WorldWideScience

Sample records for bituminous mixtures

  1. Reuse of steel slag in bituminous paving mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorlini, Sabrina; Sanzeni, Alex; Rondi, Luca

    2012-03-30

    This paper presents a comprehensive study to evaluate the mechanical properties and environmental suitability of electric arc furnace (EAF) steel slag in bituminous paving mixtures. A variety of tests were executed on samples of EAF slag to characterize the physical, geometrical, mechanical and chemical properties as required by UNI EN specifications, focusing additionally on the volumetric expansion associated with hydration of free CaO and MgO. Five bituminous mixtures of aggregates for flexible road pavement were designed containing up to 40% of EAF slag and were tested to determine Marshall stability and indirect tensile strength. The leaching behaviour of slag samples and bituminous mixtures was evaluated according to the UNI EN leaching test. The tested slag showed satisfactory physical and mechanical properties and a release of pollutants generally below the limits set by the Italian code. Tests on volume stability of fresh materials confirmed that a period of 2-3 months is necessary to reduce effects of oxides hydration. The results of tests performed on bituminous mixtures with EAF slag were comparable with the performance of mixtures containing natural aggregates and the leaching tests provided satisfactory results. PMID:22305201

  2. Deformation Properties and Fatigue of Bituminous Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frantisek Schlosser

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Deformation properties and fatigue performance are important characteristics of asphalt bound materials which are used for construction of pavement layers. Viscoelastic asphalt mixtures are better characterized via dynamic tests. This type of tests allows us to collate materials with regard to axle vibrations which lie usually in the range of 6 Hz–25 Hz for standard conditions. Asphalt modified for heat sensitivity in the range from −20°C to +60°C has significant impact on the overall characteristics of the mixture. Deformation properties are used as inputs for empirical mixture design, and fatigue performance of asphalt mixtures reflects the parameters of functional tests. Master curves convey properties of asphalt mixtures for various conditions and allow us to evaluate them without the need of time expensive testing.

  3. Analysis and modeling of 3D complex modulus tests on hot and warm bituminous mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Nguyen Hoang; Sauzéat, Cédric; Di Benedetto, Hervé; González-León, Juan A.; Barreto, Gilles; Nicolaï, Aurélia; Jakubowski, Marc

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents the results of laboratory testing of hot and warm bituminous mixtures containing Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP). Complex modulus measurements, using the tension-compression test on cylindrical specimens, were conducted to determine linear viscoelastic (LVE) behavior. Sinusoidal cyclic loadings, with strain amplitude of approximately 50ṡ10-6, were applied at several temperatures (from -25 to +45 °C) and frequencies (from 0.03 Hz to 10 Hz). In addition to axial stresses and strains, radial strains were also measured. The complex modulus E ∗ and complex Poisson's ratios ν ∗ were then obtained in two perpendicular directions. Measured values in these two directions do not indicate anisotropy on Poisson's ratio. The time-temperature superposition principle (TTSP) was verified with good approximation in one-dimensional (1D) and three-dimensional (3D) conditions for the same values of shift factor. Experimental results were modeled using the 2S2P1D model previously developed at the University of Lyon/ENTPE. In addition, specific analysis showed that eventual damage created during complex modulus test is very small and is equivalent to the effect of an increase of temperature of about 0.25 °C.

  4. Characterization of burning and CO2 gasification of chars from mixtures of Zonguldak (Turkey) and Australian bituminous coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, different mixtures (30 wt.% + 70 wt.% and 50 wt.% + 50 wt.%, respectively) of Zonguldak bituminous coal (Turkey) and an Australian bituminous coal are carbonized to obtain char samples. The ignition temperatures of the samples are determined by sending O2 onto the samples in a system designed for determining the ignition temperature. The gasification reactivity of the chars in a CO2 atmosphere is also measured at temperatures between 800 deg. C and 1050 deg. C. The relationship between the ignition temperature and the burning character of the same samples is investigated thermogravimetrically. The moisture, ash and volatile matter analyses are also performed. An increase in carbonization temperature leads to a decrease in the amount of volatile matter. The differences between the effects of volatile matter on the ignition temperature and the gasification reactivity of the samples with CO2 might be explained by the change in pore structure and the varying catalytic effect of mineral components in the structure. It is also seen that there is a good correlation between the thermal analysis and the complete analysis results of the samples

  5. Nuclear method for determination of asphalt content corrected for moisture in bituminous mixture. Final report, March 1988-February 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents results of research on the development of a method for determination of asphalt content corrected for moisture using the nuclear-gauge method. The researchers selected an approach that involved rapid drying of the asphalt concrete samples in a microwave oven prior to the determination of asphalt content using a Troxler Model 3241-C nuclear asphalt-content gauge. As a reference, asphalt contents were also measured using quantitative extraction. In general, good agreement was found between asphalt contents measured by the Troxler Model 3241-C nuclear gauge and asphalt contents measured by quantitative extraction. In extended sampling for Plant 1, no significant increase in nuclear gauge error was seen over a 10-day sampling period, which indicates that daily calibration of the nuclear gauge is probably unnecessary to maintain satisfactory performance. The field demonstration of the procedure of drying the bituminous mixture in a microwave oven and then determining its asphalt content by the nuclear method indicated asphalt-content results were obtained approximately 1 hour faster than results obtained by quantitative extraction

  6. Spanish Round Robin test on water sensitivity test of bituminous mixtures; Ejercicio espanol interlaboratorios sobre el ensayo de sensibilidad al gua de mezclas bituminosas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez Saez, R.; Enrique Gabeiras, L.; Miranda Perez, L.; Valor Hernandez, F.

    2011-07-01

    The amendment of Article 542 and 543 on the hot asphalt mixtures included in the Spanish Technical specifications for Road Construction (PG-3), by Circular Order 24/2008, introduced a new series of modification to adapt Spanish regulations to European standards series EN 13108. Among the various amendments, new tests methods and design criteria are considered, as UNE-EN 12697-12 for assessing the water sensitivity on compacted specimens, which is mandatory for every kind of bituminous mixture. In this paper, firstly a comparison between the European method and the old Spanish method described in the NLT-162 is made, explaining the experimental conditions selected. The results of an interlaboratory study or Round Robin Test conducted in ten Spanish laboratories are subsequently described and analyzed, in order to allow each laboratory to assess its technical performance, and also to determine quantitatively the precision of the new method in terms of repeatability and reproducibility. (Author) 15 refs.

  7. 纤维沥青混合料的拌和成型工艺研究%Research on Mixing and Shaping Technology of Fiber Bituminous Mixture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程英伟; 何晓鸣

    2012-01-01

    利用正交试验对剑麻纤维沥青混凝土混合料的拌和成型工艺进行研究.在固定配合比的前题下,以拌和方案、沥青加热温度、集料加热温度和成型温度为试验因素,模拟路面施工的各种拌和成型情况设计了L9正交表分别进行马歇尔试验.运用极差分析法对试验结果进行分析,确定了纤维沥青混合料拌和成型的优选方案为“同步法拌和+沥青加热温度为175℃+集料加热温度为206℃+成型温度为165℃”.最后分析了几种试验因素对试验指标的影响机理.%In this paper, mixing and shaping technology of bituminous concrete mixture with sisal fiber is researched by orthogonal experiment. Under a fixed mix proportion, mixing solutions, asphalt heating temperature, aggregate heating temperature and shaping temperature are selected as test factors. The variety of mixing and shaping in pavement construction is simulated by designing a L9 orthogonal table for Marshall tests. Range Analysis Method is used to analyze test results, and then the optimal scheme of mixing and shaping for fiber bituminous concrete mixture is determined. The optimal scheme is "synchronization method of mixing+asphalt heating temperature of 175℃+aggregate heating temperature of 206℃ + shaping temperature of 165℃”. Last, the influence mechanism of test factors on test indicators is analyzed.

  8. Thermo-mechanical behavior of bituminous mixtures at low temperatures. Links between the binder characteristics and the mix properties; Comportement thermomecanique des enrobes bitumeux a basses temperatures: relations entre les proprietes du liant et de l'enrobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olard, F.

    2003-10-01

    This thesis has been realized within the framework of a partnership between the Ecole Nationale des TPE, APPIA and EUROVIA. The company Total has also been associated to this project. The study deals with the thermo-mechanical behavior of bituminous materials at low temperatures. The aim is to establish the links between the characteristics of the binder and the properties of bituminous mixes at low temperatures, and to better understand the existing low-temperature parameters and criteria for binders (or to propose new ones), related to the in-situ behavior of bituminous mixtures. A large experimental campaign has been carried out so as to fulfill this goal. After a bibliographical study on the rheology and the thermo-mechanical properties of (pure or modified) binders, putties and mixes, the experimental campaign carried out both in the small strain domain and in the large strain domain, is presented. The low temperature behavior of binders has been evaluated with three common fundamental tests: i)the complex modulus determination, ii)the Bending Beam Rheometer and iii)the tensile strength at a constant strain rate and constant temperatures. A new three point bending test on pre-notched bitumen beams has also been developed at the ENTPE. The low-temperature fracture properties of bitumens were studied at constant temperatures and cross-head speeds considering the Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM) assumptions. The thermo-mechanical behavior of bituminous mixtures has been studied by performing i)complex modulus tests, ii)measurements of the coefficient of thermal dilatation and contraction, iii)tensile tests at constant temperatures and strain rates, and iv)Thermal Stress Restrained Specimen Tests. Apart from the determination of some pertinent links between binder and mix properties and discriminating characteristics with regard to the thermal cracking of bituminous mixes at low temperatures, the analysis has also consisted in modeling the behavior of

  9. Bituminization plant Jaslovske Bohunice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this leaflet the principle of the bituminization plant for radioactive concentrate (the intermediate liquid radioactive waste generated during the NPP A1, V-1, V-2 operations) solidification used in the Bohunice Radwaste Treatment Centre (BSC RAO) is presented

  10. Development of non-standard equipment of bituminization line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief description is presented of some components of the bituminization line developed at the Research Institute of Chemical Installations in Brno. The film rotor evaporator has an evaporation area of 2 m2. The mixing tank is the main technological assembly for processing loose materials, i.e., sorbents and fly ash which it mixes with melted bitumen. The screw conveyor with a three-way valve is designed for batching the dried radioactive sorbent and fly ash into mixing tanks. Attention is also devoted to certain systems of measurement and control of the bituminization line, namely to measurement of the level of the bituminization product, the flow rate of bituminization emulsion and the water-sorbent mixture and to the diagnostics of failure and accident conditions of the film rotor evaporator. (Z.M.)

  11. Crumb Rubber in cold recycled bituminous mixes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dondi, Giulio; Tataranni, Piergiorgio; Pettinari, Matteo;

    2014-01-01

    Today recycling is one of the most innovative and interesting techniques for the rehabilitation of destressed road pavements. In recent years the increased interest in this process, has led to the development of various alternative methods for the recovery and the reuse of road bituminous materials....... Cold recycling is, among the recycling techniques, certainly the most studied and developed: it allows the recovering of bituminous material from an existing pavement without the addition of heat, whilst ensuring the creation of high quality bound base layers. A wide range of materials have been tested...... together with Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) and, consequently, there is a large number of variables that can be considered in the mix-design process of new eco-friendly Cold Recycled Mixes. In particular, the present research involves the use of Crumb Rubber within a mixture containing 100% Reclaimed...

  12. Cold bituminous mixes

    OpenAIRE

    Delak, Boštjan

    2012-01-01

    Asphalt mix (short also asphalt) can be obtained from nature (natural asphalt) or produced technically (artificial asphalt), i. e. as a mix of bituminous binder, stone grain, and other additives that improve the asphalt properties. The beginnings of the use of asphalt can be traced from 6,000 to 4,000 BC since people back then knew some materials that contained bitumen as a binder. A more frequent use of the natural asphalt, however, starts around 3,000 BC. Different peoples used it primar...

  13. Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva-Aguilar Martín

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Metals are ubiquitous pollutants present as mixtures. In particular, mixture of arsenic-cadmium-lead is among the leading toxic agents detected in the environment. These metals have carcinogenic and cell-transforming potential. In this study, we used a two step cell transformation model, to determine the role of oxidative stress in transformation induced by a mixture of arsenic-cadmium-lead. Oxidative damage and antioxidant response were determined. Metal mixture treatment induces the increase of damage markers and the antioxidant response. Loss of cell viability and increased transforming potential were observed during the promotion phase. This finding correlated significantly with generation of reactive oxygen species. Cotreatment with N-acetyl-cysteine induces effect on the transforming capacity; while a diminution was found in initiation, in promotion phase a total block of the transforming capacity was observed. Our results suggest that oxidative stress generated by metal mixture plays an important role only in promotion phase promoting transforming capacity.

  14. Utilization of Waste Clay from Boron Production in Bituminous Geosynthetic Barrier (GBR-B) Production as Landfill Liner

    OpenAIRE

    Müfide Banar; Yücel Güney; Aysun Özkan; Zerrin Günkaya; Eren Bayrakcı; Derya Ulutaş

    2016-01-01

    Bituminous geomembranes, one type of geosynthetics, include a hot bituminous mixture with mineral filler and reinforcement. In this study, boron production waste clay (CW) was used as filler to produce a geosynthetic barrier with bentonite, waste tire, and bitumen. Bentonite and waste tires were used as auxiliary fillers and bitumen as the binder. CW/bitumen, CW/bentonite/bitumen, and CW/waste tire/bitumen mixtures were prepared by using a laboratory mixer at 100°C. Hot mixtures were extruded...

  15. Asphalt rubber mixtures in Portugal: fatigue resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda, Henrique; Batista, Fátima; Neves, José; Antunes, Maria de Lurdes; Fonseca, Paulo

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a study concerning the fatigue behaviour of asphalt mixtures with bitumen modified with high content of crumb rubber used in Portugal. For assessing the fatigue behaviour of this type of mixtures, four asphalt mixtures with high content of crumb rubber were used: two field bituminous mixtures – an open-graded and a gap-graded – both with granite aggregates; and two laboratory manufactured bituminous mixtures – an open-graded mixture with granite aggregates and a gap-graded...

  16. Study of thermal reactivity during bituminization of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work deals with the study of chemical reactions and phases transitions which can occur between magnesium nitrate, sodium nitrate, cobalt sulphur product, and nickel potassium ferrocyanide, when they are heated together during bituminization process of nuclear waste. The applied methodology associates a few techniques: temperature, enthalpy, and kinetics of reaction are determined by calorimetry, reaction products are characterised by chemical analyses, mass spectrometry and XRD analysis. Three fields of temperature and energy are observed in function of composition (one compound or a mixture of compounds). The study of reactions between NaNO3 and cobalt sulphur product shows that the presence of water has got an effect on reaction temperature. The study of Mg(NO3)2, 6 H2O and CoS shows an overlapping of different signals, and that the reaction rate is very slow (a few hours). (author)

  17. 8th RILEM International Symposium on Testing and Characterization of Sustainable and Innovative Bituminous Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Partl, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    This work presents the results of RILEM TC 237-SIB (Testing and characterization of sustainable innovative bituminous materials and systems). The papers have been selected for publication after a rigorous peer review process and will be an invaluable source to outline and clarify the main directions of present and future research and standardization for bituminous materials and pavements. The following topics are covered: - Characterization of binder-aggregate interaction - Innovative testing of bituminous binders, additives and modifiers - Durability and aging of asphalt pavements - Mixture design and compaction analysis - Environmentally sustainable materials and technologies - Advances in laboratory characterization of bituminous materials - Modeling of road materials and pavement performance prediction - Field measurement and in-situ characterization - Innovative materials for reinforcement and interlayer systems - Cracking and damage characterization of asphalt pavements - Rec...

  18. Utilization of Waste Clay from Boron Production in Bituminous Geosynthetic Barrier (GBR-B Production as Landfill Liner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müfide Banar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bituminous geomembranes, one type of geosynthetics, include a hot bituminous mixture with mineral filler and reinforcement. In this study, boron production waste clay (CW was used as filler to produce a geosynthetic barrier with bentonite, waste tire, and bitumen. Bentonite and waste tires were used as auxiliary fillers and bitumen as the binder. CW/bitumen, CW/bentonite/bitumen, and CW/waste tire/bitumen mixtures were prepared by using a laboratory mixer at 100°C. Hot mixtures were extruded into strips by using a lab-scale corotating twin screw extruder (L/D: 40 followed by die casting (2 mm × 100 mm. Glass fleece or nonwoven polyester was used as reinforcement material and while die casting, both sides of the reinforcement materials were covered with bituminous mixture. Thickness, mass per unit area, tensile strength, elongation at yield, and hydraulic conductivity were used to characterize the geomembranes. Among all geomembranes, nonwoven polyester covered with 30% bitumen-70% boron waste clay mixture (PK-BTM30CW70 was found to be the most promising in terms of structure and mechanical behaviour. After that, consequences of its exposure to distilled water (DW, municipal solid waste landfill leachate (L-MSW, and hazardous waste landfill leachate (L-HW were examined to use for an innovative impermeable liner on solid waste landfills.

  19. Response Modelling of Bitumen, Bituminous Mastic and Mortar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldekidan, M.F.

    2011-01-01

    This research focuses on testing and modelling the viscoelastic response of bituminous binders. The main goal is to find an appropriate response model for bituminous binders. The desired model should allow implementation into numerical environments such as ABAQUS. On the basis of such numerical envi

  20. Skid resistance of bituminous surfaces in Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colony, D. C.

    1984-03-01

    Statistical studies of skid number (SN) on the state highway system in Ohio reveal apparently systematic variations in distributions of SN among the twelve districts in the state. These variations appear to be significantly related to traffic and to geological characteristics of a given district. Regression calculations using traffic index, a function of ADT and age of the pavement surface in months, show a high correlation with SN, although standard errors of estimate were too large to make the equations useful for predicting SN from traffic variables. Similar results were obtained by elating SN to physiographic features in the state. Pavement surface type (bituminous or pcc) and coarse aggregate type (limestone, gravel or slag) are significantly related to SN.

  1. Radon concentration measurements in bituminous coal mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon measurements were carried out in Kozlu, Karadon and Uezuelmez underground coal mines of Zonguldak bituminous coal basin in Turkey. Passive-time integrating method, which is the most widely used technique for the measurement of radon concentration in air, was applied by using nuclear etched track detectors (CR-39) in the study area. The radon concentration measurements were performed on a total of 42 points in those three mines. The annual exposure, the annual effective dose and lifetime fatality risk, which are the important parameters for the health of workers, were estimated based on chronic occupational exposure to the radon gas, which is calculated using UNCEAR-2000 and ICRP-65 models. The radon concentrations at several coal production faces are higher than the action level of 1000 Bq m-3. It is suggested that the ventilation rates should be rearranged to reduce the radon concentration. (authors)

  2. Radon concentration measurements in bituminous coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisne, Abdullah; Okten, Gündüz; Celebi, Nilgün

    2005-01-01

    Radon measurements were carried out in Kozlu, Karadon and Uzülmez underground coal mines of Zonguldak bituminous coal basin in Turkey. Passive-time integrating method, which is the most widely used technique for the measurement of radon concentration in air, was applied by using nuclear etched track detectors (CR-39) in the study area. The radon concentration measurements were performed on a total of 42 points in those three mines. The annual exposure, the annual effective dose and lifetime fatality risk, which are the important parameters for the health of workers, were estimated based on chronic occupational exposure to the radon gas, which is calculated using UNCEAR-2000 and ICRP-65 models. The radon concentrations at several coal production faces are higher than the action level of 1000 Bq m(-3). It is suggested that the ventilation rates should be rearranged to reduce the radon concentration.

  3. Long-term properties of bituminized waste products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is a survey of the factors of importance for long term behaviour of bituminized ion exchange resins. Phenomena occurring in bituminized waste products affected by the treatment, storage and disposal are identified. Test methods have been developed for characterizing product properties, which are important for the long-term behaviour. The long-term properties of bituminized ion-exchange resins are studied in a repository environment with access of water equilibrated with concrete. In these circumstances the most important properties are ralated to the interactions of bituminized waste with the surrounding barriers. The most important phenomena are water uptake due to rehydration of the resins and subsequent swelling of the product. (author)

  4. Long-term properties of bituminized waste products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is a survey of the factors of importance for the long term behaviour of bituminized ion exchange resins. Phenomena occurring in bituminized waste products affected by the treatment, storage and disposal are identified. Test methods have been developed for characterizing product properties, which are important for the long-term behaviour. The long-term properties of bituminized ion-exchange resins are studied in a repository environment with access of water equilibrated with concrete. In these circumstances the most important properties are related to the interactions of bituminized waste with the surrounding barriers. The most important phenomena are water uptake due to rehydration of the resins and subsequent swelling of the product

  5. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON HORIZONTAL COMBUSTION TECHNIQUE FOR BITUMINOUS COAL BRIQUET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路春美; 程世庆; 邵延玲; 张晔

    1997-01-01

    Through a lot of experiments, a new kind of stove using horizontal combustion technique for bituminous coal briquet has been developed. Making use of this stove, studies have been made on burning process of bituminous coal briquet, distribution of temperature field in the stove, the regularities of evolution and combustion of volatile matter, the burning rate and efficiency of bituminous coal briquet, characteristics of fire-sealing and sulfur-retention. The results show that, with the technique, some achievements can be obtained in combustion of bituminous coal briquet, such as lower pollution that the flue gas black degree is below 0.5R and dust concentration is below 90mg/m3 . The stove's combustion efficiency reaches 90%, sulfur fixing efficiency is 60%, and CO concentration is decreased by 40% compared with other traditional stoves. With so many advantages, the stove can be used extensively in civil stoves and smaller industrial boilers.

  6. Bituminous and asphaltic membranes for radioactive waste repositories on land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study has been to identify, within generic designs for waste facilities, areas where bituminous materials might be incorporated as a barrier. The report is presented in three sections: Part I - The properties of bitumen are described, with particular reference to the long-term behaviour of the material. The durability of bitumen is discussed, including aspects such as ageing, microbial degradation, chemical resistance and radiation resistance. Part II -The use of bituminous materials in hydraulic engineering is outlined. Much of this section of the report concentrates on the use of bituminous materials in embankment dams and reservoir construction. A review of material technology and construction techniques is presented and a detailed assessment made of the performance of the materials in service. Part III - Generic trench type radioactive waste repository designs incorporating bituminous materials are presented. Material and construction specifications for the designs are detailed, and a performance assessment presented. (author)

  7. Effects of bituminous layer as backfill material on mechanical behavior in tunnel model

    OpenAIRE

    Moriyoshi, Akihiro; Takano, Shin-ei; Urata, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Yoshida, Takaki

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the effects of bituminous material as a backfill material on mechanical behavior in model tunnel in laboratory. It is known that load spreading and relaxation of bituminous material are good properties. Then if we use bituminous material as a backfill material of tunnel, the tunnel will have waterproof, good load spreading property. We used new bituminous material (Aquaphalt) which can solidify in water. We conducted relaxation test in tension for new bituminous mat...

  8. The bituminous sands : a Canadian mirage?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousse, D.R. [Quebec Univ., Chicoutimi, PQ (Canada). Dept. des Sciences Appliquees; Nasr, G.J. [Lebanese Univ., Roumieh (Lebanon). Faculty of Engineering; Turcotte, S.F. [Quebec Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Centre d' Etudes Internationales et Mondialisation; Salah, N.B. [Ecole Superieure des Sciences et Techniques De Tunis, Tunis (Tunisia). LMMP

    2009-07-01

    This paper examined the controversy about the potential role of a significant increase in Canadian oil sands production in order to bridge the upcoming gap between the world's increasing energy demand and the total recoverable oil supply. The paper presented the actual potential of different scenarios and considered the prediction cost forecasts. A brief overview of environmental impacts and the real return on investments were also provided. Environmental impacts that were considered included land degradation; water contamination; ecosystem damage; and air pollution. Nuclear energy was also presented as a possible solution. The paper demonstrated that even in a very optimistic scenario, Canada's oil sands accelerated production has a negligible effect on the aforementioned gap, has a considerable impact on environment that has yet to be accounted for. Energy ratios that were presented included energy return on energy investment; energy available on energy used; and energy payback. It was concluded that enhanced recovery techniques are clearly needed for future sustainable exploitation of these bituminous sands. 32 refs., 1 fig.

  9. Bituminization of low- and intermediate-level radioactive concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results and experiences are summed up from the research and development of the technology of bituminization of low- and intermediate-level radioactive concentrates generated in the operation of nuclear power plants with WWER-440 reactors. The experiments took place on a pilot plant bituminization line with various model solutions at an evaporator capacity of 70, 100 and 140 litres per hour. The composition of the solutions changed in dependence on the knowledge of the composition of actual concentrates in the V-1 nuclear power plant at Jaslovske Bohunice. The following factors were studied in the concentrate: the effect of its pH, its borate content and content of metal carbonates, the content of organic acid salts, the content of detergents, etc., on the process of bituminization. Physico-chemical conditions are described under which the operation of the evaporator was fail-safe and filling of the bituminization product with salts homogeneous. A low water content of up to 1% was achieved. The properties of the bituminization product were negatively affected by a high level of heavy metal oxides, surfactants, oxalates and citrates. In order to improve the properties of the product it will be necessary to replace bitumen emulsion Silembit-60 used as reinforcement matrix, by a different type of bitumen. (Z.M.)

  10. Measurement of heat generation from simulated bituminized product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fire and explosion incident occurred at Bituminization Demonstration Facility of PNC Tokai Works on March 11, 1997. In order to ascertain the cause of incident, the investigation has been pushed forward. For the investigation, we prepared simulated bituminized product of measurement of heat generation in low temperature region less than 200degC. We used calvet Calorimeter MS80 for the heat generation measurement. Result of measurement, we were able to catch the feeble heat generation from bituminized product. The maximum calorific value that was able to detect it in isothermal measurement was approximately 1 mW/g in 160degC. It was approximately 2 mW/g in 200degC. And, as the another measurement, the measurement condition went heat rate by 0.01degC/minute, the highest temperature 190degC. As a result, the maximum generation of heat value that was able to detect it was approximately 0.5 mW/g. I changed simulated bituminized products and measured these. A difference of condition is salt particle size, salt content rate (45%, 60%), addition of the simulated precipitate. But there was not a difference in the generation of heat characteristic detected. (author)

  11. 30 CFR 716.4 - Special bituminous coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... INTERIOR INITIAL PROGRAM REGULATIONS SPECIAL PERFORMANCE STANDARDS § 716.4 Special bituminous coal mines... may be used if necessary to prevent erosion. (3) Spoil piles will be graded and contoured with no more... of an amendment or revision to the State of Wyoming's regulatory program, regulations, or...

  12. Examination and comparision of structure: lignite, bituminous and anthracite coal. [10 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winans, R.E.; Hayatsu, R.; Scott, R.G.; Moore, L.P.; Studier, M.H.

    1976-01-01

    Coal can be described as an amorphous mixture of macromolecules each made up of a complex array of organic molecules chemically linked together. Methods for breaking up these macromolecules in order to characterize the aromatic structural types have been explored. Pyrolysis is a common method for depolymerizing coal, but under the conditions necessary for pyrolysis much structural rearrangement occurs making a comparison of the products to the initial structural groups in coal difficult if not impossible. One approach has been to use a variety of selective oxidation methods. Aqueous sodium dichromate, aqueous air oxidation with uv light, and hydrogen peroxide in acetic acid have been used. Initial results of some of these studies have been published. This work has been extended to include characterization and comparison of a lignite, bituminous coal, and anthracite. Besides the oxidation products, the monomeric organic molecules trapped within the macromolecules are examined and the results interpreted in relation to coal structure and the coalification process.

  13. Advances in Interlaboratory Testing and Evaluation of Bituminous Materials State-of-the-Art Report of the RILEM Technical Committee 206-ATB

    CERN Document Server

    Bahia, Hussain; Canestrari, Francesco; Roche, Chantal; Benedetto, Hervé; Piber, Herald; Sybilski, Dariusz

    2013-01-01

    This STAR on asphalt materials presents the achievements of RILEM TC 206 ATB, acquired over many years of interlaboratory tests and international knowledge exchange. It covers experimental aspects of bituminous binder fatigue testing; the background on compaction methods and imaging techniques for characterizing asphalt mixtures including validation of a new imaging software; it focuses on experimental questions and analysis tools regarding mechanical wheel tracking tests, comparing results from different labs and using finite element techniques. Furthermore, long-term rutting prediction and evaluation for an Austrian road are discussed, followed by an extensive analysis and test program on interlayer bond testing of three different test sections which were specifically constructed for this purpose. Finally, the key issue of manufacturing reclaimed hot mix asphalt in the laboratory is studied and recommendations for laboratory ageing of bituminous mixtures are given.

  14. Amenability of Muzret bituminous coal to oil agglomeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahinoglu, E.; Uslu, T. [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Mining Engineering, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)

    2008-12-15

    Laboratory scale agglomeration tests were undertaken to investigate the amenability of Muzret (Yusufeli-Artvin) bituminous coal to oil agglomeration. Kerosene was extensively used as oil in the tests. In addition, fuel oil, diesel oil, and hazelnut oil were also used in order to determine the effect of oil type. The effects of the parameters including coal content, kerosene content, agglomeration time, coal particle size, pH, oil type, and agitation rate, on the combustible matter recovery, ash reduction and pyritic sulphur reduction, were investigated. It was found that Muzret bituminous coal could be readily cleaned by oil agglomeration with substantial reductions in ash and pyritic sulphur content. Maximum combustible matter recovery, ash reduction and pyritic sulphur reduction were achieved to be 85.54%, 59.98%, and 85.17%, respectively. (author)

  15. Performance of PAHs emission from bituminous coal combustion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严建华; 尤孝方; 李晓东; 倪明江; 尹雪峰; 岑可法

    2004-01-01

    Carcinogenic and mutagenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) generated in coal combustion have caused great environmental health concern. Seventeen PAHs (16 high priority PAHs recommended by USEPA plus Benzo[e]pyrene) present in five raw bituminous coals and released during bituminous coal combustion were studied. The effects of combustion temperature, gas atmosphere, and chlorine content of raw coal on PAHs formation were investigated. Two additives (copper and cupric oxide) were added when the coal was burned. The results indicated that significant quantities of PAHs were produced from incomplete combustion of coal pyrolysis products at high temperature, and that temperature is an important causative factor of PAHs formation. PAHs concentrations decrease with the increase of chlorine content in oxygen or in nitrogen atmosphere. Copper and cupric oxide additives can promote PAHs formation (especially the multi-ring PAHs) during coal combustion.

  16. Identification of aggregates for Tennessee bituminous surface courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauter, Heather Jean

    Tennessee road construction is a major venue for federal and state spending. Tax dollars each year go to the maintenance and construction of roads. One aspect of highway construction that affects the public is the safety of its state roads. There are many factors that affect the safety of a given road. One factor that was focused on in this research was the polish resistance capabilities of aggregates. Several pre-evaluation methods have been used in the laboratory to predict what will happen in a field situation. A new pre-evaluation method was invented that utilized AASHTO T 304 procedure upscaled to accommodate surface bituminous aggregates. This new method, called the Tennessee Terminal Textural Condition Method (T3CM), was approved by Tennessee Department of Transportation to be used as a pre-evaluation method on bituminous surface courses. It was proven to be operator insensitive, repeatable, and an accurate indication of particle shape and texture. Further research was needed to correlate pre-evaluation methods to the current field method, ASTM E 274-85 Locked Wheel Skid Trailer. In this research, twenty-five in-place bituminous projects and eight source evaluations were investigated. The information gathered would further validate the T3CM and find the pre-evaluation method that best predicted the field method. In addition, new sources of aggregates for bituminous surface courses were revealed. The results of this research have shown T3CM to be highly repeatable with an overall coefficient of variation of 0.26% for an eight sample repeatability test. It was the best correlated pre-evaluation method with the locked wheel skid trailer method giving an R2 value of 0.3946 and a Pearson coefficient of 0.710. Being able to predict field performance of aggregates prior to construction is a powerful tool capable of saving time, money, labor, and possibly lives.

  17. DURABILITY OF ASPHALT CONCRETE MIXTURES USING DOLOMITE AGGREGATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imad Al-Shalout

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the durability of asphalt concrete, including the effects of different gradations, compaction temperatures and immersion time on the durability potential of mixtures. The specific objectives of this study are: to investigate the effect of compaction temperature on the mechanical properties of asphalt concrete mixtures; investigate the effect of bitumen content and different aggregate gradations on the durability potential of bituminous mixtures.

  18. Sorption of aqueous phosphorus onto bituminous and lignitous coal ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan Jinying; Kirk, Donald W. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, University of Toronto, 200 College Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3E5 (Canada); Jia, Charles Q. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, University of Toronto, 200 College Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3E5 (Canada)], E-mail: cqjia@chem-eng.toronto.edu; Liu Xinan [College of Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing (China)

    2007-09-05

    Aiming at the development of a phosphorus removal technology for waste water, phosphate (PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}) retention behavior of bituminous and lignitous coal ashes was investigated using a batch reactor. Ash samples, including fresh and weathered fly and bottom ashes, were studied for their sorption isotherms and reversibility. Fly ashes had a much higher phosphate retention capacity (4000-30,000 mg P/kg) than bottom ashes (15-600 mg P/kg). Lignitous coal ashes were more capable of retaining phosphate than bituminous coal ashes. The retention process was largely irreversible, and the irreversibility increased with the increase in the retention capacity. Weathering enlarged the retention capacity of the bituminous bottom ash, but substantially lowered that of the fly ash, likely due to the difference in the weather-induced changes between the fly and bottom ashes. Sorption isotherms of fly ashes were found to be adequately represented by the Langmuir model while those of bottom ashes fitted better to the Freundlich model. Concentrations of Ca{sup 2+} and PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} in the aqueous phase were measured at the end of sorption and desorption experiments, and were compared with solubilities of three calcium phosphate minerals. The aqueous solutions were saturated or super-saturated with respect to tricalcium phosphate (Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}) and hydroxyapatite (Ca{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}OH), and slightly under-saturated with respect to amorphous calcium phosphate. It is concluded that precipitation of calcium phosphate is the predominant mechanism for phosphate retention by coal ash under the conditions studied. There is a strong and positive correlation between alkalinity and phosphate sorption capacity. Consequently, acid neutralization capacity (ANC) can be used as an indicator of phosphate sorption capacity of coal ashes.

  19. Leaching tests of simulated Cogema bituminized waste form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, S.; Akimoto, T.; Iida, Y.; Nagano, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    The leaching behavior of COGEMA-type bituminized radioactive waste was studied for the atmospheric and anaerobic conditions. Active and inactive laboratory-scale bitumen samples, including two major salts of NaNO{sub 3} and BaSO{sub 4}, were contacted with deionized water, an alkaline solution (0.01 mol/L Ca(OH){sub 2} or 0.03 mol/L KOH), or a saline solution (0.5 mol/L KCl). It was found that the release of salt was reduced in the Ca(OH){sub 2} solution compared with deionized water under the atmospheric conditions. No significant difference in the concentrations of {sup 237}Np in leachants contacted with the samples for 7 days was observed between the atmospheric and the anaerobic conditions. (authors)

  20. Steam and air plasma gasification of bituminous coal and petrocoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Messerle

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a numerical analysis and experimental investigation of two very different solid fuels, low-rank bituminous coal of 40 % ash content and petrocoke of 3 % ash content, gasification under steam and air plasma conditions with an aim of producing synthesis gas. Numerical analysis was fulfilled using the software package TERRA for equilibrium computation. Using the results of the numerical simulation, experiments on plasma steam gasification of the petrocoke and air and steam gasification of the coal were conducted in an original installation. Nominal power of the plasma installation is 100 kWe and sum consumption of the reagents is up to 20 kg/h. High quality synthesis gas was produced in the experiments on solid fuels plasma gasification. It has been found that the synthesis gas content at about 97.4 vol.% can be produced. Comparison between the numerical and experimental results showed satisfactory agreement. 

  1. Research on the Technology Applying Anti-Rutting Additive to Asphalt Mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jie; Huang, Liming; Li, Chun

    High-temperature problems like rutting, displacement and upheaval are the most serious ones for bituminous pavement of urban roads. Especially, such problems at crossroads and fixed places where buses stop, for instance, BRT, affect service ability and life of roads largely. Application of anti-rutting asphalt mixture mainly aims at reducing strain and deformation generated by bituminous concrete under effect of vehicle load, decreasing remainders that cannot be recovered in deformation, improving the ability of bituminous pavement to resist deformation under high temperature and delaying generation of rutting. Anti-rutting asphalt mixture in this thesis refers to the asphalt mixture where anti-rutting additive is added by dry method and high-temperature stability is improved.

  2. Use of bottom ash from thermal power plant and lime as filler in bituminous mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López-López, E.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the characterization of bottom ash (PCC-BA and determining the mechanical characteristics of hot mix asphalt (HMA using PCC-BA and hydrated lime (HL as filler. Physical and chemical characterization of the bottom ash was carried out to evaluate its eventual reutilization as filler substitute. The materials tested in this study were made using 0%, 25%, 50%, 70% and 100% of PCC-BA combined with HL. HMA mixes were evaluated in terms of their engineering properties, namely: air voids in the mixes, water sensitivity, stiffness modulus, performance in wheel tracking test and fatigue resistance. The results obtained indicate that HMA mixes with a filler blend of 70% PCC-BA and 30% HL fulfil European standards and are suitable for light traffic or small infrastructures.Este estudio se centra en la caracterización de las cenizas de fondo (PCC-BA y la determinación de las características mecánicas de mezclas bituminosas en caliente (HMA, utilizando cenizas de fondo y la cal hidratada (HL como filler. Se realizó la caracterización física y química de las cenizas de fondo para evaluar su empleo como sustituto de filler. Las mezclas ensayadas en este estudio se realizaron utilizando 0%, 25%, 50%, 70% y 100% de cenizas de fondo combinadas con cal hidratada. Se evaluaron propiedades ingenieriles de las mezclas bituminosas, tales como los huecos de aire en las mezclas, la sensibilidad al agua, el módulo de rigidez, el ensayo de pista y la resistencia a la fatiga. Los resultados obtenidos indican que las mezclas bituminosas fabricadas con una combinación de filler del 70% de cenizas de fondo y el 30% cal hidratada, cumplen con las normas europeas y son adecuados para su aplicación con tráficos ligeros o en pequeñas infraestructuras.

  3. Investigation of the combustion characteristics of Zonguldak bituminous coal using DTA and DTG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haykiri-Acma, H.; Yaman, S.; Kucukbayrak, S.; Okutan, H. [Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2006-06-21

    Combustion characteristics of coking, semicoking, and noncoking Turkish bituminous coal samples from Zonguldak basin were investigated applying differential thermal analysis (DTA) and differential thermogravimetry (DTG) techniques. Results were compared with that of the coke from Zonguldak bituminous coal, a Turkish lignite sample from Soma, and a Siberian bituminous coal sample. The thermal data from both techniques showed some differences depending on the proximate analyses of the samples. Noncombustible components of the volatile matter led to important changes in thermal behavior. The data front both methods were, evaluated jointly, and some thermal properties were interpreted considering these methods in a complementary combination.

  4. Effect of Cement on Properties of Over-Burnt Brick Bituminous Concrete Mixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Dipankar; Pal, Manish

    2016-06-01

    The present investigation is carried out to propose the use of cement coated over burnt brick aggregate in the preparation of bituminous concrete mix. The effect of cement on various mechanical properties such as Marshall stability, flow, Marshall quotient (stability to flow ratio), indirect tensile strength, stripping, rutting and fatigue life of bituminous concrete overlay has been evaluated. In this study, different cement percentages such as 2, 3, 4 and 5 % by weight of aggregate have been mixed with Over Burnt Brick Aggregate (OBBA). The laboratory results indicate that bituminous concrete prepared by 4 % cement coated OBBA gives the highest Marshall stability. The bituminous concrete mix with 4 % cement shows considerable improvement in various mechanical properties of the mix compared to the plain OBBA concrete mix.

  5. State of the art report on bituminized waste forms of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report, research and development results on the bituminization of radioactive wastes are closely reviewed, especially those regarding waste treatment technologies, waste solidifying procedures and the characteristics of asphalt and solidified forms. A new concept of the bituminization method is suggested in this report which can improve the characteristics of solidified forms. Stable solid forms with high leach resistance, high thermal resistance and good compression strength were produced by the suggested bituminization method, in which spent polyethylene from agricultural farms was added. This report can help further research and development of improved bituminized forms of radioactive wastes that will maintain long term stabilities in disposal sites. (author). 59 refs., 19 tabs., 18 figs

  6. State of the art report on bituminized waste forms of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Kook; Shon, Jong Sik; Kim, Kil Jeong; Lee, Kang Moo; Jung, In Ha

    1998-03-01

    In this report, research and development results on the bituminization of radioactive wastes are closely reviewed, especially those regarding waste treatment technologies, waste solidifying procedures and the characteristics of asphalt and solidified forms. A new concept of the bituminization method is suggested in this report which can improve the characteristics of solidified forms. Stable solid forms with high leach resistance, high thermal resistance and good compression strength were produced by the suggested bituminization method, in which spent polyethylene from agricultural farms was added. This report can help further research and development of improved bituminized forms of radioactive wastes that will maintain long term stabilities in disposal sites. (author). 59 refs., 19 tabs., 18 figs

  7. Natural gas storage with activated carbon from a bituminous coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jielun; Rood, M.J.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Lizzio, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    Granular activated carbons ( -20 + 100 mesh; 0.149-0.84 mm) were produced by physical activation and chemical activation with KOH from an Illinois bituminous coal (IBC-106) for natural gas storage. The products were characterized by BET surface area, micropore volume, bulk density, and methane adsorption capacities. Volumetric methane adsorption capacities (Vm/Vs) of some of the granular carbons produced by physical activation are about 70 cm3/cm3 which is comparable to that of BPL, a commercial activated carbon. Vm/Vs values above 100 cm3/cm3 are obtainable by grinding the granular products to - 325 mesh (adsorption capacity increases with increasing pore surface area and micropore volume when normalizing with respect to sample bulk volume. Compared with steam-activated carbons, granular carbons produced by KOH activation have higher micropore volume and higher methane adsorption capacities (g/g). Their volumetric methane adsorption capacities are lower due to their lower bulk densities. Copyright ?? 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  8. Gasification of high ash, high ash fusion temperature bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Guohai; Vimalchand, Pannalal; Peng, WanWang

    2015-11-13

    This invention relates to gasification of high ash bituminous coals that have high ash fusion temperatures. The ash content can be in 15 to 45 weight percent range and ash fusion temperatures can be in 1150.degree. C. to 1500.degree. C. range as well as in excess of 1500.degree. C. In a preferred embodiment, such coals are dealt with a two stage gasification process--a relatively low temperature primary gasification step in a circulating fluidized bed transport gasifier followed by a high temperature partial oxidation step of residual char carbon and small quantities of tar. The system to process such coals further includes an internally circulating fluidized bed to effectively cool the high temperature syngas with the aid of an inert media and without the syngas contacting the heat transfer surfaces. A cyclone downstream of the syngas cooler, operating at relatively low temperatures, effectively reduces loading to a dust filtration unit. Nearly dust- and tar-free syngas for chemicals production or power generation and with over 90%, and preferably over about 98%, overall carbon conversion can be achieved with the preferred process, apparatus and methods outlined in this invention.

  9. The hydrogasification of lignite and sub-bituminous coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, B.; Fallon, P. T.; Steinberg, M.

    1981-02-01

    A North Dakota lignite and a New Mexico sub-bituminous coal have been hydrogenated at up to 900°C and 2500 psi hydrogen pressure. Yields of gaseous hydrocarbons and aromatic liquids have been studied as a function of temperature, pressure, residence time, feed rates and H2/coal ratio. Coal feed rates in excess of 10 lb/hr have been achieved in the 1 in. I. D.×8 ft reactor and methane concentration as high as 55% have been observed. A four-step reaction model was developed for the production and decomposition of the hydrocarbon products. A single object function formulated from the weighted errors for the four dependent process, variables, CH4, C2H6, BTX, and oil yields, was minimized using a program containing three independent iterative techniques. The results of the nonlinear regression analysis for lignite show that a first-order chemical reaction model with respect to C conversion satisfactorily describes the dilute phase hydrogenation. The activation energy for the initial products formation was estimated to be 42,700 cal/gmole and the power of hydrogen partial pressure was found to be +0.14. The overall correlation coefficient was 0.83. The mechanism, the rate expressions, and the design curves developed can be used for scale-up and reactor design.

  10. Bituminous reference document: synthesis of knowledge on the long time behavior of bituminous packages; Dossier de reference bitume: synthese des connaissances sur le comportement a long terme des colis bitumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sercombe, J.; Adenot, F.; Vistoli, P.P.; Parraud, S.; Riglet-Martial, C.; Gwinner, B.; Felines, I.; Tiffreau, C.; Libert, M

    2004-07-01

    This document is a synthesis of the knowledge acquired at the CEA on the behavior of bituminous packages. In this framework, the CEA studied bituminous packages in generic conditions of a package lifetime. The main factors, the evolution mechanisms and influential parameters have been determined and quantitative s simulation have been developed. After a description of the main initial bituminous packages characterizations, the evolutions in saturated and un-saturated environment are exposed. (A.L.B.)

  11. Applied Technological Direction of Power Plant Ash and Slag Waste Management when Kuznetsk Bituminous Coal is Burned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihach Snejana A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently a lot of power plants have a problem with storage of coal combustion solid by-products (ash and slag. Holding capacity of existing power plants available ash dumps were enlarged and modernized repeatedly. Many plants have two or even three of them. Today new ash dump construction is economically inconvenient due to need to assign new plots of land and their inconveniently big distance from a plant, which increase ash and slag transportation expenses. The goal of our research work is to find promising directions for ash and slag waste mass utilization based on Kuznetsk bituminous coals experimental data on ultimate composition and properties. The experimental research of ash, slag and their mixture samples from ash dumps brought us to conclusion that the most promising direction for these materials application in large quantities is construction industry including road construction. Be-sides, we lined up some other directions for ash, slag, and ash and slag mixture possible application. These directions might not provide mass utilization but they are promising from a point of view of the researched waste properties.

  12. Effect of thickness variation of bituminous layer in the structural responses of flexible pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Pavan Vidotto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a sensitivity analysis was performed to investigate the effect of thickness variation of bituminous layer in the structural responses of flexible pavements and, therefore in performance. For this, it used traffic data from a weigh station located at Km 28 of the Immigrants Highway, at state of Sao Paulo, whose data collection was realized in 2008. The loads deriving from traffic were applied to the computational program ELSYM5 to obtain structural responses related to damage such as fatigue cracks and rutting. With these values, the damage factors were calculated and then the sensitivity analysis related to the thickness variation of bituminous layer was performed. Through the obtained results was concluded that the variation of thickness of bituminous layer have an influence on structural responses, and that damage factors related to fatigue cracks were more sensitive than those factors related to rutting.

  13. Global market trade policy analysis for petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals, crude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagheri, F.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on surveying the custom tariffs imposed on the world export market of Petroleum Oils and Oils Obtained from Bituminous Minerals, Crude. We obtained the data according to the most updated available data provided online by UNCTAD and World Bank. The results indicate that none of the 142 countries in the world market of this product have imposed non-tariff trade barriers on the import of Petroleum Oils and Oils Obtained from Bituminous Minerals, Crude. The developed countries and the countries with transition economies are the main world import partners. European Union, United States, China, Japan, South Korea, Canada, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, South Africa, Australia, Turkey, Brazil, Sweden and Belarus are the examples and have imposed low custom tariffs on Petroleum Oils and Oils Obtained from Bituminous Minerals, Crude.

  14. Safety assessment for the bituminization facility of the medium-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety assessment for the home-made bituminization facility of the medium-level waste during hot test is made. The average external dose equivalent per month is 0.136 x 10-2 Sv. The radioactive substance released into the environment is much lower than the permissible limit. The danger of burning and exploding of the bituminized product is avoided because the operation temperature is controlled strictly below 170 C degree. The report also briefly describes the structural characteristic of the facility, the main process and radiation protection and safety measures

  15. Project and design of apparatus and equipment of pilot plant experimental bituminization line PS 44 EBO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modifications are described made in the design of major components of the pilot plant experimental bituminization line involving: the mixing equipment, the film rotor evaporator, the calciner, and various transport mechanisms for handling drums and containers. The difficulty and complexity of the problem which Kralovopolska strojirna Brno, the end supplier of the bituminization line, will have to tackle is evident mainly from the case of bridge cranes, which feed the line, and the full-portal gantry crane which handles the containers and drums at regional sites of radioactive waste disposal. (Z.M.)

  16. Installation in the A-1 plant of an experimental bituminization line by VUCHZ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the termination of the experimental operation of the bituminization line at the Research Institute for Chemical Installations in Brno, the line was dismantled and transferred to the nucler power plant in Jaslovske Bohunice. The installation of the line, the layout of the assemblies are described and the results of tests with non-radioactive simulated wastes and actual radioactive wastes briefly described. An amount of 3.2 m3 of actual radioactive wastes from the V-1 nuclear power plant was processed in the tests. The results confirmed the suitability of bituminization for processing liquid radioactive wastes from WWER nuclear power plants. (Z.M.)

  17. Differences in cracking resistance of asphalt mixtures due to ageing and moisture damage

    OpenAIRE

    López Montero, Teresa; Miró Recasens, José Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    The ageing phenomenon and moisture damage become key factors to evaluate mixture cracking resistance. In this paper, the effect of ageing and water on cracking resistance and fatigue behavior in a bituminous mixture is studied. Specimens were tested by a direct tensile test (Fénix test) to obtain fracture energy values whereas variation of complex modulus and dissipated energy density was obtained by a strain sweep fatigue test (EBADE test). Results show a significant reduction in cracking re...

  18. Noise Reduction Properties of an Experimental Bituminous Slurry with Crumb Rubber Incorporated by the Dry Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Bueno

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, cold technology for asphalt pavement in the field of road construction is considered as an alternative solution to conventional procedures from both an economic and environmental point of view. Among these techniques, bituminous slurry surfacing is obtaining an important role due to the properties of the obtained wearing course. The functional performance of this type of surfaces is directly related to its rough texture. Nevertheless, this parameter has a significant influence on the tire/road noise generation. To reduce this undesirable effect on the sound performance, new designs of elastic bituminous slurries have been developed. Within the FENIX project, this work presents the acoustical characterization of an experimental bituminous slurry with crumb rubber from wasted automobile tires incorporated by the dry process. The obtained results show that, under controlled operational parameters, the close proximity sound levels associated to the experimental slurry are considerably lower than those emitted by a conventional slurry wearing course. However, after one year of supporting traffic loads and different weather conditions, the evaluated bituminous slurry, although it conserves the original noise reduction properties in relation to the conventional one, noticeably increases the generated sound emission. Therefore, it is required to continue improving the design of experimental surfaces in order to enhance its long-term performance.

  19. Towards an Accurate Stress Dependant Time & Frequency Domain VE Response Model for Bituminous Binders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldekidan, M.F.; Huurman, M.; Pronk, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    Linear viscoelastic properties of bituminous binders for short loading times are analyzed using dynamic mechanical analysis methods. Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR) test with parallel plate (PP) configuration is widely used for this purpose. Due to the complex stress distribution over the cross-sectio

  20. Transformism in Alberta: The Environmental Political Economy of the Bituminous Sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz-Rosene, Ryan

    This thesis attempts to help establish environmental political economy as a viable academic field while providing an example of work in the discipline. It offers an analysis of societal processes resulting in the co-optation and/or neutralization of critical environmentalist ideas. Using Alberta's bituminous sands as a case study, and a Gramsci-influenced eco-Marxist theory as a foundation, the thesis argues that the term 'environmental transformism' (inspired by the Gramscian term trasformismo) is helpful in describing and framing such processes. Accordingly, the ensuing chapters provide an analysis of why environmental transformism is happening in Alberta, and demonstrate how this mechanism works at protecting the status quo from threatening ideologies, thereby consolidating neoliberal capitalism. A concluding argument discusses the inherent dangers posed to society by the transformism of certain environmental subjectivities. The thesis begins by introducing the contentious social and environmental issues surrounding the development of the bituminous sands.

  1. A Method to Estimate the Dynamic Displacement and Stress of a Multi-layered Pavement with Bituminous or Concrete Materials

    OpenAIRE

    LU, ZHENG; Yao, Hailin; Zhang, JingBo

    2014-01-01

    In this research work, a method to estimate the dynamic characteristics of a multilayered pavement with bituminous or concrete materials is proposed. A mechanical model is established to investigate the dynamic displacement and stress of the multi-layered pavement structure. Both the flexible and the rigid pavements, corresponding to bituminous materials and concrete materials, respectively, are studied. The theoretical solutions of the multi-layered pavement structure are deduced considering...

  2. Analysis of moisture susceptibility of different loose coated asphalt mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The durability is one of the significant properties of bituminous paving mixtures. It is shown that moisture damage is one of the primary factors affecting the durability of the mixtures. Moisture damage is basically a combined result of two mechanisms: a) Loss of adhesion between the bitumen and aggregate interface and b) Loss of cohesion in the mixture along with several other factors like the changes in binders, aggregates qualities and something else. The aim of this study is therefore to examine the moisture sensitivity, of different combinations of five different kinds of aggregate quarries/sources and six binder types of different penetration grade and properties, and compare the performance of these combinations between four laboratory tests: Static Immersion Test, Total Water Immersion Test (TWIT) Test, Boiling TWIT Test and Rolling Bottle Test. The tests have been carried out at the Taxila Institute of Transportation Engineering (TITE) to obtain the data for loose coated bituminous paving mixtures. The results show that the combination of Margallah aggregate source and ELVALOY Polymer Modified Bitumen provides best resistance against moisture damage and Rolling Bottle Test is the best test to discriminate between different loose coated Asphalt mixtures, irrespective of time taken by the test. major factors that caused moisture-related problems: adhesive failure, bitumen stripping off the aggregate surface and cohesive failure which is due to the loss of mixture stiffness. Moisture-related problems do not occur without the presence of water and traffic, which provides energy to break the adhesive bonds and cause cohesive failures. Repeated freeze-thaw cycles can also accelerate the distress in the pavement. Since the performance of Asphalt mixtures under the affect of moisture is a very complex issue, various researches have been made to simulate the moisture damage in the past years. Asphalt technologists have carried out many attempts to develop

  3. Study on Plastic Coated Overburnt Brick Aggregate as an Alternative Material for Bituminous Road Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, Dipankar; Pal, Manish; Sarkar, Ashoke K.

    2016-01-01

    There are different places in India where natural stone aggregates are not available for constructional work. Plastic coated OBBA can solve the problem of shortage of stone aggregate to some extent. The engineers are always encouraged to use locally available materials. The present investigation is carried out to evaluate the plastic coated OBBA as an alternative material for bituminous road construction. Shredded waste plastics are mixed with OBBA in different percentages as 0.38, 0.42, 0.46...

  4. Modelling the quasi-static behaviour of bituminous material using a cohesive zone model

    OpenAIRE

    Tabakovic, Amir; Karac, Aleksandar; Ivankovic, Alojz; Gibney, Amanda; McNally, Ciaran; Gilchrist, M. D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the applicability of a cohesive zone model for simulating the performance of bituminous material subjected to quasistatic loading. The Dugdale traction law was implemented within a finite volume code in order to simulate the binder course mortar material response when subjected to indirect tensile loading. A uniaxial tensile test and a threepoint bend test were employed to determine initial stress-strain curves at different test rates and the cohesive zone parameters (...

  5. Design and Construction of a Full-Scale Test Section with Asphalt Rubber Gap-Graded Wearing Course Mixture

    OpenAIRE

    Riviera, Pier Paolo; Ruffino, Barbara; Fiore, Silvia; Santagata, Ezio; Lanotte, Michele Antonio; Dalmazzo, Davide; Zanetti, Mariachiara

    2012-01-01

    A full-scale test section with asphalt rubber gap-graded wearing course mixture was designed and constructed on a major infrastructure as part of a regional research and implementation project. Standard and performance-related laboratory tests were carried out in order to select constituent materials, define the job-mix formula and monitor construction operations. Gaseous emissions of the bituminous mixture sampled during laying were analyzed to assess the potential risks to which labourers a...

  6. Study on Plastic Coated Overburnt Brick Aggregate as an Alternative Material for Bituminous Road Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipankar Sarkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are different places in India where natural stone aggregates are not available for constructional work. Plastic coated OBBA can solve the problem of shortage of stone aggregate to some extent. The engineers are always encouraged to use locally available materials. The present investigation is carried out to evaluate the plastic coated OBBA as an alternative material for bituminous road construction. Shredded waste plastics are mixed with OBBA in different percentages as 0.38, 0.42, 0.46, 0.50, 0.54, and 0.60 of the weight of brick aggregates. Marshall Method of mix design is carried out to find the optimum bitumen content of such bituminous concrete mix prepared by plastic coated OBBA. Bulk density, Marshall Stability, flow, Marshall Quotient, ITS, TSR, stripping, fatigue life, and deformations have been determined accordingly. Marshall Stability value of 0.54 percent of plastic mix is comparatively higher than the other mixes except 0.60 percent of plastic mix. Test results are within the prescribed limit for 0.54 percent of plastic mix. There is a significant reduction in rutting characteristics of the same plastic mix. The fatigue life of the mix is also significantly higher. Thus plastic coated OBBA is found suitable in construction of bituminous concrete road.

