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Sample records for biting flies culicoides

  1. Culicoides Biting Midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) of Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    Kibanga, Uganda Protectorate, A. D. Fraser , VIII- 10 (BMNH). n* _ ~~wnncic A mdilrm-Sized b ______ 5 __ ^_^--_-___ Aark hr~wn spcip. , ---- Females eyes...5,300 ft, S. A. Neave , biting hand at light (1930 hours), 21-28-V-11. Paratype: P, same data as holotype (BMNH). Culicoides julvtthorax (Austen...Intype: Q, vie, KI.uC, I_Jmiro; Uganda Protecto- rate, 3,700 ft elev., S. A. Neave , 1618-VIII-11 (BMNH). Culictides multiguttutu Goetghebuer 193.513

  2. The salivary secretome of the biting midge, Culicoides sonorensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Lehiy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae are hematophagous insects with over 1400 species distributed throughout the world. Many of these species are of particular agricultural importance as primary vectors of bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses, yet little is known about Culicoides genomics and proteomics. Detailed studies of members from other blood-feeding Dipteran families, including those of mosquito (Culicidae and black fly (Simuliidae, have shown that protein components within the insect’s saliva facilitate the blood feeding process. To determine the protein components in Culicoides sonorensis midges, secreted saliva was collected for peptide sequencing by tandem mass spectrometry. Forty-five secreted proteins were identified, including members of the D7 odorant binding protein family, Kunitz-like serine protease inhibitors, maltase, trypsin, and six novel proteins unique to C. sonorensis. Identifying the complex myriad of proteins in saliva from blood-feeding Dipteran species is critical for understanding their role in blood feeding, arbovirus transmission, and possibly the resulting disease pathogenesis.

  3. Molecular differentiation of Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from the subgenus Culicoides Latreille in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Sandra; Nielsen, Søren Achim; Pedersen, Henrik Skovgård

    2012-01-01

    Identification of Culicoides biting midges to species has attracted attention due to the recent outbreak of bluetongue disease in Northern Europe. Identification of Culicoides to species level has been based on morphological characters and is difficult as several species belonging to species...

  4. Swine farm infestation with Culicoides species (biting midges) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Collection of biting midges within a piggery farm using black-light suction traps revealed the presence of diverse species of Culicoides. Out of a total of one thousand four hundred and five (1,405) midges caught, one thousand three hundred and sixty-six (1,366) were identified as species in the genus Culicoides while the ...

  5. Biting Midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae: Culicoides Latr.) associated with livestock farms in the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Achim; Holm, Høgni; Overgaard Nielsen, Boy

    2017-01-01

    A large number of biting midges (Culicoides) were collected in light traps operating simultaneously outside and indside 25 Faroese byres. The catch comprised two species: C. (Culicoides) impunctatus Goetghebuer, 1920, accounting for >98% of all biting midges trapped, and C. (Oecacta...

  6. Culicoides obsoletus allergens for diagnosis of insect bite hypersensitivity in horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meide, van der N.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    AInsect Bite Hypersensitivity (IBH) is the most common skin allergy in horses and involves a Type I (IgE mediated) hypersensitivity reaction against bites of insects, mainly of the Culicoides species. Welfare of affected horses is seriously reduced and no fully curative treatment is yet

  7. Identity and diversity of blood meal hosts of biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae: Culicoides Latreille in Denmark

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    Lassen Sandra B

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Host preference studies in haematophagous insects e.g. Culicoides biting midges are pivotal to assess transmission routes of vector-borne diseases and critical for the development of veterinary contingency plans to identify which species should be included due to their risk potential. Species of Culicoides have been found in almost all parts of the world and known to live in a variety of habitats. Several parasites and viruses are transmitted by Culicoides biting midges including Bluetongue virus and Schmallenberg virus. The aim of the present study was to determine the identity and diversity of blood meals taken from vertebrate hosts in wild-caught Culicoides biting midges near livestock farms. Methods Biting midges were collected at weekly intervals for 20 weeks from May to October 2009 using light traps at four collection sites on the island Sealand, Denmark. Blood-fed female biting midges were sorted and head and wings were removed for morphological species identification. The thoraxes and abdomens including the blood meals of the individual females were subsequently subjected to DNA isolation. The molecular marker cytochrome oxidase I (COI barcode was applied to identify the species of the collected biting midges (GenBank accessions JQ683259-JQ683374. The blood meals were first screened with a species-specific cytochrome b primer pair for cow and if negative with a universal cytochrome b primer pair followed by sequencing to identify mammal or avian blood meal hosts. Results Twenty-four species of biting midges were identified from the four study sites. A total of 111,356 Culicoides biting midges were collected, of which 2,164 were blood-fed. Specimens of twenty species were identified with blood in their abdomens. Blood meal sources were successfully identified by DNA sequencing from 242 (76% out of 320 Culicoides specimens. Eight species of mammals and seven species of birds were identified as blood meal hosts. The

  8. The Potential Significance of Biting Midge (Culicoides Latreille ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Culicoides species are well-known as troublesome biters and transmitters of various diseases to man and animals. surveys in Nigeria show Culicoides species to be well-distributed throughout the vegetational zones. The possible direct and indirect effects of such a distribution on production are discussed.

  9. Community analysis of biting midges (Culicoides Latr.) on livestock farms in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Achim; Banta, Gary Thomas; Rasmussen, A.-M.

    2014-01-01

    This study presents descriptive statistics and community analysis of adult biting midges trapped at 16 livestock farms by means of light traps on Zealand and Lolland-Falster, Denmark. A total of 9,047 male and female Culicoides divided into 24 species, were caught. Biotic and abiotic factors...... and organic practices were tested significantly different. Total numbers of Culicoides individuals were higher on the organic farms than on the conventional farms. The larger loads of biting midges on the organic farms may be due to free-ranging animals that attracted the midges on pastures and carried them...

  10. Barcoding of biting midges in the genus Culicoides: a tool for species determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ander, M; Troell, K; Chirico, J

    2013-09-01

    Biting midges of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are insect vectors of economically important veterinary diseases such as African horse sickness virus and bluetongue virus. However, the identification of Culicoides based on morphological features is difficult. The sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI), referred to as DNA barcoding, has been proposed as a tool for rapid identification to species. Hence, a study was undertaken to establish DNA barcodes for all morphologically determined Culicoides species in Swedish collections. In total, 237 specimens of Culicoides representing 37 morphologically distinct species were used. The barcoding generated 37 supported clusters, 31 of which were in agreement with the morphological determination. However, two pairs of closely related species could not be separated using the DNA barcode approach. Moreover, Culicoides obsoletus Meigen and Culicoides newsteadi Austen showed relatively deep intraspecific divergence (more than 10 times the average), which led to the creation of two cryptic species within each of C. obsoletus and C. newsteadi. The use of COI barcodes as a tool for the species identification of biting midges can differentiate 95% of species studied. Identification of some closely related species should employ a less conserved region, such as a ribosomal internal transcribed spacer. © 2012 The Royal Entomological Society.

  11. Rapid Spread of Schmallenberg Virus-infected Biting Midges (Culicoides spp.) across Denmark in 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lasse Dam; Kirkeby, Carsten; Bødker, Rene

    2014-01-01

    Detection of Schmallenberg virus RNA, using real-time RT-PCR, in biting midges (Culicoides spp.) caught at 48 locations in 2011 and four well-separated farms during 2012 in Denmark, revealed a remarkably rapid spread of virus-infected midges across the country. During 2012, some 213 pools...

  12. Biting Midges (Ceratopogonidae: Culicoides Latreille) Recorded from Farms in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S. A.; Nielsen, B.O.; Chirico, J.

    2009-01-01

    In light of the emergence of bluetongue in Northern Europe, populations of Culicoides species were monitored in and around several Swedish livestock farms (surveillance in 2007 and 2008). The position of the sampling sites ranged from about latitude 55° N to about 68° N. Thirty-three Culicoides...... species were recorded, of which 30 were new to Sweden. The species recorded, and their relative abundance and spatial distribution on sites are detailed. Species incriminated as vectors of bluetongue virus were predominant. (Texte intégral)...

  13. The range of attraction for light traps catching Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Carsten; Græsbøll, Kaare; Stockmarr, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Background Culicoides are vectors of e.g. bluetongue virus and Schmallenberg virus in northern Europe. Light trapping is an important tool for detecting the presence and quantifying the abundance of vectors in the field. Until now, few studies have investigated the range of attraction of light...... traps. Methods Here we test a previously described mathematical model (Model I) and two novel models for the attraction of vectors to light traps (Model II and III). In Model I, Culicoides fly to the nearest trap from within a fixed range of attraction. In Model II Culicoides fly towards areas...... collections obtained from two novel experimental setups in the field where traps were placed in different configurations. Results Results showed that overlapping ranges of attraction of neighboring traps extended the shared range of attraction. Model I did not fit data from any of the experimental setups...

  14. Culicoides midge bites modulate the host response and impact on bluetongue virus infection in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pages, Nonito; Bréard, Emmanuel; Urien, Céline; Talavera, Sandra; Viarouge, Cyril; Lorca-Oro, Cristina; Jouneau, Luc; Charley, Bernard; Zientara, Stéphan; Bensaid, Albert; Solanes, David; Pujols, Joan; Schwartz-Cornil, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Many haematophagous insects produce factors that help their blood meal and coincidently favor pathogen transmission. However nothing is known about the ability of Culicoides midges to interfere with the infectivity of the viruses they transmit. Among these, Bluetongue Virus (BTV) induces a hemorrhagic fever- type disease and its recent emergence in Europe had a major economical impact. We observed that needle inoculation of BTV8 in the site of uninfected C. nubeculosus feeding reduced viraemia and clinical disease intensity compared to plain needle inoculation. The sheep that developed the highest local inflammatory reaction had the lowest viral load, suggesting that the inflammatory response to midge bites may participate in the individual sensitivity to BTV viraemia development. Conversely compared to needle inoculation, inoculation of BTV8 by infected C. nubeculosus bites promoted viraemia and clinical symptom expression, in association with delayed IFN- induced gene expression and retarded neutralizing antibody responses. The effects of uninfected and infected midge bites on BTV viraemia and on the host response indicate that BTV transmission by infected midges is the most reliable experimental method to study the physio-pathological events relevant to a natural infection and to pertinent vaccine evaluation in the target species. It also leads the way to identify the promoting viral infectivity factors of infected Culicoides in order to possibly develop new control strategies against BTV and other Culicoides transmitted viruses.

  15. Cloning and expression of candidate allergens from Culicoides obsoletus for diagnosis of insect bite hypersensitivity in horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meide, van der N.M.A.; Roders, N.; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M.; Schaap, P.J.; Oers, van M.M.; Leibold, W.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Tijhaar, E.

    2013-01-01

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is an IgE-mediated (Type I) hypersensitivity reaction induced by allergens from biting midges of the Culicoides spp. The aim of the present study was to identify, clone and express recombinant allergens from C. obsoletus, the main species found feeding on horses in

  16. Identification of cattle-derived volatiles that modulate the behavioral response of the biting midge culicoides nubeculosus

    OpenAIRE

    Isberg, Elin; Bray, Daniel Peter; Birgersson, Göran; Hillbur, Ylva; Ignell, Rickard

    2016-01-01

    Identification of host-derived volatiles is an important step towards the development of novel surveillance and control tools for Culicoides biting midges. In this study, we identified compounds from headspace collections of cattle hair and urine that modulate the behavioral response of Culicoides nubeculosus, a research model species with a similar host-range as the vectors of Bluetongue disease and Schmallenberg disease in Europe. Combined gas chromatography and electroantennographic detect...

  17. Prospective medical evaluation of 7 dogs presented with fly biting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Diane; Bélanger, Marie C; Bécuwe-Bonnet, Véronique; Parent, Joane

    2012-12-01

    Fly biting describes a syndrome in which dogs appear to be watching something and then snapping at it. Medical work-up of fly biting in dogs has never been reported. The aims of this case series were to characterize fly biting and perform a complete medical evaluation of dogs displaying fly biting.

  18. Prospective medical evaluation of 7 dogs presented with fly biting

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Diane; Bélanger, Marie C.; Bécuwe-Bonnet, Véronique; Parent, Joane

    2012-01-01

    Fly biting describes a syndrome in which dogs appear to be watching something and then snapping at it. Medical work-up of fly biting in dogs has never been reported. The aims of this case series were to characterize fly biting and perform a complete medical evaluation of dogs displaying fly biting.

  19. Spatial and temporal variation in the abundance of Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in nine European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuellar, Ana Carolina; Kjær, Lene Jung; Kirkeby, Carsten Thure

    2018-01-01

    Biting midges of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are vectors of bluetongue virus (BTV), African horse sickness virus and Schmallenberg virus (SBV). Outbreaks of both BTV and SBV have affected large parts of Europe. The spread of these diseases depends largely on vector distributio...

  20. Limited attractant range of the black-light suction trap for the capture of Culicoides biting midges (Dipetera: Ceratopogonidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, A.R.W.; Meiswinkel, R.

    2016-01-01

    The suction light trap (LT) is a standard tool used to capture Culicoides biting midges, when estimating abundances, and mapping species ranges. The exact range of attraction of the LT is in dispute, however, with several studies indicating the range to vary widely, between 4 and 50 m. In this

  1. The reference transcriptome of the adult female biting midge (Culicoides sonorensis) and differential gene expression profiling during teneral, blood, and sucrose feeding conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unlike other important vectors such as mosquitoes and sandflies, genetic and genomic tools for Culicoides biting midges are lacking, despite the fact that they vector a large number of arboviruses and other pathogens impacting humans and domestic animals world-wide. In North America, female Culicoid...

  2. Functional validation of Apoptosis Genes IAP1 and DRONC in midgut tissue of the biting midge Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) by RNAi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Culicoides biting midges transmit multiple ruminant viruses, including bluetongue virus and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus, causing significant economic burden worldwide due to trade restrictions and production loss. To limit the spread of these viruses, control strategies focus on ...

  3. Species determination of Culicoides biting midges via peptide profiling using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlmann, Katrin R; Gibb, Sebastian; Kalkhof, Stefan; Arroyo-Abad, Uriel; Schulz, Claudia; Hoffmann, Bernd; Stubbins, Francesca; Carpenter, Simon; Beer, Martin; von Bergen, Martin; Feltens, Ralph

    2014-08-24

    Culicoides biting midges are vectors of bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses that inflict large-scale disease epidemics in ruminant livestock in Europe. Methods based on morphological characteristics and sequencing of genetic markers are most commonly employed to differentiate Culicoides to species level. Proteomic methods, however, are also increasingly being used as an alternative method of identification. These techniques have the potential to be rapid and may also offer advantages over DNA-based techniques. The aim of this proof-of-principle study was to develop a simple MALDI-MS based method to differentiate Culicoides from different species by peptide patterns with the additional option of identifying discriminating peptides. Proteins extracted from 7 Culicoides species were digested and resulting peptides purified. Peptide mass fingerprint (PMF) spectra were recorded using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and peak patterns analysed in R using the MALDIquant R package. Additionally, offline liquid chromatography (LC) MALDI-TOF tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was applied to determine the identity of peptide peaks in one exemplary MALDI spectrum obtained using an unfractionated extract. We showed that the majority of Culicoides species yielded reproducible mass spectra with peak patterns that were suitable for classification. The dendrogram obtained by MS showed tentative similarities to a dendrogram generated from cytochrome oxidase I (COX1) sequences. Using offline LC-MALDI-TOF-MS/MS we determined the identity of 28 peptide peaks observed in one MALDI spectrum in a mass range from 1.1 to 3.1 kDa. All identified peptides were identical to other dipteran species and derived from one of five highly abundant proteins due to an absence of available Culicoides data. Shotgun mass mapping by MALDI-TOF-MS has been shown to be compatible with morphological and genetic identification of specimens. Furthermore

  4. Fly proof net shed for livestock: A novel concept of physical barrier for integrated management of Culicoides spp. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. W. Narladkar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: An age old and time tested technique of mosquito net requiring no energy, used by humans since prehistoric period was the inspiration behind this novel technique of fly proof net shed for livestock. With the aim to develop similar type of net shed for animals, which will protect them at night from biting of range of insects from Culicoides midges to mosquitoes, research was undertaken. Materials and Methods: Net shed with pitch roof (gable type was erected for use of livestock. The open inlet area was covered with 40 mesh size wire net. The roof at attic level was fitted with hurricane type of ventilator. Shed was used for animals at night hours only. vane anemometer was used for estimation of temperature and wind related parameters. Thermal humidity index (THI and air changes were calculated as per the standard formulas. Based on these parameters suitability of shed was judged. Results: It was observed that, due to netting of the shed population of Culicoides and other flies and incidences of their bites at night hours were considerably lowered. As a result, animals were found comfortable, and their body movements undertaken for wiping off these flies were significantly reduced from 196.50 to 22.16. All it accrued to increased milk yield to the tune of 18.97% in the net shed buffaloes as against control shed. Studies on suitability and comfort to animals were tested by estimating THI and air changes per hour in the net shed, which also revealed the estimates in comfortable regimen and ventilation, remained not much affected despite of netting. Other parameters studied for testing its more accuracy by taking other species of animals as kids, for them also, shed was found suitable through estimation of various physiological and behavioral parameters. Finally, the efficacy of shed was judged on the basis of cost effectiveness. Highly encouraging results on the above said parameters endorsed the effectiveness of the technique. Conclusion: A

  5. prevalence of biting and non-biting flies in relation to species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    ABSTRACT. Several Dipteran flies are vectors of diseases in the Afro-tropical region. The study was carried out to determine the species abundance of biting and non biting flies prevalent at the Jos Museum. Zoological Garden, north central Nigeria. The flies were trapped using Biconical traps during the raining season of ...

  6. Comparison of single- and multi-scale models for the prediction of the Culicoides biting midge distribution in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renke Lühken

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study analysed Culicoides presence-absence data from 46 sampling sites in Germany, where monitoring was carried out from April 2007 until May 2008. Culicoides presence-absence data were analysed in relation to land cover data, in order to study whether the prevalence of biting midges is correlated to land cover data with respect to the trapping sites. We differentiated eight scales, i.e. buffer zones with radii of 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7.5 and 10 km, around each site, and chose several land cover variables. For each species, we built eight single-scale models (i.e. predictor variables from one of the eight scales for each model based on averaged, generalised linear models and two multiscale models (i.e. predictor variables from all of the eight scales based on averaged, generalised linear models and generalised linear models with random forest variable selection. There were no significant differences between performance indicators of models built with land cover data from different buffer zones around the trapping sites. However, the overall performance of multi-scale models was higher than the alternatives. Furthermore, these models mostly achieved the best performance for the different species using the index area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. However, as also presented in this study, the relevance of the different variables could significantly differ between various scales, including the number of species affected and the positive or negative direction. This is an even more severe problem if multi-scale models are concerned, in which one model can have the same variable at different scales but with different directions, i.e. negative and positive direction of the same variable at different scales. However, multi-scale modelling is a promising approach to model the distribution of Culicoides species, accounting much more for the ecology of biting midges, which uses different resources (breeding sites, hosts, etc. at

  7. Entomopathogenic Fungus as a Biological Control for an Important Vector of Livestock Disease: The Culicoides Biting Midge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Minshad Ali; Pope, Edward C.; Carpenter, Simon; Scholte, Ernst-Jan; Butt, Tariq M.

    2011-01-01

    Background The recent outbreak of bluetongue virus in northern Europe has led to an urgent need to identify control measures for the Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) biting midges that transmit it. Following successful use of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae against larval stages of biting midge Culicoides nubeculosus Meigen, we investigated the efficacy of this strain and other fungi (Beauveria bassiana, Isaria fumosorosea and Lecanicillium longisporum) as biocontrol agents against adult C. nubeculosus in laboratory and greenhouse studies. Methodology/Findings Exposure of midges to ‘dry’ conidia of all fungal isolates caused significant reductions in survival compared to untreated controls. Metarhizium anisopliae strain V275 was the most virulent, causing a significantly decrease in midge survival compared to all other fungal strains tested. The LT50 value for strain V275 was 1.42 days compared to 2.21–3.22 days for the other isolates. The virulence of this strain was then further evaluated by exposing C. nubeculosus to varying doses (108–1011 conidia m−2) using different substrates (horse manure, damp peat, leaf litter) as a resting site. All exposed adults were found to be infected with the strain V275 four days after exposure. A further study exposed C. nubeculosus adults to ‘dry’ conidia and ‘wet’ conidia (conidia suspended in 0.03% aq. Tween 80) of strain V275 applied to damp peat and leaf litter in cages within a greenhouse. ‘Dry’ conidia were more effective than ‘wet’ conidia, causing 100% mortality after 5 days. Conclusion/Significance This is the first study to demonstrate that entomopathogenic fungi are potential biocontrol agents against adult Culicoides, through the application of ‘dry’ conidia on surfaces (e.g., manure, leaf litter, livestock) where the midges tend to rest. Subsequent conidial transmission between males and females may cause an increased level of fungi-induced mortality in midges

  8. Dermatozoonosis by Culicoides' bite (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae in Salvador, State of Bahia, Brazil: III - Epidemiological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Italo A. Sherlock

    1965-01-01

    Full Text Available Nesta terceira contribuiçãos os Autores apresentam os aspectos Epídemiológicos da Dermatozoonose pela picada de Culicoides em Salvador. Salientam que embora a densidade de insetos outros de hábitos antropófilos seja elevada na cidade, as seguintes evidências os conduziram a responsabilizar os Culicoides: conincidência do aparecimento de casos de Dermatozoonose após um período de maior densidade de Culicoides; maior número de casos, desde que a densidade de Culicoides aumentou nos últimos anos; proveni~encia de maior número de casos dos bairros onde há maior infestação de Culicoides. A Dermatozoonose é acentuadamente mais freqüente no sexo feminino. Houve maior número de casos entre os negros, talvez devido a maior freqüencia de negros que procuram tratamento no Hospital das Clínicas. Não há predominância acentuada para determinado grupo etário. Num levantamento que fizeram sôbre a incomodidade do Culicoides observaram que 81% de 593 residências visitadas em diferentes bairros, são incomodadas, sendo o inverno a época de maior incômodo. As horas de maior incômodo, coincidem com a ocorrência horária máxima do Culicoides. Observaram que as medidas usadas pela população para combate ao inseto são inadequadas pois, em 56% das residências não se obtém qualquer resultado. Considerando que nesses último cinco anos a densidade de Culicoides aumentou inexplicàvelmente em Salvador, julgam que os seguintes fatôres participara para que êsse fenômeno ocorresse: a extinção do Serviço de Profilaxia da Febre Amarela em 1956, o qual, indiretamente, por meio de sua "polícia de fócos" combatendo o Aedes aegypti, controlava os Culicoides; o crescimento da cidade, aumentando o número de fossas, já que não existe um sistema de esgotos adequado; e a deficiência do Serviço de Limpeza Pública da Cidade, ocasionando o acúmulo de lixo nos quintais, terrenos baldios e mesmo em logradouros públicos. Essas condi

  9. Identity and diversity of blood meal hosts of biting midges (Dipterea: Ceratopogonidae: Culicoides Latreille) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Sandra; Nielsen, Søren Achim; Kristensen, Michael

    2012-01-01

    sequencing from 242 (76%) out of 320 Culicoides specimens. Eight species of mammals and seven species of birds were identified as blood meal hosts. The most common host species was the cow, which constituted 77% of the identified blood meals. The second most numerous host species was the common wood pigeon...

  10. Mosquitoes and Culicoides biting midges: vector range and the influence of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbers, A R W; Koenraadt, C J M; Meiswinkel, R

    2015-04-01

    Vector-borne animal diseases pose a continuous and substantial threat to livestock economies around the globe. Increasing international travel, the globalisation of trade, and climate change are likely to play a progressively more important role in the introduction, establishment and spread of arthropod-borne pathogens worldwide. A review of the literature reveals that many climatic variables, functioning singly or in combination, exert varying effects on the distribution and range of Culicoides vector midges and mosquitoes. For example, higher temperatures may be associated with increased insect abundance--thereby amplifying the risk of disease transmission--but there are no indications yet of dramatic shifts occurring in the geographic range of Culicoides midges. However, the same cannot be said for mosquitoes: over the last few decades, multiple Asian species have established themselves in Europe, spread and are unlikely to ever be eradicated. Research on how insects respond to changes in climate is still in its infancy. The authors argue that we need to grasp how other annectant changes, such as extremes in precipitation (drought and flooding), may affect the dispersal capability of mosquitoes. Models are useful for assessing the interplay between mosquito vectors expanding their range and the native flora and fauna; however, ecological studies employing classical mark-release-recapture techniques remain essential for addressing fundamental questions about the survival and dispersal of mosquito species, with the resulting parameters fed directly into new-generation disease transmission models. Studies on the eventual impact of mosquitoes on animal and human health should be tackled through large-scale integrated research programmes. Such an approach calls for more collaborative efforts, along the lines of the One Health Initiative.

  11. On the study of the transmission networks of blood parasites from SW Spain: diversity of avian haemosporidians in the biting midge Culicoides circumscriptus and wild birds.

