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Sample records for bituminous coal miners

  1. NAFTA opportunities: Bituminous coal and lignite mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) secures and improves market access in Mexico and Canada for the United States bituminous coal and lignite mining sector. Canada is one of the United States' largest export markets for bituminous coal and lignite, with exports of $486.7 million in 1992. Conversely, the Mexican market is one of the smallest export markets for U.S. producers with exports of $1.8 million in 1992. Together, however, Canada and Mexico represent approximately 15 percent of total U.S. coal exports. The report presents a sectoral analysis.

  2. Facies studies of bituminous coals in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, Grzegorz J. [Polish Geological Institute, Lower Silesian Branch, al. Jaworowa 19, 53-122, Wroclaw (Poland)

    2004-04-23

    Polish bituminous coal basins are associated exclusively with Carboniferous deposits, differing in origin and geological structure. This paper presents only short review of papers of Polish authors on coal facies studies of Carboniferous coals occurring in the Lower Silesian Coal Basin (LSCB), Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB) and Lublin Coal Basin (LCB) of Poland. Facies investigations of Carboniferous coals of Poland have been in progress over 20 years. The results of these studies have provided new information on such subjects as: (1) recognition of main depositional conditions in paleomires, (2) determine prevailing paleoplant communities, (3) appraisal of peat-forming environment reconstruction-types and characteristics of paleomires. These facies analyses are connected to results of such studies as: pure coal petrology, using maceral and microlithotype composition as parameters of the environment of coal deposition, combined results of petrological, palynological and sedimentological studies.

  3. Radon concentration measurements in bituminous coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisne, Abdullah; Okten, Gündüz; Celebi, Nilgün

    2005-01-01

    Radon measurements were carried out in Kozlu, Karadon and Uzülmez underground coal mines of Zonguldak bituminous coal basin in Turkey. Passive-time integrating method, which is the most widely used technique for the measurement of radon concentration in air, was applied by using nuclear etched track detectors (CR-39) in the study area. The radon concentration measurements were performed on a total of 42 points in those three mines. The annual exposure, the annual effective dose and lifetime fatality risk, which are the important parameters for the health of workers, were estimated based on chronic occupational exposure to the radon gas, which is calculated using UNCEAR-2000 and ICRP-65 models. The radon concentrations at several coal production faces are higher than the action level of 1000 Bq m(-3). It is suggested that the ventilation rates should be rearranged to reduce the radon concentration.

  4. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON HORIZONTAL COMBUSTION TECHNIQUE FOR BITUMINOUS COAL BRIQUET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路春美; 程世庆; 邵延玲; 张晔

    1997-01-01

    Through a lot of experiments, a new kind of stove using horizontal combustion technique for bituminous coal briquet has been developed. Making use of this stove, studies have been made on burning process of bituminous coal briquet, distribution of temperature field in the stove, the regularities of evolution and combustion of volatile matter, the burning rate and efficiency of bituminous coal briquet, characteristics of fire-sealing and sulfur-retention. The results show that, with the technique, some achievements can be obtained in combustion of bituminous coal briquet, such as lower pollution that the flue gas black degree is below 0.5R and dust concentration is below 90mg/m3 . The stove's combustion efficiency reaches 90%, sulfur fixing efficiency is 60%, and CO concentration is decreased by 40% compared with other traditional stoves. With so many advantages, the stove can be used extensively in civil stoves and smaller industrial boilers.

  5. Investigation of plasma-aided bituminous coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matveev, I.B.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B. [Applied Plasma Technology, Mclean, VA (United States)

    2009-04-15

    This paper presents thermodynamic and kinetic modeling of plasma-aided bituminous coal gasification. Distributions of concentrations, temperatures, and velocities of the gasification products along the gasifier are calculated. Carbon gasification degree, specific power consumptions, and heat engineering characteristics of synthesis gas at the outlet of the gasifier are determined at plasma air/steam and oxygen/steam gasification of Powder River Basin bituminous coal. Numerical simulation showed that the plasma oxygen/steam gasification of coal is a more preferable process in comparison with the plasma air/steam coal gasification. On the numerical experiments, a plasma vortex fuel reformer is designed.

  6. Unexpectedly high uptake of palladium by bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakatos, J. [Research Lab. for Mining Chemistry, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Miskolc-Egyetemvaros (Hungary); Brown, S.D.; Snape, C.E. [Univ. of Strathclyde, Dept. of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    The uptake of palladium as a conversion catalyst onto coals of different rank was investigated. Palladium fixation occurs by a different mode to that for alkaline earth and first row transition metals. Therefore, the dispersion of relatively high concentration of palladium by an ion sorption process is even possible for bituminous coals. (orig.)

  7. Performance of PAHs emission from bituminous coal combustion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严建华; 尤孝方; 李晓东; 倪明江; 尹雪峰; 岑可法

    2004-01-01

    Carcinogenic and mutagenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) generated in coal combustion have caused great environmental health concern. Seventeen PAHs (16 high priority PAHs recommended by USEPA plus Benzo[e]pyrene) present in five raw bituminous coals and released during bituminous coal combustion were studied. The effects of combustion temperature, gas atmosphere, and chlorine content of raw coal on PAHs formation were investigated. Two additives (copper and cupric oxide) were added when the coal was burned. The results indicated that significant quantities of PAHs were produced from incomplete combustion of coal pyrolysis products at high temperature, and that temperature is an important causative factor of PAHs formation. PAHs concentrations decrease with the increase of chlorine content in oxygen or in nitrogen atmosphere. Copper and cupric oxide additives can promote PAHs formation (especially the multi-ring PAHs) during coal combustion.

  8. Investigation of synthesis of silicon carbide from bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.; He, E.; Chen, S. [Xian University of Science and Technology, Xian (China). Dept of Materials Technology

    2000-08-01

    Three kinds of bituminous coal were investigated in SiC synthesis reaction under N{sub 2} atmosphere protection. It was found that bituminous coal could be used as the carbon source to synthesise SiC. However, there was a significant difference in the quantity of SiC and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, which was the by product, from the different types of bituminous coal. It had been indicated by the research work that the bituminous coal's volatile constituents and the micro-structure of the coke (such as porosity, micromorphology of pore and specific surface area etc.) were the two critical factors which determined the generation of SiC and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} in this reaction system. The difference of these three kinds of bituminous coal in volatile constituents and coke's micro-structure were studied under temperature ranging from 1200 to 1600{degree}C and their effects on the SiC reaction system was also discussed. 6 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Research on the thermal decomposition of Mongolian Baganuur lignite and Naryn sukhait bituminous coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ariunaa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The technical characteristics, elemental composition of the organic and mineral matters, ash melting behaviors and carbonization and gasification reactivities of coals from Baganuur and Naryn sukhait deposits were investigated. The results of proximate and ultimate analysis confirmed that the coal from Baganuur deposit can be graded as a low rank lignite B2 mark coal and Naryn sukhait coal is a bituminous G mark one. The carbonization and gasification experiments were performed using TGA apparatus and fixed bed quartz reactor. The data obtained with two experimental reactors showed that Baganuur lignite had lower thermal stability and much higher CO2 gasification reactivity at 950°C as compared to those for Naryn sukhait bituminous coal.Mongolian Journal of Chemistry 16 (42, 2015, 22-29

  10. Variations in pore characteristics in high volatile bituminous coals: Implications for coal bed gas content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastalerz, Maria; Drobniak, A.; Strapoc, D.; Solano-Acosta, W.; Rupp, J.

    2008-01-01

    The Seelyville Coal Member of the Linton Formation (Pennsylvanian) in Indiana was studied to: 1) understand variations in pore characteristics within a coal seam at a single location and compare these variations with changes occurring between the same coal at different locations, 2) elaborate on the influence of mineral-matter and maceral composition on mesopore and micropore characteristics, and 3) discuss implications of these variations for coal bed gas content. The coal is high volatile bituminous rank with R0 ranging from 0.57% to 0.60%. BET specific surface areas (determined by nitrogen adsorption) of the coals samples studied range from 1.8 to 22.9??m2/g, BJH adsorption mesopore volumes from 0.0041 to 0.0339??cm3/g, and micropore volumes (determined by carbon dioxide adsorption) from 0.0315 to 0.0540??cm3/g. The coals that had the largest specific surface areas and largest mesopore volumes occur at the shallowest depths, whereas the smallest values for these two parameters occur in the deepest coals. Micropore volumes, in contrast, are not depth-dependent. In the coal samples examined for this study, mineral-matter content influenced both specific surface area as well as mesopore and micropore volumes. It is especially clear in the case of micropores, where an increase in mineral-matter content parallels the decrease of micropore volume of the coal. No obvious relationships were observed between the total vitrinite content and pore characteristics but, after splitting vitrinite into individual macerals, we see that collotelinite influences both meso- and micropore volume positively, whereas collodetrinite contributes to the reduction of mesopore and micropore volumes. There are large variations in gas content within a single coal at a single location. Because of this variability, the entire thickness of the coal must be desorbed in order to determine gas content reliably and to accurately calculate the level of gas saturation. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All

  11. A study on spontaneous ignition of bituminous coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xin-Rui

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal properties of four bituminous coals were studied using isothermal and temperature-programmed calorimeters, such as a differential thermal analysis, a heat flux calorimeter C80 and an thermal activity monitor (TAM-III. The corresponding spontaneous ignition was measured in an adiabatic spontaneous ignition tester. It was found that there were weak exothermic activities in bituminous coal at 50-100°C and meanwhile carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide was generated. These thermal behaviors are responsible for the self heating from 50°C and spontaneous ignition at 80°C.

  12. A study on spontaneous ignition of bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xin-Rui Li; Hiroshi Koseki; Yusaku Iwata [National Research Institute of Fire and Disaster, Tokyo (Japan)

    2009-07-01

    The thermal properties of four bituminous coals were studied using isothermal and temperature-programmed calorimeters, such as a differential thermal analysis, a heat flux calorimeter C80 and an thermal activity monitor (TAM-III). The corresponding spontaneous ignition was measured in an adiabatic spontaneous ignition tester. It was found that there were weak exothermic activities in bituminous coal at 50-100 {sup o}C and meanwhile carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide was generated. These thermal behaviors are responsible for the self heating from 50{sup o}C and spontaneous ignition at 80{sup o}C. 15 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Amenability of Muzret bituminous coal to oil agglomeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahinoglu, E.; Uslu, T. [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Mining Engineering, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)

    2008-12-15

    Laboratory scale agglomeration tests were undertaken to investigate the amenability of Muzret (Yusufeli-Artvin) bituminous coal to oil agglomeration. Kerosene was extensively used as oil in the tests. In addition, fuel oil, diesel oil, and hazelnut oil were also used in order to determine the effect of oil type. The effects of the parameters including coal content, kerosene content, agglomeration time, coal particle size, pH, oil type, and agitation rate, on the combustible matter recovery, ash reduction and pyritic sulphur reduction, were investigated. It was found that Muzret bituminous coal could be readily cleaned by oil agglomeration with substantial reductions in ash and pyritic sulphur content. Maximum combustible matter recovery, ash reduction and pyritic sulphur reduction were achieved to be 85.54%, 59.98%, and 85.17%, respectively. (author)

  14. Co-pyrolysis characteristic of biomass and bituminous coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuaidan; Chen, Xueli; Liu, Aibin; Wang, Li; Yu, Guangsuo

    2015-03-01

    Co-pyrolysis characteristics of biomass and bituminous coal have been studied in this work. The temperature was up to 900°C with the heating rates of 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30°C/min. Rice straw, saw dust, microcrystalline cellulose, lignin and Shenfu bituminous coal were chosen as samples. Six different biomass ratios were used. The individual thermal behavior of each sample was obtained. The experimental weight fractions of the blended samples and the calculated values were compared. The results show that the weight fractions of the blended samples behave differently with calculated ones during the co-pyrolysis process. With the increasing biomass ratio, relative deviations between experimental weight fractions and calculated ones are larger. H/C molar ratio, heat transfer properties of biomass would affect to the interaction between biomass and coal. The maximum degradation rates are slower than the calculated ones. The activation energy distributions also changed by adding some biomass into coal.

  15. Amenability of some Witbank bituminous ultra fine coals to binderless briquetting

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mangena, SJ

    2004-10-15

    Full Text Available Five ultra fine bituminous coals from the Witbank coalfield were studied. Selected chemical and physical properties, coal petrographic characteristics and mineralogical compositions of the coals were measured. The coals were compacted, using a...

  16. Distribution of inorganic and organic substances in the hydrocyclone separated Slovak sub-bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anton Zubrik; Slavomir Hredzak; Ludmila Turcaniova; Michal Lovas; Ingo Bergmann; Klaus Dieter Becker; Maria Lukcova; Vladimir Sepelak [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Kosice (Slovakia). Institute of Geotechnics

    2010-08-15

    A low-rank Slovak sub-bituminous coal from the Handlova deposit was physically treated by washing in a water-only cyclone with the goal to find the separation effect for inorganic (mainly Fe-bearing minerals) and organic substances (humic acids, diterpanes). A high-quality coal product with the ash content in the dry matter of 9.02% and carbon content of C{sup d} = 68.12% at a mass yield of 29.51% was obtained using the water-only cyclone processing. At first, the physically treated coal samples were detailed characterized by XRD, {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy, FT-IR and HR-TEM. In addition to non-crystalline organic coal components, inorganic compounds belonging to silicate minerals (kaolinite, muscovite and quartz) as well as to Fe-bearing sulphide minerals (pyrite) were identified in the sub-bituminous coal by XRD. {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy detected the presence of iron carbonate (siderite), iron-containing clay mineral and two sulphur-containing minerals (pyrite, jarosite) in the untreated coal. On the other hand, only one Fe-bearing mineral, (pyrite) was found in the washed coal. Effect of the physical separation is also demonstrated in FT-IR spectra, where the peak at 1040 cm{sup -1} representing the silicate component in the untreated sample is not detectable in the washed coal sample. Presence of extractive organic substances, i.e. humic acids and tetracyclic diterpane (16a(H)-phyllocladane), in the hydrocyclone products is also evidenced. It was confirmed that the isolated diterpenoic compound is attendant in the washed product with the lowest ash content and it is assimilated with the organic part of coal. Surprisingly, humic acids were found in the highest concentration in the slurry that has the highest content of ash (63.14%). 54 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Physical properties of solid fuel briquettes from bituminous coal waste and biomass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZARRINGHALAM-MOGHADDAM A; GHOLIPOUR-ZANJANI N; DOROSTIS; VAEZ M

    2011-01-01

    Biomass and bituminous coal fines from four different coalfields were used to produce fuel briquettes.Two physical properties of briquettes,water resistance index and compressive strength were analyzed.The influence of type and quantity of biomass on physical properties was also studied.The results reveal that depending on the mineral content of the coal,the physical properties of the briquettes differ noticeably.The comparison of briquettes with and without biomass showed that the presence of the beet pulp increased CS in all types of coal samples.Samples containing beet pulp had better physical properties than sawdust.Mezino Ⅱ coal briquettes had highest CS and WRI than the other ones.Calorific value of biomass/Mezino Ⅱ coal briquettes was lessened in comparison with raw coal,but it remained in an acceptable range.

  18. Steam and air plasma gasification of bituminous coal and petrocoke

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir Messerle; Alexander Ustimenko

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical analysis and experimental investigation of two very different solid fuels, low-rank bituminous coal of 40 % ash content and petrocoke of 3 % ash content, gasification under steam and air plasma conditions with an aim of producing synthesis gas. Numerical analysis was fulfilled using the software package TERRA for equilibrium computation. Using the results of the numerical simulation, experiments on plasma steam gasification of the petrocoke and air and steam ga...

  19. Chemical and Pyrolytic Thermogravimetric Characterization of Nigerian Bituminous Coals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyakuma Bemgba Bevan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of new coal deposits in Nigeria presents solutions for nation’s energy crises and prospects for socioeconomic growth and sustainable development. Furthermore, the quest for sustainable energy to limit global warming, climate change, and environmental degradation has necessitated the exploration of alternatives using cleaner technologies such as coal pyrolysis. However, a lack of comprehensive data on physico-chemical and thermal properties of Nigerian coals has greatly limited their utilization. Therefore, the physico-chemical properties, rank (classification, and thermal decomposition profiles of two Nigerian bituminous coals – Afuze (AFZ and Shankodi-Jangwa (SKJ – were examined in this study. The results indicate that the coals contain high proportions of C, H, N, S, O and a sufficiently high heating value (HHV for energy conversion. The coal classification revealed that the Afuze (AFZ coal possesses a higher rank, maturity, and coal properties compared to the Shankodi-Jangwa (SKJ coal. A thermal analysis demonstrated that coal pyrolysis in both cases occurred in three stages; drying (30-200 °C, devolatilization (200-600 °C, and char decomposition (600-1000 °C. The results also indicated that pyrolysis at 1000 °C is not sufficient for complete pyrolysis. In general, the thermochemical and pyrolytic fuel properties indicate that the coal from both places can potentially be utilized for future clean energy applications.

  20. Concentration of viruses from water on bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakhe, S.B.; Parhad, N.M.

    1988-05-01

    The potential of bituminous coal for adsorption of viruses, using poliovirus as a model, was investigated. Influence of pH of water on the adsorption of viruses on a coal bed with and without addition of cation (Al/sup 3 +/) indicated that poliovirus could be adsorbed efficiently at pH 5 in presence of AlCl/sub 3/ at a concentration of 0.0005 M. studies on the effect of different concentrations of monovalent, divalent and trivalent cations showed that the trivalent cation was more effective and was required at a lower concentration than other cations tested. A coal bed of 1.5 g could adsorb as high as 204,000 PFU from water based on the absence of virus in the filtrate. Total organic carbon content of the water did not interfere in virus adsorption to coal. The results obtained indicated that a bituminous coal bed could be used as one of the methods for efficient concentration of viruses from water. 31 refs., 8 tabs.

  1. Using proximate analysis to characterize airborne dust generation from bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, S.J.; Organiscak, J.A. [NIOSH, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Pittsburgh Research Lab.

    2002-06-01

    Laboratory crushing experiments were conducted on a range of low to high volatile bituminous coals to investigate the various factors influencing airborne respirable dust generation. Bituminous coal samples from 8 mines (5 U.S. and 3 Polish) were uniformly prepared and processed through a double roll crusher located in a low air velocity wind tunnel. Experimental factors studied included inherent coal seam constituents, specific energy of crushing, product size characteristics, dust cloud electrostatic field, and specific quantity of airborne respirable dust generated. A combination of factors is associated with the generation of airborne respirable dust. One factor involved is the effect of coal rank, described by the inherent moist fuel ratio, on the product size characteristics. However, since coals of high moist fuel ratio (high rank) are generally more extensively cleated, it is suggested that the degree of cleating is directly responsible for the quantity of respirable-sized particles produced in the crushed product material for eastern U.S. coals. This is implied by the relationship of ash content and at least one mineral constituent (pyrite, determined from pyritic sulfur analysis) to the percentage of airborne respirable dust. A clear delineation of coals, based on well-known proximate analysis characteristics, that generate the most respirable dust appears to be possible. It was also shown that the dust-generating characteristics of coals could be reasonably described by both the moist fuel ratio and the Hardgrove Grindability Index (HGI). These results show a clear distinction between eastern and western U.S. coals. However, no consistent distinction for Polish coal was observed.

  2. Continuous bench-scale slurry catalyst testing direct coal liquefaction rawhide sub-bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauman, R.F.; Coless, L.A.; Davis, S.M. [and others

    1995-12-31

    In 1992, the Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored research to demonstrate a dispersed catalyst system using a combination of molybdenum and iron precursors for direct coal liquefaction. This dispersed catalyst system was successfully demonstrated using Black Thunder sub-bituminous coal at Wilsonville, Alabama by Southern Electric International, Inc. The DOE sponsored research continues at Exxon Research and Development Laboratories (ERDL). A six month continuous bench-scale program using ERDL`s Recycle Coal Liquefaction Unit (RCLU) is planned, three months in 1994 and three months in 1995. The initial conditions in RCLU reflect experience gained from the Wilsonville facility in their Test Run 263. Rawhide sub-bituminous coal which is similar to the Black Thunder coal tested at Wilsonville was used as the feed coal. A slate of five dispersed catalysts for direct coal liquefaction of Rawhide sub-bituminous coal has been tested. Throughout the experiments, the molybdenum addition rate was held constant at 100 wppm while the iron oxide addition rate was varied from 0.25 to 1.0 weight percent (dry coal basis). This report covers the 1994 operations and accomplishments.

  3. Steam and air plasma gasification of bituminous coal and petrocoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Messerle

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a numerical analysis and experimental investigation of two very different solid fuels, low-rank bituminous coal of 40 % ash content and petrocoke of 3 % ash content, gasification under steam and air plasma conditions with an aim of producing synthesis gas. Numerical analysis was fulfilled using the software package TERRA for equilibrium computation. Using the results of the numerical simulation, experiments on plasma steam gasification of the petrocoke and air and steam gasification of the coal were conducted in an original installation. Nominal power of the plasma installation is 100 kWe and sum consumption of the reagents is up to 20 kg/h. High quality synthesis gas was produced in the experiments on solid fuels plasma gasification. It has been found that the synthesis gas content at about 97.4 vol.% can be produced. Comparison between the numerical and experimental results showed satisfactory agreement. 

  4. Fuel properties of bituminous coal and pyrolytic oil mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Hazlin; Sharuddin, Munawar Zaman; Daud, Ahmad Rafizan Mohamad; Syed-Hassan, Syed Shatir A.

    2014-10-01

    Investigation on the thermal decomposition kinetics of coal-biooil slurry (CBS) fuel prepared at different ratios (100:0,70:30,60:40,0:100) was conducted using a Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA). The materials consisted of Clermont bituminous coal (Australia) and bio-oil (also known as pyrolytic oil) from the source of Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) that was thermally converted by means of pyrolysis. Thermal decomposition of CBS fuel was performed in an inert atmosphere (50mL/min nitrogen) under non-isothermal conditions from room temperature to 1000°C at heating rate of 10°C/min. The apparent activation energy (Ea.) and pre-exponential factor (A) were calculated from the experimental results by using an Arrhenius-type kinetic model which first-order decomposition reaction was assumed. All kinetic parameters were tabulated based on the TG data obtained from the experiment. It was found that, the CBS fuel has higher reactivity than Clermont coal fuel during pyrolysis process, as the addition of pyrolytic oil will reduce the Ea values of the fuel. The thermal profiles of the mixtures showed potential trends that followed the characteristics of an ideal slurry fuel where high degradation rate is desirable. Among the mixture, the optimum fuel was found at the ratio of 60:40 of pyrolytic oil/coal mixtures with highest degradation rate. These findings may contribute to the development of a slurry fuel to be used in the vast existing conventional power plants.

  5. Investigation of the combustion characteristics of Zonguldak bituminous coal using DTA and DTG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haykiri-Acma, H.; Yaman, S.; Kucukbayrak, S.; Okutan, H. [Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2006-06-21

    Combustion characteristics of coking, semicoking, and noncoking Turkish bituminous coal samples from Zonguldak basin were investigated applying differential thermal analysis (DTA) and differential thermogravimetry (DTG) techniques. Results were compared with that of the coke from Zonguldak bituminous coal, a Turkish lignite sample from Soma, and a Siberian bituminous coal sample. The thermal data from both techniques showed some differences depending on the proximate analyses of the samples. Noncombustible components of the volatile matter led to important changes in thermal behavior. The data front both methods were, evaluated jointly, and some thermal properties were interpreted considering these methods in a complementary combination.

  6. The hydrogasification of lignite and sub-bituminous coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, B.; Fallon, P. T.; Steinberg, M.

    1981-02-01

    A North Dakota lignite and a New Mexico sub-bituminous coal have been hydrogenated at up to 900°C and 2500 psi hydrogen pressure. Yields of gaseous hydrocarbons and aromatic liquids have been studied as a function of temperature, pressure, residence time, feed rates and H2/coal ratio. Coal feed rates in excess of 10 lb/hr have been achieved in the 1 in. I. D.×8 ft reactor and methane concentration as high as 55% have been observed. A four-step reaction model was developed for the production and decomposition of the hydrocarbon products. A single object function formulated from the weighted errors for the four dependent process, variables, CH4, C2H6, BTX, and oil yields, was minimized using a program containing three independent iterative techniques. The results of the nonlinear regression analysis for lignite show that a first-order chemical reaction model with respect to C conversion satisfactorily describes the dilute phase hydrogenation. The activation energy for the initial products formation was estimated to be 42,700 cal/gmole and the power of hydrogen partial pressure was found to be +0.14. The overall correlation coefficient was 0.83. The mechanism, the rate expressions, and the design curves developed can be used for scale-up and reactor design.

  7. Reactivity and characterisation of various rank Turkish bituminous coal chars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kizgut, S.; Baran, Y.; Cuhadaroglu, D. [Karaelmas University, Zonguldak (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering

    2003-07-01

    A set of seven bituminous coal chars has been characterised by IR spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetry (TG) and elemental analysis. FTIR study provided suitable information to establish differences between coal samples according to their chemical compositions. The reactivity of these samples was also studied and correlated with the coal parameters of mean vitrinite reflectance, fuel ratio and H/C ratio. The data suggest that reactivity as determined can be correlated with the mean vitrinite reflectance, fuel ratio and H/C ratio (0.90). The order of reactivity of samples were; Amasra (S1) (R-m=0.65) > Azdavay (S4) (R-m=0.99) {approx_equal} Armutcuk (S2) (R-m=0.81) {approx_equal} Acenta (S3) (R-m=0.92) > Ac2l2k (S6) (R-m=1.11) Cay (S5) (R-m=1.03) > Sogutozu (S7) (R-m=2.14).

  8. Gasification of high ash, high ash fusion temperature bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Guohai; Vimalchand, Pannalal; Peng, WanWang

    2015-11-13

    This invention relates to gasification of high ash bituminous coals that have high ash fusion temperatures. The ash content can be in 15 to 45 weight percent range and ash fusion temperatures can be in 1150.degree. C. to 1500.degree. C. range as well as in excess of 1500.degree. C. In a preferred embodiment, such coals are dealt with a two stage gasification process--a relatively low temperature primary gasification step in a circulating fluidized bed transport gasifier followed by a high temperature partial oxidation step of residual char carbon and small quantities of tar. The system to process such coals further includes an internally circulating fluidized bed to effectively cool the high temperature syngas with the aid of an inert media and without the syngas contacting the heat transfer surfaces. A cyclone downstream of the syngas cooler, operating at relatively low temperatures, effectively reduces loading to a dust filtration unit. Nearly dust- and tar-free syngas for chemicals production or power generation and with over 90%, and preferably over about 98%, overall carbon conversion can be achieved with the preferred process, apparatus and methods outlined in this invention.

  9. Gasification of high ash, high ash fusion temperature bituminous coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guohai; Vimalchand, Pannalal; Peng, WanWang

    2015-11-13

    This invention relates to gasification of high ash bituminous coals that have high ash fusion temperatures. The ash content can be in 15 to 45 weight percent range and ash fusion temperatures can be in 1150.degree. C. to 1500.degree. C. range as well as in excess of 1500.degree. C. In a preferred embodiment, such coals are dealt with a two stage gasification process--a relatively low temperature primary gasification step in a circulating fluidized bed transport gasifier followed by a high temperature partial oxidation step of residual char carbon and small quantities of tar. The system to process such coals further includes an internally circulating fluidized bed to effectively cool the high temperature syngas with the aid of an inert media and without the syngas contacting the heat transfer surfaces. A cyclone downstream of the syngas cooler, operating at relatively low temperatures, effectively reduces loading to a dust filtration unit. Nearly dust- and tar-free syngas for chemicals production or power generation and with over 90%, and preferably over about 98%, overall carbon conversion can be achieved with the preferred process, apparatus and methods outlined in this invention.

  10. Surface Properties of Photo-Oxidized Bituminous Coals: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    Natural weathering has a detrimental effect on the hydrophobic nature of coal, which in turn can influence clean-coal recovery during flotation. Few techniques are available that can establish the quality of coal surfaces and that have a short analysis time to provide input for process control. Luminescence emissions which can be quantified with an optical microscope and photometer system, are measurably influenced by degree of weathering as well as by mild storage deterioration. In addition, it has been shown that when vitrinite is irradiated with a relatively high intensity flux of violet- or ultraviolet- light in the presence of air, photo-oxidation of the surface occurs. The combination of measuring the change in luminescence emission intensity with degree of surface oxidation provided the impetus for the current investigation. The principal aim of this research was to determine whether clear correlations could be established among surface oxygen functionality, hydrophobicity induced by photo-oxidation, and measurements of luminescence intensity and alteration. If successful, the project would result in quantitative luminescence techniques based on optical microscopy that would provide a measure of the changes in surface properties as a function of oxidation and relate them to coal cleanability. Two analytical techniques were designed to achieve these goals. Polished surfaces of vitrain bands or a narrow size fraction of powdered vitrain concentrates were photo-oxidized using violet or ultraviolet light fluxes and then changes in surface properties and chemistry were measured using a variety of near-surface analytical techniques. Results from this investigation demonstrate that quantitative luminescence intensity measurements can be performed on fracture surfaces of bituminous rank coals (vitrains) and that the data obtained do reveal significant variations depending upon the level of surface oxidation. Photo-oxidation induced by violet or ultraviolet light

  11. Carbon molecular sieves from bituminous coal by controlled coke deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyas, S.N.; Patwardhan, S.R.; Gangadhar, B. (Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay (India). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1992-01-01

    Carbon molecular sieves (CMS) and zeolites are widely used as microporous sieving solids for gas and liquid separations. However, due to hydrophobicity, better thermal stability, and neutrality in both acidic and alkaline media, CMSs have definite advantages over zeolites. In the present work, an effort has been made to develop suitable process conditions for synthesizing CMSs from the locally available bituminous coal. The coal was crushed, milled, and agglomerated with sulfate pulp waste liquor (SPWL) or coal-tar pitch (CTP) as the binders, and then carbonized in nitrogen atmosphere at 800{degree}C for about 60 minutes. In order to narrow down the pore mouth sizes, acetylene and benzene were each cracked separately at 800{degree}C to facilitate the deposition of coke on the char. Acetylene and benzene were cracked for 3 to 10 minutes, and 10 to 30 minutes, respectively. Acetylene cracked samples did not show good separation, probably because of over-coking in deeper locations. In contrast benzene cracked samples were found to be highly suitable for CO{sub 2}-CH{sub 4} separation. The best result (i.e. uptake ratio of 39.9) was obtained for feed benzene entrainment in N{sub 2} of 1.27 x 10{sup -4} g/ml, cracking time of 30 minutes, and this ratio was more than 10 times that of non-coked sample. CMS samples produced using SPWL as binder showed poor O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} uptake ratios throughout (1 to 1.5), whereas samples with CTP as binder showed far more encouraging results, the best uptake ratio being 5.5 for benzene-nitrogen feed stream containing 3.508 x 10{sup -4} g/ml benzene and 5 minutes cracking time. This ratio is about 5.5 times more than that of uncoked sample. 4 tabs., 10 figs., 17 refs.

  12. Petrography and geochemistry of Oligocene bituminous coal from the Jiu Valley, Petrosani basin (southern Carpathian Mountains), Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belkin, Harvey E.; Tewalt, Susan J. [U.S. Geological Survey, 956 National Center, Reston, VA 20192 (United States); Hower, James C. [University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, 2540 Research Park Drive, Lexington, KY 40511 (United States); Stucker, J.D. [University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, 2540 Research Park Drive, Lexington, KY 40511 (United States); University of Kentucky Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); O' Keefe, Jennifer M.K. [Morehead State University, Morehead, KY, 40351 (United States); Tatu, Calin A. [University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Department of Immunology, Clinical Laboratory No. 1, Pta. E. Murgu No. 2, RO-1900 Timisoara (Romania); Buia, Grigore [University of Petrosani, Department of Geology, University St. 20, RO-2675 Petrosani (Romania)

    2010-05-01

    Belt samples of Oligocene (Chattian) bituminous coal from 10 underground mines located in the Jiu Valley, Hunedoara County, Petrosani basin, Romania, have been examined and analyzed for proximate and ultimate analysis, major-, minor- and trace-element chemistry, organic petrography, and vitrinite reflectance. The mineral chemistry and mode of occurrence of trace elements also have been investigated using SEM and electron microprobe techniques. Twenty coal beds occur in the Jiu Valley and most of the samples are from bed no. 3, the most productive bed of the Dilja-Uricani Formation of Oligocene age. The Petrosani basin, oriented SW-NE, is 48-km long, 10-km wide at the eastern part and 2-km wide at the western part. The coal mines are distributed along the center of the valley generally following the Jiu de Vest River. Reflectance measurements indicate that the rank of the coals ranges from high-volatile B to high-volatile A bituminous. Overall, rank decreases from the southwest to the northeast. In bed no. 3, R{sub max} varies from 0.75% in the northeast to 0.93% in the southwest. Although, most Oligocene coals in Romania and adjacent countries are lignite in rank, the Jiu Valley bituminous coals have been affected by regional metamorphism and attending hydrothermal fluids related to the Alpine orogenic event. The coals are all dominated by vitrinite; resinite and funginite are important minor macerals in most of the coals. Pyrite and carbonate generally dominate the mineral assemblages with carbonate more abundant in the northwest. Siderite occurs as nodules and masses within the macerals (generally vitrinite). Dolomite and calcite occur as fracture fillings, plant-cell fillings, and in other authigenic forms. Late-stage fracture fillings are siderite, dolomite, calcite, and ankerite. In one instance, two populations of siderite ({proportional_to} 35 and {proportional_to} 45 wt.% FeO) plus ankerite fill a large fracture. Late-stage pyrite framboid alteration is Ni

  13. Global market trade policy analysis for petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals, crude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagheri, F.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on surveying the custom tariffs imposed on the world export market of Petroleum Oils and Oils Obtained from Bituminous Minerals, Crude. We obtained the data according to the most updated available data provided online by UNCTAD and World Bank. The results indicate that none of the 142 countries in the world market of this product have imposed non-tariff trade barriers on the import of Petroleum Oils and Oils Obtained from Bituminous Minerals, Crude. The developed countries and the countries with transition economies are the main world import partners. European Union, United States, China, Japan, South Korea, Canada, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, South Africa, Australia, Turkey, Brazil, Sweden and Belarus are the examples and have imposed low custom tariffs on Petroleum Oils and Oils Obtained from Bituminous Minerals, Crude.

  14. Influence of an igneous intrusion on the inorganic geochemistry of a bituminous coal from Pitkin County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelman, R.B.; Bostick, N.H.; Dulong, F.T.; Senftle, F.E.; Thorpe, A.N.

    1998-01-01

    Although the effects of igneous dikes on the organic matter in coal have been observed at many localities there is virtually no information on the effects of the intrusions of the inorganic constituents in the coal. Such a study may help to elucidate the behavior of trace elements during in situ gasification of coal and may provide insights into the resources potential for coal and coke affected by the intrusion. To determine the effects of an igneous intrusion on the inorganic chemistry of a coal we used a series of 11 samples of coal and natural coke that had been collected at intervals from 3 to 106 cm from a dike that intruded the bituminous Dutch Creek coal in Pitkin, CO. The samples were chemically analyzed for 66 elements. SEM-EDX and X-ray diffraction analysis were performed on selected samples. Volatile elements such as F, Cl, Hg, and Se are not depleted in the samples (coke and coal) nearest the dike that were exposed to the highest temperatures. Their presence in these samples is likely due to secondary enrichment following volatilization of the elements inherent in the coal. Equilibration with ground water may account for the uniform distribution of Na, B, and Cl. High concentrations of Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Sr, and CO2 in the coke region are attributed to the reaction of CO and CO2 generated during the coking of the coal with fluids from the intrusion, resulting in the precipitation of carbonates. Similarly, precipitation of sulfide minerals in the coke zone may account for the relatively high concentrations of Ag, Hg, Cu, Zn, and Fe. Most elements are concentrated at the juncture of the fluidized coke and the thermally metamorphosed coal. Many of the elements enriched in this region (for example, Ga, Ge, Mo, Rb, U, La, Ce, Al, K, and Si) may have been adsorbed on either the clays or the organic matter or on both.Although the effects of igneous dikes on the organic matter in coal have been observed at many localities there is virtually no information on the

  15. Chemistry of thermally altered high volatile bituminous coals from southern Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R.; Mastalerz, Maria; Brassell, S.; Elswick, E.; Hower, J.C.; Schimmelmann, A.

    2007-01-01

    The optical properties and chemical characteristics of two thermally altered Pennsylvanian high volatile bituminous coals, the non-coking Danville Coal Member (Ro = 0.55%) and the coking Lower Block Coal Member (Ro = 0.56%) were investigated with the purpose of understanding differences in their coking behavior. Samples of the coals were heated to temperatures of 275????C, 325????C, 375????C and 425????C, with heating times of up to one hour. Vitrinite reflectance (Ro%) rises with temperature in both coals, with the Lower Block coal exhibiting higher reflectance at 375????C and 425????C compared to the Danville coal. Petrographic changes include the concomitant disappearance of liptinites and development of vesicles in vitrinites in both coals, although neither coal developed anisotropic coke texture. At 375????C, the Lower Block coal exhibits a higher aromatic ratio, higher reflectance, higher carbon content, and lower oxygen content, all of which indicate a greater degree of aromatization at this temperature. The Lower Block coal maintains a higher CH2/CH3 ratio than the Danville coal throughout the heating experiment, indicating that the long-chain unbranched aliphatics contained in Lower Block coal liptinites are more resistant to decomposition. As the Lower Block coal contains significant amounts of liptinite (23.6%), the contribution of aliphatics from these liptinites appears to be the primary cause of its large plastic range and high fluidity. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Adsorption of SO2 on bituminous coal char and activated carbon fiber prepared from phenol formaldehyde

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBarr, Joseph A.; Lizzio, Anthony A.; Daley, Michael A.

    1996-01-01

    Carbon-based materials are used commercially to remove SO2 from coal combustion flue gases. Historically, these materials have consisted of granular activated carbons prepared from lignite or bituminous coal. Recent studies have reported that activated carbon fibers (ACFs) may have potential in this application due to their relatively high SO2 adsorption capacity. In this paper, a comparison of SO2 adsorption for both coal-based carbons and ACFs is presented, as well as ideas on carbon properties that may influence SO2 adsorption

  17. JV Task 126 - Mercury Control Technologies for Electric Utilities Burning Bituminous Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason Laumb; John Kay; Michael Jones; Brandon Pavlish; Nicholas Lentz; Donald McCollor; Kevin Galbreath

    2009-03-29

    The EERC developed an applied research consortium project to test cost-effective mercury (Hg) control technologies for utilities burning bituminous coals. The project goal was to test innovative Hg control technologies that have the potential to reduce Hg emissions from bituminous coal-fired power plants by {ge}90% at costs of one-half to three-quarters of current estimates for activated carbon injection (ACI). Hg control technology evaluations were performed using the EERC's combustion test facility (CTF). The CTF was fired on pulverized bituminous coals at 550,000 Btu/hr (580 MJ/hr). The CTF was configured with the following air pollution control devices (APCDs): selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit, electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization system (WFDS). The Hg control technologies investigated as part of this project included ACI (three Norit Americas, Inc., and eleven Envergex sorbents), elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) oxidation catalysts (i.e., the noble metals in Hitachi Zosen, Cormetech, and Hitachi SCR catalysts), sorbent enhancement additives (SEAs) (a proprietary EERC additive, trona, and limestone), and blending with a Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal. These Hg control technologies were evaluated separately, and many were also tested in combination.

  18. Study on the structure and gasification characteristics of selected South African bituminous coals in fluidised bed gasification

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oboirien, BO

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The gasification characteristics of three South African bituminous coals were investigated in a bubbling fluidised bed reactor. The three coals are similar in rank, but two are inertinite-rich coals and the third has a high vitrinite content...

  19. Some thoughts on the organic structure of bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, J. W.

    1978-01-01

    Our current operating hypothesis is that coal consists of a cross linked macromolecular network of high aromatic clusters held together by linkages which include ethers and methylene groups. These clusters are arranged like beads on a string with 3 to 5 beads between branch points. Coal can be liqufied most readily by cleaving the links between the clusters. Doing chemistry on the clusters in the whole coal is very difficult because of the problems of getting to the clusters by reagents. It is fortunate that the linkages between clusters are quite reactive. But even with this, it is clear that coal liquefaction is a formidable chemical problem. There is much wisdom is Sternberg's suggestion that the chemistry of the freed clusters (pre-asphaltenes) be developed. Our model indicates that the chemistry which results in freeing the clusters from the network also should be explored and broadened.

  20. GC/MS Analysis of Fractional Extraction of Fusain from Tongting Bituminous Coal in CS2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Fusain from Tongting (Huaibei, Anhui Province) bituminous (FTTB) coal was fractionally extracted using Soxhlet extractor with CS2. Then the extracts were analyzed with GC/MS. Comparison of experimental data between FTTB coal and clarain from Tongting bituminous (CTTB) coal was carried out. The results show that the kinds of small molecule components detected by GC/MS of FTTB are less than those of CTTB. Long-chain alkanes exist mostly in the extracts of fusain. Macromolecular networks are predominant in the FTTB coal mainly composed of inertinite in the coal petrography. The size of micropores in the FTTB coal is relatively small, and the development of micropores is relatively low. Thus the content of aromatic compounds with affinity for micropores is relative low in FTTB, while the content of long-chain alkanes with affinity for macromolecule networks is relatively high. Sub-components in exinite determine the distribution of long-chain alkanes extracted in the last stage. Odd-numbered carbon distribution appears when resin is most in exinite, while high carbon alkane distribution appears when exinite is dominant in cutinite. Small aromatic molecules are firstly packed in micropores, and exist in a free state after micropores are saturated.

  1. Mercury in Bituminous Coal Used in Polish Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmistrz, Piotr; Kogut, Krzysztof

    2016-09-01

    Poland is a country with the highest anthropogenic mercury emission in the European Union. According to the National Centre for Emissions Management (NCEM) estimation yearly emission exceeds 10 Mg. Within that approximately 56% is a result of energetic coal combustion. In 121 studied coal samples from 30 coal mines an average mercury content was 112.9 ppb with variation between 30 and 321 ppb. These coals have relatively large contents of chlorine and bromine. Such chemical composition is benefitial to formation of oxidized mercury Hg2+, which is easier to remove in Air Pollution Control Devices. The Hgr/Qir (mercury content to net calorific value in working state) ratio varied between 1.187 and 13.758 g Hg · TJ-1, and arithmetic mean was 4.713 g Hg · TJ-1. Obtained results are close to the most recent NCEM mercury emission factor of 1.498 g Hg · TJ-1. Value obtained by us is more reliable that emission factor from 2011 (6.4 g Hg · TJ-1), which caused overestimation of mercury emission from energetic coal combustion.

  2. Synergistic effect on thermal behavior during co-pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass model components blend with bituminous coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhiqiang; Wang, Shuzhong; Zhao, Jun; Chen, Lin; Meng, Haiyu

    2014-10-01

    Co-thermochemical conversion of lignocellulosic biomass and coal has been investigated as an effective way to reduce the carbon footprint. Successful evaluating on thermal behavior of the co-pyrolysis is prerequisite for predicting performance and optimizing efficiency of this process. In this paper, pyrolysis and kinetics characteristics of three kinds of lignocellulosic biomass model components (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin) blended with a kind of Chinese bituminous coal were explored by thermogravimetric analyzer and Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose method. The results indicated that the addition of model compounds had different synergistic effects on thermal behavior of the bituminous coal. The cellulose showed positive synergistic effects on the thermal decomposition of the coal bituminous coal with lower char yield than calculated value. For hemicellulose and lignin, whether positive or negative synergistic was related to the mixed ratio and temperature range. The distribution of the average activation energy values for the mixtures showed nonadditivity performance.

  3. Bituminous coal fired USC power plants for the European market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klebes, J.; Tigges, K.-D.; Klauke, F.; Busekrus, K. [Hitachi Power Europe GmbH (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The presentation, in slide/viewgraph form, is in sections entitled: Introduction; Steam generator design features; Optimization of plant efficiency; Steam turbine design features (USC material design principles; rotating and stationary blades; last stage blade (LP 48 inch)); and Future developments. The presentation includes a chart of recent highly efficient coal-fired power plants in Japan, China and Germany.

  4. Organic geochemistry of Upper Carboniferous bituminous coals and clastic sediments from the Lublin Coal Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gola, Marek R.; Karger, Michał; Gazda, Lucjan; Grafka, Oliwia

    2013-09-01

    Bituminous coals and clastic rocks from the Lublin Formation (Pennsylvanian, Westphalian B) were subjected to detailed biomarker and Rock-Eval analyses. The investigation of aliphatic and aromatic fractions and Rock-Eval Tmax suggests that the Carboniferous deposits attained relatively low levels of thermal maturity, at the end of the microbial processes/initial phase of the oil window. Somewhat higher values of maturity in the clastic sediments were caused by postdiagenetic biodegradation of organic matter. The dominance of the odd carbon-numbered n-alkanes in the range n-C25 to n-C31 , high concentrations of moretanes and a predominance of C 28 and C29 steranes are indicative of a terrigenous origin of the organic matter in the study material. This is supported by the presence of eudesmane, bisabolane, dihydro-ar-curcumene and cadalene, found mainly in the coal samples. In addition, tri- and tetracyclic diterpanes, e. g. 16β(H)-kaurane, 16β(H)-phyllocladane, 16α(H)-kaurane and norisopimarane, were identified, suggesting an admixture of conifer ancestors among the deposited higher plants. Parameters Pr/n-C17 and Rdit in the coal samples show deposition of organic matter from peat swamp environments, with the water levels varying from high (water-logged swamp) to very low (ephemeral swamp). Clastic deposits were accumulated in a flood plain environment with local small ponds/lakes. In pond/lake sediments, apart from the dominant terrigenous organic matter, research also revealed a certain quantity of algal matter, indicated, i.a., by the presence of tricyclic triterpanes C28 and C29 and elevated concentrations of steranes. The Paq parameter can prove to be a useful tool in the identification of organic matter, but the processes of organic matter biodegradation observed in clastic rocks most likely influence the value of the parameter, at the same time lowering the interpretation potential of these compounds. The value of Pr/Ph varies from 0.93 to 5.24 and from 3

  5. Controls on coalbed methane potential and gas sorption characteristics of high-volatile bituminous coals in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano-Acosta, Wilfrido

    The increasing demand for energy and a growing concern for global warming, owing in part to the steep rise in anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, have sparked worldwide interest in clean coal technologies. Although the energy potential of coal is large, there are many environmental concerns associated with its large-scale utilization. An alternative solution to increasing demand for energy is the recovery of coalbed methane (CBM), an efficient and clean fossil fuel associated with extensive coal deposits. CBM today represents nearly 10 percent of the energy consumed in the United States. From an environmental perspective, coal beds that are too deep or that contain low-quality coal are being investigated as potential sites for permanently sequestering carbon dioxide emissions (CO2 sequestration). Methane has been documented in coals of various ranks. The occurrence and distribution of economically recoverable quantities of CBM result from the interplay between stratigraphy, tectonics, and hydrology. This study evaluates geologic factors that control the occurrence of CBM in Indiana coals, ranging from large-scale processes (i.e., burial and fracturing) to molecular interactions between CBM and the physical structure of coal (i.e., gas adsorption). This study investigates the role of tectonics and burial in the formation of coal fracture sets (cleats) that are critical for CBM extraction. Based on field data, I investigate the role of fracturing with regard to gas occurrence and CBM producibility. The timing of cleat formation is evaluated via carbon and oxygen isotopic signatures of cleat-filling minerals. In addition to field-scale observations, this study includes an experimental component that, based on a multitude of laboratory data, constrains optimum conditions for coal-sample preservation prior to laboratory analyses for exploration. Chemical analyses, petrography, grain-size distributions, Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy, pore

  6. Study on the submicron and micron morphology and the properties of poor bituminous coal burnout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei-Fang Fu; Huai-Chun Zhou; Qing-Yan Fang; Hai Yao; Jianrong Qiu; Minghou Xu [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion

    2007-05-15

    Carbon burnout and its reaction mechanism have been widely focused on in the past decades. The properties of burnout, submicron and micron morphology and the reaction mechanism of poor bituminous coal/char (PBC) in a W-shaped power plant boiler was studied and was compared with those in DTF and in TGA, which showed that the degree of PBC burnout in TGA at 1450{sup o}C was greater than or approximately equal to that in a W-shaped boiler, and that the complexity of the reactions among residual char, oxygen and SiO{sub 2} did not seem to result in mass loss in TGA, although the weight percentage of the residual char in ash decreased from 33% ad (air dry basis) at 900{sup o}C to 9% and at 1450{sup o}C. According to the distribution of pores and the properties of the char burnout, the char can be simply categorized into three classes: char burnout easy, char burnout difficult and char burnout very difficult. The differences of the reaction mechanism must be considered while predicting the burning rate and degree of char burnout in a full-scale boiler by making use of experimental results from TGA and DTF. A different char particle contains markedly different amount of carbons, but for a special char particle, the ratio of carbon to ash is generally constant, and an ash shell does not exist on the char surface. The fusion mineral matter composing of C-O-Si-Al is amorphous, not in the form of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiO{sub 2} above 1450{sup o}C.

  7. Numerical study of bituminous coal combustion in a boiler furnace with bottom blowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zroychikov, N. A.; Kaverin, A. A.

    2016-11-01

    Results obtained by the numerical study of a solid fuel combustion scheme with bottom blowing using Ekibastuz and Kuznetsk bituminous coals of different fractional makeup are presented. Furnace chambers with bottom blowing provide high-efficiency combustion of coarse-grain coals with low emissions of nitrogen oxides. Studying such a combustion scheme, identification of its technological capabilities, and its further improvement are topical issues. As the initial object of study, we selected P-57-R boiler plant designed for burning of Ekibastuz bituminous coal in a prismatic furnace with dry-ash (solid slag) removal. The proposed modernization of the furnace involves a staged air inflow under the staggered arrangement of directflow burners (angled down) and bottom blowing. The calculation results revealed the specific aerodynamics of the flue gases, the trajectories of solid particles in the furnace chamber, and the peculiarities of the fuel combustion depending on the grinding fineness. It is shown that, for coal grinding on the mill, the overall residue on the screen plate of 90 µm ( R 90 ≤ 27% for Ekibastuz coal and R 90 ≤ 15% for Kuznetsk coal) represents admissible values for fuel grind coarsening in terms of economic efficiency and functional reliability of a boiler. The increase in these values leads to the excess of regulatory heat losses and unburned combustible losses. It has been established that the change in the grade of the burned coal does not significantly affect the flow pattern of the flue gases, and the particles trajectory is essentially determined by the elemental composition of the fuel.

  8. Using proximate analysis to characterize airborne dust generation from bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, S.J.; Organiscak, J.A.

    2005-11-01

    Prolonged exposure to airborne respirable coal dust is responsible for coal workers pneumoconiosis (CWP), commonly called black lung. Health research studies have identified that the prevalence and severity of CWP are directly related to both the amount of dust exposure and the coal rank. The amount of airborne respirable dust (ARD) smaller than 10 micrometers generated from breakage of different coals varies widely. To investigate the cause, researchers for the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) have conducted experiments to identify the causes of airborne respirable dust liberation. Laboratory crushing experiments were conducted on a range of low to high volatile bituminous coals from eight mines. The results indicate that the proximate analysis of a coal sample can provide a very good indicator of the potential for a dust problem. For application to the coal mining, processing, and utilization industries, data from 977 US coal seams compiled by the Department of Energy (DoE) has been used to calculate this dust generation potential from an equation based on the NIOSH measured data. A simple procedure for this calculation is provided. 1 fig.

  9. Combustion characteristics and arsenic retention during co-combustion of agricultural biomass and bituminous coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuncai; Liu, Guijian; Wang, Xudong; Qi, Cuicui; Hu, Yunhu

    2016-08-01

    A combination of thermogravimetric analysis (TG) and laboratory-scale circulated fluidized bed combustion experiment was conducted to investigate the thermochemical, kinetic and arsenic retention behavior during co-combustion bituminous coal with typical agricultural biomass. Results shown that ignition performance and thermal reactivity of coal could be enhanced by adding biomass in suitable proportion. Arsenic was enriched in fly ash and associated with fine particles during combustion of coal/biomass blends. The emission of arsenic decreased with increasing proportion of biomass in blends. The retention of arsenic may be attributed to the interaction between arsenic and fly ash components. The positive correlation between calcium content and arsenic concentration in ash suggesting that the arsenic-calcium interaction may be regarded as the primary mechanism for arsenic retention.

  10. Petrographic and Vitrinite Reflectance Analyses of a Suite of High Volatile Bituminous Coal Samples from the United States and Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, Paul C.; Kolak, Jonathan J.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents vitrinite reflectance and detailed organic composition data for nine high volatile bituminous coal samples. These samples were selected to provide a single, internally consistent set of reflectance and composition analyses to facilitate the study of linkages among coal composition, bitumen generation during thermal maturation, and geochemical characteristics of generated hydrocarbons. Understanding these linkages is important for addressing several issues, including: the role of coal as a source rock within a petroleum system, the potential for conversion of coal resources to liquid hydrocarbon fuels, and the interactions between coal and carbon dioxide during enhanced coalbed methane recovery and(or) carbon dioxide sequestration in coal beds.

  11. Major, trace, and natural radioactive elements in bituminous coal from Australia, Romania, Russia, South Africa and Ukraine: A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duliu, O.G.; Culicov, O.A.; Radulescu, I.; Cristea, C.; Vasiu, T. [University of Bucharest, Bucharest (Romania). Dept. of Atomic & Nuclear Physics

    2005-05-01

    Five samples of bituminous coal collected from different basins (Australia, Romania, Russia, South Africa and Ukraine) have been investigated by using different analytical techniques. Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Mo, Sn, In, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Lu, Hf, Ta, W, Hg, Th and U have been determined by neutron activation analysis, K-40, U-238, U-235 and Th-232 have been measured radiometrically, H, C, O, N, and S have been dosed by dynamic flash combustion, while gravimetric methods have been used to measure moisture and ash content together with calorific value. Major mineralogical fractions have been investigated by means of X-ray diffraction. The results have shown significant positive correlations between radiometric and activation analysis results, between calorific value and carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen concentrations and negative significant correlations between calorific value and ash content. According to the Romanian Regulations, only Cr and Ni for Romanian coal exceeded the minimum threshold to be considered unpolluting elements. The distribution of rare earth elements, La to Th ratio, as well as of Sc, La and Th together with Co, Hf and Th have confirmed that, irrespective of sample sources, the mineral part of coal has a composition close to that of the upper continental crust.

  12. THE EFFECTS OF SOLVENTS ON SUB-BITUMINOUS COAL BELOW ITS PYROLYSIS TEMPERATURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grens III., Edward A.; Dorighi, Gary P.; Lindsey, David

    1979-12-01

    The action of organic solvents on a sub-bituminous coal has been examined over the temperature range of 150-350°C. The solvents studied included benzene, tetralin, pyridine, quinoline, piperidine, and ethylenediamine. The yield of extracted material varied widely with solvent and temperature, exceeding 60% (daf) for ethylenediamine at 250°C. The extracts were anlayzed for molecular weight, elemental composition and proton aromaticity. When mixtures of strong amine-type solvents with toluene were used, the yield of extract was linearly related mol fraction of strong solvent in the mixture.

  13. The thermal decomposition studies of three Polish bituminous coking coals and their blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krzesinska, M.; Szeluga, U.; Czajkowska, S.; Muszynski, J.; Zachariasz, J.; Pusz, S.; Pilawa, B. [Centre of Polymer and Carbon Materials, Polish Academy of Sciences, Marii Curie-Sklodowskiej 34, 41-819 Zabrze (Poland); Kwiecinska, B. [AGH-University of Science and Technology, Aleja Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Koszorek, A. [Department of Inorganic Chemistry and Technology, Silesian Technical University, Krzywoustego 6, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland)

    2009-01-31

    The objective of this work was to investigate the thermal decomposition of various bituminous coal blends. Three Polish coals of varying rank (82.7, 86.2 and 88.7 wt.% carbon content) and caking ability (weak, moderate and strong) were collected from the Krupinski, Szczyglowice and Zofiowka mines, respectively. These coals were used to prepare binary and ternary blends. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) were used. The weight loss and heat flow during pyrolysis, and storage/loss elastic modulus measured as a function of increasing temperature were related to the caking ability of coals. Parameters determined with the TGA and the DSC methods in the binary and ternary blends were correlated with the proportion of strongly-caking-coal concentration in the blend. The weight loss of coal blends was found to be additive parameter. The DSC thermograms of binary blends were found to be different from those of the ternary blends, which suggests a different course for this blend pyrolysis. (author)

  14. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 8. Gasification of River King Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-05-01

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the eighth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of River King Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal. The period of gasification test was July 28 to August 19, 1983. 6 refs., 23 figs., 25 tabs.

  15. Burnout behaviour of bituminous coals in air-staged combustion conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kluger, F.; Spliethoff, H.; Hein, K.R.G. [University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. of Process Engineering and Power Plant (IVD)

    2001-07-01

    In order to determine the influence on burnout by the combustion conditions and the coal preparation, three bituminous coals sold on the world market, from three different locations in Poland, South Africa, and Australia, were studied more closely. For this purpose, the coals were ground in two different particle size ranges, which, besides the influence of the combustion conditions, such a temperature, residence time, and stoichiometry, made it possible to also investigate the impact on burnout by the coal preparation. The experiments were carried out in an electrically heated entrained-flow reactor with a thermal input of 8.5 kW. The parameters for the experiments are wall temperature (1000-1350{degree}C), air ratio (0.6-1.15) and two particle sizes (70% {lt} 75 {mu}m, 90% {lt} 75 {mu}m). The results show that in general, for increasing temperatures, the burnout quality will improve. For the Australian Illawara coal, another outcome is increased NOx emissions. Lowering the air ratio in the reduction zone leads to less NOx emission but to increased unburnt matter in ash. For the smaller particle size fraction, the analysis of the different particle sizes shows an improvement of the burnout without a change in NOx emissions. 10 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Comparing potentials for gas outburst in a Chinese anthracite and an Australian bituminous coal mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Guoqing; Saghafi Abouna

    2014-01-01

    Gas outbursts in underground mining occur under conditions of high gas desorption rate and gas content, combined with high stress regime, low coal strength and high Young’s modulus. This combination of gas and stress factors occurs more often in deep mining. Hence, as the depth of mining increases, the poten-tial for outburst increases. This study proposes a conceptual model to evaluate outburst potential in terms of an outburst indicator. The model was used to evaluate the potential for gas outburst in two mines, by comparing numerical simulations of gas flow behavior under typical stress regimes in an Australian gassy mine extracting a medium-volatile bituminous coal, and a Chinese gassy coal mine in Qinshui Basin (Shanxi province) extracting anthracite coal. We coupled the stress simulation program (FLAC3D) with the gas simulation program (SIMED II) to compute the stress and gas pressure and gas content distribution following development of a roadway into the targeted coal seams. The data from gas content and stress distribution were then used to quantify the intensity of energy release in the event of an outburst.

  17. Assessment of underground coal gasification in bituminous coals: potential UCG products and markets. Final report, Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-31

    The following conclusions were drawn from the study: (1) The US will continue to require new sources of energy fuels and substitutes for petrochemical feedstocks into the foreseeable future. Most of this requirement will be met using coal. However, the cost of mining, transporting, cleaning, and preparing coal, disposing of ash or slag and scrubbing stack gases continues to rise; particularly, in the Eastern US where the need is greatest. UCG avoids these pitfalls and, as such, should be considered a viable alternative to the mining of deeper coals. (2) Of the two possible product gases LBG and MBG, MBG is the most versatile. (3) The most logical use for UCG product in the Eastern US is to generate power on-site using a combined-cycle or co-generation system. Either low or medium Btu gas (LBG or MBG) can be used. (4) UCG should be an option whenever surface gasification is considered; particularly, in areas where deeper, higher sulfur coal is located. (5) There are environmental and social benefits to use of UCG over surface gasification in the Eastern US. (6) A site could be chosen almost anywhere in the Illinois and Ohio area where amenable UCG coal has been determined due to the existence of existing transportation or transmission systems. (7) The technology needs to be demonstrated and the potential economic viability determined at a site in the East-North-Central US which has commercial quantities of amenable bituminous coal before utilities will show significant interest.

  18. Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL) process bench studies with bituminous coal. Final report, [October 1, 1988--December 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comolli, A.G.; Johanson, E.S.; Karolkiewicz, W.F.; Lee, L.K.; Stalzer, R.H.; Smith, T.O.

    1993-03-01

    Reported herein are the details and results of Laboratory and Bench-Scale experiments using bituminous coal concluded at Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., under DOE contract during the period October 1, 1988 to December 31, 1992. The work described is primarily concerned with the application of coal cleaning methods and solids separation methods to the Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL) Process. Additionally a predispersed catalyst was evaluated in a thermal/catalytic configuration, and an alternative nickel molybdenum catalyst was evaluated for the CTSL process. Three coals were evaluated in this program: Bituminous Illinois No. 6 Burning Star and Sub-bituminous Wyoming Black Thunder and New Mexico McKinley Mine seams. The results from a total of 16 bench-scale runs are reported and analyzed in detail. The tests involving the Illinois coal are reported herein, and the tests involving the Wyoming and New Mexico coals are described in Topical Report No. 1. On the laboratory scale, microautoclave tests evaluating coal, start-up oils, catalysts, thermal treatment, CO{sub 2} addition and sulfur compound effects are reported in Topical Report No. 3. Other microautoclave tests, such as tests on rejuvenated catalyst, coker liquids, and cleaned coals, are described in the Bench Run sections to which they refer. The microautoclave tests conducted for modelling the CTSL process are described in the CTSL Modelling section of Topical Report No. 3 under this contract.

  19. Preconversion processing of bituminous coals: New directions to improved direct catalytic coal liquefaction. [Effect of preconversion heat soak with coal liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    A study of the high-temperature soaking started in this quarter, following the installation of reactors in the previous quarter. Two high-volatile bituminous coals and three coal liquids, which were identified in the previous report, were used. A cross-linked, three-dimensional macromolecular model has been widely accepted f or the structure of coal, but there is no direct evidence to prove this model. The conventional coal structure model has been recently re-examined by this investigator because of the importance of relatively strong intra- and intermolecular interactions in bituminous coals. It was reasonable to deduce that significant portions were physically associated after a study of multistep extractions, associative equilibria, the irreversibility and the dependence of coal concentration on solvent swelling, and consideration of the monophase concept. Physical dissociation which may be significant above 300{degree}C should be utilized for the treatment before liquefaction. The high-temperature soaking in a recycle oil was proposed to dissociate coal complexes.

  20. On the interfacial interaction between bituminous binders and mineral surfaces as present in asphalt mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Hartmut R., E-mail: hartmut.fischer@tno.nl [TNO Technical Sciences, De Rondom 1, 5612 AP Eindhoven (Netherlands); Dillingh, E.C.; Hermse, C.G.M. [TNO Technical Sciences, De Rondom 1, 5612 AP Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Direct measurement of the contact angle between different phases of the microstructure of bitumen and aggregate surfaces of different chemical nature using AFM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Common schema of adhesion of bitumen on aggregates via asphaltene precipitation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Surface roughness/porosity more important than chemical nature for strength of adhesion between aggregate and bitumen. - Abstract: The interfacial interaction between bituminous binders and several mineral surfaces of different chemical nature as present in asphalt mixtures has been investigated using atomic force microscopy. Several dry mineral surfaces display comparable wetting with respect to the different phases present in the micro-structure of bitumen, regardless of differences in their chemical nature. The peri/catana-phase shows a preferential wetting due to adsorption of asphaltene aggregates to the mineral surfaces.

  1. An evaluation of a two-stage spiral processing ultrafine bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthew D. Benusa; Mark S. Klima [Penn State University, University Park, PA (United States). Energy and Mineral Engineering

    2008-10-15

    Testing was conducted to evaluate the performance of a multistage Multotec SX7 spiral concentrator treating ultrafine bituminous coal. This spiral mimics a two-stage separation in that the refuse is removed after four turns, and the clean coal and middlings are repulped (without water addition) and then separated in the final three turns. Feed samples were collected from the spiral circuit of a coal cleaning plant located in southwestern Pennsylvania. The samples consisted of undeslimed cyclone feed (nominal -0.15 mm) and deslimed spiral feed (nominal 0.15 x 0.053 mm). Testing was carried out to investigate the effects of slurry flow rate and solids concentration on spiral performance. Detailed size and ash analyses were performed on the spiral feed and product samples. For selected tests, float-sink and sulfur analyses were performed. In nearly all cases, ash reduction occurred down to approximately 0.025 mm, with some sulfur reduction occurring even in the -0.025 mm interval. The separation of the +0.025 mm material was not significantly affected by the presence of the -0.025 mm material when treating the undeslimed feed. The -0.025 mm material split in approximately the same ratio as the slurry, and the majority of the water traveled to the clean coal stream. This split ultimately increased the overall clean coal ash value. A statistical analysis determined that both flow rate and solids concentration affected the clean coal ash value and yield, though the flow rate had a greater effect on the separation. 23 refs.