  7. The microstructure of petroleum vacuum residue films for bituminous concrete: a microscopy approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sourty, E D; Tamminga, A Y; Michels, M A J; Vellinga, W-P; Meijer, H E H

    2011-02-01

    Selected carbon-rich refinery residues ('binders') mixed with mineral particles can form composite materials ('bituminous concrete') with bulk mechanical properties comparable to those of cement concrete. The microstructural mechanism underlying the remarkable composite properties has been related to the appearance of a rigid percolating network consisting of asphaltenes and mineral particles [Wilbrink M. et al. (2005) Rigidity percolation in dispersions with a structured visco-elastic matrix. Phys. Rev. E71, 031402]. In this paper, we explore the microstructure of thin binder films of varying thickness with a number of microscopic characterization techniques, and attempt to relate the observed microstructure to the distinctive mechanical behaviour. Two binders, only one of which has been proven to be suitable for bituminous concrete were investigated, and their microstructure compared. Both binders show the formation of asphaltene aggregates. The binder suitable for bituminous concrete is distinguished by the fact that the asphaltenes show a stronger tendency towards such aggregation, due to a higher concentration and less stabilization in the maltene phase. They also show a clear affinity to other species (such as waxes) and may act as nucleation sites for crystals and aggregates of those species. PMID:21118207

  8. JV Task 126 - Mercury Control Technologies for Electric Utilities Burning Bituminous Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason Laumb; John Kay; Michael Jones; Brandon Pavlish; Nicholas Lentz; Donald McCollor; Kevin Galbreath

    2009-03-29

    The EERC developed an applied research consortium project to test cost-effective mercury (Hg) control technologies for utilities burning bituminous coals. The project goal was to test innovative Hg control technologies that have the potential to reduce Hg emissions from bituminous coal-fired power plants by {ge}90% at costs of one-half to three-quarters of current estimates for activated carbon injection (ACI). Hg control technology evaluations were performed using the EERC's combustion test facility (CTF). The CTF was fired on pulverized bituminous coals at 550,000 Btu/hr (580 MJ/hr). The CTF was configured with the following air pollution control devices (APCDs): selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit, electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization system (WFDS). The Hg control technologies investigated as part of this project included ACI (three Norit Americas, Inc., and eleven Envergex sorbents), elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) oxidation catalysts (i.e., the noble metals in Hitachi Zosen, Cormetech, and Hitachi SCR catalysts), sorbent enhancement additives (SEAs) (a proprietary EERC additive, trona, and limestone), and blending with a Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal. These Hg control technologies were evaluated separately, and many were also tested in combination.

  9. Continuous bench-scale slurry catalyst testing direct coal liquefaction rawhide sub-bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauman, R.F.; Coless, L.A.; Davis, S.M. [and others

    1995-12-31

    In 1992, the Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored research to demonstrate a dispersed catalyst system using a combination of molybdenum and iron precursors for direct coal liquefaction. This dispersed catalyst system was successfully demonstrated using Black Thunder sub-bituminous coal at Wilsonville, Alabama by Southern Electric International, Inc. The DOE sponsored research continues at Exxon Research and Development Laboratories (ERDL). A six month continuous bench-scale program using ERDL`s Recycle Coal Liquefaction Unit (RCLU) is planned, three months in 1994 and three months in 1995. The initial conditions in RCLU reflect experience gained from the Wilsonville facility in their Test Run 263. Rawhide sub-bituminous coal which is similar to the Black Thunder coal tested at Wilsonville was used as the feed coal. A slate of five dispersed catalysts for direct coal liquefaction of Rawhide sub-bituminous coal has been tested. Throughout the experiments, the molybdenum addition rate was held constant at 100 wppm while the iron oxide addition rate was varied from 0.25 to 1.0 weight percent (dry coal basis). This report covers the 1994 operations and accomplishments.

  10. Self Healing of Asphalt Mixtures: Towards a Better Understanding of the Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu, J.

    2012-01-01

    Traffic is increasing rapidly in terms of number of vehicles and also in axle loads. In order to maximize the availability of the pavement and to minimize hindrances to traffic because of maintenance works, long life pavements are needed. An asphalt pavement with self repairing capabilities is believed to be very useful to this respect. The self healing phenomenon of asphalt mixtures is known for many years by road engineers. Bituminous materials are expected to repair themselves during hot s...

  11. Superpave沥青混合料路用性能的研究%Study on Superpave Bituminous Mixture Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文瑛; 彭波; 戴经梁

    2003-01-01

    通过试验研究,系统分析了Superpave沥青混合料的路用性能,并与密级配沥青混凝土进行了对比分析.结果表明,Superpave沥青混合料是一种性能优良的沥青混合料.

  12. Properties and long-term behaviour of bitumen and radioactive waste-bitumen mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Part I represents a survey of the properties and the long-term behaviour of pure bitumens and mixtures of bitumens with radioactive reactor and reprocessing wastes. This survey includes information on the origin, amounts, and composition of the various wastes considered for bituminization and the different waste bituminization techniques used. The influence of various factors on the quality of waste-bitumen products and on the radiological safety during transport, short- and long-term storage of the final products is described. Special consideration is given to the most important safety relevant factors associated to the use of bitumen as matrix material for radioactive wastes, such as leach-resistance, radiolysis, chemical and mechanical stability, combustibility, and microbial attack. Part II consists of a comprehensive bibliography on the bituminization of radioactive wastes, giving about 300 references to literature published from the beginning of the use of bitumen in radioactive waste management in 1960 until the beginning of 1979. Methods for the quality control of bituminous materials and some useful data are given in an annex. (author)

  13. Time dependent viscoelastic rheological response of pure, modified and synthetic bituminous binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airey, G. D.; Grenfell, J. R. A.; Apeagyei, A.; Subhy, A.; Lo Presti, D.

    2016-08-01

    Bitumen is a viscoelastic material that exhibits both elastic and viscous components of response and displays both a temperature and time dependent relationship between applied stresses and resultant strains. In addition, as bitumen is responsible for the viscoelastic behaviour of all bituminous materials, it plays a dominant role in defining many of the aspects of asphalt road performance, such as strength and stiffness, permanent deformation and cracking. Although conventional bituminous materials perform satisfactorily in most highway pavement applications, there are situations that require the modification of the binder to enhance the properties of existing asphalt material. The best known form of modification is by means of polymer modification, traditionally used to improve the temperature and time susceptibility of bitumen. Tyre rubber modification is another form using recycled crumb tyre rubber to alter the properties of conventional bitumen. In addition, alternative binders (synthetic polymeric binders as well as renewable, environmental-friendly bio-binders) have entered the bitumen market over the last few years due to concerns over the continued availability of bitumen from current crudes and refinery processes. This paper provides a detailed rheological assessment, under both temperature and time regimes, of a range of conventional, modified and alternative binders in terms of the materials dynamic (oscillatory) viscoelastic response. The rheological results show the improved viscoelastic properties of polymer- and rubber-modified binders in terms of increased complex shear modulus and elastic response, particularly at high temperatures and low frequencies. The synthetic binders were found to demonstrate complex rheological behaviour relative to that seen for conventional bituminous binders.

  14. Time dependent viscoelastic rheological response of pure, modified and synthetic bituminous binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airey, G. D.; Grenfell, J. R. A.; Apeagyei, A.; Subhy, A.; Lo Presti, D.

    2016-04-01

    Bitumen is a viscoelastic material that exhibits both elastic and viscous components of response and displays both a temperature and time dependent relationship between applied stresses and resultant strains. In addition, as bitumen is responsible for the viscoelastic behaviour of all bituminous materials, it plays a dominant role in defining many of the aspects of asphalt road performance, such as strength and stiffness, permanent deformation and cracking. Although conventional bituminous materials perform satisfactorily in most highway pavement applications, there are situations that require the modification of the binder to enhance the properties of existing asphalt material. The best known form of modification is by means of polymer modification, traditionally used to improve the temperature and time susceptibility of bitumen. Tyre rubber modification is another form using recycled crumb tyre rubber to alter the properties of conventional bitumen. In addition, alternative binders (synthetic polymeric binders as well as renewable, environmental-friendly bio-binders) have entered the bitumen market over the last few years due to concerns over the continued availability of bitumen from current crudes and refinery processes. This paper provides a detailed rheological assessment, under both temperature and time regimes, of a range of conventional, modified and alternative binders in terms of the materials dynamic (oscillatory) viscoelastic response. The rheological results show the improved viscoelastic properties of polymer- and rubber-modified binders in terms of increased complex shear modulus and elastic response, particularly at high temperatures and low frequencies. The synthetic binders were found to demonstrate complex rheological behaviour relative to that seen for conventional bituminous binders.

  15. Investigation of activity release from bituminized intermediate-level waste forms under thermal stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the consequences of a fire during fabrication, intermediate storage and transport of bituminized NaNO3 waste forms, the fractions of plutonium released from the waste forms were assessed. For this purpose, laboratory tests were made with PuO2-containing specimens as well as a field test with specimens containing Eu2O3. By the evaluation of plutonium release in the laboratory and by the determination of the total sodium release and the relative Eu/Na release in the field tests the plutonium release can be deduced from full-scale specimens. The results show that for bituminized waste forms with high NaNO3 contents (approx. 36 wt%) the average plutonium release obtained in laboratory testing is 15%. In the field tests (IAEA fire test conditions) an average Eu release of 8% was found. These results justify the statement that also for waste forms in open 175 L drum inserts a maximum plutonium release of about 15% can be expected. From the time-dependence of Eu/Na release in the field tests an induction period of 15-20 minutes between the start of testing and the first Na/Eu release can be derived. The maximum differential Na/Eu release occurs after a test period of 45 to 60 minutes duration and after 90 to 105 minutes (tests K2 and K4, respectively); after that time also the highest temperatures in the products are measured. The release values were determined for products in open 175 L drum inserts which in this form are not eligible for intermediate and ultimate storage. For bituminized waste forms in concrete packages (lost concrete shieldings) a delayed increase in temperature to only 70-80 deg. C takes place (4-5 hours after extinction of the fire) if the fire lasts 45 minutes. The concrete package remains intact under test conditions. This means that activity release from bituminized waste forms packaged in this way can be ruled out in the case under consideration. (author)

  16. Adsorption of SO2 on bituminous coal char and activated carbon fiber prepared from phenol formaldehyde

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBarr, Joseph A.; Lizzio, Anthony A.; Daley, Michael A.

    1996-01-01

    Carbon-based materials are used commercially to remove SO2 from coal combustion flue gases. Historically, these materials have consisted of granular activated carbons prepared from lignite or bituminous coal. Recent studies have reported that activated carbon fibers (ACFs) may have potential in this application due to their relatively high SO2 adsorption capacity. In this paper, a comparison of SO2 adsorption for both coal-based carbons and ACFs is presented, as well as ideas on carbon properties that may influence SO2 adsorption

  17. A Method to Estimate the Dynamic Displacement and Stress of a Multi-layered Pavement with Bituminous or Concrete Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng LU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research work, a method to estimate the dynamic characteristics of a multilayered pavement with bituminous or concrete materials is proposed. A mechanical model is established to investigate the dynamic displacement and stress of the multi-layered pavement structure. Both the flexible and the rigid pavements, corresponding to bituminous materials and concrete materials, respectively, are studied. The theoretical solutions of the multi-layered pavement structure are deduced considering the compatibility condition at the interface of the structural layers. By introducing FFT (Fast Fourier Transform algorithm, some numerical results are presented. Comparisons of the theoretical and experimental result implied that the proposed method is reasonable in predicting the stress and displacement of a multi-layered pavement with bituminous or concrete materials. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.4.6071

  18. Assessing radioactive concentrates and waste vapor condensate in solidifying radioactive wastes by bituminization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief overview is presented of chemical and radiochemical methods used in the world for the analysis of the concentrate of liquid radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants destined for bituminization. Most methods are also suitable for an analysis of the condensate of waste vapors produced in bituminization. The methods of analysis of the radioactive concentrate from the V-1 nuclear power plant in Jaslovske Bohunice and of the waste vapors condensate were developed and tested in practice. Gross gamma activity was measured using a well-type Na(Tl) scintillation detector, the content of radionuclides was determined using semiconductor Ge(Li) spectrometry. The concentration of boric acid in the concentrate was determined by titration with mannite; in the condensate, using spectrophotometry with curcumine. The content of nitrates in both the concentrate and the condensate was determined spectrophotometrically using salicylic acid, the content of nitrites was determined by spectrophotometry using sulfanilic acid and α-naphthylamine. Carbonates and chlorides were determined by titration, sodium and potassium by flame photometry. The content of organic acids was measured by gravimetry of extracted methyl esters, the content of surfactants by spectrophotometry. Infrared spectrophotometry was used in determining hydrocarbons in the waste vapor condensate. The measured value range and the measurement errors are shown for each method. (A.K.)

  19. Chemical activation of bituminous coal for hampering oligomerization of organic contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Liang; Sorial, George A

    2011-12-15

    Activated carbons prepared by KOH activation of bituminous coal were studied for hampering oligomerization of phenolic compounds on its surface. A total of 24 activated carbons with different microporosity and BET surface area were created. The effect of the different variables of the activation process (KOH/bituminous coal ratio, heating temperature, activation time, and flow rate of nitrogen gas) on critical carbon parameters was analyzed. The impact of activated carbon on oligomerization was examined by conducting isotherm experiments at a neutral pH on Carbon(exp) produced with optimal characteristics and granular activated carbon (GAC) F400 for phenol, 2-methylphenol and 2-ethylphenol. These isotherms were collected under anoxic (absence of molecular oxygen) and oxic (presence of molecular oxygen) conditions. The single solute adsorption of phenol, 2-methylphenol and 2-ethylphenol on Carbon(exp) showed no obvious differences between oxic and anoxic environment, which indicated that the Carbon(exp) sample is very effective in hampering the oligomerization of phenolic compounds under oxic conditions. On the other hand, F400, which have lower micropore percentage and BET surface area, significant increases in the adsorptive capacity had been observed when molecular oxygen was present. PMID:22004832

  20. THE HISTORY OF EXPLORATION AND EXPLOITATION OF BITUMINOUS AND KEROGENOUS DEPOSITS IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berislav Šebečić

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available It is assumed thal the first known sedimens of natural bitumen or asphalt in coastal Croatia were exploited as the early moddle ages. Yet authenticated written documents about Vinišće near Trogir derive from no earlier than 1628, about Vrgorac/Paklina from only 1753. By the end of the 18th century, many deposits were discovered in Dalmatia, but it was Škrip on the Island of Brač and Suhi Dolac that were important. The earliest known deposits and occurrences of kerogenous rocks, or bituminous or oil shales, are mentioned as stone or fossil coal in Sovinjak, in the upper course of the River Mirna, and in Rebići in Istria; near Sinj, Slivno not far from the River Neretva, Mirta and near Nerežišće on the Island uf Brač. All if these were well known and described in 1804, while Sovinjak was mentioned in the 16th century. In the article, some of new information derived from mining and geological research into bituminous and kerogenous sediments and deposits are provided (the paper is published in Croatian.

  1. Biomarker geochemistry of bituminous shale sequence and crude oil in the Ereǧli-Bor Basin (Konya-Niǧde), Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara-Gulbay, Reyhan; Erdogan, Mert; Korkmaz, Sadettin; Kadinkiz, Gökhan

    2016-04-01

    In the Ereǧli-Bor Basin (Konya-Niǧde), Central Anatolia, bituminous shale sequence with thickness ranging between 72 and 160 m occurs in lacustrine deposits of Upper Miocene-Pliocene age. The live oil has also been observed in this bituminous shale sequence. Rock-Eval/TOC, GC and GC-MS analyses were conducted on selected bituminous shale samples from four borehole (key-12/1, key-12/2, key-12/3 key-12/4) and one crude oil sample from a borehole (key-12/2) in the basin. In this study, organic matter type, maturity and depositional environment of bituminous shale are evaluated and the origin of crude oil is determined by the bituminous shale-crude oil correlation. The total organic carbon (TOC) values of the bituminous shale samples range from 1.21-13.98 wt% with an average TOC value of 4.75wt%. The bituminous shale sequence is characterized by high HI (127-662 mg HC/g TOC) and low OI (7-50 mgCO2/TOC). Tmax varies from 332-419ᵒC. Very low Pr/Ph ratios of bituminous shale (0.09-0.22) are indicative of anoxic depositional conditions. C27 is dominate sterane for bituminous shale and crude oil samples with C27>C29>C28. Normal steranes are more dominant compare to iso- and diasteranes. Ouite high sterane/hopane ratios (1.14-2.70) indicate dominant algal organic matter input for bituminous shale and source rock of crude oil. C31R/hopane ratio for bituminous shale and crude oil samples are very low (0.09-0.13) and these ratio show a lacustrine depositional envirronment for bituminous shale and source rock of crude oil. Sterane and terpane distributions of bituminous shale and crude oil are very similar. A very good correlation in terms of biomarker between bituminous shale and crude oil samples indicate that source rock of crude oil is bituminous shale. The 22S/(22R + 22S) C32 homohopane ratios of bituminous shale and crude oil samples are found to be 0.56 and 0.61, indicating that homohopane isomerization has attained equilibrium and bituminous shale and crude oil are

  2. Osmosis-induced swelling of Eurobitum bituminized radioactive waste in constant total stress conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcke, E.; Marien, A.; Smets, S.; Li, X.; Mokni, N.; Olivella, S.; Sillen, X.

    2010-11-01

    In geological disposal conditions, contact of Eurobitum bituminized radioactive waste, which contains high amounts of the hygroscopic and highly soluble NaNO 3, with groundwater will result in water uptake and swelling of the waste, and in subsequent leaching of the embedded NaNO 3 and radionuclides. The swelling of and the NaNO 3 leaching from non-radioactive Eurobitum samples, comprised between two stainless steel filters and in contact with 0.1 M KOH, was studied in restricted (semi-confined) swelling conditions, i.e. under a constant total stress, or counterpressure, of 2.2, 3.3, or 4.4 MPa ( i.e. oedometer conditions). Four tests were stopped after hydration times between 800 and 1500 days, and the samples were analyzed by micro-focus X-ray Computer Tomography (μCT) and by Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM). The complete set of data enabled a consistent interpretation of the observations and lead to an improved understanding of the phenomenology of the water uptake, swelling, and NaNO 3 leaching in restricted swelling conditions. Under the studied conditions, the bituminous matrix surrounding the NaNO 3 crystals and pores with NaNO 3 solution behaved as a highly efficient semi-permeable membrane, i.e. osmotic processes occurred. In the main part of the leached layers, a high average NaNO 3 concentration and related to this a high osmotic pressure prevailed, explaining why in the studied range the swelling was not measurably affected by the counterpressure. At the interface with the stainless steel filters, a low permeable re-compressed bitumen layer was formed, contributing to the slow release of NaNO 3 compared to the water uptake rate. A fully coupled Chemo-Hydro-Mechanical (CHM) constitutive model has been developed that integrates the key processes involved and that reproduces satisfactorily the results; this is presented in another work. Combination of the experimental and the modelling study allow to conclude that under semi

  3. Mechanical properties of hot bituminous mixes manufactured with recycled aggregate of Silestone® waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubio, M. C.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a research project which analyzes the viability of incorporating waste material from decorative quartz solid surfacing in the manufacture of hot bituminous mixes. For this purpose, various bituminous mixes were manufactured with waste aggregate in different percentage. A set of tests were carried out that permitted the characterization of the mechanical behavior of these mixes. The results of these tests were similar to the results obtained when conventional mixes made from virgin quarry aggregate were tested. The results for moisture sensitivity as well as for wheel track rutting on mixes showed the optimal performance of this waste material even under very demanding traffic conditions. Laboratory studies showed that the use of this waste material in the manufacture of bituminous mixes is technically viable and can provide high-quality recycled aggregates at a very low cost, which can be used in the pavement of road.

    Este artículo muestra los resultados de un proyecto de investigación que tiene por objeto analizar la viabilidad de incorporación de residuos procedentes de piedra decorativa en la fabricación de mezclas bituminosas en caliente. Para ello se fabricaron mezclas con áridos reciclados de residuos procedentes de piedra decorativa en distintos porcentajes, realizando un conjunto de ensayos que posibilitaron caracterizar el comportamiento mecánico de dichas mezclas. Los resultados obtenidos fueron similares a los de las mezclas convencionales fabricadas con áridos vírgenes procedentes de cantera. Los valores de resistencia conservada ante la acción del agua y deformación en pista, pusieron de manifiesto la aptitud del residuo incluso ante las condiciones de tráfico más exigentes. Los trabajos realizados en el laboratorio indican que la utilización del residuo en la fabricación de mezclas bituminosas es técnicamente viable, pudiendo obtenerse áridos reciclados de gran calidad y

  4. Adsorption of bituminous components at oil/water interfaces investigated by quartz crystal microbalance: implications to the stability of water-in-oil emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goual, Lamia; Horváth-Szabó, Géza; Masliyah, Jacob H; Xu, Zhenghe

    2005-08-30

    Silica-gel-coated QCM crystals oscillating in a thickness shear mode are used to measure adsorption of bituminous components in water-saturated heptol (1/1 vol ratio of a heptane/toluene mixture) at the oil/water interface. In addition to the viscoelasticity of the adsorbed film, the effects of the bulk liquid density and viscosity as well as the liquid trapped in interfacial cavities are taken into account for the calculation of adsorbed mass. Asphaltenes in heptol adsorb continuously at the oil/water interface, while resins (the surface-active species in maltenes) show adsorption saturation in the same solvent. For Athabasca bitumen in heptol, two adsorption regimes are observed depending on concentration. At low concentrations, a slow, non-steady-state, and irreversible adsorption takes place. At high concentrations, a steady-state adsorption with limited reversibility results in a quick adsorption saturation. The threshold concentration between these adsorption regimes is 1.5 wt % and 8 wt % for oil/water and oil/gold interfaces, respectively. The threshold concentration, the total adsorbed amount, and the flux of non-steady-state adsorption depend on the resin-to-asphaltene ratio. The threshold concentration is related to the earlier reported critical bitumen concentration characterizing the rigid-to-flexible transition of the interfacial film. We propose a new mechanism based on the change of the effective resin-to-asphaltene ratio with dilution to explain both the adsorption behavior and emulsion stability. PMID:16114932

  5. Physical properties of solid fuel briquettes from bituminous coal waste and biomass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZARRINGHALAM-MOGHADDAM A; GHOLIPOUR-ZANJANI N; DOROSTIS; VAEZ M

    2011-01-01

    Biomass and bituminous coal fines from four different coalfields were used to produce fuel briquettes.Two physical properties of briquettes,water resistance index and compressive strength were analyzed.The influence of type and quantity of biomass on physical properties was also studied.The results reveal that depending on the mineral content of the coal,the physical properties of the briquettes differ noticeably.The comparison of briquettes with and without biomass showed that the presence of the beet pulp increased CS in all types of coal samples.Samples containing beet pulp had better physical properties than sawdust.Mezino Ⅱ coal briquettes had highest CS and WRI than the other ones.Calorific value of biomass/Mezino Ⅱ coal briquettes was lessened in comparison with raw coal,but it remained in an acceptable range.

  6. US bituminous coal test program in the British Gas/Lurgi (BGL) gasifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Souza, M.D.; Tart, K.R.; Eales, D.F. (British Gas plc, London (United Kingdom)); Turna, O. (Lurgi GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany))

    1991-12-01

    The BGL moving-bed, slagging-gasification process is an extension of the commercially proven Lurgi dry-ash, moving-bed gasification process. British Gas and Lurgi have demonstrated the process over an 11-year period at the 350 and 500 t/d scale at British Gas' Westfield Development Center, Scotland, with a wide variety of US and British coals. British Gas also installed a gas purification and HICOM methanation plant at Westfield to treat approximately 190,000 sft{sup 3}/h of purified syngas. Objectives are: To demonstrate the suitability of US bituminous coals as feed-stocks in the BGL gasification process; to provide performance data for use in designing commercial-scale BGL-based gasification-combined-cycle (GCC) power plants; and to evaluate the performance of the British Gas HICOM process for methanation of US coal-derived syngas.

  7. Biological markers in bitumens and pyrolyzates of Upper Cretaceous bituminous chalks from the Ghareb Formation (Israel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rullkötter, Jürgen; Aizenshtat, Zeev; Spiro, Baruch

    1984-01-01

    The sterane and triterpane distributions of three bituminous chalks from the Upper Cretaceous Ghareb Formation (Israel) were investigated both in the original extractable bitumens and in extracts obtained after pyrolysis of whole rock and isolated kerogen samples at 450°C. Pyrolysis was performed in a closed system under hydrous (whole rock) and anhydrous conditions (isolated kerogens). The carbon number distributions of steranes and triterpanes differ significantly between original bitumen and pyrolyzates. Unlike the bitumens in which diasteranes were not detected, the anhydrous pyrolyzates contain small amounts of diasteranes. The presence of water during pyrolysis leads to an increase of sterane isomerization, the abundant formation of diasteranes and an increase of the 18α( H)- trisnorneohopane/17α( H)- trisnorhopane ratio. Sterane isomerization maturation parameters show a closer match between original bitumen and pyrolyzates after pyrolysis in a closed system when compared with an open system.

  8. STUDY ON EVOLUTION REGULARITIES AND ABSORPTION CHARACTERISTICS OF SULFIDE DURING BITUMINOUS BRIQUETTE HORIZONTAL COMBUSTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路春美; 王永征

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses the evolution regularity and the absorption characters of sulfide for bituminous briquette burned in a horizontal burning furnace. The evolution rate of sulphur is affected by some factors, such as the sulphur content in the burning coal, burning time and the meane excess air coefficient in the furnace. With processing the experimental result, the calculation related expression has been obtained to predict the evolution rate of sulfide. The sulphur absorption efficiency of briquette is affected by the factors such as the character of the sulphur sorbent, the type of the coal and the operating parameters. "By means of appropriately adjusting the calciumsulphur mole ratio, the mean excess air coefficient and the time-interval between pushing two layer briquettes, a high sulphur absorption efficiency (>74%) can be obtained.

  9. Using proximate analysis to characterize airborne dust generation from bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, S.J.; Organiscak, J.A. [NIOSH, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Pittsburgh Research Lab.

    2002-06-01

    Laboratory crushing experiments were conducted on a range of low to high volatile bituminous coals to investigate the various factors influencing airborne respirable dust generation. Bituminous coal samples from 8 mines (5 U.S. and 3 Polish) were uniformly prepared and processed through a double roll crusher located in a low air velocity wind tunnel. Experimental factors studied included inherent coal seam constituents, specific energy of crushing, product size characteristics, dust cloud electrostatic field, and specific quantity of airborne respirable dust generated. A combination of factors is associated with the generation of airborne respirable dust. One factor involved is the effect of coal rank, described by the inherent moist fuel ratio, on the product size characteristics. However, since coals of high moist fuel ratio (high rank) are generally more extensively cleated, it is suggested that the degree of cleating is directly responsible for the quantity of respirable-sized particles produced in the crushed product material for eastern U.S. coals. This is implied by the relationship of ash content and at least one mineral constituent (pyrite, determined from pyritic sulfur analysis) to the percentage of airborne respirable dust. A clear delineation of coals, based on well-known proximate analysis characteristics, that generate the most respirable dust appears to be possible. It was also shown that the dust-generating characteristics of coals could be reasonably described by both the moist fuel ratio and the Hardgrove Grindability Index (HGI). These results show a clear distinction between eastern and western U.S. coals. However, no consistent distinction for Polish coal was observed.

  10. Uraniferous lignites and bituminous clays of the Serres Basin. Pt. A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lignites of the southern area (Christos-Vissiani-Lefkes-Perdikari) and the bituminous clay silts of the northern area (Maramena, Ano Metohi, Chrysopigi) are the main uraniferous beds in the Serres Basin. The sediments of the basin (Upper Miocene to recent) have been stratigraphically divided into three informal unities: the Lefkon, Georgios and Spilia formations. The uraniferous lignites pertaining to the Lefkon limnic-fluvial formation are developed into two discrete horizons, the upper Double Seam and the lower Main Seam. The bituminous clays are of the same age with the lignites, those of Maramena being, however, younger, equivalent to the marine and brackish Georgios formation. The continuity, thickness and dip of the strata reveal considerable regional changes resulting from the intense tectonism of the basin. Further to the surface works the upper lignites have been reached through small excavations and also about 100 boreholes totalling 10,000 m have been drilled. The composition of the organic constituents and the calorific value show a dull transitional to shiny hard lignite with ash rich in pyrite and sulphur. There have been no discrete U minerals detected, while the electron microprobe analysis showed that the uranium is uniformly disseminated into the lignite mass, mainly absorbed through its humic acids. More than 75% of the uranium is extractable, the control of its combustion conditions being, however, a major problem. The potential reserves have been up to date estimated to be of over 4,000 tons (uranium metal), this figure resulting mainly from data evaluated from the borehole γ-ray logs using the computer programmes LOGFILE and LOGPLOT developed at the Radioactive Raw Materials Dept. of the Greek AEC. (author)

  11. Distribution of inorganic and organic substances in the hydrocyclone separated Slovak sub-bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anton Zubrik; Slavomir Hredzak; Ludmila Turcaniova; Michal Lovas; Ingo Bergmann; Klaus Dieter Becker; Maria Lukcova; Vladimir Sepelak [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Kosice (Slovakia). Institute of Geotechnics

    2010-08-15

    A low-rank Slovak sub-bituminous coal from the Handlova deposit was physically treated by washing in a water-only cyclone with the goal to find the separation effect for inorganic (mainly Fe-bearing minerals) and organic substances (humic acids, diterpanes). A high-quality coal product with the ash content in the dry matter of 9.02% and carbon content of C{sup d} = 68.12% at a mass yield of 29.51% was obtained using the water-only cyclone processing. At first, the physically treated coal samples were detailed characterized by XRD, {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy, FT-IR and HR-TEM. In addition to non-crystalline organic coal components, inorganic compounds belonging to silicate minerals (kaolinite, muscovite and quartz) as well as to Fe-bearing sulphide minerals (pyrite) were identified in the sub-bituminous coal by XRD. {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy detected the presence of iron carbonate (siderite), iron-containing clay mineral and two sulphur-containing minerals (pyrite, jarosite) in the untreated coal. On the other hand, only one Fe-bearing mineral, (pyrite) was found in the washed coal. Effect of the physical separation is also demonstrated in FT-IR spectra, where the peak at 1040 cm{sup -1} representing the silicate component in the untreated sample is not detectable in the washed coal sample. Presence of extractive organic substances, i.e. humic acids and tetracyclic diterpane (16a(H)-phyllocladane), in the hydrocyclone products is also evidenced. It was confirmed that the isolated diterpenoic compound is attendant in the washed product with the lowest ash content and it is assimilated with the organic part of coal. Surprisingly, humic acids were found in the highest concentration in the slurry that has the highest content of ash (63.14%). 54 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Comparative study of test methods for bituminized and other low- and medium-level solidified waste materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various aspects of the behaviour of bituminized or cemented simulated low- or medium-level radioactive waste in contact with water or salt solutions have been investigated. The solubility (approximately 0.5%) and the diffusion coefficient (approximately 5.10-8 cm2/sec) determining transort of water in pure bitumen have been measured for Mexphalte 40/50 at room temperature. A weighing method has been used to study water uptake and swelling of bituminized sodium nitrate, sodium sulphate or cation-exchange resin. The swelling of samples in contact with water was in some cases very pronounced. In strong salt solutions the tendency to swell is much less. The particle size of the embedded waste material is an important parameter. Thermal pre-treatment of cation-exchange resin before bituminization does not seem to improve the quality of the final product. The interaction between bituminized-exchange resin and concrete barrier materials has been studied. Microbial degradation of bitumen and bituminized waste under aerobic conditions has been investigated. It is probably of minor importance as far as leaching is concerned. A method for measuring leaching from a plane surface of cemented waste has been developed. The method avoids the problem of cracks between the sample and the container. Leaching from cemented sodium nitrate or sulphate was investigated. Absorption of CO2 from the atmosphere was found to have only minor effect on Cs- and Na-leaching but gave a pronounced decrease in Ca-leaching. The use of silica-fume as an additive to cemented sodium nitrate decreased the leach rate by a factor 4. (author)

  13. Generation of smoke and clogging of ventilation filter under burning of bitumen/salt mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fire and explosion accident happened at the bituminization demonstration facility of Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) of Japan on March 11, 1997. To elucidate smoke generation and clogging mechanism of ventilation filters under burning of bitumen/salt mixture in the PNC facility, small-scale simulation experiments were performed. The mock mixtures were prepared by referring to the composition of the real liquid waste and were burnt by heating. The burning behavior of the mixture was observed and the filter pressure drop, which was caused by loading smoke, was measured. Moreover, mass, energy and smoke release rate as direct source term from the burnt mixture and the empirical equation, which could represent the relationship between the pressure drop and burnt mass, were determined by comparing between the calculation results based on a one-dimensional thermofluid analysis code CELVA-1D, and the experimental results. (author)

  14. A study of bituminous pavements to determine a correlation between pavement structure designs and tripping of asphalt cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, B. R.

    1984-03-01

    After detecting a few cases of stripping of asphalt cement from the aggregate in bituminous pavement, there was concern that stripping might be a widespread problem in the state. It is agreed that water is the cause of stripping, and it was the opinion of some that pavements on granular bases would be less likely to strip because of supposedly better drainage characteristics. Differently designed pavement structures in all areas of the state were investigated to determine if there is a correlation between base and pavement design and stripping. Stripping was not as widespread as had been feared and there was less stripping in fulldepth bituminous base and pavement constructed over a lime-treated subgrade than in pavements constructed oer granular bases. This was contrary to what some had theorized.

  15. Study on the cause of the fire and explosion incident at Bituminization Demonstration Facility of PNC Tokai Works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On March 11, 1997, a fire and explosion incident occurred in Bituminization Demonstration Facility (BDF) at Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP). The cause of the incident was thoroughly investigated and after thirty meetings of 'Investigation Committee of Science and Technology Agency (STA)'. STA reported possible cause of this incident. Continually detailed investigation was discussed at 'Follow-up Committee of STA'. Based on the results of five meetings, JNC concluded that the main cause of fire was frictional heating and viscous heating in the extruder, which provided an unusually high temperature in the bituminized product at filling, since there was no chemical analysis data suggesting the generation of chemical heat. It is considered that these excessive heat generations were due to the decreased feed rate of liquid waste to the extruder. The Follow-up Committee almost agreed to this conclusion. This paper describes general information concerning the incident and details of the cause of the incident. (author)

  16. The bituminization in Marcoule and la Hague plants. Description of the processes and the fire risk prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical precipitation is an efficient process to decontaminate liquid effluents and has been selected as early as 1966 for the liquid waste treatment of MARCOULE. The process has been designed by the French CEA and improved along the time. The first implementation in LA HAGUE was for the STE 2 facility (Station de Traitement d'Effluents no 2). A new facility, STE 3, has been commissioned in 1989 in LA HAGUE, benefiting from these previous experience and therefore contributing into a drastic reduction of liquid discharges. The sludges coming from the treatment in MARCOULE and STE 3 are bituminized into continuous extruders. The resulting waste is kept in interim storage, waiting for final disposal. The industrial production, up to now, is close to 10000 drums (55 gallons) in LA HAGUE and 60000 drums in MARCOULE. A retrieval operation of the MARCOULE drums from the present storage has been launched to send them into a recently built interim storage operating since the beginning of 2000. At the present time, in LA HAGUE, evaporation has been preferred to chemical precipitation for the treatment of liquid effluents. After concentration, the effluents go to the vitrification and the volume of resulting waste is much smaller. However, bituminization is still the preferred option for the 10000 m3 of sludges resulting from the STE 2 operations which are being stored in tanks. A complete reevaluation of the operation safety measures of bituminization has been made lately in both plants following recent incidents on other installations. The paper describes the chemical precipitation and the bituminization processes and focuses on safety measures which are implemented for prevention, detection and fight. (authors)

  17. Recycling of polyethylene terephthalate (PET plastic bottle wastes in bituminous asphaltic concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebayo Olatunbosun Sojobi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research sheds light on the concept of eco-friendly road construction which comprises eco-design, eco-extraction, eco-manufacturing, eco-construction, eco-rehabilitation, eco-maintenance, eco-demolition, and socioeconomic empowerment. It also revealed the challenges being faced in its adoption and the benefits derivable from its application. Furthermore, the effects of recycling PET plastic bottle wastes produced in North Central Nigeria in bituminous asphaltic concrete (BAC used in flexible pavement construction were also evaluated. The mix design consists of 60/70 penetration-grade asphaltic concrete (5%, 68% coarse aggregate, 6% fine aggregate, and 21% filler using the dry process at 170°C. The optimum bitumen content (OBC for conventional BAC was obtained as 4% by weight of total aggregates and filler. Polymer-coated aggregate (PCA-modified BAC seems preferable because it has the potential to utilize more plastic wastes with a higher optimum plastic content (OPC of 16.7% by weight of total aggregates and filler compared to that of 9% by weight of OBC achieved by PMB-BAC. For both PMB- and PCA-modified BAC, an increase in air void, void in mineral aggregate, and Marshall stability were observed. Eco-friendly road construction which recycles PET wastes should be encouraged by government considering its potential environmental and economic benefits.

  18. Comparing potentials for gas outburst in a Chinese anthracite and an Australian bituminous coal mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Guoqing; Saghafi Abouna

    2014-01-01

    Gas outbursts in underground mining occur under conditions of high gas desorption rate and gas content, combined with high stress regime, low coal strength and high Young’s modulus. This combination of gas and stress factors occurs more often in deep mining. Hence, as the depth of mining increases, the poten-tial for outburst increases. This study proposes a conceptual model to evaluate outburst potential in terms of an outburst indicator. The model was used to evaluate the potential for gas outburst in two mines, by comparing numerical simulations of gas flow behavior under typical stress regimes in an Australian gassy mine extracting a medium-volatile bituminous coal, and a Chinese gassy coal mine in Qinshui Basin (Shanxi province) extracting anthracite coal. We coupled the stress simulation program (FLAC3D) with the gas simulation program (SIMED II) to compute the stress and gas pressure and gas content distribution following development of a roadway into the targeted coal seams. The data from gas content and stress distribution were then used to quantify the intensity of energy release in the event of an outburst.

  19. Burnout behaviour of bituminous coals in air-staged combustion conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kluger, F.; Spliethoff, H.; Hein, K.R.G. [University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. of Process Engineering and Power Plant (IVD)

    2001-07-01

    In order to determine the influence on burnout by the combustion conditions and the coal preparation, three bituminous coals sold on the world market, from three different locations in Poland, South Africa, and Australia, were studied more closely. For this purpose, the coals were ground in two different particle size ranges, which, besides the influence of the combustion conditions, such a temperature, residence time, and stoichiometry, made it possible to also investigate the impact on burnout by the coal preparation. The experiments were carried out in an electrically heated entrained-flow reactor with a thermal input of 8.5 kW. The parameters for the experiments are wall temperature (1000-1350{degree}C), air ratio (0.6-1.15) and two particle sizes (70% {lt} 75 {mu}m, 90% {lt} 75 {mu}m). The results show that in general, for increasing temperatures, the burnout quality will improve. For the Australian Illawara coal, another outcome is increased NOx emissions. Lowering the air ratio in the reduction zone leads to less NOx emission but to increased unburnt matter in ash. For the smaller particle size fraction, the analysis of the different particle sizes shows an improvement of the burnout without a change in NOx emissions. 10 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Using proximate analysis to characterize airborne dust generation from bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, S.J.; Organiscak, J.A.

    2005-11-01

    Prolonged exposure to airborne respirable coal dust is responsible for coal workers pneumoconiosis (CWP), commonly called black lung. Health research studies have identified that the prevalence and severity of CWP are directly related to both the amount of dust exposure and the coal rank. The amount of airborne respirable dust (ARD) smaller than 10 micrometers generated from breakage of different coals varies widely. To investigate the cause, researchers for the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) have conducted experiments to identify the causes of airborne respirable dust liberation. Laboratory crushing experiments were conducted on a range of low to high volatile bituminous coals from eight mines. The results indicate that the proximate analysis of a coal sample can provide a very good indicator of the potential for a dust problem. For application to the coal mining, processing, and utilization industries, data from 977 US coal seams compiled by the Department of Energy (DoE) has been used to calculate this dust generation potential from an equation based on the NIOSH measured data. A simple procedure for this calculation is provided. 1 fig.

  1. Experimental and modelling of the thermal regions of activity during pyrolysis of bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strezov, Vladimir [Newbolds Applied Research, The University of Newcastle, Cnr Frith and Gavey Streets, Mayfield 2304, NSW (Australia); Lucas, John A. [Discipline of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, The University of Newcastle, University Drive, Callaghan 2308, NSW (Australia); Strezov, Les [Strezov Consulting, 7 Marin Street, Adamstown 2289, NSW (Australia)

    2004-03-01

    Computer-aided thermal analysis technique, incorporated with thermogravimetric and Fourier transform infrared (TG-FTIR), and mass spectrometry, were employed in studying the devolatilisation of three thermal bituminous coals under packed bed pyrolysing conditions. The heats of reactions evolved during coal devolatilisation were determined by computational calorimetry and compared with the evolution rate of fourteen volatile species. The devolatilisation was classified into five major regions of thermal activity, according to the analysis, where the first was related to the dehydration of strongly bounded water. The second was the pre-plastic region with an endothermic prepyrolytic reaction, while the third was the exothermic plastic range with primarily evolution of tars and re-solidification reactions. The secondary devolatilisation was found to be endothermic and the major contributors were hydrocarbons, secondary water, CS{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S. The largest reaction was the contraction of carbon planes with evolution of hydrogen. Each reaction region was assumed to follow the first-order Arrhenius kinetic correlation and the activation energy was determined for each of the five regions. The activation energies were then incorporated into a simplified model for predicting the overall heats of reactions.

  2. Mixture Density Mercer Kernels

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We present a method of generating Mercer Kernels from an ensemble of probabilistic mixture models, where each mixture model is generated from a Bayesian mixture...

  3. Study on the submicron and micron morphology and the properties of poor bituminous coal burnout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei-Fang Fu; Huai-Chun Zhou; Qing-Yan Fang; Hai Yao; Jianrong Qiu; Minghou Xu [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion

    2007-05-15

    Carbon burnout and its reaction mechanism have been widely focused on in the past decades. The properties of burnout, submicron and micron morphology and the reaction mechanism of poor bituminous coal/char (PBC) in a W-shaped power plant boiler was studied and was compared with those in DTF and in TGA, which showed that the degree of PBC burnout in TGA at 1450{sup o}C was greater than or approximately equal to that in a W-shaped boiler, and that the complexity of the reactions among residual char, oxygen and SiO{sub 2} did not seem to result in mass loss in TGA, although the weight percentage of the residual char in ash decreased from 33% ad (air dry basis) at 900{sup o}C to 9% and at 1450{sup o}C. According to the distribution of pores and the properties of the char burnout, the char can be simply categorized into three classes: char burnout easy, char burnout difficult and char burnout very difficult. The differences of the reaction mechanism must be considered while predicting the burning rate and degree of char burnout in a full-scale boiler by making use of experimental results from TGA and DTF. A different char particle contains markedly different amount of carbons, but for a special char particle, the ratio of carbon to ash is generally constant, and an ash shell does not exist on the char surface. The fusion mineral matter composing of C-O-Si-Al is amorphous, not in the form of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiO{sub 2} above 1450{sup o}C.

  4. Variations in pore characteristics in high volatile bituminous coals: Implications for coal bed gas content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastalerz, Maria; Drobniak, A.; Strapoc, D.; Solano-Acosta, W.; Rupp, J.

    2008-01-01

    The Seelyville Coal Member of the Linton Formation (Pennsylvanian) in Indiana was studied to: 1) understand variations in pore characteristics within a coal seam at a single location and compare these variations with changes occurring between the same coal at different locations, 2) elaborate on the influence of mineral-matter and maceral composition on mesopore and micropore characteristics, and 3) discuss implications of these variations for coal bed gas content. The coal is high volatile bituminous rank with R0 ranging from 0.57% to 0.60%. BET specific surface areas (determined by nitrogen adsorption) of the coals samples studied range from 1.8 to 22.9??m2/g, BJH adsorption mesopore volumes from 0.0041 to 0.0339??cm3/g, and micropore volumes (determined by carbon dioxide adsorption) from 0.0315 to 0.0540??cm3/g. The coals that had the largest specific surface areas and largest mesopore volumes occur at the shallowest depths, whereas the smallest values for these two parameters occur in the deepest coals. Micropore volumes, in contrast, are not depth-dependent. In the coal samples examined for this study, mineral-matter content influenced both specific surface area as well as mesopore and micropore volumes. It is especially clear in the case of micropores, where an increase in mineral-matter content parallels the decrease of micropore volume of the coal. No obvious relationships were observed between the total vitrinite content and pore characteristics but, after splitting vitrinite into individual macerals, we see that collotelinite influences both meso- and micropore volume positively, whereas collodetrinite contributes to the reduction of mesopore and micropore volumes. There are large variations in gas content within a single coal at a single location. Because of this variability, the entire thickness of the coal must be desorbed in order to determine gas content reliably and to accurately calculate the level of gas saturation. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All

  5. Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carl Richardson; Katherine Dombrowski; Douglas Orr

    2006-12-31

    This project Final Report is submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) as part of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-03NT41987, 'Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas.' Sorbent injection technology is targeted as the primary mercury control process on plants burning low/medium sulfur bituminous coals equipped with ESP and ESP/FGD systems. About 70% of the ESPs used in the utility industry have SCAs less than 300 ft2/1000 acfm. Prior to this test program, previous sorbent injection tests had focused on large-SCA ESPs. This DOE-NETL program was designed to generate data to evaluate the performance and economic feasibility of sorbent injection for mercury control at power plants that fire bituminous coal and are configured with small-sized electrostatic precipitators and/or an ESP-flue gas desulfurization (FGD) configuration. EPRI and Southern Company were co-funders for the test program. Southern Company and Reliant Energy provided host sites for testing and technical input to the project. URS Group was the prime contractor to NETL. ADA-ES and Apogee Scientific Inc. were sub-contractors to URS and was responsible for all aspects of the sorbent injection systems design, installation and operation at the different host sites. Full-scale sorbent injection for mercury control was evaluated at three sites: Georgia Power's Plant Yates Units 1 and 2 [Georgia Power is a subsidiary of the Southern Company] and Reliant Energy's Shawville Unit 3. Georgia Power's Plant Yates Unit 1 has an existing small-SCA cold-side ESP followed by a Chiyoda CT-121 wet scrubber. Yates Unit 2 is also equipped with a small-SCA ESP and a dual flue gas conditioning system. Unit 2 has no SO2 control system. Shawville Unit 3 is equipped with two small-SCA cold-side ESPs operated in series. All ESP systems tested in this program had SCAs less than 250 ft2/1000 acfm. Short-term parametric tests were conducted on Yates

  6. Organic petrology and geochemistry of Eocene Suzak bituminous marl, north-central Afghanistan: Depositional environment and source rock potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, Paul C.; Sanfilipo, John

    2016-01-01

    Organic geochemistry and petrology of Eocene Suzak bituminous marl outcrop samples from Madr village in north-central Afghanistan were characterized via an integrated analytical approach to evaluate depositional environment and source rock potential. Multiple proxies suggest the organic-rich (TOC ∼6 wt.%) bituminous marls are ‘immature’ for oil generation (e.g., vitrinite Ro  1) indicating organic input from marine algae and/or bacterial biomass, and sterane/hopane ratios are low (0.12–0.14). Monoaromatic steroids are dominated by C28clearly indicating a marine setting. High gammacerane index values (∼0.9) are consistent with anoxia stratification and may indicate intermittent saline-hypersaline conditions. Stable C isotope ratios also suggest a marine depositional scenario for the Suzak samples, consistent with the presence of marine foraminifera including abundant planktic globigerinida(?) and rare benthic discocyclina(?) and nummulites(?). Biomarker 2α-methylhopane for photosynthetic cyanobacteria implies shallow photic zone deposition of Madr marls and 3β-methylhopane indicates presence of methanotrophic archaea in the microbial consortium. The data presented herein are consistent with deposition of Suzak bituminous marls in shallow stratified waters of a restricted marine basin associated with the southeastern incipient or proto-Paratethys. Geochemical proxies from Suzak rock extracts (S content, high polar content, C isotopes, normal (αααR) C27–29 steranes, and C29/C30 and C26/C25 hopane ratios) are similar to extant data from Paleogene oils produced to the north in the Afghan-Tajik Basin. This observation may indicate laterally equivalent strata are effective source rocks as suggested by previous workers; however, further work is needed to strengthen oil-source correlations.

  7. Petrographic and Vitrinite Reflectance Analyses of a Suite of High Volatile Bituminous Coal Samples from the United States and Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, Paul C.; Kolak, Jonathan J.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents vitrinite reflectance and detailed organic composition data for nine high volatile bituminous coal samples. These samples were selected to provide a single, internally consistent set of reflectance and composition analyses to facilitate the study of linkages among coal composition, bitumen generation during thermal maturation, and geochemical characteristics of generated hydrocarbons. Understanding these linkages is important for addressing several issues, including: the role of coal as a source rock within a petroleum system, the potential for conversion of coal resources to liquid hydrocarbon fuels, and the interactions between coal and carbon dioxide during enhanced coalbed methane recovery and(or) carbon dioxide sequestration in coal beds.

  8. Optimal mixture experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Sinha, B K; Pal, Manisha; Das, P

    2014-01-01

    The book dwells mainly on the optimality aspects of mixture designs. As mixture models are a special case of regression models, a general discussion on regression designs has been presented, which includes topics like continuous designs, de la Garza phenomenon, Loewner order domination, Equivalence theorems for different optimality criteria and standard optimality results for single variable polynomial regression and multivariate linear and quadratic regression models. This is followed by a review of the available literature on estimation of parameters in mixture models. Based on recent research findings, the volume also introduces optimal mixture designs for estimation of optimum mixing proportions in different mixture models, which include Scheffé’s quadratic model, Darroch-Waller model, log- contrast model, mixture-amount models, random coefficient models and multi-response model.  Robust mixture designs and mixture designs in blocks have been also reviewed. Moreover, some applications of mixture desig...

  9. Behaviour of bituminized waste under gamma irradiation. Effect of STE3 decontamination process components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liquid wastes of light and medium activity are treated by chemical co-precipitation and sludge are mixed with bitumen. Irradiation is responsible of gas production and potential swelling of the embedded. It prevails on limitation of filling of storage containers and activity to 140 Ci. The aim of this work is the study of influence of the components of the decontamination process on the behaviour of bituminous wastes, in order to control swelling and to state radiolysis mechanisms, both for production and storage of wastes. For pure bitumen, mechanism of production of H2 and CH4 are specified. Oxygen consumption, localised on the surface of samples, leads to conversion of aromatic oils and resins to asphaltenes, by a chain reaction mechanism. CO2 et CO are reaction products of gaseous oxygen, respectively with bitumen and light hydrocarbons. The composition of bitumen is slightly modified to heavier and higher polarity products, with parallel hardening. NaNO3, Na2SO4, BaSO4, PPFNi, K2SO4, NiSO4, et diatoms DIT3R et DIC3 have strictly a dilution effect towards gas generation. CoS, above 1% embedded, strongly inhibits production of H2, CH4 and light hydrocarbons. Degradation of bitumen being reduced, a radical mechanism with both radicals H· et R· might exist. Kinetic shows that a bi-radicals mechanism (or more) is probable. In the same way, Raney's nickel induces a important decrease of production of H2, CH4 et C2, with a capacity of 7,7 ml/g. Swelling depends on dimension of sample gas production and dose rate. Solid content and particle size are not determining parameters. Low swelling is obtained for penetrability higher than 70 1/10 mm, This can be realised by addition of a solvent as TBP and by increasing temperature above 40 deg C. Rheological characterizations (oscillation and creeping mode) have not been successful to correlate swelling with a physical parameter. (author)

  10. Mechanical, sorption and transport experiments on a German high volatile bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gensterblum, Y.; Krooss, B.M. [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Geology and Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal; Massarotto, Paul [Queensland Univ., Brisbane, St Lucia, QLD (Australia). School of Engineering

    2013-08-01

    A high volatile bituminous coal (vitrinite reflectance: 0.93%, carbon content: 83%) from the Prosper-Haniel mine, North Rhine-Westphalia has been studied using a comprehensive set of measurements and experimental procedures at RWTH Aachen University and the University of Queensland. Using the True Triaxial Stress Coal Permeameter (TTSCP) (Massarotto 2003) of the University of Queensland, permeability and gas displacement tests were performed on an 80 mm cube of the Prosper-Haniel coal. Extensive data sets were recorded to assess the effects of stress changes on gas transport and the impact of nitrogen, methane and CO{sub 2} sorption on the mechanical properties. We investigate the permeability coefficients for helium, nitrogen, methane and carbon dioxide measured on this sample as a function of net stress. As expected, permeability values decrease with increasing stress. Methane and nitrogen have nearly identical permeability coefficients throughout the entire net stress range, while permeability coefficients measured with helium are higher and those measured with CO{sub 2} significantly lower. During the permeability measurements with CO{sub 2} an anisotropic swelling of the coal cube by about 0.19% to 0.23% was observed. The volumetric effect (swelling) is 100 times slower than gas displacement. Simultaneous mechanical tests indicated a softening of the coal block upon exposure to CO{sub 2}. Thus, a decrease of Young's modulus (YM) of the coal cube during the CO{sub 2} flow test was observed as compared to the methane and nitrogen tests. High-pressure sorption isotherms with CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} were determined on different grain-size fractions of the Prosper-Haniel coal at 318K and different moisture contents. Methane sorption capacity decreases by 29% with increasing moisture content. Also, a decrease of sorption rate was observed with increasing moisture content. While sorption rates are generally faster for CO{sub 2} than for CH{sub 4}, the sorption

  11. Organic geochemistry of Upper Carboniferous bituminous coals and clastic sediments from the Lublin Coal Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gola, Marek R.; Karger, Michał; Gazda, Lucjan; Grafka, Oliwia

    2013-09-01

    Bituminous coals and clastic rocks from the Lublin Formation (Pennsylvanian, Westphalian B) were subjected to detailed biomarker and Rock-Eval analyses. The investigation of aliphatic and aromatic fractions and Rock-Eval Tmax suggests that the Carboniferous deposits attained relatively low levels of thermal maturity, at the end of the microbial processes/initial phase of the oil window. Somewhat higher values of maturity in the clastic sediments were caused by postdiagenetic biodegradation of organic matter. The dominance of the odd carbon-numbered n-alkanes in the range n-C25 to n-C31 , high concentrations of moretanes and a predominance of C 28 and C29 steranes are indicative of a terrigenous origin of the organic matter in the study material. This is supported by the presence of eudesmane, bisabolane, dihydro-ar-curcumene and cadalene, found mainly in the coal samples. In addition, tri- and tetracyclic diterpanes, e. g. 16β(H)-kaurane, 16β(H)-phyllocladane, 16α(H)-kaurane and norisopimarane, were identified, suggesting an admixture of conifer ancestors among the deposited higher plants. Parameters Pr/n-C17 and Rdit in the coal samples show deposition of organic matter from peat swamp environments, with the water levels varying from high (water-logged swamp) to very low (ephemeral swamp). Clastic deposits were accumulated in a flood plain environment with local small ponds/lakes. In pond/lake sediments, apart from the dominant terrigenous organic matter, research also revealed a certain quantity of algal matter, indicated, i.a., by the presence of tricyclic triterpanes C28 and C29 and elevated concentrations of steranes. The Paq parameter can prove to be a useful tool in the identification of organic matter, but the processes of organic matter biodegradation observed in clastic rocks most likely influence the value of the parameter, at the same time lowering the interpretation potential of these compounds. The value of Pr/Ph varies from 0.93 to 5.24 and from 3

  12. Effect of Pre-oxidation on the Properties of Crushed Bituminous Coal and Activated Carbon Prepared Therefrom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The influence of a pre-oxidation process on the chemical properties of crushed bituminous coal and on adsorption properties of the subsequently formed char and activated carbon is discussed in this paper.Datong bituminous coal samples sized 6 mm were oxidized at different temperatures and for different times and then carbonized and activated by steam to obtain activated carbons.A Uniform Design method was used to arrange the experiments, IR and adsorption experiments were used to characterize these oxidized coals, chars and activated carbon samples.The results show that the carboxyl group disappeared and α-CH2 groups joined to alkenes decreased dramatically but the carbonyl group clearly increased in the coal sample oxidized at 543 K; The chemical composition of coal samples oxidized at lower temperature is different from that of coal oxidized at 543 K.Oxidizing coal samples at higher temperatures for a short time or at lower temperatures for a longer time resulted in activated carbon samples that tended toward the same adsorption properties: Iodine number 1100 mg/g and Methylene blue value 252 mg/g.The yield of activated carbon obtained from the pre-oxidized coal is 10% higher than the yield from parent coal but the activated carbons have the same adsorption properties.