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    Ferraguti, Martina; Martínez-de la Puente, Josué; Ruiz, Santiago; Soriguer, Ramón; Figuerola, Jordi

    2013-07-15

    Blood-sucking flying insects play a key role in the transmission of pathogens of vector-borne diseases. However, at least for the case of avian malaria parasites, the vast majority of studies focus on the interaction between parasites and vertebrate hosts, but there is a lack of information regarding the interaction between the parasites and the insect vectors. Here, we identified the presence of malaria and malaria-like parasite lineages harbored by the potential vector Culicoides circumscriptus (Kieffer). Also, we identified some nodes of the transmission network connecting parasite lineages, potential insect vectors and avian hosts by comparing Haemoproteus and Plasmodium lineages isolated from insects with those infecting wild birds in this and previous studies. Using a molecular approach, we analysed the presence of blood parasites in a total of 97 biting midges trapped in the Doñana National Park (SW Spain) and surrounding areas. Also, 123 blood samples from 11 bird species were analyzed for the presence of blood parasite infections. Blood parasites Haemoproteus and Plasmodium were identified by amplification of a 478 bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gen. Thirteen biting midges harboured blood parasites including six Haemoproteus and two Plasmodium lineages, supporting the potential role of these insects on parasite transmission. Moreover, ten (8.1%) birds carried blood parasites. Seven Plasmodium and one Haemoproteus lineages were isolated from birds. Overall, six new Haemoproteus lineages were described in this study. Also, we identified the transmission networks of some blood parasites. Two Haemoproteus lineages, hCIRCUM03 and GAGLA03, were identical to those isolated from Corvus monedula in southern Spain and Garrulus glandarius in Bulgaria, respectively. Furthermore, the new Haemoproteus lineage hCIRCUM05 showed a 99% similarity with a lineage found infecting captive penguins in Japan. The comparison of the parasite lineages isolated in

  12. Dermatozoonosis by Culicoides' bite (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae in Salvador, State of Bahia, Brazil: IV - A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Italo A. Sherlock

    1965-01-01

    Full Text Available A observação de 211 pacientes com reação intensa à picada do Culicoides, que procuraram tratamento na Clínica dermatológica do Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade da Bahia, durante os anos de 1959 e 1962, permitiu o estudo clínico dessa Dermatozoonose, cujos dados são aqui apresentados. A lesão parece ser de natureza alérgica e devido ao aspecto polimorfo pelo qual se apresenta, essa Dermatose pode lembrar o Prorigo, a Escabiose, as Lesões liquenoide; quando a manifestação é mais intensa torna-se uma verdadeira eczematização; quando há infecção secundária, lembra o impetigo folicular. O estudo histológico da lesão revelou ser ela a de uma inflamação crônica, com vascularites e preivascularites dermo-epidérmica, provàvelmente de natureza alérgica. Para que haja a formação da lesão, são necessários: a substância inoculada pelo inseto e o componente alérgico do indivíduo. Não se conhece a natureza da substância inoculada pelo inseto e as seguintes hipóteses são apresentadas para explicá-la: substâncias enzimáticas ou a histamina existentes nas glândulas salivares do Culicoides. Após a picada do Culicoisdes forma-se no local uma pequena área eritematosa que logo após se transforma em pápula; as pápulas podem desaparecer ou transformarem-se em vesículas; estas ao se romperem dilaceram a superfície cutânea, descamam-na ou pode advir uma infecção secundária e transformam-se em pústulas.

  13. Molecular identification of bloodmeals from biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae; Culicoides Latreille) in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Sandra Boline; Nielsen, Søren A; Skovgård, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    engorged biting midges, and hosts were identified in 115 of 125 analysed specimens (90%). Cow, roe deer, horse, mallard and wood pigeon were identified as hosts. The most abundant host species was cow, which constituted 73.9% of the total identified bloodmeals, but the common wood pigeon was found...

  14. Public health importance of non-biting cyclorrhaphan flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetene, Teshome; Worku, Netsanet

    2009-02-01

    This study was carried out to determine the role of non-biting cyclorrhaphan flies as carriers of human intestinal parasites at Woreta, northwestern Ethiopia. In total, 6530 flies were collected from four breeding sites and then examined for human intestinal parasites, mainly using the formol-ether concentration method. Fly species identified were Musca domestica (32.9%), Chrysomya rufifacies (32.6%), Musca sorbens (23%), Lucina cuprina (4.7%), Calliphora vicina (2.8%), Chrysomya bezziana (2.3%) and Wohlfahrtia magnifica (1.7%). Intestinal parasites such as Ascaris lumbricoides (36.9%), Trichuris trichiura (38.8%), hookworm (13.0%), Hymenolepis nana (0.6%), Taenia spp. (8.4%), Strongyloides stercoralis (1.7%), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (48.1%), Entamoeba coli (24.7%), Cryptosporidium spp. (16.7%) and Giardia lamblia (10.4%) were isolated from both external and gut contents of the flies. Trichuris trichiura and A. lumbricoides among the helminths and E. histolytica/dispar and E. coli among the protozoans were the dominant parasites identified. It was observed that more parasites were isolated from gut contents than the external surfaces of the flies examined (PChrysomya rufifacies were found to carry more helminths than M. sorbens and M. domestica. Musca sorbens were the highest carriers of protozoan parasites followed by M. domestica and C. rufifacies. The significance of filth flies as carriers of human intestinal parasites has been highlighted.

  15. First Record of Culicoides oxystoma Kieffer and Diversity of Species within the Schultzei Group of Culicoides Latreille (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) Biting Midges in Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhoum, Mame T.; Fall, Moussa; Fall, Assane G.; Bellis, Glenn A.; Gottlieb, Yuval; Labuschagne, Karien; Venter, Gert J.; Diop, Mariame; Mall, Iba; Seck, Momar T.; Allène, Xavier; Diarra, Maryam; Gardès, Laëtitia; Bouyer, Jérémy; Delécolle, Jean-Claude; Balenghien, Thomas; Garros, Claire

    2013-01-01

    The Schultzei group of Culicoides Latreille (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) is distributed throughout Africa to northern Asia and Australasia and includes several potential vector species of livestock pathogens. The taxonomy of the species belonging to this species group is confounded by the wide geographical distribution and morphological variation exhibited by many species. In this work, morphological and molecular approaches were combined to assess the taxonomic validity of the species and morphological variants of the Schultzei group found in Senegal by comparing their genetic diversity with that of specimens from other geographical regions. The species list for Senegal was updated with four species: Culicoides kingi, C. oxystoma, C. enderleini and C. nevilli being recorded. This is the first record of C. oxystoma from Africa south of Sahara, and its genetic relationship with samples from Israel, Japan and Australia is presented. This work provides a basis for ecological studies of the seasonal and spatial dynamics of species of this species group that will contribute to better understanding of the epidemiology of the viruses they transmit. PMID:24386366

  16. Development of botanical-based biopesticides and repellents against biting flies on livestock animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biting flies are important insect pests causing millions of dollars in losses to the livestock industry. The attack by biting flies causes significant losses in animal production and potential food contamination and disease transmission. This presentation reports our recent findings on the developme...

  17. Nest-climatic factors affect the abundance of biting flies and their effects on nestling condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-de la Puente, Josué; Merino, Santiago; Lobato, Elisa; Aguilar, Juan Rivero-de; del Cerro, Sara; Ruiz-de-Castañeda, Rafael; Moreno, Juan

    2010-11-01

    The first step in the establishment of a host-biting fly relationship is host location. While a number of studies highlight the role of host emitted products as important cues affecting host location by biting flies, the role of host temperature is far from clear. We investigated the role of different nest microclimatic variables affecting the interaction between pied flycatchers and two biting flies: black flies and biting midges. Biting midge abundances increased with temperature inside the nest, supporting the potential importance of nest temperature as a cue used by insects to localize their hosts. The possibility that biting fly infestations were associated to ecological conditions in the vicinity of the nests is also discussed. Furthermore, we found a negative association between nestling weight (including tarsus length as a covariate in the analyses) and the interaction between the abundance of biting midges and the presence/absence of black flies in nests. The potential negative effect of these ectoparasites on nestling weight (condition index) and potential differences in the bird phenotypic/genetic quality associated with nest site choice and parasite infestations are considered.

  18. Culicoides: The Controller of Orbivirus Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culicoides sonorensis are biting midges of great agricultural importance as vectors of several emerging/re-emerging arboviruses world-wide including bluetongue, epizootic hemorrhagic disease, African horse sickness, vesicular stomatitis, and Schmallenberg. C. sonorensis feed primarily on domestic sh...

  19. A key, based on wing patterns of biting midges (genus Culicoides Latreille - Diptera: Ceratopogonidae in the Iberian Peninsula, for use in epidemiological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawlings, Peter

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The identity of vectors of disease are often required speedily in epidemiological studies but with a precision which excludes as many other species as possible. Identification keys usually require the examination of many different parts of the suspected vector to pinpoint the species. This consumes considerable time and resources, so epidemiologists tend to ignore them. Asimplified approach to identification is proposed, using the characteristics of a single part of the body (the wings of biting midges of the genus Culicoides. The level of differentiation was epidemiologically valuable. The monoclave could not differentiate all the species from each other but more than one third (20/58 of identifications were for single species, and a further 12/58 identifications gave only two possibilities, making 55.2% of identifications to an accuracy of at most one of two species. The diagnosis of vector species was reached in a maximum of six decision points. The only notable exception to valuable differentiation was the four species in the Culicoides obsoletus group which had almost identical female wing patterns. The ready availability of simple keys, which can be used by anyone without formal training in taxonomy, for all the species of a group in a region should encourage greater standardisation of identifications in all studies, including those not primarily aimed at systematics. These monoclaves can also serve as the primary tools to build computerised image-recognition systems for genera, families and orders of insects.Con frequencia en los estudios epidemiológicos hace falta conocer con rapidez, pero también con precisión, la identidad de los vectores. Por lo general los procedimientos de identificación y las claves exigen el examen de un elevado número de partes diferentes del vector sospechoso. Este enfoque consume mucho tiempo y recursos por lo que tiende a ser evitado por los epidemiólogos. Se propone un sistema simplificado para la

  20. Monitoring of biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae: Culicoides Latreille) on farms in Sweden during the emergence of the 2008 epidemic of bluetongue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Achim; Nielsen, Boy Overgaard; Chirico, Jan

    2010-01-01

    In light of the emergence of bluetongue in northern Europe, populations of Culicoides species were monitored in 2007-2008 by means of Onderstepoort blacklight suction traps operating at livestock farms in Sweden. The location of the 22 sampling sites ranged from about latitude 55°N to about 68°N....... A total of 61,669 male and female Culicoides were captured, of which, 52,319 were trapped outside the farms and 9,350 in byres or livestock sheds. Thirty-three Culicoides species were recorded, of which, 30 were new to Sweden. The species and their relative abundance and spatial distribution on sites...... are presented. Two species incriminated as vectors of bluetongue virus, viz. Culicoides obsoletus (about 38%) and Culicoides scoticus (about 36%), were predominant and common in the environment of livestock farms practically all over the Swedish mainland, penetrating far north to at least 65°N. The two species...

  1. DNA barcoding of human-biting black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramual, Pairot; Thaijarern, Jiraporn; Wongpakam, Komgrit

    2016-12-01

    Black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) are important insect vectors and pests of humans and animals. Accurate identification, therefore, is important for control and management. In this study, we used mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) barcoding sequences to test the efficiency of species identification for the human-biting black flies in Thailand. We used human-biting specimens because they enabled us to link information with previous studies involving the immature stages. Three black fly taxa, Simulium nodosum, S. nigrogilvum and S. doipuiense complex, were collected. The S. doipuiense complex was confirmed for the first time as having human-biting habits. The COI sequences revealed considerable genetic diversity in all three species. Comparisons to a COI sequence library of black flies in Thailand and in a public database indicated a high efficiency for specimen identification for S. nodosum and S. nigrogilvum, but this method was not successful for the S. doipuiense complex. Phylogenetic analyses revealed two divergent lineages in the S. doipuiense complex. Human-biting specimens formed a separate clade from other members of this complex. The results are consistent with the Barcoding Index Number System (BINs) analysis that found six BINs in the S. doipuiense complex. Further taxonomic work is needed to clarify the species status of these human-biting specimens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Update on treated fabrics for control of biting fly species around livestock in sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treated fabrics can be used as an intervention on small livestock farms to prevent the entry of biting flies, thus reducing the incidence of disease transmission. The major objective is to prevent host-vector/biting fly contact. An efficacious barrier of treated fabric should significantly reduce or...

  3. Spatio-temporal genetic variation of the biting midge vector species Culicoides imicola (Ceratopogonidae) Kieffer in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquet, Stéphanie; Huber, Karine; Guis, Hélène; Setier-Rio, Marie-Laure; Goffredo, Maria; Allène, Xavier; Rakotoarivony, Ignace; Chevillon, Christine; Bouyer, Jérémy; Baldet, Thierry; Balenghien, Thomas; Garros, Claire

    2016-03-11

    Introduction of vector species into new areas represents a main driver for the emergence and worldwide spread of vector-borne diseases. This poses a substantial threat to livestock economies and public health. Culicoides imicola Kieffer, a major vector species of economically important animal viruses, is described with an apparent range expansion in Europe where it has been recorded in south-eastern continental France, its known northern distribution edge. This questioned on further C. imicola population extension and establishment into new territories. Studying the spatio-temporal genetic variation of expanding populations can provide valuable information for the design of reliable models of future spread. Entomological surveys and population genetic approaches were used to assess the spatio-temporal population dynamics of C. imicola in France. Entomological surveys (2-3 consecutive years) were used to evaluate population abundances and local spread in continental France (28 sites in the Var department) and in Corsica (4 sites). We also genotyped at nine microsatellite loci insects from 3 locations in the Var department over 3 years (2008, 2010 and 2012) and from 6 locations in Corsica over 4 years (2002, 2008, 2010 and 2012). Entomological surveys confirmed the establishment of C. imicola populations in Var department, but indicated low abundances and no apparent expansion there within the studied period. Higher population abundances were recorded in Corsica. Our genetic data suggested the absence of spatio-temporal genetic changes within each region but a significant increase of the genetic differentiation between Corsican and Var populations through time. The lack of intra-region population structure may result from strong gene flow among populations. We discussed the observed temporal variation between Corsica and Var as being the result of genetic drift following introduction, and/or the genetic characteristics of populations at their range edge. Our results

  4. Biomarkers for Exposure to Sand Flies Bites as Tools to Aid Control of Leishmaniasis

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, Bruno Bezerril; Teixeira, Clarissa R.

    2012-01-01

    Intense research efforts so far have not been sufficient to reduce leishmaniasis burden worldwide. This disease is transmitted by bites of infected sand flies, which inject saliva in the host skin in an attempt to obtain a blood meal. Sand fly saliva has an array of proteins with diverse pharmacological properties that modulates the host homeostatic and immune responses. Some of these proteins are also immunogenic and can induce both cellular and humoral immune responses. Recently, the use of...

  5. Prevalence of biting and non-biting flies in relation to species in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There were significantly more flies in the Lion, Bovidae (Donkey, Carmel and Horse) and Ostrich sites compared to Human routes, Chimpanzee and Hyena sites suggesting a correlation between flies abundance and body size of animal. Flies proportions were compared using Chi-square test. There is a significant ...

  6. Increased Transmissibility of Leishmania donovani From the Mammalian Host to Vector Sand Flies After Multiple Exposures to Sand Fly Bites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Joanna G; Paun, Andrea; Inbar, Ehud; Romano, Audrey; Lewis, Michael; Ghosh, Kashinath; Sacks, David

    2017-04-15

    Patients with active visceral leishmaniasis are important reservoirs in the anthroponotic transmission cycle of Leishmania donovani. The role of the blood or skin as a source of infection to sand flies remains unclear, and the possible effect of multiple exposures to fly bites on transmissibility has not been addressed. L. donovani-infected hamsters underwent xenodiagnoses with Lutzomyia longipalpis on the same or different sites on the abdomen on 2 consecutive days or by artificial feeding on the skin or blood. The transmission of L. donovani from sick hamsters to flies was surprisingly low (mean, 24% of fed flies). New flies fed on the same site acquired significantly more infections (mean, 61%; P Leishmania donovani. Using the hamster model of visceral disease, we demonstrate that prior exposure to bites of uninfected sand flies potentiates their ability to transmit infection to the vector. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  7. Skin lesions in Aubrac cows strongly associated with fly bites (Haematobia irritans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosca, Marion; Vabret, Murielle; Randleff-Rasmussen, Pia; Pin, Didier

    2018-03-01

    The horn fly Haematobia irritans is known to cause problems in cattle including weight loss and decreased milk production; cutaneous lesions have not been widely reported and descriptions of the clinical manifestations are quite variable. This study describes the clinical and histopathological lesions of several Aubrac cows that presented with focal to confluent areas of alopecia, skin scaling and thickening, suspected to be induced by H. irritans bites. Twenty seven, three- to six-year-old Aubrac cows, kept in mountain pastures in France, that presented with an apparently asymptomatic alopecic dermatosis. Samples for skin cytological evaluation, skin scrapings and trichograms were examined; also, skin biopsy specimens from affected animals were used for histopathological examination. Clinical lesions consisted of focal to coalescing, symmetrical areas of hair loss and scaling, located on the back, flanks, and lateral and caudal aspects of the thighs. Histopathological examination revealed perivascular, oedematous, eosinophilic dermatitis with eosinophilic folliculitis and furunculosis. Species identification of several flies captured on the cows revealed H. irritans. The final clinicopathological diagnosis was eosinophilic dermatitis and folliculitis and furunculosis, suspected to be due to H. irritans fly-bite. Fly-bite (H. irritans) dermatitis should be included in the differential diagnosis of alopecic dermatoses in cows. © 2018 ESVD and ACVD.

  8. Insights into the epidemiological link between biting flies and pemphigus foliaceus in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernal, Sebastian; Pepinelli, Mateus; Casanova, Claudio; Goulart, Thais M; Kim, Olivia; De Paula, Natalia A; Pinto, Mara C; Sá-Nunes, Anderson; Roselino, Ana Maria

    2017-12-01

    Black fly and sandfly bites are related to the endemicity of pemphigus foliaceus (PF); however, an immune reaction against the salivary proteins from these flies still requires confirmation in the case of PF patients living in southeastern Brazil. To georeference the distribution of Simuliidae (Diptera: Simuliidae) and Phlebotominae (Diptera: Psychodidae) and of PF cases in the northeastern region of São Paulo State, and to assess the humoral immune response against salivary gland extracts (SGEs) from biting flies in PF patients, relatives, and neighbours. PF patients' medical information recorded between 1965 and 2014 were obtained from the database of the University Hospital. Data on the distribution of fly species were collected from scientific reports and epidemiological databases. Spatial maps relating the distribution of biting flies with PF cases were plotted. Serum IgG antibodies against the SGEs from Simulium nigrimanum, Nyssomyia neivai, and Aedes aegypti (as control) were determined by ELISA. Two hundred and eighty-five PF cases were distributed in 60 municipalities with a prevalence of 57.5 per million inhabitants, revealing well-defined geographical clusters. S. nigrimanum and N. neivai specimens were registered in eight (13.3%) and 26 (43.3%) of these municipalities, respectively. PF patients, and their relatives presented higher levels of IgG against the SGEs of S. nigrimanum and N. neivai (Pbiting flies and PF in southeastern Brazil is proposed, implying a possible role of the salivary proteins from these flies in PF etiopathogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Efficacy of three attractant blends tested in combination with carbon dioxide against natural populations of mosquitoes and biting flies at the Lower Suwannee Wildlife Refuge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Daniel L; Bernier, Ulrich R; Hogsette, Jerome A

    2012-06-01

    Synthetic blends of chemicals identified previously from human skin emanations were evaluated against mosquito and biting fly populations at the Lower Suwannee Wildlife Refuge near Cedar Key, FL. Mosquito Magnet-Experimental traps were baited with the Red (400 ml acetone: 10 ml 1-hexen-3-ol:10 ml 1-octen-3-ol), Blue (400 ml acetone: 1 g/liter lactic acid:20 ml glycolic acid), or Green blend (400 ml acetone:1.5 g/liter lactic acid:20 ml dimethyl disulfide) plus CO2 or with CO2 alone (control). A relative index of efficacy was determined by dividing each mean blend trap catch by the mean control trap catch. Five mosquitoes (Aedes infirmatus, Ae. taeniorhynchus, Ae. triseriatus, Anopheles crucians, and Culex nigripalpus), 2 ceratopogonid (Culicoides floridensis and C. furens), and 1 tabanid (Diachlorus ferrugatus) and phlebotomine (Lutzomyia shannoni) species were trapped. The Red blend + CO2 treatment significantly increased collections of Ae. taeniorhynchus (3.4x), An. crucians (2.8X), total mosquitoes (2.7x), C. furens (17.6x), and L. shannoni (10.8x) compared with control traps. Traps baited with either the Blue or Green blends generally captured fewer insects than traps baited with the other 2 treatments. However, traps baited with the Green blend caught 7 x as many C. furens as the control traps. Responses clearly varied according to species; therefore, "one size does not fit all" when it comes to attractant blends.

  10. Innate Mammalian Immune Response to Culicoides Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hematophagous Culicoides spp. biting midges are of great agricultural importance as livestock and wildlife pests and as vectors of orbiviruses such as bluetongue, epizootic hemorrhagic disease, and African horse sickness viruses, as well as vesicular stomatitis, bovine ephemeral fever and Schmallenb...

  11. Zebras and Biting Flies: Quantitative Analysis of Reflected Light from Zebra Coats in Their Natural Habitat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth H Britten

    Full Text Available Experimental and comparative evidence suggests that the striped coats of zebras deter biting fly attack, but the mechanisms by which flies fail to target black-and-white mammals are still opaque. Two hypotheses have been proposed: stripes might serve either to defeat polarotaxis or to obscure the form of the animal. To test these hypotheses, we systematically photographed free-living plains zebras in Africa. We found that black and white stripes both have moderate polarization signatures with a similar angle, though the degree (magnitude of polarization in white stripes is lower. When we modeled the visibility of these signals from different distances, we found that polarization differences between stripes are invisible to flies more than 10 m away because they are averaged out by the flies' low visual resolution. At any distance, however, a positively polarotactic insect would have a distinct signal to guide its visual approach to a zebra because we found that polarization of light reflecting from zebras is higher than from surrounding dry grasses. We also found that the stripes themselves are visible to flies at somewhat greater distances (up to 20 m than the polarization contrast between stripes. Together, these observations support hypotheses in which zebra stripes defeat visually guided orienting behavior in flies by a mechanism independent of polarotaxis.

  12. Recombinant Salivary Proteins of Phlebotomus orientalis are Suitable Antigens to Measure Exposure of Domestic Animals to Sand Fly Bites.

    OpenAIRE

    Michal Sima; Blanka Ferencova; Alon Warburg; Iva Rohousova; Petr Volf

    2016-01-01

    Background Certain salivary proteins of phlebotomine sand flies injected into the host skin during blood-feeding are highly antigenic and elicit strong antibody-mediated immune responses in repeatedly-exposed hosts. These antibodies can be measured by enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assays (ELISAs) using salivary gland homogenates (SGHs) as the source of antigens and serve as a markers for exposure to biting sand flies. Large-scale screening for anti-sand fly saliva antibodies requires replaceme...

  13. Biting rates and developmental substrates for biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Iquitos, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, David R; Spinelli, Gustavo R; Watts, Douglas M; Tesh, Robert B

    2003-11-01

    Biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) were collected at 16 periurban and rural sites around Iquitos, Peru, between 17 October 1996 and 26 May 1997. Culicoides paraensis (Goeldi), the principal vector of Oropouche virus, was the most commonly collected species (9,086 flies) with Culicoides insinuatus Wirth & Blanton second (7,229 flies). Although both species were collected at all sampling sites (linear (distance surveyed approximately 25 km), C. paraensis dominated at northern collection sites (> 90%), whereas C. insinuatus prevailed at southern collection sites (> 60%). C. paraensis were collected from human sentinels at a constant rate throughout daylight hours, at similar rates during wet and dry months, and regardless of rainfall. Larval developmental substrates for C. paraensis included decaying platano (Musa x paradisiaca L. [Musaceae]) stems, stumps, flowers, fruits, and debris beneath platano trees as well as from soil beneath a fruiting mamay (Syzygium malaccense Merr. & Perry [Myrtaceae] ) tree and organic-rich mud along a lake shoreline. C. insinuatus adults likewise emerged from decaying platano and organic-rich mud along a lake shoreline, but also from debris accumulated in the axils of aguaje (Mauritia flexuosa L. [Palmae]) fronds and decaying citrus fruit. Despite high numbers of biting adults near putative substrates, adults of neither species emerged from other decomposing plant material, soil, phytotelmata, or artificial containers. Because both species of biting midges emerged in high numbers from all parts of platano (ubiquitous in Iquitos), it will be challenging to control them through sanitation.

  14. Serological Responses and Biomarker Evaluation in Mice and Pigs Exposed to Tsetse Fly Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Deken, Reginald; Schauvliege, Stijn; Gasthuys, Frank; Duchateau, Luc; Van Den Abbeele, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Background Tsetse flies are obligate blood-feeding insects that transmit African trypanosomes responsible for human sleeping sickness and nagana in livestock. The tsetse salivary proteome contains a highly immunogenic family of the endonuclease-like Tsal proteins. In this study, a recombinant version of Tsal1 (rTsal1) was evaluated in an indirect ELISA to quantify the contact with total Glossina morsitans morsitans saliva, and thus the tsetse fly bite exposure. Methodology/Principal Findings Mice and pigs were experimentally exposed to different G. m. morsitans exposure regimens, followed by a long-term follow-up of the specific antibody responses against total tsetse fly saliva and rTsal1. In mice, a single tsetse fly bite was sufficient to induce detectable IgG antibody responses with an estimated half-life of 36–40 days. Specific antibody responses could be detected for more than a year after initial exposure, and a single bite was sufficient to boost anti-saliva immunity. Also, plasmas collected from tsetse-exposed pigs displayed increased anti-rTsal1 and anti-saliva IgG levels that correlated with the exposure intensity. A strong correlation between the detection of anti-rTsal1 and anti-saliva responses was recorded. The ELISA test performance and intra-laboratory repeatability was adequate in the two tested animal models. Cross-reactivity of the mouse IgGs induced by exposure to different Glossina species (G. m. morsitans, G. pallidipes, G. palpalis gambiensis and G. fuscipes) and other hematophagous insects (Stomoxys calcitrans and Tabanus yao) was evaluated. Conclusion This study illustrates the potential use of rTsal1 from G. m. morsitans as a sensitive biomarker of exposure to a broad range of Glossina species. We propose that the detection of anti-rTsal1 IgGs could be a promising serological indicator of tsetse fly presence that will be a valuable tool to monitor the impact of tsetse control efforts on the African continent. PMID:24853371

  15. Serological responses and biomarker evaluation in mice and pigs exposed to tsetse fly bites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Caljon

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tsetse flies are obligate blood-feeding insects that transmit African trypanosomes responsible for human sleeping sickness and nagana in livestock. The tsetse salivary proteome contains a highly immunogenic family of the endonuclease-like Tsal proteins. In this study, a recombinant version of Tsal1 (rTsal1 was evaluated in an indirect ELISA to quantify the contact with total Glossina morsitans morsitans saliva, and thus the tsetse fly bite exposure. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mice and pigs were experimentally exposed to different G. m. morsitans exposure regimens, followed by a long-term follow-up of the specific antibody responses against total tsetse fly saliva and rTsal1. In mice, a single tsetse fly bite was sufficient to induce detectable IgG antibody responses with an estimated half-life of 36-40 days. Specific antibody responses could be detected for more than a year after initial exposure, and a single bite was sufficient to boost anti-saliva immunity. Also, plasmas collected from tsetse-exposed pigs displayed increased anti-rTsal1 and anti-saliva IgG levels that correlated with the exposure intensity. A strong correlation between the detection of anti-rTsal1 and anti-saliva responses was recorded. The ELISA test performance and intra-laboratory repeatability was adequate in the two tested animal models. Cross-reactivity of the mouse IgGs induced by exposure to different Glossina species (G. m. morsitans, G. pallidipes, G. palpalis gambiensis and G. fuscipes and other hematophagous insects (Stomoxys calcitrans and Tabanus yao was evaluated. CONCLUSION: This study illustrates the potential use of rTsal1 from G. m. morsitans as a sensitive biomarker of exposure to a broad range of Glossina species. We propose that the detection of anti-rTsal1 IgGs could be a promising serological indicator of tsetse fly presence that will be a valuable tool to monitor the impact of tsetse control efforts on the African continent.

