relationships. These sections represent the widest possible variation of rigid pavement types for which sufficient materials data was available. For the sections studied and within the context of linear analysis, these relationships demonstrate that the peak pavement stress can usually be computed by either method

  7. Performance-Based Evaluation of Joint Sealants for Concrete Pavements

    OpenAIRE

    Khuri, Ramzi Emile

    1998-01-01

    Pavement concrete joints are the weakest locations in concrete pavement systems. They are man-made cracks to accommodate concrete slab expansion and contraction due to temperature fluctuations. Sealant is usually used in pavement joints to prevent roadway debris, deicing chemicals, and moisture from entering the joint. When sealant fails, the pavement deteriorates rapidly; and when joint sealant performs adequately, the pavement preserves its intended performance. In the field, joint seala...

  8. Leaching behavior of a simulated bituminized radioactive waste form under deep geological conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Shinichi; Iida, Yoshihisa; Nagano, Tetsushi; Akimoto, Toshiyuki

    2003-01-01

    The leaching behavior of a simulated bituminized waste form was studied to acquire data for the performance assessment of the geologic disposal of bituminized radioactive waste. Laboratory-scale leaching tests were performed for radioactive and non-radioactive waste specimens simulating bituminized waste of a French reprocessing company, COGEMA. The simulated waste was contacted with deionized water, an alkaline solution (0.03-mol/l KOH), and a saline solution (0.5-mol/l KCl) under atmospheric and anoxic conditions. The concentrations of Na, Ba, Cs, Sr, Np, Pu, NO 3 , SO 4 and I in the leachates were determined. Swelling of the bituminized waste progressed in deionized water and KOH. The release of the soluble components, Na and Cs, was enhanced by the swelling, and considered to be diffusion-controlled in the swelled layers of the specimens. The release of sparingly soluble components such as Ba and Np was solubility-limited in addition to the progression of leaching. Neptunium, a redox-sensitive element, showed a distinct difference in release between anoxic and atmospheric conditions. The elemental release from the bituminized waste specimens leached in the KCl was very low, which is likely due to the suppression of swelling of the specimens at high ionic strength. (author)

  9. Quantifying Evaporation in a Permeable Pavement System ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies quantifying evaporation from permeable pavement systems are limited to a few laboratory studies and one field application. This research quantifies evaporation for a larger-scale field application by measuring the water balance from lined permeable pavement sections. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) constructed a 0.4-ha parking lot in Edison, NJ, that incorporated three different permeable pavement types in the parking lanes – permeable interlocking concrete pavers (PICP), pervious concrete (PC), and porous asphalt (PA). An impermeable liner installed 0.4 m below the driving surface in four 11.6-m by 4.74-m sections per each pavement type captures all infiltrating water and routes it to collection tanks that can contain events up to 38 mm. Each section has a design impervious area to permeable pavement area ratio of 0.66:1. Pressure transducers installed in the underdrain collection tanks measured water level for 24 months. Level was converted to volume using depth-to-volume ratios for individual collection tanks. Using a water balance approach, the measured infiltrate volume was compared to rainfall volume on an event-basis to determine the rainfall retained in the pavement strata and underlying aggregate. Evaporation since the previous event created additional storage in the pavement and aggregate layers. Events were divided into three groups based on antecedent dry period (ADP) and three, four-month categories of potential e

  10. Temperature induced healing in strained bituminous materials observed by atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nahar, S.N.; Schmets, A.J.M.; Scarpas, A.; Schitter, G.

    2013-01-01

    Bitumen is the binder in the composite material named asphalt concrete. Under cyclic mechanical loading of traffic passing over the pavement, eventually damage will initiate in the pavement, leading to eventual structural failure. This damaging process is accelerated by time dependent change of the

  11. Surface Properties of Photo-Oxidized Bituminous Coals: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    Natural weathering has a detrimental effect on the hydrophobic nature of coal, which in turn can influence clean-coal recovery during flotation. Few techniques are available that can establish the quality of coal surfaces and that have a short analysis time to provide input for process control. Luminescence emissions which can be quantified with an optical microscope and photometer system, are measurably influenced by degree of weathering as well as by mild storage deterioration. In addition, it has been shown that when vitrinite is irradiated with a relatively high intensity flux of violet- or ultraviolet- light in the presence of air, photo-oxidation of the surface occurs. The combination of measuring the change in luminescence emission intensity with degree of surface oxidation provided the impetus for the current investigation. The principal aim of this research was to determine whether clear correlations could be established among surface oxygen functionality, hydrophobicity induced by photo-oxidation, and measurements of luminescence intensity and alteration. If successful, the project would result in quantitative luminescence techniques based on optical microscopy that would provide a measure of the changes in surface properties as a function of oxidation and relate them to coal cleanability. Two analytical techniques were designed to achieve these goals. Polished surfaces of vitrain bands or a narrow size fraction of powdered vitrain concentrates were photo-oxidized using violet or ultraviolet light fluxes and then changes in surface properties and chemistry were measured using a variety of near-surface analytical techniques. Results from this investigation demonstrate that quantitative luminescence intensity measurements can be performed on fracture surfaces of bituminous rank coals (vitrains) and that the data obtained do reveal significant variations depending upon the level of surface oxidation. Photo-oxidation induced by violet or ultraviolet light

  12. Assessment of highway pavements using GPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plati, Christina; Loizos, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Highway infrastructure is a prerequisite for a functioning economy and social life. Highways, often prone to congestion and disruption, are one of the aspects of a modern transport network that require maximum efficiency if an integrated transport network, and sustainable mobility, is to be achieved. Assessing the condition of highway structures, to plan subsequent maintenance, is essential to allow the long-term functioning of a road network. Optimizing the methods used for such assessment will lead to better information being obtained about the road and underlying ground conditions. The condition of highway structures will be affected by a number of factors, including the properties of the highway pavement, the supporting sub-base and the subgrade (natural ground), and the ability to obtain good information about the entire road structure, from pavement to subgrade, allows appropriate maintenance programs to be planned. The maintenance of highway pavements causes considerable cost and in many cases obstruction to traffic flow. In this situation, methods that provide information on the present condition of pavement structure non-destructively and economically are of great interest. It has been shown that Ground-Penetrating-Radar (GPR), which is a Non Destructive Technique (NDT), can deliver information that is useful for the planning of pavement maintenance activities. More specifically GPR is used by pavement engineers in order to determine physical properties and characteristics of the pavement structure, information that is valuable for the assessment of pavement condition. This work gives an overview on the practical application of GPR using examples from highway asphalt pavements monitoring. The presented individual applications of GPR pavement diagnostics concern structure homogeneity, thickness of pavement layers, dielectric properties of asphalt materials etc. It is worthwhile mentioning that a number of applications are standard procedures, either

  13. Global market trade policy analysis for petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals, crude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagheri, F.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on surveying the custom tariffs imposed on the world export market of Petroleum Oils and Oils Obtained from Bituminous Minerals, Crude. We obtained the data according to the most updated available data provided online by UNCTAD and World Bank. The results indicate that none of the 142 countries in the world market of this product have imposed non-tariff trade barriers on the import of Petroleum Oils and Oils Obtained from Bituminous Minerals, Crude. The developed countries and the countries with transition economies are the main world import partners. European Union, United States, China, Japan, South Korea, Canada, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, South Africa, Australia, Turkey, Brazil, Sweden and Belarus are the examples and have imposed low custom tariffs on Petroleum Oils and Oils Obtained from Bituminous Minerals, Crude.

  14. Study on the coprocessing of Xingiang Heishan bituminous coal with Tahe petroleum residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, C.; Zhao, P.; Li, K. [China Shenhua Coal to Liquefaction Corporation Ltd., Ordo (China)

    2007-02-15

    The reaction process of coprocessing Xinjiang Heishan bituminous coal and petroleum residue from Tahe petroleum chemical corporation was studied by using a Japanese vibrating horizontal autoclave. The effects of different petroleum residual addition on coal liquefaction was investigated and compared with the liquefaction result under the condition of exclusive Heishan bituminous coal. The results show that compared with the liquefaction results with only Heishan bituminous coal, coal-residual coprocessing has the characteristics of low hydrogen consumption, low gas and high oil yield. Coal conversion and oil yield was increased with proper addition of petroleum residues. In this experimental system, the optimum addition of petroleum residue is 20%. Coal conversion and oil yield are increased by 1.5% and 11% respectively. 2 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  15. Results of exploitation of a pilot-plant installation for bituminization of radioactive sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golinski, M.; Ksiazak, Z.; Surala, J.; Dziubecki, R.

    1974-01-01

    Results are discussed of exploitation of a pilot-plant installation for bituminization of radioactive sludges of an efficiency of 25 l/h. In a time period of 20 month 120 cycles were carried out in which 60 m 3 of 2-4% sludges from treatment of low-level waste by the phosphate-ferrocyanide method were solidified. The P-60 asphalt was used for bituminization. The bituminization products contained 5-13.5% of mineral substances. Their activity was in the range 5 x 10 -4 - 5 x 10 -3 μCi/g for alpha emitters and 1.2 - 3.8 x 10 -2 μCi/g for beta emitters. (author)

  16. Estimated Valuation of the Cost of Road Construction with the Use of Composite Cationic Bituminous Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorotynseva Anna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for formation of prices for road construction works producing, by using composite of cationic bituminous structures, is dictated by absence of this type of work in estimate-normative base, due to the fact that this type of materials had never been used before. Estimated specifications could be used either for determination of work cost or for substantiation of efficiency of using new type of materials. This paper provides basic concepts, related to formation of estimate-normative base for determination of construction and installation works cost, particularly road construction works, also it shows formation of coating installation prices by using composite of cationic bituminous emulsions.

  17. User's guide : pavement marking management system database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Pavement markings play a critical role in maintaining a safe and efficient driving environment for road users, especially during nighttime conditions. The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) spends millions of dollars each year for installatio...

  18. Permeable Pavement Research - Edison, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation provides the background and summary of results collected at the permeable pavement parking lot monitored at the EPA facility in Edison, NJ. This parking lot is surfaced with permeable interlocking concrete pavers (PICP), pervious concrete, and porous asphalt. ...

  19. Class C fly ash in pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Portland cement is the most dominant material used in concrete pavements in the state of Nebraska. In order to improve performance, reduce cost, and advance sustainability, a percentage of the Portland cement is replaced with a recycled material know...

  20. Performance of I-57 recycled concrete pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    In 1986-1987 the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) constructed a demonstration project on I-57 near Effingham, Illinois to evaluate the viability : of recycling an existing jointed reinforced concrete pavement for use as its primary aggreg...

  1. Pervious Pavement System Evaluation- Abstract 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porous pavement is a low impact development stormwater control. The Urban Watershed Management Branch is evaluating interlocking concrete pavers as a popular implementation. The pavers themselves are impermeable, but the spaces between the pavers are backfilled with washed, gra...

  2. Long term monitoring of moisture under pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Monitoring of the environmental instrumentation installed under select pavement sections constructed : by the Ohio Department of Transportation (ODOT) in 1995 on US 23 in Delaware County, Ohio was : continued. The measurements made consisted of soil ...

  3. Concrete pavement construction basics : tech notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    This tech note has been produced for developers, consultants, and engineers planning concrete pavement construction projects, superintendents and supervisors who want a basic training aid and reference, and crew members new to the concrete paving ind...

  4. Noise measurements of highway pavements in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    This report presents the results of noise testing performed on Texas pavements between May of 2006 and the : summer of 2008. Two field test methodologies were used: roadside noise measurement with SPL meters and onvehicle : sound intensity measuremen...

  5. Improving safety in pavement field testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-15

    The Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) collects pavement condition and performance data each year, using both site-specific equipment that requires temporary traffic control (TTC) operations (either moving or closed operations) and full-size...

  6. Reformulated pavement remaining service life framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    "Many important decisions are necessary in order to effectively provide and manage a pavement network. At the heart : of this process is the prediction of needed future construction events. One approach to providing a single numeric on : the conditio...

  7. Optimization of safety on pavement preservation projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    To achieve a goal of reducing highway crash fatalities by 4% each year to improve roadway safety, the Georgia Department of Transportation (GDOT) is actively seeking opportunities to incorporate safety improvements into its current pavement preservat...

  8. On-road Bicycle Pavement Markings

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — A mile by mile breakdown of the on-street bicycle pavement markings installed within the City of Pittsburgh. These include bike lanes, shared lane markings...

  9. Revision of South African pavement design method

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kannemeyer, L

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available South Africa has a long pavement engineering history in terms of developing methodologies and solutions for supporting the local economy using available materials under specific environmental and socio-economic conditions. Over the past 10 years...

  10. Mechanistic flexible pavement overlay design program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    The current Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development (LADOTD) overlay thickness design method follows the Component : Analysis procedure provided in the 1993 AASHTO pavement design guide. Since neither field nor laboratory tests a...

  11. Life cycle assessment of asphalt pavement maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This study aims at developing a life cycle assessment (LCA) model to quantify the impact of pavement preservation on energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The construction stage contains material, manufacture, transportation and plac...

  12. Performance evaluation of precast prestressed concrete pavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    This report describes in detail an experimental investigation of an innovative precast prestressed concrete pavement (PPCP) system used to rehabilitate a 1,000 ft. section of interstate highway located on the northbound lanes of I-57 near Charleston,...

  13. Polyfunctional Modifiers for Bitumen and Bituminous Materials with High Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alim Feizrakhmanovich Kemalov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade increase in capacity and the intensity of vehicular traffic has increased manifoldly, including heavy trucks, super singles, and higher tire pressures, resulting in significant increase of dynamic loads on the road surface which in turn lead to high quality requirements for bitumen in order to avoid premature wear and failure of asphalt concrete pavements. One of the possibilities to increase the quality of bitumen is to use special additives and modifiers that can provide a high adhesion to mineral filler and inhibit the aging and degradation processes in the asphalt coating. To achieve this, in the present study composite modifiers based on bisimidazolines derivatives were synthesized. The developed polyfunctional modifier (PFM of complex action provides enhanced thermal stability, significantly improves the adhesion between bitumen binder and aggregates, and also improves the physical-mechanical properties of the asphalt concrete. Based on the test results it is recommended to use the synthesized samples of the PFM additive with complex action in asphalt mixtures for road paving.

  14. Development of Pavement Condition Index Model Using PAVER 6.5.7 for Flexible Pavement Urban Roads in Kerbala City

    OpenAIRE

    Hussein Ali Ewadh; Raid Rahman Almuhanna; Saja Jasim Alasadi

    2017-01-01

    The pavement condition index (PCI) is an important factor indicating pavement condition of roads. The pavement is one of the basic parts of the road infrastructure. Accordingly the aim of this paper is to develop a pavement condition index model using PAVER 6.5.7 for a flexible pavement urban roads in the Kerbala city center. The development model is depending on the PCI value of 109 sample sections having 57.8 km length, Data collected for pavement distress (type, dimension, and severity) w...

  15. Fusing complementary images for pavement cracking measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Ming; Zhao, Zuyun; Xu, Bugao; Yao, Xun

    2015-01-01

    Cracking is a major pavement distress that jeopardizes road serviceability and traffic safety. Automated pavement distress survey (APDS) systems have been developed using digital imaging technology to replace human surveys for more timely and accurate inspections. Most APDS systems require special lighting devices to illuminate pavements and prevent shadows of roadside objects that distort cracks in the image. Most artificial lighting devices are laser based, and are either hazardous to unprotected people or require dedicated power supplies on the vehicle. This study was aimed to develop a new imaging system that can scan pavement surface at highway speed and determine the level of severity of pavement cracking without using any artificial lighting. The new system consists of dual line-scan cameras that are installed side by side to scan the same pavement area as the vehicle moves. Cameras are controlled with different exposure settings so that both sunlit and shadowed areas can be visible in two separate images. The paired images contain complementary details useful for reconstructing an image in which the shadows are eliminated. This paper intends to present (1) the design of the dual line-scan camera system, (2) a new calibration method for line-scan cameras to rectify and register paired images, (3) a customized image-fusion algorithm that merges the multi-exposure images into one shadow-free image for crack detection, and (4) the results of the field tests on a selected road over a long period. (paper)

  16. Thermal stability analysis under embankment with asphalt pavement and cement pavement in permafrost regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junwei, Zhang; Jinping, Li; Xiaojuan, Quan

    2013-01-01

    The permafrost degradation is the fundamental cause generating embankment diseases and pavement diseases in permafrost region while the permafrost degradation is related with temperature. Based on the field monitoring results of ground temperature along G214 Highway in high temperature permafrost regions, both the ground temperatures in superficial layer and the annual average temperatures under the embankment were discussed, respectively, for concrete pavements and asphalt pavements. The maximum depth of temperature field under the embankment for concrete pavements and asphalt pavements was also studied by using the finite element method. The results of numerical analysis indicate that there were remarkable seasonal differences of the ground temperatures in superficial layer between asphalt pavement and concrete pavement. The maximum influencing depth of temperature field under the permafrost embankment for every pavement was under the depth of 8 m. The thawed cores under both embankments have close relation with the maximum thawed depth, the embankment height, and the service time. The effective measurements will be proposed to keep the thermal stabilities of highway embankment by the results.

  17. Thermal Stability Analysis under Embankment with Asphalt Pavement and Cement Pavement in Permafrost Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Junwei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The permafrost degradation is the fundamental cause generating embankment diseases and pavement diseases in permafrost region while the permafrost degradation is related with temperature. Based on the field monitoring results of ground temperature along G214 Highway in high temperature permafrost regions, both the ground temperatures in superficial layer and the annual average temperatures under the embankment were discussed, respectively, for concrete pavements and asphalt pavements. The maximum depth of temperature field under the embankment for concrete pavements and asphalt pavements was also studied by using the finite element method. The results of numerical analysis indicate that there were remarkable seasonal differences of the ground temperatures in superficial layer between asphalt pavement and concrete pavement. The maximum influencing depth of temperature field under the permafrost embankment for every pavement was under the depth of 8 m. The thawed cores under both embankments have close relation with the maximum thawed depth, the embankment height, and the service time. The effective measurements will be proposed to keep the thermal stabilities of highway embankment by the results.

  18. How to reduce tire-pavement noise : better practices for constructing and texturing concrete pavement surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Concrete pavements can be designed and constructed to be as quiet as any other conventional pavement type in use today. This report : provides an overview of how this can be doneand done consistently. : In order to construct a quieter concrete pav...

  19. Demonstration of using quieter pavement in Death Valley National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Death Valley National Park provided an environment that allowed a demonstration of : quieter pavement use. Sound measurements near the tire-pavement interface, near the : road, and in areas of frequent human use were conducted and analyses performed ...

  20. Continuous real time measurement of pavement quality during construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Intelligent Compaction has been investigated as a means of improving the quality of asphalt pavements during their : construction. The long term performance of an asphalt pavement is directly related to its load bearing capability and : is determined...

  1. Laboratory fatigue evaluation of continuously fiber-reinforced concrete pavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Portland cement concrete (PCC) is the worlds most versatile construction material. PCC has : been in use in the United States for over 100 years. PCC pavement is generally constructed as : either continually reinforced concrete pavement (CRCP) or ...

  2. Evaluation of recycled concrete as aggregate in new concrete pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    This study evaluated the use of recycled concrete as coarse aggregate in new concrete pavements. : Recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) produced from demolished pavements in three geographically dispersed locations in Washington state were used to perfo...

  3. Mobile geographic information system solution for pavement condition surveys [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The State Materials Office (SMO) of the Florida : Department of Transportation (FDOT) performs : annual Pavement Condition Surveys (PCS) of : the Departments extensive pavement network. : This work is performed by single-person crews in : inertial...

  4. Guidelines for PCC inputs to AASHTOWare Pavement ME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this research study was to develop guidelines for portland cement concrete (PCC) material inputs to the : AASHTOWare Pavement ME Design program. The AASHTOWare Pavement ME Design is the software program used by the : Mississippi Depa...

  5. Long term pavement performance computed parameter : frost penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    As the pavement design process moves toward mechanistic-empirical techniques, knowledge of seasonal changes in pavement structural characteristics becomes critical. Specifically, frost penetration information is necessary for determining the effect o...

  6. Predicting low-temperature cracking in asphalt pavements : [research brief].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    In Wisconsin's winter climate, low temperatures can cause asphalt pavements to contract and crack, reducing their ride quality and service lives. To help engineers more accurately determine how well certain pavement designs will fare in such conditio...

  7. Effect of friction on rolling tire-pavement interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    In this research, a three-dimensional (3-D) tire-pavement interaction model is developed using FEM to analyze the tire-pavement contact stress distributions at various rolling conditions (free rolling, braking/accelerating, and cornering). In additio...

  8. Precision and accuracy of mechanistic-empirical pavement design

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Theyse, HL

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The availability of mechanistic-empirical pavement design methods is increasing internationally. Although mechanistic-empirical design does offer some insight into pavement behaviour and performance, at least more so than empirical design methods...

  9. Advanced Automated Detection Analysis and Classification of Cracks in Pavement

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Functional Session 5: Pavement Management Moderated by Akyiaa Hosten This presentation was held at the Pavement Evaluation 2014 Conference, which took place from September 15-18, 2014 in Blacksburg, Virginia. Presentation only

  10. Investigation clogging dynamic of permeable pavement systems using embedded sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permeable pavement is a stormwater control measure commonly selected in both new and retrofit applications. However, there is limited information about the clogging mechanism of these systems that effects the infiltration. A permeable pavement site located at the Seitz Elementary...

  11. Performance and cost effectiveness of permeable friction course (PFC) pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    In this project, the research team evaluated the performance of Permeable Friction Courses (PFC) over time and compared it against other types of wearing surface pavement layers. Several pavement sections including Asphalt Rubber (AR) PFCs, Performan...

  12. Mechanistic flexible pavement overlay design program : tech summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    The Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development (LADOTD) currently follows the 1993 : AASHTO pavement design guides component analysis method in its fl exible pavement overlay thickness : design. Such an overlay design method, how...

  13. Software offers transparent, straightforward assessment of pavement additives : research spotlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Adding new materials to pavement layers is a proven technique to : improve performance. Many types of additivesfrom engineered : polymers and acids to recycled pavement, crumb rubber, shingles : and glasshave been used to help construct better ...

  14. AASHTO mechanistic-empirical pavement design guide parametric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    This study focuses on assessing the robustness of the AASHTO Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG v 1.1) for rigid pavement : design projects in Wisconsin. The primary tasks conducted in this study included performing sensitivity analys...

  15. Overview of the South African mechanistic pavement design analysis method

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Theyse, HL

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A historical overview of the South African mechanistic pavement design method, from its development in the early 1970s to the present, is presented. Material characterization, structural analysis, and pavement life prediction are discussed...

  16. Evaluating the performance of sustainable perpetual pavements using recycled asphalt pavement in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saud A. Sultan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The vast highways network in China is moving from the phase of construction to the phase of maintenance, and with the introduction of new technique of perpetual pavement in last decade, it is necessary to consider recycling as one of the promising solutions for rehabilitation of old asphalt concrete pavement and ultimately to convert them into perpetual pavements. The aim is to reuse the existing pavement materials for several reasons, mainly to preserve natural resources such as aggregates, and to satisfy economic requirements by reducing the cost of highway construction and rehabilitation. A detailed testing program has been carried out on recycled asphalt pavements materials (RAP to evaluate their mechanical and structural characteristics to be used for the construction and rehabilitation of road pavements. Different types of RAP mixes have been stabilized by Portland cement to find the most suitable one from the point of view of design, construction, economy and environment. The analysis of life cycle costs has been carried out using system analysis and management of pavement program (SAMP5. The analysis of life cycle costs showed that the use of Portland cements with small percentages improves the structural characteristics of recycled asphalt materials to be used as stabilized base pavement layers for new or rehabilitated old road pavements and also for the construction and rehabilitation of perpetual pavements. A large amount of savings in construction and rehabilitation cost has been achieved by the use of stabilized RAP materials in addition to important contributions to the environment and preserving of natural resources.

  17. Microstructural self-healing of bituminous materials : Combined experimental and numerical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pauli, A.; Schmets, A.J.M.; Kasbergen, C.; Varveri, K.; Scarpas, A.

    2013-01-01

    Bituminous materials form a class of materials that possess the intrinsic ability to selfheal. This self-healing capability is evidenced by the observation that the service life of these materials ‘in the field’ exceeds the service life as predicted by standard mechanical laboratory tests. This

  18. The X-ray fluorescent method for determination of total sulphur in bituminous coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widowska-Kusmierska, J.; Siess, K.