  13. Quantitative Analysis of Carbon Content in Bituminous Coal by Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Using UV Laser Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiongwei; Mao, Xianglei; Wang, Zhe; Richard, E. Russo

    2015-11-01

    The carbon content of bituminous coal samples was analyzed by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. The 266 nm laser radiation was utilized for laser ablation and plasma generation in air. The partial least square method and the dominant factor based PLS method were used to improve the measurement accuracy of the carbon content of coal. The results showed that the PLS model could achieve good measurement accuracy, and the dominant factor based PLS model could further improve the measurement accuracy. The coefficient of determination and the root-mean-square error of prediction of the PLS model were 0.97 and 2.19%, respectively; and those values for the dominant factor based PLS model were 0.99 and 1.51%, respectively. The results demonstrated that the 266 nm wavelength could accurately measure the carbon content of bituminous coal. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51276100) and the National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program) (No. 2013CB228501). The authors also thank the financial funding from the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Chemical Science Division at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (No. 2013CB228501)

  14. Purging mixture for extruder

    OpenAIRE

    Okpala, Chukwubuike

    2015-01-01

    This thesis work focuses on compounding a mechanical purge mixture for extruders. The base resin for making the purge mixture is recycled High Density Polyethylene chosen for its high density and good processing temperature. The additives are mainly clay and sili-con dioxide added as filler and scrubbing materials respectively. The purge mixture was produced by mixing the base resin and additives in percentage ratios into five places la-beled A, B, C, D, and E. the mixtures were extruded and ...

  15. Low temperature asphalt mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Modrijan, Damjan

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents the problem of manufacturing and building in the asphalt mixtures produced by the classical hot procedure and the possibility of manufacturing low temperature asphalt mixtures.We will see the main advantages of low temperature asphalt mixtures prepared with bitumen with organic addition Sasobit and compare it to the classical asphalt mixtures. The advantages and disadvantages of that are valued in the practical example in the conclusion.

  16. A feasibility study to use coal tar contaminated soil in asphalt cement mixture production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal tars are the residues produced during the gasification of coal. Traditionally, coal tars were buried onsite at the power plants or left as residuals in the bottom of gas holders. Currently, there are more than 1,500 such historic sites which will undergo site assessment in the near future. The use of coal tar residuals in asphalt-based products could result in greatly reduced disposal costs, in comparison to current methods of disposal. Present disposal practice of coal tar contaminated residuals includes disposal in hazardous waste landfills or incineration. Treatment and disposal costs are reported to be as much as $1,000/ton for current coal tar contaminated residuals disposal options. This feasibility study was performed to determine the use of coal tar contaminated soil (CTCS) in bituminous materials to produce hot asphalt mix. Mixtures of varying composition of CTCS and bituminous material were produced to perform TCLP. The air emissions during the mixing process were captured and analyzed. In this study, a bench scale investigation was performed to identify and quantify the emissions from heating the CTCS at the mixer temperature. The pilot scale investigations were performed by replacing reclaimable asphalt pavement (RAP) with CTCS during the hot asphalt mix production. The investigations were performed on two types of mixtures; using CTCS as the direct additive in the first type, and using SS-1 (slow setting asphalt emulsion) stabilized CTCS as an additive in the second type

  17. Liquids and liquid mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Rowlinson, J S; Baldwin, J E; Buckingham, A D; Danishefsky, S

    2013-01-01

    Liquids and Liquid Mixtures, Third Edition explores the equilibrium properties of liquids and liquid mixtures and relates them to the properties of the constituent molecules using the methods of statistical thermodynamics. Topics covered include the critical state, fluid mixtures at high pressures, and the statistical thermodynamics of fluids and mixtures. This book consists of eight chapters and begins with an overview of the liquid state and the thermodynamic properties of liquids and liquid mixtures, including vapor pressure and heat capacities. The discussion then turns to the thermodynami

  18. Rheological behaviour of polymer-modified bituminous mastics : a comparative analysis between physical and chemical modification

    OpenAIRE

    Shivokhin, Maxim; García Morales, Moisés; Partal López, Pedro; Cuadri Vega, Antonio Abad; Gallegos Montes, Críspulo

    2012-01-01

    Mastic, a bitumen/filler blend which naturally forms when bitumen is mixed with aggregates is the actual product used to bind coarse mineral particles in the asphalt mixtures. As a result, the characterisation of mastics is essential to improve the understanding of the response and performance of asphalt concrete pavements. On the other hand, the lack of experimental data concerning the behaviour of mastics and, above all, polymer-modified mastics has been lately claimed. In that sense, this ...

  19. Selected annotated bibliography of the geology of uraniferous and radioactive native bituminous substances, exclusive of coals, in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harriet Nell

    1956-01-01

    Native bituminous substances are divided into two groups, 1) bitumens and, 2) pyrobitumens. Bitumens are composed principally of hydrocarbons substantially free from oxygenated bodies, are fusible, and are soluble in carbon disulfide. Native bitumens occur in liquid and solid forms. The native liquid bitumens include all petroleums or crude oils. Native solid bitumens include native waxes such as ozocerite, asphalts or petroleum tars, and asphaltites such as gilsonite and grahamite. Pyrobitumens are composed principally of hydrocarbons which may contain oxygenated bodies. They are infusible and are insoluble, or nearly insoluble, in carbon disulfide. Native pyrobitumens are divided into an oxygen-containing group including peats, lignites, and coals, and an essentially oxygen-free, asphaltic group including such substances as wurtzilite, albertite, impsonite, and ingramite. Thucholites, which are carbonaceous substances that may contain uranium, thorium, and rare earths, commonly are considered to be pyrobitumens. Their compositions are variable and may fall into either the oxygen-containing or oxygen-free group. All varieties of native bituminous substances may be associated with mineral matter. The nomenclature of bitumens and pyrobitumens is used very loosely in the literature. This circumstance arises from the difficulty in recognizing many of these substances by visual examination, and because many of them can be identified accurately only by chemical methods. Inasmuch as some of the chemical procedures are time-consuming and satisfactory analytical methods have not been devised for all these substances, geologists generally have not obtained precise identifications but rather have used names that appeared most appropriate to the circumstances. It is expected that future research will show many substances called "asphaltite," "thucholite," etc., to be incorrectly identified. The nomenclature used by the authors of the various references of this bibliography is

  20. Petrography and geochemistry of Oligocene bituminous coal from the Jiu Valley, Petrosani basin (southern Carpathian Mountains), Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belkin, Harvey E.; Tewalt, Susan J. [U.S. Geological Survey, 956 National Center, Reston, VA 20192 (United States); Hower, James C. [University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, 2540 Research Park Drive, Lexington, KY 40511 (United States); Stucker, J.D. [University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, 2540 Research Park Drive, Lexington, KY 40511 (United States); University of Kentucky Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); O' Keefe, Jennifer M.K. [Morehead State University, Morehead, KY, 40351 (United States); Tatu, Calin A. [University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Department of Immunology, Clinical Laboratory No. 1, Pta. E. Murgu No. 2, RO-1900 Timisoara (Romania); Buia, Grigore [University of Petrosani, Department of Geology, University St. 20, RO-2675 Petrosani (Romania)

    2010-05-01

    Belt samples of Oligocene (Chattian) bituminous coal from 10 underground mines located in the Jiu Valley, Hunedoara County, Petrosani basin, Romania, have been examined and analyzed for proximate and ultimate analysis, major-, minor- and trace-element chemistry, organic petrography, and vitrinite reflectance. The mineral chemistry and mode of occurrence of trace elements also have been investigated using SEM and electron microprobe techniques. Twenty coal beds occur in the Jiu Valley and most of the samples are from bed no. 3, the most productive bed of the Dilja-Uricani Formation of Oligocene age. The Petrosani basin, oriented SW-NE, is 48-km long, 10-km wide at the eastern part and 2-km wide at the western part. The coal mines are distributed along the center of the valley generally following the Jiu de Vest River. Reflectance measurements indicate that the rank of the coals ranges from high-volatile B to high-volatile A bituminous. Overall, rank decreases from the southwest to the northeast. In bed no. 3, R{sub max} varies from 0.75% in the northeast to 0.93% in the southwest. Although, most Oligocene coals in Romania and adjacent countries are lignite in rank, the Jiu Valley bituminous coals have been affected by regional metamorphism and attending hydrothermal fluids related to the Alpine orogenic event. The coals are all dominated by vitrinite; resinite and funginite are important minor macerals in most of the coals. Pyrite and carbonate generally dominate the mineral assemblages with carbonate more abundant in the northwest. Siderite occurs as nodules and masses within the macerals (generally vitrinite). Dolomite and calcite occur as fracture fillings, plant-cell fillings, and in other authigenic forms. Late-stage fracture fillings are siderite, dolomite, calcite, and ankerite. In one instance, two populations of siderite ({proportional_to} 35 and {proportional_to} 45 wt.% FeO) plus ankerite fill a large fracture. Late-stage pyrite framboid alteration is Ni

  1. Effect of structural alteration on the macromolecular properties of brown and bituminous coals, quantitative relationships to the hydrogenation reactivity with tetralin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, P.N.; Kuznetsova, L.I. [Inst. of Chemistry and Chemico-Metallurgical Processes, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Bimer, J.; Salbut, P.D. [Inst. of Organic Chemistry, Warszawa (Poland); Gruber, R. [Univ. de Metz (France)

    1996-12-31

    The mobility of macromolecular network has been found to be the fundamental property of both brown and bituminous coals governing the reactivity for hydrogenation with tetralin. In Kansk-Achinsk brown coal, this was primarily affected by carboxylate cross-linking via polyvalent cations like Ca.

  2. Combustion characteristics of Malaysian oil palm biomass, sub-bituminous coal and their respective blends via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Siti Shawalliah; Rahman, Norazah Abd; Ismail, Khudzir

    2012-11-01

    The combustion characteristics of Malaysia oil palm biomass (palm kernel shell (PKS), palm mesocarp fibre (PMF) and empty fruit bunches (EFB)), sub-bituminous coal (Mukah Balingian) and coal/biomass blends via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were investigated. Six weight ratios of coal/biomass blends were prepared and oxidised under dynamic conditions from temperature 25 to 1100°C at four heating rates. The thermogravimetric analysis demonstrated that the EFB and PKS evolved additional peak besides drying, devolatilisation and char oxidation steps during combustion. Ignition and burn out temperatures of blends were improved in comparison to coal. No interactions were observed between the coal and biomass during combustion. The apparent activation energy during this process was evaluated using iso-conversional model free kinetics which resulted in highest activation energy during combustion of PKS followed by PMF, EFB and MB coal. Blending oil palm biomass with coal reduces the apparent activation energy value. PMID:22944493

  3. Comparative study of thermal properties of bio-coal from aromatic spent with low rank sub-bituminous coals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Vineet; Baruah, B P; Khare, Puja

    2013-06-01

    In present investigation, biocoal samples were prepared from aromatic plant waste of two perennial grasses, i.e. Cymbopogon flexuosus (lemongrass) and Vetiveria zizanioides (khus) after oil extraction, root of Rosa damascene (rose), bark of Eucalyptus citriodora. These biocoals were characterized by proximate, ultimate, metal, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) spectroscopy and ash analyses. Activation energies, initial temperature of devolatilization, maximum rate of weight loss (Rmax), fouling, slagging and alkali index were determined on the basis of TGA and ash analysis. These biocoals have good calorific values. There is possibility of slagging and fouling in combustion system but it is not severe. Owing to their similar fuel properties as high sulphur sub-bituminous coal, they can be good candidates for co-firing. Blending of these biocoals with high sulphur coals will serve dual purpose as (i) alternate fuel, and (ii) reduction in SO2 emission. PMID:23603187

  4. 基于APA的沥青混合料水稳性试验研究%Experimental investigation of cement stability of bituminous mixture based on APA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亿龙

    2007-01-01

    分析了几种评价沥青混合料水稳性的方法,比较了其特点以及存在的问题,通过对不同级配的沥青混合料进行APA浸水车辙试验,得出APA浸水车辙试验评价沥青混合料的水稳性能较好模拟实际路面发生水损害的结论.

  5. Waste to Wealth; The Utilization of Scrap Tyre as Aggregate in Bituminous Mixes for Road Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oba, A. L.,

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The problem associated with solid waste management is on the increase both in the industries, urban cities and in the rural areas. In the United States of America, Asia and Europe, there are over hundreds of waste to wealth combustion plants from where solid wastes are incinerated. In Nigeria, amidst the increasing importation of vehicle tyre such plants are scarcely in existence to enhance generation of revenue from waste through the extraction of raw material for the production of light weight aggregates, printing ink, paints, shoe polish, dry cell and battery heads. This research paper seeks to utilize vehicle scrap tyre (VST as aggregates in asphaltic mixture by adopting the dry process to evaluate the effect of rubber-bitumen interaction on asphaltic concrete properties; laboratory investigation using 4.75mm, 2.36mm and 0.600mm chunk tyre particle size modified asphalt mixture containing 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% scrap tyre and 0% tyre content as control mixture. The mixtures were subjected to Marshall Tests where the stability, flow, percentage air void, unit weight, void mineral aggregate, height of specimen and specific gravity were determined. The results obtained shows that as tyre percentage increase the stability, unit weight and specific gravity value decreases. On the other hand, as the tyre content increases, the flow and height of specimen increases while as the tyre content increases the percentage air void and VMA increased for 4.75mm Tyre Particle Size (TPS and 2.36mm TPS while for 0.600mm TPS, reverse is the case. In summary and in comparism with standard specification for road construction material, the Marshall tests conducted on the tyre modified specimens remained intact and by interpretation; material possessing such property indicates good impact resistance when use as surface course in flexible pavement. Conclusively, the use of 10% 4.75mm, 4% 2.36mm or 4% 0.600mm TPS by weight of aggregate in asphaltic concrete is

  6. Structural characterization of vitrinite-rich and inertinite-rich Permian-aged South African bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Niekerk, Daniel; Mathews, Jonathan P. [Energy and Mineral Engineering and the EMS Energy Institute, Pennsylvania State University, Hosler Building, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Pugmire, Ronald J. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Solum, Mark S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Painter, Paul C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, 320 Steidle Building, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Two South African coals of the same rank and age, but different in maceral composition were subjected to extensive structural analyses. Inertinite-rich Highveld coal (dominated by semifusinite) and vitrinite-rich Waterberg coal were studied to determine structural differences and similarities. The two coals had similar carbon content ({proportional_to} 84%, dmmf) and vitrinite reflectance (mean-maximum 0.71% for vitrinite-rich vs. 0.75% for inertinite-rich), but differed in hydrogen content (6.23% for vitrinite-rich and 4.53% for inertinite-rich). The inertinite-rich coal was more aromatic (86% for inertinite-rich and 76% for vitrinite-rich) and more polycondensed (indicated by a higher bridgehead carbon content). The inertinite-rich coal was structurally more ordered, with a higher degree of crystalline stacking. Both coals had similar average aromatic cluster sizes (16 carbons for vitrinite-rich and 18 carbons for inertinite-rich) and number of cluster attachments (6 attachments for vitrinite-rich and 5 attachments for inertinite-rich). Mass spectrometry showed that both coals consist of similar molecular weight distributions; ranging to approximately 1700 m/z with a maximum abundance of {proportional_to} 450 m/z for the vitrinite-rich coal and {proportional_to} 550 m/z for the inertinite-rich coal. Compared to the Argonne Premium coals the South African vitrinite-rich Waterberg coal was comparable to the coals in the high-volatile bituminous range and inertinite-rich Highveld was closer to the medium- to low-volatile bituminous range. Both coals were surprisingly similar in bulk characterization, although inertinite-rich Highveld coal was structurally more ordered, hydrogen deficient, and more aromatic. (author)

  7. Iterative Mixture Component Pruning Algorithm for Gaussian Mixture PHD Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoxi Yan

    2014-01-01

    As far as the increasing number of mixture components in the Gaussian mixture PHD filter is concerned, an iterative mixture component pruning algorithm is proposed. The pruning algorithm is based on maximizing the posterior probability density of the mixture weights. The entropy distribution of the mixture weights is adopted as the prior distribution of mixture component parameters. The iterative update formulations of the mixture weights are derived by Lagrange multiplier and Lambert W funct...

  8. Perception of trigeminal mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filiou, Renée-Pier; Lepore, Franco; Bryant, Bruce; Lundström, Johan N; Frasnelli, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    The trigeminal system is a chemical sense allowing for the perception of chemosensory information in our environment. However, contrary to smell and taste, we lack a thorough understanding of the trigeminal processing of mixtures. We, therefore, investigated trigeminal perception using mixtures of 3 relatively receptor-specific agonists together with one control odor in different proportions to determine basic perceptual dimensions of trigeminal perception. We found that 4 main dimensions were linked to trigeminal perception: sensations of intensity, warmth, coldness, and pain. We subsequently investigated perception of binary mixtures of trigeminal stimuli by means of these 4 perceptual dimensions using different concentrations of a cooling stimulus (eucalyptol) mixed with a stimulus that evokes warmth perception (cinnamaldehyde). To determine if sensory interactions are mainly of central or peripheral origin, we presented stimuli in a physical "mixture" or as a "combination" presented separately to individual nostrils. Results showed that mixtures generally yielded higher ratings than combinations on the trigeminal dimensions "intensity," "warm," and "painful," whereas combinations yielded higher ratings than mixtures on the trigeminal dimension "cold." These results suggest dimension-specific interactions in the perception of trigeminal mixtures, which may be explained by particular interactions that may take place on peripheral or central levels.

  9. Perception of trigeminal mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filiou, Renée-Pier; Lepore, Franco; Bryant, Bruce; Lundström, Johan N; Frasnelli, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    The trigeminal system is a chemical sense allowing for the perception of chemosensory information in our environment. However, contrary to smell and taste, we lack a thorough understanding of the trigeminal processing of mixtures. We, therefore, investigated trigeminal perception using mixtures of 3 relatively receptor-specific agonists together with one control odor in different proportions to determine basic perceptual dimensions of trigeminal perception. We found that 4 main dimensions were linked to trigeminal perception: sensations of intensity, warmth, coldness, and pain. We subsequently investigated perception of binary mixtures of trigeminal stimuli by means of these 4 perceptual dimensions using different concentrations of a cooling stimulus (eucalyptol) mixed with a stimulus that evokes warmth perception (cinnamaldehyde). To determine if sensory interactions are mainly of central or peripheral origin, we presented stimuli in a physical "mixture" or as a "combination" presented separately to individual nostrils. Results showed that mixtures generally yielded higher ratings than combinations on the trigeminal dimensions "intensity," "warm," and "painful," whereas combinations yielded higher ratings than mixtures on the trigeminal dimension "cold." These results suggest dimension-specific interactions in the perception of trigeminal mixtures, which may be explained by particular interactions that may take place on peripheral or central levels. PMID:25500807

  10. Computational micromechanical analysis of the representative volume element of bituminous composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Hasan; Ghauch, Ziad G.; Dhasmana, Heena; Al-Qadi, Imad L.

    2016-08-01

    Micromechanical computational modeling is used in this study to determine the smallest domain, or Representative Volume Element (RVE), that can be used to characterize the effective properties of composite materials such as Asphalt Concrete (AC). Computational Finite Element (FE) micromechanical modeling was coupled with digital image analysis of surface scans of AC specimens. Three mixtures with varying Nominal Maximum Aggregate Size (NMAS) of 4.75 mm, 12.5 mm, and 25 mm, were prepared for digital image analysis and computational micromechanical modeling. The effects of window size and phase modulus mismatch on the apparent viscoelastic response of the composite were numerically examined. A good agreement was observed in the RVE size predictions based on micromechanical computational modeling and image analysis. Micromechanical results indicated that a degradation in the matrix stiffness increases the corresponding RVE size. Statistical homogeneity was observed for window sizes equal to two to three times the NMAS. A model was presented for relating the degree of statistical homogeneity associated with each window size for materials with varying inclusion dimensions.

  11. Bituminous solidification, disposal, transport and burial of spent ion-exchange resins. Part of a coordinated programme on treatment of spent ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project dealing with the incorporation of spent ion-exchange resins into bitumen was performed within the Agency coordinated research programme on treatment of spent ion-exchange resins. Physical and chemical properties of commercial ion-exchange resins, bitumens and bituminized resins were studied. It was shown that bitumen with low oil content and with a softening point of 60-70 deg. C are applicable for the incorporation of resins. The final waste form is allowed to contain maximum 50% resin. The comprehensive study of the biological resistance of B-30 bitumen was performed. That showed that any bacteriological attack can be regarded as generally insignificant. A continuously operating technology was realized on a semi-plant scale. The best operating conditions of this technology were determined. On the basis of the experience gained from the experiments a design of the bituminization plant of 50m3 dry resin/year treatment capacity was proposed

  12. Effect of transesterification degree and post-treatment on the in-service performance of NCO-functionalized vegetable oil bituminous products

    OpenAIRE

    Cuadri Vega, Antonio Abad; García Morales, Moisés; Navarro Domínguez, Francisco Javier; Partal López, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    The bitumen modification through polyurethane prepolymers presents significant benefits for the manufacture of bituminous products for the paving industry. In this sense, this work explores the use, as bitumen modifier, of a novel reactive prepolymer synthesized by reaction of 4,4´,diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) and a vegetable oil-based polyol, castor oil (CO), previously transesterified with pentaerythritol. On the one hand, thermal analysis on transesterified CO revealed a highly stabl...

  13. JV Task-123 Determination of Trace Element Concentrations at an Eastern Bituminous Coal Plant Employing an SCR and Wet FGD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis Laudal

    2008-05-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), in partnership with Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) and with funding from U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), conducting tests to prove that a high level of mercury control (>90%) can be achieved at a power plant burning a high-sulfur eastern bituminous coal. With funding from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), DOE, and Center for Air Toxic Metals{reg_sign} (CATM{reg_sign}) Affiliates Program, the EERC completed an additional sampling project to provide data as to the behavior of a number of trace elements across the various pollution control devices, with a special emphasis on the wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. Results showed that the concentrations of almost all the elements of interest leaving the stack were very low, and a high percentage of the trace elements were captured in the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) (for most, >80%). Although, with a few exceptions, the overall mass balances were generally quite good, the mass balances across the wet FGD were more variable. This is most likely a result of some of the concentrations being very low and also the uncertainties in determining flows within a wet FGD.

  14. Co-combustion of bituminous coal and biomass fuel blends: Thermochemical characterization, potential utilization and environmental advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuncai; Liu, Guijian; Wang, Xudong; Qi, Cuicui

    2016-10-01

    The thermochemical characteristics and gaseous trace pollutant behaviors during co-combustion medium-to-low ash bituminous coal with typical biomass residues (corn stalk and sawdust) were investigated. Lowering of ignition index, burnout temperature and activation energy in the major combustion stage are observed in the coal/biomass blends. The blending proportion of 20% and 30% are regarded as the optimum blends for corn stalk and sawdust, respectively, in according the limitations of heating value, activation energy, flame stability and base/acid ratio. The reductions of gaseous As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) were 4.5%, 7.8%, 6.3%, 9.8%, 9.4% and 17.4%, respectively, when co-combustion coal with 20% corn stalk. The elevated capture of trace elements were found in coal/corn stalk blend, while the coal/sawdust blend has the better PAHs control potential. The reduction mechanisms of gaseous trace pollutants were attributed to the fuel property, ash composition and relative residence time during combustion. PMID:27393832

  15. Dye-adsorption capacity of bituminous fly ash and its pozzolanic property after used as dye-adsorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penpolcharoen, M.

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Bituminous fly ash, which is an industrial waste, was used as an adsorbent to remove dyestuff from the textile-dye wastewater. The batch kinetic and isotherm experiments of the synthetic wastewater were firstly conducted to determine the adsorption behavior and optimal conditions for adsorption. The optimal conditions were then applied to the actual textile-dye wastewater. Under the original conditions of fly ash and wastewater, the results indicated that the color could be removed up to 86.65% by 12 g of the fly ash /L of the wastewater within 30 min. Its adsorption was described by the Freundlich isotherm. The dye-adsorbed fly ash was further studied on its pozzolanic property in terms of compressive strength by using it as a partial substitute to Portland cement type I to produce mortar. The result revealed that the highest compressive strength was of the sample containing 10% by weight of the dye-adsorbed fly ash in replacement of cement. It possessed 215 kg/cm2 at 28 days, which is 92.67% of the sample containing 10% by weight of the original fly ash in replacement of cement, or 83.33 of the cement mortar. For the environmental concern, leachabilities of lead (Pb, chromium (Cr, copper (Cu and zinc (Zn from all mortars were also carried out. No leaching of the heavy metals from any samples could be detected. Hence, the dye-adsorbed fly ash can be used as an environmental friendly construction material.

  16. Effect of mineral matrix and seam thickness on reflectance of vitrinite in high to low volatile bituminous coals - an enigma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodarzi, F.; Gentzis, T.; Snowdon, L.R.; Bustin, R.M.; Feinstein, S.; Labonte, M. (Geological Survey of Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada). Inst. of Sedimentary and Petroleum Geology)

    1993-04-01

    The variation of vitrinite reflectance with respect to mineral matrix (lithology), the thickness of coal seams and coal lenses and the type of organic matter was studied from two cores in a 550 m sedimentary succession from the Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous Kootenay Group. The data obtained indicate that reflectance in high to low volatile bituminous coals (%R[sub o], max0.8-1.35) with depth of burial is affected by the percentage of organic matter in the samples. A positive correlation between the vitrinite reflectance and the percentage of organic matter and a negative correlation with the percentage of mineral matter exist and the thicker the coal interval, the higher the vitrinite reflectance. Variations in vitrinite reflectance may be attributed to chemical differences in the organic matter, possibly induced by degradation and diagenesis syn- or post-depositionally, and to the effect of some clay minerals present in the sediments, which may act as catalysts. Differences in the thermal conductivity of the strata have demonstrably not accounted for the observed variations in reflectance with lithology. The differences in the vitrinite reflectance of organic matter between lithotypes is substantial and is thus an important consideration in resolving the time-temperature history and generation of hydrocarbons from a sedimentary succession.

  17. Assessing radionuclide release and migration during deep geological disposal of bituminized waste: the COLONBO model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: Bitumen is being used for many years in France as an embedding matrix for the conditioning of low and medium level activity waste resulting from nuclear effluent treatment. Long term management options for this kind of waste include at present deep geological disposal. As a consequence, the COLONBO model has been developed by CEA to predict the long term release of chemical species out of bitumen waste and the subsequent radionuclide migration in the deep geological near field. The COLONBO model is divided into a 'waste package' module, coupled with a 'near field' module. In the first module, the waste package is represented as a bitumen matrix containing an homogeneous dispersion of the salts resulting from the effluent insolubilization treatment. Radionuclides initially present in the waste are thus associated with a mixture of soluble (NaNO3 and Na2SO4) and sparingly soluble (mainly BaSO4) salts. Under leaching, solubilization of water in the bitumen occur at the wasteform surface, followed by water diffusion through the bitumen matrix. Consequently, the soluble salts are progressively dissolved by water accumulation, resulting in a local swelling of the waste package. This swelling induces a local alteration of the diffusive properties of the bitumen matrix, allowing an outward diffusion of the dissolved salts and radionuclides. The resulting migration of chemical species through the storage facility near field is then described in a 'near field' module. In this module, transport is accounted by a simplified reactive diffusion model through porous media, in both saturated or unsaturated conditions. Up to three different zones of the near field can be included, which are described by their respective porosity, hydraulic conductivity, diffusion and retention (Kd) parameters. In the whole system (waste package + near field), water concentration profiles, the position of salt dissolution fronts and chemical species migration are

  18. Evaluation of the fatigue macro-cracking behavior of crumb rubber modified bituminous mixes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno-Navarro, F.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of crumb rubber modified bitumen (CRMB in asphalt mixes is a road engineering technology that has become increasingly important in recent years. Given the many economic and environmental benefits of this type of binder, the goal is to give CRMB the same level of performance as conventional polymer-modified bitumen. The appearance and propagation of cracks due to fatigue phenomena is one of the most common distresses affecting road pavements. Since crumb rubber enhances the mechanical properties of asphalt mixes, it can provide a viable solution for fatigue cracking. This paper presents the results of a comparative analysis of the fatigue-cracking behavior of asphalt mixtures manufactured with crumb rubber modified bitumen and polymer-modified bitumen.El empleo de betunes modificados con polvo de neumático usado en la fabricación de mezclas bituminosas es una de las técnicas que mayor auge está teniendo en los últimos años en la ingeniería de carreteras. Dadas sus grandes ventajas económicas y ambientales, este tipo de ligantes pretende conseguir prestaciones similares a la de los betunes modificados con polímeros utilizados habitualmente. La aparición de fisuras debido a fenómenos de fatiga es una de las patologías más comunes en firmes de carretera. Debido a las mejoras de las propiedades mecánicas del betún aportadas tras la incorporación de polvo de neumático, las mezclas fabricadas con estos ligantes se postulan como una posible solución a dicho problema. En este artículo se lleva a cabo un análisis comparativo del comportamiento a fisuración por fatiga realizado sobre mezclas bituminosas fabricadas con betún modificado con polvo de neumático y con polímeros.

  19. Multilevel Mixture Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Wang

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The mixture Kalman filter is a general sequential Monte Carlo technique for conditional linear dynamic systems. It generates samples of some indicator variables recursively based on sequential importance sampling (SIS and integrates out the linear and Gaussian state variables conditioned on these indicators. Due to the marginalization process, the complexity of the mixture Kalman filter is quite high if the dimension of the indicator sampling space is high. In this paper, we address this difficulty by developing a new Monte Carlo sampling scheme, namely, the multilevel mixture Kalman filter. The basic idea is to make use of the multilevel or hierarchical structure of the space from which the indicator variables take values. That is, we draw samples in a multilevel fashion, beginning with sampling from the highest-level sampling space and then draw samples from the associate subspace of the newly drawn samples in a lower-level sampling space, until reaching the desired sampling space. Such a multilevel sampling scheme can be used in conjunction with the delayed estimation method, such as the delayed-sample method, resulting in delayed multilevel mixture Kalman filter. Examples in wireless communication, specifically the coherent and noncoherent 16-QAM over flat-fading channels, are provided to demonstrate the performance of the proposed multilevel mixture Kalman filter.

  20. Development and evaluation of coal/water mixture combustion technology. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheffee, R.S.; Rossmeissl, N.P.; Skolnik, E.G.; McHale, E.T.

    1981-08-01

    The objective was to advance the technology for the preparation, storage, handling and combustion of highly-loaded coal/water mixtures. A systematic program to prepare and experimentally evaluate coal/water mixtures was conducted to develop mixtures which (1) burn efficiently using combustion chambers and burners designed for oil, (2) can be provided at a cost less than that of No. 6 oil, and (3) can be easily transported and stored. The program consisted of three principal tasks. The first was a literature survey relevant to coal/water mixture technology. The second involved slurry preparation and evaluation of rheological and stability properties, and processing techniques. The third consisted of combustion tests to characterize equipment and slurry parameters. The first task comprised a complete search of the literature, results of which are tabulated in Appendix A. Task 2 was involved with the evaluation of composition and process variables on slurry rheology and stability. Three bituminous coals, representing a range of values of volatile content, ash content, and hardness were used in the slurries. Task 3 was concerned with the combustion behavior of coal/water slurry. The studies involved first upgrading of an experimental furnace facility, which was used to burn slurry fuels, with emphasis on studying the effect on combustion of slurry properties such as viscosity and particle size, and the effect of equipment parameters such as secondary air preheat and atomization.

  1. Mixtures Estimation and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mengersen, Kerrie; Titterington, Mike

    2011-01-01

    This book uses the EM (expectation maximization) algorithm to simultaneously estimate the missing data and unknown parameter(s) associated with a data set. The parameters describe the component distributions of the mixture; the distributions may be continuous or discrete. The editors provide a complete account of the applications, mathematical structure and statistical analysis of finite mixture distributions along with MCMC computational methods, together with a range of detailed discussions covering the applications of the methods and features chapters from the leading experts on the subject

  2. I-optimal mixture designs

    OpenAIRE

    Goos, Peter; JONES, Bradley; SYAFITRI, Utami

    2013-01-01

    In mixture experiments, the factors under study are proportions of the ingredients of a mixture. The special nature of the factors in a mixture experiment necessitates specific types of regression models, and specific types of experimental designs. Although mixture experiments usually are intended to predict the response(s) for all possible formulations of the mixture and to identify optimal proportions for each of the ingredients, little research has been done concerning their I-optimal desi...

  3. Mixtures and interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groten, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    Drinking water can be considered as a complex mixture that consists of tens, hundreds or thousands of chemicals of which the composition is qualitatively and quantitatively not fully known. From a public health point of view it is most relevant to answer the question of whether chemicals in drinking

  4. Effect of asphaltene and resin oils on the viscosity of bituminous petroleum materials to be used as asphalt primers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bencomo, M. R.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The bituminous crude from the Machete, Venezuela, area, which has such a fluid consistency that it falls outside the normal scope of the A5TM D-5 (1 penetration test exceeding the 3D-mm ceiling specified in that standard and can be used as an asphalt primer: Like other asphalt products, these materials are -chemically speaking- a mix of numerous naphthenic, paraffinic and aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic compounds containing sulphur, nitrogen, oxygen and so on. They have a dense and a malthene oil phase which, along with the natural hydrocarbons additives used in these products acts as a volatile fluidizer. The former is described as a mix of asphaltenes: complex high molecular weight substances that are insoluble in paraffinic hydrocarbons and soluble in aromatic compounds such as benzene. The malthene oil phase, in turn, consists in a mix of resins and hydrocarbons and together the two constitute a colloidal system. The experiments discussed in the present paper were conducted to determine the effect of the proportion of asphaltenes and resin oils on the viscosity of such bituminous crude emulsions/ with a view to their use as primers. These experiments were run in a Parr batch reactor in a nitrogen atmosphere using n-heptane as a solvent. The resins were separated after the asphaltenes precipitated from the samples and subsequently from the malthene fraction obtained. The results showed that the asphaltenes account for the structural characteristics and consistency of the medium and the resin oils for its cohesive properties/,the malthene oils act as solvents.Los crudos extrapesados procedentes del área Machete (Venezuela son materiales de consistencia blanda o fluida, por lo que se salen del campo en el que normalmente se aplica el ensayo de penetración a productos asfálticos según el método ASTM D-5 (1, cuyo límite máximo es 30 mm, y pueden ser utilizados como pinturas asfálticas de imprimación. Al igual que otros productos

  5. Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL{trademark}) process bench studies and PDU scale-up with sub-bituminous coal. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comolli, A.G.; Johanson, E.S.; Karolkiewicz, W.F.; Lee, L.K.T.; Stalzer, R.H.; Smith, T.O.

    1993-03-01

    Reported are the details and results of Laboratory and Bench-Scale experiments using sub-bituminous coal conducted at Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-88PC88818 during the period October 1, 1988 to December 31, 1992. The work described is primarily concerned with testing of the baseline Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL{trademark}) process with comparisons with other two stage process configurations, catalyst evaluations and unit operations such as solid separation, pretreatments, on-line hydrotreating, and an examination of new concepts. In the overall program, three coals were evaluated, bituminous Illinois No. 6, Burning Star and sub-bituminous Wyoming Black Thunder and New Mexico McKinley Mine seams. The results from a total of 16 bench-scale runs are reported and analyzed in detail. The runs (experiments) concern process variables, variable reactor volumes, catalysts (both supported, dispersed and rejuvenated), coal cleaned by agglomeration, hot slurry treatments, reactor sequence, on-line hydrotreating, dispersed catalyst with pretreatment reactors and CO{sub 2}/coal effects. The tests involving the Wyoming and New Mexico Coals are reported herein, and the tests involving the Illinois coal are described in Topical Report No. 2. On a laboratory scale, microautoclave tests evaluating coal, start-up oils, catalysts, thermal treatment, CO{sub 2} addition and sulfur compound effects were conducted and reported in Topical Report No. 3. Other microautoclave tests are described in the Bench Run sections to which they refer such as: rejuvenated catalyst, coker liquids and cleaned coals. The microautoclave tests conducted for modelling the CTSL{trademark} process are described in the CTSL{trademark} Modelling section of Topical Report No. 3 under this contract.

  6. Detection of rare earth elements in Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal ash using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Phuoc [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United State; Mcintyre, Dustin [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United State

    2015-10-01

    We reported our preliminary results on the use of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy to analyze the rare earth elements contained in ash samples from Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal (PRB-coal). We have identified many elements in the lanthanide series (cerium, europium, holmium, lanthanum, lutetium, praseodymium, promethium, samarium, terbium, ytterbium) and some elements in the actinide series (actinium, thorium, uranium, plutonium, berkelium, californium) in the ash samples. In addition, various metals were also seen to present in the ash samples

  7. Selective Adsorption and Selective Transport Diffusion of CO2-CH4 Binary Mixture in Coal Ultramicropores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yongliang; Feng, Yanhui; Zhang, Xinxin

    2016-09-01

    The adsorption and diffusion of the CO2-CH4 mixture in coal and the underlying mechanisms significantly affect the design and operation of any CO2-enhanced coal-bed methane recovery (CO2-ECBM) project. In this study, bituminous coal was fabricated based on the Wiser molecular model and its ultramicroporous parameters were evaluated; molecular simulations were established through Grand Canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) and Molecular Dynamic (MD) methods to study the effects of temperature, pressure, and species bulk mole fraction on the adsorption isotherms, adsorption selectivity, three distinct diffusion coefficients, and diffusivity selectivity of the binary mixture in the coal ultramicropores. It turns out that the absolute adsorption amount of each species in the mixture decreases as temperature increases, but increases as its own bulk mole fraction increases. The self-, corrected, and transport diffusion coefficients of pure CO2 and pure CH4 all increase as temperature or/and their own bulk mole fractions increase. Compared to CH4, the adsorption and diffusion of CO2 are preferential in the coal ultramicropores. Adsorption selectivity and diffusivity selectivity were simultaneously employed to reveal that the optimal injection depth for CO2-ECBM is 800-1000 m at 308-323 K temperature and 8.0-10.0 MPa. PMID:27518119

  8. Controls on coalbed methane potential and gas sorption characteristics of high-volatile bituminous coals in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano-Acosta, Wilfrido

    distribution, and adsorption experiments at high and low gas pressures are employed to estimate reservoir gas capacity and to characterize high volatile bituminous coals of Indiana for potential future CO2 sequestration. Understanding the mechanisms and geologic conditions that control the occurrence of gas in coal allows us to better characterize: (1) CBM reservoirs for their potential economic use, and (2) coal seams as future receptacles of anthropogenic carbon dioxide.

  9. Progressive oxidation of pyrite in five bituminous coal samples: An As XANES and 57Fe Moessbauer spectroscopic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naturally occurring pyrite commonly contains minor substituted metals and metalloids (As, Se, Hg, Cu, Ni, etc.) that can be released to the environment as a result of its weathering. Arsenic, often the most abundant minor constituent in pyrite, is a sensitive monitor of progressive pyrite oxidation in coal. To test the effect of pyrite composition and environmental parameters on the rate and extent of pyrite oxidation in coal, splits of five bituminous coal samples having differing amounts of pyrite and extents of As substitution in the pyrite, were exposed to a range of simulated weathering conditions over a period of 17 months. Samples investigated include a Springfield coal from Indiana (whole coal pyritic S = 2.13 wt.%; As in pyrite = detection limit (d.l.) to 0.06 wt.%), two Pittsburgh coal samples from West Virginia (pyritic S = 1.32-1.58 wt.%; As in pyrite = d.l. to 0.34 wt.%), and two samples from the Warrior Basin, Alabama (pyritic S = 0.26-0.27 wt.%; As in pyrite = d.l. to 2.72 wt.%). Samples were collected from active mine faces, and expected differences in the concentration of As in pyrite were confirmed by electron microprobe analysis. Experimental weathering conditions in test chambers were maintained as follows: (1) dry Ar atmosphere; (2) dry O2 atmosphere; (3) room atmosphere (relative humidity ∼20-60%); and (4) room atmosphere with samples wetted periodically with double-distilled water. Sample splits were removed after one month, nine months, and 17 months to monitor the extent of As and Fe oxidation using As X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy and 57Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy, respectively. Arsenic XANES spectroscopy shows progressive oxidation of pyritic As to arsenate, with wetted samples showing the most rapid oxidation. 57Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy also shows a much greater proportion of Fe3+ forms (jarosite, Fe3+ sulfate, FeOOH) for samples stored under wet conditions, but much less difference among samples stored

  10. Toxicological evaluation of chemical mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feron, V.J.; Groten, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    This paper addresses major developments in the safety evaluation of chemical mixtures during the past 15 years, reviews today's state of the art of mixture toxicology, and discusses challenges ahead. Well-thought-out tailor-made mechanistic and empirical designs for studying the toxicity of mixtures

  11. Separating Underdetermined Convolutive Speech Mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Syskind; Wang, DeLiang; Larsen, Jan;

    2006-01-01

    a method for underdetermined blind source separation of convolutive mixtures. The proposed framework is applicable for separation of instantaneous as well as convolutive speech mixtures. It is possible to iteratively extract each speech signal from the mixture by combining blind source separation...

  12. Separation of gas mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apparatus is described for the separation of a gaseous plasma mixture into components in some of which the original concentration of a specific ion has been greatly increased or decreased, comprising: a source for converting the gaseous mixture into a train of plasma packets; an open-ended vessel with a main section and at least one branch section, adapted to enclose along predetermined tracks the original plasma packets in the main section, and the separated plasma components in the branch sections; drive means for generating travelling magnetic waves along the predetermined tracks with the magnetic flux vector of the waves transverse to each of the tracks; and means for maintaining phase coherence between the plasma packets and the magnetic waves at a value needed for accelerating the components of the packets to different velocities and in such different directions that the plasma of each packet is divided into distinctly separate packets in some of which the original concentration of a specific ion has been greatly increased or decreased, and which plasma packets are collected from the branch sections of the vessels. (author)

  13. Mixture Based Outlier Filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pecherková

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Success/failure of adaptive control algorithms – especially those designed using the Linear Quadratic Gaussian criterion – depends on the quality of the process data used for model identification. One of the most harmful types of process data corruptions are outliers, i.e. ‘wrong data’ lying far away from the range of real data. The presence of outliers in the data negatively affects an estimation of the dynamics of the system. This effect is magnified when the outliers are grouped into blocks. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for outlier detection and removal. It is based on modelling the corrupted data by a two-component probabilistic mixture. The first component of the mixture models uncorrupted process data, while the second models outliers. When the outlier component is detected to be active, a prediction from the uncorrupted data component is computed and used as a reconstruction of the observed data. The resulting reconstruction filter is compared to standard methods on simulated and real data. The filter exhibits excellent properties, especially in the case of blocks of outliers. 

  14. Toxicological evaluation of chemical mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feron, V J; Groten, J P

    2002-06-01

    This paper addresses major developments in the safety evaluation of chemical mixtures during the past 15 years, reviews today's state of the art of mixture toxicology, and discusses challenges ahead. Well-thought-out tailor-made mechanistic and empirical designs for studying the toxicity of mixtures have gradually substituted trial-and-error approaches, improving the insight into the testability of joint action and interaction of constituents of mixtures. The acquired knowledge has successfully been used to evaluate the safety of combined exposures and complex mixtures such as, for example, the atmosphere at hazardous waste sites, drinking water disinfection by-products, natural flavouring complexes, and the combined intake of food additives. To consolidate the scientific foundation of mixture toxicology, studies are in progress to revisit the biological concepts and mathematics underlying formulas for low-dose extrapolation and risk assessment of chemical mixtures. Conspicuous developments include the production of new computer programs applicable to mixture research (CombiTool, BioMol, Reaction Network Modelling), the application of functional genomics and proteomics to mixture studies, the use of nano-optochemical sensors for in vivo imaging of physiological processes in cells, and the application of optical sensor micro- and nano-arrays for complex sample analysis. Clearly, the input of theoretical biologists, biomathematicians and bioengineers in mixture toxicology is essential for the development of this challenging branch of toxicology into a scientific subdiscipline of full value. PMID:11983277

  15. Dike intrusions into bituminous coal, Illinois Basin: H, C, N, O isotopic responses to rapid and brief heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmelmann, Arndt; Mastalerz, Maria; Gao, Ling; Sauer, Peter E.; Topalov, Katarina

    2009-10-01

    Unlike long-term heating in subsiding sedimentary basins, the near-instantaneous thermal maturation of sedimentary organic matter near magmatic intrusions is comparable to artificial thermal maturation in the laboratory in terms of short duration and limited extent. This study investigates chemical and H, C, N, O isotopic changes in high volatile bituminous coal near two Illinois dike contacts and compares observed patterns and trends with data from other published studies and from artificial maturation experiments. Our study pioneers in quantifying isotopically exchangeable hydrogen and measuring the D/H (i.e., 2H/ 1H) ratio of isotopically non-exchangeable organic hydrogen in kerogen near magmatic contacts. Thermal stress in coal caused a reduction of isotopically exchangeable hydrogen in kerogen from 5% to 6% in unaltered coal to 2-3% at contacts, mostly due to elimination of functional groups (e.g., sbnd OH, sbnd COOH, sbnd NH 2). In contrast to all previously published data on D/H in thermally matured organic matter, the more mature kerogen near the two dike contacts is D-depleted, which is attributed to (i) thermal elimination of D-enriched functional groups, and (ii) thermal drying of hydrologically isolated coal prior to the onset of cracking reactions, thereby precluding D-transfer from relatively D-enriched water into kerogen. Maxima in organic nitrogen concentration and in the atomic N/C ratio of kerogen at a distance of ˜2.5 to ˜3.5 m from the thicker dike indicate that reactive N-compounds had been pyrolytically liberated at high temperature closer to the contact, migrated through the coal seam, and recombined with coal kerogen in a zone of lower temperature. The same principle extends to organic carbon, because a strong δ13C kerogen vs. δ15N kerogen correlation across 5.5 m of coal adjacent to the thicker dike indicates that coal was functioning as a flow-through reactor along a dynamic thermal gradient facilitating back-reactions between mobile

  16. Evaporating Drops of Alkane Mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Gu'ena, G; Poulard, C; Cazabat, Anne-Marie; Gu\\'{e}na, Geoffroy; Poulard, Christophe

    2005-01-01

    Alkane mixtures are model systems where the influence of surface tension gradients during the spreading and the evaporation of wetting drops can be easily studied. The surface tension gradients are mainly induced by concentration gradients, mass diffusion being a stabilising process. Depending on the relative concentration of the mixture, a rich pattern of behaviours is obtained.

  17. Easy and flexible mixture distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Mabit, Stefan L.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a method to generate flexible mixture distributions that are useful for estimating models such as the mixed logit model using simulation. The method is easy to implement, yet it can approximate essentially any mixture distribution. We test it with good results in a simulation study...

  18. chemo-Hydro-mechanical modelling of in-situ disposal of a bituminized radioactive waste in boom clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The current reference solution of the Belgian Agency for the Management of Radioactive Waste and Fissile Materials (ONDRAF/NIRAS) envisages underground disposal of Eurobitum Bituminized radioactive Waste (BW) in a geologically stable clay formation. In Belgium, the Boom Clay, which is a 30 to 35 million years old and ∼100 m thick marine sediment is being studied as a potential host formation because of its favorable properties to limit and delay the migration of the leached radionuclides to the biosphere over extended periods of time. The current disposal concept foresees that several drums (220 litres) of Eurobitum would be grouped in thick-walled cement-based secondary containers, which in turn would be placed in concrete-lined disposal galleries that are excavated at mid-depth in the clay layer. Only 80-90 % of the total volume of the drum is filled with Eurobitum.The remaining voids between the containers would be backfilled with a cement-based material. The interaction between the BW and the host clay formation is a very complicated chemo-hydro-mechanical process and depends not only on the hydro-mechanical behaviour of the Boom Clay itself, but also on that of the BW. In fact, the osmosis-induced uptake of water by the dehydrated hygroscopic salts embedded in the waste induces a geo-mechanical perturbation of the host formation, caused by the swelling and the increase of the pressure in and around the waste. The objectives of the Chemo-Hydro-Chemical (CHM) analysis presented in this work are (i) to get insights on the kinetics of water uptake by BW, dissolution of the embedded NaNO3 crystals, solute leaching, and maximum generated pressure under disposal conditions and (ii) to study the stress redistribution due to the recompression of the clay around a gallery caused by the swelling pressure of the bitumen and the admissible swelling pressure for Boom clay. Firstly, a CHM formulation of chemically and

  19. Mixtures of truncated basis functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langseth, Helge; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Rumí, Rafael;

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose a framework, called mixtures of truncated basis functions (MoTBFs), for representing general hybrid Bayesian networks. The proposed framework generalizes both the mixture of truncated exponentials (MTEs) framework and the mixture of polynomials (MoPs) framework. Similar...... for efficiently approximating an arbitrary density function using the MoTBF framework. The transla- tion method is more flexible than existing MTE or MoP-based methods, and it supports an online/anytime tradeoff between the accuracy and the complexity of the approxima- tion. Experimental results show...

  20. Performance of asphalt rubber mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Thives, Liseane Padilha; Trichês, Glicério; Pereira, Paulo A. A.; Pais, Jorge C.

    2010-01-01

    Asphalt rubber mixtures are one of the most promising techniques to extend the service life of asphalt pavement overlays. Asphalt rubber binder is composed of crumb rubber from reclaimed tires and conventional asphalt. The asphalt rubber binder can be obtained through wet process in two different systems: terminal blending (produced at industrial plants) and continuous blending (produced in asphalt plants). This study presents a laboratory evaluation of asphalt rubber mixtures produced with d...

  1. Optimal Parameters Multicomponent Mixtures Extruding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramil F. Sagitov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental research of multicomponent mixtures extruding from production wastes are carried out, unit for production of composites from different types of waste is presented. Having analyzed dependence of multicomponent mixtures extruding energy requirements on die length and components content at three values of angular rate of screw rotation, we received the values of energy requirements at optimal length of the die, angular speed and percent of binding additives.

  2. Bayesian Kernel Mixtures for Counts

    OpenAIRE

    Canale, Antonio; David B Dunson

    2011-01-01

    Although Bayesian nonparametric mixture models for continuous data are well developed, there is a limited literature on related approaches for count data. A common strategy is to use a mixture of Poissons, which unfortunately is quite restrictive in not accounting for distributions having variance less than the mean. Other approaches include mixing multinomials, which requires finite support, and using a Dirichlet process prior with a Poisson base measure, which does not allow smooth deviatio...

  3. Analysis of asphalt mixtures on town roads

    OpenAIRE

    Glavica, Primož

    2006-01-01

    Asphalt mixtures are most commonly used composite for construction of top layers of different drive ways. By definition asphalt mixtures are composed of crushed rock, fill, bitumen and additives. Percentage of individual components wary according to the purpose asphalt mixture is to be used for. Asphalt mixtures must be capable of enduring different types of load. According to the type of load asphalt mixtures are divided into asphalt mixtures used for supporting layers and asp...

  4. Experimental Study on Minimum Ignition Temperature of Bituminous Coal Dust Cloud%烟煤煤尘云最低着火温度实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓军; 屈姣; 王秋红; 谢长春

    2014-01-01

    In this PaPer,study and measurement were carried out on the minimum ignition temPerature of three kinds of bituminous coal dust clouds by using the Godbert-Greenwald heating furnace,including the non-caking coal taken from Dafusi Mine in Binxian County,the gas coal from Kouzi East Mine in Anhui Province and the lean coal from 301 working face of Tianchi Mine in Shanxi Province. It was found out from the exPerimental results that the ash content of the gas coal,non-caking coal and lean coal increased in turn,their volatile content reduced in turn,their fixed carbon content increased in turn,and the water content of the lean coal,gas coal and non-caking coal increased in turn;the minimum ignition temPerature of the three kinds of bituminous coal dust clouds decreased with the reduction of their Particle sizes;based on their minimum ignition temPeratures,it was found out that the hardest ignited coal dust was the lean coal and the easiest ignited coal dust was gas coal. This study can Provide an exPerimental basic for the safe Production in coal mines.%为了研究彬县大佛寺矿不粘煤、安徽口孜东矿气煤、山西天池矿301工作面瘦煤等3种烟煤的煤尘云最低着火温度,实验采用Godbert-Greenwald加热炉对以上3种烟煤的煤尘云最低着火温度进行了测试。研究发现气煤、不粘煤、瘦煤的灰分依次增大,挥发分依次减小,固定碳依次增大,水分随瘦煤、气煤、不粘煤依次增大;这3种烟煤煤尘云的最低着火温度都随煤尘粒径的减小而降低;根据最低着火温度,得知煤尘云被引燃的难易程度依次为瘦煤、不粘煤、气煤。此基础研究可为煤矿的安全生产提供实验依据。

  5. Effects of Using Silica Fume and Polycarboxylate-Type Superplasticizer on Physical Properties of Cementitious Grout Mixtures for Semiflexible Pavement Surfacing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Mahmud, Hilmi; Mashaan, Nuha S.; Katman, Herdayati; Husain, Nadiah Md

    2014-01-01

    Semi-flexible pavement surfacing is a composite pavement that utilizes the porous pavement structure of the flexible bituminous pavement, which is subsequently grouted with appropriate cementitious materials. This study aims to investigate the compressive strength, flexural strength, and workability performance of cementitious grout. The grout mixtures are designed to achieve high strength and maintain flow properties in order to allow the cement slurries to infiltrate easily through unfilled compacted skeletons. A paired-sample t-test was carried out to find out whether water/cement ratio, SP percentages, and use of silica fume influence the cementitious grout performance. The findings showed that the replacement of 5% silica fume with an adequate amount of superplasticizer and water/cement ratio was beneficial in improving the properties of the cementitious grout. PMID:24526911

  6. Effects of using silica fume and polycarboxylate-type superplasticizer on physical properties of cementitious grout mixtures for semiflexible pavement surfacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koting, Suhana; Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Mahmud, Hilmi; Mashaan, Nuha S; Ibrahim, Mohd Rasdan; Katman, Herdayati; Husain, Nadiah Md

    2014-01-01

    Semi-flexible pavement surfacing is a composite pavement that utilizes the porous pavement structure of the flexible bituminous pavement, which is subsequently grouted with appropriate cementitious materials. This study aims to investigate the compressive strength, flexural strength, and workability performance of cementitious grout. The grout mixtures are designed to achieve high strength and maintain flow properties in order to allow the cement slurries to infiltrate easily through unfilled compacted skeletons. A paired-sample t-test was carried out to find out whether water/cement ratio, SP percentages, and use of silica fume influence the cementitious grout performance. The findings showed that the replacement of 5% silica fume with an adequate amount of superplasticizer and water/cement ratio was beneficial in improving the properties of the cementitious grout. PMID:24526911

  7. Effects of Using Silica Fume and Polycarboxylate-Type Superplasticizer on Physical Properties of Cementitious Grout Mixtures for Semiflexible Pavement Surfacing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhana Koting

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Semi-flexible pavement surfacing is a composite pavement that utilizes the porous pavement structure of the flexible bituminous pavement, which is subsequently grouted with appropriate cementitious materials. This study aims to investigate the compressive strength, flexural strength, and workability performance of cementitious grout. The grout mixtures are designed to achieve high strength and maintain flow properties in order to allow the cement slurries to infiltrate easily through unfilled compacted skeletons. A paired-sample t-test was carried out to find out whether water/cement ratio, SP percentages, and use of silica fume influence the cementitious grout performance. The findings showed that the replacement of 5% silica fume with an adequate amount of superplasticizer and water/cement ratio was beneficial in improving the properties of the cementitious grout.

  8. Marangoni Convection in Binary Mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, J; Oron, A; Behringer, Robert P.; Oron, Alexander; Zhang, Jie

    2006-01-01

    Marangoni instabilities in binary mixtures are different from those in pure liquids. In contrast to a large amount of experimental work on Marangoni convection in pure liquids, such experiments in binary mixtures are not available in the literature, to our knowledge. Using binary mixtures of sodium chloride/water, we have systematically investigated the pattern formation for a set of substrate temperatures and solute concentrations in an open system. The flow patterns evolve with time, driven by surface-tension fluctuations due to evaporation and the Soret effect, while the air-liquid interface does not deform. A shadowgraph method is used to follow the pattern formation in time. The patterns are mainly composed of polygons and rolls. The mean pattern size first decreases slightly, and then gradually increases during the evolution. Evaporation affects the pattern formation mainly at the early stage and the local evaporation rate tends to become spatially uniform at the film surface. The Soret effect becomes i...