  16. A New Human-Biting Black Fly Species of Simulium (Simulium) (Diptera: Simuliidae) From Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Srisuka, Wichai; Saeung, Atiporn

    2017-07-01

    Simulium (Simulium) umphangense, a new human-biting species of black fly, is described based on females captured while attacking humans in western and central Thailand. The female of this new species is similar to those of S. (S.) indicum Becher, S. (S.) nigrogilvum Summers, and S. (S.) vanellum Huang et al. in the Simulium griseifrons species-group of the subgenus Simulium Latreille in having the frons densely covered with golden-yellow short hairs, a character rarely found in the subgenus Simulium. This new species is readily distinguished from the three related species by having a darkened fore tibia, a bare subcosta (or rarely with a few hairs), and an ovipositor valve not protruded posteriorly. Additional diagnostic characters of this new species are noted. This is the seventh human-biting species of black fly in Thailand. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com Version of Record, first published online April 7, 2017 with fixed content and layout in compliance with Art. 8.1.3.2 ICZN.

  17. Trap placement and attractant choice affect capture and create sex and parity biases in collections of the biting midge, Culicoides sonorensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, E G; Mayo, C E; Gerry, A C; Mullens, B A

    2016-09-01

    Culicoides sonorensis Wirth & Jones (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) is the primary North American vector of bluetongue virus (BTV), which can cause high morbidity and mortality in ruminant livestock or wildlife. Worldwide, most Culicoides surveillance relies on light (usually UV) traps typically placed near animals or larval development sites. However, the trapping method can cause sex, species and parity biases in collections. We collected C. sonorensis from three dairies in California using suction traps baited with CO2 , UV light or CO2  + UV placed near animals, wastewater ponds, or in fields. Higher numbers of parous females were collected using CO2  + UV traps, although this difference was only significant on one dairy. UV traps were poor at collecting nulliparous females, but the addition of UV to a trap increased the abundance of males in a collection. Traps set in open fields collected significantly higher numbers of males and females than in either of the other two locations. In some cases, there was a significant interaction between the trap type and site. We discuss the limitations of traditional trapping methodologies for C. sonorensis and make suggestions for vector surveillance. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  18. Natural infections of man-biting sand flies by Leishmania and Trypanosoma species in the northern Peruvian Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hirotomo; Gomez, Eduardo A; Cáceres, Abraham G; Vargas, Franklin; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Yamamoto, Kento; Iwata, Hiroyuki; Korenaga, Masataka; Velez, Lenin; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2011-05-01

    The natural infection of sand flies by Leishmania species was studied in the Andean areas of Peru where cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia) peruviana is endemic. Sand flies were captured by human bait and Center for Disease Control (CDC) light trap catches at Nambuque and Padregual, Department of La Libertad, Peru, and morphologically identified. Among 377 female sand flies dissected, the two dominant man-biting species were Lutzomyia (Helcocyrtomyia) peruensis (211 flies) and Lutzomyia (Helcocyrtomyia) caballeroi (151 flies). Another sand fly species captured by light trap was Warileya phlebotomanica (15 flies). The natural infection of sand flies by flagellates was detected in 1.4% of Lu. (H.) peruensis and 2.6% of Lu. (H.) caballeroi, and the parasite species were identified as Le. (V.) peruviana and Trypanosoma avium, respectively, by molecular biological methods. The results indicated that the vector species responsible for the transmission of leishmaniasis in the study areas is Lu. (H.) peruensis. In addition, the presence of Trypanosoma in man-biting sand fly species means that more careful consideration is necessary for vector research in areas of Andean Peru where leishmaniasis is endemic.

  19. Non-biting flying insects as carriers of pathogenic bacteria in a Brazilian hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Borges Kappel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Insects have been described as mechanical vectors of nosocomial infections. Methods Non-biting flying insects were collected inside a pediatric ward and neonatal-intensive care unit (ICU of a Brazilian tertiary hospital. Results Most (86.4% of them were found to carry one or more species of bacteria on their external surfaces. The bacteria isolated were Gram-positive bacilli (68.2% or cocci (40.9%, and Gram-negative bacilli (18.2%. Conclusions Insects collected inside a hospital were carrying pathogenic bacteria; therefore, one must consider the possibility they may act as mechanical vectors of infections, in especially for debilitated or immune-compromised patients in the hospital environments where the insects were collected.

  20. Bluetongue, Schmallenberg - what is next? : Culicoides-borne viral diseases in the 21st Century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenraadt, Constantianus Jm; Balenghien, Thomas; Carpenter, Simon; Ducheyne, Els; Elbers, Armin Rw; Fife, Mark; Garros, Claire; Ibáñez-Justicia, Adolfo; Kampen, Helge; Kormelink, Richard Jm; Losson, Bertrand; van der Poel, Wim Hm; De Regge, Nick; van Rijn, Piet A; Sanders, Christopher; Schaffner, Francis; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, Marianne M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075234394; Takken, Willem; Werner, Doreen; Seelig, Frederik

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade, two pathogens transmitted by Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), bluetongue virus and Schmallenberg virus, have caused serious economic losses to the European livestock industry, most notably affecting sheep and cattle. These outbreaks of arboviral disease have

  1. Bluetongue, Schmallenberg - what is next? Culicoides-borne viral diseases in the 21st Century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Balenghien, T.; Carpenter, S.; Ducheyne, E.; Elbers, A.R.W.; Fife, M.; Garros, C.; Ibanez-Justicia, A.; Kampen, H.; Kormelink, R.J.M.; Losson, B.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Regge, de N.; Rijn, van P.A.; Sanders, C.; Schaffner, F.; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M.; Takken, W.; Werner, D.; Seelig, F.

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade, two pathogens transmitted by Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), bluetongue virus and Schmallenberg virus, have caused serious economic losses to the European livestock industry, most notably affecting sheep and cattle. These outbreaks of arboviral disease have

  2. Characterization of the Early Inflammatory Infiltrate at the Feeding Site of Infected Sand Flies in Mice Protected from Vector-Transmitted Leishmania major by Exposure to Uninfected Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Clarissa; Gomes, Regis; Oliveira, Fabiano; Meneses, Claudio; Gilmore, Dana C.; Elnaiem, Dia-Eldin A.; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Kamhawi, Shaden

    2014-01-01

    Background Mice exposed to sand fly saliva are protected against vector-transmitted Leishmania major. Although protection has been related to IFN- γ producing T cells, the early inflammatory response orchestrating this outcome has not been defined. Methodology/Principal findings Mice exposed to uninfected P. duboscqi bites and naïve mice were challenged with L. major-infected flies to characterize their early immune response at the bite site. Mostly, chemokine and cytokine transcript expression post-infected bites was amplified in exposed compared to naïve mice. In exposed mice, induced chemokines were mostly involved in leukocyte recruitment and T cell and NK cell activation; IL-4 was expressed at 6 h followed by IFN-γ and iNOS2 as well as IL-5 and IL-10 expression. In naïve animals, the transcript expression following Leishmania-infected sand fly bites was suppressed. Expression profiles translated to an earlier and significantly larger recruitment of leukocytes including neutrophils, macrophages, Gr+ monocytes, NK cells and CD4+ T cells to the bite site of exposed compared to naïve mice post-infected bites. Additionally, up to 48 hours post-infected bites the number of IFN-γ-producing CD4+T cells and NK cells arriving at the bite site was significantly higher in exposed compared to naïve mice. Thereafter, NK cells become cytolytic and persist at the bite site up to a week post-bite. Conclusion/Significance The quiet environment induced by a Leishmania-infected sand fly bite in naïve mice was significantly altered in animals previously exposed to saliva of uninfected flies. We propose that the enhanced recruitment of Gr+ monocytes, NK cells and CD4 Th1 cells observed at the bite site of exposed mice creates an inhospitable environment that counters the establishment of L. major infection. PMID:24762408

  3. Gut Microbes Egested during Bites of Infected Sand Flies Augment Severity of Leishmaniasis via Inflammasome-Derived IL-1β.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Ranadhir; Joshi, Amritanshu B; Oliveira, Fabiano; Pereira, Lais; Guimarães-Costa, Anderson B; Serafim, Tiago D; de Castro, Waldionê; Coutinho-Abreu, Iliano V; Bhattacharya, Parna; Townsend, Shannon; Aslan, Hamide; Perkins, Alec; Karmakar, Subir; Ismail, Nevien; Karetnick, Morgan; Meneses, Claudio; Duncan, Robert; Nakhasi, Hira L; Valenzuela, Jesus G; Kamhawi, Shaden

    2018-01-10

    Leishmania donovani parasites are the cause of visceral leishmaniasis and are transmitted by bites from phlebotomine sand flies. A prominent feature of vector-transmitted Leishmania is the persistence of neutrophils at bite sites, where they protect captured parasites, leading to enhanced disease. Here, we demonstrate that gut microbes from the sand fly are egested into host skin alongside Leishmania parasites. The egested microbes trigger the inflammasome, leading to a rapid production of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), which sustains neutrophil infiltration. Reducing midgut microbiota by pretreatment of Leishmania-infected sand flies with antibiotics or neutralizing the effect of IL-1β in bitten mice abrogates neutrophil recruitment. These early events are associated with impairment of parasite visceralization, indicating that both gut microbiota and IL-1β are important for the establishment of Leishmania infections. Considering that arthropods harbor a rich microbiota, its potential egestion after bites may be a shared mechanism that contributes to severity of vector-borne disease. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Arthropod bites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juckett, Gregory

    2013-12-15

    The phylum Arthropoda includes arachnids and insects. Although their bites typically cause only local reactions, some species are venomous or transmit disease. The two medically important spiders in the United States are widow spiders (Latrodectus), the bite of which causes intense muscle spasms, and the brown recluse (Loxosceles), which may cause skin necrosis. Widow bites usually respond to narcotics, benzodiazepines, or, when necessary, antivenom. Most recluse bites resolve uneventfully without aggressive therapy and require only wound care and minor debridement. Tick bites can transmit diseases only after prolonged attachment to the host. Treatment of clothing with permethrin and proper tick removal greatly reduce the risk of infection. Ticks of medical importance in the United States include the black-legged tick, the Lone Star tick, and the American dog tick. The prophylactic use of a single dose of doxycycline for Lyme disease may be justified in high-risk areas of the country when an attached, engorged black-legged tick is removed. Bites from fleas, bedbugs, biting flies, and mosquitoes present as nonspecific pruritic pink papules, but the history and location of the bite can assist with diagnosis. Flea bites are usually on ankles, whereas mosquito bites are on exposed skin, and chigger bites tend to be along the sock and belt lines. Antihistamines are usually the only treatment required for insect bites; however, severe mosquito reactions (skeeter syndrome) may require prednisone. Applying insect repellent containing diethyltoluamide (DEET) 10% to 35% or picaridin 20% is the best method for preventing bites.

  5. Semiochemical-based management of biting fly management in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stable flies (Stomoxys calcitran) and horn flies (Haematobia irritans) are two major blood-feeding pests of bovids and equids in confined and pasture settings. It has reported that just stable flies alone can cause over $2 billion annually in losses to the U.S. cattle industry. These flies can be se...

  6. Equine allergy therapy: update on the treatment of environmental, insect bite hypersensitivity, and food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsella, Rosanna

    2013-12-01

    Allergies are common in horses. It is important to identify and correct as many factors as possible to control pruritus and make the patient comfortable. Culicoides hypersensitivity is a common component in allergic horses. The main treatment continues to be rigorous fly control and avoidance of insect bites. Environmental allergies are best addressed by early identification of the offending allergens and formulation of allergen-specific immunotherapy to decrease the need for rescue medications. Food allergy is best managed with food avoidance. Urticaria is one of the manifestations of allergic disease wherein detection of the triggering cause is essential for management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A simple trapping method to estimate abundances of blood-sucking flying insects in avian nests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomás, G.; Merino, S.; Martínez-de la Puente, J.; Moreno, J.; Morales, J.; Lobato, E.

    2008-01-01

    [KEYWORDS: birds; biting midges; blackflies; blood parasite-insect vector-vertebrate host relationships; Ceratopogonidae; Culicoides; distance to water sources; insecticide treatment; sampling methods; Simuliidae

  8. Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense transmitted by a single tsetse fly bite in vervet monkeys as a model of human African trypanosomiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John K Thuita

    Full Text Available We have investigated the pathogenicity of tsetse (Glossina pallidipes-transmitted cloned strains of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense in vervet monkeys. Tsetse flies were confirmed to have mature trypanosome infections by xenodiagnosis, after which nine monkeys were infected via the bite of a single infected fly. Chancres developed in five of the nine (55.6% monkeys within 4 to 8 days post infection (dpi. All nine individuals were successfully infected, with a median pre-patent period of 4 (range = 4-10 days, indicating that trypanosomes migrated from the site of fly bite to the systemic circulation rapidly and independently of the development of the chancre. The time lag to detection of parasites in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF was a median 16 (range = 8-40 days, marking the onset of central nervous system (CNS, late stage disease. Subsequently, CSF white cell numbers increased above the pre-infection median count of 2 (range = 0-9 cells/microl, with a positive linear association between their numbers and that of CSF trypanosomes. Haematological changes showed that the monkeys experienced an early microcytic-hypochromic anaemia and severe progressive thrombocytopaenia. Despite a 3-fold increase in granulocyte numbers by 4 dpi, leucopaenia occurred early (8 dpi in the monkey infection, determined mainly by reductions in lymphocyte numbers. Terminally, leucocytosis was observed in three of nine (33% individuals. The duration of infection was a median of 68 (range = 22-120 days. Strain and individual differences were observed in the severity of the clinical and clinical pathology findings, with two strains (KETRI 3741 and 3801 producing a more acute disease than the other two (KETRI 3804 and 3928. The study shows that the fly-transmitted model accurately mimics the human disease and is therefore a suitable gateway to understanding human African trypanosomiasis (HAT; sleeping sickness.

  9. Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense Transmitted by a Single Tsetse Fly Bite in Vervet Monkeys as a Model of Human African Trypanosomiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuita, John K.; Kagira, John M.; Mwangangi, David; Matovu, Enock; Turner, C. M. R.; Masiga, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    We have investigated the pathogenicity of tsetse (Glossina pallidipes)-transmitted cloned strains of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense in vervet monkeys. Tsetse flies were confirmed to have mature trypanosome infections by xenodiagnosis, after which nine monkeys were infected via the bite of a single infected fly. Chancres developed in five of the nine (55.6%) monkeys within 4 to 8 days post infection (dpi). All nine individuals were successfully infected, with a median pre-patent period of 4 (range = 4–10) days, indicating that trypanosomes migrated from the site of fly bite to the systemic circulation rapidly and independently of the development of the chancre. The time lag to detection of parasites in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was a median 16 (range = 8–40) days, marking the onset of central nervous system (CNS, late) stage disease. Subsequently, CSF white cell numbers increased above the pre-infection median count of 2 (range = 0–9) cells/µl, with a positive linear association between their numbers and that of CSF trypanosomes. Haematological changes showed that the monkeys experienced an early microcytic-hypochromic anaemia and severe progressive thrombocytopaenia. Despite a 3-fold increase in granulocyte numbers by 4 dpi, leucopaenia occurred early (8 dpi) in the monkey infection, determined mainly by reductions in lymphocyte numbers. Terminally, leucocytosis was observed in three of nine (33%) individuals. The duration of infection was a median of 68 (range = 22–120) days. Strain and individual differences were observed in the severity of the clinical and clinical pathology findings, with two strains (KETRI 3741 and 3801) producing a more acute disease than the other two (KETRI 3804 and 3928). The study shows that the fly-transmitted model accurately mimics the human disease and is therefore a suitable gateway to understanding human African trypanosomiasis (HAT; sleeping sickness). PMID:18846231

  10. First detection of Wolbachia-infected Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae in Europe: Wolbachia and Cardinium infection across Culicoides communities revealed in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonito Pagès

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biting midges of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae transmit pathogens that cause important diseases. No effective technique has been found to properly control either Culicoides spp. abundance or their likelihood to transmit pathogens. Endosymbionts, particularly Wolbachia, represent powerful alternatives to control arthropods of health interest. In arthropods, Wolbachia can reduce vector fitness and vector’s pathogen transmission capacity, thus being a potential target for population reduction and replacement strategies. Results The presence of Wolbachia and Cardinium endosymbionts was screened in Spanish Culicoides spp. populations at livestock premises and natural habitats. The first detection of Wolbachia-infected Culicoides spp. in Europe is reported. The putative Palaearctic vectors for bluetongue and Schmallenberg diseases, C. imicola, C. obsoletus (s.s. and C. pulicaris (s.l., were infected with Wolbachia. Four genetic clusters of closely-related Wolbachia strains from A and B supergroups were detected infecting Culicoides. Cardinium strain of the C-group was detected in C. obsoletus (s.l.. Both endosymbionts, Wolbachia and Cardinium, were detected in Culicoides species of minor epidemiological relevance as well. Higher prevalence of Wolbachia infection was detected in natural habitats, while livestock premises lead to higher prevalence of Cardinium. Significant differences in the prevalence of Wolbachia, but not Cardinium, were also detected between some Culicoides species and between locations. Conclusions The presence of Wolbachia and Cardinium endosymbionts in Culicoides is expected to trigger new research towards the control of Culicoides-transmitted diseases. The results of the present study could have an impact beyond the Culicoides arena because successful Wolbachia transfection is possible even across genus and species barriers.

  11. Culicoides midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae as vectors of orbiviruses in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Sarvašová

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, rapid spread of Culicoides-borne pathogens such as bluetongue (BT and Schmallenberg viruses have been reported in Europe. In this study we examined the Culicoides populations in farms with wild and domestic ruminants in Eastern Slovakia with the aim to confirm the presence of biting midges serving as potential vectors of important pathogens. The main vector complexes were the Obsoletus complex (54%; n=4,209 and the Pulicaris complex (23%; n=1,796. To estimate the relative abundance of the cryptic species of the Obsoletus complex (Culicoides obsoletus, Culicoides scoticus and Culicoides montanus, we performed the multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR based on ITS-2 and ITS-1 segments, on 125 midges randomly sampled. The relative abundance of C. obsoletus ranged from 5.26% in the farm with wild ruminants to 85.71% in another farm with cattle and sheep. A total of 112 pools of parous and gravid females belonging to the Obsoletus and Pulicaris complexes were tested for virus detection by the real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR for BT virus, as well as for the Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Virus (EHDV, with negative results.

  12. A New Model of Progressive Visceral Leishmaniasis in Hamsters by Natural Transmission via Bites of Vector Sand Flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Hamide; Dey, Ranadhir; Meneses, Claudio; Castrovinci, Philip; Jeronimo, Selma Maria Bezerra; Oliva, Gætano; Fischer, Laurent; Duncan, Robert C.; Nakhasi, Hira L.; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Kamhawi, Shaden

    2013-01-01

    Background. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is transmitted by sand flies. Protection of needle-challenged vaccinated mice was abrogated in vector-initiated cutaneous leishmaniasis, highlighting the importance of developing natural transmission models for VL. Methods. We used Lutzomyia longipalpis to transmit Leishmania infantum or Leishmania donovani to hamsters. Vector-initiated infections were monitored and compared with intracardiac infections. Body weights were recorded weekly. Organ parasite loads and parasite pick-up by flies were assessed in sick hamsters. Results. Vector-transmitted L. infantum and L. donovani caused ≥5-fold increase in spleen weight compared with uninfected organs and had geometric mean parasite loads (GMPL) comparable to intracardiac inoculation of 107–108 parasites, although vector-initiated disease progression was slower and weight loss was greater. Only vector-initiated L. infantum infections caused cutaneous lesions at transmission and distal sites. Importantly, 45.6%, 50.0%, and 33.3% of sand flies feeding on ear, mouth, and testicular lesions, respectively, were parasite-positive. Successful transmission was associated with a high mean percent of metacyclics (66%–82%) rather than total GMPL (2.0 × 104–8.0 × 104) per midgut. Conclusions. This model provides an improved platform to study initial immune events at the bite site, parasite tropism, and pathogenesis and to test drugs and vaccines against naturally acquired VL. PMID:23288926

  13. Efficacy of three attractant blends tested in combination with carbon dioxide against natural populations of mosquitoes and biting flies at the lower suwannee wildlife refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synthetic blends composed of chemicals identified previously as emanations from human skin were evaluated against natural populations of mosquitoes and biting flies at the Lower Suwannee Wildlife Refuge located near Cedar Key, FL. Mosquito Magnet™-Experimental (MM-X) traps were baited with one of t...

  14. Delineation of Culicoides species by morphology and barcode exemplified by three new species of the subgenus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Achim; Kristensen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    is considered, as well as the evolutionary relationships between species within this genus remains problematic. In recent years molecular barcoding has assisted substantially in the identification of biting midges in the multiple entomological survey projects which were initiated in many European countries...... of species delineation; interspecies differences across Culicoides subgenera approaches 20%, whereas intraspecies differences are below 4% and in most cases below 1%....

  15. Evaluation of New Technologies for Protection of Military Personnel from Filth and Biting Flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-01

    one substrate to the other. Houseflies are capable of transmitting pathogenic microorganisms through different modes of transmission. They can...three-segmented arista. Segment one and two of the arista is ambiguous; segment three is bristlelike. The sponging proboscis of the house fly

  16. Association between land cover and Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) breeding sites on four Danish cattle farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Carsten; Bødker, Rene; Stockmarr, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Biting midges of the genus Culicoides are vectors of bluetongue virus. Their larval habitats are poorly known in Northern Europe. Three classes of the CORINE land cover index, found within 300 in of four farms in Denmark, were used to stratify sampling sites for a total of 360 soil core samples f...

  17. Insect bite hypersensitivity in horses: genetic and epidemiological analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schurink, A.

    2012-01-01

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is the most common allergic skin disease in horses and is caused by bites of Culicoides spp. IBH reduces welfare of affected horses and at present no effective preventive measure or cure exists. Aim of our research was to increase knowledge of the

  18. Recombinant Salivary Proteins of Phlebotomus orientalis are Suitable Antigens to Measure Exposure of Domestic Animals to Sand Fly Bites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Sima

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Certain salivary proteins of phlebotomine sand flies injected into the host skin during blood-feeding are highly antigenic and elicit strong antibody-mediated immune responses in repeatedly-exposed hosts. These antibodies can be measured by enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assays (ELISAs using salivary gland homogenates (SGHs as the source of antigens and serve as a markers for exposure to biting sand flies. Large-scale screening for anti-sand fly saliva antibodies requires replacement of SGH with recombinant salivary proteins. In East Africa, Phlebotomus orientalis is the main vector of Leishmania donovani, a trypanosomatid parasite causing visceral leishmaniasis. We tested recombinant salivary proteins derived from Ph. orientalis saliva to study exposure of domestic animals to this sand fly species.Antigenic salivary proteins from Ph. orientalis were identified by immunoblot and mass spectrometry. Recombinant apyrase rPorSP15, yellow-related protein rPorSP24, ParSP25-like protein rPorSP65, D7-related protein rPorSP67, and antigen 5-related protein rPorSP76 were tested using ELISA with sera of domestic animals from L. donovani foci in Ethiopia where Ph. orientalis is present. Our results highlighted recombinant yellow-related protein rPorSP24 as the most promising antigen, displaying a high positive correlation coefficient as well as good sensitivity and specificity when compared to SGH. This recombinant protein was the most suitable one for testing sera of dogs, sheep, and goats. In addition, a different antigen, rPorSP65 was found efficacious for testing canine sera.Recombinant salivary proteins of Ph. orientalis, specifically rPorSP24, were shown to successfully substitute SGH in serological experiments to measure exposure of domestic animals to Ph. orientalis, the vector of L. donovani. The results suggest that rPorSP24 might be a suitable antigen for detecting anti-Ph. orientalis antibody-mediated reactions also in other host species.