    1979-01-01

    The X-ray fluorescent technique for the determination of total sulphur covering concentrations from 0,1 to 10% has been applied for bituminous coals showing a great variability in qualitative and quantitative composition of mineral matter (ash). The described method is a quick one giving results during one hour. The obtained good accuracy of determinations gives prospects for wide industrial application. (author)

  19. Assessment of underground coal gasification in bituminous coals. Volume I. Executive summary. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the bituminous coal resources of the United States, identifies those resources which are potentially amenable to Underground Coal Gasification (UCG), identifies products and markets in the vicinity of selected target areas, identifies UCG concepts, describes the state of the art of UCG in bituminous coal, and presents three R and D programs for development of the technology to the point of commercial viability. Of the 670 billion tons of bituminous coal remaining in-place as identified by the National Coal Data System, 32.2 billion tons or 4.8% of the total are potentially amenable to UCG technology. The identified amenable resource was located in ten states: Alabama, Colorado, Illinois, Kentucky, New Mexico, Ohio, Oklahoma, Utah, Virginia, and West Virginia. The principal criteria which eliminated 87.3% of the resource was the minimum thickness (42 inches). Three R and D programs were developed using three different concepts at two different sites. Open Borehole, Hydraulic Fracture, and Electrolinking concepts were developed. The total program costs for each concept were not significantly different. The study concludes that much of the historical information based on UCG in bituminous coals is not usable due to the poor siting of the early field tests and a lack of adequate diagnostic equipment. This information gap requires that much of the early work be redone in view of the much improved understanding of the role of geology and hydrology in the process and the recent development of analytical tools and methods.

  20. Effect of bituminous coal properties on carbon dioxide and methane high pressure sorption

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weishauptová, Zuzana; Přibyl, Oldřich; Sýkorová, Ivana; Machovič, Vladimír

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 139, JAN 1 (2015), s. 115-124 ISSN 0016-2361 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : bituminous coal * sorption capacity * maceral composition * Upper Silesian Coal Basin Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.611, year: 2015

  1. Pre-treatment of bituminized NPP wastes for disposal in near-surface repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Vanessa Mota; Tello, Clédola Cássia Oliveira de, E-mail: vanessamotavieira@gmail.com, E-mail: tellocc@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The implementation of the national repository is an important technical requirement, and a legal requirement for the entry into operation of the nuclear power plant Angra 3. The Brazilian repository is being planned to be a near-surface one. In Brazil the low and intermediate level radioactive wastes are immobilized using cement and bitumen for Angra 1 and Angra 2 NPP, respectively. The main problems due to the disposal of bituminized wastes in repositories are swelling of the waste products and their degradation in the long term. To accommodate the swelling of the bituminized wastes, the drums are filled up to 70 - 90% of their volume, which reduces the structural the repository stability and the disposal availability. Countries, which use bitumen in the solidification of NPP's radioactive waste and have near-surface repositories, need to immobilize this bituminized waste within other drums containing cement pastes or mortars to disposal them. This study aims to find solutions for the storage in surface repository of bituminized radioactive waste products, making them compatible with the acceptance criteria of cemented waste products. It was also performed a modeling with the results obtained in the leaching test using the ALT program and defined the transport model of the cesium leachate element and it was verified that in the early times the leaching was governed by the diffusion model and later by the partition model. The results obtained in this study can be used in the evaluation of performance of repositories. (author)

  2. Evaluation of Procedures for Backcalculation of Airfield Pavement Moduli

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    surface and the base pavement is positively in good condition Cb = 0.8 if only reflective cracks or only joint reflective cracks are present on...backcalculation routine with the real pavement scenario.  Testing in proximity of cracks or joints results in measured deflection basins that... pavement (JPCP) 1 Plant mix (emulsified asphalt) material, cold-laid 20 Jointed reinforced concrete pavement (JRCP) 1 Cracked and seated PCC

  3. Pavement Condition Survey in Kagawa Prefecture using ROMDAS

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad, Mamunur Rashid; 角川, 浩二

    2006-01-01

    Highway is one of the most important areas among the various facilities of infrastructure. Therefore, most of the organizations related to the infrastructure management system pay higher attention to the pavement which is the most important facility of highway management. An effective pavement management system (PMS) helps to carry out all the preservation and necessary maintenance operations of the pavement. In order to implement a pavement management system, data collection that indicates e...

  4. A fuzzy logic approach for pavement section classification

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmood, M; Rahman, M; Nolle, L; Mathavan, S

    2013-01-01

    Section classification is one of the primary challenges in any successful pavement management system. Sections are normally classified based on their pavement condition index in order to categorise as "good", "moderate" and "poor". Conventionally, this has been done by comparing various pavement distress data against threshold values. However, borderline values between two categories have significant influence on the subsequent pavement maintenance and rehabilitation decision. This study is t...

  5. AutoPAVER: A software package for automated pavement evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Mark D.; Shahin, M. Y.; Walther, Jeanette A.

    1990-07-01

    This research developed a method that improves data collection and reduces data entry times for Pavement Condition Index (PCI) surveys for use with PAVER, a pavement maintenance management system. The method, AutoPAVER, is a microcomputer software package used to analyze pictures of pavement surfaces and to forward the resulting analysis to PAVER. The user works interactively with the system to identify and classify pavement distresses. Distress measurement and data entry are done on the computer.

  6. Pavement Condition Survey in Kagawa Prefecture using ROMDAS

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Mamunur Rashid; 角川, 浩二

    2005-01-01

    Highway is one of the most important areas among the various facilities of infrastructure. Therefore, most of the organizations related to the infrastructure management system pay higher attention to the pavement which is the most important facility of highway management. An effective pavement management system (PMS) helps to carry out all the preservation and necessary maintenance operations of the pavement. In order to implement a pavement management system, data collection that indicates e...

  7. Precast concrete pavement - systems and performance review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Josef; Kohoutková, Alena; Křístek, Vladimír; Vodička, Jan

    2017-09-01

    Long-term traffic restrictions belong to the key disadvantages of conventional cast-in-plane concrete pavements which have been used for technical structures such as roads, parking place and airfield pavements. As a consequence, the pressure is put on the development of such systems which have short construction time, low production costs, long-term durability, low maintenance requirements etc.. The paper presents the first step in the development of an entirely new precast concrete pavement (PCP) system applicable to airfield and highway pavements. The main objective of the review of PCP systems is to acquire a better understanding of the current systems and design methods used for transport infrastructure. There is lack of information on using PCP systems for the construction of entirely new pavements. To most extensive experience is dated back to the 20th century when hexagonal slab panels and system PAG were used in the Soviet Union for the military airfields. Since cast-in-situ pavements became more common, the systems based on precast concrete panels have been mainly utilized for the removal of damaged sections of existing structures including roads, highways etc.. Namely, it concerns Fort Miller Super Slab system, Michigan system, Uretek Stitch system and Kwik system. The presented review indicates several issues associated with the listed PCP systems and their applications to the repair and rehabilitation of existing structures. Among others, the type of manufacturing technology, particularly the position of slots for dowel bars, affects the durability and performance of the systems. Gathered information serve for the development of a new system for airfield and highway pavement construction.

  8. Design and construction of PCC pavements. Volume 2, design features and practices that influence performance of pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-01

    A study has been conducted to evaluate and analyze Portland cement concrete (PCC) pavements in order to develop recommendations for the design and construction of long-lived concrete pavements. In involved a detailed evaluation and analysis of the PC...

  9. Design and construction of PCC pavements, volume 2 : design features and practices that influence performance of pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-01

    A study has been conducted to evaluate and analyze portland cement concrete (PCC) pavements in order to : develop recommendations for the design and construction of long-lived concrete pavements. It involved a : detailed evaluation and analysis of th...

  10. Design and construction of PCC pavements. Volume 1, summary of design features and construction practices that influence performance of pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    A study has been conducted to evaluate and analyze Portland cement concrete (PCC) pavements in order to develop recommendations for the design and construction of long-lived concrete pavements. In involved a detailed evaluation and analysis of the PC...

  11. Evaluation of current Louisiana flexible pavement structures using PMS data and new mechanistic-empirical pavement design guide : tech summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    The new Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG) developed under the National Cooperative Highway : Research Program (NCHRP) Project 1-37A represents a major change as compared to the 1993 AASHTO Pavement : Design Guide. MEPDG provides a r...

  12. Evaluation of current Louisiana flexible pavement structures using PMS data and new M-E pavement design guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    The proposed study uses the new MEPDG together with data available from LADOTDs Pavement Management System (PMS) and other data sources from LADOTDs main frame to evaluate typical flexible pavement structures currently used and to make changes ...

  13. Knowledge Discovery and Pavement Performance : Intelligent Data Mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miradi, M.

    2009-01-01

    The main goal of the study was to discover knowledge from data about asphalt road pavement problems to achieve a better understanding of the behavior of them and via this understanding improve pavement quality and enhance its lifespan. Four pavement problems were chosen to be investigated; raveling

  14. Estimating the benefits of improved drainage on pavement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The drainage quality is an important parameter which affects the performance of highway pavements. In India, since last few years considerable importance has been given to the drainage as per of pavement. A poor quality of drainage results in premature deterioration of the pavement structure and necessitating large ...

  15. Effect of training algorithms on neural networks aided pavement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Routine pavement maintenance necessitates present structural diagnosis and condition evaluation of pavements by employing non-destructive test equipment such as the Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD). FWD testing of pavements involves measuring time-domain surface deflections resulting from applied impulse ...

  16. Effect of age of permeable pavements on their infiltration function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terry Lucke; ir. Floris Boogaard; Simon Beecham

    2013-01-01

    This study describes field investigations designed to compare the infiltration capacities of 55 permeable pavement systems installed in the Netherlands and in Australia. The ages of the pavements varied from 1 to 12 years. Using infiltrometer testing, the performance of the pavements has been

  17. Future design of perpetual pavements for New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-29

    This study provides guidance for future designs of perpetual pavements in New Mexico. The perpetual pavement in this study refers to only hot mix asphalt (HMA) pavement sections designed for a useful life of 50 years or more without having major dist...

  18. Pavement sound absorption measurements in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-19

    In the U.S., the topic of pavement sound absorption in regard to tire-pavement noise has shown increased interest and research over the last several years. Four types of pavement sound absorption measurements with various applications are discussed: ...

  19. Aerobic Biofilms Grown from Athabasca Watershed Sediments Are Inhibited by Increasing Concentrations of Bituminous Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, John R.; Sanschagrin, Sylvie; Roy, Julie L.; Swerhone, George D. W.; Korber, Darren R.; Greer, Charles W.

    2013-01-01

    Sediments from the Athabasca River and its tributaries naturally contain bitumen at various concentrations, but the impacts of this variation on the ecology of the river are unknown. Here, we used controlled rotating biofilm reactors in which we recirculated diluted sediments containing various concentrations of bituminous compounds taken from the Athabasca River and three tributaries. Biofilms exposed to sediments having low and high concentrations of bituminous compounds were compared. The latter were 29% thinner, had a different extracellular polysaccharide composition, 67% less bacterial biomass per μm2, 68% less cyanobacterial biomass per μm2, 64% less algal biomass per μm2, 13% fewer protozoa per cm2, were 21% less productive, and had a 33% reduced content in chlorophyll a per mm2 and a 20% reduction in the expression of photosynthetic genes, but they had a 23% increase in the expression of aromatic hydrocarbon degradation genes. Within the Bacteria, differences in community composition were also observed, with relatively more Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria and less Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes in biofilms exposed to high concentrations of bituminous compounds. Altogether, our results suggest that biofilms that develop in the presence of higher concentrations of bituminous compounds are less productive and have lower biomass, linked to a decrease in the activities and abundance of photosynthetic organisms likely due to inhibitory effects. However, within this general inhibition, some specific microbial taxa and functional genes are stimulated because they are less sensitive to the inhibitory effects of bituminous compounds or can degrade and utilize some bitumen-associated compounds. PMID:24056457

  20. Effectiveness of various public private partnership pavement rehabilitation treatments: A big data informatics survival analysis of pavement service life : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-29

    Past research efforts have used a wide variety of methodological approaches to analyze pavement performance indicators, pavement rehabilitation treatments, and pavement service life. Using big data informatics methods, the intent of this study is to ...

  1. Optical microtopographic inspection of asphalt pavement surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Manuel F. M.; Freitas, E. F.; Torres, H.; Cerezo, V.

    2017-08-01

    Microtopographic and rugometric characterization of surfaces is routinely and effectively performed non-invasively by a number of different optical methods. Rough surfaces are also inspected using optical profilometers and microtopographer. The characterization of road asphalt pavement surfaces produced in different ways and compositions is fundamental for economical and safety reasons. Having complex structures, including topographically with different ranges of form error and roughness, the inspection of asphalt pavement surfaces is difficult to perform non-invasively. In this communication we will report on the optical non-contact rugometric characterization of the surface of different types of road pavements performed at the Microtopography Laboratory of the Physics Department of the University of Minho.

  2. Full-Scale Accelerated Pavement Testing of Warm-Mix Asphalt (WMA) for Airfield Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Rushing Geotechnical and Structures Laboratory US Army Engineer Research and Development Center 3909 Halls Ferry Road Vicksburg, MS 39180-6199...Table 1. Foundation layer soil properties as constructed . ...................................................................... 7  Table 2. WMA...during production of bituminous paving materials. In recent years, warm-mix asphalt (WMA) has replaced HMA for many paving projects. WMA is a general

  3. Use of additives to improve the capacity of bituminous mixtures to be heated by means of microwaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallego, J.; Val, M.A. del; Contreras, V.; Páez, A.

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the potential of adding electric arc furnace slag to bituminous mixtures to be heated by microwaves. The susceptibility of bituminous mixtures to microwave energy is limited and so, in order to improve the energy performance of the heating process, it is necessary to incorporate additives or components to the mixture so as to improve the capacity for microwave heating. The article presents the results of adding various components, (steel wool, scrap tire wire, silicon carbide, iron filings) and an alternative aggregate: electric arc furnace slag. According to the results obtained in the laboratory, slag addition of at least 5% by weight of the bituminous mixture represents the best option for both technical and economic reasons. The results may promote the valorization of this steel industry residue in bituminous mixtures by improving microwave heating response. [es

  4. Interim revision of the South African Mechanistic-Empirical pavement design method for flexible pavements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Theyse, HL

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available an interim revision of the SAMDM recommending increased contact stress values at the tyre-pavement interface; updated unbound material characterisation parameters; effective stress analysis for unbound material; and revised damage models for estimating...

  5. Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide Flexible Pavement Performance Prediction Models Volume I Executive Research Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    The objective of this research study was to develop performance characteristics or variables (e.g., ride quality, rutting, : fatigue cracking, transverse cracking) of flexible pavements in Montana, and to use these characteristics in the : implementa...

  6. Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide Flexible Pavement Performance Prediction Models Volume II Reference Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    The objective of this research study was to develop performance characteristics or variables (e.g., ride quality, rutting, : fatigue cracking, transverse cracking) of flexible pavements in Montana, and to use these characteristics in the : implementa...

  7. Tyre-pavement interface contact stresses on flexible pavements - quo vadis?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer, Morris

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available on tyre inflation pressure on this route is also given. The paper also discusses an improved definition of the actual tyre/pavement interaction of modern heavy vehicles and their loads on the current flexible road infrastructure....

  8. Development of Pavement Condition Index Model Using PAVER 6.5.7 for Flexible Pavement Urban Roads in Kerbala City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Ali Ewadh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The pavement condition index (PCI is an important factor indicating pavement condition of roads. The pavement is one of the basic parts of the road infrastructure. Accordingly the aim of this paper is to develop a pavement condition index model using PAVER 6.5.7 for a flexible pavement urban roads in the Kerbala city center. The development model is depending on the PCI value of 109 sample sections having 57.8 km length, Data collected for pavement distress (type, dimension, and severity were used to find PCI. The filtering and outlier analysis was done by using a polynomial (fourth-degree constrained least squared for statistical process. These processes were done by (PAVER 6.5.7 software. The result of the prediction model of PCI shows that it is valid to be used in the prediction of the condition of pavement for the same family type

  9. Long-term behaviour of bituminized waste: modelling self-irradiation and leaching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simondi-Teisseire, B.; Vistoli, P.P.; Libert, M.; Gilardi, T. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. de Physico-Chimie, DPC, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Chaix, P. [CEA Saclay, Dept. de Physico-Chimie, DPC, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Blanc, V. [Cogema, 78 - Saint Quentin en Yvelines (France)

    2001-07-01

    During interim storage, the main evolution factor of bituminized wastes is radiolysis, due to self-irradiation. In deep disposal conditions, after site re-saturation and corrosion of the containers, the main evolution will be due to leaching. This paper deals with two models designed to describe respectively radiolytic gas evacuation (JACOB- 2) and bituminized waste leaching (COLONBO), and some of the typical results obtained from these two models. The first model describes radiolytic gas production, diffusive transport of gas, bubble nucleation and ripening and movement under buoyancy. The second one is based on descriptions of water sorption, solubilization, and diffusion into the matrix, water uptake by the most soluble salts leading to alteration of the matrix and finally to diffusive transport of the salts outside the bitumenisate. (author)

  10. Research on the thermal decomposition of Mongolian Baganuur lignite and Naryn sukhait bituminous coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ariunaa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The technical characteristics, elemental composition of the organic and mineral matters, ash melting behaviors and carbonization and gasification reactivities of coals from Baganuur and Naryn sukhait deposits were investigated. The results of proximate and ultimate analysis confirmed that the coal from Baganuur deposit can be graded as a low rank lignite B2 mark coal and Naryn sukhait coal is a bituminous G mark one. The carbonization and gasification experiments were performed using TGA apparatus and fixed bed quartz reactor. The data obtained with two experimental reactors showed that Baganuur lignite had lower thermal stability and much higher CO2 gasification reactivity at 950°C as compared to those for Naryn sukhait bituminous coal.Mongolian Journal of Chemistry 16 (42, 2015, 22-29

  11. Estimated Valuation of the Cost of Road Construction with the Use of Composite Cationic Bituminous Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Vorotynseva Anna; Ovsiannikov Andrey; Bolgov Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    The need for formation of prices for road construction works producing, by using composite of cationic bituminous structures, is dictated by absence of this type of work in estimate-normative base, due to the fact that this type of materials had never been used before. Estimated specifications could be used either for determination of work cost or for substantiation of efficiency of using new type of materials. This paper provides basic concepts, related to formation of estimate-normative bas...

  12. Study on Plastic Coated Overburnt Brick Aggregate as an Alternative Material for Bituminous Road Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, Dipankar; Pal, Manish; Sarkar, Ashoke K.

    2016-01-01

    There are different places in India where natural stone aggregates are not available for constructional work. Plastic coated OBBA can solve the problem of shortage of stone aggregate to some extent. The engineers are always encouraged to use locally available materials. The present investigation is carried out to evaluate the plastic coated OBBA as an alternative material for bituminous road construction. Shredded waste plastics are mixed with OBBA in different percentages as 0.38, 0.42, 0.46...

  13. [Determination of aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons during the installation of bituminous acoustic insulation panels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianello, G; Marrubini, G; La Bua, R; Laurini, C; Bergamaschi, A

    2006-01-01

    Two kinds of bituminous European and Asiatic origin panels, used as acoustic insulators in the production of electrical household appliances have been analysed. The tests, made at 180 degrees C, operation temperature during the assembly phases, have been executed by sampling the smokes released during the thermal treatment, subsequently analysed by GC-MS. The results showed a marked difference between the two samples in the amount of the issued compounds, essentially constituted by alkyl-aromatic hydrocarbons, IPA and Alkyl-IPA.

  14. Integration of pavement cracking prediction model with asset management and vehicle-infrastructure interaction models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Not long after the construction of a pavement or a new pavement surface, various : forms of deterioration begin to accumulate due to the harsh effects of traffic loading : combined with weathering action. In a recent NEXTRANS project, a pavement crac...

  15. Multi-resolution information mining and a computer vision approach to pavement condition distress analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Pavement Condition surveys are carried out periodically to gather information on pavement distresses that will guide decision-making for maintenance and preservation. Traditional methods involve manual pavement inspections which are time-consuming : ...

  16. Evaluation of Long-Life Concrete Pavement Practices for Use in Florida : [Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Current Florida construction practices produce asphalt pavements with a service life of 12 to 20 years before needing rehabilitation; concrete pavements are typically designed for 20 years. However, pavements with much longer design lives are possibl...

  17. Evaluation of Long-Life Concrete Pavement Practices for Use in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Current Florida construction practices produce asphalt pavements with a service life of 12 to 20 years before needing rehabilitation; concrete pavements are typically designed for 20 years. However, pavements with much longer design lives are possibl...

  18. Determination of coefficient of thermal expansion effects on Louisiana's PCC pavement design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    With the development of the Mechanistic Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG) as a new pavement design tool, the : coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) is now considered a more important design parameter in estimating pavement : performance inclu...

  19. Determination of coefficient of thermal expansion for Portland Cement Concrete pavements for MEPDG Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    The Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE) is an important parameter in Portland Cement Concrete (PCC) pavement analysis and design as it is directly proportional to the magnitude of temperature-related pavement deformations throughout the pavement s...

  20. Measurement, Construction, and Maintenance of Skid-Resistant Airport Pavement Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-03-18

    This advisory circular (AC) contains guidelines and procedures for the design : and construction of skid-resistant pavement, pavement evaluation with friction : measuring equipment, and maintenance of high skid-resistant pavements. 45p.

  1. On-board sound intensity tire-pavement noise study in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    "This research investigated tire-pavement noise on various types of pavements across North Carolina by using On- : Board Sound Intensity (OBSI) method. To mitigate traffic noise, quieter pavement may provide advantages that : noise barriers cannot. T...

  2. Developing a network-level structural capacity index for structural evaluation of pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a structural index for use in network-level pavement evaluation to facilitate : the inclusion of the pavements structural condition in pavement management applications. The primary goal of network-level...

  3. Predicting pavement condition index using international roughness index in Washington DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    A number of pavement condition indices are used to conduct pavement management assessments, two of which are the : International Roughness Index (IRI) and Pavement Condition Index (PCI). The IRI is typically measured using specialized : equipment tha...

  4. Carbon Isotope Analyses of Individual Hydrocarbon Molecules in Bituminous Coal, Oil Shale and Murchison Meteorite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoungsook Kim

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available To study the origin of organic matter in meteorite, terrestrial rocks which contain organic compounds similar to the ones found in carbonaceous chondrites are studied and compared with Murchison meteorite. Hydrocarbon molecules were extracted by benzene and methanol from bituminous coal and oil shale and the extracts were partitioned into aliphatic, aromatic, and polar fractions by silica gel column chromatography. Carbon isotopic ratios in each fractions were analysed by GC-C-IRMS. Molecular compound identifications were carried by GC-MS Engine. Bituminous coal and oil shale show the organic compound composition similar to that of meteorite. Oil shale has a wide range of δ(13C, -20.1%_0 - -54.4%_0 compared to bituminous coal, -25.2%_0 - -34.3%_0. Delta values of several molecular compounds in two terrestrial samples are different. They show several distinct distributions in isotopic ratios compared to those of meteorite; Murchison meteorite has a range of δ(13C from -13%_0 to +30%_0. These results provide interpretation for the source and the formation condition of each rock, in particular alteration and migration processes of organic matter. Especially, they show an important clue whether some hydrocarbon molecules observed in meteorite are indigenous or not.

  5. Prediction of Marshall Parameters of Modified Bituminous Mixtures Using Artificial Intelligence Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Khuntia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the application of artificial neural networks (ANN and least square support vector machine (LS-SVM for prediction of Marshall parameters obtained from Marshall tests for waste polyethylene (PE modified bituminous mixtures. Waste polyethylene in the form of fibres processed from utilized milk packets has been used to modify the bituminous mixes in order to improve their engineering properties. Marshall tests were carried out on mix specimens with variations in polyethylene and bitumen contents. It has been observed that the addition of waste polyethylene results in the improvement of Marshall characteristics such as stability, flow value and air voids, used to evaluate a bituminous mix. The proposed neural network (NN model uses the quantities of ingredients used for preparation of Marshall specimens such as polyethylene, bitumen and aggregate in order to predict the Marshall stability, flow value and air voids obtained from the tests. Out of two techniques used, the NN based model is found to be compact, reliable and predictable when compared with LS-SVM model. A sensitivity analysis has been performed to identify the importance of the parameters considered.