  2. Structural characterization of vitrinite-rich and inertinite-rich Permian-aged South African bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Niekerk, Daniel; Mathews, Jonathan P. [Energy and Mineral Engineering and the EMS Energy Institute, Pennsylvania State University, Hosler Building, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Pugmire, Ronald J. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Solum, Mark S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Painter, Paul C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, 320 Steidle Building, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Two South African coals of the same rank and age, but different in maceral composition were subjected to extensive structural analyses. Inertinite-rich Highveld coal (dominated by semifusinite) and vitrinite-rich Waterberg coal were studied to determine structural differences and similarities. The two coals had similar carbon content ({proportional_to} 84%, dmmf) and vitrinite reflectance (mean-maximum 0.71% for vitrinite-rich vs. 0.75% for inertinite-rich), but differed in hydrogen content (6.23% for vitrinite-rich and 4.53% for inertinite-rich). The inertinite-rich coal was more aromatic (86% for inertinite-rich and 76% for vitrinite-rich) and more polycondensed (indicated by a higher bridgehead carbon content). The inertinite-rich coal was structurally more ordered, with a higher degree of crystalline stacking. Both coals had similar average aromatic cluster sizes (16 carbons for vitrinite-rich and 18 carbons for inertinite-rich) and number of cluster attachments (6 attachments for vitrinite-rich and 5 attachments for inertinite-rich). Mass spectrometry showed that both coals consist of similar molecular weight distributions; ranging to approximately 1700 m/z with a maximum abundance of {proportional_to} 450 m/z for the vitrinite-rich coal and {proportional_to} 550 m/z for the inertinite-rich coal. Compared to the Argonne Premium coals the South African vitrinite-rich Waterberg coal was comparable to the coals in the high-volatile bituminous range and inertinite-rich Highveld was closer to the medium- to low-volatile bituminous range. Both coals were surprisingly similar in bulk characterization, although inertinite-rich Highveld coal was structurally more ordered, hydrogen deficient, and more aromatic. (author)

  3. Effect of Pre-oxidation on the Properties of Crushed Bituminous Coal and Activated Carbon Prepared Therefrom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The influence of a pre-oxidation process on the chemical properties of crushed bituminous coal and on adsorption properties of the subsequently formed char and activated carbon is discussed in this paper.Datong bituminous coal samples sized 6 mm were oxidized at different temperatures and for different times and then carbonized and activated by steam to obtain activated carbons.A Uniform Design method was used to arrange the experiments, IR and adsorption experiments were used to characterize these oxidized coals, chars and activated carbon samples.The results show that the carboxyl group disappeared and α-CH2 groups joined to alkenes decreased dramatically but the carbonyl group clearly increased in the coal sample oxidized at 543 K; The chemical composition of coal samples oxidized at lower temperature is different from that of coal oxidized at 543 K.Oxidizing coal samples at higher temperatures for a short time or at lower temperatures for a longer time resulted in activated carbon samples that tended toward the same adsorption properties: Iodine number 1100 mg/g and Methylene blue value 252 mg/g.The yield of activated carbon obtained from the pre-oxidized coal is 10% higher than the yield from parent coal but the activated carbons have the same adsorption properties.

  4. Combustion characteristics of Malaysian oil palm biomass, sub-bituminous coal and their respective blends via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Siti Shawalliah; Rahman, Norazah Abd; Ismail, Khudzir

    2012-11-01

    The combustion characteristics of Malaysia oil palm biomass (palm kernel shell (PKS), palm mesocarp fibre (PMF) and empty fruit bunches (EFB)), sub-bituminous coal (Mukah Balingian) and coal/biomass blends via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were investigated. Six weight ratios of coal/biomass blends were prepared and oxidised under dynamic conditions from temperature 25 to 1100°C at four heating rates. The thermogravimetric analysis demonstrated that the EFB and PKS evolved additional peak besides drying, devolatilisation and char oxidation steps during combustion. Ignition and burn out temperatures of blends were improved in comparison to coal. No interactions were observed between the coal and biomass during combustion. The apparent activation energy during this process was evaluated using iso-conversional model free kinetics which resulted in highest activation energy during combustion of PKS followed by PMF, EFB and MB coal. Blending oil palm biomass with coal reduces the apparent activation energy value.

  5. Experimental and computational study and development of the bituminous coal entrained-flow air-blown gasifier for IGCC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaimov, N. A.; Osipov, P. V.; Ryzhkov, A. F.

    2016-10-01

    In the paper the development of the advanced bituminous coal entrained-flow air- blown gasifier for the high power integrated gasification combined cycle is considered. The computational fluid dynamics technique is used as the basic development tool. The experiment on the pressurized entrained-flow gasifier was performed by “NPO CKTI” JSC for the thermochemical processes submodel verification. The kinetic constants for Kuznetsk bituminous coal (flame coal), obtained by thermal gravimetric analysis method, are used in the model. The calculation results obtained by the CFD model are in satisfactory agreements with experimental data. On the basis of the verified model the advanced gasifier structure was suggested which permits to increase the hydrogen content in the synthesis gas and consequently to improve the gas turbine efficiency. In order to meet the specified requirements vapor is added on the second stage of MHI type gasifier and heat necessary for air gasification is compensated by supplemental heating of the blasting air.

  6. Non-catalytic co-gasification of sub-bituminous coal and biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyendu, Guevara Che

    Fluidization characteristics and co-gasification of pulverized sub-bituminous coal, hybrid poplar wood, corn stover, switchgrass, and their mixtures were investigated. Co-gasification studies were performed over temperature range from 700°C to 900°C in different media (N2, CO2, steam) using a bubbling fluidized bed reactor. In fluidization experiments, pressure drop (Delta P) observed for coal-biomass mixtures was higher than those of single coal and biomass bed materials in the complete fluidization regime. There was no systematic trend observed for minimum fluidization velocity ( Umf) with increasing biomass content. However, porosity at minimum fluidization (εmf) increased with increasing biomass content. Channeling effects were observed in biomass bed materials and coal bed with 40 wt.% and 50 wt.% biomass content at low gas flowrates. The effect of coal pressure overshoot reduced with increasing biomass content. Co-gasification of coal and corn stover mixtures showed minor interactions. Synergetic effects were observed with 10 wt.% corn stover. Coal mixed with corn stover formed agglomerates during co-gasification experiments and the effect was severe with increase in corn stover content and at 900°C. Syngas (H2 + CO) concentrations obtained using CO2 as co-gasification medium were higher (~78 vol.% at 700°C, ~87 vol.% at 800°C, ~93 vol.% at 900°C) than those obtained with N2 medium (~60 vol.% at 700°C, ~65 vol.% at 800°C, ~75 vol.% at 900°C). Experiments involving co-gasification of coal with poplar showed no synergetic effects. Experimental yields were identical to predicted yields. However, synergetic effects were observed on H2 production when steam was used as the co-gasification medium. Additionally, the presence of steam increased H2/CO ratio up to 2.5 with 10 wt.% hybrid poplar content. Overall, char and tar yields decreased with increasing temperature and increasing biomass content, which led to increase in product gas.

  7. XRD and FT–IR investigations of sub-bituminous Assam coals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Binoy K Saikia; R K Boruah; P K Gogoi

    2007-08-01

    Two coal samples collected from Makum coal field, Assam, India were studied by XRD and FT–IR techniques. The X-ray diffractogram shows the existence of some crystalline carbons in Assam coals as proven by the appearance of peaks. The radial distribution functional (RDF) method was applied for the determination of structural aspects of the coals. The study indicates that the coals are lignite in type and there is no evidence of graphite-like structures. The maximum in the () plots of function of radial distribution of atoms (FRDA) relates to different distances between carbon atoms of aliphatic chains. The first significant maximum relates to the C–C bond (type C–CH=CH–C), the second maximum relates to the distance between carbon atoms of aliphatic chains that are located across one carbon atom. The curve intensity profiles obtained from FRDA show quite regular molecular packets for this coal. The coals were found to be lignite in nature. FT–IR study shows the presence of aliphatic carbon, C=O and C–O stretching associated with –OH and –NH stretching vibrations. Kaolinite and quartz were also found to be major minerals in Assam coals by FTIR spectroscopy. The difference in intensities of carbonyl groups of the coal samples is likely to relate with the rank.

  8. XRD and FT-IR investigations of sub-bituminous Assam coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saikia, B.K.; Boruah, R.K.; Gogoi, P.K. [Tezpur University, Tezpur (India). Dept. of Chemical Science

    2007-08-15

    Two coal samples collected from Makum coal field, Assam, India were studied by XRD and FT-IR techniques. The X-ray diffractogram shows the existence of some crystalline carbons in Assam coals as proven by the appearance of peaks. The radial distribution functional (RDF) method was applied for the determination of structural aspects of the coals. The study indicates that the coals are lignite in type and there is no evidence of graphite-like structures. The maximum in the Gr) plots of function of radial distribution of atoms (FRDA) relates to different distances between carbon atoms of aliphatic chains. The first significant maximum relates to the C-C bond (type C-CH=CH-C), the second maximum relates to the distance between carbon atoms of aliphatic chains that are located across one carbon atom. The curve intensity profiles obtained from FRDA show quite regular molecular packets for this coal. The coals were found to be lignite in nature. FT-IR study shows the presence of aliphatic carbon, C=O and C-O stretching associated with -OH and -NH stretching vibrations. Kaolinite and quartz were also found to be major minerals in Assam coals by FTIR spectroscopy. The difference in intensities of carbonyl groups of the coal samples is likely to relate with the rank.

  9. Recovery bituminous coal fines: a discussion on the production of coal-water slurry fuels and its relationship to fine coal cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, J.L.; Scaroni, A.W.; Battista, J.J. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The recovery of bituminous coal fines from slurry impoundments and fine coal cleaning circuits has received considerable attention over the last decade from both coal suppliers and coal-fired utilities. Several coal-fired utilities are presently determining whether a low-solids, low viscosity coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF) produced from fine coal can be co-fired with their normal coal feedstock in order to lower their fuel cost and reduce their NO{sub x} emissions. One of the most visible CWSF demonstration programs in the United States is being conducted by GPU Generating, Inc. (GPU Genco). GPU Genco has conducted intermittent demonstration co-fire testing at their 218 MWe-Seward Station since 1993. These tests successfully demonstrate that a low-solids CWSF can be co-fired with pulverized coal in wall-and tangentially-fired boilers. The majority of the CWSF tested at Seward has been prepared from impounded coal fines cleaned via froth flotation and, on a more limited basis, a CWSF prepared from coal fines concentrated from a screen-bowl centrifuge effluent. The production of alow-solids CWSF from wet, fine coal provides an alternative to dewatering. This paper summarizes several fine coal recovery and utilization programs conducted by Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) and GPU Genco during the last five years. These programs range from performing bench-to-pilot-scale cleanability and pilot-scale combustion testing to full-scale utility demonstration tests. All of these successful programs have a common thread of integrating and addressing the issues of fine coal characterization, cleaning handling, and the combustion performance of the CWSF. 8 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  10. Temperature induced development of porous structure of bituminous coal chars at high pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Howaniec

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The porous structure of chars affects their reactivity in gasification, having an impact on the course and product distribution of the process. The shape, size and connections between pores determine the mechanical properties of chars, as well as heat and mass transport in thermochemical processing. In the study the combined effects of temperature in the range of 973–1273 °K and elevated pressure of 3 MPa on the development of porous structure of bituminous coal chars were investigated. Relatively low heating rate and long residence time characteristic for the in-situ coal conversion were applied. The increase in the temperature to 1173 °K under pressurized conditions resulted in the enhancement of porous structure development reflected in the values of the specific surface area, total pore volume, micropore area and volume, as well as ratio of the micropore volume to the total pore volume. These effects were attributed to the enhanced vaporization and devolatilization, as well as swelling behavior along the increase of temperature and under high pressure, followed by a collapse of pores over certain temperature value. This proves the strong dependence of the porous structure of chars not only on the pyrolysis process conditions but also on the physical and chemical properties of the parent fuel.

  11. A kinetic study of gaseous potassium capture by coal minerals in a high temperature fixed-bed reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yuanjing; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2008-01-01

    The reactions between gaseous potassium chloride and coal minerals were investigated in a lab-scale high temperature fixed-bed reactor using single sorbent pellets. The applied coal minerals included kaolin, mullite, silica, alumina, bituminous coal ash, and lignite coal ash that were formed...... into long cylindrical pellets. Kaolin and bituminous coal ash that both have significant amounts of Si and Al show superior potassium capture characteristics. Experimental results show that capture of potassium by kaolin is independent of the gas oxygen content. Kaolin releases water and forms metakaolin...... at temperatures below 1300°C. However, the weight gain by mullite is only slightly smaller than that by kaolin in the temperature range of 1300-1500°C. A simple model was developed for the gas-solid reaction between potassium vapor and metakaolin pellet at 900°C....

  12. Valorization of bituminous coal pulps using column flotation; Valorisation de fines de charbon bitumineux par flottation en colonnes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gursu, G.; Hicyilmaz, C. [Universite du Moyen-Orient, Ankara (Turkey); Bilgen, S. [Universite de Mersin (Turkey)

    2001-03-01

    Washing tests were performed with 5 x 5 x 200 cm{sup 3} laboratory flotation columns on bituminous coal pulps from Zonguldak (Turkey) containing 47.52% of ash. The final product contains 10% of ash with a 73.52% recovery. A re-washing of this concentrate allows to obtain a final product with 5.88% of ash and a 59.27% recovery. Abstract only. (J.S.)

  13. Potential of water-washing of rape straw on thermal properties and interactions during co-combustion with bituminous coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qiulin; Han, Lujia; Huang, Guangqun

    2017-03-07

    The aim of this work was to study the thermal properties and interactions during co-combustion of rape straw (RS) before and after water-washing with bituminous coal. A series of experiments was conducted to investigate the properties and interactions during co-combustion of RS with bituminous coal (at 10, 20, 40 and 60% RS). The feasibility and potential of water-washing as an RS pre-treatment was also explored. Reactivity and the amount of heat released followed a quadratic trend, while changes to the degree of interactions between the fuels conformed to a cosine curve. Water-washing increased the ignition and burn-out temperatures and slightly decreased reactivity. Demineralization negatively affected the previously synergistic co-firing relationship, nevertheless, the amount of heat released increased by 10.28% and the average activation energy (146kJ/mol) was lower than that of the unwashed blend (186kJ/mol). Overall, water-washing of RS could prove a useful pre-treatment before co-combustion with bituminous coal.

  14. Regional differences in the variations of the degree of gas outburst hazard for Mecsek sub-bituminous coal seams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemedi Varga, Z.

    1987-01-01

    In the collieries of the Mecsek Mountains (South Hungary) in which the sub-bituminous coal is exploited, coal and gas outbursts as well as gas outbursts have been recorded in the Pecs-area since 1984, in the Szaszvar area since 1902, and nowadays in the Komlo-area since 1964. Concerning the degree of gas outbursts hazard, the differences between the Pecs and Komlo areas cannot be explained by the differences in facies, by structural differences and by the frequency of occurrence of igneous rocks. The conditions of coalification seem to be responsible for these differences. In this respect the significance of the so-called second phase coalification is emphasized.

  15. Optimization of some parameters on agglomeration performance of Zonguldak bituminous coal by oil agglomeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. Aslan; I. Unal [Cumhuriyet University, Sivas (Turkey). Mining Engineering Department

    2009-03-15

    In this study, the optimization of some parameters on agglomeration performance of Zonguldak bituminous coal by oil agglomeration was discussed. A three-level Box-Behnken design combining with a response surface methodology (RSM) and quadratic programming (QP) were employed for modeling and optimization some operations parameters on oil agglomeration performance. The relationship between the responses, i.e., grade and recovery, and four process parameters, i.e., amount of oil, agitation time, agitation rate and solid content were presented as empirical model equations for both grade and recovery on oil agglomeration. The model equations were then optimized individually using the quadratic programming method to maximize both for grade and recovery within the experimental range studied. The optimum conditions were found to be 14.61% for amount of oil, 8.94 min for agitation time, 1554 rpm for agitation rate and 5% for solid content to achieve the maximum grade. The maximum model prediction of 0.650 grade at these optimum conditions is higher than any value obtained in the initial tests conducted. Similarly, the conditions for maximum recovery were found to be 20.60% for amount of oil, 5 min for agitation time, 1800 rpm for agitation rate and 19.48% for solid content with a prediction of 96.90% recovery, which is also higher than any other recovery obtained in the initial tests conducted. 34 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  16. Co-gasification of bituminous coal and hydrochar derived from municipal solid waste: Reactivity and synergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Juntao; Guo, Qinghua; He, Qing; Ding, Lu; Yoshikawa, Kunio; Yu, Guangsuo

    2017-09-01

    In this work, the influences of gasification temperature and blended ratio on co-gasification reactivity and synergy of Shenfu bituminous coal (SF) and municipal solid waste-derived hydrochar (HTC) were investigated using TGA. Additionally, active alkaline and alkaline earth metal (AAEM) transformation during co-gasification was quantitatively analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer for correlating synergy on co-gasification reactivity. The results showed that higher char gasification reactivity existed at higher HTC char proportion and gasification temperature, and the main synergy behaviour on co-gasification reactivity was performed as synergistic effect. Enhanced synergistic effect at lower temperature was mainly resulted from more obviously inhibiting the primary AAEM (i.e. active Ca) transformation, and weak synergistic effect still existed at higher temperature since more active K with prominent catalysis was retained. Furthermore, more active HTC-derived AAEM remaining in SF sample during co-gasification would lead to enhanced synergistic effect as HTC char proportion increased. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Study on reactivity characteristics and synergy behaviours of rice straw and bituminous coal co-gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Juntao; Guo, Qinghua; Chen, Handing; Chen, Xueli; Yu, Guangsuo

    2016-11-01

    Co-gasification of rice straw (RS) and Shenfu bituminous coal (SF) was conducted in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) to explore the effects of gasification temperature and blend ratio on reactivity characteristics and synergy behaviours of co-gasification. Moreover, the relationship between the synergy and the K/Ca transformation in co-gasification was studied using flame atomic absorption spectrum (FAAS) and in-situ heating stage microscope. The results showed that the whole reactivities increased with increasing RS proportion and gasification temperature. The transformation of water-soluble and ion-exchanged (ws-ie) calcium was enhanced in whole co-gasification and the ws-ie potassium transformation was obviously inhibited in mid-late reaction. Hence, synergy behaviours were synthetically determined by the enhancement of Ca deactivation and the strengthening of K catalysis. The inhibiting effect was occurred in initial co-gasification and was converted to the synergistic effect at a characteristic conversion, which decreased with increasing RS proportion and decreasing gasification temperature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Mercury speciation and distribution in a 660-megawatt utility boiler in Taiwan firing bituminous coals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsi, Hsing-Cheng; Lee, Hsiu-Hsia; Hwang, Jyh-Feng; Chen, Wang

    2010-05-01

    Mercury speciation and distribution in a 660-MW tangential-fired utility boiler in Taiwan burning Australian and Chinese bituminous coal blends was investigated. Flue gases were simultaneously sampled at the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) inlet, the SCR outlet, the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) outlet, and the stack. Samplings of coal, lime, bottom ash/slag, fly ash, and gypsum slurry were also conducted. Results indicated that flue gases at the inlet to SCR contained a great potion of particle-bound mercury (Hg(p)), 59-92% of the total mercury. Removal of mercury was not observed for the SCR system. However, repartitioning of mercury species across the SCR occurred that significantly increased the portion of elemental mercury (Hg0) to up to 29% and oxidized mercury (Hg2+) to up to 33% in the SCR outlet gas. Overreporting of Hg(p) at the inlet of SCR may cause the observed repartitioning; the high ammonia/nitric oxide circumstance in the SCR unit was also speculated to cause the mercury desorption from ash particles and subsequent reentrance into the gas phase. ESP can remove up to 99% of Hg(p), and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) can remove up to 84% of Hg2+. Mercury mass balances were calculated to range between 81 and 127.4%, with an average of 95.7% wherein 56-82% was in ESP fly ash, 8.7-18.6% was retained in the FGD gypsum, and 6.2-26.1% was emitted from the stack. Data presented here suggest that mercury removal can be largely enhanced by increasing the conversion of Hg0 into Hg(p) and Hg2+.

  19. Preconversion processing of bituminous coals: New directions to improved direct catalytic coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, January 1, 1992--March 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    A study of the high-temperature soaking started in this quarter, following the installation of reactors in the previous quarter. Two high-volatile bituminous coals and three coal liquids, which were identified in the previous report, were used. A cross-linked, three-dimensional macromolecular model has been widely accepted f or the structure of coal, but there is no direct evidence to prove this model. The conventional coal structure model has been recently re-examined by this investigator because of the importance of relatively strong intra- and intermolecular interactions in bituminous coals. It was reasonable to deduce that significant portions were physically associated after a study of multistep extractions, associative equilibria, the irreversibility and the dependence of coal concentration on solvent swelling, and consideration of the monophase concept. Physical dissociation which may be significant above 300{degree}C should be utilized for the treatment before liquefaction. The high-temperature soaking in a recycle oil was proposed to dissociate coal complexes.

  20. Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carl Richardson; Katherine Dombrowski; Douglas Orr

    2006-12-31

    This project Final Report is submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) as part of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-03NT41987, 'Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas.' Sorbent injection technology is targeted as the primary mercury control process on plants burning low/medium sulfur bituminous coals equipped with ESP and ESP/FGD systems. About 70% of the ESPs used in the utility industry have SCAs less than 300 ft2/1000 acfm. Prior to this test program, previous sorbent injection tests had focused on large-SCA ESPs. This DOE-NETL program was designed to generate data to evaluate the performance and economic feasibility of sorbent injection for mercury control at power plants that fire bituminous coal and are configured with small-sized electrostatic precipitators and/or an ESP-flue gas desulfurization (FGD) configuration. EPRI and Southern Company were co-funders for the test program. Southern Company and Reliant Energy provided host sites for testing and technical input to the project. URS Group was the prime contractor to NETL. ADA-ES and Apogee Scientific Inc. were sub-contractors to URS and was responsible for all aspects of the sorbent injection systems design, installation and operation at the different host sites. Full-scale sorbent injection for mercury control was evaluated at three sites: Georgia Power's Plant Yates Units 1 and 2 [Georgia Power is a subsidiary of the Southern Company] and Reliant Energy's Shawville Unit 3. Georgia Power's Plant Yates Unit 1 has an existing small-SCA cold-side ESP followed by a Chiyoda CT-121 wet scrubber. Yates Unit 2 is also equipped with a small-SCA ESP and a dual flue gas conditioning system. Unit 2 has no SO2 control system. Shawville Unit 3 is equipped with two small-SCA cold-side ESPs operated in series. All ESP systems tested in this program had SCAs less than 250 ft2/1000 acfm. Short-term parametric tests were conducted on Yates

  1. Preconversion processing of bituminous coals: New directions to improved direct catalytic coal liquefaction. Final report, September 20, 1991--September 19, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    One of the main goals for competitive coal liquefaction is to decrease gas yields to reduce hydrogen consumption. Complexing this element as methane and ethane decreases process efficiently and is less cost effective. To decrease the gas yield and increase the liquid yield, an effective preconversion process has been explored on the basis of the physically associated molecular nature of coal. Activities have been focused on two issues: (1) maximizing the dissolution of associated coal and (2) defining the different reactivity associated with a wide molecular weight distribution. Two-step soaking at 350{degrees}C and 400{degrees}C in a recycle oil was found to be very effective for coal solubilization. No additional chemicals, catalysts, and hydrogen are required for this preconversion process. High-volatile bituminous coals tested before liquefaction showed 80--90% conversion with 50--55% oil yields. New preconversion steps suggested are as follows: (1) dissolution of coal with two-step high-temperature soaking, (2) separation into oil and heavy fractions of dissolved coal with vacuum distillation, and (3) selective liquefaction of the separated heavy fractions under relatively mild conditions. Laboratory scale tests of the proposed procedure mode using a small autoclave showed a 30% increase in the oil yield with a 15--20% decrease in the gas yield. This batch operation projects a substantial reduction in the ultimate cost of coal liquefaction.

  2. Co-combustion of bituminous coal and biomass fuel blends: Thermochemical characterization, potential utilization and environmental advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuncai; Liu, Guijian; Wang, Xudong; Qi, Cuicui

    2016-10-01

    The thermochemical characteristics and gaseous trace pollutant behaviors during co-combustion medium-to-low ash bituminous coal with typical biomass residues (corn stalk and sawdust) were investigated. Lowering of ignition index, burnout temperature and activation energy in the major combustion stage are observed in the coal/biomass blends. The blending proportion of 20% and 30% are regarded as the optimum blends for corn stalk and sawdust, respectively, in according the limitations of heating value, activation energy, flame stability and base/acid ratio. The reductions of gaseous As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) were 4.5%, 7.8%, 6.3%, 9.8%, 9.4% and 17.4%, respectively, when co-combustion coal with 20% corn stalk. The elevated capture of trace elements were found in coal/corn stalk blend, while the coal/sawdust blend has the better PAHs control potential. The reduction mechanisms of gaseous trace pollutants were attributed to the fuel property, ash composition and relative residence time during combustion.

  3. Study on the structure and gasification characteristics of selected South African bituminous coal in fluidised bed gasification

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oboirien, BO

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available . The microstructural characteristics of the parent coals and their resultant chars were determined using XRD, FTIR, Raman and petrographic analysis. The microstructural changes that occurred in the organic (maceral) and the inorganic (mineral) fractions of the selected...

  4. Petrographic and mineral characterization of Balkan coals and their solid waste products from coal preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yossifova, M. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). Institute of Applied Mineralogy

    1995-12-31

    This paper is part of a complex petrographic, mineralogical and chemical investigation on Balkan bituminous coals and their solid waste products from coal preparation. The petrographic and phase-mineralogical composition in ten composite samples and four water extracts have been studied by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. 4 refs., 4 tabs.

  5. Mineral processing technologies used to obtain valuable components of the solid wastes from coal combustion in power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Sisol

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents mineral processing technologies used to achieve components from solid wastes of coal combusted in power plants. By combusting bituminous coal in smelting boilers, mineral novelties are formed which are separable by suitable mineral processing technologies. The separation of unburned coal residues is realized by flotation, using nonionic flotation agents such as Flotalex MR, Flotalex bio, Flotakol NX and others. The Fe component created by the mineral novelty of magnetite is obtained by wet and dry low-intensity magnetic separation. Optimal results were accomplished by the flotation process in which we obtained residues of unburned coal. The waste from the flotation was consequently separated by the wet low-intensity separation. The waste from the flotation and magnetic separation - subtilized fly ash, contained 0 – 2,5% LOI which can be used in architecture.

  6. Comparative study of the influence of minerals in gas sorption isotherms of three coals of similar rank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, C.; Inheiro, H.J.; de Sousa, M.J.L. [University of Fernando Pessoa, Porto (Portugal)

    2008-07-15

    This investigation compares the gas adsorption behaviour and capacity of three bituminous coals from South Africa, of similar rank, by assessing the characteristics of the raw coal, as well as the resulting float and sink fractions (at 1.80 cm{sup 3}/g) obtained by density separation of crushed coal samples. Calculations were also made to obtain the raw coal gas storage capacity from the weighted contribution of both float and sink fractions results, thereby permitting comparison with the analysed results of the raw coal. The study demonstrated that the clean fraction of a coal has the highest capacity to retain gas in the sorbed state, followed by raw coal, and lastly the sink fraction, and re-confirmed previous investigations that showed minerals to be inhibitors of gas adsorption and retention.

  7. Study on co-pyrolysis characteristics of rice straw and Shenfu bituminous coal blends in a fixed bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuaidan; Chen, Xueli; Liu, Aibin; Wang, Li; Yu, Guangsuo

    2014-03-01

    Co-pyrolysis behaviors of rice straw and Shenfu bituminous coal were studied in a fixed bed reactor under nitrogen atmosphere. The pyrolysis temperatures were 700°C, 800°C and 900°C, respectively. Six different biomass ratios were used. Gas, tar components were analyzed by a gas chromatograph and a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry respectively. Under co-pyrolysis conditions, the gas volume yields are higher than the calculated values. Co-pyrolysis tar contains more phenolics, less oxygenate compounds than calculated values. The addition of biomass changes the atmosphere during the pyrolysis process and promotes tar decomposition. The SEM results show that the differences between the blended char and their parents char are not significant. The results of char yields and ultimate analysis also show that no significant interactions exist between the two kinds of particles. The changes of gas yield and components are caused by the secondary reactions and tar decomposition.

  8. Plasma-Augmented Fluidized Bed Gasification of Sub-bituminous Coal in CO2-O2 Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelievre, C.; Pickles, C. A.; Hultgren, S.

    2016-01-01

    The gasification of a sub-bituminous coal using CO2-O2 gas mixtures was studied in a plasma-augmented fluidized bed gasifier. Firstly, the coal was chemically characterized and the gasification process was examined using Thermogravimetric and Differential Thermal Analysis (TGA/DTA) in CO2, O2 and at a CO2 to O2 ratio of 3 to 1. Secondly, the equilibrium gas compositions were obtained using the Gibbs free energy minimization method (HSC Chemistry®7). Thirdly, gasification tests were performed in a plasma-augmented fluidized bed and the off-gas temperatures and compositions were determined. Finally, for comparison purposes, control tests were conducted using a conventional fluidized bed coal gasifier and these results were compared to those achieved in the plasma-augmented fluidized bed gasifier. The effects of bed temperature and CO2 to O2 ratio were studied. For both gasifiers, at a given bed temperature, the off-gas compositions were in general agreement with the equilibrium values. Also, for both gasifiers, an experimental CO2 to O2 ratio of about 3 to 1 resulted in the highest syngas grade (%CO + %H2). Both higher off-gas temperatures and syngas grades could be achieved in the plasma-augmented gasifier, in comparison to the conventional gasifier. These differences were attributed to the higher bed temperatures in the plasma-augmented fluidized bed gasifier.

  9. Co-combustion characteristics and blending optimization of tobacco stem and high-sulfur bituminous coal based on thermogravimetric and mass spectrometry analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kaihua; Zhang, Kai; Cao, Yan; Pan, Wei-ping

    2013-03-01

    Despite much research on co-combustion of tobacco stem and high-sulfur coal, their blending optimization has not been effectively found. This study investigated the combustion profiles of tobacco stem, high-sulfur bituminous coal and their blends by thermogravimetric analysis. Ignition and burnout performances, heat release performances, and gaseous pollutant emissions were also studied by thermogravimetric and mass spectrometry analyses. The results indicated that combustion of tobacco stem was more complicated than that of high-sulfur bituminous coal, mainly shown as fixed carbon in it was divided into two portions with one early burning and the other delay burning. Ignition and burnout performances, heat release performances, and gaseous pollutant emissions of the blends present variable trends with the increase of tobacco stem content. Taking into account the above three factors, a blending ratio of 0–20% tobacco stem content is conservatively proposed as optimum amount for blending.

  10. 76 FR 35968 - Maintenance of Incombustible Content of Rock Dust in Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ... relaxation for lower volatile coal. In its experimental studies of the effect of particle size on explosion... approximately 415 active underground bituminous coal mines employing 47,119 miners. Table 1 presents the 415...

  11. Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL{trademark}) process bench studies and PDU scale-up with sub-bituminous coal. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comolli, A.G.; Johanson, E.S.; Karolkiewicz, W.F.; Lee, L.K.T.; Stalzer, R.H.; Smith, T.O.

    1993-03-01

    Reported are the details and results of Laboratory and Bench-Scale experiments using sub-bituminous coal conducted at Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-88PC88818 during the period October 1, 1988 to December 31, 1992. The work described is primarily concerned with testing of the baseline Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL{trademark}) process with comparisons with other two stage process configurations, catalyst evaluations and unit operations such as solid separation, pretreatments, on-line hydrotreating, and an examination of new concepts. In the overall program, three coals were evaluated, bituminous Illinois No. 6, Burning Star and sub-bituminous Wyoming Black Thunder and New Mexico McKinley Mine seams. The results from a total of 16 bench-scale runs are reported and analyzed in detail. The runs (experiments) concern process variables, variable reactor volumes, catalysts (both supported, dispersed and rejuvenated), coal cleaned by agglomeration, hot slurry treatments, reactor sequence, on-line hydrotreating, dispersed catalyst with pretreatment reactors and CO{sub 2}/coal effects. The tests involving the Wyoming and New Mexico Coals are reported herein, and the tests involving the Illinois coal are described in Topical Report No. 2. On a laboratory scale, microautoclave tests evaluating coal, start-up oils, catalysts, thermal treatment, CO{sub 2} addition and sulfur compound effects were conducted and reported in Topical Report No. 3. Other microautoclave tests are described in the Bench Run sections to which they refer such as: rejuvenated catalyst, coker liquids and cleaned coals. The microautoclave tests conducted for modelling the CTSL{trademark} process are described in the CTSL{trademark} Modelling section of Topical Report No. 3 under this contract.

  12. Progressive oxidation of pyrite in five bituminous coal samples: An As XANES and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolker, Allan; Huggins, Frank E.

    2007-01-01

    Naturally occurring pyrite commonly contains minor substituted metals and metalloids (As, Se, Hg, Cu, Ni, etc.) that can be released to the environment as a result of its weathering. Arsenic, often the most abundant minor constituent in pyrite, is a sensitive monitor of progressive pyrite oxidation in coal. To test the effect of pyrite composition and environmental parameters on the rate and extent of pyrite oxidation in coal, splits of five bituminous coal samples having differing amounts of pyrite and extents of As substitution in the pyrite, were exposed to a range of simulated weathering conditions over a period of 17 months. Samples investigated include a Springfield coal from Indiana (whole coal pyritic S = 2.13 wt.%; As in pyrite = detection limit (d.l.) to 0.06 wt.%), two Pittsburgh coal samples from West Virginia (pyritic S = 1.32–1.58 wt.%; As in pyrite = d.l. to 0.34 wt.%), and two samples from the Warrior Basin, Alabama (pyritic S = 0.26–0.27 wt.%; As in pyrite = d.l. to 2.72 wt.%). Samples were collected from active mine faces, and expected differences in the concentration of As in pyrite were confirmed by electron microprobe analysis. Experimental weathering conditions in test chambers were maintained as follows: (1) dry Ar atmosphere; (2) dry O2 atmosphere; (3) room atmosphere (relative humidity ∼20–60%); and (4) room atmosphere with samples wetted periodically with double-distilled water. Sample splits were removed after one month, nine months, and 17 months to monitor the extent of As and Fe oxidation using As X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy, respectively. Arsenic XANES spectroscopy shows progressive oxidation of pyritic As to arsenate, with wetted samples showing the most rapid oxidation. 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy also shows a much greater proportion of Fe3+ forms (jarosite, Fe3+ sulfate, FeOOH) for samples stored under wet conditions, but much less

  13. XPS study and physico-chemical properties of nitrogen-enriched microporous activated carbon from high volatile bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Pietrzak [Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznan (Poland). Laboratory of Coal Chemistry and Technology

    2009-10-15

    N-enriched microporous active carbons of different physico-chemical parameters have been obtained from high volatile bituminous coal subjected to the processes of ammoxidation, carbonisation and activation in different sequences. Ammoxidation was performed by a mixture of ammonia and air at the ratio 1:3 (flow ratio 250 ml/min:750 ml/min) at 350{sup o}C, at each stage of production i.e. that of precursor, carbonisate and active carbon. Ammoxidation performed at the stage of demineralised coal or carbonisate has been shown to lead to a significant nitrogen enrichment and to have beneficial effect on the porous structure of the carbon during activation, allowing obtaining samples of the surface area of 2600-2800 m{sup 2}/g and pore volume 1.29-1.60 cm{sup 3}/g to be obtained with the yield of about 50%. The amount of nitrogen introduced into the carbon structure was found to depend on the sequence of the processes applied. The greatest amount of nitrogen was introduced for the processes in the sequence carbonisation {yields} activation {yields} ammoxidation. The introduction of nitrogen at the stage of active carbon leads to a reduction in the surface area and lowering of its sorption capacity. From the XPS study, ammoxidation introduces nitrogen mainly in the form of imines, amines, amides, N-5 and N-6, irrespective of the processing stage at which it is applied. 40 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Metamorphism of mineral matter in coal from the Bukit Asam deposit, south Sumatra, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susilawati, Rita; Ward, Colin R.

    2006-10-02

    The coal of the Miocene Bukit Asam deposit in south Sumatra is mostly sub-bituminous in rank, consistent with regional trends due to burial processes. However, effects associated with Plio-Pleistocene igneous intrusions have produced coal with vitrinite reflectance up to at least 4.17% (anthracite) in different parts of the deposit. The un-metamorphosed to slightly metamorphosed coals, with Rv{sub max} values of 0.45-0.65%, contain a mineral assemblage made up almost entirely of well-ordered kaolinite and quartz. The more strongly heat-affected coals, with Rv{sub max} values of more than 1.0%, are dominated by irregularly and regularly interstratified illite/smectite, poorly crystallized kaolinite and paragonite (Na mica), with chlorite in some of the anthracite materials. Kaolinite is abundant in the partings of the lower-rank coals, but is absent from the partings in the higher-rank areas, even at similar horizons in the same coal seam. Regularly interstratified illite/smectite, which is totally absent from the partings in the lower-rank coals, dominates the mineralogy in the partings associated with the higher-rank coal beds. A number of reactions involving the alteration of silicate minerals appear to have occurred in both the coal and the associated non-coal lithologies during the thermal metamorphism generated by the intrusions. The most prominent involve the disappearance of kaolinite, the appearance of irregularly interstratified illite/smectite, and the formation of regular I/S, paragonite and chlorite. Although regular I/S is identified in all of the non-coal partings associated with the higher-rank coals, illite/smectite with an ordered structure is only recognised in the coal samples collected from near the bases of the seams. The I/S in the coal samples adjacent to the floor of the highest rank seam also appears to have a greater proportion of illitic components. The availability of sodium and other non-mineral inorganic elements in the original coal

  15. The influence of eruptive intrusion on the physical and chemical features of bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radnaine, G.; Banhegyi, M.; Pal, I.; Yos, Z.

    1984-01-01

    The majority of coal and gas shows in the Mecheksk coal basin are related to eruptive intrusions. The influence of thermal action on the coal formations is investigated together with the influence of pressure on the concentration of combustible components and the hardness, porosity and size as well as distribution of pores in the rock and on the sorption characteristics of combustible components whose sizes and hardnesses are much greater than coal that has not been subjected to such action. The total porosity of the coke varies over a wide range, but is at the same time much greater than in the coals. However, eruptive intrusions have no influence on the absolute number of micropores; their relative number decreases with an increase in the number of macropores and pores of variable size.

  16. Interaction of a sub-bituminous coal with a strong acid and a strong base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seth, M.; Vermeulen, T.

    1977-11-01

    The interaction of a Wyoming subbituminous coal with molten phosphoric acid containing catalytic additives, and also with molten sodium hydroxide containing catalytic additives, has been studied at 200/sup 0/C under hydrogen at atmospheric pressure. Treated coal was recovered from the melt by dilution with water and subsequent filtration. Phosphoric acid treatment resulted in a product that had phosphorus incorporated into the organic coal matrix (up to 2.4 wt% in 4 hr). The products showed little desulfurization or deashing, and a much reduced mechanical strength, compared to raw coal. Benzene extractability of the melt-treated coal increased to a maximum of 3.79 wt% (compared to 1.85% for untreated coal) in the first half-hour of reaction, and then declined on further treatment to reach 2.28% in 4 hr. None of the additives tested resulted in benzene extractability greater than the maximum obrained with phosphoric acid alone. Extracts from acid-treatment experiments were characterized by mass spectrometry, ir, uv, and nmr; these extracts contained no aromatics, and thus were similar to extracts obtained in an earlier study with zinc chloride melts. Sodium hydroxide treatment of Wyodak coal resulted in a product similar to the original coal, both in appearance and mechanical strength. X-ray fluorescence analysis indicated up to 50% desulfurization. Because the amounts of material extracted by organic solvents are so small under these experimental conditions, the results cannot be used to draw general conclusions about the chemical structure of this coal or of liquefaction products from it.

  17. Oxydesulphurization of coal using trona mineral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaman, S.; Kuecuekbayrak, S. [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey)

    1995-12-31

    In this study, the desulphurization of coal by oxydesulphunzation method using raw trona mineral was investigated. The experiments were carried out on a Turkish lignite sample which has both high pyritic and high organic sulphur contents. Some experimental parameters such as temperature, partial pressure of oxygen, concentration and time were investigated.

  18. Dike intrusions into bituminous coal, Illinois Basin: H, C, N, O isotopic responses to rapid and brief heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmelmann, A.; Mastalerz, Maria; Gao, L.; Sauer, P.E.; Topalov, K.

    2009-01-01

    Unlike long-term heating in subsiding sedimentary basins, the near-instantaneous thermal maturation of sedimentary organic matter near magmatic intrusions is comparable to artificial thermal maturation in the laboratory in terms of short duration and limited extent. This study investigates chemical and H, C, N, O isotopic changes in high volatile bituminous coal near two Illinois dike contacts and compares observed patterns and trends with data from other published studies and from artificial maturation experiments. Our study pioneers in quantifying isotopically exchangeable hydrogen and measuring the D/H (i.e., 2H/1H) ratio of isotopically non-exchangeable organic hydrogen in kerogen near magmatic contacts. Thermal stress in coal caused a reduction of isotopically exchangeable hydrogen in kerogen from 5% to 6% in unaltered coal to 2-3% at contacts, mostly due to elimination of functional groups (e.g., {single bond}OH, {single bond}COOH, {single bond}NH2). In contrast to all previously published data on D/H in thermally matured organic matter, the more mature kerogen near the two dike contacts is D-depleted, which is attributed to (i) thermal elimination of D-enriched functional groups, and (ii) thermal drying of hydrologically isolated coal prior to the onset of cracking reactions, thereby precluding D-transfer from relatively D-enriched water into kerogen. Maxima in organic nitrogen concentration and in the atomic N/C ratio of kerogen at a distance of ???2.5 to ???3.5 m from the thicker dike indicate that reactive N-compounds had been pyrolytically liberated at high temperature closer to the contact, migrated through the coal seam, and recombined with coal kerogen in a zone of lower temperature. The same principle extends to organic carbon, because a strong ??13Ckerogen vs. ??15Nkerogen correlation across 5.5 m of coal adjacent to the thicker dike indicates that coal was functioning as a flow-through reactor along a dynamic thermal gradient facilitating back

  19. Inhibiting effect of [HOEmim][BF4] and [Amim]Cl ionic liquids on the cross-linking reaction of bituminous coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Lanyun; Xu Yongliang; Wang Shaokun; Song Zhipeng

    2016-01-01

    In order to reduce the hazard of coal spontaneous combustion, the cross-linking reaction between O-containing functional groups of coal should be inhibited. So the inhibitory effect of an ionic liquid (IL) on the cross-linking reaction was studied. The O-containing functional groups change the weight loss and H2O, CO2, CO yields of bituminous coal before and after [HOEmim][BF4] and [Amim]Cl pre-treatment and were detected by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Thermo Gravimetric (TG) anal-ysis. The results show that [Amim]Cl has a weaker ability to inhibit the cross-linking reaction of bitumi-nous coal compared to [HOEmim][BF4]. Besides, based on Quantum Chemistry calculation, it was found that the different inhibiting effects of [HOEmim][BF4] and [Amim]Cl are greatly related to their anions and the H linked with C2 atom on the imidazole ring. The H-donor ability of coal will be enhanced by [HOEmim][BF4] leading to a weaker cross-linking reaction of coal.

  20. Effects of preoxidation on the swelling and softening of bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maloney, D. J.; Jenkins, R. G.; Walker, Jr., P. L.

    1980-04-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the applicability of a DuPont 942-TMA (Thermomechanical Analyzer) dilatometer system for the characterization of the swelling and softening properties of caking coals. The results of this investigation demonstrate the utility of this dilatometer system. Several parameters clearly defined with this unit are characteristic of the plastic transitions occurring upon carbonization. These include softening, dilation and resolidification temperature and volume contraction, expansion and total dilation values. The transition parameters measured with the 942-TMA unit are influenced significantly by coal particle size, dilatometer load, and heating rate. All transition temperatures exhibit marked increases with increasing heating rate. Softening temperatures decrease with increasing load and particle size. Dilation temperatures are essentially independent of dilatometer load effects and resolidification temperatures are independent of load and particle size over the range of conditions used in this study. Volume contraction and expansion values show an increase with decreasing coal particle size. Volume expansion values also exhibit strong heating rate and load dependencies. The results point up the great difficulty involved in obtaining truly fresh unoxidized coal samples. Storage of fine coal particles for extended periods of time in atmospheres with even slight oxygen concentrations show signs of weathering. Exposure of an HVA coal to dry air at ambient temperature has much less effect on subsequent swelling and softening properties than does exposure to moist air.

  1. Production and utilisation of a new pulverised fuel on bituminous coal/sewage sludge basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Probst, H.H.; Wehland, P. [Bruno Fechner GmbH & Co. KG, Bottrop (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    Several solid fuels such as lignite, hard coal, sewage sludges and petrol coke were characterised by proximate and ultimate analyses, heavy metal content, calorific value etc. Thermogravimetric combustion profiles of five fuels were recorded to evaluate and compare the chemical reaction rates and behaviour. Combustion experiments on single fuels (coal and sewage sludge) and their blends were performed in a semi-technical high temperature drop tube furnace at DMT. The hard coal Middelburg, the Indonesian hard coal Kaltim Prima, the Colombian hard coal El Cerrejon, the sewage sludges Stadtwerke Dusseldorf and Emschergenossenschaft and their blends were tested with regard to their application in rotary kiln PF burners in the asphalt producing industry. The experiments varied reaction time and oxygen partial pressure. A fuel blend consisting of hard coals Kaltim Prima, Spitsbergen and El Cerrejon, respectively and sewage sludge Stadtwerke Dusseldorf (KPC/Dusseldorf 3:1) turned out to be suitable for industrial scale tests in an asphalt production plant competing with the standard fuel lignite fine dust Rheinbraun and pure sewage sludge Stadtwerke Dusseldorf. After a burner adaption phase to the novel fuels burner operation was stable. Heat introduction into the rotary kiln was best for the El Cerrejon/Dusseldorf (3:1) fuel blend. During operation with this blend all legal emission standards were met, whereas emission problems arose with sewage sludge Stadtwerke Dusseldorf. A fuel blend consisting of a high volatile hard coal and sewage sludge is an attractive substitute fuel for the expensive standard fuel lignite fine dust. 1 ref., 15 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Detection of rare earth elements in Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal ash using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Phuoc [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United State; Mcintyre, Dustin [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United State

    2015-10-01

    We reported our preliminary results on the use of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy to analyze the rare earth elements contained in ash samples from Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal (PRB-coal). We have identified many elements in the lanthanide series (cerium, europium, holmium, lanthanum, lutetium, praseodymium, promethium, samarium, terbium, ytterbium) and some elements in the actinide series (actinium, thorium, uranium, plutonium, berkelium, californium) in the ash samples. In addition, various metals were also seen to present in the ash samples

  3. Adsorption of SO2 on bituminous coal char and activated carbon fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBarr, Joseph A.; Lizzio, Anthony A.; Daley, Michael A.

    1997-01-01

    The SO2 adsorption behaviors of activated carbons produced from Illinois coal and of commercially prepared activated carbon fibers (ACFs) were compared. There was no relation between surface area of coal-based carbons and SO2 adsorption, whereas adsorption of SO2 on the series of ACFs was inversely proportional to N2 BET surface area. Higher surface area ACFs had wider pores and adsorbed less SO2; thus, pore size distribution is thought to play a significant role in SO2 adsorption for these materials. Oxidation with HNO3 and/or H2SO4, followed by heat treatment at 700−925°C to remove carbon−oxygen complexes, resulted in increased SO2 adsorption for both coal chars and ACFs. This behavior was explained by an increase in the available number of free sites, previously occupied by oxygen and now available for SO2 adsorption. The use of nitrogen-containing functional groups on ACFs of proper pore size shows promise for further increasing SO2 adsorption capacities. Knowledge of the relationship among the number of free sites, pore size, and surface chemistry on corresponding SO2 adsorption should lead to the development of more efficient adsorbents prepared from either coal or ACFs.

  4. Preliminary field exploration in the bituminous coal mining with impulse radar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thyssen, F.; Schepers, R.

    1983-06-01

    A laboratory measuring station to determine the physical characteristics of coal has been built up and measurements have been carried out with samples from different seams. Underground radar measurements were carried out in the experimental mine Tremonia with a non-explosion-proof apparatus. The development of a intrinsicly safe radar apparatus for underground measurements has been chiefly terminated.

  5. Contribution of Ash Content Related to Methane Adsorption Behaviors of Bituminous Coals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan Feng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Methane adsorption isotherms on coals with varying ash contents were investigated. The textural properties were characterized by N2 adsorption/desorption isotherm at 77 K, and methane adsorption characteristics were measured at pressures up to 4.0 MPa at 298 K, 313 K, and 328 K, respectively. The Dubinin-Astakhov model and the Polanyi potential theory were employed to fit the experimental data. As a result, ash content correlated strongly to methane adsorption capacity. Over the ash range studied, 9.35% to 21.24%, the average increase in methane adsorption capacity was 0.021 mmol/g for each 1.0% rise in ash content. With the increasing ash content range of 21.24%~43.47%, a reduction in the maximum adsorption capacities of coals was observed. In addition, there was a positive correlation between the saturated adsorption capacity and the specific surface area and micropore volume of samples. Further, this study presented the heat of adsorption, the isosteric heat of adsorption, and the adsorbed phase specific heat capacity for methane adsorption on various coals. Employing the proposed thermodynamic approaches, the thermodynamic maps of the adsorption processes of coalbed methane were conducive to the understanding of the coal and gas simultaneous extraction.

  6. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 3. Gasification of Rosebud sub-bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-03-31

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the third volume in a series of documents prepared by Black, Sivalls and Bryson, Incorporated and describes the gasification of Rosebud subbituminous coal during the time period November 2-20, 1982. Test results and data are presented for the gasification of the coal and the operation of a slipstream tar scrubber to cool the gas and remove condensed tar. 5 refs., 29 figs., 18 tabs.

  7. Combustion characteristics of semicokes derived from pyrolysis of low rank bituminous coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian Wei; Xie Qiang; Huang Yuyi; Dang Jiatao; Sun Kaidi; Yang Qian; Wang Jincao

    2012-01-01

    Various semicokes were obtained from medium-low temperature pyrolysis of Dongrong long flame coal.The proximate analysis,calorific value and Hardgrove grindability index (HGI) of semicokes were determined,and the ignition temperature,burnout temperature,ignition index,burnout index,burnout ratio,combustion characteristic index of semicokes were measured and analyzed using thermogravimetry analysis (TGA).The effects of pyrolysis temperature,heating rate,and pyrolysis time on yield,composition and calorific value of long flame coal derived semicokes were investigated,especially the influence of pyrolysis temperature on combustion characteristics and grindability of the semicokes was studied combined with X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of semicokes.The results show that the volatile content,ash content and calorific value of semicokes pyrolyzed at all process parameters studied meet the technical specifications of the pulverized coal-fired furnaces (PCFF) referring to China Standards GB/T 7562-1998.The pyrolysis temperature is the most influential factor among pyrolysis process parameters.As pyrolysis temperature increases,the yield,ignition index,combustion reactivity and burnout index of semicokes show a decreasing tend,but the ash content increases.In the range of 400 and 450 ℃,the grindability of semicokes is rational,especially the grindability of semicokes pyrolyzed at 450 ℃ is suitable.Except for the decrease of volatile content and increase of ash content,the decrease of combustion performance of semicokes pyrolyzed at higher temperature should be attributed to the improvement of the degree of structural ordering and the increase of aromaticity and average crystallite size of char.It is concluded that the semicokes pyrolyzed at the temperature of 450 ℃ is the proper fuel for PCFF.

  8. Observation of cyclopenta-fused and ethynyl-substituted PAH during the fuel-rich combustion of primary tar from a bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledesma, E.B.; Kalish, M.A.; Wornat, M.J.; Nelson, P.F.; Mackie, J.C. [Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (USA). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

    1999-12-01

    High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet-visible (UV) diode-array detection was used to analyze the condensed-phase products from the fuel-rich combustion, at 1000{degree}C, of bituminous coal primary tar. Experiments were performed using a quartz two-stage reactor consisting of a fluidized-bed reactor coupled to a tubular-flow reactor. Eight cyclopenta-fused polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (CP-PAH) were identified, four of which have never before been observed as products of a bituminous coal and have also never been observed from the fuel-rich combustion of any coal: cyclopent(hi)acephenanthrylene, cyclopenta(cd)fluoranthene, dicyclopenta(cd, jk) pyrene, cylopenta(bc)coronene. In addition to these CP-PAH, two ethynyl-substituted PAH, 2-ethynylnaphthalene and 1-ethynylacenaphthylene, were identified for the first time as bituminous coal products. Yields of individual CP-PAH spanned a range of 4 orders of magnitude. Out of the eight CP-PAH identified, acenaphthylene was found to be the most abundant under all conditions investigated. CP-PAH of higher ring number were present in successively lower amounts, consistent with CP-PAH formation via hydrocarbon growth reactions. CP-PAH yields decreased with increasing oxygen concentration, indicating that rates of CP-PAH oxidation exceeded those of CP-PAH formation under the conditions investigated. Possible mechanisms of CP-PAH formation are discussed, but the complexity of the starting fuel precludes definitive delineation of the reaction pathways leading to CP-PAH and ethynyl-substituted PAH during the fuel-rich combustion of tar. 31 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Development and evaluation of an automated reflectance microscope system for the petrographic characterization of bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoover, D. S.; Davis, A.

    1980-10-01

    The development of automated coal petrographic techniques will lessen the demands on skilled personnel to do routine work. This project is concerned with the development and successful testing of an instrument which will meet these needs. The fundamental differences in reflectance of the three primary maceral groups should enable their differentiation in an automated-reflectance frequency histogram (reflectogram). Consequently, reflected light photometry was chosen as the method for automating coal petrographic analysis. Three generations of an automated system (called Rapid Scan Versions I, II and III) were developed and evaluated for petrographic analysis. Their basic design was that of a reflected-light microscope photometer with an automatic stage, interfaced with a minicomputer. The hardware elements used in the Rapid Scan Version I limited the system's flexibility and presented problems with signal digitization and measurement precision. Rapid Scan Version II was designed to incorporate a new microscope photometer and computer system. A digital stepping stage was incorporated into the Rapid Scan Version III system. The precision of reflectance determination of this system was found to be +- 0.02 percent reflectance. The limiting factor in quantitative interpretation of Rapid Scan reflectograms is the resolution of reflectance populations of the individual maceral groups. Statistical testing indicated that reflectograms were highly reproducible, and a new computer program, PETAN, was written to interpret the curves for vitrinite reflectance parameters ad petrographic.

  10. Influence of coal blending on mineral transformation at high temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Jin; LI Wen; LI Chun-zhu; BAI Zong-qing; LI Bao-qing

    2009-01-01

    Transformation of mineral matter is important for coal utilization at high temperatures. This is especially true for blended coal. XRD and FTIR were employed together to study the transformation of mineral matter at high temperature in blended coals. It was found that the concentration of catalytic minerals, namely iron oxides, increases with an increasing ratio of Shenfu coal, which could improve coal gasification. The transformation characteristics of the minerals in blended coals are not exactly predictable from the blend ratio. This was proved by comparing the iron oxide content to the blending ratio. The results from FTIR are comparable with those from XRD. FTIR is an effective method for examining variation in mineral matter.

  11. Urinary cadmium levels in active and retired coal miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isermann, Julia; Prager, Hans-Martin; Ebbinghaus, Rainer; Janasik, Beata; Wasowicz, Wojciech; Dufaux, Bertinus; Meyer, Hans-Friedrich; Widera, Agata; Selinski, Silvia; Hengstler, Jan G; Golka, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    A meta-analysis, based upon 24 publications, showed a significantly elevated risk for urinary bladder cancer amongst miners. In European underground hard coal mining areas, an increased risk for urinary bladder cancer development was noted among hard coal miners, in particular in three investigations in the greater Dortmund area. However, the cause remains unclear. As cadmium (Cd), which was reported to be a bladder carcinogen in humans and is a constituent of coal, the aim of this study was to determine urinary Cd levels in active and retired hard coal miners and assess whether hard coal miners demonstrated elevated metal levels. In total, 103 retired and 25 active hard coal miners as well as 18 controls without any history of hard coal mining were investigated for urinary Cd levels. Urinary Cd concentrations, in addition to other elements, were analyzed in spot urines by ICP-MS-based multi-element analysis in a Department for Forensic and Clinical Toxicology. Limit of detection (LOD) for Cd was 0.5 μg/L. Reference value for occupationally non-exposed working age population was 0.8 μg/L. In total, 49% of all underground coal miners were exposed to coal dust, 12% to grinded rock, and 39% to both. Urinary Cd levels in retired as well as active coal miners and controls were clearly below the Biological Exposure Index. Urinary Cd concentration is a suitable biomarker to evaluate the metallic load of the body, as the half-life is > than 10 years. The detected urinary Cd levels in retired and active coal miners indicated underground hard coal miners were not apparently exposed to Cd to a occupationally-relevant concentration.

  12. Extraction of bituminous coal fly ash for polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons: evaluation of modified and unmodified supercritical fluid extraction, enhanced fluidity solvents, and accelerated solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, D V; Olesik, S V

    1998-02-01

    A comparison among supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), modified SFE, enhanced-fluidity extraction, and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) techniques was made for the extraction of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from an aged, spiked bituminous coal fly ash. Non-ASE extraction techniques used in this study could not recover PAHs with molecular weights greater than that of pyrene. ASE techniques using methylene chloride (with and without a static step) and toluene were able to recover most of the PAHs studied. None of the ASE techniques could quantitatively extract the low-molecular-weight PAHs from the bituminous fly ash. The medium-molecular-weight PAHs were best recovered with toluene ASE. The high-molecular-weight PAHs were best recovered with the toluene ASE technique (> 80%), but the overall precision of these measurements was low. Methylene chloride ASE with a static step recovered the high-molecular-weight PAHs with the next highest efficiency (approximately 55%) and had standard deviations less than 10% (longer extraction times [> 30 min] with the methylene chloride would increase the recoveries of these analytes.) A comparison of the results from this study with those of a previous study using lignite coal fly ash illustrates the difficulty in developing and adapting analyte-specific extraction methods for analytes that are adsorbed on different matrices.

  13. Bituminous coal production in the Appalachian basin: past, present, and future: Chapter D.3 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milici, Robert C.; Polyak, Désirée E.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    Although small quantities of coal first were produced from the Appalachian basin in the early 1700s, the first production statistics of significance were gathered during the census of 1830 (Eavenson, 1942). Since then, about 35 billion short tons of bituminous coal have been produced from the Appalachian basin from an original potential coal reserve (PCR(o)) estimated to range from about 60 to 90 billion short tons. The term “reserve” refers to economically producible coal, and a “potential coal reserve” (PCR(n)) is an estimate of the amount of coal economically recoverable in a region (State, coal field) over a defined time period (n = number of years) and under a range of economic, societal, and technological conditions. Thus, the current cumulative production plus the PCR(n) equals an estimated cumulative production (ECP(n)). The maps in this report (oversized figures 1, 2, 3, and 4) were produced from a digital database of historical and current coal production records by county. Sources of the original data include various State geological surveys, the U.S. Geological Survey, the former U.S. Bureau of Mines, and the U.S. Department of Energy’s Energy Information Administration. This report is part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Coal Resource Assessment Project.

  14. Low back pain and lumbar angles in Turkish coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarikaya, S.; Ozdolap, S.; Gumustas, S.; Koc, U. [Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Zonguldak (Turkey). Faculty of Medicine

    2007-02-15

    This study was designed to assess the incidence of low back pain among Turkish coal miners and to investigate the relationship between angles of the lumbar spine and low back pain in coal miners. Fifty underground workers (Group I) and 38 age-matched surface workers (Group II) were included in the study. All the subjects were asked about low back pain in the past 5 years. The prevalence of low back pain was higher in Group I than in Group II (78.0%, 32.4%, respectively, P {lt} 0.001). The results of the study showed that low back pain occurred in 78.0% of Turkish coal miners. Although the nature of the occupation may have influenced coal miners' lumbar spinal curvature, lumbar angles are not a determinant for low back pain in this population. Further extensive studies involving ergonomic measurements are needed to validate our results for Turkish coal mining industry.

  15. Classification of Mineral Resources Associated and Accompanied with Coal Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The paper discusses the concept of mineral resources associated with coal measures. A rational and scientific classification of such mineral resources becomes more necessary with the development of science and technology. A classification scheme is proposed based on compositions and physical properties and the utilization of these associated minerals.

  16. Comparative Studies on the Combustion Kinetics of Chars Prepared from Brown and Bituminous Coals under Air (O_2/N_2) and Oxy-fuel (O_2/CO_2) Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyun-Seok; Wada, Nozomi; Nozawa, Sohey; Matsushita, Yohsuke; Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi; Oomori, Motohira; Harada, Tatsuro; Miyawaki, Jin; Yoon, Seong-Ho; Mochida, Isao

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the application of a solid-gas reaction model which can describe the combustion and gasification mechanism for air (O_2/N_2) and oxy-fuel (O_2/CO_2) conditions. Loy Yang brown coal was used as a sample after pyrolysis, together with Newlands coal as bituminous coal for comparison of coal ranks. By carrying out the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) run under non-isothermal conditions, chemical reaction rates of partial oxidation reaction and gasification reaction were esti...