  19. Recombinant Salivary Proteins of Phlebotomus orientalis are Suitable Antigens to Measure Exposure of Domestic Animals to Sand Fly Bites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sima, Michal; Ferencova, Blanka; Warburg, Alon; Rohousova, Iva; Volf, Petr

    2016-03-01

    Certain salivary proteins of phlebotomine sand flies injected into the host skin during blood-feeding are highly antigenic and elicit strong antibody-mediated immune responses in repeatedly-exposed hosts. These antibodies can be measured by enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assays (ELISAs) using salivary gland homogenates (SGHs) as the source of antigens and serve as a markers for exposure to biting sand flies. Large-scale screening for anti-sand fly saliva antibodies requires replacement of SGH with recombinant salivary proteins. In East Africa, Phlebotomus orientalis is the main vector of Leishmania donovani, a trypanosomatid parasite causing visceral leishmaniasis. We tested recombinant salivary proteins derived from Ph. orientalis saliva to study exposure of domestic animals to this sand fly species. Antigenic salivary proteins from Ph. orientalis were identified by immunoblot and mass spectrometry. Recombinant apyrase rPorSP15, yellow-related protein rPorSP24, ParSP25-like protein rPorSP65, D7-related protein rPorSP67, and antigen 5-related protein rPorSP76 were tested using ELISA with sera of domestic animals from L. donovani foci in Ethiopia where Ph. orientalis is present. Our results highlighted recombinant yellow-related protein rPorSP24 as the most promising antigen, displaying a high positive correlation coefficient as well as good sensitivity and specificity when compared to SGH. This recombinant protein was the most suitable one for testing sera of dogs, sheep, and goats. In addition, a different antigen, rPorSP65 was found efficacious for testing canine sera. Recombinant salivary proteins of Ph. orientalis, specifically rPorSP24, were shown to successfully substitute SGH in serological experiments to measure exposure of domestic animals to Ph. orientalis, the vector of L. donovani. The results suggest that rPorSP24 might be a suitable antigen for detecting anti-Ph. orientalis antibody-mediated reactions also in other host species.

  20. Extract of the seeds of the plant Vitex agnus castus proven to be highly efficacious as a repellent against ticks, fleas, mosquitoes and biting flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehlhorn, Heinz; Schmahl, Günter; Schmidt, Jürgen

    2005-03-01

    About 70 plant extracts were tested for their ability to repel the attacks of blood-sucking arthropods. It was found that a CO2 extract of the seeds of the Mediterranean plant Vitex agnus castus (monk's pepper) can be used as a spray to keep away especially Ixodes ricinus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks from animals and humans for at least 6 h. In addition mosquitoes, biting flies and fleas are also repelled for about 6 h.

  1. Evidence for Culicoides obsoletus group as vector for Schmallenberg virus in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lasse Dam; Kristensen, Birgit; Kirkeby, Carsten

    the Bunyaviridae family and is closely related to Shamonda and Akabane viruses. These viruses are transmitted by insect vectors (including biting midges (Culicoides sp.) and mosquitoes). To determine whether these insects may act as vectors for SBV, biting midges (Culicoides spp.) caught in October 2011......, in the south-west of Denmark (close to the German border), were sorted into pools and tested for the presence of Schmallenberg virus RNA by RT-qPCR. From 18 pools of 5 midges from the C. obsoletus group, 2 pools were both found positive in two separate assays, targeting the L- and S- segments of the SBV RNA....... However, 4 pools of C. punctatus s.str were negative. The sequence of 80bp (excluding the primer sequences) from the amplicons (ca. 145bp) was identical to that published for the expected region of the SBV L-segment. The levels of SBV RNA detected in the biting midges were much higher than could...

  2. New Insights Into the Transmissibility of Leishmania infantum From Dogs to Sand Flies: Experimental Vector-Transmission Reveals Persistent Parasite Depots at Bite Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Hamide; Oliveira, Fabiano; Meneses, Claudio; Castrovinci, Philip; Gomes, Regis; Teixeira, Clarissa; Derenge, Candace A; Orandle, Marlene; Gradoni, Luigi; Oliva, Gaetano; Fischer, Laurent; Valenzuela, Jesus G; Kamhawi, Shaden

    2016-06-01

    Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is a chronic fatal disease of dogs and a major source of human infection through propagation of parasites in vectors. Here, we infected 8 beagles through multiple experimental vector transmissions with Leishmania infantum-infected Lutzomyia longipalpis. CanL clinical signs varied, although live parasites were recovered from all dog spleens. Splenic parasite burdens correlated positively with Leishmania-specific interleukin 10 levels, negatively with Leishmania-specific interferon γ and interleukin 2 levels, and negatively with Leishmania skin test reactivity. A key finding was parasite persistence for 6 months in lesions observed at the bite sites in all dogs. These recrudesced following a second transmission performed at a distal site. Notably, sand flies efficiently acquired parasites after feeding on lesions at the primary bite site. In this study, controlled vector transmissions identify a potentially unappreciated role for skin at infectious bite sites in dogs with CanL, providing a new perspective regarding the mechanism of Leishmania transmissibility to vector sand flies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  3. Prevalence, population dynamics and host preferences of Culicoides spp. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae of livestock in Marathwada region of Maharashtra State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. W. Narladkar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study is a part of a research project on integrated pest management of livestock pests with reference to Culicoides spp. Study of prevalence, population dynamics and host preferences are the important benchmarks essential for chalking out the strategies of integrated pest management of Culicoides, thus the study was aimed. Materials and Methods: Light trap collections of Culicoides midges and other tiny flies from animal shed from seventeen centers representing entire Maharashtra state were conducted. Similarly, year round collections from host sheds were envisaged to work out host preferences and population dynamics of Culicoides spp. locally prevalent. Multiple regression analysis was employed to define the environmental predictors responsible for ups and downs during different seasons occurring in the geographic region of the present study. Results: Study revealed the prevalence of Culicoides spp., Phlebotomus spp. and Simulium spp. Simultaneous study undertaken by the aid of hand net, collections of fly species from Marathwada region of Maharashtra state yielded additionally, Tabanus spp., Pangonia spp., mosquitoes and other cyclorrhaphan flies. Some of the species are vectors of livestock diseases hence map of the distribution of these pest species is for to reckon risk areas. Population dynamics study on Culicoides spp. in Marathwada region indicated that, (a Culicoides population were persistent throughout the year; (b Two peaks of population, one in the monsoon (August-September and another minor peak occurred during post monsoon/beginning of winter (November of the year. Drastic reduction in the population occurred during the month of May, which is the hottest month in the year. Culicoides collections from the sheds of different host species indicated the preferences for feeding in the ascending order of preference as cattle, sheep, buffaloes and then goats. Conclusion: Prevalence of Culicoides schultzei, Culicoides

  4. Picky eaters are rare: DNA-based blood meal analysis of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) species from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopken, Matthew W; Ryan, Bonnie M; Huyvaert, Kathryn P; Piaggio, Antoinette J

    2017-04-04

    Biting midges in the genus Culicoides (Diptera; Ceratopogonidae) have been implicated in the transmission of a number of parasites and highly pathogenic viruses. In North America, the complete transmission cycles of many of these pathogens need further elucidation. One way to increase our knowledge about the evolution and ecology of Culicoides species and the pathogens they transmit is to document the diversity of vertebrate hosts that Culicoides feed upon. Our objective was to identify the diversity of Culicoides hosts in the United States. We sequenced two vertebrate mitochondrial genes (cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and cytochrome b) from blood-engorged Culicoides to identify Culicoides species and their blood meals. We detected the mitochondrial DNA of 12 host species from seven different Culicoides species from three states. The majority of the identified blood meals were from the C. variipennis species complex in California. The hosts included both mammals and birds. We documented new host records for some of the Culicoides species collected. The majority of the mammalian hosts were large ungulate species but we also detected a lagomorph and a carnivore. The bird species that were detected included house finch and emu; the latter is evidence that the species in the C. variipennis species complex are not strictly mammalophilic. These results demonstrate that Culicoides will feed on multiple classes of vertebrates and may be more opportunistic in regards to host choice than previously thought. This knowledge can help with identification of susceptible host species, pathogen reservoirs, and new vector species which, in turn, will improve disease outbreak risk assessments.

  5. Detection of Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania braziliensis in Culicoides (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae) in an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebêlo, José Manuel Macário; Rodrigues, Bruno Leite; Bandeira, Maria da Conceição Abreu; Moraes, Jorge Luiz Pinto; Fonteles, Raquel Silva; Pereira, Silma Regina Ferreira

    2016-12-01

    Biting midges in the genus Culicoides act as vectors of arboviruses throughout the world and as vectors of filariasis in Latin America, the Caribbean, and parts of Africa. Although Culicoides spp. are currently not considered to be vectors of Leishmania protozoa, the high abundance of biting midges in areas with active cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission points to the possibility of Culicoides infection by these pathogens. We used PCR to test captured Culicoides species for natural infection with Leishmania spp. We tested 450 Culicoides females, divided into 30 pools of 15 individuals each, as follows: nine pools of C. foxi (135 specimens), seven pools of C. filariferus (105), seven pools of C. insignis (105), five pools of C. ignacioi (75), and two pools of C. flavivenula (30). PCR confirmed the presence of Leishmania braziliensis DNA in C. ignacioi (0.14%), C. insignis (0.14%), and C. foxi (0.11); and Le. amazonensis DNA in C. filariferus (0.14%) and C. flavivenula (0.50%). We conclude that these Culicoides species can be naturally infected, but vector competence and transmission capability must be confirmed in future studies. Our results warrant further investigation into the role of these biting midge species in the leishmaniasis epidemiological cycle. © 2016 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  6. Bloodmeal analysis reveals avian Plasmodium infections and broad host preferences of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae vectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Santiago-Alarcon

    Full Text Available Changing environmental conditions and human encroachment on natural habitats bring human populations closer to novel sources of parasites, which might then develop into new emerging diseases. Diseases transmitted by host generalist vectors are of special interest due to their capacity to move pathogens into novel hosts. We hypothesize that humans using forests for recreation are exposed to a broad range of parasites from wild animals and their vectors. A corollary of this is that new vector-host, parasite-host, and vector-parasite associations could eventually develop. Thus, we expect to observe atypical vector-host associations. Using molecular bloodmeal analysis via amplification of the mtDNA COI gene we identified the vertebrate hosts of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae species in a sub-urban forest of Southwestern Germany. Bloodmeals were also checked for haemosporidian infections by amplifying a fragment of the mtDNA cyt b gene. We identified a total of 20 Culicoides species, thirteen of which fed on humans. From 105 screened bloodmeals we obtained high quality sequences for 77 samples, 73 (94.8% originated from humans, two from livestock (Bos taurus and Equus caballus, and two from wild birds (Sylvia atricapilla and Turdus merula. We found that four Culicoides species previously assumed to feed exclusively on either birds (C. kibunensis or domestic mammals (C. chiopterus, C. deltus, C. scoticus fed also on humans. A total of six Culicoides abdomens were infected with avian haemosporidian parasites (Plasmodium or Haemoproteus, four of those abdomens contained blood derived from humans. Our results suggest that parasites of wild animals may be transferred to humans through infectious bites of Culicoides vectors. Further, we show that Culicoides vectors believed to be a specialist on specific vertebrate groups can have plastic feeding preferences, and that Culicoides are susceptible to infection by Plasmodium parasites, though vector

  7. The Mondrian Matrix: Culicoides prevalence and seasonal abundance during the 2006-2008 epizootic of bluetongue in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meiswinkel, R.; Scolamacchia, F.; Dik, M.; Mudde, J.; Dijkstra, E.; Ven, van der I.J.K.; Elbers, A.R.W.

    2014-01-01

    During the northern Europe epidemic of bluetongue (BT), Onderstepoort-type blacklight traps were used to capture Culicoides Latreille (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) biting midges weekly between November 2006 and December 2008 on 21 livestock farms in the Netherlands. Proven and potential vectors for the

  8. Essential oil of catnip, Nepeta cataria, as a repellent, an oviposition deterrent and a larvicide against mosquitoes and biting flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presenting brief reviews of using catnip oil as an alternative control agent against biting insects, as well as their newly found larvicidal activities and oviposition deterrence including effectiveness and longevity....

  9. Blood meal analysis of culicoides (Diptera: ceratopogonidae) in central Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slama, Darine; Haouas, Najoua; Mezhoud, Habib; Babba, Hamouda; Chaker, Emna

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the host preferences of Culicoides species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Central Tunisia, we identified the source of blood meals of field collected specimens by sequencing of the cytochrome b (cyt b) mitochondrial locus and Prepronociceptine single copy nuclear gene. The study includes the most common and abundant livestock associated species of biting midges in Tunisia: C. imicola, C. jumineri, C. newsteadi, C. paolae, C. cataneii, C. circumscriptus, C. kingi, C. pseudojumineri, C. submaritimus, C. langeroni, C. jumineri var and some unidentified C. species. Analysis of cyt b PCR products from 182 field collected blood-engorged females' midges revealed that 92% of them fed solely on mammalian species, 1.6% on birds, 2.4% on insects and 0.8% on reptiles. The blast results identified the blood origin of biting midges to the species level with exact or nearly exact matches (≥98%). The results confirm the presence of several Culicoides species, including proven vectors in Central Tunisia. Blood meal analyses show that these species will indeed feed on bigger mammals, thereby highlighting the risk that these viruses will be able to spread in Tunisia.

  10. Blood meal analysis of culicoides (Diptera: ceratopogonidae in central Tunisia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darine Slama

    Full Text Available To evaluate the host preferences of Culicoides species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae in Central Tunisia, we identified the source of blood meals of field collected specimens by sequencing of the cytochrome b (cyt b mitochondrial locus and Prepronociceptine single copy nuclear gene. The study includes the most common and abundant livestock associated species of biting midges in Tunisia: C. imicola, C. jumineri, C. newsteadi, C. paolae, C. cataneii, C. circumscriptus, C. kingi, C. pseudojumineri, C. submaritimus, C. langeroni, C. jumineri var and some unidentified C. species. Analysis of cyt b PCR products from 182 field collected blood-engorged females' midges revealed that 92% of them fed solely on mammalian species, 1.6% on birds, 2.4% on insects and 0.8% on reptiles. The blast results identified the blood origin of biting midges to the species level with exact or nearly exact matches (≥98%. The results confirm the presence of several Culicoides species, including proven vectors in Central Tunisia. Blood meal analyses show that these species will indeed feed on bigger mammals, thereby highlighting the risk that these viruses will be able to spread in Tunisia.

  11. Genome-wide association study of insect bite hypersensitivity in swedish-born icelandic horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shrestha, M.; Eriksson, S.; Schurink, A.; Andersson, L.S.; Sundquist, M.; Frey, R.; Brostrom, H.; Bergstrom, T.; Ducro, B.J.; lindgren, G.

    2015-01-01

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is the most common allergic skin disease in horses and is caused by biting midges, mainly of the genus Culicoides. The disease predominantly comprises a type I hypersensitivity reaction, causing severe itching and discomfort that reduce the welfare and commercial

  12. Revision of the Culicoides (Avaritia) Imicola complex Khamala & Kettle (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from the Australasian region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellis, Glenn; Dyce, Alan; Gopurenko, David; Yanase, Tohru; Garros, Claire; Labuschagne, Karien; Mitchell, Andrew

    2014-02-27

    The monophyly of the Imicola complex, a natural species complex within subgenus C. subgen. Avaritia Fox of the biting midge genus Culicoides Latreille, is supported using morphological and molecular analyses. A diagnosis for the group along with comparative redescriptions of the male and female of the species represented in Australasia, C. brevitarsis Kieffer and C. nudipalpis Delfinado and a description of C. asiatica Bellis sp. nov., are presented together with keys for their specific determination and molecular support for their status.

  13. Field evaluation of a semi-automatic funnel trap targeted the medically important non-biting flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klong-Klaew, Tunwadee; Sontigun, Narin; Sanit, Sangob; Samerjai, Chutharat; Sukontason, Kom; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Koehler, Philip G; Pereira, Roberto M; Limsopatham, Kwankamol; Suwannayod, Suttida; Thanapornpoonpong, Sa-Nguansak; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap; Sukontason, Kabkaew L

    2017-12-01

    Bait-trapping is a useful approach for monitoring fly population dynamics, and it is an effective tool for physical control of pest species. The aim of this study was to test a newly developed semi-automatic funnel fly trap with some modifications of the former prototype fly trap to study medically important fly population density. The efficacy of the semi-automatic funnel trap was assessed by field sampling during July 2013-June 2014 using 1-day tainted beef offal as bait. The modified semi-automatic funnel traps were able to capture a total of 151,141 adult flies, belonging to the families: Calliphoridae (n=147,248; 97.4%), Muscidae (n=3,124; 2.1%) and Sarcophagidae (n=769; 0.5%), which are the medically important fly species. Among the total of 35 species collected, Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae) (n=88,273; 59.95%), Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) (n=1,324; 42.38%) and Boettcherisca peregrina (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) (n=68; 33.01%) were the predominant species of each family. High number of flies was captured in forest area, representing 42.47% (n=64,197) of total specimens. Female flies were trapped more than male with total sex ratio of 0.37 male/female. Flies were trapped throughout the year with peak population in summer. Peak activity was recorded in the afternoon (12.00-18.00h). In summary, the modified semi-automatic funnel fly trap can be used for field collection of the adult fly. By setting the timer, population dynamics, diversity, and periodic activity of adult flies were determined. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Developing evaluation techniques to determine the efficacy of insecticide-treated vegetation for mosquito and biting fly control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protection of people and their livestock from vector and nuisance mosquitoes and other biting arthropods (e.g. Phlebotomine sandflies) is complicated by logistical and operational constraints related to broad-spread insecticide applications. Little, if any attention has been directed at the use of...

  15. A Comparative Study of Clam and Squid. Biting Flies of the Coastal Region. Diatoms: Nature's Aquatic Gems. Learning Experiences for Coastal and Oceanic Awareness Studies, Nos. 227, 231, 232. [Project COAST].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Coll. of Education.

    Included are three units related to coastal and oceanic awareness. The units are: (1) A Comparative Study of Clam and Squid; (2) Biting Flies of the Coastal Region; and (3) Diatoms: Nature's Aquatic Gems. All three units were designed for secondary school students. Each unit contains teacher background materials, student activity materials,…

  16. Lizard Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the Professional version Home Injuries and Poisoning Bites and Stings Lizard Bites Medical Dictionary Also of Interest (Quiz) ... Version. DOCTORS: Click here for the Professional Version Bites and Stings Introduction to Bites and Stings Alligator, Crocodile, and ...

  17. The interaction of taste and heat on the biting response of the tsetse fly Glossina fuscipes fuscipes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Goes van Naters, W.M; den Otter, C.J; Cuisance, D.

    Tsetse flies probe more on a heated surface with a trace of uric acid than on one without. Uric acid is one of the components of human sweat and it elicits spike responses from taste hairs on the flies' legs. In this paper it is examined how heat from the surface and taste interact to affect the

  18. Leishmania infantum proteophosphoglycans regurgitated by the bite of its natural sand fly vector, Lutzomyia longipalpis, promote parasite establishment in mouse skin and skin-distant tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Matthew Edward; Corware, Karina; Müller, Ingrid; Bates, Paul Andrew

    2010-10-01

    We demonstrate that a proteophosphoglycan-rich gel secreted by Leishmania infantum inside the midgut of Lutzomyia longipalpis sand flies (promastigote secretory gel) is regurgitated along with an average dose of 500 L. infantum metacyclic promastigotes per infected bite. Using both low (10³) and high (10⁵) doses of parasites in the ears of BALB/c mice we show that the infections benefit from the presence of vector saliva and parasite gel in the skin. However, chronic infection of the spleen was only enhanced in high dose co-infections with gel. These results provide the framework for a more natural experimental model of visceral leishmaniasis. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  19. Possible over-wintering of bluetongue virus in Culicoides populations in the Onderstepoort area, Gauteng, South Africa

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    Jumari Steyn

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have demonstrated the ability of certain viruses to overwinter in arthropod vectors. The over-wintering mechanism of bluetongue virus (BTV is unknown. One hypothesis is over-wintering within adult Culicoides midges (Diptera; Ceratopogonidae that survive mild winters where temperatures seldom drop below 10 °C. The reduced activity of midges and the absence of outbreaks during winter may create the impression that the virus has disappeared from an area. Light traps were used in close association with horses to collect Culicoides midges from July 2010 to September 2011 in the Onderstepoort area, in Gauteng Province, South Africa. More than 500 000 Culicoides midges were collected from 88 collections and sorted to species level, revealing 26 different Culicoides species. Culicoides midges were present throughout the 15 month study. Nine Culicoides species potentially capable of transmitting BTV were present during the winter months. Midges were screened for the presence of BTV ribonucleic acid (RNA with the aid of a real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR assay. In total 91.2% of midge pools tested positive for BTV RNA. PCR results were compared with previous virus isolation results (VI that demonstrated the presence of viruses in summer and autumn months. The results indicate that BTV-infected Culicoides vectors are present throughout the year in the study area. Viral RNA-positive midges were also found throughout the year with VI positive midge pools only in summer and early autumn. Midges that survive mild winter temperatures could therefore harbour BTV but with a decreased vector capacity. When the population size, biting rate and viral replication decrease, it could stop BTV transmission. Over-wintering of BTV in the Onderstepoort region could therefore result in re-emergence because of increased vector activity rather than reintroduction from outside the region.

  20. A comparison of commercial light-emitting diode baited suction traps for surveillance of Culicoides in northern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Andrew; Gubbins, Simon; Sanders, Christopher; Denison, Eric; Barber, James; Stubbins, Francesca; Baylis, Matthew; Carpenter, Simon

    2015-04-22

    The response of Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) to artificial light sources has led to the use of light-suction traps in surveillance programmes. Recent integration of light emitting diodes (LED) in traps improves flexibility in trapping through reduced power requirements and also allows the wavelength of light used for trapping to be customized. This study investigates the responses of Culicoides to LED light-suction traps emitting different wavelengths of light to make recommendations for use in surveillance. The abundance and diversity of Culicoides collected using commercially available traps fitted with Light Emitting Diode (LED) platforms emitting ultraviolet (UV) (390 nm wavelength), blue (430 nm), green (570 nm), yellow (590 nm), red (660 nm) or white light (425 nm - 750 nm with peaks at 450 nm and 580 nm) were compared. A Centre for Disease Control (CDC) UV light-suction trap was also included within the experimental design which was fitted with a 4 watt UV tube (320-420 nm). Generalised linear models with negative binomial error structure and log-link function were used to compare trap abundance according to LED colour, meteorological conditions and seasonality. The experiment was conducted over 49 nights with 42,766 Culicoides caught in 329 collections. Culicoides obsoletus Meigen and Culicoides scoticus Downes and Kettle responded indiscriminately to all wavelengths of LED used with the exception of red which was significantly less attractive. In contrast, Culicoides dewulfi Goetghebuer and Culicoides pulicaris Linnaeus were found in significantly greater numbers in the green LED trap than in the UV LED trap. The LED traps collected significantly fewer Culicoides than the standard CDC UV light-suction trap. Catches of Culicoides were reduced in LED traps when compared to the standard CDC UV trap, however, their reduced power requirement and small size fulfils a requirement for trapping in logistically challenging areas or where many

  1. Climate change and the spread of vector-borne diseases: using approximate Bayesian computation to compare invasion scenarios for the bluetongue virus vector Culicoides imicola in Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mardulyn, P.; Goffredo, M.; Conte, A.; Hendrickx, G.; Meiswinkel, R.; Balenghien, T.; Sghaier, S.; Lohr, Y.; Gilbert, M.

    2013-01-01

    Bluetongue (BT) is a commonly cited example of a disease with a distribution believed to have recently expanded in response to global warming. The BT virus is transmitted to ruminants by biting midges of the genus Culicoides, and it has been hypothesized that the emergence of BT in Mediterranean

  2. Man-biting sand fly species and natural infection with the Leishmania promastigote in leishmaniasis-endemic areas of Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Eduardo A; Kato, Hirotomo; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2014-12-01

    A countrywide surveillance of sand flies was performed to obtain information on their geographical distribution and natural infection by Leishmania protozoa in Ecuador. A total of 18,119 sand flies were collected by human landing collections during 32 years from 1982 to 2014, and 29 species were recognized. The most prevalent 10 species were Lutzomyia gomezi, Lu. robusta, Lu. hartmanni, Lu. shannoni, Lu. trapidoi, Lu. panamensis, Lu. maranonensis, Lu. ayacuchensis, Lu. tortura and Lu. yuilli yuilli, and their topographical and vertical distributions were identified. Among all the sand flies, only 197 (1.09%) flies of four Lutzomyia species, Lu. gomezi, Lu. trapidoi, Lu. tortura and Lu. ayacuchensis, were positive for Leishmania. Endotrypanum, a flagellate parasite not pathogenic to humans, were detected in five Lutzomyia species, Lu. robusta, Lu. hartmanni, Lu. trapidoi, Lu. panamensis and Lu. yuilli yuilli, suggesting wide vector-ranges of Endotrypanum species. These data on the genus Lutzomyia and their natural infections with Leishmania and Endotrypanum will be useful for transmission studies and surveillance of leishmaniasis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Haemoproteus tartakovskyi (Haemoproteidae): Complete sporogony in Culicoides nubeculosus (Ceratopogonidae), with implications for avian haemoproteid experimental research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žiegytė, Rita; Bernotienė, Rasa; Palinauskas, Vaidas; Valkiūnas, Gediminas

    2016-01-01

    Numerous recent studies have addressed the molecular characterization, distribution and genetic diversity of Haemoproteus spp. (Haemoproteidae). Some species of these blood parasites cause severe disease in birds, and heavy infections are often lethal in biting midges (Ceratopogonidae) and other blood-sucking insects. However, information about the vectors of haemoproteids is scarce. This presents an obstacle for better understanding the mechanisms of host-parasite interactions and the epidemiology of haemoproteosis. Here we investigated the sporogonic development of Haemoproteus tartakovskyi, a widespread bird parasite, in experimentally infected biting midges, Culicoides nubeculosus. These biting midges are widespread in the Europe. The insects were cultivated under laboratory conditions. Unfed females were allowed to take blood meals on wild caught siskins Carduelis spinus naturally infected with H. tartakovskyi (lineage hSISKIN1). Engorged females were maintained at 22-23 °C, dissected at intervals, and examined for sporogonic stages. Mature ookinetes of H. tartakovskyi were seen in the midgut content between 6 and 48 h post infection, oocysts were observed in the midgut wall 3-4 days post infection (dpi). Sporozoites were first reported in the salivary gland preparations 7 dpi. In accordance with microscopy data, polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing confirmed presence of the corresponding parasite lineage in experimentally infected biting midges. This study indicates that C. nubeculosus willingly takes blood meals on birds and is a vector of H. tartakovskyi. These biting midges are readily amenable to cultivation under laboratory conditions. Culicoides nubeculosus transmits Haemoproteus parasites infecting parrots, owls and siskins, birds belonging to different families and orders. Thus, this vector provides a convenient model for experimental research with avian haemoproteids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Seasonal differences in cytokine expression in the skin of Shetland ponies suffering from insect bite hypersensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenbroeks, C.; Meide, van der N.M.A.; Zaiss, D.M.W.; Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M.S.; Lugt, van der J.J.; Smak, J.; Rutten, V.P.M.G.; Willemse, T.