  6. Continuous bench-scale slurry catalyst testing direct coal liquefaction rawhide sub-bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauman, R.F.; Coless, L.A.; Davis, S.M. [and others

    1995-12-31

    In 1992, the Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored research to demonstrate a dispersed catalyst system using a combination of molybdenum and iron precursors for direct coal liquefaction. This dispersed catalyst system was successfully demonstrated using Black Thunder sub-bituminous coal at Wilsonville, Alabama by Southern Electric International, Inc. The DOE sponsored research continues at Exxon Research and Development Laboratories (ERDL). A six month continuous bench-scale program using ERDL`s Recycle Coal Liquefaction Unit (RCLU) is planned, three months in 1994 and three months in 1995. The initial conditions in RCLU reflect experience gained from the Wilsonville facility in their Test Run 263. Rawhide sub-bituminous coal which is similar to the Black Thunder coal tested at Wilsonville was used as the feed coal. A slate of five dispersed catalysts for direct coal liquefaction of Rawhide sub-bituminous coal has been tested. Throughout the experiments, the molybdenum addition rate was held constant at 100 wppm while the iron oxide addition rate was varied from 0.25 to 1.0 weight percent (dry coal basis). This report covers the 1994 operations and accomplishments.

  7. Study on Plastic Coated Overburnt Brick Aggregate as an Alternative Material for Bituminous Road Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipankar Sarkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are different places in India where natural stone aggregates are not available for constructional work. Plastic coated OBBA can solve the problem of shortage of stone aggregate to some extent. The engineers are always encouraged to use locally available materials. The present investigation is carried out to evaluate the plastic coated OBBA as an alternative material for bituminous road construction. Shredded waste plastics are mixed with OBBA in different percentages as 0.38, 0.42, 0.46, 0.50, 0.54, and 0.60 of the weight of brick aggregates. Marshall Method of mix design is carried out to find the optimum bitumen content of such bituminous concrete mix prepared by plastic coated OBBA. Bulk density, Marshall Stability, flow, Marshall Quotient, ITS, TSR, stripping, fatigue life, and deformations have been determined accordingly. Marshall Stability value of 0.54 percent of plastic mix is comparatively higher than the other mixes except 0.60 percent of plastic mix. Test results are within the prescribed limit for 0.54 percent of plastic mix. There is a significant reduction in rutting characteristics of the same plastic mix. The fatigue life of the mix is also significantly higher. Thus plastic coated OBBA is found suitable in construction of bituminous concrete road.

  8. JV Task 126 - Mercury Control Technologies for Electric Utilities Burning Bituminous Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason Laumb; John Kay; Michael Jones; Brandon Pavlish; Nicholas Lentz; Donald McCollor; Kevin Galbreath

    2009-03-29

    The EERC developed an applied research consortium project to test cost-effective mercury (Hg) control technologies for utilities burning bituminous coals. The project goal was to test innovative Hg control technologies that have the potential to reduce Hg emissions from bituminous coal-fired power plants by {ge}90% at costs of one-half to three-quarters of current estimates for activated carbon injection (ACI). Hg control technology evaluations were performed using the EERC's combustion test facility (CTF). The CTF was fired on pulverized bituminous coals at 550,000 Btu/hr (580 MJ/hr). The CTF was configured with the following air pollution control devices (APCDs): selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit, electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization system (WFDS). The Hg control technologies investigated as part of this project included ACI (three Norit Americas, Inc., and eleven Envergex sorbents), elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) oxidation catalysts (i.e., the noble metals in Hitachi Zosen, Cormetech, and Hitachi SCR catalysts), sorbent enhancement additives (SEAs) (a proprietary EERC additive, trona, and limestone), and blending with a Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal. These Hg control technologies were evaluated separately, and many were also tested in combination.

  9. Cracking of open traffic rigid pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niken Chatarina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The research is done by observing the growth of real structure cracking in Natar, Lampung, Indonesia compared to C. Niken’s et al research and literature study. The rigid pavement was done with open traffic system. There are two main crack types on Natar rigid pavement: cracks cross the road, and cracks spreads on rigid pavement surface. The observation of cracks was analyzed by analyzing material, casting, curing, loading and shrinkage mechanism. The relationship between these analysis and shrinkage mechanism was studied in concrete micro structure. Open traffic make hydration process occur under vibration; therefore, fresh concrete was compressed and tensioned alternately since beginning. High temperature together with compression, cement dissociation, the growth of Ca2+ at very early age leads abnormal swelling. No prevention from outside water movement leads hydration process occur with limited water which caused spreads fine cracks. Limited water improves shrinkage and plastic phase becomes shorter; therefore, rigid pavement can’t accommodate the abnormal swelling and shrinking alternately and creates the spread of cracks. Discontinuing casting the concrete makes both mix under different condition, the first is shrink and the second is swell and creates weak line on the border; so, the cracks appear as cracks across the road.

  10. Permeable pavement research – Edison, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    These are the slides for the New York City Concrete Promotional Council Pervious Concrete Seminar presentation. The basis for the project, the monitoring design and some preliminary monitoring data from the permeable pavement parking lot at the Edison Environmental Center are pre...

  11. "Full-Scale Testing of Pavement Response"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullidtz, Per; Ekdahl, Peter

    1998-01-01

    methods for determining stresses, strains and deflections in pavement structurers.Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) test were done on the test sections, and stresses and strains were measured both under FWD loading and under a rolling wheel load. Different back-analysis procedures were used to derive...

  12. Microstructural pavement material characterization: some examples

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mgangira, Martin B

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The utilisation of advanced measurement techniques should assist in the characterization of pavement materials at a micro-scale. The motivating factor for such an approach is that material properties at the micro-level have a critical role...

  13. Texas perpetual pavements : new design guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Since 2001, the State of Texas has been designing and constructing perpetual pavements : on some of its heavily trafficked highways where the expected 20-year truck-traffic estimate of : 18 kip ESALs is in excess of 30 million (TxDOT, 2001). To date,...

  14. Relationship between road pavement failures, engineering indices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article presents the results of a study carried out to relate the frequency of pavement failures, the engineering indices of the subgrade materials and the underlying geology. The results show a high variability in the indices such as the liquid limit, LL, the plasticity index, PI, the maximum dry density, MDD, the optimum ...

  15. The Reflective Cracking in Flexible Pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pais Jorge

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Reflective cracking is a major concern for engineers facing the problem of road maintenance and rehabilitation. The problem appears due to the presence of cracks in the old pavement layers that propagate into the pavement overlay layer when traffic load passes over the cracks and due to the temperature variation. The stress concentration in the overlay just above the existing cracks is responsible for the appearance and crack propagation throughout the overlay. The analysis of the reflective cracking phenomenon is usually made by numerical modeling simulating the presence of cracks in the existing pavement and the stress concentration in the crack tip is assessed to predict either the cracking propagation rate or the expected fatigue life of the overlay. Numerical modeling to study reflective cracking is made by simulating one crack in the existing pavement and the loading is usually applied considering the shear mode of crack opening. Sometimes the simulation considers the mode I of crack opening, mainly when temperature effects are predominant.

  16. Pavement behaviour under the super single tyre

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Viljoen, AW

    1982-06-01

    Full Text Available Pavement behaviour under the super single tyre (SST) was investigated and compared with that under a conventional dual tyre (CDT). Contact areas and contact pressures over a range of loading conditions were measured and compared. Two approaches were...

  17. Lessons learned : pavement marking warranty contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    In 2012, UDOT implemented a performance-based warranty on a portion of an I-15 pavement marking : project. The awarded contract requested a contractor warranty on the implemented markings for a total : duration of six years. This is the first time th...

  18. Digital image processing as a tool for pavement distress evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgopoulos, A.; Loizos, A.; Flouda, A.

    The information obtained through accurate condition assessment of pavement surface distress data is needed as an essential input to any decision making process concerning pavement management policy. At the same time technological advances in automated inspection systems provide the opportunity to automate the collection and evaluation of the pavement surface condition. In this paper a method developed jointly by the Laboratories of Highway Engineering and Photogrammetry of the National Technical University of Athens is described and proposed. The method involves digital image processing techniques to provide suitable digital imagery as input to specialised software developed especially for this project. This software determines objectively and fully automatically the type, the extent and the severity of surface crackings for flexible road pavements. The proposed method presenten substantial agreement, when compared with systematic visual ratings of existing pavement crackings carried out according to the internationally accepted requirements for airfield and road pavement of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA).

  19. COMPARISON OF LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT TOOLS FOR ROAD PAVEMENT INFRASTRUCTURE

    OpenAIRE

    OLIVEIRA DOS SANTOS , Joao Miguel; THYAGARAJAN , Senthilmurugan; KEIJZER , Elisabeth; FERNANDEZ FLORES , Rocio; FLINTSCH , Gerardo

    2017-01-01

    Road pavements have considerable environmental burdens associated with their initial construction, maintenance, and usage, which has led the pavement stakeholder community to congregate efforts to better understand and mitigate these negative effects. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a versatile methodology to quantify the effect of decisions regarding the selection of resources and processes. However, there is a considerable variety of tools for conducting pavement LCA. The objective of this p...

  20. Recyclability of Concrete Pavement Incorporating High Volume of Fly Ash

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshitake, Isamu; Ishida, Takeo; Fukumoto, Sunao

    2015-01-01

    Recyclable concrete pavement was made from fly ash and crushed limestone sand and gravel as aggregates so that the concrete pavement could be recycled to raw materials for cement production. With the aim to use as much fly ash as possible for the sustainable development of society, while achieving adequate strength development, pavement concrete having a cement-replacement ratio of 40% by mass was experimentally investigated, focusing on the strength development at an early age. Limestone pow...

  1. Incorporating moving dynamic tyre loads in pavement design and analysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, WJvdM

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available at the University of Pretoria. 4 REAL LIFE TYRE LOADS Characterisation Pavement loading has been shown by various authors to be a dynamic (time-dependent) phenomenon (Divine, 1997; Cebon, 1999). A pavement experiences a vehicle as a moving, time-varying set... is that caused by the pavement roughness-induced movement of the vehicle. This is traditionally termed dynamic pavement loading (Divine, 1997). Tyre load definitions Four types of tyre loading can be identified: 1. A load that is independent of time...

  2. Environmentally friendly pavements: Results from noise measurements 2005-2008

    OpenAIRE

    Berge, Truls Svenn; Haukland, Frode; Ustad, Asbjørn

    2009-01-01

    CPX-measurements (tyre A) have been performed on a wide range of ordinary dense Norwegian road pavements and special test pavements, as part of the R&D project “Environmental friendly pavements” initiated by the Norwegian Public Roads Administration. The following conclusions can be made from the investigation:- New dense asphalt concrete pavements can give a tyre/road noise level (CPX) of 4-8 dB(A) lower noise level, compared to a chosen reference level for a pavement of type AC 0/1...

  3. Study on Flexible Pavement Failures in Soft Soil Tropical Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, M.; Chee Soon, Lee

    2015-04-01

    Road network system experienced rapid upgrowth since ages ago and it started developing in Malaysia during the colonization of British due to its significant impacts in transportation field. Flexible pavement, the major road network in Malaysia, has been deteriorating by various types of distresses which cause descending serviceability of the pavement structure. This paper discusses the pavement condition assessment carried out in Sarawak and Sabah, Malaysia to have design solutions for flexible pavement failures. Field tests were conducted to examine the subgrade strength of existing roads in Sarawak at various failure locations, to assess the impact of subgrade strength on pavement failures. Research outcomes from field condition assessment and subgrade testing showed that the critical causes of pavement failures are inadequate design and maintenance of drainage system and shoulder cross fall, along with inadequate pavement thickness provided by may be assuming the conservative value of soil strength at optimum moisture content, whereas the exiting and expected subgrade strengths at equilibrium moisture content are far below. Our further research shows that stabilized existing recycled asphalt and base materials to use as a sub-base along with bitumen stabilized open graded base in the pavement composition may be a viable solution for pavement failures.

  4. Crack identification for rigid pavements using unmanned aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahaddin Ersoz, Ahmet; Pekcan, Onur; Teke, Turker

    2017-09-01

    Pavement condition assessment is an essential piece of modern pavement management systems as rehabilitation strategies are planned based upon its outcomes. For proper evaluation of existing pavements, they must be continuously and effectively monitored using practical means. Conventionally, truck-based pavement monitoring systems have been in-use in assessing the remaining life of in-service pavements. Although such systems produce accurate results, their use can be expensive and data processing can be time consuming, which make them infeasible considering the demand for quick pavement evaluation. To overcome such problems, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can be used as an alternative as they are relatively cheaper and easier-to-use. In this study, we propose a UAV based pavement crack identification system for monitoring rigid pavements’ existing conditions. The system consists of recently introduced image processing algorithms used together with conventional machine learning techniques, both of which are used to perform detection of cracks on rigid pavements’ surface and their classification. Through image processing, the distinct features of labelled crack bodies are first obtained from the UAV based images and then used for training of a Support Vector Machine (SVM) model. The performance of the developed SVM model was assessed with a field study performed along a rigid pavement exposed to low traffic and serious temperature changes. Available cracks were classified using the UAV based system and obtained results indicate it ensures a good alternative solution for pavement monitoring applications.

  5. Performance of recycled asphalt concrete airport pavement surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, G. D.; Hironaka, M. C.

    1986-10-01

    The objective of this research was to make an assessment of the relative performance of recycled versus new asphalt concrete pavement surfaces constructed for airport facilities. To make this assessment, pavement condition index (PCI) surveys and tests on core samples from the hot-mix recycled pavements located on the airports at Needles, California, and Valley City, North Dakota were conducted. Both pavements have a condition rating of very good. The survey and test data were compared with those for recycled highway and virgin material Navy airfield pavements. The recycle pavement at Needles is performing as good as those Navy pavements constructed with virgin material. The recycled pavement at Valley City has a higher deterioration rate than the Navy pavements but this could be attributed to the harsh climate found in North Dakota. The results of this study show that hot-mix recycling was successful at these airports but additional studies are required to determine the applicability of Asphalt Concrete (AC) recycling for reconstruction at all airports.

  6. Identification of Pavement Distress Types and Pavement Condition Evaluation Based on Network Level Inspection for Jazan City Road Network

    OpenAIRE

    M Mubaraki

    2014-01-01

    The first step in establishing a pavement management system (PMS) is road network identification. An important feature of a PMS is the ability to determine the current condition of a road network and predict its future condition. Pavement condition evaluation may involve structure, roughness, surface distress, and safety evaluation. In this study, a pavement distress condition rating procedure was used to achieve the objectives of this study. The main objectives of this study were to identify...

  7. Basic Performance of Fibre Reinforced Asphalt Concrete with Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement Produced In Low Temperatures with Foamed Bitumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomicz-Kowalska, Anna; Iwański, Mateusz M.; Mrugała, Justyna

    2017-10-01

    During the reconstruction of road pavements, the reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP), which is obtained through milling of the worn out existing asphalt, is commonly used for producing new base courses in cold recycling processes. Two of these techniques are most popular: one using mineral-cement-emulsion mixes and one utilizing mineral cement mixes with foamed bitumen. Additionally, some amounts of RAP can be incorporated into traditional hot mix asphalt. The demand for energy efficient and environmentally friendly solutions however, results in a need for development of new techniques that would result in cheaper and more reliable solutions with smaller carbon footprint. The reduction of processing temperatures with simultaneous incorporation of reclaimed material is the most efficient way of obtaining these objectives, but it often results in the overall decrease of bituminous mix quality. The paper presents the possibility of using RAP for producing asphalt concrete in warm mix asphalt (WMA) production process by the use of foamed bitumen modified with Fischer-Tropsch synthetic wax and polymer-basalt fibers. Additionally, a series of reference mixtures were produced to investigate the effects of the additives and of the warm process. The carried out analyses and tests shown that the experimental warm mix asphalt produced with RAP and foamed bitumen returned satisfactory performance. The introduction of synthetic F-T wax in the warm foam bitumen mixes resulted in a significantly improved compaction levels and moisture and frost resistance and the addition of polymer-basalt fibers has further improved the permanent deformation resistance of the mixes. All of the designed and tested mixes have fulfilled the requirements for binding course asphalt concrete with medium traffic loads.

  8. ANÁLISIS TÉRMICO DE GEOSINTÉTICOS UTILIZADOS EN LA REHABILITACIÓN DE PAVIMENTOS THERMAL ANALYSIS OF GEOSYNTHETICS USED IN THE REHABILITATION OF PAVEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Norambuena-Contreras

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available El crecimiento de la utilización de los geosintéticos en la rehabilitación de pavimentos flexibles se ha visto incrementado de forma considerable desde la década de los años setenta. Estos materiales presentan una serie de ventajas que motivan su gran demanda en la actualidad. La utilización de geosintéticos en la rehabilitación se basa en su capacidad de resistir deformaciones, atenuando las fisuras y grietas que pudiesen presentar los pavimentos flexibles. Se han realizado dos experiencias en laboratorio para simular el proceso de puesta en obra de los geosintéticos en la zona de intercapa. El procedimiento consiste en verter sobre el geosintético extendido, una capa de mezcla bituminosa en caliente comprendida entre 135 - 165 ºC. El análisis térmico de los resultados obtenidos avala significativamente al material poliéster (PS, con respecto al polipropileno (PP, en futuras aplicaciones de rehabilitación de pavimentos flexibles.The use of geosynthetics in rehabilitating flexible pavements has substantially expanded since the mid-seventies. These materials have a number of advantages that motivate their demand at present. The use of geosynthetics in rehabilitation is based on its ability to resist deformation, attenuating fissures and cracks that flexible pavements could present. Two experiments have been done to simulate the process of placing the geosynthetics in the interlayer area. The process consists of pouring on the spread geosynthetics a layer of hot bituminous mix between 135-165 °C. The thermal analysis of the results shows a significant performance of polyester (PS, compared to polypropylene (PP, in future applications for the rehabilitation of flexible pavements.

  9. Microorganism Removal in Permeable Pavement Parking Lots ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three types of permeable pavements (pervious concrete, permeable interlocking concrete pavers, and porous asphalt) were monitored at the Edison Environmental Center in Edison, New Jersey for indicator organisms such as fecal coliform, enterococci, and E. coli. Results showed that porous asphalt had much lower concentration in monitored infiltrate compared to pervious concrete and permeable interlocking concrete pavers. Concentrations of monitored organisms in infiltrate from porous asphalt were consistently below the bathing water quality standard. Fecal coliform and enterococci exceeded bathing water quality standards more than 72% and 34% of the time for permeable interlocking concrete pavers and pervious concrete, respectively. Purpose is to evaluate the performance of permeable pavement in removing indicator organisms from infiltrating stormwater runoff.

  10. Applications of observational techniques in pavement engineering

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, WJVDM

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available used to obtain these images. Higher resolution images are available through the Agricultural Research Council (ARC) AGIS (Agricultural Geo-Referenced Information System) site. This site provides detailed information on soil, terrain, geology, climate... pavement to be either under- or over-estimated. A further aspect that requires attention during the process of obtaining the images for observational analysis is to ensure that all images are clearly identifiable through a system that would lead...

  11. Pavement cells and the topology puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Ross; Sánchez-Corrales, Yara E; Hartley, Matthew; Grieneisen, Verônica A; Marée, Athanasius F M

    2017-12-01

    D'Arcy Thompson emphasised the importance of surface tension as a potential driving force in establishing cell shape and topology within tissues. Leaf epidermal pavement cells grow into jigsaw-piece shapes, highly deviating from such classical forms. We investigate the topology of developing Arabidopsis leaves composed solely of pavement cells. Image analysis of around 50,000 cells reveals a clear and unique topological signature, deviating from previously studied epidermal tissues. This topological distribution is established early during leaf development, already before the typical pavement cell shapes emerge, with topological homeostasis maintained throughout growth and unaltered between division and maturation zones. Simulating graph models, we identify a heuristic cellular division rule that reproduces the observed topology. Our parsimonious model predicts how and when cells effectively place their division plane with respect to their neighbours. We verify the predicted dynamics through in vivo tracking of 800 mitotic events, and conclude that the distinct topology is not a direct consequence of the jigsaw piece-like shape of the cells, but rather owes itself to a strongly life history-driven process, with limited impact from cell-surface mechanics. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Microtexture diagnostics of asphalt pavement surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florková, Zuzana; Pepucha, L.'ubomír

    2017-09-01

    The microtexture of asphalt pavement surface is an essential parameter from the traffic safety point of view and it closely relates to a geometrical, petrological and physical properties of aggregate particle used in asphalt pavement. Microtexture has a significant influence for assurance basic friction values between tire and pavement in relation to a skid resistance properties. Therefore, the microtexture detecting methods are necessary. The British pendulum tester measurements have been carried out on selected sections of roads with different asphalt surfaces. Individual grains of aggregates were taken from the surface of each section from the sliding path and also from the core sample after the extraction. The laboratory profilometry measurements have been practiced on these aggregate samples and subsequently the surface microtexture was investigated based on commonly used texture characteristics and the filtration approach was applied in calculation process. The results have shown the degradation of microtexture values occurs due to polishing of aggregate under loading from traffic in relation to the type of used aggregate. Some correlation between BPN values and texture characteristics was found.

  13. Biowaste utilization in the process of co-gasification with bituminous coal and lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howaniec, Natalia; Smoliński, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Biowaste utilization in co-gasification with bituminous coal and lignite gives the benefits of stable supplies of a primary energy source – coal and utilization of a zero-emission, waste material (i.e. agriculture waste, sewage sludge, etc.) with higher process efficiency and lower negative environmental impact than biomass or coal gasification, respectively. The main focus of the study presented is co-gasification of bituminous coal or lignite with biowaste to hydrogen-rich gas. The experiments were performed in the laboratory scale fixed-bed reactor installation at 700 and 900 °C. The Hierarchical Clustering Analysis complemented with a color map of studied data were applied in the selection of the optimal operating parameters for biowaste utilization in the co-gasification process based on the experimental data of gasification/co-gasification process as well as physical and chemical properties of fuels tested. The experimental results showed that the carbon conversion rate in co-gasification increased with increasing biomass content in a fuel. The total gas volume and hydrogen volume in co-gasification were higher than the values expected based on the results of the gasification process of the fuels analyzed. - Highlights: • Biowaste co-gasification with bituminous coal/lignite to hydrogen-rich gas. • Steam co-gasification in laboratory scale fixed-bed reactor at 700 and 900 °C. • Hierarchical Clustering Analysis complemented with color map of experimental data. • Carbon conversion increase with increasing biomass content. • The highest total gas and hydrogen volume in co-gasification of C-B20 blend at 900C.

  14. Mineral matter in Spanish bituminous and brown coals. Part 2: mineral matter quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Tarazona, M.R.; Martinez Alonso, A.; Tascon, J.M.D. (Instituto Nacional del Carbon y sus Derivados, Oviedo (Spain))

    1993-05-01

    A number of methods for mineral matter quantification were applied to a set of Spanish coals. Bituminous coals of different rank from the Asturian Central basin and brown coals from Galician basins were studied. Normative analysis was shown to be an adequate procedure for determining the concentrations of individual mineral species. It was found that mineral constituents of Asturian bituminous coals are, in decreasing abundance order, clay minerals (muscovite, kaolinite), quartz and carbonates. In the case of Galician brown coals kaolinite is the most abundant mineral, followed by quartz and pyrite. Extraction with ammonium acetate and oxidation with hydrogen peroxide yielded equivalent values for the concentrations of alkali and alkaline-earth elements bound to organic matter in brown coals. A series of direct and indirect procedures as well as numerical methods for determining the total mineral matter content of coals were compared. Optimum methods for determining the total mineral matter contents of bituminous coals were low-temperature ashing (LTA) and acid demineralisation. The sum of the LTA yield of ammonium acetate-extracted coal and the total concentration of ion-exchanged elements provided the most reliable results for brown coals. Correction formulae from ash yield previously derived for coals from other basins yielded only slightly satisfactory results for the Spanish coals under study. Results obtained evidence the importance of correctly establishing the nature and concentration of clay minerals present in coal. Also, the convenience of carrying out more comprehensive work to unequivocally establish the mineral matter/ash factors for the various types of Spanish coals is suggested. 65 refs., 6 tabs.