  17. Thermal relaxation of bituminous coal to improve donation ability of hydrogen radicals in flash pyrolysis; Sekitan kozo kanwa ni yoru suiso radical kyoyo noryoku no kojo wo mezashita netsubunkai mae shori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, T.; Isoda, T.; Kusakabe, K.; Morooka, S. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Hayashi, J. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Center for Advanced Research of Energy Technology

    1996-10-28

    In terms of coal conversion reaction, the behavior of bituminous coal heated beyond a glass transition point was examined on the basis of pyrolyzed products, and the effect of an increase in proton mobility on promotion of coal decomposition was evaluated. In experiment, after Illinois bituminous coal specimen was heated up to a specific temperature in N2 or He gas flow at a rate of 5K/min, the specimen was directly transferred to a pyrolyzer for instantaneous pyrolysis. As the experimental result, the glass transition temperature of the Illinois coal specimen was calculated to be 589K from a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) profile. From the pyrolysis result of the Illinois coal specimen heated up to 623K, the char yield decreased by 3kg as compared with that of the original coal, while the tar yield increased by 4kg up to 27kg per 100kg of the original coal. This tar increase was larger than that of cooled coal. These results suggested that the donation of hydrogen radicals to coal fragments is improved with an increase in proton mobility. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Mineral matter in coals and their reactions during coking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigore, Mihaela; French, David [The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) - Energy Technology, Lucas Heights, NSW 2234 (Australia); Sakurovs, Richard [The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) - Energy Technology, Newcastle, NSW 2300 (Australia); Sahajwalla, Veena [School of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2008-12-01

    Degradation of coke in the blast furnace is influenced by its inherent mineral matter, the formation of which is itself dependent upon the nature of the coal mineral matter. To date few studies have been made of coke mineralogy and its relationship to the mineralogy of the parent coal. In this study the effect of carbonisation on coal mineral matter has been investigated by a detailed quantitative mineralogical examination of nine cokes and their parent coals. The quantitative analysis was performed on X-ray diffraction patterns of the mineral matter of cokes and coals, using SIROQUANT {sup trademark}. Coke mineralogy and its composition varied strongly between cokes, more strongly than variations in elemental composition of the ash. The mineral matter in the studied cokes consisted of crystalline mineral phases and also significant levels of amorphous phase (ranging between 44 and 75%). Decomposition of clays such as kaolinite, montmorillonite, illite and chamosite produced the amorphous phase and some of the crystalline mineral phases such as mullite, {gamma}-alumina, spinel, cristobalite and leucite. The type of association of mineral matter in coals had an important role in how the clays decomposed. For example, association of kaolinite with silica-bearing minerals in intimate intermixture favoured formation of mullite over {gamma}-alumina. Akermanite and diopside result from reaction of kaolinite with associated calcium bearing minerals (calcite, dolomite or ankerite). Quartz, fluorapatite and the three polymorphs of TiO{sub 2} (anatase, brookite and rutile) were the coal minerals that were least affected during carbonisation, as they were also found in the cokes, yet even they were affected in some cases. (author)

  19. Ash liberation from included minerals during combustion of pulverized coal: the relationship with char structure and burnout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, H.; Wall, T.; Liu, G.; Bryant, G. [University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW (Australia). CRC for Black Coal Utilization and Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1999-12-01

    In this study, the float fraction ({lt} specific gravity of 2.0) of a size cut (63-90 {mu}m) bituminous coal was combusted in a drop tube furnace (DTF) at a gas temperature of 1300{degree}C under an atmosphere of air, to investigate the ash liberation at five coal burnoff levels (35.5%, 54.3%, 70.1%, 87.1% and 95.6%). The data indicated that char structure determines the ash liberation at different burnoff levels. Fragmentation of porous char was found to be the determinative mechanism for formation of fine ash during the early and middle stages of char combustion, while coalescence of included mineral matter determines the coarse ash formed in the later stages of combustion. The investigation confirmed that the char morphology and structure play a key role in determining char fragmentation, char burnout history, and the ash liberation during combustion. 35 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Mineral and inorganic chemical composition of the Pernik coal, Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yossifova, Mariana G. [Geological Institute, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl.24, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2007-11-22

    The mineral and inorganic chemical composition of five types of samples from the Pernik subbituminous coals and their products generated from the Pernik preparation plant were studied. They include feed coal, low-grade coal, high-grade coal, coal slime, and host rock. The mineral matter of the coals contains 44 species that belong mainly to silicates, carbonates, sulphates, sulphides, and oxides/hydroxides, and to a lesser extent, chlorides, biogenic minerals, and organic minerals. The detrital minerals are quartz, kaolinite, micas, feldspars, magnetite, cristobalite, spessartine, and amphibole. The authigenic minerals include various sulphides, silicates, oxihydroxides, sulphates, and carbonates. Several stages and substages of formation were identified during the syngenetic and epigenetic mineral precipitations of these coals. The authigenic minerals show the greatest diversity of mineral species as the epigenetic mineralization (mostly sulphides, carbonates, and sulphates) dominates qualitatively and quantitatively. The epigenetic mineralization was a result of complex processes occurring mostly during the late development of the Pernik basin. These processes indicate intensive tectonic, hydrothermal and volcanic activities accompanied by a change from fresh to marine sedimentation environment. Thermally altered organic matter due to some of the above processes was also identified in the basin. Most of the trace elements in the Pernik coals (Mo, Be, S, Zr, Y, Cl, Ba, Sc, Ga, Ag, V, P, Br, Ni, Co, Pb, Ca, and Ti) show an affinity to OM and phases intimately associated with OM. Some of the trace elements (Sr, Ti, Mn, Ba, Pb, Cu, Zn, Co, Cr, Ni, As, Ag, Yb, Sn, Ga, Ge, etc.) are impurities in authigenic and accessory minerals, while other trace elements (La, Ba, Cu, Ce, Sb, Bi, Zn, Pb, Cd, Nd, etc.) occur as discrete phases. Elements such as Sc, Be, Y, Ba, V, Zr, S, Mo, Ti, and Ga exceed Clarke concentrations in all of the coal types studied. It was also found that

  1. Impacts of halogen additions on mercury oxidation, in a slipstream selective catalyst reduction (SCR), reactor when burning sub-bituminous coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yan; Gao, Zhengyang; Zhu, Jiashun; Wang, Quanhai; Huang, Yaji; Chiu, Chengchung; Parker, Bruce; Chu, Paul; Pant, Wei-Ping

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of impacts of halogen species on the elemental mercury (Hg(0)) oxidation in a real coal-derived flue gas atmosphere. It is reported there is a higher percentage of Hg(0) in the flue gas when burning sub-bituminous coal (herein Powder River Basin (PRB) coal) and lignite, even with the use of selective catalytic reduction (SCR). The higher Hg(0)concentration in the flue gas makes it difficult to use the wet-FGD process for the mercury emission control in coal-fired utility boilers. Investigation of enhanced Hg(0) oxidation by addition of hydrogen halogens (HF, HCl, HBr, and HI) was conducted in a slipstream reactor with and without SCR catalysts when burning PRB coal. Two commercial SCR catalysts were evaluated. SCR catalyst no. 1 showed higher efficiencies of both NO reduction and Hg(0) oxidation than those of SCR catalyst no. 2. NH3 addition seemed to inhibit the Hg(0) oxidation, which indicated competitive processes between NH3 reduction and Hg(0) oxidation on the surface of SCR catalysts. The hydrogen halogens, in the order of impact on Hg(0) oxidation, were HBr, HI, and HCl or HF. Addition of HBr at approximately 3 ppm could achieve 80% Hg(0) oxidation. Addition of HI at approximately 5 ppm could achieve 40% Hg(0) oxidation. In comparison to the empty reactor, 40% Hg(0) oxidation could be achieved when HCl addition was up to 300 ppm. The enhanced Hg(0) oxidation by addition of HBr and HI seemed not to be correlated to the catalytic effects by both evaluated SCR catalysts. The effectiveness of conversion of hydrogen halogens to halogen molecules or interhalogens seemed to be attributed to their impacts on Hg(0) oxidation.

  2. Upper limb tendinitis and entrapment neuropathy in coal miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdolap, Senay; Emre, Ufuk; Karamercan, Ayşe; Sarikaya, Selda; Köktürk, Fürüzan

    2013-05-01

    It is well-known that work-related upper limb musculoskeletal disorders, particularly tendinitis and nerve entrapment, remain a difficult and costly problem in industrialized countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate tendinitis and entrapment neuropathy of the upper limb of Turkish coal miners. Eighty coal miners and 43 age-matched clerical workers were included in the study. The evaluation procedures included collection of personal and clinical data, physical examination and bilateral electrodiagnostic testing. Subjects were examined to diagnose tendinitis and nerve entrapment of the upper limb. Bilateral median and ulnar nerves conduction tests were performed on all subjects. Data were collected between August 2011 and December 2011. There were 33 subjects with lateral epicondylitis, 10 with medial epicondylitis, and 22 with De Quervain's disease among the coal miners. There were seven subjects with lateral epicondylitis, eight with medial epicondylitis, and four with De Quervain's disease in the control group. The two groups significantly differed in the prevalences of lateral epicondylitis and De Quervain's disease (P = 0.024 and P =0.029, respectively). Sixteen subjects in the coal miners and 12 subjects in the controls had carpal tunnel syndrome (P = 0.66). Thirty-seven subjects in the coal miners had ulnar neuropathy of the elbow (UNE), while four subjects in the controls had UNE; this difference was statistically significant (P Quervain disease, and ulnar neuropathy are common work-related upper limb disorders among coal miners. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Views of coal miners in South Africa on sanctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puhe, H.; Schoeppner, K.P.

    1987-01-01

    Presents the results of a survey conducted during 1987, of the attitudes of a sample of black, male coal miners working in 6 export-orientated mines in Transvaal and 3 in Natal. Both mines and miners were selected at random and nearly 1,000 interviews were conducted. The most significant findings are as follows: South African coal miners are largely satisfied with their conditions of work, above all with social benefits, safety standards and the relations amongst the workers themselves. Regarding improvements in their working conditions miners attach by far the greatest importance to the question of wages. Next on the list are improvements in accomodation and the abolition of apartheid. The issue of 'sanctions' is not debated very widely. More than two-thirds of polled miners had not heard of sanctions previously. Nevertheless, after an explanation of what the term means, a large majority of South African coal miners (70%) rejects sanctions. Only one-fifth (21%) is for sanctions. Three-quarters of miners polled believe that sanctions would hit them hard. Above all they mentioned the risk of losing their jobs (79%), life at home (75%) and a decline in wages (74%). 34% of coal miners would support sanctions if they were ultimately to lead to the fall of the South African Government. 26% if sanctions were to lead to the fall of the South African Government, but also to a loss of their own jobs. Most of the miners polled felt that the trade unions were representing them well. However, South African coal miners are insufficiently informed on supposed positions adopted by the trade unions on separate issues and this applies to trade union policy on sanctions as well. 72% of miners polled seek a government that shares power equally between black and white. Moderate means are proposed to attain such a government. Only a minority, the hard core comprising about 25% of the South African miners, seeks violent confrontation.

  4. Mutagenicity tobacco snuff: possible health implications for coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whong, W.Z.; Ames, R.G.; Ong, T.

    1984-01-01

    Mutagenicity of tobacco snuff extracts was studied using the Ames Salmonella/microsome assay system. No mutagenic activity was found for tobacco snuff extracts without S9 activation. However, mutagenic substances were formed from tobacco snuff extracts in an acidic environment. The mutagenic substances induced predominantly frameshift mutations and were direct-acting mutagens. Mutagenic activity of tobacco snuff extracts was enhanced in the presence of coal-dust extracts at low pH. Since tobacco snuff has been used by some coal miners to substitute for cigarettes, a possible risk for gastric cancer induction among coal miners is proposed.

  5. Carbon dioxide from coal combustion: Variation with rank of US coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, J.C.; Glick, D.C.

    2000-01-01

    Carbon dioxide from combustion of US coal systematically varies with ASTM rank indices, allowing the amount of CO2 produced per net unit of energy to be predicted for individual coals. No single predictive equation is applicable to all coals. Accordingly, we provide one equation for coals above high volatile bituminous rank and another for lower rank coals. When applied to public data for commercial coals from western US mines these equations show a 15% variation of kg CO2 (net GJ)-1. This range of variation suggests reduction of US CO2 emissions is possible by prudent selection of coal for combustion. Maceral and mineral content are shown to slightly affect CO2 emissions from US coal. We also suggest that CO2 emissions increased between 6 and 8% in instances where Midwestern US power plants stopped burning local, high-sulfur bituminous coal and started burning low-sulfur, subbituminous C rank coal from the western US.

  6. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study of minerals in coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Kuang-Chien

    1982-01-01

    Minerals in eight coals from different mines were characterized in the micron-size range by using analytical transmission electron microscopy. Specimens were thinned by ion-milling wafers cut from these coals; a cold stage cooled by liquid nitrogen was used to reduce thermal degradation of the minerals by the ion-beam. Different mineral compounds were observed in different coals. The major minerals are clays, sulfides, oxides, carbonates and some minor-element-bearing phosphates. Clays (kaolinite, illite and others) have been most commonly found as either flat sheets or round globules. Iron sulfide was mostly found in the No. 5 and No. 6 coals from Illinois, distributed as massive polycrystals, as clusters of single crystals (framboids) or as isolated single crystals with size range down to some 0.25 microns. Other sulfides and some oxides were found in other coals with particle size as small as some 200 angstroms. Quartz, titanium oxides and many other carbonates and phosphate compounds were also characterized. Brief TEM work in the organic mass of coal was also introduced to study the nature of the coal macerals.

  7. Change in the magnetic properties of bituminous coal intruded by an igneous dike, Dutch Creek Mine, Pitkin County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, A.N.; Senftle, F.E.; Finkelman, R.B.; Dulong, F.T.; Bostick, N.H.

    1998-01-01

    Magnetization measurements have been made on natural coke-coal samples collected at various distances from a felsic porphyry dike in a coal seam in Dutch Creek Mine, Colorado to help characterize the nature and distribution of the iron-bearing phases. The magnetization passes through a maximum at the coke-to-coal transition about 31 cm from the dike contact. The magnetic measurements support the geochemical data indicating that magmatic fluids along with a high-temperature gas pulse moved into the coal bed. Interaction of the magmatic fluids with the coal diminished the reducing power of the thermal gas pulse from the dike to a point about 24 cm into the coal. The hot reducing gas penetrated further and produced a high temperature (~400-525??C) zone (at about 31 cm) just ahead of the magmatic fluids. Metallic iron found in this zone is the principal cause of the observed high magnetization. Beyond this zone, the temperature was too low to alter the coal significantly.Magnetization measurements have been made on natural coke-coal samples collected at various distances from a felsic porphyry dike in a coal seam in Dutch Creek Mine, Colorado to help characterize the nature and distribution of the iron-bearing phases. The magnetization passes through a maximum at the coke-to-coal transition about 31 cm from the dike contact. The magnetic measurements support the geochemical data indicating that magmatic fluids along with a high-temperature gas pulse moved into the coal bed. Interaction of the magmatic fluids with the coal diminished the reducing power of the thermal gas pulse from the dike to a point about 24 cm into the coal. The hot reducing gas penetrated further and produced a high temperature (approximately 400-525 ??C) zone (at about 31 cm) just ahead of the magmatic fluids. Metallic iron found in this zone is the principal cause of the observed high magnetization. Beyond this zone, the temperature was too low to alter the coal significantly.

  8. Analytical methods relating to mineral matter in coal and ash from coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creelman, R.A. [Ultra-Systems Technology Pty. Ltd., Indooroopilly, Qld. (Australia)

    2002-07-01

    The paper begins by describing the minerals that occur in coal, as well as trace elements. The testing methods that are then described include those that are in the main the standard tools for the examination and assessment of minerals in coal and ash. The techniques discussed include optical and beam techniques, X-ray methods and a variety of other useful methods. 12 refs.

  9. Structural features of a bituminous coal and their changes during low-temperature oxidation and loss of volatiles investigated by advanced solid-state NMR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, J.-D.; Schimmelmann, A.; Mastalerz, Maria; Hatcher, P.G.; Li, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Quantitative and advanced 13C solid-state NMR techniques were employed to investigate (i) the chemical structure of a high volatile bituminous coal, as well as (ii) chemical structural changes of this coal after evacuation of adsorbed gases, (iii) during oxidative air exposure at room temperature, and (iv) after oxidative heating in air at 75 ??C. The solid-state NMR techniques employed in this study included quantitative direct polarization/magic angle spinning (DP/MAS) at a high spinning speed of 14 kHz, cross polarization/total sideband suppression (CP/TOSS), dipolar dephasing, CH, CH2, and CHn selection, 13C chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) filtering, two-dimensional (2D) 1H-13C heteronuclear correlation NMR (HETCOR), and 2D HETCOR with 1H spin diffusion. With spectral editing techniques, we identified methyl CCH 3, rigid and mobile methylene CCH2C, methine CCH, quaternary Cq, aromatic CH, aromatic carbons bonded to alkyls, small-sized condensed aromatic moieties, and aromatic C-O groups. With direct polarization combined with spectral-editing techniques, we quantified 11 different types of functional groups. 1H-13C 2D HETCOR NMR experiments indicated spatial proximity of aromatic and alkyl moieties in cross-linked structures. The proton spin diffusion experiments indicated that the magnetization was not equilibrated at a 1H spin diffusion time of 5 ms. Therefore, the heterogeneity in spatial distribution of different functional groups should be above 2 nm. Recoupled C-H long-range dipolar dephasing showed that the fraction of large charcoal-like clusters of polycondensed aromatic rings was relatively small. The exposure of this coal to atmospheric oxygen at room temperature for 6 months did not result in obvious chemical structural changes of the coal, whereas heating at 75 ??C in air for 10 days led to oxidation of coal and generated some COO groups. Evacuation removed most volatiles and caused a significant reduction in aliphatic signals in its DP

  10. Evaluation of Control Strategies to Effectively Meet 70-90% Mercury Reduction on an Eastern Bituminous Coal Cyclone Boiler with SCR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom Campbell

    2008-12-31

    This is the final site report for testing conducted at Public Service of New Hampshire's (PSNH) Merrimack Unit 2 (MK2). This project was funded through the DOE/NETL Innovations for Existing Plants program. It was a Phase III project with the goal to develop mercury control technologies that can achieve 50-70% mercury capture at costs 25-50% less than baseline estimates of $50,000-$70,000/lb of mercury removed. While results from testing at Merrimack indicate that the DOE goal was partially achieved, further improvements in the process are recommended. Merrimack burned a test blend of eastern bituminous and Venezuelan coals, for a target coal sulfur content of 1.2%, in its 335-MW Unit 2. The blend ratio is approximately a 50/50 split between the two coals. Various sorbent injection tests were conducted on the flue gas stream either in front of the air preheater (APH) or in between the two in-series ESPs. Initial mercury control evaluations indicated that, without SO3 control, the sorbent concentration required to achieve 50% control would not be feasible, either economically or within constraints specific to the maximum reasonable particle loading to the ESP. Subsequently, with SO{sub 3} control via trona injection upstream of the APH, economically feasible mercury removal rates could be achieved with PAC injection, excepting balance-of-plant concerns. The results are summarized along with the impacts of the dual injection process on the air heater, ESP operation, and particulate emissions.

  11. Musculoskeletal Disorders among Iranian Coal Miners at 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashallah Aghillinejad

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Some factors such as stooping posture and frequent kneeling in miners can increase prevalence of their musculoskeletal disorders Present study was performed for assessment of MSDs prevalence among Iranian coal miners and finds its relationships with some their characters including age, work experience and body mass index. Participants in the persent cross sectional study, were 505 coal miners which selected among Iranian coal miners by simple random method. Data of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs gathered by Standardized Nordic self-reporting questionnaire. Demographic and work related data were collected into the check list. Findings of persent study showed that 56.1% and 66.5% of study miners claimed one of the MSDs complaints during last week and in the last year respectively. Lumbar, Knee(s and Back had most common MSDs prevalence at last week and year. MSDs prevalence had significant association with age (P≤0.02 and non-significant association with BMI (P≥0.8 of workers. MSDs in Iranian coal miners were happened in high rate. Ergonomic interventions strategies in the workplaces must be focussed for elimination of environmental hazards such as apposition at the time of work, manual handling of heavy loads.

  12. Enhanced coal and mineral flotation by selective clay agglomeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, D.; Chen, G.L.; Fan, M.M.; Zhou, X.H.; Zhao, C.; Aron, M.; Wright, J. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The purpose is to evaluate the performance of clay binding agents for enhancing coal and mineral flotation. Mechanical and column flotation tests were conducted on coal and potash samples. Several process parameters were examined, e.g. impeller rotation speed, binder dosage, slurry solids content, and collector dosage. The results show that the Georgia-Pacific reagents improved flotation efficiency under some process conditions, especially at higher solids percentage and higher impeller rotation speed. 26 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Hydrodesulfurization and hydrodenitrogenation catalysts obtained from coal mineral matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kindtoken H. D.; Hamrin, Jr., Charles E.

    1982-01-01

    A hydrotreating catalyst is prepared from coal mineral matter obtained by low temperature ashing coals of relatively low bassanite content by the steps of: (a) depositing on the low temperature ash 0.25-3 grams of an iron or nickel salt in water per gram of ash and drying a resulting slurry; (b) crushing and sizing a resulting solid; and (c) heating the thus-sized solid powder in hydrogen.

  14. Distribution and Fate of Mercury in Pulverized Bituminous Coal-Fired Power Plants in Coal Energy-Dominant Huainan City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bingyu; Liu, Guijian; Sun, Ruoyu

    2016-05-01

    A better understanding on the partitioning behavior of mercury (Hg) during coal combustion in large-scale coal-fired power plants is fundamental for drafting Hg-emission control regulations. Two large coal-fired utility boilers, equipped with electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and a wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) system, respectively, in coal energy-dominant Huainan City, China, were selected to investigate the distribution and fate of Hg during coal combustion. In three sampling campaigns, we found that Hg in bottom ash was severely depleted with a relative enrichment (RE) index coal. We estimated that Hg emissions in all Huainan coal-fired power plants varied from 1.8 Mg in 2003 to 7.3 Mg in 2010.

  15. Labor law successorship under the National Bituminous Coal Wage Agreement and the union's campaign for job security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gies, T.P.; Smith, W.L. (Crowell and Moring, Washington, DC (USA))

    This article evaluates the existing state of labor law successorship in the coal industry, with particular emphasis on cases interpreting Article I of the Wage Agreement as it is applied to transactions involving inactive coal properties, and on the job security provisions of Article II of the 1988 NBCWA. Part II of this article summarizes the basic principles of labor law successorship, which provide the necessary background for a full understanding of the scope of Articles I and I of the Wage Agreement. Part III of this article reviews the successorship provisions of Article I of the Wage Agreement in detail, and discusses the various interpretations given its provisions by arbitrators, the courts, and the National Labor Relations Board (Board). Part III also reviews the related provisions of Article 1A of the NBCWA, as they apply to various forms of leasing and contracting of coal producing properties. Part IV of this article examines the new job security provisions of Article II of the 1988 Wage Agreement, which establish a new procedure for staffing at non-signatory operations of signatory employers. Part V of this article argues that some courts and arbitrators have improperly extended the reach of the contractual successorship and job security obligations, and suggests an interpretation of Articles I and II of the Wage Agreement that is more harmonious with the overriding objectives of federal labor law policy.

  16. Removal of mineral oil and wastewater pollutants using hard coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRANISLAV R. SIMONOVIĆ

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the use of hard coal as an adsorbent for removal of mineral oil from wastewater. In order to determine the efficiency of hard coal as an adsorbent of mineral oil, process parameters such as sorption capacity (in static and dynamic conditions, temperature, pH, contact time, flow rate, and chemical pretreatment were evaluated in a series of batch and continuous flow experiments. There were significant differences in the mineral oil removal for various pH values examined. The adsorption of mineral oil increased as pH values diverged from 7 (neutral. At lower temperatures, the adsorption was notably higher. The wastewater flow rate was adjusted to achieve optimal water purification. Equilibrium was reached after 10 h in static conditions. At that time, more than 99% of mineral oil had been removed. At the beginning of the filtering process, the adsorption rate increased rapidly, only to show a minor decrease afterwards. Equilibrium data were fitted to Freundlich models to determine the water-hard coal partitioning coefficient. Physical adsorption caused by properties of the compounds was the predominant mechanism in the removal process.

  17. 30 CFR 750.21 - Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 750.21 Section 750.21 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.21 Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals...

  18. The Impact of the Bituminous Coal Combustion from the Thermoelectric Power Plant from Paroseni on the Environment of Jiu Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Rebrisoreanu

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The Jiu Valley Basin is one of the most important coal mining areas in Romania. Other industries, including a power plant, are also well developed in this area. Therefore, pollution is very high. One of the most polluted environmental compounds is the air. High mountains surround the Jiu Valley, which makes difficult the air refreshing. For this reason, it is very important to discuss the air pollution and especially that produced by dust. Since the industrial companies are concentrated in a small area, it is very difficult to identify and prosecute the polluting one. The present paper aims to identify the sources of air pollution, especially among the mining companies, because the power plant is considered the most important polluting agent in this area.

  19. 30 CFR 937.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the... WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of Other...

  20. 30 CFR 922.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the... WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of Other...

  1. 30 CFR 942.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the... WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE § 942.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of Other...

  2. 30 CFR 947.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the... WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON § 947.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  3. 30 CFR 910.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the... WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of Other...

  4. 30 CFR 921.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the... WITHIN EACH STATE MASSACHUSETTS § 921.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. Part 702 of the chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  5. 30 CFR 939.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the... WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  6. 30 CFR 905.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the... WITHIN EACH STATE CALIFORNIA § 905.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  7. 30 CFR 903.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the... WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of Other...

  8. 30 CFR 912.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the... WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of Other...

  9. 30 CFR 941.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the... WITHIN EACH STATE SOUTH DAKOTA § 941.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  10. 30 CFR 933.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the... WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH CAROLINA § 933.702 Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  11. Cardiac frequency throughout a working shift in coal miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoliu, M A; Gonzalez, V; Palenciano, L

    1995-06-01

    Despite the ever-increasing mechanization of industrial activities, coal mining still remains a physically demanding occupation as it is not always possible to extensively mechanize the extraction process. To estimate the physical effort necessary to sustain coal mining activities in a poorly-mechanized mine, cardiac frequency (fc) was measured throughout the working shift with a Sport-Tester PE3000 (Polar Electro OY, Finland) in a representative sample of 73 Asturian miners engaged in a full spectrum of underground work. The mean +/- SD of the overall fc values measured in miners working at the coal face (Group 1, 33 subjects, mean age 32.7 years, age range 21-48 years) was 106.5 +/- 18.2 beats.min-1. In other miners (Group 2, 40 subjects, mean age 34.6 years, age range 23-48 years) corresponding figures were 103.1 +/- 17.7 beats.min-1 (p mechanized mines. However, average working-shift fc differs considerably from subject to subject and is largely unpredictable.

  12. Overall requirements for an advanced underground coal extraction system. [environment effects, miner health and safety, production cost, and coal conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, M.; Lavin, M. L.

    1980-01-01

    Underground mining systems suitable for coal seams expoitable in the year 2000 are examined with particular relevance to the resources of Central Appalachia. Requirements for such systems may be summarized as follows: (1) production cost; (2)miner safety; (3) miner health; (4) environmental impact; and (5) coal conservation. No significant trade offs between production cost and other performance indices were found.

  13. ELECTROSTATIC SURFACE STRUCTURES OF COAL AND MINERAL PARTICLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    It is the purpose of this research to study electrostatic charging mechanisms related to electrostatic beneficiation of coal with the goal of improving models of separation and the design of electrostatic separators. Areas addressed in this technical progress report are (a) electrostatic beneficiation of Pittsburgh #8 coal powders as a function of grind size and processing atmosphere; (b) the use of fluorescent micro-spheres to probe the charge distribution on the surfaces of coal particles; (c) the use of electrostatic beneficiation to recover unburned carbon from flyash; (d) the development of research instruments for investigation of charging properties of coal. Pittsburgh #8 powders were beneficiated as a function of grind size and under three atmosphere conditions: fresh ground in air , after 24 hours of air exposure, or under N2 atmosphere. The feed and processed powders were analyzed by a variety of methods including moisture, ash, total sulfur, and pyritic sulfur content. Mass distribution and cumulative charge of the processed powders were also measured. Fresh ground coal performed the best in electrostatic beneficiation. Results are compared with those of similar studies conducted on Pittsburgh #8 powders last year (April 1, 1997 to September 30, 1997). Polystyrene latex spheres were charged and deposited onto coal particles that had been passed through the electrostatic separator and collected onto insulating filters. The observations suggest bipolar charging of individual particles and patches of charge on the particles which may be associated with particular maceral types or with mineral inclusions. A preliminary investigation was performed on eletrostatic separation of unburned carbon particles from flyash. Approximately 25% of the flyash acquired positive charge in the copper tribocharger. This compares with 75% of fresh ground coal. The negatively charged material had a slightly reduced ash content suggesting some enrichment of carbonaceous material

  14. Rapid pyrolysis characteristic of Shenfu bituminous coal%神府烟煤快速热解特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔童敏; 李超; 周志杰; 常清华; 高瑞; 于广锁; 王辅臣

    2015-01-01

    利用高频电炉对神府煤进行快速热解,研究了不同热解温度和停留时间下,固相和气相产物的性质。结果表明,煤焦的失重率及真密度随温度升高和时间的延长而增长。红外光谱结果表明,热解过程中,煤中含氢/含氧官能团分解,生成H2、CO、CO2、CH4等气体,并且其分解程度随温度的升高和时间的延长而加深。气相产物中H2和CO的释放量随温度的升高和时间的延长而增加,而CO2和CH4存在释放量的峰值。气相产物随温度的升高和时间的延长而增多,导致高温煤焦出现大量的孔隙和裂缝。%A high-frequency furnace was utilized to carry out rapid pyrolysis of Shenfu coal. The effect of temperature and residence time on the properties of solid and gas products was studied. The results show that the mass loss and true density of the char increase with increasing of both temperature and time. The analysis of their infrared spectra indicates that the hydrogen/oxygen functional groups decompose to form H2 , CO, CO2 , CH4 and other gases during pyrolysis, and the decomposition increase with increasing temperature and time. The emission of H2 and CO monotonically increases, however there are emission peaks for CO2 and CH4 . The total gas products increase with temperature and time, leading to the pores and cracks on the char after high temperature pyrolysis.

  15. Prevalence of middle ear disorders in coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lempert, B.L.; Hopkinson, N.T.; Keith, R.W.; Motl, M.L.; Horine, J.

    1981-06-01

    Results are presented from a study of the prevalence of middle and external ear disorders in coal miners who work underground. The study followed from an earlier NIOSH report (1976) that indicated a possibly large number of otoscopic abnormalities in this population of workers. Otoscopic examinations, pure tone air- and bone-conduction audiometry tests, and impedance tests were administered to 350 underground miners and 150 industrial workers not associated with mining. The study was conducted completely within a hospital otolaryngology/audiology clinic setting. Results of the investigation showed a highly similar prevalence of middle ear and ear canal abnormalities in the miner group and the control group (19 percent). Middle ear abnormalities observed in the miners were judged by the examining otolaryngologists to have preceded their experience in the mines and were not related solely to underground noise exposure or coal dust. Nearly half of the subjects who had an air-bone gap had no middle ear abnormality observable by otoscopic examination. There was substantial agreement between the finding of abnormal otoscopy and abnormal tympanometry. By itself, acoustic reflex was not useful in identifying middle ear disorders, since this reflex may be absent for other reasons, including presence of severe sensorineural hearing loss.

  16. Coal miner's pneumoconiosis: epidemiological and experimental approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoudru, C.

    1983-01-01

    A historical review is presented showing the belated recognition of coal miner's pneumoconiosis as a discrete pathological state, a fact due to a lack of experimental pathological research. The distribution of the disease in France was studied. Its incidence has decreased among active miners, but the number of cases has increased as a result of increased longevity of miners. Physiological and pathological concepts of the disease are discussed, which has become a post-professional disease with delayed radiological symptoms, which frequently entails chronic cor pulmonale, and which varies in incidence from one mining region to another. Lines of ongoing experimental research, which take account of new work in epidemiology and in dust analysis as well as recent biological studies on man are summarized. 29 references.

  17. The Mineral Transformation of Huainan Coal Ashes in Reducing Atmospheres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Han-xu; Yoshihiko Ninomiya; DONG Zhong-bing; ZHANG Ming-xu

    2006-01-01

    By using the advanced instrumentation of a Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscope (CCSEM),X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF), the ash composition and the mineral components of six typical Huainan coals of different origins were studied. The transformation of mineral matter at high temperatures was tracked by XRD in reducing conditions. The quartz phase decreased sharply and the anorthite content tended to increase at first and then decreased with increasing temperatures. The formed mullite phase reached a maximum at 1250 ℃ but showed a tendency of slow decline when the temperature was over 1250 ℃. The mullite formed in the heating process was the main reason of the high ash melting temperature of Huainan coals. Differences in peak intensity of mullite and anorthite reflected differences in phase concentration of the quenched slag fractions, which contributed to the differences in ash melting temperatures. The differences in the location of an amorphous hump maximum indicated differences of glass types which may affect ash melting temperatures. For Huainan coal samples with relatively high ash melting temperatures, the intensity of the diffraction lines for mullite under reducing condition is high while for the samples with relatively low ash melting temperature the intensity for anorthite is high.

  18. Uses and perspectives of Moessbauer spectroscopic studies of iron minerals in coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gracia, M.; Marco, J.F.; Gancedo, J.R. [Instituto de Quimica Fisica ' Rocasolano' (Spain)

    1999-11-15

    The processes involved in the utilization of coal are affected by the minerals contained in it. Due to the presence of iron as a major constituent of coal mineral matter, and to the fact that the iron minerals, especially pyrite, and their transformation products play an important role in coal uses, {sup 57}Fe-Moessbauer spectroscopy appears as an attractive tool in coal research. Moessbauer studies related to the characterization of iron phases, coal oxidation and quantitative determination of pyritic sulphur are discussed in this work.

  19. STATISTICAL ANALYSYS OF THE SCFE OF A BRAZILAN MINERAL COAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DARIVA Cláudio

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of some process variables on the productivity of the fractions (liquid yield times fraction percent obtained from SCFE of a Brazilian mineral coal using isopropanol and ethanol as primary solvents is analyzed using statistical techniques. A full factorial 23 experimental design was adopted to investigate the effects of process variables (temperature, pressure and cosolvent concentration on the extraction products. The extracts were analyzed by the Preparative Liquid Chromatography-8 fractions method (PLC-8, a reliable, non destructive solvent fractionation method, especially developed for coal-derived liquids. Empirical statistical modeling was carried out in order to reproduce the experimental data. Correlations obtained were always greater than 0.98. Four specific process criteria were used to allow process optimization. Results obtained show that it is not possible to maximize both extract productivity and purity (through the minimization of heavy fraction content simultaneously by manipulating the mentioned process variables.

  20. Daughters of the mountain: women coal miners in central Appalachia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tallichet, S.E. [Morehead State University in Kentucky, KY (United States). Department of Sociology, Social Work, and Criminology

    2006-10-15

    The book introduces us to a cohort of women miners at a large underground coal mine in southern West Virginia, where women entered the workforce in the late 1970s after mining jobs began opening up for women throughout the Appalachian coalfields. The work goes beyond anecdotal evidence to provide complex and penetrating analyses of qualitative data. Based on in-depth interviews with including social relations among men and women, professional advancement, and union participation. She also explores the ways in which women adapt to mining culture, developing strategies for both resistance and accommodation to an overwhelmingly male-dominated world. 1 app.

  1. Temporary spectral analysis of a laser plasma of mineral coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebolledo, P.; Pacheco, P.; Sarmiento, R.; Cabanzo, R.; Mejía-Ospino, E.

    2013-11-01

    In this work we present results of the temporal spectral study of a plasma laser of mineral coal using the Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) technique. The plasma was generated by focusing a laser beam of Nd:YAG laser emitting at 532 nm with energy per pulse of 35 mJ on coal target pellets. The plasma radiation was conducted by an optical fiber to the entrance slit of a spectrograph of 0.5 m, equipped with a 1200 and 2400 grooves/mm diffraction grating and an ICCD camera for registration with different delay times of the spectra in the spectral range from 250 nm to 900 nm. The temporal spectral analysis allowed the identification of the elements Al, Fe, Ca, Mg, K, and Si, and CN and C2 molecules present in natural coals. The characteristics of the spectral lines and bands were studied at different delay times obtaining the calculation of the evolution of electron temperature, electron density, and vibrational temperature of plasmas in the time. The delay times used were between 0.5 μs and 5 μs, calculating the electron temperature ranged between 5 000 K and 1 000 K.

  2. Secondary Industrial Minerals from Coal Fly Ash and Aluminium Anodising Waste Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nugteren, H.W.

    2010-01-01

    Minerals that are extracted from the earth’s crust to be directly used for their properties are called industrial minerals. This research shows that such minerals can also be produced from industrial residues, hence the name secondary industrial minerals. In this thesis coal fly ash is chosen as on

  3. Secondary Industrial Minerals from Coal Fly Ash and Aluminium Anodising Waste Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nugteren, H.W.

    2010-01-01

    Minerals that are extracted from the earth’s crust to be directly used for their properties are called industrial minerals. This research shows that such minerals can also be produced from industrial residues, hence the name secondary industrial minerals. In this thesis coal fly ash is chosen as

  4. Musculoskeletal disorders, personality traits, psychological distress, and accident proneness of Chinese coal miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Mingming; Wu, Feng; Wang, Jun; Sun, Linyan

    2017-01-01

    Human factors comprise one of the important reasons leading to the casualty accidents in coal mines. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships among musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), personality traits, psychological distress, and accident proneness of coal miners. There were 1500 Chinese coal miners surveyed in this study. Among these miners, 992 valid samples were obtained. The study surveyed the MSDs, personality traits, psychological distress, and accident proneness of coal miners with MSDs Likert scale, Eysenck personality questionnaire, Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) scale, and accident proneness questionnaire, respectively. The highest MSDs level was found in the waist. The increasing working age of the miners was connected with increased MSDs and psychological distress. Significant differences in MSDs and psychological distress of miners from different types of work were observed. Coal miners with higher MSDs had higher accident proneness. Coal miners with higher neuroticism dimension of Eysenck personality and more serious psychological distress had higher accident proneness. Phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation and psychoticism dimension of psychological distress were the three most important indicators that had significant positive relationships with accident proneness. The MSDs, neuroticism dimension, and psychological distress of the coal mine workers are important to work safety and require serious attention. Some implications concerning coal mine safety management in China were provided.

  5. The mineral matter of Ukrainian salty coals in connection with the environmental problems of their application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shendrik, T.G.; Simonova, V.V.; Pashchenko, L.V. [Inst. of Physical, Organic and Coal Chemistry, National Academy of Sciences, Donetsk (Ukraine)

    1997-12-31

    The mineral composition for salty coals (SC) of Western Donbas, using X-ray-phase analysis of cold oxygen plasma ashes, have been determined. The transformation of native minerals during ashing processes of coals at 600 C, 800 C and during long-time keeping were studied. Brief characteristics of rational ways for SC application was given. (orig.)

  6. 热黏结剂对低阶煤制取型煤的热态性能影响%STUDY ON INFLUENCE OF HEAT BINDER ON PROPERTIES OF BRIQUETTE FROM LOW RANK BITUMINOUS COALS UNDER HOT STATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄山秀; 马名杰

    2013-01-01

    选用煤焦油沥青、高黏结肥煤作为热黏结剂,分别以不同的掺入量和低阶烟煤粉煤及其他原料混合制取型煤.型煤样品热强度测定结果表明:以煤焦油沥青为热黏结剂的型煤热强度高于以高黏结肥煤为热黏结剂的型煤热强度,进一步对型煤微观结构电镜分析也证实了以煤焦油沥青为热黏结剂的型煤其黏结性能和防水性相对较好,电镜切片表明,煤焦油沥青热态下析出的挥发分经过胶质体时产生的气泡相互作用能使胶质体受压形成更坚固的整体网状结构;研究还发现煤焦油沥青的粒度对型煤热强度也有一定的影响.%Two different materials such as coal tar pitch, fat coal with high adhesion were chosen as the heat binder, which were mixed into the powder of low rank bituminous coals from Shenmu or Yuzhou and other raw materials to make coal briquette in different ration. The determination results show that the thermal strength of coal briquette with tar pitch is higher than that of coal briquette with fat coal. Further analysis of micro-structure of coal briquette by electron microscopic also verifies that the cohesion and water resistance of coal briquette with tar pitch is stronger, and it is because that interaction of air bubble poduced by volatile separated under hot state through colloid pressures the colloid and form the stronger net-structure on coal granules surface. Moreover, the particle size of tar pitch also have certain effect on thermal strength of coal briquette.

  7. Miners' return to work following injuries in coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacherjee, Ashis; Kunar, Bijay Mihir

    2016-12-22

    The occupational injuries in mines are common and result in severe socio-economical consequences. Earlier studies have revealed the role of multiple factors such as demographic factors, behavioral factors, health-related factors, working environment, and working conditions for mine injuries. However, there is a dearth of information about the role of some of these factors in delayed return to work (RTW) following a miner's injury. These factors may likely include personal characteristics of injured persons and his or her family, the injured person's social and economic status, and job characteristics. This study was conducted to assess the role of some of these factors for the return to work following coal miners' injuries. A study was conducted for 109 injured workers from an underground coal mine in the years 2000-2009. A questionnaire, which was completed by the personnel interviews, included among others age, height, weight, seniority, alcohol consumption, sleeping duration, presence of diseases, job stress, job satisfaction, and injury type. The data was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier estimates and the Cox proportional hazard model. According to Kaplan-Meier estimate it was revealed that a lower number of dependents, longer sleep duration, no job stress, no disease, no alcohol addiction, and higher monthly income have a great impact on early return to work after injury. The Cox regression analysis revealed that the significant risk factors which influenced miners' return to work included presence of disease, job satisfaction and injury type. The mine management should pay attention to significant risk factors for injuries in order to develop effective preventive measures. Med Pr 2016;67(6):729-742.

  8. Distribution of trace elements in selected pulverized coals as a function of particle size and density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, C.L.; Zeng, T.; Che, J.; Ames, M.R.; Sarofim, A.F.; Olmez, I.; Huggins, Frank E.; Shah, N.; Huffman, G.P.; Kolker, A.; Mroczkowski, S.; Palmer, C.; Finkelman, R.

    2000-01-01

    Trace elements in coal have diverse modes of occurrence that will greatly influence their behavior in many coal utilization processes. Mode of occurrence is important in determining the partitioning during coal cleaning by conventional processes, the susceptibility to oxidation upon exposure to air, as well as the changes in physical properties upon heating. In this study, three complementary methods were used to determine the concentrations and chemical states of trace elements in pulverized samples of four US coals: Pittsburgh, Illinois No. 6, Elkhorn and Hazard, and Wyodak coals. Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) was used to measure the absolute concentration of elements in the parent coals and in the size- and density-fractionated samples. Chemical leaching and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy were used to provide information on the form of occurrence of an element in the parent coals. The composition differences between size-segregated coal samples of different density mainly reflect the large density difference between minerals, especially pyrite, and the organic portion of the coal. The heavy density fractions are therefore enriched in pyrite and the elements associated with pyrite, as also shown by the leaching and XAFS methods. Nearly all the As is associated with pyrite in the three bituminous coals studied. The sub-bituminous coal has a very low content of pyrite and arsenic; in this coal arsenic appears to be primarily organically associated. Selenium is mainly associated with pyrite in the bituminous coal samples. In two bituminous coal samples, zinc is mostly in the form of ZnS or associated with pyrite, whereas it appears to be associated with other minerals in the other two coals. Zinc is also the only trace element studied that is significantly more concentrated in the smaller (45 to 63 ??m) coal particles.

  9. Influence of mineral and chemical composition of coal ashes on their fusibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vassilev, S.V.; Kitano, K.; Takeda, S.; Tsurue, T. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). Institute of Applied Mineralogy

    1995-10-01

    The relationships between ash-fusion temperature (AFT) and mineral and chemical composition of coals and coal ashes from a wide variety of deposits (41) were studied by a melting test, X-ray diffractometry, light microscopy, differential-thermal, thermogravimetric and chemical analyses. A reliable explanation and prediction of AFT only from the total chemical composition of coal ash is inadequate because most important are the modes of elemental combination (minerals and phases) in coal and coal ash, as well as their behaviour during heating. The coals, which have low-melting temperature ashes, are lower rank coals with increased concentrations of S, Ca, Mg, Fe and Na and respectively, sulphates, carbonates, sulphides, oxides, montmorillonite, and feldspars. The coals with high-melting temperature ashes have an advanced rank and increased contents of Si, Al and Ti and respectively, quartz, kaolinite, illite and rutile, as well as some Fe oxides and siderite. The behaviour of chemical components and various coal and coal-ash minerals during heating is discussed, and their refractory and fluxing influence on ash fusibility is described. Lower AFT is related to increased proportions of the fluxing sulphate, silicate and oxide minerals such as anhydrite, acid plagioclases, K feldspars, Ca silicates and hematite in high-temperature coal ashes. Higher AFT is a result of decreased fluxing minerals and increased refractory minerals such as quartz, metakaolinite, mullite, and rutile in these ashes. Defined softening, hemispherical and fluid ash-fusion temperatures fit various processes of inorganic transformations which are discussed. A reliable explanation and prediction of ash-fusion characteristics can be made when the coal and coal-ash minerals and their amounts, as well as their refractory and fluxing action during heating, are known. 31 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Yampa coal field land status and Federal mineral ownership (yamowng)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a shapefile and unioned polygon ownership coverage used to calculate coal resources of the A through D coal zones, Yampa coal field, northwestern Colorado....

  11. Fly ash of mineral coal as ceramic tiles raw material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, A; Bergmann, C P

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of mineral coal fly ash as a raw material in the production of ceramic tiles. The samples of fly ash came from Capivari de Baixo, a city situated in the Brazilian Federal State of Santa Catarina. The fly ash and the raw materials were characterized regarding their physical chemical properties, and, based on these results; batches containing fly ash and typical raw materials for ceramic tiles were prepared. The fly ash content in the batches varied between 20 and 80 wt%. Specimens were molded using a uniaxial hydraulic press and were fired. All batches containing ash up to 60 wt% present adequate properties to be classified as several kinds of products in the ISO 13006 standard () regarding its different absorption groups (pressed). The results obtained indicate that fly ash, when mixed with traditional raw materials, has the necessary requirements to be used as a raw material for production of ceramic tiles.

  12. Radiological findings, pulmonary function and dyspnea in underground coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, T.T.; Heyer, C.M.; Duchna, H.W.; Andreas, K.; Weber, A.; Schmidt, E.W.; Ammenwerth, W.; Schultze-Werninghaus, G. [University Hospital Bergmannsheil, Bochum (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Respiratory disability induced by dust exposure in coal workers is assessed by pulmonary function tests and radiological evidence of pneumoconiosis. High-resolution computed tomography (HR-CT) improves the visibility of tissue changes, but the value of the findings for the clinical evaluation is controversial. It was the aim of this study to evaluate the correlation between the International Labour Office (ILO) classification and the degree of emphysema in HR-CT with self-reported dyspnea and pulmonary function tests including diffusion capacity for CO (D-L, CO). We investigated 87 coal miners (aged 67 +/- 6 years), having worked underground for 26 +/- 9 years, with pulmonary function tests and HR-CT. Univariate associations were tested with correlation coefficients, and multivariable analyses used a stepwise forward regression model. It was concluded that the clinical grade of breathlessness was best approximated by D-L,D-CO. HR-CT showed a good association with expiratory flow limitation. ILO classification of the chest radiograph may be a marker of exposure but conveys little information about the degree of respiratory impairment.

  13. Genetic susceptibility to progressive massive fibrosis in coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yucesoy, B.; Johnson, V.J.; Kissling, G.E.; Fluharty, K.; Kashon, M.L.; Slaven, J.; Germolec, D.; Vallyathan, V.; Luster, M.I. [NIOSH, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2008-06-15

    Progressive massive fibrosis (PMF) is a chronic interstitial lung disease with a complex aetiology that can occur after cumulative dust exposure. A case-control study was conducted to test the hypothesis that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within genes involved in inflammatory and fibrotic processes modulate the risk of PMF development. The study population consisted of 648 underground coal miners participating in the National Coal Workers Autopsy Study, of which 304 were diagnosed with PMF SNPs that influence the regulation of interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, transforming growth factor-beta 1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), epidermal growth factor intercellular cell adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and matrix metalloproteinase-2 genes were determined using a 5'-nuclease real-time PCR assay. There were no significant differences in the distribution of any individual SNP or haplotype between the PMF and control groups. However, the polygenotype of VEGF +405/ICAM-1 +241/IL-6 -174 (C-A-G) conferred an increased risk for PMF (odds ratio 3.4, 95% confidence interval 1.3-8.8). The present study suggests that the examined genetic variations that help regulate inflammatory and fibrotic processes are unlikely to strongly influence susceptibility to this interstitial lung disease, although the role of vascular endothelial growth factor, intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 and interleukin-6 polymorphisms in the development of progressive massive fibrosis may require further investigation.

  14. Induction of sister chromatid exchanges by coal dust and tobacco snuff extracts in human peripheral lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucker, J.D.; Ong, T.

    1985-01-01

    The organic solvent extracts of sub-bituminous coal dust and tobacco snuff, both together and separately, were tested for the induction of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) in human peripheral lymphocytes. The results indicate that these extracts induced SCEs, and that when tested together synergistically induced SCEs in two of three donors. Studies with the organic solvent extracts of all five ranks of coal indicate that the extracts of bituminous, lignite, and peat, but not anthracite, induced SCEs. Similar experiments conducted with water extracts, induced SCEs, and that anthracite was equivocal. To determine whether individuals differed in their SCE responses to coal dust extracts, lymphocytes from five donors were tested with organic solvent extracts of bituminous and sub-bituminous coal. An analysis of variance indicates that the SCE response was significantly influenced by the donor and each of the two coal extracts. The findings presented here suggest that coal dust, with or without tobacco snuff, may play a role in the elevated incidence of gastric cancer in coal miners. Because water extracts of some ranks of coal induced SCEs, there exists the possibility of adverse environmental effects due to coal leachates.

  15. Appalachian basin bituminous coal: sulfur content and potential sulfur dioxide emissions of coal mined for electrical power generation: Chapter G.5 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippi, Michael H.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Attanasi, E.D.; Milici, Robert C.; Freeman, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    Data from 157 counties in the Appalachian basin of average sulfur content of coal mined for electrical power generation from 1983 through 2005 show a general decrease in the number of counties where coal mining has occurred and a decrease in the number of counties where higher sulfur coals (>2 percent sulfur) were mined. Calculated potential SO2 emissions (assuming no post-combustion SO2 removal) show a corresponding decrease over the same period of time.

  16. Women and men coal miners: coping with gender integration underground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yount, K.R.

    1986-01-01

    The central purpose of this research is to initiate a theoretical understanding of the integration of women into traditionally-male, physical-labor jobs. The primary sources of data consist of in depth interviews with women and men underground coal miners and company personnel, and field notes collected during participant observation work in mining communities. Part I addresses the relationship between conditions of production and modes of interaction in underground mines. Personality traits conceived as aspects of masculinity are traced to efforts to cope with the stressors of engaging in physical labor in a work setting characterized by lack of work autonomy, a high degree of threat, and a high degree of interdependence for task accomplishment. Part II focuses on situational and individual factors affecting the integration of women in the workplace. Although most women miners are satisfied with their work, a gender based division of labor has arisen in which women are concentrated in low-prestige laborer positions. The processes involved in undermining a woman's work reputation and self-concept are summarized and forms of discrimination that recreate aspects of the female sterotype and lead to the development of sex segregation in the workplace are to the development of sex segregation in the workplace are discussed.

  17. Ammonium minerals from burning coal-dumps of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (Poland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parafiniuk, J.; Kruszewski, L. [University of Warsaw, Warsaw (Poland)

    2009-07-01

    Abstract: Assemblages composed of 11 ammonium minerals, mainly sulphates and chlorides, were recorded from four burning coal-dumps (BCD) in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin. Most of them are newly recorded from Poland. Minerals were identified using PXRD and SEM with EDS analyses. Salammoniac, NH{sub 4}Cl, and tschermigite, (NH{sub 4})Al(SO4)(2) center dot 12H(2)O are the most common species on the BCD studied. Kremersite, (NH{sub 4},K)(2)(FeCl{sub 5}(H{sub 2}O)), is rare and coexists with members of the ammonioalunite-ammoniojarosite series. Boussingaultite, (NH{sub 4})(2)Mg(SO4){sub 2} {center_dot} 6H{sub 2}O, and more rarely clairite, (NH{sub 4})(2)Fe{sub -3}(SO4){sub 4}(OH){sub 3} {center_dot} 3H{sub 2}O, and mascagnite, (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO4, accompany numerous Mg, Al, Fe and Ca sulphate minerals. These usually occur as very fine admixtures forming coatings, small nodules or porous masses and were found on the BCD surface close to gas vents. Also a massive sulphate crust was found in the deeper part of the BCD nearby the fire zone. This crust is composed mainly of anhydrous sulphates: godovikovite, (NH{sub 4})(Al,Fe)(SO4){sub 2}, and very minor sabieite, (NH{sub 4})Fe(SO4)(2), and efremovite, (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}Mg{sub -2}(SO4){sub 3}, which were transformed into different hydrated sulphates in the outer zone of the crust. The fibrous or dendritic habit of many ammonium minerals, and the vesicular texture of some sulphate aggregates, point to their crystallization from the gas phase. Some ammonia minerals may also have developed through hydration of previously formed phases or precipitated from locally formed aqueous solutions due to cooling or evaporation. The appearance of ammonia minerals on BCD can be a useful indicator of the presence of underground fires.

  18. Bituminous Pavement Failures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surajo Abubakar Wada

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Pavement deterioration is a serious problem for road and traffic sector in almost every country, the most affecting causes of bituminous pavement failures have been studied in this paper. The paper describes the lessons learnt from pavement failures and problems experienced. Failures of bituminous pavements are caused due to many reasons or combination of reasons. Application of correction in the existing surface will enhance the life of maintenance works as well as that of strengthening layer. Along with the maintenance techniques there are various methods for pavement preservation which will help in enhancing the life of pavement and delaying of its failure.This paper discusses the possible causes of pavement failures, and recommendbetter ways to minimize and hopefully eliminate the causes of failures in bituminous pavements.

  19. Behaviour of inorganic matter during heating of Bulgarian coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vassileva, Christina G.; Vassilev, Stanislav V. [Central Laboratory of Mineralogy and Crystallography, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl. 107, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria)

    2006-12-15

    Bulgarian subbituminous (Pernik, Bobov Dol) and bituminous (Balkan) coals were gradually heated under air from 100 {sup o}C to their fluid ash-fusion temperatures (1400-1600 {sup o}C) via 100 {sup o}C intervals and the behaviour of their inorganic matter (IM) was studied. The original minerals and newly formed inorganic phases in the oxidation and combustion products (OCPs) of these coals were identified and the behaviour of 33 minerals and phases was described. The coals studied reveal high detrital abundance and low authigenic mineralization with sulphide-sulphate, carbonate or mixed sulphide-sulphate and carbonate tendencies. The IM of coals is composed mainly of quartz, kaolinite, illite+muscovite, feldspars, pyrite, and calcite, while the other minerals identified have subordinate occurrence. The IM of OCPs includes various pre-existing minerals and newly formed phases. The latter phases are glass, quartz-cristobalite-tridymite, mullite, amorphous clay material, hematite-magnetite, anhydrite, and others originating from the heating of these coals or storage of their OCPs. The physico-chemical processes and temperatures that result in the formation of new phases in OCPs are described. The relationships between the ash-fusion behaviour and chemical and mineral composition of the coals are also discussed. A systematization of the physico-chemical transformations and some comparative characterizations, as well as prediction of certain technological and environmental problems related to the behaviour of IM during heating of Bulgarian lignites, subbituminous and bituminous coals are also described and summarized. (author)

  20. Distribution of Clay Minerals in Light Coal Fractions and the Thermal Reaction Products of These Clay Minerals during Combustion in a Drop Tube Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sida Tian

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To estimate the contribution of clay minerals in light coal fractions to ash deposition in furnaces, we investigated their distribution and thermal reaction products. The light fractions of two Chinese coals were prepared using a 1.5 g·cm−3 ZnCl2 solution as a density separation medium and were burned in a drop-tube furnace (DTF. The mineral matter in each of the light coal fractions was compared to that of the relevant raw coal. The DTF ash from light coal fractions was analysed using hydrochloric acid separation. The acid-soluble aluminium fractions of DTF ash samples were used to determine changes in the amorphous aluminosilicate products with increasing combustion temperature. The results show that the clay mineral contents in the mineral matter of both light coal fractions were higher than those in the respective raw coals. For the coal with a high ash melting point, clay minerals in the light coal fraction thermally transformed more dehydroxylation products compared with those in the raw coal, possibly contributing to solid-state reactions of ash particles. For the coal with a low ash melting point, clay minerals in the light coal fraction produced more easily-slagging material compared with those in the raw coal, playing an important role in the occurrence of slagging. Additionally, ferrous oxide often produces low-melting substances in coal ash. Due to the similarities of zinc oxide and ferrous oxide in silicate reactions, we also investigated the interactions of clay minerals in light coal fractions with zinc oxide introduced by a zinc chloride solution. The extraneous zinc oxide could react, to a small extent, with clay minerals in the coal during DTF combustion.

  1. Associations of psychological capital, demographic and occupational factors with cigarette smoking among Chinese underground coal miners

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Li; Xu, Xin; Wu, Hui; Yang, Yilong; Wang, Lie

    2015-01-01

    Background As a specific male occupational group, underground coal miners have been commonly found to have a high prevalence of cigarette smoking. It is of urgent need to explore some factors that could be intervened to reduce smoking from personal or internal perspective. The purpose of the present study was to examine the associations of psychological capital (PsyCap), demographic and occupational factors with smoking among Chinese underground coal miners. Methods A cross-sectional survey w...

  2. Mineral identification in Colombian coals using Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fajardo, M. [Universidad del Valle, A.A, Departamento de Fisica (Colombia); Mojica, J. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones en Geociencia, Mineria y Quimica (INGEOMINAS) (Colombia); Barraza, J. [Universidad del Valle, A.A, Departamento de Procesos Quimicos, Facultad de Ingenieria (Colombia); Perez Alcazar, G.A.; Tabares, J.A. [Universidad del Valle, A.A, Departamento de Fisica (Colombia)

    1999-11-15

    Minerals were identified in three Colombian coal samples from the Southwest of the country using Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Original and sink separated coal fractions of specific gravity 1.40 and 1.60 with particle size less than 600 {mu}m were used in the study. Using Moessbauer spectroscopy, the minerals identified in the original coal samples were pyrite jarosite, ankerite, illite and ferrous sulfate, whereas by means of X-ray diffraction, minerals identified were kaolinite, quartz, pyrite, and jarosite. Differences in mineral composition were found in the original and sink separated fractions using both techniques. Moessbauer spectra show that the mineral phases in low concentrations such as illite, ankerite and ferrous sulfate do not always appear in the spectra of sink coals, despite of those minerals occurring in the original coal, due to the fact that they are associated with the organic matter and not liberated in the grinding process. X-ray results show that the peak intensity grows as the specific gravity is increased indicating that the density separation method could be an effective process to clean coal.

  3. Pathological study of the prevalence of silicosis among coal miners in Iran: A case history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare Naghadehi, Masoud; Sereshki, Farhang; Mohammadi, F.

    2014-02-01

    One of the most hazardous diseases that is commonly associated with the coal mining industry is Silicosis which caused by dust inhalation. This disease occurs as a result of prolonged breathing of dust containing silica (quartz). The generation of coal mine dust during underground and surface coal mining is the most significant source of coal dust exposure. Silica dust develops scar tissue inside the lungs which reduces the lungs ability to extract oxygen from the air. All miners working in underground and surface coal mines are at risk of being exposed to mine dust containing silica. In this study, cases with pathologic diagnosis of silicosis during seven years period between 2000 and 2007 were retrieved, from the pathologic file of Department of Pathology, Massih Daneshvary Hospital in Iran. Results of this case study showed the great effects of dust exposure and inhalation from the viewpoint of symptoms especially between the miners.

  4. Back extensor muscle endurance test scores in coal miners in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, M.; Latimer, J.; Jamieson, M. [University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Faculty of Health and Science, School of Physiotherapy

    2003-06-01

    Low back pain is a common complaint among those working in the Australian coal mining industry. One test that may be predictive of first-time episodes of low back pain is the Biering-Sorensen test of back extensor endurance strength. While this test has been evaluated in overseas sedentary populations, normative data and the discriminative ability of the test have not been evaluated with coal miners. Eighty-eight coal miners completed a questionnaire for known risk factors for low back pain, performed the Biering-Sorensen test, and undertook a test of aerobic fitness. Data analysis was performed to describe the groups and to determine whether any significant difference existed between those with a past history of low back pain and those without. Significantly lower than expected holding times were found in this group of coal miners (mean 113 s). This result was significantly lower than demonstrated in previous studies. When holding times for those with a past history of low back pain were compared with times for those with no history of low back pain, the difference was not statistically significant, nor was there a significant difference in fitness between those with a past history of low back pain and those without. It is concluded that coal miners in Australia have lower than normal Biering-Sorensen holding times. This lower back holding time does not differ between coal miners with a past history of low back pain and those without.

  5. Respirable coal dust exposure and respiratory symptoms in South-African coal miners: A comparison of current and ex-miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naidoo, R.N.; Robins, T.G.; Seixas, N.; Lalloo, U.G.; Becklake, M. [University of KwaZuluNatal, Congella (South Africa). Nelson R Mandela School of Medicine

    2006-06-15

    Dose-response associations between respirable dust exposure and respiratory symptoms and between symptoms and spirometry outcomes among currently employed and formerly employed South-African coal miners were investigated. Work histories, interviews, and spirometry and cumulative exposure were assessed among 684 current and 212 ex-miners. Results: Lower prevalences of symptoms were found among employed compared with ex-miners. Associations with increasing exposure for symptoms of phlegm and past history of tuberculosis were observed, whereas other symptom prevalences were higher in the higher exposure categories. Symptomatic ex-miners exhibited lower lung-function compared to the nonsymptomatic. Compared with published data, symptoms rates were low in current miners but high in ex-miners. Although explanations could include the low prevalence of smoking and/or reporting/selection bias, a 'Survivor' and/or a 'hire' effect is more likely, resulting in an underestimation of the dust-related effect.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF DEWATERING AIDS FOR MINERALS AND COAL FINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roe-Hoam Yoon; Ramazan Asmatulu; Ismail Yildirim; William Jansen; Jinmig Zhang; Brad Atkinson; Jeff Havens

    2004-07-01

    MCT has developed a suite of novel dewatering chemicals (or aids) that are designed to cause a decrease in the capillary pressures of the water trapped in a filter cake by (1) decreasing the surface tension of water, (2) increasing the contact angles of the particles to be dewatered, and (3) causing the particles to coagulate, all at the same time. The decrease in capillary pressure in turn causes an increase in the rate filtration, an increase in throughput, and a decrease in pressure drop requirement for filtration. The reagents are used frequently as blends of different chemicals in order to bring about the changes in all of the process variables noted above. The minerals and coal samples tested in the present work included copper sulfide, lead sulfide, zinc sulfide, kaolin clay, talc, and silica. The laboratory-scale test work included studies of reagent types, drying cycle times, cake thickness, slurry temperature, conditioning intensity and time, solid content, and reagent dosages. To better understand the mechanisms involved, fundamental studies were also conducted. These included the measurements of the contact angles of the particles to be dewatered (which are the measures of particle hydrophobicity) and the surface tensions of the filtrates produced from dewatering tests. The results of the laboratory-scale filtration experiments showed that the use of the novel dewatering aids can reduce the moistures of the filter cake by 30 to 50% over what can be achieved using no dewatering aids. In many cases, such high levels of moisture reductions are sufficient to obviate the needs for thermal drying, which is costly and energy intensive. Furthermore, the use of the novel dewatering aids cause a substantial increase in the kinetics of dewatering, which in turn results in increased throughput. As a result of these technological advantages, the novel dewatering aids have been licensed to Nalco, which is one of the largest mining chemicals companies of the world. At

  7. Evaluation of coal minerals and metal residues as coal-liquefaction catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-02-01

    Under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-79ET14806, Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., subcontracted Auburn University Coal Conversion Laboratory to perform exploratory studies on the use of minerals and by-product metallic wastes in coal liquefaction. Under this program Auburn University conducted an extensive screening program on numerous materials from which the more active or interesting ones were further investigated in the continuous process development units (PDU) at Air Products. In Volume 1 of the final report a number of the results from those tests are summarized for comparison with the PDU results. Because of the very extensive and detailed work performed at Auburn University, a portion of that work is not included in Volume 1. Therefore, in order to fulfill the requirements of the contract with DOE, a compilation of the work performed by Auburn University is submitted in Volume 2. The information from the Auburn University work was compiled from a sequence of monthly reports submitted to air Products and Chemicals, Inc., during the course of the program. Because of the very large numbers of screening runs conducted at Auburn, the overlap between these reports is minimal. This work presents in some detail the various stages of development of screening procedures and analytical methods that were developed. The reader should also find them extremely informative as to the generation of ideas that developed during this program. The work reported in this volume went beyond simple screening runs. Extensive exploratory studies as well as basic studies on the behavior of reactants and catalysts were performed. These results from the basic and exploratory studies impacted on the overall direction of this program.