    2013-01-01

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) in horses is a seasonal, IgE-mediated, pruritic skin disorder primarily caused by Culicoides spp. We hypothesize that a mixed Th2/Th1-type immune status, off season, alters into Th2-dominated immune reactivity in the skin of IBH-affected ponies in the IBM season.

  5. Lizard Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stings Alligator, Crocodile, and Iguana Bites Animal Bites Bee, Wasp, Hornet, and Ant ... in Arizona, Sonora, Mexico, and adjacent areas. The venom of these lizards is somewhat similar in content ...

  6. Bluetongue vector species of Culicoides in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagienard, A; Griot, C; Mellor, P S; Denison, E; Stärk, K D C

    2006-06-01

    Switzerland is historically recognized by the Office Internationale des Epizooties as free from bluetongue disease (BT) because of its latitude and climate. With bluetongue virus (BTV) moving north from the Mediterranean, an entomological survey was conducted in Switzerland in 2003 to assess the potential of the BTV vectors present. A total of 39 cattle farms located in three geographical regions, the Ticino region, the Western region and the region of the Grisons, were monitored during the vector season. Farms were located in areas at high risk of vector introduction and establishment based on the following characteristics: annual average temperature > 12.5 degrees C, average annual humidity >or= 60%, cattle farm. Onderstepoort black light traps were operated at the cattle farms generally for one night in July and one night in September. A total of 56 collections of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) were identified morphologically. Only one single individual of Culicoides (Avaritia) imicola, the major Old World vector of BTV, was found in July 2003 in the Ticino region, one of the southernmost regions of Switzerland. In the absence of further specimens of C. imicola from Switzerland it is suggested that this individual may be a vagrant transported by wind from regions to the south of the country where populations of this species are known to occur. Alternative potential BTV vectors of the Culicoides (Culicoides) pulicaris and Culicoides (Avaritia) obsoletus complexes were abundant in all sampled regions with individual catches exceeding 70 000 midges per trap night.

  7. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Culicoides Species in Mainland Portugal (2005–2010). Results of the Portuguese Entomological Surveillance Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramilo, David W.; Amador, Rita; Madeira, Sara; Baptista, Filipa M.; Harrup, Lara E.; Lucientes, Javier; Boinas, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is transmitted by Culicoides biting midges and causes an infectious, non-contagious disease of ruminants. It has been rapidly emerging in southern Europe since 1998. In mainland Portugal, strains of BTV belonging to three serotypes have been detected: BTV-10 (1956-1960), BTV-4 (2004-2006 and 2013) and BTV-1 (2007-2012). This paper describes the design, implementation and results of the Entomological Surveillance Programme covering mainland Portugal, between 2005 and 2010, including 5,650 caches. Culicoides imicola Kieffer was mostly found in central and southern regions of Portugal, although it was sporadically detected in northern latitudes. Its peak activity occurred in the autumn and it was active during the winter months in limited areas of the country. Obsoletus group was present at the highest densities in the north although they were found throughout the country in substantial numbers. Culicoides activity occurred all year round but peaked in the spring. A generalized linear mixed model was developed for the analysis of the environmental factors associated with activity of the species of Culicoides suspected vectors of BTV in the country. For C. imicola Kieffer, the most important variables were month, diurnal temperature range (DTR), the number of frost days (FRS) and median monthly temperature (TMP). For the Obsoletus group, the most important factors were month, diurnal temperature range (DTR), and linear and quadratic terms for median monthly temperature (TMP). The results reported can improve our understanding of climatic factors in Culicoides activity influencing their distribution and seasonal pattern. PMID:25906151

  8. The spatial and seasonal distribution of African horse sickness and its potential Culicoides vectors in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylis, M; el Hasnaoui, H; Bouayoune, H; Touti, J; Mellor, P S

    1997-07-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is a vector-borne, infectious disease of equines that is caused by African horse sickness virus (AHSV). The only proven field vector is the biting midge Culicoides imicola, although C. obsoletus and C. pulicaris are suspected vectors. There was a recent epizootic of AHS in Iberia (1987-90) and Morocco (1989-91). In 1994-45 a total of 3887 light trap samples were taken from twenty-two sites distributed over most of Morocco. Culicoides imicola was found to be very widely dispersed, with the greatest catches in the low-lying northwestern areas (between Tangier and Rabat) and at Marrakech. Culicoides imicola was absent at one site only, near Settat. Culicoides imicola was found at altitudes ranging from 4 to 1275 m and in climatic conditions ranging from subhumid to saharan. In general, the catch of C.imicola peaked in late summer and autumn, with a smaller peak in spring. In areas where the insect appears most abundant at least one adult C.imicola per night may be caught in a light trap at all times of year, thus providing a possible means of viral overwintering. Culicoides obsoletus and C.pulicaris are also widely distributed in Morocco but trap catches were much lower than for C.imicola. Peak catches occurred in spring, and late summer and autumn. Other frequently caught species were C.circumscriptus, C.newsteadi, C.puncticollis and members of the odibilis subgenus. In general, the findings for C.imicola correspond well with the distribution of disease outbreaks during the epizootic. Although disease outbreaks were widespread in the country, the greatest number of reported cases was in the northwest (1989-90); in 1991 there were also significant numbers in Marrakech province. No cases were reported in a large area to the west of the Atlas mountains (including Settat) despite the presence of a large equine population. It is likely that during the epizootic the virus overwintered in the northwest (1989) and in Marrakech province (1990

  9. (biting midges) in Zaria, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2017-03-30

    Mar 30, 2017 ... The presence of Culicoides species infesting pigs was established and the identified Culicoides species were incriminated to be mammophilic in feeding. Recommendation is made to determine the blood meal source and possibility of disease transmission. Keywords: Culicoides species, Ceratopogonidae ...

  10. Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild animals usually avoid people. They might attack, however, if they feel threatened, are sick, or are protecting their ... or territory. Attacks by pets are more common. Animal bites rarely are life-threatening, but if they ...

  11. Indoor activity of Culicoides associated with livestock in the bluetongue virus (BTV) affected region of northern France during autumn 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldet, T; Delécolle, J C; Cêtre-Sossah, C; Mathieu, B; Meiswinkel, R; Gerbier, G

    2008-10-15

    In August 2006, bluetongue virus (BTV) was detected in the Netherlands, Belgium, western Germany, Luxembourg and northern France for the first time. Consequently, a longitudinal entomological study was conducted in the affected region of northern France (Ardennes) throughout the autumn of 2006. Data on the spatio-temporal distribution of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) associated with livestock were collected and an attempt was made to identify the vector(s) involved in BTV transmission by means of virus detection in wild-caught biting midges. Weekly sampling using standardized Onderstepoort-type blacklight traps were performed simultaneously both outdoors and indoors in one BTV-free and three BTV-affected farms between September and December 2006. Culicoides were sorted according to farm, location (outdoors vs. indoors), time point (in weeks), species and physiological stage. BTV detection was conducted by RT-PCR on monospecific pools of non-bloodfed parous female Culicoides. The principal results showed: (i) the absence of the Mediterranean vector, C. imicola, (ii) the relatively low abundance of C. dewulfi and C. pulicaris, (iii) the widespread occurrence and abundance of C. obsoletus/C. scoticus with longevity and behaviour compatible with BTV transmission, and (iv) all Culicoides pools tested for BTV were negative. In France, the very low levels of BTV-8 circulation were probably due to the limited introduction of the virus from affected neighbouring countries, and not due to the absence of local vector populations. A key finding has been the substantiation, for the first time, that Culicoides, and particularly the potential vectors C. obsoletus/C. scoticus and C. dewulfi, can be active at night inside livestock buildings and not only outside, as originally believed. The endophagic tendencies of members of the Obsoletus group are discussed in light of the prolonged period of BTV transmission during the autumn of 2006 and the risk of BTV overwintering and

  12. Non-biting Muscidae and control methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, G.; Jespersen, Jørgen B.

    1994-01-01

    Many non-biting muscids (filth flies) are characterised by the habit of visiting manure or rotting organic material to Seed and/or oviposit. As these flies also often have close associations with human beings, as well as human habitations and domestic animals, they are potentially both a nuisance...

  13. Studies of the mortality rate of Culicoides imicola in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylis, M; Touti, J; Bouayoune, H; Moudni, L; Taoufiq, B; el Hasnaoui, H

    1998-01-01

    Daily mortality rates of female Culicoides imicola were found for eight sites in Morocco in 1994 and for six sites in 1995. The mortality rates were found by operating Pirbright-type light traps for a number of consecutive nights in late summer or autumn and finding the parous rate assuming a feeding interval of 3 to 5 days. The mortality rates were calculated according to established methods. In Morocco the daily mortality rates were found to vary from about 5% per day (Arbaoua, 1994, 1995 and Sidi Moussa 1995) up to 20-25% per day (Berkane, Marrakech, Tangier). In general, estimates of daily mortality rate were consistent between the two years of study. Among sites, daily mortality rate was significantly correlated with the average night-time minimum wind speed but not mean or maximum night-time wind speeds, or with temperature, humidity or saturation deficit. The observed mortality rates suggest that at Arbaoua, were 1,000 flies to become infected with African horse sickness virus, at least 330 would live long enough to take 3 or more infective blood meals on hosts. At Berkane, the survival rate per 1,000 is less than 10. In general, the pattern observed for daily mortality rate, combined with the relative population sizes of C. imicola in Morocco, agree well with the observed distribution of African horse sickness in the country during the 1989-1991 epizootic.

  14. Spatio-temporal abundance and dispersal of Culicoides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Carsten

    . These models need to have proper input regarding the abundance and behavior of the vectors. If no vectors are present in an area, the disease will not spread. Thus the vector abundance is a very important factor for models of vector-borne diseases. This PhD project investigates different key factors important......This PhD project comprises studies of biting midges (Culicoides) in Denmark with regards to vector-borne diseases such as bluetongue virus (BTV) and Schmallenberg virus (SBV). Both diseases are new in northern Europe. In Denmark there was an outbreak of BTV in 2007 and 2008. BTV infects ruminants...... in Denmark. The symptoms of SBV are similar to BTV but also include a high proportion of malformations and stillbirths in lambs. Models of vector-borne diseases can be used to predict an outbreak and evaluate e.g. the optimal control strategy, the economic impact and the number of infected animals...

  15. Sergeia podlipaevi gen. nov., sp. nov. (Trypanosomatidae, Kinetoplastida), a parasite of biting midges (Ceratopogonidae, Diptera)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svobodová, M.; Zídková, L.; Čepička, I.; Oborník, Miroslav; Lukeš, Julius; Votýpka, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 2 (2007), s. 423-432 ISSN 1466-5026 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009; GA MŠk 2B06129 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Culicoides * Trypanosoma * trypanosomatids * transmission * biting midges * 18S SSU * GAPDH Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.384, year: 2007

  16. The Culicoides of Southeast Asia (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Colocasia in Java, and Mayer’s description of the larva of this species , are probably misidentifications. Collec- tions of C. anophelis from animal shelters...200m wo1r.t¶* One-hundred and six`. *-:.𔃻Yht species of Culicoides are repcorded from Southeast Asial, E. region comprisir& ’ countries of Burma...based mainly on females) , and an atlas of wing phnoAographs is arrrnged In taxonomiL sequence. For each species there is a completp syr.:.Ni%,my

  17. Genetic characterization and molecular identification of the bloodmeal sources of the potential bluetongue vector Culicoides obsoletus in the Canary Islands, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-de la Puente Josué

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae biting midges are vectors for a diversity of pathogens including bluetongue virus (BTV that generate important economic losses. BTV has expanded its range in recent decades, probably due to the expansion of its main vector and the presence of other autochthonous competent vectors. Although the Canary Islands are still free of bluetongue disease (BTD, Spain and Europe have had to face up to a spread of bluetongue with disastrous consequences. Therefore, it is essential to identify the distribution of biting midges and understand their feeding patterns in areas susceptible to BTD. To that end, we captured biting midges on two farms in the Canary Islands (i to identify the midge species in question and characterize their COI barcoding region and (ii to ascertain the source of their bloodmeals using molecular tools. Methods Biting midges were captured using CDC traps baited with a 4-W blacklight (UV bulb on Gran Canaria and on Tenerife. Biting midges were quantified and identified according to their wing patterns. A 688 bp segment of the mitochondrial COI gene of 20 biting midges (11 from Gran Canaria and 9 from Tenerife were PCR amplified using the primers LCO1490 and HCO2198. Moreover, after selected all available females showing any rest of blood in their abdomen, a nested-PCR approach was used to amplify a fragment of the COI gene from vertebrate DNA contained in bloodmeals. The origin of bloodmeals was identified by comparison with the nucleotide-nucleotide basic alignment search tool (BLAST. Results The morphological identification of 491 female biting midges revealed the presence of a single morphospecies belonging to the Obsoletus group. When sequencing the barcoding region of the 20 females used to check genetic variability, we identified two haplotypes differing in a single base. Comparison analysis using the nucleotide-nucleotide basic alignment search tool (BLAST showed that both

  18. Human bites - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bites - human - self-care ... Human bites can occur in 2 ways: If someone bites you If your hand comes into contact ... bite to express anger or other negative feelings. Human bites may be more dangerous than animal bites. ...

  19. Molecular characterization and immunolocalization of the olfactory co-recepter Orco from two blood-feeding muscid flies, the stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans, L.) and the horn fly (Haematobia irritans irritans, L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Olafson, Pia Untalan

    2013-01-01

    Biting flies are economically important, blood-feeding pests of medical and veterinary significance. Chemosensory-based biting fly behaviors, such as host/nutrient source localization and ovipositional site selection, are intriguing targets for the development of supplemental control strategies. In an effort to expand our understanding of biting fly chemosensory pathways, transcripts encoding the highly conserved insect odorant co-receptor (Orco) were isolated from two representative biting f...

  20. Bite marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischman, Stuart L

    2002-12-01

    A simple and practical method for the evaluation of bite mark evidence has been described. There are many other methods, some quite complicated, using overlays, computer analysis and mathematical formulae. This author prefers to adhere to the "KISS principle: "Keep It Simple, Stupid." A jury is generally more willing to accept the positioning of a study model on a one-to-one life-size photograph rather than be led through a complicated analytical procedure. If the juror can hold the model and photograph in his/her hand and see that the teeth and bite mark match (or do not match), data summation can be much more direct. Numerous publications describe more complex matching procedures should circumstances warrant.

  1. Snake bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrell, David A

    2010-01-02

    Snake bite is a common and frequently devastating environmental and occupational disease, especially in rural areas of tropical developing countries. Its public health importance has been largely ignored by medical science. Snake venoms are rich in protein and peptide toxins that have specificity for a wide range of tissue receptors, making them clinically challenging and scientifically fascinating, especially for drug design. Although the full burden of human suffering attributable to snake bite remains obscure, hundreds of thousands of people are known to be envenomed and tens of thousands are killed or maimed by snakes every year. Preventive efforts should be aimed towards education of affected communities to use proper footwear and to reduce the risk of contact with snakes to a minimum through understanding of snakes' behaviour. To treat envenoming, the production and clinical use of antivenom must be improved. Increased collaboration between clinicians, epidemiologists, and laboratory toxinologists should enhance the understanding and treatment of envenoming. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cat and Dog Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Wellness Staying Healthy Pets and Animals Cat and Dog Bites Cat and Dog Bites Share Print Cat and dog bites are common injuries. A family pet or ... bites. Path to safety If a cat or dog bites you, you should: Wash the wound gently ...

  3. Prevalence of Culicoides imicola and other species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae ateight sites in Zimbabwe : to the editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.N. Musuka

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Presents some prevalence data on Culicoides imicola and Culicoides bolitinos in Zimbabwe. Includes data on other common species, as revealed by collections made over 2 years at 8 widely-separated study sites

  4. Insect Bites and Stings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most insect bites are harmless, though they sometimes cause discomfort. Bee, wasp, and hornet stings and fire ant bites usually hurt. Mosquito and flea bites usually itch. Insects can also spread diseases. In the United States, ...

  5. Dog Bite Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emergency Care Animal Welfare Veterinary Careers Public Health Dog Bite Emergencies What do I do if I’ ... vaccination records. What do I do if my dog bites someone? Dog bites are scary for everyone ...

  6. Les porcheries : réservoirs des Culicoides (Diptera : Ceratopogonidae, vecteurs des virus de la Maladie de la Langue bleue et de Schmallenberg ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmer, JY.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pig farms: reservoirs of vectors of Bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses?. Bluetongue (BT is a vector-borne disease that affects domestic and wild ruminants. Since its recent outbreak in northern Europe, this viral disease has caused considerable economic losses. The biological vectors of the bluetongue virus are biting midges belonging to the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae. Several light trapping campaigns targeting these adult midges have been previously conducted in Belgium within cattle and sheep farms, but none have been performed inside pig farms. This study therefore aims to assess, using light traps, the levels of Culicoides populations that may have been present inside two Belgian pig farms during the fall and winter of 2008. The presence of (potential Culicoides vector species was demonstrated inside the pig buildings during the fall: 8 and 749 specimens belonging to 2 and 7 species were respectively trapped inside the pigsties, with the majority being Obsoletus complex females. The opening up of the buildings seemed to strongly influence their presence. Observation of the females' nutritional status suggests that these midges were likely to have fed or to have laid eggs inside the pig farms, despite the fact that pig's blood could not be identified in the abdomen of engorged females and that pig manure did not reveal the presence of larvae. Pigs could thus be involved in the maintenance of potential vector species populations of the BT virus, or of the new Schmallenberg virus.

  7. Non-biting Muscidae and control methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, G.; Jespersen, Jørgen B.

    1994-01-01

    Many non-biting muscids (filth flies) are characterised by the habit of visiting manure or rotting organic material to Seed and/or oviposit. As these flies also often have close associations with human beings, as well as human habitations and domestic animals, they are potentially both a nuisance...... and a contributory factor in the transmission of diseases. The authors examine the biology, economic importance and control of four of the most important nonbiting muscids:...

  8. Biotic and abiotic factors influencing distribution and abundance of Culicoides obsoletus group (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Liberato, C; Farina, F; Magliano, A; Rombolà, P; Scholl, F; Spallucci, V; Scaramozzino, P

    2010-05-01

    In the framework of a bluetongue surveillance program including clinical, serological, and entomological activities, Culicoides biting midges were light trapped weekly in two regions of central Italy, Lazio and Tuscany. In the period January 2002 through December 2005, 3,944 collections were carried out in 189 trap sites distributed in all the provinces of the two regions. Abundance data of C. obsoletus group were analyzed in relation to trap site altitude, distance from the sea, land use, and number of farmed animals. Species seasonality and overall temporal trend were also described. C. obsoletus was distributed over the whole study area, almost in all trapping sites and with high abundances. The species group was dominant among all captured Culicoides, with higher abundances recorded inland and in areas where land cover was partially or completely natural-wooded. Adults on the wing were caught all year round, with peaks in May-June and middle October. The observed trend through years recorded a peak during autumn 2002, in concomitance with a local epidemic of bluetongue.

  9. Animal Bites: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Animal bites: First aid Animal bites: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff These guidelines can help you care for a minor animal bite, such ... 26, 2017 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-animal-bites/basics/ART-20056591 . Mayo ...

  10. Which dogs bite?

    OpenAIRE

    Jarrett, P

    1991-01-01

    Young children (less than 11 years old) are a particular risk group for dog bites. Dog bites commonly occur from the family pet. Alsatian or alsatian mixes are the biggest group in the study causing dog bites. Alsations are a popular breed. By comparison Retrievers (Labrador and Golden), also a popular breed, caused few bites.

  11. Schmallenberg Virus Circulation in Culicoides in Belgium in 2012: Field Validation of a Real Time RT-PCR Approach to Assess Virus Replication and Dissemination in Midges

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Regge, Nick; Madder, Maxime; Deblauwe, Isra; Losson, Bertrand; Fassotte, Christiane; Demeulemeester, Julie; Smeets, François; Tomme, Marie; Cay, Ann Brigitte

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous Culicoides biting midges are suggested to be putative vectors for the recently emerged Schmallenberg virus (SBV) based on SBV RNA detection in field-caught midges. Furthermore, SBV replication and dissemination has been evidenced in C. sonorensis under laboratory conditions. After SBV had been detected in Culicoides biting midges from Belgium in August 2011, it spread all over the country by the end of 2011, as evidenced by very high between-herd seroprevalence rates in sheep and cattle. This study investigated if a renewed SBV circulation in midges occurred in 2012 in the context of high seroprevalence in the animal host population and evaluated if a recently proposed realtime RT-PCR approach that is meant to allow assessing the vector competence of Culicoides for SBV and bluetongue virus under laboratory conditions was applicable to field-caught midges. Therefore midges caught with 12 OVI traps in four different regions in Belgium between May and November 2012, were morphologically identified, age graded, pooled and tested for the presence of SBV RNA by realtime RT-PCR. The results demonstrate that although no SBV could be detected in nulliparous midges caught in May 2012, a renewed but short lived circulation of SBV in parous midges belonging to the subgenus Avaritia occured in August 2012 at all four regions. The infection prevalence reached up to 2.86% in the south of Belgium, the region where a lower seroprevalence was found at the end of 2011 than in the rest of the country. Furthermore, a frequency analysis of the Ct values obtained for 31 SBV-S segment positive pools of Avaritia midges showed a clear bimodal distribution with peaks of Ct values between 21–24 and 33–36. This closely resembles the laboratory results obtained for SBV infection of C. sonorensis and implicates indigenous midges belonging to the subgenus Avaritia as competent vectors for SBV. PMID:24466312

  12. An investigation on the Culicoides species composition at seven sites in southern Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casati, S; Racloz, V; Delécolle, J C; Kuhn, M; Mathis, A; Griot, C; Stärk, K D C; Vanzetti, T

    2009-06-01

    In the past decade, there have been regular outbreaks of bluetongue (BT) in many parts of Europe. Owing to the presence of BT disease and its vectors in countries adjacent to Switzerland, an initial entomological survey was conducted in 2003, which established the presence of several midges of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Subsequently, a sentinel herd monitoring system was established with the primary entomological aim being the determination and further study of Culicoides population compositions. Insects were collected in 2005 and 2006 at seven sentinel herd sites in the south of Switzerland (canton of Ticino) near the border of Italy, using Onderstepoort-type light traps. This region is botanically and zoologically similar to the Mediterranean and is one of the warmest and most humid areas of the country, hence it is considered a potential access path for BT disease into Switzerland. Collections were made at four cattle farms, two equestrian centres and one goat farm. Sites were sampled four times per month from June to October. Traps were operated from dusk until dawn and samples were collected monthly for analysis through microscopy as well as a Culicoides imicola-specific PCR. Results confirmed the absence of C. imicola (Kieffer) and demonstrated that the potential BT virus vectors are highly abundant, notably: Culicoides obsoletus (Meigen), Culicoides scoticus (Downes & Kettle) and Culicoides dewulfi (Goetghebuer) subgenus Avaritia and Culicoides pulicaris (Linnaeus) subgenus Culicoides. These findings expand the current knowledge of Culicoides population composition in the southern part of the Switzerland. Culicoides cataneii (Clastrier), Culicoides flavipulicaris (Dzhafarov), Culicoides indistinctus (Khalaf), Culicoides nubeculosus (Meigen) and species of the Grisescens complex were reported for the first time in Switzerland.

  13. Diel and Seasonal Activities of Culicoides spp. near Yankeetown, Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    immature stages. J. Med. Entomol. 9: 51-59. Lee, V.H. 1968. Parthenogenesis and autogeny in Culicoides bambusicola Lutz (Ceratopogonidae, Diptera). J...method for the isolation of fresh-water invertebrates from soil samples. Ecology 41: 573-574. Williams, R.W. 1961. Parthenogenesis and autogeny in

  14. Sound Bites that Bite Back

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Lisa Storm

    2017-01-01

    In 2012 the Danish Minister for Economic Affairs and the Interior, Margrethe Vestager, spoke four words that would haunt her for weeks and months to come. At a press conference she concluded an answer to a touchy political question with the words: ‘That’s the way it is’ [Sådan er det jo]. This la......In 2012 the Danish Minister for Economic Affairs and the Interior, Margrethe Vestager, spoke four words that would haunt her for weeks and months to come. At a press conference she concluded an answer to a touchy political question with the words: ‘That’s the way it is’ [Sådan er det jo...... such massive rhetorical fallout, and I consider Vestager’s attempt at re-appropriating the sound bite as I engage ancient and contemporary rhetorical theory. In a time where a main concern is with the seeming triumph of emotion over reason in political debate, this case illustrates the dangers of over......-relying on reason alone in politics and speaks to the protean nature of rhetorical agency in the age of social media....

  15. Human bites (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human bites present a high risk of infection. Besides the bacteria which can cause infection, there is ... the wound extends below the skin. Anytime a human bite has broken the skin, seek medical attention.

  16. Insect bites and stings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Insect and spider bites cause more deaths from venom reactions than bites from snakes. ... Some people have severe, life-threatening reactions to bee stings ... or lightheadedness Abdominal pain or vomiting Rash or flushing

  17. Bug Bites and Stings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can carry other diseases, such as malaria and dengue fever. Spider Bites Most spider bites are minor, ... Clean the area with soap and water, and treat with an antiseptic or antibiotic cream to avoid ...