  15. Synergistic effect on thermal behavior during co-pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass model components blend with bituminous coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhiqiang; Wang, Shuzhong; Zhao, Jun; Chen, Lin; Meng, Haiyu

    2014-10-01

    Co-thermochemical conversion of lignocellulosic biomass and coal has been investigated as an effective way to reduce the carbon footprint. Successful evaluating on thermal behavior of the co-pyrolysis is prerequisite for predicting performance and optimizing efficiency of this process. In this paper, pyrolysis and kinetics characteristics of three kinds of lignocellulosic biomass model components (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin) blended with a kind of Chinese bituminous coal were explored by thermogravimetric analyzer and Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose method. The results indicated that the addition of model compounds had different synergistic effects on thermal behavior of the bituminous coal. The cellulose showed positive synergistic effects on the thermal decomposition of the coal bituminous coal with lower char yield than calculated value. For hemicellulose and lignin, whether positive or negative synergistic was related to the mixed ratio and temperature range. The distribution of the average activation energy values for the mixtures showed nonadditivity performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The projects of reducing environmental pollution at the collieries belonging to Petrosani Autonomous Bituminous Coal Administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arad, V.; Arad, S.; Costinas, B.; Marchis, G.

    1997-01-01

    The economic development in the Jiu Valley, as practised in the mining and processing of bituminous coal, has had a dynamic character without taking into account, however, the harmful impact on the environment. The most severe problem of environmental pollution in the Jiu Valley is that of the pollution of the Jiu River due to the discharge of waste water from the technological processes of mining and processing coal. This paper presents some solutions for reducing this environmental pollution, especially the Jiu water pollution. 1 ref

  17. Investigation of activity release from bituminized intermediate-level waste forms under thermal stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kluger, W.; Vejmelka, P.; Koester, R.

    1983-01-01

    To determine the consequences of a fire during fabrication, intermediate storage and transport of bituminized NaNO 3 waste forms, the fractions of plutonium released from the waste forms were assessed. For this purpose, laboratory tests were made with PuO 2 -containing specimens as well as a field test with specimens containing Eu 2 O 3 . By the evaluation of plutonium release in the laboratory and by the determination of the total sodium release and the relative Eu/Na release in the field tests the plutonium release can be deduced from full-scale specimens. The results show that for bituminized waste forms with high NaNO 3 contents (approx. 36 wt%) the average plutonium release obtained in laboratory testing is 15%. In the field tests (IAEA fire test conditions) an average Eu release of 8% was found. These results justify the statement that also for waste forms in open 175 L drum inserts a maximum plutonium release of about 15% can be expected. From the time-dependence of Eu/Na release in the field tests an induction period of 15-20 minutes between the start of testing and the first Na/Eu release can be derived. The maximum differential Na/Eu release occurs after a test period of 45 to 60 minutes duration and after 90 to 105 minutes (tests K2 and K4, respectively); after that time also the highest temperatures in the products are measured. The release values were determined for products in open 175 L drum inserts which in this form are not eligible for intermediate and ultimate storage. For bituminized waste forms in concrete packages (lost concrete shieldings) a delayed increase in temperature to only 70-80 deg. C takes place (4-5 hours after extinction of the fire) if the fire lasts 45 minutes. The concrete package remains intact under test conditions. This means that activity release from bituminized waste forms packaged in this way can be ruled out in the case under consideration. (author)

  18. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 13. Gasification of Blind Canyon bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-05-01

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the thirteenth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Blind Canyon bituminous coal, from July 31, 1984 to August 11, 1984. 6 refs., 22 figs., 20 tabs.

  19. Testing of bituminized ion-exchange resin waste products from a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muurinen, A.K.; Vuorinen, U.S.

    Testing methods are described and preliminary results presented for the bituminized waste products from TVO nuclear power plant. Radiation effects on the physical and chemical characteristics of the waste product and a pure bitumen sample were studied using an external 60 Co gamma source. Results of the postirradiation study show that the relative density decreases for both the waste products and the bitumen. Softening points rise for waste products but drop for bitumen. Breaking point of the powder resin waste product drops; in the granular resin waste product it rises on the surface and slightly decreases or does not significantly change at the bottom. For bitumen the breaking point rises

  20. Biomarker geochemistry of bituminous shale sequence and crude oil in the Ereǧli-Bor Basin (Konya-Niǧde), Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara-Gulbay, Reyhan; Erdogan, Mert; Korkmaz, Sadettin; Kadinkiz, Gökhan

    2016-04-01

    In the Ereǧli-Bor Basin (Konya-Niǧde), Central Anatolia, bituminous shale sequence with thickness ranging between 72 and 160 m occurs in lacustrine deposits of Upper Miocene-Pliocene age. The live oil has also been observed in this bituminous shale sequence. Rock-Eval/TOC, GC and GC-MS analyses were conducted on selected bituminous shale samples from four borehole (key-12/1, key-12/2, key-12/3 key-12/4) and one crude oil sample from a borehole (key-12/2) in the basin. In this study, organic matter type, maturity and depositional environment of bituminous shale are evaluated and the origin of crude oil is determined by the bituminous shale-crude oil correlation. The total organic carbon (TOC) values of the bituminous shale samples range from 1.21-13.98 wt% with an average TOC value of 4.75wt%. The bituminous shale sequence is characterized by high HI (127-662 mg HC/g TOC) and low OI (7-50 mgCO2/TOC). Tmax varies from 332-419ᵒC. Very low Pr/Ph ratios of bituminous shale (0.09-0.22) are indicative of anoxic depositional conditions. C27 is dominate sterane for bituminous shale and crude oil samples with C27>C29>C28. Normal steranes are more dominant compare to iso- and diasteranes. Ouite high sterane/hopane ratios (1.14-2.70) indicate dominant algal organic matter input for bituminous shale and source rock of crude oil. C31R/hopane ratio for bituminous shale and crude oil samples are very low (0.09-0.13) and these ratio show a lacustrine depositional envirronment for bituminous shale and source rock of crude oil. Sterane and terpane distributions of bituminous shale and crude oil are very similar. A very good correlation in terms of biomarker between bituminous shale and crude oil samples indicate that source rock of crude oil is bituminous shale. The 22S/(22R + 22S) C32 homohopane ratios of bituminous shale and crude oil samples are found to be 0.56 and 0.61, indicating that homohopane isomerization has attained equilibrium and bituminous shale and crude oil are

  1. Portland cement concrete pavement best practices summary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    This report summarizes the work and findings from WA-RD 744. This work consisted of four separate efforts related to best practices for portland cement concrete (PCC) pavement design and construction: (1) a review of past and current PCC pavement, (2...

  2. Soil Properties And Pavement Performance In The Nigerian Rainforest

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The geotechnical properties of the sub-structure of the Shagamu-Ore-Benin pavement were studied in an attempt to identifying the quality of construction materials and the pavement performance. The sub-structure soil materials were collected from the field and were taken to the laboratory for particle size analysis, Atterberg ...

  3. Inclusion of LCCA in Alaska flexible pavement design software manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Life cycle cost analysis is a key part for selecting materials and techniques that optimize the service life of a pavement in terms of cost and performance. While the Alaska : Flexible Pavement Design software has been in use since 2004, there is no ...

  4. Estimating the benefits of improved drainage on pavement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The drainage quality is an important parameter which affects the performance of highway pavements. In India ... pavement performance and maintenance needs; and (iii) to quantify the benefits in terms of cost due to the improved drainage ...... Jain was the founder Head of Excellence in Transportation Systems (CTRANS),.

  5. Soil Properties And Pavement Performance In The Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The geotechnical properties of the sub-structure of the Shagamu-Ore-Benin pavement were studied in an attempt to identifying the quality of construction materials and the pavement performance. The sub-structure soil materials were collected from the field and were taken to the laboratory for particle size analysis, Atterberg ...

  6. Long-term Metal Performance of Three Permeable Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA constructed a 4,000-m2 parking lot surfaced with three permeable pavements (permeable interlocking concrete pavers, pervious concrete, and porous asphalt) on the Edison Environmental Center in Edison, NJ in 2009. Samples from each permeable pavement infiltrate were collected...

  7. Engineering properties of common subgrade soils below pavement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports findings of laboratory testing of common sub-grade soils in pavement structures in Kenya. The materials were collected from different parts of the country. The results are intended to form a database for use by practicing engineers and researchers in the field of pavement engineering. The investigated ...

  8. Innovations in concrete pavements for a sustainable infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pradena, M.; Houben, L.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Concrete pavements (CPs) are durable and they do not need periodic invasive maintenance interventions. Nevertheless, CPs are hardly chosen when only initial costs, instead of life-cycle costs, are considered in the evaluation. Nowadays, there are innovations in Jointed Plain Concrete Pavements

  9. I-81 in-place pavement recycling project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    During the 2011 construction season, the Virginia Department of Transportation (VDOT) completed an in-place pavement : recycling project to rehabilitate a section of pavement on I-81 near Staunton, Virginia. The project consisted of a 3.66-mile : sec...

  10. Initial investigation into development of accelerated pavement evaluation (APE) vehicle

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, WJvdM

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available . This is the option of using the HVS to proof-test a newly constructed or in-service pavement or even to only evaluate the pavement response qualitatively over a very short period. The problem addressed in this report is investigate the opportunity to develop a method...

  11. 3D Tyre/Road pavement contact stress measurements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer, Morris

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The CSIR’s proprietary Stress-in-Motion (SIM) measurements provide rational descriptions of 1D, 2D and 3D tyre/road pavement stresses for: Road pavement design testing and evaluation, as well as tyre design, testing and evaluation....

  12. Assessing Asphalt and Concrete Pavement Surface Texture in the Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad I. Sarsam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The incorporation of safety characteristics into the traditional pavement structural design or in the functional evaluation of pavement condition has not been established yet. The design has focused on the structural capacity of the roadway so that the pavement can withstand specific level of repetitive loading over the design life. On the other hand, the surface texture condition was neither included in the AASHTO design procedure nor in the present serviceability index measurements. The pavement surface course should provide adequate levels of friction and ride quality and maintain low levels of noise and roughness. Many transportation departments perform routine skid resistant testing, the type of equipment used for testing varies depending on the preference of each transportation department. It was felt that modeling of the surface texture condition using different methods of testing may assist in solving such problem. In this work, Macro texture and Micro texture of asphalt and cement concrete pavement surface have been investigated in the field using four different methods (The Sand Patch Method, Outflow Time Method, British Pendulum Tester and Photogrammetry Technique. Two different grain sizes of sand have been utilized in conducting the Sand Patch while the Micro texture was investigated using the British Pendulum tester method at wet pavement surface conditions. The test results of the four methods were correlated to the skid number. It was concluded that such modeling could provide instant data in the field for pavement condition which may help in pavement maintenance management.

  13. Effects of street tree shade on asphalt concrete pavement performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.G. McPherson; J. Muchnick

    2005-01-01

    Forty-eight street segments were paired into 24 high-and low-shade pairs in Modesto, California, U.S. Field data were collected to calculate a Pavement Condition Index (PCI) and Tree Shade Index (TSI) for each segment. Statistical analyses found that greater PCI was associated with greater TSI, indicating that tree shade was partially responsible for reduced pavement...

  14. Highway pavement failure induced by poor soil geotechnical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    X-ray diffraction studies showed the presence of abundant kaolinite peaks and a subdued goethite peak without any trace of montmorrilonite. The presence of excess fines in the pavement construction materials (soils) contributed to the failure of the highway pavement at this locality. The low CBR value is also a noted cause ...

  15. Application of WIM to pavement design. Effect of WIM accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Leal Bermejo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Weigh-in-motion (WIM techniques can provide data on vehicle and axle weights when they are travelling at full highway speeds. In this paper, the application of WIM data to the design of road pavements is described and the effect of WIM load data accuracy on the estimate of pavement service life is analysed. Thus, the main factors affecting WIM accuracy are explained, especially those related to vehicle-pavement interaction. Afterwards, a trial that has been conducted to evaluate the effect of WIM load data accuracy on pavement life prediction will be presented. The results obtained show that the errors in axle load measurements can lead to higher errors in pavement life estimates.

  16. Evaluation of current Louisiana flexible pavement structures using PMS data and new mechanistic-empirical pavement design guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    The new Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG) developed under the National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Project 1-37A represents a major change as compared to the 1993 AASHTO Pavement Design Guide. The MEPDG provides a r...

  17. Photocatalytic pavement blocks. Air purification by pavement blocks. Final results of the research at BRRC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    The use of materials can influence to a large extent the environmental impact of traffic and of road infrastructure. Especially in urban areas, where the risk on smog formation during hot summer days is high, the use of photocatalytic pavement blocks can reduce the air pollution significantly. A project on environmental friendly concrete pavement blocks is conducted at the Belgian Road Research Centre. The use of photocatalytic material in the surface of pavement blocks to obtain air purifying materials is investigated. In contact with light, TiO2 as photocatalyst, is able to reduce the NO and NO2 content in the air, caused by the exhaust of traffic. The efficiency is tested on pavement blocks, but the technique can as well be applied on other road elements (e.g. noise reducing walls, linear elements) or as a coating on new materials or existing structures. At the previous TRA conference in Gotenborgh, Sweden, the principle of photocatalysis was presented. In this paper, emphasis will be put on the final results of the 4-year project obtained in laboratory as well as on site at the Leien of Antwerp (10,000 m{sup 2}). The results indicate a durable efficiency towards NOx reduction, which is in favour for the diminishing of the risk on ozone formation. However, the precise translation from the laboratory towards the site is still in question. The results obtained during the project are discussed in this paper.

  18. Reconsideration of tyre-pavement input parameters for the structural design of flexible pavements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer, Morris

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available which have higher inflation pressures and hence higher contact stresses than was previously the case. The aim of this paper is to highlight the variabilities associated with actual measured three-dimensional tyre-pavement contact loading/stress regimes...

  19. Pavement noise research : modeling of quieter pavements in Florida, final report, October 19, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    The research on noise created by the tire/pavement interface, while relatively new, has seen considerable interest over the past few years because of the potential benefits and a general desire by the public for quieter highways. The Florida Departme...

  20. Feasibility study of producing lump fuel using oil-bituminous sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moldybaev, A.B.; Ermagambetov, B.T.; Mamraeva, K.M.; Shin, R.G.; Bakirova, R.K. (Institut Organicheskogo Sinteza i Uglekhimii AN KazSSR (USSR))

    1991-04-01

    Describes production of lump fuel by briquetting and coking different mixtures of non-caking coal with coal preparation sludge and bitumen extracted from oil sands. The coal used was from the Shubarkol'sk coal deposit (USSR); the sludge was from the Saburkhanskaya preparation plant. Properties and composition of oil-bituminous sands and of bitumen to be used as binder are given. Technological details of the briquetting and coking processes are provided. Results show that briquets produced from mixtures of coal and oil-bituminous sands can only be used as a high-ash lump fuel, which cannot be further processed into semicoke. Experiments were carried out briquetting coal or coke, sludge and 6-8% bitumen extracted from the sands, varying coal or coke grain fractions and composition of the mixture. An increased briquet strength was found after using the vacuum-distilled 300-350 C bitumen fraction. Briquets from this non-caking coal with bitumen binder are regarded as ecologically clean fuel. 5 refs.

  1. THE HISTORY OF EXPLORATION AND EXPLOITATION OF BITUMINOUS AND KEROGENOUS DEPOSITS IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berislav Šebečić

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available It is assumed thal the first known sedimens of natural bitumen or asphalt in coastal Croatia were exploited as the early moddle ages. Yet authenticated written documents about Vinišće near Trogir derive from no earlier than 1628, about Vrgorac/Paklina from only 1753. By the end of the 18th century, many deposits were discovered in Dalmatia, but it was Škrip on the Island of Brač and Suhi Dolac that were important. The earliest known deposits and occurrences of kerogenous rocks, or bituminous or oil shales, are mentioned as stone or fossil coal in Sovinjak, in the upper course of the River Mirna, and in Rebići in Istria; near Sinj, Slivno not far from the River Neretva, Mirta and near Nerežišće on the Island uf Brač. All if these were well known and described in 1804, while Sovinjak was mentioned in the 16th century. In the article, some of new information derived from mining and geological research into bituminous and kerogenous sediments and deposits are provided (the paper is published in Croatian.

  2. Isotopic variations in the nitrogen of natural humic and bituminous organic substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiehl, G.; Lehmann, M.

    1980-01-01

    delta 15 N-values and nitrogen contents of a series of humic and bituminous organic sediments of different ranks were determined. The change of the isotopic abundance of nitrogen was investigated during heating in model experiments, using a gas flame coal. In the case of humic carbon coals the relative nitrogen contents vary from 0.8 to 1.4% and the delta 15 N-values from + 3.5 to + 6.3 parts per thousand increasing from the brown coal to anthracite ranks. During the coalification process both the delta 15 N-values and the relative nitrogen contents do not vary continuously with the rank, but pass through maxima and minima. Model experiments using a gas flame coal show the same trend. Nitrogen with delta 15 N-values of + 2.8 or -7 parts per thousand was released in pyrolysis experiments, applying a gas flame coal and a steam coal at temperatures of 650 and 1000 0 C, respectively. The investigated bituminous sediments yielded relative amounts of 0.1 to 0.8% with delta 15 N-values of + 4.2 to + 10.7 parts per thousand. The obtained results are discussed with respect to the elucidation of nitrogen genesis in natural gas deposits. (author)

  3. Assessing radioactive concentrates and waste vapor condensate in solidifying radioactive wastes by bituminization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tibensky, L.; Krejci, F.; Breza, M.; Timulak, J.; Hladky, E.

    1986-01-01

    A brief overview is presented of chemical and radiochemical methods used in the world for the analysis of the concentrate of liquid radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants destined for bituminization. Most methods are also suitable for an analysis of the condensate of waste vapors produced in bituminization. The methods of analysis of the radioactive concentrate from the V-1 nuclear power plant in Jaslovske Bohunice and of the waste vapors condensate were developed and tested in practice. Gross gamma activity was measured using a well-type Na(Tl) scintillation detector, the content of radionuclides was determined using semiconductor Ge(Li) spectrometry. The concentration of boric acid in the concentrate was determined by titration with mannite; in the condensate, using spectrophotometry with curcumine. The content of nitrates in both the concentrate and the condensate was determined spectrophotometrically using salicylic acid, the content of nitrites was determined by spectrophotometry using sulfanilic acid and α-naphthylamine. Carbonates and chlorides were determined by titration, sodium and potassium by flame photometry. The content of organic acids was measured by gravimetry of extracted methyl esters, the content of surfactants by spectrophotometry. Infrared spectrophotometry was used in determining hydrocarbons in the waste vapor condensate. The measured value range and the measurement errors are shown for each method. (A.K.)

  4. Application of the cementitious grouts on stability and durability of semi flexible bituminous mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Muhammad

    2017-11-01

    This paper describes the results of laboratory test for a high durability semi flexible bituminous mixtures (SFBM). The SFBM consists of an open asphalt structure where a high strength mortar is penetrated into the air voids of the bituminous mixtures. The SFBM combines the cement concrete's strength and the asphalt material flexibility. The objective of this study is to involve in the determination of stability and durability of SFBM by located the position of the specimen on an exposed area for 7, 90, 180 and 240 days. The performance of the SFBM was assessed using Marshall and wheel tracking apparatus. Total 18 specimens were prepared and examined for both of test. The Marshall specimens were cylindrical with dimension of 10.16 cm in diameter and 6.35 cm in high. For wheel tracking test, the specimens consisted of slabs with dimension of 30 cm in length, 30 cm in width and 5 cm in height. The results indicated that the first durability index and second durability index increased significantly. For Marshall test, the first and second durability index increased about 0.9% per day and 52.3%, respectively. However, for wheel tracking test, the first and second durability index increased about 1.9% per day and 119%, respectively.

  5. Laboratory and field evaluations of non-bituminous hot melt pavement marker adhesive Georgia test deck : two year evaluation (fall 2006 product submissions).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    Purpose: : The purpose of the National Transportation Product Evaluation Program (NTPEP) is to provide a cost-effective method of evaluation for materials of common interest among all participating NTPEP member departments. NTPEP reports allow member...

  6. The effect of aggregate type and mix design on the wet skid resistance of bituminous pavement : recommendations for Virginia's Wet Accident Reduction Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    This report (1) identified and characterized Virginia's nonpolishing aggregates in terms of their wet skid resistance, (2) compared the standard ASTM E 274-90 skid test to the British Accelerated Polishing Machine (BAPM) and British PendulumTester (B...

  7. Pavement structure mechanics response of flexible on semi-flexible overlay that based on the old cement concrete pavement damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Ruinan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The old cement pavement damage status directly affect the design of the paving renovation. Based on the state of the old road investigation, combined with the research data at home and abroad, use the control index that average deflection, deflection value and CBR value to determine the reasonable time to overlay. Draw up the typical pavement structure according to the principle of combination of old cement pavement overlay structure design, and calculated that the tensile stress and shear stress in asphalt layer ,semi-flexible layer and the tensile in the old cement pavement adopting BISA3.0 statics finite element analysis model when modulus in the old road was diminishing. Use the computed result to analyses the influence of old road damage condition the influence of pavement structure.

  8. Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide Flexible Pavement Performance Prediction Models Volume III Field Guide - Calibration and User's Guide for the Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    The objective of this research study was to develop performance characteristics or variables (e.g., ride quality, rutting, : fatigue cracking, transverse cracking) of flexible pavements in Montana, and to use these characteristics in the : implementa...

  9. Identification of Pavement Distress Types and Pavement Condition Evaluation Based on Network Level Inspection for Jazan City Road Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mubaraki

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The first step in establishing a pavement management system (PMS is road network identification. An important feature of a PMS is the ability to determine the current condition of a road network and predict its future condition. Pavement condition evaluation may involve structure, roughness, surface distress, and safety evaluation. In this study, a pavement distress condition rating procedure was used to achieve the objectives of this study. The main objectives of this study were to identify the common types of distress that exist on the Jazan road network (JRN, either on main roads or secondary roads, and to evaluate the pavement condition based on network level inspection. The study was conducted by collecting pavement distress types from 227 sample units on main roads and 500 sample units from secondary roads. Data were examined through analysis of common types of distress identified in both main and secondary roads. Through these data, pavement condition index (PCI for each sample unit was then calculated. Through these calculations, average PCIs for the main and secondary roads were determined. Results indicated that the most common pavement distress types on main roads were patching and utility cut patching, longitudinal and transverse cracking, polished aggregate, weathering and raveling, and alligator cracking. The most common pavement distress types on secondary roads were weathering and raveling, patching and utility cut patching, longitudinal and transverse cracking, potholes, and alligator cracking. The results also indicated that 65% of Jazan's main road network has an average pavement condition rating of very good while only 30% of Jazan's secondary roads network has an average pavement condition.

  10. Rheological behaviour of polymer-modified bituminous mastics : a comparative analysis between physical and chemical modification

    OpenAIRE

    Shivokhin, Maxim; García Morales, Moisés; Partal López, Pedro; Cuadri Vega, Antonio Abad; Gallegos Montes, Críspulo

    2012-01-01

    Mastic, a bitumen/filler blend which naturally forms when bitumen is mixed with aggregates is the actual product used to bind coarse mineral particles in the asphalt mixtures. As a result, the characterisation of mastics is essential to improve the understanding of the response and performance of asphalt concrete pavements. On the other hand, the lack of experimental data concerning the behaviour of mastics and, above all, polymer-modified mastics has been lately claimed. In that sense, this ...

  11. Fatigue Behavior of Modified Asphalt Concrete Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    saad I. Sarsam

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue cracking is the most common distress in road pavement. It is mainly due to the increase in the number of load repetition of vehicles, particularly those with high axle loads, and to the environmental conditions. In this study, four-point bending beam fatigue testing has been used for control and modified mixture under various micro strain levels of (250 μƐ, 400 μƐ, and 750 μƐ and 5HZ. The main objective of the study is to provide a comparative evaluation of pavement resistance to the phenomenon of fatigue cracking between modified asphalt concrete and conventional asphalt concrete mixes (under the influence of three percentage of Silica fumes 1%, 2%, 3% by the weight of asphalt content, and (changing in the percentage of asphalt content by (0.5% ± from the optimum. The results show that when Silica fumes content was 1%, the fatigue life increases by 17%, and it increases by 46% when Silica fumes content increases to 2%, and that fatigue life increases to 34 % when Silica fumes content increases to 3% as compared with control mixture at (250 μƐ, 20°C and optimum asphalt content. From the results above, we can conclude the optimum Silica fumes content was 2%. When the asphalt content was 4.4%, the fatigue life has increased with the use of silica fumes by (50%, when asphalt content was 5.4%, the additives had led to increasing the fatigue life by (69%, as compared with the conventional asphalt concrete pavement.