  8. Study of the Changes on Tree Shrew Bronchial Epithelium Induced by Xuanwei Bituminous Coal Dust%宣威烟煤粉尘诱发树鼩支气管粘膜上皮改变的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小波; 贺猛; 李光剑; 周永春; 赵光强; 雷玉洁; 杨凯云; 田琳玮; 黄云超

    2015-01-01

    背景与目的肺癌在许多国家和地区已成为发病率和死亡率最高的恶性肿瘤,建立科学合适的肺癌动物模型,用以模拟出与人类肺癌的病因、发病机制、发展过程相似的动物模型是亟待解决的问题。通过宣威烟煤粉尘PM10(particulate matter with diameters of 10μm or less, PM10)对树鼩支气管上皮的影响,探索建立宣威烟煤粉尘致肺癌模型的可行性。方法健康成年树鼩,切开颈部皮肤,充分暴露甲状软骨,于甲状软骨上方薄弱处,采用特制灌注针行穿刺的方法进行气管内试剂灌注。定期行X线检查,观察肺部影像学改变,处死动物行肺组织病理检查,观察灌注后支气管上皮改变情况。结果烟尘处理组树鼩灌注药物后1周内开始死亡,空白对照组、溶剂对照组树鼩灌注后至实验结束无异常死亡。定期处死树鼩行肺组织HE染色切片病理检查,空白对照组及溶剂对照组无明显病理改变,烟尘处理组树鼩肺组织可见支气管粘膜上皮过度增生-鳞状化生-不典型增生-早期浸润癌的病理变化过程。结论宣威烟煤粉尘可以导致树鼩支气管上皮出现支气管粘膜上皮过度增生-鳞状化生-不典型增生-早期浸润癌的病理变化,应用宣威烟煤粉尘PM10行气管内灌注可以诱发树鼩肺癌。可以建立肺癌模型。%Background and objective Lung cancer is the type of cancer with the highest incidence and mortality in numerous countries and regions. Establishing an appropriate animal model that can be used to simulate lung cancer etiology, pathogenesis, and similar processes, is urgent. We explore the feasibility of establishing a lung cancer model induced by Xuan-wei bituminous coal dust PM10 (particulate matter with diameters of 10 μm or less), which affects bronchial epithelium of tree shrews.Methods hTe neck skin of adult tree shrews is dissected, and the thyroid cartilage is fully

  9. A scanning electron microscope method for automated, quantitative analysis of mineral matter in coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creelman, R.A.; Ward, C.R. [R.A. Creelman and Associates, Epping, NSW (Australia)

    1996-07-01

    Quantitative mineralogical analysis has been carried out in a series of nine coal samples from Australia, South Africa and China using a newly-developed automated image analysis system coupled to a scanning electron microscopy. The image analysis system (QEM{asterisk}SEM) gathers X-ray spectra and backscattered electron data from a number of points on a conventional grain-mount polished section under the SEM, and interprets the data from each point in mineralogical terms. The cumulative data in each case was integrated to provide a volumetric modal analysis of the species present in the coal samples, expressed as percentages of the respective coals` mineral matter. Comparison was made of the QEM{asterisk}SEM results to data obtained from the same samples using other methods of quantitative mineralogical analysis, namely X-ray diffraction of the low-temperature oxygen-plasma ash and normative calculation from the (high-temperature) ash analysis and carbonate CO{sub 2} data. Good agreement was obtained from all three methods for quartz in the coals, and also for most of the iron-bearing minerals. The correlation between results from the different methods was less strong, however, for individual clay minerals, or for minerals such as calcite, dolomite and phosphate species that made up only relatively small proportions of the mineral matter. The image analysis approach, using the electron microscope for mineralogical studies, has significant potential as a supplement to optical microscopy in quantitative coal characterisation. 36 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Coal blend combustion: fusibility ranking from mineral matter composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Goni; S. Helle; X. Garcia; A. Gordon; R. Parra; U. Kelm; R. Jimenez; G. Alfaro [Universidad de Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile). Departamento de Ingenieria Metalurgica, Instituto de Geologia Economica Aplicada (GEA)

    2003-10-01

    Although coal blends are increasingly utilized at power plants, ash slagging propensity is a non-additive property of the pure coals and hence difficult to predict. Coal ash tendency to slag is related to its bulk chemistry and ash fusion temperatures, and the present study aims to compare the results obtained from thermodynamic simulation with characterization of samples obtained as outcomes of plant-based coal-blend combustion trials at three utilities located in the Centre and North of Chile. Pulverized coal and plant residues samples from five families of binary blends tested in an experimental program were characterized for chemistry, mineralogy and maceral composition. The slagging was evaluated by determination of fusion curves using the MTDATA software and NPLOX3 database for the main coal ash oxides. The ranking obtained was approximately the same as obtained from carbon in the fly ashes and from plant residues observations. The thermodynamic modeling was a valid option to predict the fusibility during the combustion of blends. 16 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Removal of mineral matter from some Australian coals by Ca(OH){sub 2}/HCl leaching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.; Tomita, A. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Inst. for Chemical Reaction Science

    1998-12-01

    Four Australian coals, Blair Athol, Ebenezer, Newlands and Warkworth coals, were demineralized by Ca(OH){sub 2} digestion at 300{degree}C, followed by washing with dilute HCl. Ash contents decreased from 8.8-15.4% to 1% for Blair Athol, Newlands and Warkworth coals, and from 14.9% to 2.8% for Ebenezer coal. The CaO/ash ratio is an important factor affecting coal demineralization; the maximum ash removals were achieved at CaO/ash ratios in the range 0.6-1 g/g for all the coals. The major minerals in the original coals were kaolinite and quartz, with some montmorillonite and carbonates. Kaolinite and quartz hydrothermally reacted with Ca(OH){sub 2} to form calcium-bearing hydrated silicates and aluminosilicates, such as tobermorite and hibschites, that could be dissolved in acid. With increasing CaO/ash ratio in excess of the optimum value, the removal of quartz significantly decreased; there also remains some calcium in treated coal, depending on digestion conditions and coal type. A lower ash removal from Ebenezer is due to a lower quartz removal and more remaining calcium. 16 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Composition and mode of occurrence of mineral matter in some Colombian coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Ines Carmona [School of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Mines, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellin (Colombia); Ward, Colin R. [School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2008-01-07

    The minerals in a range of Colombian coal samples, selected to represent the principal coal-mining regions, have been investigated using low-temperature ashing and quantitative X-ray diffraction techniques, and the results compared to information from chemical analysis and Moessbauer spectroscopy studies. Kaolinite, illite, interstratified illite-smectite and quartz are the dominant mineral matter components in almost all of the coal samples, with small but significant proportions of pyrite (up to around 15% of the mineral matter) being present in around half of the samples studied. Other minerals present in particular samples include chlorite, muscovite, paragonite, ankerite, dolomite, calcite and siderite, along with phosphate minerals apatite and goyazite. Jarosite and coquimbite are also noted in some of the pyrite-bearing coals, probably representing oxidation products of the pyrite developed with exposure or storage. Bassanite is present in the low-temperature ash of some coals, and in one sample occurs along with significant concentrations of hexahydrite, alunogen, tschermigite and paraluminite, all of which were probably derived from interaction of inorganic elements in the organic matter with organic sulphur during maceral oxidation. Quantitative analysis of the minerals in the low-temperature ash of the coal samples using Rietveld-based X-ray diffraction techniques provides results that are consistent, at least for the most abundant elements, with the chemical composition of the coal ash as determined by standard analysis procedures. The evaluation of mineral-rich concentrates by Moessbauer spectroscopy also provides results consistent with the XRD data, especially as regards pyrite and some of the sulphate components. Optical microscopy indicates that much of the pyrite, and in some cases also the carbonates, occurs as anhedral crystals, finely disseminated in the maceral components, as aggregates of crystals (including pyrite framboids), as fine

  13. Mineral composition of rock in Visonia lignite and Nograd brown coal and its influence on abradability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szalay, Z.

    1984-01-01

    A study is made of the properties of coals when they are reprocessed in a crusher and tubular furnace at the Gagarin heat and electric power plant and the characteristics of the forming fly ash. The coals are distinguished by high percentages (15-28%) of montmorillonite and kaolinite (3-13%). DTA and x-ray structural analysis of the coals and solid residues were conducted. It is shown that the fly ash is mainly formed from clay minerals and consists of an amorphous mass and modifications of free SiO/sub 2/.

  14. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Depressive Symptoms among Chinese Underground Coal Miners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although underground coal miners are quite susceptible to depressive symptoms due to a highly risky and stressful working environment, few studies have focused on this issue. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of depressive symptoms and to explore its associated factors in this population. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a coal-mining population in northeast China. A set of self-administered questionnaires was distributed to 2500 underground coal miners (1,936 effective respondents. Depressive symptoms, effort-reward imbalance (ERI, overcommitment (OC, perceived physical environment (PPE, work-family conflict (WFC, and some demographic and working characteristics were measured anonymously. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 62.8%, and the mean level was 20.00 (9.99. Hierarchical linear regression showed that marital status, education, monthly income, and weekly working time were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. A high level of depressive symptoms was significantly associated with high ERI, PPE, WFC, and OC. Accordingly, most Chinese underground coal miners probably have depressive symptoms that are mainly predicted by some occupational psychosocial factors. Efforts should be made to develop strategies to reduce ERI and OC, improve physical working environment, and care for workers’ family well-being, thereby mitigating the risk of depression among Chinese underground coal miners.

  15. Minerals of the ammonioalunite-ammoniojarosite series formed on a burning coal dump at Czerwionka, Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parafiniuk, J.; Kruszewski, L. [University of Warsaw, Warsaw (Poland)

    2010-08-15

    Ammonioalunite, ammoniojarosite and their solid-solution series found on a burning coal dump at Czerwionka, Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Poland, were examined using powder X-ray diffraction, electron probe microanalysis, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy and thermal analysis methods. The minerals occur as yellow, fine-grained crusts and botryoidal masses in the outer part of a sulphate crust found similar to 1 m below the surface. The crust is composed mainly of godovikovite and tschermigite that formed by interaction of sour fire gases or solutions and waste materials beneath the surface of the burning coal dump at temperatures of at least 80-100{sup o}C. The crystals often reveal oscillatory zoning due to different Al and Fe contents in thin bands, from near end-members to extensive solid solutions. Our analyses suggest the existence in nature of a complete solid solution between ammonioalunite and ammoniojarosite. They also carry essential amounts of chlorine.

  16. Development of clean coal and clean soil technologies using advanced agglomeration technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignasiak, B.; Pawlak, W.; Szymocha, K.; Marr, J.

    1990-04-01

    The specific objectives of the bituminous coal program were to explore and evaluate the application of advanced agglomeration technology for: (1)desulphurization of bituminous coals to sulphur content acceptable within the current EPA SO{sub 2} emission guidelines; (2) deashing of bituminous coals to ash content of less than 10 percent; and (3)increasing the calorific value of bituminous coals to above 13,000 Btu/lb. (VC)

  17. Nitrogen mineralization from sludge in an alkaline, saline coal gasification ash environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbakwe, Ikenna; De Jager, Pieter C; Annandale, John G; Matema, Taurai

    2013-01-01

    Rehabilitating coal gasification ash dumps by amendment with waste-activated sludge has been shown to improve the physical and chemical properties of ash and to facilitate the establishment of vegetation. However, mineralization of organic N from sludge in such an alkaline and saline medium and the effect that ash weathering has on the process are poorly understood and need to be ascertained to make decisions regarding the suitability of this rehabilitation option. This study investigated the rate and pattern of N mineralization from sludge in a coal gasification ash medium to determine the prevalent inorganic N form in the system and assess the effect of ash weathering on N mineralization. An incubation experiment was performed in which fresh ash, weathered ash, and soil were amended with the equivalent of 90 Mg ha sludge, and N mineralization was evaluated over 63 d. More N (24%) was mineralized in fresh ash than in weathered ash and soil, both of which mineralized 15% of the initial organic N in sludge. More nitrification occurred in soil, and most of the N mineralized in ash was in the form of ammonium, indicating an inhibition of nitrifying organisms in the ash medium and suggesting that, at least initially, plants used for rehabilitation of coal gasification ash dumps will take up N mostly as ammonium.

  18. Fluid-dynamical and poro-elastic coupling of gas permeability of inert and sorbing gases on an Australian sub-bituminous coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gensterblum, Y.; Krooss, B. M.

    2013-12-01

    The interaction and the coupling of slip-flow, a fluid dynamic phenomenon, and the cleat volume compressibility which is a poroelastic phenomenon has been investigated on two samples from the Taroom coal measure, Surat Basin, Queensland Australia. Measurements were performed using inert (helium and argon) and sorbing gases (nitrogen, methane and carbon dioxide) at controlled effective stress. We observed the following regular sequence of permeability coefficients for the different gases: Helium >> argon => nitrogen > methane >> CO2 Even after slip-flow correction, different intrinsic permeability coefficients are obtained for the same sample if different gases are used in the tests. The permeability values determined with helium are largest while those measured with CO2 are lowest. Inert gases like helium and argon show higher apparent- and even slip flow-corrected permeability coefficients than sorbing gases like methane or carbon dioxide. This observation is contrary to the prediction that the slip-flow corrected permeability have to be the same for all gases. The cleat volume compressibility cf was evaluated using the 'matchstick approach' [1, 2]. The cleat volume compressibility coefficients cf are almost identical for the two samples taken from the same well. However, for one sample a strong dependence of the cf with the mean pore pressure was observed. This is attributed to a strong slip-flow effect caused by a narrow cleat system as compared to the sister sample. The cleat volume compressibility coefficient cf is almost the same for inert and sorbing gases. We conclude that the occurrence of slip-flow in coals is able to compensate the permeability reduction resulting from increasing effective stress. This should lead to a much higher productivity of coal bed methane reservoirs in the third production phase (pseudo-steady state phase; [3]). This conclusion appears to be also valid for shale gas and tight gas reservoirs, where the gas transport takes place in

  19. Bituminous sands : tax issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, B. [PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This paper examined some of the tax issues associated with the production of bitumen or synthetic crude oil from oil sands. The oil sands deposits in Alberta are gaining more attention as the supplies of conventional oil in Canada decline. The oil sands reserves located in the Athabasca, Cold Lake and Peace River areas contain about 2.5 trillion barrels of highly viscous hydrocarbons called bitumen, of which nearly 315 billion barrels are recoverable with current technology. The extraction method varies for each geographic area, and even within zones and reservoirs. The two most common extraction methods are surface mining and in-situ extraction such as cyclic steam stimulation (CSS); low pressure steam flood; pressure cycle steam drive; steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD); hot water flooding; and, fire flood. This paper also discussed the following general tax issues: bituminous sands definition; bituminous sands leases and Canadian development expense versus Canadian oil and gas property expense (COGPE); Canadian exploration expense (CEE) for surface mining versus in-situ methods; additional capital cost allowance; and, scientific research and experimental development (SR and ED). 15 refs.

  20. Expression of Hsp27 and Hsp70 in lymphocytes and plasma in healthy workers and coal miners with lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haijiao; Xing, Jingcai; Wang, Feng; Han, Wenhui; Ren, Houmao; Wu, Tangchun; Chen, Weihong

    2010-08-01

    In coal mines, main occupational hazard is coal-mine dust, which can cause health problem including coal workers' pneumoconiosis and lung cancer. Some heat shock proteins (Hsps) have been reported as an acute response to a wide variety of stressful stimuli. Whether Hsps protect against chronic environmental coal-mine dust over years is unknown. It is also interesting to know that whether the expression of Hsp27 and Hsp70 proteins as a marker for exposure is associated risk of lung cancer among coal miners. We investigated the association between levels of Hsp27 and Hsp70 expression in lymphocytes and plasma and levels of coal-mine dust exposure in workplace or risk of lung cancer in 42 cancer-free non-coal miners, 99 cancer-free coal miners and 51 coal miners with lung cancer in Taiyuan city in China. The results showed that plasma Hsp27 levels were increased in coal miners compared to non-coal miners (P<0.01). Except high cumulative coal-mine dust exposure (OR=13.62, 95%CI=6.05-30.69) and amount of smoking higher than 24 pack-year (OR=2.72, 95% CI=1.37-5.42), the elevated levels of plasma Hsp70 (OR=13.00, 95% CI=5.14-32.91) and plasma Hsp27 (OR=2.97, 95% CI=1.40-6.32) and decreased expression of Hsp70 in lymphocytes (OR=2.36, 95% CI=1.05-5.31) were associated with increased risk of lung cancer. These findings suggest that plasma Hsp27 may be a potential marker for coal-mine dust exposure. And the expression of Hsp27 and Hsp70 levels in plasma and lymphocytes may be used as biomarkers for lung cancer induced by occupational coal-mine dust exposure.

  1. Psychological Distress and Pain Reporting in Australian Coal Miners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristy N. Carlisle

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: The study findings support the existence of widespread musculoskeletal pain among the coal-mining workforce, and this pain is associated with increased psychological distress. Operators (truck drivers and workers reporting poor sleep quality during work periods are most likely to report increased distress, which highlights the importance of supporting the mining workforce for sustained productivity.

  2. CLAY MINERAL ASSEMBLAGES AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS IN SHIHEZI FORMATION FROM THE HUAIBEI COAL-BEARING STRATA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文辉; 许光泉; 刑军

    1998-01-01

    Clay mineral assemblages in Shihezi Formation of Huaibei coal-bearing strata are determined by X-ray diffraction and Differential Thermal Analyzer, that is restated to the sedimentfaces and climatic changes in the source area, and to a lesser extent, alterations during burial diagenesis. In the Upper Shihezi Formation, the clay fraction is dominated by kaolinite in norther npart of the coal field, which was formed in alluvial sediment environment. But in the South ofHuaibei coal field, the clay mineral assemblage consists of mainly illite that reflects the influenceof sea water. The predominately kaolinite and sederite composition of the clay fraction in the lower Shihezi Formation sediments documents less relief and gentle erosion of kaolinite rich soils developing under warm source area. In the lower part of Shihezi Formation, some chlorite is detected, which suggests transformation of illite or kaolinite to chlorite under conditions of burial diagenesis.

  3. Inflammatory and fibrotic mediator release by alveolar macrophages from coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, D.C.; Stauffer, J.L.; Gaydos, L.J.; Demers, L.M. [Pennsylvania State University, Hershey, PA (United States). Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Dept. of Pathology

    1995-09-01

    Eicosanoids and cytokines produced by alveolar macrophages (AM) are key mediators of pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis. In order to determine if eicosanoid production and cytokine production are altered in AM obtained from coal miners, we compared production of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE (2)), thromboxane A(2) (TXA(2)), leukotriene B-4 (LTB(4)), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) by cultured AM from normal human subjects and coal miners. The recovery of AM from miners` lungs by bronchoalveolar lavage was significantly greater than that from control subjects. Mean eicosanoid and cytokine production by AM from active miners was also increased compared to AM from control subjects, but this increase was not statistically significant. AM from control subjects produced significantly more TXA (2) and TNF alpha when exposed to lipopolysaccharide than did AM from miners. The cyclooxygenase inhibitor suprofen reduced PGE(2) and TXA(2) production and TNF alpha release but had no effect on LTB (4) production or IL-1 beta release by miners` AM. The lipoxygenase inhibitor nordihydroguaiaretic acid attenuated TNF alpha release, as well as that of LTB(4), but had no effect on IL-1 beta release. Inhibition of thromboxane synthase by UK 38,485 also reduced TNF alpha release by active miners` AM but had no effect on PGE(2), LTB(4) production, or IL-1 beta release. The results of these studies suggest that occupational inhalation of coal dust may increase total lung eicosanoid and cytokine levels and reduce the reactivity of AM to bacterial endotoxin. Furthermore, coal dust-induced changes in both eicosanoid and cytokine release may be subject to pharmacological modulation.

  4. Preliminary experimental study of bituminous coal gasification on dual fluidized beds%烟煤在双流化床中气化特性初步实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武小军; 范晓旭; 陈文义; 初雷哲

    2012-01-01

    利用一套高3m的双流化床煤气化实验系统,以烟煤为燃料进行了气化初步实验研究.烟煤在气化炉中进行热解气化,生成的半焦经下返料器送入燃烧炉进行燃烧,通过高温循环灰携带能量供给气化炉.通过调整气化炉内料层高度改变燃料在气化炉内的停留时间,从而影响气化效果,料层高度可以通过气化炉内压差进行监测.烟煤气化达到稳定工况时,燃烧炉和气化炉的温度和压差基本保持稳定.燃气热值为5.53 MJ/m3,尚未达到中热值标准,原因在于实验装置规模较小导致散热损失较大,同时返料器以空气为返料风降低了燃气品质.%Gasification experiments on bituminous coal were made in an experimental system of dual fluidized beds with 3 m in height. Gasifier was used for coal pyrolysis/gasification. Semicarbon was sent into burner for combustion by U-valve. Energy for gasification was carried by high temperature cycle ash. Status of gasification can be influenced by residence time of fuel which can be changed by adjusting the bed material level in gasifier. Differential pressures in gasifier were used for analyzed the bed material level. The temperature and differential pressure in gasifier and burner maintained stability when gasification condition operated steadily. The calorific value of gas was 5.53 MJ/Nm3 and didn't reach the standard of medium heat value. The cause is that the heat loss is bigger in small size and gas quality was decreased by the air which is used as return wind.

  5. Non-Coal Mineral Production Mines in Iowa, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Registered noncoal mineral production sites within the State of Iowa, current to the year 2000. This shape file contains polygons representing the permitted...

  6. Effect of the bioemulsifier emulsan on naphthalene mineralization from coal tar in aqueous systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skubal, K.L.; Luthy, R.G.

    1994-09-01

    Coal tar in aerobic aqueous systems was treated with purified emulsan, the anionic heteropolysaccharide bioemulsifier produced by Acinetobacter calcoaceticus RAG-1; with inocula of various concentrations of stationary phase RAG-1 cells; or with cell-free broth from stationary phase RAG-1 cultures. Naphthalene mineralization by a mixed PAH-degrading population was measured by recovering {sup 14}CO{sub 2} evolved during biotransformation of the [{sup 14}C]naphthalene-labeled coal tar. There was no evidence of naphthalene mineralization by RAG- 1 cells alone. The addition of emulsan, RAG-1 inocula, or cell-free broth to systems containing the PAH-degrading population did not significantly affect naphthalene mineralization in any of the systems tested. Coal tar in these experiments was present either as a free dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL), or as DNAPL imbibed into microporous silica particles. Emulsification of the tar was not observed in either case. The presence or absence of microporous silica did not affect the extent or rate of naphthalene mineralization, nor did the concentration of RAG-1 inocula or the amount of broth added. The addition of cell-free broth, emulsan, or RAG-1 cells late in the experiments did not yield significantly different results compared to initial addition of these substances. Thus, emulsan and related fractions from RAG-1 cultures were ineffective in altering naphthalene mineralization in this study.

  7. Plasma levels of soluble tumour necrosis factor receptors are increased in coal miners with pneumoconiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schins, R P; Borm, P J

    1995-10-01

    Among other cytokines, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha is considered to play a key role in the development of mineral dust related fibrosis. Previously, we showed that ex-vivo release of TNF by peripheral blood monocytes is a marker for progression of coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP). Since soluble TNF receptors (sTNF-Rs) are believed to play an important regulatory role in systemic effects of TNF, we measured plasma levels of sTNF-R55 and sTNF-R75 in coal miners with (n = 28) or without (n = 76) CWP and in nonexposed controls (n = 29). sTNF-R75 levels were significantly increased in miners with CWP (2.09 +/- 0.44 ng.mL-1) versus the nonexposed controls (1.86 +/- 0.23 ng.mL-1). Neither sTNF-R55 nor sTNF-R75 were related to exposure, stage of pneumoconiosis, smoking, or (spontaneous or ex-vivo induced) monocyte TNF-release. sTNF-R55 was increased in subjects with medication (especially those using cardiovascular drugs); upon exclusion of these subjects, sTNF-R55 was found also to be significantly increased in CWP. In conclusion, bearing in mind a confounding effect of medication, soluble TNF receptors are elevated in plasma of retired miners with coal workers' pneumoconiosis. These observations further support the important role of TNF-mediated pathways in the pathogenesis of mineral dust related fibrosis.

  8. Modeling of the mineral transformation during the combustion of coal; Modellierung der Mineralumwandlung bei der Kohleverbrennung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strelow, M.; Magda, S.; Magda, A.; Mueller, H. [Technische Universitaet Braunschweig (Germany). Institut fuer Waerme- und Brennstofftechnik

    2009-07-01

    The employment of new materials in the construction of steam generators in order to increase the steam parameters requires a detailed knowledge of the processes of transformation of the coal minerals in the steam generator with respect to forecast the slagging and contamination of the materials. Analyses of the materials in the raw coal and their integration are the basis for the modelling of the transformation processes in CFD programs. The chemical and physical processes are the release and integration of alkaline compounds which have a strong influence on the formation of first contamination layers on the heating surfaces as well as the transformation of the minerals of ash particles on their flight paths by the steam generator. For fast reactions, the modelling of the mineral transformation is carried out by acceptance of a chemical equilibrium, otherwise by kinetic reaction approaches.

  9. Injury experience in nonmetallic mineral mining (except stone and coal), 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reich, R.B; Hugler, E.C.

    1994-05-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of nonmetallic mineral mining (except stone and coal) in the United States for 1992. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  10. Injury experience in nonmetallic mineral mining (except stone and coal), 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of nonmetallic mineral mining (except stone and coal) in the United States for 1989. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report. 3 figs., 46 tabs.

  11. Study on the characteristics of mineral matter in Huainan coals by computer controlled scanning electron microscope (CCSEM)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Han-xu; Y.Ninomiya; DONG Zhong-bing; Zhang Ming-xu

    2006-01-01

    The mineral features, ash composition, ash fusion temperature of Huainan coals were investigated by CCSEM, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and JIS (Japan Industrial Standard) ash cone melting method respectively. The mineral matter is characterized by higher aluminosilicate clay minerals contents (more than 60% of the total mineral matter in coal) with quartz, which accounts for the higher ash flow temperatures, frequently higher than1 500 ℃. The contents of calcite and dolomite in Huainan coals range from 0.16% to about 11.57%. Another important non-silicate mineral matter, pyrite, ranges from 0.73% to12.25%. Low amount of kaolinite-type clays and high amount of calcite and pyrite in the HN115 and XM coals are beneficial to ash melting. It is suggested that the high content of kaolinite in Huainan coals shows the high ash fusion temperature. CCSEM results also provide the size distribution of the minerals in Huainan coals. Generally, the mineral has bimodal size distribution in 6 Huainan coals.

  12. SULPHIDE MINERALIZATION IN UPPER WESTPHALIAN COAL SEAMS FROM THE EASTERN PART OF THE UPPER SILESIAN COAL BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipiarski Ireneusz

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Morphologically diversified sulphide mineralization has been found in No. 301 and 302 coal seams (Westphalian B. The main sulphide is pyrite which forms veinlets cross-cutting the sedimentary fabrics of the coal, encrusts the cellular structures and intergrowths with oxysulphides. Two generations of pyrites were observed: the preceding and the following the oxysulphides. Pyrite composition is stoichiometric, rare admixtures are up to(in wt.%: Mn - 0.19, Co - 0.48, Ni - 0.42 and As - 1.41. Iron oxysulphides contain up to 35.06 wt.% oxygen. Their composition varies between FeS2O and FeS2O3. Increased contents of As (up to 1.46 wt.% and Pb (up to 0.96 wt.% were detected.

  13. The cytological status of the nasal mucosa and the buccal epithelium in coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.T. Bazeliuk; B.M. Salimbaeva

    2006-11-15

    Sixty-four persons were examined. The examination was undertaken to study the cytomophological parameters of the cells of the nasal mucosa and the buccal epithelium in coal miners. Group 1 consisted of 18 donors without contact with industrial dust; Group 2 comprised 24 apparently healthy miners; Group 3 included 22 workers (drift miners) with Stage 1 anthracosilicosis, grade 1 respiratory failure. The patients with Stage 1 anthracosilicosis had noticeably worse morphofunctional characteristics of the epithelium that displayed extensive fields with pronounced structural changes, such as destruction and desquamation of the integumentary epithelium of the nasal mucosa. Nasal mucosal atrophic changes were observed in 50% of the examined miners. Examination of the buccal epithelium in apparently healthy miners (code 0) and in workers with Stage I anthracosilicosis revealed the increased proportion of microfloral (Streptococcus) contamination by 79% and 3.7 times, respectively.

  14. Understanding the chemical properties of macerals and minerals in coal and its potential application for occupational lung disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xi; Finkelman, Robert B

    2008-01-01

    Recent increases in oil price further strengthen the argument that coal and coal products will play an increasingly important role in fulfilling the energy needs of our society. Coal is an aggregate of heterogeneous substances composed of organic (macerals) and inorganic (minerals) materials. The objective of this review was to assess whether some chemical parameters in coal play a role in producing environmental health problems. Basic properties of coal--such as chemical forms of the organic materials, structure, compositions of minerals--vary from one coal mine region to another as well as from coals of different ranks. Most importantly, changes in chemical properties of coals due to exposure to air and humidity after mining--a dynamic process--significantly affect toxicity attributed to coal and environmental fate. Although coal is an extremely complex and heterogeneous material, the fundamental properties of coal responsible for environmental and adverse health problems are probably related to the same inducing components of coal. For instance, oxidation of pyrite (FeS2) in the coal forms iron sulfate and sulfuric acid, which produces occupational lung diseases (e.g., pneumoconiosis) and other environmental problems (e.g., acid mine drainage and acid rain). Calcite (CaCO3) contained in certain coals alters the end products of pyrite oxidation, which may make these coals less toxic to human inhalation and less hazardous to environmental pollution. Finally, knowledge gained on understanding of the chemical properties of coals is illustrated to apply for prediction of toxicity due to coal possibly before large-scale mining and prevention of occupational lung disease during mining.

  15. Burnout, Depression and Proactive Coping in Underground Coal Miners in Serbia - Pilot Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manić Saška

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mining is unsurprisingly considered a high-risk occupation because it involves continuous hard labour under highly demanding and stressful conditions. Many of these work stressors can impair individuals’ well-being in both a physiological and psychological sense. The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of burnout and depressive symptoms and to evaluate aspects of proactive coping among underground coal miners in Serbia. The study involved 46 male underground coal miners. Burnout was measured with the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory, depression was assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and level of proactive coping was measured with the Proactive Coping Inventory. The results showed a low level of burnout syndrome among the underground coal miners (12.46±4.879. Depression was slightly above the minimum (1.2±2.094, and the majority of the participants had no symptoms of depression (93.5%. Overall, the underground coal miners’ ability to proactively cope with work stress was very good (42.17±6.567. This is in contrast to the findings of the few previous international studies and is a good basis for further research using a larger sample in Serbia.

  16. The minerals industry of Colombia. Mining of coal; Die Rohstoffwirtschaft Kolumbiens. Der Bergbau auf Kohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benthaus, F.C. [Lausitzer und Mitteldeutsche Bergbau-Verwaltungsgesellschaft (LMBV), Berlin (Germany); Hermann, J. [DMT-Montan Consulting GmbH, Essen (Germany); Schmidt-Thome, M. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover (Germany)

    2001-09-01

    Colombia's topography in the Northwest of Latin America is characterised by the Andes-Cordillera. At the slopes of these mountains, coal deposits formed during the Cretaceous and Tertiary which were tectonically stressed as a result of the Andean orogeny. Colombia's hard coal reserves coming to approximately 22 billion t SKE (hard coal equivalent) are the largest in Latin America. More than 6.5 billion t of it are proven mineral reserves. In 2000, 38 Mt of steam and pulverised injection coal with low sulphur and ash content were extracted, 34 Mt of were predominantly exported to Europe. Since 1985, large opencast mines with shovel and truck are operated at the Caribbean coast as well as underground mines with room and pillar are operated by national and international consortia. The transportation to the ports is hereby the bottleneck and increases the extraction costs strongly. Small- and medium-scale mines in the inland produce for the local markets (power generation, industrial heating). The low technical equipment and simple safety standards enable an economic mining mostly in drift mines. Difficult topographic conditions badly influencing the road transportation and the neglected railway system raise the prices of minerals considerably. Small-scale operations (for example family type or artisanal) for mining minerals near to the surface are out of state influence and control. Apart from several safety problems caused by Guerrilla groups, Colombia meets all requirements to become one of the important mining countries in the world. (orig.)

  17. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF MORBID CONDITIONS AMONGST OPENCAST AND UNDERGROUND COAL MINERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep M

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study prevalence and pattern of morbid conditions and to compare these amongst opencast and underground coal miners. METHODS: A cross sectional study was carried out at one of the coal mines having both opencast and underground mines in central India. By systemic stratified random sampling, 204 study subjects each from opencast and underground mines were selected. RESULTS: Prevalence of morbid conditions was found significantly (p < 0.05 more in underground miners (65.7% as compared to opencast miners (54.4%. A significant linear trend was observed between length of service and prevalent morbid conditions in both the groups (p<0.001. Prevalence of morbidities was significantly (p <0.001 more in underground miners as compared to opencast miners, especially chronic respiratory morbid conditions (21.6% versus 7.8% and musculoskeletal conditions (28.9% versus 12.2%. Mean values of forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume of underground miners were significantly (p<0.001 lower than in opencast miners (FVC 2.80 0.55 liters versus 2.98 0.53 liters; FEV 2.9 0.21 liters versus 3.01 0.36 liters. Multivariate analysis revealed significant role of miner’s age, place of work, past history of underground mining exposure, length of service and smoking habit in reduction of FVC and FEV. CONCLUSION: Underground miners carry more risk of developing morbidities. Chronic respiratory diseases, musculoskeletal problems, skin diseases and backache are more prevalent in underground miners than in opencast miners. Miner’s age, place of work, past history of underground mining exposure, length of service and smoking habit significantly affect FVC and FEV.

  18. Bronchoalveolar lavage in pneumoconiosis of coal miners. Cytologic aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voisin, C.; Gosselin, B.; Ramon, P.; Wallaert, B.; Aerts, C.; Lenoir, L.

    1983-01-01

    The cytological characteristics of broncho-alveolar fluid were studied in 94 coal workers and six subjects exposed to varied risks of silicosis. In coal worker's pneumoconiosis with the usual micronodular or nodular type, there was a significant increase in the cellularity of the peripheral airways compared to non-exposed controls, making allowances for smoking habits. There were no striking changes in the white cell count nor any correlation with the possible elevation in the serum angiotensin I-enzyme conversion level. On the other hand a striking elevation of the alveolar lymphocyte count was noted in three cases with rapidly developing silicosis. Where there was the co-existence of another disorder (connective tissue disorders, sarcoid, extrinsic allergic alveolitis, radiation lung or diffuse interstitial fibrosis) the anomalies noted were those occurring during the progress of the associated disease. At the time of collection the alveolar macrophages in the dust exposed subjects showed a similar vitality to these observed in control subjects. After 24 hours of observation '' in vitro '', the vitality of the cells and their phagocytic and bactericidal activity was markedly diminished.

  19. A method for detecting miners based on helmets detection in underground coal mine videos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Limei; Qian Jiansheng

    2011-01-01

    In order to monitor dangerous areas in coal mines automatically,we propose to detect helmets from underground coal mine videos for detecting miners.This method can overcome the impact of similarity between the targets and their background.We constructed standard images of helmets,extracted four directional features,modeled the distribution of these features using a Gaussian function and separated local images of frames into helmet and non-helmet classes.Out experimental results show that this method can detect helmets effectively.The detection rate was 83.7%.

  20. Expression of Hsp27 and Hsp70 in Lymphocytes and Plasma in Healthy Workers and Coal Miners with Lung Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海椒; 邢景才; 王峰; 韩文慧; 任侯卯; 邬堂春; 陈卫红

    2010-01-01

    In coal mines, main occupational hazard is coal-mine dust, which can cause health problem including coal workers' pneumoconiosis and lung cancer. Some heat shock proteins (Hsps) have been reported as an acute response to a wide variety of stressful stimuli. Whether Hsps protect against chronic environmental coal-mine dust over years is unknown. It is also interesting to know that whether the expression of Hsp27 and Hsp70 proteins as a marker for exposure is associated risk of lung cancer among coal miners. ...

  1. Minerals in the Ash and Slag from Oxygen-Enriched Underground Coal Gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuqin Liu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Underground coal gasification (UCG is a promising option for the recovery of low-rank and inaccessible coal resources. Detailed mineralogical information is essential to understand underground reaction conditions far from the surface and optimize the operation parameters during the UCG process. It is also significant in identifying the environmental effects of UCG residue. In this paper, with regard to the underground gasification of lignite, UCG slag was prepared through simulation tests of oxygen-enriched gasification under different atmospheric conditions, and the minerals were identified by X-Ray diffraction (XRD and a scanning electron microscope coupled to an energy-dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS. Thermodynamic calculations performed using FactSage 6.4 were used to help to understand the transformation of minerals. The results indicate that an increased oxygen concentration is beneficial to the reformation of mineral crystal after ash fusion and the resulting crystal structures of minerals also tend to be more orderly. The dominant minerals in 60%-O2 and 80%-O2 UCG slag include anorthite, pyroxene, and gehlenite, while amorphous substances almost disappear. In addition, with increasing oxygen content, mullite might react with the calcium oxide existed in the slag to generate anorthite, which could then serve as a calcium source for the formation of gehlenite. In 80%-O2 UCG slag, the iron-bearing mineral is transformed from sekaninaite to pyroxene.

  2. Computer animation of hot spot development in bulk coal as an aid for training coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hancock, M.; Kizil, M.S.; Beamish, B.B. [University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia). School of Engineering

    2005-07-01

    The processes that take place during the development of a heating are difficult to visualise. Bulk coal self-heating tests at The University of Queensland (UQ) using a two-metre column are providing graphic evidence of the stages that occur during a heating. Data obtained from these tests, both temperature and corresponding off-gas evolution can be transformed into what is effectively a video-replay of the heating event. This is achieved by loading both sets of data into a newly developed animation package called Hotspot. The resulting animation is ideal for spontaneous combustion training purposes as the viewer can readily identify the different hot spot stages and corresponding off-gas signatures. Colour coding of the coal temperature, as the hot spot forms, highlights its location in the coal pile and shows its ability to migrate upwind. An added benefit of the package is that once a mine has been tested in the UQ two-metre column, there is a permanent record of that particular coals performance for mine personnel to view. 7 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Mode of occurrence of chromium in four US coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Frank E.; Shah, N.; Huffman, G.P.; Kolker, A.; Crowley, S.; Palmer, C.A.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2000-01-01

    The mode of occurrence of chromium in three US bituminous coals and one US subbituminous has been examined using both X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy and a selective leaching protocol supplemented by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron microprobe measurements. A synthesis of results from both methods indicates that chromium occurs principally in two forms in the bituminous coals: the major occurrence of chromium is associated with the macerals and is not readily leached by any reagent, whereas a second, lesser occurrence, which is leachable in hydrofluoric acid (HF), is associated with the clay mineral, illite. The former occurrence is believed to be a small particle oxyhydroxide phase (CrO(OH)). One coal also contained a small fraction (<5%) of the chromium in the form of a chromian magnetite, and the leaching protocol indicated the possibility of a similar small fraction of chromium in sulfide form in all three coals. There was little agreement between the two techniques on the mode of occurrence of chromium in the subbituminous coal; however, only a limited number of subbituminous coals have been analyzed by either technique. The chromium in all four coals was trivalent as no evidence was found for the Cr6+ oxidation state in any coal.

  4. Assessment of DNA damage in underground coal miners using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay in peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinitsky, Maxim Yu; Minina, Varvara I; Gafarov, Nikolay I; Asanov, Maxim A; Larionov, Aleksey V; Ponasenko, Anastasia V; Volobaev, Valentin P; Druzhinin, Vladimir G

    2016-11-01

    Coal miners are exposed to coal dust, containing mineral particles, inorganic compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and to ionizing radiation. These factors can induce oxidative stress and promote inflammation that leads to DNA damage. The aim of this investigation is to analyse the degree of DNA damage in miners working in underground coal mines in Kemerovo Region (Russian Federation) using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN) in peripheral blood lymphocytes. The exposed group included 143 coal miners (mean age = 50.11±7.36 years; mean length of service in coal mining conditions = 23.26±9.66 years). As a control group, we have used venous blood extracted from 127 healthy non-exposed men. The mean age in this group was 47.67±8.45 years. We have discovered that coal miners are characterized by a significant increase in the frequency of binucleated lymphocytes with micronuclei (MN), nucleoplasmic bridges (NPBs) and protrusions (NBUDs) compared to non-exposed donors. In addition, we report, for the first time, a reduction of cell proliferation in a cohort of coal miners. These data are evidence of the genotoxic and cytostatic effects of occupational harmful factors of the coal mining industry. No correlation between the level of chromosome damage and age, smoking status or length of service in coal mining conditions were discovered. We suggest that the CBMN assay would be useful in biomonitoring studies to monitor hygiene and prevention strategies in occupational settings in coal mining countries. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the UK Environmental Mutagen Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Condensate minerals from a burning coal-waste heap in Avion, Northern France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masalehdani, M.N.N.; Mees, F.; Dubois, M.; Coquinot, Y.; Potdevin, J.L.; Fialin, M.; Blanc-Valleron, M.M. [University of Lille 1, Villeneuve Dascq (France)

    2009-06-15

    A coal-waste heap in Avion, northern France, that has been undergoing subsurface combustion for several decades, is marked by the occurrence of efflorescences at combustion sites where gas and water vapor escape from surficial cracks and vents. Analysis of the efflorescences show that twenty different species of mineral are present, comprising various sulfates, as well as halides and native sulfur. The constituents needed for the formation of these minerals are ultimately derived from the heap of coalmine waste, composed mainly of pyrite-bearing carbonaceous shale, coal and minor amounts of sandstone. They may be partly released by acid weathering of waste-heap materials prior to combustion, but largely by thermal decomposition and oxidation of those materials during combustion processes. Formation of the efflorescences near gas-discharge zones indicates transport of constituent to those zones from the inner part of the waste heap, which can occur in the gas phase for some elements (S, N, H and Cl), but would require droplets of water vapor as carriers for most cations. Interaction between condensate solutions and the local debris at the surface of the waste heap may also contribute to cations input prior to the formation of secondary minerals. Most minerals formed from a liquid phase along the rock-debris surface at low temperatures (T {<=}100 {sup o}C), as confirmed by the occurrence of fluid inclusions. Only salammoniac, native sulfur and mascagnite (where crystallized as a monocrystalline phase) were formed directly from a gas phase. The coal-waste heap shows great variations in mineral assemblages among sampling sites, which must be related to variations in waste composition and in conditions at the level at which the elements are released and where mineral formation takes place.

  6. A prospective cohort study among new Chinese coal miners: the early pattern of lung function change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, M.L.; Wu, Z.E.; Du, Q.G.; Petsonk, E.L.; Peng, K.L.; Li, Y.D.; Li, S.K.; Han, G.H.; Atffield, M.D. [NIOSH, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2005-11-01

    The early pattern of lung function changes in 317 newly hired Chinese underground coal miners was compared to 132 referents. This three year prospective cohort study involved a pre-employment and 15 follow up health surveys, including a questionnaire and spirometry tests. Twice a month, total and respirable dust area sampling was done. The authors used a two stage analysis and a linear mixed effects model approach to analyse the longitudinal spirometry data, and to investigate the changes in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) over time, controlling for age, height, pack years of smoking, mean respirable dust concentration, the room temperature during testing, and the group x time interaction terms. Results: FEV1 change over time in new miners is non-linear. New miners experience initial rapid FEV1 declines, primarily during the first year of mining, little change during the second year, and partial recovery during the third year. Both linear and quadratic time trends in FEV1 change are highly significant. Smoking miners lost more FEV1 than non-smokers. Referents, all age less than 20 years, showed continued lung growth, whereas the miners who were under age 20 exhibited a decline in FEV1. Conclusion: Dust and smoking affect lung function in young, newly hired Chinese coal miners. FEV1 change over the first three years of employment is non-linear. The findings have implications for both methods and interpretation of medical screening in coal mining and other dusty work: during the first several years of employment more frequent testing may be desirable, and caution is required in interpreting early FEV1 declines.

  7. Operation of flue gas fan during mixed burning of bituminous coal in a lean coal-fired boiler:problems and solutions%贫煤锅炉掺烧烟煤热炉烟风机运行问题及其解决措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兴豪; 范庆伟; 张立欣

    2014-01-01

    介绍了华能南京电厂贫煤锅炉的抽炉烟干燥技术,分析了该锅炉掺烧烟煤后热炉烟风机磨损、积灰、振动、出力不足等问题。对此,通过对热炉烟风机实施选型优化、叶片防磨治理、合理安排检修等措施后,大大延长了热炉烟风机使用周期和寿命,减少了检修时间和检修费用,保证了贫煤锅炉掺烧烟煤制粉系统的安全性和可靠性。%The flue gas drying technology implemented in lean coal-fired boiler of Nanj ing Power Plant was introduced.Problems such as hot flue gas fan abrasion,deposited ash vibrancy,and insufficient output oc-curred on this boiler were investigated.Moreover,solutions for the above problems were put forward. Through fan type selection optimization,fan blade abrasion resistant treatment,reasonable arrangement of maintenance and other measures,the problems of fan blade abrasion and deposited ash vibrancy were well solved,and the service life of flue gas fan was significantly prolonged,the time and cost of maintenance were reduced,and the safety and reliability of bituminous coal pulverizing system in lean coal-fired boiler were ensured.

  8. Behavior of catalyst and mineral matter in coal liquefaction; Sekitan ekika hannochu no kobusshitsu to shokubai no kyodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwasaki, K.; Wang, J.; Tomita, A. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute for Chemical Reaction Science

    1996-10-28

    Mineral matter in coals is important in various senses for coal liquefaction. It is possible that the catalytic activity is affected by the interaction between catalyst and mineral matter. Iron-based catalyst forms pyrrhotite in the process of liquefaction, but the interaction between it and mineral matter is not known in detail. In this study, the interaction between mineral matter and catalyst and the selective reaction between them were investigated. Tanito Harum coal was used for this study. This coal contains a slight amount of siderite and jarosite besides pyrite as iron compounds. Liquefaction samples were obtained from the 1 t/d NEDOL process PSU. The solid deposits in the reactor mainly contained pyrrhotite and quartz. A slight amount of kaolinite was observed, and pyrite was little remained. It was found that the catalyst (pyrrhotite) often coexisted with quartz, clay and calcite. 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Mineralization Of PAHs In Coal-Tar Impacted Aquifer Sediments And Associated Microbial Community Structure Investigated With FISH

    Science.gov (United States)

    The microbial community structure and mineralization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a coal-tar contaminated aquifer were investigated spatially using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and in laboratory-scale incubations of the aquifer sediments. DAPI-detect...

  10. [Blood plasma level of endothelin in miners of a deep coal mine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotkin, V Ia; Rebrov, B A; Nikitina, I V

    2000-09-01

    In 60 miners working in a deep coal mine the blood plasma level of endoteline-1 (E-1) was measured by the immunoenzyme technique immediately after working shift. Those in the mining where the working conditions are especially harsh were found to have the highest level of E-1 exceeding the control values. In studying the age-related content of E-1 in blood plasma of coal miners the highest levels of E-1 were recordable in workers 20 to 30 years old, declining and differing in age groups 20-30 and 41-50 years old. The level of E-1 was at its greatest in those workers with minimum length of service in the underground conditions, declining with the service more than 10 years in duration.

  11. CO2 Emission Factors for Coals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Orlović-Leko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Emission factors are used in greenhouse gas inventories to estimate emissions from coal combustion. In the absence of direct measures, emissions factors are frequently used as a quick, low cost way to estimate emissions values. Coal combustion has been a major contributor to the CO2 flux into the atmosphere. Nearly all of the fuel carbon (99 % in coal is converted to CO2 during the combustion process. The carbon content is the most important coal parameter which is the measure of the degree of coalification (coal rank. Coalification is the alteration of vegetation to form peat, succeeded by the transformation of peat through lignite, sub-bituminous, bituminous to anthracite coal. During the geochemical or metamorphic stage, the progressive changes that occur within the coal are an increase in the carbon content and a decrease in the hydrogen and oxygen content resulting in a loss of volatiles. Heterogeneous composition of coal causes variation in CO2 emission from different coals. The IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has produced guidelines on how to produce emission inventories which includes emission factors. Although 2006 IPCC Guidelines provided the default values specified according to the rank of the coal, the application of country-specific emission factors was recommended when estimating the national greenhouse gas emissions. This paper discusses the differences between country-specific emission factors and default IPCC CO2 emission factors, EF(CO2, for coals. Also, this study estimated EF(CO2 for two different types of coals and peat from B&H, on the basis fuel analyses. Carbon emission factors for coal mainly depend on the carbon content of the fuel and vary with both rank and geographic origin, which supports the idea of provincial variation of carbon emission factors. Also, various other factors, such as content of sulphur, minerals and macerals play an important role and influence EF(CO2 from coal. Carbonate minerals

  12. Pre-Concentration of Vanadium from Stone Coal by Gravity Using Fine Mineral Spiral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to the low grade of V2O5 in stone coal, the existing vanadium extraction technologies face challenges in terms of large handling capacity, high acid consumption and production cost. The pre-concentration of vanadium from stone coal before the extraction process is an effective method to reduce cost. In this study, detailed mineral characterization of stone coal was investigated. It has been confirmed that the vanadium mainly occurs in muscovite and illite. A significant demand for an effective pre-concentration process with simple manipulation for discarding quartz and other gangue minerals is expected. Based on the mineralogical study, a new vanadium pre-concentration process using a fine mineral spiral was investigated. The experimental results showed that the separation process, which was comprised of a rougher and scavenger, could efficiently discard quartz, pyrite and apatite. A final concentrate with V2O5 grade of 1.02% and recovery of 89.6% could be obtained, with 26.9% of the raw ore being discarded as final tailings.

  13. Geochemistry of ultra-fine and nano-compounds in coal gasification ashes: a synoptic view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronbauer, Marcio A; Izquierdo, Maria; Dai, Shifeng; Waanders, Frans B; Wagner, Nicola J; Mastalerz, Maria; Hower, James C; Oliveira, Marcos L S; Taffarel, Silvio R; Bizani, Delmar; Silva, Luis F O

    2013-07-01

    The nano-mineralogy, petrology, and chemistry of coal gasification products have not been studied as extensively as the products of the more widely used pulverized-coal combustion. The solid residues from the gasification of a low- to medium-sulfur, inertinite-rich, volatile A bituminous coal, and a high sulfur, vitrinite-rich, volatile C bituminous coal were investigated. Multifaceted chemical characterization by XRD, Raman spectroscopy, petrology, FE-SEM/EDS, and HR-TEM/SEAD/FFT/EDS provided an in-depth understanding of coal gasification ash-forming processes. The petrology of the residues generally reflected the rank and maceral composition of the feed coals, with the higher rank, high-inertinite coal having anisotropic carbons and inertinite in the residue, and the lower rank coal-derived residue containing isotropic carbons. The feed coal chemistry determines the mineralogy of the non-glass, non-carbon portions of the residues, with the proportions of CaCO₃ versus Al₂O₃ determining the tendency towards the neoformation of anorthite versus mullite, respectively. Electron beam studies showed the presence of a number of potentially hazardous elements in nanoparticles. Some of the neoformed ultra-fine/nano-minerals found in the coal ashes are the same as those commonly associated with oxidation/transformation of sulfides and sulfates.

  14. Geochemistry of ultra-fine and nano-compounds in coal gasification ashes: A synoptic view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronbauer, Marcio A. [Centro Universitário La Salle, Mestrado em Avaliação de Impactos Ambientais em Mineração, Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro, 92010-000 Canoas, RS (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Escola de Engenharia, Departamento de Metalurgia, Centro de Tecnologia, Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500, Bairro Agronomia, CEP: 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Izquierdo, Maria [School of Applied Sciences, Cranfield University, Bedfordshire MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Dai, Shifeng [State Key Laboratory of Coal Resources and Safe Mining, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing 100083 (China); Waanders, Frans B. [School of Chemical and Minerals Engineering, North West University (Potchefstroom campus), Potchefstroom 2531 (South Africa); Wagner, Nicola J. [School of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa); Mastalerz, Maria [Indiana Geological Survey, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405-2208 (United States); Hower, James C. [University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, 2540 Research Park Drive, Lexington, KY 40511 (United States); Oliveira, Marcos L.S. [Environmental Science and Nanotechnology Department, Catarinense Institute of Environmental Research and Human Development, IPADHC, Capivari de Baixo, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Taffarel, Silvio R.; Bizani, Delmar [Centro Universitário La Salle, Mestrado em Avaliação de Impactos Ambientais em Mineração, Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro, 92010-000 Canoas, RS (Brazil); and others

    2013-07-01

    The nano-mineralogy, petrology, and chemistry of coal gasification products have not been studied as extensively as the products of the more widely used pulverized-coal combustion. The solid residues from the gasification of a low- to medium-sulfur, inertinite-rich, volatile A bituminous coal, and a high sulfur, vitrinite-rich, volatile C bituminous coal were investigated. Multifaceted chemical characterization by XRD, Raman spectroscopy, petrology, FE-SEM/EDS, and HR-TEM/SEAD/FFT/EDS provided an in-depth understanding of coal gasification ash-forming processes. The petrology of the residues generally reflected the rank and maceral composition of the feed coals, with the higher rank, high-inertinite coal having anisotropic carbons and inertinite in the residue, and the lower rank coal-derived residue containing isotropic carbons. The feed coal chemistry determines the mineralogy of the non-glass, non-carbon portions of the residues, with the proportions of CaCO{sub 3} versus Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} determining the tendency towards the neoformation of anorthite versus mullite, respectively. Electron beam studies showed the presence of a number of potentially hazardous elements in nanoparticles. Some of the neoformed ultra-fine/nano-minerals found in the coal ashes are the same as those commonly associated with oxidation/transformation of sulfides and sulfates. - Highlights: • Coal waste geochemisty can provide increased environmental information in coal-mining areas. • Oxidation is the major process for mineral transformation in coal ashes. • The electron bean methodology has been applied to investigate neoformed minerals.

  15. Meanings of sex, concepts of risk and sexual practices among migrant coal miners in Quang Ninh, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Tuan, Ta

    2010-08-01

    The study explores the meanings of sex among migrant coal miners in Vietnam and identifies contextual factors influencing engagement in unsafe sexual practices. Findings reveal that sex carries a number of social meanings in the lives of migrant miners: sex is relaxation and reward for their risk and hard work; access to sex is an incentive for miners to continue working in the mine; sex strengthens identity and social networks; sex helps miners to affirm manhood, group membership and masculinity; and sex workers are confidants with whom they can share their problems. Facing accidents at work on a daily basis, miners are less inclined to worry about the long-term risks of HIV infection. In addition, being excluded from access to relevant information, miners feel distant from HIV infection. Findings suggest that interventions on sexual behaviour and practices should be sensitive to the concepts of risk and meanings of sex among migrant groups such as coal miners.

  16. Mechanisms and kinetics of coal hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, R M; Furlong, M W

    1981-05-01

    Colorado School of Mines is engaged in an experimental program to develop comprehensive models for the effects of coal composition upon the kinetics and mechanisms of coal hydrogenation, for the effects of mineral matter additives (disposable catalysts) upon kinetics and mechanisms of coal hydrogenation, and for the kinetics and mechanisms of the hydrogenation of coal derived products such as preasphaltenes, and asphaltenes. Experimental work was completed on a suite of bituminous coals, thus completing the initial phase of the coal reactivity study. Eleven of the 14 coals of the suite were successfully run in duplicate. Conversion to THF solubles was correlated well by pseudo-second order kinetics. The resulting kinetic rate constants correlated with H/C ratio, mean-max vitrinite reflectance, and a specially-defined fraction of reactive macerals. The data did not correlate well with O/C ratios of the parent coals. Computer-derived statistical fits of various kinetic models were limited in their effectiveness at fitting the experimental data. Experimental work on the first phase of the disposal catalyst studies was completed. Statistical significance testing of the experimental data showed: fractional conversion and yield of light hydrocarbon products increased with time; and mineral properties of the additives were more significant in increasing overall conversion than the additive surface areas. The relative effects of the additives are given.

  17. The attenuation of chemical elements in acidic leachates from coal mineral wastes by soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangen, Lawrence E.; Jones, Marianne M.

    1984-09-01

    The chemical attenuation of acidity and selected elements (aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, fluorine, iron, manganese, nickel, and zinc) in acidic leachates from coal mineral wastes by four natural subsurface soils has been investigated using laboratory column methods Leachate solutions were allowed to percolate through the soils under simulated natural flow conditions, and the elemental concentrations in the influents and effluents were measured periodically Elemental retentions were substantial for all species except managanese, which was eluted in excess from all soils except the most calcareous Two processes appeared to operate in decreasing influent concentrations: (1) precipitation of solid phases caused by increased pH of the leachate as it percolated through the soil, and (2) adsorption of elements onto exchange and sorption sites naturally present in the soil and on iron and aluminum oxide precipitates formed in situ from leachate components because of the increased pH The soil property most important in retention was its alkalinity Thus, carbonaceous soils provide the best control material for acidic leachates from coal mineral wastes. Results show that natural soils can substantially reduce pollutant fluxes to the environment from acidic coal waste dumps and should be considered when selecting waste disposal sites

  18. [Changes in the interleukin-6 and interleukin-10 concentrations in the blood plasma of miners working in deep coal mines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotkin, V Ia; Rebrov, B A; Belkina, E B

    2000-03-01

    Blood plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) were measured in 45 miners working in a deep coal mine immediately after work shift using an immunoenzyme technique. The highest IL-6 level was recorded in those miners engaged in hard work under most adverse conditions of underground workings--it was found to exceed the control values. The same group of workers demonstrated the lowest level of IL-10 that differed from the control value. Miners aged between 41 to 50 years working in a coal mine, their underground service duration 16 to 20 years, displayed a decline in the level of IL-6. The coal mine miners with the 11- to 15-year service duration revealed an increase in the level of IL-10.

  19. Question of development of industrial chemistry of combustible minerals (from a conference on problems in development of oil chemistry and chemical engineering)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semenov, L.V.

    1986-04-01

    In conjunction with other scientific associations, the Department of General and Industrial Chemistry in the Soviet Academy of Sciences organized a conference in Zvenigorod in October 1985 which was devoted to the chemistry of coal, shale and oil. A series of papers were presented on the future of hydrogenation catalysis as an cost-effective method of processing coking products, coals, shaley resin, fuel oil and bituminous oil to produce synthetic liquids. Subjects included: the prospects of non-traditional methods of processing solid combustible minerals; heavy catalysis of oil residue and bituminous oils; the current state of coal chemistry in Kuzbass, new methods of coal classification and the production of liquid and chemical products from combustible shale.

  20. Flow in Coal Seams: An Unconventional Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, R. T.; Mostaghimi, P.; Jing, Y.; Gerami, A.

    2016-12-01

    A significant unconventional resource for energy is the methane gas stored in shallow coal beds, known as coal seam gas. An integrated imaging and modelling framework is developed for analysing petrophysical behaviour of coals. X-ray micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) is applied using a novel contrast agent method for visualising micrometer-sized fractures in coal. The technique allows for the visualisation of coal features not visible with conventional imaging methods. A Late Permian medium volatile bituminous coal from Moura Coal Mine (Queensland, Australia) is imaged and the resulting three-dimensional coal fracture system is extracted for fluid flow simulations. The results demonstrate a direct relationship between coal lithotype and permeability. Scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS) together with X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods are used for identifying mineral matters at high resolution. SEM high-resolution images are also used to calibrate the micro-CT images and measure the exact aperture size of fractures. This leads to a more accurate estimation of permeability using micro-CT images. To study the significance of geometry and topology of the fracture system, a fracture reconstruction method based on statistical properties of coal is also developed. The network properties including the frequency, aperture size distribution, length, and spacing of the imaged coal fracture system. This allows for a sensitivity analysis on the effects that coal fracture topology and geometry has on coal petrophysical properties. Furthermore, we generate microfluidic chips based on coal fracture observations. The chip is used for flow experiments to visualise multi-fluid processes and measure recovery of gas. A combined numerical and experimental approach is applied to obtain relative permeability curves for different regions of interest. A number of challenges associated with coal samples are discussed and insights are provided for better

  1. DEVELOPMENT THE GENERAL BUDGET COSTS AT AN ENTERPRISE OF EXPLOITATION OF MINERAL RESOURCES IN THE COAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DINA IONELA CLAUDIA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Considering the fact that the goal of any enterprise, and those that operate in the field of extracting coal, mineral resources aims at maintaining balance relationship between revenue and expenditure, the problem faced by the management of the companies is finding those methods which allow the sizing and control of this type of relationship. For this purpose it shall draw up a document of financial forecasting, namely "the budget of revenue and expenditure", emerged as "an instrument of harmonization and improvement of the relationship between revenue and expenditure", which due to its mining over a specific period of time, usually one year and broken down by quarters, financial revenue and expenditure, thus ensuring steady financial relationship. In the present work we, as starting from general considerations realiarea the budget, to introduce a new model of its întrocmirea taking into account the secificitatea of coal mining of ore extraction.

  2. Elaboration of new ceramic microfiltration membranes from mineral coal fly ash applied to waste water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jedidi, I.; Saidi, S.; Khemakhem, S.; Larbot, A.; Elloumi-Ammar, N.; Fourati, A.; Charfi, A.; Salah, A.B.; Amar, R.B. [Science Faculty of Sfax, Sfax (Tunisia)

    2009-12-15

    This work aims to develop a new mineral porous tubular membrane based on mineral coal fly ash. Finely ground mineral coal powder was calcinated at 700{sup o}C for about 3 h. The elaboration of the mesoporous layer was performed by the slip-casting method using a suspension made of the mixture of fly-ash powder, water and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The obtained membrane was submitted to a thermal treatment which consists in drying at room temperature for 24h then a sintering at 800{sup o}C. SEM photographs indicated that the membrane surface was homogeneous and did not present any macrodefects (cracks, etc...). The average pore diameter of the active layer was 0.25 {mu} m and the thickness was around 20 {mu} m. The membrane permeability was 475 l/h m{sup 2} bar. This membrane was applied to the treatment of the dying effluents generated by the washing baths in the textile industry. The performances in term of permeate flux and efficiency were determined and compared to those obtained using a commercial alumina microfiltration membrane. Almost the same stabilised permeate flux was obtained (about 1001 h{sup -1} m{sup -2}). The quality of permeate was almost the same with the two membranes: the COD and color removal was 75% and 90% respectively.

  3. Elaboration of new ceramic microfiltration membranes from mineral coal fly ash applied to waste water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedidi, Ilyes; Saïdi, Sami; Khemakhem, Sabeur; Larbot, André; Elloumi-Ammar, Najwa; Fourati, Amine; Charfi, Aboulhassan; Salah, Abdelhamid Ben; Amar, Raja Ben

    2009-12-15

    This work aims to develop a new mineral porous tubular membrane based on mineral coal fly ash. Finely ground mineral coal powder was calcinated at 700 degrees C for about 3 h. The elaboration of the mesoporous layer was performed by the slip-casting method using a suspension made of the mixture of fly-ash powder, water and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The obtained membrane was submitted to a thermal treatment which consists in drying at room temperature for 24 h then a sintering at 800 degrees C. SEM photographs indicated that the membrane surface was homogeneous and did not present any macrodefects (cracks, etc...). The average pore diameter of the active layer was 0.25 microm and the thickness was around 20 microm. The membrane permeability was 475 l/h m(2) bar. This membrane was applied to the treatment of the dying effluents generated by the washing baths in the textile industry. The performances in term of permeate flux and efficiency were determined and compared to those obtained using a commercial alumina microfiltration membrane. Almost the same stabilised permeate flux was obtained (about 100 l h(-1)m(-2)). The quality of permeate was almost the same with the two membranes: the COD and color removal was 75% and 90% respectively.

  4. Miners' lung: a history of dust disease in British coal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur McIvor; Ronald Johnston

    2007-02-15

    The authors explore the experience of coal miners' lung diseases and the attempts at voluntary and legal control of dusty conditions in British mining from the late nineteenth century to the present. In this way, the book addresses the important issues of occupational health and safety within the mining industry. The authors examine the prevalent diseases, notably pneumoconiosis, emphysema and bronchitis, and evaluate the roles of key players such as the doctors, management and employers, the state and the trade unions. Contents are: General editor's preface; Introduction. Part 1 Interpretations and Context: Methodology and historiography; Work and the body in coalmining. Part 2 Advancing Medical Knowledge on Dust Disease: Coal workers' pneumoconiosis: discovery and denial; Social medicine and pioneering epidemiology; The last gasp: bronchitis and emphysema. Part 3 The Industrial Politics of Miners' Lung: 'Enlightened management'? The NCB, the state and dust; The trade unions and dust. Part 4 Miners' Testimonies: Dust and Disability Narratives: Workplace culture: risk and masculinity; Breathless men: living and dying with dust disease. Conclusion. 3 figs., 10 tabs., 1 app.

  5. Characterization of Malaysian coals for carbon dioxide sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abunowara, M.; Bustam, M. A.; Sufian, S.; Eldemerdash, U.

    2016-06-01

    Coal samples from Mukah-Balingian and Merit-Pila coal mines were characterized with ultimate, approximate, petrographic analysis, FT-IR spectra patterns, FESEM images and BET measurements to obtain information on the chemical composition and chemical structure in the samples. Two coal samples were obtained from Merit-Pila coal mine namely sample1 (S1) and sample2 (S2). The other two coal samples were obtained from Mukah-Balingian coal mine namely sample3 (S3) and sample4 (S4), Sarawak, Malaysia. The results of ultimate analysis show that coal S1 has the highest carbon percentage by 54.47%, the highest hydrogen percentage by 10.56% and the lowest sulfur percentage by 0.19% and the coal S4 has the highest moisture content by 31.5%. The coal S1 has the highest fixed carbon percentage by 42.6%. The coal S4 has BET surface area by 2.39 m2/g and Langmuir surface area by 3.0684 m2/g respectively. Fourier-Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy analysis of all coal samples shows a presence of oxygen containing functional groups which considered are as active sites on coal surface. The oxygen functional groups are mainly carboxyl (-COOH), hydroxyl (-OH), alkyl (-CH, -CH2, -CH3), aliphatic (C-O-C stretching associated with -OH), amino (-NH stretching vibrations), (-NH stretching vibrations), aromatic (C=C), vinylic (C=C) and clay minerals. In all FE-SEM images of coal samples matrix, it can be seen that there are luminous and as non luminous features which refer to the existence of various minerals types distributed in the coal organic matrix. The bright luminosity is due to the presence of sodium, potassium or aluminium. According to petrographic analysis, all coal sample samples are range in vitrinite reflectance from 0.38% to 56% (VRr) are sub-bituminous coals.