  18. In vitro induction of functional allergen-specific CD4+ CD25high Treg cells in horses affected with insect bite hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, E; Akdis, C A; Wagner, B; Steinbach, F; Marti, E

    2013-08-01

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is a recurrent allergic dermatitis of horses with similarities to human atopic eczema, caused by bites of insects of the genus Culicoides. Previous studies suggested a dysregulated T cell tolerance to Culicoides allergen in IBH-affected horses. We have investigated whether the suppressive function of CD4(+) CD25(high) cells is impaired in IBH-affected horses and possible ways to restore it. CD4(+) CD25(-) cells sorted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were stimulated with irradiated autologous PBMC pulsed with Culicoides or tetanus toxoid as control antigen, in the presence of CD4(+) CD25(high) cells. Furthermore, Culicoides-specific CD4(+) CD25(high) regulatory cells were expanded or induced from CD4(+) CD25(-) cells in vitro in the presence of a combination of rIL-2 and rTGF-β1 (rIL-2/rTGF-β1) or of retinoic acid and rapamycin (RetA/Rapa). Proliferation was determined by [(3) H] thymidine incorporation and cytokine production measured by flow cytometry. The ability of Culicoides- but not tetanus-stimulated CD4(+) CD25(high) cells to suppress proliferation of CD4(+) CD25(-) cells was significantly lower in IBH-affected horses (28%) than in healthy controls (86%). The decreased suppression in IBH-affected horses was associated with a significantly higher proportion of IL-4(+) cells and a lower percentage of FoxP3(+) IL-10(+) compared to controls. Addition of rIL-2/rTGF-β1 or of RetA/Rapa to Culicoides-stimulated CD4(+) CD25(high) cells from IBH-affected horses significantly increased the proportion of FoxP3(+) IL-10(+) cells. We also found that RetA/Rapa induced a more significant decrease in the frequency of IL-4(+) cells than rIL-2/rTGF-β1. Moreover, the suppressive activity of Culicoides-stimulated CD4(+) CD25(high) cells was significantly restored by both rIL-2/rTGF-β1and RetA/Rapa, albeit in an antigen-unspecific manner. In contrast, in vitro induced Culicoides-specific CD4(+) CD25(high) cells suppressed

  19. Bites and stings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Janice; Fahridin, Salma; Britt, Helena

    2009-11-01

    Of the 426 bite or sting problems managed, 312 (73%) were caused by insects. There were 114 other types of bites recorded, the most common being dog and spider bites. There were five cases of toxicity from aquatic animal stings or adverse reactions to bee stings (Table 1).

  20. The Stages of Biting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Dana

    1999-01-01

    Describes infant and toddler biting behavior as related to developmental differences in exploring the environment, learning cause-effect relationships, and using power to elicit a response. Discusses ways to deal with biting at each level, how to support parents dealing with the behavior at home, and the importance of taking biting related to…

  1. Exotic reptile bites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, J; Ehrlich, M; Henderson, S O

    1997-09-01

    Reptiles are a growing part of the exotic pet trade, and reptile bites have been considered innocuous in the emergency medicine literature. Two cases are reported of reptile bites, one from a green iguana and the other from a reticulated python. The treatment concerns associated with reptile bites are discussed.

  2. Flight and swarming behaviour of Culicoides species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) on a livestock farm in Northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonza Lez, Mikel; Alarco N-Elbal, Pedro M; Venter, Gert J; Lo Pez, Sergio

    2017-06-30

    The efficacy of sweep nets and a CDC white light-suction trap for the sampling of Culicoides species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) were compared on a livestock farm in Northern Spain during the Summer of 2013. A total of 6,082 specimens representing 26 species were collected with sweep nets in 4 areas at di erent heights (ground level, 1.5 m, and 3 m), and 8,463 specimens representing 28 species with a single white light trap. Eight species - Culicoides brunnicans, Culicoides punctatus, Culicoides obsoletus/Culicoides scoticus, Culicoides lupicaris, Culcoides picturatus, Culicoides achrayi, and Culicoides simulator - were dominant and accounted for 97.4% and 97.2% of the total specimens collected with both methods, sweep nets, and light traps, respectively. The sex ratios with sweep netting and light trapping were strongly female biased (78.4% and 97.1%, respectively). Nulliparous and parous females were predominantly captured with both methods. A high percentage (17%) of gravid females was, however, captured on manure at ground level while sweeping. Searches for male swarms revealed the presence of several C. punctatus swarms consisting of 26 to 196 males and 3 swarms of C. obsoletus that ranged from 1 to 12 males in size. This study suggested that both methods are suitable and complementary tools for Culicoides sampling.

  3. The role of gut bacteria in Schmallenberg virus transmission by Culicoides biting midges

    Science.gov (United States)

    When an arbo-virus enters a vector it will first enter the gut system of this insect before entering cells of the insect body. Once in the gut-system, arbo-viruses and gut microbiota can interact with each other. We wondered if different gut bacterial communities could influence virus infection of b...

  4. [Identification from bite marks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, P

    1980-02-01

    Criteria to be considered for establishing the guilt or innocence of a possible offender on the basis of bite marks on the skin of the murder victim were presented using four analyses of bite marks on murder victims. The bite marks must be identifiable; a clear 1:1 photograph should be made which is then compared with impression of a model of the suspect's bite. These impressions are made with graphite on, for example, the surface of a balloon or modelling clay. The evidence provided by a distinct bite mark is almost as conclusive as a fingerprint. Using only the bite mark photographs, the forensic-stomatologic evaluation influenced the course of argumentation in the legal proceedings of three of the four cases discussed; the evaluation was central for the proceedings in one case.

  5. Culicoides (Avaritia) gornostaevae Mirzaeva, 1984 (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) a possible vector species of the Obsoletus group new to the European fauna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Carsten; Dominiak, Patrycja

    2014-01-01

    Culicoides gornostaevae Mirzaeva, 1984, known previously only from Siberia, is a boreal species included into the Obsoletus group of Culicoides sg. Avaritia. Members of the subgenus can act as vectors of various diseases. In Europe they are involved in the transmission of the Schmallenberg virus...... and bluetongue virus. Culicoides gornostaevae Mirzaeva, 1984 is reported for the first time in Europe with new country records from Norway, Poland and Sweden. Culicoides gornostaevae Mirzaeva, 1984 has not been previously mentioned from Europe, even though there has been an extensive monitoring of Culicoides...

  6. Bite Mark Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    SK Padmakumar; VT Beena; N Salmanulfaris; Ashith B Acharya; G Indu; Sajai J Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Bite mark analysis plays an important role in personal identi- fi cation in forensic odontology. They are commonly seen in violent crimes such as sexual assaults, homicides, child abuse, etc. Human bites are common on the face and are usually seen on prominent locations of the face such as the ears, nose and lips. Individual characteristics recorded in the bite marks such as fractures, rotations, attrition, and congenital malformations are helpful in identifying the in...

  7. Climate change and the spread of vector-borne diseases: using approximate Bayesian computation to compare invasion scenarios for the bluetongue virus vector Culicoides imicola in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardulyn, Patrick; Goffredo, Maria; Conte, Annamaria; Hendrickx, Guy; Meiswinkel, Rudolf; Balenghien, Thomas; Sghaier, Soufien; Lohr, Youssef; Gilbert, Marius

    2013-05-01

    Bluetongue (BT) is a commonly cited example of a disease with a distribution believed to have recently expanded in response to global warming. The BT virus is transmitted to ruminants by biting midges of the genus Culicoides, and it has been hypothesized that the emergence of BT in Mediterranean Europe during the last two decades is a consequence of the recent colonization of the region by Culicoides imicola and linked to climate change. To better understand the mechanism responsible for the northward spread of BT, we tested the hypothesis of a recent colonization of Italy by C. imicola, by obtaining samples from more than 60 localities across Italy, Corsica, Southern France, and Northern Africa (the hypothesized source point for the recent invasion of C. imicola), and by genotyping them with 10 newly identified microsatellite loci. The patterns of genetic variation within and among the sampled populations were characterized and used in a rigorous approximate Bayesian computation framework to compare three competing historical hypotheses related to the arrival and establishment of C. imicola in Italy. The hypothesis of an ancient presence of the insect vector was strongly favoured by this analysis, with an associated P ≥ 99%, suggesting that causes other than the northward range expansion of C. imicola may have supported the emergence of BT in southern Europe. Overall, this study illustrates the potential of molecular genetic markers for exploring the assumed link between climate change and the spread of diseases. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Animal Bites of the Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bites occur in the United States each year. Dogs cause most animal bites. Other biting animals include ... elbow or in the armpit Fever Tiredness Night sweats Shakes If these develop, you should seek emergency ...

  9. To bite or not to bite! A questionnaire-based survey assessing why some people are bitten more than others by midges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weeks Emma NI

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Scottish biting midge, Culicoides impunctatus, responsible for more than 90% of biting attacks on human beings in Scotland, is known to demonstrate a preference for certain human hosts over others. Methods In this study we used a questionnaire-based survey to assess the association between people's perception of how badly they get bitten by midges and their demographic, lifestyle and health related characteristics. Results Most people (85.8% reported being bitten sometimes, often or always with only 14.2% reporting never being bitten by midges when in Scotland. There was no association between level of bites received and age, smoking, diet, exercise, medication, eating strongly flavoured foods or alcohol consumption. However, there was a strong association between the probability of being bitten and increasing height (in men and BMI (in women. A large proportion of participants (33.8% reported experiencing a bad/severe reaction to midge bites while 53.1% reported a minor reaction and 13.1% no reaction at all. Also, women tend to react more than men to midge bites. Additionally, the results indicated that the susceptibility to being bitten by midges is hereditary. Conclusions This study suggests that midges prefer to bite men that are tall and women that have a large BMI, and that the tendency for a child to be bitten or not could be inherited from their parent. The study is questionnaire-based; therefore, the interpretation of the results may be limited by the subjectivity of the answers given by the respondents. Although the results are relevant only to the Scottish biting midge, the approach used here could be useful for investigating human-insect interactions for other insects, particularly those which transmit pathogens that cause disease.

  10. To bite or not to bite! A questionnaire-based survey assessing why some people are bitten more than others by midges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, James G; Cook, James I; Stanczyk, Nina M; Weeks, Emma Ni; Welham, Sue J; Mordue Luntz, A Jennifer

    2010-05-25

    The Scottish biting midge, Culicoides impunctatus, responsible for more than 90% of biting attacks on human beings in Scotland, is known to demonstrate a preference for certain human hosts over others. In this study we used a questionnaire-based survey to assess the association between people's perception of how badly they get bitten by midges and their demographic, lifestyle and health related characteristics. Most people (85.8%) reported being bitten sometimes, often or always with only 14.2% reporting never being bitten by midges when in Scotland. There was no association between level of bites received and age, smoking, diet, exercise, medication, eating strongly flavoured foods or alcohol consumption. However, there was a strong association between the probability of being bitten and increasing height (in men) and BMI (in women). A large proportion of participants (33.8%) reported experiencing a bad/severe reaction to midge bites while 53.1% reported a minor reaction and 13.1% no reaction at all. Also, women tend to react more than men to midge bites. Additionally, the results indicated that the susceptibility to being bitten by midges is hereditary. This study suggests that midges prefer to bite men that are tall and women that have a large BMI, and that the tendency for a child to be bitten or not could be inherited from their parent. The study is questionnaire-based; therefore, the interpretation of the results may be limited by the subjectivity of the answers given by the respondents. Although the results are relevant only to the Scottish biting midge, the approach used here could be useful for investigating human-insect interactions for other insects, particularly those which transmit pathogens that cause disease.

  11. Water vapour and heat combine to elicit biting and biting persistence in tsetse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappuis, Charles J F; Béguin, Steve; Vlimant, Michèle; Guerin, Patrick M

    2013-08-19

    Tsetse flies are obligatory blood feeders, accessing capillaries by piercing the skin of their hosts with the haustellum to suck blood. However, this behaviour presents a considerable risk as landing flies are exposed to predators as well as the host's own defense reactions such as tail flicking. Achieving a successful blood meal within the shortest time span is therefore at a premium in tsetse, so feeding until replete normally lasts less than a minute. Biting in blood sucking insects is a multi-sensory response involving a range of physical and chemical stimuli. Here we investigated the role of heat and humidity emitted from host skin on the biting responses of Glossina pallidipes, which to our knowledge has not been fully studied in tsetse before. The onset and duration of the biting response of G. pallidipes was recorded by filming movements of its haustellum in response to rapid increases in temperature and/or relative humidity (RH) following exposure of the fly to two airflows. The electrophysiological responses of hygroreceptor cells in wall-pore sensilla on the palps of G. pallidipes to drops in RH were recorded using tungsten electrodes and the ultra-structure of these sensory cells was studied by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Both latency and proportion of tsetse biting are closely correlated to RH when accompanied by an increase of 13.1°C above ambient temperature but not for an increase of just 0.2°C. Biting persistence, as measured by the number of bites and the time spent biting, also increases with increasing RH accompanied by a 13.1°C increase in air temperature. Neurones in wall-pore sensilla on the palps respond to shifts in RH. Our results show that temperature acts synergistically with humidity to increase the rapidity and frequency of the biting response in tsetse above the levels induced by increasing temperature or humidity separately. Palp sensilla housing hygroreceptor cells, described here for the first time in tsetse

  12. Treatment for Animal Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... find out where to take your child for treatment. If the wound is so large that the edges won’t ... above the bite Your pediatrician may recommend antibiotic therapy for a child who has: Moderate or severe bite wounds Puncture wounds, especially if the bone, tendon, or ...

  13. Rat Bite Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Rat Bite Fever Page Content Article Body Rat-bite fever is a disease that occurs in humans who ... ingestion of contaminated food or milk products (Haverhill fever). Most cases in the United States are caused ...

  14. Dog and cat bites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Robert; Ellis, Carrie

    2014-08-15

    Animal bites account for 1% of all emergency department visits in the United States and more than $50 million in health care costs per year. Most animal bites are from a dog, usually one known to the victim. Most dog bite victims are children. Bite wounds should be cleaned, copiously irrigated with normal saline using a 20-mL or larger syringe or a 20-gauge catheter attached to the syringe. The wound should be explored for tendon or bone involvement and possible foreign bodies. Wounds may be closed if cosmetically favorable, such as wounds on the face or gaping wounds. Antibiotic prophylaxis should be considered, especially if there is a high risk of infection, such as with cat bites, with puncture wounds, with wounds to the hand, and in persons who are immunosuppressed. Amoxicillin/clavulanate is the first-line prophylactic antibiotic. The need for rabies prophylaxis should be addressed with any animal bite because even domestic animals are often unvaccinated. Postexposure rabies prophylaxis consists of immune globulin at presentation and vaccination on days 0, 3, 7, and 14. Counseling patients and families about animal safety may help decrease animal bites. In most states, physicians are required by law to report animal bites.

  15. All about Biting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisalli, Linda

    2008-01-01

    As directors of early learning programs, one deals with a myriad of issues on a daily basis. One of the more frustrating things that come up from time to time is biting. Biting is particularly problematic because it tends to elicit such a strong response from caregivers, parents, and other children. In this article, the author talks about biting…

  16. Managing the Biting Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claffey, Anne E.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the causes of biting behavior and techniques that parents and educators can use to manage biting toddlers. Notes that solutions need to consider the developmental level and needs of the child, the influence of the child's environment, and the role of adults in the child's life. (MDM)

  17. Dynamics of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus infection within the vector, Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary K Mills

    Full Text Available Culicoides sonorensis biting midges are confirmed vectors of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV, which causes mortality in white-tailed deer and ruminant populations. Currently, of the seven EHDV serotypes, only 1, 2, and 6 are detected in the USA, and very few studies have focused on the infection time course of these serotypes within the midge. The objective of this current research was to characterize EHDV-2 infection within the midge by measuring infection prevalence, virus dissemination, and viral load over the course of infection. Midges were fed a blood meal containing 106.9 PFU/ml EHDV-2, collected every 12 h from 0-2 days post feeding (dpf and daily from 3-10 dpf, and cohorts of 20 C. sonorensis were processed using techniques that assessed EHDV infection and dissemination. Cytopathic effect assays and quantitative (qPCR were used to determine infection prevalence, revealing a 50% infection rate by 10 dpf using both methods. Using immunohistochemistry, EHDV-2 infection was detectable at 5 dpf, and shown to disseminate from the midgut to other tissues, including fat body, eyes, and salivary glands by 5 dpf. Stain intensity increased from 5-8 dpf, indicating replication of EHDV-2 in secondary infection sites after dissemination. This finding is also supported by trends in viral load over time as determined by plaque assays and qPCR. An increase in titer between 4-5 dpf correlated with viral replication in the midgut as seen with staining at day 5, while the subsequent gradual increase in viral load from 8-10 dpf suggested viral replication in midges with disseminated infection. Overall, the data presented herein suggest that EHDV-2 disseminates via the hemolymph to secondary infection sites throughout the midge and demonstrate a high potential for transmission at five days at 25°C after an infective blood-meal.

  18. Fungal biological control agents for integrated management of Culicoides spp. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae of livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. W. Narladkar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana had wide host range against insects and hence these are being exploited as fungal bio-pesticide on a large scale. Both fungi are proved pesticides against many crop pests and farmers are well acquainted with their use on the field. Thus, research was aimed to explore the potency of these fungal spores against larval and adult Culicoides midges, a pest of livestock. Materials and Methods: In-vitro testing of both fungal biological control agents was undertaken in Petri dishes against field collected Culicoides larvae, while in plastic beakers against field collected blood-engorged female Culicoides midges. In-vivo testing was undertaken by spraying requisite concentration of fungal spores on the drainage channel against larvae and resting sites of adult Culicoides midges in the cattle shed. Lethal concentration 50 (LC50 values and regression equations were drawn by following probit analysis using SPSS statistical computerized program. Results: The results of this study revealed LC50 values of 2692 mg and 3837 mg (108 cfu/g for B. bassiana and M. anisopliae, respectively, against Culicoides spp. larvae. Death of Culicoides larvae due to B. bassiana showed greenish coloration in the middle of the body with head and tail showed intense blackish changes, while infection of M. anisopliae resulted in death of Culicoides larvae with greenish and blackish coloration of body along with total destruction, followed by desquamation of intestinal channel. The death of adult Culicoides midges were caused by both the fungi and after death growth of fungus were very well observed on the dead cadavers proving the efficacy of the fungus. Conclusion: Preliminary trials with both funguses (M. anisopliae, B. bassiana showed encouraging results against larvae and adults of Culicoides spp. Hence, it was ascertained that, these two fungal molecules can form a part of biological control and

  19. Biting-density and microfilariae infection of Simulium damnosum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigations on the biting-density and microfilariae infection rate of S. damnosumsl population caught around the Mada River was conducted between May 2013 to April 2014. Captured flies were morphologically identified and dissected for parity and infectivity rate. A total of 308 adult female S. damnosum sl were caught, ...

  20. Understanding and Preventing Toddler Biting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Veronica

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the problem of toddler biting behavior in child care settings. Describes reasons for biting by toddlers, recommends caregiver responses to toddler biting, presents tips for observing children to identify the biter's patterns, and outlines ways to prevent biting in child care settings. (KB)

  1. Spider Bites (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body rash fever and chills fatigue Of a black widow spider bite: rigid, painful muscles within 8 hours no ... child was bitten by a brown recluse or black widow spider Think Prevention! Make sure garages, attics, and woodpiles ...

  2. Fire Ant Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Fire Ant Bites Share | Fire ants are aggressive, venomous insects that have pinching ... across the United States, even into Puerto Rico. Fire ant stings usually occur on the feet or ...

  3. Rat-bite fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptobacillary fever; Streptobacillosis; Haverhill fever; Epidemic arthritic erythema; Spirillary fever; Sodoku ... Rat-bite fever can be caused by either of 2 different bacteria, Streptobacillus moniliformis or Spirillum minus. Both of these are ...

  4. Impact of the blood meal on humoral immunity and microbiota in the gut of female Culicoides sonorensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayduch, Dana; Erram, Dinesh; Lee, Matthew B; Zurek, Ludek; Saski, Christopher A

    2015-01-01

    Although Culicoides sonorensis is an important vector of orbiviruses causing significant disease in domestic and wild ruminants in the USA, little is known about factors contributing to midge vector competence. In other vectors such as mosquitoes, interactions among the humoral immune response, microbiota, and ingested pathogens within the vector gut directly impact pathogen survival and therefore vectoring potential. We recently described components of the humoral immune response in the reference transcriptome for adult female C. sonorensis and analysed their temporal expression profiles across several dietary states (unfed, blood, or sugar fed). Blood feeding altered the transcription of several humoral immune components of the Immune deficiency (Imd), dual‑oxidase (DUOX), and Janus Kinase and Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (JAK/STAT) pathways. Genes for immune effectors, such as antimicrobial peptides, were in particular highly induced. Since blood feeding also stimulated proliferation and diversification of bacterial populations colonising the gut of female midges, we infer that changes in immune gene expression were a result of fluctuations in gut microbiota. Thus, diet can indirectly (via microbiota) impact gut immune status and therefore should be carefully considered in subsequent studies assessing vector competence in biting midges.

  5. Faustovirus-Like Asfarvirus in Hematophagous Biting Midges and Their Vertebrate Hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temmam, Sarah; Monteil-Bouchard, Sonia; Sambou, Masse; Aubadie-Ladrix, Maxence; Azza, Saïd; Decloquement, Philippe; Khalil, Jacques Y Bou; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre; Jardot, Priscilla; Robert, Catherine; La Scola, Bernard; Mediannikov, Oleg Y; Raoult, Didier; Desnues, Christelle

    2015-01-01

    Faustovirus, a new Asfarviridae-related giant virus, was recently isolated in Vermamoeba vermiformis, a protist found in sewage water in various geographical locations and occasionally reported in human eye infection cases. As part of a global metagenomic analysis of viral communities existing in biting midges, we report here for the first time the identification and isolation of a Faustovirus-like virus in hematophagous arthropods and its detection in their animal hosts. The DNA virome analysis of three pools of Culicoides sp., engorged female Culicoides imicola and non-engorged male/female C. imicola biting midges collected in Senegal, revealed the presence of amoeba-infecting giant viruses and, among them, a majority of sequences related to Faustovirus. Phylogenetic analyses conducted on several structural genes of Faustovirus confirmed the clustering of the arthropod-borne Faustovirus with sewage-borne Faustoviruses, with a distinct geographical clustering of Senegalese Faustovirus strains. Transmission electron microscopy identified viral particles with morphologies and diameters which were compatible with Faustovirus. The presence of infectious arthropod-borne Faustovirus was finally confirmed by successful isolation on V. vermiformis amoeba. Global proteomic analysis of biting midges identified that arthropods' blood meal originating from cattle, rodents and humans. Further screening of cattle sera and rodent tissue resulted in prevalence of Faustovirus being estimated at 38% in rodents and 14% in cattle, suggesting a possible origin of Faustovirus presence in arthropods via the ingestion of contaminated blood meal. Viral loads were the highest in rodents' urine and kidney samples, suggesting a possible excretion of viral particles into the environment. Faustovirus DNA polymerase-related sequences were also detected in more than 9 and 11% of febrile patients and healthy Senegalese human sera, respectively. Our study thus, highlights the need to investigate

  6. Faustovirus-Like Asfarvirus in Hematophagous Biting Midges and Their Vertebrate Hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temmam, Sarah; Monteil-Bouchard, Sonia; Sambou, Masse; Aubadie-Ladrix, Maxence; Azza, Saïd; Decloquement, Philippe; Khalil, Jacques Y. Bou; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre; Jardot, Priscilla; Robert, Catherine; La Scola, Bernard; Mediannikov, Oleg Y.; Raoult, Didier; Desnues, Christelle

    2015-01-01

    Faustovirus, a new Asfarviridae-related giant virus, was recently isolated in Vermamoeba vermiformis, a protist found in sewage water in various geographical locations and occasionally reported in human eye infection cases. As part of a global metagenomic analysis of viral communities existing in biting midges, we report here for the first time the identification and isolation of a Faustovirus-like virus in hematophagous arthropods and its detection in their animal hosts. The DNA virome analysis of three pools of Culicoides sp., engorged female Culicoides imicola and non-engorged male/female C. imicola biting midges collected in Senegal, revealed the presence of amoeba-infecting giant viruses and, among them, a majority of sequences related to Faustovirus. Phylogenetic analyses conducted on several structural genes of Faustovirus confirmed the clustering of the arthropod-borne Faustovirus with sewage-borne Faustoviruses, with a distinct geographical clustering of Senegalese Faustovirus strains. Transmission electron microscopy identified viral particles with morphologies and diameters which were compatible with Faustovirus. The presence of infectious arthropod-borne Faustovirus was finally confirmed by successful isolation on V. vermiformis amoeba. Global proteomic analysis of biting midges identified that arthropods' blood meal originating from cattle, rodents and humans. Further screening of cattle sera and rodent tissue resulted in prevalence of Faustovirus being estimated at 38% in rodents and 14% in cattle, suggesting a possible origin of Faustovirus presence in arthropods via the ingestion of contaminated blood meal. Viral loads were the highest in rodents' urine and kidney samples, suggesting a possible excretion of viral particles into the environment. Faustovirus DNA polymerase-related sequences were also detected in more than 9 and 11% of febrile patients and healthy Senegalese human sera, respectively. Our study thus, highlights the need to investigate

  7. Description of breeding sites of Culicoides species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uslu, U; Dik, B

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the breeding sites of Culicoides species in Konya province, Turkey. The samples taken from 11 different habitats in Konya province were examined for Culicoides species. The collected adult Culicoides specimens were reared in plastic buckets in our laboratory. Among 2,798 specimens reared, 18 species were identified. Culicoides circumscriptus Kieffer, 1918 was the most abundant species reared in the samples taken from mud rich in organic matters near the water reservoirs; C. circumscriptus, C. nubeculosus (Meigen), 1830 and C. shaklawensis Khalaf, 1957 in moist soil with organic matter; C. geigelensis Dzhafarov, 1964 in moist soils, along watering channels and dripping waters; C. festivipennis Kieffer, 1914 and C. circumscriptus along sewage channel; C. festivipennis in reed sites and along garden watering channels; C. circumscriptus in rain pools; C. odiatus Austen, 1921 and C. circumscriptus in mud near the dams; C. geigelensis and C. kibunensis Tokunaga, 1937 from sites along the stream. No Culicoides was reared in the samples obtained from livestock dung and tree holes. It was observed that C. circumscriptus, C. festivipennis and C. shaklawensis preferred mud rich in organic matters near the water reservoirs. Culicoides imicola Kieffer, 1913, which is the main vector of bluetongue, was not detected in Konya province. The others vectors of bluetongue, C. obsoletus gr. (Meigen), 1818, C. schultzei gr. (Enderlein), 1908 and C. pulicaris (Linnaeus), 1758 were only obtained in little numbers.