  9. Preparation of conducting solid mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of conducting plastic mixtures to the fundamental problem of radiation dosimetry is briefly reviewed. A particular approach to achieving formulations with the necessary characteristics is described. A number of successful mixtures are defined for a number of different specific dosimetry situations. To obtain high quality stable materials requires intense blending and working of the materials at elevated temperatures. One machine that succeeds in this task is the Shonka plastics mixer-extruder. The Shonka mixer is described in complete detail. The procedures used in preparing representative formulations with this device are presented. A number of properties of successful conducting mixtures so prepared are summarized. The conditions required for molding such material are given. Several special welding methods for specific application with these formulations have been devised and are described

  10. Mixtures of skewed Kalman filters

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Hyoungmoon

    2014-01-01

    Normal state-space models are prevalent, but to increase the applicability of the Kalman filter, we propose mixtures of skewed, and extended skewed, Kalman filters. To do so, the closed skew-normal distribution is extended to a scale mixture class of closed skew-normal distributions. Some basic properties are derived and a class of closed skew. t distributions is obtained. Our suggested family of distributions is skewed and has heavy tails too, so it is appropriate for robust analysis. Our proposed special sequential Monte Carlo methods use a random mixture of the closed skew-normal distributions to approximate a target distribution. Hence it is possible to handle skewed and heavy tailed data simultaneously. These methods are illustrated with numerical experiments. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  11. Bayesian Kernel Mixtures for Counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canale, Antonio; Dunson, David B

    2011-12-01

    Although Bayesian nonparametric mixture models for continuous data are well developed, there is a limited literature on related approaches for count data. A common strategy is to use a mixture of Poissons, which unfortunately is quite restrictive in not accounting for distributions having variance less than the mean. Other approaches include mixing multinomials, which requires finite support, and using a Dirichlet process prior with a Poisson base measure, which does not allow smooth deviations from the Poisson. As a broad class of alternative models, we propose to use nonparametric mixtures of rounded continuous kernels. An efficient Gibbs sampler is developed for posterior computation, and a simulation study is performed to assess performance. Focusing on the rounded Gaussian case, we generalize the modeling framework to account for multivariate count data, joint modeling with continuous and categorical variables, and other complications. The methods are illustrated through applications to a developmental toxicity study and marketing data. This article has supplementary material online. PMID:22523437

  12. Development of a method to determine the nuclide inventory in bituminized waste packages; Entwicklung eines Verfahrens zur Bestimmung des Nuklidinventars in bituminierten Abfallgebinden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesalic, E.; Kortman, F.; Lierse von Gostomski, C. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Zentrale Technisch-Wissenschaftliche Betriebseinheit Radiochemie Muenchen (RCM)

    2014-01-15

    Until the 1980s, bitumen was used as a conditioning agent for weak to medium radioactive liquid waste. Its use can be ascribed mainly to the properties that indicated that the matrix was optimal. However, fires broke out repeatedly during the conditioning process, so that the method is meanwhile no longer permitted in Germany. There are an estimated 100 waste packages held by the public authorities in Germany that require a supplementary declaration. In contrast to the common matrices, such as for example resins or sludges, there is still no standardized technology for taking samples and subsequently determining the radio-nuclide for bitumen. Aspects, such as the thermoplastic behaviour, make determining the nuclide inventory more difficult in bituminized waste packages. The development of a standardized technology to take samples with a subsequent determination of the radio-nuclide analysis is the objective of a project funded by the BMBF. Known, new methods, specially developed for the project, are examined on inactive bitumen samples and then transferred to active samples. At first non-destructive methods are used. The resulting information forms an important basis to work out and apply destructive strategy for sampling and analysis. Since the project is on-going, this report can only address the development of the sampling process. By developing a sampling system, it will be possible to take samples from an arbitrary selected location of the package across the entire matrix level and thus gain representative analysis material. The process is currently being optimized. (orig.)

  13. Thermodynamics of mixtures containing alkoxyethanols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Juan Antonio [G.E.T.E.F., Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, 47071 Valladolid (Spain)], E-mail: jagl@termo.uva.es; Mozo, Ismael; Fuente, Isaias Garcia de la; Cobos, Jose Carlos [G.E.T.E.F., Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, 47071 Valladolid (Spain); Riesco, Nicolas [Department of Earth Science and Engineering, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2008-09-30

    The Flory model is applied to predict the isobaric expansion coefficients, {alpha}{sub P}, isentropic, {kappa}{sub S}, and isothermal, {kappa}{sub T}, compressibilities and speeds of sound, u, of the highly complex mixtures: hydroxyether + alkane, + dibutylether, + 1-butanol or + 2-methoxyethanol, 1-alkanol + alkane, and 1-alkanol + dibutylether. Predictions were obtained using the energetic parameter, {chi}{sub 12}, determined from values of excess enthalpies, H{sup E}, and from values of the excess isochoric internal energies, U{sub V}{sup E}, at equimolar composition. No meaningful differences exist between such predictions. Deviations between experimental and calculated values are lower than 2% for mixtures containing alkoxyethanols. Poorer results are obtained for 1-alkanol + dibutylether mixtures with deviations up to 5%. It is shown that predictions on {alpha}{sub P}, {kappa}{sub S}, {kappa}{sub T}, and u essentially depend on structural effects and not on the orientational effects present in the studied mixtures. Results are improved using {chi}{sub 12} values fitted to molar excess volumes. In this case, deviations are similar to those obtained from semiempirical models as free length theory, collision factor theory, or Nomoto or Junjie equations.

  14. Demonstration and testing of coal/oil mixture as a fuel for a slot furnace. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjerklie, J.W.; Penty, R.A.

    1979-07-01

    An evaluation was made of the effects of heating with a coal/oil mixture (COM) on forgings and furnace construction materials. The forgings produced with COM in a slot forge furnace were subjected to an extensive series of metallurgical tests to determine what effect, if any, use of COM as a fuel had upon the parts forged. Fifty wt % bituminous coal crushed to 80% minus 325 mesh was mixed with 50 wt % number 6 fuel oil. Emulsifiers were added to keep the coal in suspension. It was demonstrated that the 50 wt % coal/oil mixture can be successfully used to produce steel forgings. Burning COM presented no problems in respect to the ease of heating the steel or in respect to the metallurgy of the forgings. The main findings of the investigation were that: COM can be used to forge steel successfully; use of COM requires that ceramic materials of furnace construction be selected with care; and the modifications required to burn COM are minor. There were no significant differences between steel forgings produced with number 2 fuel oil and steel forgings produced with COM.

  15. Uphill diffusion in multicomponent mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Rajamani

    2015-05-21

    Molecular diffusion is an omnipresent phenomena that is important in a wide variety of contexts in chemical, physical, and biological processes. In the majority of cases, the diffusion process can be adequately described by Fick's law that postulates a linear relationship between the flux of any species and its own concentration gradient. Most commonly, a component diffuses down the concentration gradient. The major objective of this review is to highlight a very wide variety of situations that cause the uphill transport of one constituent in the mixture. Uphill diffusion may occur in multicomponent mixtures in which the diffusion flux of any species is strongly coupled to that of its partner species. Such coupling effects often arise from strong thermodynamic non-idealities. For a quantitative description we need to use chemical potential gradients as driving forces. The transport of ionic species in aqueous solutions is coupled with its partner ions because of the electro-neutrality constraints; such constraints may accelerate or decelerate a specific ion. When uphill diffusion occurs, we observe transient overshoots during equilibration; the equilibration process follows serpentine trajectories in composition space. For mixtures of liquids, alloys, ceramics and glasses the serpentine trajectories could cause entry into meta-stable composition zones; such entry could result in phenomena such as spinodal decomposition, spontaneous emulsification, and the Ouzo effect. For distillation of multicomponent mixtures that form azeotropes, uphill diffusion may allow crossing of distillation boundaries that are normally forbidden. For mixture separations with microporous adsorbents, uphill diffusion can cause supra-equilibrium loadings to be achieved during transient uptake within crystals; this allows the possibility of over-riding adsorption equilibrium for achieving difficult separations. PMID:25761383

  16. 浅谈如何提高Superpave沥青混合料矿料间隙率%Discussion on the improvement of Superpave precent vodis in mineral aggregate in bituminous mixtures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢文锋; 杨爱民

    2010-01-01

    针对Superpave沥青混合料设计中经常会遇到VMA较低以及VMA对级配变化不敏感情况,从级配、表面结构、颗粒形状三方面入手,探讨了如何提高Superpave沥青混合料矿料间隙率,以期指导实践.

  17. Development of new non destructive methods for bituminized radioactive waste drums characterization; Developpement de nouvelles methodes de caracterisation non destructive pour des dechets radioactifs enrobes dans du bitume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pin, P

    2004-10-15

    Radioactive waste constitute a major issue for the nuclear industry. One of the key points is their characterization to optimize their management: treatment and packaging, orientation towards the suited disposal. This thesis proposes an evaluation method of the low-energy photon attenuation, based on the gamma-ray spectra Compton continuum. Effectively, the {sup 241}Am measurement by gamma-ray spectrometry is difficult due to the low energy of its main gamma-ray (59.5 keV). The photon attenuation strongly depends on the bituminous mix composition, which includes very absorbing elements. As the Compton continuum also depends on this absorption, it is possible to link the 59.5 keV line attenuation to the Compton level. Another technique is proposed to characterize uranium thanks to its fluorescence X-rays induced by the gamma emitters already present in the waste. The uranium present in the drums disturbs the neutron measurements and its measurement by self-induced X-ray fluorescence allows to correct this interference. Due to various causes of error, the total uncertainty is around 50 % on the activity of the radioisotope {sup 241}Am, corrected by the peak to Compton technique. The same uncertainty is announced on the uranium mass measured by self induced X-ray fluorescence. As a consequence of these promising results, the two methods were included in the industrial project of the 'Marcoule Sorting Unit'. One major advantage is that they do not imply any additional material because they use information already present in the gamma-ray spectra. (author)

  18. Evaluation of Control Strategies to Effectively Meet 70-90% Mercury Reduction on an Eastern Bituminous Coal Cyclone Boiler with SCR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom Campbell

    2008-12-31

    This is the final site report for testing conducted at Public Service of New Hampshire's (PSNH) Merrimack Unit 2 (MK2). This project was funded through the DOE/NETL Innovations for Existing Plants program. It was a Phase III project with the goal to develop mercury control technologies that can achieve 50-70% mercury capture at costs 25-50% less than baseline estimates of $50,000-$70,000/lb of mercury removed. While results from testing at Merrimack indicate that the DOE goal was partially achieved, further improvements in the process are recommended. Merrimack burned a test blend of eastern bituminous and Venezuelan coals, for a target coal sulfur content of 1.2%, in its 335-MW Unit 2. The blend ratio is approximately a 50/50 split between the two coals. Various sorbent injection tests were conducted on the flue gas stream either in front of the air preheater (APH) or in between the two in-series ESPs. Initial mercury control evaluations indicated that, without SO3 control, the sorbent concentration required to achieve 50% control would not be feasible, either economically or within constraints specific to the maximum reasonable particle loading to the ESP. Subsequently, with SO{sub 3} control via trona injection upstream of the APH, economically feasible mercury removal rates could be achieved with PAC injection, excepting balance-of-plant concerns. The results are summarized along with the impacts of the dual injection process on the air heater, ESP operation, and particulate emissions.

  19. Impacts of halogen additions on mercury oxidation, in a slipstream selective catalyst reduction (SCR), reactor when burning sub-bituminous coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yan; Gao, Zhengyang; Zhu, Jiashun; Wang, Quanhai; Huang, Yaji; Chiu, Chengchung; Parker, Bruce; Chu, Paul; Pant, Wei-Ping

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of impacts of halogen species on the elemental mercury (Hg(0)) oxidation in a real coal-derived flue gas atmosphere. It is reported there is a higher percentage of Hg(0) in the flue gas when burning sub-bituminous coal (herein Powder River Basin (PRB) coal) and lignite, even with the use of selective catalytic reduction (SCR). The higher Hg(0)concentration in the flue gas makes it difficult to use the wet-FGD process for the mercury emission control in coal-fired utility boilers. Investigation of enhanced Hg(0) oxidation by addition of hydrogen halogens (HF, HCl, HBr, and HI) was conducted in a slipstream reactor with and without SCR catalysts when burning PRB coal. Two commercial SCR catalysts were evaluated. SCR catalyst no. 1 showed higher efficiencies of both NO reduction and Hg(0) oxidation than those of SCR catalyst no. 2. NH3 addition seemed to inhibit the Hg(0) oxidation, which indicated competitive processes between NH3 reduction and Hg(0) oxidation on the surface of SCR catalysts. The hydrogen halogens, in the order of impact on Hg(0) oxidation, were HBr, HI, and HCl or HF. Addition of HBr at approximately 3 ppm could achieve 80% Hg(0) oxidation. Addition of HI at approximately 5 ppm could achieve 40% Hg(0) oxidation. In comparison to the empty reactor, 40% Hg(0) oxidation could be achieved when HCl addition was up to 300 ppm. The enhanced Hg(0) oxidation by addition of HBr and HI seemed not to be correlated to the catalytic effects by both evaluated SCR catalysts. The effectiveness of conversion of hydrogen halogens to halogen molecules or interhalogens seemed to be attributed to their impacts on Hg(0) oxidation.

  20. Binary mixtures of chiral gases

    CERN Document Server

    Presilla, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    A possible solution of the well known paradox of chiral molecules is based on the idea of spontaneous symmetry breaking. At low pressure the molecules are delocalized between the two minima of a given molecular potential while at higher pressure they become localized in one minimum due to the intermolecular dipole-dipole interactions. Evidence for such a phase transition is provided by measurements of the inversion spectrum of ammonia and deuterated ammonia at different pressures. In particular, at pressure greater than a critical value no inversion line is observed. These data are well accounted for by a model previously developed and recently extended to mixtures. In the present paper, we discuss the variation of the critical pressure in binary mixtures as a function of the fractions of the constituents.

  1. Thermal plasmas in gas mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, A.B. [CSIRO Telecommunications and Industrial Physics, Lindfield, NSW (Australia)

    2001-10-21

    The calculation and measurement of the properties of thermal plasmas in mixtures of different gases are reviewed. The calculation of composition, thermodynamic properties and transport coefficients is described. Particular attention is given to the calculation of diffusion coefficients, which is a significant problem in mixed-gas plasmas. The combined diffusion coefficient formulation is shown to be a useful method for the treatment of diffusion. Computational fluid dynamic modelling of thermal plasmas in gas mixtures is considered, using the examples of demixing in welding arcs, the turbulent mixing of atmospheric air into a plasma jet and a plasma waste destruction process. Diagnostic techniques for mixed-gas plasmas, in particular emission spectroscopy, laser scattering and laser-induced fluorescence, are discussed. (author)

  2. Mixtures of Gaussian process priors

    CERN Document Server

    Lemm, J C

    1999-01-01

    Nonparametric Bayesian approaches based on Gaussian processes have recently become popular in the empirical learning community. They encompass many classical methods of statistics, like Radial Basis Functions or various splines, and are technically convenient because Gaussian integrals can be calculated analytically. Restricting to Gaussian processes, however, forbids for example the implemention of genuine nonconcave priors. Mixtures of Gaussian process priors, on the other hand, allow the flexible implementation of complex and situation specific, also nonconcave "a priori" information. This is essential for tasks with, compared to their complexity, a small number of available training data. The paper concentrates on the formalism for Gaussian regression problems where prior mixture models provide a generalisation of classical quadratic, typically smoothness related, regularisation approaches being more flexible without having a much larger computational complexity.

  3. PARTICLE SEGREGATION IN FLUIDIZED BINARY-MIXTURES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HOFFMANN, AC; JANSSEN, LPBM

    1993-01-01

    The particle segregation in fluidised beds consisting of different types of binary mixtures is shown to be governed by the same particle transport processes. The segregation behaviour of both ''different-density mixtures'' and ''equal-density mixtures'', two types of system which until now largely h

  4. Psychophysical studies of mixtures of tastants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, de C.

    1988-01-01

    The human perception of mixtures of tastante was studied with reference to three central issues, i.e., 1) the paradigma of equiratio taste substance mixtures. as an instrument to manipulate the physical composition of tastant mixtures. This paradiama also enables the construction of psychophysical f

  5. Some properties of explosive mixtures containing peroxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study concerns mixtures of triacetone triperoxide (3,3,6,6,9,9-hexamethyl-1,2,4,5,7,8-hexoxonane, TATP) and ammonium nitrate (AN) with added water (W), as the case may be, and dry mixtures of TATP with urea nitrate (UN). Relative performances (RP) of the mixtures and their individual components, relative to TNT, were determined by means of ballistic mortar. The detonation energies, E0, and detonation velocities, D, were calculated for the mixtures studied by means of the thermodynamic code CHEETAH. Relationships have been found and are discussed between the RP and the E0 values related to unit volume of gaseous products of detonation of these mixtures. These relationships together with those between RP and oxygen balance values of the mixtures studied indicate different types of participation of AN and UN in the explosive decomposition of the respective mixtures. Dry TATP/UN mixtures exhibit lower RP than analogous mixtures TATP/AN containing up to 25% of water. Depending on the water content, the TATP/AN mixtures possess higher detonability values than the ANFO explosives. A semi-logarithmic relationship between the D values and oxygen coefficients has been derived for all the mixtures studied at the charge density of 1000 kg m-3. Among the mixtures studied, this relationship distinguishes several samples of the type of 'tertiary explosives' as well as samples that approach 'high explosives' in their performances and detonation velocities

  6. Investigations of reversible thermochromic mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLaren, Douglas C.

    Three-component organic thermochromic systems have potential applications in reversible, rewritable thermal printing. In principle, such mixtures could maintain a coloured or non-coloured state at ambient temperature depending on their thermal treatment. These systems generally consist of a functional dye (1--3 mol%), a weakly acidic colour developer (5--25 mol%), and a high-melting organic solvent (75--90 mol%). Colour development occurs at the fusion temperature of the mixture, which triggers the interaction of the dye and developer. Slow cooling of the melt results in an equilibrium state with low colour density, whereas rapid cooling of the melt results in a metastable state with high colour density. The metastable state can be decoloured by heating to an intermediate decolourisation temperature at which the coloured state becomes unstable. Barriers to the widespread use of reversible, rewritable thermochromic materials include problems with colour contrast, colour stability, and decolourisation rates. Development is hindered by a lack of detailed knowledge of the interactions between components in these systems. In this study the developer-dye and developer-solvent interactions were examined for an archetypal dye/developer/solvent thermochromic system. Vibrational spectroscopy, NMR, and thermal analysis were used to examine compounds formed in developer/dye and developer/solvent binary mixtures. Rewritable thermochromic properties such as metastable colour density, equilibrium colour density, and decolourisation rates were examined and discussed in terms of the thermodynamics of the developer/dye and developer/solvent interactions. Observed thermochromic properties are shown to be strongly correlated to a competition between the dye and the solvent for interaction with the developer. Increasing the attractive interaction between the solvent and developer results in enhanced rewritable thermochromic properties.

  7. GRAVITY PIPELINE TRANSPORT FOR HARDENING FILLING MIXTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid KROUPNIK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In underground mining of solid minerals becoming increasingly common development system with stowing hardening mixtures. In this case the natural ore array after it is replaced by an artificial excavation of solidified filling mixture consisting of binder, aggregates and water. Such a mixture is prepared on the surface on special stowing complexes and transported underground at special stowing pipelines. However, it is transported to the horizons of a few kilometers, which requires a sustainable mode of motion of such a mixture in the pipeline. Hardening stowing mixture changes its rheological characteristics over time, which complicates the calculation of the parameters of pipeline transportation. The article suggests a method of determining the initial parameters of such mixtures: the status coefficient, indicator of transportability, coefficient of hydrodynamic resistance to motion of the mixture. These indicators characterize the mixture in terms of the possibility to transport it through pipes. On the basis of these indicators is proposed methodology for calculating the parameters of pipeline transport hardening filling mixtures in drift mode when traffic on the horizontal part of the mixture under pressure column of the mixture in the vertical part of the backfill of the pipeline. This technique allows stable operation is guaranteed to provide pipeline transportation.

  8. Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption capacity of bituminous coals from the Ostrava-Karvina Coal District, Upper Silesian Basin, Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weniger, P.; Busch, A.; Krooss, B. M.; Francu, J.; Francu, E.

    2009-04-01

    In the context of a joint Czech-German project, experimental and analytical methods are being applied to improve the understanding of compositional variation of coal-related gas in the SW part of the Upper Silesian Basin (Czech Republic). According to present understanding, the gas composition is controlled by generation (thermal vs. microbial), migration and adsorption/desorption processes. In particular the effects of the sorption processes on the chemical and isotopic composition of coal gases are only poorly explored. During the first stage of this project, the gas adsorption capacity has been determined for coal samples representing the paralic Ostrava Formation (Namurian A) and the limnic Karviná Formation (Namurian B-C). For this purpose, high pressure adsorption isotherms have been measured for methane and carbon dioxide on medium and low volatile bituminous coal (VRr 1.2-1.8%) from the production face of two collieries in the study area. Adsorption isotherms have been measured for pressures up to 25 MPa for CO2 and up to 17 MPa for methane at 20˚ C and 45˚ C. Isotherms were measured on dry, moisture-equilibrated and "as received" samples (moisture content: 0.5-1.7%, mineral-matter-free) using a manometric method. Sorption capacities for CH4 at 45˚ C ranged from 18 to 27 Std. cm3/g (0.7 to 1.1 mmol/g) coal, dry ash-free (daf), showing an increase of sorption capacity with increasing coal rank. For CO2, sorption capacities were generally higher than for methane, ranging from 35-40 Std. cm3/g (1.4-1.7 mmol/g) coal (daf). Equilibrium moisture contents, determined by a modified ASTM method, were significantly higher than the "as received" moisture. Sorption capacities measured on moisture-equilibrated samples were generally lower than those measured on dry or "as received" samples. Methane excess sorption isotherms show a type I Langmuir form and could be approximated using the Langmuir function. Excess sorption isotherms for CO2 show a decrease in

  9. Parametric and dynamic studies of an iron-based 25-kWth coal direct chemical looping unit using sub-bituminous coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Integrated, moving bed chemical looping reactor with iron-oxide based oxygen carrier. • Coal carbon conversion from 84.8% to 99.9%, thermal capacity 7.4 to 27.7 kWth, O2 demand less than 1.3%. • Dynamic temperature of moving bed reducer is established and tracked during coal injection. • CH4 and CO present at initial coal injection, eliminated after oxygen carrier activated. • Lower coal injection had higher volatiles residence time and conversion. - Abstract: The iron-based Coal-Direct Chemical Looping (CDCL) combustion process is an alternative to conventional oxy-combustion technologies, where the oxygen used for fuel conversion in the CDCL process is provided by an iron-oxide based oxygen carrier instead of an air separation unit. The iron oxide is reduced using coal in the reducer reactor, producing highly-pure CO2 in the flue gas, and the reduced iron oxide is regenerated in a separate combustor reactor using air. The CDCL process at Ohio State has been developed and demonstrated in a 25 kWth sub-pilot unit, and it is the first chemical looping demonstration unit with a circulating moving bed reactor for solid fuel conversion. To date, the CDCL sub-pilot unit at OSU has been operated for more than 680 h, with a 200-h continuous operation, providing important data on long term operability as well as parametric optimization. This paper discusses recent parametric operational experience with sub-bituminous coal as the fuel, where dynamic changes in variables were performed to observe the effects on the unit itself. Measurements included temperature, pressure, and gas concentrations from the reducer and combustor. Furthermore, effects of different variables, such as flue gas recycle ratios (enhancer gas flow rates), feed port injection, and temperature, were observed. Tests confirmed high coal conversions with high purity of CO2 achieved in the flue gas. Overall, the moving bed design of the reducer results in nearly full coal conversion

  10. Interpreting Y chromosome STR haplotype mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jianye; Budowle, Bruce; Chakraborty, Ranajit

    2010-05-01

    Mixture interpretation is a challenging problem in forensic DNA analyses. The interpretation of Y short tandem repeat (STR) haplotype mixtures, due to a lack of recombination, differs somewhat from that of the autosomal DNA markers and is more complex. We describe approaches for calculating the probability of exclusion (PE) and likelihood ratio (LR) methods to interpret Y-STR mixture evidence with population substructure incorporated. For a mixture sample, first, all possible contributor haplotypes in a reference database are listed as a candidate list. The PE is the complement of the summation of the frequencies of haplotypes in the candidate list. The LR method compares the probabilities of the evidence given alternative hypotheses. The hypotheses are possible explanations for the mixture. Population substructure may be further incorporated in likelihood calculation. The maximum number of contributors is based on the candidate list and the computing complexity is polynomial. Additionally, mixtures were simulated by combining two or three 16 Y-STR marker haplotypes derived from the US forensic Y-STR database. The average PE was related to the size of database. With a database comprised of 500 haplotypes an average PE value of at least 0.995 can be obtained for two-person mixtures. The PE decreases with an increasing number of contributors to the mixture. Using the total sample population, the average number of candidate haplotypes of two-person mixtures is 3.73 and 95% mixtures have less than or equal to 10 candidate haplotypes. More than 98.7% of two-person mixtures can only be explained by the haplotype combinations that mixtures are composed. These values are generally higher for three-person mixtures. A small proportion of three-person mixture can also be explained by only two haplotypes.

  11. Optimizing Laboratory Mixture Design as It Relates to Field Compaction to Improve Asphalt Mixture Durability

    OpenAIRE

    Hekmatfar, Ali; McDaniel, Rebecca S; Shah, Ayesha; Haddock, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Most departments of transportation, including Indiana, currently use the Superpave mixture design method to design asphalt mixtures. This method specifies that the optimum asphalt content for a given gradation be selected at 4 percent air voids. During construction, these mixtures are typically compacted to 7-8 percent air voids. If mixtures were designed to be more compactable in the field they could be compacted to the same density as the laboratory mixture design, which would increase pave...

  12. Preparation of coal water mixtures: effect of the nature of the coal and improvement of the quality of the suspensions by altering the particle properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elomrani, M.; Brunello, J.M.; Nomine, M.

    1989-04-01

    Since 1983, CERCHAR has been studying coal-water mixtures (CWM) with the objective of valorizing some waste and fine products from washing plants. It appeared through this study that the nature of coal is a decisive parameter in the formulation and preparation of coal-water suspensions. Indeed, in identical operatory conditions, the high-rank coals (bituminous and anthracite) give more concentrated suspensions than those realized from low-rank coals (lignite and high volatile bituminous). This difference in behaviour can be explained by properties related to rank such as ratio of oxygen/carbon (O/C), capacity of water absorption, state of surface and shape of particles. Diluted milling was the preparation mode used (50 to 55 wt.% of solids), followed by filtration and mixing with additives. With this procedure, the desired rheological properties were not obtained when using low-rank coals. Another procedure was devised in which the coal is wet milled in the presence of additives and at high coal concentration (about 70 wt.% of solids). The interest of this procedure is to simplify drastically the process flow sheet, but the control of the wet milling at a high concentration is much more difficult. CERCHAR succeeded in developing a two-stage, high-slurry concentration, wet-milling process allowing the preparation of better quality, high-concentration suspensions than those obtained from the classical procedure. This innovative process was patented. The quality improvement can be explained by the effect of this procedure on particle size distribution, state of surface and shape of particles.

  13. On the oxidation of the dissolved organic matter in Boom clay by NaNO3 and NaNO2 from disposed Eurobitum bituminized waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In Belgium, Boom Clay is studied as a potential host clay formation for the final disposal of EUROBITUM bituminized waste, which consists of 60 wt% hard bitumen (Mexphalt R85/40) and 40 wt% waste. The main salts that are present in the bituminized waste are NaNO3, 20-30 wt%, and CaSO4, 4-6 wt%. After disposal of the waste in the clay, an uptake of pore water by the embedded, dehydrated and hygroscopic salts will lead to a swelling of the waste and to a release of the salts into the Boom Clay. A possible consequence of the salt release is the oxidation of the clay by nitrate and, possibly, nitrite, resulting in a lower reducing capacity of the clay towards redox sensitive radionuclides, which in turn could have an impact on the migration behaviour of these radionuclides. The extent of oxidation of authigenic Boom Clay redox sensitive components, like organic matter and pyrite is studied at the SCK.CEN. As a first step in the study of the influence of nitrate and nitrite on the redoxactive Boom Clay components, we performed batch tests with dissolved organic matter (DOM). DOM was exposed to different concentrations of nitrate and nitrite for more than one year in both biotic and abiotic conditions. This paper will discuss the results obtained by exposing DOM to nitrate and nitrite and comparing two methods for the determination of its redox capacity. NaNO3 or NaNO2, previously stored under inert atmosphere to remove all oxygen gas, was added to Boom Clay water collected from a piezometer to obtain final salt concentrations of 0.1 and 0.005 M NaNO3, or 0.05 and 0.005 M NaNO2. Sodium azide, also stored under inert atmosphere, was added (0.2 wt. %) to inhibit the microbial activity in the tests, creating abiotic conditions. All solutions were prepared in an anaerobic glove box. The nitrate and nitrite reduction by DOM was followed by analysing the concentrations of nitrate, nitrite and ammonium in the solutions and of

  14. Thermal relaxation of bituminous coal to improve donation ability of hydrogen radicals in flash pyrolysis; Sekitan kozo kanwa ni yoru suiso radical kyoyo noryoku no kojo wo mezashita netsubunkai mae shori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, T.; Isoda, T.; Kusakabe, K.; Morooka, S. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Hayashi, J. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Center for Advanced Research of Energy Technology

    1996-10-28

    In terms of coal conversion reaction, the behavior of bituminous coal heated beyond a glass transition point was examined on the basis of pyrolyzed products, and the effect of an increase in proton mobility on promotion of coal decomposition was evaluated. In experiment, after Illinois bituminous coal specimen was heated up to a specific temperature in N2 or He gas flow at a rate of 5K/min, the specimen was directly transferred to a pyrolyzer for instantaneous pyrolysis. As the experimental result, the glass transition temperature of the Illinois coal specimen was calculated to be 589K from a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) profile. From the pyrolysis result of the Illinois coal specimen heated up to 623K, the char yield decreased by 3kg as compared with that of the original coal, while the tar yield increased by 4kg up to 27kg per 100kg of the original coal. This tar increase was larger than that of cooled coal. These results suggested that the donation of hydrogen radicals to coal fragments is improved with an increase in proton mobility. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Study of stabilization/solidification processes (of solid porous wastes) based on hydraulic or bituminous binders; Etude des procedes de stabilisation/solidification (des dechets solides poreux) a base de liants hydrauliques ou de liants bitumineux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sing-Teniere, Ch.

    1998-02-01

    The first part of this thesis presents the regulatory framework and the technical context linked with the study of stabilized/solidified wastes and with the evaluation of stabilization/solidification processes. A presentation of the two type of ultimate wastes under study (a used catalyst and an activated charcoal) and an analysis of the processes is given. The second part is devoted to the experimental characterization of both types of porous wastes. The third part deals with the processing of such wastes using an hydraulic binder. The study stresses on both on the stabilization/solidification efficiency of the process and on the conditions of its implementation. The same work is made for a process that uses a bituminous binder. Some choice criteria for the selection of the better process are deduced from the examination of the overall data collected. The waste characterization methodology is applied six times: two times for the raw wastes, two times for the same wastes processed with an hydraulic binder, and two times for the same wastes processed with a bituminous binder. (J.S.)

  16. Evaluating permanent deformation in asphalt rubber mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Fontes, Liseane P. T. L.; Trichês, Glicério; Pais, Jorge C.; Pereira, Paulo A. A.

    2009-01-01

    Permanent deformation or rutting, one of the most important distresses inflexible pavements, has long been a problem in asphalt mixtures. Throughout the years, researchers have used different test methods lo estimate the performance of asphalt mixtures in relation to rutting. One of the alternatives to reduce permanent deformation in asphalt pavement layers is through the use of mixtures produced with asphalt rubber This work aims at comparing the performance of a conventional dense graded mi...

  17. Microstructural characterisation of rubber modified asphalt mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Hassan, Norhidayah

    2013-01-01

    Research to improve the performance of asphalt mixtures through the addition of crumb rubber using the dry process has continued worldwide because of its potential as a recycling option for used tires. For decades, dry mixed rubberised asphalt mixtures have performed inconsistently in field trials and laboratory evaluations. However, current research has revealed that the performance of asphalt mixtures is highly dependent on the characteristics of its internal structure or phase constituents...

  18. Performance-based asphalt mixture design methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Al-Hosain Mansour

    Today, several State D.O.T.s are being investigating the use of tire rubber with local conventional materials. Several of the ongoing investigations identified potential benefits from the use of these materials, including improvements in material properties and performance. One of the major problems is being associated with the transferability of asphalt rubber technology without appropriately considering the effects of the variety of conventional materials on mixture behavior and performance. Typically, the design of these mixtures is being adapted to the physical properties of the conventional materials by using the empirical Marshall mixture design and without considering fundamental mixture behavior and performance. Use of design criteria related to the most common modes of failure for asphalt mixtures, such as rutting, fatigue cracking, and low temperature thermal cracking have to be developed and used for identifying the "best mixture," in term of performance, for the specific local materials and loading conditions. The main objective of this study was the development of a mixture design methodology that considers mixture behavior and performance. In order to achieve this objective a laboratory investigation able to evaluate mixture properties that can be related to mixture performance, (in terms of rutting, low temperature cracking, moisture damage and fatigue), and simulating the actual field loading conditions that the material is being exposed to, was conducted. The results proved that the inclusion of rubber into asphalt mixtures improved physical characteristics such as elasticity, flexibility, rebound, aging properties, increased fatigue resistance, and reduced rutting potential. The possibility of coupling the traditional Marshall mix design method with parameters related to mixture behavior and performance was investigated. Also, the SHRP SUPERPAVE mix design methodology was reviewed and considered in this study for the development of an integrated

  19. Compositional Adjustment of Dirichlet Mixture Priors

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Xugang; Yu, Yi-Kuo; Altschul, Stephen F.

    2010-01-01

    Dirichlet mixture priors provide a Bayesian formalism for scoring alignments of protein profiles to individual sequences, which can be generalized to constructing scores for multiple-alignment columns. A Dirichlet mixture is a probability distribution over multinomial space, each of whose components can be thought of as modeling a type of protein position. Applied to the simplest case of pairwise sequence alignment, a Dirichlet mixture is equivalent to an implied symmetric substitution matrix...

  20. Cluster kinetics model for mixtures of glassformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenskelle, Lisa A; McCoy, Benjamin J

    2007-10-14

    For glassformers we propose a binary mixture relation for parameters in a cluster kinetics model previously shown to represent pure compound data for viscosity and dielectric relaxation as functions of either temperature or pressure. The model parameters are based on activation energies and activation volumes for cluster association-dissociation processes. With the mixture parameters, we calculated dielectric relaxation times and compared the results to experimental values for binary mixtures. Mixtures of sorbitol and glycerol (seven compositions), sorbitol and xylitol (three compositions), and polychloroepihydrin and polyvinylmethylether (three compositions) were studied. PMID:17935407

  1. Shear viscosity of liquid mixtures: Mass dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Expressions for zeroth, second, and fourth sum rules of transverse stress autocorrelation function of two component fluid have been derived. These sum rules and Mori's memory function formalism have been used to study shear viscosity of Ar-Kr and isotopic mixtures. It has been found that theoretical result is in good agreement with the computer simulation result for the Ar-Kr mixture. The mass dependence of shear viscosity for different mole fraction shows that deviation from ideal linear model comes even from mass difference in two species of fluid mixture. At higher mass ratio shear viscosity of mixture is not explained by any of the emperical model. (author)

  2. Thermodynamics of mixtures containing amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Juan Antonio [G.E.T.E.F. Dpto Termodinamica y Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47071 (Spain)], E-mail: jagl@termo.uva.es; Mozo, Ismael; Garcia de la Fuente, Isaias; Cobos, Jose Carlos [G.E.T.E.F. Dpto Termodinamica y Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47071 (Spain); Riesco, Nicolas [Department of Chemical Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, LE113TU Leicestershire (United Kingdom)

    2008-01-30

    Mixtures with dimethyl or trimethylpyridines and alkane, aromatic compound or 1-alkanol have been examined using different theories: DISQUAC, Flory, the concentration-concentration structure factor, S{sub CC}(0), or the Kirkwood-Buff formalism. DISQUAC represents fairly well the available experimental data, and improves theoretical calculations from Dortmund UNIFAC. Two important effects have been investigated: (i) the effect of increasing the number of methyl groups attached to the aromatic ring of the amine; (ii) the effect of modifying the position of the methyl groups in this ring. The molar excess enthalpy, H{sup E}, and the molar excess volume, V{sup E}, decrease in systems with alkane or methanol as follows: pyridine > 3-methylpyridine > 3,5-dimethylpyridine and pyridine > 2-methylpyridine > 2,4-dimethylpyridine > 2,4,6-trimethylpyridine, which has been attributed to a weakening of the amine-amine interactions in the same sequences. This is in agreement with the relative variation of the effective dipole moment, {mu}-bar, and of the differences between the boiling temperature of a pyridine base and that of the homomorphic alkane. For heptane solutions, the observed H{sup E} variation, H{sup E} (3,5-dimethylpyridine) > H{sup E} (2,4-dimethylpyridine) > H{sup E} (2,6-dimethylpyridine), is explained similarly. Calculations on the basis of the Flory model confirm that orientational effects become weaker in systems with alkane in the order: pyridine > methylpyridine > dimethylpyridine > trimethylpyridine. S{sub CC}(0) calculations show that steric effects increase with the number of CH{sub 3}- groups in the pyridine base, and that the steric effects exerted by methyl groups in positions 2 and 6 are higher than when they are placed in positions 3 and 5. The hydrogen bond energy in methanol mixtures is independent of the pyridine base, and it is estimated to be -35.2 kJ mol{sup -1}. Heterocoordination in these solutions is due in part to size effects. Their

  3. Simulation of mixture microstructures via particle packing models and their direct comparison with real mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulliver, Eric A.

    The objective of this thesis to identify and develop techniques providing direct comparison between simulated and real packed particle mixture microstructures containing submicron-sized particles. This entailed devising techniques for simulating powder mixtures, producing real mixtures with known powder characteristics, sectioning real mixtures, interrogating mixture cross-sections, evaluating and quantifying the mixture interrogation process and for comparing interrogation results between mixtures. A drop and roll-type particle-packing model was used to generate simulations of random mixtures. The simulated mixtures were then evaluated to establish that they were not segregated and free from gross defects. A powder processing protocol was established to provide real mixtures for direct comparison and for use in evaluating the simulation. The powder processing protocol was designed to minimize differences between measured particle size distributions and the particle size distributions in the mixture. A sectioning technique was developed that was capable of producing distortion free cross-sections of fine scale particulate mixtures. Tessellation analysis was used to interrogate mixture cross sections and statistical quality control charts were used to evaluate different types of tessellation analysis and to establish the importance of differences between simulated and real mixtures. The particle-packing program generated crescent shaped pores below large particles but realistic looking mixture microstructures otherwise. Focused ion beam milling was the only technique capable of sectioning particle compacts in a manner suitable for stereological analysis. Johnson-Mehl and Voronoi tessellation of the same cross-sections produced tessellation tiles with different the-area populations. Control charts analysis showed Johnson-Mehl tessellation measurements are superior to Voronoi tessellation measurements for detecting variations in mixture microstructure, such as altered

  4. STAR-POLYMER -- COLLOID MIXTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.Dzubiella

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent results in theory and simulation of star-polymer--colloid mixtures are reviewed. We present the effective interaction between hard, colloidal particles and star polymers in a good solvent derived by monomer-resolved Molecular Dynamics simulations and theoretical arguments. The relevant parameters are the size ratio q between the stars and the colloids, as well as the number of polymeric arms f (functionality attached to the common center of the star. By covering a wide range of q's ranging from zero (star against a flat wall up to about 0.5, we establish analytical forms for the star-colloid interaction which are in excellent agreement with simulation results. By employing this cross interaction and the effective interactions between stars and colloids themselves, a demixing transition in the fluid phase is observed and systematically investigated for different arm numbers and size ratios. The demixing binodals are compared with experimental observations and found to be consistent. Furthermore, we map the full two-component system on an effective one-component description for the colloids, by inverting the two-component Ornstein-Zernike equations. Some recent results for the depletion interaction and freezing transitions are shown.

  5. The Modified Enskog Equation for Mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijeren, H. van; Ernst, M.H.

    1973-01-01

    In a previous paper it was shown that a modified form of the Enskog equation, applied to mixtures of hard spheres, should be considered as the correct extension of the usual Enskog equation to the case of mixtures. The main argument was that the modified Enskog equation leads to linear transport coe

  6. Fibril assembly in whey protein mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolder, S.G.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to study fibril assembly in mixtures of whey proteins. The effect of the composition of the protein mixture on the structures and the resulting phase behaviour was investigated. The current work has shown that beta-lactoglobulin is responsible for the fibril assembly

  7. A gamma model for {DNA} mixture analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Cowell, R. G.; Lauritzen, S L; Mortera, J.

    2007-01-01

    We present a new methodology for analysing forensic identification problems involving DNA mixture traces where several individuals may have contributed to the trace. The model used for identification and separation of DNA mixtures is based on a gamma distribution for peak area values. In this paper we illustrate the gamma model and apply it on several real examples from forensic casework.

  8. Separation of organic azeotropic mixtures by pervaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, R.W.

    1991-12-01

    Distillation is a commonly used separation technique in the petroleum refining and chemical processing industries. However, there are a number of potential separations involving azetropic and close-boiling organic mixtures that cannot be separated efficiently by distillation. Pervaporation is a membrane-based process that uses selective permeation through membranes to separate liquid mixtures. Because the separation process is not affected by the relative volatility of the mixture components being separated, pervaporation can be used to separate azetropes and close-boiling mixtures. Our results showed that pervaporation membranes can be used to separate azeotropic mixtures efficiently, a result that is not achievable with simple distillation. The membranes were 5--10 times more permeable to one of the components of the mixture, concentrating it in the permeate stream. For example, the membrane was 10 times more permeable to ethanol than methyl ethyl ketone, producing 60% ethanol permeate from an azeotropic mixture of ethanol and methyl ethyl ketone containing 18% ethanol. For the ethyl acetate/water mixture, the membranes showed a very high selectivity to water (> 300) and the permeate was 50--100 times enriched in water relative to the feed. The membranes had permeate fluxes on the order of 0.1--1 kg/m{sup 2}{center dot}h in the operating range of 55--70{degrees}C. Higher fluxes were obtained by increasing the operating temperature.

  9. Recursive unsupervised learning of finite mixture models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zivkovic, Zoran; Heijden, van der Ferdinand

    2004-01-01

    There are two open problems when finite mixture densities are used to model multivariate data: the selection of the number of components and the initialization. In this paper, we propose an online (recursive) algorithm that estimates the parameters of the mixture and that simultaneously selects the

  10. Rheological and commodity properties of petroleum mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of researches of rheological and commodity characteristics of prognosis petroleum mixtures, pumping on an Western Kazakhstan-Kumkol petroleum pipe-line are presented. It is shown, that petroleum mixtures are low viscous, low solidifying and have not viscosity anomaly at positive temperatures. (author)

  11. Mixture toxicity of PBT-like chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Syberg, Kristian; Dai, Lina; Ramskov, Tina;

    addition is a suitable model for default estimations of mixture effects. One of the major challenges is therefore how to select specific chemicals for actual mixture toxicity assessments. Persistant chemicals are likely to be present in the environment for an extended period of time, thus increasing......Even though most chemicals regulation is still conducted on a chemical by chemical basis, mixture toxicity is achieving increasing attention. The scientific understanding has increased substantially in the last decades, and a general consensus now seems to have been acieved that concentration...... the likelihood of them being present in environmentally found mixtures. Persistant, bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT) chemicals are therefore a highly relevant group of chemicals to consider for mixture toxicity regulation. The present study evaluates to what extent a number of PBT-like chemicals posess concern...

  12. Relativistic mixtures of charged and uncharged particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Gilberto M.

    2014-01-01

    Mixtures of relativistic gases within the framework of Boltzmann equation are analyzed. Three systems are considered. The first one refers to a mixture of uncharged particles by using Grad's moment method, where the relativistic mixture is characterized by the moments of the distribution functions: particle four-flows, energy-momentum tensors, and third-order moment tensors. In the second Fick's law for a mixture of relativistic gases of non-disparate rest masses in a Schwarzschild metric are derived from an extension of Marle and McCormack model equations applied to a relativistic truncated Grad's distribution function, where it is shown the dependence of the diffusion coefficient on the gravitational potential. The third one consists in the derivation of the relativistic laws of Ohm and Fourier for a binary mixtures of electrons with protons and electrons with photons subjected to external electromagnetic fields and in presence of gravitational fields by using the Anderson and Witting model of the Boltzmann equation.

  13. Techno-economic Comparison of IGCC Systems Employing Bituminous and Lignite%基于烟煤、褐煤的IGCC系统技术经济性对比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李政; 梁心玉; 薛亚丽

    2012-01-01

    近年来,褐煤提质技术的发展使得褐煤的高效利用成为可能。基于一种先进的褐煤干燥技术—内部废热利用流化床干燥(wirbelschicht-trocknung mit interner abw rmenu-tzung,WTA),采用ASPEN Plus软件及美国电力研究协会(electric power research institute,EPRI)的技术评价准则(technical assessment guide,TAG),分别对烟煤整体煤气化联合循环(integrated gasification combined cycle,IGCC)电站和褐煤IGCC电站进行技术经济性分析。详细介绍了WTA单元及燃气轮机变工况的建模方法。计算结果表明,引入WTA技术后,褐煤IGCC电站的发电效率比采用传统干燥方式时约提高4.6个百分点,整体性能与烟煤IGCC电站相差不大;而褐煤IGCC电站的发电成本比烟煤IGCC电站低24.4%。高效的褐煤干燥技术能显著提高褐煤IGCC电站的效率,而褐煤低廉的价格又对降低发电成本十分有利,褐煤很可能成为比烟煤更适合IGCC的燃料。%The development of lignite upgrading has enabled the efficient utilization of lignite recently.Based on the description of an advanced lignite drying techniquewirbelschicht-trocknung mit interner abw rmenutzung(WTA),techno-economic analysis of two integrated gasification combined cycle(IGCC) systems employing bituminous and lignite were performed by using ASPEN Plus software and the EPRI technical assessment guide.The WTA model and gas turbine off-design model were explained in detail.The result shows that pre-drying lignite by WTA can increase the net thermal efficiency of lignite IGCC power plant by up to 4.6% points compared to traditional lignite drying technology,making the performance of lignite IGCC as good as bituminous IGCC;but the cost of electricity of lignite IGCC is 24.4% lower than that of bituminous IGCC.Advanced drying technique can improve the performance of lignite IGCC and lignite’s cheap price helps to bring down the cost of electricity.Therefore lignite is

  14. 某600 MW机组烟煤锅炉低N0x改造及效果分析%Low NOx Retrofit for Certain 600 MW Bituminous Coal Boiler and Performance Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁鹏飞

    2013-01-01

    The retrofit effect of certain 600 MW bituminous coal boiler indicates that low NOx combustion technology can reduce the NOx production to 70%, but there are some problems, such as combustion economy and large spray water. Strong reduction atmosphere of burner zone may cause high temperature corrosion on water wall. Therefore, it is suggested to spray some anticorrosive material for prevention.%对某600 MW机组烟煤锅炉进行低NOx改造,改造后锅炉总体性能良好,NOx减排达到70%.但改造对锅炉燃烧经济性、减温水量产生负面影响,同时主燃烧器区形成的强还原性气氛还可能对水冷壁造成高温腐蚀,必须采取喷涂等防腐手段加以预防.

  15. On the mixture model for multiphase flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manninen, M.; Taivassalo, V. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Nuclear Energy; Kallio, S. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Numerical flow simulation utilising a full multiphase model is impractical for a suspension possessing wide distributions in the particle size or density. Various approximations are usually made to simplify the computational task. In the simplest approach, the suspension is represented by a homogeneous single-phase system and the influence of the particles is taken into account in the values of the physical properties. This study concentrates on the derivation and closing of the model equations. The validity of the mixture model is also carefully analysed. Starting from the continuity and momentum equations written for each phase in a multiphase system, the field equations for the mixture are derived. The mixture equations largely resemble those for a single-phase flow but are represented in terms of the mixture density and velocity. The volume fraction for each dispersed phase is solved from a phase continuity equation. Various approaches applied in closing the mixture model equations are reviewed. An algebraic equation is derived for the velocity of a dispersed phase relative to the continuous phase. Simplifications made in calculating the relative velocity restrict the applicability of the mixture model to cases in which the particles reach the terminal velocity in a short time period compared to the characteristic time scale of the flow of the mixture. (75 refs.)

  16. Assessing exposures to inhaled complex mixtures.

    OpenAIRE

    Leaderer, B P; Lioy, P J; Spengler, J D

    1993-01-01

    In the course of daily activities, individuals spend varying amounts of time in different spaces where they are exposed to a complex mixture of gas, vapor, and particulate contaminants. The term complex is used in this paper to refer to binary mixtures as well as truly complex mixtures of three or more constituents. The diversity of the environments where pollution may occur, the number of pollutants that may be present, and the nature of the activity in the environment combine to pose a chal...

  17. Correlation of the liquid mixture viscosities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević-Stevanović Anđela B.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper forty two selected correlation models for liquid mixture viscosities of organic compounds were tested on 219 binary and 41 ternary sets of experimental data taken from literature. The binary sets contained 3675 experimental data points for 70 different compounds. The ternary sets contained 2879 experimental data points for 29 different compounds. The Heric I, Heric-Brewer II, and Krishnan-Laddha models demonstrated the best correlative characteristics for binary mixtures (overall absolute average deviation < 2%. The Heric I, Heric-Brewer II, Krishnan-Laddha and Heric II models demonstrated the best correlative characteristics for ternary mixtures (overall absolute average deviation < 3%.

  18. Adsorption on mixtures of ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A theoretical study has been made of adsorption on mixtures of ion exchangers. The effect of variables such as the concentration of the ion being adsorbed, the concentration of the supporting electrolyte, loading, the values of the capacities and equilibrium constants for the various exchange processes, and the fraction of each adsorber in the mixture on the observed distribution coefficient has been investigated. A computer program has been written to facilitate the calculation of distribution coefficients for the adsorption of an ion on a given mixture of ion exchangers under a specified set of conditions

  19. Variational Theory of Mixtures in Continuum Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Gouin, Henri

    2008-01-01

    In continuum mechanics, the equations of motion for mixtures are derived through the use of Hamilton's extended principle which regards the mixture as a collection of distinct continua. The internal energy is assumed to be a function of densities, entropies and successive spatial gradients of each constituent. We first write the equations of motion for each constituent of an inviscid miscible mixture of fluids without chemical reactions or diffusion. Our work leads to the equations of motion in an universal thermodynamic form in which interaction terms subject to constitutive laws, difficult to interpret physically, do not occur. For an internal energy function of densities, entropies and spatial gradients, an equation describing the barycentric motion of the constituents is obtained. The result is extended for dissipative mixtures and an equation of energy is obtained. A form of Clausius-Duhem's inequality which represents the second law of thermodynamics is deduced. In the particular case of compressible mi...

  20. Robust clustering using exponential power mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Liang, Faming

    2010-12-01

    Clustering is a widely used method in extracting useful information from gene expression data, where unknown correlation structures in genes are believed to persist even after normalization. Such correlation structures pose a great challenge on the conventional clustering methods, such as the Gaussian mixture (GM) model, k-means (KM), and partitioning around medoids (PAM), which are not robust against general dependence within data. Here we use the exponential power mixture model to increase the robustness of clustering against general dependence and nonnormality of the data. An expectation-conditional maximization algorithm is developed to calculate the maximum likelihood estimators (MLEs) of the unknown parameters in these mixtures. The Bayesian information criterion is then employed to determine the numbers of components of the mixture. The MLEs are shown to be consistent under sparse dependence. Our numerical results indicate that the proposed procedure outperforms GM, KM, and PAM when there are strong correlations or non-Gaussian components in the data. PMID:20163406

  1. Ultrafiltration of a polymer-electrolyte mixture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, P; Noordman, T.R; Schippers, D; Tilstra, B; Wesselingh, J.A

    1997-01-01

    We present a mathematical model to describe the ultrafiltration behaviour of polymer-electrolyte mixtures. The model combines the proper thermodynamic forces (pressure, chemical potential and electrical potential differences) with multicomponent diffusion theory. The model is verified with experimen

  2. Model structure selection in convolutive mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrholm, Mads; Makeig, Scott; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2006-01-01

    The CICAAR algorithm (convolutive independent component analysis with an auto-regressive inverse model) allows separation of white (i.i.d) source signals from convolutive mixtures. We introduce a source color model as a simple extension to the CICAAR which allows for a more parsimoneous represent......The CICAAR algorithm (convolutive independent component analysis with an auto-regressive inverse model) allows separation of white (i.i.d) source signals from convolutive mixtures. We introduce a source color model as a simple extension to the CICAAR which allows for a more parsimoneous...... representation in many practical mixtures. The new filter-CICAAR allows Bayesian model selection and can help answer questions like: 'Are we actually dealing with a convolutive mixture?'. We try to answer this question for EEG data....

  3. Thermodynamic scheme of inhomogeneous perfect fluid mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Zarate, R D; Quevedo, Hernando

    2004-01-01

    We analyze the compatibility between the geometrodynamics and thermodynamics of a binary mixture of perfect fluids which describe inhomogeneous cosmological models. We generalize the thermodynamic scheme of general relativity to include the chemical potential of the fluid mixture with non-vanishing entropy production. This formalism is then applied to the case of Szekeres and Stephani families of cosmological models. The compatibility conditions turn out to impose symmetry conditions on the c...

  4. Laboratory performance of asphalt rubber mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Fontes, Liseane; Trichês, Glicério; Pais, Jorge; Pereira, Paulo; Minhoto, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Asphalt rubber mixtures are one of the most promising techniques to extend the service life of asphalt pavement overlays. Asphalt rubber binder is composed of crumb rubber from reclaimed tires and conventional asphalt. The asphalt rubber binder can be obtained through wet process in two different systems: tire rubber modified asphalt binder (produced at industrial plants) and continuous blending (produced in asphalt plants). This study presents a laboratory evaluation of asphalt rubber mixtur...

  5. Asphalt mixtures produced with 100% reclaimed materials

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Joel; Silva, Hugo Manuel Ribeiro Dias da; Jesus, Carlos M. G.

    2011-01-01

    The environmental and economic benefits of using Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) material in hot mix asphalt (HMA) applications could be pushed up to the limit, by producing totally recycled HMAs (100% RAP), but the performance of this alternative must be satisfactory. In fact, these mixtures could possibly present a lower performance due to the behaviour of the aged binder, which loses its lighter fractions with time. In order to improve the mixture properties, a binder rejuvenator should b...

  6. Liquid mixture viscosities correlation with rational models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević-Stevanović Anđela B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper twenty two selected rational correlation models for liquid mixture viscosities of organic compounds were tested on 219 binary sets of experimental data taken from literature. The binary sets contained 3675 experimental data points for 70 different compounds. The Dimitrov-Kamenski X, Dimitrov-Kamenski XII, and Dimitrov-Kamenski XIII models demonstrated the best correlative characteristics for binary mixtures with overall absolute average deviation less then 2%. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172063

  7. A Gaussian mixture ensemble transform filter

    OpenAIRE

    Reich, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    We generalize the popular ensemble Kalman filter to an ensemble transform filter where the prior distribution can take the form of a Gaussian mixture or a Gaussian kernel density estimator. The design of the filter is based on a continuous formulation of the Bayesian filter analysis step. We call the new filter algorithm the ensemble Gaussian mixture filter (EGMF). The EGMF is implemented for three simple test problems (Brownian dynamics in one dimension, Langevin dynamics in two dimensions, ...

  8. Learning Mixtures of Gaussians in High Dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Ge, Rong; Huang, Qingqing; Kakade, Sham M.

    2015-01-01

    Efficiently learning mixture of Gaussians is a fundamental problem in statistics and learning theory. Given samples coming from a random one out of k Gaussian distributions in Rn, the learning problem asks to estimate the means and the covariance matrices of these Gaussians. This learning problem arises in many areas ranging from the natural sciences to the social sciences, and has also found many machine learning applications. Unfortunately, learning mixture of Gaussians is an information th...

  9. Porous concrete mixtures for pervious urban pavements

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, J.; Fernández, B.; Videla, C.; de Solminihac, H.

    2007-01-01

    The present study aimed to analyze the hydraulic and mechanical behaviour of a series of roller-compacted, laboratory porous concrete mixtures. The mix design variables examined were the actual void ratio in the hardened concrete and the water/cement ratio. From these results the better dosages from the mechanical and hydraulical behaviour point of view were determined. One of the designs developed was found to exhibit excellent hydraulic capacity and 20% greater strength than the mixtures re...

  10. Assessing sanitary mixtures in East African cities

    OpenAIRE

    Letema, S.C.

    2012-01-01

    The urbanisation of poverty and informality in East African cities poses a threat to environmental health, perpetuates social exclusion and inequalities, and creates service gaps (UN-Habitat, 2008). This makes conventional sanitation provision untenable citywide, giving rise to the emergence of sanitation mixtures. Sanitation mixtures have different scales, institutional arrangements, user groups, and rationalities for their establishment, location, and management. For assessing the performan...

  11. Homogeneous cooling of mixtures of particle shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, R. C.; Serero, D.; Pöschel, T.

    2016-07-01

    In this work, we examine theoretically the cooling dynamics of binary mixtures of spheres and rods. To this end, we introduce a generalized mean field analytical theory, which describes the free cooling behavior of the mixture. The relevant characteristic time scale for the cooling process is derived, depending on the mixture composition and the aspect ratio of the rods. We simulate mixtures of spherocylinders and spheres using a molecular dynamics algorithm implemented on graphics processing unit (GPU) architecture. We systematically study mixtures composed of spheres and rods with several aspect ratios and varying the mixture composition. A homogeneous cooling state, where the time dependence of the system's intensive variables occurs only through a global granular temperature, is identified. We find cooling dynamics in excellent agreement with Haff's law, when using an adequate time scale. Using the scaling properties of the homogeneous cooling dynamics, we estimated numerically the efficiency of the energy interchange between rotational and translational degrees of freedom for collisions between spheres and rods.

  12. Phase equilibria for complex fluid mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prausnitz, J.M.

    1983-04-01

    After defining complex mixtures, attention is given to the canonical procedure used for the thermodynamics of fluid mixtures: first, we establish a suitable, idealized reference system and then we establish a perturbation (or excess function) which corrects the idealized system for real behavior. For complex mixtures containing identified components (e.g. alcohols, ketones, water) discussion is directed at possible techniques for extending to complex mixtures our conventional experience with reference systems and perturbations for simple mixtures. Possible extensions include generalization of the quasi-chemical approximation (local compositions) and superposition of chemical equilibria (association and solvation) on a physical equation of state. For complex mixtures containing unidentified components (e.g. coal-derived fluids), a possible experimental method is suggested for characterization; conventional procedures can then be used to calculate phase equilibria using the concept of pseudocomponents whose properties are given by the characterization data. Finally, as an alternative to the pseudocomponent method, a brief introduction is given to phase-equilibrium calculations using continuous thermodynamics.