  6. Origin of Minerals and Elements in the Late Permian Coal Seams of the Shiping Mine, Sichuan, Southwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangbing Luo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic layers in coal seams in southwestern China coalfields have received much attention given their significance in coal geology studies and their potential economic value. In this study, the mineralogical and geochemical compositions of C19 and C25 coal seams were examined, and the following findings were obtained. (1 Clay minerals in sample C19-r are argillized, and sedimentary layering is not observed. The acicular idiomorphic crystals of apatite and the phenocrysts of Ti-augite coexisting with magnetite in roof sample C19-r are common minerals in basaltic rock. The rare earth elements (REE distribution pattern of C19-r, which is characterized by positive Eu anomalies and M-REE enrichment, is the same as that of high-Ti basalt. The concentrations of Ti, V, Co, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Nb, Ta, Zr, and Hf in C19-r are closer to those of high-Ti basalt. In conclusion, roof sample C19-r consists of tuffaceous clay, probably with a high-Ti mafic magma source. (2 The geochemical characteristics of the C25 coals are same as those reported for coal affected by alkali volcanic ash, enrichment in Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf, and REE, causing the C25 minable coal seams to have higher potential value. Such a vertical study of coals and host rocks could provide more information for coal-forming depositional environment analysis, for identification of volcanic eruption time and magma intrusion, and for facilitating stratigraphic subdivision and correlation.

  7. Neo-mineral formation during artificial coalification of low-ash - mineral free-peat material from tropical Malaysia-potential explanation for low ash coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuest, Raphael [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, 4811, QLD (Australia); Bustin, R. Marc; Ross, John [Department of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of British Columbia, 6339 Stores Road, Vancouver, B.C. (Canada)

    2008-04-03

    Abundant coal deposits have very low inorganic contents (ash yield; < 2%) and hence are almost ash-free. Inexplicable to date is that the precursor of coal, modern peat deposits, almost nowhere have such low ash yields as a result of both the inorganic mineral and biogenic phytolith contents. However, despite the common occurrence of phytoliths in modern peats, they are invariably absent in coals. It has thus been hypothesized by some investigators that modern environments are not ideal analogues for the formation of low ash coal deposits. Here we present new evidence to suggest that mineral diagenesis during coalification can transform biogenic inorganics to new minerals and that a substantial component of these new minerals could be removed in solution during expulsion of moisture with coalification resulting in low ash precursors of coal. This study presents results from artificial coalification experiments of modern tropical forest peat material with ash yields between 2-4.3 wt.%. The inorganic material of the peat consists almost exclusively of Al-Si-and Si-rich phytoliths and other bioliths; no other inorganic mineral matter is present. Compressed pellets of dried peat were deformed in a Griggs constant strain rate apparatus at a constant confining pressure of 5 kb and constant strain rate of 10{sup -} {sup 5} s {sup -} {sup 1} at variable temperatures from 350 C to 550 C. The samples, exposed to artificial coalification processes, were then analysed by SEM, EDS, and XRD for semi-quantitative chemical analyses. The deformed material showed a lack of any biogenic silica and Al-Si-phytoliths, but contained neoformed idiomorphic quartz crystals and clays. We conclude that modern peat forming environments that have low-ash peats containing biogenic silica and other biogenic Al-Si-material can represent precursors of very low-ash coal deposits. Our experiments illustrate that during coalification, it is likely all or almost all biogenic material is transformed

  8. A new approach for the combined chemical and mineral classification of the inorganic matter in coal. 2. Potential applications of the classification systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanislav V. Vassilev; Christina G. Vassileva; David Baxter; Lars K. Andersen [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). Central Laboratory of Mineralogy and Crystallography

    2009-02-15

    Part 1 of the present work introduced and evaluated a new approach for the combined chemical and mineral classification of the inorganic matter in coal. The benefit of these classification systems is the use of significant correlations and actual element associations, and well-defined and genetically described mineral classes and species in coal. Potential applications of the chemically and mineralogically categorized coal types and subtypes are discussed in the present part 2. The data show that various technological problems, environmental risks and health concerns of coal use are related directly or indirectly to specific mineral and chemical coal types and subtypes. Furthermore, a concept of 'self-cleaning fuels' also is introduced and developed herein based on mineral coal types. The application of these chemical and mineral classification systems and concept is proposed to both the scientific and industrial community. 54 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  9. Sequential solvent extraction for forms of antimony in five selected coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, C.; Liu, Gaisheng; Kong, Y.; Chou, C.-L.; Wang, R.

    2008-01-01

    Abundance of antimony in bulk samples has been determined in five selected coals, three coals from Huaibei Coalfield, Anhui, China, and two from the Illinois Basin in the United States. The Sb abundance in these samples is in the range of 0.11-0.43 ??g/g. The forms of Sb in coals were studied by sequential solvent extraction. The six forms of Sb are water soluble, ion changeable, organic matter bound, carbonate bound, silicate bound, and sulfide bound. Results of sequential extraction show that silicate-bound Sb is the most abundant form in these coals. Silicate- plus sulfide-bound Sb accounts for more than half of the total Sb in all coals. Bituminous coals are higher in organic matterbound Sb than anthracite and natural coke, indicating that the Sb in the organic matter may be incorporated into silicate and sulfide minerals during metamorphism. ?? 2008 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.

  10. Japan's Sunshine Project 1988 annual summary of coal liquefaction and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    Describes work carried out during the year on coal liquefaction and gasification technologies, bituminous and brown coal liquefaction, development of machinery and materials for coal liquefaction plant, coal type selection studies, data collection and processing, utilization and upgrading technology of coal derived products, toxicological and environmental effects of liquefied coal, coal-based hydrogen production technology and technology for entrained flow coal gasification.

  11. Effect of hydrothermal treatment of coal on its associative structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shui Heng-fu; Wang Zhi-cai; Wang Gao-qiang; Niu Min-feng [Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan (China). School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering

    2006-10-15

    4 bituminous coals with different ranks were thermally and hydrothermally treated under different conditions, and the raw and treated coals were extracted with carbon disulfide/N-2-pyrrolidinone (CS{sub 2}/NMP) mixed solvent (1:1 by volume). It is found that the extraction yields of the thermal or hydrothermal treated coals at proper conditions increase in different extent. The increments of extraction yields for hydrothermal treated coals are higher than those of thermal treated coals. FT-IR shows that the adsorption peaks at 3410 cm{sup -1} attributed to OH group for the hydrothermal treated coals decrease, suggesting the dissociation of the coal aggregation structure due to the breakage of hydrogen bonds, resulting in the increase of extraction yields for the treated coals. For higher rank coal, the removal of minerals and the dissociation of {pi}-cation association after hydrothermal treatment of coal may be responsible for the increase of extraction yield. In addition, the mechanism of hydrothermal treatment of coal was discussed. 15 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Relationship between high incidence of lung cancer among non-smoking women and silica in C1 bituminous coal in Xuanwei, Yunnan Province, China%云南省宣威地区非吸烟女性肺癌与C1烟煤中二氧化硅的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李光剑; 黄云超; 田林玮; 刘拥军; 郭律; 肖义泽; 侯文俊; 杨堃; 陈颖

    2013-01-01

    二氧化硅颗粒物进入室内空气中随悬浮颗粒物吸入肺部”的迁移富集路线.%Objective To measure the content of silica in C1 bituminous coal and its combustion products in the high-incidence area of lung cancer in Xuanwei,Yunnan Province,China and to investigate the relationship between high incidence of lung cancer among non-smoking women and silica produced naturally in C1 bituminous coal in Xuan Wei.Methods The C1 bituminous coal widely used in the high-incidence area of lung cancer in Xuanwei was selected as experiment group,while the C2+1,K7,and M30 bituminous coal that was mined and used in the low-incidence area of lung cancer in Xuanwei for more than 10 years were selected as control group.Fourteen paraffin-embedded cancer tissue samples from the non-smoking women with non-small cell lung cancer who were born in Xuanwei and were at least the 3rd generation of the family living there were collected from the department of pathology,the ahird affiliated hospital of kunming medical university (tumor hospital of yunnan province).Titrimetric potassium silicofluoride method was used to measure the content of silica in raw coal and its bottom ashes in 20 samples from the experimental group and control group.Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the morphology of silica particles in C1 bituminous coal and its bottom ashes,and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (SEM-EDX) was used to analyze the microscopic composition.Transmission electron microscope (TEM) was used to observe the morphology of silica particles in the bottom ashes and coal soot of C1 bituminous coal as well as the lung cancer tissue from the non-smoking women in Xuanwei,and transmission electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (TEM-EDX) was used to analyze the microscopic composition.The silica particles were separated from the coal soot and bottom ashes and characterized by physical method

  13. Injury experience in coal mining, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1991-01-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of coal mining in the United States for 1990. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and anthracite or bituminous coal. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison between coal mining and the metal and nonmetal mineral mining industries, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  14. Injury experience in coal mining, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reich, R.B.; Hugler, E.C.

    1994-05-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of coal mining in the United States for 1992. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and anthracite or bituminous coal. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison between coal mining and the metal and nonmetal mineral mining industries, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  15. Rosebud SynCoal Partnership, SynCoal{reg_sign} demonstration technology update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheldon, R.W. [Rosebud SynCoal Partnership, Billings, MT (United States)

    1997-12-31

    An Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) technology being demonstrated in eastern Montana (USA) at the heart of one of the world`s largest coal deposits is providing evidence that the molecular structure of low-rank coals can be altered successfully to produce a unique product for a variety of utility and industrial applications. The product is called SynCoal{reg_sign} and the process has been developed by the Rosebud SynCoal Partnership (RSCP) through the US Department of Energy`s multi-million dollar Clean Coal Technology Program. The ACCP demonstration process uses low-pressure, superheated gases to process coal in vibrating fluidized beds. Two vibratory fluidized processing stages are used to heat and convert the coal. This is followed by a water spray quench and a vibratory fluidized stage to cool the coal. Pneumatic separators remove the solid impurities from the dried coal. There are three major steps to the SynCoal{reg_sign} process: (1) thermal treatment of the coal in an inert atmosphere, (2) inert gas cooling of the hot coal, and (3) removal of ash minerals. When operated continuously, the demonstration plant produces over 1,000 tons per day (up to 300,000 tons per year) of SynCoal{reg_sign} with a 2% moisture content, approximately 11,800b Btu/lb and less than 1.0 pound of SO{sub 2} per million Btu. This product is obtained from Rosebud Mine sub-bituminous coal which starts with 25% moisture, 8,600 Btu/lb and approximately 1.6 pounds of SO{sub 2} per million Btu.

  16. [Correlative factors on prevalence rate of dislipidemia among 1 337 coal miners in Shanxi province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Z D; Wen, D D; Wang, B; Xue, S L; Liu, G S; Li, X H; Zhao, Z H; Wang, J; Wei, B G; Wang, S P

    2017-02-10

    Objective: To understand the prevalence rate and correlative factors of dislipidemia among Shanxi coal miners and to provide evidence for the development of programs on dislipidemia prevention. Methods: We investigated 1 337 mine workers from a Coal Group in April 2016 and collected data related to their blood biochemistry. We then classified the types in accordance with the diagnostic criteria of " Guidelines for prevention and treatment of dyslipidemia in Chinese adults (2007)" , using χ(2) test and unconditional logistic regression model for analysis. Results: The overall prevalence rate of Dislipidemia was 59.1% (790/1 337), with males as 60.4% (708/1 173) and females as 50.0%(82/164) while males appeared higher (χ(2)=6.386, Pdislipidemia (χ(2)=7.117, Pdislipidemia (Pdislipidemia. Conclusion: Among the coal mine workers, those who were males, aged from 20 to 34, having high blood pressure (systolic blood pressure abnormalities) or with high BMI (≥24.0 kg/m(2)) need to be taken special attention on care and prevention of dislipidemia.

  17. Influence of mineral transformation on emission of particulate matters during coal combustion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiaowei; XU Minghou; YU Dunxi; GAO Xiangpeng; CAO Qian; HAO Wei

    2007-01-01

    Combustion of pulverized coal was studied in a drop tube furnace to understand coal mineral properties with the emission of particulate matters (PM). Experimental conditions were selected as follows: coal particle size was smaller than 63 μm; reaction temperature was 1 100℃, 1 250℃ and 1 400℃ respectively; oxygen content was 20% and 50% respectively, PM was collected with a 13-stagelow pressure impactor (LPI) having an aerodynamic cut-off diameter ranging from 10.0 μm to 0.03 μm for a size-segregated collection. Such properties as concentration, particle size distribution and elemental composition of PM were investigated. The experimental results indicate that the emitted PM has a bimodal distribution having two peaks around 4.0 μm and 0.1 μm Increasing temperature leads to the formation of more PM; varied oxygen content leads to much change of emitted PM. PM was also subjected to XRF analysis to quantify the elemental composition. The results show that PM of 0.1 μm is rich in sulfates. Meanwhile, SiO2 and Al2O3 are prevalent in PM of 4.0 μm, which means that the last peak around 4.0 μm is mainly aluminosilicate salts.

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging for the wrist joint of the coal miners in vibration department

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, X.Z.; Liu, R.L.; Hu, S.D.; Zhang, W.; Xu, W.X.; Ge, L.X. [Central Hospital of Zaozhuang Mine Corporation, Zaozhuang (China)

    2006-04-15

    To study the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the wrist joint of coal miners who work in excavation and vibration department. Forty-three coal miners with the hand-arm vibration disease served as the observation group while 20 workers who were not working in the vibration department acted as the control group. The patients in the observation group were divided into five subgroups according to the time when they received vibration. The regularity of the development of signs and symptoms of MRI was observed and analyzed. The hydroarthrosis was most found in MRI. There were significant difference in hydroarthrosis osteoporosis and osteomyelitis between the observation group and the control group. The edema of bone marrow and the avascular necrosis of ossa carpi were found only in the observation group and not found in the control group. The hydroarthrosis and the edema of bone marrow occurred most in the early stage of vibration. The signal in the edema of the bone marrow of the distal end of the radius was decreased in the GE sequence with the specificity. Changes in the wrist joint occur in the early stage of the vibration work, and can be found in the MRI. The edema of the bone marrow of the distal end of the radius is of great value in the diagnosis of the hand-arm vibration disease.

  19. A method for the assessment of the mineral/organic matter association of trace elements in coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkin, B.P.; Somerfield, C,; Laban, K.L. [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). Department of Mineral Resources Engineering

    1995-12-31

    Describes a method for the sequential dissolution of coal samples enabling the location and mineral association of the trace elements to be determined. The technique is based on the sequential attack of a coal sample by acids using a sealed microwave digestion system. An advantage of the trace element technique is that the forms of sulphur in the coal can be determined simultaneously with the trace elements with sulphate sulphur, pyritic sulphur and organic sulphur being extracted in the three fractions. Selective dissolution was verified by X-ray diffraction, following low temperature ashing, and the petrographic analysis of the residues. 10 refs., 1 tab.

  20. Effects of coal rank on the chemical composition and toxicological activity of coal liquefaction materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, C.W.; Dauble, D.D.

    1986-05-01

    This report presents data from the chemical analysis and toxicological testing of coal liquefaction materials from the EDS and H-Coal processes operated using different ranks of coal. Samples of recycle solvent from the bottoms recycle mode of the EDS direct coal liquefaction process derived from bituminous, sub-bituminous, and lignite coals were analyzed. In addition, the H-Coal heavy fuel oils derived from bituminous and sub-bituminous coals were analyzed. Chemical methods of analysis included adsoprtion column chromatography, high-resolution gas chromatography, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and low-voltage probe-inlet mass spectrometry. The toxicological activity of selected samples was evaluated using the standard microbial mutagenicity assay, an initiation/promotion assay for mouse-skin tumorigenicity, and a static bioassy with Daphnia magna for aquatic toxicity of the water-soluble fractions. 22 refs., 16 figs., 14 tabs.

  1. Mineral acquisition by maize grown in acidic soil amended with coal combustion products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, R.B.; Zeto, S.K.; Ritchey, K.D.; Baligar, V.C. [USDA ARS, Beaver, WV (United States). Appalachian Farming Systems Research Center

    2001-07-01

    Large amounts of coal combustion products (CCPs) are produced when coal is burned for generation of electricity. Some of these CCPs could potentially be used as soil amendments. Glasshouse experiments were conducted to test the effects of different levels of 15 CCPs and chemical grade CaCO{sub 3}, CaSO{sub 4}, and CaSO{sub 3} added to acidic soil (Umbric Dystrochrept) on shoot calcium (Ca), sulfur (S), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and aluminum (Al) concentrations of maize (Zea mays L.). The CCPs consisted of two fly ashes, one CaO material, three fluidized bed combustion products (FBCs), three 'non-stabilized' flue gas desulfurization products (FGDs), three 'stabilized' FGDs, and three 'oxidized' (FGD gypsum) FGDs. Level of CCP added to soil ranged from beneficial to detrimental effects on plants. Differences in shoot mineral element concentrations were related to kind and amount of CCP added and soil pH. Plants grown in unamended (pH 4) soil had symptoms of P and Mg deficiencies and A1 toxicity. High concentrations of Ca, S, Mg, and Mn accumulated when plants were grown with sonic CCPs, but most mineral nutrients were at concentrations considered normal for maize. Shoot concentrations of P, K, Zn, Mn, Fe, and A1 decreased when soil pH became high ({gt}7). Even though detrimental mineral element acquisition effects were imposed on plants at high levels of CCP application, shoot element concentrations were usually normal when applied at levels near those commonly used as soil amendments.

  2. The Estimation of the Number of Underground Coal Miners and Normalization Collective Dose at Present in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fu-Dong; Pan, Zi-Qiang; Liu, Sen-Lin; Chen, Ling; Chen, Lu; Wang, Chun-Hong

    2017-04-28

    Due to the improvement of production technology and the adjustment of energy structure, as well as the town-ownership and private-ownership coal mines (TPCM) were closed or merged by national policy, the number of underground miner has changed comparing with 2004 in China, so collective dose and normalization collective dose in different type of coal mine should be changed at the same time. In this paper, according to radiation exposure by different ventilation condition and the annual output, the coal mines in China are divided into three types, which are named as national key coal mines (NKCM), station-owned local coal mines (SLCM) and TPCM. The number of underground coal miner, collective dose and normalization collective dose are estimated at present base on surveying annual output and production efficiency of raw coal in 2005-2014. The typical total value of the underground coal miners recommended in China is 5.1 million in 2005-2009, and in which there are respectively included 1 million, 0.9 million and 3.2 million for NKCM, SLCM and TPCM. There are total of 4.7 million underground coal miner in 2010-2014, and the respectively number for NKCM, SLCM and TPCM are 1.4 million, 1.2 million and 2.1 million. The collective dose in 2005-2009 is 11 335 man·Sv·y-1, and in which there are respectively included 280, 495 and 10 560 man·Sv·y-1 for NKCM, SLCM and TPCM. As far as 2010-2014, there are total of 7982 man·Sv·y-1, and 392, 660 and 6930 man·Sv·y-1 for each type of coal mines. Therefore, the main contributor of collective dose is from TPCM. The normalization collective dose in 2005-2009 is 0.0025, 0.015 and 0.117 man·Sv per 10 kt for NKCM, SLCM and TPCM, respectively. As far as 2010-2014, there are 0.0018, 0.010 and 0.107 man·Sv per 10 kt for each type of coal mines. The trend of normalization collective dose is decreased year by year. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please

  3. Using the extended parallel process model to prevent noise-induced hearing loss among coal miners in Appalachia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray-Johnson, L.; Witte, K.; Patel, D.; Orrego, V.; Zuckerman, C.; Maxfield, A.M.; Thimons, E.D. [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (US)

    2004-12-15

    Occupational noise-induced hearing loss is the second most self-reported occupational illness or injury in the United States. Among coal miners, more than 90% of the population reports a hearing deficit by age 55. In this formative evaluation, focus groups were conducted with coal miners in Appalachia to ascertain whether miners perceive hearing loss as a major health risk and if so, what would motivate the consistent wearing of hearing protection devices (HPDs). The theoretical framework of the Extended Parallel Process Model was used to identify the miners' knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and current behaviors regarding hearing protection. Focus group participants had strong perceived severity and varying levels of perceived susceptibility to hearing loss. Various barriers significantly reduced the self-efficacy and the response efficacy of using hearing protection.

  4. Sequestration of carbon dioxide by indirect mineralization using Victorian brown coal fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yong; Parikh, Vinay [Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University, Wellington Road, Clayton, GPO Box 36, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Zhang, Lian, E-mail: lian.zhang@monash.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University, Wellington Road, Clayton, GPO Box 36, Victoria 3800 (Australia)

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The indirect CO{sub 2} mineralization by brown coal fly ash has been tested. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A large CO{sub 2} capture capacity of fly ash under mild conditions was achieved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The kinetic analysis confirmed a fast reaction rate with low activation energy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fly ash based capture process is highly efficient and cost-effective. - Abstract: The use of an industry waste, brown coal fly ash collected from the Latrobe Valley, Victoria, Australia, has been tested for the post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture through indirect minersalization in acetic acid leachate. Upon the initial leaching, the majority of calcium and magnesium in fly ash were dissolved into solution, the carbonation potential of which was investigated subsequently through the use of a continuously stirred high-pressure autoclave reactor and the characterization of carbonation precipitates by various facilities. A large CO{sub 2} capture capacity of fly ash under mild conditions has been confirmed. The CO{sub 2} was fixed in both carbonate precipitates and water-soluble bicarbonate, and the conversion between these two species was achievable at approximately 60 Degree-Sign C and a CO{sub 2} partial pressure above 3 bar. The kinetic analysis confirmed a fast reaction rate for the carbonation of the brown coal ash-derived leachate at a global activation energy of 12.7 kJ/mol. It is much lower than that for natural minerals and is also very close to the potassium carbonate/piperazine system. The CO{sub 2} capture capacity of this system has also proven to reach maximum 264 kg CO{sub 2}/tonne fly ash which is comparable to the natural minerals tested in the literature. As the fly ash is a valueless waste and requires no comminution prior to use, the technology developed here is highly efficient and energy-saving, the resulting carbonate products of which are invaluable for the use as additive to

  5. Book review: Economic geology: Principles and practice: Metals, minerals, coal and hydrocarbons—Introduction to formation and sustainable exploitation of mineral deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Eric

    2013-01-01

    This volume, available in both hardcover and paperback, is an English translation of the fifth edition of the German language text Mineralische und Energie-Rohstoffe. The book provides an extensive overview of natural resources and societal issues associated with extracting raw materials. The comprehensive list of raw materials discussed includes metals, industrial minerals, coal, and hydrocarbons. The book is divided into four parts: (1) “Metalliferous ore deposits,” (2) “Nonmetallic minerals and rocks,” (3) “Practice of economic geology,” and (4) “Fossil energy raw materials—coal, oil, and gas.” These sections are bound by a brief introduction and an extensive list of up-to-date references as well as an index. Each chapter begins with a concise synopsis and concludes with a summary that contains useful suggestions for additional reading. All figures are grayscale images and line drawings; however, several have been grouped together and reproduced as color plates. Also included is a companion website (www.wiley.com/go/pohl/geology) that contains additional resources, such as digital copies of figures, tables, and an expanded index, all available for download in easy-to-use formats.Economic Geology: Principles and Practice: Metals, Minerals, Coal and Hydrocarbons—Introduction to Formation and Sustainable Exploitation of Mineral Deposits. Walter l. Pohl. 2011. Wiley-Blackwell. Pp. 663. ISBN 978-1-4443-3663-4 (paperback).

  6. Osteoarthritis of the knee in coal miners: report by the Industrial Injuries Advisory Council in accordance with Section 171 of the Social Security Administration Act 1992 considering prescription for osteoarthritis of the knee in coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-08-15

    The report considers prescription for osteoarthritis of the knee in miners. Osteoarthritis of the knee, a common disorder in the general population, was last reviewed by the Council in May 1995 in its Command paper 'Disorders of the Knee' (Cm. 2842). This report follows a representation from an ex-Council member highlighting epidemiological evidence of an increased risk of this disorder in miners. The coal mining industry has undergone many changes which have decreased the extent to which miners have been exposed to such employment conditions, notably the closure of many mines by 1986. However, there is evidence that the relevant exposure circumstances will still have occurred after 1986 in certain categories of miner, such as faceworkers working nonmechanised coal faces.It is recommended that osteoarthritis of the knee should be prescribed in relation to work as an underground miner for ten years or more in aggregate; but that to be reckonable, any service from 1986 onwards should be in certain specific categories of coal mining occupation, as set out in the recommended prescription schedule. 2 apps.

  7. Relationships of physical job tasks and living conditions with occupational injuries in coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashis Bhattacherjee; Jean-Pierre Bertrand; Jean-Pierre Meyer (and others) [Indian Institute of Technology (India). Department of Mining Engineering

    2007-04-15

    This study assessed the relationships of job tasks and living conditions with occupational injuries among coal miners. The sample included randomly selected 516 underground workers. They completed a standardized self-administred questionnaire. The data were analyzed via logistic regression method. The rate of injuries in the past two years was 29.8%. The job tasks with significant crude relative risks were: power hammer, vibrating hand tools, pneumatic tools, bent trunk, awkward work posture, heat, standing about and walking, job tasks for trunk and upper/lower limbs, pain caused by work, and muscular tiredness. Logistic model shows a strong relationship between the number of job tasks (JT) and injuries and significant ORs=1.71 for face work, not-good-health-status, and psychotropic drug use. Musculoskeletal disorders and certain personality traits were also significant in univariate analysis. Therefore job tasks and living conditions strongly increase the injuries, and occupational physicians could help workers to find remedial measures.

  8. Sorption of oil pollution by organoclays and a coal/mineral complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vianna M.M.G. Ramos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, increasing concern about pollution of groundwater by organic chemicals has led to research on the use of various adsorbents. This study addressed the sorption of phenol and organic compounds by two organoclays and a coal/mineral complex (ARO. The organoclays used were a bentonite from Brazil (SVC and Wyoming bentonite (SWy with quaternary ammonium salt (ABDMA. Swelling capacity of the sorbents in toluene, diesel, gas, Varsol and kerosene were measured. Absorption of organic compounds served as an ASTM D 281-95 base, which resulted in the following order for ABDMA-SVC: gas > toluene > kerosene > diesel > Varsol. ABDMA-SWy absorbed in the following order: gas > toluene > Varsol > diesel > kerosene. ARO absorbed: gas > toluene >diesel > Varsol > kerosene. Sorption of phenol followed the order of ABDMA-SVC > ABDMA-SWy > ARO. The adsorption data show that the materials prepared were effective in sorbing phenol, and that the Brazilian clay was the most efficient of the three materials.

  9. Cell populations recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage in pneumoconiosis of coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voisin, C.; Wallaert, B.; Ramon, P.; Gosselin, B.; Aerts, C.

    1982-01-01

    Studying the cellular products obtained by broncho-alveolar lavage in 81 patients, 77 coal-miners and 4 other subjects exposed to silicotic risks of various origin, the authors could demonstrate the interest of this new method of exploring the peripheral lung tissues. In 57 cases of usual pneumoconiosis and controls matched for the smoking habits, the repartition of the different cellular types was quite similar. On the contrary, the authors observed an increase of the lymphocytes in three cases of accelerated elution of the pneumoconiosis. Moreover various modifications were noticed in cases with morbid associations as conectivitis, sarcoiedosis, allergic alveolitis, and primitive diffuse interstitial fibrosis as well. At the moment they were collected, the alveolar macrophages of the subjects to dust showed the same properties of vitality and adherence capacity as the controls. After 24 hours of survival their vitality and bacterial activity on Staphylococcus aureus was clearly diminished.

  10. Reactions between sodium and silicon minerals during gasification of low-rank coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.P. Ross; A. Kosminski; J.B. Agnew [University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA (Australia). Cooperative Research Centre for Clean Power from Lignite, School of Chemical Engineering

    2003-07-01

    The main objective of this study was to elucidate the role of sodium and silicon minerals in formation of liquid phases during gasification of a high-sulphur low-rank Australian coal. The organically-bound sodium was found to be transformed into sodium carbonate, contrary to thermodynamic predictions of the formation of sodium sulphide. Up to half of the sodium was vaporised from the char. Volatilisation of sodium increased with temperature and time, and dependent on the gas environment. Sodium chloride present in coal either vaporised or partly reacted with the coal to form sodium carbonate. The release of sodium was disproportionate to that of chlorine. Steam was found, both theoretically and experimentally, to be the most important component of the gasification environment. Steam substantially reduced the melting temperature of sodium carbonate. Consequently, gasification with steam resulted in the formation, via a liquid-solid state reaction, of liquid silicates at temperatures as low as 750{degree}C. Sodium chloride and silica reacted only in steam and to form fused silicates at 750{degree}C, with the rate of silicate formation substantially slower than for reaction between silica and sodium carbonate. Formation of silicates around silica particles and fused silicate joints between individual silica grains inside the char were established to occur uniformly throughout the char particles. Experimental results showed that kaolin and organic bound sodium react upon reaching 650{degree}C to form a solid sodium aluminosilicate, with a melting point above 1250{degree}C. A similar reaction occurs with sodium chloride, but at a slower rate dependent on the temperature, time and gas atmosphere. Importantly, the reactions of sodium with kaolin prevented reactions with silica in forming liquid silicates.

  11. Coal Combustion Science quarterly progress report, January--March 1993. Task 1, Coal char combustion: Task 2,, Fate of mineral matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardesty, D.R. [ed.; Hurt, R.H.; Baxter, L.L.

    1994-02-01

    The objective of this work is to obtain insights into the mechanisms of combustion, fragmentation, and final burnout, and to use the insights to aid in the interpretation of the quantitative data generated in Subtasks 1 and 2. The initial image sequences for Illinois No. 6 coal confirm the presence of an early near-extinction process (discussed in previous reports) and the asymptotic nature of the carbon burnout process. The technique also provided important new insights into the processes of particle fragmentation and reagglomeration at high burnout. During this quarter, chemical fractionation tests on coals pulverized to different sizes were completed. These data will help us to asses the accuracy of the fuels characterizations for the purpose of interpreting inorganic release during coal devolatilization. Chemical fractionation tests on mineral species are proceeding for the same purposes, but these are not yet completed.

  12. Challenging cheap-labour theory: Natal and Transvaal coal miners, ca 1890-1950

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, P. [University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg (South Africa)

    2008-07-01

    In the first half of the twentieth century, South Africa's two main coal-producing provinces, Natal and the Transvaal, were regarded as having separate industries. Comparing the two, the article shows that their geology, markets, ownership and organization were distinctive. In contrast, the patterns of labour struggles were alike, reflecting labour processes, racial divisions, and legal and ideological frameworks that were similar. The historiography of South African mining labour has emphasized the role of black migrants, who 'oscillated' between the mines and the rural areas from where they originated and to which they retired. While structuralist analyses argued that migrancy was the bedrock of a cheap-labour system that underpinned white power, leading social historians stressed that migrants were primarily rural men. The account presented here rejects the thrust of both positions, showing that a high proportion of coal miners settled around the mines. More of them would have done so had this been permitted, and the same applies to Africans working on the gold mines. Given that cheap-labour theory strengthens the exceptionalism that runs through much South African history, rejecting it can open up new possibilities for comparative study. In passing, the article reveals that black workers participated in the militant 1913 strike by the Witwatersrand's white mine workers.

  13. Sequestration of carbon dioxide by indirect mineralization using Victorian brown coal fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yong; Parikh, Vinay; Zhang, Lian

    2012-03-30

    The use of an industry waste, brown coal fly ash collected from the Latrobe Valley, Victoria, Australia, has been tested for the post-combustion CO(2) capture through indirect minersalization in acetic acid leachate. Upon the initial leaching, the majority of calcium and magnesium in fly ash were dissolved into solution, the carbonation potential of which was investigated subsequently through the use of a continuously stirred high-pressure autoclave reactor and the characterization of carbonation precipitates by various facilities. A large CO(2) capture capacity of fly ash under mild conditions has been confirmed. The CO(2) was fixed in both carbonate precipitates and water-soluble bicarbonate, and the conversion between these two species was achievable at approximately 60°C and a CO(2) partial pressure above 3 bar. The kinetic analysis confirmed a fast reaction rate for the carbonation of the brown coal ash-derived leachate at a global activation energy of 12.7 kJ/mol. It is much lower than that for natural minerals and is also very close to the potassium carbonate/piperazine system. The CO(2) capture capacity of this system has also proven to reach maximum 264 kg CO(2)/ton fly ash which is comparable to the natural minerals tested in the literature. As the fly ash is a valueless waste and requires no comminution prior to use, the technology developed here is highly efficient and energy-saving, the resulting carbonate products of which are invaluable for the use as additive to cement and in the paper and pulp industry.

  14. On the microstructure of bituminous binders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, H.R.; Dillingh, E.C.; Hermse, C.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work is to study the common features and the evolution of microstructures of bituminous binders regardless of their grade (PEN 10/20 to 160/220) and source/origin using the atomic force microscope operated in phase contrast mode. All bituminous binders show the same microstruct

  15. Effect of work boot type on work footwear habits, lower limb pain and perceptions of work boot fit and comfort in underground coal miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Jessica A; Riddiford-Harland, Diane L; Bell, Alison F; Steele, Julie R

    2017-04-01

    Lower limb injuries are highly prevalent in underground coal mining. Wearing gumboots with inadequate ankle support was thought to contribute to these injuries. Despite the uptake of leather lace-up boots, which provide more ankle support, no recent research could be found investigating the effect of this alternative work boot in underground coal mining. Consequently, this study aimed to determine whether boot type (gumboot, leather lace-up boot) influenced work footwear habits, foot problems, lower limb pain, lower back pain, or perceptions of work boot fit and comfort in underground coal miners. Chi-squared tests were applied to 358 surveys completed by underground coal miners to determine whether responses differed significantly (p underground coal mining work boot that is comfortable and reduces the high incidence of foot problems and lower limb pain suffered by underground coal miners. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Relationship between dust exposure and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases and heat shock protein 72 and 73 in lymphocytes among coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing J.C.; Chen W.H.; Wang F.; Han W.H.; Ren H.M; ; Wu T.C. [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). MOE Key Laboratory of Environmental Health, School of Public Health

    2006-09-15

    To assess the expression of Hsp72 and Hsp73 in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and to evaluate their roles in damage from coal dust exposure. A case control study of 50 coal miners suffering from COPD and 50 healthy coal miners were selected from one coal mine. The levels of Hsp72 and Hsp73 in peripheral blood lymphocytes were determined by flow cytometry for all subjects. The expression of basic Hsp72 of peripheral blood lymphocytes for patients and controls was not different from that inducible expressed Hsp72 by 42 degrees C heat stress or by BPDE exposure. (2) The expression of Hsp72 in COPD patients was significantly lower than that in healthy coal miners. On the other hand, the expression of Hsp73 in COPD patients was higher than that in healthy coal miners. (3) A-positive relationship between the expression of Hsp72 and cumulative inhaling coal dust exposure was observed. No relationship was found between Hsp73 and cumulative inhaling coal dust exposure. The decreased expressions of Hsp72 in peripheral blood lymphocytes of COPD coal miners.

  17. Effects of coal properties on acetylene formation and coking in H{sub 2}/Ar plasma pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, W.; Lu, Y.; Liu, S.; Xie, K. [Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan (China)

    2004-10-01

    The formation of acetylene by coal plasma pyrolysis is strongly dependent on coal properties. The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the effects of coal properties on the acetylene formation and coking in plasma pyrolysis in H{sub 2}/Ar. 12 kinds of coals with different coal rank were chosen and the effects of coal properties, including the content of volatile matter, oxygen and ash, on the yields of acetylene and coking were investigated in details. The results show that the bituminous coals containing the volatile matter from 30 to 40% have higher acetylene yield, while the coals with high oxygen content have lower acetylene yield, which corresponds to an increase in carbon conversion to carbon oxides. The content of mineral matter in coal has no significant relationship with the acetylene yield though it would increase the formation of CO. The higher mineral-matter content in coal is found to have a specific effect on the coking. The results of the tests by adding SiO{sub 2} and sands indicate that the high content of mineral-matter would increase the coke formation and affect the configuration of coke. 9 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. The properties of the nano-minerals and hazardous elements: Potential environmental impacts of Brazilian coal waste fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civeira, Matheus S; Pinheiro, Rafael N; Gredilla, Ainara; de Vallejuelo, Silvia Fdez Ortiz; Oliveira, Marcos L S; Ramos, Claudete G; Taffarel, Silvio R; Kautzmann, Rubens M; Madariaga, Juan Manuel; Silva, Luis F O

    2016-02-15

    Brazilian coal area (South Brazil) impacted the environment by means of a large number of coal waste piles emplaced over the old mine sites and the adjacent areas of the Criciúma, Urussanga, and Siderópolis cities. The area studied here was abandoned and after almost 30 years (smokeless visual) some companies use the actual minerals derived from burning coal cleaning rejects (BCCRs) complied in the mentioned area for industry tiles or refractory bricks. Mineralogical and geochemical similarities between the BCCRs and non-anthropogenic geological environments are outlined here. Although no visible flames were observed, this study revealed that auto-combustion existed in the studied area for many years. The presence of amorphous phases, mullite, hematite and other Fe-minerals formed by high temperature was found. There is also pyrite, Fe-sulphates (eg. jarosite) and unburnt coal present, which are useful for comparison purposes. Bad disposal of coal-dump wastes represents significant environmental concerns due to their potential influence on atmosphere, river sediments, soils and as well as on the surface and groundwater in the surroundings of these areas. The present study using advanced analytical techniques were performed to provide an improved understanding of the complex processes related with sulphide-rich coal waste oxidation, spontaneous combustion and mineral formation. It is reporting huge numbers of rare minerals with alunite, montmorillonite, szomolnokite, halotrichite, coquimbite and copiapite at the BCCRs. The data showed the presence of abundant amorphous Si-Al-Fe-Ti as (oxy-)hydroxides and Fe-hydro/oxides with goethite and hematite with various degrees of crystallinity, containing hazardous elements, such as Cu, Cr, Hf, Hg, Mo, Ni, Se, Pb, Th, U, Zr, and others. By Principal Component Analysis (PCA), the mineralogical composition was related with the range of elemental concentration of each sample. Most of the nano-minerals and ultra-fine particles

  19. Inorganic chemistry, petrography and palaeobotany of Permian coals in the Prince Charles Mountains, East Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holdgate, G.R. [School of Earth Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Victoria, 3010 (Australia); McLoughlin, S. [School of Natural Resource Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, P.O. Box 2434, Brisbane, Queensland 4001 (Australia); Drinnan, A.N. [School of Botany, The University of Melbourne, Victoria, 3010 (Australia); Finkelman, R.B.; Willett, J.C.; Chiehowsky, L.A. [U.S. Geological Survey, Mail Stop 956, Reston, VA 20092 (United States)

    2005-07-20

    Sampled outcrops of Permian coal seams of the Bainmedart Coal Measures in the Lambert Graben, eastern Antarctica, have been analysed for their proximates, ultimates, ash constituents and trace elements. A similar series of samples has been analysed for their principle maceral and microlithotype components and vitrinite reflectance. The coals are sub-bituminous to high volatile bituminous in rank; maturity increases markedly in southern exposures around Radok Lake where the oldest part of the succession is exposed and some strata have been intruded by mafic dykes and ultramafic sills. The coal ash is mostly silica and aluminium oxides, indicating that the mineral ash component is mostly quartz and various clay minerals. The ratio of silica to aluminium oxides appears to increase in an upward stratigraphic direction. The coal macerals include a relatively high liptinite content (mainly sporinite) that is significantly higher than for typical Gondwana coals. Greater degrees of weathering within the floodbasin/peat mire environments associated with climatic drying towards the end of the Permian might account for both preferential sporopollenin preservation and increased silica:aluminium oxide ratios up-section. Correlation of the coal maceral components to adjacent peninsula India coals indicates the closest comparative coals of similar age and rank occur within the Godavari Basin, rather then the Mahanadi Basin, which is traditionally interpreted to have been contiguous with the Lambert Graben before Gondwanan breakup. The petrological characteristics suggest that either previous interpretations of Palaeozoic basin alignments between Antarctica and India are incorrect, or that environmental settings and post-Permian burial histories of these basins were strongly independent of their tectonic juxtaposition. A permineralized peat bed within the succession reveals that the coals predominantly comprise wood- and leaf-rich debris derived from low-diversity forest

  20. The Transformation of Coal-Mining Waste Minerals in the Pozzolanic Reactions of Cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Giménez-García

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The cement industry has the potential to become a major consumer of recycled waste materials that are transformed and recycled in various forms as aggregates and pozzolanic materials. These recycled waste materials would otherwise have been dumped in landfill sites, leaving hazardous elements to break down and contaminate the environment. There are several approaches for the reuse of these waste products, especially in relation to clay minerals that can induce pozzolanic reactions of special interest in the cement industry. In the present paper, scientific aspects are discussed in relation to several inert coal-mining wastes and their recycling as alternative sources of future eco-efficient pozzolans, based on activated phyllosilicates. The presence of kaolinite in this waste indicates that thermal treatment at 600 °C for 2 h transformed these minerals into a highly reactive metakaolinite over the first seven days of the pozzolanic reaction. Moreover, high contents of metakaolinite, together with silica and alumina sheet structures, assisted the appearance of layered double hydroxides through metastable phases, forming stratlingite throughout the main phase of the pozzolanic reaction after 28 days (as recommended by the European Standard as the reaction proceeded.

  1. Thermal stability of carboxylic acid functionality in coal; Sekitanchu ni sonzaisuru karubokishiruki no netsubunkai kyodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsutsumi, Y.; Aida, T. [Kinki University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    Carboxyl in coal was focused in discussing its pyrolytic behavior while tracking change of its absolute amount relative to the heating temperatures. A total of four kinds of coals, consisting of two kinds brown coals, sub-bituminous coal and bituminous coal were used. Change in the absolute amount of carboxyl due to heating varies with coalification degree. Decomposition starts in the bituminous coal from around 300{degree}C, and is rapidly accelerated when 400{degree}C is exceeded. Carboxyls in brown coals exist two to three times as much as those in bituminous and sub-bituminous coals, of which 40% is decomposed at a temperature as low as about 300{degree}C. Their pyrolytic behavior at temperatures higher than 400{degree}C resembles that of the bituminous coal. Carboxyls consist of those easy to decompose and difficult to decompose. Aromatic and aliphatic carboxylic acids with simple structure are stable at temperatures lower than 300{degree}C, and decompose abruptly from about 400{degree}C, hence their behavior resembles that of carboxyls in bituminous and sub-bituminous coals. Structure of low-temperature decomposing carboxyls in brown coals is not known, but it is assumed that humic acid originated from natural materials remains in the structure. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Study on the correlation between chemical and mineral composition of coal ashes; Sekitanbaibun no kobutsu soseigakuteki kento kagakubutsu sosei to kobutsugakuteki sosei no sokan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirato, M.; Nagashima, S.; Okada, S. [Hachinohe Institute of Technology, Aomori (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    Coal ash is a substance that has been mixed into minerals in the earth`s crust during their coalification process. Estimation was made on what kinds of mineral composition have been mixed into coals. Noted first was the kinds of compounds contained in the ash, wherein the ratios of mass in the compounds and minerals were correlated, and selection was made on minerals which are thought correlated. The selection criterion was based on minerals containing silica, alumina, iron oxide, lime and magnesium as compounds. Then, a phase equilibrium line diagram was used to estimate compositions and melting points of minerals which are thought to have been produced from these compounds. By comparing the estimation with the measured melting points of the ashes, mineral compositions thought reasonable were all selected. Assumption was possible on minerals that are thought to have been transferred into coal ash. Compound indications of ashes from 29 kinds of the world`s typical coals were replaced with the subject minerals and expressed as mineral compositions. As a method of calculation, stoichiometric coefficients for each mineral were determined by taking material balance in atomic/molecular levels in masses of compound aggregates and mineral composition aggregates. 7 tabs.

  3. Technological roadmap for production, clean and efficient use of Brazilian mineral coal: 2012 to 2035; Roadmap tecnologico para producao, uso limpo e eficiente do carvao mineral nacional: 2012 a 2035

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Brazil has one of the largest coal reserves in the world, but it is not among the largest producers in the world. Coal in Brazil, has two main applications: use as fuel for power generation, including industrial energy use, and in the iron and steel industry for production of coke, pig iron and steel. In the updated rates of use, the coal reserves can provide coal for more than 500 years. A public policy to better take advantage of the mineral coal, with horizons in 2022 and 2035 and the guidelines and strategies proposed for the country to reach the production, clean and efficient use of the expressive quantity of the mineral national coal are presented.

  4. Comparative Chemical and Mineral Characterization of Paleocene Coal of Sonda Coalfield, Sindh, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imdadullah Siddiqui

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Sonda coalfield is located in the 125 km east of Karachi covering an area of about 1400 sq. km. Sonda coal was deposited in the Bara Formation, this Formation contains two main coal-bearing horizons; one is in the upper part and the second is lower part, which is recognized as Jheruck coal zone. In the Bara Formation, coal at Sonda was deposited in three main horizons, named as Daduri, Sonda and Jherruck coal zone. The coal was deposited in in Paleocene age. Sonda coal is enriched with Zn, Ni and Pb. Present mineralogical study shows that Sonda coal contains calcite, dolomite, kaolinite and quartz. The comparison with US and Chinese coal values indicates that among all the analyzed elements, only Ni has high geometric values in Sonda than Chinese coal. GM (Geometric Mean concentration for Al is higher in Sonda coal than US and Chinese coal values. Clarke values comparison shows that according to Zoller formula all elements in Sonda coal are depleting.

  5. Methods of medical prevention of borderline states and maintaining capacity to work in miners at deep coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobets, G.P.; Perederii, G.S.; Tkachenko, L.N.; Ivanov, V.V.; Kiva, A.I. (Institut Gigieny Truda i Profzabolevanii, Donetsk (USSR))

    1990-01-01

    Describes the procedures used to identify and treat borderline states in coal miners working in deep mines in the Donbass. Timely preventive treatment helps to maintain the condition of the miners and reduce time lost through sickness. Diagnosis is performed on the basis of a number of physical indices coupled with a subjective assessment marked on a points scale. The types of treatment available at sanatoria are outlined: they include physiotherapy, mud and carbon dioxide baths, various types of massage, etc. Courses last 2-3 weeks and are followed by 3-8 days of rehabilitation at work, depending on occupation and working conditions. 6 refs.

  6. Associations of symptoms related to isocyanate, ureaformol, and formophenolic exposures with respiratory symptoms and lung function in coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertrand, J.P.; Simon, V.; Chau, N. [Houilleres Bassin Lorraine, Freyming Merlebach (France)

    2007-04-15

    The respiratory effects of diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI)-based resins and ureaformol- and formophenolic-based resins, used in coal mining, are unknown. This cross-sectional study of 354 miners evaluated respiratory health in miners with MDI-related symptoms (IS) and ureaformol/formophenolic-related symptoms (UFS). The protocol included clinical examination, chest radiograph, questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, smoking habit, job history, resin handling, and spirometry. Resin handling concerned 27.7% of the miners. IS affected 5.6%, and 1.4% also after work. UFS affected 22.6%, and 2.3% also after work. Wheezing affected 35.6%; chronic cough, expectoration, or bronchitis about 10%; dyspnea 5.4%; and asthma 2.8%. The miners with UFS had significantly more frequent chronic cough, expectoration, chronic bronchitis, dyspnea, and wheezing, whereas those with IS at and after work had markedly lower FVC, FEV1, MMEF, FEF50% and FEF25%. These findings raise the possibility of deleterious effects of exposures to MDI and ureaformol/ ormophenolic resins on respiratory health and lung function in coal miners during their working life.

  7. The application of artificial intelligence for the identification of the maceral groups and mineral components of coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlynarczuk, Mariusz; Skiba, Marta

    2017-06-01

    The correct and consistent identification of the petrographic properties of coal is an important issue for researchers in the fields of mining and geology. As part of the study described in this paper, investigations concerning the application of artificial intelligence methods for the identification of the aforementioned characteristics were carried out. The methods in question were used to identify the maceral groups of coal, i.e. vitrinite, inertinite, and liptinite. Additionally, an attempt was made to identify some non-organic minerals. The analyses were performed using pattern recognition techniques (NN, kNN), as well as artificial neural network techniques (a multilayer perceptron - MLP). The classification process was carried out using microscopy images of polished sections of coals. A multidimensional feature space was defined, which made it possible to classify the discussed structures automatically, based on the methods of pattern recognition and algorithms of the artificial neural networks. Also, from the study we assessed the impact of the parameters for which the applied methods proved effective upon the final outcome of the classification procedure. The result of the analyses was a high percentage (over 97%) of correct classifications of maceral groups and mineral components. The paper discusses also an attempt to analyze particular macerals of the inertinite group. It was demonstrated that using artificial neural networks to this end makes it possible to classify the macerals properly in over 91% of cases. Thus, it was proved that artificial intelligence methods can be successfully applied for the identification of selected petrographic features of coal.

  8. Sustainable development with clean coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses the opportunities available with clean coal technologies. Applications include new power plants, retrofitting and repowering of existing power plants, steelmaking, cement making, paper manufacturing, cogeneration facilities, and district heating plants. An appendix describes the clean coal technologies. These include coal preparation (physical cleaning, low-rank upgrading, bituminous coal preparation); combustion technologies (fluidized-bed combustion and NOx control); post-combustion cleaning (particulate control, sulfur dioxide control, nitrogen oxide control); and conversion with the integrated gasification combined cycle.

  9. Composition and mode of occurrence of minerals in Late Permian coals from Zhenxiong County, northeastern Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Li; Shi-Feng Dai; Jian-Hua Zou; Sen Zhang; He-Hing Tian; Li-Xin Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Minerals in the Late Permian coals from the Niuchang-Yigu mining area, Zhenxiong County, northeastern Yunnan, China, were investigated using optical microscopy and low temperature ashing plus X-ray diffraction (LTA ? XRD). The results showed that minerals in the coal LTAs are mainly quartz, kaolinite, chamosite, mixed-layer illite/smectite (I/S), pyrite, and calcite, with trace amounts of marcasite, dolomite, and bassanite. The authigenic quartz generally occurs in collodetrinite or as a filling in cleats or cell cavities. This silica was mainly derived from aqueous solutions produced by the weathering of basaltic rocks in the Kangdian Upland and from hydrothermal fluids. The presence of b-quartz paramorph grains in collodetrinite probably indicates that these grains were detrital and came from a volcanic ash. Clay minerals are generally embedded in collodetrinite and occur as cell-fillings. Pyrite occurs as framboidal, anhedral, and euhedral grains and a cell-filling. The coals are high in pyrite and the high pyrite content probably results from seawater invading during the stage of peat accumulation. Calcite generally occurs as vein-fillings, indicating an epigenetic origin.

  10. Rapid declines in FEV1 and subsequent respiratory symptoms, illnesses, and mortality in coal miners in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beeckman, L.A.F.; Wang, M.L.; Petsonk, E.L.; Wagner, G.R. [NIOSH, Morgantown, WV (USA). Division of Respiratory District Studies, Center for District Control and Prevention and Human Services

    2001-03-01

    Coal mine dust exposure is associated with accelerated loss of lung function. The authors assessed long-term health outcomes in two groups of underground coal miners who during previous mine surveys had shown either high rates of FEV1 decline (cases, n = 310) or relatively stable lung function (referents, n = 324). Cases and referents were matched initially for age, height, smoking status, and FEV,. The authors determined vital status for 561 miners, and obtained a follow-up questionnaire for 121 cases and 143 referents. Responses on the follow-up questionnaire were compared with those on the last previous mine health survey questionnaire. Cases showed a greater incidence of symptoms than did referents for cough, phlegm production, Grades II and III dyspnea, and wheezing, and greater incidences than referents of chronic bronchitis and self-reported asthma and emphysema. More cases than referents (15% versus 4%) left mining before retirement because of chest illnesses. After controls were applied for age and smoking, cases had twice the risk of dying of cardiovascular and nonmalignant respiratory diseases and a 3.2-fold greater risk of dying of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease than did referents. Rapid declines in FEV1 experienced by some coal miners are associated with subsequent increases in respiratory symptoms, illnesses, and mortality from cardiovascular and nonmalignant respiratory diseases.

  11. Sorption of oil pollution by organoclays and a coal/mineral complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vianna, M.M.G.R.; Franco, J.H.R.; Pinto, C.A.; Diaz, F.R.V.; Buchler, P.M. [University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Polytechnic School

    2004-06-01

    Recently, increasing concern about pollution of groundwater by organic chemicals has led to research on the use of various adsorbents. This study addressed the sorption of phenol and organic compounds by two organoclays and a coal/mineral complex (ARO). The organoclays used were a bentonite from Brazil (SVC) and Wyoming bentonite (SWy) with quaternary ammonium salt (ABDMA). Swelling capacity of the sorbents in toluene, diesel, gas, Varsol and kerosene were measured. Absorption of organic compounds served as an ASTM D 281-95 base, which resulted in the following order for ABDMA-SVC: gas {gt} toluene {gt} kerosene {gt} diesel {gt} Varsol. ABDMA-SWy absorbed in the following order: gas {gt} toluene {gt} Varsol {gt} diesel {gt} kerosene. ARO absorbed: gas {gt} toluene {gt} diesel {gt} Varsol {gt} kerosene. Sorption of phenol followed the order of ABDMA-SVC {gt} ABDMA-SWy {gt} ARO. The adsorption data show that the materials prepared were effective in sorbing phenol, and that the Brazilian clay was the most efficient of the three materials.

  12. Dry Separation of Iron Minerals from Low-Grade Coal-series Kaolin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Teng; LEI Shaomin; LIU Mochou; JI Mengjiao; LIU Yuanyuan; YIN Xudong; PENG Yongjun

    2015-01-01

    Dry separation of iron mineral from low-grade coal-series kaolin in Hubei Province of China was investigated. The structure and chemical composition of the kaolin ore were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) analyses. The narrow particle size range classiifcation, dry magnetic separation and calcination were carried out to evaluate the particle size distribution, and the relation between the content of iron and the whiteness. Experimental results revealed that the highest content of iron (3.70%) in kaolin ore was in the particle size range from 60 to 74 μm, and pyrite was the main occurrence of iron in the kaolin ore. Dry magnetic separation showed that the removal rate of iron in kaolin ore could be increased obviously after calcination, and the rate of iron removal was 60% in the particle size range from 60 to 74 μm. As pyrite can be transformed into hematite through calcination, thermodynamic studies and XRD analysis showed that the maximum content of hematite was obtained at 900℃, which would be more beneifcial to magnetic separation.

  13. Virtual reality continuous-miner training simulator (VR-CMTS) for improving Sasol Coal's continuous-miner operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivett, G. [Sasol Coal, Secunda (South Africa)

    2000-07-01

    Virtual reality is designed to produce the illusion of being in a real place where there is motion and a changing view of a three-dimensional world with which one can interact, from the book 'From Talking Drums to the Internet: An encyclopedia of Communications Technology', written by Robert Gardner and Dennis Shortelle (ABC-Clio, 1997). Sasol Coal and Fifth Dimension Technologies have developed a cost-effective training simulator utilizing interactive Virtual Reality technology. Continuous-miner operations have been synthesized into a virtual environment. This technology is incorporated into two networked personal computer (PCs) and software. Through the software, a virtual image of an underground production section is projected in two forms: into a head-mounted display (HMD) helmet worn by the trainee; and onto a wall-mounted screen for general viewing. The operator stands adjacent to the instructor and dons the HDM helmet to view and hear computer-generated mining events in simulated three-dimensional form. The instructor can program any series of possible mining events based on the typical use of a continuous-miner into a scenario. With a hand-held control panel linked to the PC, the operator can control the virtual continuous-miner and perform virtual mining, complete with virtual sound, dust generation and other signs of movement. The virtual reality continuous-miner training simulator (VR-CMTS) utilizes a volumetric pixel (Voxel) technique to generate images of mining: cutting from the face: transferring coal to a shuttle car; and advancing into the newly mined void to repeat the cycle. A trainee typically starts with presimulation, through which the basic terminology and controls of the continuous-miner are work through a user specific mining scenario. Through a proficiency database, the operator and instructor can monitor operator performance and implement corrective measures. 2 refs., 1 fig.

  14. CHARACTERIZATION OF HEXANE SOLUBLE OILS FROM LIQUEFACTION OF TWO BITUMINOUS COALS%两种烟煤的液化及液化油的组成特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱继升; LawrenceP.Norcio

    2001-01-01

    Two high-volatile subbituminous coals, DECS-6 of US and Yanzhou coal of China, were liquefied or co-liquefied with HDPE or PVC at 400?℃, 30?min under 7?MPa hydrogen. The results show that Yanzhou coal is easier to be liquefied or co-liquefied than DECS-6 coal under the experimental conditions used and the hexane-soluble oil from Yanzhou coal has more low boiling point fractions than that from DECS-6 coal. The aromatics in hexane soluble oils mainly consist of alkylbeneze, alkylnaphthalene, phenanthrene-,pyrene-, chrysene-, and benzopyrene- compounds, the polars mainly compose of compounds containing O, S and N etc.%在400 ℃、30 min、7 MPa冷氢压条件下两种煤液化结果表明,兖州煤比DECS-6(美国煤)煤更容易液化或共液化,这可能与兖州煤硫含量比较高有关,但DECS-6煤的油收率要高于兖州煤,表明EDCS-6煤容易裂解生成小分子化合物。同种煤液化油的沸点分布特征基本一致。UV(紫外光谱)特征表明,液化油中单环芳烃主要为烷基取代苯类化合物,二环芳烃组分主要是烷基取代萘类化合物,三环芳烃主要为渺位缩合的菲类化合物,四环芳烃主要为芘、屈艹类化合物,五环芳烃以苯并芘类化合物为主,而极性化合物可归属为含O、S、N的极性芳香化合物。

  15. Interlaboratory comparison of mineral constituents in a sample from the Herrin (No. 6) coal bed from Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelman, Robert B.; Fiene, F.L.; Miller, R.N.; Simon, F.O.

    1984-01-01

    Approximately 20 kg of the Herrin (No. 6) coal was collected from a strip mine in St. Clair County, Ill. A 10-kg portion was ground to -60 mesh, homogenized, and riffled into 128 splits of 70-80 g each. Homogeneity of these splits was confirmed by moisture, ash, and sulfur analyses of six randomly selected splits. Results of these analyses were within the ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) guidelines for interlaboratory precision. Splits of the Herrin (No. 6) coal were then transmitted to more than 30 laboratories for analysis. Low-temperature plasma oxidation was used to isolate inorganic matter for quantitative chemical and mineralogical analysis. Despite a wide variation in ashing conditions, only minor variations in ash yields were obtained; these variations were attributed to differences in operating temperature and moisture content. Mineralogical analyses of low-temperature ash (LTA) concentrates prepared by five different laboratories indicated variations within the limits of analytical error. The mean values, in weight percent, for the major minerals are as follows: calcite, 9; quartz, 20; pyrite, 23; kaolinite, 14; and illite+mixed-layer clays, 31. Normative mineralogical calculations and Fourier transform infrared analysis (FTIR) yielded results similar to those obtained from X-ray diffraction (XRD). Choosing appropriate mineral standards was found to be critical for the proper use of analytical techniques such as XRD and FTIR. Good interlaboratory agreement was obtained for most major, minor, and trace elements despite differences in analytical procedures and in the type of sample analyzed (coal, high-temperature ash, or LTA). Discrepancies between analyses for zinc, strontium, manganese, and iron may be attributed to sampling inhomogeneity problems. Mossbauer spectroscopy showed that approximately 44 percent of the pyritic sulfur was lost through weathering in the first year after preparation of the interlaboratory sample. Szomolnokite

  16. Mineral potential of Malawai. 3. Mineral deposits associated with sedimentary and volcanic cover rocks: Karoo and post-Karoo (coal, uranium, industrial minerals and gemstone)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This report was produced for the Ministry of Energy and Mines of Malawi. It gives information and maps of uranium deposits, coal deposits, coal-bed methane, natural gas and helium potential, limestone deposits and gemstones (blue agate, chalcedony and kimerlites, the primary source of diamonds). 2 figs., 2 tabs., 4 maps, 5 photos.

  17. Geochemistry and mineralogy of coal in the recently explored Zhundong large coal field in the Junggar basin, Xinjiang province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Jibin [Faculty of Earth Sciences and Resources, China University of Geosciences, Beijing, 100083 (China); Xinjiang Bureau of Prospecting and Development of Geology and Mineral Resources, Urumqi, Xinjiang, 830000 (China); Zhuang, Xinguo [Institute of Sedimentary Basin and Mineral, Faculty of Earth Resources, China University of Geosciences, Hubei, 430074 (China); Alastuey, Andres; Querol, Xavier [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, CSIC, C/ LLuis Sole Sabaris s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Li, Jinghong [Xinjiang Bureau of Prospecting and Development of Geology and Mineral Resources, Urumqi, Xinjiang, 830000 (China)

    2010-05-01

    The Zhundong coalfield is a very large coal deposit, currently under exploration, and promises to be an important coal mining resource in Western China. The coal reserves amount to 164 Gt. At Xiheishan and Wucaiwan, the coal-bearing units are the Badaowan (Lower Jurassic) and, especially, the Xishanyao formations (Middle Jurassic). These contain from one to 31 coal seams (one to 10 workable coals reaching the rank of high volatile A bituminous) with an accumulated workable coal thickness of 20-87 m. These recently explored coal reserves are of a high quality and are characterized by low ash, aluminum, iron, sulfur, and trace element contents. The minerals present in this coal are mainly quartz, kaolinite, siderite, and pyrite. The trace element contents in both Xiheishan and Wucaiwan coals are much lower when compared with the usual concentration ranges present in Chinese coals, with the exception of Ba and Sr. Thus, Ba contents in Xiheishan coal are higher than Swaine's worldwide concentration range. A large number of elements have mainly aluminosilicate affinity, and occur in clay and other detrital coal minerals. Ca and Mn have mainly carbonate affinity; Fe and S have mainly sulphide affinity in Wuchaiwan coal. In Xiheishan, Fe, Mn and Mg have mainly carbonate affinity (siderite), and probably, B, Co, Ni and S have an organic affinity. Thus, the Zhundong coalfield contains coal with a very high quality and very low levels of impurities. The very low ash yields, S, Fe, and trace element contents may be attributed to the sedimentological setting, with intensive peat bog aggradation in a very shallow lake environment with a low detrital supply. The very low sulfur content, the relatively high Ba-sulfate (barite) content and the high siderite occurrence in Xiheishan coal (in contrast to the pyrite occurrence in Wucaiwan coal) may be attributed to the rapid aggradation of peat with the consequent oxidation and leaching of minerals, elements, and degradation of

  18. 新型菊芋秸秆-烟煤混合固体燃料添加剂的选择与燃烧性能分析%Selecting additives for optimum combustion performance of a new-type Jerusalem artichoke-bituminous coal solid biofuel pellets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常子磐; 郭加汛; 赵耕毛; 王长海

    2016-01-01

    Jerusalem artichoke biomass has been used to produce biofuel and can also improve the combustion performance of bituminous coal after adding to the coal. However, Jerusalem artichoke-bituminous coal solid biofuel pellets(JAC pellets)still produce large amount of slag during combustion. Here we examined the combustion characteristics of JAC pellets after mixing with MgCO3, CaCO3, Al2O3 and Al2Si2O5(OH)5 at 3%(m﹕m)to select additives for optimum combustion performance of JAC pellets. Results showed that adding additives decreased slag-ging rates to a great extent, while absorbed acid gases effectively. Addition of CaCO3 resulted in a significant reduction in ash content and Ringelman emittance. In summary, CaCO3 improved the combustion performance of the JAC pellets and could be a promising additive for JAC pellets.%在研制新型菊芋秸秆-烟煤混合固体燃料的基础上,筛选不同添加剂[MgCO3、CaCO3、Al2O3、Al2Si2O5(OH)5]优化燃料,以提高生物质混合固体燃料的燃烧性能。将四种添加剂以3%比例(质量比)与菊芋秸秆-烟煤混合固体燃料混合,比较了不同添加剂对混合固体燃料的灰分、结渣率、放热量、烟黑、灰熔点、烟气成分等的影响。结果表明:四种添加剂对酸性气体有明显的吸附作用,且能有效降低混合固体燃料的结渣率,其中CaCO3添加剂使混合固体燃料的灰分含量、烟黑的林格曼指数下降最为明显。这表明, CaCO3添加剂能有效缓解混合固体燃料中的灰分、烟黑、酸性气体的生成,提高其燃烧性能,是一种较为理想的新型菊芋秸秆-烟煤混合固体燃料添加剂。

  19. Formation and retention of methane in coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hucka, V.J.; Bodily, D.M.; Huang, H.