  8. Description of breeding sites of Culicoides species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uslu U.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the breeding sites of Culicoides species in Konya province, Turkey. The samples taken from 11 different habitats in Konya province were examined for Culicoides species. The collected adult Culicoides specimens were reared in plastic buckets in our laboratory. Among 2,798 specimens reared, 18 species were identified. Culicoides circumscriptus Kieffer, 1918 was the most abundant species reared in the samples taken from mud rich in organic matters near the water reservoirs; C. circumscriptus, C. nubeculosus (Meigen, 1830 and C. shaklawensis Khalaf, 1957 in moist soil with organic matter; C. gejgelensis Dzhafarov, 1964 in moist soils, along watering channels and dripping waters; C. festivipennis Kieffer, 1914 and C. circumscriptus along sewage channel; C. festivipennis in reed sites and along garden watering channels; C. circumscriptus in rain pools; C. odiatus Austen, 1921 and C. circumscriptus in mud near the dams; C. gejgelensis and C. kibunensis Tokunaga, 1937 from sites along the stream. No Culicoides was reared in the samples obtained from livestock dung and tree holes. It was observed that C. circumscriptus, C. festivipennis and C. shaklawensis preferred mud rich in organic matters near the water reservoirs. Culicoides imicola Kieffer, 1913, which is the main vector of bluetongue, was not detected in Konya province. The others vectors of bluetongue, C. obsoletus gr. (Meigen, 1818, C. schultzei gr. (Enderlein, 1908 and C. pulicaris (Linnaeus, 1758 were only obtained in little numbers.

  9. The effect of high frequency sound on Culicoides numbers collected with suction light traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert J. Venter

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Culicoides midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae, are involved in the transmission of various pathogens that cause important diseases of livestock worldwide. The use of insect repellents to reduce the attack rate of these insects on livestock could play an important role as part of an integrated control programme against diseases transmitted by these midges. The objective of this study was to determine whether high frequency sound has any repellent effect on Culicoides midges. The number of midges collected with 220 V Onderstepoort white light traps fitted with electronic mosquito repellents (EMRs, emitting 5-20 KHz multi-frequency sound waves, was compared with that of two untreated traps. Treatments were rotated in two replicates of a 4 x 4 randomised Latin square design. Although fewer midges were collected in the two traps fitted with EMRs, the average number collected over eight consecutive nights was not significantly different. The EMRs also had no influence on any of the physiological groups of Culicoides imicola Kieffer or the species composition of the Culicoides population as determined with light traps. The results indicate that high frequency sound has no repellent effect on Culicoides midges. There is therefore no evidence to support their promotion or use in the protection of animals against pathogens transmitted by Culicoides midges.

  10. The effect of high frequency sound on Culicoides numbers collected with suction light traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert J. Venter

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Culicoides midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae, are involved in the transmission of various pathogens that cause important diseases of livestock worldwide. The use of insect repellents to reduce the attack rate of these insects on livestock could play an important role as part of an integrated control programme against diseases transmitted by these midges. The objective of this study was to determine whether high frequency sound has any repellent effect on Culicoides midges. The number of midges collected with 220 V Onderstepoort white light traps fitted with electronic mosquito repellents (EMRs, emitting 5-20 KHz multi-frequency sound waves, was compared with that of two untreated traps. Treatments were rotated in two replicates of a 4 x 4 randomised Latin square design. Although fewer midges were collected in the two traps fitted with EMRs, the average number collected over eight consecutive nights was not significantly different. The EMRs also had no influence on any of the physiological groups of Culicoides imicola Kieffer or the species composition of the Culicoides population as determined with light traps. The results indicate that high frequency sound has no repellent effect on Culicoides midges. There is therefore no evidence to support their promotion or use in the protection of animals against pathogens transmitted by Culicoides midges.

  11. Molecular characterization and immunolocalization of the olfactory co-recepter Orco from two blood-feeding muscid flies, the stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans, L.) and the horn fly (Haematobia irritans irritans, L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafson, Pia Untalan

    2012-01-01

    Biting flies are economically important, blood-feeding pests of medical and veterinary significance. Chemosensory-based biting fly behaviors, such as host/nutrient source localization and ovipositional site selection, are intriguing targets for the development of supplemental control strategies. In an effort to expand our understanding of biting fly chemosensory pathways, transcripts encoding the highly conserved insect odorant co-receptor (Orco) were isolated from two representative biting fly species, the stable fly (Scal\\Orco) and the horn fly (Hirr\\Orco). Orco forms a complex with an odor-specific odorant receptor to form an odor-gated ion channel. The biting fly transcripts were predicted to encode proteins with 87% – 94% amino acid similarity to published insect Orco sequences and were detected in various immature stages as well as in adult structures associated with olfaction, i.e. antennae and maxillary palps, and gustation, i.e. proboscis. Further, the relevant proteins were immunolocalized to specific antennal sensilla using anti-serum raised against a peptide sequence conserved between the two fly species. Results from this study provide a basis for functional evaluation of repellent/attractant effects on as yet uncharacterized stable fly and horn fly conventional odorant receptors. PMID:23278866

  12. Molecular characterization and immunolocalization of the olfactory co-receptor Orco from two blood-feeding muscid flies, the stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans, L.) and the horn fly (Haematobia irritans irritans, L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafson, P U

    2013-04-01

    Biting flies are economically important blood-feeding pests of medical and veterinary significance. Chemosensory-based biting fly behaviours, such as host/nutrient source localization and ovipositional site selection, are intriguing targets for the development of supplemental control strategies. In an effort to expand our understanding of biting fly chemosensory pathways, transcripts encoding the highly conserved insect odorant co-receptor (Orco) were isolated from two representative biting fly species, the stable fly (Scal\\Orco) and the horn fly (Hirr\\Orco). Orco forms a complex with an odour-specific odorant receptor to form an odour-gated ion channel. The biting fly transcripts were predicted to encode proteins with 87-94% amino acid similarity to published insect Orco sequences and were detected in various immature stages as well as in adult structures associated with olfaction, i.e. the antennae and maxillary palps, and gustation, i.e. the proboscis. Further, the relevant proteins were immunolocalized to specific antennal sensilla using anti-serum raised against a peptide sequence conserved between the two fly species. Results from the present study provide a basis for functional evaluation of repellent/attractant effects on as yet uncharacterized stable fly and horn fly conventional odorant receptors. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  13. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... biting your nails Nail biting typically begins in childhood and can continue through adulthood, and the side ... re inclined to bite may help solve the problem. Try to gradually stop biting your nails: Some ...

  14. On the predation of fly, Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) by a spider, Oxyopes sp. Latreille (Oxyopidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, C C; Mohamad, A M; John, J; Baharudin, O

    2008-04-01

    During a forensic entomological study conducted in a palm oil plantation in Tg.Sepat, Selangor in September 2007, a spider (Arachnida), Oxyopes sp. (Oxyopidae) was found to predate on a calliphorid fly (Chrysomya rufifacies). The female spider laid a silk thread, or "drag line", behind it as it moved. This spider bites its prey by using a pairs of chelicerae, and injecting venom into the fly. The fly was moving its wing trying to escape, however, it succumbed to the deadly bite.

  15. Funnel-web spider bite

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002844.htm Funnel-web spider bite To use the sharing features on ... the effects of a bite from the funnel-web spider. Male funnel-web spiders are more poisonous ...

  16. Marine animal stings or bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stings - marine animals; Bites - marine animals ... Things you can do to prevent a marine animal sting or bite include: Swim near a lifeguard. Observe posted signs that may warn of danger from jellyfish or other hazardous marine life. ...

  17. Acetylcholinesterase mutations and organophosphate resistance in sand flies and mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sand fly, Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) is a major vector of Leishamnia major, the principle causative agent of human cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Middle East, southern Europe, northern Africa, and Southern Asia. Sand fly bites and leishmaniasis significantly impacted U.S. military operations...

  18. Contact and spatial repellency from catnip essential oil, Nepeta cataria, against stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans, and other filth flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presenting brief summaries of our significant findings on: 1). Development of an in vitro bioassay for screening/discovering biting fly repellents, 2). Strong repellency found from catnip oil and its ingredient compounds, nepetalactones against four filth fly species; 3). Feeding deterrency, oviposi...

  19. Animal Bites - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spanish (español) Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) HealthReach resources will open in a new window. Arabic (العربية) Expand Section Animal Bites and Scratches - العربية (Arabic) Bilingual PDF Health Information ...

  20. Mosquito Bites are Bad!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-08-11

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about the dangers of mosquito bites and how to prevent getting them.  Created: 8/11/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/11/2016.

  1. Prevent Bite Wounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... most bites come from domesticated animals that the child knows, not from wild or unfamiliar animals. A major concern for parents ... some tips to keep in mind. Teach your child to avoid contact with wild animals. She also needs to stay away from ...

  2. Spider Bites: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... t had one in the last five years. Black widow spider You can usually identify a black widow spider by the hourglass marking on its belly. In ... in the South. Signs and symptoms of a black widow spider bite may include: At first, slight swelling and ...

  3. Bug Bites and Stings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or sting. Handling Bee and Wasp Stings A bee will usually leave behind a stinger attached to a venom sac. Try to remove it as quickly as ... child has had an allergic reaction to a bee or wasp sting in the past, see your ... shape on its underbelly. The venom (a toxic substance) in a black widow bite ...

  4. African tick bite fever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jakob Aaquist; Thybo, Søren

    2011-01-01

    The incident of spotted fever imported to Denmark is unknown. We present a classic case of African Tick Bite Fever (ATBF) to highlight a disease, which frequently infects wildlife enthusiasts and hunters on vacation in South Africa. ATBF has a good prognosis and is easily treated with doxycyclin...

  5. Biting into Big Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Maureen McCahan

    1996-01-01

    A mnemonic clue sentence--"He thinks mice bite trees"--is suggested for helping students with learning disabilities or mild mental retardation successfully identify up to 15 digit numbers by relating the sentence to the sequence of hundreds, thousands, millions, billions, and trillions. (DB)

  6. Rat bite fever.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaastra, W.; Boot, R.G.A.; Ho, H.; Lipman, L.J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Rat bite fever (RBF) is a bacterial zoonosis for which two causal bacterial species have been identified: Streptobacillis moniliformis and Spirillum minus. Haverhill fever (HF) is a form of S. moniliformis infection believed to develop after ingestion of contaminated food or water. Here the

  7. Ecological Aspects of the Predominant Species of Phlebotominae Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Hamadan, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Somayeh Rafatbakhsh-Iran; Aref Salehzadeh; Mansour Nazari; Amir Hosein Zahirnia; Behroz Davari; Milad Latifi; Parisa Chamanpara

    2016-01-01

    Background Leishmaniases are important diseases in many parts of the world, which are transmitted by bites of sand flies. Objectives This study aimed at investigating some ecological aspects of sand flies in Hamadan. Materials and Methods In this descriptive cross-sectional study, sand flies were collected weekly by sticky traps. Results ...

  8. Development and evaluation of a real-time quantitative PCR assay for Culicoides imicola, one of the main vectors of bluetongue (BT) and African horse sickness (AHS) in Africa and Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cêtre-Sossah, Catherine; Mathieu, Bruno; Setier-Rio, Marie-Laure; Grillet, Colette; Baldet, Thierry; Delécolle, Jean-Claude; Albina, Emmanuel

    2008-10-01

    The current microscopy method for identifying the Culicoides imicola Kieffer, 1913 species can be time and labour intensive. There is a need for the development of a rapid and quantitative tool to quantify the biting midges C. imicola ss in light trap catches. A reproducible and sensitive real-time polymerase chain reaction method that targets the internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1) of ribosomal DNA of C. imicola ss species was developed. This real-time PCR assay was first performed on 10-fold serial dilutions of purified plasmid DNA containing specific C. imicola ss ITS-1. It was then possible to construct standard curves with a high correlation coefficient (r2=0.99) in the range of 10(-2)-10(-8) ng of purified DNA. The performances of this PCR were evaluated in comparison with morphological determination on Culicoides trapped along the Mediterranean coastal mainland France. ROC statistical analysis was carried out using morphology as gold standard and the area under the ROC curve had a satisfactory value of 0.9752. The results indicated that this real-time PCR assay holds promise for monitoring C. imicola ss population in both surveillance and research programmes because of its good specificity (92%) and sensitivity (95%).

  9. Evaluation of long-distance dispersal of Culicoides midges into northern Australia using a migration model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagles, D; Deveson, T; Walker, P J; Zalucki, M P; Durr, P

    2012-09-01

    The introduction of novel bluetongue serotypes and genotypes into northern Australia is considered possible via the long-distance windborne dispersal of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) vectors from Southeast Asia. Initial findings from simulation modelling of potential dispersal over a 15-year period revealed that the greatest risk for incursion of windborne Culicoides from the island of Timor into northern Australia occurs during December-March. The regions at greatest risk for incursion include the top end of the Northern Territory and the Kimberley region in Western Australia, but there is potential for more widespread dispersal into northern Australia based on Timor as the putative source. The establishment of a more pathogenic strain of the virus, or of a novel Culicoides vector introduced by such inter-continental dispersal events, could dramatically alter Australia's current bluetongue disease status. © 2011 CSIRO. Medical and Veterinary Entomology © 2011 The Royal Entomological Society.

  10. Bites of Lists - mapping and filtering sublists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørmark, Kurt

    The idea of applying map and filter functions on consecutive sublists instead of on individual list elements is discussed and developed in this paper. A non-empty, consecutive sublist is called a bite. Both map and filter functions accept a function parameter - a bite function - which...... is responsible for returning a prefix bite of a list. We develop families of bite functions via a collection of higher-order bite generators. On top of the bite generators, a number of bite mapping and bite filtering functions are introduced. We illustrate the usefulness of bite mapping and filtering via...

  11. The Immatures of Culicoides trilineatus (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) Potential Vector of the Bluetongue Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, F; Mangudo, C; Spinelli, G R; Gleiser, R M; Ronderos, M M

    2018-03-05

    The fourth instar larva and pupa of Culicoides trilineatus Fox (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae), a species considered as potential vector of the bluetongue virus in Central and South America, are described, illustrated, and photomicrographed for the first time by using binocular, phase-contrast, and scanning electron microscopy. The immatures were collected by using a siphon bottle in tree holes in Salta Province, Argentina, transported to the laboratory, and there reared to the adult's emergence. They are compared with the immatures of Culicoides debilipalpis Lutz (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae), another Neotropical species that develops in tree holes. Details on larval biology and habitat are given.

  12. Food aroma affects bite size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Wijk René A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the effect of food aroma on bite size, a semisolid vanilla custard dessert was delivered repeatedly into the mouth of test subjects using a pump while various concentrations of cream aroma were presented retronasally to the nose. Termination of the pump, which determined bite size, was controlled by the subject via a push button. Over 30 trials with 10 subjects, the custard was presented randomly either without an aroma, or with aromas presented below or near the detection threshold. Results Results for ten subjects (four females and six males, aged between 26 and 50 years, indicated that aroma intensity affected the size of the corresponding bite as well as that of subsequent bites. Higher aroma intensities resulted in significantly smaller sizes. Conclusions These results suggest that bite size control during eating is a highly dynamic process affected by the sensations experienced during the current and previous bites.

  13. Evaluation of Insecticides, Repellents, and Other Approaches to the Control of Coastal Stand Flies, Culicoides spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-01

    late September-early October. Cuti - coidee hollensia was most abundant during October through mid- November. Only an occasional specimen was collected...Med. Entomol.). Kline, D. L. and J. R. Wood. Habitat characterization of salt marsh Cuti - coides spp. larvae at Yankeetown, Florida: IV. Relative

  14. The transmission of suprapylarian Leishmania by bite of experimentally infected sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae A trasnmissão de Leishmania suprapilária pela picada do flebotomíneo infectado experimentalmente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ryan

    1987-09-01

    Full Text Available Lutzomyia furcata transmitted Leishmania chagasi to a hamster 10 days after being experimentally fed on an infected spleen. An individual female Psychodopygus carrerai carrerai that had fed on a hamster lesion caused by Leishmania mexicana amazonensis transmitted this parasite 6 days later to another hamster. Transmission electron microscopy of this fly's head revealed a small number of degenerate promastigotes in the foregut, but only a few were attached.O protozoário Leishmania (L. chagasi foi transmitido experimentalmente a um hamster pela picada do flebotomíneo Lutzomyia furcata. Os insetos foram infectados através de uma membrana (pele de pinto, utilizando-se formas amastigotas provenientes do baço de um hamster infectado. O baço foi triturado em sangue de coelho. A L. (L. amazonensis foi transmitida a um hamster pela picada do flebotomíneo Psychodopygus c. carrerai, previamente alimentado em lesão de pele de um outro hamster infectado com o parasita. O exame desse flebotomíneo, através de microscópio eletrônico, revelou um número pequeno de flagelados degenerados, livres no lumen do intestino anterior.

  15. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... skin, hair, and nails Skin dictionary Camp Discovery Good Skin Knowledge lesson plans and activities Video library ... biting. Replace the nail-biting habit with a good habit: When you feel like biting your nails, ...

  16. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... re inclined to bite may help solve the problem. Try to gradually stop biting your nails: Some doctors recommend taking a gradual approach to break the habit. Try to stop biting ...

  17. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... this safe, but awful-tasting formula discourages many people from biting their nails. Get regular manicures: Spending ... longer bite any of your nails. For some people, nail biting may be a sign of a ...

  18. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... public", "mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c How to stop biting your nails Nail biting typically ... to bite your nails, you can figure out how to avoid these situations and develop a plan ...

  19. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your fingers and from your nails to your face and mouth. To help you stop biting your ... re inclined to bite may help solve the problem. Try to gradually stop biting your nails: Some ...

  20. Reality Bites: Biting at the Center--Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenman, Jim; Stonehouse, Anne Willis

    1994-01-01

    Examines the problem of biting in group child care, especially among toddlers. Discusses reasons for the behavior such as teething, impulsiveness and lack of self control, excitement and overstimulation, and frustration. Offers advice for child caregivers when biting occurs in their program. (TJQ)

  1. Morphology of open bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krey, Karl-Friedrich; Dannhauer, Karl-Heinz; Hierl, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this work was to define and illustrate the skeletal morphology of open-bite patients against the background of sagittal jaw relationships on the basis of lateral cephalograms. Lateral cephalograms of 197 untreated adults were analyzed in dental imaging software (Onyx Ceph 3™; Image Instruments, Chemnitz, Germany). Four groups were formed based on vertical (Index scores) and sagittal (individualized ANB values) parameters. Ninety-nine patients were defined as the control group due to their neutral sagittal and vertical relationships. The remaining patients were found by their vertical relationships to represent open-bite cases and were divided by their sagittal relationships into three study groups: neutral (Class I, n = 34), distal (Class II, n = 26), and mesial (Class III, n = 38). A geometric morphometric approach was used to analyze the x,y-coordinates of 28 skeletal landmarks on each cephalogram. Relative size was captured based on centroid size (CS). The shape-determining factors in the groups were compared by permutation testing after Procrustes transformation, and intergroup differences were visualized in the form of thin-plate splines. While size (CS) was significantly increased in the Class III group, the other two groups were not different from the control group. After Procrustes transformation, characteristic and invariably significant (p common that the mandibular ramus is compressed, but marked differences are seen in terms of vertical development of the maxilla. This differentiated view of open-bite cases should be taken into consideration during individual etiology assessment and treatment planning.

  2. Assessment of the repellent effect of citronella and lemon eucalyptus oil against South African Culicoides species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert J. Venter

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of insect repellents to reduce the attack rate of Culicoides species (Diptera:Ceratopogonidae should form part of an integrated control programme to combat Africanhorse sickness and other diseases transmitted by these blood-feeding midges. In the presentstudy the repellent effects of a commercially available mosquito repellent, a combinationof citronella and lemon eucalyptus oils, on Culicoides midges was determined. The numberof midges collected with two 220 V Onderstepoort traps fitted with 8 W 23 cm white lighttubes and baited with peel-stick patches, each containing 40 mg of active ingredient, wascompared with that of two unbaited traps. Two trials were conducted and in each trial thefour traps were rotated in two replicates of a 4 x 4 randomised Latin square design. Althoughmore midges were collected in the baited traps, the mean number in the baited and unbaitedtraps was not significantly different. This mosquito repellent did not influence either thespecies composition or the physiological groups of Culicoides imicola Kieffer. The highermean numbers in the baited traps, although not statistically significant, may indicate that thismosquito repellent might even attract Culicoides midges under certain conditions.

  3. Assessment of the repellent effect of citronella and lemon eucalyptus oil against South African Culicoides species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, Gert J; Labuschagne, Karien; Boikanyo, Solomon N B; Morey, Liesl

    2014-08-08

    The use of insect repellents to reduce the attack rate of Culicoides species (Diptera:Ceratopogonidae) should form part of an integrated control programme to combat African horse sickness and other diseases transmitted by these blood-feeding midges. In the present study the repellent effects of a commercially available mosquito repellent, a combination of citronella and lemon eucalyptus oils, on Culicoides midges was determined. The number of midges collected with two 220 V Onderstepoort traps fitted with 8 W 23 cm white light tubes and baited with peel-stick patches, each containing 40 mg of active ingredient, was compared with that of two unbaited traps. Two trials were conducted and in each trial the four traps were rotated in two replicates of a 4 x 4 randomised Latin square design. Although more midges were collected in the baited traps, the mean number in the baited and unbaited traps was not significantly different. This mosquito repellent did not influence either the species composition or the physiological groups of Culicoides imicola Kieffer. The higher mean numbers in the baited traps, although not statistically significant, may indicate that this mosquito repellent might even attract Culicoides midges under certain conditions.

  4. An unrecognized species of the Culicoides obsoletus complex feeding on livestock in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meiswinkel, R.; Bree, de F.M.; Vries, de Ruth; Elbers, A.R.W.

    2015-01-01

    In studies on Culicoides attacking livestock in the Netherlands, we chanced upon a species of the Obsoletus complex that we do not recognize, but whose dark wing pattern is distinctive. Nine cytochrome c oxidase (CO1) sequences of our so-called ‘dark obsoletus’ support its status as a separate

  5. Movements of adult Culicoides midges around stables in KwaZulu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2486547

    Abstract. Preferences of adult Culicoides midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) were examined to identify focal spots for vectors of African Horse Sickness (AHS). Five similar regions across five farms were sampled at regular periods over one year. The catches were identified to species level and regression analysis was.

  6. Comparative Risk Analysis of Two Culicoides-Borne Diseases in Horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faverjon, C.; Leblond, A.; Lecollinet, S.; Bødker, R.; Koeijer, de A.A.; Fischer, E.A.J.

    2017-01-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) and equine encephalosis (EE) are Culicoides-borne viral diseases that could have the potential to spread across Europe if introduced, thus being potential threats for the European equine industry. Both share similar epidemiology, transmission patterns and geographical

  7. Pigeon tick bite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolla, G; Heffler, E; Boita, M

    2018-01-01

    Anaphylaxis is a serious systemic allergic reaction with rapid onset and potentially life-threatening. We report in detail a case of severe nocturnal anaphylaxis due to pigeon tick bite showing the diagnostic value of the extract and the recombinant allergen in the diagnostic procedures (basophil...... reagents. Because of the growing number of pigeons in Middle and Southern Europe cities, some cases of idiopathic anaphylaxis could potentially be caused by A. reflexus in those countries. The identification of pigeon ticks as a trigger of anaphylaxis would greatly improve medical care and advice...

  8. Black widow spider bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobernick, M

    1984-05-01

    Latrodectus mactans has now invaded towns and cities. The spider's venom is a neurotoxin that causes little local reaction but produces pain and spasm in large skeletal muscle groups within 30 minutes to three hours after the bite. Severe envenomation may result in respiratory failure and coma. First aid is of no value. Muscle relaxants are useful in treatment, as is calcium gluconate. Antivenin is indicated for high-risk victims, such as those with hypertension and persons younger than 16 or older than 60 years of age.

  9. Novel in vitro diagnosis of equine allergies using a protein array and mathematical modelling approach: a proof of concept using insect bite hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, E; Wang, X; Jambari, N N; Rhyner, C; Olzhausen, J; Pérez-Barea, J J; Figueredo, G P; Alcocer, M J C

    2015-10-15

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is a seasonal recurrent skin allergy of horses caused by IgE-mediated reactions to allergens present in the saliva of biting insects of the genus Culicoides, and possibly also Simulium and Stomoxys species. In this work we show that protein microarrays containing complex extracts and pure proteins, including recombinant Culicoides allergens, can be used as a powerful technique for the diagnosis of IBH. Besides the obvious advantages such as general profiling and use of few microliters of samples, this microarray technique permits automation and allows the generation of mathematical models with the calculation of individual risk profiles that can support the clinical diagnosis of allergic diseases. After selection of variables on influence on the projection (VIP), the observed values of sensitivity and specificity were 1.0 and 0.967, respectively. This confirms the highly discriminatory power of this approach for IBH and made it possible to attain a robust predictive mathematical model for this disease. It also further demonstrates the specificity of the protein array method on identifying a particular IgE-mediated disease when the sensitising allergen group is known. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Esthetic correction in open bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil Parlani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Deleterious oral habits, which are persistent, can lead to poor esthetics of a beautiful face. Conventional treatment modalities for an open bite usually include orthodontic treatment and/or skeletal surgery. This article focuses on a different treatment modality for an anterior open bite.

  11. Animal bite - first aid - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100214.htm Animal bite - first aid - series—Procedure, part 1 To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Go to slide 1 out of 2 Go to slide 2 out of 2 Overview To treat a minor bite, first wash your hands thoroughly with soap to avoid ...