  13. A constitutive theory of reacting electrolyte mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Reis, Martina; Wang, Yongqi; Bono Maurizio Sacchi Bassi, Adalberto

    2013-11-01

    A constitutive theory of reacting electrolyte mixtures is formulated. The intermolecular interactions among the constituents of the mixture are accounted for through additional freedom degrees to each constituent of the mixture. Balance equations for polar reacting continuum mixtures are accordingly formulated and a proper set of constitutive equations is derived with basis in the Müller-Liu formulation of the second law of thermodynamics. Moreover, the non-equilibrium and equilibrium responses of the reacting mixture are investigated in detail by emphasizing the inner and reactive structures of the medium. From the balance laws and constitutive relations, the effects of molecular structure of constituents upon the fluid flow are studied. It is also demonstrated that the local thermodynamic equilibrium state can be reached without imposing that the set of independent constitutive variables is time independent, neither spatially homogeneous nor null. The resulting constitutive relations presented throughout this work are of relevance to many practical applications, such as swelling of clays, developing of bio and polymeric membranes, and use of electrorheological fluids in industrial processes. The first author acknowledges financial support from National Counsel of Technological and Scientific Development (CNPq) and German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD).

  14. Asbestos Tailings as Aggregates for Asphalt Mixture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xinoming; XU Linrong

    2011-01-01

    To use many asbestos tailings collected in Ya-Lu highway, and to explore the feasibility of using asbestos tailings as aggregates in common asphalt mixtures, and properties of some asphalt mixtures were evaluated as well. X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescent (XRF), and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) were employed to determine the solid waste content of copper, zinc, lead, and cadmium. Volume properties and pavement performances of AC-25 asphalt mixture with asbestos tailings were also evaluated compared with those with basalt as aggregates.XRD and XRF measurement results infer that asbestos tailing is an excellent road material. Volume properties of AC-25 asphalt mixture with asbestos tailings satisfied the related specifications. No heavy metals and toxic pollution were detected in AAS test and the value of pH test is 8.23, which is help to the adhesion with asphalt in the asphalt concrete. When compared with basalt, high temperature property and the resistance to low temperature cracking of AC-25 asphalt mixture was improved by using asbestos tailings as aggregates. In-service AC-25 asphalt pavement with asbestos tailings also presented excellent performance and British Pendulum Number (BPN) coefficient of surface.

  15. Relativistic mixtures of charged and uncharged particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kremer, Gilberto M. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba (Brazil)

    2014-01-14

    Mixtures of relativistic gases within the framework of Boltzmann equation are analyzed. Three systems are considered. The first one refers to a mixture of uncharged particles by using Grad’s moment method, where the relativistic mixture is characterized by the moments of the distribution functions: particle four-flows, energy-momentum tensors, and third-order moment tensors. In the second Fick’s law for a mixture of relativistic gases of non-disparate rest masses in a Schwarzschild metric are derived from an extension of Marle and McCormack model equations applied to a relativistic truncated Grad’s distribution function, where it is shown the dependence of the diffusion coefficient on the gravitational potential. The third one consists in the derivation of the relativistic laws of Ohm and Fourier for a binary mixtures of electrons with protons and electrons with photons subjected to external electromagnetic fields and in presence of gravitational fields by using the Anderson and Witting model of the Boltzmann equation.

  16. ASPECTS OF THERMODYNAMICS OF POLYMER MIXTURES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAI Zhikuan

    1987-01-01

    In this brief review article some aspects of the thermodynamics of polymer mixtures are discussed,mainly based on the author's research. The studies of poly (methyl methacrylate)/chlorinated polyethylene (CPE), poly (butyl acrylate)/CPE and CPE/CPE (different chlorine content) mixture verify the "dissimilarity" and "similarity" principles for predicting miscibility of polymer mixtures. The sign of heat of mixing of oligomeric analogues is not sufficient in predicting the miscibility. The Flory equation of state theory has been applied to simulate the phase boundaries of polymer mixtures. The empirical entropy parameter Q12 plays an important role in the calculation, this reduces the usefulness of the theory. With energy parameter X12 ≠ 0 and Q12 ≠ 0 the spinodals so calculated are reasonable compared to experiments.A hole model was suggested for the statistics of polymer mixtures. The new hole theory combines the features of both the Flory equation of state theory and the Sanchez lattice fluid theory and can be reduced to them under some conditions.

  17. Identifiability of large phylogenetic mixture models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, John A; Sullivant, Seth

    2012-01-01

    Phylogenetic mixture models are statistical models of character evolution allowing for heterogeneity. Each of the classes in some unknown partition of the characters may evolve by different processes, or even along different trees. Such models are of increasing interest for data analysis, as they can capture the variety of evolutionary processes that may be occurring across long sequences of DNA or proteins. The fundamental question of whether parameters of such a model are identifiable is difficult to address, due to the complexity of the parameterization. Identifiability is, however, essential to their use for statistical inference.We analyze mixture models on large trees, with many mixture components, showing that both numerical and tree parameters are indeed identifiable in these models when all trees are the same. This provides a theoretical justification for some current empirical studies, and indicates that extensions to even more mixture components should be theoretically well behaved. We also extend our results to certain mixtures on different trees, using the same algebraic techniques.

  18. Adaptive Mixture Methods Based on Bregman Divergences

    CERN Document Server

    Donmez, Mehmet A; Kozat, Suleyman S

    2012-01-01

    We investigate adaptive mixture methods that linearly combine outputs of $m$ constituent filters running in parallel to model a desired signal. We use "Bregman divergences" and obtain certain multiplicative updates to train the linear combination weights under an affine constraint or without any constraints. We use unnormalized relative entropy and relative entropy to define two different Bregman divergences that produce an unnormalized exponentiated gradient update and a normalized exponentiated gradient update on the mixture weights, respectively. We then carry out the mean and the mean-square transient analysis of these adaptive algorithms when they are used to combine outputs of $m$ constituent filters. We illustrate the accuracy of our results and demonstrate the effectiveness of these updates for sparse mixture systems.

  19. Computer simulation of rod-sphere mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Antypov, D

    2003-01-01

    Results are presented from a series of simulations undertaken to investigate the effect of adding small spherical particles to a fluid of rods which would otherwise represent a liquid crystalline (LC) substance. Firstly, a bulk mixture of Hard Gaussian Overlap particles with an aspect ratio of 3:1 and hard spheres with diameters equal to the breadth of the rods is simulated at various sphere concentrations. Both mixing-demixing and isotropic-nematic transition are studied using Monte Carlo techniques. Secondly, the effect of adding Lennard-Jones particles to an LC system modelled using the well established Gay-Berne potential is investigated. These rod-sphere mixtures are simulated using both the original set of interaction parameters and a modified version of the rod-sphere potential proposed in this work. The subject of interest is the internal structure of the binary mixture and its dependence on density, temperature, concentration and various parameters characterising the intermolecular interactions. Both...

  20. The label switching problem in mixture models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Etemad

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Mixture models are fascinating objects in that, while based on elementary distributions, they of-fer a much wider range of modeling possibilities than their components. They also need both highlycomplex computational challenges and delicate inferential derivations . In Bayesian framework thiskind of models do not admit an analytical solution and one should content him/her self by an ap-proximative solution.In this work, we introduce denition of identiability in statistical model. We focus on denition ofidentiability of mixtures of models from Bayesian point of view. This issue is called label-switchingproblem in Bayesian literatures. We will study a method to identify the mixtures parameter by usingMCMC output.

  1. MICROBIAL QUALITY OF HONEY MIXTURE WITH POLLEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Mareček

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The aim of this study was evaluation of microbial quality in raw materials (honey, pollen and evaluation of microbial quality in honey mixture with pollen (2.91 % and 3.85 % and also dynamics of microbial groups in honey mixtures with pollen after 14 days storage at the room temperature (approximately 25 °C and in cold store (8 °C. We used dilution plating method for testing of samples. Detections of total plate microbial count (aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms, sporulating bacteria, coliform bacteria, Bifidobacterium sp., Lactobacillus sp. and microscopic fungi were performed. In general, counts of microorganisms decreased in honey mixture with pollen compared to raw pollen and these counts increased compared to natural honey. Total plate count was 5.37 log KTJ.g-1 in pollen; 1.36 log KTJ.g-1 in honey; 2.97 log KTJ.g-1 in honey mixture with 2.91 % pollen and 2.04 log KTJ.g-1 in honey mixture with 3.85 % pollen. Coliform bacteria were detected in pollen (1.77 log KTJ.g-1. Then, we found coliform bacteria in one sample of honey mixtures with pollen (2.91 % - 1.00 log KTJ.g-1.Bifidobacterium species were detected only in raw pollen. We did not findLactobacillus sp. in any of the samples. Microscopic fungi were detected on two cultivating media. Yeasts were present in pollen sample (average 5.39 log KTJ.g-1, honey mixture with 2.91 % pollen (average 2.51 log KTJ.g-1 and honey mixture with 3.85 % pollen (average 1.58 log KTJ.g-1. Filamentous microscopic fungi were detectable in pollen (average 3.38 log KTJ.g-1, in honey (only on one medium: 1.00 log KTJ.g-1, in honey mixture with 2.91 % pollen (average 1.15 log KTJ.g-1 and in honey mixture with 3.85 % pollen (1.71 %. Raw pollen contained microscopic fungi as Absidiasp., Mucor sp., Alternaria sp. andEmericella nidulans. Honey mixture with 2.91 % pollen after storage (14 days contained lower microbial counts when compared with the sample

  2. Quasi-chemical approximation for polyatomic mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Dávila, M V; Matoz-Fernandez, D A; Ramirez-Pastor, A J

    2016-01-01

    The statistical thermodynamics of binary mixtures of polyatomic species was developed on a generalization in the spirit of the lattice-gas model and the quasi-chemical approximation (QCA). The new theoretical framework is obtained by combining: (i) the exact analytical expression for the partition function of non-interacting mixtures of linear $k$-mers and $l$-mers (species occupying $k$ sites and $l$ sites, respectively) adsorbed in one dimension, and its extension to higher dimensions; and (ii) a generalization of the classical QCA for multicomponent adsorbates and multisite-occupancy adsorption. The process is analyzed through the partial adsorption isotherms corresponding to both species of the mixture. Comparisons with analytical data from Bragg-Williams approximation (BWA) and Monte Carlo simulations are performed in order to test the validity of the theoretical model. Even though a good fitting is obtained from BWA, it is found that QCA provides a more accurate description of the phenomenon of adsorpti...

  3. Characterization of transport properties of wasteform mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigates the transport properties of different wasteform mixtures. The objective is to collect data to model the long-term service-life of a cement barrier/wasteform system and see how the wasteform affect the durability of the storage structure, which is expected to last many thousand years. Two different wasteform mixtures incorporating different slag and fly ash contents were tested. The materials were characterized using different experimental tests in order to estimate tortuosity, porosity, permeability and pore size distribution. The tests showed that despite a very high porosity, the wasteform mixtures exhibit very low transport properties values. Immersion tests in NaCl solution showed very slow chloride ingress in accordance with the transport properties. Furthermore, the two formulations showed a significant improvement in properties when slag content was increased. (authors)

  4. Mixture for removing tar and paraffin deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    kamenshchikov, F.A.; Frolov, M.A.; Golovin, I.N.; Khusainov, Z.M.; Smirnov, Ya.L.; Suchkov, B.M.

    1981-05-23

    Mixture is claimed for removing tar and paraffin deposits (TPD) on the basis of the butyl-benzene fraction (BBF), which is intended to more efficiently remove TPD from the surface of refinery equipment, additionally has piperylene, isoprene and isoamine with the following ratio of the components: piperylene, 19-31%; isoprene, 8-12%; isoamines, 8-12%, while BBF, the rest. The efficiency of the given compositions was assessed by the rate at which the plates were cleaned of TPD and pure commercial paraffin. It has been shown that BBF dissolves 4-6 times faster in the given mixture than in BBF and pyperylene.

  5. Heterogeneous solid mixtures combustion: influence of microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model of solid composite microstructure is developed to predict concentration limits of heterogeneous solid mixture combustion of gasless and small-gas-content systems. The prediction is based on the percolation theory combined with the fractal concept and the Scher-Zallen criterion that postulates that the volume fraction necessary for the onset of percolation is about 16% of the total volume. The validity of the criterion is supported by a set of literature data on concentration limits of combustion for binary mixtures of transition metals and p-block elements such as Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta, Mo, B, C, Si, Al, Ge

  6. Thermophysical Properties of Fluids and Fluid Mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengers, Jan V.; Anisimov, Mikhail A.

    2004-05-03

    The major goal of the project was to study the effect of critical fluctuations on the thermophysical properties and phase behavior of fluids and fluid mixtures. Long-range fluctuations appear because of the presence of critical phase transitions. A global theory of critical fluctuations was developed and applied to represent thermodynamic properties and transport properties of molecular fluids and fluid mixtures. In the second phase of the project, the theory was extended to deal with critical fluctuations in complex fluids such as polymer solutions and electrolyte solutions. The theoretical predictions have been confirmed by computer simulations and by light-scattering experiments. Fluctuations in fluids in nonequilibrium states have also been investigated.

  7. Two-microphone Separation of Speech Mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    Matlab source code for underdetermined separation of instaneous speech mixtures. The algorithm is described in [1] Michael Syskind Pedersen, DeLiang Wang, Jan Larsen and Ulrik Kjems: ''Two-microphone Separation of Speech Mixtures,'' 2006, submitted for journal publoication. See also, [2] Michael...... Syskind Pedersen, DeLiang Wang, Jan Larsen and Ulrik Kjems: ''Overcomplete Blind Source Separation by Combining ICA and Binary Time-Frequency Masking,'' in proceedings of IEEE International workshop on Machine Learning for Signal Processing, pp. 15-20, 2005. All files should be in the same directory...

  8. Model structure selection in convolutive mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrholm, Mads; Makeig, S.; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2006-01-01

    The CICAAR algorithm (convolutive independent component analysis with an auto-regressive inverse model) allows separation of white (i.i.d) source signals from convolutive mixtures. We introduce a source color model as a simple extension to the CICAAR which allows for a more parsimonious represent......The CICAAR algorithm (convolutive independent component analysis with an auto-regressive inverse model) allows separation of white (i.i.d) source signals from convolutive mixtures. We introduce a source color model as a simple extension to the CICAAR which allows for a more parsimonious...

  9. On Normal Variance-Mean Mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Yaming

    2011-01-01

    Normal variance-mean mixtures encompass a large family of useful distributions such as the generalized hyperbolic distribution, which itself includes the Student t, Laplace, hyperbolic, normal inverse Gaussian, and variance gamma distributions as special cases. We study shape properties of normal variance-mean mixtures, in both the univariate and multivariate cases, and determine conditions for unimodality and log-concavity of the density functions. This leads to a short proof of the unimodality of all generalized hyperbolic densities. We also interpret such results in practical terms and discuss discrete analogues.

  10. Research and development to prepare and characterize robust coal/biomass mixtures for direct co-feeding into gasification systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felix, Larry [Inst. Of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Farthing, William [Inst. Of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Hoekman, S. Kent [Inst. Of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2014-12-31

    This project was initiated on October 1, 2010 and utilizes equipment and research supported by the Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, under Award Number DE- FE0005349. It is also based upon previous work supported by the Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, under Award Numbers DOE-DE-FG36-01GOl1082, DE-FG36-02G012011 or DE-EE0000272. The overall goal of the work performed was to demonstrate and assess the economic viability of fast hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) for transforming lignocellulosic biomass into a densified, friable fuel to gasify like coal that can be easily blended with ground coal and coal fines and then be formed into robust, weather-resistant pellets and briquettes. The specific objectives of the project include: • Demonstration of the continuous production of a uniform densified and formed feedstock from loblolly pine (a lignocellulosic, short rotation woody crop) in a hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) process development unit (PDU). • Demonstration that finely divided bituminous coal and HTC loblolly pine can be blended to form 90/10 and 70/30 weight-percent mixtures of coal and HTC biomass for further processing by pelletization and briquetting equipment to form robust weather resistant pellets and/or briquettes suitable for transportation and long term storage. • Characterization of the coal-biomass pellets and briquettes to quantify their physical properties (e.g. flow properties, homogeneity, moisture content, particle size and shape), bulk physical properties (e.g. compressibility, heat transfer and friability) and assess their suitability for use as fuels for commercially-available coal gasifiers. • Perform economic analyses using Aspen-based process simulations to determine the costs for deploying and operating HTC processing facilities for the production of robust coal/biomass fuels suitable for fueling commercially-available coal-fired gasifiers. This Final Project Scientific

  11. Model formulations for the mathematical-statistical evaluation of operation data as a planning assistance in the assessment of face operations in the bituminous coal mining. Modellansaetze fuer die mathematisch-statistische Auswertung von Betriebsdaten als Planungshilfsmittel bei der Einschaetzung von Strebbetrieben im Steinkohlenbergbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griesenbrock, H.P.

    1982-06-14

    Regression models based on comprehensive operating data collections were developed and tested for a sure assessment of the haulage capacity of face conveyors in the Ruhr bituminous coal mining. Starting from a critical view of the previously developed models for the assessment of face operations a factorial model has been developed considering the data in the form of utilization coefficients the parameters of which are not directly but iteratively determinable.

  12. Toxicology of chemical mixtures: International perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feron, V.J.; Cassee, F.R.; Groten, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews major activities outside the United States on human health issues related to chemical mixtures. In Europe an international study group on combination effects has been formed and has started by defining synergism and antagonism. Successful research programs in Europe include the de

  13. Two-Microphone Separation of Speech Mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Syskind; Wang, DeLiang; Larsen, Jan;

    2008-01-01

    combined, independent component analysis (ICA) and binary time–frequency (T–F) masking. By estimating binary masks from the outputs of an ICA algorithm, it is possible in an iterative way to extract basis speech signals from a convolutive mixture. The basis signals are afterwards improved by grouping...

  14. Nitrocarburizing in ammonia-hydrocarbon gas mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Hanne; Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2011-01-01

    The present work investigates the possibility of nitrocarburising in ammonia-acetylene-hydrogen and ammonia-propene-hydrogen gas mixtures, where unsaturated hydrocarbon gas is the carbon source during nitrocarburising. Consequently, nitrocarburising is carried out in a reducing atmosphere and str...

  15. A structural investigation of ionic liquid mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Richard P; Villar-Garcia, Ignacio J; Weber, Cameron C; Griffith, Jeraime; Cameron, Fiona; Hallett, Jason P; Hunt, Patricia A; Welton, Tom

    2016-03-28

    The structures of mixtures of ionic liquids (ILs) featuring a common 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium ([C4C1im](+)) cation but different anions have been investigated both experimentally and computationally. (1)H and (13)C NMR of the ILs and their mixtures has been performed both on the undiluted liquids and those diluted by CD2Cl2. These experiments have been complemented by quantum chemical density functional theory calculations and molecular dynamics simulations. These techniques have identified the formation of preferential interactions between H(2) of the imidazolium cation and the most strongly hydrogen bond (H-bond) accepting anion. In addition, a preference for the more weakly H-bond accepting anion to interact above the imidazolium ring through anion-π(+) interactions has been identified. The modelling of these data has identified that the magnitude of these preferences are small, of the order of only a few kJ mol(-1), for all IL mixtures. No clustering of the anions around a specific cation could be observed, indicating that these interactions arise from the reorientation of the cation within a randomly assigned network of anions. π(+)-π(+) stacking of the imidazolium cations was also studied and found to be promoted by ILs with a strong H-bond accepting anion. Stacking interactions are easily disrupted by the introduction of small proportions (accounting for why most IL mixtures exhibit ideal, or nearly ideal, behaviour. PMID:26947103

  16. Spinodal decomposition of chemically reactive binary mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamorgese, A.; Mauri, R.

    2016-08-01

    We simulate the influence of a reversible isomerization reaction on the phase segregation process occurring after spinodal decomposition of a deeply quenched regular binary mixture, restricting attention to systems wherein material transport occurs solely by diffusion. Our theoretical approach follows a diffuse-interface model of partially miscible binary mixtures wherein the coupling between reaction and diffusion is addressed within the frame of nonequilibrium thermodynamics, leading to a linear dependence of the reaction rate on the chemical affinity. Ultimately, the rate for an elementary reaction depends on the local part of the chemical potential difference since reaction is an inherently local phenomenon. Based on two-dimensional simulation results, we express the competition between segregation and reaction as a function of the Damköhler number. For a phase-separating mixture with components having different physical properties, a skewed phase diagram leads, at large times, to a system converging to a single-phase equilibrium state, corresponding to the absolute minimum of the Gibbs free energy. This conclusion continues to hold for the critical phase separation of an ideally perfectly symmetric binary mixture, where the choice of final equilibrium state at large times depends on the initial mean concentration being slightly larger or less than the critical concentration.

  17. Concrete mixture characterization. Cementitious barriers partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Protiere, Yannick [SIMCO Technologies, Inc., Quebec (Canada)

    2014-12-01

    This report summarizes the characterization study performed on two concrete mixtures used for radioactive waste storage. Both mixtures were prepared with approximately 425 kg of binder. The testing protocol mostly focused on determining the transport properties of the mixtures; volume of permeable voids (porosity), diffusion coefficients, and water permeability were evaluated. Tests were performed after different curing durations. In order to obtain data on the statistical distribution of transport properties, the measurements after 2 years of curing were performed on 10+ samples. Overall, both mixtures exhibited very low tortuosities and permeabilities, a direct consequence of their low water-to-binder ratio and the use of supplementary cementitious materials. The data generated on 2-year old samples showed that porosity, tortuosity and permeability follow a normal distribution. Chloride ponding tests were also performed on test samples. They showed limited chloride ingress, in line with measured transport properties. These test results also showed that both materials react differently with chloride, a consequence of the differences in the binder chemical compositions.

  18. Spinodal decomposition of chemically reactive binary mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamorgese, A; Mauri, R

    2016-08-01

    We simulate the influence of a reversible isomerization reaction on the phase segregation process occurring after spinodal decomposition of a deeply quenched regular binary mixture, restricting attention to systems wherein material transport occurs solely by diffusion. Our theoretical approach follows a diffuse-interface model of partially miscible binary mixtures wherein the coupling between reaction and diffusion is addressed within the frame of nonequilibrium thermodynamics, leading to a linear dependence of the reaction rate on the chemical affinity. Ultimately, the rate for an elementary reaction depends on the local part of the chemical potential difference since reaction is an inherently local phenomenon. Based on two-dimensional simulation results, we express the competition between segregation and reaction as a function of the Damköhler number. For a phase-separating mixture with components having different physical properties, a skewed phase diagram leads, at large times, to a system converging to a single-phase equilibrium state, corresponding to the absolute minimum of the Gibbs free energy. This conclusion continues to hold for the critical phase separation of an ideally perfectly symmetric binary mixture, where the choice of final equilibrium state at large times depends on the initial mean concentration being slightly larger or less than the critical concentration. PMID:27627358

  19. Regularized Finite Mixture Models for Probability Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shedden, Kerby; Zucker, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Finite mixture models are widely used in the analysis of growth trajectory data to discover subgroups of individuals exhibiting similar patterns of behavior over time. In practice, trajectories are usually modeled as polynomials, which may fail to capture important features of the longitudinal pattern. Focusing on dichotomous response measures, we…

  20. Mixtures of Ultracold Fermions with Unequal Masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Carlos A. R. Sa

    2008-05-01

    The quantum phases of ultracold fermions with unequal masses are discussed in continuum and lattice models for a wide variety of mixtures which exhibit Feshbach resonances, e.g., mixtures of ^6Li and ^40K. The evolution of superfluidity from the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) to the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) regime in the continuum is analyzed as a function of scattering parameter, population imbalance and mass anisotropy. In the continuum case, regions corresponding to normal, phase-separated or coexisting uniform-superfluid/excess-fermion phases are identified and the possibility of topological phase transitions is discussed [1]. For optical lattices, the phase diagrams as a function of interaction strength, population imbalance, filling fraction and tunneling parameters are presented [2]. In addition to the characteristic phases of the continuum, a series of insulating phases emerge in the phase diagrams of optical lattices, including a Bose-Mott insulator (BMI), a Fermi-Pauli insulator (FPI), a phase-separated BMI/FPI mixture, and a Bose-Fermi checkerboard (BFC) phase. Lastly, the effects of harmonic traps and the emergence of unusual shell structures are discussed for mixtures of fermions with unequal masses. [1] M. Iskin, and C. A. R. S' a de Melo, Phys. Rev. Lett 97, 100404 (2006); [2] M. Iskin, and C. A. R. S' a de Melo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 080403 (2007).

  1. Cementitious barriers partnership concrete mixture characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Protiere, Yannick [SIMCO Technologies, Inc., Quebec (Canada)

    2014-12-01

    This report summarizes the characterization study performed on two concrete mixtures used for radioactive waste storage. Both mixtures were prepared with approximately 425 kg of binder. The testing protocol mostly focused on determining the transport properties of the mixtures; volume of permeable voids (porosity), diffusion coefficients, and water permeability were evaluated. Tests were performed after different curing durations. In order to obtain data on the statistical distribution of transport properties, the measurements after 2 years of curing were performed on 10+ samples. Overall, both mixtures exhibited very low tortuosities and permeabilities, a direct consequence of their low water-to-binder ratio and the use of supplementary cementitious materials. The data generated on 2-year old samples showed that porosity, tortuosity and permeability follow a normal distribution. Chloride ponding tests were also performed on test samples. They showed limited chloride ingress, in line with measured transport properties. These test results also showed that both materials react differently with chloride, a consequence of the differences in the binder chemical compositions.

  2. Method for removing methane from gas mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makkee, M.; Xu Xiao, D.

    2008-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for oxidizing methane, comprising passing a gaseous, methane containing mixture over a catalyst, comprising a carrier with a substrate surface which consists substantially of titanium dioxide with a combination of platinum and palladium thereon, in the presence of m

  3. Two-microphone Separation of Speech Mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    of Speech Mixtures," 2006, submited for journal publication. See also, [2] Michael Syskind Pedersen, DeLiang Wang, Jan Larsen and Ulrik Kjems: "Overcomplete Blind Source Separation by Combining ICA and Binary Time-Frequency Masking," in proceedings of IEEE International workshop on Machine Learning...

  4. Modeling text with generalizable Gaussian mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Kolenda, Thomas;

    2000-01-01

    We apply and discuss generalizable Gaussian mixture (GGM) models for text mining. The model automatically adapts model complexity for a given text representation. We show that the generalizability of these models depends on the dimensionality of the representation and the sample size. We discuss...

  5. Molecular weight scaling in critical polymer mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehlsen, M.D.; Rosedale, J.R.; Bates, F.S.;

    1992-01-01

    Symmetric binary mixtures of partially deuterated polymers were prepared at the critical composition. The segment-segment interaction energy parameter chi(eff) was varied by adjusting the difference in deuterium content DELTA-X(D) between species. Chi(eff) was measured as a function of temperature...

  6. Multicomponent transport in weakly ionized mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovangigli, V [CMAP, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Graille, B [Laboratoire de Mathematiques, Universite Paris-Sud, 91405, Orsay (France); Magin, T [Center for Turbulence Research, Stanford University, CA 94305 (United States); Massot, M, E-mail: vincent.giovangigli@polytechnique.f [Laboratoire EM2C, Ecole Centrale de Paris, 92295 Chatenay-Malabry (France)

    2010-06-15

    We discuss transport coefficients in weakly ionized mixtures. We investigate the situations of weak and strong magnetic fields as well as electron temperature nonequilibrium. We present in each regime the Boltzmann equations, examples of transport fluxes, the structure of transport linear systems and discuss their solution by efficient iterative techniques. Numerical simulations are presented for partially ionized high-temperature air.

  7. Predicting diffusivities in dense fluid mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. DARIVA

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work the Enskog solution of the Boltzmann equation, as corrected by Speedy, together with the Weeks-Chandler-Andersen (WCA perturbation theory of liquids is employed in correlating and predicting self-diffusivities of dense fluids. Afterwards this theory is used to estimate mutual diffusion coefficients of solutes at infinite dilution in sub and supercritical solvents. We have also investigated the behavior of Fick diffusion coefficients in the proximity of a binary vapor-liquid critical point since this subject is of great interest for extraction purposes. The approach presented here, which makes use of a density and temperature dependent hard-sphere diameter, is shown to be excellent for predicting diffusivities in dense pure fluids and fluid mixtures. The calculations involved highly nonideal mixtures as well as systems with high molecular asymmetry. The predicted diffusivities are in good agreement with the experimental data for the pure and binary systems. The methodology proposed here makes only use of pure component information and density of mixtures. The simple algebraic relations are proposed without any binary adjustable parameters and can be readily used for estimating diffusivities in multicomponent mixtures.

  8. Complex mixtures, complex responses: Assessing pharmaceutical mixtures using field and laboratory approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfuss, Heiko L.; Furlong, Edward T.; Phillips, Patrick J.; Scott, Tia-Marie; Kolpin, Dana W.; Cetkovic-Cvrlje, Marina; Lesteberg, Kelsey E.; Rearick, Daniel C.

    2016-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals are present in low concentrations (concentration data, the authors assessed pharmaceuticals in laboratory exposures of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and added environmental complexity through effluent exposures. In the laboratory, larval and mature minnows were exposed to a simple opioid mixture (hydrocodone, methadone, and oxycodone), an opioid agonist (tramadol), a muscle relaxant (methocarbamol), a simple antidepressant mixture (fluoxetine, paroxetine, venlafaxine), a sleep aid (temazepam), or a complex mixture of all compounds. Larval minnow response to effluent exposure was not consistent. The 2010 exposures resulted in shorter exposed minnow larvae, whereas the larvae exposed in 2012 exhibited altered escape behavior. Mature minnows exhibited altered hepatosomatic indices, with the strongest effects in females and in mixture exposures. In addition, laboratory-exposed, mature male minnows exposed to all pharmaceuticals (except the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor mixture) defended nest sites less rigorously than fish in the control group. Tramadol or antidepressant mixture exposure resulted in increased splenic T lymphocytes. Only male minnows exposed to whole effluent responded with increased plasma vitellogenin concentrations. Female minnows exposed to pharmaceuticals (except the opioid mixture) had larger livers, likely as a compensatory result of greater prominence of vacuoles in liver hepatocytes. The observed alteration of apical endpoints central to sustaining fish populations confirms that effluents containing waste streams from pharmaceutical formulation facilities can adversely impact fish populations but that the effects may not be temporally consistent. The present study highlights the importance of including diverse biological endpoints spanning levels of biological organization and life stages when assessing contaminant interactions.

  9. MixtureTree annotator: a program for automatic colorization and visual annotation of MixtureTree.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Chuan Chen

    Full Text Available The MixtureTree Annotator, written in JAVA, allows the user to automatically color any phylogenetic tree in Newick format generated from any phylogeny reconstruction program and output the Nexus file. By providing the ability to automatically color the tree by sequence name, the MixtureTree Annotator provides a unique advantage over any other programs which perform a similar function. In addition, the MixtureTree Annotator is the only package that can efficiently annotate the output produced by MixtureTree with mutation information and coalescent time information. In order to visualize the resulting output file, a modified version of FigTree is used. Certain popular methods, which lack good built-in visualization tools, for example, MEGA, Mesquite, PHY-FI, TreeView, treeGraph and Geneious, may give results with human errors due to either manually adding colors to each node or with other limitations, for example only using color based on a number, such as branch length, or by taxonomy. In addition to allowing the user to automatically color any given Newick tree by sequence name, the MixtureTree Annotator is the only method that allows the user to automatically annotate the resulting tree created by the MixtureTree program. The MixtureTree Annotator is fast and easy-to-use, while still allowing the user full control over the coloring and annotating process.

  10. MixtureTree annotator: a program for automatic colorization and visual annotation of MixtureTree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-Chuan; Ogata, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    The MixtureTree Annotator, written in JAVA, allows the user to automatically color any phylogenetic tree in Newick format generated from any phylogeny reconstruction program and output the Nexus file. By providing the ability to automatically color the tree by sequence name, the MixtureTree Annotator provides a unique advantage over any other programs which perform a similar function. In addition, the MixtureTree Annotator is the only package that can efficiently annotate the output produced by MixtureTree with mutation information and coalescent time information. In order to visualize the resulting output file, a modified version of FigTree is used. Certain popular methods, which lack good built-in visualization tools, for example, MEGA, Mesquite, PHY-FI, TreeView, treeGraph and Geneious, may give results with human errors due to either manually adding colors to each node or with other limitations, for example only using color based on a number, such as branch length, or by taxonomy. In addition to allowing the user to automatically color any given Newick tree by sequence name, the MixtureTree Annotator is the only method that allows the user to automatically annotate the resulting tree created by the MixtureTree program. The MixtureTree Annotator is fast and easy-to-use, while still allowing the user full control over the coloring and annotating process.

  11. Bituminous coal production in the Appalachian basin: past, present, and future: Chapter D.3 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milici, Robert C.; Polyak, Désirée E.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    Although small quantities of coal first were produced from the Appalachian basin in the early 1700s, the first production statistics of significance were gathered during the census of 1830 (Eavenson, 1942). Since then, about 35 billion short tons of bituminous coal have been produced from the Appalachian basin from an original potential coal reserve (PCR(o)) estimated to range from about 60 to 90 billion short tons. The term “reserve” refers to economically producible coal, and a “potential coal reserve” (PCR(n)) is an estimate of the amount of coal economically recoverable in a region (State, coal field) over a defined time period (n = number of years) and under a range of economic, societal, and technological conditions. Thus, the current cumulative production plus the PCR(n) equals an estimated cumulative production (ECP(n)). The maps in this report (oversized figures 1, 2, 3, and 4) were produced from a digital database of historical and current coal production records by county. Sources of the original data include various State geological surveys, the U.S. Geological Survey, the former U.S. Bureau of Mines, and the U.S. Department of Energy’s Energy Information Administration. This report is part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Coal Resource Assessment Project.

  12. Experiments with Mixtures Designs, Models, and the Analysis of Mixture Data

    CERN Document Server

    Cornell, John A

    2011-01-01

    The most comprehensive, single-volume guide to conducting experiments with mixtures"If one is involved, or heavily interested, in experiments on mixtures of ingredients, one must obtain this book. It is, as was the first edition, the definitive work."-Short Book Reviews (Publication of the International Statistical Institute)"The text contains many examples with worked solutions and with its extensive coverage of the subject matter will prove invaluable to those in the industrial and educational sectors whose work involves the design and analysis of mixture experiments."-Journal of the Royal S

  13. Novel microthermal sensor principle for determining the mixture ratio of binary fluid mixtures using Föppl vortices

    OpenAIRE

    B. Schmitt; Kiefer, C; Schütze, A.

    2015-01-01

    A novel sensor principle for determining binary fluid mixtures of known components is presented, making use of different thermal and rheological properties of the mixture's components. Using a microheater, a heat pulse is introduced in the mixture. The resulting temperature increase depends on the thermal properties of the mixture, allowing determination of the mixture ratio. Placing a bluff body in the fluid channel causes the formation of a stationary pair of vortices behi...

  14. Phase structure of liposome in lipid mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianxi; Li, Yuzhuo; Mueller, Anja

    2011-11-01

    Gas microbubbles present in ultrasound imaging contrast agents are stabilized by lipid aggregates that typically contain a mixture of lipids. In this study, the phase structure of the lipid mixtures that contained two or three lipids was investigated using three different methods: dynamic light scattering, (1)H NMR, and microfluidity measurements with fluorescence probes. Three lipids that are commonly present in imaging agents (DPPC, DPPE-PEG, and DPPA) were used. Two types of systems, two-lipid model systems and simulated imaging systems were investigated. The results show that liposomes were the dominant aggregates in all the samples studied. The polar PEG side chains from the PEGylated lipid lead to the formation of micelles and micellar aggregates in small sizes. In the ternary lipid systems, almost all the lipids were present in bilayers with micelles absent and free lipids at very low concentration. These results suggest that liposomes, not micelles, contribute to the stabilization of microbubbles in an ultrasound imaging contrast agent.

  15. Mixtures of maximally entangled pure states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, M. M.; Galapon, E. A.

    2016-09-01

    We study the conditions when mixtures of maximally entangled pure states remain entangled. We found that the resulting mixed state remains entangled when the number of entangled pure states to be mixed is less than or equal to the dimension of the pure states. For the latter case of mixing a number of pure states equal to their dimension, we found that the mixed state is entangled provided that the entangled pure states to be mixed are not equally weighted. We also found that one can restrict the set of pure states that one can mix from in order to ensure that the resulting mixed state is genuinely entangled. Also, we demonstrate how these results could be applied as a way to detect entanglement in mixtures of the entangled pure states with noise.

  16. Sum of Bernoulli Mixtures: Beyond Conditional Independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taehan Bae

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the distribution of the sum of Bernoulli mixtures under a general dependence structure. The level of dependence is measured in terms of a limiting conditional correlation between two of the Bernoulli random variables. The conditioning event is that the mixing random variable is larger than a threshold and the limit is with respect to the threshold tending to one. The large-sample distribution of the empirical frequency and its use in approximating the risk measures, value at risk and conditional tail expectation, are presented for a new class of models which we call double mixtures. Several illustrative examples with a Beta mixing distribution, are given. As well, some data from the area of credit risk are fit with the models, and comparisons are made between the new models and also the classical Beta-binomial model.

  17. Polydispersity effects in colloid-polymer mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liddle, S M; Poon, W C K [SUPA and School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Edinburgh, Kings Buildings, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom); Narayanan, T, E-mail: S.Liddle@ed.ac.uk, E-mail: narayan@esrf.fr, E-mail: w.poon@ed.ac.uk [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France)

    2011-05-18

    We study phase separation and transient gelation experimentally in a mixture consisting of polydisperse colloids (polydispersity: {approx} 6%) and non-adsorbing polymers, where the ratio of the average size of the polymer to that of the colloid is {approx} 0.062. Unlike what has been reported previously for mixtures with somewhat lower colloid polydispersity ({approx} 5%), the addition of polymers does not expand the fluid-solid coexistence region. Instead, we find a region of fluid-solid coexistence which has an approximately constant width but an unexpected re-entrant shape. We detect the presence of a metastable gas-liquid binodal, which gives rise to two-stepped crystallization kinetics that can be rationalized as the effect of fractionation. Finally, we find that the separation into multiple coexisting solid phases at high colloid volume fractions predicted by equilibrium statistical mechanics is kinetically suppressed before the system reaches dynamical arrest.

  18. The Supervised Learning Gaussian Mixture Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马继涌; 高文

    1998-01-01

    The traditional Gaussian Mixture Model(GMM)for pattern recognition is an unsupervised learning method.The parameters in the model are derived only by the training samples in one class without taking into account the effect of sample distributions of other classes,hence,its recognition accuracy is not ideal sometimes.This paper introduces an approach for estimating the parameters in GMM in a supervising way.The Supervised Learning Gaussian Mixture Model(SLGMM)improves the recognition accuracy of the GMM.An experimental example has shown its effectiveness.The experimental results have shown that the recognition accuracy derived by the approach is higher than those obtained by the Vector Quantization(VQ)approach,the Radial Basis Function (RBF) network model,the Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ) approach and the GMM.In addition,the training time of the approach is less than that of Multilayer Perceptrom(MLP).

  19. On the Asphalt Mixture Ratio Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢文怡

    2013-01-01

      热拌沥青混合料配合比设计关系到沥青砼路面的路用性能。本文结合高速公路沥青路面建设的实际情况,对如何规范操作,以及设计沥青混合料配合比时注意的问题提出了一些建议。%Hot-mix asphalt mixture design is related to the performance of asphalt concrete pavement. This paper, combining with the actual situation of the highway asphalt pavement construction, made recommendations on how to regulate the operation and the problems need pay attention to in design of asphalt mixture.

  20. Tails of correlation mixtures of elliptical copulas

    CERN Document Server

    Manner, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Correlation mixtures of elliptical copulas arise when the correlation parameter is driven itself by a latent random process. For such copulas, both penultimate and asymptotic tail dependence are much larger than for ordinary elliptical copulas with the same unconditional correlation. Furthermore, for Gaussian and Student t-copulas, tail dependence at sub-asymptotic levels is generally larger than in the limit, which can have serious consequences for estimation and evaluation of extreme risk. Finally, although correlation mixtures of Gaussian copulas inherit the property of asymptotic independence, at the same time they fall in the newly defined category of near asymptotic dependence. The consequences of these findings for modeling are assessed by means of a simulation study and a case study involving financial time series.

  1. Quantum state smoothing for classical mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, D; Mølmer, K; Murch, K W

    2016-01-01

    In quantum mechanics, wave functions and density matrices represent our knowledge about a quantum system and give probabilities for the outcomes of measurements. If the combined dynamics and measurements on a system lead to a density matrix $\\rho(t)$ with only diagonal elements in a given basis $\\{|n\\rangle\\}$, it may be treated as a classical mixture, i.e., a system which randomly occupies the basis states $|n\\rangle$ with probabilities $\\rho_{nn}(t)$. Fully equivalent to so-called smoothing in classical probability theory, subsequent probing of the occupation of the states $|n\\rangle$ improves our ability to retrodict what was the outcome of a projective state measurement at time $t$. Here, we show with experiments on a superconducting qubit that the smoothed probabilities do not, in the same way as the diagonal elements of $\\rho$, permit a classical mixture interpretation of the state of the system at the past time $t$.

  2. TOPICAL REVIEW: Thermal plasmas in gas mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, A. B.

    2001-10-01

    The calculation and measurement of the properties of thermal plasmas in mixtures of different gases are reviewed. The calculation of composition, thermodynamic properties and transport coefficients is described. Particular attention is given to the calculation of diffusion coefficients, which is a significant problem in mixed-gas plasmas. The combined diffusion coefficient formulation is shown to be a useful method for the treatment of diffusion. Computational fluid dynamic modelling of thermal plasmas in gas mixtures is considered, using the examples of demixing in welding arcs, the turbulent mixing of atmospheric air into a plasma jet and a plasma waste destruction process. Diagnostic techniques for mixed-gas plasmas, in particular emission spectroscopy, laser scattering and laser-induced fluorescence, are discussed.

  3. Heterogeneity in multistage carcinogenesis and mixture modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgenthaler Stephan

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Carcinogenesis is commonly described as a multistage process, in which stem cells are transformed into cancer cells via a series of mutations. In this article, we consider extensions of the multistage carcinogenesis model by mixture modeling. This approach allows us to describe population heterogeneity in a biologically meaningful way. We focus on finite mixture models, for which we prove identifiability. These models are applied to human lung cancer data from several birth cohorts. Maximum likelihood estimation does not perform well in this application due to the heavy censoring in our data. We thus use analytic graduation instead. Very good fits are achieved for models that combine a small high risk group with a large group that is quasi immune.

  4. Detonation Diffraction Through a Mixture Gradient

    OpenAIRE

    Schultz, E.; Shepherd, J

    2000-01-01

    A simple one-dimensional model of a self-propagating gaseous detonation consists of a shock wave tightly coupled to a reaction zone, propagating through a combustible gas mixture as shown in Fig. 1 (Strehlow 1984). A feedback mechanism exists in that the shock wave generates the thermodynamic conditions under which the gas combusts, and the energy release from the reaction zone maintains the strength of the shock This is in contrast to a flame, or deflagrative combustion, in which thermal and...

  5. Lattice Model for water-solute mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Furlan, A. P.; Almarza, N. G.; M. C. Barbosa

    2016-01-01

    A lattice model for the study of mixtures of associating liquids is proposed. Solvent and solute are modeled by adapting the associating lattice gas (ALG) model. The nature of interaction solute/solvent is controlled by tuning the energy interactions between the patches of ALG model. We have studied three set of parameters, resulting on, hydrophilic, inert and hydrophobic interactions. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations were carried out and the behavior of pure components and the excess proper...

  6. Nitrocarburising in ammonia-hydrocarbon gas mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Hanne; Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The present work investigates the possibility of nitrocarburising in ammonia-acetylene-hydrogen and ammoniapropene- hydrogen gas mixtures, where unsaturated hydrocarbon gas is the carbon source during nitrocarburising. Consequently, nitrocarburising is carried out in a reducing atmosphere...... and straightforward control of the carburizing and nitriding potentials is in principle possible. The nitrocarburising response of unalloyed (ARMCO) Fe was investigated in a thermobalance during controlled nitrocarburising at 580°C. The “cases” obtained on nitrocarburised iron were characterized by reflected light...

  7. Conditional Density Approximations with Mixtures of Polynomials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varando, Gherardo; López-Cruz, Pedro L.; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre;

    2015-01-01

    Mixtures of polynomials (MoPs) are a non-parametric density estimation technique especially designed for hybrid Bayesian networks with continuous and discrete variables. Algorithms to learn one- and multi-dimensional (marginal) MoPs from data have recently been proposed. In this paper we introduce...... basis functions (MoTBFs). The empirical results show that the proposed methods generally yield models that are comparable to or significantly better than those found using the MoTBF-based method....

  8. Structure of cholesterol/ceramide monolayer mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheffer, L.; Solomonov, I.; Weygand, M.J.;

    2005-01-01

    The structure of monolayers of cholesterol/ ceramide mixtures was investigated using grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, immunofluorescence, and atomic force microscopy techniques. Grazing incidence x-ray diffraction measurements showed the existence of a crystalline mixed phase of the two....... As ceramide incorporates the lipid backbone common to all sphingolipids, this arrangement may be relevant to the understanding of the molecular organization of lipid rafts....

  9. Endocrine activity of mycotoxins and mycotoxin mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaegdt, Heidi; Daminet, Britt; Evrard, Annick; Scippo, Marie-Louise; Muller, Marc; Pussemier, Luc; Callebaut, Alfons; Vandermeiren, Karine

    2016-10-01

    Reporter gene assays incorporating nuclear receptors (estrogen, androgen, thyroid β and PPARγ2) have been implemented to assess the endocrine activity of 13 mycotoxins and their mixtures. As expected, zearalenone and its metabolites α-zearalenol and β- zearalenol turned out to have the strongest estrogenic potency (EC50 8,7 10-10 ± 0,8; 3,1 10-11 ± 0,5 and 1,3 10-8 ± 0,3 M respectively). The metabolite of deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol also had estrogenic activity (EC50 3,8 10-7 ± 1,1 M). Furthermore, most of the mycotoxins (and their mixtures) showed anti-androgenic effects (15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol and α-zearalenol with potencies within one order of magnitude of that of the reference compound flutamide). In particular, deoxynivalenol and 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol acted as antagonists for the PPARy2 receptor. When testing mixtures of mycotoxins on the same cell systems, we showed that most of the mixtures reacted as predicted by the concentration addition (CA) theory. Generally, the CA was within the 95% confidence interval of the observed ones, only minor deviations were detected. Although these reporter gene tests cannot be directly extrapolated in vivo, they can be the basis for further research. Especially the additive effects of ZEN and its metabolites are of importance and could have repercussions in vivo. PMID:27481073

  10. Neighborhood Mixture Model for Knowledge Base Completion

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Dat Quoc; Sirts, Kairit; Qu, Lizhen; Johnson, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge bases are useful resources for many natural language processing tasks, however, they are far from complete. In this paper, we define a novel entity representation as a mixture of its neighborhood in the knowledge base and apply this technique on TransE-a well-known embedding model for knowledge base completion. Experimental results show that the neighborhood information significantly helps to improve the results of the TransE, leading to better performance than obtained by other sta...

  11. Dynamic thermodiffusion model for binary liquid mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslamian, Morteza; Saghir, M Ziad

    2009-07-01

    Following the nonequilibrium thermodynamics approach, we develop a dynamic model to emulate thermo-diffusion process and propose expressions for estimating the thermal diffusion factor in binary nonassociating liquid mixtures. Here, we correlate the net heat of transport in thermodiffusion with parameters, such as the mixture temperature and pressure, the size and shape of the molecules, and mobility of the components, because the molecules have to become activated before they can move. Based on this interpretation, the net heat of transport of each component can be somehow related to the viscosity and the activation energy of viscous flow of the same component defined in Eyring's reaction-rate theory [S. Glasstone, K. J. Laidler, and H. Eyring, (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1941)]. This modeling approach is different from that of Haase and Kempers, in which thermodiffusion is considered as a function of the thermostatic properties of the mixture such as enthalpy. In simulating thermodiffusion, by correlating the net heat of transport with the activation energy of viscous flow, effects of the above mentioned parameters are accounted for, to some extent of course. The model developed here along with Haase-Kempers and Drickamer-Firoozabadi models linked with the Peng-Robinson equation of sate are evaluated against the experimental data for several recent nonassociating binary mixtures at various temperatures, pressures, and concentrations. Although the model prediction is still not perfect, the model is simple and easy to use, physically justified, and predicts the experimental data very good and much better than the existing models. PMID:19658691

  12. Modified Sonine approximation for granular binary mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Garzó, Vicente; Reyes, Francisco Vega; Montanero, José María

    2008-01-01

    We evaluate in this work the hydrodynamic transport coefficients of a granular binary mixture in $d$ dimensions. In order to eliminate the observed disagreement (for strong dissipation) between computer simulations and previously calculated theoretical transport coefficients for a monocomponent gas, we obtain explicit expressions of the seven Navier-Stokes transport coefficients with the use of a new Sonine approach in the Chapman-Enskog theory. Our new approach consists in replacing, where a...

  13. Transport coefficients for inelastic Maxwell mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Garzo, Vicente; Astillero, Antonio

    2004-01-01

    The Boltzmann equation for inelastic Maxwell models is used to determine the Navier-Stokes transport coefficients of a granular binary mixture in $d$ dimensions. The Chapman-Enskog method is applied to solve the Boltzmann equation for states near the (local) homogeneous cooling state. The mass, heat, and momentum fluxes are obtained to first order in the spatial gradients of the hydrodynamic fields, and the corresponding transport coefficients are identified. There are seven relevant transpor...

  14. Dynamic thermodiffusion model for binary liquid mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslamian, Morteza; Saghir, M. Ziad

    2009-07-01

    Following the nonequilibrium thermodynamics approach, we develop a dynamic model to emulate thermo-diffusion process and propose expressions for estimating the thermal diffusion factor in binary nonassociating liquid mixtures. Here, we correlate the net heat of transport in thermodiffusion with parameters, such as the mixture temperature and pressure, the size and shape of the molecules, and mobility of the components, because the molecules have to become activated before they can move. Based on this interpretation, the net heat of transport of each component can be somehow related to the viscosity and the activation energy of viscous flow of the same component defined in Eyring’s reaction-rate theory [S. Glasstone, K. J. Laidler, and H. Eyring, The Theory of Rate Processes: The Kinetics of Chemical Reactions, Viscosity, Diffusion and Electrochemical Phenomena (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1941)]. This modeling approach is different from that of Haase and Kempers, in which thermodiffusion is considered as a function of the thermostatic properties of the mixture such as enthalpy. In simulating thermodiffusion, by correlating the net heat of transport with the activation energy of viscous flow, effects of the above mentioned parameters are accounted for, to some extent of course. The model developed here along with Haase-Kempers and Drickamer-Firoozabadi models linked with the Peng-Robinson equation of sate are evaluated against the experimental data for several recent nonassociating binary mixtures at various temperatures, pressures, and concentrations. Although the model prediction is still not perfect, the model is simple and easy to use, physically justified, and predicts the experimental data very good and much better than the existing models.

  15. Stability analysis of mixtures of mutagenetic trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahnenführer Jörg

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mixture models of mutagenetic trees are evolutionary models that capture several pathways of ordered accumulation of genetic events observed in different subsets of patients. They were used to model HIV progression by accumulation of resistance mutations in the viral genome under drug pressure and cancer progression by accumulation of chromosomal aberrations in tumor cells. From the mixture models a genetic progression score (GPS can be derived that estimates the genetic status of single patients according to the corresponding progression along the tree models. GPS values were shown to have predictive power for estimating drug resistance in HIV or the survival time in cancer. Still, the reliability of the exact values of such complex markers derived from graphical models can be questioned. Results In a simulation study, we analyzed various aspects of the stability of estimated mutagenetic trees mixture models. It turned out that the induced probabilistic distributions and the tree topologies are recovered with high precision by an EM-like learning algorithm. However, only for models with just one major model component, also GPS values of single patients can be reliably estimated. Conclusion It is encouraging that the estimation process of mutagenetic trees mixture models can be performed with high confidence regarding induced probability distributions and the general shape of the tree topologies. For a model with only one major disease progression process, even genetic progression scores for single patients can be reliably estimated. However, for models with more than one relevant component, alternative measures should be introduced for estimating the stage of disease progression.

  16. Effective interaction in an unbalanced Fermion mixture

    OpenAIRE

    Recher, Christian; Kohler, Heinerich

    2013-01-01

    A one dimensional Fermi mixture with delta--interaction is investigated in the limit of extreme imbalance. In particular we consider the cases of only one or two minority Fermions which interact with the Fermi-sea of the majority Fermions. We calculate dispersion relation and polaron mass for the minority Fermions as well as equal time density-density correlators. Within a cluster expansion we derive an expression for the effective interaction potential between minority Fermions. For our calc...

  17. Unconventional quantum phases of lattice bosonic mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Buonsante, P.; Giampaolo, S. M.; Illuminati, F.; Penna, V; Vezzani, A.

    2008-01-01

    We consider strongly interacting boson-boson mixtures on one-dimensional lattices and, by adopting a qualitative mean-field approach, investigate their quantum phases as the interspecies repulsion is increased. In particular, we analyze the low-energy "quantum emulsion" metastable states occurring at large values of the interspecies interaction, which are expected to prevent the system from reaching its true ground state. We argue a significant decrease in the visibility of the time-of-flight...

  18. Bayesian mixture models for Poisson astronomical images

    OpenAIRE

    Guglielmetti, Fabrizia; Fischer, Rainer; Dose, Volker

    2012-01-01

    Astronomical images in the Poisson regime are typically characterized by a spatially varying cosmic background, large variety of source morphologies and intensities, data incompleteness, steep gradients in the data, and few photon counts per pixel. The Background-Source separation technique is developed with the aim to detect faint and extended sources in astronomical images characterized by Poisson statistics. The technique employs Bayesian mixture models to reliably detect the background as...

  19. Negative Binomial Process Count and Mixture Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mingyuan; Carin, Lawrence

    2015-02-01

    The seemingly disjoint problems of count and mixture modeling are united under the negative binomial (NB) process. A gamma process is employed to model the rate measure of a Poisson process, whose normalization provides a random probability measure for mixture modeling and whose marginalization leads to an NB process for count modeling. A draw from the NB process consists of a Poisson distributed finite number of distinct atoms, each of which is associated with a logarithmic distributed number of data samples. We reveal relationships between various count- and mixture-modeling distributions and construct a Poisson-logarithmic bivariate distribution that connects the NB and Chinese restaurant table distributions. Fundamental properties of the models are developed, and we derive efficient Bayesian inference. It is shown that with augmentation and normalization, the NB process and gamma-NB process can be reduced to the Dirichlet process and hierarchical Dirichlet process, respectively. These relationships highlight theoretical, structural, and computational advantages of the NB process. A variety of NB processes, including the beta-geometric, beta-NB, marked-beta-NB, marked-gamma-NB and zero-inflated-NB processes, with distinct sharing mechanisms, are also constructed. These models are applied to topic modeling, with connections made to existing algorithms under Poisson factor analysis. Example results show the importance of inferring both the NB dispersion and probability parameters. PMID:26353243

  20. Confusion of concepts in mixture toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Könemann, W H; Pieters, M N

    1996-01-01

    Regulatory limit values are generally set for single compounds. However, humans are exposed both simultaneously and sequentially to a wide variety of compounds. Some concepts on mixture toxicology are discussed in this introduction to the European Conference on Combination Toxicology. Studies on mixtures are often accompanied by statements about the type of combined action, which can be, for example, additive, synergistic or antagonistic. Unfortunately, comparison of results is hardly possible for various reasons. First, the terminology for indicating combined action is far from consistent. Bearing this in mind, researchers should be explicit in the definitions of terms. Secondly, depending on the model, different conclusions may be drawn from the same results. It is therefore important to provide clear definitions of the null hypothesis. Thirdly, adequate statistical methods should be used for testing the null hypothesis. In the past, many mixtures studies either used no statistics or used statistics incorrectly. Last, but not least, the study should be designed in such a way that it should be possible to obtain clear answers. In this introduction, it is stressed that environmental toxicologists should focus on the low-dose region of the dose-effect curves. It appears that interactions are less plausible at low doses. Dose additivity, however, cannot be excluded.