    1992-05-15

    The formation and retention of methane in coalbeds was studied for ten Utah coal samples, one Colorado coal sample and eight coal samples from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Bank.Methane gas content of the Utah and Colorado coals varied from zero to 9 cm{sup 3}/g. The Utah coals were all high volatile bituminous coals. The Colorado coal was a gassy medium volatile bituminous coal. The Argonne coals cover a range or rank from lignite to low volatile bituminous coal and were used to determine the effect of rank in laboratory studies. The methane content of six selected Utah coal seams and the Colorado coal seam was measured in situ using a special sample collection device and a bubble desorbometer. Coal samples were collected at each measurement site for laboratory analysis. The cleat and joint system was evaluated for the coal and surrounding rocks and geological conditions were noted. Permeability measurements were performed on selected samples and all samples were analyzed for proximate and ultimate analysis, petrographic analysis, {sup 13}C NMR dipolar-dephasing spectroscopy, and density analysis. The observed methane adsorption behavior was correlated with the chemical structure and physical properties of the coals.

  20. Mineral sequestration of CO{sub 2} by aqueous carbonation of coal combustion fly-ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes-Hernandez, G. [LGIT, University of Grenoble and CNRS, BP 53 X, 38420 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)], E-mail: German.MONTES-HERNANDEZ@obs.ujf-grenoble.fr; Perez-Lopez, R. [LGIT, University of Grenoble and CNRS, BP 53 X, 38420 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Department of Geology, University of Huelva, Campus ' El Carmen' , 21071, Huelva (Spain); Renard, F. [LGCA, University of Grenoble and CNRS, BP 53 X, 38420 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Physics of Geological Processes, University of Oslo (Norway); Nieto, J.M. [Department of Geology, University of Huelva, Campus ' El Carmen' , 21071, Huelva (Spain); Charlet, L. [LGIT, University of Grenoble and CNRS, BP 53 X, 38420 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2009-01-30

    The increasing CO{sub 2} concentration in the Earth's atmosphere, mainly caused by fossil fuel combustion, has led to concerns about global warming. A technology that could possibly contribute to reducing carbon dioxide emissions is the in-situ mineral sequestration (long term geological storage) or the ex-situ mineral sequestration (controlled industrial reactors) of CO{sub 2}. In the present study, we propose to use coal combustion fly-ash, an industrial waste that contains about 4.1 wt.% of lime (CaO), to sequester carbon dioxide by aqueous carbonation. The carbonation reaction was carried out in two successive chemical reactions, first, the irreversible hydration of lime. CaO + H{sub 2}O {yields} Ca(OH){sub 2} second, the spontaneous carbonation of calcium hydroxide suspension. Ca(OH){sub 2} + CO{sub 2} {yields} CaCO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}O A significant CaO-CaCO{sub 3} chemical transformation (approximately 82% of carbonation efficiency) was estimated by pressure-mass balance after 2 h of reaction at 30 deg. C. In addition, the qualitative comparison of X-ray diffraction spectra for reactants and products revealed a complete CaO-CaCO{sub 3} conversion. The carbonation efficiency of CaO was independent on the initial pressure of CO{sub 2} (10, 20, 30 and 40 bar) and it was not significantly affected by reaction temperature (room temperature '20-25', 30 and 60 deg. C) and by fly-ash dose (50, 100, 150 g). The kinetic data demonstrated that the initial rate of CO{sub 2} transfer was enhanced by carbonation process for our experiments. The precipitate calcium carbonate was characterized by isolated micrometric particles and micrometric agglomerates of calcite (SEM observations). Finally, the geochemical modelling using PHREEQC software indicated that the final solutions (i.e. after reaction) are supersaturated with respect to calcium carbonate (0.7 {<=} saturation index {<=} 1.1). This experimental study demonstrates that 1 ton of fly-ash could sequester

  1. [Research on potential interaction between mitochondrial DNA copy number and related factors on risk of hypertension in coal miners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, J Y; Lei, L J; Qiao, N; Fan, G Q; Sun, C M; Huang, J J; Wang, T

    2017-01-10

    Objective: To investigate the effects of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number in peripheral blood and related factors on the risk of hypertension in coal miners. Methods: A case-control study was conducted in 378 coal miners with hypertension and 325 healthy coal miners recruited from Datong Coal Mine Group. A standard questionnaire was used to collect their general information, such as demographic characteristics, habits and occupational history. Fluorescence quantitative PCR was performed to detect the copy number of mtDNA. Logistic regression model was applied for identifying the related risk factors of hypertension and analyzing the interaction between mtDNA copy number and risk factors. Results: The prevalence of hypertension of high mtDNA copy number was lower than mtDNA copy numberin 0-5.67 group, but the difference was not statistically significant (P=0.414). Alcohol drinking (OR=1.80, 95% CI: 1.26-2.56), family history of hypertension (OR=1.74, 95% CI: 1.20- 2.50), work shifts (OR=0.69, 95% CI: 0.48-0.99), education level (P=0.012) and family monthly income level (P=0.001) were related to the prevalence of hypertension. There were potential interactions between mtDNA copy number and alcohol drinking, family monthly income level, family history of hypertension, respectively. Alcohol drinking was a risk factor for hypertension [1.77 (1.25-2.50)]. Potential interactions between mtDNA copy number and alcohol drinking reduced the risk of hypertension (OR=1.20, 95% CI: 1.07-1.35). Family history of hypertension was a risk factor for hypertension [1.81(1.26-2.59)]. Potential interactions between mtDNA copy number and family history of hypertension reduced the risk of hypertension (OR=1.24, 95%CI: 1.09-1.41). Family monthly income level was a protect factor for hypertension [0.55(0.46-0.66)]. Potential interactions between mtDNA copy number and family monthly income level increased the protection role of hypertension (OR=0.90, 95% CI: 0.86-0.94). Conclusion: mt

  2. 75 FR 64411 - Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... the CMDPSU or CPDM and the sampled work shift is less than 8 hours, the value of t used for... Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register... to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors AGENCY: Mine Safety and...

  3. CO{sub 2} Sequestration Potential of Charqueadas Coal Field in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanov, V [NETL

    2012-10-23

    The I2B coal seam in the Charqueadas coal field has been evaluated as a target for enhanced coal bed methane production and CO{sub 2} sequestration. The samples were low rank coals (high volatile bituminous and sub-bituminous) obtained from the I2B seam as 3 cores. Such properties as sorption capacity, internal structure of the samples, porosity and permeability were of primary interest in this characterization study.

  4. 煤与油页岩共生成矿系统%Coal and Oil Shale Paragenetic Mineralization System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕大炜; 李莹; 刘海燕; 李增学; 王东东; 刘莹; 王平丽

    2015-01-01

    To reveal the principle of coal and oil existence together in a same basin and mutual dependence, constraint as well as para⁃genetic mineralization, comprehensively analyzed the basin, brought forward the coal and oil shale paragenetic mineralization system and its impacting factors. Main geological factors include static factors of coal and oil shale associated rock series, coal and oil shale layers and their roof, floor rocks, as well as overburden;and dynamic factors of tectonic evolution, climate during the associated rock se⁃ries forming, paleontologic evolution and zoning in the basin, periphery fossil plants distribution, water media property changes (water body layering mechanism), gathering and flowing, from all these factors determined main geological process of the system. Based on ba⁃sin evolutional history, mineralization conserving mechanism and later stage reformation, divided the coal and oil shale paragenetic min⁃eralization system into four subsystems:mineralization subsystem, mineral-bearing basin subsystem, coal and oil shale (group) subsys⁃tem and coal and oil shale-bearing block subsystem. The subsystems can be described through sections, plans and special technologi⁃cal maps, drawings reflecting various geological factors and geological process, as well as reserve data, evolution events of various min⁃eral resources.%为了揭示煤与油页岩共生于同一盆地相互依存、相互制约和共生成矿等原理,通过对煤与油页岩共生盆地特征综合分析,提出了煤与油页岩共生成矿系统并分析其影响因素,指出主要地质要素包括煤与油页岩共生岩系、煤及油页岩层、顶底板岩层以及上覆岩层等静态因素,和构造演化、煤与油页岩共生岩系形成的气候、盆地内的古生物演化与分带(层)、盆地边缘地区古植物的分布、水介质的性质变化(水体分层机制)、聚集及流动等的动态因素,由此确定了二者共

  5. A Critical Review of Mineral Matter Related Issues during Gasification of Coal in Fixed, Fluidized, and Entrained Flow Gasifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayaragavan Krishnamoorthy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Gasification of coal is gaining more popularity due to its clean operation, and its ability to generate products for various markets. However, these technologies are not widely commercialized due to reliability and economic issues. Mineral matter in coal plays an important role in affecting the availability/reliability of a gasifier. Agglomeration in the bed, slag mobility and blockage of the syngas exit section are some of the operations related concerns in fixed-bed gasifiers, while ash deposition and sudden defluidization are the major concerns in fluidized bed gasifiers. In the case of entrained flow gasifiers, syngas cooler fouling and blockage, corrosion and erosion of refractory, and slag mobility are some of the major issues affecting the operations and the reliability of the gasifier. This review is aimed at critically examining various mineral matter related issues contributing to the operation and reliability problems in three types of generic gasifiers (fixed bed, fluidized bed and entrained flow gasifiers. Based on the review, some strategies to counter the potential mineral matter related issues are presented.

  6. Mineralization of PAHs in coal-tar impacted aquifer sediments and associated microbial community structure investigated with FISH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, S.W.; Ong, S.K.; Moorman, T.B. [Iowa State University, Ames, IA (USA)

    2007-11-15

    The microbial community structure and mineralization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a coal-tar contaminated aquifer were investigated spatially using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and in laboratory-scale incubations of the aquifer sediments. DAPI-detected microbial populations in the contaminated sediments were three orders of magnitude greater than nearby uncontaminated sediments, suggesting growth on coal-tar constituents in situ. Actinobacteria, {beta}- and {gamma}-Proteobacteria, and Flavobacteria dominated the in situ aerobic (> 1 mg l{sup -1} dissolved oxygen) microbial community, whereas sulfate-reducing bacteria comprised 37% of the microbial community in the sulfidogenic region of the aquifer. Rapid mineralization of naphthalene and phenanthrene were observed in aerobic laboratory microcosms and resulted in significant enrichment of {beta}- and {gamma}-Proteobacteria potentially explaining their elevated presence in situ. Nitrate- and sulfate-limited mineralization of naphthalene in laboratory microcosms occurred to a small degree in aquifer sediments from locations where groundwater chemistry indicated nitrate- and sulfate-reduction, respectively. The results of this study suggest that FISH may be a useful tool for providing a link between laboratory microcosms and groundwater measurements made in situ necessary to better demonstrate the potential for natural attenuation at complex PAH contaminated sites.

  7. Polar polycyclic aromatic compounds from different coal types show varying mutagenic potential, EROD induction and bioavailability depending on coal rank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Wiebke; Seiler, Thomas-Benjamin; Schwarzbauer, Jan; Püttmann, Wilhelm; Hollert, Henner; Achten, Christine

    2014-10-01

    Investigations of the bioavailability and toxicity of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC) have rarely considered the heterogeneity of coals and the impact of more polar PAC besides polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Earlier, we investigated the toxicity of eight heterogeneous coals and their extracts. In the present study, the hazard potential with respect to mechanism-specific toxicity of polar fractions of dichloromethane extracts from coals was studied. Polar extract fractions of all coal types except for anthracite induced EROD activity (determined in RTL-W1 cells), independent of coal type (Bio-TEQs between 23 ± 16 and 52 ± 22 ng/g). The polar fractions of all bituminous coal extracts revealed mutagenic activity (determined using the Ames Fluctuation test). No significant mutation induction was detected for the polar extract fractions from the lignite, sub-bituminous coal and anthracite samples, which indicates a higher dependency on coal type for polar PAC here. Additionally, information on bioavailability was derived from a bioaccumulation test using the deposit-feeding oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus which was exposed for 28 days to ground coal samples. Despite the high toxic potential of most coal extracts and a reduced biomass of Lumbriculus in bituminous coal samples, bioaccumulation of PAH and mortality after 28 days were found to be low. Limited bioaccumulation of PAH (up to 3.6 ± 3.8 mg/kg EPA-PAH) and polar PAC were observed for all coal samples. A significant reduction of Lumbriculus biomass was observed in the treatments containing bituminous coals (from 0.019 ± 0.004 g to 0.046 ± 0.011 g compared to 0.080 ± 0.025 g per replicate in control treatments). We conclude that bioavailability of native PAC from coals including polar PAC is low for all investigated coal types. In comparison to lignite, sub-bituminous coals and anthracite, the bioavailability of PAC from bituminous coals is slightly increased.

  8. Petrographic and geochemical characterization of pale and dark brown coal from Yunnan Province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ming, Q.; Xilin, R.; Dazhong, T.; Jian, X.; Wolf, M. [Aachen University, Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Geologie, Geochemie und Lagerstaetten des Erdoels und der Kohle

    1994-01-01

    Fifteen lignite samples from the province of Yunnan were analysed by organic petrography and geochemistry. Twelve of the samples represent the very pale (yellow) Baipao coal, the other three were normal coals of a medium brown colour. The Baipao coal consists mainly of mineral-bituminous groundmass, whereas the normal coal is characterised by well-preserved tissues derived from gymnosperm wood. Up to 190 mg/g C{sub org} of extract is extractable from the Baipao coal; only 63 mg/g C{sub org} from the normal coal. The n-alkaline fraction of the Baipao coal extract consists of high amounts of hopanes and shows the predominance of nor-abietane within the diterpenoids present. The first group of compounds points to intensive bacterial activity, while the second compound indicates not only that gymnosperms are present but also that a relatively oxygen-rich environment existed at the time of deposition. From the petrographic and organic geochemical characteristics it is concluded that the Baipao coal was formed from the same plant source material as the normal coal, but underwent stronger decay. 22 refs., 11 figs., 2 plates, 8 tabs.

  9. An examination of antecedents to coal miners' hearing protection behaviors: A test of the theory of planned behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quick, B.L.; Stephenson, M.T.; Witte, K.; Vaught, C.; Booth-Butterfield, S.; Patel, D. [University of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Communication

    2008-07-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's (NIOSH) National Occupational Research Agenda (DHHS Publication No. 96-115) reports that approximately 50% of miners will experience hearing loss by age 50, compared to only 9% of the general population. The present investigation examines three antecedents believed to be associated with miner's use of hearing protection. A posttest-delayed-posttest-control group field research design was employed to assess antecedents toward wearing hearing protection. Following the initial posttest, miners' attitudes and subjective norms were antecedents to intentions to wear hearing protection devices. Also, intentions toward wearing hearing protection predicted hearing protection behaviors. Approximately six weeks later, miners' attitudes and perceived behavioral control were each significant predictors of intentions to wear hearing protection and again, intentions were positively associated with hearing protection behaviors. Our results indicate that appeals to normative influences may be the most effective antecedent to employ when persuading coal miners to wear hearing protection. However, messages designed to impact attitudes and perceived behavioral control were also effective.

  10. Mercury in coal. A review. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yudovich, Ya. E.; Ketris, M.P. [Institute of Geology, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Morozova St., 100, ap. 49, 167023 Syktyvkar (Russian Federation)

    2005-05-11

    This is the first of two papers that review approximately 200 publications on mercury (Hg) in coal; topics reviewed in this paper include: (a) analytical and historical introduction; (b) some peculiarities of Hg environmental geochemistry; (c) estimation of the Hg coal Clarke value; (d) occurrence of high-Hg coals; (e) mode of Hg occurrence in coal; (f) factors influencing the distribution of Hg in coal; and (g) origins of Hg in coal. Aspects of the environmental impact of Hg due to coal combustion and coking are noted throughout the review, and are more fully examined in second and final paper of this review. The Clarke value for Hg in coal (world-wide average Hg content) is 0.10 (+/-0.01) ppm Hg, regardless of coal rank. However, if the Hg content is expressed on an ash basis, bituminous rank coals average 0.87 (+/-0.08 ppm) Hg, and lower rank coals average 0.62 (+/-0.06) ppm. In general, Hg is a very 'coalphile' element; that is, it has a strong affinity for organic and inorganic coal matter, but is obligatory authigenic. There are some coals that are enriched in Hg by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude above the Clarke value. Such coals are located in the Donbas (Ukraine), Appalachian basin and Texas (USA), Russian Far East, and Southern China. Mercury in these coals is usually accompanied by other chalcophile trace elements. In low-sulfur coals, which are generally poor in Hg, only two Hg sites dominate: Hg{sub org} and Hg{sub sulfide} (commonly pyritic mercury, Hg{sub pyr}). High-sulfur coals usually contain higher amounts of Hg, which is typically in the Hg{sub pyr} form. In the unique Hg-enriched Donbas coals, both HgS and metallic mercury (Hg{sup o}) also occur. Because of the extremely strong affinity of Hg{sup 2+} for humic matter, it is theoretically possible for syngenetic (or early epigenetic) Hg to accumulate in peats and lignites. Indeed, the amount of Hg in some tropic and moderate zone peats is greater than or equal to the Hg content of typical

  11. Solid mineral fuels - vocabulary - part 1: terms relating to coal preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    A glossary consisting of a systematic list of terms commonly employed in coal preparation and their definitions. This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 1213-1:1982) of which it constitutes a technical revision.

  12. Characterization of products of combustion of mineral coal; Caracterizacao de produtos solidos da combustao do carvao mineral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, H.S.; Albuquerque, J. S. V.; Sales, J.C.; Nogueira, R.E.F.Q., E-mail: hs.pinheiro@metalmat.ufc.br [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFCE), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia. Departamento de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais

    2011-07-01

    During the burning of coal in power plants, various types of waste or by products are generated. These materials have been the subject of several studies. They contain ashes and have many technological applications, such as in the production of various types of ceramic pieces. The objective of this work was to study the feasibility of adding the coal combustion products as filler for ceramics. X-ray fluorescence analysis was used to identify and quantify the proportions of the elements contained in the sample and x-ray diffraction to identify the phases present. The analysis by X-ray diffraction revealed a diffraction pattern of silicon sulfide, calcium silicate and sulfide phases of Aluminium, Potassium and Titanium. X-ray fluorescence analysis showed silica (37.14%), calcium (21.86%), aluminum (14.69%) and sulfur (8.70%). These results show characteristics of materials with potential for incorporation in ceramic bodies, provided that some processing is done to eliminate the sulfur. (author)

  13. Crumb Rubber in cold recycled bituminous mixes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dondi, Giulio; Tataranni, Piergiorgio; Pettinari, Matteo

    2014-01-01

    Today recycling is one of the most innovative and interesting techniques for the rehabilitation of destressed road pavements. In recent years the increased interest in this process, has led to the development of various alternative methods for the recovery and the reuse of road bituminous materia...

  14. Joint Exploration of Multiple Minerals in Hebei Plain Coal Exploration%河北平原区煤炭勘查中的多矿种兼探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张路锁; 常明华

    2014-01-01

    煤炭勘查区实行多资源多矿种综合兼探,一是与煤共伴生矿种的勘查,二是与煤不同地质时代的层叠型矿种的勘查,实现气、液、固态矿种的三维立体式综合勘查。河北平原区煤炭勘查以石炭-二叠系煤层为主,其上覆盖有多时代的地层且含矿丰富,建议利用煤炭勘查钻孔同步进行多资源多矿种统一勘查,或煤铝兼探、煤铀兼探、盐卤兼探、煤层气页岩气兼探、热气兼探等,以拓宽煤炭地质找矿方向。%The joint exploration in coal exploration areas, the first is for minerals coexisting and accompanying with coal, the second is for laminated minerals have different geological ages with coal, then realized gas, liquid and solid minerals 3D integrated exploration. Coal exploration in the Hebei Plain is mainly aimed at Permo-Carboniferous coal seams, overlying are strata of multiple ages with abun-dant mineral resources. It is advised that to use coal exploration boreholes carry out multiple resources and minerals unified explora-tion, that is to say joint exploration of coal with aluminum, uranium, bittern, CBM, shale gas and geothermal energy etc. thus the orienta-tion of extended geological exploration industry.

  15. Coal char fragmentation during pulverized coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, L.L.

    1995-07-01

    A series of investigations of coal and char fragmentation during pulverized coal combustion is reported for a suite of coals ranging in rank from lignite to low-volatile (lv) bituminous coal under combustion conditions similar to those found in commercial-scale boilers. Experimental measurements are described that utilize identical particle sizing characteristics to determine initial and final size distributions. Mechanistic interpretation of the data suggest that coal fragmentation is an insignificant event and that char fragmentation is controlled by char structure. Chars forming cenospheres fragment more extensively than solid chars. Among the chars that fragment, large particles produce more fine material than small particles. In all cases, coal and char fragmentation are seen to be sufficiently minor as to be relatively insignificant factors influencing fly ash size distribution, particle loading, and char burnout.

  16. 烟煤快速加氢热解研究 Ⅲ.焦油组成考察%FLASH HYDROPYROLYSIS OF BITUMINOUS COAL Ⅲ. RESEARCH ON FLASH HYDROPYROLYSIS TAR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    在高压气流床反应装置上对东胜煤快速加氢热解制取焦油试样,研究了热解温度对焦油主要组分的影响,并与高温焦炉焦油进行比较。实验表明: 加氢热解焦油的液态烃得率达15%以上,是高温焦炉焦油得率的二倍;油馏分高,沥青质少;酚类化合物和纯缩合多环芳烃含量高,脂肪烃含量低,纯缩合多环芳烃烷基衍生物组成较简单。加氢热解改善了焦油的品质,提高了得率。%Tar sample obtained by flash hydropyrolysis (FHP) from Dongshen coal at high pressure entrained reactor was investigated. An effect of falsh hydropyrolysis temperature on main components in tar was studied and the quality of tar was compared with high temperature coke oven tar. The results showed: the yields of liquid hydrocarbon in FHP tar were more than 15%, which is twofold of that in coke oven tar; the FHP tar has superior oil fraction, i.e., minor pitch, superior phenol components and pure condensed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, and minor aliphatic hydrocarbon. The components of the FHP tar were simpler than that of high temperature coke oven tar. Therefore, FHP improved quantity and quality of tar.

  17. Effective resources for improving mental health among Chinese underground coal miners: perceived organizational support and psychological capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Wen, Fengting; Xu, Xin; Wang, Lie

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the potential effects of perceived organizational support (POS) and psychological capital (PsyCap) on combating depressive and anxious symptoms among Chinese underground coal miners. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a coal-mining population in northeast China. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale, the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), the Survey of Perceived Organizational Support (SPOS) scale and the Psychological Capital Questionnaire (PCQ), which measure depressive and anxious symptoms, POS and PsyCap were distributed to 2,500 underground coal miners (1,925 effective respondents). Hierarchical linear regression was performed to examine the associations of POS and PsyCap (self-efficacy, hope, resilience and optimism) with depressive and anxious symptoms and the moderating roles of PsyCap and its components. The mediating roles of PsyCap and its components were examined using asymptotic and resampling strategies. The mean levels of depressive and anxious symptoms were 19.91 and 49.69, respectively. POS, PsyCap, hope, resilience, optimism and POS × PsyCap were negatively associated with depressive symptoms. POS, PsyCap, resilience, POS × PsyCap and POS × resilience were negatively associated with anxious symptoms. PsyCap, hope, resilience and optimism partially mediated the association between POS and depressive symptoms. PsyCap and resilience partially mediated the association between POS and anxious symptoms. POS, PsyCap, hope, resilience and optimism could be effective resources for reducing depressive and anxious symptoms. PsyCap, hope, resilience and optimism act as moderators and mediators in the associations of POS with depressive and anxious symptoms. Managers should promote supportive settings and investment in PsyCap to improve workers' mental health.

  18. Hydrocarbon Generating Potential of Mineral—Bituminous Matrix in Source Rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建平; 黄第藩

    1998-01-01

    Mineral-bituminous matrix(MBM) makes up a major part of source rocks,but its potential in hydrocarbon generation is uncertain,Mineral and organic (Maceral and kerogen) compositions,organic maturity and fluorescence of MBM are studied based on source rock samples from eastern Jiuquan(Jiudong)Basin.The results show that MBM is dominated by inorganic minerals and among the small percentage of organic components those of secondary origins are predominant over the primary species.This strongly indicates that the significance of MBM in hydrocarbon generation is limited.

  19. Injury experience in coal mining, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of coal mining in the United States for 1991. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and anthracite or bituminous coal. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison between coal mining and the metal and nonmetal mineral mining industries, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report. Data used in compiling this report were reported by operators of coal mines and preparation plants on a mandatory basis as required under the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977, Public Law 91-173,as amended by Public Law 95-164. Since January 1, 1978, operators of mines or preparation plants or both which are subject to the Act have been required under 30 CFR, Part 50, to submit reports of injuries, occupational illnesses, and related data.

  20. Variations in coal characteristics and their possible implications for CO2 sequestration: Tanquary injection site, southeastern Illinois, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, D.G.; Mastalerz, Maria; Drobniak, A.; Rupp, J.A.; Harpalani, S.

    2010-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Regional Sequestration Partnership program, the potential for sequestering CO2 in the largest bituminous coal reserve in United States - the Illinois Basin - is being assessed at the Tanquary site in Wabash County, southeastern Illinois. To accomplish the main project objectives, which are to determine CO2 injection rates and storage capacity, we developed a detailed coal characterization program. The targeted Springfield Coal occurs at 274m (900ft) depth, is 2.1m (7ft) thick, and is of high volatile B bituminous rank, having an average vitrinite reflectance (Ro) of 0.63%. Desorbed Springfield Coal gas content in cores from four wells ~15 to ~30m (50 to 100ft) apart varies from 4.7-6.6cm3/g (150 to 210scf/ton, dmmf) and consists, generally, of >92% CH4 with lesser amounts of N2 and then CO2. Adsorption isotherms indicate that at least three molecules of CO2 can be stored for each displaced CH4 molecule. Whole seam petrographic composition, which affects sequestration potential, averages 76.5% vitrinite, 4.2% liptinite, 11.6% inertinite, and 7.7% mineral matter. Sulfur content averages 1.59%. Well-developed coal cleats with 1 to 2cm spacing contain partial calcite and/or kaolinite fillings that may decrease coal permeability. The shallow geophysical induction log curves show much higher resistivity in the lower part of the Springfield Coal than the medium or deep curves because of invasion by freshwater drilling fluid, possibly indicating higher permeability. Gamma-ray and bulk density vary, reflecting differences in maceral, ash, and pyrite content. Because coal properties vary across the basin, it is critical to characterize injection site coals to best predict the potential for CO2 injection and storage capacity. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  1. Laser ablation - inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS): Novel applications for coal research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booth, C.A.; Spears, D.A.

    1999-07-01

    Laser Ablation - Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) has enormous potential in coal research. Element concentrations are determined with limits of detection currently in the parts per billion range, whilst spatial resolution as low as 10 microns can be achieved using the CETAC Technologies LSX-100 laser ablation system. Calibration of the LA-ICP-MS systems is notoriously difficult but in this paper the authors review two different techniques used in Sheffield, which allow trace element concentrations of whole coals (bituminous) and minerals and macerals within the coal to be determined. The first technique involves calibrating the system with PF grade coal samples in order that trace element concentrations can directly be determined after ablation of a solid coal or pressed coal sample. Using this technique, potentially hazardous trace elements such as As, Cd, Pb and Hg can be detected and measured even in the low parts per billion concentration (mg/Kg) range. The second application utilizes the spatial resolution of the laser to measure element concentrations in individual coal components. In this paper the results from ablating pyrite framboids in polished sections of the coal are discussed. Elemental information is obtained throughout the ablation procedure and this is then calibrated against the Fe content in order to establish the concentration of an element per 1% pyritic iron.

  2. Effects of surface chemistry on the porous structure of coal. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1996--December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, S.A.; Hatcher, P.G.; Radovic, L.R.

    1997-01-01

    Selective presaturation and saturation transfer {sup 129}Xe NMR experiments were performed on a high volatile C bituminous coal and an anthracite. The experiments detect the movement of xenon atoms among different regions of the internal surface, and to the external surface of the coal particles. The results indicate that adsorbed xenon atoms can move to the external surface of the bituminous coal significantly faster than in the anthracite. The results are interpreted in terms of the porous structure of the coals.

  3. Correlation between coal characteristics and methane adsorption on China's coals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Hong-guan; YUAN Jian; SONG Ji-yong; LENG Shu-wei

    2007-01-01

    It is highly important to investigate relationship between coal characteristics and methane adsorption on coal in the fields of coalbed methane recovery. Based on data examination of coal quality indexes collected from the literatures, regression equations for Langmuir adsorption constants, VL or VL/PL, and coal quality indexes for selected coal samples were developed with multiple linear regression of SPSS software according to the degree of coal metamorphosis. The regression equations built were tested with data collected from some literatures, and the influences of coal quality indexes on CH4 adsorption on coals were studied with investigation of regression equations, and the reasons of low accuracy to Langmuir constants calculated with regression equation for a few coal samples were investigated. The results show that the regression equations can be employed to predict Langmuir constants for methane adsorption isotherms on coals obtained using volumetric gas adsorption experiments, which are conducted at 30 ℃ on a wet or dried coal samples with less than 30% ash content in coal. The influence of same coal quality index with various coal rank or influence of various coal quality indexes for same coal rank on CH4 adsorption is not consistent. The regression equations have different accuracy to different coal rank, in which the VL equations supply better prediction accuracy for anthracite and higher prediction error for lower metamorphosis coal, and the PL prediction error with VL and VL/PL equations is lower to bituminous coal and higher to anthracite.

  4. Mineral-char interaction during gasification of high-ash coals in fluidized-bed gasification

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oboirien, BO

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available and Table 1. Coal Properties sample New Vaal Grootegeluk proximate analyses calori�c value (MJ/kg, ad) 18.11 21.40 ash (wt %, ad) 37.15 37.50 moisture (wt %, ad) 5.84 1.90 volatile matter (wt %, ad) 22.24 28.30 �xed carbon (wt %, ad) (calculation) 34...

  5. 76 FR 12648 - Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    .... (2) Electronic mail: zzMSHA-comments@dol.gov . Include ``RIN 1219- AB64'' in the subject line of the message. (3) Facsimile: 202-693-9441. Include ``RIN 1219-AB64'' in the subject line of the message. (4... on appropriate timeframes to switch out sampling devices, Coal Mine Dust Personal Sampler...

  6. Coal mining in northeast India: an overview of environmental issues and treatment approaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mayuri Chabukdhara; O.P.Singh

    2016-01-01

    Northeast India has a good deposit of sub-bituminous tertiary coal.The northeast Indian coals have unusual physico-chemical characteristics such as high sulfur,volatile matter and vitrinite content,and low ash content.In addition,many environmental sensitive organic and mineral bound elements such as Fe,Mg,Bi,Al,V,Cu,Cd,Ni,Pb,and Mn etc.remain enriched in these coals.Such characteristics are associated with more severe environmental impacts due to mining and its utilization in coal based industries.Environmental challenges include large scale landscape damage,soil erosion,loss of forest ecosystem and wildlife habitat,air,water and soil pollution.Several physical and chemical methods are reported in literature for the removal of mineral matter,total sulfur and different forms of sulfur from high sulfur coal in northeast India.This paper may help different researchers and stakeholders to understand current state of research in the field.Initiatives may be taken towards sustainable use of coal resources by adopting innovative clean technologies and by implementing effective control measures and regulatory policies.

  7. Ash formation under pressurized pulverized coal combustion conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila Latorre, Aura Cecilia

    Coal combustion is a source of inorganic particulate matter (ash), which can deposit in boilers and also be emitted into the atmosphere becoming part of ambient fine particulate matter (PM 2.5). In order to decrease coal combustion emissions per unit of power produced, higher efficiency systems have been proposed, including systems operating at elevated pressures. These new operating conditions will affect pollutant formation mechanisms, particularly those associated with the conversion of mineral matter to ash. Ash particle formation mechanisms are particularly sensitive to changes in pressure as they are related to the structure of coal char particles at early stages of combustion. To assess the importance of pressure on ash particle formation, pyrolyzed chars and ash particles from pressurized pulverized combustion of two bituminous and one subbituminous U.S. coals at operating pressures up to 30 atm were studied. Pressure changes the distribution of char particle types, changing the spatial distribution of the minerals during the combustion process and therefore affecting particle formation mechanisms. Chars were examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and classified into two different types (cenospheric and solid) depending on porosity and wall thickness. A correlation for estimating the amount of these cenospheric char particles was then proposed for bituminous coals based on the operating conditions and coal maceral analysis. The ash particle size distribution of the coals combusted at different operating pressures was measured using Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM). The results of the char characterization and ash particle size distribution measurements were then incorporated into an ash particle formation algorithm that was proposed and implemented. The model predicts ash particle size and composition distributions at elevated pressures under conditions of complete char burnout. Ash predictions were calculated by first

  8. Energy generation potential from coals of the Charqueadas Coalfield, RS, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa da Silva, Z. C.; Heemann, R.; Castro, L.; Ketzer, J. M.

    2009-04-01

    Three coal seams, I2B (Inferior 2), I1F (Inferior 1) and MB, from the Charqueadas Coalfield located in the central-east region of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil were studied on the basis of geological, petrographic, chemical and geochemical techniques and correlated to the SR1, SR2 and SR3 coal seams from the Santa Rita Coalfield. The Charqueadas Coalfield reserves reach 2,993x106 metric tons of coal distributed in six coal seams. The study of sedimentary and organic facies is made on the subsurface data from five boreholes drilled in the area. There show a well marked lateral facies change from sub aquatic to sub aerial environment, conditioned by both the water level variations and the irregular palaeotopography of the basement. The coals change from limnic to forest-terrestrial moor types characterized by variations of composition in terms of macerals, microlithotypes and mineral matter. The coals are rich in mineral matter (28 to 40%); the vitrinite content reaches 50 %, inertinite 44 % and liptinite varies from 10 to 30 %, in mineral matter free basis. Among the microlithotypes carbominerite and vitrite are predominant. Rank studies carried out by different methods (vitrinite reflectance, max and red-green quotient among others) gave conflicting results, which are explained by the strong bituminization of the vitrinite. However, agreement between fluorescence measurements and organic geochemical parameters (e.g. CPI values) confirm that the coals are of a High Volatile Bituminous B/C (ASTM) or Gasflammkohle (DIN) rank. Based on these characteristics, the Charqueadas coal seams show great potential for use in Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) and Enhanced Coalbed Methane (ECBM) projects. Nowadays the state of Rio Grande do Sul is rapidly growing and needs to increase the energy efficiency to attend the industrial demands, filling the gap between supply and energy generation. As with conventional IGCC, UCG gas can be used to generate

  9. Formation and retention of methane in coal. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hucka, V.J.; Bodily, D.M.; Huang, H.

    1992-05-15

    The formation and retention of methane in coalbeds was studied for ten Utah coal samples, one Colorado coal sample and eight coal samples from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Bank.Methane gas content of the Utah and Colorado coals varied from zero to 9 cm{sup 3}/g. The Utah coals were all high volatile bituminous coals. The Colorado coal was a gassy medium volatile bituminous coal. The Argonne coals cover a range or rank from lignite to low volatile bituminous coal and were used to determine the effect of rank in laboratory studies. The methane content of six selected Utah coal seams and the Colorado coal seam was measured in situ using a special sample collection device and a bubble desorbometer. Coal samples were collected at each measurement site for laboratory analysis. The cleat and joint system was evaluated for the coal and surrounding rocks and geological conditions were noted. Permeability measurements were performed on selected samples and all samples were analyzed for proximate and ultimate analysis, petrographic analysis, {sup 13}C NMR dipolar-dephasing spectroscopy, and density analysis. The observed methane adsorption behavior was correlated with the chemical structure and physical properties of the coals.

  10. Yoga-based pulmonary rehabilitation for the management of dyspnea in coal miners with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajashree Ranjita

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: Findings indicate that IAYT benefits coal miners with COPD, reducing dyspnea; fatigue and PR, and improving functional performance and peripheral capillary SpO2%. Yoga can now be included as an adjunct to conventional therapy for pulmonary rehabilitation programs for COPD patients.

  11. Effect of coal rank and mineral matter on gasification reactivity of coal char treated at high temperature; Netsushorishita sekitan char no gas ka tokusei ni taisuru tanshu oyobi kobutsushitsu no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morishita, K.; Takei, H.; Harano, A.; Takarada, T. [Gunma University, Gunma (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    In the wide range from brown coal to anthracite, an investigation was made of effects of heat treatment on physical/chemical properties and of coal rank dependence. For the experiment, 12 kinds of coal samples were used, and for heat treatment, the fluidized bed heated by the electric furnace and the infrared-ray gold image furnace were used. To examine characteristics of the heat-treated coal char, conducted were oxygen gasification, TPD measurement, XRD measurement, alkali metal measurement, and pore distribution measurement. The following were obtained from the experiment. The gasification reaction rate of the char heat-treated in the temperature range between 900{degree}C to 1700{degree}C decreases with a rise of the temperature of heat treatment, and the degree of decrease in the rate depends on coal rank. The order of gasification rate between coal ranks depends on the temperature of heat treatment, and the lower the heat treatment temperature is, the more largely the gasification rate is influenced by catalysis of mineral matters included in the coal. As causes of the decrease in gasification rate associated with the rise in temperature of heat treatment, indicated were release of alkali metal having catalysis and decrease of active sites by carbonaceous crystallinity. 6 figs.

  12. Coal facies studies in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalkreuth, Wolfgang D. [Laboratorio de Carvao e de Petrologia Organica, Instituto de Geociencias, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2004-04-23

    The present study is a compilation of published data on coal facies studies in Canada based on coal petrological and other methods. The geological age of the coals range from the Devonian coal deposits in Arctic Canada to coals of Tertiary age in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin, intermontane British Columbia and Arctic Canada. In terms of rank, the coal deposits studied range from lignite to low volatile bituminous. Coal petrological methods include maceral and microlithotype analyses, frequently integrated with data from palynological and geochemical analyses. Most recently, a number of studies have applied sequence stratigraphic concepts to the coal-bearing strata including the interpretation of coal petrological data in the context of this concept.

  13. 75 FR 73995 - Lowering Miners' Exposure to Respirable Coal Mine Dust, Including Continuous Personal Dust Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    .../PROPOSED/2010PROP/2010-25249.pdf . The proposed rule would revise the Agency's existing standards on miners....msha.gov/REGS/FEDREG/PROPOSED/2010PROP/2010-25249.pdf . The following error in the preamble to...

  14. The desulfurization behavior of mineral matter in ash during coal combustion at high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Tian-hua; Li, Run-dong; Li, Yan-ji; Zhou, Jun-huz; Cen, Ke-fa [Shenyang Institute of Aeronautical Engineering, Shenyang (China)

    2007-02-15

    In allusion to the desulfurization characteristic of coal ash, the desulfurization of the ash and CaO, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} added to Changguang coal with different proportions at high temperature was studied. Sulphoaluminate as the main desulfurization product was analyzed by X-ray diffraction and SEM visualization. Experimental results indicate that higher proportion of ash added can improve the desulfurization efficiency. The sulphoaluminate content in residue increases with increasing the addition of ash. The desulfurization efficiency of the additive CaO and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is up to 24% at 1300{sup o}C, at the same time the sulphoaluminate is detected in the residue. 6 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. IL18 and IL18R1 polymorphisms, lung CT and fibrosis: a longitudinal study in coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadif, R.; Mintz, M.; Marzec, J.; Jedlicka, A.; Kauffmann, F.; Kleeberger, S.R. [INSERM, U780, Villejuif (France)

    2006-12-15

    It has been suggested that interleukin (IL)-18 plays a role in the development of inflammatory and fibrosing lung diseases. Associations of polymorphisms in the genes coding for IL-18 (108 /G-656T, C-607A, G-137C, T113G, C127T) and its receptor (IL8R1/C-69T) with coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) were studied in 200 miners who were examined in 1990, 1994 and 1999. Coal-dust exposure was assessed according to job history and ambient measures. The main health outcome was lung computed tomography (CT) score in 1990. Internal coherence was assessed by studying CT score in 1994, 4-yr change in CT score and CWP incidence and prevalence. CT score in 1990 was a good predictor of radiographic grade in 1999 and, therefore, an appropriate subclinical quantitative trait. The IL18 -137C allele was associated with lower CT score in 1990 and 1994 (11.24 versus 1.69 and 1.57 versus 2.46, respectively), slower progression of CT score between 1990 and 1994 and lower pneumoconiosis prevalence in 1999 relative to the G allele (0.33 versus 0.77 and 8.2 versus 19.6%, respectively). Smoking- or dust-adjustment, and stratification on IL18R1 genotype and adjustment for haplotype effects did not change the conclusions. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest a role for IL18 in reducing the development of this fibrosing lung disease.

  16. Devolatilization and ignition of coal particles in a two-dimensional fluidized bed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, W.; Siemons, R.; Swaaij, van W.P.M.

    1989-01-01

    In a two-dimensional (15 × 200 × 400 mm) high-temperature fluidized bed, devolatilization ignition and combustion phenomena of single coal particles have been studied. The particles, with diameters of 4–9 mm, were selected from three coal types of widely different rank: brown coal, bituminous coal,

  17. Influence of minerals and added calcium on the pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis of coal and biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stojanowska, G.; Jones, J.M. [Wroclaw University of Technology, Wroclaw (Poland)

    2005-09-01

    The pyrolysis behaviour was studied of two types of biomass (pine and wheat) and a Polish lignite (Turow) in the presence of minerals and ion-exchanged calcium using a variety of laboratory-scale methods including pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (py-GC-MS) and thermogravimetric analysis coupled to a FTIR spectrometer (TGA-FTIR). The degree of catalysis displayed by the calcium during pyrolysis of the ion-exchanged samples varied with the fuel used. Significant catalysis by calcium was observed in pyrolysis of pine, but only a small effect was seen for wheat and very little for coal. The inherent minerals also play a catalytic role in all the samples studied, but potassium is by far the most important in the pyrolysis of the raw wheat straw. The gases and light volatiles are influenced by the presence of catalytic metal. For catalysed pyrolysis of pine, a shift was seen in the gas evolution profiles of all monitored species (H{sub 2}O, CO, CO{sub 2}, methane, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, formic acid and acetic acid) and the shape of the profiles of the volatile organics and methane also changed. In addition, new peaks were seen in the pyrolysis-GC-MS of the ion-exchanged pine, indicative of a different pyrolysis mechanism. In TGA experiments of co-pyrolysis, a lower char yield was measured from pine/coal mixtures than expected on an additive basis. However, the presence of calcium in one fuel did not appear to catalyse pyrolysis in the other fuel.

  18. Low-rank coal study : national needs for resource development. Volume 2. Resource characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    Comprehensive data are presented on the quantity, quality, and distribution of low-rank coal (subbituminous and lignite) deposits in the United States. The major lignite-bearing areas are the Fort Union Region and the Gulf Lignite Region, with the predominant strippable reserves being in the states of North Dakota, Montana, and Texas. The largest subbituminous coal deposits are in the Powder River Region of Montana and Wyoming, The San Juan Basin of New Mexico, and in Northern Alaska. For each of the low-rank coal-bearing regions, descriptions are provided of the geology; strippable reserves; active and planned mines; classification of identified resources by depth, seam thickness, sulfur content, and ash content; overburden characteristics; aquifers; and coal properties and characteristics. Low-rank coals are distinguished from bituminous coals by unique chemical and physical properties that affect their behavior in extraction, utilization, or conversion processes. The most characteristic properties of the organic fraction of low-rank coals are the high inherent moisture and oxygen contents, and the correspondingly low heating value. Mineral matter (ash) contents and compositions of all coals are highly variable; however, low-rank coals tend to have a higher proportion of the alkali components CaO, MgO, and Na/sub 2/O. About 90% of the reserve base of US low-rank coal has less than one percent sulfur. Water resources in the major low-rank coal-bearing regions tend to have highly seasonal availabilities. Some areas appear to have ample water resources to support major new coal projects; in other areas such as Texas, water supplies may be constraining factor on development.

  19. PILOT-SCALE STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION CATALYST ON MERCURY SPECIATION IN ILLINOIS AND POWDER RIVER BASIN COAL COMBUSTION FLUE GASES

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst on mercury (Hg) speciation in bituminous and subbituminous coal combustion flue gases. Three different Illinois Basin bituminous coals (from high to low sulfur and chlorine) and one Po...

  20. Arthropod cuticles in coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartram, K.M.; Jeram, A.J.; Selden, P.A.

    1987-05-01

    An abundance of scorpion cuticles from Westphalian (Upper Carboniferous) coals of Yorkshire is described, and other records of arthropod cuticles in coals are reviewed. The absence of cuticles assignable to arthropod groups other than scorpions is thought to be due to preferential preservation of the unique exocuticle of scorpions; it alone is preserved and appears to retain an organic nature. The cuticle is recovered from all the lithotypes of humic bituminous coals although it is most common in coals rich in inertinite macerals. From the present study it is uncertain whether the scorpions were aquatic or terrestrial. The recognition of arthropod cuticle as a coal maceral could aid environmental interpretations. The abundance of arthropod cuticle in the coals studied indicates its potential use in correlation and in determining the thermal maturity of sediments. 37 refs., 1 fig.

  1. Sequential solvent extraction for the modes of occurrence of selenium in coals of different ranks from the Huaibei Coalfield, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Liu, Guijian; Chou, Chen-Lin; Wang, Lei; Kang, Yu

    2007-12-20

    Forms of selenium in bituminous coal, anthracite, and cokeite (natural coke) from Huaibei Coalfield, Anhui, China, have been determined by sequential solvent extraction. The selenium content in bulk samples is 4.0, 2.4, and 2.0 microg/g in bituminous coal, anthracite, and cokeite, respectively. The six forms of selenium determined by six-step solvent extraction are water-leachable, ion-exchangeable, organic matter-associated, carbonate-associated, silicate-associated, and sulfide-associated. The predominant forms of selenium in bituminous coal are organic matter-associated (39.0%), sulfide-associated (21.1%), and silicate bound (31.8%); these three forms account for 92% of the total. The organic matter bound-selenium decrease dramatically from bituminous coal (39.0%) to anthracite (11.6%) and to cokeite (0%), indicating that organic matter bound selenium is converted to other forms during metamorphism of the coal, most likely sulfide-form. The sulfide-associated form increased remarkably from bituminous coal (21.1%) to anthracite (50.4%) and cokeite (54.5%), indicating the formation of selenium sulfide, possibly in pyrite during the transformation of bituminous coal to anthracite and cokeite. The silicate-associated selenium in bituminous coal (31.8%) is much higher than that in anthracite (16.4%) and cokeite (15.8%), indicating that silicate-associated selenium is partly converted to sulfide during metamorphism.

  2. Sequential solvent extraction for the modes of occurrence of selenium in coals of different ranks from the Huaibei Coalfield, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Lei

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Forms of selenium in bituminous coal, anthracite, and cokeite (natural coke from Huaibei Coalfield, Anhui, China, have been determined by sequential solvent extraction. The selenium content in bulk samples is 4.0, 2.4, and 2.0 μg/g in bituminous coal, anthracite, and cokeite, respectively. The six forms of selenium determined by six-step solvent extraction are water-leachable, ion-exchangeable, organic matter-associated, carbonate-associated, silicate-associated, and sulfide-associated. The predominant forms of selenium in bituminous coal are organic matter-associated (39.0%, sulfide-associated (21.1%, and silicate bound (31.8%; these three forms account for 92% of the total. The organic matter bound-selenium decrease dramatically from bituminous coal (39.0% to anthracite (11.6% and to cokeite (0%, indicating that organic matter bound selenium is converted to other forms during metamorphism of the coal, most likely sulfide-form. The sulfide-associated form increased remarkably from bituminous coal (21.1% to anthracite (50.4% and cokeite (54.5%, indicating the formation of selenium sulfide, possibly in pyrite during the transformation of bituminous coal to anthracite and cokeite. The silicate-associated selenium in bituminous coal (31.8% is much higher than that in anthracite (16.4% and cokeite (15.8%, indicating that silicate-associated selenium is partly converted to sulfide during metamorphism.

  3. Sequential solvent extraction for the modes of occurrence of selenium in coals of different ranks from the Huaibei Coalfield, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Liu, Gaisheng; Chou, C.-L.; Wang, L.; Kang, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Forms of selenium in bituminous coal, anthracite, and cokeite (natural coke) from Huaibei Coalfield, Anhui, China, have been determined by sequential solvent extraction. The selenium content in bulk samples is 4.0, 2.4, and 2.0 ??g/g in bituminous coal, anthracite, and cokeite, respectively. The six forms of selenium determined by six-step solvent extraction are water-leachable, ion-exchangeable, organic matter-associated, carbonate-associated, silicate-associated, and sulfide-associated. The predominant forms of selenium in bituminous coal are organic matter-associated (39.0%), sulfide-associated (21.1%), and silicate bound (31.8%); these three forms account for 92% of the total. The organic matter bound-selenium decrease dramatically from bituminous coal (39.0%) to anthracite (11.6%) and to cokeite (0%), indicating that organic matter bound selenium is converted to other forms during metamorphism of the coal, most likely sulfide-form. The sulfide-associated form increased remarkably from bituminous coal (21.1%) to anthracite (50.4%) and cokeite (54.5%), indicating the formation of selenium sulfide, possibly in pyrite during the transformation of bituminous coal to anthracite and cokeite. The silicate-associated selenium in bituminous coal (31.8%) is much higher than that in anthracite (16.4%) and cokeite (15.8%), indicating that silicate-associated selenium is partly converted to sulfide during metamorphism. ?? 2007 Zhang et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  4. Quality criteria for blast-furnace injection coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lherbier, L.W.Jr.; Serrano, E.J. [United States Steel Corp., Munhall, PA (United States). Research and Technology Center

    2008-07-01

    This paper reviewed the history of coal injection at United States Steel Corporation. Currently, pulverized coal (PC) is injected on 10 blast furnaces at the company's facilities at 5 different plants in the United States, Canada and Slovakia. Although low-volatile bituminous coal was used extensively at several sites in the past, all the furnaces now inject high-volatile bituminous coal. The choice of coal injection depends on cost, physical and chemical properties an intended application. Any type of coal can be used for low injection levels. As injection rates increase however, the choice of coal or coal blends depend on more complex characteristics such as combustibility, char reactivity and flow characteristics. Although low-volatile, higher rank bituminous coals usually provide higher coke replacement ratios, they can be more difficult to convey and burn. In contrast, high-volatile, lower rank coals are typically more reactive and easier to convey, but offer lower coke replacement ratios and could even contribute to furnace instability. This paper presented lessons learned with various types of injection coal. It also reviewed existing and emerging standards for choosing injection coals. The parameters that must be considered when choosing from a set of coals include moisture and hardness; carbon and hydrogen content; oxygen content; impurities; coal value; coal rank; conveying properties; reactivity; and coal type and injection rate. Coals with less ash, sulphur and alkali are usually preferred. For ironmaking, coals ranging in rank from anthracite to high-volatile bituminous coal are suitable for low to moderate injection rates. 14 refs., 7 figs.

  5. Colombian coal focus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warden-Fernandez, J.; Rodriguez, L.E. [University of Dundee, Dundee (United Kingdom)

    2003-03-01

    The paper reviews the development of Colombia's coal industry over recent years. Colombia has recently modernised its mining code, Law 685 of 2001 concerning mineral rights and including the concept of sustainable development. The article discusses the legislation, analyses trends in Columbia's income from the coal and mineral industries (nickel, gold, emerald), and briefly discusses coal reserves, mining projects, coal exports and markets for Colombian coal. 7 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Optimizing continuous miner coal production systems based on production and production cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chugh, Y.P.; Patwardhan, A.; Moharana, A. [Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL (United States). Department of Mining and Minerals Resources Engineering

    2005-07-01

    The purpose is to develop a face production cost model for room-and-pillar mining, to integrate the model with SIU-Suboleski production (SSP) modeling software, and to show that combining face production cost with ROM production provides a better indicator for comparing equipment costs. Several production planning scenarios were modeled. An SSP model was developed that incorporates capital, operating, and production costs for each option and calculates an estimate of face production cost on a raw coal basis. 6 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Study of coal and graphite specimens by means of Raman and cathodoluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostova, Irena; Tormo, Laura; Crespo-Feo, Elena; Garcia-Guinea, Javier

    2012-06-01

    The weak luminescence shown by coals has been attributed to accessorial minerals and poly-nuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, such as exinite, vitrinite or inertinite, while the luminescence quenching has been found in asphaltenes produced by coal hydrogenation or in pyridine extracts. Nowadays, the spatial resolution and the improved luminescence efficiency of the modern spectrometers allow some details of the luminescent emission centers to be explained. We have selected museum historical coal specimens with different rank, i.e., peat, lignite, sub-bituminous, bituminous, and anthracite to be analyzed by their spectra from cathodoluminescence probe (CL) of an environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), with an energy dispersive spectrometry analyzer (EDS). Additional analytical controls were also performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and Raman spectrometries. We conclude that coals may display different luminescence emission features coming from several different sources, as follows: (i) broadband of intense luminescence from polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, (ii) weakly visible broadband luminescence attributed to band-tail states caused by variations in the energy gap of individual sp2 carbon clusters, which are different in size and/or shape, (iii) silicate impurities causing the common luminescence peak at 325 nm observed in coals. This peak is due to non-bridging oxygen hole centres (tbnd Sisbnd Orad ) probably generated by precursor Sisbnd Osbnd C species formed by tbnd Sisbnd Orad defects and carbon atoms; (iv) a 710 nm CL emission commonly detected also in wood and ivory, which has been correlated with hydrocarbon groups of chlorophyll or lignine. Coals are very complex rocks, composed by both organic and inorganic phases with variable and complex spectra. More analyses are necessary and carbonaceous standards of graphite, silicon carbide, stuffed carbon silica and diamond at variable experimental conditions have to be

  8. Exploratory drilling methods for bituminous coal in Appalachia, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kossakowski, L.; Michota, Z.

    1980-01-01

    Using boreholes as an example, exploratory drilling methods near anthracite mines are demonstrated. The borehole designs are described in detail and their primary diameters are given together with the drilling equipment used and the organization of labor. The results obtained are also given.

  9. Formation of iron deposits during combustion of coals with varying iron-containing minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekhnovich, A.N.; Gladkov, V.E. (Vsesoyuznyii Teplotekhnicheskii Institut (USSR). Ural' skii Filial)

    1989-08-01

    Describes an investigation into microstructure and chemical composition of particles in the heavy fraction of ash and iron deposits produced during combustion of coals containing pyrite and siderite. Results show that the structural state of iron deposits varies considerably with different types of coal and in different temperature zones in the boiler duct, and that their formation is the result of adherence of particles with different aggregate states and chemical composition. Interaction between iron deposits and silica results in the formation of firelight (FeSiO{sub 4}) with a melting point of 1200 C. Depending on the ratio, the interaction of a sulfide melt with a firelight melt results in the formation of immiscible liquids, the release of SiO{sub 2} and the formation of silicate and metallic liquid surfaces with unique properties of wettability, and the formation of eutectic compositions (no more than 65% FeS, 35% FeO, 3% SiO{sub 2}) which set at 910-1000 C depending on the FeO and FeS content. Addition of silica increased sticking properties of products of pyrite conversion. In the absence of pyrite, the formation of immiscible liquids with different melting points may result from the reduction of the products of the dissociation of siderite to metallic iron and the formation of a metallic melt with carbon with a melting point of at least 1140 C. 10 refs.

  10. Slurry sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry: determination of trace metals in mineral coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M M; Goreti, M; Vale, R; Caramão, E B

    1999-12-06

    A procedure for lead, cadmium and copper determination in coal samples based on slurry sampling using an atomic absorption spectrometer equipped with a transversely heated graphite tube atomizer is proposed. The slurries were prepared by weighing the samples directly into autosampler cups (5-30 mg) and adding a 1.5 ml aliquot of a diluent mixture of 5% v/v HNO(3), 0.05% Triton X-100 and 10% ethanol. The slurry was homogenized by manual stirring before measurement. Slurry homogenization using ultrasonic agitation was also investigated for comparison. The effect of particle size and the use of different diluent compositions on the slurry preparation were investigated. The temperature programmes were optimized on the basis of pyrolysis and atomization curves. Absorbance characteristics with and without the addition of a palladium-magnesium modifier were compared. The use of 0.05% m/v Pd and 0.03% m/v Mg was found satisfactory for stabilizing Cd and Pb. The calibration was performed with aqueous standards. In addition, a conventional acid digestion procedure was applied to verify the efficiency of the slurry sampling. Better recoveries of the analytes were obtained when the particle size was reduced to <37 mum. Several certified coal reference materials (BCR Nos. 40, 180, and 181) were analyzed, and good agreement was obtained between the results from the proposed slurry sampling method and the certificate values.

  11. Following changes in the constitution of rapidly heated bituminous vitrinites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Jonathan Paul

    1998-12-01

    Molecular models, which represent the constitution (the chemical and physical structure) of bituminous vitrinites from the Upper Freeport and Lewiston-Stockton coal seams, were generated computationally. Incorporation of physical data significantly reduced the number of possible structures and forced the inclusion of hydroaromatic structures. This limited the bonding types and the extent of bonding to the coal matrix. The use of vitrinites (telocollinite) rather than whole coals reduced the complexity of the molecular structures and precluded incorporation of other maceral functionalities (such as long chain aliphatics or highly condensed aromatic structures) into the models. A narrow size fraction of each vitrinite was pyrolyzed in a drop-tube reactor under conditions representative of the devolatilization stage of pulverized coal combustion. The collected chars represented the transition from vitrinite to almost fully devolatilized char. Computational fluid dynamics were used to calculate the range of time-temperature histories of the particles in the reactor. Significant variation (up to 400sp°C and 0.15 s residence time) was found within a cuts primarily due to different extents of swelling, different particle sizes and the associated differences in mass loss. The vitrinite models were subjected to via various pyrolysis mechanisms and the resulting char structure compared to those of the experimentally-produced chars. The breaking of bonds in order of bond strengths did not produce a reasonable initial char structure; one which was similar to the parent vitrinite. The weaker bonds tend to be aliphatic in nature, hence breaking these bonds resulted in a structure that was too aromatic and hydrogen deficient. 'Rules' of pyrolysis, which were reasonable for the transitions of this rank of vitrinite under rapid heating conditions were proposed. Five-membered rings, either formed via ring condensation or originally present in the vitrinite, introduce curvature into

  12. Conversations among coal miners in a campaign to promote hearing protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephenson, M.T.; Quick, B.L.; Witte, K.; Vaught, C.; Booth-Butterfield, S.; Patel, D. [University of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Although working in a coal mine can diminish one's hearing capabilities by 50%, not until 2000 did federal laws require companies to establish noise standards in order to help prevent hearing loss among their employees. Since then, researchers have worked with safety administrators to develop effective messages promoting hearing protection and testing. This research assessed the effects of campaign messages on discussing campaign postcards and talking with others about a helmet-sticker incentive. The results, which are discussed with a focus on future campaigns, indicate that hearing-related attitudes, intentions, and behaviors are the most influenced by messages that were affectively neutral and least influenced by messages that were affectively negative.

  13. Optimization design of drilling string by screw coal miner based on ant colony algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qiang; MAO Jun; DING Fei

    2008-01-01

    It took that the weight minimum and drive efficiency maximal were as double optimizing target,the optimization model had built the drilling string,and the optimization solution was used of the ant colony algorithm to find in progress.Adopted a two-layer search of the continuous space ant colony algorithm with overlapping or variation global ant search operation strategy and conjugated gradient partial ant search operation strategy.The experiment indicates that the spiral drill weight reduces 16.77% and transports the efficiency enhance 7.05% through the optimization design,the ant colony algorithm application on the spiral drill optimized design has provided the basis for the system research screw coal mine machine.

  14. Optimization design of drilling string by screw coal miner based on ant colony algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qiang; MAO Jun; DING Fei

    2008-01-01

    It took that the weight minimum and drive efficiency maximal were as double optimizing target, the optimization model had built the drilling string, and the optimization solution was used of the ant colony algorithm to find in progress. Adopted a two-layer search of the continuous space ant colony algorithm with overlapping or variation global ant search operation strategy and conjugated gradient partial ant search operation strat-egy. The experiment indicates that the spiral drill weight reduces 16.77% and transports the efficiency enhance 7.05% through the optimization design, the ant colony algorithm application on the spiral drill optimized design has provided the basis for the system re-search screw coal mine machine.

  15. Spectroscopic study of emission coal mineral plasma produced by laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, L. P.; Pérez, J. A.; Riascos, H.

    2014-05-01

    Spectroscopic analysis of plasma produced by laser ablation of coal samples using 1064 nm radiation pulses from a Q-switched Nd:YAG on different target under air ambient, was performed. The emission of molecular band systems such as C2 Swan System (d3Πg→a3Πu), the First Negative System N2 (Band head at 501,53 nm) and emission lines of the C I, C II, were investigated using the optical emission spectroscopy technique. The C2 molecular spectra (Swan band) were analyzed to determine vibrational temperature (0,62 eV); the density and electron temperature of the plasma have been evaluated using Stark broadening and the intensity of the nitrogen emission lines N II, the found values of 1,2 eV and 2,2 x1018 cm-3 respectively.

  16. How good strong union men line it out: explorations of the structure and dynamics of coal-miners' class consciousness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarrow, M.N.

    1982-01-01

    This study explores how working-class people apprehend and analyze the class dynamics of their social world. As an exploratory empirical study of the structure and dynamics of working-class consciousness, it seeks to develop the theory of actual class consciousness by bringing previous theories into dialogue with the articulated analyses of coal miners in central Appalachia. Although changing conditions are shown to have a powerful effect on class consciousness, the respondents were found to respond differently to the changing context and to remain loyal to important elements of their earlier perspectives. Suggestions are made for how the theory could be developed further. The data for the study are flexibly structured interviews which were conducted with active, retired, and disabled miners in southern West Virginia and western Virginia. A dozen miners were interviewed during the 1978 strike and again the following summer; during the summer of 1978, nineteen additional miners were interviewed.

  17. STUDY ON EVOLUTION REGULARITIES AND ABSORPTION CHARACTERISTICS OF SULFIDE DURING BITUMINOUS BRIQUETTE HORIZONTAL COMBUSTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路春美; 王永征

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses the evolution regularity and the absorption characters of sulfide for bituminous briquette burned in a horizontal burning furnace. The evolution rate of sulphur is affected by some factors, such as the sulphur content in the burning coal, burning time and the meane excess air coefficient in the furnace. With processing the experimental result, the calculation related expression has been obtained to predict the evolution rate of sulfide. The sulphur absorption efficiency of briquette is affected by the factors such as the character of the sulphur sorbent, the type of the coal and the operating parameters. "By means of appropriately adjusting the calciumsulphur mole ratio, the mean excess air coefficient and the time-interval between pushing two layer briquettes, a high sulphur absorption efficiency (>74%) can be obtained.

  18. Effect of mineral acids and aluminum from coal leachate on substrate periphyton composition and productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tease, B.; Coler, R.A.

    1984-08-01

    Taylor Brook drains agricultural and grazing land surrounding Hawley swamp in North Amherst, Massachusetts. It is a second order stream with an average flow of less than 4 cfs in the study area, and a total length of 5 km. Riparian vegetation occurs mainly as aspens. Silt and sand, together with stretches of gravel, make up the stream bed. The test site is within a pasture, 1 km below a coal leachate seepage problem and 10 m above the confluence of a first order tributary. Shifts in pH from 6.8 to 4.4 and in aluminum from 0.03 to 3.8 ppM were noted in the stream. Tubular substrates, colonized by the indigenous periphyton of a clean water tributary were transferred to the contaminated stream and monitored for structural and functional perturbations. Net productivity, measured by oxygen evolution, was reduced to zero after 20 days exposure to the polluted stream. All diatom and cyanobacteria motility ceased. Low pH alone proved sufficient to eliminate net productivity, but it did not restrict algal movement. 22 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  19. Minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaquero, M. P.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available The possible changes in the mineral composition of food during frying could be the consequence of losses by leaching, or changes in concentrations caused by exchanges between the food and culinary fat of other compounds. The net result depends on the type of food, the frying fat used and the frying process. Moreover, the modifications that frying produces in other nutrients could indirectly affect the availability of dietary minerals. The most outstanding ones are those that can take place in the fat or in the protein. With respect to the interactions between frying oils and minerals, we have recent knowledge concerning the effects of consuming vegetable oils used in repeated fryings of potatoes without turnover, on the nutritive utilization of dietary minerals. The experiments have been carried out in pregnant and growing rats, which consumed diets containing, as a sole source of fat, the testing frying oils or unused oils. It seems that the consumption of various frying oils, with a polar compound content lower or close to the maximum limit of 25% accepted for human consumption, does not alter the absorption and metabolism of calcium, phosphorous, iron or copper. Magnesium absorption from diets containing frying oils tends to increase but the urinary excretion of this element increases, resulting imperceptible the variations in the magnesium balance. The urinary excretion of Zn also increased although its balance remained unchanged. Different studies referring to the effects of consuming fried fatty fish on mineral bioavailability will also be presented. On one hand, frying can cause structural changes in fish protein, which are associated with an increase in iron absorption and a decrease in body zinc retention. The nutritive utilization of other elements such as magnesium, calcium and copper seems to be unaffected. On the other hand; it has been described that an excess of fish fatty acids in the diet produces iron depletion, but when fatty

  20. Evaluation of the Impact of Chlorine on Mercury Oxidation in a Pilot-Scale Coal Combustor--The Effect of Coal Blending

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study has been undertaken to investigate the effect of blending PRB coal with an Eastern bituminous coal on the speciation of Hg across an SCR catalyst. In this project, a pilot-scale (1.2 MWt) coal combustor equipped with an SCR reactor for NOx control was used for evaluating ...