  12. INVESTIGATION ON UTILITY OF PLASTIC WASTE AS AN ADDITIVE FOR BITUMINOUS CONCRETE USING WET PROCESS OF MIXING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anurag Virendra Tiwari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Plastic waste has become a major environmental issue of concern due to its exponential growth due to rapid urbanization. The paper investigates utility of plastic waste as an additive for bituminous concrete using wet process of mixing. Methodology. The methodology for the present paper has been designed with complex research consisting of Marshall mix design of the bituminous mix added with plastic waste for modifying bitumen using wet process of mixing, performing the tests on the samples and analyzing the results in the form of table and figures. In the present paper LDPE and HDPE type of plastic waste are used to modify the bitumen. Finding. The results show that addition of 6 percent of bitumen improves the Marshall properties of the mix. Use of plastic to modify the bitumen not only makes the road surface more durable but also it is an eco-friendly way of proper disposal of plastic waste. Originality. The processes used for mixing the plastic waste to the bitumen are dry process and wet process. Dry process of mixing the plastic waste to the bituminous mix is most common and lot of study is carried out on its application. In the present paper wet process of mixing has not yet been studied much. Practical Value. The practical application of utilizing the plastic waste to modify bitumen in the bituminous mix improves the stability values resulting in the more durable road surface. Also the method ensures the proper disposal of plastic waste in eco-friendly way.

  13. Appropriate use of locally available materials in concrete, bituminous surfacings and layerworks for roads in rural areas

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Paige-Green, P

    2009-06-17

    Full Text Available and durability of the concrete and probably to increase the shrinkage. Bituminous surfacings are currently tightly specified and comparison with other countries indicates that certain areas of relaxation are possible. These are mostly with respect to the grading...

  14. Viscoelastic Pavement Modeling with a Spreadsheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levenberg, Eyal

    2016-01-01

    The aim herein was to equip civil engineers and students with an advanced pavement modeling tool that is both easy to use and highly adaptive. To achieve this, a mathematical solution for a layered viscoelastic half-space subjected to a moving load was developed and subsequently implemented...... in a spreadsheet environment. The final program can consider up to five fully bonded layers, each isotropic, homogeneous and weightless. The top layer (as well as others if desired) is linear viscoelastic, while the remaining layers are linear elastic. The load is applied vertically to the surface of the system...

  15. The Inhabitants of the Historical Pavement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    Video: 5 min.This excerpt from the shortfilm Accumulations (2016) is part of Espen Lunde Nielsens PhD-project Architectural Probes of the Infraordinary (2013-2016). The shortfilm explores the (infra-)ordinary versus the extraordinary collective memory of the built environment: From cathedrals...... and boulevards to kiosks and cigarette packs.This particular excerpt presents a framed view of a quasi-historical pavement in downtown Chicago and the coming and going of people. Some are passing by without paying much attention, for others it is their daily workplace and for some an exotic starting point...

  16. The leaf phenophase of deciduous species altered by land pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuanyuan; Wang, Xiaoke; Jiang, Bo; Li, Li

    2018-02-01

    It has been widely reported that the urban environment alters leaf and flowering phenophases; however, it remains unclear if land pavement is correlated with these alterations. In this paper, two popular deciduous urban trees in northern China, ash (Fraxinus chinensis) and maple (Acer truncatum), were planted in pervious and impervious pavements at three spacings (0.5 m × 0.5 m, 1.0 m × 1.0 m, and 2.0 m × 2.0 m apart). The beginning and end dates of the processes of leaf budburst and senescence were recorded in spring and fall of 2015, respectively. The results show that leaf budburst and senescence were significantly advanced in pavement compared to non-pavement lands. The date of full leaf budburst was earlier by 0.7-9.3 days for ash and by 0.3-2.3 days for maple under pavements than non-pavements, respectively. As tree spacing increases, the advanced days of leaf budburst became longer. Our results clearly indicate that alteration of leaf phenophases is attributed to land pavement, which should be taken into consideration in urban planning and urban plant management.

  17. Flood Mitigation by Permeable Pavements in Chinese Sponge City Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maochuan Hu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available It is important to evaluate the effectiveness of permeable pavements on flood mitigation at different spatial scales for their effective application, for example, sponge city construction in China. This study evaluated the effectiveness of three types of permeable pavements (i.e., permeable asphalts (PA, permeable concretes (PC, and permeable interlocking concrete pavers (PICP on flood mitigation at a community scale in China using a hydrological model. In addition, the effects of clogging and initial water content in permeable pavements on flood mitigation performance were assessed. The results indicated that in 12 scenarios, permeable pavements reduced total surface runoff by 1–40% and peak flow by 7–43%, respectively. The hydrological performance of permeable pavements was limited by clogging and initial water content. Clogging resulted in the effectiveness on total surface runoff reduction and peak flow reduction being decreased by 62–92% and 37–65%, respectively. By increasing initial water content at the beginning of the simulation, the effectiveness of total runoff reduction and peak flow reduction decreased by 57–85% and 37–67%, respectively. Overall, among the three types of permeable pavements, PC without clogging had the best performance in terms of flood mitigation, and PICP was the least prone to being clogged. Our findings demonstrate that both the type and the maintenance of permeable pavements have significant effects on their performance in the flood mitigation.

  18. Pavement cracking measurements using 3D laser-scan images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, W; Xu, B

    2013-01-01

    Pavement condition surveying is vital for pavement maintenance programs that ensure ride quality and traffic safety. This paper first introduces an automated pavement inspection system which uses a three-dimensional (3D) camera and a structured laser light to acquire dense transverse profiles of a pavement lane surface when it carries a moving vehicle. After the calibration, the 3D system can yield a depth resolution of 0.5 mm and a transverse resolution of 1.56 mm pixel −1 at 1.4 m camera height from the ground. The scanning rate of the camera can be set to its maximum at 5000 lines s −1 , allowing the density of scanned profiles to vary with the vehicle's speed. The paper then illustrates the algorithms that utilize 3D information to detect pavement distress, such as transverse, longitudinal and alligator cracking, and presents the field tests on the system's repeatability when scanning a sample pavement in multiple runs at the same vehicle speed, at different vehicle speeds and under different weather conditions. The results show that this dedicated 3D system can capture accurate pavement images that detail surface distress, and obtain consistent crack measurements in repeated tests and under different driving and lighting conditions. (paper)

  19. Comparative study of test methods for bituminized and other low- and medium-level solidified waste materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodersen, K.; Mose Pedersen, B.; Vinther, A.

    1983-12-01

    Various aspects of the behaviour of bituminized or cemented simulated low- or medium-level radioactive waste in contact with water or salt solutions have been investigated. The solubility (approximately 0.5%) and the diffusion coefficient (approximately 5.10 -8 cm 2 /sec) determining transort of water in pure bitumen have been measured for Mexphalte 40/50 at room temperature. A weighing method has been used to study water uptake and swelling of bituminized sodium nitrate, sodium sulphate or cation-exchange resin. The swelling of samples in contact with water was in some cases very pronounced. In strong salt solutions the tendency to swell is much less. The particle size of the embedded waste material is an important parameter. Thermal pre-treatment of cation-exchange resin before bituminization does not seem to improve the quality of the final product. The interaction between bituminized-exchange resin and concrete barrier materials has been studied. Microbial degradation of bitumen and bituminized waste under aerobic conditions has been investigated. It is probably of minor importance as far as leaching is concerned. A method for measuring leaching from a plane surface of cemented waste has been developed. The method avoids the problem of cracks between the sample and the container. Leaching from cemented sodium nitrate or sulphate was investigated. Absorption of CO 2 from the atmosphere was found to have only minor effect on Cs- and Na-leaching but gave a pronounced decrease in Ca-leaching. The use of silica-fume as an additive to cemented sodium nitrate decreased the leach rate by a factor 4. (author)

  20. Development of Improved Mechanistic Deterioration Models for Flexible Pavements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullidtz, Per; Ertman, Hans Larsen

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes a pilot study in Denmark with the main objective of developing improved mechanistic deterioration models for flexible pavements based on an accelerated full scale test on an instrumented pavement in the Danish Road Tessting Machine. The study was the first in "International...... Pavement Subgrade Performance Study" sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), USA. The paper describes in detail the data analysis and the resulting models for rutting, roughness, and a model for the plastic strain in the subgrade.The reader will get an understanding of the work needed...

  1. Validation of theoretical models through measured pavement response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullidtz, Per

    1999-01-01

    mechanics was quite different from the measured stress, the peak theoretical value being only half of the measured value.On an instrumented pavement structure in the Danish Road Testing Machine, deflections were measured at the surface of the pavement under FWD loading. Different analytical models were...... then used to derive the elastic parameters of the pavement layeres, that would produce deflections matching the measured deflections. Stresses and strains were then calculated at the position of the gauges and compared to the measured values. It was found that all analytical models would predict the tensile...

  2. Dynamic Modeling of Pavements with Application to Deflection Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Stine Skov

    Pavement surface deflection measurements are the primary means of evaluating the bearing capacity of a pavement. The most common type of device used for measuring pavement surface deflections is the Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD). However, increasing attention has been given to the Rolling Wheel...... with different speeds is needed. In this thesis a new Finite Element formulation for transient dynamic loading of a layered half space is developed. Equations are derived in 2D and 3D and include efficient absorbing boundary conditions in the form of the Perfectly Matched Layer (PML) which ensures capability...

  3. An Innovative Cellular Automata Technique for Mapping Cracking Pattern of Airport Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Fucheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an innovative cellular automata (CA technique was proposed for mapping cracking pattern of the airport pavement. The CA technique was developed to establish a numerical model describing the effect of boundary condition of pavement on zones (CA cells within the pavement. A state function was used to describe the state values in the cells within the CA lattice. The correction coefficient principle is used as the criterion of zone similarity and the corresponding technique is proposed to find similar zones within and between pavements. Three pavement models, HRS, MRS and LRS, tested in FAA, USA, are set as the base pavements to map the cracking patterns of pavements with different sizes from the base pavements. The mapped cracking patterns of unseen pavements are empirically verified by referring to the relative experimental models.

  4. The comparisons of computational models of pavement due to the dynamic load act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valašková Veronika

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Finite element method (FEM is frequently used to solve current problems of the structural mechanics in engineering practice. The dynamic interaction of the two systems is one of the topics that can be solved using FEM. To simplify the solution of the interaction, it is possible to divide the system in two independent subsystems, vehicle and pavement. Computing software ADINA, based on the principles of the finite element modelling, was adopted to solve the given problem. The results from the first computational model can be used as the inputs for the second model. To analyse stress state of the pavement with different composition, three specific types of pavements were selected – concrete pavement, semi-rigid pavement and flexible pavement. The pavements represent the typical pavement types used for the regular road structures. This article is focused on the analysis of the stress state and the displacements of the pavement induced by the moving load from the traffic.

  5. An assessment of the feasibility of developing and implementing an automated pavement distress survey system incorporating digital image processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The rational allocation of pavement maintenance resources requires the periodic assessment of the condition of all pavements. Traditional manual pavement distress surveys, which are based on visual inspection, are labor intensive, slow, and expensive...

  6. Laboratory data to determine impact of coarse aggregate type and cementitious materials on design thickness of PCC pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The Mississippi Department of Transportation (MDOT) needed mechanical and volume change properties of portland cement concrete (PCC) pavement in order to implement pavement thickness design procedures of the Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guid...

  7. Predictive design procedures, VESYS users manual : an interim design method for flexible pavements using the VESYS structural subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    This manual has been written to provide the pavement manager and design engineer with a ready reference of procedures to predict the structural responses and hence the integrity of flexible pavements. A pavement section of known geometry is chosen, a...

  8. Long-term Performance of Granular Bases Including the Effect of Wet-Dry Cycles on Inverted Base Pavement Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    The main objective of this study was to advance the understanding of alternative pavement designs. In particular, potential techniques such as inverted base pavements (IBP) have increased the importance of granular aggregate bases (GAB) in pavement s...

  9. Cost-Effective Pavement Performance Management of Indiana's Enhanced National Highway System through Strategic Modification of the Pavement Rehabilitation Treatment Trigger Values

    OpenAIRE

    Noureldin, Menna; Fricker, Jon D.; Sinha, Kumares C.

    2015-01-01

    Cost-Effective Pavement Performance Management of Indiana's Enhanced National Highway System through Strategic Modification of the Pavement Rehabilitation Treatment Trigger Values Presented during Session 3: Policy and Funding, moderated by Magdy Mikhail, at the 9th International Conference on Managing Pavement Assets (ICMPA9) in Alexandria, VA. Includes conference paper and PowerPoint slides.

  10. Climate change, energy, sustainability and pavements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopalakrishnan, Kasthurirangan; Steyn, Wynand JvdM; Harvey, John

    2014-01-01

    Provides an integrated perspective on understanding the impacts of climate change, energy and sustainable development on transportation infrastructure systems. Presents recent technological innovations and emerging concepts in the field of green and sustainable transportation infrastructure systems with a special focus on highway and airport pavements. Written by leading experts in the field. Climate change, energy production and consumption, and the need to improve the sustainability of all aspects of human activity are key inter-related issues for which solutions must be found and implemented quickly and efficiently. To be successfully implemented, solutions must recognize the rapidly changing socio-techno-political environment and multi-dimensional constraints presented by today's interconnected world. As part of this global effort, considerations of climate change impacts, energy demands, and incorporation of sustainability concepts have increasing importance in the design, construction, and maintenance of highway and airport pavement systems. To prepare the human capacity to develop and implement these solutions, many educators, policy-makers and practitioners have stressed the paramount importance of formally incorporating sustainability concepts in the civil engineering curriculum to educate and train future civil engineers well-equipped to address our current and future sustainability challenges. This book will prove a valuable resource in the hands of researchers, educators and future engineering leaders, most of whom will be working in multidisciplinary environments to address a host of next-generation sustainable transportation infrastructure challenges.

  11. Climate change, energy, sustainability and pavements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopalakrishnan, Kasthurirangan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering; Steyn, Wynand JvdM [Pretoria Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Harvey, John (ed.) [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2014-07-01

    Provides an integrated perspective on understanding the impacts of climate change, energy and sustainable development on transportation infrastructure systems. Presents recent technological innovations and emerging concepts in the field of green and sustainable transportation infrastructure systems with a special focus on highway and airport pavements. Written by leading experts in the field. Climate change, energy production and consumption, and the need to improve the sustainability of all aspects of human activity are key inter-related issues for which solutions must be found and implemented quickly and efficiently. To be successfully implemented, solutions must recognize the rapidly changing socio-techno-political environment and multi-dimensional constraints presented by today's interconnected world. As part of this global effort, considerations of climate change impacts, energy demands, and incorporation of sustainability concepts have increasing importance in the design, construction, and maintenance of highway and airport pavement systems. To prepare the human capacity to develop and implement these solutions, many educators, policy-makers and practitioners have stressed the paramount importance of formally incorporating sustainability concepts in the civil engineering curriculum to educate and train future civil engineers well-equipped to address our current and future sustainability challenges. This book will prove a valuable resource in the hands of researchers, educators and future engineering leaders, most of whom will be working in multidisciplinary environments to address a host of next-generation sustainable transportation infrastructure challenges.

  12. Automated management for pavement inspection system (AMPIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hung Chi; Girardello, Roberto; Soeller, Tony; Shinozuka, Masanobu

    2003-08-01

    An automated in-situ road surface distress surveying and management system, AMPIS, has been developed on the basis of video images within the framework of GIS software. Video image processing techniques are introduced to acquire, process and analyze the road surface images obtained from a moving vehicle. ArcGIS platform is used to integrate the routines of image processing and spatial analysis in handling the full-scale metropolitan highway surface distress detection and data fusion/management. This makes it possible to present user-friendly interfaces in GIS and to provide efficient visualizations of surveyed results not only for the use of transportation engineers to manage road surveying documentations, data acquisition, analysis and management, but also for financial officials to plan maintenance and repair programs and further evaluate the socio-economic impacts of highway degradation and deterioration. A review performed in this study on fundamental principle of Pavement Management System (PMS) and its implementation indicates that the proposed approach of using GIS concept and its tools for PMS application will reshape PMS into a new information technology-based system providing a convenient and efficient pavement inspection and management.

  13. Application of Conductive Materials to Asphalt Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Viet Vo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Snow-melting pavement technique is an advanced preservation method, which can prevent the forming of snow or ice on the pavement surface by increasing the temperature using an embedded heating system. The main scope of this study is to evaluate the impact of conductive additives on the heating efficiency. The electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity were considered to investigate effects of conductive additives, graphite, and carbon fibers on the snow-melting ability of asphalt mixtures. Also, the distribution of the conductive additives within the asphalt concrete body was investigated by microstructural imaging. An actual test was applied to simulate realistic heating for an asphalt concrete mixture. Thermal testing indicated that graphite and carbon fibers improve the snow-melting ability of asphalt mixes and their combination is more effective than when used alone. As observed in the microstructural image, carbon fibers show a long-range connecting effect among graphite conductive clusters and gather in bundles when added excessively. According to the actual test, adding the conductive additives helps improve snow-melting efficiency by shortening processing time and raising the surface temperature.

  14. Bituminization of simulated waste, spent resins, evaporator concentrates and animal ashes by extrusion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosche Filho, C.E.; Chandra, U.

    1987-01-01

    The results of the study of bituminization of simulated radwaste - spennt ion-exchange resins, borate evaporator/concentrates and animal ashes, are presented and discussed. Distilled and oxidizer bitumen were used. Characterization of the crude material and simulated wastes-bitumen mixtures of varying weigt composition (30, 40, 50, 60% by weight of dry waste material) was carried out. The asphaltene and parafin contents in the bitumens were also determined. Some additives and were used with an aim to improve the characteristcs of solidified wastes. For leaching studies, granular ion-exchange resins were with Cs - 134 and mixtures of resin-bitumen were prepared. The leaching studies were executed using the IAEA recommendation and the ISO method. A conventional screw-extruder, common in plastic industry, was used determine operational parameters and process difficulties. Mixtures of resin-bitumen and evaporator concentrate-bitumen obtained from differents operational conditions were characterized. (Author) [pt

  15. Influence of Antioxidant-Enhanced Polymers in Bitumen Rheology and Bituminous Concrete Mixtures Mechanical Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samer Dessouky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the effect of polymer enhancement with antioxidant in the rheological properties of bitumen and mechanical properties of bituminous concrete mixture (BCM. In this study, two antioxidant-enhanced polymers were utilized in mitigating bitumen hardening due to aging. The rheological testing consists of temperature sweep using Dynamic Shear Rheometer at various aging conditions. Critical stiffness temperature data from the sweep test suggested that enhanced polymer exhibits less long-term hardening and brittleness compared to standard polymer. The mechanical testing consists of dynamic modulus, indirect tensile, flow number, and beam fatigue tests on BCM exposed to short-term aging. Hamburg wheel tracking test was also performed to assess moisture-damage susceptibility. It is found that the enhanced-polymer BCM exhibited higher modulus, higher tensile strength ratio, improved rutting resistance, lower moisture-damage susceptibility, and slightly increased fatigue life as compared to standard-polymer BCM.

  16. Development of advanced air-blown entrained-flow two-stage bituminous coal IGCC gasifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abaimov Nikolay A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC technology has two main advantages: high efficiency, and low levels of harmful emissions. Key element of IGCC is gasifier, which converts solid fuel into a combustible synthesis gas. One of the most promising gasifiers is air-blown entrained-flow two-stage bituminous coal gasifier developed by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI. The most obvious way to develop advanced gasifier is improvement of commercial-scale 1700 t/d MHI gasifier using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD method. Modernization of commercial-scale 1700 t/d MHI gasifier is made by changing the regime parameters in order to improve its cold gas efficiency (CGE and environmental performance, namely H2/CO ratio. The first change is supply of high temperature (900°C steam in gasifier second stage. And the second change is additional heating of blast air to 900°C.

  17. Development of advanced air-blown entrained-flow two-stage bituminous coal IGCC gasifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaimov, Nikolay A.; Ryzhkov, Alexander F.

    2017-10-01

    Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology has two main advantages: high efficiency, and low levels of harmful emissions. Key element of IGCC is gasifier, which converts solid fuel into a combustible synthesis gas. One of the most promising gasifiers is air-blown entrained-flow two-stage bituminous coal gasifier developed by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI). The most obvious way to develop advanced gasifier is improvement of commercial-scale 1700 t/d MHI gasifier using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method. Modernization of commercial-scale 1700 t/d MHI gasifier is made by changing the regime parameters in order to improve its cold gas efficiency (CGE) and environmental performance, namely H2/CO ratio. The first change is supply of high temperature (900°C) steam in gasifier second stage. And the second change is additional heating of blast air to 900°C.

  18. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 9. Gasification of Elkhorn bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-05-01

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) group. This report is the ninth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Elkhorn bituminous coal. The period of gasificastion test was September 13 to October 12, 1983. 9 refs., 24 figs., 35 tabs.

  19. Application of laser microprobe (LAMMA 1000) to "fingerprinting" of coal constituents in bituminous coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, P.C.; Hercules, D.M.; Morelli, J.J.; Sellers, G.A.; Mattern, D.; Thompson-Rizer, C. L.; Brown, F.W.; Millay, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    A laser microprobe (LAMMA-1000) microchemical analysis of vitrinites of different morphologies but similar reflectances within the same bituminous coal bed indicates distinct "fingerprint" spectra. The banded form of vitrinite contains Li, Ti, Ba, Sr, F, and Cl which were not detected in the nonbanded vitrinite. These differences may indicate a different plant source or the introduction of these elements from fluids mobilized during diagenesis. The nonbanded vitrinite (called corpocollinite), which was contained in a pyrite coal-ball seed fern permineralization of Myeloxylon, may have been protected from influx of these elements due to entrapment by pyrite during an early peat stage. An ion at M/Z 65, which is characteristic of the banded vitrinite, may indicate C5H5+ and, perhaps a difference in the chemical structure of the two vitrinites. These results demonstrate that "fingerprint" spectra can be obtained from vitrinite macerals by LAMMA and that these "fingerprints" have genetic implications. ?? 1987.

  20. Distribution of inorganic and organic substances in the hydrocyclone separated Slovak sub-bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anton Zubrik; Slavomir Hredzak; Ludmila Turcaniova; Michal Lovas; Ingo Bergmann; Klaus Dieter Becker; Maria Lukcova; Vladimir Sepelak [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Kosice (Slovakia). Institute of Geotechnics

    2010-08-15

    A low-rank Slovak sub-bituminous coal from the Handlova deposit was physically treated by washing in a water-only cyclone with the goal to find the separation effect for inorganic (mainly Fe-bearing minerals) and organic substances (humic acids, diterpanes). A high-quality coal product with the ash content in the dry matter of 9.02% and carbon content of C{sup d} = 68.12% at a mass yield of 29.51% was obtained using the water-only cyclone processing. At first, the physically treated coal samples were detailed characterized by XRD, {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy, FT-IR and HR-TEM. In addition to non-crystalline organic coal components, inorganic compounds belonging to silicate minerals (kaolinite, muscovite and quartz) as well as to Fe-bearing sulphide minerals (pyrite) were identified in the sub-bituminous coal by XRD. {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy detected the presence of iron carbonate (siderite), iron-containing clay mineral and two sulphur-containing minerals (pyrite, jarosite) in the untreated coal. On the other hand, only one Fe-bearing mineral, (pyrite) was found in the washed coal. Effect of the physical separation is also demonstrated in FT-IR spectra, where the peak at 1040 cm{sup -1} representing the silicate component in the untreated sample is not detectable in the washed coal sample. Presence of extractive organic substances, i.e. humic acids and tetracyclic diterpane (16a(H)-phyllocladane), in the hydrocyclone products is also evidenced. It was confirmed that the isolated diterpenoic compound is attendant in the washed product with the lowest ash content and it is assimilated with the organic part of coal. Surprisingly, humic acids were found in the highest concentration in the slurry that has the highest content of ash (63.14%). 54 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. The Structure of Sandstones in Productive Horizons of the Permian Bituminous Deposits of Tatarstan (Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.R. Khasanov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The features of sandstones in productive horizons of the Permian bituminous deposits of Tatarstan (Russia have been considered. The composition and internal structure of sandstones have been studied by optical microscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR, and electron microscopy, as well as using a number of physical and chemical methods to solve special problems. The investigated sandstones belong to the greywacke group. The clastic material of sandstones contains grains of feldspar, quartz, mica, and particles of volcanic rocks. The nature and composition of cement are important parameters that determine the filtration-capacity properties of sedimentary rocks. Bituminous deposits are characterized by vertical zoning, which is expressed in the alternation of sites with varying degrees of cementation of rocks. Atten-tion has been also paid to post-sedimentation processes, such as pyritization and calcification. Pyrite forms rare xenomorphic isometric grains. The formation of pyrite occurs in diagenesis and is associated with the processes of biogenic sulfate reduction. The source of calcium for the crystallization of dispersed cal-cite in the porous space of sandstones is the underground waters of red-colored Ufimian deposits characterized by the alkaline properties favorable for calcium migration. According to the data of X-ray computed tomography, the internal space of the studied rocks is not homogeneous and represented by a system of communicated and isolated pores. In the studied samples, two types of organic matter differing in organic radicals have been detected. The first type is an organic substance of coal origin. The second type of organic matter belongs to the oil origin and refers to bitumens in its properties. The presence of a significant percentage of asphaltenes in the bitumen composition indicates the destruction of the oil substance in the near-surface conditions.