  1. Ethane-xenon mixtures under shock conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flicker, Dawn; Magyar, Rudolph; Root, Seth; Cochrane, Kyle; Mattsson, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Mixtures of light and heavy elements arise in inertial confinement fusion and planetary science. We present results on the physics of molecular scale mixing through a validation study of equation of state (EOS) properties. Density functional theory molecular dynamics (DFT/QMD) at elevated-temperature and pressure is used to obtain the properties of pure xenon, ethane, and various compressed mixture compositions along their principal Hugoniots. To validate the QMD simulations, we performed high-precision shock compression experiments using Sandia's Z-Machine. A bond tracking analysis of the simulations correlates the sharp rise in the Hugoniot curve with completion of dissociation in ethane. DFT-based simulation results compare well with experimental data and are used to provide insight into the dissociation as a function of mixture composition. Interestingly, we find that the compression ratio for complete dissociation is similar for ethane, Xe-ethane, polymethyl-pentene, and polystyrene, suggesting that a limiting compression exists for C-C bonded systems. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Company, Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  2. Hierarchical similarity transformations between Gaussian mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigas, George; Nikou, Christophoros; Goletsis, Yorgos; Fotiadis, Dimitrios I

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a method to estimate the density of a data space represented by a geometric transformation of an initial Gaussian mixture model. The geometric transformation is hierarchical, and it is decomposed into two steps. At first, the initial model is assumed to undergo a global similarity transformation modeled by translation, rotation, and scaling of the model components. Then, to increase the degrees of freedom of the model and allow it to capture fine data structures, each individual mixture component may be transformed by another, local similarity transformation, whose parameters are distinct for each component of the mixture. In addition, to constrain the order of magnitude of the local transformation (LT) with respect to the global transformation (GT), zero-mean Gaussian priors are imposed onto the local parameters. The estimation of both GT and LT parameters is obtained through the expectation maximization framework. Experiments on artificial data are conducted to evaluate the proposed model, with varying data dimensionality, number of model components, and transformation parameters. In addition, the method is evaluated using real data from a speech recognition task. The obtained results show a high model accuracy and demonstrate the potential application of the proposed method to similar classification problems. PMID:24808615

  3. Statistical mechanical theory of fluid mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yueqiang; Wu, Zhengming; Liu, Weiwei

    2014-01-01

    A general statistical mechanical theory of fluid mixtures (liquid mixtures and gas mixtures) is developed based on the statistical mechanical expression of chemical potential of components in the grand canonical ensemble, which gives some new relationships between thermodynamic quantities (equilibrium ratio Ki, separation factor α and activity coefficient γi) and ensemble average potential energy u for one molecule. The statistical mechanical expressions of separation factor α and activity coefficient γi derived in this work make the fluid phase equilibrium calculations can be performed by molecular simulation simply and efficiently, or by the statistical thermodynamic approach (based on the saturated-vapor pressure of pure substance) that does not need microscopic intermolecular pair potential functions. The physical meaning of activity coefficient γi in the liquid phase is discussed in detail from a viewpoint of molecular thermodynamics. The calculated Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium (VLE) properties of argon-methane, methanol-water and n-hexane-benzene systems by this model fit well with experimental data in references, which indicates that this model is accurate and reliable in the prediction of VLE properties for small, large and strongly associating molecules; furthermore the statistical mechanical expressions of separation factor α and activity coefficient γi have good compatibility with classical thermodynamic equations and quantum mechanical COSMO-SAC approach.

  4. Mixture risk assessment: a case study of Monsanto experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, R S; Dudek, B R; Grothe, D R; Johannsen, F R; Lamb, I C; Martens, M A; Sherman, J H; Stevens, M W

    1996-01-01

    Monsanto employs several pragmatic approaches for evaluating the toxicity of mixtures. These approaches are similar to those recommended by many national and international agencies. When conducting hazard and risk assessments, priority is always given to using data collected directly on the mixture of concern. To provide an example of the first tier of evaluation, actual data on acute respiratory irritation studies on mixtures were evaluated to determine whether the principle of additivity was applicable to the mixture evaluated. If actual data on the mixture are unavailable, extrapolation across similar mixtures is considered. Because many formulations are quite similar in composition, the toxicity data from one mixture can be extended to a closely related mixture in a scientifically justifiable manner. An example of a family of products where such extrapolations have been made is presented to exemplify this second approach. Lastly, if data on similar mixtures are unavailable, data on component fractions are used to predict the toxicity of the mixture. In this third approach, process knowledge and scientific judgement are used to determine how the known toxicological properties of the individual fractions affect toxicity of the mixture. Three examples of plant effluents where toxicological data on fractions were used to predict the toxicity of the mixture are discussed. The results of the analysis are used to discuss the predictive value of each of the above mentioned toxicological approaches for evaluating chemical mixtures.

  5. Demonstration of a Piston Plug feed System for Feeding Coal/Biomass Mixtures across a Pressure Gradient for Application to a Commercial CBTL System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santosh Gangwal

    2011-06-30

    Producing liquid transportation fuels and power via coal and biomass to liquids (CBTL) and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) processes can significantly improve the nation's energy security. The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 mandates increasing renewable fuels nearly 10-fold to >2.3 million barrels per day by 2022. Coal is abundantly available and coal to liquids (CTL) plants can be deployed today, but they will not become sustainable without large scale CO{sub 2} capture and storage. Co-processing of coal and biomass in CBTL processes in a 60 to 40 ratio is an attractive option that has the potential to produce 4 million barrels of transportation fuels per day by 2020 at the same level of CO{sub 2} emission as petroleum. In this work, Southern Research Institute (Southern) has made an attempt to address one of the major barriers to the development of large scale CBTL processes - cost effective/reliable dry-feeding of coal-biomass mixtures into a high pressure vessel representative of commercial entrained-flow gasifiers. Present method for dry coal feeding involves the use of pressurized lock-hopper arrangements that are not only very expensive with large space requirements but also have not been proven for reliably feeding coal-biomass mixtures without the potential problems of segregation and bridging. The project involved the development of a pilot-scale 250 lb/h high pressure dry coal-biomass mixture feeder provided by TKEnergi and proven for feeding biomass at a scale up to 6 ton/day. The aim of this project is to demonstrate cost effective feeding of coal-biomass mixtures (50:50 to 70:30) made from a variety of coals (bituminous, lignite) and biomass (wood, corn stover, switch grass). The feeder uses a hydraulic piston-based approach to produce a series of plugs of the mixture that act as a seal against high back-pressure of the gasification vessel in to which the mixture is being fed. The plugs are then fed one by one via a

  6. Separation of gas mixtures by supported complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, D.A.; Lilga, M.A.; Hallen, R.T.; Lyke, S.E.

    1986-08-01

    The goal of this program is to determine the feasibility of solvent-dissolved coordination complexes for the separation of gas mixtures under bench-scale conditions. In particular, mixtures such as low-Btu gas are examined for CO and H/sub 2/ separation. Two complexes, Pd/sub 2/(dpm)/sub 2/Br/sub 2/ and Ru(CO)/sub 2/(PPh/sub 3/)/sub 3/, were examined in a bench-scale apparatus for the separation of binary (CO-N/sub 2/ or H/sub 2/-N/sub 2/) and quinary (H/sub 2/, CO, CO/sub 2/, CH/sub 4/, and N/sub 2/) mixtures. The separation of CO-N/sub 2/ was enhanced by the presence of the palladium complex in the 1,1,2-trichloroethane (TCE) solvent, especially at high gas and low liquid rates. The five-component gas mixture separation with the palladium complex in TCE provided quite unexpected results based on physical solubility and chemical coordination. The complex retained CO, while the solvent retained CO/sub 2/, CH/sub 4/, and N/sub 2/ to varying degrees. This allowed the hydrogen content to be enhanced due to its low solubility in TCE and inertness to the complex. Thus, a one-step, hydrogen separation can be achieved from gas mixtures with compositions similar to that of oxygen-blown coal gas. A preliminary economic evaluation of hydrogen separation was made for a system based on the palladium complex. The palladium system has a separation cost of 50 to 60 cents/MSCF with an assumed capital investment of $1.60/MSCF of annual capacity charged at 30% per year. This assumes a 3 to 4 year life for the complex. Starting with a 90% hydrogen feed, PSA separation costs are in the range of 30 to 50 cents/MSCF. The ruthenium complex was not as successful for hydrogen or carbon monoxide separation due to unfavorable kinetics. The palladium complex was found to strip hydrogen gas from H/sub 2/S. The complex could be regenerated with mild oxidants which removed the sulfur as SO/sub 2/. 24 refs., 26 figs., 10 tabs.

  7. Mixtures as a fungicide resistance management tactic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bosch, Frank; Paveley, Neil; van den Berg, Femke; Hobbelen, Peter; Oliver, Richard

    2014-12-01

    We have reviewed the experimental and modeling evidence on the use of mixtures of fungicides of differing modes of action as a resistance management tactic. The evidence supports the following conclusions. 1. Adding a mixing partner to a fungicide that is at-risk of resistance (without lowering the dose of the at-risk fungicide) reduces the rate of selection for fungicide resistance. This holds for the use of mixing partner fungicides that have either multi-site or single-site modes of action. The resulting predicted increase in the effective life of the at-risk fungicide can be large enough to be of practical relevance. The more effective the mixing partner (due to inherent activity and/or dose), the larger the reduction in selection and the larger the increase in effective life of the at-risk fungicide. 2. Adding a mixing partner while lowering the dose of the at-risk fungicide reduces the selection for fungicide resistance, without compromising effective disease control. The very few studies existing suggest that the reduction in selection is more sensitive to lowering the dose of the at-risk fungicide than to increasing the dose of the mixing partner. 3. Although there are very few studies, the existing evidence suggests that mixing two at-risk fungicides is also a useful resistance management tactic. The aspects that have received too little attention to draw generic conclusions about the effectiveness of fungicide mixtures as resistance management strategies are as follows: (i) the relative effect of the dose of the two mixing partners on selection for fungicide resistance, (ii) the effect of mixing on the effective life of a fungicide (the time from introduction of the fungicide mode of action to the time point where the fungicide can no longer maintain effective disease control), (iii) polygenically determined resistance, (iv) mixtures of two at-risk fungicides, (v) the emergence phase of resistance evolution and the effects of mixtures during this phase

  8. Reflectance properties of spinel-plagioclase mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheek, L.; Jackson, C.; Dhingra, D.; Pieters, C. M.; Prissel, T. C.; Williams, K. B.

    2012-12-01

    Near-infrared spectra displaying the diagnostic properties of Mg-spinel have recently been reported in several lunar craters based on Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) data [1-5]. These spectra lack evidence for olivine or pyroxene, suggesting that they represent a spinel-plagioclase lithology [1]. Current hypotheses [6, 7] suggest that this lithology formed by interactions of a mafic or ultramafic liquid with an anorthositic country rock, but the proportions of spinel and plagioclase are unknown. The aim of this work is to constrain the modal abundances of spinel and plagioclase in the observed lithology using laboratory reflectance spectroscopy of particulate mixtures. Reflectance spectra of Mg-spinel display a strong absorption at ~2000 nm due to Fe2+ in a tetrahedral site [e.g., 8]. At higher FeO contents, > ~5 wt%, an octahedral absorption near 1000 nm is also apparent [9]. Plagioclase often displays a broad absorption centered near 1250 nm due to trace amounts (0.1 wt%) of Fe2+ in the Ca2+ site. Previous studies have noted that plagioclase must be present in extremely high abundances (~85 vol%) in order for the 1250 nm absorption to be apparent in mixtures with olivine and pyroxene [10, 11]. Recent nonlinear modeling has suggested that at least 50% plagioclase is necessary for the 1250 nm absorption to be apparent in a calculated mixture with spinel [12]. Our approach involves making mineral mixtures of spinel and plagioclase particulate samples and measuring near-infrared spectra of the bulk material. For the plagioclase endmember, we use terrestrial gem quality labradorite with ~0.3 wt% FeO. The spinel endmember was produced experimentally at Brown University (1500 C; fO2~ IW; sintered 72 hrs), and contains 5 wt% FeO. Preliminary results show that spectra of a 90% plagioclase - 10% spinel mixture only display the spectral properties of the spinel component; the 1250 nm absorption is not apparent. Importantly, the addition of 90% plagioclase does not significantly

  9. ZSM-5/ZSM-12 catalyst mixture for cracking alkylbenzenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaeding, W.W.; Lee, C.S.

    1986-03-18

    A process is described for converting a first hydrocarbon mixture to a second hydrocarbon mixture. The first hydrocarbon mixture consists essentially of aromatic hydrocarbons having 10 or more carbon atoms. The first hydrocarbon mixture comprises at least 50% by weight of diisopropylbenzene and less than 5% by weight of the sum of benzene, toluene, xylene and ethylbenzene. The second hydrocarbon mixture consists of at least 30% by weight of the sum of benzene, toluene, xylene and ethylbenzene and less than 20% by weight of diisopropylbenzene, the process comprising cracking the first hydrocarbon mixture over a catalyst comprising a mixture of zeolites, the mixture of zeolites consisting essentially of from about 10% to about 90% by weight of ZSM-5, the remainder being essentially ZSM-12.

  10. Chemical Mixture Risk Assessment Additivity-Based Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powerpoint presentation includes additivity-based chemical mixture risk assessment methods. Basic concepts, theory and example calculations are included. Several slides discuss the use of "common adverse outcomes" in analyzing phthalate mixtures.

  11. Mixture Density Mercer Kernels: A Method to Learn Kernels

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper presents a method of generating Mercer Kernels from an ensemble of probabilistic mixture models, where each mixture model is generated from a Bayesian...

  12. 基于热重分析法的烟煤掺烧褐煤特性研究%Combustion Characteristics of Bituminous Coal Blended with Lignite Using Thermo-gravimetric Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨志斌; 马莹; 戴新; 赵建军; 关彦军; 张锴

    2015-01-01

    针对电厂掺烧褐煤缺乏相关理论指导的技术需求,采用热重分析方法系统考察了包煤、准煤和褐煤的单独燃烧特性,并将两种烟煤分别以10%、30%、50%和70%的比例在相同条件下与褐煤混合燃烧,根据各燃料燃烧特征参数计算了单一煤种及其不同掺混比例的着火指数、燃尽指数和综合燃烧指数。结果表明,褐煤最易着火和燃尽;包煤着火特性较好,但在550~660℃范围内出现难燃峰致使燃尽特性变差;准煤的着火特性最差,燃尽特性略优于包煤;将包煤和准煤与褐煤掺混后燃烧特性有所改善,各燃烧特征温度降低,且综合燃烧指数随褐煤掺烧比例的增加而增加。建议在电厂实际应用时,褐煤的掺烧比例控制在30%-50%之间。%Based on the actual requirement for fundamental theory of blending lignite in coal-fired power stations, combustion characteristics of lignite, bituminous coal and their blends were investigated by using thermogravimetric method ( TGA) in this paper.Lignite was blended with two types of bituminous coals in proportions of 10%, 30%, 50%and 70%, respectively.The ignition index, burnout index and comprehensive combustion index of single and mixed fuels were calculated by means of combustion characteristic parameters.The results show that lig-nite displays the best ignition and burnout performace, Bao coal is easier to ignite but hard to burn out in the tem-perature range of 550 and 660℃.Compared to Bao coal, Zhun coal is the hardest to ignite but better to burn out. The performance of combustion can be improved after blending lignite, which is largely because the comprehensive combustion index of blended coals increases with the increasing ratio of lignite.Therefore, the blending ratio of lig-nite suggested lignite ration should be controlled between 30%and 50%.

  13. EFFECT OF COAL-SWELLING AND SYNCHRONOUSLY SUPPORTED CATALYSTS ON COPROCESSING OF BITUMINOUS COAL AND HEAVY OILS%同步溶胀-担载催化剂对烟煤-重油共炼的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戈军; 石斌; 郭龙德; 郭智慧; 田华; 张建芳

    2011-01-01

    以Fe(NO3)3和Na2S分别作为催化剂前体和原位硫化剂,在20℃下分别用水、甲醇(M)、N-N二甲基甲酰胺(DMF)和二甲亚砜(DMSO)对神华烟煤溶胀12 h,同步溶胀-担载催化剂后的烟煤脱除溶剂后与轮古常渣(LGAR)和杜84超稠油(Du84)在2:1油煤质量比,8 MPa冷氢压,420℃,1h的条件下进行加氢共处理.结果表明,神华烟煤经过溶胀处理后与两种重油共处理的液化率都明显提高,煤的转化率明显增大;三种有机溶胀剂相比,DMF同步溶胀促进液化效果最好,其次为DMSO,甲醇最差.两种配油相比,Du84比LGAR更适合煤-重油共处理.XRD分析表明,同步溶胀-担载法制备的溶胀煤栽铁催化剂以非晶态和高分散的状态存在于溶胀煤表面,在共处理中催化剂最终转化为Fe1-xS.在煤-重油共处理中,经DMF同步溶胀-担载的催化剂失活,结晶相对不明显.%Fe(NO3)3 as catalytic precursor and Na2S as in-situ presulfurizer were impregnated on the Shenhua bituminous coals which were synchronously swollen with H2O, methanol, N-N dimethylformamide (DMF) or dimethyl sulfoxide(DMSO) at 20 'C for 12 h. Then the swollen coals were prepared by vacuum drying. The co-processing of swollen Shenhua coal and two heavy oils(LGAR and Du84) was carried on under the condition of the mass ratio of 2:1 oil to coal, 8 Mpa cold hydrogen pressure,420℃ and 1 h. The coprocessing of the swollen bituminous coal and LGAR or Du84 was significantly improved on the coal liquefaction. Among the three swelling solvents, the improvement of DMF was the highest, that of DMSO was the better and methanol were the lowest. Du84 was favor in the coprocessing than LGAR. By XRD analysis, the iron catalysts on the swollen coal with Fe(NO3)3 synchronously impregnated with the solvents were amorphous and highly dispersed on coal surface and could transform into Fe1-x S in the coprocessing. During the coprocessing, the deactivation of the catalyst synchronously impregnated on

  14. Liquid class predictor for liquid handling of complex mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seglke, Brent W.; Lekin, Timothy P.

    2008-12-09

    A method of establishing liquid classes of complex mixtures for liquid handling equipment. The mixtures are composed of components and the equipment has equipment parameters. The first step comprises preparing a response curve for the components. The next step comprises using the response curve to prepare a response indicator for the mixtures. The next step comprises deriving a model that relates the components and the mixtures to establish the liquid classes.

  15. Bayesian D-Optimal Choice Designs for Mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Ruseckaite (Aiste); P.P. Goos (Peter); D. Fok (Dennis)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Consumer products and services can often be described as mixtures of ingredients. Examples are the mixture of ingredients in a cocktail and the mixture of different components of waiting time (e.g., in-vehicle and out-of-vehicle travel time) in a transportation setting.

  16. Intrinsic nanoscale phase separation in miscible mixtures and supramolecular assemblies

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Zhang

    2011-01-01

    A model is used to describe the intrinsic nanoscale phase separation in miscible mixtures and supramolecular assemblies. Phase-separated nanostructures related to size-dependent surface tension, molecular structural factors and strong interphase interactions exist in miscible mixtures and supramolecular assemblies. The intrinsic nanoscale phase separation may exist universally in miscible mixtures.

  17. TEMPERATURE INFLUENCE ON PHASE STABILITY OF ETHANOL-GASOLINE MIXTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerian Cerempei

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates phase stability of ethanol-gasoline mixtures depending on their composition, water concentration in ethanol and ethanol-gasoline mixture and temperature. There have been determined the perfect functioning conditions of spark ignition engines fueled with ethanol-gasoline mixtures.

  18. TEMPERATURE INFLUENCE ON PHASE STABILITY OF ETHANOL-GASOLINE MIXTURES

    OpenAIRE

    Valerian Cerempei

    2011-01-01

    The article investigates phase stability of ethanol-gasoline mixtures depending on their composition, water concentration in ethanol and ethanol-gasoline mixture and temperature. There have been determined the perfect functioning conditions of spark ignition engines fueled with ethanol-gasoline mixtures.

  19. 21 CFR 864.8625 - Hematology quality control mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hematology quality control mixture. 864.8625... quality control mixture. (a) Identification. A hematology quality control mixture is a device used to... parameters such as white cell count (WBC), red cell count (RBC), platelet count (PLT), hemoglobin,...

  20. Surface tension of HFC refrigerant mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, M. [Tsukuba Coll. of Technology (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Shibata, T.; Sato, Y.; Higashi, Y. [Iwaki Meisei Univ. (Japan)

    1999-01-01

    The surface tension of refrigerant mixtures, i.e., R-410A (50 mass% R-32/50 mass% R-125), R-410B (45 mass% R-32/55 mass% R-125), R-407C (23 mass% R-32/25 mass% R-125/52 mass% R-134a), R-404A (44 mass% R-125/52 mass% R-143a/4 mass% R-134a), and R-507 (50 mass% R-125/50 mass% R-143a), has been measured and correlated in the present study. Although the first three mixtures are very important as promising replacements for R-22 in air-conditioners and heat-pumps and the last two are promising replacements for R-502, surface tension data for these mixtures were not previously available. The measurements were conducted under conditions of coexistence of the sample liquid and its saturated vapor in equilibrium. The differential capillary rise method (DCRM) was used, with two glass capillaries with inner radii of 0.3034 {+-} 0.0002 and 0.5717 {+-} 0.0002 mm. The temperature range covered was from 273 to 323 K, and the uncertainty of measurements for surface tensions and temperatures is estimated to be at most {+-} 0.2 mN {center_dot} m{sup {minus}1} and {+-} 20 mK, respectively. A mixing rule was selected for representing the temperature dependence of the resultant data. These data were successfully represented by a mixing rule using mass fraction based on the van der Waals correlation.

  1. Flows and chemical reactions in heterogeneous mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Prud'homme, Roger

    2014-01-01

    This book - a sequel of previous publications 'Flows and Chemical Reactions' and 'Chemical Reactions in Flows and Homogeneous Mixtures' - is devoted to flows with chemical reactions in heterogeneous environments.  Heterogeneous media in this volume include interfaces and lines. They may be the site of radiation. Each type of flow is the subject of a chapter in this volume. We consider first, in Chapter 1, the question of the generation of environments biphasic individuals: dusty gas, mist, bubble flow.  Chapter 2 is devoted to the study at the mesoscopic scale: particle-fluid exchange of mom

  2. THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF POLYDISPERSE FLUID MIXTURES

    OpenAIRE

    S.Leroch; D.Gottwald; Kahl, G

    2004-01-01

    We present a systematic study of the thermodynamic properties of a polydisperse fluid mixture. The size of the particles, σ, is assumed to be distributed according to a continuous distribution function fΣ(σ), for which we have chosen a Γ-distribution. The interatomic potentials are given by a hard core repulsion plus an adjacent attractive tail in the form of a square-well or a Yukawa potential; for the size-dependence of the attraction strength we have assumed different models. The propertie...

  3. Video compressive sensing using Gaussian mixture models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianbo; Yuan, Xin; Liao, Xuejun; Llull, Patrick; Brady, David J; Sapiro, Guillermo; Carin, Lawrence

    2014-11-01

    A Gaussian mixture model (GMM)-based algorithm is proposed for video reconstruction from temporally compressed video measurements. The GMM is used to model spatio-temporal video patches, and the reconstruction can be efficiently computed based on analytic expressions. The GMM-based inversion method benefits from online adaptive learning and parallel computation. We demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed inversion method with videos reconstructed from simulated compressive video measurements, and from a real compressive video camera. We also use the GMM as a tool to investigate adaptive video compressive sensing, i.e., adaptive rate of temporal compression.

  4. Spectrometric mixture analysis: An unexpected wrinkle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Robert De Levie

    2009-09-01

    The spectrometric analysis of a mixture of two chemically and spectroscopically similar compounds is illustrated for the simultaneous spectrometric determination of caffeine and theobromine, the primary stimulants in coffee and tea, based on their ultraviolet absorbances. Their analysis indicates that such measurements may need an unexpectedly high precision to yield accurate answers, because of an artifact of inverse cancellation, in which a small noise or drift signal is misinterpreted in terms of a concentration difference. The computed sum of the concentrations is not affected.

  5. Expansion of gas mixtures in free jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cooling of mixtures of SF6 and N2 (He, Ar) in a free jet expansion is studied experimentally; laser scattering is used to detect condensation, and electron beam fluorescence or infrared laser absorption to measure local rotational temperatures in N2 and SF6. Experimental and theoretical results are presented with respect to lowest temperatures that can be reached, the onset of condensation, and the influence of concentration X (SF6), psub(o)D (stagnation pressure Psub(o), orifice diameter D), and D on condensation and relaxation. (author)

  6. Bayesian Estimation of a Mixture Model

    OpenAIRE

    Ilhem Merah; Assia Chadli

    2015-01-01

    We present the properties of a bathtub curve reliability model having both a sufficient adaptability and a minimal number of parameters introduced by Idée and Pierrat (2010). This one is a mixture of a Gamma distribution G(2, (1/θ)) and a new distribution L(θ). We are interesting by Bayesian estimation of the parameters and survival function of this model with a squared-error loss function and non-informative prior using the approximations of Lindley (1980) and Tierney and Kadane (1986). Usin...

  7. Computing Properties Of Chemical Mixtures At Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcbride, B. J.; Gordon, S.

    1995-01-01

    Scientists and engineers need data on chemical equilibrium compositions to calculate theoretical thermodynamic properties of chemical systems. Information essential in design and analysis of such equipment as compressors, turbines, nozzles, engines, shock tubes, heat exchangers, and chemical-processing equipment. CET93 is general program that calculates chemical equilibrium compositions and properties of mixtures for any chemical system for which thermodynamic data are available. Includes thermodynamic data for more than 1,300 gaseous and condensed species and thermal-transport data for 151 gases. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  8. Formation of Nanoparticles in binary polymer mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Tong; Lu, Xihua; Hu, Zhibin

    2000-10-01

    Formation of Nanoparticles in binary polymer mixtures Tong CAI, Xihua LU, and Zhibin HU Department of Physics, Denton, TX76203 The nanoparticles of hydrorypropyl cellulose (HPC)-polyacrylic acid (PAA) complex have been studied using light scattering method. The formation of the nanoparticles results from the hydrogen-bonding interaction between HPC and PAA. The particle size and size distribution, characterized by dynamic light scattering, depend on the HPC concentration, PAA concentration and reactive temperature. Because HPC and PAA have been approved for use inside human body by FDA, the nanoparticle obtained in this study could be used as drug carriers for controlled release.

  9. Temperature relaxation in dense plasma mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faussurier, Gérald; Blancard, Christophe

    2016-09-01

    We present a model to calculate temperature-relaxation rates in dense plasma mixtures. The electron-ion relaxation rates are calculated using an average-atom model and the ion-ion relaxation rates by the Landau-Spitzer approach. This method allows the study of the temperature relaxation in many-temperature electron-ion and ion-ion systems such as those encountered in inertial confinement fusion simulations. It is of interest for general nonequilibrium thermodynamics dealing with energy flows between various systems and should find broad use in present high energy density experiments.

  10. Uniform designs for mixture-amount experiments and for mixture experiments under order restrictions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田国梁; 方开泰

    1999-01-01

    With order statistics of the uniform distribution on [0, 1], exponential and beta distributions, a stochastic representation is obtained for the uniform distribution over various domains, where A-type domains are closely associated with reliability growth analysis, order restricted statistical inference and isotonic regression theory, V-type domains are connected with the mixture-amount experiments, and T-type domains are well related to mixture experiments. With these stochastic representations, the corresponding uniform distribution and number-theoretic nets can be generated. This approach seems to be new and is called order statistics method. Some examples on reliability growth analysis and experimental design are presented.

  11. Prediction of saturated liquid enthalpy of refrigerant mixtures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN ZeShao; CHEN JianXin; HU Peng

    2007-01-01

    New corresponding temperature and corresponding enthalpy of refrigerant mixtures were defined. The relationship between saturated liquid corresponding enthalpy and corresponding temperature of refrigerant mixtures accorded with that of pure components. The characteristic parameters of saturated liquid enthalpy difference of refrigerant mixtures were calculated by three methods according to the different application conditions. The generalized equation of saturated liquid enthalpy of refrigerant mixtures was presented. The calculated values were compared with the values in literature for five ternary and binary refrigerant mixtures, namely R404A, R407A, R407B, R32/R134a, and R410A. The overall average absolute deviation was less than 1.0%.

  12. Optimal (Solvent) Mixture Design through a Decomposition Based CAMD methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achenie, L.; Karunanithi, Arunprakash T.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2004-01-01

    Computer Aided Molecular/Mixture design (CAMD) is one of the most promising techniques for solvent design and selection. A decomposition based CAMD methodology has been formulated where the mixture design problem is solved as a series of molecular and mixture design sub-problems. This approach is...... is able to overcome most of the difficulties associated with the solution of mixture design problems. The new methodology has been illustrated with the help of a case study involving the design of solvent-anti solvent binary mixtures for crystallization of Ibuprofen....

  13. Investigation of Adding Proportion of RAP in Recycled Asphalt Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao He

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the relationship between gradation and proportion of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP and design gradation of recycled mixture, the authors discussed the influence of proportion of RAP on gradation adjustment of recycled mixture. And then, recycled mixture with 0%, 30%, 50%, 70% of RAP were made, and Influence of proportion of RAP on high and low temperature performance, water stability and anti-aging performance of recycled mixture were discussed. The results and analysis indicate that gradation of recycled mixture would not be adjusted to aiming gradation if proportion of RAP was too big. With the increase of proportion of RAP, high temperature performance and anti-aging performance of recycled mixture enhanced, but low temperature performance and water stability decayed sharply. In practical application, reasonable proportion of RAP should be determined according to gradation, performance demand and economy of recycled mixture.

  14. Fluid Latent Heat Storage Material Using Ethanol Water Mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkubo, Hidetoshi; Yasunari, Yuki

    Ethanol water mixture has a liquidus line ( or crystallizing line) and a solidus line (or melting line) that are separated, and therefore it can have both liquid and solid phases existing together. With advances in low temperature technology in recent days, ethanol water mixture is attaching more and more attention as an environment-friendly coolant or as a thermal storage material. In the present study, we observed the crystallization process in the mixture and carried out experiments to evaluate fluidity of the mixture, with the objective of utilizing an ethanol water mixture as a coolant or a thermal energy storage material. Crystal formation and growing process within a minute droplet of a binary mixture was modeled. As a result, we found a novel method to produce a fluid latent heat storage material continuously and an apparent coefficient of viscosity show that rotational speed and solid phase fraction have a strong effect on the fluidity of the mixture.

  15. Systems and methods for removing components of a gas mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-09-06

    A system for removing components of a gaseous mixture is provided comprising: a reactor fluid containing vessel having conduits extending therefrom, aqueous fluid within the reactor, the fluid containing a ligand and a metal, and at least one reactive surface within the vessel coupled to a power source. A method for removing a component from a gaseous mixture is provided comprising exposing the gaseous mixture to a fluid containing a ligand and a reactive metal, the exposing chemically binding the component of the gaseous mixture to the ligand. A method of capturing a component of a gaseous mixture is provided comprising: exposing the gaseous mixture to a fluid containing a ligand and a reactive metal, the exposing chemically binding the component of the gaseous mixture to the ligand, altering the oxidation state of the metal, the altering unbinding the component from the ligand, and capturing the component.

  16. Health and environmental effects of complex chemical mixtures: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    The Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) of the Department of Energy supports a broad long-term research program on human health and environmental effects from potential exposure to energy-related complex chemical mixtures. The program seeks basic mechanistic data on the effects of complex mixtures at the cellular, molecular, and whole animal levels to aid in predicting human health effects and seeks ecological data on biological and physical transformations in the mixtures, concentrations of the mixtures in various compartments of the environment, and potential routes for human exposure to these mixtures (e.g., food chain). On June 17-18, 1985, OHER held its First Annual Technical Meeting on the Complex Chemical Mixtures Program in Chicago, IL. The primary purpose of the meeting was to enable principal investigators to report the research status and accomplishments of ongoing complex chemical mixture studies supported by OHER. To help focus future research directions round table discussions were conducted.

  17. THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF POLYDISPERSE FLUID MIXTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Leroch

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a systematic study of the thermodynamic properties of a polydisperse fluid mixture. The size of the particles, σ, is assumed to be distributed according to a continuous distribution function fΣ(σ, for which we have chosen a Γ-distribution. The interatomic potentials are given by a hard core repulsion plus an adjacent attractive tail in the form of a square-well or a Yukawa potential; for the size-dependence of the attraction strength we have assumed different models. The properties of the mixture are calculated using the optimized random phase approximation (ORPA, a thermodynamic perturbation theory which is known to give reliable results in the case of simple liquids. To take into account polydispersity we combine the ORPA with the orthogonal decomposition technique where all σ-dependent functions (i.e., the correlation functions and the interatomic potentials are expanded in terms of orthogonal polynomials pi(σ associated with the weight function fΣ(σ.

  18. Thermodynamics of organic mixtures containing amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Juan Antonio [G.E.T.E.F. Dpto Termodinamica y Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47071 (Spain)]. E-mail: jagl@termo.uva.es; Mozo, Ismael [G.E.T.E.F. Dpto Termodinamica y Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47071 (Spain); Fuente, Isaias Garcia de la [G.E.T.E.F. Dpto Termodinamica y Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47071 (Spain); Cobos, Jose Carlos [G.E.T.E.F. Dpto Termodinamica y Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 47071 (Spain)

    2006-02-01

    Binary mixtures containing pyridine (PY), or 2-methylpyridine (2MPY) or 3-methylpyridine (3MPY) or 4-methylpyridine (4MPY) and an organic solvent as benzene, toluene, alkane, or 1-alkanol are investigated in the framework of DISQUAC. The corresponding interaction parameters are reported. The model describes accurately a whole set of thermodynamic properties: vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE), liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE), solid-liquid equilibria (SLE), molar excess Gibbs energies (G{sup E}), molar excess enthalpies (H{sup E}), molar excess heat capacities at constant pressure (C{sub P}{sup E}) and the concentration-concentration structure factor (S{sub CC}(0)). It is remarkable that DISQUAC correctly predicts the W-shaped curve of the C{sub P}{sup E} of the pyridine + n-hexadecane system. The model can be applied successfully to mixtures with strong positive or negative deviations from the Raoult's law. DISQUAC improves the theoretical results from UNIFAC (Dortmund version). The replacement of pyridine by a methylpyridine leads to a weakening of the amine-amine interactions, ascribed to the steric effect caused by the methyl group attached to the aromatic ring. This explains that for a given solvent (alkane, 1-alkanol) H{sup E}(pyridine)>H{sup E}(methylpyridine)

  19. Transport and radiation in complex LTE mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Jesper; Peerenboom, Kim; Suijker, Jos; Gnybida, Mykhailo; van Dijk, Jan

    2014-10-01

    Complex LTE mixtures are for example encountered in re-entry, welding, spraying and lighting. These mixtures typically contain a rich chemistry in combination with large temperature gradients. LTE conditions are also interesting because they can aid in the validation of NLTE algorithms. An example is the calculation of transport properties. In this work a mercury free high intensity discharge lamp is considered. The investigation focusses on using salts like InI or SnI as a buffer species. By using these species a dominant background gas like mercury is no longer present. As a consequence the diffusion algorithms based on Fick's law are no longer applicable and the Stefan-Maxwell equations must be solved. This system of equations is modified with conservation rules to set a coldspot pressure for saturated species and enforce the mass dosage for unsaturated species. The radiative energy transport is taken into account by raytracing. Quantum mechanical simulations have been used to calculate the potential curves and the transition dipole moments for indium with iodine and tin with iodine. The results of these calculations have been used to predict the quasistatic broadening by iodine. The work was supported by the project SCHELP from the Belgium IWT (Project Number 110003) and the CATRENE SEEL Project (CA502).

  20. Bioavailability of genotoxic mixtures in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordelon, N.; Washburn, K.; He, L.Y.; Donnelly, K.C. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Veterinary Anatomy and Public Health

    1996-12-31

    Contaminated media at Superfund sites typically consist of complex mixtures of organic and inorganic chemicals which are difficult to characterize, both analytically and toxicologically. The current EPA approach to risk assessment uses solvent extraction to remove chemicals from the soil as a basis for estimating risk to the human population. However, contaminants that can be recovered with a solvent extract may not represent the mixture of chemicals that are available for human exposure. A procedure using an aqueous extraction was investigated to provide a more realistic estimate of what chemicals are bioavailable. A study was conducted with two soil types: creosote-contaminated sandy soil and coal tar-contaminated clay soil spiked with benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P], and trinitrotoluene (TNT). Samples were extracted with hexane:acetone and water titrated to pH2 and pH7. HPLC analysis demonstrated up to 35% and 29% recovery of contaminants using the aqueous extracts. The estimated cancer risk for the aqueous extract was one order of magnitude less than that for solvent extracts. Analysis using the Salmonella/microsome assay demonstrated that solvent extracts were genotoxic (133 revertants/mg) with metabolic activation while aqueous extracts of clay soil were not genotoxic. Sandy soil showed genotoxicity both with and without metabolic activation. These results suggest that solvent extraction techniques may overestimate the concentration of contaminants that are available for human exposure and, hence, the risk associated with the presence of the contaminants in soil.

  1. A mixture approach to vagueness and ambiguity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Verheyen

    Full Text Available When asked to indicate which items from a set of candidates belong to a particular natural language category inter-individual differences occur: Individuals disagree which items should be considered category members. The premise of this paper is that these inter-individual differences in semantic categorization reflect both ambiguity and vagueness. Categorization differences are said to be due to ambiguity when individuals employ different criteria for categorization. For instance, individuals may disagree whether hiking or darts is the better example of sports because they emphasize respectively whether an activity is strenuous and whether rules apply. Categorization differences are said to be due to vagueness when individuals employ different cut-offs for separating members from non-members. For instance, the decision to include hiking in the sports category or not, may hinge on how strenuous different individuals require sports to be. This claim is supported by the application of a mixture model to categorization data for eight natural language categories. The mixture model can identify latent groups of categorizers who regard different items likely category members (i.e., ambiguity with categorizers within each of the groups differing in their propensity to provide membership responses (i.e., vagueness. The identified subgroups are shown to emphasize different sets of category attributes when making their categorization decisions.

  2. Analytical processing of binary mixture information by olfactory bulb glomeruli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max L Fletcher

    Full Text Available Odors are rarely composed of a single compound, but rather contain a large and complex variety of chemical components. Often, these mixtures are perceived as having unique qualities that can be quite different than the combination of their components. In many cases, a majority of the components of a mixture cannot be individually identified. This synthetic processing of odor information suggests that individual component representations of the mixture must interact somewhere along the olfactory pathway. The anatomical nature of sensory neuron input into segregated glomeruli with the bulb suggests that initial input of odor information into the bulb is analytic. However, a large network of interneurons within the olfactory bulb could allow for mixture interactions via mechanisms such as lateral inhibition. Currently in mammals, it is unclear if postsynaptic mitral/tufted cell glomerular mixture responses reflect the analytical mixture input, or provide the initial basis for synthetic processing with the olfactory system. To address this, olfactory bulb glomerular binary mixture representations were compared to representations of each component using transgenic mice expressing the calcium indicator G-CaMP2 in olfactory bulb mitral/tufted cells. Overall, dorsal surface mixture representations showed little mixture interaction and often appeared as a simple combination of the component representations. Based on this, it is concluded that dorsal surface glomerular mixture representations remain largely analytical with nearly all component information preserved.

  3. Brain responses to odor mixtures with sub-threshold components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eHummel

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Although most odorants we encounter in daily life are mixtures of several chemical substances, we still lack significant information on how we perceive and how the brain processes mixtures of odorants. We aimed to investigate the processing of odor mixtures using behavioral measures and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. The odor mixture contained a target odor (ambroxan in a concentration at which it could be perceived by half of the subjects (sensitive group; the other half could not perceive the odor (insensitive group. In line with previous findings on multi-component odor mixtures, both groups of subjects were not able to distinguish a complex odor mixture containing or not containing the target odor. However, sensitive subjects had stronger activations than insensitive subjects in chemosensory processing areas such as the insula when exposed to the mixture containing the target odor. Furthermore, the sensitive group exhibited larger brain activations when presented with the odor mixture containing the target odor compared to the odor mixture without the target odor; this difference was smaller, though present for the insensitive group. In conclusion, we show that a target odor presented within a mixture of odors can influence brain activations although on a psychophysical level subjects are not able to distinguish the mixture with and without the target. On the practical side these results suggest that the addition of a certain compound to a mixture of odors may not be detected on a cognitive level; however, this additional odor may significantly change the cerebral processing of this mixture. In this context, FMRI offers unique possibilities to look at the subliminal effects of odors.

  4. Study of superfluid Bose-Fermi mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Sebastien; Delehaye, Marion; Jin, Shuwei; Pierce, Matthieu; Yefsah, Tarik; Chevy, Frederic; Salomon, Christophe

    2016-05-01

    Using fermionic and bosonic isotopes of lithium we produce and study ultracold Bose-Fermi mixtures. First in a low temperature counterflow experiment, we measure the critical velocity of the system in the BEC-BCS crossover. Around unitarity, we observe a remarkably high superfluid critical velocity which reaches the sound velocity of the strongly interacting Fermi gas. Second, when we increase the temperature of the system slightly above the superfluid transitions we observe an unexpected phase locking of the oscillations of the clouds induced by dissipation. Finally, as suggested in, we explore the nature of the superfluid phase when we impose a spin polarization in the situation where the mean field potential created by the bosons on the fermions tends to cancel out the trapping potential of the latter.

  5. Derived thermodynamic properties of alcohol + cyclohexylamine mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IVONA R. RADOVIĆ

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Thermal expansion coefficients, α, excess thermal expansion coefficients, αE, isothermal coefficients of pressure excess molar enthalpy, (∂HE/∂pT,x, partial molar volumes, , partial molar volumes at infinite dilution, , partial excess molar volumes, , and partial excess molar volumes at infinite dilution, , were calculated using experimental densities and excess molar volumes, , data. All calculations are performed for the binary systems of cyclohexylamine with 1-propanol or 1-butanol or 2-butanol or 2-methyl-2-propanol. The Redlich–Kister polynomial and the reduced excess molar volume approach were used in the evaluation of these properties. In addition, the aim of this investigation was to provide a set of various volumetric data in order to asses the influence of temperature, chain length and position of hydroxyl group in the alcohol molecule on the molecular interactions in the examined binary mixtures.

  6. Bayesian Estimation of a Mixture Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilhem Merah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We present the properties of a bathtub curve reliability model having both a sufficient adaptability and a minimal number of parameters introduced by Idée and Pierrat (2010. This one is a mixture of a Gamma distribution G(2, (1/θ and a new distribution L(θ. We are interesting by Bayesian estimation of the parameters and survival function of this model with a squared-error loss function and non-informative prior using the approximations of Lindley (1980 and Tierney and Kadane (1986. Using a statistical sample of 60 failure data relative to a technical device, we illustrate the results derived. Based on a simulation study, comparisons are made between these two methods and the maximum likelihood method of this two parameters model.

  7. Quantum-coherent mixtures of causal relations

    CERN Document Server

    MacLean, Jean-Philippe W; Spekkens, Robert W; Resch, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the causal influences that hold among the parts of a system is critical both to explaining that system's natural behaviour and to controlling it through targeted interventions. In a quantum world, understanding causal relations is equally important, but the set of possibilities is far richer. The two basic ways in which a pair of time-ordered quantum systems may be causally related are by a cause-effect mechanism or by a common cause acting on both. Here, we show that it is possible to have a coherent mixture of these two possibilities. We realize such a nonclassical causal relation in a quantum optics experiment and derive a set of criteria for witnessing the coherence based on a quantum version of Berkson's paradox. The interplay of causality and quantum theory lies at the heart of challenging foundational puzzles, such as Bell's theorem and the search for quantum gravity, but could also provide a resource for novel quantum technologies.

  8. Urea and deuterium mixtures at high pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, M., E-mail: m.donnelly-2@sms.ed.ac.uk; Husband, R. J.; Frantzana, A. D.; Loveday, J. S. [Centre for Science at Extreme Conditions and School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Edinburgh, Erskine Williamson Building, Peter Guthrie Tait Road, The King’s Buildings, Edinburgh EH9 3FD (United Kingdom); Bull, C. L. [ISIS, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxford Harwell, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Klotz, S. [IMPMC, CNRS UMR 7590, Université P and M Curie, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris (France)

    2015-03-28

    Urea, like many network forming compounds, has long been known to form inclusion (guest-host) compounds. Unlike other network formers like water, urea is not known to form such inclusion compounds with simple molecules like hydrogen. Such compounds if they existed would be of interest both for the fundamental insight they provide into molecular bonding and as potential gas storage systems. Urea has been proposed as a potential hydrogen storage material [T. A. Strobel et al., Chem. Phys. Lett. 478, 97 (2009)]. Here, we report the results of high-pressure neutron diffraction studies of urea and D{sub 2} mixtures that indicate no inclusion compound forms up to 3.7 GPa.

  9. POROSITY CALCULATION OF MIXTURES OF FIBROUS PARTICLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruping Zou; Aibing Yu

    2003-01-01

    The initial forming of fiber blend to high green density, i.e. the packing of fibrous particles, is important to the reinforcement of composite materials. It is very useful to develop a general predictive method for the optimum selection of particle mixtures for the property control of ceramic or composite products. This paper presents such a mathematical model developed on the basis of the similarity analysis between the spherical and non-spherical particle packings and assesses its applicability to the packing of fibrous particles with discrete and/or continuous length distributions. The results indicate that the model can predict this packing system well and hence provide an effective way to solve various packing problems in the composite materials processing.

  10. Bioavailability and variability of biphasic insulin mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søeborg, Tue; Rasmussen, Christian Hove; Mosekilde, Erik;

    2012-01-01

    Absorption of subcutaneously administered insulin is associated with considerable variability. Some of this variability was quantitatively explained for both soluble insulin and insulin suspensions in a recent contribution to this journal (Søeborg et al., 2009). In the present article......, the absorption kinetics for mixtures of insulins is described. This requires that the bioavailability of the different insulins is considered. A short review of insulin bioavailability and a description of the subcutaneous depot thus precede the presentation of possible mechanisms associated with subcutaneous...... insulin degradation. Soluble insulins are assumed to be degraded enzymatically in the subcutaneous tissue. Suspended insulin crystals form condensed heaps that are assumed to be degraded from their surface by invading macrophages. It is demonstrated how the shape of the heaps affects the absorption...

  11. Mixture Model and MDSDCA for Textual Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allouti, Faryel; Nadif, Mohamed; Hoai An, Le Thi; Otjacques, Benoît

    E-mailing has become an essential component of cooperation in business. Consequently, the large number of messages manually produced or automatically generated can rapidly cause information overflow for users. Many research projects have examined this issue but surprisingly few have tackled the problem of the files attached to e-mails that, in many cases, contain a substantial part of the semantics of the message. This paper considers this specific topic and focuses on the problem of clustering and visualization of attached files. Relying on the multinomial mixture model, we used the Classification EM algorithm (CEM) to cluster the set of files, and MDSDCA to visualize the obtained classes of documents. Like the Multidimensional Scaling method, the aim of the MDSDCA algorithm based on the Difference of Convex functions is to optimize the stress criterion. As MDSDCA is iterative, we propose an initialization approach to avoid starting with random values. Experiments are investigated using simulations and textual data.

  12. Processes assessment in binary mixture plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Shankar Ganesh, T. Srinivas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Binary fluid system has an efficient system of heat recovery compared to a single fluid system due to a better temperature match between hot and cold fluids. There are many applications with binary fluid system i.e. Kalina power generation, vapor absorption refrigeration, combined power and cooling etc. Due to involvement of three properties (pressure, temperature and concentration in the processes evaluation, the solution is complicated compared to a pure substance. The current work simplifies this complex nature of solution and analyzes the basic processes to understand the processes behavior in power generation as well as cooling plants. Kalina power plant consists of regenerator, heat recovery vapor generator, condenser, mixture, separator, turbine, pump and throttling device. In addition to some of these components, the cooling plant consists of absorber which is similar in operation of condenser. The amount of vapor at the separator decreases with an increase in its pressure and temperature.

  13. CRITICALITY CURVES FOR PLUTONIUM HYDRAULIC FLUID MIXTURES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WITTEKIND WD

    2007-10-03

    This Calculation Note performs and documents MCNP criticality calculations for plutonium (100% {sup 239}Pu) hydraulic fluid mixtures. Spherical geometry was used for these generalized criticality safety calculations and three geometries of neutron reflection are: {sm_bullet}bare, {sm_bullet}1 inch of hydraulic fluid, or {sm_bullet}12 inches of hydraulic fluid. This document shows the critical volume and critical mass for various concentrations of plutonium in hydraulic fluid. Between 1 and 2 gallons of hydraulic fluid were discovered in the bottom of HA-23S. This HA-23S hydraulic fluid was reported by engineering to be Fyrquel 220. The hydraulic fluid in GLovebox HA-23S is Fyrquel 220 which contains phosphorus. Critical spherical geometry in air is calculated with 0 in., 1 in., or 12 inches hydraulic fluid reflection.

  14. Continuum thermodynamics of chemically reacting fluid mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Bothe, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    We consider viscous and heat conducting mixtures of molecularly miscible chemical species forming a fluid in which the constituents can undergo chemical reactions. Assuming a common temperature for all components, a first main aim is the derivation of a closed system of partial mass and partial momentum balances plus a common balance of internal energy. This is achieved by careful exploitation of the entropy principle which, in particular, requires appropriate definitions of absolute temperature and chemical potentials based on an adequate definition of thermal energy that excludes diffusive contributions. The latter is crucial in order to obtain a closure framework for the interaction forces between the different species. The interaction forces split into a thermo-mechanical and a chemical part, where the former turns out to be symmetric if binary interactions are assumed. In the non-reactive case, this leads to a system of Navier-Stokes type sub-systems, coupled by interspecies friction forces. For chemical...

  15. Critical Phenomena in Liquid-Liquid Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, D. T.

    2000-04-01

    Critical phenomena provide intriguing and essential insight into many issues in condensed matter physics because of the many length scales involved. Large density or concentration fluctuations near a system's critical point effectively mask the identity of the system and produce universal phenomena that have been well studied in simple liquid-vapor and liquid-liquid systems. Such systems have provided useful model systems to test theoretical predictions which can then be extended to more complicated systems. Along various thermodynamic paths, several quantities exhibit a simple power-law dependence close to the critical point. The critical exponents describing these relationships are universal and should depend only on a universality class determined by the order-parameter and spatial dimensionality of the system. Liquid gas, binary fluid mixtures, uniaxial ferromagnetism, polymer-solvent, and protein solutions all belong to the same (Ising model) universality class. The diversity of critical systems that can be described by universal relations indicates that experimental measurements on one system should yield the same information as on another. Our experimental investigations have tested existing theory and also extended universal behavior into new areas. By measuring the coexistence curve, heat capacity, thermal expansion and static light scattering (turbidity) in various liquid-liquid and polymer-solvent systems, we have determined critical exponents and amplitudes that have sometimes confirmed and other times challenged current theory. Recent experiments investigating the heat capacity and light scattering in a liquid-liquid mixture very close to the critical point will be discussed. This research is currently supported by The Petroleum Research Fund and by NASA grant NAG8-1433 with some student support from NSF-DMR 9619406.

  16. Ostwald ripening in two-phase mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental measurements of the temperature of a rapidly solidified solid-liquid mixture have been made over a range of volume fractions solid 0.23 to 0.95. These experiments demonstrate the viability of measuring the change in interfacial curvature with time via precision thermometry. The experimental measurements also indicate that there is no radical change in interface morphology over a wide range of volume fractions solid. A solution to the multi-particle diffusion problem (MDP) has been constructed through the use of potential theory. The solution to the MDP was used to describe the diffusion field within a coarsening two-phase mixture consisting of dispersed spherical second-phase particles. Since this theory is based upon the MDP, interparticle diffusional interactions are specifically included in the treatment. As a result, the theory yields, for the first time, insights into the influence of the local distribution of curvature on a particle's coarsening rate. The effect of interparticle interactions on the collective behavior of an ensemble of coarsening particles was also investigated. It was found that any arbitrary distribution of particle radii will tend to a specific time independent distribution when the particle radii are scaled by the average particle radius. Furthermore, it was determined that with increasing volume fraction of coarsening phase, these time independent distributions become broader and more symmetric. It was also found that the ripening kinetics, as measured by the growth rate of the average particle size, increases by a factor of five upon increasing the volume fraction of coarsening phase from zero to 0.5

  17. 热黏结剂对低阶煤制取型煤的热态性能影响%STUDY ON INFLUENCE OF HEAT BINDER ON PROPERTIES OF BRIQUETTE FROM LOW RANK BITUMINOUS COALS UNDER HOT STATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄山秀; 马名杰

    2013-01-01

    选用煤焦油沥青、高黏结肥煤作为热黏结剂,分别以不同的掺入量和低阶烟煤粉煤及其他原料混合制取型煤.型煤样品热强度测定结果表明:以煤焦油沥青为热黏结剂的型煤热强度高于以高黏结肥煤为热黏结剂的型煤热强度,进一步对型煤微观结构电镜分析也证实了以煤焦油沥青为热黏结剂的型煤其黏结性能和防水性相对较好,电镜切片表明,煤焦油沥青热态下析出的挥发分经过胶质体时产生的气泡相互作用能使胶质体受压形成更坚固的整体网状结构;研究还发现煤焦油沥青的粒度对型煤热强度也有一定的影响.%Two different materials such as coal tar pitch, fat coal with high adhesion were chosen as the heat binder, which were mixed into the powder of low rank bituminous coals from Shenmu or Yuzhou and other raw materials to make coal briquette in different ration. The determination results show that the thermal strength of coal briquette with tar pitch is higher than that of coal briquette with fat coal. Further analysis of micro-structure of coal briquette by electron microscopic also verifies that the cohesion and water resistance of coal briquette with tar pitch is stronger, and it is because that interaction of air bubble poduced by volatile separated under hot state through colloid pressures the colloid and form the stronger net-structure on coal granules surface. Moreover, the particle size of tar pitch also have certain effect on thermal strength of coal briquette.

  18. Experimental study on the characteristics of NOx emissions from 600 MW supercritical bituminous coal fired boiler with swirl burner%600MW超临界旋流燃烧烟煤锅炉NOx排放特性试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳峻峰; 秦鹏; 邹磊; 梁绍华; 张恩先; 黄磊

    2012-01-01

    针对某厂1台600MW超临界低NOx轴向旋流燃烧烟煤锅炉特点,通过变工况(氧量、不同层燃烧器风量分配方式、二次风比率、二次风旋流强度、三次风旋流强度、同层燃烧器风量分配方式和负荷等)试验,分析了锅炉NOx排放特性.试验结果表明:对于燃用烟煤的采用低NOx旋流燃烧器的锅炉,运行氧量燃尽风份额、锅炉负荷及同层燃烧器风量分配方式是NOx排放的主要影响因素.为控制NOx排放,保持锅炉原有热效率,燃烧调整的原则为:(1)在保证锅炉运行安全的前提下应尽量采用低氧燃烧;(2)采用大比例的燃尽风份额;(3)运行负荷不应过低;(4)同层燃烧器风量分配采用双峰方式.%NOx. emissions from a 600 MW supercritical boiler with swirl burner were investigated by performing a serial of tests such as changing O2 concentration, air-distribution of different level burners, secondary air ratio, secondary and tertiary air swirl strength, air-distribution of the burners in same level and boiler load. The test results show that for the bituminous coal fired boiler with swirl burner, the O2 concentration, over fire air (OFA) ratio, boiler load and air-distribution mode of the burners in same level are the main factors affecting NOx emissions. In order to reduce NOx emissions and keep higher boiler efficiency, the following principles about combustion adjustment should be obeyed: (1) the O2 concentration should be kept in the premise of ensuring safe operalion of boiler as lower as possible;{2) large proportion of OFA should be adopted; (3) boiler load should not be loo low; (4) two-peak air distribution mode should be taken among the same level burners.

  19. Nuclear fuel alloys or mixtures and method of making thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariani, Robert Dominick; Porter, Douglas Lloyd

    2016-04-05

    Nuclear fuel alloys or mixtures and methods of making nuclear fuel mixtures are provided. Pseudo-binary actinide-M fuel mixtures form alloys and exhibit: body-centered cubic solid phases at low temperatures; high solidus temperatures; and/or minimal or no reaction or inter-diffusion with steel and other cladding materials. Methods described herein through metallurgical and thermodynamics advancements guide the selection of amounts of fuel mixture components by use of phase diagrams. Weight percentages for components of a metallic additive to an actinide fuel are selected in a solid phase region of an isothermal phase diagram taken at a temperature below an upper temperature limit for the resulting fuel mixture in reactor use. Fuel mixtures include uranium-molybdenum-tungsten, uranium-molybdenum-tantalum, molybdenum-titanium-zirconium, and uranium-molybdenum-titanium systems.

  20. Maximum likelihood estimation of finite mixture model for economic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoong, Seuk-Yen; Ismail, Mohd Tahir

    2014-06-01

    Finite mixture model is a mixture model with finite-dimension. This models are provides a natural representation of heterogeneity in a finite number of latent classes. In addition, finite mixture models also known as latent class models or unsupervised learning models. Recently, maximum likelihood estimation fitted finite mixture models has greatly drawn statistician's attention. The main reason is because maximum likelihood estimation is a powerful statistical method which provides consistent findings as the sample sizes increases to infinity. Thus, the application of maximum likelihood estimation is used to fit finite mixture model in the present paper in order to explore the relationship between nonlinear economic data. In this paper, a two-component normal mixture model is fitted by maximum likelihood estimation in order to investigate the relationship among stock market price and rubber price for sampled countries. Results described that there is a negative effect among rubber price and stock market price for Malaysia, Thailand, Philippines and Indonesia.

  1. Bayesian D-Optimal Choice Designs for Mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Ruseckaite, Aiste; Goos, Peter; Fok, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Consumer products and services can often be described as mixtures of ingredients. Examples are the mixture of ingredients in a cocktail and the mixture of different components of waiting time (e.g., in-vehicle and out-of-vehicle travel time) in a transportation setting. Choice experiments may help to determine how the respondents' choice of a product or service is affected by the combination of ingredients. In such studies, individuals are confronted with sets of ...