  1. Basic properties of Japanese and foreign coals selected for liquefaction. 1. A consideration of the method for proximate analysis of coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, R.

    1984-10-01

    The use of thermogravimetry for the proximate analysis of coals is compared with the Japanese Standard method (JIS M8812). The thermogravimetric method was found to be applicable to a wide range of brown coals, lignites and bituminous coals providing a rapid and simple method requiring only a small sample and giving a direct determination of fixed carbon.

  2. Coal combustion science quarterly progress report, October--December 1992. Task 1, Coal char combustion [and] Task 2, Fate of mineral matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardesty, D.R. [ed.] [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Hurt, R.H.; Baxter, L.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-06-01

    In the Coal Combustion Laboratory (CCL) this quarter, controlled laboratory experiments were carried out to better understand the late stages of coal combustion and its relation to unburned carbon levels in fly ash. Optical in situ measurements were made during char combustion at high carbon conversions and the optical data were related to particle morphologies revealed by optical microscopy on samples extracted under the same conditions. Results of this work are reported in detail below. In the data presented below, we compare the fraction of alkali metal loss to that of the alkaline earth metals as a function of coal rank to draw conclusions about the mechanism of release for the latter. Figure 2.1 illustrates the fractional release of the major alkali and alkaline earth metals (Na, K, Ca, Mg) as a function of coal rank for a series of coals and for several coal blends. All data are derived from combustion experiments in Sandia`s Multifuel Combustor (MFC) and represent the average of three to eight experiments under conditions where the mass loss on a dry, ash-free (daf) basis exceeds 95 %. There are no missing data in the figure. The several coals with no indicated result exhibited no mass loss of the alkali or alkaline earth metals in our experiments. There is a clear rank dependence indicated by the data in Fig. 2.1, reflecting the mode of occurrence of the material in the coal.

  3. Clean coal initiatives in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, B.H.; Irwin, M.W.; Sparrow, F.T.; Mastalerz, Maria; Yu, Z.; Kramer, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - Indiana is listed among the top ten coal states in the USA and annually mines about 35 million short tons (million tons) of coal from the vast reserves of the US Midwest Illinois Coal Basin. The implementation and commercialization of clean coal technologies is important to the economy of the state and has a significant role in the state's energy plan for increasing the use of the state's natural resources. Coal is a substantial Indiana energy resource and also has stable and relatively low costs, compared with the increasing costs of other major fuels. This indigenous energy source enables the promotion of energy independence. The purpose of this paper is to outline the significance of clean coal projects for achieving this objective. Design/methodology/approach - The paper outlines the clean coal initiatives being taken in Indiana and the research carried out at the Indiana Center for Coal Technology Research. Findings - Clean coal power generation and coal for transportation fuels (coal-to-liquids - CTL) are two major topics being investigated in Indiana. Coking coal, data compilation of the bituminous coal qualities within the Indiana coal beds, reducing dependence on coal imports, and provision of an emissions free environment are important topics to state legislators. Originality/value - Lessons learnt from these projects will be of value to other states and countries.

  4. Radiant-and-plasma technology for coal processing

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir Messerle; Alexander Ustimenko

    2012-01-01

    Radiant-and-plasma technology for coal processing is presented in the article. Thermodynamic computation and experiments on plasma processing of bituminous coal preliminary electron-beam activated were fulfilled in comparison with plasma processing of the coal. Positive influence of the preliminary electron-beam activation of coal on synthesis gas yield was found. Experiments were carried out in the plasma gasifier of 100 kW power. As a result of the measurements of material and heat balance ...

  5. Application of Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis to biomathematical modeling of respirable dust in US and UK coal miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Lisa M; Parker, Ann; Haber, Lynne T; Tran, C Lang; Kuempel, Eileen D

    2013-06-01

    A biomathematical model was previously developed to describe the long-term clearance and retention of particles in the lungs of coal miners. The model structure was evaluated and parameters were estimated in two data sets, one from the United States and one from the United Kingdom. The three-compartment model structure consists of deposition of inhaled particles in the alveolar region, competing processes of either clearance from the alveolar region or translocation to the lung interstitial region, and very slow, irreversible sequestration of interstitialized material in the lung-associated lymph nodes. Point estimates of model parameter values were estimated separately for the two data sets. In the current effort, Bayesian population analysis using Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation was used to recalibrate the model while improving assessments of parameter variability and uncertainty. When model parameters were calibrated simultaneously to the two data sets, agreement between the derived parameters for the two groups was very good, and the central tendency values were similar to those derived from the deterministic approach. These findings are relevant to the proposed update of the ICRP human respiratory tract model with revisions to the alveolar-interstitial region based on this long-term particle clearance and retention model.

  6. The shell coal gasification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenders, L.O.M.; Zuideveld, P.O. [Shell Internationale Petroleum Maatschappij B.V., The Hague (Netherlands)

    1995-12-01

    Future Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (ICGCC) power plants will have superior environmental performance and efficiency. The Shell Coal Gasification Process (SCGP) is a clean coal technology, which can convert a wide range of coals into clean syngas for high efficiency electricity generation in an ICGCC plant. SCGP flexibility has been demonstrated for high-rank bituminous coals to low rank lignites and petroleum coke, and the process is well suited for combined cycle power generation, resulting in efficiencies of 42 to 46% (LHV), depending on choice of coal and gas turbine efficiency. In the Netherlands, a 250 MWe coal gasification combined cycle plant based on Shell technology has been built by Demkolec, a development partnership of the Dutch Electricity Generating Board (N.V. Sep). The construction of the unit was completed end 1993 and is now followed by start-up and a 3 year demonstration period, after that the plant will be part of the Dutch electricity generating system.

  7. Soot, organics, and ultrafine ash from air- and oxy-fired coal combustion

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Pulverized bituminous coal was burned in a 10W externally heated entrained flow furnace under air-combustion and three oxy-combustion inlet oxygen conditions (28,...

  8. Coal combustion science: Task 1, Coal char combustion: Task 2, Fate of mineral matter. Quarterly progress report, July--September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardesty, D.R. [ed.; Hurt, R.H.; Davis, K.A.; Baxter, L.L.

    1994-07-01

    Progress reports are presented for the following tasks: (1) kinetics and mechanisms of pulverized coal char combustion and (2) fate of inorganic material during coal combustion. The objective of Task 1 is to characterize the combustion behavior of selected US coals under conditions relevant to industrial pulverized coal-fired furnaces. In Sandia`s Coal Combustion Laboratory (CCL), optical techniques are used to obtain high-resolution images of individual burning coal char particles and to measure, in situ, their temperatures, sizes, and velocities. Detailed models of combustion transport processes are then used to determine kinetic parameters describing the combustion behavior as a function of coal type and combustion environment. Partially reacted char particles are also sampled and characterized with advanced materials diagnostics to understand the critical physical and chemical transformations that influence reaction rates and burnout times. The ultimate goal of the task is the establishment of a data base of the high temperature reactivities of chars from strategic US coals, from which important trends may be identified and predictive capabilities developed. The overall objectives for task 2 are: (1) to complete experimental and theoretical investigation of ash release mechanisms; (2) to complete experimental work on char fragmentation; (3) to establish the extent of coal (as opposed to char) fragmentation as a function of coal type and particle size; (4) to develop diagnostic capabilities for in situ, real-time, qualitative indications of surface species composition during ash deposition, with work continuing into FY94; (5) to develop diagnostic capabilities for in situ, real-time qualitative detection of inorganic vapor concentrations; and (6) to conduct a literature survey on the current state of understanding of ash deposition, with work continuing into FY94.

  9. Adhesion Promoters in Bituminous Road Materials: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Oliviero Rossi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on certain classes of organic compounds known variously in the specific literature of asphalt as adhesion promoters, antistripping agents, wetting agents, antistrips, or adhesion agents. These kinds of organic additives are currently formulated to enhance the bitumen coating of mineral aggregates and improve the workability of asphalt mixtures. In this review, the term “adhesion promoters” includes both synthetic organic compounds as well as those extracted from natural resources, mixed in trace amounts to bitumen. Their main role is to alter the interfacial energy, so that the presence of water, even in trace, does not weaken the bitumen-aggregate bond and tends to favor adhesion. The report also considers the chemical functionalities that play a predominant role in bonding, as well as the effects of surface modification of the aggregate due to the presence of adhesion promoters in pre-blended bituminous mixtures. Although bitumen is widely used in road pavement construction and the discussion is mainly addressed to the improvement of adhesion in road materials, adhesion and wetting properties can also represent a general issue in various bitumen-based industrial products.

  10. Operation experience of Suralaya coal-fired power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saragi, M. [PT Indonesia Power (Indonesia). Suralaya Generation Business Unit

    2004-07-01

    Coal utilization for generating electricity at Suralaya coal-fired power plant has been increased from time to time. It has been driven by the growth of electricity demand from industry as well as consumption from the household sector. Generally, boilers for power plant were designed to burn the locally available coals with a limited specification range. Suralaya coal-fired power plant was built based on coal specifications from Bukit Asam (Sumatera Island), which categorized as sub-bituminous coal rank. Nowadays, supply of coal for Suralaya coal-fired power plant not only comes from Bukit Asam coal mine but also from Kalimantan coal mines. The utilization of coal from the other mines has brought other consequences on operating and equipment of the plant. It needs some effort to deal with the effect from different specifications of coal from the originated design of coal. 4 tabs.

  11. Properties, origin and nomenclature of rodlets of the inertinite maceral group in coals of the central Appalachian basin, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, P.C.; Finkelman, R.B.; Thompson, C.L.; Brown, F.W.; Hatcher, P.G.

    1982-01-01

    Resin rodlets, sclerenchyma strands and woody splinters, which are collectively called rodlets, were studied by chemical, optical petrographic, and scanning-electron microscopic (SEM) techniques. A study was made of such rodlets from the bituminous coal beds of the central Appalachian basin (Pennsylvanian; Upper Carboniferous) of the United States. Comparisons were made with rodlets from coal beds of the Illinois basin, the Southern Anthracite Field of Pennsylvania, the St. Rose coal field of Nova Scotia, and European and other coal fields. In order to determine their physical and chemical properties, a detailed study was made of the rodlets from the Pomeroy coal bed (high volatile A bituminous coal; Monongahela Formation; Upper Pennsylvanian) of Kanawha County, West Virginia. The origin of the rodlets was determined by a comparative analysis of a medullosan (seed fern) stem from the Herrin (No. 6) coal bed (high volatile C bituminous coal; Carbondale Formation) from Washington County, Illinois. Rodlets are commonly concentrated in fusain or carbominerite layers or lenses in bituminous coal beds of the central Appalachian basin. Most of the rodlets examined in our study were probably derived from medullosan seed ferns. The three types of rodlets are distinguished on the basis of cellularity, morphology and fracture. The resin rodlets studied by us are noncellular and appear to be similar in properties and origin to those found in coal beds of the Middle and Upper Pennsylvanian of the Illinois basin. The resin rodlets extracted from the Pomeroy coal bed exhibit high relief and high reflectance when polished and viewed in reflected light; they are opaque in transmitted light. In cross section, the resin rodlets are oval to round and have diameters ranging from 60 to 450 ??m. Many are solid, but some have vesicles, canals or cavities, which are commonly filled with clay, probably kaolinite. Typically, they have distinct fracture patterns ("kerfs") in longitudinal and

  12. Horizontal degasification and characterization of coals in the Sabinas Sub-basin, Mexico: implications for CBM production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentzis, T.; Murray, K.; Klinger, R.; Santillan, M. [CDX Canada Co., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-09-15

    The Sabinas sub-basin in northern Mexico contains gassy coals in the Upper Cretaceous Los Olmos Formation, based on both historical evidence and current desorption testing. The 'Double Seam' coal is present at shallow depth (< 500 m), has high vitrinite content (> 86 vol%), is well-cleated, shows high diffusivity (average tau) value is 56 hours) and has high natural fracture permeability (> 30 mD) in the minesites. The coal averages 2.2 m in thickness but has a high ash content (32 wt%). A tonstein band is present in the middle of the Double Seam, consisting of vitrinite and inertinite embedded in a matrix of fine clays and quartz. Average desorbed gas content of this medium-volatile bituminous coal (Ro{sub max} = 1.30%) is highest in Mine V (Esmeralda Mine at > 9.0 cm{sup 3}/g). Maximum methane adsorption at an equivalent depth of 300 m is 15 cm{sup 3}/g (as-received basisarb). Coal bed methane is mainly methane (98%) with heating value of 38.21 MJ/m{sup 3} (1026 Btu/ft{sup 3}). The coal is under-pressured and reported to be dry, with possibly free gas in the cleat/fracture system and absence of discrete mineralization. In-seam horizontal drilling prior to longwall mining has resulted in the significant reduction of in-situ gas contents and in an increase of mined coal production per shift. The Sabinas sub-basin coals are suitable for a full-scale coal bed methane (CBM) development using in-seam single horizontal and multi-lateral horizontal drilling. Similarities, but also differences, exist between the Sabinas coals in Mexico and the same coals in the Maverick Basin, Texas.

  13. Capital cost: low and high sulfur coal plants; 800 MWe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    This Commercial Electric Power Cost Study for 800-MWe (Nominal) low- and high-sulfur coal plants consists of three volumes. (This is the fourth subject in a series of eight performed in the Commercial Electric Power Cost Studies by the US NRC). The low-sulfur coal plant is described in Volumes I and II, while Volume III (this volume) describes the high sulfur coal plant. The design basis, drawings, and summary cost estimate for a 794-MWe high-sulfur coal plant are presented in this volume. This information was developed by redesigning the low-sulfur sub-bituminous coal plant for burning high-sulfur bituminous coal. The reference design includes a lime flue-gas-desulfurization system. These coal plants utilize a mechanical draft (wet) cooling tower system for condenser heat removal. Costs of alternate cooling systems are provided in Report No. 7 in this series of studies of costs of commercial electrical power plants.

  14. The chemical enhancement of the triboelectric separation of coal from pyrite and ash: A novel approach for electrostatic separation of mineral matter from coal. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafson, R.M.; DiMare, S.; Sabatini, J.

    1992-02-01

    Arthur D. Little, Inc., under contract to the US DOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, has developed a triboelectric separation device for coal beneficiation, that employs an entrained-flow, rotating-cylinder concept. The described apparatus has been used to test the efficacy of chemical pretreatment and in-situ treatment of coal on separation efficiency. Coal particle entrainment is achieved with gaseous carbon dioxide and particle collection is accomplished by an electrostatic plate separator. The triboelectric separation device incorporates instrumentation for the direct measurement of charge in the dilute-phase particle stream. Some of the pretreatment materials investigated under this project to modify the surface charging characteristics of the coal included oleic acid, sodium oleate, quinoline and dicyclohexylamine. Ammonia and sulfur dioxide at a concentration up to 1000 ppM was used for in-situ treatment of the coal, with carbon dioxide as the carrier/inerting gas. Nitrogen was used earlier in the test program as the carrier/inerting gas for the coal, but a severe arcing problem was encountered in the electrostatic collector with nitrogen as the carrier gas. This problem did not occur when carbon dioxide was used. The report covers the chemical treatment employed, and summarizes and interprets the results achieved. In addition, an economic analysis of a full scale system based on this concept is presented.

  15. The chemical enhancement of the triboelectric separation of coal from pyrite and ash: A novel approach for electrostatic separation of mineral matter from coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafson, R.M.; DiMare, S.; Sabatini, J.

    1992-02-01

    Arthur D. Little, Inc., under contract to the US DOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, has developed a triboelectric separation device for coal beneficiation, that employs an entrained-flow, rotating-cylinder concept. The described apparatus has been used to test the efficacy of chemical pretreatment and in-situ treatment of coal on separation efficiency. Coal particle entrainment is achieved with gaseous carbon dioxide and particle collection is accomplished by an electrostatic plate separator. The triboelectric separation device incorporates instrumentation for the direct measurement of charge in the dilute-phase particle stream. Some of the pretreatment materials investigated under this project to modify the surface charging characteristics of the coal included oleic acid, sodium oleate, quinoline and dicyclohexylamine. Ammonia and sulfur dioxide at a concentration up to 1000 ppM was used for in-situ treatment of the coal, with carbon dioxide as the carrier/inerting gas. Nitrogen was used earlier in the test program as the carrier/inerting gas for the coal, but a severe arcing problem was encountered in the electrostatic collector with nitrogen as the carrier gas. This problem did not occur when carbon dioxide was used. The report covers the chemical treatment employed, and summarizes and interprets the results achieved. In addition, an economic analysis of a full scale system based on this concept is presented.

  16. Coal Gasification Processes for Retrofitting Military Central Heating Plants: Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-01

    inorganic material remainitig after coal is completely combusted. At high temperatures, the ash will melt and clinkers may form. The ash composition ...was employed until 1941 by more than 9000 producers worldwide. Units installed in 1933 and 1948 are currently operating in South Africa . In 1980...Springs. South Africa Vaal Potteries Ltd. 1 8.5 Bituminous Operational Meyerton, South Africa Union Steel Corporation 2 10 Bituminous Operational

  17. Effects of bituminous layer as backfill material on mechanical behavior in tunnel model

    OpenAIRE

    Moriyoshi, Akihiro; Takano, Shin-ei; Urata, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Yoshida, Takaki

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the effects of bituminous material as a backfill material on mechanical behavior in model tunnel in laboratory. It is known that load spreading and relaxation of bituminous material are good properties. Then if we use bituminous material as a backfill material of tunnel, the tunnel will have waterproof, good load spreading property. We used new bituminous material (Aquaphalt) which can solidify in water. We conducted relaxation test in tension for new bituminous mat...

  18. Non-covalent associative structure of coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHUI Heng-fu(水恒福)

    2004-01-01

    The recent progress of non-covalent associative structure of coal, and the mechanisms of the CS2/NMP (1:1 by volume) mixed solvent and the additive addition enhancing the extraction yield of coals were reviewed, and the aggregation behavior of coal in solid and solution states were presented, and the aggregation behavior of coal in solid and solution states were introduced in this paper. Coal extraction and swelling in organic solvents at room temperature were the most useful methods to understand the associative structure of coal. CS2/NMP (1:1 by volume) is a unique solvent to give high extraction yields for some bituminous coals. Some additives can dissociate the stronger interactions among coal molecules and enhance the extraction yields of coal in the mixed solvent.

  19. Third symposium on coal preparation. NCA/BCR coal conference and Expo IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    The third Symposium on Coal preparation, sponsored by the National Coal Association and Bituminous Coal Research, Inc., was held at the Kentucky Fair and Exposition Center, Louisville, Kentucky, October 18-20, 1977. Fourteen papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; five additional papers had been entered previously from other sources. Topics covered involved chemical comminution and chemical desulfurization of coal (aimed at reducing sulfur sufficiently with some coals to meet air quality standards without flue gas desulfurization), coal cleaning concepts, removing coal fines and recycling wash water, comparative evaluation of coal preparation methods, coal refuse disposal without polluting the environment, spoil bank reprocessing, noise control in coal preparation plants, etc. (LTN)

  20. Modification Bituminous Binders Petroleum Resin (Based on C9 Fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A. Chigorina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present study is to measure the basic parameters of a bituminous binder obtained by modification of the BND 60/90 binder with petroleum resin, for both dynamic and static modification modes.

  1. Mitochondrial DNA copy number in peripheral blood cell and hypertension risk among mining workers: a case-control study in Chinese coal miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, L; Guo, J; Shi, X; Zhang, G; Kang, H; Sun, C; Huang, J; Wang, T

    2017-09-01

    Alteration of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number, which reflects oxidant-induced cell damage, has been observed in a wide range of human diseases. However, whether it correlates with hypertension has not been elucidated. We aimed to explore the association between mtDNA copy number and the risk of hypertension in Chinese coal miners. A case-control study was performed with 378 hypertension patients and 325 healthy controls in a large coal mining group located in North China. Face-to-face interviews were conducted by trained staffs with necessary medical knowledge. The mtDNA copy number was measured by a quantitative real-time PCR assay using DNA extracted from peripheral blood. No significant differences in mtDNA copy number were observed between hypertension patients and healthy controls. However, in both case and control groups, the mtDNA copy number was statistically significantly lower in the elder population (≥45 years old) compared with the younger subjects (copy number could be found in hypertension patients consuming alcohol regularly compared with no alcohol consumption patients (7.09 vs 6.69); mtDNA copy number was also positively correlated with age and alcohol consumption. Hypertension was found significantly correlated with factors such as age, work duration, monthly family income and drinking status. Our results suggest that the mtDNA copy number is not associated with hypertension in coal miners.

  2. Sir Humphry Davy and the coal miners of the world: a commentary on Davy (1816) 'An account of an invention for giving light in explosive mixtures of fire-damp in coal mines'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, John Meurig

    2015-04-13

    In the period between 1815 and 1818, Sir Humphry Davy read four papers to the Royal Society and published a monograph dealing with a safety lamp for coal miners, all of which record in detail the experimental work that he carried out, with his assistant Michael Faraday, so as to determine how to prevent catastrophic accidents in coal mines by the explosion of fire-damp (methane) in the presence of a naked flame. This article describes the key experiments that he performed at the Royal Institution and some of the subsequent trials made in the coal mines of the north of England. It begins, however, with an account of Davy's prior achievements in science before he was approached for help by the clergymen and doctors in the Gateshead and Newcastle upon Tyne areas. There is little doubt that the Davy lamp, from the 1820s onwards, transformed the coal industry worldwide. It also profoundly influenced the science of combustion, and in the words of a pioneer in that field, W. A. Bone, FRS, 'There is no better model of logical experimental procedure, accurate reasoning, philosophical outlook and fine literary expression.' It is a remarkable fact that it took Davy essentially only two weeks from the time he was given samples of fire-damp to solve the problem and to devise his renowned miner's safety lamp. A brief account is also given of the contemporaneous invention of a safety lamp by George Stephenson, and of some of Davy's subsequent accomplishments. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society.

  3. Carbonization and demineralization of coals: A study by means of FT–IR spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Gómez-Serrano; M C Fernández-González; M L Rojas-Cervantes; M F Alexandre-Franco; A Macías-García

    2003-12-01

    Coal basically consists of two parts-a crystalline, inorganic part, and an amorphous, organic part. Based on this, we intended to study the changes that occurred on the composition and on the chemical structure of coals after carbonization at 1000 or 900°C and demineralization treatments with hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids. For this, four coals of different categories (or levels) were chosen: semianthracite (A–O) and high volatile bituminous coal (B–O), which are high level coals, and lignite (Li–O) and leonardite (Le–O), these being low level coals. The coals were first analysed in terms of their proximate and elemental compositions and then carbonized and demineralized. Also, the starting coals and the prepared samples were examined by infrared spectroscopy. In addition, a study of the optimization of the application of this technique for only A–O was carried out. For A–O and B–O, the spectra recorded intense absorption bands that are ascribable to vibration modes in mineral components as quartz and aluminosilicates, such as kaolinite. For Li–O and Le–O, the spectra displayed some other bands as well, also quite intense, which have been assigned to bond vibrations in functional groups and structures of their organic part. The carbonization of the coals resulted in significant changes in their inorganic part as the content of quartz increased and the content of aluminosilicates decreased. In addition, the thermal decomposition of mineral carbonates occurred. The carbonization greatly affects the organic part of the coals, especially in Li–O and Le–O, as most functional groups and structures are not thermally stable under heating conditions. With regard to demineralization, HF is a more effective agent than HCl, achieving products with higher organic content. The mass losses are higher in Li–O and Le–O than in A–O and B–O. So, the infrared spectroscopy allows the analysis of both inorganic and organic parts of the coals and of

  4. Mercury in coal and the impact of coal quality on mercury emissions from combustion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolker, A.; Senior, C.L.; Quick, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    The proportion of Hg in coal feedstock that is emitted by stack gases of utility power stations is a complex function of coal chemistry and properties, combustion conditions, and the positioning and type of air pollution control devices employed. Mercury in bituminous coal is found primarily within Fe-sulfides, whereas lower rank coal tends to have a greater proportion of organic-bound Hg. Preparation of bituminous coal to reduce S generally reduces input Hg relative to in-ground concentrations, but the amount of this reduction varies according to the fraction of Hg in sulfides and the efficiency of sulfide removal. The mode of occurrence of Hg in coal does not directly affect the speciation of Hg in the combustion flue gas. However, other constituents in the coal, notably Cl and S, and the combustion characteristics of the coal, influence the species of Hg that are formed in the flue gas and enter air pollution control devices. The formation of gaseous oxidized Hg or particulate-bound Hg occurs post-combustion; these forms of Hg can be in part captured in the air pollution control devices that exist on coal-fired boilers, without modification. For a given coal type, the capture efficiency of Hg by pollution control systems varies according to type of device and the conditions of its deployment. For bituminous coal, on average, more than 60% of Hg in flue gas is captured by fabric filter (FF) and flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Key variables affecting performance for Hg control include Cl and S content of the coal, the positioning (hot side vs. cold side) of the system, and the amount of unburned C in coal ash. Knowledge of coal quality parameters and their effect on the performance of air pollution control devices allows optimization of Hg capture co-benefit. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Development of clean coal and clean soil technologies using advanced agglomeration techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignasiak, B.; Ignasiak, T.; Szymocha, K.

    1990-01-01

    Three major topics are discussed in this report: (1) Upgrading of Low Rank Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Test data, procedures, equipment, etc., are described for co-upgrading of subbituminous coals and heavy oil; (2) Upgrading of Bituminous Coals by the Agflotherm Process. Experimental procedures and data, bench and pilot scale equipments, etc., for beneficiating bituminous coals are described; (3) Soil Clean-up and Hydrocarbon Waste Treatment Process. Batch and pilot plant tests are described for soil contaminated by tar refuse from manufactured gas plant sites. (VC)

  6. Behavior of mineral matters in Chinese coal ash melting during char-CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O gasification reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaojiang Wu; Zhongxiao Zhang; Guilin Piao; Xiang He; Yushuang Chen; Nobusuke Kobayashi; Shigekatsu Mori; Yoshinori Itaya [University of Shanghai for Science & Technology, Shanghai (China). Department of Power Engineering

    2009-05-15

    The typical Chinese coal ash melting behavior during char-CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O gasification reaction was studied by using TGA, XRD, and SEM-EDX analysis. It was found that ash melting behavior during char gasification reaction is quite different from that during coal combustion process. Far from the simultaneously ash melting behavior during coal combustion, the initial melting behavior of ash usually occurs at a middle or later stage of char-CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O reaction because of endothermic reaction and more reactivity of char gasification reaction as compared with that of mineral melting reactions in ash. In general, the initial melting temperature of ash is as low as 200-300 K below the deformation temperature (T{sub def}) of ash with ASTM test. The initial molten parts in ash are mainly caused by iron bearing minerals such as wustite and iron-rich ferrite phases under gasification condition. Along with the proceeding of ash melting, the melting behavior appears to be accelerated by the presence of calcium to form eutectic mixtures in the FeO-SiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CaO-SiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} system. The different states of iron are the dominant reason for different melting behaviors under gasification and combustion conditions. Even under both reducing conditions, the ash fusion temperature (AFT) of coal under char-CO{sub 2} reaction is about 50-100 K lower than that under char-H{sub 2}O reaction condition. The main reason of that is the higher content of CO under char-CO{sub 2} reaction, which can get a lower ratio of Fe{sup 3+}/{Sigma}Fe in NaO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}-FeO melts. 38 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. The bituminous sands : a Canadian mirage?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousse, D.R. [Quebec Univ., Chicoutimi, PQ (Canada). Dept. des Sciences Appliquees; Nasr, G.J. [Lebanese Univ., Roumieh (Lebanon). Faculty of Engineering; Turcotte, S.F. [Quebec Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Centre d' Etudes Internationales et Mondialisation; Salah, N.B. [Ecole Superieure des Sciences et Techniques De Tunis, Tunis (Tunisia). LMMP

    2009-07-01

    This paper examined the controversy about the potential role of a significant increase in Canadian oil sands production in order to bridge the upcoming gap between the world's increasing energy demand and the total recoverable oil supply. The paper presented the actual potential of different scenarios and considered the prediction cost forecasts. A brief overview of environmental impacts and the real return on investments were also provided. Environmental impacts that were considered included land degradation; water contamination; ecosystem damage; and air pollution. Nuclear energy was also presented as a possible solution. The paper demonstrated that even in a very optimistic scenario, Canada's oil sands accelerated production has a negligible effect on the aforementioned gap, has a considerable impact on environment that has yet to be accounted for. Energy ratios that were presented included energy return on energy investment; energy available on energy used; and energy payback. It was concluded that enhanced recovery techniques are clearly needed for future sustainable exploitation of these bituminous sands. 32 refs., 1 fig.

  8. THE HISTORY OF EXPLORATION AND EXPLOITATION OF BITUMINOUS AND KEROGENOUS DEPOSITS IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berislav Šebečić

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available It is assumed thal the first known sedimens of natural bitumen or asphalt in coastal Croatia were exploited as the early moddle ages. Yet authenticated written documents about Vinišće near Trogir derive from no earlier than 1628, about Vrgorac/Paklina from only 1753. By the end of the 18th century, many deposits were discovered in Dalmatia, but it was Škrip on the Island of Brač and Suhi Dolac that were important. The earliest known deposits and occurrences of kerogenous rocks, or bituminous or oil shales, are mentioned as stone or fossil coal in Sovinjak, in the upper course of the River Mirna, and in Rebići in Istria; near Sinj, Slivno not far from the River Neretva, Mirta and near Nerežišće on the Island uf Brač. All if these were well known and described in 1804, while Sovinjak was mentioned in the 16th century. In the article, some of new information derived from mining and geological research into bituminous and kerogenous sediments and deposits are provided (the paper is published in Croatian.

  9. Gasification of mineral coal with carbon dioxide in a differential reactor; Gaseificacao de carvao mineral com dioxido de carbono em um reator diferencial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lansarin, Maria Azario [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul. Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Rech, Rene Lucio [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia Metalurgica e dos Materiais; Saffer, Mario [NATRON-Consultoria e Projetos S/A, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1988-12-01

    A kinetic study of Brazilian coal gasification with carbon dioxide in isothermal conditions is presented. The processed coal is from Leao Mine in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The process operates at total pressure of 1 atm, temperature of 900{sup 0} C to 1110{sup 0} C, different partial pressures of carbon dioxide and the particle medium diameter of 0,505; 0,359 and 0,274 mm. The experimental results adapted to the continuous reaction model and to the non-reacted core model, with the control made by chemical reaction. 7 refs, 13 figs, 1 tab

  10. Mutagenicity of eluent by hot water extraction of various coals: Effect of chlorination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsunenori Nakajima; Hiroyuki Hasegawa; Satomi Nakamata; Hirokazu Takanashi; Akira Ohki [Kagoshima University, Kagoshima (Japan). Department of Bioengineering

    2008-10-15

    Six kinds of powdery coals (two bituminous coals, two sub-bituminous coals, and two lignites) were extracted by hot water, and the eluents obtained were analyzed for total organic carbon (TOC), absorbance at 260 nm (A260), and pH. The TOC in the eluents decreased in the order, lignites > sub-bituminous coals > bituminous coals. The eluents of lignite gave high A{sub 260}/TOC values and fairly low pH compared to other coals. Chemical structure of the organic matter eluted from coals was discussed with the aid of FTIR analysis. The coal eluents were analyzed by the Ames mutagenicity assay using Salmonella typhimurium TA100 and TA98 strains, and no mutagenicity was observed for all of the six coals. However, especially for the lignites, chlorination of the eluents produced an appreciable mutagenicity, and the expression of mutagenicity was dependent upon the type of coal. The mutagenicity was extinguished when metabolic activation (rat liver homogenate, +S9) was applied. 26 refs., 6 tabs.

  11. Rare earth elements in fly ashes created during the coal burning process in certain coal-fired power plants operating in Poland - Upper Silesian Industrial Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolka-Danielowska, Danuta

    2010-11-01

    The subject of the study covered volatile ashes created during hard coal burning process in ash furnaces, in power plants operating in the Upper Silesian Industrial Region, Southern Poland. Coal-fired power plants are furnished with dust extracting devices, electro precipitators, with 99-99.6% combustion gas extracting efficiency. Activity concentrations ofTh-232, Ra-226, K-40, Ac-228, U-235 and U-238 were measured with gamma-ray spectrometer. Concentrations of selected rare soil elements (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Y, Gd, Th, U) were analysed by means of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Mineral phases of individual ash particles were identified with the use of scanning electron microscope equipped with EDS attachment. Laser granulometric analyses were executed with the use of Analyssette analyser. The activity of the investigated fly-ash samples is several times higher than that of the bituminous coal samples; in the coal, the activities are: 226Ra - 85.4 Bq kg(-1), 40 K-689 Bq kg(-1), 232Th - 100.8 Bq kg(-1), 235U-13.5 Bq kg(-1), 238U-50 Bq kg(-1) and 228Ac - 82.4 Bq kg(-1).

  12. Rare earth elements in fly ashes created during the coal burning process in certain coal-fired power plants operating in Poland - Upper Silesian Industrial Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolka-Danielowska, D. [University of Silesia, Sosnowiec (Poland). Faculty of Earth Science

    2010-11-15

    The subject of the study covered volatile ashes created during hard coal burning process in ash furnaces, in power plants operating in the Upper Silesian Industrial Region, Southern Poland. Coal-fired power plants are furnished with dust extracting devices, electro precipitators, with 99-99.6% combustion gas extracting efficiency. Activity concentrations of Th-232, Ra-226, K-40, Ac-228, U-235 and U-238 were measured with gamma-ray spectrometer. Concentrations of selected rare soil elements (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Y, Gd, Th, U) were analysed by means of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Mineral phases of individual ash particles were identified with the use of scanning electron microscope equipped with EDS attachment. Laser granulometric analyses were executed with the use of Analyssette analyser. The activity of the investigated fly-ash samples is several times higher than that of the bituminous coal samples; in the coal, the activities are: {sup 226}Ra - 85.4 Bq kg{sup -1}, {sup 40}K-689 Bq kg{sup -1}, {sup 232}Th - 100.8 Bq kg{sup -1}, {sup 235}U - 13.5 Bq kg{sup -1}, {sup 238}U - 50 Bq kg{sup -1} and {sup 228}Ac - 82.4 Bq kg{sup -1}.

  13. Influence of gas environment on reactions between sodium and silicon minerals during gasification of low-rank coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosminski, A.; Agnew, J.B. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Adelaide, South Australia, 5005 (Australia); Ross, D.P. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, BASE, Nakamachi 2-24-16 Koganei, Tokyo, 184-8588 (Japan)

    2006-11-15

    Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations were performed to determine the possible compositions and conditions for formation of potential liquid phases responsible for fluidised bed agglomeration during gasification of a high-sulphur low-rank coal from South Australia. The coals from this region of Australia are typically characterised by containing high levels of sodium, silica and sulphur. The transformation behaviour of the form of sodium present in coal, as either a carboxylate forming part of the coal organic matter or as soluble salt (NaCl) and its reaction with silicon compounds (silica or kaolin) is presented. The influence of temperature and gas atmosphere on equilibrium composition was evaluated. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations show that the distribution of sodium among the produced species will depend on the form of sodium in the coal, the gas atmosphere and the forms in which silicon is present in the coal. Steam was found to have the most significant effect causing a lowering of the sodium carbonate melting point temperature. (author)

  14. Mineral processing and characterization of coal waste to be used as fine aggregates for concrete paving blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Santos

    Full Text Available Commercial coal production in the southern region of Brazil has been occurring since the beginning of the twentieth century. Due to the geological characteristics of the region, large amounts of solid wastes are generated. The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of coal waste to produce concrete paving blocks. A procedure to process the coal waste with the purpose of reducing the sulfur content and changing the particle size distribution of the material to meet the specification of fine aggregates was developed. The methodology considered the following steps: (a sampling of a coal mining waste; (b gravity separation of the fraction with specific gravity between 2.4 and 2.8; (c comminution of the material and particle size analysis; (d technological characterization of the material and production of concrete paving blocks; and (e acidity generation prediction (environmental feasibility. The results showed that the coal waste considered in this work can be used to replace conventional sand as a fine aggregate for concrete paving blocks in a proportion of up to 50%. This practice can result in cleaner coal production and reduce the demand for exploitation of sand deposits.

  15. Preliminary results on the geochemistry and mineralogy of arsenic in mineralized coals from endemic arsenosis areas in Guizhou Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belkin, H.E.; Finkelman, R.B. [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States); Zheng, B. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang, Guizhou (China). Inst. of Geochemistry; Zhou, D.

    1997-12-31

    Domestic combustion of coal for residential heating and food preparation is pervasive in the mountainous regions of Guizhou Province, SW China. The use of locally mined, high-arsenic (> 100 ppm) coals has caused an excess of 3,000 cases of arsenic poisoning restricted to several villages. Samples of several high-As coals are being studied to determine the concentrations, distributions, and form(s) of the arsenic. This information should help to determine the source of the As and better understand its behavior during the combustion process. Preliminary results from selected coal samples indicate that As contents are as high as 35,000 ppm, on a whole coal basis. The coals contain multiple As-bearing phases including arsenopyrite, As-bearing pyrite, arsenic sulfide (realgar?), Fe-As oxide, As-bearing K-Fe-sulfate (jarosite?), and As-bearing iron phosphate. Some of the organic matter appears to be suffused with organically-bound As or contains extremely fine particles of an As-rich phase, apparently an arsenate.

  16. The use of naturally clean coals to achieve cleaner coal technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rees, D.P.

    2003-07-01

    Cleaner coals have been used to achieve lower and more restrictive environmental regulations, primarily in older plant designed to use only more energy-intensive bituminous coals. So far, some of these naturally clean coals have been able to meet some of the most restrictive regulations without the addition of environmental equipment. Naturally cleaner, subbituminous coal include Envirocoal made in Indonesia (mainly quoted in this paper), Antelope, Blair Athol and Kideco coals. In some places these coals are used where environmental equipment has been installed so that the solid and liquid wastes can be minimized. Nitrogen and sulphur oxides can be significantly lowered by using these naturally clean coals. The emissions of these pollutants per ton of carbon dioxide produced are also lower with the cleaner coals, compared to traditionally used bituminous coals. However, because of the lower thermal efficiency of the cleaner coals, the amount of carbon dioxide produced is slightly higher than typically used coals. This paper discusses some of these phenomena. 6 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Depositional environments of the Hart coal zone (Paleocene), Willow Bunch Coalfield, southern Saskatchewan, Canada from petrographic, palynological, paleobotanical, mineral and trace element studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, J.; Beaton, A.P.; McDougall, W.J.; Nambudiri, E.M.V.; Vigrass, L.W. (University of Regina, SK (Canada). Energy Research Unit)

    1991-12-01

    Coal petrology, palynology, paleobotany and mineralogy of the Hart coal indicate deposition under wet, warm-temperate to subtropical climatic conditions in low-lying backswamps with fluvial channels and locally ponded areas. The coal is dominated by mixed xylitic/attrital lithotypes and by huminite macerals with secondary inertinite macerals and minor liptinite macerals. Good correlation exists between lithotypes and maceral composition. Local and vertical variations in proportions of huminites and inertinites reflect frequent fluctuations in water levels, periodic flooding, desiccation and burning of the peat. Swamps were dominated by {ital Glyptostrobus-Taxodium} forest with {ital Betula-Myrica-Alnus} communities and, locally {ital Laevigatosporites}, which are the dominant contributors to the xylite-rich lithotypes. Attrital lithotypes with abundant {ital Pandanus}, {ital Typha} and {ital Azolla} are consistent with wetter areas of a fluvial environment, including ponds and channels. Trace elements Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Si, Ti, U, Se, V, W, K and Th, typically associated with syngenetic minerals kaolinite, calcite and quartz, may have a volcanic source. High concentrations of Na, Ba and Ca found in organic complexes are of secondary origin and probably originate in deep source brines rather than marine surface waters. 55 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. The release of iron during coal combustion. Milestone report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, L.L. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility

    1995-06-01

    Iron plays an important role in the formation of both fly ash and deposits in many pulverized-coal-fired boilers. Several authors indicate that iron content is a significant indicator of the slagging propensity of a majority of US bituminous coals, in particular eastern bituminous coals. The pyritic iron content of these coals is shown to be a particularly relevant consideration. A series of investigations of iron release during combustion is reported for a suite of coals ranging in rank from lignite to low-volatile bituminous coal under combustion conditions ranging from oxidizing to inert. Experimental measurements are described in which, under selected conditions, major fractions of the iron in the coal are released within a 25 ms period immediately following coal devolatilization. Mechanistic interpretation of the data suggest that the iron is released as a consequence of oxygen attack on porous pyrrhotite particles. Experimental testing of the proposed mechanism reveals that the release is dependent on the presence of both pyrite in the raw coal and oxygen in the gas phase, that slow preoxidation (weathering) of the pyrite significantly inhibits the iron release, and that iron loss increases as oxygen penetration of the particle increases. Each observation is consistent with the postulated mechanism.

  19. National Coal Quality Inventory (NACQI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Finkelman

    2005-09-30

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted the National Coal Quality Inventory (NaCQI) between 1999 and 2005 to address a need for quality information on coals that will be mined during the next 20-30 years. Collaboration between the USGS, State geological surveys, universities, coal burning utilities, and the coal mining industry plus funding support from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) permitted collection and submittal of coal samples for analysis. The chemical data (proximate and ultimate analyses; major, minor and trace element concentrations) for 729 samples of raw or prepared coal, coal associated shale, and coal combustion products (fly ash, hopper ash, bottom ash and gypsum) from nine coal producing States are included. In addition, the project identified a new coal reference analytical standard, to be designated CWE-1 (West Elk Mine, Gunnison County, Colorado) that is a high-volatile-B or high-volatile-A bituminous coal with low contents of ash yield and sulfur, and very low, but detectable contents of chlorine, mercury and other trace elements.

  20. Coal Combustion Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardesty, D.R. (ed.); Fletcher, T.H.; Hurt, R.H.; Baxter, L.L. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States))

    1991-08-01

    The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks for this activity include: (1) coal devolatilization - the objective of this risk is to characterize the physical and chemical processes that constitute the early devolatilization phase of coal combustion as a function of coal type, heating rate, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxidizer concentration; (2) coal char combustion -the objective of this task is to characterize the physical and chemical processes involved during coal char combustion as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxygen concentration; (3) fate of mineral matter during coal combustion - the objective of this task is to establish a quantitative understanding of the mechanisms and rates of transformation, fragmentation, and deposition of mineral matter in coal combustion environments as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, the initial forms and distribution of mineral species in the unreacted coal, and the local gas temperature and composition.

  1. Biochemically enhanced methane production from coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opara, Aleksandra

    For many years, biogas was connected mostly with the organic matter decomposition in shallow sediments (e.g., wetlands, landfill gas, etc.). Recently, it has been realized that biogenic methane production is ongoing in many hydrocarbon reservoirs. This research examined microbial methane and carbon dioxide generation from coal. As original contributions methane production from various coal materials was examined in classical and electro-biochemical bench-scale reactors using unique, developed facultative microbial consortia that generate methane under anaerobic conditions. Facultative methanogenic populations are important as all known methanogens are strict anaerobes and their application outside laboratory would be problematic. Additional testing examined the influence of environmental conditions, such as pH, salinity, and nutrient amendments on methane and carbon dioxide generation. In 44-day ex-situ bench-scale batch bioreactor tests, up to 300,000 and 250,000 ppm methane was generated from bituminous coal and bituminous coal waste respectively, a significant improvement over 20-40 ppm methane generated from control samples. Chemical degradation of complex hydrocarbons using environmentally benign reagents, prior to microbial biodegradation and methanogenesis, resulted in dissolution of up to 5% bituminous coal and bituminous coal waste and up to 25% lignite in samples tested. Research results confirm that coal waste may be a significant underutilized resource that could be converted to useful fuel. Rapid acidification of lignite samples resulted in low pH (below 4.0), regardless of chemical pretreatment applied, and did not generate significant methane amounts. These results confirmed the importance of monitoring and adjusting in situ and ex situ environmental conditions during methane production. A patented Electro-Biochemical Reactor technology was used to supply electrons and electron acceptor environments, but appeared to influence methane generation in a

  2. Liquefaction and/or solubilization of Spanish coals by newly isolated microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monistrol, I.F.; Laborda, F. (Universidad de Alcala de Henares, Alcala de Henares (Spain). Dept. de Microbiologia Parasitologia)

    1994-11-01

    A screening procedure has been set up for isolating microorganisms capable of liquefying coal. Spanish coals were used in the tests, namely a brown lignite from Galicia, sub-bituminous coal from Teruel and hard coal from Minas Figaredo S.A. (Asturias). Among the isolated strains several microorganisms proved capable of liquefying untreated lignite. When lignites were pretreated a more intense and rapid liquefaction was achieved, chelating agents being among the best pretreatment. None of the isolated microorganisms could satisfactorily liquefy sub-bituminous and hard coals in solid media. On the other hand, some fungi grew specifically on the untreated coals, engulfing them and in many cases a soft slurry was obtained. Several of the isolated microorganisms were able to solubilize all three untreated Spanish coals in liquid media. Coal solubilization was measured spectrophotometrically at 300, 400 and 450 nm. 5 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Capital cost: low- and high-sulfur coal plants, 800 MWe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    This Commercial Electric Power Cost Study for 800-MWe (Nominal) high- and low-sulfur coal plants consists of three volumes. The low-sulfur coal plant is described in Volumes I and II, while Volume III describes the high-sulfur coal plant. The design basis and cost estimate for the 801-MWe low sulfur coal plant is presented in Volume I, and the drawings, equimpment list, and site description are contained in Volume II. The design basis, drawings, and summary cost estimate for a 794-MWe high-sulfur coal plant are presented in Volume III. This information was developed by redesigning the low-sulfur sub-bituminous coal plant for burning high-sulfur bituminous coal. The reference design includes a lime flue-gas desulfurization system. These coal plants utilize a mechanical draft (wet) cooling tower system for condenser heat removal.

  4. Abundances and distribution of minerals and elements in high-alumina coal fly ash from the Jungar Power Plant, Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, S.; Zhao, L.; Peng, S.; Chou, C.-L.; Wang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Li, D.; Sun, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The fly ash from the Jungar Power Plant, Inner Mongolia, China, is unique because it is highly enriched in alumina (Al2O3>50%). The fly ash mainly consists of amorphous glass and mullite and trace amounts of corundum, quartz, char, calcite, K-feldspar, clay minerals, and Fe-bearing minerals. The mullite content in fly ash is as high as 37.4% because of high boehmite and kaolinite contents in feed coal. Corundum is a characteristic mineral formed during the combustion of boehmite-rich coal.Samples from the economizer were sieved into six size fractions (500 mesh) and separated into magnetic, mullite+corundum+quartz (MCQ) and glass phases for mineralogical and chemical analysis. The corundum content increases but amorphous glass decreases with decreasing particle size. Fractions of small particle sizes are relatively high in mullite, probably because mullite was formed from fine clay mineral particles under high-temperature combustion condition. Similarly, fine corundum crystals formed in the boiler from boehmite in feed coal. The magnetic phase consists of hematite, magnetite, magnesioferrite, and MgFeAlO4 crystals. The MCQ phase is composed of 89% mullite, 6.1% corundum, 4.5% quartz, and 0.5% K-feldspar.Overall, the fly ash from the power plant is significantly enriched in Al2O3 with an average of 51.9%, but poor in SiO2, Fe2O3, CaO, MgO, Na2O, P2O5, and As. Arsenic, TiO2, Th, Al2O3, Bi, La, Ga, Ni, and V are high in mullite, and the magnetic matter is enriched in Fe2O3, CaO, MnO, TiO2, Cs, Co, As, Cd, Ba, Ni, Sb, MgO, Zn, and V. The remaining elements are high in the glass fraction. The concentration of K2O, Na2O, P2O5, Nb, Cr, Ta, U, W, Rb, and Ni do not clearly vary with particle size, while SiO2 and Hg decrease and the remaining elements clearly increase with decreasing particle size. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  5. Coal-based carbon foams. Influence of the precursor coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montserrat Calvo; Roberto Garcia; Sabino R. Moinelo [Instituto Nacional del Carbon (CSIC), Oviedo (Spain)

    2007-07-01

    Carbon foams were obtained from several bituminous coals with different plasticity and volatile matter content by a two-stage thermal process. The first stage, a controlled carbonisation treatment under pressure at 450-500{sup o}C, is responsible for the final textural properties of the foam. In the second stage the carbonisation product was baked at 1100{sup o}C. The foams produced display a macroporous texture with plasticity, volatile matter content and maceral composition of the precursor coals having an influence on the apparent density and the pore size of the resultant porous products. 7 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Applications of polymer extrusion technology to coal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, D. W.

    1981-01-01

    Upon heating, many of the middle-aged bituminous coals exhibit a plasticity very similar to polyethylene for a few minutes. Plastic coal can be extruded, pelletized or molded using common plastics technology and equipment. Investigations concerning the plastic state of coals are conducted with the objective to develop techniques which will make useful commercial applications of this property possible. Experiments which show the characteristics of plastic-state coal are discussed, and problems related to a continuous extrusion of coal are considered. Probably the most significant difference between the continuous extrusion of coal and the extrusion of a thermoplastic polymer is that volatiles are continuously being released from the coal. Attention is given to aspects of dragflow, solids feeding, and melt pumping. Application potentials for plastic coal extrusion might be related to coal gasification, direct liquefaction, and coal combustion.

  7. Concentration, Distribution, and Occurrence of REEs in Coals from Chongqing, Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The concentration, distribution, and occurrence of rare earth elements (REEs) in coals as well as stone coals in different geological periods from Chongqing were studied. The results show that the REE content in coals from Chongqing is much higher than that of the ordinary Chinese coals, the Late Paleozoic coals from North China, US coals, and the world coals. Although the concentration of light rare earth elements (LREE) is higher than that of heavy rare earth elements (HREE), the ratio of LREE to HREE is as low as 5.11. The REE content decreases with the coal-formation periods from old to new. The REE content in the Sinian stone coal is the highest, but it is the lowest in Early Jurassic coals. The similar REE contents in bituminous coals and anthracite show that the metamorphism has a little influence on REE content in coal. In addition, silicate association dominates the occurrence mode of REEs in coals from Chongqing.

  8. Utilization of Waste Clay from Boron Production in Bituminous Geosynthetic Barrier (GBR-B Production as Landfill Liner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müfide Banar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bituminous geomembranes, one type of geosynthetics, include a hot bituminous mixture with mineral filler and reinforcement. In this study, boron production waste clay (CW was used as filler to produce a geosynthetic barrier with bentonite, waste tire, and bitumen. Bentonite and waste tires were used as auxiliary fillers and bitumen as the binder. CW/bitumen, CW/bentonite/bitumen, and CW/waste tire/bitumen mixtures were prepared by using a laboratory mixer at 100°C. Hot mixtures were extruded into strips by using a lab-scale corotating twin screw extruder (L/D: 40 followed by die casting (2 mm × 100 mm. Glass fleece or nonwoven polyester was used as reinforcement material and while die casting, both sides of the reinforcement materials were covered with bituminous mixture. Thickness, mass per unit area, tensile strength, elongation at yield, and hydraulic conductivity were used to characterize the geomembranes. Among all geomembranes, nonwoven polyester covered with 30% bitumen-70% boron waste clay mixture (PK-BTM30CW70 was found to be the most promising in terms of structure and mechanical behaviour. After that, consequences of its exposure to distilled water (DW, municipal solid waste landfill leachate (L-MSW, and hazardous waste landfill leachate (L-HW were examined to use for an innovative impermeable liner on solid waste landfills.

  9. Miners, managers and the state. A socio-political history of the Ombilin coal-mines, West Sumatra, 1892-1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erwiza

    1999-10-28

    The period 1892-1996 covers just over a century. A long term perspective will show to what extent economic and cultural changes such as price fluctuations, and changes in energy consumption and choice of fuels, have influenced the policy of the colonial and post-colonial state and the management as well as attitudes and actions of the miners. Secondly, changes in labour relations should be related to changes in labour control by management and the state and changes in the mining society. This study is subdivided into six periods based on dramatic changes in labour relations and labour control, and in the politics of the miners.Chapter 2 will explain the background of the opening of the Indonesian coal industry and the Ombilin coal-mines and its incorporation into the world market, a process greatly speeded up all over the world by the emergence of the age of steam-engine in the eighteenth century. Then, the author focuses on debates about whether this mine should be exploited by the state or privately. Having settled the outcome of the debates the description will jump to the present situation in the mining town Sawahlunto. This jump is intended to introduce the readers to the present conditions in the town which have been shaped and created by the past. The section introduces hidden stories which have been obtained from the collective memory of the people in town, especially those recalled by some of its historical buildings. Chapter 3 (1892-1920) explores the problem of land compensation for the mines, the making of a mining society, the working and living conditions of the labourers, and the physical violence of flogging with a cane imposed by the colonial state as an instrument of control. Chapter 4 (1920-1942) focuses on changes in state control and in the politics of resistance which was often the response of the miners to it. The explanation of these changes will be placed in the context of changes in the social composition of the mining society, the

  10. Japan`s sunshine project. 17.. 1992 annual summary of coal liquefaction and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This report describes the achievement of coal liquefaction and gasification technology development in the Sunshine Project for FY 1992. It presents the research and development of coal liquefaction which includes studies on reaction mechanism of coal liquefaction and catalysts for coal liquefaction, the research and development of coal gasification technologies which includes studies on gasification characteristics of various coals and improvement of coal gasification efficiency, the development of bituminous coal liquefaction which includes engineering, construction and operation of a bituminous coal liquefaction pilot plant and research by a process supporting unit (PSU), the development of brown coal liquefaction which includes research on brown coal liquefaction with a pilot plant and development of techniques for upgrading coal oil from brown coal, the development of common base technologies which includes development of slurry letdown valves and study on upgrading technology of coal-derived distillates, the development of coal-based hydrogen production technology with a pilot plant, the development of technology for entrained flow coal gasification, the assessment of coal hydrogasification, and the international co-operation. 4 refs., 125 figs., 39 tabs.

  11. Analyses of coal product samples taken by the Division of Energy Technology, CSIR, during 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boshoff, H.P.; Barnard, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    General chemical and physical properties of South African coal products, including the ash analysis, are reported on a series of samples taken during 1987. 370 product samples from 103 collieries were sampled and analyzed. Petrographic analyses were also carried out on a series of bituminous coal product samples from 88 collieries, and the results are given here.

  12. Co-combustion of coal and SRF in an entrained flow reactor: a preliminary study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Glarborg, Peter; Frandsen, Flemming;

    2009-01-01

    Investigations on co-firing of SRF with two kinds of bituminous coal were carried out in an entrained flow reactor. The experimental results showed that co-combustion of coal and SRF increased the unburnt carbon in fly ashes. The emissions of NO and SO2 were reduced with an increasing share of SRF...

  13. Molecular characterization of flash pyrolysates of two Carboniferous coals and their constituting maceral fractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Hartgers, W.A.; Ling, Y.; Leeuw, J.W. de; Dyrckacz, G.

    1994-01-01

    Two high-volatile bituminous Upper Carboniferous coals from the Argonne Premium Coal Set and their constituting liptinite, vitrinite, and inertinite fractions, obtained by density gradient centrifugation (DGC), were characterized by Curie point pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A

  14. Heterogeneity in coal composition and implications for lung cancer risk in Xuanwei and Fuyuan counties, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Downward, George S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412435667; Hu, Wei; Large, David; Veld, Harry; Xu, Jun; Reiss, Boris|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314119205; Wu, Guoping; Wei, Fusheng; Chapman, Robert S.; Rothman, Nat; Qing, Lan; Vermeulen, Roel|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/216532620

    2014-01-01

    Background: Xuanwei and Fuyuan counties in Yunnan Province, China have among the highest lung cancer rates in the country. This has been associated with the domestic combustion of bituminous coal (referred to as "smoky" coal). Additionally, significant geographical variation in cancer rates among

  15. Abundances of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 14 chinese and american coals and their relation to coal rank and weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R.; Liu, Gaisheng; Zhang, Jiahua; Chou, C.-L.; Liu, J.

    2010-01-01

    The abundances of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on the priority list of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) have been determined in 14 Chinese and American coals. The ranks of the samples range from lignite, bituminous coal, anthracite, to natural coke. Soxhlet extraction was conducted on each coal for 48 h. The extract was analyzed on a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The results show that the total PAH content ranged from 0.31 to 57.6 ??g/g of coal (on a dry basis). It varied with coal rank and is highest in the maturity range of bituminous coal rank. High-molecular-weight (HMW) PAHs are predominant in low-rank coals, but low-molecular-weight (LMW) PAHs are predominant in high-rank coals. The low-sulfur coals have a higher PAH content than high-sulfur coals. It may be explained by an increasing connection between disulfide bonds and PAHs in high-sulfur coal. In addition, it leads us to conclude that the PAH content of coals may be related to the depositional environment. ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

  16. Investigation of relationship between barometric pressure and coal and gas outburst events in underground coal mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yönet, Sinem; Esen, Olgun; Fişne, Abdullah

    2015-04-01

    Coal and gas outburst is a serious risk which occurs during the mine production. This accident results both ejection of high volumes of gas and high amount of coal into the mine production area, and death of mining workers for many years in Turkey. Outburst of gas, coal and rock can be defined as sudden release of coal and rock accompanied by large quantities of gas into the working face or other mine workings. It is a phenomena that influenced by geological structure such as folds, joints of rocks or coal seams, is also still investigated for many years. Zonguldak Coal Basin is the main part of the Upper Carboniferous bituminous coal basin of Turkey. Much of the bituminous coal mining has thus been concentrated in the Zonguldak Basin which is located on the Black Sea coast. The coal field has been disturbed by tectonic activity, first by Hercynian and later by Alpine orogenesis resulting in folding and faulting of strata. This formation has a complex structural geology which consists mostly fault zones, anticlinal and syncline strata and because of this a large amount of methane gases are adsorbed or accumulated in strata or in coal fractures, pores and micropores. There are 5 Collieries exists in Zonguldak Coalfield and coal and gas outbursts were occurred only in two collieries such as Karadon and Kozlu Mines. In addition at a number of 90 coal and gas outburst events were experienced in these collieries. Based on the analysis of data, oscillation at barometric pressure and temperature values at the location of Kozlu and Karadon Mines were seen when coal and gas outburst events were occurred. In this study, barometric pressure and temperature changes are investigated at Kozlu and Karadon Mines. Also the relationship between the variation at temperature with barometric pressure and coal and gas outbursts are evaluated. It can be understand that this investigation depends to field observations and macroscopic considerations and on the purpose of predicting the

  17. Measuring of mineral particulate matter at work places in coal-fired power plants. Aids for determining hazards; Messungen mineralischer Staeube an Arbeitsplaetzen in Kohlekraftwerken. Hilfen zur Gefaehrdungsermittlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeckler, Margret [Berufsgenossenschaft Energie Textil Elektro Koeln (Germany). Fachbereich Gefahrstoffe; Lux, Reinhard [Berufsgenossenschaft Energie Textil Elektro Koeln (Germany). Fachbereich Maschinen und Anlagen

    2009-07-01

    If employees have to carry out operations with mineral particulate matter or if such blends - due to processes or operations interfere with the breathing air at the work place, power plant operators have to assess and determine the hazards for employees and must introduce corresponding protection measures. Between 2006 and 2008 the Accident Prevention and Insurance Association ''Energy, Textile and Electrics'' has carried out work place measurements in coalfired power plants (lignite and bard coal) in order to provide support when determining and assessing the hazard potential. The measuring results showed that normally the limit values for work places are safely met for A and E fractions. Further dust measurements will be carried out. (orig.)

  18. Nationwide survey on the natural radionuclides in industrial raw minerals in South Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, B.U. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Guseong-dong 19, Yuseong-gu, 305-338 Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: hafadai@kins.re.kr; Koh, S.M. [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Gajeong-dong 30, Yuseong-gu, 305-350 Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y.J.; Seo, J.S. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Guseong-dong 19, Yuseong-gu, 305-338 Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Y.Y. [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Gajeong-dong 30, Yuseong-gu, 305-350 Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Row, J.W.; Lee, D.M. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Guseong-dong 19, Yuseong-gu, 305-338 Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-03-15

    A Nationwide survey on the natural radioactivity in industrial raw mineral commodities (17 kinds of domestic and 18 kinds of imported) that are representative minerals used in production and consumption in South Korea was conducted. The target industrial minerals can be categorized into two groups. The first group covers non-metallic and metallic raw minerals with low levels of radioactivity such as clay, silica sand, carbonates, bituminous and anthracite coal, iron ores, ilmenite, rutile, and phosphate ore. The other group comprises minerals with high levels of radioactivity including zircon and monazite. One hundred and sixty-four domestic and imported samples were analysed by {gamma}-ray spectroscopy using an HPGe detector. The {sup 40}K content ranges from <0.00131 to 2.69 Bq g{sup -1}, and {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th range over <0.0006 to 0.630 and <0.0008 to 0.474 Bq g{sup -1}, respectively. There was no anthropogenic radioactive signal in any of the samples.

  19. Short description of the Peruvian coal basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrascal-Miranda, Eitel R. [UNI, Lima (Peru); Suarez-Ruiz, Isabel [Instituto Nacional del Carbon (CSIC), Ap. Co., 73, 33080 Oviedo (Spain)

    2004-04-23

    This work synthesizes the main general characteristics of the Peruvian Coal Basins in relation to age, coal facies and coal rank. Peruvian coals are located in a series of coal basins from the Paleozoic to the Cenozoic age. Paleozoic coal seams are mainly of Mississippian age (Carboniferous). They are of continental origin and their reduced thickness and ash content are their main characteristics. Mesozoic coal seams (Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous) are located in the so-called Peruvian Western Basin and in the depressions close to the 'Maranon Geoanticline'. They were originated in deltaic facies under the influence of brackish and fresh waters. Some of these coal basins (those distributed in the central and northern parts of Peru) are relatively well known because they are of economic importance. Finally, Cenozoic coal seams (Tertiary) are found in both paralic and limnic basins and their reserves are limited. All the Peruvian coals are of humic character and are vitrinite-rich. Their rank is highly variable and normally related with the different orogenic events which strongly affected this region. Thus, Paleozoic and Mesozoic coals are of bituminous to anthracite/meta-anthracite coal rank while peats, lignite and subbituminous coals are found in Cenozoic basins.

  20. Coal desulfurization through reverse micelle biocatalysis process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.; Yen, T.F.

    1988-01-01

    A novel bioprocess using micelle biocatalysis has been attempted to minimize several disadvantages of conventional microbial coal desulfurization scale-up processes. The reverse micelle biocatalysis process consists of a water-immiscible organic medium, a surfactant, an aqueous phase and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria or enzymes. This process has been successful for removing sulfur from bituminous coal (Illinois coal 5). The preliminary results showed that coal desulfurization through the use of cell-free enzyme extracts of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 19859 was better than that of bacteria itself. The use of enzymes has shown potential for commercial coal desulfurization process as well. This same process is being applied to the thermophillic bacteria Sulfolobus acidocaldarius ATCC 33909. The implications of these experimental results are discussed, including a hypothetical mechanism using reverse micelle biocatalytical process for coal desulfurization.