  2. Using proximate analysis to characterize airborne dust generation from bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, S.J.; Organiscak, J.A. [NIOSH, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Pittsburgh Research Lab.

    2002-06-01

    Laboratory crushing experiments were conducted on a range of low to high volatile bituminous coals to investigate the various factors influencing airborne respirable dust generation. Bituminous coal samples from 8 mines (5 U.S. and 3 Polish) were uniformly prepared and processed through a double roll crusher located in a low air velocity wind tunnel. Experimental factors studied included inherent coal seam constituents, specific energy of crushing, product size characteristics, dust cloud electrostatic field, and specific quantity of airborne respirable dust generated. A combination of factors is associated with the generation of airborne respirable dust. One factor involved is the effect of coal rank, described by the inherent moist fuel ratio, on the product size characteristics. However, since coals of high moist fuel ratio (high rank) are generally more extensively cleated, it is suggested that the degree of cleating is directly responsible for the quantity of respirable-sized particles produced in the crushed product material for eastern U.S. coals. This is implied by the relationship of ash content and at least one mineral constituent (pyrite, determined from pyritic sulfur analysis) to the percentage of airborne respirable dust. A clear delineation of coals, based on well-known proximate analysis characteristics, that generate the most respirable dust appears to be possible. It was also shown that the dust-generating characteristics of coals could be reasonably described by both the moist fuel ratio and the Hardgrove Grindability Index (HGI). These results show a clear distinction between eastern and western U.S. coals. However, no consistent distinction for Polish coal was observed.

  3. Effect of friction on rolling tire-pavement interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Accurate modeling of tirepavement contact behavior (i.e., distribution of contact tractions at the : interface) plays an important role in the analysis of pavement performance and vehicle driving safety. : The tirepavement contact is essentiall...

  4. Longitudinal cracking in widened portland cement concrete pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    The Wisconsin Department of Transportation constructed certain concrete pavements with lane widths greater : than the standard 12 feet in order to reduce stress and deflection caused by vehicle tires running near the edge of : the concrete slabs. Man...

  5. Portland cement concrete pavement restoration : final summary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-01

    This final summary report is comprised of an Initial Construction Report; a Final Report; and two Interim Reports. These reports document the construction of Louisiana's Portland Cement Concrete Pavement Restoration project and its performance during...

  6. Use of nonwoven geotextiles as interlayers in concrete pavement systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    This document describes the potential use of nonwoven geotextile materials as interlayers in concrete pavement systems, particularly unbonded overlays, in the United States. It briefly discusses Germanys experience, availability and cost of nonwov...

  7. Prediction of thermal behavior of pervious concrete pavements in winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-15

    Because application of pervious concrete pavement (PCPs) has extended to cold-climate regions of the United States, the safety and : mobility of PCP installations during the winter season need to be maintained. Timely application of salt, anti-icing,...

  8. Inferring pavement layer properties from a moving measurement platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sebastian; Levenberg, Eyal; Andersen, M.B.

    2017-01-01

    This work offered a new method for accessing the mechanical properties of pavement layers based on data obtained by a moving measurement platform. The method has the following features: (i) calculations are based on tracking distances to a point on the pavement surface, (ii) measurements...... are not required outside the zone of load influence, and (iii) possibility to access absolute pavement deflections. First, the envisioned platform-design and required readings were presented; next, the interpretation method was outlined and then applied to synthetic (computer-generated) data. Perfect convergence...... was achieved when the correct pavement model and accurate input data were employed. Also, when artificial errors were introduced for assessing sensitivities, only small deviations were generated. Based on these promising outcomes the method will be further studied and developed to support the construction...

  9. Laboratory evaluation of characteristics of recycled asphalt pavement in Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    The main objective of this research was to evaluate characteristics of milled Recycled Asphalt : Pavements (RAP) collected from selected milled roadways in Kansas. The RAP was collected from three : selected milled roadways including K-25 in Grant Co...

  10. Forensic analysis of asphaltic pavement failures in Ghana: case histories

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ampadu, SIK

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Many newly constructed asphaltic pavements in Ghana have suffered premature failures shortly after opening to traffic. In all cases, available records from the road agencies appeared to show that the roads were constructed in accordance...

  11. Mobile geographic information system (GIS) solution for pavement condition surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    This report discusses the design and implementation of a software-based solution that will improve the data collection processes during the Pavement Condition Surveys (PCS) conducted by the State Materials Office (SMO) of the Florida Department of Tr...

  12. Implementation of warm-mix asphalt mixtures in Nebraska pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The primary objective of this research is to evaluate the feasibility of several WMA mixtures as potential asphalt paving : mixtures for Nebraska pavements. To that end, three well-known WMA additives (i.e., Sasobit, Evotherm, and Advera : synthetic ...

  13. Evaluation of reclaimed asphalt pavement for surface mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    The Indiana Department of Transportation has successfully used Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) for decades because of its economic : and environmental benefits. Because of uncertainties regarding the types of aggregates contained in RAP and their re...

  14. Evaluation of reclaimed asphalt pavement for surface mixtures : [technical summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The Indiana Department of Transportation (INDOT) has successfully used Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) for decades because of its economic and environmental benefits. However, until recently, INDOT has disallowed the use of RAP in asphalt surface mi...

  15. Evaluation of construction strategies for PCC pavement rehabilitation projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    This study investigated project management level solutions to optimizing resources, minimizing costs : (including user costs) and time for PCC pavement rehabilitation projects. This study extensively : evaluated the applicability of the Construction ...

  16. Evaluation of transverse joint forming methods for PCC pavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The members of the Iowa Concrete Paving Association, the National Concrete Pavement Technology Center Research Committee, and : the Iowa Highway Research Board commissioned a study to examine alternative ways of developing transverse joints in portla...

  17. Recycling Old PCC Pavement - Performance Evaluation of FAI 57 Inlays

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-01

    This report details the construction and performance monitoring efforts of two demonstration projects proposed in an experimental features work plan entitled Recycling Old PCC Pavement". The objectives of this experimental feature were to evaluate th...

  18. Long term monitoring of moisture under pavements : executive summary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The research : program consisted of three : distinct : activities. The first activity was a continuation of : the monitoring of environmental instrumentation : under select pavement sections constructed by the : Ohio Department of Transportation (ODO...

  19. Texas pavement preservation center two-year summary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Established August 11, 2005, The TPPC serves the broad range of needs of the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT), and other agencies within the highway community by promoting awareness of pavement preservation as a feasible and practical maint...

  20. Texas pavement preservation center four-year summary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-04

    The Texas Pavement Preservation Center (TPPC), in joint collaboration with the Center for Transportation Research (CTR) of the University of Texas at Austin and the Texas Transportation Institute (TTI) of Texas A&M University, promotes the use of pav...

  1. Tack coat optimization for HMA overlays : accelerated pavement test report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    Interface bonding between hot-mix asphalt (HMA) overlays and Portland cement concrete (PCC) pavements is one : of the most significant factors affecting overlay service life. This study was performed to quantify the effects of HMA type, : tack coat t...

  2. Evaluation of the use of snowplowable raised pavement markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and durability of snowplowable raised pavement markers (RPM) installed on the RPM system in Kentucky. The durability evaluation dealt wit the marker housing. : The data show that continued...

  3. Use of nondestructive evaluation to detect moisture in flexible pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the currently available nondestructive evaluation technology that holds the greatest potential to detect moisture in flexible pavements and then apply the technology in multiple locations throughout Virginia....

  4. Evaluation of portable retroreflectometer for use on pavement marking materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The subjective rating of the night visibility of pavement marking materials is difficult as it can be influenced by many variables. In an attempt to provide an improved method of determining the night visibility of these materials, a portable retrore...

  5. Development of an automated pavement crack sealing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Pavement crack sealing operations remain predominantly manual due to the challenges associated with automation. The research : performed by the Georgia Tech Research Institute in conjunction with the Georgia Department of Transportation has proved in...

  6. Recycled tires as coarse aggregate in concrete pavement mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The reuse potential of tire chips as coarse aggregates in pavement concrete was examined in this research by : investigating the effects of low- and high-volume tire chips on fresh and hardened concrete properties. One concrete : control mixture was ...

  7. Iowa pavement asset management decision-making framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Most local agencies in Iowa currently make their pavement treatment decisions based on their limited experience due primarily to : lack of a systematic decision-making framework and a decision-aid tool. The lack of objective condition assessment data...

  8. Evaluation of acceptance strength tests for concrete pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-30

    The North Carolina Department of Transportation has used traditionally flexural strength tests for acceptance : testing of Portland cement concrete pavements. This report summarizes a research project implemented to : investigate the feasibility of u...

  9. Airport Pavement Design For The Boeing 777 Airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-10-22

    The purpose of this advisory circular is to provide thickness design standards : for pavements intended to serve the Boeing 777 airplane. A new method of design : based on layered elastic analysis has been developed to calculate design : thickness fo...

  10. Rehabilitation design of flexible pavements in South Africa.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available This report contains a set of practical course notes on the Rehabilitation Design of flexible pavements in southern Africa based on extensive research by various researchers and / or practitioners in South Africa. The course is intended...

  11. Pavement subgrade MR design values for Michigan's seasonal changes : appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-22

    The resilient modulus (MR) of roadbed soil plays an integral role in the design of pavement systems. Currently, the various regions of the Michigan Department of Transportation (MDOT) use different procedures to determine the MR values. Most of these...

  12. Investigation clogging dynamic of permeable pavement systems using embeded sensors

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Permeable pavement is a stormwater control measure commonly selected in both new and retrofit applications. However, there is limited information about the clogging...

  13. Metal concentrations from permeable pavement parking lot in Edison, NJ

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency constructed a 4000-m2 parking lot in Edison, New Jersey in 2009. The parking lot is surfaced with three permeable pavements...

  14. Investigation of temperature correction for tire/pavement noise measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    The Volpe Center Acoustics Facility, in support of the Federal Highway Administration, : investigated the influence of temperature on tire/pavement noise in order to provide guidance on correcting for temperature variations in measured sound levels. ...

  15. Deicer usage on concrete and asphalt pavements in Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The objectives of this research were to 1) compile winter maintenance data for the Utah Department of : Transportation (UDOT) to directly compare concrete and asphalt pavements with regards to deicer usage and 2) : determine if there is a statistical...

  16. Life cycle and economic efficiency analysis: durable pavement markings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This project examined the life cycle and economic efficiency of two pavement marking : materials inlaid tape and thermoplastic to find the most economical product for specific : traffic and weather conditions. Six locations in the state of Ma...

  17. Sustainable Mitigation of Stormwater Runoff Through Fully Permeable Pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    This report presents the implementation of new design method developed using mechanistic-empirical design approach by University of California Pavement Research Center (UCPRC) through building two test sections at California State University Long Bea...

  18. Safety performance evaluation of converging chevron pavement markings : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to perform a detailed safety analysis of converging chevron : pavement markings, quantifying the potential safety benefits and developing an understanding of the : incident types addressed by the treatment, and (...

  19. Project Level Performance Database for Rigid Pavements in Texas, II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Over the years, the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) has built a number of CRCP (continuously reinforced : concrete pavement) experimental sections to investigate the effects of design, materials, and construction variables on CRCP : struct...

  20. Inverted base pavements : new field test and design catalogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The current economic situation has severely affected the US road infrastructure and funding has become : inadequate for either maintenance or future growth. : The inverted base pavement structure is a promising alternative to achieve high quality roa...

  1. ANALYSIS OF GROUP MAINTENANCE STRATEGY -ROAD PAVEMENT AND SEWERAGE PIPES-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, Keishi; Sugimoto, Yasuaki; Miyamoto, Shinya; Nada, Hideki; Hosoi, Yoshihiko

    Recently, it is critical to manage deteriorating sewerage and road facilities efficiently and strategically. Since the sewerage pipes are mostly installed under road pavement, the works for the replacement of the sewerage pipes are partially common to the works for the road. This means that the replacement cost can be saved by coordinating the timing of the replacements by sewerage pipe and road pavement. The purpose of the study is to develop the model based on Markov decision process to derive the optimal group maintenance policy so as to minimize lifecycle cost. Then the model is applied to case study area and demonstrated to estimate the lifecycle cost using statistical data such as pipe replacement cost, road pavement rehabilitation cost, and state of deterioration of pipes and road pavement.

  2. Benefit cost models to support pavement management decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    A critical role of pavement management is to provide decision makers with estimates of the required budget level to achieve specific steady-state network conditions, and to recommend the best allocation of available budget among competing needs for m...

  3. Application of surplus and waste materials in roads pavement making

    OpenAIRE

    Mousavi, S. M.; Fazli, A. H.; Rouzmehr, F.

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays there are a lot of problems about surpluses and debris made by humans all around the world. Lots of these surpluses seriously harm our natural environment. Reuse of this kind of materials in other processes like building constructions or pavement help our natural environment in every aspect. Asphalt concrete is the main part of pavements in most parts of the world with an increasing rate of production in need of more ways and roads. In this paper we will provide...

  4. Flood Mitigation by Permeable Pavements in Chinese Sponge City Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Maochuan Hu; Xingqi Zhang; Yim Ling Siu; Yu Li; Kenji Tanaka; Hong Yang; Youpeng Xu

    2018-01-01

    It is important to evaluate the effectiveness of permeable pavements on flood mitigation at different spatial scales for their effective application, for example, sponge city construction in China. This study evaluated the effectiveness of three types of permeable pavements (i.e., permeable asphalts (PA), permeable concretes (PC), and permeable interlocking concrete pavers (PICP)) on flood mitigation at a community scale in China using a hydrological model. In addition, the effects of cloggin...

  5. Automatic Pavement Crack Recognition Based on BP Neural Network

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Li; Sun, Lijun; Ning, Guobao; Tan, Shengguang

    2014-01-01

    A feasible pavement crack detection system plays an important role in evaluating the road condition and providing the necessary road maintenance. In this paper, a back propagation neural network (BPNN) is used to recognize pavement cracks from images. To improve the recognition accuracy of the BPNN, a complete framework of image processing is proposed including image preprocessing and crack information extraction. In this framework, the redundant image information is reduced as much as possib...

  6. Research of cost aspects of cement pavements construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezuglyi, Artem; Illiash, Sergii; Tymoshchuk, Oleksandr

    2017-09-01

    The tendency to increasing traffic volume on public roads and to increased axle loads of vehicles makes the road scientists to develop scientifically justified methods for preserving the existing and developing the new transport network of Ukraine. One of the options for solving such issues is the construction of roads with rigid (cement concrete) pavement. However, any solution must be justified considering technical and economic components. This paper presents the results of the research of cost aspects of cement pavements construction.

  7. Evaluation of pavement skid resistance using high speed texture measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay N. Meegoda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Skid resistance is an important parameter for highway designs, construction, management, maintenance and safety. The purpose of this manuscript is to propose the correlation between skid resistance, which is measured as skid resistance trailer, and mean profile depth (MPD or the macro surface texture, which is measured by vehicle mounted laser, so that highway agencies can predict the skid resistance of pavement without the use of expensive and time consuming skid resistance trailer, which also causes disruption of traffic in use. In this research skid numbers and MPD from 5 new asphalt pavements and 4 old asphalt pavements were collected using a locked wheel skid trailer and a vehicle mounted laser. Using the data collected, a correlation between the skid number (SN40R collected by locked wheel skid tester and the texture data or MPD collected by a vehicle mounted laser operating at highway speeds was developed. The proposed correlation for new pavements was positive for MPD values less than 0.75 mm to reach a peak SN40R value, then there was a negative correlation as the MPD increases until the MPD value was equal to 1.1 mm and beyond the MPD value of 1.1 mm to the maximum value of 1.4 mm, SN40R value remained almost constant. There were significant data scatter for the MPD value of 0.8 mm. To explain these results, water film thickness during the friction test was calculated and the critical MPD was defined. The effect of sealed water pool on the SN40R was discussed. The test result showed a similar trend for older asphalt pavements, but with lower SN40R values due to the polishing of pavement micro-texture by traffic. Hence, a reduction factor was proposed for older pavements based on cumulative traffic volume for the above correlation to predict the skid resistance of older pavements.

  8. Pavement Response to Variable Tyre Pressure of Heavy Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad Ahmad Kamil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the effect of overinflated tyre pressure and increased heavy vehicles’ axle load on flexible pavements has become a subject of great concern because of the higher stress levels induced and damage caused to road pavements. This paper aims to evaluate the effect of variable tyre inflation pressures (using actual tyre contact/footprint area to determine the responses of flexible pavement. A full scale experiment was conducted on a heavy vehicle with 1:1:2 axle configuration, 10 R 20 tyre size and attached trailer with constant axle load. Measurements were made for actual tyre-pavement contact area. KENPAVE linear elastic program was then used to analyse the effects of the measured actual tyre-pavement contact area and the results was compared using conventional circular tyre contact area. A comparative analysis was then made between the actual contact area and the conventional circular tyre contact area. It was found that high tyre inflation pressure produce smaller contact area, giving more detrimental effect on the flexible pavement. It was also found that the temperature of tyres when the heavy vehicles are operational give less significant impact on tyre inflation pressure for the Malaysian climate.

  9. Effect of speed hump characteristics on pavement condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talaat Ali Abdel-Wahed

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Speed humps are the most common type of traffic calming devices due to their low cost and easy installation. However, in many Egyptian roads, considerable number of these humps is randomly placed without proper engineering studies and justifications. Deterioration of pavement condition is observed near these humps. This paper presents a case study applied to collect and analyze visual inspection data for the reason of evaluating the impact of speed humps on pavement condition on intercity rural roads. The paper used 52 speed humps located in an intercity two-lane, two-way road that connects two cities, Tahta and Gerga, in Upper Egypt. The total length of this road is about 34 km. Pavement condition index (PCI, in road sections, near speed humps in the two directions of travel were calculated from the visual inspection measurements. The characteristics of each speed hump (width, height, and distance from preceding hump were measured. Using statistical analyses, the correlations between the pavement conditions and hump characteristics were examined. Regression analysis models were developed to represent the relationships between pavement conditions and hump characteristics. Generally, the results proved that the pavement conditions are greatly influenced by the presence of speed humps and hump characteristics.

  10. Noise emission of concrete pavement surfaces produced by diamond grinding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Skarabis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In Germany, diamond grinding is frequently used to improve the evenness and skid resistance of concrete pavement surfaces. Since diamond grinding has been observed to affect tyre/pavement noise emission favourably, the relationship among surface texture, concrete composition and noise emission of concrete pavement surfaces has been systematically investigated. The simulation program SPERoN was used in a parameter study to investigate the main factors which affect noise emission. Based on the results of the simulations, textured concrete surfaces were produced by using a laboratory grinding machine. As well as the composition of the concrete, the thickness and spacing of the diamond blades were varied. The ability of the textured surfaces to reduce noise emission was assessed from the texture characteristics and air flow resistance of textured surfaces measured in the laboratory. It was found that concrete composition and, in particular, the spacing of the blades affected the reduction in noise emission considerably. The noise emission behaviour of numerous road sections was also considered in field investigations. The pavement surfaces had been textured by diamond grinding during the last years or decades. The results show that diamond grinding is able to provide good, durable noise-reducing properties. Several new pavement sections were investigated using thicknesses and spacings of the blades similar to those used in the laboratory to optimize noise emission reduction. It is concluded that diamond grinding is a good alternative to exposed aggregate concrete for the production of low-noise pavement surfaces.

  11. Influence of pavement condition on horizontal curve safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddhavarapu, Prasad; Banerjee, Ambarish; Prozzi, Jorge A

    2013-03-01

    Crash statistics suggest that horizontal curves are the most vulnerable sites for crash occurrence. These crashes are often severe and many involve at least some level of injury due to the nature of the collisions. Ensuring the desired pavement surface condition is one potentially effective strategy to reduce the occurrence of severe accidents on horizontal curves. This study sought to develop crash injury severity models by integrating crash and pavement surface condition databases. It focuses on developing a causal relationship between pavement condition indices and severity level of crashes occurring on two-lane horizontal curves in Texas. In addition, it examines the suitability of the existing Skid Index for safety maintenance of two-lane curves. Significant correlation is evident between pavement condition and crash injury severity on two-lane undivided horizontal curves in Texas. Probability of a crash becoming fatal is appreciably sensitive to certain pavement indices. Data suggested that road facilities providing a smoother and more comfortable ride are vulnerable to severe crashes on horizontal curves. In addition, the study found that longitudinal skid measurement barely correlates with injury severity of crashes occurring on curved portions. The study recommends exploring the option of incorporating lateral friction measurement into Pavement Management System (PMS) databases specifically at curved road segments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Feasibility of perpetual pavement stage construction in China: A life cycle cost analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongyin Guo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of pavement design and management is to build sustainable pavement structure with minimum costs during its whole life. There are many uncertainties in the process of pavement design pertaining many of its variables, such as future traffic estimation, long time behavior of materials, future weights and types of traveling vehicles, availability of funds etc. Therefore, it is important to apply pavement stage construction technique during the process of pavement design and management to minimize the risk associated with these uncertainties. From the beginning of 2000, the research and application of perpetual asphalt pavement (PP technology has been deployed in China. The semi rigid base for asphalt pavement has been normally considered as typical component of high class highways in the design according to the Chinese experience since 1997. The research objective is to apply pavement stage construction for the evaluation of life cycle costs of Chinese perpetual and traditional semi rigid pavements using operational pavement management system in addition to examine its suitability for design and construction of more economical and durable flexible pavements. It has been found that the stage construction of asphalt layers in PP over semi rigid pavement foundation will create more sustainable and trusted pavement structures in spite of 2–5% increase in present total cost.

  13. Improve the quality and service life of water-based pavement marking paints on pavements with high-iron aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    White pavement paint marking on airport runways was being discolored by rust-like staining. Discoloration is a critical safety : problem because white paint indicates runways and yellow paint is used for taxiways and aircraft parking. When the white ...

  14. 0-6683 : develop a pavement project evaluation index to support the 4-year pavement management plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    A pavement management plan (PMP) identifies : candidate maintenance and rehabilitation (M&R) : projects for a particular roadway network over a : multi-year planning period. The PMP is a living : document because projects are reevaluated and : reprio...

  15. Evaluation and Development of Pavement Scores, Performance Models and Needs Estimates for the TXDOT Pavement Management Information System : Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    This project conducted a thorough review of the existing Pavement Management Information System (PMIS) database, : performance models, needs estimates, utility curves, and scores calculations, as well as a review of District practices : concerning th...

  16. DEPOSITIONAL ENVIRONMENT AND ORGANIC GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF LOWER EOCENE BITUMINOUS ROCKS, IN THE KÜRNÜÇ/GÖYNÜK-BOLU AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali SARI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, dark gray and dark brown colored, organic-carbon rich bituminous rocks (bituminous marl and bituminous shale exposing around the Kürnüç area (Göynük, Bolu are investigated by means of or- ganic geochemical characteristics. In this respect, rock lithologies, depositional environments, rock source potential, kerogen and organic maturity types and hydrocarbon generation potentials of bituminous rocks were determined. For this reason, pyrolysis (Rock Eval–VI analysis, gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS analyses were carried out. In addition, spore color index (SCI was determined with organic petrographic method and stable carbon analysis (δ13C of the samples were also conducted. Lithology of the studied samples is of clastic source and the depositional environ- ment is a lagoon with a partial connection to the sea. In bituminous rocks with excellent source rock potential TOC values are in the range of 2.52-8.38 wt % (average 6.08 wt %. With the exception of two samples (Type II kerogen type of all samples is Type I. According to pyrolysis, GC and GC-MS organic maturity results, all the samples are in immature stage. Organic geochemical data indicate that bituminous rocks have an excellent oil generation potential and there is no organic contamination.

  17. Modeling of interaction between steel and concrete in continuously reinforced concrete pavements : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Continuously reinforced concrete pavement (CRCP) contains continuous longitudinal reinforcement with no transverse : expansion within the early life of the pavement and can continue to develop cracks in the long-term. The : accurate modeling of CRCPs...