  2. A-optimal designs for an additive quadratic mixture model

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, LY; Guan, YN; Zhang, CQ

    1998-01-01

    Quadratic models are widely used in the analysis of experiments involving mixtures. This paper gives A-optimal designs for an additive quadratic mixture model for q ≥ 3 mixture components. It is proved that in these A-optimal designs, vertices of the simplex S q-1 are support points, and other support points shift gradually from barycentres of depth 1 to barycentres of depth 3 as q increases. A-optimal designs with minimal support are also discussed.

  3. Mixture Experiments and their Application in Agricultural Research

    OpenAIRE

    Irum Raza; M. Asif Masood; Rashid Mahmood

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to show the applicability of Mixture designs in Agricultural Research System and to fit an appropriate mixture regression model making response variables as functions of the proportions of the mixture components. Data on four components namely neem oil, garlic oil, clove oil and tobacco extract (ml) were collected from field experiment conducted by Honeybee Research Institute, NARC. The main goal of the experiment was to check whether blending two components hav...

  4. Vertical flow of a multiphase mixture in a channel

    OpenAIRE

    Massoudi Mehrdad; Rao C. Lakshmana

    2000-01-01

    The flow of a multiphase mixture consisting of a viscous fluid and solid particles between two vertical plates is studied. The theory of interacting continua or mixture theory is used. Constitutive relations for the stress tensor of the granular materials and the interaction force are presented and discussed. The flow of interest is an ideal one where we assume the flow to be steady and fully developed; the mixture is flowing between two long vertical plates. The non-linear boundary value pro...

  5. Comparison between asphalt rubber and conventional mixtures in overlay design

    OpenAIRE

    Fontes, Liseane P. T. L.; Trichês, Glicério; Pereira, Paulo A. A.; Pais, Jorge C.

    2008-01-01

    Asphalt modified with crumb rubber has been used to produce asphalt rubber mixtures for pavement overlays subjected to heavy loads and high temperatures. Under severe conditions, these mixtures are capable of resisting permanent deformations, having an extended fatigue life and resisting crack propagation in comparison to conventional ones. A laboratory research was conducted to determine the performance properties of overlays with asphalt rubber mixtures produced through wet processes using ...

  6. Interval-Passing Algorithm for Chemical Mixture Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Danjean, Ludovic; Vasic, Bane; Marcellin, Michael; Declercq, David

    2013-01-01

    International audience In this letter we propose a compressive sensing scheme for the mixture estimation problem in spectroscopy. We show that by applying an appropriate measurement matrix on the chemical mixture spectrum, we obtain an overall measurement matrix which is sparse. This enables the use of a low-complexity iterative reconstruction algorithm, called the interval-passing algorithm, to estimate the concentration of each chemical present in the mixture. Simulation results for the ...

  7. Mixtures of Bosonic and Fermionic Atoms in Optical Lattices

    OpenAIRE

    Albus, Alexander; Illuminati, Fabrizio; Eisert, Jens

    2003-01-01

    We discuss the theory of mixtures of Bosonic and Fermionic atoms in periodic potentials at zero temperature. We derive a general Bose--Fermi Hubbard Hamiltonian in a one--dimensional optical lattice with a superimposed harmonic trapping potential. We study the conditions for linear stability of the mixture and derive a mean field criterion for the onset of a Bosonic superfluid transition. We investigate the ground state properties of the mixture in the Gutzwiller formulation of mean field the...

  8. Statistical Description of Segregation in a Powder Mixture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we apply the statistical mechanics of powders to describe a segregated state in a mixture of grains of different sizes. Variation of the density of a packing with depth arising due to changes of particle configurations is studied. The statistical mechanics of powders is generalized...... in such a way as to consider not only binary mixtures (as its first formulation by A. Mehta and S.F. Edwards), but also polydisperse mixtures of particles....

  9. Antiandrogenic activity of phthalate mixtures: Validity of concentration addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christen, Verena [University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, School of Life Sciences, Gründenstrasse 40, CH-4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); Crettaz, Pierre; Oberli-Schrämmli, Aurelia [Swiss Federal Office of Public Health, Division Chemical Products, 3003 Bern (Switzerland); Fent, Karl, E-mail: karl.fent@bluewin.ch [University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, School of Life Sciences, Gründenstrasse 40, CH-4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zürich (ETH Zürich), Department of Environmental Sciences, 8092 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2012-03-01

    Phthalates and bisphenol A have very widespread use leading to significant exposure of humans. They are suspected to interfere with the endocrine system, including the androgen, estrogen and the thyroid hormone system. Here we analyzed the antiandrogenic activity of six binary, and one ternary mixture of phthalates exhibiting complete antiandrogenic dose–response curves, and binary mixtures of phthalates and bisphenol A at equi-effective concentrations of EC{sub 10}, EC{sub 25} and EC{sub 50} in MDA-kb2 cells. Mixture activity followed the concentration addition (CA) model with a tendency to synergism at high and antagonism at low concentrations. Isoboles and the toxic unit approach (TUA) confirmed the additive to synergistic activity of the binary mixtures BBP + DBP, DBP + DEP and DEP + BPA at high concentrations. Both methods indicate a tendency to antagonism for the EC{sub 10} mixtures BBP + DBP, BBP + DEP and DBP + DEP, and the EC{sub 25} mixture of DBP + BPA. A ternary mixture revealed synergism at the EC{sub 50}, and weak antagonistic activity at the EC{sub 25} level by the TUA. A mixture of five phthalates representing a human urine composition and reflecting exposure to corresponding parent compounds showed no antiandrogenic activity. Our study demonstrates that CA is an appropriate concept to account for mixture effects of antiandrogenic phthalates and bisphenol A. The interaction indicates a departure from additivity to antagonism at low concentrations, probably due to interaction with the androgen receptor and/or cofactors. This study emphasizes that a risk assessment of phthalates should account for mixture effects by applying the CA concept. -- Highlights: ► Antiandrogenic activity of mixtures of 2 and 3 phthalates are assessed in MDA-kb2 cells. ► Mixture activities followed the concentration addition model. ► A tendency to synergism at high and antagonism at low levels occurred.

  10. Evaluation of Hydrated Lime Filler in Asphalt Mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Abbas Hasan Al-Jumaily

    2008-01-01

    Mineral filler is one of important materials and affecting on properties and quality of asphalt mixtures .There are different types of mineral filler depended on cost and quality , the matter encourages us to achieve this study to evaluate hydrated lime filler effects on properties of asphalt mixes related with strength and durability. Conventional asphaltic concrete mixtures with Portland cement and soft sandstone fillers and mixtures modified with hydrated lime were evaluated for their fund...

  11. Determination of thermal conductivity in foundry mould mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Solenički

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available For a thorough understanding of the behaviour of foundry mould mixtures, a good knowledge of thermal properties of mould materials is needed. Laboratory determination of thermal conductivity of mould mixtures enables a better control over scabbing defects which are a major problem in green sand mould mixtures. A special instrument has been designed for that purpose and it is described in this work.

  12. A classification system for tableting behaviors of binary powder mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Changquan Calvin Sun

    2016-01-01

    The ability to predict tableting properties of a powder mixture from individual components is of both fundamental and practical importance to the efficient formulation development of tablet products. A common tableting classification system (TCS) of binary powder mixtures facilitates the systematic development of new knowledge in this direction. Based on the dependence of tablet tensile strength on weight fraction in a binary mixture, three main types of tableting behavior are identified. Eac...

  13. Service life model for bituminous roofing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Erik; Bunch-Nielsen, Tommy

    Paperet beskriver opbygningen af en levetidsmodel for tagpap. Desuden beskrives resultater af undersøgelser af en række tage der har været i brug 10-15 år og hvordan resultaterne af undersøgelser af disse indvirker på modellen....

  14. Development of New Bituminous Pavement Design Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullidtz, Per

    The report and work of COST Action 333 sets in place the foundation for a coherent, cost-effective and harmonised European pavement design method. In order to do this, the work programme focused on information gathering, identification of requirements and the selection of the necessary design...

  15. Spectral properties of ice-particulate mixtures and implications for remote sensing. 1. Intimate mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, R.N.; Lucey, P.G.

    1984-01-01

    The spectral properties of water ice-partitioning mixtures are studied for the purpose of deriving the ice and particulate abundances from remotely obtained spectra (particulates referring to non-icy materials in the form of grains). Reflectance levels and ice absorption band depths are a complex function of the single scattering albedo of the particulates embedded in the ice. The ice absorption band depths are related to the mean optical path length of photons in ice through Beers law, Fresnel reflection from the ice-crystal faces on the surface, and ice absorption coefficient as a function of wavelength. Laboratory spectra of many ice- particulate mixtures are studied with high-, medium-, and low-albedo particulates.-from Authors

  16. Triphilic Ionic-Liquid Mixtures: Fluorinated and Non-fluorinated Aprotic Ionic-Liquid Mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollóczki, Oldamur; Macchiagodena, Marina; Weber, Henry; Thomas, Martin; Brehm, Martin; Stark, Annegret; Russina, Olga; Triolo, Alessandro; Kirchner, Barbara

    2015-10-26

    We present here the possibility of forming triphilic mixtures from alkyl- and fluoroalkylimidazolium ionic liquids, thus, macroscopically homogeneous mixtures for which instead of the often observed two domains-polar and nonpolar-three stable microphases are present: polar, lipophilic, and fluorous ones. The fluorinated side chains of the cations indeed self-associate and form domains that are segregated from those of the polar and alkyl domains. To enable miscibility, despite the generally preferred macroscopic separation between fluorous and alkyl moieties, the importance of strong hydrogen bonding is shown. As the long-range structure in the alkyl and fluoroalkyl domains is dependent on the composition of the liquid, we propose that the heterogeneous, triphilic structure can be easily tuned by the molar ratio of the components. We believe that further development may allow the design of switchable, smart liquids that change their properties in a predictable way according to their composition or even their environment. PMID:26305804

  17. UTILIZATION OF WASTE PLASTIC BOTTLES IN ASPHALT MIXTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAHER BAGHAEE MOGHADDAM

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, large amounts of waste materials are being produced in the world. One of the waste materials is plastic bottle. Generating disposable plastic bottles is becoming a major problem in many countries. Using waste plastic as a secondary material in construction projects would be a solution to overcome the crisis of producing large amount of waste plastics in one hand and improving the structure’s characteristics such as resistance against cracking on the other hand. This study aimed to investigate the effects of adding plastic bottles in road pavement. Marshall properties as well as specific gravity of asphalt mixture containing different percentages of plastic bottles were evaluated. Besides, Optimum Asphalt Content (OAC was calculated for each percentages of plastic bottles used in the mix. The stiffness and fatigue characteristics of mixture were assessed at OAC value. Results showed that the stability and flow values of asphalt mixture increased by adding waste crushed plastic bottle into the asphalt mixture. Further, it was shown that the bulk specific gravity and stiffness of mixtures increased by adding lower amount of plastic bottles; however, adding higher amounts of plastic resulted in lower specific gravity and mix stiffness. In addition, it was concluded that the mixtures containing waste plastic bottles have lower OAC values compared to the conventional mixture, and this may reduce the amount of asphalt binder can be used in road construction projects. Besides, the mixtures containing waste plastic showed significantly greater fatigue resistance than the conventional mixture.

  18. Tutorial for mixture-process experiments with an industrial application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Abreu Dal Bello

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a tutorial on mixture-process experiments and a case study of a chemical compound used in the delay mechanism for starting a rocket engine. The compound consists in a three-component mixture. Besides the mixture components, two process variables are considered. For the model selection, the use of an information criterion showed to be efficient in the case under study. A linear regression model was fitted. Through the developed model, the optimal proportions of the mixture components and the levels of the process variables were determined.

  19. [Construction of Three-Dimensional Isobologram for Ternary Pollutant Mixtures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China) Isobolographic analysis was widely used in the interaction assessment of binary mixtures. However, how to construct a three-dimensional (3D) isobologram for the assessment of toxicity interaction within ternary mixtures is still not reported up to date. The main purpose of this paper is to develop a 3D isobologram where the relative concentrations of three components are acted as three coordinate axes in 3D space to examine the toxicity interaction within ternary mixtures. Taking six commonly used pesticides in China, including three herbicides (2, 4-D, desmetryne and simetryn) and three insecticides ( dimethoate, imidacloprid and propoxur) as the mixture components, the uniform design ray procedure (UD-Ray) was used to rationally design the concentration composition of various components in the ternary mixtures so that effectively and comprehensively reflected the variety of actual environmental concentrations. The luminescent inhibition toxicities of single pesticides and their ternary mixtures to Vibrio fischeri at various concentration levels were determined by the microplate toxicity analysis. Selecting concentration addition (CA) as the addition reference, 3D isobolograms were constructed to study the toxicity interactions of various ternary mixtures. The results showed that the 3D isobologram could clearly and directly exhibit the toxicity interactions of ternary mixtures, and extend the use of isobolographic analysis into the ternary mixtures.

  20. Swelling characteristics of immersed sand-bentonite mixtures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丰土根; 崔红斌; 孙德安; 杜冰

    2008-01-01

    A laboratory one-dimensional consolidation apparatus was employed to research the swelling stress and volume of the sand-bentonite mixture under immersed conditions. The stress-strain characteristics of mixtures under varied mixing ratios and loading statuses were analyzed. Based on the results of tests, the mechanism of mixture swelling and collapsing was further discussed. The results show that mixtures with low sand ratios are suitable as hydraulic barrier or containment barriers of general landfills, geological repository and other hydraulic infrastructure works.

  1. Gas-phase detonation propagation in mixture composition gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, D A; Gamezo, V N; Oran, E S

    2012-02-13

    The propagation of detonations through several fuel-air mixtures with spatially varying fuel concentrations is examined numerically. The detonations propagate through two-dimensional channels, inside of which the gradient of mixture composition is oriented normal to the direction of propagation. The simulations are performed using a two-component, single-step reaction model calibrated so that one-dimensional detonation properties of model low- and high-activation-energy mixtures are similar to those observed in a typical hydrocarbon-air mixture. In the low-activation-energy mixture, the reaction zone structure is complex, consisting of curved fuel-lean and fuel-rich detonations near the line of stoichiometry that transition to decoupled shocks and turbulent deflagrations near the channel walls where the mixture is extremely fuel-lean or fuel-rich. Reactants that are not consumed by the leading detonation combine downstream and burn in a diffusion flame. Detonation cells produced by the unstable reaction front vary in size across the channel, growing larger away from the line of stoichiometry. As the size of the channel decreases relative to the size of a detonation cell, the effect of the mixture composition gradient is lessened and cells of similar sizes form. In the high-activation-energy mixture, detonations propagate more slowly as the magnitude of the mixture composition gradient is increased and can be quenched in a large enough gradient. PMID:22213660

  2. Anthracene + Pyrene Solid Mixtures: Eutectic and Azeotropic Character

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, James W.; Fu, Jinxia; Suuberg, Eric M.

    2010-01-01

    To better characterize the thermodynamic behavior of a binary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mixture, thermochemical and vapor pressure experiments were used to examine the phase behavior of the anthracene (1) + pyrene (2) system. A solid-liquid phase diagram was mapped for the mixture. A eutectic point occurs at 404 K at x1 = 0.22. A model based on eutectic formation can be used to predict the enthalpy of fusion associated with the mixture. For mixtures that contain x1 < 0.90, the enthalpy ...

  3. Calculation and Analysis of Mean Opacity of Gold Mixtures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN An-ying; JIANG Ming; CHENG Xin-lu; YANG Xiang-dong

    2007-01-01

    A screened hydrogenic model for l splitting (SHML) is used to calculate the Rosseland mean opacities of high-Z Au, Ta, Yb, Ho, Gd, Sm, Nd, Sn, Ag plasmas and mixtures of gold and these elements at high temperature (T=200-400eV) and dense (ρ=1g/cm3).From the calculated Rosseland mean opacities of the mixtures, Au-Nd seems to be a better choice than other mixtures.Simultaneously, the reason that the mean opacities of mixture of Au-Sn decrease slightly when T=400eV is analyzed.

  4. Opacity Calculations for Non-Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium Mixtures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴泽清; 韩国兴; 逄锦桥

    2002-01-01

    Based on the average atom model, a non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) model is developed to calculate opacity for mixtures. This model could be applied to high-Z problems. The mean ionization degrees of SiO2 of the present calculation are slightly higher compared with another model for mixtures. As an example, the opacity of Au and Nd mixture is calculated. The results show concrete non-LTE effects and the increase in opacity of the mixture is shown clearly.

  5. Improved Gaussian Mixture Model in Video Motion Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Xie

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available As the classical Gaussian mixture model has some problems of not considering it self’s matching degree of Gaussian density functions, model updating and the background in real video motion detection, made improvements on the three aspects. Optimized Gaussian mixture model’s overall architecture and proposed an improved algorithm according to the analysis of the definition and disadvantages of classical Gaussian mixture model. Finally, through detailed experiment, the result showed: the improved Gaussian mixture model is faster in model convergence rate in video motion detection, can quickly adapt to the changes of background and greatly decreases the fall-out ratio

  6. Porous concrete mixtures for pervious urban pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro, J.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to analyze the hydraulic and mechanical behaviour of a series of roller-compacted, laboratory porous concrete mixtures. The mix design variables examined were the actual void ratio in the hardened concrete and the water/cement ratio. From these results the better dosages from the mechanical and hydraulical behaviour point of view were determined. One of the designs developed was found to exhibit excellent hydraulic capacity and 20% greater strength than the mixtures recommended in the literature. Moreover, concrete with an actual void ratio of only 14% was observed to meet permeability requirements. Maximum flexural strength of concretes with different w/c ratios was achieved with a cement paste content of 250 l/m3. Relationships were found between the void ratio and both 28-day concrete permeability and flexural strength. Finally, the doses exhibiting the best mechanical and hydraulic performance were identified.El trabajo realizado en este estudio consistió en analizar el comportamiento de diferentes dosificaciones de mezclas de hormigón poroso, fabricadas en laboratorio y compactadas con rodillo pesado para simular las condiciones de terreno. Las variables consideradas para el diseño de las mezclas fueron el porcentaje real de huecos en el hormigón endurecido y la razón agua/cemento. A partir de estos resultados se determinaron las dosificaciones que presentan mejor comportamiento desde el punto de vista mecánico e hidráulico. Los resultados muestran que existe una dosificación de hormigón poroso, distinta a las encontradas actualmente en la literatura internacional, que permite obtener resistencias hasta 20% más altas, manteniendo todavía una excelente capacidad hidráulica. Se determinó que una permeabilidad suficiente se puede obtener con un porcentaje real de huecos de 14%, y que agregar pasta de cemento en una proporción de 250 l/m3 permite maximizar la resistencia a flexotracción de hormigones que

  7. Nucleation in a Sheared Liquid Binary Mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Kyung-Yang

    When a binary liquid mixture of lutidine plus water (LW) is quenched to a temperature T and is exposed to a continuous shear rate S, the result is a steady-state droplet distribution. This steady state can be probed by measuring the unscattered intensity I_{f}, or the scattered intensity I_{s}, as a function of delta T and S. In the experiments described here, S is fixed and delta T is varied in a step-wise fashion. The absence of hysteresis was probed in two separate experiments: First, I_{f} was measured as a function of S for a given delta T. Next, I_{f} was measured as a function of delta T for a given S. In either case, the hysteresis associated with the shear-free nucleation is absent. In addition, a flow-history dependent hysteresis was studied. In the 2-dimensional parameter space consisting of S and delta T, the onset of nucleation uniquely determines a cloud point line. A plot of the cloud point line exhibits two segments of different slopes with a cross-over near the temperature corresponding to the Becker-Doring limit. The classical picture of a free energy barrier was reformulated to explain this cross-over behavior. Next, photon correlation spectroscopy was used to study the dependence of the transient nucleation behavior on the initial states. A unique feature of this study is that this initial state can be conveniently adjusted by varying the shear rate S to which the mixture is initially exposed. The shear is then turned off, and the number density N(t), as well as the mean radius of the growing droplets, is monitored as a function of time. It was possible to measure the droplet density at a very early stage of phase separation where the nucleation rate J was close to zero. The measurement reveals that N(t) depends critically on the initial state of the metastable system. When the shear is large enough to rupture the droplets as small as the critical size, N(t) increases very slowly. Measurements of the nucleation rates vs. the square of the

  8. Realistic environmental mixtures of micropollutants in surface, drinking, and recycled water: herbicides dominate the mixture toxicity toward algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Janet Y M; Escher, Beate I

    2014-06-01

    Mixture toxicity studies with herbicides have focused on a few priority components that are most likely to cause environmental impacts, and experimental mixtures were often designed as equipotent mixtures; however, real-world mixtures are made up of chemicals with different modes of toxic action at arbitrary concentration ratios. The toxicological significance of environmentally realistic mixtures has only been scarcely studied. Few studies have simultaneously compared the mixture effect of water samples with designed reference mixtures comprised of the ratios of analytically detected concentrations in toxicity tests. In the present study, the authors address the effect of herbicides and other chemicals on inhibition of photosynthesis and algal growth rate. The authors tested water samples including secondary treated wastewater effluent, recycled water, drinking water, and storm water in the combined algae assay. The detected chemicals were mixed in the concentration ratios detected, and the biological effects of the water samples were compared with the designed mixtures of individual detected chemicals to quantify the fraction of effect caused by unknown chemicals. The results showed that herbicides dominated the algal toxicity in these environmentally realistic mixtures, and the contribution by the non-herbicides was negligible. A 2-stage model, which used concentration addition within the groups of herbicides and non-herbicides followed by the model of independent action to predict the mixture effect of the two groups, could predict the experimental mixture toxicity effectively, but the concentration addition model for herbicides was robust and sufficient for complex mixtures. Therefore, the authors used the bioanalytical equivalency concept to derive effect-based trigger values for algal toxicity for monitoring water quality in recycled and surface water. All water samples tested would be compliant with the proposed trigger values associated with the

  9. Mixture latent autoregressive models for longitudinal data

    CERN Document Server

    Bartolucci, Francesco; Pennoni, Fulvia

    2011-01-01

    Many relevant statistical and econometric models for the analysis of longitudinal data include a latent process to account for the unobserved heterogeneity between subjects in a dynamic fashion. Such a process may be continuous (typically an AR(1)) or discrete (typically a Markov chain). In this paper, we propose a model for longitudinal data which is based on a mixture of AR(1) processes with different means and correlation coefficients, but with equal variances. This model belongs to the class of models based on a continuous latent process, and then it has a natural interpretation in many contexts of application, but it is more flexible than other models in this class, reaching a goodness-of-fit similar to that of a discrete latent process model, with a reduced number of parameters. We show how to perform maximum likelihood estimation of the proposed model by the joint use of an Expectation-Maximisation algorithm and a Newton-Raphson algorithm, implemented by means of recursions developed in the hidden Mark...

  10. Complex contaminant mixtures in multistressor Appalachian riverscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriam, Eric R; Petty, J Todd; Strager, Michael P; Maxwell, Aaron E; Ziemkiewicz, Paul F

    2015-11-01

    Runoff from watersheds altered by mountaintop mining in the Appalachian region (USA) is known to pollute headwater streams, yet regional-scale assessments of water quality have focused on salinization and selenium. The authors conducted a comprehensive survey of inorganic contaminants found in 170 stream segments distributed across a spectrum of historic and contemporary human land use. Principal component analysis identified 3 important dimensions of variation in water chemistry that were significantly correlated with contemporary surface mining (principal component 1: elevated dominant ions, sulfate, alkalinity, and selenium), coal geology and legacy mines (principal component 2: elevated trace metals), and residential development (principal component 3: elevated sodium and chloride). The combination of these 3 dominant sources of pollutants produced a complex stream-to-stream patchwork of contaminant mixtures. Seventy-five percent of headwater streams (catchments streams (catchments > 5 km(2) ) were classified as having reference chemistries, and chemistries indicative of combined mining and development contaminants accounted for 47% of larger streams (compared with 26% of headwater streams). Extreme degradation of larger streams can be attributed to accumulation of contaminants from multiple human land use activities that include contemporary mountaintop mining, underground mining, abandoned mines, and untreated domestic wastewater. Consequently, water quality improvements in this region will require a multicontaminant remediation approach.

  11. Toxicological evaluation and risk assessment of chemical mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cassee, F.R.; Groten, J.P.; Bladeren, P.J. van; Feron, V.J.

    1998-01-01

    A major objective of combination toxicology is to establish whether a mixture of chemicals will result in an effect similar to that expected on the basis of additivity. This requires understanding of the basic concepts of the combined toxicological action of the compounds of the mixture: simple simi

  12. Explaining slow convergence of EM in low noise linear mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kaare Brandt; Winther, Ole

    2005-01-01

    This report conducts an investigation of the convergence properties of the EM algorithm used for linear mixture models. Since the linear mixture model is a rather general approach, the analysis is relevant for a wide range of models which to some degree are subsets of each other: Independent...... Component Analysis (ICA), probabilistic PCA, Factor Analysis (FA), Independent Factor Analysis (IFA) and Mean Field ICA....

  13. Learning Mixtures of Polynomials of Conditional Densities from Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    L. López-Cruz, Pedro; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Bielza, Concha;

    2013-01-01

    Mixtures of polynomials (MoPs) are a non-parametric density estimation technique for hybrid Bayesian networks with continuous and discrete variables. We propose two methods for learning MoP ap- proximations of conditional densities from data. Both approaches are based on learning MoP approximations......- ods with the approach for learning mixtures of truncated basis functions from data....

  14. Regime Switching in the Latent Growth Curve Mixture Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Conor V.; Schmittmann, Verena D.; Lubke, Gitta H.; Neale, Michael C.

    2005-01-01

    A linear latent growth curve mixture model is presented which includes switching between growth curves. Switching is accommodated by means of a Markov transition model. The model is formulated with switching as a highly constrained multivariate mixture model and is fitted using the freely available Mx program. The model is illustrated by analyzing…

  15. A Novel Approach for Evaluating Carbamate Mixtures for Dose Additivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two mathematical approaches were used to test the hypothesis ofdose-addition for a binary and a seven-chemical mixture ofN-methyl carbamates, toxicologically similar chemicals that inhibit cholinesterase (ChE). In the more novel approach, mixture data were not included in the ana...

  16. Preparation and Characterization of Binary Mixture of Efavirenz and Nicotinamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erizal Zaini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to prepare and characterize the binary mixture of efavirenz and nicotinamide. The binary mixture of efavirenz and nicotinamide (in equimolar ratio was prepared by solid state grinding and solvent dropped grinding. Characterizations were conducted by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD, differential thermal analysis (DTA and scanning electron microscopy (SEM analysis. Interaction of efavirenz and nicotinamide in liquid states was studied by phase solubility profile. The dissolution rate studies was conducted by using USP type II apparatus in distilled water with 0.5 % sodium lauryl sulfate. Efavirenz dissolved was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with Acetonitrile and acetic acid 1 % as mobile phase. The diffracgram of powder X-Ray analysis showed that both efavirenz and nicotinamide are highly crystalline, and equimolar binary mixtures showed a similar diffraction peaks. Thermal analysis result showed that binary mixture of efavirenz and nicotinamide form a simple eutectic mixture with the eutectic temperature (tE was 92.7 °C. The SEM analysis depicted that efavirenz and nicotinamide are polyhedral shaped particles, while binary mixture showed a homogenous aggregates of fine needle shaped particles. Phase solubility profile of the binary mixture indicated formation of a soluble complex between efavirenz and nicotinamide in 1:1 molar. The dissolution rate of the binary mixtures were significantly higher compared to the intact efavirenz.

  17. Degenerate atom-molecule mixture in a cold Fermi gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that the atom-molecule mixture formed in a degenerate atomic Fermi gas with interspecies repulsion near a Feshbach resonance constitutes a peculiar system where the atomic component is almost nondegenerate but quantum degeneracy of molecules is important. We develop a thermodynamic approach for studying this mixture, explain experimental observations, and predict optimal conditions for achieving molecular Bose-Einstein condensation

  18. Degenerate Atom-Molecule Mixture in a Cold Fermi Gas

    OpenAIRE

    Kokkelmans, S.J.J.M.F.; Shlyapnikov, G. V.; Salomon, R.

    2004-01-01

    We show that the atom-molecule mixture formed in a degenerate atomic Fermi gas with interspecies repulsion near a Feshbach resonance, constitutes a peculiar system where the atomic component is almost non-degenerate but quantum degeneracy of molecules is important. We develop a thermodynamic approach for studying this mixture, explain experimental observations and predict optimal conditions for achieving molecular BEC.

  19. Separation of organic azeotropic mixtures by pervaporation. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, R.W.

    1991-12-01

    Distillation is a commonly used separation technique in the petroleum refining and chemical processing industries. However, there are a number of potential separations involving azetropic and close-boiling organic mixtures that cannot be separated efficiently by distillation. Pervaporation is a membrane-based process that uses selective permeation through membranes to separate liquid mixtures. Because the separation process is not affected by the relative volatility of the mixture components being separated, pervaporation can be used to separate azetropes and close-boiling mixtures. Our results showed that pervaporation membranes can be used to separate azeotropic mixtures efficiently, a result that is not achievable with simple distillation. The membranes were 5--10 times more permeable to one of the components of the mixture, concentrating it in the permeate stream. For example, the membrane was 10 times more permeable to ethanol than methyl ethyl ketone, producing 60% ethanol permeate from an azeotropic mixture of ethanol and methyl ethyl ketone containing 18% ethanol. For the ethyl acetate/water mixture, the membranes showed a very high selectivity to water (> 300) and the permeate was 50--100 times enriched in water relative to the feed. The membranes had permeate fluxes on the order of 0.1--1 kg/m{sup 2}{center_dot}h in the operating range of 55--70{degrees}C. Higher fluxes were obtained by increasing the operating temperature.

  20. Mechanistic and Economical Characteristics of Asphalt Rubber Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mena I. Souliman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Load associated fatigue cracking is one of the major distress types occurring in flexible pavement systems. Flexural bending beam fatigue laboratory test has been used for several decades and is considered to be an integral part of the new superpave advanced characterization procedure. One of the most significant solutions to prolong the fatigue life for an asphaltic mixture is to utilize flexible materials as rubber. A laboratory testing program was performed on a conventional and Asphalt Rubber- (AR- gap-graded mixtures to investigate the impact of added rubber on the mechanical, mechanistic, and economical attributes of asphaltic mixtures. Strain controlled fatigue tests were conducted according to American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO procedures. The results from the beam fatigue tests indicated that the AR-gap-graded mixtures would have much longer fatigue life compared with the reference (conventional mixtures. In addition, a mechanistic analysis using 3D-Move software coupled with a cost analysis study based on the fatigue performance on the two mixtures was performed. Overall, analysis showed that AR modified asphalt mixtures exhibited significantly lower cost of pavement per 1000 cycles of fatigue life per mile compared to conventional HMA mixture.

  1. Herbal mixtures in the traditional medicine of Eastern Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernández, J.; Volpato, G.

    2004-01-01

    Herbal mixtures in the traditional medicine of Eastern Cuba. Traditional herbal mixtures in Eastern Cuba are investigated through interviews with 130 knowledgeable people and traditional healers of the provinces of Santiago de Cuba and Guantanamo. One hundred seventy plant species and other products

  2. Predicting Development of an Epidemics on Cultivar Mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergård, Hanne

    1983-01-01

    A mathematical model for the development of an epidemic on a plant cultivar mixture illustrates the influence of the infection efficiency, spore production rate, proportion of deposited spores, frequency of autodeposition, and composition of the mixture on the genetic composition of the pathogen...

  3. DESIGNS FOR MIXTURE AND PROCESS VARIABLES APPLIED IN TABLET FORMULATIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DUINEVELD, CAA; SMILDE, AK; DOORNBOS, DA

    1993-01-01

    Although there are several methods for the construction of a design for process variables and mixture variables, there are not very many methods which are suitable to combine mixture and process variables in one design. Some of the methods which are feasible will be shown. These methods will be comp

  4. Mixture for solidification of liquid radioactive wastes into stable forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mixture is proposed for cementing liquid radioactive wastes into chemically stable, mechanically strong, transportable and storable forms. The mixture consists of 60-80 wt.% Portland cement, 5-15 wt.% flue silica dust and 15-25 wt.% zeolitic tuffite. (Z.S.)

  5. Finite mixture models and model-based clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Melnykov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Finite mixture models have a long history in statistics, having been used to model population heterogeneity, generalize distributional assumptions, and lately, for providing a convenient yet formal framework for clustering and classification. This paper provides a detailed review into mixture models and model-based clustering. Recent trends as well as open problems in the area are also discussed.

  6. Shock Compression of Cryogenic Noble Gas Mixtures: Xenon - Krypton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, Seth; Magyar, Rudolph; Lemke, Raymond; Mattsson, Thomas

    2013-06-01

    In past work, we have examined the multi-Mbar response of cryogenically cooled liquid xenon and liquid krypton measuring their Hugoniots to 8 Mbar. These results were utilized in the development of new EOS models for Xe and Kr to use in high energy density physics applications. The previous work demonstrated the usefulness of integrating high accuracy shock compression experiments with DFT to generate the basis for equation of state (EOS) models. In many physics applications, such as Z-pinch experiments, gas mixtures are used instead. However, we do not have reliable experimental data on these mixtures to provide informed decisions about the EOS models or mixture rules. To improve our understanding of mixtures at extreme conditions, we performed dynamic compression experiments using Sandia's Z - facility on a 70/30 molar ratio Kr/Xe cryogenically cooled liquid mixture. We measured the Hugoniot state and reshock state of the liquid mixture to several Mbar. The experimental data validated the DFT simulations for identical molar ratio mixtures. The combined experimental and DFT results are used to assess the EOS models and test the mixture rules. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Securities Administration under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  7. Phase and viscosity behaviour of refrigerant-lubricant mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cisneros, Sergio; Garcia, J.; Fernandez, J.;

    2005-01-01

    The understanding of thermophysical properties and phase behaviour of refrigerant-lubricant oil mixtures is highly important for the optimal design of refrigeration and air-conditioning systems. Refrigerant lubricant mixtures, which are likely to have strong asymmetry, can show complex phase...... behaviour phenomenology. (c) 2004 Elsevier Ltd and IIR. All rights reserved....

  8. Rheological properties of asphalt mixtures containing various fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶群山; 吴少鹏; 陈筝; 刘至飞

    2008-01-01

    Rheological characteristics of fiber-modified asphalt mixture were investigated.Cellulous fiber,polyester fiber and mineral fiber were used as additives for asphalt mixture,and the dosages were 0.3%,0.3%,0.4%,respectively.Dynamic modulus test using superpave simple performance tester(SPT) was adopted to study the dynamic modulus and phase angle for the control mixture and fiber-modified ones at various temperatures and frequencies.Test results show that the rheological properties can be improved significantly by the addition of various fibers.The dynamic modulus increases with the increase of frequency,and the phase angle decreases with the increase of frequency.When various fibers are used,the dynamic modulus increases and phase angle decreases at each frequency.This indicates that the stiffness and the elastic portion of fiber-modified asphalt mixtures can be enhanced when various fibers are used,which results in the change of viscoelastic properties of mixtures.The creep test results show that the total strain and the permanent strain of asphalt mixtures during load-unload cycle can be significantly reduced,which results in the improvement of resistance to permanent deformation for asphalt mixtures containing various fiber additives.The Burgers model can be employed effectively to illustrate the rheological properties of fiber modified asphalt mixtures.

  9. Fluctuation forces and wetting layers in colloid-polymer mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennequin, Y.; Aarts, D.G.A.L.; Indekeu, J.O.; Lekkerkerker, H.N.W.; Bonn, D.

    2008-01-01

    We present confocal microscopy experiments on the wetting of phase-separated colloid-polymer mixtures. We observe that an unusually thick wetting layer of the colloid-rich phase forms at the walls of the glass container that holds the mixture. Because of the ultralow interfacial tension between the

  10. The scent of mixtures: rules of odour processing in ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Margot; Giurfa, Martin; d'Ettorre, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    Natural odours are complex blends of numerous components. Understanding how animals perceive odour mixtures is central to multiple disciplines. Here we focused on carpenter ants, which rely on odours in various behavioural contexts. We studied overshadowing, a phenomenon that occurs when animals having learnt a binary mixture respond less to one component than to the other, and less than when this component was learnt alone. Ants were trained individually with alcohols and aldehydes varying in carbon-chain length, either as single odours or binary mixtures. They were then tested with the mixture and the components. Overshadowing resulted from the interaction between chain length and functional group: alcohols overshadowed aldehydes, and longer chain lengths overshadowed shorter ones; yet, combinations of these factors could cancel each other and suppress overshadowing. Our results show how ants treat binary olfactory mixtures and set the basis for predictive analyses of odour perception in insects. PMID:25726692

  11. Malabsorption of fructose-sorbitol mixtures. Interactions causing abdominal distress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1987-01-01

    Hydrogen breath tests were performed on 10 healthy adults after they had ingested a mixture of sorbitol and fructose, in which these substances were present in amounts corresponding to the individual absorption capacities. A significant malabsorption of this mixture was evident in 7 of 10 subjects....... The mixture caused mild to severe gastrointestinal distress in five subjects. When the carbohydrates were given separately, symptoms were absent. There was a significant correlation between the individual absorption capacities of fructose and of sorbitol. A mixture containing a similar amount of fructose......, but given as sucrose, and a similar amount of sorbitol was further given to four of the seven subjects showing malabsorption of the fructose-sorbitol mixture. Malabsorption now failed to appear, and symptoms were absent. These findings are of potential importance for the understanding of the physiologic...

  12. Viscoelastic Analysis of Asphalt Mixture Based on Creep Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two kinds of mineral fibers were added to AC-16C asphalt mixture. Trabecular bending creep experiments of asphalt mixtures were carried out at -10 and 20°C. The influence of mineral fibers on the low temperature viscoelasticity of asphalt mixtures were analyzed systemically. Furthermore, by using Origin, Burgers viscoelastic model was used to investigate the parameter regression for the creep test results at the different temperatures. The results show that the addition of mineral fibers can effectively improve the bending creep rate of asphalt mixtures, indicates the increase of crack resistance of asphalt mixtures. Good agreement between experimental data and Burgers model was found. The parameters of Burgers model at different temperatures can also provide data support for the viscoelastic design of asphalt pavements.

  13. Effects of Mixing on Hopper Sedimentation in Clearing Mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmager Jensen, Jacob; Saremi, Sina

    2015-01-01

    and settling in high-concentration mixtures were examined theoretically. Analytical solutions for clearance of excess concentrations were derived for the limiting cases of (1) still-water clearance and (2) clearance when the amount of turbulence is abundant. When examining these analytical solutions......Hopper sedimentation is the result of precipitation of typically fine sediment from a homogenous, high-concentration mixture, which is not completely deficient of turbulence. If hopper sedimentation or loading is accomplished through a single-inflow system, or if the irregularity of the inflow...... concentrations is pronounced or simply terminated, then the hopper mixture will clear. Whereas turbulent mixing is redundant, when the mixture is homogeneous, it may take an active role when the mixture is clearing. The role of turbulence on hopper sedimentation has been the focus of several studies...

  14. Quantitative measurement of mixtures by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Guifeng Liu; Zengyan Zhang; Shihua Ma; Hongwei Zhao; Xiaojing Ma; Wenfeng Wang

    2009-07-01

    Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) was applied for quantitatively analysing a series of binary mixtures and a ternary mixture. Binary mixtures having different weight ratios of two components, -aminophenol and m-nitroaniline, were investigated by THz-TDS in the range of 0.3 to 1.5 THz, and it was found that the absorption coefficients of the components in each mixture were linearly proportional to their concentrations in the mixture. The results from analysis were in agreement with actual values with a relative error of less than 7%. The quantitative method will help in the detection of illegal drugs, poisons and dangerous materials that are wrapped or mixed with other materials.

  15. Investigation of Asphalt Mixture Creep Behavior Using Thin Beam Specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The asphalt pavement layer consists of two or more lifts of compacted asphalt mixture; the top of the layer is also exposed to aging, a factor that significantly affects the mixture properties. The current testing specifications use rather thick specimens that cannot be used to investigate the gradual change in properties with pavement depth. This paper investigates the feasibility of using the 3-point bending test with thin asphalt mixture beams (127x12.7x6.35 mm) to determine the low-temperature creep compliance of the mixtures. Several theoretical and semi-empirical models, from the theory of composites, are reviewed and evaluated using numerical and experimental data. Preliminary results show that this method can be used for low-temperature mixture characterization but several crucial factors need further inspection and interpretation

  16. Superfluid and Insulating Phases of Fermion Mixtures in Optical Lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskin, M.; de Melo, C. A. R. Sá

    2007-08-01

    The ground state phase diagram of fermion mixtures in optical lattices is analyzed as a function of interaction strength, fermion filling factor, and tunneling parameters. In addition to standard superfluid, phase-separated or coexisting superfluid excess-fermion phases found in homogeneous or harmonically trapped systems, fermions in optical lattices have several insulating phases, including a molecular Bose-Mott insulator (BMI), a Fermi-Pauli (band) insulator (FPI), a phase-separated BMI-FPI mixture or a Bose-Fermi checkerboard (BFC). The molecular BMI phase is the fermion mixture counterpart of the atomic BMI found in atomic Bose systems, the BFC or BMI-FPI phases exist in Bose-Fermi mixtures, and lastly the FPI phase is particular to the Fermi nature of the constituent atoms of the mixture.

  17. The scent of mixtures: rules of odour processing in ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Margot; Giurfa, Martin; d'Ettorre, Patrizia

    2015-03-02

    Natural odours are complex blends of numerous components. Understanding how animals perceive odour mixtures is central to multiple disciplines. Here we focused on carpenter ants, which rely on odours in various behavioural contexts. We studied overshadowing, a phenomenon that occurs when animals having learnt a binary mixture respond less to one component than to the other, and less than when this component was learnt alone. Ants were trained individually with alcohols and aldehydes varying in carbon-chain length, either as single odours or binary mixtures. They were then tested with the mixture and the components. Overshadowing resulted from the interaction between chain length and functional group: alcohols overshadowed aldehydes, and longer chain lengths overshadowed shorter ones; yet, combinations of these factors could cancel each other and suppress overshadowing. Our results show how ants treat binary olfactory mixtures and set the basis for predictive analyses of odour perception in insects.

  18. Combustion of soybean oil and diesel mixtures for heating purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Adriana Correa; Sanz, Jose Francisco [European University Miguel de Cervantes, Valladolid (Spain)], E-mail: acorrea@uemc.es; Hernandez, Salvador; Navas, Luis Manuel; Rodriguez, Elena; Ruiz, Gonzalo [University of Valladolid (Spain). Dept. of Agricultural and Forest Engineering; San Jose, Julio [University of Valladolid (Spain). Dept. of Energetic Engineering; Gomez, Jaime [University of Valladolid (Spain). Dept. of Communications and Signal Theory and Telematics Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Using blends of vegetable oils with petroleum derivates for heating purposes has several advantages over other energy application for vegetable oils. This paper presents the results of an investigation by use of soybean oil and diesel mixture as fuel for producing heat in conventional diesel installation. The paper is set out as follows: properties characterization of soybean oil as fuel and of diesel oil, as well as the mixture of both; selection of the mixture according to their physical chemical properties and how they adapt to conventional combustion installation; experimentation with the selected mixture, allowing the main combustion parameters to be measured; processing the collected data, values of combustion, efficiency and reduction of emissions. Conclusions show that the use of soybean oil and diesel mixture for producing heat energy in conventional equipment is feasible and beneficial for reduction emissions. (author)

  19. Relationship between high incidence of lung cancer among non-smoking women and silica in C1 bituminous coal in Xuanwei, Yunnan Province, China%云南省宣威地区非吸烟女性肺癌与C1烟煤中二氧化硅的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李光剑; 黄云超; 田林玮; 刘拥军; 郭律; 肖义泽; 侯文俊; 杨堃; 陈颖

    2013-01-01

    二氧化硅颗粒物进入室内空气中随悬浮颗粒物吸入肺部”的迁移富集路线.%Objective To measure the content of silica in C1 bituminous coal and its combustion products in the high-incidence area of lung cancer in Xuanwei,Yunnan Province,China and to investigate the relationship between high incidence of lung cancer among non-smoking women and silica produced naturally in C1 bituminous coal in Xuan Wei.Methods The C1 bituminous coal widely used in the high-incidence area of lung cancer in Xuanwei was selected as experiment group,while the C2+1,K7,and M30 bituminous coal that was mined and used in the low-incidence area of lung cancer in Xuanwei for more than 10 years were selected as control group.Fourteen paraffin-embedded cancer tissue samples from the non-smoking women with non-small cell lung cancer who were born in Xuanwei and were at least the 3rd generation of the family living there were collected from the department of pathology,the ahird affiliated hospital of kunming medical university (tumor hospital of yunnan province).Titrimetric potassium silicofluoride method was used to measure the content of silica in raw coal and its bottom ashes in 20 samples from the experimental group and control group.Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the morphology of silica particles in C1 bituminous coal and its bottom ashes,and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (SEM-EDX) was used to analyze the microscopic composition.Transmission electron microscope (TEM) was used to observe the morphology of silica particles in the bottom ashes and coal soot of C1 bituminous coal as well as the lung cancer tissue from the non-smoking women in Xuanwei,and transmission electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (TEM-EDX) was used to analyze the microscopic composition.The silica particles were separated from the coal soot and bottom ashes and characterized by physical method

  20. IGNITION IMPROVEMENT OF LEAN NATURAL GAS MIXTURES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason M. Keith

    2005-02-01

    This report describes work performed during a thirty month project which involves the production of dimethyl ether (DME) on-site for use as an ignition-improving additive in a compression-ignition natural gas engine. A single cylinder spark ignition engine was converted to compression ignition operation. The engine was then fully instrumented with a cylinder pressure transducer, crank shaft position sensor, airflow meter, natural gas mass flow sensor, and an exhaust temperature sensor. Finally, the engine was interfaced with a control system for pilot injection of DME. The engine testing is currently in progress. In addition, a one-pass process to form DME from natural gas was simulated with chemical processing software. Natural gas is reformed to synthesis gas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide), converted into methanol, and finally to DME in three steps. Of additional benefit to the internal combustion engine, the offgas from the pilot process can be mixed with the main natural gas charge and is expected to improve engine performance. Furthermore, a one-pass pilot facility was constructed to produce 3.7 liters/hour (0.98 gallons/hour) DME from methanol in order to characterize the effluent DME solution and determine suitability for engine use. Successful production of DME led to an economic estimate of completing a full natural gas-to-DME pilot process. Additional experimental work in constructing a synthesis gas to methanol reactor is in progress. The overall recommendation from this work is that natural gas to DME is not a suitable pathway to improved natural gas engine performance. The major reasons are difficulties in handling DME for pilot injection and the large capital costs associated with DME production from natural gas.

  1. Public health challenges posed by chemical mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, H; De Rosa, C T; Pohl, H; Fay, M; Mumtaz, M M

    1998-12-01

    Approximately 40 million people live within a 4-mile radius of waste sites that the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) has assessed to date. Human populations living in the vicinity of such sites are often subjected to complex chemical exposures that may contribute to the total body burden of oxogenous chemicals. Apart from the contaminants found at waste sites, exposure may also include environmental, occupational, and personal agents. Concurrent exposure to chemicals such as welding fumes, indoor air pollutants, tobacco smoke, alcohol, and prescription and nonprescription drugs makes the health assessment of exposure to waste site chemicals a more complex task. Voluntary exposures such as these frequently entail exposures to relatively high chemical concentrations and can usually be well defined and quantified. Conversely, involuntary exposures from waste sites may be at low concentrations and hence difficult to characterize and quantify. Of the approximately 1450 waste sites evaluated by the ATSDR, 530 (37%) had either completed or potentially completed exposure pathways. Results of public health assessments conducted at 167 sites during 1993 to 1995 show that about 1.5 million people have been exposed to site-specific contaminants. At 10% or more of the sites that had either completed or potentially completed exposure pathways, 56 substances were identified. Of these, 19 are either known or anticipated human carcinogens, and 9 are associated with reproductive or endocrine-disrupting effects. In this paper we present important concerns regarding hazardous waste sites including the impact on human health, ecology, and quality of life. To address such human-health related issues, the ATSDR has established a mixtures program that consists of three components: trend analysis to identify combinations of chemicals of concern, experimental studies to identify data that would be useful in the development and implementation of predictive decision

  2. Separating Dust Mixtures and Other External Aerosol Mixtures Using Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, S. P.; Ferrare, R. A.; Vaughan, M.; Hostetler, C. A.; Rogers, R. R.; Hair, J. W.; Cook, A. L.; Harper, D. B.

    2013-12-01

    Knowledge of aerosol type is important for source attribution and for determining the magnitude and assessing the consequences of aerosol radiative forcing. The NASA Langley Research Center airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL-1) has acquired considerable datasets of both aerosol extensive parameters (e.g. aerosol optical depth) and intensive parameters (e.g. aerosol depolarization ratio, lidar ratio) that can be used to infer aerosol type. An aerosol classification methodology has been used extensively to classify HSRL-1 aerosol measurements of different aerosol types including dust, smoke, urban pollution, and marine aerosol. However, atmospheric aerosol is frequently not a single pure type, but instead occurs as a mixture of types, and this mixing affects the optical and radiative properties of the aerosol. Here we present a comprehensive and unified set of rules for characterizing external mixtures using several key aerosol intensive parameters: extinction-to-backscatter ratio (i.e. lidar ratio), backscatter color ratio, and depolarization ratio. Our mixing rules apply not just to the scalar values of aerosol intensive parameters, but to multi-dimensional normal distributions with variance in each measurement dimension. We illustrate the applicability of the mixing rules using examples of HSRL-1 data where mixing occurred between different aerosol types, including advected Saharan dust mixed with the marine boundary layer in the Caribbean Sea and locally generated dust mixed with urban pollution in the Mexico City surroundings. For each of these cases we infer a time-height cross section of mixing ratio along the flight track and we partition aerosol extinction into portions attributed to the two pure types. Since multiple aerosol intensive parameters are measured and included in these calculations, the techniques can also be used for cases without significant depolarization (unlike similar work by earlier researchers), and so a third example of a

  3. Detecting Mixtures from Structural Model Differences Using Latent Variable Mixture Modeling: A Comparison of Relative Model Fit Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, James M.; Reise, Steven P.; Kim, Kevin H.

    2007-01-01

    The accuracy of structural model parameter estimates in latent variable mixture modeling was explored with a 3 (sample size) [times] 3 (exogenous latent mean difference) [times] 3 (endogenous latent mean difference) [times] 3 (correlation between factors) [times] 3 (mixture proportions) factorial design. In addition, the efficacy of several…

  4. Anthracene + Pyrene Solid Mixtures: Eutectic and Azeotropic Character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, James W; Fu, Jinxia; Suuberg, Eric M

    2010-09-01

    To better characterize the thermodynamic behavior of a binary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mixture, thermochemical and vapor pressure experiments were used to examine the phase behavior of the anthracene (1) + pyrene (2) system. A solid-liquid phase diagram was mapped for the mixture. A eutectic point occurs at 404 K at x(1) = 0.22. A model based on eutectic formation can be used to predict the enthalpy of fusion associated with the mixture. For mixtures that contain x(1) < 0.90, the enthalpy of fusion is near that of pure pyrene. This and X-ray diffraction results indicate that mixtures of anthracene and pyrene have pyrene-like crystal structures and energetics until the composition nears that of pure anthracene. Solid-vapor equilibrium studies show that mixtures of anthracene and pyrene form solid azeotropes at x(1) of 0.03 and 0.14. Additionally, mixtures at x(1) = 0.99 sublime at the vapor pressure of pure anthracene, suggesting that anthracene behavior is not significantly influenced by x(2) = 0.01 in the crystal structure.

  5. Mixtures of thermostable enzymes show high performance in biomass saccharification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallioinen, Anne; Puranen, Terhi; Siika-aho, Matti

    2014-07-01

    Optimal enzyme mixtures of six Trichoderma reesei enzymes and five thermostable enzyme components were developed for the hydrolysis of hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw, alkaline oxidised sugar cane bagasse and steam-exploded bagasse by statistically designed experiments. Preliminary studies to narrow down the optimization parameters showed that a cellobiohydrolase/endoglucanase (CBH/EG) ratio of 4:1 or higher of thermostable enzymes gave the maximal CBH-EG synergy in the hydrolysis of hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw. The composition of optimal enzyme mixtures depended clearly on the substrate and on the enzyme system studied. The optimal enzyme mixture of thermostable enzymes was dominated by Cel7A and required a relatively high amount of xylanase, whereas with T. reesei enzymes, the high proportion of Cel7B appeared to provide the required xylanase activity. The main effect of the pretreatment method was that the required proportion of xylanase was higher and the proportion of Cel7A lower in the optimized mixture for hydrolysis of alkaline oxidised bagasse than steam-exploded bagasse. In prolonged hydrolyses, less Cel7A was generally required in the optimal mixture. Five-component mixtures of thermostable enzymes showed comparable hydrolysis yields to those of commercial enzyme mixtures.

  6. Coacervation in Symmetric Mixtures of Oppositely Charged Rodlike Polyelectrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajeev; Fredrickson, Glenn

    2010-03-01

    Phase separation in the salt-free symmetric mixtures of oppositely charged rodlike polyelectrolytes is studied using quasi-analytical calculations. Stability analyses for the isotropic-isotropic and the isotropic-nematic phase transitions in the symmetric mixtures are carried out. It is shown that electrostatics favor nematic ordering. Also, the coexistence curves for the symmetric mixtures are computed, and the effects of the linear charge density and the electrostatic interaction strength on the phase boundaries are studied. It is found that the counterions are uniformly distributed in the coexisting phases for low electrostatic interaction strengths characterized by the linear charge density of the polyelectrolytes and the Bjerrum's length. However, the counterions also phase separate along with the rodlike polyelectrolytes with an increase in the electrostatic interaction strength. It is shown that the number density of the counterions is higher in the concentrated (or coacervate) phase than in the dilute (or supernatant) phase. In contrast to the rodlike mixtures, flexible polyelectrolyte mixtures can undergo only isotropic-isotropic phase separation. A comparison of the coexistence curves for the weakly charged rodlike with the flexible polyelectrolyte mixtures reveals that the electrostatic driving force for the isotropic-isotropic phase separation is stronger in the flexible mixtures.

  7. Effects of Fibers on the Dynamic Properties of Asphalt Mixtures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The dynamic characteristics of fiber-modified asphalt mixture were investigated. Cellulose fiber, polyester fiber and mineral fiber were used as additives for asphalt mixture, and the dosage was 0.3%, 0.3%,0.4%, respectively. Dynamic modulus test using SuperPave simple performance tester (SPT) was conducted to study the dynamic modulus (E*) and phase angle (δ) for the control asphalt mixture and fiber-modified ones at various temperatures and frequencies. Experimental results show that all fiber-modified asphalt mixtures have higher dynamic modulus compared with control mixture. The dynamic modulus master curves of each type of asphalt mixtures are determined based on nonlinear least square regression in accordance with the timetemperature superposition theory at a control temperature (21.1 ℃). The fatigue parameter E*×sinδ and rutting parameter E*/sinδ of asphalt mixture are adopted to study the fatigue and rutting-resistance properties, and experimental results indicate that such properties can be improved by fiber additives.

  8. Microscopic study and modeling of thermodiffusion in binary associating mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslamian, Morteza; Saghir, M Ziad

    2009-12-01

    Thermodiffusion in associating mixtures is a complex phenomenon, owing to the strong dependence of the molecular structure of such mixtures on concentration. In this paper, we attempt to elucidate this phenomenon and propose a qualitative mechanism for the separation of species in binary associating mixtures. A correlation between the sign change in the thermal diffusion factor and a change in the molecular structure, mixture viscosity, and the excess entropy of mixing in such mixtures is established. To quantify this correlation, we modify our recently developed dynamic model based on the Drickamer nonequilibrium thermodynamic approach [M. Eslamian and M. Z. Saghir, Phys. Rev. E 80, 011201 (2009)] and propose expressions for the estimation of thermal diffusion factor in binary associating mixtures. The prediction power of the proposed expressions, as well as other widely used models, are examined against the experimental data. The proposed theoretical expressions are self-contained and only rely on the viscosity data as input and predict a sign change in the thermal diffusion factor in associating mixtures. PMID:20365155

  9. Statistical Study on Cement-Soil Mixture Strength

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Zhiqiang; CAO Yonghua; YAN Shuwang

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation on strength of cement deep mixing (CDM) mixture. Four typical works of offshore or land-based projects are introduced. With samples from these projects and laboratory tests, statistical analysis is made on the increment law of the strength of cement-soil mixture with different amount of cement, and strengths under different working conditions are compared. It is found that the amount of cement in the cement-soil mixture is closely related to the unconfined compressive strength of the mixture. At the age of 90 d,the unconfined compressive strength of the cement-soil mixture increased by 0.054 Mpa-0.124 Mpa with each cement increasing 10 kg/m3 in the cement-soil mixture, averagely increased by 0.085 Mpa, while that at the age of 120 d increased by 11% in comparison.The quality of the cement-soil mixture should be comprehensively evaluated in accordance with the trimmed average of strength, coefficient of variation and rock quality designation (RQD) indicators of sampling ratio.