  1. 815℃灰化前后淮北煤中矿物质变化特征%Characteristics of minerals in the Huaibei coals and ashes during ashing at 815℃

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑刘根; 陈园平; 刘桂建; Chou Chen-lin

    2013-01-01

    以淮北煤田二叠纪5、4煤层15个煤样品为研究对象,对样品在815℃下进行灰化,并采用等离子体原子发射光谱(ICP-AES)对煤灰中成分进行测定,采用X射线衍射(XRD)对原煤以及灰化后的样品中矿物质成分进行了分析.在此基础上,探讨了煤中矿物质种类及影响煤中矿物质的主要因素,分析了煤中矿物质在815℃灰化前后的变化特征.结果表明,煤中矿物质种类受多种因素影响,灰化过程中矿物质的种类、含量会发生改变,且部分矿物在高温作用下发生变化,重新组合,形成相对较稳定的新矿物,从而为今后煤灰的综合利用提供科学论据.%15 coal samples were collected from No. 5 and No. 4 Permian coal seams in the Huaibei coalfield, Anhui Province. Inductively coupled-plasma atomic-emission spectrometry (ICP-AES, VISTA-PRO, America Varian) was used to determine the major element composition of coal ash after the ashing of samples at 815℃ , and the minerals in raw coal and coal ash samples were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Cu, D/max-1200, Japan). Using these methods, the authors determined the major minerals and their relative abundances in coal and coal ashes. The results show that the major minerals in raw coals are smectite, illite, kaolinite, chlorite, quartz, calcite and dolomite. Pyrite was not detected on the XRD spectra because the coals are very low in sulfur (averagely 0.56%). New minerals including plagioclase and hematite were formed during the ashing process.

  2. EAP 体系对提升煤矿职工安全心理水平的应用研究∗%The application research of EAP system to enhance the safety psychological level of coal miners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张赛; 曹庆贵; 贾红果

    2016-01-01

    以 EAP (员工援助计划)的服务内容及服务方式为基础,系统分析了群体因素、环境因素、个体因素和安全管理因素对煤矿职工安全心理水平的影响,对 EAP 应用于提升煤矿职工安全心理水平的措施进行分析,通过调研数据分析处理得出各因素对煤矿职工安全心理水平的干预力度;建立煤矿职工安全心理水平系统动力学模型,通过 SD 仿真提出提升职工安全心理水平的最佳路径和最佳干预应用策略。%The thesis is based on the service contents and service methods of the EAP (em-ployee assistance plan). First,it systematicly analyses the influence of group factors,environ-mental factors,individual factors and safety management to the safety psychological level of coal miners. Next,it analyses the measures of EAP applied to enhance the safety psychological level of coal miners,the questionnaire survey is conducted and organizes the survey data by the soft-ware of SPSS,obtain the interference of various factors to the safety psychological level of coal mine workers by the analysis of linear regression. Then,the thesis builds a system dynamics model of the safety psychological level of coal miners,and obtaining the most efficient measures of enhancing the safety psychological level of coal miners by simulation. At last,the thesis comes up the intervention strategies of enhancing the safety psychological level of coal miners combining with the psychological aid service mode which coal miners are desirable.

  3. Tannery and coal mining waste disposal on soil Resíduos do processamento de peles e de carvão mineral aplicados em solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Henrique Kray

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Tannery residues and coal mine waste are heavily polluting sources in Brazil, mainly in the Southern States of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina. In order to study the effects of residues of chrome leather tanning (sludge and leather shavings and coal waste on soybean and maize crops, a field experiment is in progress since 1996, at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul Experimental Station, county of Eldorado do Sul, Brazil. The residues were applied twice (growing seasons 1996/97 and 1999/00. The amounts of tannery residues were applied according to their neutralizing value, at rates of up to 86.8 t ha-1, supplying from 671 to 1.342 kg ha-1 Cr(III; coal waste was applied at a total rate of 164 t ha-1. Crop yield and dry matter production were evaluated, as well as the nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu and Zn and Cr contents. Crop yields with tannery sludge application were similar to those obtained with N and lime supplied with mineral amendments. Plant Cr absorption did not increase significantly with the residue application. Tannery sludge can be used also to neutralize the high acidity developed in the soil by coal mine waste.Os resíduos gerados na exploração de carvão mineral e no processamento de peles são produtos potencialmente poluentes em várias regiões do Brasil, principalmente nos Estados do Rio Grande do Sul e de Santa Catarina. O presente trabalho foi conduzido a campo com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da aplicação e da reaplicação de resíduos carbonífero e de curtume ao Cr sobre as plantas de milho e de soja cultivadas em um Argissolo Vermelho distrófico típico, na Estação Experimental da UFRGS, localizada no município de Eldorado do Sul (RS. A primeira aplicação dos resíduos foi feita no ano agrícola de 1996/97 e a reaplicação no ano agrícola de 1999/2000. As doses de resíduos de curtume variaram conforme o pH do solo e o poder de neutralização do resíduo, tendo sido adicionadas quantidades

  4. Biodepolymerization studies of low rank Indian coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selvi, V.A.; Banerjee, R.; Ram, L.C.; Singh, G. [FRI, Dhanbad (India). Environmental Management Division

    2009-10-15

    Biodepolymerization of some of the lower rank Indian coals by Pleurotus djamor, Pleurotus citrinopileatus and Aspergillus species were studied in a batch system. The main disadvantage in burning low rank coals is the low calorific values. To get the maximum benefit from the low rank coals, the non fuel uses of coals needs to be explored. The liquefaction of coals is the preliminary processes for such approaches. The present study is undertaken specifically to investigate the optimization of bio depolymerization of Neyveli lignite by P. djmor. The pH of the media reached a constant value of about 7.8 by microbial action. The effect of different carbon and nitrogen sources and influence of chelators and metal ions on depolymerization of lignite were also studied. Lignite was solubilized by P. djamor only to a limited extent without the addition of carbon and nitrogen sources. Sucrose was the best suitable carbon source for coal depolymerization by P. djamor and sodium nitrate followed by urea was the best nitrogen source. The Chelators like salicylic acid, TEA and metal ions Mg{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 3+}, Ca{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 2+} has enhanced the lignite solubilization process. The finding of the study showed that, compared to sub-bituminous and bituminous coal, the lignite has higher rate of solubilization activity.

  5. Mode of occurrence of arsenic in four US coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolker, A.; Huggins, Frank E.; Palmer, C.A.; Shah, N.; Crowley, S.S.; Huffman, G.P.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2000-01-01

    An integrated analytical approach has been used to determine the mode of occurrence of arsenic in samples of four widely used US coals: the Pittsburgh, Illinois #6, Elkhorn/Hazard, and Wyodak. Results from selective leaching, X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy, and electron microprobe analysis show that pyrite is the principal source of arsenic in the three bituminous coals, but the concentration of As in pyrite varies widely. The Wyodak sample contains very little pyrite; its arsenic appears to be primarily associated with organics, as As3+, or as arsenate. Significant (10-40%) fractions of arsenate, derived from pyrite oxidation, are also present in the three bituminous coal samples. This information is essential in developing predictive models for arsenic behavior during coal combustion and in other environmental settings.

  6. Variations in coal maceral chemistry with rank advance in the German Creek and Moranbah Coal Measures of the Bowen Basin, Australia, using electron microprobe techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Colin R.; Li, Zhongsheng; Gurba, Lila W. [School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, 2052 (Australia)

    2005-07-20

    Variations in the elemental composition of individual macerals in seams from the Permian German Creek and Moranbah Coal Measures in the Bowen Basin of Queensland have been studied over a wide range of coal ranks, using light-element electron microprobe techniques, to establish the coalification tracks of key macerals in a single coal-bearing interval from subbituminous through bituminous coal to anthracite. Vitrinite reflectance (Rv{sub max}) in the seams studied increases from 0.39% in the western part of the basin to over 3.5% in the east, apparently due to increases in burial depth. The study extends significantly the rank range covered by previous work on elemental analysis of individual macerals in the Gunnedah Basin, and provides a more useful basis than whole-coal analysis to evaluate the performance of coals in different utilisation processes. The microprobe results show that the carbon content of the telocollinite increases dramatically from 66% to 90% as the vitrinite reflectance of the coals (Rv{sub max}) increases from 0.39% to around 1.75%, but increases only slightly, from 90% to 91%, as Rv{sub max} increases from 1.75% to 3.52%. Oxygen decreases from around 26% to approximately 5% as Rv{sub max} increases from 0.39% to around 1.75%, and then decreases only very slightly into the anthracite range. The nitrogen content of the telocollinite in these coals also appears to decrease slightly with rank advance, and appears moreover to display a relatively abrupt drop at around 2% Rv{sub max}. This may be associated with the development of ammonium illite in the mineral matter. Organic sulphur in the telocollinite, on the other hand, seems to remain essentially constant with rank advance, at least in this particular succession. In contrast to vitrinite, fusinite and inertodetrinite have significantly higher but somewhat more constant carbon contents, varying only from around 81% to 93% C over the rank range studied. Oxygen in these macerals decreases from

  7. The occurrence of hazardous volatile elements and nanoparticles in Bulgarian coal fly ashes and the effect on human health exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Luis F.O., E-mail: lfsoliveira@univates.br [Centro Universitario Univates, Pro Reitoria de Pesquisa Estensao e Pos Graduacao, Programa de Pos Graduacao Ambiente e Desenvolvimento (Brazil); Environmental Science and Nanotechnology Department, Catarinense Institute of Environmental Research and Human Development - IPADHC, Capivari de Baixo, Santa Catarina (Brazil); DaBoit, Katia [Department of Environmental Medicine, Catarinense Institute of Environmental Research and Human Development - IPADHC, Capivari de Baixo, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Sampaio, Carlos H. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Escola de Engenharia, Departamento de Metalurgia, Centro de Tecnologia, Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, Bairro Agronomia, CEP: 91501-970, Porto Alegre - RS (Brazil); Jasper, Andre [Centro Universitario Univates, Pro Reitoria de Pesquisa Estensao e Pos Graduacao, Programa de Pos Graduacao Ambiente e Desenvolvimento (Brazil); Andrade, Maria L. [Department of Plant Biology and Soil Science, University of Vigo, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Kostova, Irena J. [Sofia University ' St. Kliment Ohridski' , Department of Geology, Paleontology and Fossil Fuels, 15, Tzar Osvoboditel Blvd., 1000 Sofia (Bulgaria); and others

    2012-02-01

    Low-rank, high-mineral matter Bulgarian coals were studied using a variety of chemical, optical, and electron beam methods. The larger fly ash carbon phases include charred carbons in contrast to coked carbons present in the fly ashes of bituminous-coal-derived fly ashes. Nanoscale carbons include multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) encapsulating Hg, Se, and As, among other elements. In addition to the glass which dominates the fly ash, relatively coarse 'rock fragments', consisting of an unmelted to partially melted core surrounded by a glassy rim, are present in the fly ash. Nano-scale minerals can contain hazardous elements and, along with metal-bearing multiwalled nanotubes, can be a path for the entry of hazardous particles into the lungs and other organs. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We model Bulgarian power plants which have regulated minerals nanoparticles can contain hazardous elements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study changes in the level of information about nanominerals importance and the effect on human health exposure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increasing information will increase quality if power plants procedures are similar.

  8. Nitrogen release during coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, L.L.; Mitchell, R.E.; Fletcher, T.H.; Hurt, R.H.

    1995-02-01

    Experiments in entrained flow reactors at combustion temperatures are performed to resolve the rank dependence of nitrogen release on an elemental basis for a suite of 15 U.S. coals ranging from lignite to low-volatile bituminous. Data were obtained as a function of particle conversion, with overall mass loss up to 99% on a dry, ash-free basis. Nitrogen release rates are presented relative to both carbon loss and overall mass loss. During devolatilization, fractional nitrogen release from low-rank coals is much slower than fractional mass release and noticeably slower than fractional carbon release. As coal rank increases, fractional nitrogen release rate relative to that of carbon and mass increases, with fractional nitrogen release rates exceeding fractional mass and fractional carbon release rates during devolatilization for high-rank (low-volatile bituminous) coals. At the onset of combustion, nitrogen release rates increase significantly. For all coals investigated, cumulative fractional nitrogen loss rates relative to those of mass and carbon passes through a maximum during the earliest stages of oxidation. The mechanism for generating this maximum is postulated to involve nascent thermal rupture of nitrogen-containing compounds and possible preferential oxidation of nitrogen sites. During later stages of oxidation, the cumulative fractional loss of nitrogen approaches that of carbon for all coals. Changes in the relative release rates of nitrogen compared to those of both overall mass and carbon during all stages of combustion are attributed to a combination of the chemical structure of coals, temperature histories during combustion, and char chemistry.

  9. Development of coal energy utilization technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Coal liquefaction produces new and clean energy by performing hydrogenation, decomposition and liquefaction on coal under high temperatures and pressures. NEDO has been developing bituminous coal liquefaction technologies by using a 150-t/d pilot plant. It has also developed quality improving and utilization technologies for liquefied coal, whose practical use is expected. For developing coal gasification technologies, construction is in progress for a 200-t/d pilot plant for spouted bed gasification power generation. NEDO intends to develop coal gasification composite cycle power generation with high efficiency and of environment harmonious type. This paper summarizes the results obtained during fiscal 1994. It also dwells on technologies to manufacture hydrogen from coal. It further describes development of technologies to manufacture methane and substituting natural gas (SNG) by hydrogenating and gasifying coal. The ARCH process can select three operation modes depending on which of SNG yield, thermal efficiency or BTX yield is targeted. With respect to promotion of coal utilization technologies, description is given on surveys on development of next generation technologies for coal utilization, and clean coal technology promotion projects. International coal utilization and application projects are also described. 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. The Case of Coal Water Slurry Fuel for Industrial Use in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Irfan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This research presents the case for design and development of Coal Water Slurry (CWS Plant for industrial use in Pakistan. After exclusive comparison between coal quality quantification for CWS it was found that Darra mines at Pakistan provide best coal for CWS. Highly volatile, A and B Bituminous coal and Sub-Bituminous coal is selected for making CWS because of its low Sulfur contents, Ash contents and high heating value through experimentation. The purpose of this research was to present a complete blue print for the production of coal water slurry fuel in Pakistan. The measured viscosity and heat contents of the tested CWS are of the order 490 mPa-sec and 23.8 KJ/kg, respectively.

  11. Characteristics of Pyrolytic Topping in Fluidized Bed for Different Volatile Coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, R.; Dong, L.; Xu, G. W.

    Coal is generally combusted or gasified directly to destroy completely the chemical structures, such as aromatic rings containing in volatile coals including bituminite and lignite. Coal topping refers to a process that extracts chemicals with aromatic rings from such volatile coals in advance of combustion or gasification and thereby takes advantage of the value of coal as a kind of chemical structure resource. CFB boiler is the coal utilization facility that can be easily retrofitted to implement coal topping. A critical issue for performing coal topping is the choice of the pyrolytic reactor that can be different types. The present study concerns fluidized bed reactor that has rarely been tested for use in coal topping. Two different types of coals, one being Xiaolongtan (XLT) lignite and the other Shanxi (SX) bituminous, were tested to clarify the yield and composition of pyrolysis liquid and gas under conditions simulating actual operations. The results showed that XLT lignite coals had the maximum tar yield in 823-873K and SX bituminite realized its highest tar yield in 873-923K. Overall, lignite produced lower tar yield than bituminous coal. The pyrolysis gas from lignite coals contained more CO and CO2 and less CH4, H2 and C2+C3 (C2H4, C2H6, C3H6, C3H8) components comparing to that from bituminous coal. TG-FTIR analysis of tars demonstrated that for different coals there are different amounts of typical chemical species. Using coal ash of CFB boiler, instead of quartz sand, as the fluidized particles decreased the yields of both tar and gas for all the tested coals. Besides, pyrolysis in a reaction atmosphere simulating the pyrolysis gas (instead of N2) resulted also in higher production of pyrolysis liquid.

  12. A new approach to study fast pyrolysis of pulverized coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.; Yao, J.; Lin, W. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Chemical Metallurgy Fast Reactions Laboratory, Beijing, BJ (China)

    2002-07-01

    An experimental study of the effects of varying bed temperature and coal particle size on the fast pyrolysis of pulverized coal in a downer reactor is described. A Datong bituminous coal (particle size 0.5 and 0.34 mm) was studied at temperatures ranging from 592{sup o} C to 720{sup o} C. The experiments were conducted in a batch apparatus. An on-line gas analyzer was used to measure carbon dioxide release curves. The experimental data were used to develop a pyrolysis model that quantifies the fast heating of fine coal particles. 14 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. STUDY ON THE INFLUENCE OF WETTING HEAT ON COAL SLURRYABILITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱书全; 付晓恒; 刘昀; 王祖讷; 李颖

    1997-01-01

    Wetting Heat of various ranks of coals in water was measured by using SETARAM C80D Calorimeter. The data were correlated to coals' slurryability which is characterized by the solid load at the viscosity of 1 Pa·s and 25℃. The results showed that the heat of wetting by water decreases as coal rank increases in the range of brawn coal to bituminous coal with carbon content of 89%~90% (daf), and then, increases a little for anthracite. This trend fitted well to the relationship of slurryability to coal rank. The heat of wetting was also correlated to the inherent moisture content and the oxygen content of coal, which are commonly considered as slurryability indication parameters. Hence, the wetting heat is another measure of coal's slurryability.

  14. The potential risk of environmental contamination by mercury contained in Polish coal mining waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Antoszczyszyn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains reference literature analysis concerning mercury content in Polish bituminous coal and post-mining waste as well as the impact of mercury content on the environment. The aim of the paper was to determine the occurrence of the risk of contamination of the environment with mercury compounds found in demolition bituminous coal landfills. Mercury, due to its toxic properties has been classified among the most dangerous substances to human health. There are three groups of sources of mercury release into the environment: natural, anthropogenic and remission. Coal mining, its processing and use in the energy sector has the greatest relevance regarding the pollution of the environment with mercury compounds in Poland. A review of reference literature shows that the average content of mercury in Polish bituminous coal varies within a wide range of 41–399 ppb, which is conditional on the origin, age and type of coal. The production of coal has led to a number of facilities in the form of structurally and age-varied landfills, heaps and mining waste dumps. The content of mercury in post-mining waste is in the range from approximately 55 to 380 ppb. The problem of environmental contamination with mercury has attracted considerable interest due to the effects that its concentration have in the biosphere. On the basis of the existing data it has been found that the content of mercury in soils in areas degraded by mining and processing of coal is even 10–16 times higher, compared to the geochemical background. It is necessary to conduct research in this area due to the limited results of research on mercury content in deposited waste from the preparation and flotation of Polish bituminous coals and the potential harmful effect of mercury on the environment. The paper is dedicated to the mercury content in waste from the extraction and processing of bituminous coal.

  15. Coal, culture and community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    16 papers are presented with the following titles: the miners; municipalisation and the millenium - Bolton-upon-Dearne Urban District Council 1899-1914; the traditional working class community revisited; the cultural capital of coal mining communities; activities, strike-breakers and coal communities; the limits of protest - media coverage of the Orgreave picket during the miners` strike; in defence of home and hearth? Families, friendships and feminism in mining communities; young people`s attitudes to the police in mining communities; the determinants of productivity growth in the British coal mining industry, 1976-1989; strategic responses to flexibility - a case study in coal; no coal turned in Yorkshire?; the North-South divide in the Central Coalfields; the psychological effects of redundancy and worklessness - a case study from the coalfields; the Dearne Valley initiative; the future under labour: and coal, culture and the community.

  16. 平朔矿区煤中矿物分布及赋存特征研究%Study on Mineral Distribution and Deposition Features of Coal Seam in Pingshuo Mining Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白向飞; 王越

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the ash behavior features of coal in Pingshuo Mining Area and to provide the basis to the pollution control of the trace elements,a reflected-light microscope,scanning electron microscope and other means were applied to study the distribution and deposition features of the clay mineral,aluminium hydroxide mineral,calcite,siderite,pyrite and other minerals in No.4 coal seam of Pingshuo Mining Area.The paper also had a deep analysis on the distribution features of the dispersed minerals and trace elements in the clay mineral in coal of Pingshuo Mining Area as well as the paragenetic and metasomatism function between each mineral.The study showed that the clay mineral in coal of Pingshuo Mining Area mainly would have two different optical properties.The Si/Al atomic ratio in two clay minerals was close and there was a small difference in the mineral composition.The kaolinite was the mineral mainly in the composition of the clay.The aluminium hydroxide mineral was the typical mineral type in Permian coal of Pingshuo Mining Area.In comparison with coal in other areas,Al203 was the important sources in the ash and had a close paragenetic with calcite,pyrite and other minerals.%为研究平朔矿区煤中煤灰行为特性,为微量元素污染控制提供依据,采用反射偏光显微镜和扫描电镜等手段,对平朔矿区4号煤层中黏土矿物、铝的氢氧化物矿物、方解石、菱铁矿和黄铁矿等矿物的分布和赋存特征进行了研究,同时深入分析了平朔矿区煤中黏土矿物中分散矿物及微量元素的分布特征,以及各种矿物之间的共生、交代作用.研究表明,平朔矿区煤中的黏土矿物主要呈现2种不同的光学性质,但2种黏土矿物中的Si/Al原子比相近,矿物成分差别不大,均以高岭石黏土矿物为主;铝的氢氧化物矿物是平朔二叠纪煤中有代表性的矿物类型,在其他地区煤中比较少见,是煤灰中Al203的重要来源,且与方解石、黄铁矿等矿物密切共生.

  17. Stress-strain response of pre-compacted granular coal samples exposed to CO2, CH4, He and Ar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergen, F. van; Hol, S.; Spiers, C.

    2011-01-01

    The interaction between supercritical carbon dioxide and coal has been the subject of many studies in recent years. This paper reports two different types of swelling experiments, one on confined and one on unconfined samples of pre-pressed, crushed bituminous coal, performed at gas or fluid

  18. Gene-expression profiling of buccal epithelium among non-smoking women exposed to household air pollution from smoky coal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Teresa W; Vermeulen, Roel C H; Hu, Wei; Liu, Gang; Xiao, Xiaohui; Alekseyev, Yuriy; Xu, Jun; Reiss, Boris; Steiling, Katrina; Downward, George S; Silverman, Debra T; Wei, Fusheng; Wu, Guoping; Li, Jihua; Lenburg, Marc E; Rothman, Nathaniel; Spira, Avrum; Lan, Qing

    2015-01-01

    In China's rural counties of Xuanwei and Fuyuan, lung cancer rates are among the highest in the world. While the elevated disease risk in this population has been linked to the usage of smoky (bituminous) coal as compared to smokeless (anthracite) coal, the underlying molecular changes associated

  19. Mineralogy and geochemistry of a superhigh-organic-sulfur coal, Yanshan Coalfield, Yunnan, China: Evidence for a volcanic ash component and influence by submarine exhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, S.; Ren, D.; Zhou, Y.; Chou, C.-L.; Wang, X.; Zhao, L.; Zhu, Xudong

    2008-01-01

    The mineralogy and geochemistry of a superhigh-organic-sulfur (SHOS) coal of Late Permian age from the Yanshan Coalfield, Yunnan Province, southwestern China, have been studied using optical microscope, low-temperature ashing plus X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscope equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer, a sequential chemical extraction procedure, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The M9 Coal from the Yanshan Coalfield is a SHOS coal that has a total sulfur content of 10.12%-11.30% and an organic sulfur content of 8.77%-10.30%. The minerals in the coal consist mainly of high-temperature quartz, sanidine, albite, muscovite, illite, pyrite, and trace amounts of kaolinite, plagioclase, akermanite, rutile, and dawsonite. As compared with ordinary worldwide (bituminous coals and anthracite) and Chinese coals, the M9 Coal is remarkably enriched in B (268????g/g), F (841????g/g), V (567????g/g), Cr (329????g/g), Ni (73.9????g/g), Mo (204????g/g), and U (153????g/g). In addition, elements including Se (25.2????g/g), Zr (262????g/g), Nb (20.1????g/g), Cd (2.07????g/g), and Tl (2.03????g/g) are also enriched in the coal. Occurrence of high-temperature quartz, sanidine, muscovite, and illite in the M9 Coal is evidence that there is a volcanic ash component in the coal that was derived from acid volcanic ashes fallen into the swamp during peat accumulation. Occurrence of albite and dawsonite in the coal and strong enrichment of some elements, including F, S, V, Cr, Ni, Mo and U, are attributed to the influence by submarine exhalation which invaded along with seawater into the anoxic peat swamp. Abundances of lithophile elements, including rare earth elements, Nb, Y, Zr, and TiO2, indicate that the silicate minerals in the coal were derived from the northern Vietnam Upland to the south of the basin. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Reuse of ash coal in the formulation of mortars; Reaproveitamento de cinzas de carvao mineral na formulacao de argamassas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, J.S.; Souza, C.A.G.; Souza, J.A.S., E-mail: jacilene_s@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: celioag@ufpa.br, E-mail: jass@ufpa.br [Programa de Pos Graduacao em Engenharia Quimica, Universidade Federal do Para, UFPA/PPEQ, Belem, PA (Brazil)

    2012-04-15

    This paper aims to study the ash incorporation from the combustion of coal in fluidized bed boilers, in production of mortar, replacing part of cement. Specimens were prepared using Portland cement to the specifications CPII-E-32 of normal characteristics and classification of sand below 100 mesh. Blends in the 4:1 ratio, that is, 4 parts of aggregate to 1 part of cement, with insertion of ashes in the proportions 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50%. The mortar was developed in mixing and casting was made in a mold of 5 cm x 10 cm. The behavior of compressive strength was evaluated after 28 days; the strength decreases with increasing percentage of ash. Additional analysis was carried out by X-ray diffraction, and it was found that the substitution of this waste can be successfully used in mortars with blends of up to 30%. (author)

  1. Inventario mundial de la calidad del carbon mineral (WoCQI) [The world coal quality inventory (WoCQI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelman, R.B.; Lovern, V.S.

    2001-01-01

    Los oficiales encargados de la politica comercial de cada pais requieren informacion clara y precisa sobre el recurso del carbon mineral, particularmente sobre sus propiedades y caracteristicas, para tomar decisiones bien fundamentadas con respecto al mejor uso de los recursos naturales, necesidades de importacion y oportunidades de exportacion, objetivos de politica interna y externa, oportunidades de transferencia tecnologica, posibilidades de inversion externa, estudios ambientales y de salud, y asuntos relacionados con el uso de productos secundarios y su disposicion.

  2. Integral Characteristics of Stability of Coal-Water Slurries and Coal-Water Slurries Containing Petrochemicals By Evaluation of Separation Into Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitrienko Margarita A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For wide use of coal and oil processing wastes in heat power industry we investigated the structural stability of coal-water slurries (CWS and coal-water slurries containing petrochemicals (CWSP. Three methods of evaluating slurry stability were considered. The method of evaluation of separation (into layers of the slurry was chosen to determine the stability of fuel compositions based on bituminous and brown coal, filter cakes of bituminous coals, waste motor, turbine, transformer, compressor oils, oil, oiled mixture and mazut. The experiments shown, that the addition of waste oils (with mass fraction of 10 % to investigated fuel compositions leads to increase of slurry segmental stability is almost by 2 times.

  3. Evaluation of the Properties of Bituminous Concrete Prepared from Brick-Stone Mix Aggregate

    OpenAIRE

    Dipankar Sarkar; Manish Pal; Sarkar, Ashoke K.; Umesh Mishra

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes an investigation into mechanical properties of brick-stone bituminous concrete mix. The effect of brick-stone mix on various mechanical properties of the bituminous concrete such as Marshall stability, flow, Marshall Quotient (stability to flow ratio), Indirect Tensile Strength, stripping, rutting, and fatigue life of bituminous concrete overlay has been evaluated. In this study over-burnt brick aggregate (OBBA) and stone aggregate (SA) have been mixed in different ratios ...

  4. Formation of fine particles in co-combustion of coal and solid recovered fuel in a pulverized coal-fired power station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Pedersen, Anne Juul; Glarborg, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Fine particles formed from combustion of a bituminous coal and co-combustion of coal with 7 th% (thermal percentage) solid recovered fuel (SRF) in a pulverized coal-fired power plant were sampled and characterized in this study. The particles from dedicated coal combustion and co-combustion both...... appear to be an important formation mechanism. The elemental composition of the particles from coal combustion showed that S and Ca were significantly enriched in ultrafine particles and P was also enriched considerably. However, compared with supermicron particles, the contents of Al, Si and K were...

  5. State coal profiles, January 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-02

    The purpose of State Coal Profiles is to provide basic information about the deposits, production, and use of coal in each of the 27 States with coal production in 1992. Although considerable information on coal has been published on a national level, there is a lack of a uniform overview for the individual States. This report is intended to help fill that gap and also to serve as a framework for more detailed studies. While focusing on coal output, State Coal Profiles shows that the coal-producing States are major users of coal, together accounting for about three-fourths of total US coal consumption in 1992. Each coal-producing State is profiled with a description of its coal deposits and a discussion of the development of its coal industry. Estimates of coal reserves in 1992 are categorized by mining method and sulfur content. Trends, patterns, and other information concerning production, number of mines, miners, productivity, mine price of coal, disposition, and consumption of coal are detailed in statistical tables for selected years from 1980 through 1992. In addition, coal`s contribution to the State`s estimated total energy consumption is given for 1991, the latest year for which data are available. A US summary of all data is provided for comparing individual States with the Nation as a whole. Sources of information are given at the end of the tables.

  6. Peru: coal over the past three years: future trends. El desarrollo de la situacion del carbon en el Peru durante los ultimos tres anos y su evolucion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunin Borkoroski, E.; Goluchoweska, K.

    1989-01-01

    In 1985, annual coal production in Peru reached 150 to 200 mt and has since remained at roughly the same level. The coal comes from between 50 and 100 small and sometimes rather antiquated mining units which are run by small firms or individuals. Only a handful of coal mining operations are run by large companies and these too are small units. 85% of production is anthracite and the remainder bituminous coal. Only in rare cases is lignite or graphite mined and this only in very small quantities. Anthracite is mined in the Libertad, Ancash and Cajamarca departments, bituminous coal in Pasco and Junin and both types of coal in Lima and Arequipa. Current production patterns do not reflect the distribution and abundance of the coal. Coal has been found nearly everywhere in Peru and appears to have great potential whereas measured reserves are minimal and scattered across the country.

  7. CO2 capture using fly ash from coal fired power plant and applications of CO2-captured fly ash as a mineral admixture for concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriruang, Chaichan; Toochinda, Pisanu; Julnipitawong, Parnthep; Tangtermsirikul, Somnuk

    2016-04-01

    The utilization of fly ash as a solid sorbent material for CO2 capture via surface adsorption and carbonation reaction was evaluated as an economically feasible CO2 reduction technique. The results show that fly ash from a coal fired power plant can capture CO2 up to 304.7 μmol/g fly ash, consisting of 2.9 and 301.8 μmol/g fly ash via adsorption and carbonation, respectively. The CO2 adsorption conditions (temperature, pressure, and moisture) can affect CO2 capture performance of fly ash. The carbonation of CO2 with free CaO in fly ashes was evaluated and the results indicated that the reaction consumed most of free CaO in fly ash. The fly ashes after CO2 capture were further used for application as a mineral admixture for concrete. Properties such as water requirement, compressive strength, autoclave expansion, and carbonation depth of mortar and paste specimens using fly ash before and after CO2 capture were tested and compared with material standards. The results show that the expansion of mortar specimens using fly ash after CO2 capture was greatly reduced due to the reduction of free CaO content in the fly ash compared to the expansion of specimens using fresh fly ash. There were no significant differences in the water requirement and compressive strength of specimens using fly ash, before and after CO2 capture process. The results from this study can lead to an alternative CO2 capture technique with doubtless utilization of fly ash after CO2 capture as a mineral admixture for concrete.

  8. Flash hydropyrolysis of coal. Quarterly report No. 9, April 1-June 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-10-01

    Both the North Dakota lignite and New Mexico sub-bituminous coal have been hydrogasified in the Flash Hydropyrolysis unit with yields ranging up to about 85 to 90% conversion of the available carbon at 2500 psi and 875 to 900/sup 0/C. The lignite appears to be less reactive at lower pressure than the sub-bituminous coal, producing an average of 40% gaseous yield at 1000 psi and 900/sup 0/C while the sub-bituminous produced over 50%. The reactivity of both coals is dependent on the hydrogen partial pressure but does not appear to be affected by H/sub 2//coal feed ratio. When the H/sub 2//coal ratio was reduced to 0.05 and sub-bituminous coal was run at 2500 psi and 875/sup 0/C, a high methane concentration of 57% was achieved. However, the yield or conversion of carbon to gas was limited to 30% which may be attributed to the reduction in hydrogen partial pressure during the run. Further work is being planned to obtain additional data at the lower pressure and H/sub 2//coal feed ratios. Illinois No. 6 coal, a caking bituminous, has been successfully run in the experimental equipment both treated with calcium and untreated. A reaction model, previously developed, has been modified and is being fitted to all the lignite data to produce one consistent set of pre-exponential factors and activation energies for the reaction rate equations. The experimental equipment is being modified to allow varying feed composition and especially introduction of steam into the feed gas.

  9. Fly ash from a Mexican mineral coal. II. Source of W zeolite and its effectiveness in arsenic (V) adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, Adriana [CINVESTAV IPN-Unidad Saltillo, Carretera Saltillo-Monterrey Km 13.5, C.P. 25900, Ramos Arizpe, Coahuila (Mexico); Gamero, Procoro, E-mail: pgamerom@hotmail.com [CINVESTAV IPN-Unidad Saltillo, Carretera Saltillo-Monterrey Km 13.5, C.P. 25900, Ramos Arizpe, Coahuila (Mexico); Almanza, Jose Manuel [CINVESTAV IPN-Unidad Saltillo, Carretera Saltillo-Monterrey Km 13.5, C.P. 25900, Ramos Arizpe, Coahuila (Mexico); Vargas, Alfredo; Montoya, Ascencion [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas 152, G.A. Madero, C.P. 07730, Distrito Federal (Mexico); Vargas, Gregorio [CINVESTAV IPN-Unidad Saltillo, Carretera Saltillo-Monterrey Km 13.5, C.P. 25900, Ramos Arizpe, Coahuila (Mexico); Izquierdo, Maria [Instituto de Ciencias de la Tierra ' Jaume Almera' , CSIC, C/Luis Sole Sabaris, s/n 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    Coal-fired plants in Coahuila (Mexico) produce highly reactive fly ash (MFA), which is used in a one-step process as a raw material in producing zeolite. We explored two routes in the synthesis of zeolite: (a) direct MFA zeolitization, which resulted in the formation of W zeolite with KOH and analcime with NaOH and (b) a MFA fusion route, which resulted in the formation of zeolite W or chabazite with KOH and zeolite X or P with NaOH. No residual crystalline phases were present. When LiOH was employed, ABW zeolite with quartz and mullite were obtained. For both zeolitization routes, the nature of the alkali (KOH, NaOH, LiOH), the alkali/MFA ratio (0.23-1.46), and the crystallization temperature and time (90-175 {sup o}C; 8-24 h) were evaluated. Additionally, the effect of temperature and time on MFA fusion was studied. W zeolite was obtained by both zeolitization methods. The direct route is preferred because it is a straightforward method using soft reaction conditions that results in a high yield of low cost zeolites with large crystal agglomerates. It was demonstrated that aluminum modified W zeolite has the ability to remove 99% of the arsenic (V) from an aqueous solution of Na{sub 2}HAsO{sub 4}.7H{sub 2}O originally containing 740 ppb.

  10. Fly ash from a Mexican mineral coal. II. Source of W zeolite and its effectiveness in arsenic (V) adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Adriana; Gamero, Prócoro; Almanza, José Manuel; Vargas, Alfredo; Montoya, Ascención; Vargas, Gregorio; Izquierdo, María

    2010-09-15

    Coal-fired plants in Coahuila (Mexico) produce highly reactive fly ash (MFA), which is used in a one-step process as a raw material in producing zeolite. We explored two routes in the synthesis of zeolite: (a) direct MFA zeolitization, which resulted in the formation of W zeolite with KOH and analcime with NaOH and (b) a MFA fusion route, which resulted in the formation of zeolite W or chabazite with KOH and zeolite X or P with NaOH. No residual crystalline phases were present. When LiOH was employed, ABW zeolite with quartz and mullite were obtained. For both zeolitization routes, the nature of the alkali (KOH, NaOH, LiOH), the alkali/MFA ratio (0.23-1.46), and the crystallization temperature and time (90-175 degrees C; 8-24 h) were evaluated. Additionally, the effect of temperature and time on MFA fusion was studied. W zeolite was obtained by both zeolitization methods. The direct route is preferred because it is a straightforward method using soft reaction conditions that results in a high yield of low cost zeolites with large crystal agglomerates. It was demonstrated that aluminum modified W zeolite has the ability to remove 99% of the arsenic (V) from an aqueous solution of Na(2)HAsO(4).7H(2)O originally containing 740 ppb.

  11. 煤矿接尘工人职业任务现状调查研究%Current occupational tasks of dust exposed coal miners: a cross-sectional study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱婷娟; 郭支喜; 郭红梅; 李秀萍; 王晓成; 高彩虹; 宋平平; 余红梅

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨煤矿接尘工人职业任务与社会人口学、生活习惯、疾病史、职业因素、工作特征的关系.方法 采用分层整群抽样方法抽取山西省煤矿工人2300名进行一般情况问卷和职业任务量表调查.结果 煤矿工人职业任务的重点人群特征为:年龄>40岁,来自市区,经济状况较差,吸烟,饮酒,身体状况较差,井下工作、接尘时间>6年,工作危险度大,社会地位较低等.结论 煤矿接尘工人面临着较重的职业任务,可制定相应的卫生政策减轻煤矿工人职业任务.%Objective To analyze the correlation between occupational tasks and sociodemographic factors, living habits, disease history, occupational factors and working conditions in dust exposed coal miners. Methods We did a general condition questionnaire and occupational task scale survey on 2300 coal miners via stratified sampling in Shanxi Province. Results The characteristics of occupational task in coal miners included >40 years of age, living in urban areas, poor economic condition, smoking, alcohol drinking, poor physical conditions, working underground, having dust exposure of >6 years, engaging in risky work and lower social status. Conclusion Health policies should be implemented to reduce occupational tasks of coal miner as a result of current challenging burden.

  12. Kinetics of coal pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seery, D.J.; Freihaut, J.D.; Proscia, W.M. (United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (USA)); Howard, J.B.; Peters, W.; Hsu, J.; Hajaligol, M.; Sarofim, A. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (USA)); Jenkins, R.; Mallin, J.; Espindola-Merin, B. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (USA)); Essenhigh, R.; Misra, M.K. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (USA))

    1989-07-01

    This report contains results of a coordinated, multi-laboratory investigation of coal devolatilization. Data is reported pertaining to the devolatilization for bituminous coals over three orders of magnitude in apparent heating rate (100 to 100,000 + {degree}C/sec), over two orders of magnitude in particle size (20 to 700 microns), final particle temperatures from 400 to 1600{degree}C, heat transfer modes ranging from convection to radiative, ambient pressure ranging from near vacuum to one atmosphere pressure. The heat transfer characteristics of the reactors are reported in detail. It is assumed the experimental results are to form the basis of a devolatilization data base. Empirical rate expressions are developed for each phase of devolatilization which, when coupled to an awareness of the heat transfer rate potential of a particular devolatilization reactor, indicate the kinetics emphasized by a particular system reactor plus coal sample. The analysis indicates the particular phase of devolatilization that will be emphasized by a particular reactor type and, thereby, the kinetic expressions appropriate to that devolatilization system. Engineering rate expressions are developed from the empirical rate expressions in the context of a fundamental understanding of coal devolatilization developed in the course of the investigation. 164 refs., 223 figs., 44 tabs.

  13. CO2 Sequestration in Unmineable Coal Seams: Potential Environmental Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedges, S.W.; Soong, Yee; McCarthy Jones, J.R.; Harrison, D.K.; Irdi, G.A.; Frommell, E.A.; Dilmore, R.M.; Pique, P.J.; Brown, T.D

    2005-09-01

    An initial investigation into the potential environmental impacts of CO2 sequestration in unmineable coal seams has been conducted, focusing on changes in the produced water during enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) production using a CO2 injection process (CO2-ECBM). Two coals have been used in this study, the medium volatile bituminous Upper Freeport coal (APCS 1) of the Argonne Premium Coal Samples series, and an as-mined Pittsburgh #8 coal, which is a high volatile bituminous coal. Coal samples were reacted with either synthetic produced water or field collected produced water and gaseous carbon dioxide at 40 οC and 50 bar to evaluate the potential for mobilizing toxic metals during CO2-ECBM/sequestration. Microscopic and x-ray diffraction analysis of the post-reaction coal samples clearly show evidence of chemical reaction, and chemical analysis of the produced water shows substantial changes in composition. These results suggest that changes to the produced water chemistry and the potential for mobilizing toxic trace elements from coalbeds are important factors to be considered when evaluating deep, unmineable coal seams for CO2 sequestration.

  14. Enhanced Combustion Low NOx Pulverized Coal Burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Towle; Richard Donais; Todd Hellewell; Robert Lewis; Robert Schrecengost

    2007-06-30

    For more than two decades, Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom) has developed a range of low cost, infurnace technologies for NOx emissions control for the domestic U.S. pulverized coal fired boiler market. This includes Alstom's internally developed TFS 2000{trademark} firing system, and various enhancements to it developed in concert with the U.S. Department of Energy. As of the date of this report, more than 270 units representing approximately 80,000 MWe of domestic coal fired capacity have been retrofit with Alstom low NOx technology. Best of class emissions range from 0.18 lb/MMBtu for bituminous coal to 0.10 lb/MMBtu for subbituminous coal, with typical levels at 0.24 lb/MMBtu and 0.13 lb/MMBtu, respectively. Despite these gains, NOx emissions limits in the U.S. continue to ratchet down for new and existing boiler equipment. On March 10, 2005, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR). CAIR requires 25 Eastern states to reduce NOx emissions from the power generation sector by 1.7 million tons in 2009 and 2.0 million tons by 2015. Low cost solutions to meet such regulations, and in particular those that can avoid the need for a costly selective catalytic reduction system (SCR), provide a strong incentive to continue to improve low NOx firing system technology to meet current and anticipated NOx control regulations. The overall objective of the work is to develop an enhanced combustion, low NOx pulverized coal burner, which, when integrated with Alstom's state-of-the-art, globally air staged low NOx firing systems will provide a means to achieve: Less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a high volatile Eastern or Western bituminous coal, Less than 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a subbituminous coal, NOx reduction costs at least 25% lower than the costs of an SCR, Validation of the NOx control technology developed through large (15 MWt) pilot scale demonstration, and Documentation required for

  15. Organic petrology of Paleocene Marcelina Formation coals, Paso Diablo mine, western Venezuela: Tectonic controls on coal type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, P.C.; Martinez, M.

    2007-01-01

    About 7??Mt of high volatile bituminous coal are produced annually from the four coal zones of the Upper Paleocene Marcelina Formation at the Paso Diablo open-pit mine of western Venezuela. As part of an ongoing coal quality study, we have characterized twenty-two coal channel samples from the mine using organic petrology techniques. Samples also were analyzed for proximate-ultimate parameters, forms of sulfur, free swelling index, ash fusion temperatures, and calorific value. Six of the samples represent incremental benches across the 12-13??m thick No. 4 bed, the stratigraphically lowest mined coal, which is also mined at the 10??km distant Mina Norte open-pit. Organic content of the No. 4 bed indicates an upward increase of woody vegetation and/or greater preservation of organic material throughout the life of the original mire(s). An upward increase in telovitrinite and corresponding decrease in detrovitrinite and inertinite illustrate this trend. In contrast, stratigraphically higher coal groups generally exhibit a 'dulling upward' trend. The generally high inertinite content, and low ash yield and sulfur content, suggest that the Paso Diablo coals were deposited in rain-fed raised mires, protected from clastic input and subjected to frequent oxidation and/or moisture stress. However, the two thinnest coal beds (both 0.7??m thick) are each characterized by lower inertinite and higher telovitrinite content relative to the rest of Paso Diablo coal beds, indicative of less well-established raised mire environments prior to drowning. Foreland basin Paleocene coals of western Venezuela, including the Paso Diablo deposit and time-correlative coal deposits of the Ta??chira and Me??rida Andes, are characterized by high inertinite and consistently lower ash and sulfur relative to Eocene and younger coals of the area. We interpret these age-delimited coal quality characteristics to be due to water availability as a function of the tectonic control of subsidence rate. It

  16. Characterization of Some Nigerian Coals for Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Chukwu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Five coal samples from Odagbo (Kogi State, Owukpa (Benue State, Ezimo (Enugu State, Amansiodo (Enugu State, and Inyi (Enugu State of Nigerian coal deposits were subjected to proximate analysis, ultimate analysis, calorific value determination, and petrographic and thermogravimetric analysis to determine their suitability for power generation. Based on results of tests carried out, Amansiodo coal is a bituminous, low sulphur, and medium ash coal, while Owukpa coal is a subbituminous A, low sulphur, low ash coal rich in huminites, Odagbo coal is a subbituminous B, medium sulphur, low ash coal rich in huminites, Ezimo coal is a subbituminous C, low sulphur, high ash coal, and Inyi coal is a subbituminous C, low sulphur, high ash coal. Between Odagbo and Owukpa subbituminous coals, Owukpa has a lower ignition temperature (283.63°C due to its higher volatile matter content (39.1%. However, Ezimo subbituminous coal, which has a lower volatile matter (31.1%, unexpectedly has the same ignition temperature as Owukpa (283.63°C due to its higher liptinite content (7.2% when compared with that of Owukpa (2.9%. The ease of combustion of the coal samples in decreasing order is Odagbo < Owukpa < Inyi < Ezimo < Amansiodo.

  17. Coking coals of Mongolia: Distribution and resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdenetsogt, Bat-Orshikh; Jargal, Luvsanchultem

    2016-04-01

    The coal deposits of Mongolia tend to become younger from west to east and can be subdivided into two provinces, twelve basins, and three areas. Main controlling factor of coal rank is the age of coal bearing sequences. Western Mongolian coal-bearing province contains mostly high rank bituminous coal in strata from Late Carboniferous. The basins in southern Mongolia and the western part of central Mongolia have low rank bituminous coal in strata from the Permian. The northern and central Mongolian basins contain mainly Jurassic subbituminous coal, whereas the Eastern Mongolian province has Lower Cretaceous lignite. Mongolian known coking coal reserves are located in western, southern and northern Mongolia and related to Carboniferous, Permian and Jurassic sequences, respectively. Pennsylvanian Nuurstkhotgor coal deposit is located in northwestern Mongolia (in Western Mongolian coal-bearing province). The coals have 1-7.5 crucible swelling number (CSN) and 0-86 G-index. Vitrinite reflectance value (Rmax in oil) varies from 0.7% to 1.2% and sulfur content is low, ranging from 0.3% to 0.6% with an average of 0.4%. Coal reserve is estimated to be 1.0 billion ton, of which half is coking coal. Upper Permian Khurengol deposit is situated in western Mongolia (in Western Mongolian coal-bearing province). CSN and G-index of coal are 8-9 and 54-99, respectively. The coals have Rmax of 1.1 to 1.7% (average 1.4%) and sulfur content of 0.2 to 0.6% (average 0.4%). Coking coal reserve of the deposit is estimated to be 340 million ton. Upper Permian Tavantolgoi, the largest coking coal deposit, lies in southern Mongolia (in South Gobi coal-bearing basin). The coals have CSN of 1 to 7.5 and Rmax of 0.7% to 1.2%. Sulfur content is low, ranging from 0.5% to 0.9%. Coal reserve is estimated to be 6.0 billion ton, of which 2.0 billion ton is accounted as coking coal. Lower-Middle Jurassic Ovoot coal is located in northern Mongolia (in Orkhon-Selenge coal-bearing area). This is one of

  18. Drainage waters affected by pyrite oxidation in a coal mine in Galicia (NW Spain): composition and mineral stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monterroso, C.; Macias, F. [University of Santiago (Spain)

    1998-05-14

    The quality of the drainage water from the As Puentes lignite mine dump (Galicia, Spain) was evaluated along with the geochemical processes which determine its composition. Analysis of water form different areas of the dump was carried out at monthly intervals over a period of 2 years. In general, the water samples were characterised by the presence of elevated concentrations of Fe{sub 2}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and H{sup +}, liberated from the oxidation of pyrite, and of Si, Al, Ca, and Mg derived from the accelerated mineral hydrolysis. At the same time, very high concentrations of elements, in particular Mn, Zn, Ni and Co, which were liberated from both processes, were recorded. The best water quality was found in the most recently constructed areas of the dump.

  19. Plasma gasification of coal in different oxidants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matveev, I.B.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B. [Applied Plasma Technology, Mclean, VA (USA)

    2008-12-15

    Oxidant selection is the highest priority for advanced coal gasification-process development. This paper presents comparative analysis of the Powder River Basin bituminous-coal gasification processes for entrained-flow plasma gasifier. Several oxidants, which might be employed for perspective commercial applications, have been chosen, including air, steam/carbon-dioxide blend, carbon dioxide, steam, steam/air, steam/oxygen, and oxygen. Synthesis gas composition, carbon gasification degree, specific power consumptions, and power efficiency for these processes were determined. The influence of the selected oxidant composition on the gasification-process main characteristics have been investigated.

  20. Multi-Attribute Selection of Coal Center Location: A Case Study in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuakunrittiwong, T.; Ratanakuakangwan, S.

    2016-11-01

    Under Power Development Plan 2015, Thailand has to diversify its heavily gas-fired electricity generation. The main owner of electricity transmission grids is responsible to implement several coal-fired power plants with clean coal technology. To environmentally handle and economically transport unprecedented quantities of sub-bituminous and bituminous coal, a coal center is required. The location of such facility is an important strategic decision and a paramount to the success of the energy plan. As site selection involves many criteria, Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process or Fuzzy-AHP is applied to select the most suitable location among three candidates. Having analyzed relevant criteria and the potential alternatives, the result reveals that engineering and socioeconomic are important criteria and Map Ta Phut is the most suitable site for the coal center.

  1. Determination of Sectional Constancy of Organic Coal-Water Fuel Compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitrienko Margarita A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To use widespreadly the waste of coals and oils processing in the great and the small-scale power generation, the key parameter, which is sectional constancy of promising organic coal-water fuels (OCWF, was studied. The compo-sitions of OCWF from brown and bituminous coals, filter cakes, used motor, turbine and dielectrical oils, water-oil emul-sion and special wetting agent (plasticizer were investigated. Two modes of preparation were considered. They are with homogenizer and cavitator. It was established that the constancy did not exceed 5–7 days for the compositions of OCWF with brown coals, and 12–15 days for that compositions with bituminous coals and filter cakes. The injection of used oils in a composition of OCWF led to increase in viscosity of fuel compositions and their sectional constancy.

  2. Effect of intermolecular cohesion on coal liquefaction. 3. Reactivity of oxygen methylated coal; Sekitan teibunshika hanno ni okeru bunshikan gyoshuryoku no koka. 3. O-methyl ka tan no hanno tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, M.; Nagaishi, H.; Yoshida, T. [Hokkaido National Industrial Research Institute, Sapporo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    The reactivity of oxygen methylated coal was studied to control hydrogen bond in bituminous coal liquefaction and intermolecular cohesion such as van der Waals force. In experiment, crushed and dried Illinois coal of 100mesh or less was used as specimen, and oxygen methylated coal was prepared by Liotta`s method using tetrabutylammonium halide. Coal liquefaction was conducted in an electromagnetic agitation autoclave using tetralin solvent under initial hydrogen pressure of 100kg/cm{sup 2} while heating. The molecular weight distribution of the products obtained was measured by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) analysis. The experimental results are as follows. The effect of intermolecular cohesion in bituminous coal on the reactivity is mainly derived from decomposing reaction from preasphaltene to oil. Yields of oil fraction by methylation increase corresponding to release of intermolecular cohesion. Since the thermal release is promoted with temperature rise, the difference in yield due to different treatments decreases. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Alaska coal geology, resources, and coalbed methane potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Romeo M.; Stricker, Gary D.; Kinney, Scott A.

    2004-01-01

    Estimated Alaska coal resources are largely in Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks distributed in three major provinces. Northern Alaska-Slope, Central Alaska-Nenana, and Southern Alaska-Cook Inlet. Cretaceous resources, predominantly bituminous coal and lignite, are in the Northern Alaska-Slope coal province. Most of the Tertiary resources, mainly lignite to subbituminous coal with minor amounts of bituminous and semianthracite coals, are in the other two provinces. The combined measured, indicated, inferred, and hypothetical coal resources in the three areas are estimated to be 5,526 billion short tons (5,012 billion metric tons), which constitutes about 87 percent of Alaska's coal and surpasses the total coal resources of the conterminous United States by 40 percent. Coal mining has been intermittent in the Central Alaskan-Nenana and Southern Alaska-Cook Inlet coal provinces, with only a small fraction of the identified coal resource having been produced from some dozen underground and strip mines in these two provinces. Alaskan coal resources have a lower sulfur content (averaging 0.3 percent) than most coals in the conterminous United States are within or below the minimum sulfur value mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments. The identified resources are near existing and planned infrastructure to promote development, transportation, and marketing of this low-sulfur coal. The relatively short distances to countries in the west Pacific Rim make them more exportable to these countries than to the lower 48 States of the United States. Another untapped but potential resource of large magnitude is coalbed methane, which has been estimated to total 1,000 trillion cubic feet (28 trillion cubic meters) by T.N. Smith 1995, Coalbed methane potential for Alaska and drilling results for the upper Cook Inlet Basin: Intergas, May 15 - 19, 1995, Tuscaloosa, University of Alabama, p. 1 - 21.

  4. NO Reduction over Biomass and Coal Char during Simultaneous Combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Ke; Glarborg, Peter; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2013-01-01

    . The straw and bark chars showed higher reactivity, about a factor of 4–5, than bituminous char at 850 °C. The difference in reactivity between biomass char and bituminous char decreased with increasing reaction temperature. The reaction rate expressions for NO reduction during simultaneous combustion......This paper reports an experimental study of NO reduction over chars of straw, bark, bituminous coal, and lignite. The experiments were performed in a fixed bed reactor in the temperature range 850–1150 °C. The chars were generated by in situ pyrolysis at the reaction temperature to minimize further...... thermal deactivation. The rates of NO reduction over char were studied by char combustion experiments and O2-free experiments respectively. Two simple models were applied to interpret the data from the char combustion experiments. One model assumed that combustion and NO release take place uniformly...

  5. Coal char oxidation kinetics in air medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korotkikh Alexander G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of oxidation kinetics for three types of coal char with different carbon content in air is presented. The coal char powders of anthracite, bituminous T-grade coal and 2B-grade lignite with particle size less than 80 μm were tested. The coal char oxidation was researched by isothermal method via simultaneous TG-DSC analyzer Netzsch STA 449 Jupiter F3 in the temperature range of 1000–1200 °C. Measurements were carried out at ambient pressure. Volumetric flow rate of oxidizing medium into analyser chamber was 250 ml/min. Flow consisted of air and argon with volumetric ratio 24/1. Carbon average rate of oxidation reaction at each temperature were defined based on experimental results. Kinetic constants (the frequency factor and activation energy were defined for Arrhenius equation modified with three submodels: volumetric model, shrinking core model and random pore model. The activation energy values for anthracite are 1,6-1,7 times higher than for chars of bituminous coal and lignite.

  6. Transcriptome Analysis of Invasive Plants in Response to Mineral Toxicity of Reclaimed Coal-Mine Soil in the Appalachian Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saminathan, Thangasamy; Malkaram, Sridhar A; Patel, Dharmesh; Taylor, Kaitlyn; Hass, Amir; Nimmakayala, Padma; Huber, David H; Reddy, Umesh K

    2015-09-01

    Efficient postmining reclamation requires successful revegetation. By using RNA sequencing, we evaluated the growth response of two invasive plants, goutweed (Aegopodium podagraria L.) and mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris), grown in two Appalachian acid-mine soils (MS-I and -II, pH ∼ 4.6). Although deficient in macronutrients, both soils contained high levels of plant-available Al, Fe and Mn. Both plant types showed toxicity tolerance, but metal accumulation differed by plant and site. With MS-I, Al accumulation was greater for mugwort than goutweed (385 ± 47 vs 2151 ± 251 μg g-1). Al concentration was similar between mine sites, but its accumulation in mugwort was greater with MS-I than MS-II, with no difference in accumulation by site for goutweed. An in situ approach revealed deregulation of multiple factors such as transporters, transcription factors, and metal chelators for metal uptake or exclusion. The two plant systems showed common gene expression patterns for different pathways. Both plant systems appeared to have few common heavy-metal pathway regulators addressing mineral toxicity/deficiency in both mine sites, which implies adaptability of invasive plants for efficient growth at mine sites with toxic waste. Functional genomics can be used to screen for plant adaptability, especially for reclamation and phytoremediation of contaminated soils and waters.

  7. Seventh symposium on coal mine drainage research. NCA/BCR coal conference and Expo IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    The Seventh Symposium on Coal Mine Drainage Research, sponsored by the National Coal Association and Bituminous Coal Research, Inc., was held at the Kentucky Fair and Exposition Center, Louisville, Kentucky, October 18-20, 1977. Seventeen papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. Topics covered include chemical reactions of pyrite oxidation and acid formation in spoil banks, abandoned mines, etc., formation of small acid lakes from the drainage and their neutralization by natural and other neutralization measures, trace elements in acid mine drainage, ground water contamination, limnology, effects of surface mined ground reclamation and neutralization, water purification and treatment, mining and coal preparation plant waste disposal, ash and fly ash disposal (to minimize leaching from the wastes), runoff from large coal storage stockpiles during storms (prevention of environmental effects by collection and neutralization by passing through an ash pond). (LTN)

  8. 30 CFR 702.16 - Stockpiling of minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EXEMPTION FOR COAL EXTRACTION INCIDENTAL TO THE EXTRACTION OF OTHER MINERALS § 702.16 Stockpiling of minerals. (a) Coal. Coal extracted and stockpiled may be excluded fom the calculation of cumulative...-month supply of the coal required for future sale, transfer or use as calculated based upon the average...

  9. 30 CFR 206.464 - Value enhancement of marketable coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Value enhancement of marketable coal. 206.464... MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 206.464 Value enhancement of marketable coal. If, prior to use, sale, or other disposition, the lessee enhances the value of coal after the coal has been placed...

  10. 30 CFR 206.459 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 206.459 Section 206... MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 206.459 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b) When the...

  11. 30 CFR 206.260 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 206.260 Section 206... MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 206.260 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b) When the...

  12. 30 CFR 206.265 - Value enhancement of marketable coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Value enhancement of marketable coal. 206.265... MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 206.265 Value enhancement of marketable coal. If, prior to use, sale, or other disposition, the lessee enhances the value of coal after the coal has been placed...

  13. Sorption mechanism of solvent vapors to coals; Sekitan eno yobai joki no shuchaku kiko no kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, K.; Takanohashi, T.; Iino, M. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute for Chemical Reaction Science

    1996-10-28

    With an objective to clarify the interactions between micropore structure of coal and solvent reagents, a sorption experiment was carried out under solvent saturated vapor pressure. Low-volatile bituminous coal, Pocahontas No. 3 coal, has the aromatic ring structure developed, and makes solvent more difficult to diffuse into coal, hence sorption amount is small. Methanol has permeated since its polarity is high. High-volatile bituminous coal, Illinois No. 6 coal, makes solvent penetrate easily, and the sorption amount was large with both of aromatic and polar solvents. Since brown coal, Beulah Zap coal, contains a large amount of oxygen, and hydrogen bonding is predominant, sorption amount of cyclohexane and benzene having no polarity is small. Methanol diffuses while releasing hydrogen bond due to its polarity, and its sorption amount is large. A double sorption model is available, which expresses the whole sorption amount as a sum of physical sorption amount and amount of permeation into coal. This model was applied when it explained successfully the sorption behavior of the solvents relative to coals, excepting some of the systems. However, also observed were such abnormal behavior as sorption impediment due to interactions between coal surface and solvents, and permeation impediment due to hydroxyl groups inside the coals. 1 ref., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Capital cost: low and high sulfur coal plants; 800 MWe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    The Commercial Electric Power Cost Study for 800-MWe (Nominal) low- and high-sulfur coal plants consists of three volumes. (This the fourth subject in a series of eight performed in the Commercial Electric Power Cost Studies by the US NRC). The low-sulfur coal plant is described in Volumes I and II (this volume), while Volume III describes the high-sulfur coal plant. The design basis and cost estimate for the 801-MWe low-sulfur coal plant is presented in Volume I and the drawings, equipment list, and site description are contained in this document. The design basis, drawings, and summary cost estimate for a 794-MWe high-sulfur coal plant are presented in Volume III. This information was developed by redesigning the low-sulfur sub-bituminous coal plant for burning high-sulfur bituminous coal. The reference design includes a lime flue gas desulfurization system. These coal plants utilize a mechanical draft (wet) cooling tower system for condenser heat removal. Costs of alternate cooling systems are provided in Report No. 7 in this series of studies of costs of commercial electrical power plants.

  15. Evaluation of the Properties of Bituminous Concrete Prepared from Brick-Stone Mix Aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipankar Sarkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes an investigation into mechanical properties of brick-stone bituminous concrete mix. The effect of brick-stone mix on various mechanical properties of the bituminous concrete such as Marshall stability, flow, Marshall Quotient (stability to flow ratio, Indirect Tensile Strength, stripping, rutting, and fatigue life of bituminous concrete overlay has been evaluated. In this study over-burnt brick aggregate (OBBA and stone aggregate (SA have been mixed in different ratios (by weight such as 20 : 80, 40 : 60, 60 : 40, and 80 : 20, respectively. The laboratory results indicate that bituminous concrete, prepared by 20% brick aggregate and 80% stone aggregate, gives the highest Marshall stability. This bituminous concrete mix shows considerable improvement in various mechanical properties of the mix as compared to the other mixes.

  16. Geology and coal potential of Somaliland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.Y. Ali [Petroleum Institute, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2009-07-01

    Geological field mapping along with available geological and drilling data suggest that Somaliland (Northwestern Somalia) has favourable stratigraphy and structure for coal deposits. Lignitic to sub-bituminous coal deposits with ages from Jurassic to Oligocene-Miocene occur in various locations across the country including Hed-Hed valley south of Onkhor, Guveneh hills north of Las Dureh and Daban Basin southeast of Berbera. However, the coal occurrence at Hed-Hed has both the greatest thickness and highest quality. These deposits have the potential to provide an important alternative fuel resource which could alleviate the growing shortage of traditional fuels and assist in reducing the country's dependence on imported energy. However, further investigation, including drilling and laboratory analyses, still needs to be carried out, particularly on the Upper Cretaceous coal seams to evaluate the quality and resource potential of the deposits.

  17. Thermal properties of different rank coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serdar Yaman; Hanzade Haykiri-Acma [Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    Thermal properties of various coal samples which have different rank and petrography were investigated under both inert and oxidizing conditions up to 900{sup o}C in a thermal analysis system. Peat, anthracite, and bituminous coal samples from different countries and various lignites from Turkey such as Askale, Soma, and Elbistan were used. DTA (Differential Thermal Analysis) and TGA (Thermogravimetric Analysis) techniques were applied. DTG (Derivative Thermogravimetric) curves were derived and interpreted considering the physical and chemical properties, and the rank of coals. Pyrolytic chars obtained from the inert atmosphere experiments were examined applying SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) and XRD (X-ray Diffractometry) techniques. It was found that the thermal reactivity and the apparent thermal properties of different rank coals differ considerably under both conditions. 6 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Enzymantic Conversion of Coal to Liquid Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Troiano

    2011-01-31

    The work in this project focused on the conversion of bituminous coal to liquid hydrocarbons. The major steps in this process include mechanical pretreatment, chemical pretreatment, and finally solubilization and conversion of coal to liquid hydrocarbons. Two different types of mechanical pretreatment were considered for the process: hammer mill grinding and jet mill grinding. After research and experimentation, it was decided to use jet mill grinding, which allows for coal to be ground down to particle sizes of 5 {mu}m or less. A Fluid Energy Model 0101 JET-O-MIZER-630 size reduction mill was purchased for this purpose. This machine was completed and final testing was performed on the machine at the Fluid Energy facilities in Telford, PA. The test results from the machine show that it can indeed perform to the required specifications and is able to grind coal down to a mean particle size that is ideal for experimentation. Solubilization and conversion experiments were performed on various pretreated coal samples using 3 different approaches: (1) enzymatic - using extracellular Laccase and Manganese Peroxidase (MnP), (2) chemical - using Ammonium Tartrate and Manganese Peroxidase, and (3) enzymatic - using the live organisms Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Spectral analysis was used to determine how effective each of these methods were in decomposing bituminous coal. After analysis of the results and other considerations, such as cost and environmental impacts, it was determined that the enzymatic approaches, as opposed to the chemical approaches using chelators, were more effective in decomposing coal. The results from the laccase/MnP experiments and Phanerochaete chrysosporium experiments are presented and compared in this final report. Spectra from both enzymatic methods show absorption peaks in the 240nm to 300nm region. These peaks correspond to aromatic intermediates formed when breaking down the coal structure. The peaks then decrease in absorbance