  18. Typical and darkened Portland cement concrete pavement: temperature, moisture, and roughness analyses : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to 1) investigate the effects of lower concrete albedo on the thermal behavior of concrete pavement by directly comparing temperatures and moisture contents of typical and darkened concrete pavements and 2) invest...

  19. Update to Permeable Pavement Research at the Edison Environmental Center - proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA’s Urban Watershed Management Branch (UWMB) has been monitoring the permeable pavement demonstration site at the Edison Environmental Center, NJ since 2010. This site has three different types of permeable pavements including interlocking concrete permeable pavers, p...

  20. Update to Permeable Pavement Research at the Edison Environmental Center - abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract The EPA’s Urban Watershed Management Branch (UWMB) has been monitoring the permeable pavement demonstration site at the Edison Environmental Center, NJ since 2010. This site has three different types of permeable pavement including: interlocking concrete permeable pavers...

  1. Update to permeable pavement research at the Edison Environmental Center - slides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract: The EPA’s Urban Watershed Management Branch (UWMB) has been monitoring the permeable pavement demonstration site at the Edison Environmental Center, NJ since 2010. This site has three different types of permeable pavement including: interlocking concrete permeable paver...

  2. Evaluating the Effect of Slab Curling on IRI for South Carolina Concrete Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    Concrete pavements are known to curl due to a temperature gradient within the concrete caused by both daily : and seasonal temperature variations. This research project measured the magnitude of concrete pavement slab : curling of two newly construct...

  3. Engineering properties of stabilized subgrade soils for implementation of the AASHTO 2002 pavement design guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    A comprehensive laboratory study was undertaken to determine engineering properties of cementitiously stabilized common subgrade soils in Oklahoma for the design of roadway pavements in accordance with the AASHTO 2002 Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement D...

  4. Standard nomenclature and methods for describing the condition of pavements draft TRH 6

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Curtayne, PC

    2009-01-26

    Full Text Available The need for describing the condition of pavements occurs frequently in highway engineering. Accurate descriptions are a prerequisite for establishing procedures with which to evaluate the various aspects of the pavement condition. A variety...

  5. Effectiveness of noise barriers installed adjacent to transverse grooved concrete pavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-16

    In recent years the Ohio Department of Transportation (ODOT) has reconstructed a number of roadways where asphalt pavements were replaced with random transverse grooved concrete pavements. Upon completion, residents living adjacent to the reconstruct...

  6. Evaluation of concrete pavements with materials-related distress : appendix G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    An evaluation of cores sampled from six concrete pavements was performed. Factors contributing to pavement distress observed in the field were determined, including expansive alkali-silica reactivity and freeze-thaw deterioration related to poor entr...

  7. Long-term pavement performance program manual for profile measurements and processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    This manual describes operational procedures for measuring longitudinal pavement profiles for the Long-Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) Program using the International Cybernetics Corporation (ICC) road profiler, Face Company Dipstick, and the rod an...

  8. Effect of drainage in unbound aggregate bases on flexible pavement performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    It has been well demonstrated that a positive subsurface drainage is beneficial in enhancing pavement performance and thus extending pavement service life. Typical permeable base materials include asphalt/cement-treated, open-graded aggregates and un...

  9. Mechanistic-empirical design concepts for continuously reinforced concrete pavements in Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    The Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) currently has an existing jointed plain concrete pavement : (JPCP) design based on mechanistic-empirical (M-E) principles. However, their continuously reinforced concrete : pavement (CRCP) design proce...

  10. Evaluating the effects of concrete pavement curling and warping on ride quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Construction of a jointed concrete pavement on US 34 near Greeley, Colorado in 2012 led to an investigation of slab curling : and warping that appeared to be contributing to undesirable levels of pavement roughness. Specifically, the westbound lanes ...

  11. Winter tenting of highway pavements : test program and discussion of causes and mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-10-28

    Tenting consists of localized frost heaving in the immediate vicinity of transverse pavement cracks. It produces a highly irregular riding : surface, leads to premature pavement-surface deterioration, occurs on highways designed for high traffic volu...

  12. Recycled Portland cement concrete pavements : Part II, state-of-the art summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    This report constitutes a review of the literature concerning recycling of portland cement concrete pavements by crushing the old pavement and reusing the crushed material as aggregate in a number of applications. A summary of the major projects cond...

  13. Long-term infiltration capacity of different types of permeable pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Permeable pavements such as porous asphalt, pervious concrete and permeable interlocking concrete pavers are relatively novel alternatives to conventional pavement that allow rain and snowmelt to infiltrate, thereby reducing runoff, flooding and nonp...

  14. Determination of coefficient of thermal expansion effects on Louisiana's PCC pavement design : technical summary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) has been widely considered as a fundamental property of : Portland cement concrete (PCC) pavement but has never played an important role in the thickness design : procedure for PCC pavement until recently. I...

  15. Implementation of Rolling Wheel Deflectometer (RWD) in PMS and Pavement Preservation : Tech Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Evaluation of pavement structural capacity and integrity is an important component of the Pavement Management : System (PMS) to assist in the selection of suitable maintenance and rehabilitation strategies. The falling weight : defl ectometer (FWD) i...

  16. MDOT innovation leading to faster, longer-lasting pavement repairs : research spotlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Current methods of patching pavement must evolve to meet increasing mobility demands. : To address this need, MDOT has been testing a new generation of rapid set full-depth : pavement repair materials. Initial results are promising. The new materials...

  17. Top-down cracking of rigid pavements constructed with fast setting hydraulic cement concrete

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Heath, AC

    2009-01-29

    Full Text Available Jointed plain concrete pavement (JPCP) test sections were constructed using fast setting hydrualic cement concrete (FSHCC) as part of the California accelerated pavement testing program (CAL/APT). Many of the longer slabs cracked under environmental...

  18. Long term validation of an accelerated polishing test procedure for HMA pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The Ohio Department of Transportation (ODOT) has set strategic goals to improve driving safety by maintaining : smooth pavement surfaces with high skid resistance. ODOT has taken the initiative to monitor pavement : friction on Ohio roadways and reme...

  19. Transition from manual to automatic rutting measurements : effect on pavement serviceability index values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    The Pavement Serviceability Index (pSn is used by New Mexico Department of Transportation : (NMDOT) to express the serviceability level of a pavement section at the network level. The PSI : is calculated with distress ratings (including rutting) and ...

  20. Evaluation of concrete pavements with materials-related distress : appendix C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    An evaluation of cores sampled from six concrete pavements was performed. Factors contributing to pavement distress observed in the field were determined, including expansive alkali-silica reactivity and freeze-thaw deterioration related to poor entr...

  1. Texas flexible pavements and overlays : data analysis plans and reporting format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    This five-year project was initiated to collect materials and pavement performance data on a minimum of 100 : highway test sections around the State of Texas, incorporating flexible pavements and overlays. Besides being used to : calibrate and valida...

  2. Evaluation of concrete pavements with materials-related distress : appendix B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    An evaluation of cores sampled from six concrete pavements was performed. Factors contributing to pavement distress observed in the field were determined, including expansive alkali-silica reactivity and freeze-thaw deterioration related to poor entr...

  3. Using recycled concrete as aggregate in concrete pavements to reduce materials cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    The main objective of this project was to evaluate the effects of using aggregate produced from crushed concrete pavement as a replacement for natural (virgin) coarse aggregate in pavement mixtures. A total of ten different concrete mixtures containi...

  4. Considerations for rigid vs. flexible pavement designs when allowed as alternate bids : technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    This report documents the research conducted for the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) : concerning the use of pavement alternates. The scope of the project includes reviewing the state-of-thepractice : in methods used for pavement type sele...

  5. A methodology to support the development of 4-year pavement management plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    A methodology for forming and prioritizing pavement maintenance and rehabilitation (M&R) projects was developed. : The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) can use this methodology to generate defensible and cost-effective : 4-year pavement man...

  6. Alternate bidding strategies for asphalt and concrete pavement projects utilizing life cycle cost analysis (LCCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Recent changes in pavement materials costs have impacted the competitive environment relative to the : determination of the most cost effective pavement structure for a specific highway project. In response, State : highway agencies have renewed thei...

  7. Effect of Michigan multi-axle trucks on pavement distress and profile: volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    With the adoption of the new mechanistic-empirical pavement design method and the employment of axle load spectra, the question of evaluating the pavement damage resulting from different axle and truck configurations has become more relevant. In part...

  8. Effect of Michigan multi-axle trucks on pavement distress and profile: volume 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    With the adoption of the new mechanistic-empirical pavement design method and the employment of axle load : spectra, the question of evaluating the pavement damage resulting from different axle and truck configurations has : become more relevant. In ...

  9. Effect of Michigan multi-axle trucks on pavement distress and profile : volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    With the adoption of the new mechanistic-empirical pavement design method and the employment of axle load : spectra, the question of evaluating the pavement damage resulting from different axle and truck configurations has : become more relevant. In ...

  10. Nondestructive pavement evaluation using finite element analysis based soft computing models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-15

    Evaluating structural condition of existing, in-service pavements constitutes annually a major part of the : maintenance and rehabilitation activities undertaken by State Highway Agencies (SHAs). Accurate : estimation of pavement geometry and layer m...

  11. Texas flexible pavements and overlays : calibration plans for M-E models and related software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    This five-year project was initiated to collect materials and pavement performance data on a minimum of 100 highway test sections around the State of Texas, incorporating flexible pavements and overlays. Besides being used to calibrate and validate m...

  12. Effectiveness of noise barriers installed adjacent to transverse grooved concrete pavement : executive summary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-16

    In recent years the Ohio Department of Transportation (ODOT) has reconstructed a number of roadways where asphalt pavements were replaced with concrete pavements which were finished with a random transverse grooved surface texture (ODOT specification...

  13. Assessment of asphalt concrete reinforcement grid in flexible pavements : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    This report investigated the application of accepted methods of pavement structural evaluation to independently assess the potential structural benefit of asphalt geogrid reinforcement of an operational flexible highway pavement. The asphalt interlay...

  14. Evaluation of concrete pavements with materials-related distress : appendix E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    An evaluation of cores sampled from six concrete pavements was performed. Factors contributing to pavement distress observed in the field were determined, including expansive alkali-silica reactivity and freeze-thaw deterioration related to poor entr...

  15. Performance evaluation of Arizona's LTPP SPS-5 project : strategic study of rehabilitation of asphalt concrete pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    As part of the Long Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) Program, the Arizona Department of Transportation : (ADOT) constructed 11 Specific Pavement Study5 (SPS5) test sections on Interstate 8 near Casa Grande. The : SPS5 project studied a varie...

  16. Performance evaluation of Arizona's LTPP SPS-2 project : strategic study of structural factors for rigid pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    As part of the Long Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) Program, Arizona Department of Transportation : (ADOT) constructed 21 Specific Pavement Studies 2 (SPS-2) test sections on Interstate 10 near Buckeye, : Arizona, to study a variety of structural se...

  17. Simulation of dynamic traffic loading based on accelerated pavement testing (APT)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, WJvdM

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to introduce the latest Heavy Vehicle Simulator (HVS) technology as part of the South African Accelerated Pavement Testing (APT) efforts, its capabilities and expected impact on road pavement analysis....

  18. Toward using tire-road contact stresses in pavement design and analysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer, Morris

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of road pavement design, especially towards the surface of the pavement, requires a more rational approach to modeling of truck tire-road contact stresses. Various road surfacing failures are given in this paper as examples...

  19. Towards using tire-road contact stresses in pavement design and analysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer, Morris

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of road pavement design, especially towards the surface of the pavement, requires a more rational approach to modeling of truck tire-road contact stresses. Various road surfacing failures are given in this paper as examples...

  20. Flexible and composite structures for premium pavements. Volume 2, Design manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-01

    This design manual presents the results of a detailed study to identify and design flexible and composite pavement configurations which will perform as premium or "zero-maintenance" pavements. This manual includes identification and classification of...

  1. Processing of a Silesian bituminous coal tar mixture at 600 atm to heavy oil excess in a 10-liter oven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupfer, H.

    1942-10-28

    An analysis was made of a bituminous coal tar mixture for consideration as raw material for Blechhammer. A breakdown of the composition and yield charts is provided. A table compared it to a coke tar pitch and a bituminous tar mixture from a different carbonization process and its yields were approximately between the yield values of these two. Although the sludge extraction produced sufficient yields in the experiment, the yields would not be as good within full-scale industry. A day by day progress description of the experimentation is provided including all operational details. The experimental results and the pros and cons are summarized briefly. Fifteen tables of data provide analysis of all the elements tested.

  2. Fuel-oils from co-pyrolysis of scrap tyres with coal and a bituminous waste. Influence of oven configuration

    OpenAIRE

    Acevedo Muñoz, Beatriz; Barriocanal Rueda, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Two wastes from the tyre recycling industry – the fibers used as reinforcing material and tyre crumbs – were pyrolyzed in two ovens of different configuration. Blends with a low rank coal and a bituminous waste were also prepared to modify the composition of the oils obtained from the pyrolysis of the tyre wastes. Elemental analysis, calorific value, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and gas chromatography were used to determine the oil composition. A comparative study taking int...

  3. Developing A Framework for Low-Volume Road Implementation of Pervious Concrete Pavements

    OpenAIRE

    Sonia Rahman, BSc; Andrew B. Northmore, MASc, EIT; Vimy Henderson, PhD, PEng; Susan L. Tighe, PhD, PEng

    2015-01-01

    Pervious concrete pavement is one of the promising pavement technologies, as it can help overcome traditional pavement environmental impacts, assist with stormwater management, and provide an effective low impact development solution. There are many benefits associated with pervious concrete pavement such as assisting with water filtration, absorbing heavy metals and reducing pollution. The most significant aspect, which draws the attention of environmental agencies and cities and municipalit...

  4. Pavement Condition Survey in Kagawa Prefecture by ROMDAS<研究成果報告>

    OpenAIRE

    MAMUNUR, RASHID Mohammad; 角川, 浩二

    2006-01-01

    Highway is one of the most important areas among the various facilities of infrastructure. Therefore, most of the organizations related to the infrastructure management system pay higher attention to the pavement which is the most important facility of highway management. An effective pavement management system (PMS) helps to carry out all the preservation and necessary maintenance operations of the pavement. In order to implement a pavement management system, data collection that indicates e...

  5. Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL) process bench studies with bituminous coal. Final report, [October 1, 1988--December 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comolli, A.G.; Johanson, E.S.; Karolkiewicz, W.F.; Lee, L.K.; Stalzer, R.H.; Smith, T.O.

    1993-03-01

    Reported herein are the details and results of Laboratory and Bench-Scale experiments using bituminous coal concluded at Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., under DOE contract during the period October 1, 1988 to December 31, 1992. The work described is primarily concerned with the application of coal cleaning methods and solids separation methods to the Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL) Process. Additionally a predispersed catalyst was evaluated in a thermal/catalytic configuration, and an alternative nickel molybdenum catalyst was evaluated for the CTSL process. Three coals were evaluated in this program: Bituminous Illinois No. 6 Burning Star and Sub-bituminous Wyoming Black Thunder and New Mexico McKinley Mine seams. The results from a total of 16 bench-scale runs are reported and analyzed in detail. The tests involving the Illinois coal are reported herein, and the tests involving the Wyoming and New Mexico coals are described in Topical Report No. 1. On the laboratory scale, microautoclave tests evaluating coal, start-up oils, catalysts, thermal treatment, CO{sub 2} addition and sulfur compound effects are reported in Topical Report No. 3. Other microautoclave tests, such as tests on rejuvenated catalyst, coker liquids, and cleaned coals, are described in the Bench Run sections to which they refer. The microautoclave tests conducted for modelling the CTSL process are described in the CTSL Modelling section of Topical Report No. 3 under this contract.

  6. Utilization of Waste Clay from Boron Production in Bituminous Geosynthetic Barrier (GBR-B Production as Landfill Liner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müfide Banar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bituminous geomembranes, one type of geosynthetics, include a hot bituminous mixture with mineral filler and reinforcement. In this study, boron production waste clay (CW was used as filler to produce a geosynthetic barrier with bentonite, waste tire, and bitumen. Bentonite and waste tires were used as auxiliary fillers and bitumen as the binder. CW/bitumen, CW/bentonite/bitumen, and CW/waste tire/bitumen mixtures were prepared by using a laboratory mixer at 100°C. Hot mixtures were extruded into strips by using a lab-scale corotating twin screw extruder (L/D: 40 followed by die casting (2 mm × 100 mm. Glass fleece or nonwoven polyester was used as reinforcement material and while die casting, both sides of the reinforcement materials were covered with bituminous mixture. Thickness, mass per unit area, tensile strength, elongation at yield, and hydraulic conductivity were used to characterize the geomembranes. Among all geomembranes, nonwoven polyester covered with 30% bitumen-70% boron waste clay mixture (PK-BTM30CW70 was found to be the most promising in terms of structure and mechanical behaviour. After that, consequences of its exposure to distilled water (DW, municipal solid waste landfill leachate (L-MSW, and hazardous waste landfill leachate (L-HW were examined to use for an innovative impermeable liner on solid waste landfills.

  7. Potential of water-washing of rape straw on thermal properties and interactions during co-combustion with bituminous coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qiulin; Han, Lujia; Huang, Guangqun

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this work was to study the thermal properties and interactions during co-combustion of rape straw (RS) before and after water-washing with bituminous coal. A series of experiments was conducted to investigate the properties and interactions during co-combustion of RS with bituminous coal (at 10, 20, 40 and 60% RS). The feasibility and potential of water-washing as an RS pre-treatment was also explored. Reactivity and the amount of heat released followed a quadratic trend, while changes to the degree of interactions between the fuels conformed to a cosine curve. Water-washing increased the ignition and burn-out temperatures and slightly decreased reactivity. Demineralization negatively affected the previously synergistic co-firing relationship, nevertheless, the amount of heat released increased by 10.28% and the average activation energy (146kJ/mol) was lower than that of the unwashed blend (186kJ/mol). Overall, water-washing of RS could prove a useful pre-treatment before co-combustion with bituminous coal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of portland cement concrete pavement with high slag content cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    The performance of a section of concrete pavement built with 30 percent Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBFS) is compared to a control section of concrete pavement built with 25 percent GGBFS to determine if the higher slag content pavement is...

  9. Evaluation of the MIT-Scan-T2 for non-destructive PCC pavement thickness determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The MIT-Scan-T2 device is marketed as a non-destructive way to determine pavement thickness on both : HMA and PCC pavements. PCC pavement thickness determination is an important incentivedisincentive : measurement for the Iowa DOT and contractors. Th...

  10. Integrating Pavement Crack Detection and Analysis Using Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-27

    INTEGRATING PAVEMENT CRACK DETECTION AND ANALYSIS USING AUTONOMOUS UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE...protection in the United States. AFIT-ENV-MS-15-M-195 INTEGRATING PAVEMENT CRACK DETECTION AND ANALYSIS USING AUTONOMOUS UNMANNED AERIAL...APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED. AFIT-ENV-MS-15-M-195 INTEGRATING PAVEMENT CRACK DETECTION AND ANALYSIS USING AUTONOMOUS

  11. ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION OF QUALITATIVE PARAMETERS OF HIGHWAY ASPHALT CONCRETE PAVEMENTS IN LITHUANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Petkevicius

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality of pavements is evaluated by the presence of such defects as: pot-holes, cracks, runs and others. An outward exhibition of defects is pavement evenness. The paper contains correlation dependences between evenness and defects. The critical pavement conditions when it is necessary to execute repair works are determined in the paper.

  12. Effects of moving dynamic tyre loads on tyre-pavement contact stresses

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, WJvdM

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to indicate the effect that moving dynamic tyre loads has on the tyre-pavement contact stresses used in pavement analysis. Traditionally tyre loads (in pavement analysis) are modelled as constant loads applied through...

  13. Prediction of IRI in short and long terms for flexible pavements: ANN and GMDH methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ziari, H.; Sobhani, J.; Ayoubinejad, J.; Hartmann, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Prediction of pavement condition is one of the most important issues in pavement management systems. In this paper, capabilities of artificial neural networks (ANNs) and group method of data handling (GMDH) methods in predicting flexible pavement conditions were analysed in three levels: in 1 year,

  14. Recycled asphalt pavement – fly ash geopolymer as a sustainable stabilized pavement material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horpibulsuk, S.; Hoy, M.; Witchayaphong, P.; Rachan, R.; Arulrajah, A.

    2017-11-01

    Strength, durability, microstructure and leachate characteristics of Recycled Asphalt Pavement and Fly Ash (RAP-FA) geopolymers and RAP-FA blends as a sustainable pavement material are evaluated in this paper. The strength development of the stabilized materials with and without effect wetting-drying (w-d) cycles was determined by Unconfined Compression Strength (UCS) test. The mineralogical and microstructural changes of the stabilized material were analyzed by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The leachability of the heavy metals were measured by Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and compared with international standard. The results show that both RAP-FA blend and RAP-FA geopolymer increase with increasing the number of w-d cycles (C), reaching its peak at 6 w-d cycles. The XRD and SEM analyses indicate that the strength development of RAP-FA blend occurs due to stimulation of the chemical reaction between the high amount to Calcium in RAP and the high amount of Silica and Alumina in FA leaching to production of Calcium Aluminium (Silicate) Hydrate, while the geopolymerization reaction is observed in RAP-FA geopolymer. For C> 6, the significant macro- and micro-cracks developed during w-d cycles cause strength reduction for both RAP-FA blend and geopolymer. The TCLP results demonstrate that there is no environmental risk for these stabilized materials. Furthermore, FA-geopolymer can reduce the leachability of heavy metal in RAP-FA blend. The outcome from this research confirms the viability of using RAP-FA blend and RAP-FA geopolymer as alternative sustainable pavement materials.

  15. Stormwater quality of spring-summer-fall effluent from three partial-infiltration permeable pavement systems and conventional asphalt pavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Jennifer; Bradford, Andrea; Van Seters, Tim

    2014-06-15

    This study examined the spring, summer and fall water quality performance of three partial-infiltration permeable pavement (PP) systems and a conventional asphalt pavement in Ontario. The study, conducted between 2010 and 2012, compared the water quality of effluent from two Interlocking Permeable Concrete Pavements (AquaPave(®) and Eco-Optiloc(®)) and a Hydromedia(®) Pervious Concrete pavement with runoff from an Asphalt control pavement. The usage of permeable pavements can mitigate the impact of urbanization on receiving surface water systems through quantity control and stormwater treatment. The PP systems provided excellent stormwater treatment for petroleum hydrocarbons, total suspended solids, metals (copper, iron, manganese and zinc) and nutrients (total-nitrogen and total-phosphorus) by reducing event mean concentrations (EMC) as well as total pollutant loadings. The PPs significantly reduced the concentration and loading of ammonia (NH4(+)+NH3), nitrite (NO2(-)) and organic-nitrogen (Org-N) but increased the concentration and loading of nitrate (NO3(-)). The PP systems had mixed performances for the treatment of phosphate (PO4(3-)). The PP systems increased the concentration of sodium (Na) and chloride (Cl) but EMCs remained well below recommended levels for drinking water quality. Relative to the observed runoff, winter road salt was released more slowly from the PP systems resulting in elevated spring and early-summer Cl and Na concentrations in effluent. PP materials were found to introduce dissolved solids into the infiltrating stormwater. The release of these pollutants was verified by additional laboratory scale testing of the individual pavement and aggregate materials at the University of Guelph. Pollutant concentrations were greatest during the first few months after construction and declined rapidly over the course of the study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Relations among pH, sulfate, and metals concentrations in anthracite and bituminous coal-mine discharges, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, III, Charles A.