  10. Species Tree Inference Using a Mixture Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Ikram; Parviainen, Pekka; Lagergren, Jens

    2015-09-01

    Species tree reconstruction has been a subject of substantial research due to its central role across biology and medicine. A species tree is often reconstructed using a set of gene trees or by directly using sequence data. In either of these cases, one of the main confounding phenomena is the discordance between a species tree and a gene tree due to evolutionary events such as duplications and losses. Probabilistic methods can resolve the discordance by coestimating gene trees and the species tree but this approach poses a scalability problem for larger data sets. We present MixTreEM-DLRS: A two-phase approach for reconstructing a species tree in the presence of gene duplications and losses. In the first phase, MixTreEM, a novel structural expectation maximization algorithm based on a mixture model is used to reconstruct a set of candidate species trees, given sequence data for monocopy gene families from the genomes under study. In the second phase, PrIME-DLRS, a method based on the DLRS model (Åkerborg O, Sennblad B, Arvestad L, Lagergren J. 2009. Simultaneous Bayesian gene tree reconstruction and reconciliation analysis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 106(14):5714-5719), is used for selecting the best species tree. PrIME-DLRS can handle multicopy gene families since DLRS, apart from modeling sequence evolution, models gene duplication and loss using a gene evolution model (Arvestad L, Lagergren J, Sennblad B. 2009. The gene evolution model and computing its associated probabilities. J ACM. 56(2):1-44). We evaluate MixTreEM-DLRS using synthetic and biological data, and compare its performance with a recent genome-scale species tree reconstruction method PHYLDOG (Boussau B, Szöllősi GJ, Duret L, Gouy M, Tannier E, Daubin V. 2013. Genome-scale coestimation of species and gene trees. Genome Res. 23(2):323-330) as well as with a fast parsimony-based algorithm Duptree (Wehe A, Bansal MS, Burleigh JG, Eulenstein O. 2008. Duptree: a program for large-scale phylogenetic

  11. Detonation characteristics of dimethyl ether and ethanol-air mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diakow, P.; Cross, M.; Ciccarelli, G.

    2015-05-01

    The detonation cell structure in dimethyl ether vapor and ethanol vapor-air mixtures was measured at atmospheric pressure and initial temperatures in the range of 293-373 K. Tests were carried out in a 6.2-m-long, 10-cm inner diameter tube. For more reactive mixtures, a series of orifice plates were used to promote deflagration-to-detonation transition in the first half of the tube. For less reactive mixtures prompt detonation initiation was achieved with an acetylene-oxygen driver. The soot foil technique was used to capture the detonation cell structure. The measured cell size was compared to the calculated one-dimensional detonation reaction zone length. For fuel-rich dimethyl ether mixtures the calculated reaction zone is highlighted by a temperature gradient profile with two maxima, i.e., double heat release. The detonation cell structure was interpreted as having two characteristic sizes over the full range of mixture compositions. For mixtures at the detonation propagation limits the large cellular structure approached a single-head spin, and the smaller cells approached the size of the tube diameter. There is little evidence to support the idea that the two cell sizes observed on the foils are related to the double heat release predicted for the rich mixtures. There was very little influence of initial temperature on the cell size over the temperature range investigated. A double heat release zone was not predicted for ethanol-air detonations. The detonation cell size for stoichiometric ethanol-air was found to be similar to the size of the small cells for dimethyl ether. The measured cell size for ethanol-air did not vary much with composition in the range of 30-40 mm. For mixtures near stoichiometric it was difficult to discern multiple cell sizes. However, near the detonation limits there was strong evidence of a larger cell structure similar to that observed in dimethyl ether air mixtures.

  12. Teleportation of an arbitrary mixture of diagonal states of multiqudit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper proposes a scheme to teleport an arbitrary mixture of diagonal states of multiqutrit via classical correlation and classical communication. To teleport an arbitrary mixture of diagonal states of N qutrits, N classically correlated pairs of two qutrits are used as channel. The sender (Alice) makes Fourier transform and conditional gate (i.e., XOR(3) gate) on her qutrits and does measurement in appropriate computation bases. Then she sends N ctrits to the receiver (Bob). Based on the received information, Bob performs the corresponding unitary transformation on his qutrits and obtains the teleported state. Teleportation of an arbitrary mixture of diagonal states of multiqudit is also discussed

  13. Transport properties of supercritical fluids and their binary mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Luedemann, H D

    2002-01-01

    The molecular dynamics of the two supercritical fluids most applied in industry and some of their mixtures are characterized by their self-diffusion coefficients D sub i , measured by high pressure high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance with the strengthened glass cell technique. The technical details of the apparatus will be given. The fluids studied are carbon dioxide and ammonia. For CO sub 2 , mixtures with C sub 6 H sub 6 , H sub 2 , CH sub 3 COOH and CH sub 3 OH were investigated. The NH sub 3 mixtures include C sub 6 H sub 6 , (CH sub 3) sub 3 N, CH sub 3 CN and CH sub 3 OH.

  14. Migration and sorption of strontium in clay-sand mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The migration and sorption of Sr in clay-sand mixture were investigated by batch experiment, column experiments and numerical simulation. The results showed that as the clay content in clay-sand mixture increased, the effective porosity, absorption capacity and retardation factor of the mixture for Sr increased, but the dispersion coefficient and migration velocity decreased. The migration of Sr was influenced strongly when clay content was in range of 0-25 %, but influenced weakly when clay content was more than 25 %. The experimental data was consistent with the calculated results by CXTFIT program. (author)

  15. Teleportation of an arbitrary mixture of diagonal states of multiqudit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Du Qian-Hua; Lin Xiu-Min; Chen Zhi-Hua; Lin Gong-Wei; Chen Li-Bo; Gu Yong-Jian

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a scheme to teleport an arbitrary mixture of diagonal states of multiqutrit via classical correlation and classical communication. To teleport an arbitrary mixture of diagonal states of N qutrits, N classically correlated pairs of two qutrits are used as channel. The sender (Alice) makes Fourier transform and conditional gate (i.e., XOR(3) gate) on her qutrits and does measurement in appropriate computation bases. Then she sends N ctrits to the receiver (Bob). Based on the received information, Bob performs the corresponding unitary transformation on his qutrits and obtains the teleported state. Teleportation of an arbitrary mixture of diagonal states of multiqudit is also discussed.

  16. Transport Properties of operational gas mixtures used at LHC

    OpenAIRE

    Assran, Yasser; Sharma, Archana

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes some useful data on the transport characteristics of gas mixtures which are required for detection of charged particles in gas detectors. We try to replace Freon used for RPC detector in the CMS experiment with another gas while maintaining the good properties of the Freon gas mixture unchanged. We try to switch to freonless gas mixture because Freon is not a green gas, it is very expensive and its availability is decreasing. Noble gases like Ar, He, Ne and Xe (with som...

  17. Spectral mixture analysis of multispectral thermal infrared images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remote spectral measurements of light reflected or emitted from terrestrial scenes is commonly integrated over areas sufficiently large that the surface comprises more than one component. Techniques have been developed to analyze multispectral or imaging spectrometer data in terms of a wide range of mixtures of a limited number of components. Spectral mixture analysis has been used primarily for visible and near-infrared images, but it may also be applied to thermal infrared data. Two approaches are reviewed: binary mixing and a more general treatment for isothermal mixtures of a greater number of components

  18. Identification and separation of DNA mixtures using peak area information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowell, R.G.; Lauritzen, Steffen Lilholt; Mortera, J.

    We show how probabilistic expert systems can be used to analyse forensic identification problems involving DNA mixture traces using quantitative peak area information. Peak area is modelled with conditional Gaussian distributions. The expert system can be used for scertaining whether individuals......, whose profiles have been measured, have contributed to the mixture, but also to predict DNA profiles of unknown contributors by separating the mixture into its individual components. The potential of our methodology is illustrated on case data examples and compared with alternative approaces. The...

  19. Importance of Molecular Structure on the Thermophoresis of Binary Mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pardeep; Goswami, Debabrata

    2014-12-26

    Using thermal lens spectroscopy, we study the role of molecular structural isomers of butanol on the thermophoresis (or Soret effect) of binary mixtures of methanol in butanol. In this study, we show that the thermal lens signal due to the Soret effect changes its sign for all the different concentrations of binary mixtures of butanol with methanol except for the one containing tertiary-butanol. The magnitude and sign of the Soret coefficients strongly depend on the molecular structure of the isomers of butanol in the binary mixture with methanol. This isomerization dependence is in stark contrast to the expected mass dependence of the Soret effect.

  20. Robust detection of individual forensic profiles in DNA mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacson, J; Schwoebel, E; Shcherbina, A; Ricke, D; Harper, J; Petrovick, M; Bobrow, J; Boettcher, T; Helfer, B; Zook, C; Wack, E

    2015-01-01

    For a forensic identification method to be admissible in international courts, the probability of false match must be quantified. For comparison of individuals against complex mixtures using a panel of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), the probability of a random man not excluded, P(RMNE) is one admissible standard. While the P(RMNE) of SNP alleles has been previously studied, it remains to be rigorously defined and calculated for experimentally genotyped mixtures. In this report, exact P(RMNE) values were calculated for a range of complex mixtures, verified with Monte Carlo simulations, and compared alongside experimentally determined detection probabilities. PMID:25280378

  1. Thermal behavior of crumb-rubber modified asphalt concrete mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epps, Amy Louise

    Thermal cracking is one of the primary forms of distress in asphalt concrete pavements, resulting from either a single drop in temperature to an extreme low or from multiple temperature cycles above the fracture temperature of the asphalt-aggregate mixture. The first mode described is low temperature cracking; the second is thermal fatigue. The addition of crumb-rubber, manufactured from scrap tires, to the binder in asphalt concrete pavements has been suggested to minimize both types of thermal cracking. Four experiments were designed and completed to evaluate the thermal behavior of crumb-rubber modified (CRM) asphalt-aggregate mixtures. Modified and unmodified mixture response to thermal stresses was measured in four laboratory tests. The Thermal Stress Restrained Specimen Test (TSRST) and the Indirect Tensile Test (IDT) were used to compare mixture resistance to low temperature cracking. Modified mixtures showed improved performance, and cooling rate did not affect mixture resistance according to the statistical analysis. Therefore results from tests with faster rates can predict performance under slower field rates. In comparison, predicted fracture temperatures and stresses (IDT) were generally higher than measured values (TSRST). In addition, predicted fracture temperatures from binder test results demonstrated that binder testing alone is not sufficient to evaluate CRM mixtures. Thermal fatigue was explored in the third experiment using conventional load-induced fatigue tests with conditions selected to simulate daily temperature fluctuations. Test results indicated that thermal fatigue may contribute to transverse cracking in asphalt pavements. Both unmodified and modified mixtures had a finite capacity to withstand daily temperature fluctuations coupled with cold temperatures. Modified mixtures again exhibited improved performance. The fourth experiment examined fracture properties of modified and unmodified mixtures using a common fracture toughness test

  2. Viscosity of Liquid Crystal Mixtures in the Presence of Electroconvection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaya, Tomoyuki; Satou, Yuki; Goto, Yoshitomo; Hidaka, Yoshiki; Orihara, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    We have experimentally investigated the viscosity of nematic liquid crystal mixtures of p-methoxybenzylidene-p'-n-butylaniline (MBBA) and p-ethoxybenzylidene-p'-cyanoaniline (EBCA) in the presence of electroconvection under an ac electric field with 60 Hz. Although the viscosity of the mixtures with negative dielectric anisotropy shows a characteristic decrease in the high-voltage regime, that with positive dielectric anisotropy shows a monotonic increase as the applied voltage is increased. The experimental results suggest that the decrease in viscosity observed only for the mixtures with negative dielectric anisotropy is attributed to the negative contribution of electric stress caused by the anisotropic director distribution of the turbulent state.

  3. Simulation of rheological behavior of asphalt mixture with lattice model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨圣枫; 杨新华; 陈传尧

    2008-01-01

    A three-dimensional(3D) lattice model for predicting the rheological behavior of asphalt mixtures was presented.In this model asphalt mixtures were described as a two-phase composite material consisting of asphalt sand and coarse aggregates distributed randomly.Asphalt sand was regarded as a viscoelastic material and aggregates as an elastic material.The rheological response of asphalt mixture subjected to different constant stresses was simulated.The calibrated overall creep strain shows a good approximation to experimental results.

  4. Thermodynamics of mixtures containing amines: XIII. Application of the ERAS model to cyclic amine + alkane mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González, Juan Antonio, E-mail: jagl@termo.uva.es; Sanz, Luis Felipe; García De La Fuente, Isaías; Cobos, José Carlos

    2013-12-10

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Primary or secondary cyclic amine + alkane mixtures are investigated using ERAS. • ERAS parameters are given. Relatively high X{sub AB} values remark the importance of physical interactions. • ERAS parameters are consistent with those of primary or secondary (linear or aromatic) amines. • H{sub m}{sup E}, V{sub m}{sup E}, and C{sub pm}{sup E} data reveal the existence of physical interactions and structural effects. • ERAS correctly describes H{sub m}{sup E}, V{sub m}{sup E}, C{sub pm}{sup E}, G{sub m}{sup E} and the enthalpy of vaporization of pure amines. - Abstract: Primary or secondary cyclic amine + alkane mixtures have been investigated in the framework of the ERAS (Extended Real Associated Solution) model. The corresponding ERAS parameters are reported. All the amines considered have the same equilibrium constant (K{sub A} = 0.75). Cyclopropylamine, cyclopentylamine, cyclohexylamine and pyrrolidine are characterized by the same enthalpy of self-association (Δh{sub A}{sup *}=−15 kJ mol{sup −1}). Piperidine and hexamethyleneimine show a less negative Δh{sub A}{sup *} value (−13 kJ mol{sup −1}). Experimental data on excess enthalpies, H{sub m}{sup E}, volumes, V{sub m}{sup E}, and isobaric heat capacities, C{sub pm}{sup E}, reveal the existence of physical interactions and structural effects in the studied solutions. The latter lead to values of self-association of pure amines, Δv{sub A}{sup *}, which may depend on the solvent in systems with a given amine. Although the model overestimates the Δh{sub A}{sup *} values, the relatively high values of the physical parameters X{sub AB} remark the importance of physical interactions. ERAS describes correctly the excess functions H{sub m}{sup E}, V{sub m}{sup E}, C{sub pm}{sup E} and G{sub m}{sup E} (molar Gibbs energy), and the enthalpy of vaporization of pure amines. Nevertheless, discrepancies with experimental data are found for the concentration

  5. Temperature dependence on mutual solubility of binary (methanol + limonene) mixture and (liquid + liquid) equilibria of ternary (methanol + ethanol + limonene) mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, Kazuhiro [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Division of Material Sciences, Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan)], E-mail: tamura@t.kanazawa-u.ac.jp; Li Xiaoli; Li Hengde [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Division of Material Sciences, Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan)

    2009-04-15

    Mutual solubility data of the binary (methanol + limonene) mixture at the temperatures ranging from 288.15 K close to upper critical solution temperature, and ternary (liquid + liquid) equilibrium (tie-lines) of the (methanol + ethanol + limonene) mixture at the temperatures (288.15, 298.15, and 308.15) K have been obtained. The experimental results have been represented accurately in terms of the extended and modified UNIQUAC models with binary parameters, compared with the UNIQUAC model. The temperature dependence of binary and ternary (liquid + liquid) equilibrium for the binary (methanol + limonene) and ternary (methanol + ethanol + limonene) mixtures could be calculated successfully using the extended and modified UNIQUAC model.

  6. Modeling phase equilibria for acid gas mixtures using the CPA equation of state. Part II: Binary mixtures with CO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsivintzelis, Ioannis; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Michelsen, Michael Locht;

    2011-01-01

    In Part I of this series of articles, the study of H2S mixtures has been presented with CPA. In this study the phase behavior of CO2 containing mixtures is modeled. Binary mixtures with water, alcohols, glycols and hydrocarbons are investigated. Both phase equilibria (vapor–liquid and liquid......, alcohols and glycols) are considered, the importance of cross-association is investigated. The cross-association is accounted for either via combining rules or using a cross-solvation energy obtained from experimental spectroscopic or calorimetric data or from ab initio calculations. In both cases two...

  7. Independent components in spectroscopic analysis of complex mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Monakhova, Yulia B; Kraskov, Alexander; Mushtakova, Svetlana P; 10.1016/j.chemolab.2010.05.023

    2010-01-01

    We applied two methods of "blind" spectral decomposition (MILCA and SNICA) to quantitative and qualitative analysis of UV absorption spectra of several non-trivial mixture types. Both methods use the concept of statistical independence and aim at the reconstruction of minimally dependent components from a linear mixture. We examined mixtures of major ecotoxicants (aromatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons), amino acids and complex mixtures of vitamins in a veterinary drug. Both MICLA and SNICA were able to recover concentrations and individual spectra with minimal errors comparable with instrumental noise. In most cases their performance was similar to or better than that of other chemometric methods such as MCR-ALS, SIMPLISMA, RADICAL, JADE and FastICA. These results suggest that the ICA methods used in this study are suitable for real life applications.

  8. Thermal Properties of Asphalt Mixtures Modified with Conductive Fillers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byong Chol Bai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the thermal properties of asphalt mixtures modified with conductive fillers used for snow melting and solar harvesting pavements. Two different mixing processes were adopted to mold asphalt mixtures, dry- and wet-mixing, and two conductive fillers were used in this study, graphite and carbon black. The thermal conductivity was compared to investigate the effects of asphalt mixture preparing methods, the quantity, and the distribution of conductive filler on thermal properties. The combination of conductive filler with carbon fiber in asphalt mixture was evaluated. Also, rheological properties of modified asphalt binders with conductive fillers were measured using dynamic shear rheometer and bending beam rheometer at grade-specific temperatures. Based on rheological testing, the conductive fillers improve rutting resistance and decrease thermal cracking resistance. Thermal testing indicated that graphite and carbon black improve the thermal properties of asphalt mixes and the combined conductive fillers are more effective than the single filler.

  9. proper versus improper mixtures: Toward a quaternionic quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masillo, F.; Scolarici, G.; Sozzo, S.

    2009-07-01

    The density operators obtained by taking partial traces represent improper mixtures of subsystems of a compound physical system because the coefficients in the convex sums expressing them never bear the ignorance interpretation. Assigning states to these subsystems is consequently problematic in standard quantum mechanics (subentity problem). In the semantic realism interpretation of quantum mechanics, it is instead proposed to consider improper mixtures true nonpure states conceptually distinct from proper mixtures. Based on this proposal, we show that proper and improper mixtures can be represented by different density operators in the quaternionic formulation of quantum mechanics and can hence be distinguished even from a mathematical standpoint. We provide a simple example related to the quantum theory of measurement.

  10. 21 CFR 1310.12 - Exempt chemical mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... safrole. Methylamine and its salts 8520 20% by Weight Methylamine or its salts in an inert carrier solvent... otherwise exempted. Safrole 8323 20% by Volume Concentration in a mixture cannot exceed 20% if taken...

  11. Deformation Parameters and Fatigue of the Recycled Asphalt Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šrámek Juraj

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The deformational properties of asphalt mixtures measured by dynamic methods and fatigue allow a design the road to suit the expected traffic load. Quality of mixtures is also expressed by the resistance to permanent deformation. Complex modulus of stiffness and fatigue can reliably characterize the proposed mixture of asphalt pavement. The complex modulus (E* measurement of asphalt mixtures are carried out in laboratory of Department of Construction Management at University of Žilina by two-point bending test method on trapezoid-shaped samples. Today, the fatigue is verified on trapezoid-shaped samples and is assessed by proportional strain at 1 million cycles (ε6. The test equipment and software is used to evaluate fatigue and deformation characteristics.

  12. Use of Chromatography Techniques to Separate a Mixture of Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, W.

    1976-01-01

    Explains the separation of the constituents of mixtures on one piece of chromatography paper. The example presented involves a vitamin C tablet, a disprin tablet, and a glucose tablet. Outlined are two methods for separating the constituents. (GS)

  13. Mixture Segmentation of Multispectral MR Brain Images for Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihong Li

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a fully automatic mixture model-based tissue classification of multispectral (T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR brain images. Unlike the conventional hard classification with a unique label for each voxel, our method models a mixture to estimate the partial volumes (PV of multiple tissue types within a voxel. A new Markov random field (MRF model is proposed to reflect the spatial information of tissue mixtures. A mixture classification algorithm is performed by the maximum a posterior (MAP criterion, where the expectation maximization (EM algorithm is utilized to estimate model parameters. The algorithm interleaves segmentation with parameter estimation and improves classification in an iterative manner. The presented method is evaluated by clinical MR image datasets for quantification of brain volumes and multiple sclerosis (MS.

  14. Co-pyrolysis of wood biomass and synthetic polymers mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharypov, V.I.; Beregovtsova, N.G.; Kuznetsov, B.N.; Baryshnikov, S.V. [Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology SB RAS, K. Marx Str., Krasnoyarsk 660049 (Russian Federation); Cebolla, V.L. [Instituto de Carboquimica, CSIC, Zaragoza (Spain); Weber, J.V.; Collura, S.; Finqueneisel, G.; Zimny, T. [Laboratoire de Chimie et Applications, Universite de Metz, IUT, rue V. Demange, 57500 Saint Avold (France)

    2006-06-01

    The pyrolysis in a hydrogen atmosphere of pine wood and synthetic polymers (polyethylene and polypropylene) mixtures was studied in a rotating autoclave. The effects of reaction temperature, wood/polymers mixture composition and catalysts, on the mixtures conversion into liquids and gases were established and discussed. The used catalysts were pyrrhotite and haematite materials activated by mechanochemical treatment. In the co-liquefaction processes the interaction between fragments of wood and polymers thermal decomposition took place. This results in non-additive increase of the wood/polymers conversion degree by 10-15wt.% and of the yield of distillate fractions by 14-19wt.%. Iron ore materials were found catalytically active in the process of hydropyrolysis of wood/polymers mixtures. By using these catalysts a significant increase of the distillable liquids amounts (by 14-21wt.%) and a sharp decrease of olefins and cycloparaffins content (by approximately two to three times) were observed. (author)

  15. Prediction of saturated liquid enthalpy of refrigerant mixtures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    New corresponding temperature and corresponding enthalpy of refrigerant mix- tures were defined. The relationship between saturated liquid corresponding en- thalpy and corresponding temperature of refrigerant mixtures accorded with that of pure components. The characteristic parameters of saturated liquid enthalpy dif- ference of refrigerant mixtures were calculated by three methods according to the different application conditions. The generalized equation of saturated liquid en- thalpy of refrigerant mixtures was presented. The calculated values were compared with the values in literature for five ternary and binary refrigerant mixtures, namely R404A, R407A, R407B, R32/R134a, and R410A. The overall average absolute devia- tion was less than 1.0%.

  16. Viscosity and thermal conductivity of moderately dense gas mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeham, W. A.; Kestin, J.; Mason, E. A.; Sandler, S. I.

    1972-01-01

    Derivation of a simple, semitheoretical expression for the initial density dependence of the viscosity and thermal conductivity of gaseous mixtures in terms of the appropriate properties of the pure components and of their interaction quantities. The derivation is based on Enskog's theory of dense gases and yields an equation in which the composition dependence of the linear factor in the density expansion is explicit. The interaction quantities are directly related to those of the mixture extrapolated to zero density and to a universal function valid for all gases. The reliability of the formulation is assessed with respect to the viscosity of several binary mixtures. It is found that the calculated viscosities of binary mixtures agree with the experimental data with a precision which is comparable to that of the most precise measurements.

  17. Isomorphic Viscosity Equation of State for Binary Fluid Mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnejad, Hassan; Cheshmpak, Hashem; Jamali, Asma

    2015-01-01

    The thermodynamic behavior of the simple binary mixtures in the vicinity of critical line has a universal character and can be mapped from pure components using the isomorphism hypothesis. Consequently, based upon the principle of isomorphism, critical phenomena and similarity between P-ρ-T and T-η-(viscosity)-P relationships, the viscosity model has been developed adopting two cubic, Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK) and Peng-Robinson (PR), equations of state (EsoS) for predicting the viscosity of the binary mixtures. This procedure has been applied to the methane-butane mixture and predicted its viscosity data. Reasonable agreement with the experimental data has been observed. In conclusion, we have shown that the isomorphism principle in conjunction with the mapped viscosity EoS suggests a reliable model for calculating the viscosity of mixture of hydrocarbons over a wide pressure range up to 35 MPa within the stated experimental errors. PMID:26680701

  18. Transport Properties of operational gas mixtures used at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Assran, Yasser

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes some useful data on the transport characteristics of gas mixtures which are required for detection of charged particles in gas detectors. We try to replace Freon used for RPC detector in the CMS experiment with another gas while maintaining the good properties of the Freon gas mixture unchanged. We try to switch to freonless gas mixture because Freon is not a green gas, it is very expensive and its availability is decreasing. Noble gases like Ar, He, Ne and Xe (with some quenchers like carbon dioxide, methane, ethane and isobutene) are investigated. Transport parameters like drift velocity, diffusion, Townsend coefficient, attachment coefficient and Lorentz angle are computed using Garfield software for different gas mixtures and compared with experimental data.

  19. Thermal Conductivity of Gas Mixtures in Chemical Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brokaw, Richard S.

    1960-01-01

    The expression for the thermal conductivity of gas mixtures in chemical equilibrium is presented in a simpler and less restrictive form. This new form is shown to be equivalent to the previous equations.

  20. Mixtures of bosonic and fermionic atoms in optical lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss the theory of mixtures of bosonic and fermionic atoms in periodic potentials at zero temperature. We derive a general Bose-Fermi Hubbard Hamiltonian in a one-dimensional optical lattice with a superimposed harmonic trapping potential. We study the conditions for linear stability of the mixture and derive a mean-field criterion for the onset of a bosonic superfluid transition. We investigate the ground-state properties of the mixture in the Gutzwiller formulation of mean-field theory, and present numerical studies of finite systems. The bosonic and fermionic density distributions and the onset of quantum phase transitions to demixing and to a bosonic Mott-insulator are studied as a function of the lattice potential strength. The existence is predicted of a disordered phase for mixtures loaded in very deep lattices. Such a disordered phase possessing many degenerate or quasidegenerate ground states is related to a breaking of the mirror symmetry in the lattice

  1. Mixture effects of endocrine disrupting compounds in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærstad, Mia Birkhøj; Taxvig, Camilla; Andersen, H. R.;

    2010-01-01

    P>Four different equi-molar mixtures were investigated for additive endocrine disrupting effects in vitro using the concentration addition model. It was found that additive effects on the same molecular target (the androgen receptor; AR) can be predicted for both mixtures of compounds with effect...... on AR could not be predicted under assumption of additivity in our model system. For a mixture containing three azole fungicides (epoxiconazole, propiconazole and tebuconazole), the observed AR antagonistic effects were close to the predicted effect assuming additivity. Azole fungicides are known...... assuming additivity. Overall these and other studies show that weak endocrine disrupting compounds, like parabens and azole fungicides, give rise to combination effects when they occur in mixtures. These combination effects should be taken into account in regulatory risk assessment not to under...

  2. A stochastic evolutionary model generating a mixture of exponential distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Fenner, Trevor; Loizou, George

    2015-01-01

    Recent interest in human dynamics has stimulated the investigation of the stochastic processes that explain human behaviour in various contexts, such as mobile phone networks and social media. In this paper, we extend the stochastic urn-based model proposed in \\cite{FENN15} so that it can generate mixture models,in particular, a mixture of exponential distributions. The model is designed to capture the dynamics of survival analysis, traditionally employed in clinical trials, reliability analysis in engineering, and more recently in the analysis of large data sets recording human dynamics. The mixture modelling approach, which is relatively simple and well understood, is very effective in capturing heterogeneity in data. We provide empirical evidence for the validity of the model, using a data set of popular search engine queries collected over a period of 114 months. We show that the survival function of these queries is closely matched by the exponential mixture solution for our model.

  3. Operation of Narrow Gap RPC with Tetrafluoroethane Based Mixture.

    CERN Document Server

    Ammosov, V; Koreshev, V; Sviridov, Yu; Zaetz, V G; Semak, A

    1999-01-01

    Charge, fired strip multiplicity and arrival time distributions for the induced signal were investigated for the $2 ~mm$ gap RPC operating with several tetrafluoroethane ($C_{2}H_{2}F_{4}$) based mixtures with variation of isobutane ($iC_{4}H_{10}$) and sulphur hexafluoride ($SF_{6}$) concentrations. Suppression of the large fast charges for the mixtures containing $SF_{6}$ in comparison with the binary $C_{2}H_{2}F_{4}$/$iC_{4}H_{10}$ mixture was confirmed. This suppression allows to have a wide plateau region ($ge1~kV$) with small average charge and reduced tail of high charges. Exclusion of isobutane from the mixture with $2%$ of $SF_{6}$ does not change charge distributions.

  4. Synthesis and analysis of processes with electrolyte mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kaj; Gani, Rafiqul; Rasmussen, Peter

    1995-01-01

    A computer aided system for synthesis, design and simulation of crystallization and fractional crystallization processes with electrolyte mixtures is presented. The synthesis methodology is based on the use of computed solubility diagrams for the corresponding electrolyte systems....

  5. Chiral analysis and mixtures of cold, large molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eibenberger, Sandra; Drayna, Garrett K.; Wang, Kenneth; Hallas, Christian; Doyle, John M.; Patterson, David

    2016-05-01

    We show new avenues for ultra-specific chemical analysis of buffer-gas cooled molecules via microwave spectroscopy. Buffer gas cooling provides a continuous, mixture compatible, solution compatible source, where the cold environment is controllable and the cooling process is separate from the production of the gas phase molecules. We demonstrate the analysis of complex molecular mixtures by introducing a new liquid injection source with microwave spectroscopy in a cryogenic buffer gas environment. Chirality plays a fundamental role in the activity of many biological molecules and in broad classes of chemical reactions. Recently, we have demonstrated species and enantiomer sensitive microwave spectroscopic methods. We seek to apply these methods not just to the analysis of chemical mixtures, but also to the manipulation of mixtures.

  6. Low Mach Number Fluctuating Hydrodynamics of Multispecies Liquid Mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Donev, A; Bhattacharjee, A K; Garcia, A L; Bell, J B

    2014-01-01

    We develop a low Mach number formulation of the hydrodynamic equations describing transport of mass and momentum in a multispecies mixture of incompressible miscible liquids at specified temperature and pressure that generalizes our prior work on ideal mixtures of ideal gases and binary liquid mixtures. In this formulation we combine and extend a number of existing descriptions of multispecies transport available in the literature. The formulation applies to non-ideal mixtures of arbitrary number of species, without the need to single out a 'solvent' species, and includes contributions to the diffusive mass flux due to gradients of composition, temperature and pressure. Momentum transport and advective mass transport are handled using a low Mach number approach that eliminates fast sound waves (pressure fluctuations) from the full compressible system of equations and leads to a quasi-incompressible formulation. Thermal fluctuations are included in our fluctuating hydrodynamics description following the princi...

  7. Forced convection heat transfer to air/water vapor mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, D. R.; Florschuetz, L. W.

    1986-01-01

    Heat transfer coefficients were measured using both dry air and air/water vapor mixtures in the same forced convection cooling test rig (jet array impingement configurations) with mass ratios of water vapor to air up to 0.23. The primary objective was to verify by direct experiment that selected existing methods for evaluation of viscosity and thermal conductivity of air/water vapor mixtures could be used with confidence to predict heat transfer coefficients for such mixtures using as a basis heat transfer data for dry air only. The property evaluation methods deemed most appropriate require as a basis a measured property value at one mixture composition in addition to the property values for the pure components.

  8. Deformation Parameters and Fatigue of the Recycled Asphalt Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šrámek, Juraj

    2015-12-01

    The deformational properties of asphalt mixtures measured by dynamic methods and fatigue allow a design the road to suit the expected traffic load. Quality of mixtures is also expressed by the resistance to permanent deformation. Complex modulus of stiffness and fatigue can reliably characterize the proposed mixture of asphalt pavement. The complex modulus (E*) measurement of asphalt mixtures are carried out in laboratory of Department of Construction Management at University of Žilina by two-point bending test method on trapezoid-shaped samples. Today, the fatigue is verified on trapezoid-shaped samples and is assessed by proportional strain at 1 million cycles (ɛ6). The test equipment and software is used to evaluate fatigue and deformation characteristics.

  9. Toxicology of chemical mixtures: a challenging quest along empirical sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groten, John P; Heijne, Wilbert H M; Stierum, Rob H; Freidig, Andreas P; Feron, Victor J

    2004-12-01

    This paper describes the "quest" of our institute trying to assess the toxicology of chemical mixtures. In this overview, we will discuss some critical developments in hazard identification and risk assessment of chemical mixtures during these past 15 years. We will stand still at empirical and mechanistic modeling. "Empirical" means that only information on doses or concentrations and effects is available in addition to an often empirically selected quantitative dose-response relationship. Empirical models have played a dominant role in the last decade to identify health and safety characteristics of chemical mixtures. Many of these models are based on the work of pioneers in mixture toxicology who defined three basic types of action for combinations of chemicals: simple similar action, simple dissimilar action and interaction. Nowadays, empirical models are mainly based on response-surface analysis and make use of advanced statistical designs. However, possible interactions between components in a mixture can also be given in terms of mechanistic models. In terms of "mechanistic" (or biological) understanding, interactions between compounds may occur in the kinetic phase (processes of uptake, distribution, metabolism and excretion) or in the dynamic phase (effects of chemicals on the receptor, cellular target or organ). A biological phenomenon such as competitive agonism as described for mixtures of drugs (biotransformation enzymes) or sensory irritants (nerve receptors) can accurately predict the effect of any of these mixtures. Thus, far mechanistic and empirical analyses of interactions are usually unrelated. It is one of the future challenges for mixtures research to combine information from both approaches. Also, our current biology-based models have their limitations, since they cannot integrate every relevant biological mechanism. In this respect, mechanistic modeling of mixtures may benefit from the developments coming from the arena of molecular biology

  10. Tools and perspectives for assessing chemical mixtures and multiple stressors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke, Hans; Ragas, Ad M. J.; Holmstrup, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The present paper summarizes the most important insights and findings of the EU NoMiracle project with a focus on (1) risk assessment of chemical mixtures, (2) combinations of chemical and natural stressors, and (3) the receptor-oriented approach in cumulative risk assessment. The project aimed a...... is suggested. The results are discussed in the light of recent developments in risk assessment of mixtures and multiple stressors....

  11. Preparation and Characterization of Binary Mixture of Efavirenz and Nicotinamide

    OpenAIRE

    Erizal Zaini; Fitri Rachmaini; Fithriani Armin; Lili Fitriani

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to prepare and characterize the binary mixture of efavirenz and nicotinamide. The binary mixture of efavirenz and nicotinamide (in equimolar ratio) was prepared by solid state grinding and solvent dropped grinding. Characterizations were conducted by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. Interaction of efavirenz and nicotinamide in liquid states was studied by phase solubility profil...

  12. Amplification of DNA mixtures--Missing data approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedebrink, Torben; Eriksen, Poul Svante; Mogensen, Helle Smidt;

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a model for the interpretation of results of STR typing of DNA mixtures based on a multivariate normal distribution of peak areas. From previous analyses of controlled experiments with mixed DNA samples, we exploit the linear relationship between peak heights and peak areas, a...... to assess the weight of evidence provided by the model, we use the model with the estimated parameters on STR data from real crime cases with DNA mixtures...

  13. Interpreting DNA mixtures with relatives of a missing suspect

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, YQ; Fung, WK; Choy, YT

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in DNA profiling have been proven extremely useful for forensic human identification. DNA mixtures are commonly found in serious crimes such as rape as well as voluminous crimes like theft. In this paper, one general formula is obtained for the evaluation of DNA mixtures when the suspect is unavailable for typing, but one maternal and one paternal relatives of the suspect are typed instead. In principle, closer relatives of the suspect will provide more genetic information on ...

  14. Strength Mechanism and Influence Factors for Cold Recycled Asphalt Mixture

    OpenAIRE

    Tao Ma; Hao Wang; Yongli Zhao; Xiaoming Huang; Yuhui Pi

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on the key factors affecting the tensile strength of cold recycled asphalt mixture with cement and emulsified asphalt. The specific surface areas and strength of RAP were analyzed. The interaction between the emulsified asphalt and cement was observed. Comprehensive laboratory testing was conducted to evaluate the influences of RAP, emulsified asphalt, and cement on the tensile strength of cold recycled asphalt mixture. It is found that although RAP is used as aggregates, i...

  15. Hydrodynamics for a granular binary mixture at low density

    OpenAIRE

    Garzó, Vicente; Dufty, J.W.

    2001-01-01

    Hydrodynamic equations for a binary mixture of inelastic hard spheres are derived from the Boltzmann kinetic theory. A normal solution is obtained via the Chapman-Enskog method for states near the local homogeneous cooling state. The mass, heat, and momentum fluxes are determined to first order in the spatial gradients of the hydrodynamic fields, and the associated transport coefficients are identified. In the same way as for binary mixtures with elastic collisions, these coefficients are det...

  16. Anomalous orientational relaxation of solute probes in binary mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharyya, Sarika; Bagchi, Biman

    2001-01-01

    The orientation of a solute probe in a binary mixture often exhibits multiple relaxation times at the same solvent viscosity but different compositions [Beddard et al., Nature (London) 294, 145 (1981)]. In order to understand this interesting observation, we have carried out (NPT) molecular dynamics simulation study of rotation of prolate ellipsoids in binary mixtures. The simulations show that for a broad range of model parameters the experimental behavior can be reproduced. The plot of orie...

  17. Rheological properties for inelastic Maxwell mixtures under shear flow

    OpenAIRE

    Garzo, Vicente; Trizac, Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    The Boltzmann equation for inelastic Maxwell models is considered to determine the rheological properties in a granular binary mixture in the simple shear flow state. The transport coefficients (shear viscosity and viscometric functions) are {\\em exactly} evaluated in terms of the coefficients of restitution, the (reduced) shear rate and the parameters of the mixture (particle masses, diameters and concentration). The results show that in general, for a given value of the coefficients of rest...

  18. Investigation of new gas mixtures for the Pestov Counter

    CERN Document Server

    Sann, H; CERN. Geneva; Eschke, J; Lühning, J; Lynen, U; Neyer, C; Pestov, Yu N; Schmidt, H R; Schreiber, B M; Schulze, R; Stelzer, H; Woerner, A; Frankenfeld, U

    2000-01-01

    The physical principle of discharge localization in Pestor spark counters is described. It was experimentally shown that Isoprene is one of the promising candidates to replace 1,3-Butadiene in the standard gas mixture. In the spark counter with the DME-Argon gas mixture and an aluminium nitrite cathode a discharge localization was obtained for the first time. This result is considered as the beginning of a new spark counter technology without conditioning.

  19. Acoustic properties of organic acid mixtures in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macavei, I.; Petrisor, V.; Auslaender, D.

    1974-01-01

    The variation of the rate of propagation of ultrasounds in organic acid mixtures in water points to structural changes caused by interactions that take place under conditions of thermal agitation, at different acid concentrations. At the same time, a difference is found in the changes in velocity as a function of the length of the carbon chain of the acids in the mixture as a result of their effect on the groups of water molecules associated by hydrogen bonds.

  20. Adaptive Gaussian Mixture Filter Based on Statistical Linearization

    OpenAIRE

    Huber, Marco F.

    2012-01-01

    Gaussian mixtures are a common density representation in nonlinear, non-Gaussian Bayesian state estimation. Selecting an appropriate number of Gaussian components, however, is difficult as one has to trade of computational complexity against estimation accuracy. In this paper, an adaptive Gaussian mixture filter based on statistical linearization is proposed. Depending on the nonlinearity of the considered estimation problem, this filter dynamically increases the number of components via spli...

  1. Systematic study of the thermal diffusion in associated mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Polyakov, P.; Wiegand, S.

    2008-01-01

    We performed systematic temperature and concentration dependent measurements of the Soret coefficient in different associated binary mixtures of water, deuterated water, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), methanol, ethanol, acetone, methanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, and propionaldehyde using the so-called thermal diffusion forced Rayleigh scattering method. For some of the associating binary mixtures such as ethanol/water, acetone/water, and DMSO/water, the concentration xw+/- at which the Soret coef...

  2. Coarse particles-water mixture flow in pipes

    OpenAIRE

    Vlasák, P.; Chára, Z.; Konfršt, J. (Jiří)

    2015-01-01

    The paper is focused on evaluation of the effect of average mixture velocity and overall concentration on the pressure drop versus the slurry average velocity relationship and local concentration distribution in horizontal, inclined and vertical pipe sections. The experimental investigation was carried out on the pipe loop of inner diameter D = 100 mm, which consists of smooth stainless steel pipes, and is equipped with radiometric density meter. The studied mixtures consist of water and grad...

  3. Organic Cereal Variety and Variety Mixture Trials 1999 - 2003

    OpenAIRE

    Aspray, Claire

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this work was to improve the productivity and stability of organic cereal production by identifying cereal varieties and variety mixtures that are best adapted to organic farming systems. The scientific question and objective was to evaluate the relative performance of cereal mixtures against single varieties in organic systems, in terms of consistency, robustness of yield and quality. The project has run over four years on six sites chosen to represent a range of soil types...

  4. Laboratory mix design of asphalt mixture containing reclaimed material

    OpenAIRE

    Davide Lo Presti; Rawid Khan; Norhidayah Abdul Hassan; Gordon Airey; Andrew Collop

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the production of asphalt test specimens in the laboratory containing reclaimed asphalt. The mixtures considered were stone mastic asphalt concrete mixtures containing up to 30% of reclaimed asphalt. Specimens were compacted to the reference density obtained from the Marshall mix design. Gyration compaction method was used for preparing specimens for the experimental programme, while coring and cutting methods and X-ray computed tomography (CT) were used to inve...

  5. THE STUDY OF CORE SAND MIXTURES BASED ON POLYMERIC BINDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Natalia V. Zakharova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of using foamed polystyrene waste as the binder in manufacturing core sand mixtures. The article provides experimental data obtained by studying the core sand mixtures properties depending on the methods of addition, foamed polystyrene solution amount, its viscosity and the method of drying. The author investigates the ways of using foamed polystyrene as the binder and as the polymeric additive.

  6. Ordered Structures of a Binary Mixture with Mobile Particles System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    诸跃进; 马余强

    2003-01-01

    We study the ordered structures of a binary mixture through the introduction of mobile particles under periodically oscillating driving fields, and find that the particle motion can break up the isotropy of the system, so that the continuous structure along the oscillation forcing direction is observed for properly chosen oscillating field.Furthermore, the dependences of the morphology and domain size on the mixture-particle coupling interaction,the diffusion coefficient, and the quench depth are examined in details.

  7. Cement mixtures containing copper tailings as an additive: durability properties

    OpenAIRE

    Obinna Onuaguluchi; Özgur Eren

    2012-01-01

    The effects of copper tailings as an additive, on some durability properties of cement mixtures were investigated. In each mixture, copper tailings addition levels by mass were 0%, 5% and 10%. Compared to the control samples, copper tailings blended pastes showed superior performance against autoclave expansion while insignificant decreases in sulfate resistance of mortars were observed. Copper tailings increased the water absorption and total permeable voids of concretes slightly. However, t...

  8. Wavelength and energy dependent absorption of unconventional fuel mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, N.; Saleem, Z.; Mirza, A. A.

    2005-11-01

    Economic considerations of laser induced ignition over the normal electrical ignition of direct injected Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) engines has motivated automobile industry to go for extensive research on basic characteristics of leaner unconventional fuel mixtures to evaluate practical possibility of switching over to the emerging technologies. This paper briefly reviews the ongoing research activities on minimum ignition energy and power requirements of natural gas fuels and reports results of present laser air/CNG mixture absorption coefficient study. This study was arranged to determine the thermo-optical characteristics of high air/fuel ratio mixtures using laser techniques. We measured the absorption coefficient using four lasers of multiple wavelengths over a wide range of temperatures and pressures. The absorption coefficient of mixture was found to vary significantly over change of mixture temperature and probe laser wavelengths. The absorption coefficients of air/CNG mixtures were measured using 20 watts CW/pulsed CO2 laser at 10.6μm, Pulsed Nd:Yag laser at 1.06μm, 532 nm (2nd harmonic) and 4 mW CW HeNe laser at 645 nm and 580 nm for temperatures varying from 290 to 1000K using optical transmission loss technique.

  9. Predicting the shock compression response of heterogeneous powder mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredenburg, D. A.; Thadhani, N. N.

    2013-06-01

    A model framework for predicting the dynamic shock-compression response of heterogeneous powder mixtures using readily obtained measurements from quasi-static tests is presented. Low-strain-rate compression data are first analyzed to determine the region of the bulk response over which particle rearrangement does not contribute to compaction. This region is then fit to determine the densification modulus of the mixture, σD, an newly defined parameter describing the resistance of the mixture to yielding. The measured densification modulus, reflective of the diverse yielding phenomena that occur at the meso-scale, is implemented into a rate-independent formulation of the P-α model, which is combined with an isobaric equation of state to predict the low and high stress dynamic compression response of heterogeneous powder mixtures. The framework is applied to two metal + metal-oxide (thermite) powder mixtures, and good agreement between the model and experiment is obtained for all mixtures at stresses near and above those required to reach full density. At lower stresses, rate-dependencies of the constituents, and specifically those of the matrix constituent, determine the ability of the model to predict the measured response in the incomplete compaction regime.

  10. Predicting minimum fluidization velocities of multi-component solid mixtures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Asif

    2013-01-01

    Employing well-established mixing rules for mean properties,appropriate expressions are aerivea for predicting minimum fluidization velocities of multi-component solid mixtures in terms of monocomponent values for the velocity and the bed voidage at incipient fluidization.Based on flow regime and the mixing level of constituent species,it is found that these relationships differ significantly from each other,whether related to size-different or density-different mixtures.For mixed beds of size-different mixtures,the effect of volume contraction is accounted for by the mean voidage term,which is absent for segregated beds.Incorporating the volume-change of mixing leads to values of the mixture minimum fluidization velocities even lower than corresponding values for segregated bed,thus conforming to the trend reported in the literature.Size-different mixtures exhibit flow regime dependence irrespective of whether the bed is mixed or segregated.On the other hand,the mixing of constituent species does not affect the minimum fluidization velocity of density-different mixtures,as the difference in the expressions for a segregated and a mixed system is rather inconsequential.Comparison with experimental data available in the literature is made to test the efficacy of the minimum fluidization velocity expressions derived here.

  11. Modeling abundance using multinomial N-mixture models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royle, Andy

    2016-01-01

    Multinomial N-mixture models are a generalization of the binomial N-mixture models described in Chapter 6 to allow for more complex and informative sampling protocols beyond simple counts. Many commonly used protocols such as multiple observer sampling, removal sampling, and capture-recapture produce a multivariate count frequency that has a multinomial distribution and for which multinomial N-mixture models can be developed. Such protocols typically result in more precise estimates than binomial mixture models because they provide direct information about parameters of the observation process. We demonstrate the analysis of these models in BUGS using several distinct formulations that afford great flexibility in the types of models that can be developed, and we demonstrate likelihood analysis using the unmarked package. Spatially stratified capture-recapture models are one class of models that fall into the multinomial N-mixture framework, and we discuss analysis of stratified versions of classical models such as model Mb, Mh and other classes of models that are only possible to describe within the multinomial N-mixture framework.

  12. Effect of the Key Mixture Parameters on Shrinkage of Reactive Powder Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Shamsad Ahmad; Ahmed Zubair; Mohammed Maslehuddin

    2014-01-01

    Reactive powder concrete (RPC) mixtures are reported to have excellent mechanical and durability characteristics. However, such concrete mixtures having high amount of cementitious materials may have high early shrinkage causing cracking of concrete. In the present work, an attempt has been made to study the simultaneous effects of three key mixture parameters on shrinkage of the RPC mixtures. Considering three different levels of the three key mixture factors, a total of 27 mixtures of RPC w...

  13. Thermodynamics of aqueous mixtures of nonelectrolytes. 1. Excess volumes of water +. gamma. -butyrolactone mixtures at several temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, M.O.; Al-Madafl, S.H.F.; Awwad, A.M.

    1987-04-01

    Excess molar volumes of water + ..gamma..-butyrolactone mixtures were obtained from precise density measurements over the entire mole fraction range and at 10K intervals from 288.15 to 318.15K. Partial molar excess volumes, excess coefficients of thermal expansion, and partial molar excess expansibilities at 298.15K were derived from the results. The significance of these results is discussed in terms of the structural changes in the mixtures.

  14. Toxicity of a binary mixture on Daphnia magna: biological effects of uranium and selenium isolated and in mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the multiple substances that affect freshwater ecosystems, uranium and selenium are two pollutants found worldwide in the environment, alone and in mixture. The aim of this thesis work was to investigate the effect of uranium and selenium mixture on daphnia (Daphnia magna). Studying effects of a mixture requires the assessment of the effect of single substances. Thus, the first experiments were performed on single substance. Acute toxicity data were obtained: EC50 48h = 0, 39±0, 04 mg.L-1 for uranium and EC50 48h 1, 86±0, 85 mg.L-1 for selenium. Chronic effects were also studied. Data on fecundity showed an EC10 reproduction of 14±7 μg. L-1 for uranium and of 215±25 μg. L-1 for selenium. Uranium-selenium mixture toxicity experiments were performed and revealed an antagonistic effect. This study further demonstrates the importance of taking into consideration different elements in binary mixture studies such as the choice of reference models (concentration addition or independent action), statistical method, time exposure and endpoints. Using integrated parameters like energy budget was shown to be an interesting way to better understand interactions. An approach including calculation of chemical speciation in the medium and bioaccumulation measurements in the organism permits assumptions to be made on the nature of possible interactions between mixture components (toxico-dynamic et toxico-kinetic interactions). (author)

  15. アスファルト混合物の摩耗抵抗改善に関する実験的研究

    OpenAIRE

    新田, 登; 磯崎, 真一

    1987-01-01

    The development of wear resistant bituminous paving mixtures has been considered as one of the important problems in the field of bituminous pavement design in cold regions. In order to contribute to this problem, a series of laboratory tests used an accelerated wearing equipment were made on wearing resistance properties of bituminous mixtures: one is on the wearing process, another is on the effects of mixture components, including volume, size and gradation of coarse aggregate and types of...

  16. Effects of lubricants on binary direct compression mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uğurlu, T; Halaçoğlu, M D; Türkoğlu, M

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of conventional lubricants including a new candidate lubricant on binary direct compression mixtures. Magnesium stearate (MGST), stearic acid (STAC), glyceryl behenate (COMP) and hexagonal boron nitride (HBN) were tested. The binary mixtures were 1:1 combinations of spray dried lactose (FlowLac 100), dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (Emcompress), and modified starch (Starch 1500) with microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel PH 102). Tablets were manufactured on a single-station instrumented tablet press with and without lubricants. In the case of unlubricated granules, the modified starch-microcrystalline cellulose mixture provided the highest percent compressibility value at 8.25%, spray dried lactose-microcrystalline cellulose mixture was 7.33%, and the dialcium phosphate dihydrate-microcrystalline cellulose mixture was 5.79%. Their corresponding tablet crushing strength values were: 104 N, 117 N, and 61 N, respectively. The lubricant concentrations studied were 0.5, 1, 2, and 4%. Effects of lubricant type and lubricant concentration on crushing strength were analyzed using a factorial ANOVA model. It was found that the Avicel PH 102-Starch 1500 mixture showed the highest lubricant sensitivity (110 N vs. 9 N), the least affected formulation was FlowLac-Avicel PH 102 mixture (118 N vs. 62 N). The crushing strength vs. concentration curve for MGST showed a typical biphasic profile, a fast drop up to 1% and a slower decline between 1 and 4%. The STAC, COMP, and HBN for all formulations showed a shallow linear decline of tablet crushing strength with increasing lubricant concentration. The HBN was as effective as MGST as a lubricant, and did not show a significant negative effect on the crushing strength of the tablets. The COMP and STAC also did not interfere with the crushing strength, however, they were not as effective lubricants as MGST or HBN. PMID:22491169

  17. Combined toxicity of heavy metal mixtures in liver cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xialu; Gu, Yuanliang; Zhou, Qi; Mao, Guochuan; Zou, Baobo; Zhao, Jinshun

    2016-09-01

    With rapid industrialization, China is now facing great challenges in heavy metal contamination in the environment. Human exposure to heavy metals through air, water and food commonly involves a mixture consisting of multiple heavy metals. In this study, eight common heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Hg, Cu, Zn, Mn, Cr, Ni) that cause environmental contamination were selected to investigate the combined toxicity of different heavy metal mixtures in HL7702 cells. Toxicity (24 h LC50 ) of each individual metal on the cells ranked Hg > Cr = Cd > Cu > Zn > Ni > Mn > Pb; toxicity of the different mixtures ranked: M5 > M3PbHgCd > M5+Mn > M5+Cu > M2CdNi > M4A > M8-Mn > M8 > M5+Zn > M4B > M8-Cr > M8-Zn > M8-Cu > M8-Pb > M8-Cd > M8-Hg > M8-Ni > M3PbHgNi > M3CuZnMn. The cytotoxicity data of individual metals were successfully used to build the additive models of two- to eight-component metal mixtures. The comparison between additive model and combination model or partly additive model was useful to evaluate the combined effects in mixture. Synergistic, antagonistic or additive effects of the toxicity were observed in different mixtures. These results suggest that the combined effects should be considered in the risk assessment of heavy metal co-exposure, and more comprehensive investigations on the combined effects of different heavy metal mixtures are needed in the future. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Low Mach number fluctuating hydrodynamics of multispecies liquid mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donev, Aleksandar, E-mail: donev@courant.nyu.edu; Bhattacharjee, Amit Kumar [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, New York, New York 10012 (United States); Nonaka, Andy; Bell, John B. [Center for Computational Science and Engineering, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Garcia, Alejandro L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Jose State University, San Jose, California 95192 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    We develop a low Mach number formulation of the hydrodynamic equations describing transport of mass and momentum in a multispecies mixture of incompressible miscible liquids at specified temperature and pressure, which generalizes our prior work on ideal mixtures of ideal gases [Balakrishnan et al., “Fluctuating hydrodynamics of multispecies nonreactive mixtures,” Phys. Rev. E 89 013017 (2014)] and binary liquid mixtures [Donev et al., “Low mach number fluctuating hydrodynamics of diffusively mixing fluids,” Commun. Appl. Math. Comput. Sci. 9(1), 47-105 (2014)]. In this formulation, we combine and extend a number of existing descriptions of multispecies transport available in the literature. The formulation applies to non-ideal mixtures of arbitrary number of species, without the need to single out a “solvent” species, and includes contributions to the diffusive mass flux due to gradients of composition, temperature, and pressure. Momentum transport and advective mass transport are handled using a low Mach number approach that eliminates fast sound waves (pressure fluctuations) from the full compressible system of equations and leads to a quasi-incompressible formulation. Thermal fluctuations are included in our fluctuating hydrodynamics description following the principles of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. We extend the semi-implicit staggered-grid finite-volume numerical method developed in our prior work on binary liquid mixtures [Nonaka et al., “Low mach number fluctuating hydrodynamics of binary liquid mixtures,” http://arxiv.org/abs/1410.2300 (2015)] and use it to study the development of giant nonequilibrium concentration fluctuations in a ternary mixture subjected to a steady concentration gradient. We also numerically study the development of diffusion-driven gravitational instabilities in a ternary mixture and compare our numerical results to recent experimental measurements [Carballido-Landeira et al., “Mixed-mode instability of a

  19. Effect of natural antioxidant mixtures on margarine stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In spite of their efficiency, the use of synthetic antioxidants such as tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) has been questioned because of their possible carcinogenic effects. The purpose of this study was to establish a mixture of natural antioxidants that provides the optimum oxidative stability for margarine. Antioxidant treatments included 10 various mixtures (F1- F10) containing 100-500 ppm tocopherol mixture (Toc), 100-200 ppm ascorbyl palmitate (AP), 100-200 ppm rosemary extract (Ros) and 1000 ppm lecithin(Lec) along with a control or F0 (with no antioxidant) and F11 containing 120 ppm TBHQ. The effect of antioxidant mixtures on the stability of margarine samples during an oven test (60 +-1 deg. C), rancimat test at 110 deg. C and storage at 4 deg. C was evaluated. The final ranking of the natural antioxidant mixtures was as follows: F2, F10>F5, F9>F8>F1, F3, F4>F6, F7. Considering the results of this research and ranking criteria, F2 (200 ppmAp + 200 ppmRos) and F10 (200 ppmRos + 200 ppm Toc + 1000 ppm Lec) were recommended as substitutes for TBHQ to maintain the quality and increase the shelf-life of margarine. (author)

  20. Effects of some natural antioxidant mixtures on margarine stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In spite of their efficiency, the use of synthetic antioxidants such as tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) has been questioned because of their possible carcinogenic effects. The purpose of this study was to establish a mixture of natural antioxidants that provides the optimum oxidative stability for margarine. Antioxidant treatments included 10 various mixtures (F1-F10) containing 100-500 ppm tocopherol mixture (Toc), 100-200 ppm ascorbyl palmitate (AP), 100-200 ppm rosemary extract (Ros) and 1000 ppm lecithin (Lec) along with a control or F0 (with no antioxidant) and F11 containing 120 ppm TBHQ. The effect of antioxidant mixtures on the stability of margarine samples during an oven test (60 +- 1 deg. C), rancimat test at 110 degree C and storage at 4 degree C was evaluated. The final ranking of the natural antioxidant mixtures was as follows: F2, F10>F5, F9>F8>F1, F3, F4>F6, F7. Considering the results of this research and ranking criteria, F2 (200 ppm Ap + 200 ppm Ros) and F10 (200 ppm Ros + 200 ppm Toc +1000 ppm Lec) were recommended as substitutes for TBHQ to maintain the quality and increase the shelf life of margarine. (author)