    2006-01-01

    Water-quality data for discharges from 140 abandoned mines in the Bituminous and Anthracite Coalfields of Pennsylvania illustrate relations among pH, sulfate, and dissolved metal concentrations. The pH for the 140 samples ranged from 2.7 to 7.3, with two modes at pH 2.5 to 4 (acidic) and 6 to 7 (near neutral). Generally, flow rates were smaller and solute concentrations were greater for low-pH samples; flow rates increased with pH. Although the pH distribution was similar for the bituminous and anthracite subsets, the bituminous discharges had smaller median flow rates, greater concentrations of sulfate, iron, and aluminum, and smaller concentrations of barium and lead than anthracite discharges with the same pH values. The observed relations between the pH and constituent concentrations can be attributed to (1) dilution of acidic water by alkaline ground water; (2) solubility control of aluminum, iron, manganese, barium, and lead by hydroxide, sulfate, and/or carbonate minerals; and (3) aqueous sulfate-complex formation. The formation of AlSO4+ and AlHSO4+2 complexes adds to the total dissolved aluminum concentration at pH of equilibrium with aluminum hydroxide or hydroxysulfate minerals and can account for 10 to 20 times greater concentrations of dissolved aluminum in bituminous discharges compared to anthracite discharges at similar pH. Sulfate complexation also can account for 10 to 30 times greater concentrations of dissolved ferric iron concentrations at equilibrium with ferrihydrite (Fe(OH)3) and/or schwertmannite (Fe8O8(OH)4.5(SO4)1.75) at pH of 3 to 5. In contrast, lower barium and lead concentrations in bituminous than anthracite discharges indicates elevated sulfate concentration could decrease mobility of these metals by the formation of insoluble minerals such as barite (BaSO4) or anglesite (PbSO4). Most samples were saturated with barite, but none were saturated with anglesite. Hence, lead concentrations could be controlled by coprecipitation with

  17. Urban evaporation rates for water-permeable pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starke, P; Göbel, P; Coldewey, W G

    2010-01-01

    In urban areas the natural water balance is disturbed. Infiltration and evaporation are reduced, resulting in a high surface runoff and a typical city climate, which can lead to floods and damages. Water-permeable pavements have a high infiltration rate that reduces surface runoff by increasing the groundwater recharge. The high water retention capacity of the street body of up to 51 l/m(2) and its connection via pores to the surface lead to higher evaporation rates than impermeable surfaces. A comparison of these two kinds of pavements shows a 16% increase in evaporation levels of water-permeable pavements. Furthermore, the evaporation from impermeable pavements is linked directly to rain events due to fast-drying surfaces. Water-permeable pavements show a more evenly distributed evaporation after a rain event. Cooling effects by evaporative heat loss can improve the city climate even several days after rain events. On a large scale use, uncomfortable weather like sultriness or dry heat can be prevented and the urban water balance can be attenuated towards the natural.

  18. Update to Permeable Pavement Research at the Edison ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA’s Urban Watershed Management Branch (UWMB) has been monitoring the permeable pavement demonstration site at the Edison Environmental Center, NJ since 2010. This site has three different types of permeable pavements including interlocking concrete permeable pavers, pervious concrete, and porous asphalt. The permeable pavements are limited to parking spaces while adjacent driving lanes are impermeable and drain to the permeable surfaces. The parking lot is instrumented for continuous monitoring with thermistors and water content reflectometers that measure moisture as infiltrate passes through the storage gallery beneath the permeable pavements into the underlying native soil. Each permeable surface of the parking lot has four lined sections that capture infiltrate in tanks for water quality analyses; these tanks are capable of holding volumes up to 4.1 m3, which represents up to 38 mm (1.5 in.) for direct rainfall on the porous pavement and runoff from adjacent driving lanes that drain into the permeable surface.Previous technical releases concerning the demonstration site focused on monitoring techniques, observed chloride and nutrient concentrations, surface hydrology, and infiltration and evaporation rates. This presentation summarizes these past findings and addresses current water quality efforts including pH, solids analysis, total organic carbon, and chemical oxygen demand. Stormwater runoff continues to be a major cause of water pollution in

  19. Experimental Study on Color Durability of Color Asphalt Pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Shi; Huan, Su

    2017-06-01

    Aiming at the poor Color durability and the lack of research on Color asphalt pavement, spraying an anti-tire trace seal resin emulsion on the surface, a Color durable asphalt pavement was proposed. After long-term rolling and long-term aging test, the Color durability was evaluated by RGB function in Photoshop and trace residue rate formula. Test results proved that the Evaluation method was simple and effective. After long-term rolling, the Color of the road surface tends to a constant value. Spraying the emulsion on the road surface can resist tire traces. After long-term aging test, the resistance to tire traces was increased by 26.6% compared with the conventional type, while the former was 44.1% higher than the latter without long-term aging. The Color durable asphalt pavement can effectively improve the ability of Color asphalt pavement to resist tire traces, and significantly improve the Color durability of Color asphalt pavement.

  20. Automatic Pavement Crack Recognition Based on BP Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A feasible pavement crack detection system plays an important role in evaluating the road condition and providing the necessary road maintenance. In this paper, a back propagation neural network (BPNN is used to recognize pavement cracks from images. To improve the recognition accuracy of the BPNN, a complete framework of image processing is proposed including image preprocessing and crack information extraction. In this framework, the redundant image information is reduced as much as possible and two sets of feature parameters are constructed to classify the crack images. Then a BPNN is adopted to distinguish pavement images between linear and alligator cracks to acquire high recognition accuracy. Besides, the linear cracks can be further classified into transversal and longitudinal cracks according to the direction angle. Finally, the proposed method is evaluated on the data of 400 pavement images obtained by the Automatic Road Analyzer (ARAN in Northern China and the results show that the proposed method seems to be a powerful tool for pavement crack recognition. The rates of correct classification for alligator, transversal and longitudinal cracks are 97.5%, 100% and 88.0%, respectively. Compared to some previous studies, the method proposed in this paper is effective for all three kinds of cracks and the results are also acceptable for engineering application.

  1. Fatigue Life Assessment of Orthotropic Steel Deck with UHPC Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a number of large-span bridges with orthotropic steel decks were constructed in China. With increasing traffic volumes and higher wheel loads, many fatigue cracks developed at the welds and the edge of cut-out holes. This paper aims at presenting the numerical analysis on the fatigue performance of the orthotropic steel deck using ultrahigh performance concrete (UHPC overlay as the deck pavement instead of the conventional asphalt concrete pavement. By using finite element method (FEM model, stress distribution at fatigue sensitive locations under the action of wheel loads is characterized and the obtained stress ranges indicate that the UHPC pavement significantly reduces the magnitude of the stress peak valued. A suggested truck stream model based on the weigh-in-motion (WIM data of four bridges in China is employed to calculate the stress variation at specific fatigue details. Furthermore, the fatigue damage accumulation at fatigue details under the UHPC and conventional asphalt concrete pavement is studied based on Miner’s linear cumulative damage rule and the rain-flow method. The results indicate that the UHPC pavement on the orthotropic steel deck can extend the service lives of the concerned regions over 100 years, but the fatigue lives will reduce significantly when the elastic modulus of UHPC decreases to 50% of the original value.

  2. Perpetual pavement – absorbing stress and functional maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Gao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Perpetual Pavement combines the well documented smoothness and safety advantages of asphalt with an advanced, multi-layer paving design process, that with routine maintenance, extends the useful life of a roadway. Perpetual provides long lasting road and smoothness for the construction purposes. This study has the design key points of perpetual pavement based on the idea of life cycle, which has a new direction for the new highway construction, reconstruction and expansion. First, the structure of long life pavement design is studied to analyze the effect of stress absorbing layer. Second, researches on stress absorbing layer from the aspects of raw materials, mix proportion are implemented. Third, the design index of stress absorbing layer is determined by the shear strength test. The results show that the design idea of composite perpetual pavement can be realized by reasonable design of the stress absorbing layer and carrying out the surface functional maintenance can ensure the pavement to avoid structural damage in the operation stage.

  3. A User Friendly Software for Rigid Pavement Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydın Kıcı

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Concrete pavements as concrete road slab, appear as a strong alternative for flexible superstructures especially because of their low cost for maintenance and repair and the high performance they show under heavy axle loads. The design of these concrete road slabs is quite different from the traditional concrete and reinforced concrete structures’ design. In the design for this kind of pavements, traffic conditions should be defined properly and considered an addition to the concrete and platform properties. There have been designing methods developed based on both experimental and mechanic foundations for concrete pavements. The most important ones of these methods are AASHTO (1993 and PCA (1984. In both design methods, it’s significant to know the maximum deflections and maximum strains the vehicles’ loads cause on the pavement. The calculation of this maximum deflections and maximum strains can be done via the finite element method or the closed formulas which have been developed by Westergaard. In this study, a user-friendly software has been developed based on AASHTO 1993, PCA 1984 design methods and Westergaard formulas. Thanks to this software, the user who wants to design the concrete pavement as concrete road slab can obtain the essential parameters automatically by entering the required data for the design.

  4. Development of a pavement management system for Virginia : final report on phase I : application and verification of a pilot pavement condition inventory for Virginia interstate flexible pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The study reported here addresses some of the earlier phases in the development of a pavement management system for the state of Virginia. Among the issues discussed are the development of an adequate data base and the implementation of a condition r...

  5. Contribution to physico-chemical study of Timahdit bituminous schists (Morocco): Organic matters and metalloporphyrins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saoiabi, A.

    1982-01-01

    The Timahdit bituminous schists have been analysed by different methods. The experimental results obtained using these methods concern the behaviour of the schists and the Kerogen facing the pyrolysis, as well as the separation of the hydrocarbons and the metalloporphyrins. For this purpose the techniques used are: 'Rock Eval' pyrolysis, thermogravimetric analysis and electron paramagnetic resonance (E.P.R.) for the raw rock and the Kerogen; infrared (I.R.), gas chromatography and E.P.R. for the extracted organic matters; E.P.R., I.R., nuclear magnetic resonance (N.M.R.), ultraviolet (U.V.) and mass spectrometry for the metalloporphyrins identification and characterization. The analysis of these schists has shown that: We can extract per solvent only 1% of organic matters, ferric oxide hasn't any effect neither on the pyrolysis nor on the organic matters extraction and that the Kerogen of these schists are relatively rich in hydrocarbonic compounds. The gas chromatography reveal the presence of alkanes with odd number of carbons and isoprenoids. All these criteria indicate an immature, little developped organic matter which having probably a marine origin but possessing a good oil potential. It has also been observed that a part of Iron, Nickel and Vanadium in the schists are incorporated into the organic matters. Nickel and Vanadium are into macrocycles which are porphyrins. A method for extracting and separating these porphyrins has been developped. 43 figs., 21 tabs., 58 refs. (author)

  6. Highly crystalline Zeolite-A from flyash of bituminous and lignite coal combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayalu, S S; Udhoji, J S; Munshi, K N; Hasan, M Z

    2001-11-16

    Flyash is being generated in voluminous amounts by large scale coal combustion process. It poses a serious threat to thermal power industries specifically, in India, wherein the percent of utilisation of flyash is very poor (3-5%). In view of this problem, newer methods of its disposal and utilisation are being explored. The synthesis of zeolite from flyash appears to be one of the most promising alternatives as it has emphasis on value addition to waste material. Flyashes originating from different sources of coal differ in their characteristics and have implications in this work on Zeolite-A production. These factors have been thoroughly investigated and the conditions favourable for formation of Zeolite-A have been delineated. The reactivity of flyash towards zeolite formation is directly dependent on the SiO(2)/Al(2)O(3) ratio, Fe(2)O(3) and CaO content. Amongst the flyashes investigated, so far the sub-bituminous coal based flyash with SiO(2)/Al(2)O(3) ratio of 3.47 appears to be a suitable substrate for Zeolite-A synthesis. These zeolites have been characterised with respect to XRD crystallinity, calcium binding capacity (CBC) and sorption capacity, wherein the crystallinity ranges from 50 to 100%, the CBC ranges from 290 to 560meq/100g and sorption capacity ranges from 16.6 to 23.8%.

  7. Note on the chemical composition of the asphalts of bituminous coal hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boente, L.

    1942-10-13

    This report was written not as a result of extensive unified experiments, but as a result of collected observations during the course of various investigations. It interpreted two of the major groups of constituents of the asphalts from hydrogenation of bituminous coal as the following: (1) highly condensed aromatics (including heterocyclic compounds with oxygen, nitrogen, or sulfur in the rings) (a) in dehydrogenated form, or (b) in partially hydrogenated form, and (2) reaction products from labile, partially hydrogenated highly condensed aromatics (a) through oxidation reactions, or (b) through condensation and polymerization reactions. These types of compounds seemed to come from rather symmetric precursors that were not split during pressure hydrogenation, as were most constituents of coal, but were dehydrogenated instead. The types of compounds mentioned above shared several properties with the asphalts, including precipitation and adsorption properties. Some examples given of Group 1 compounds were coronene and several derived from it, as well as napthoxanthene, carbazole, and diphenylene sulfide. One example given to illustrate Group 2 was some hypothetical reactions of a proposed hexakeideca-hydrocoronene.

  8. Co-gasification of bituminous coal and hydrochar derived from municipal solid waste: Reactivity and synergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Juntao; Guo, Qinghua; He, Qing; Ding, Lu; Yoshikawa, Kunio; Yu, Guangsuo

    2017-09-01

    In this work, the influences of gasification temperature and blended ratio on co-gasification reactivity and synergy of Shenfu bituminous coal (SF) and municipal solid waste-derived hydrochar (HTC) were investigated using TGA. Additionally, active alkaline and alkaline earth metal (AAEM) transformation during co-gasification was quantitatively analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer for correlating synergy on co-gasification reactivity. The results showed that higher char gasification reactivity existed at higher HTC char proportion and gasification temperature, and the main synergy behaviour on co-gasification reactivity was performed as synergistic effect. Enhanced synergistic effect at lower temperature was mainly resulted from more obviously inhibiting the primary AAEM (i.e. active Ca) transformation, and weak synergistic effect still existed at higher temperature since more active K with prominent catalysis was retained. Furthermore, more active HTC-derived AAEM remaining in SF sample during co-gasification would lead to enhanced synergistic effect as HTC char proportion increased. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Temperature induced development of porous structure of bituminous coal chars at high pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Howaniec

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The porous structure of chars affects their reactivity in gasification, having an impact on the course and product distribution of the process. The shape, size and connections between pores determine the mechanical properties of chars, as well as heat and mass transport in thermochemical processing. In the study the combined effects of temperature in the range of 973–1273 °K and elevated pressure of 3 MPa on the development of porous structure of bituminous coal chars were investigated. Relatively low heating rate and long residence time characteristic for the in-situ coal conversion were applied. The increase in the temperature to 1173 °K under pressurized conditions resulted in the enhancement of porous structure development reflected in the values of the specific surface area, total pore volume, micropore area and volume, as well as ratio of the micropore volume to the total pore volume. These effects were attributed to the enhanced vaporization and devolatilization, as well as swelling behavior along the increase of temperature and under high pressure, followed by a collapse of pores over certain temperature value. This proves the strong dependence of the porous structure of chars not only on the pyrolysis process conditions but also on the physical and chemical properties of the parent fuel.

  10. Relation Between Bitumen Content and Percentage Air Voids in Semi Dense Bituminous Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, R. P.; Das, Sudhanshu Sekhar; Sahoo, P. K.

    2018-02-01

    Hot mix asphalt (HMA) is a heterogeneous mix of aggregate, mineral filler, bitumen, additives and air voids. Researchers have indicated that the durability of the HMA is sensitive on the actual bitumen content and percentage air void. This paper aims at establishing the relationship between the bitumen content and the percentage air voids in Semi Dense Bituminous Concrete (SDBC) using Viscosity Grade-30 (VG-30) bitumen. Total 54 samples have been collected, for formulation and validation of relationship and observed that the percentage air voids increases with decrease in actual bitumen content and vice versa. A minor increase in percentage air voids beyond practice of designed air voids in Marshall Method of design is required for better performance, indicating a need for reducing the codal provision of minimum bitumen content for SDBC as specified in Specification for Road & Bridges (Fourth Revision) published by Indian Road Congress, 2001. The study shows a possibility of reducing designed minimum bitumen content from codal provision for SDBC by 0.2% of weight with VG-30 grade of Bitumen.

  11. Characteristic Study of Shenmu Bituminous Coal Combustion with Online TG-MS-FTIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Guanfu

    2018-01-01

    The combustion characteristics of Shenmu bituminous pulverized coal (SBC) were comprehensively investigated with a combined TG-MS-FTIR system by considering the effect of particle size, heating rate and total flowrate. The combustion products were accurately quantified by normalization and numerical analysis of MS results. The results indicate that the decrease of the particle size, heating rate and total flowrate result in lower ignition and burnout temperatures. The activation energy tends to be lower with smaller particle size, lower heating rate and total flowrate. The MS and FTIR results demonstrate that lower concentrations of different products, such as NO, NO2, HCN, CH4 and SO2 were produced with smaller particle size, slower heating rate and lower total flowrate. The decrease of particle size would lead to more contact area with oxygen and slower heating rate could provide more sufficient time for the diffusion. High total flowrate would reduce the oxygen adsorbability on the coal particle surface and shorten the residence time of oxygen, which makes the ignition difficult to occur. This work will guide to understand the combustion kinetics of pulverized coals and be beneficial to control the formation of pollutants.

  12. Using proximate analysis to characterize airborne dust generation from bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, S.J.; Organiscak, J.A.

    2005-11-01

    Prolonged exposure to airborne respirable coal dust is responsible for coal workers pneumoconiosis (CWP), commonly called black lung. Health research studies have identified that the prevalence and severity of CWP are directly related to both the amount of dust exposure and the coal rank. The amount of airborne respirable dust (ARD) smaller than 10 micrometers generated from breakage of different coals varies widely. To investigate the cause, researchers for the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) have conducted experiments to identify the causes of airborne respirable dust liberation. Laboratory crushing experiments were conducted on a range of low to high volatile bituminous coals from eight mines. The results indicate that the proximate analysis of a coal sample can provide a very good indicator of the potential for a dust problem. For application to the coal mining, processing, and utilization industries, data from 977 US coal seams compiled by the Department of Energy (DoE) has been used to calculate this dust generation potential from an equation based on the NIOSH measured data. A simple procedure for this calculation is provided. 1 fig.

  13. Elemental analysis of Indonesian and Australian bituminous coal used at Kapar Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muneer Saleh; Ahmad Suhaimi

    2008-01-01

    An instrumental neutron activation analytical (INAA) technique is used for the determination of thirty elements in five coal samples collected from Kapar power station, imported from Indonesia and Australia. Analyses of the samples are being associated with standards. All irradiation were performed in the nuclear reactor of Malaysia Nuclear Agency (MNA). samples were counted by Hyper Pure Germanium (HPGe) detector for short period irradiations at MNA, while for the long period irradiations the samples were counted at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM). The concentrations of thirty elements have been determined: The major components are Cl, Ca, Mg, K, Fe, Ti, and Na with the mean concentrations in the range between 70±69 ppm-6100±1639 ppm; and the trace elements are Zr, V, Mn, Sc, Cr, Co, As, Br, Rb, Sb, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb, Lu, Hf, Th, U and Ta with the mean concentrations in the range between 0.1381±0.0202 - 69.0±2.8 ppm. The results have been compared to the reported data of eight coal samples from the United States and the reported data of Australian bituminous coal. (Author)

  14. Geo synthetic-reinforced Pavement systems; Sistemas de pavimentos reforzados con geosinteticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zornberg, J. G.

    2014-02-01

    Geo synthetics have been used as reinforcement inclusions to improve pavement performance. while there are clear field evidence of the benefit of using geo synthetic reinforcements, the specific conditions or mechanisms that govern the reinforcement of pavements are, at best, unclear and have remained largely unmeasured. Significant research has been recently conducted with the objectives of: (i) determining the relevant properties of geo synthetics that contribute to the enhanced performance of pavement systems, (ii) developing appropriate analytical, laboratory and field methods capable of quantifying the pavement performance, and (iii) enabling the prediction of pavement performance as a function of the properties of the various types of geo synthetics. (Author)

  15. Solar Radiation effect on the bituminous binder; Efecto de la radiacion solar sobre el ligante bituminoso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadeo Rico, A.; Torres Perez, A.

    2010-07-01

    Asphalt, used as binder in road construction, becomes more brittle and harder during working life on the surface of the road pavement, conducting toward their deterioration. This is caused by the oxidation of the molecular functional groups of the asphalt molecular structure. Moreover, it is observed that ultraviolet radiation increases the oxidation process. However, the effect of solar light on the asphalt degradation has been poorly researched. The aim of this work is to study asphalt ageing caused by effect of solar radiation, by using standard test. Four commercial asphalts from different companies were selected: two with penetration number 50/70, and the other two polymer modified asphalts. From each of the asphalts forty samples were taken off and placed in four different aging conditions of temperature and radiation for a period ranging from 40 to 500 days. Ring and Ball test, and Fraass breaking Point test, were used to analyse the changes of asphalt properties after exposition to solar radiation. The results of the four analyzed asphalts showed a distinct behaviour; not only in the test temperature increase but also in the rate. Another experiment was carried out. Samples from a hot mix asphalt batch were placed under solar radiation, and were compacted by the Marshall procedure after increasing periods of time. Density and resistance to plastic flow using Marshall Apparatus were measured. Results showed an increase in the stability of samples under radiation. Both experiments show that the solar radiation is enough to cause changes in the asphalt molecular structure due to oxidation. So that, the study of the effect of the solar radiation on the asphalt properties could be a good tool to asses the performances of asphalt pavement. (Author) 26 refs.

  16. Pavement Subgrade Performance Study in the Danish Road Testing Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullidtz, Per; Ertman Larsen, Hans Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    Most existing pavement subgrade criteria are based on the AASHO Road Test, where only one material was tested and for only one climatic condition. To study the validity of these criteria and to refine the criteria a co-operative research program entitled the "International Pavement Subgrade...... Performance Study" was sponsored by the FHWA with American, Finnish and Danish partners. This paper describes the first test series which was carried out in the Danish Road Testing Machine (RTM).The first step in this program is a full scale test on an instrumented pavement in the Danish Road Testing Machine....... Pressure gauges and strain cells were installed in the upper part of the subgrade, for measuring stresses and strains in all three directions. During and after construction FWD testing was carried out to evaluate the elastic parameters of the materials. These parameters were then used with the theory...

  17. Application of Artificial Intelligence for Optimization in Pavement Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reus Salini

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Artificial intelligence (AI is a group of techniques that have quite a potential to be applied to pavement engineering and management. In this study, we developed a practical, flexible and out of the box approach to apply genetic algorithms to optimizing the budget allocation and the road maintenance strategy selection for a road network. The aim is to provide an alternative to existing software and better fit the requirements of an important number of pavement managers. To meet the objectives, a new indicator, named Road Global Value Index (RGVI, was created to contemplate the pavement condition, the traffic and the economic and political importance for each and every road section. This paper describes the approach and its components by an example confirming that genetic algorithms are very effective for the intended purpose.

  18. Effects of Pavement Skid Resistance on Traffic Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah I. Al-Mansour

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Ministry of Transport (MOT in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia had collected a massive amount of friction measurements using a Mu-meter covering most of the major highway network in the kingdom. Traffic accident data of 89 high accident rate locations from four main different highway classes were extracted from the MOT accident records. Pavement skid resistance for the selected locations was determined from the pavement skid resistance records. The objective of this paper is to utilize these data to investigate the effects of pavement skid resistance on traffic accidents. The analysis included establishing relationships between skid resistance and accident number, accident significance and accident density. It was determined that a decreasing skid resistance leads to an increase in traffic accidents. Acritical value of skid resistance was also established based on number, significance and density of accidents.

  19. Design prediction of pavement skid resistance from laboratory tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcells, W. H.; Metheny, T. M.; Maag, R. G.

    1980-08-01

    Methods for preevaluating aggregates and paving mixtures so that predictions can be made covering skid resistance properties of proposed and in service pavement types are discussed. A correlation was established between the field testing using the data from the British Portable Tester and the Locked Wheel Pavement Friction Trailer at speeds of 40 and 55 mph. Core samples were extracted from the Locked Wheel Tester Skid Path and subjected to wear on the small wheel circular track with periodic surface friction testing. The final step was to remix and remold the cored pavement samples or make samples with new materials to obtain an 'as new' surface and again subject these samples to wear on the small wheel circular track with periodic testing.

  20. Pavement maintenance optimization model using Markov Decision Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandiartha, P.; Duffield, C. F.; Razelan, I. S. b. M.; Ismail, A. b. H.

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents an optimization model for selection of pavement maintenance intervention using a theory of Markov Decision Processes (MDP). There are some particular characteristics of the MDP developed in this paper which distinguish it from other similar studies or optimization models intended for pavement maintenance policy development. These unique characteristics include a direct inclusion of constraints into the formulation of MDP, the use of an average cost method of MDP, and the policy development process based on the dual linear programming solution. The limited information or discussions that are available on these matters in terms of stochastic based optimization model in road network management motivates this study. This paper uses a data set acquired from road authorities of state of Victoria, Australia, to test the model and recommends steps in the computation of MDP based stochastic optimization model, leading to the development of optimum pavement maintenance policy.