  12. Bites and Scratches (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tease or provoke any animals, even family pets. Animals should not be disturbed while they are eating or sleeping. If you own a pet, make sure it's properly immunized and licensed. Reviewed by: Larissa Hirsch, MD Date reviewed: January ... Safe Pets First Aid: Animal Bites Cat Scratch Disease Preventing Dog Bites Rabies ...

  13. Role of Hippoboscidae Flies as Potential Vectors of Bartonella spp. Infecting Wild and Domestic Ruminants

    OpenAIRE

    Halos, Lénaïg; Jamal, Taoufik; Maillard, Renaud; Girard, Benjamin; Guillot, Jacques; Chomel, Bruno; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Boulouis, Henri-Jean

    2004-01-01

    The putative role of biting flies in Bartonella transmission among ruminants was investigated. Amplification of the Bartonella citrate synthase gene from 83 Hippoboscidae was detected in 94% of 48 adult Lipoptena cervi flies, 71% of 17 adult Hippobosca equina flies, 100% of 20 adult Melophagus ovinus flies, and 100% of 10 M. ovinus pupae. Our findings suggest that Hippoboscidae play a role in the transmission of Bartonella among ruminants. The vertical transmission of Bartonella in M. ovinus ...

  14. Abundance modelling of invasive and indigenous Culicoides species in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Els Ducheyne

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a novel methodology applied in Spain to model spatial abundance patterns of potential vectors of disease at a medium spatial resolution of 5 x 5 km using a countrywide database with abundance data for five Culicoides species, random regression Forest modelling and a spatial dataset of ground measured and remotely sensed eco-climatic and environmental predictor variables. First the probability of occurrence was computed. In a second step a direct regression between the probability of occurrence and trap abundance was established to verify the linearity of the relationship. Finally the probability of occurrence was used in combination with the set of predictor variables to model abundance. In each case the variable importance of the predictors was used to biologically interpret results and to compare both model outputs, and model performance was assessed using four different accuracy measures. Results are shown for C. imicola, C. newsteadii, C. pulicaris group, C. punctatus and C. obsoletus group. In each case the probability of occurrence is a good predictor of abundance at the used spatial resolution of 5 x 5 km. In addition, the C. imicola and C. obsoletus group are highly driven by summer rainfall. The spatial pattern is inverse between the two species, indicating that the lower and upper thresholds are different. C. pulicaris group is mainly driven by temperature. The patterns for C. newsteadii and C. punctatus are less clear. It is concluded that the proposed methodology can be used as an input to transmission-infection-recovery (TIR models and R0 models. The methodology will become available to the general public as part of the VECMAPTM software.

  15. Homicidal Snake Bite in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulis, Melad G; Faheem, Ayman L

    2016-03-01

    Snake bites are common in many regions of the world. Snake envenomation is relatively uncommon in Egypt; such unfortunate events usually attract much publicity. Snake bite is almost only accidental, occurring in urban areas and desert. Few cases were reported to commit suicide by snake. Homicidal snake poisoning is so rare. It was known in ancient world by executing capital punishment by throwing the victim into a pit full of snakes. Another way was to ask the victim to put his hand inside a small basket harboring a deadly snake. Killing a victim by direct snake bite is so rare. There was one reported case where an old couple was killed by snake bite. Here is the first reported case of killing three children by snake bite. It appeared that the diagnosis of such cases is so difficult and depended mainly on the circumstantial evidences. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  16. Comparisons of antifeedancy and spatial repellency of three natural product repellents against horn flies, Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Horn flies are among the most important biting fly pests of cattle in the United States. Horn fly management is largely dependent upon pesticides, which ultimately leads to the rapid development of insecticide resistance. Alternative control strategies, including repellents, have shown p...

  17. Endophagy of biting midges attacking cavity-nesting birds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Votýpka, Jan; Synek, P.; Svobodová, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 3 (2009), s. 277-280 ISSN 0269-283X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Culicoides pictipennis * Culicoides truncorum * endophagy * nest box * population dynamics * transmission * vectors * Moravia Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.092, year: 2009

  18. Phenotypic differentiation and phylogenetic signal of wing shape in western European biting midges, Culicoides spp., of the subgenus Avaritia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz-Muñoz, F.; Talavera, S.; Carpenter, S.

    2014-01-01

    of the subgenus Avaritia were considered in the study (C. obsoletus (Meigen); C. scoticus Kettle and Lawson; C. chiopterus (Meigen); C. dewulfi Goetghebuer and C. imicola (Kieffer)). The study demonstrated that over 90% of individuals could be separated correctly into species by their wing shape and that patterns...

  19. A Pilot Qualitative Investigation of Stakeholders’ Experiences and Opinions of Equine Insect Bite Hypersensitivity in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah R. Lomas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Equine insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH, commonly known as sweet itch or summer eczema, is a frustrating recurrent skin disease in the equine industry involving an immune reaction to the bites of Culicoides spp. midges. To investigate the impact of IBH in the field, an exploratory pilot study was conducted with equine stakeholders in one region of central England. Nine semi-structured, face-to-face interviews were conducted with horse owners and an equine veterinarian. The aim was to gain an understanding of experiences with IBH, and to gauge opinions on the value of the various management strategies horse owners use to control IBH. Awareness of IBH was generally high, particularly in those individuals who had previous experience with the condition. Those with previous experience of IBH commented on the significant effect on daily routines, and the associated cost implications. Most participants supported an integrated approach to hypersensitivity management, and this most commonly involved a combination of physical barriers and chemical repellents, but sometimes included feed supplementation. Overall, attitudes towards IBH suggested that the condition is a notable welfare and economic concern for stakeholders, but veterinary involvement tended to only be in more severe cases. Further research is required in the future to improve understanding, management and potential treatment of this condition.

  20. A Pilot Qualitative Investigation of Stakeholders' Experiences and Opinions of Equine Insect Bite Hypersensitivity in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomas, Hannah R; Robinson, Philip A

    2018-01-09

    Equine insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH), commonly known as sweet itch or summer eczema, is a frustrating recurrent skin disease in the equine industry involving an immune reaction to the bites of Culicoides spp. midges. To investigate the impact of IBH in the field, an exploratory pilot study was conducted with equine stakeholders in one region of central England. Nine semi-structured, face-to-face interviews were conducted with horse owners and an equine veterinarian. The aim was to gain an understanding of experiences with IBH, and to gauge opinions on the value of the various management strategies horse owners use to control IBH. Awareness of IBH was generally high, particularly in those individuals who had previous experience with the condition. Those with previous experience of IBH commented on the significant effect on daily routines, and the associated cost implications. Most participants supported an integrated approach to hypersensitivity management, and this most commonly involved a combination of physical barriers and chemical repellents, but sometimes included feed supplementation. Overall, attitudes towards IBH suggested that the condition is a notable welfare and economic concern for stakeholders, but veterinary involvement tended to only be in more severe cases. Further research is required in the future to improve understanding, management and potential treatment of this condition.

  1. Shrieking, Biting, and Licking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Stang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines examples of the monstrous-feminine in the form of abject female monsters in a selection of critically acclaimed and commercially successful video games. Various female monsters from CD Projekt RED’s The Witcher series (2007-2015, and Santa Monica Studio’s God of War series (2005-2013 are considered as examples of the abject monstrous-feminine which fall into a long tradition in horror media of making the female body and body movements into something horrific and repulsive. These female monsters use shrieking, biting, licking, and spreading disease as weapons against the male protagonist, who must slay them to restore symbolic order and progress in the games.

  2. [Protection against tick bites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulanger, N; Lipsker, Dan

    2015-04-01

    There are numerous tick-borne infections, which include viral (TBE), parasitic (babesiosis) and bacterial diseases. Lyme disease (Lyme borreliosis) is the most common tick-borne disease in France. In temperate climates such as in France, ticks bite humans between March and October. Prevention relies on adequate clothing and on repellents. The latter are reviewed in this work. Repellents may be natural, made from eucalyptus, tomato and coconut, or synthetic, among which the most widely used is DEET (N,N,-Diethyl-m-toluamide). Newer, synthetic repellents exist such as IR3535 which, as well as being less toxic, also exhibits greater efficacy against ticks. Some repellents are used on the skin, while others, like permethrin, which is actually an insecticide, may be applied to clothing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Flying Scared

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dal Sie, Marco; Josiassen, Alexander

    service quality expectations and fear of flying affect travellers' flight choices on long-haul flights. The study was set in Bangkok and primary data were obtained from a large sample of travelers departing from Suvarnabhumi Airport. While service quality emerged as a relevant factor, fear of flying didn......’t turn out as a variable affecting travellers’ choices....

  4. Dog Bite Rates and Biting Dog Breeds in Texas, 1995-1997

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blocker, David

    2000-01-01

    .... The first aim of this study was to summarize descriptive characteristics of biting dogs and dog bite victims in Texas from 1995 through 1997 using the Texas Department of Health severe animal bite...

  5. Reversible myocarditis after spider bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Hasan; Ak, Ahmet; Bayir, Aysegul; Avci, Ahmet

    2013-04-08

    Black widow spiders (Latrodectus tredecimguttatus) are poisonous spiders endemic in Turkey. Latrodectus bites may cause myocarditis with increased cardiac enzymes. We treated two men (aged 20 and 33 years) who had myocarditis after black spider bites with leucocytosis and elevated levels of troponin I, creatine kinase and creatine kinase-MB fraction. Both patients had normal results on an ECG, and one patient had abnormal echocardiography with minimal left ventricular wall movement disorder. Both patients were hospitalised in the intensive care unit and treated with intravenous fluids, analgesics, spasmolytic drugs, tetanus prophylaxis and cardiac monitoring. The levels of troponin I, creatine kinase and creatine kinase-MB fraction improved, and the patients were discharged home on the third and fifth hospital day without complications. Myocarditis after a Latrodectus bite is rare, but may be associated with serious complications. Therefore, in regions endemic with Latrodectus spiders, prudent treatment of spider bites may include cardiac evaluation and monitoring.

  6. Tips to Prevent Tick Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using the right insect repellent and other preventive actions can discourage ticks, mosquitoes, and other biting insects from landing on you. Tips include avoiding tick habitats and minimizing exposed skin.

  7. Biting. ERIC/EECE Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesarone, Bernard

    2003-01-01

    This column summarizes recent ERIC documents and journal articles, and highlights some World Wide Web resources, that discuss issues related to the problem of children biting in preschool. (Contains 13 annotated summaries.) (SD)

  8. CD4+CD25+ T cells expressing FoxP3 in Icelandic horses affected with insect bite hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, Eman; Steinbach, Falko; Marti, Eliane

    2012-07-15

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is an IgE-mediated dermatitis caused by bites of midges from the genus Culicoides. We have shown previously that peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from IBH-affected horses produce higher levels of IL-4 and lower levels of IL-10 and TGF-β1 than those from healthy horses, suggesting that IBH is associated with a reduced regulatory immune response. FoxP3 is a crucial marker of regulatory T cells (Tregs). Here we have determined the proportion of CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) T cells by flow cytometry in PBMC directly after isolation or after stimulation with Culicoides extract or a control antigen (Tetanus Toxoid). There were no differences between healthy and IBH horses either in the proportion of FoxP3(+)CD4(+)CD25(+) cells in freshly isolated PBMC or in the following stimulation with Tetanus Toxoid. However, upon stimulation of PBMC with the allergen, expression of FoxP3 by CD4(+)CD25(+high) and CD4(+)CD25(+dim) cells was significantly higher in healthy than in IBH horses. Addition of recombinant IL-4 to PBMC from healthy horses stimulated with the allergen significantly decreased the proportion of FoxP3 expressing cells within CD4(+)CD25(+high). These results suggest that IBH is associated with a decreased number of allergen-induced Tregs. This could be a consequence of the increased IL-4 production by PBMC of IBH-affected horses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Human bites of the face

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    involved (90.9%). This was also reported by Muguti et al.3. (29%) and Iregbulem4 (100%). The upper lip was not involved in the present study, and only few series have reported bites to this site - Muguti et al." (5%) and Venter" (7.0%). Iregbulem4 believes that trying to bite off the lip is a subconscious effort to attack and thus.

  10. Morphometric discrimination of two sympatric sibling species in the Palaearctic region, Culicoides obsoletus Meigen and C. scoticus Downes & Kettle (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), vectors of bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluiters, G; Pagès, N; Carpenter, S; Gardès, L; Guis, H; Baylis, M; Garros, C

    2016-05-04

    Some Palaearctic biting midge species (subgenus Avaritia) have been implicated as vectors of bluetongue virus in northern Europe. Separation of two species (C. obsoletus and C. scoticus) is considered difficult morphologically and, often, these female specimens are grouped in entomological studies. However, species-specific identification is desirable to understand their life history characteristics, assess their roles in disease transmission or measure their abundance during arboviral outbreaks. This study aims to investigate whether morphometric identification techniques can be applied to female C. obsoletus and C. scoticus individuals trapped at different geographical regions and time periods during the vector season. C. obsoletus and C. scoticus were collected using light-suction traps from the UK, France and Spain, with two geographical locations sampled per country. A total of 759 C. obsoletus/C. scoticus individuals were identified using a molecular assay based on the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene. Fifteen morphometric measurements were taken from the head, wings and abdomen of slide-mounted specimens, and ratios calculated between these measurements. Multivariate analyses explored whether a combination of morphometric variables could lead to accurate species identification. Finally, Culicoides spp. collected in France at the start, middle and end of the adult vector season were compared, to determine whether seasonal variation exists in any of the morphometric measurements. The principal component analyses revealed that abdominal characteristics: length and width of the smaller and larger spermathecae, and the length of the chitinous plates and width between them, are the most reliable morphometric characteristics to differentiate between the species. Seasonal variation in the size of each species was observed for head and wing measurements, but not abdominal measurements. Geographical variation in the size of Culicoides spp. was also observed and is

  11. A spatial simulation model for the dispersal of the bluetongue vector Culicoides brevitarsis in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel K Kelso

    Full Text Available The spread of Bluetongue virus (BTV among ruminants is caused by movement of infected host animals or by movement of infected Culicoides midges, the vector of BTV. Biologically plausible models of Culicoides dispersal are necessary for predicting the spread of BTV and are important for planning control and eradication strategies.A spatially-explicit simulation model which captures the two underlying population mechanisms, population dynamics and movement, was developed using extensive data from a trapping program for C. brevitarsis on the east coast of Australia. A realistic midge flight sub-model was developed and the annual incursion and population establishment of C. brevitarsis was simulated. Data from the literature was used to parameterise the model.The model was shown to reproduce the spread of C. brevitarsis southwards along the east Australian coastline in spring, from an endemic population to the north. Such incursions were shown to be reliant on wind-dispersal; Culicoides midge active flight on its own was not capable of achieving known rates of southern spread, nor was re-emergence of southern populations due to overwintering larvae. Data from midge trapping programmes were used to qualitatively validate the resulting simulation model.The model described in this paper is intended to form the vector component of an extended model that will also include BTV transmission. A model of midge movement and population dynamics has been developed in sufficient detail such that the extended model may be used to evaluate the timing and extent of BTV outbreaks. This extended model could then be used as a platform for addressing the effectiveness of spatially targeted vaccination strategies or animal movement bans as BTV spread mitigation measures, or the impact of climate change on the risk and extent of outbreaks. These questions involving incursive Culicoides spread cannot be simply addressed with non-spatial models.

  12. Acetylcholinesterase of the Sand Fly, Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli): Construction, Expression and Biochemical Properties of the G119S Orthologous Mutant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-10

    to reduce local sand fly populations and the use of chemical insecticides and insecticide-treated bednets to reduce human bites by sand flies [2,11-17...USDA] appropriated funds (USDA-ARS CRIS number 6205-32000-033000D, Molecular biology and physiology of biting flies affecting livestock) and USDA-ARS...weather on sand fly activity. J Med Entomol 2011, 48:538–545. 8. Coleman RE, Burkett DA, Sherwood V, Caci J, Dennett JA, Jennings BT, Cushing R, Cushing RJ

  13. Bite through the tent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naue, Jana; Lutz-Bonengel, Sabine; Pietsch, Klaus; Sänger, Timo; Schlauderer, Nicola; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2012-05-01

    The authors report on a young boy who was bitten into his face by an unknown animal while being asleep in a tent. Given the bite marks and the location of the scene, members of the mustelidae and canidae families were the first "suspects." Deoxyribunucleic acid (DNA) recovered from the tent's wall was analyzed with regard to parts of the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal ribunucleic acid (12S rRNA) and cytochrome b (cytb) genes as well as nuclear short tandem repeats (STRs). Since Sanger sequencing revealed a mixed sequence with a strong human component overlying the nonhuman contributor, an animal screening using a duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with an intercalating dye and melt curve analysis was employed. The results were later confirmed by cloning. The applied commercial canine STR kit verified the animal family (canidae) but did not help in discriminating the species due to cross-species amplification. In the presented case, the real-time PCR assay offered the cheapest and fastest method for animal family determination, which then allowed for an appropriate and sample-saving strategy to characterize the causative animal species.

  14. Semiochemical based management of biting fly management in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    To present a brief summary of recent advances of theories and applied technologies in entomological sciences, which includes selected members of ESA-OCEA’s research and development to students and other professionals in entomological society of America. This also include organizing a meeting of ESA-...

  15. Faustovirus-like asfarvirus in hematophagous biting midges and their vertebrate hosts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah eTemmam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Faustovirus, a new Asfarviridae-related giant virus, was recently isolated in Vermamoeba vermiformis, a protist found in sewage water in various geographical locations and occasionally reported in human eye infection cases. As part of a global metagenomic analysis of viral communities existing in biting midges, we report here for the first time the identification and isolation of a Faustovirus-like virus in hematophagous arthropods and its detection in their animal hosts.The DNA virome analysis of three pools of Culicoides sp., engorged female C. imicola and non-engorged male/female C. imicola biting midges collected in Senegal, revealed the presence of amoeba-infecting giant viruses and, among them, a majority of sequences related to Faustovirus. Phylogenetic analyses conducted on several structural genes of Faustovirus confirmed the clustering of the arthropod-borne Faustovirus with sewage-borne Faustoviruses, with a distinct geographical clustering of Senegalese Faustovirus strains. Transmission electron microscopy identified viral particles with morphologies and diameters which were compatible with Faustovirus. The presence of infectious arthropod-borne Faustovirus was finally confirmed by successful isolation on V. vermiformis amoeba. Global proteomic analysis of biting midges identified that arthropods’ blood meal originating from cattle, rodents and humans. Further screening of cattle sera and rodent tissue resulted in prevalence of Faustovirus being estimated at 38% in rodents and 14% in cattle, suggesting a possible origin of Faustovirus presence in arthropods via the ingestion of contaminated blood meal. Viral loads were the highest in rodents’ urine and kidney samples, suggesting a possible excretion of viral particles into the environment. Faustovirus DNA polymerase-related sequences were also detected in more than 9% and 11% of febrile patients and healthy Senegalese human sera, respectively. Our study thus highlights the need

  16. Bites and stings: epidemiology and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krau, Stephen D

    2013-06-01

    Rapid and effective treatment of bites is a major variable in the overall outcome of a patient who is a victim of a bite. There are a wide range of animals that bite and sting, and the reactions vary depending on the individual and the animal involved. Although most bites are treated on an outpatient basis, patients who have severe complications related to bites become patients in critical care settings. An overview of potential bite and sting sources, with some general guidelines for what to expect and how to treat the patient, is presented. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips to prevent and treat bug bites Although most bug bites are harmless, some can spread dangerous ... one’s greatest efforts, bug bites still happen. Fortunately, most bug bites and stings can be safely treated ...

  18. Isolation of Tibet orbivirus from Culicoides and associated infections in livestock in Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinglin; Li, Huachun; He, Yuwen; Zhou, Yang; Xin, Aiguo; Liao, Defang; Meng, Jinxin

    2017-06-08

    Culicoides-borne orbiviruses, such as bluetongue virus (BTV) and African horse sickness virus (AHSV), are important pathogens that cause animal epidemic diseases leading to significant loss of domestic animals. This study was conducted to identify Culicoides-borne arboviruses and to investigate the associated infections in local livestock in Yunnan, China. Culicoides were collected overnight in Mangshi City using light traps during August 2013. A virus was isolated from the collected Culicoides and grown using baby hamster kidney (BHK-21), Vero, Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) and Aedes albopictus (C6/36) cells. Preliminary identification of the virus was performed by polyacrylamide gel (PAGE) analysis. A full-length cDNA copy of the genome was amplified and sequenced. Serological investigations were conducted in local cattle, buffalo and goat using plaque-reduction neutralization tests. We isolated a viral strain (DH13C120) that caused cytopathogenic effects in BHK-21, Vero, MDBK and C6/36 cells. Suckling mice inoculated intracerebrally with DH13C120 showed signs of fatal neurovirulence. PAGE analysis indicated a genome consisting of 10 segments of double-stranded RNA that demonstrated a 3-3-3-1 pattern, similar to the migrating bands of Tibet orbivirus (TIBOV). Phylogenetic analysis of the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (Pol), sub-core-shell (T2, and outer core (T13) proteins revealed that DH13C120 clustered with TIBOV, and the amino acid sequences of DH13C120 virus shared more than 98% identity with TIBOV XZ0906. However, outer capsid protein VP2 and outer capsid protein VP5 shared only 43.1 and 79.3% identity, respectively, indicating that the DH13C120 virus belongs to TIBOV, and it may represent different serotypes with XZ0906. A serosurvey revealed the presence of neutralizing antibodies with 90% plaque-reduction neutralization against TIBOV DH13C120 in local cattle (44%), buffalo (20%), and goat (4%). Four-fold or higher levels of TIBOV-2-neutralizing

  19. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... archive Advocacy Action Center News Advocacy priorities AADA Health ... biting typically begins in childhood and can continue through adulthood, and the side effects can be more than cosmetic. Repeated nail biting ...

  20. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... biting your nails Nail biting typically begins in childhood and can continue through adulthood, and the side ... Team Patients Patient advocates Media Advertisers Quick links About AAD Support AAD Donate Shop AAD Product catalog ...

  1. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spending money to keep your nails looking attractive may make you less likely to bite them. Alternatively, ... Just knowing when you’re inclined to bite may help solve the problem. Try to gradually stop ...

  2. First Aid: Insect Stings and Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a known severe allergy to a stinging or biting insect injectable epinephrine (EpiPen) was used the site ... Insect Repellents With DEET Safe for Kids? Bug Bites and Stings Can I Use Bug Killers and Repellents During ...

  3. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... biting your nails Nail biting typically begins in childhood and can continue through adulthood, and the side ... set of nails, such as your thumb nails, first. When that’s successful, eliminate your pinky nails, pointer ...

  4. Heridas por Mordedura / Bites Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coturel A

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Injuries for animal bites are a common cause of consultation to emergency services. However there are still controversies about some aspects of their treatment. It is not recommended to brush the wound area but to flush the surface with isoosmolar saline. The primary wound closure is justified when improves the cosmetic outcome and has no increase risk of infection. Antibiotic prophylaxis is allways indicated in cats or humans bites. The drug of choice is amoxicillin clavulanate.The tetanus vaccine should be indicated when the patient has not full vaccination scheme and rabies vaccine in cases of suspected or confirmed infected animals.

  5. Venomous bites, stings, and poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrell, David A

    2012-06-01

    This article discusses the epidemiology, prevention, clinical features, first aid and medical treatment of venomous bites by snakes, lizards, and spiders; stings by fish, jellyfish, echinoderms, and insects; and poisoning by fish and molluscs, in all parts of the world. Of these envenoming and poisonings, snake bite causes the greatest burden of human suffering, killing 46,000 people each year in India alone and more than 100,000 worldwide and resulting in physical handicap in many survivors. Specific antidotes (antivenoms/antivenins) are available to treat envenoming by many of these taxa but supply and distribution is inadequate in many tropical developing countries. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. White shark ( Carcharodon carcharias )-inflicted bite wounds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    White shark ( Carcharodon carcharias )-inflicted bite wounds observed on Cape fur seals ( Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus ) at Black Rocks, Algoa Bay, South Africa. ... The low number of bite-inflicted injuries observed suggests that white sharks attack seals infrequently at Black Rocks. Key words: Algoa Bay, bite injuries, ...

  7. 21 CFR 882.5070 - Bite block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bite block. 882.5070 Section 882.5070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5070 Bite block. (a) Identification. A bite block...

  8. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for (var c = 0; c How to stop biting your nails Nail biting typically begins in childhood and can continue through ... effects can be more than cosmetic. Repeated nail biting can make the skin around your nails feel ...

  9. Assessing Transmission of Salmonella to Bovine Peripheral Lymph Nodes upon Horn Fly Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafson, Pia Untalan; Brown, Tyson R; Lohmeyer, Kimberly H; Harvey, Roger B; Nisbet, David J; Loneragan, Guy H; Edrington, Thomas S

    2016-07-01

    Biting arthropods are implicated in the transdermal transmission of Salmonella to bovine peripheral lymph nodes, and such contamination can contribute to increased Salmonella prevalence in processed beef. Since horn flies can acquire Salmonella and then excrete the bacteria in their feces, on-animal fly infestations were conducted in this study to assess whether horn flies have a role in this bacterial transmission. Three Salmonella serotypes were used to assess fly acquisition from and excretion onto cattle. The results indicated that flies can acquire Salmonella from the hide, as assessed by recovery from homogenates of surfacesterilized flies, and that Salmonella persists for at least 5 days in the fly. Fly fecal excreta serves as a bacterial contaminant on the hide, and the overall mean probable estimate of the quantity shed was ≈10(5) most probable number per fly cage area. In 5 days, no transmission of the bacteria to bovine peripheral lymph nodes was evident, prompting an assessment of the effects of prolonged horn fly feeding on transmission. Three groups of animals were infested with flies that had consumed a blood meal containing Salmonella Senftenberg. After 5 days, the study was either terminated or the flies were removed and the cages replenished with unfed flies either once or twice over the course of an 11- or 19-day fly exposure period, respectively. A microlancet-inoculated positive-control animal was included in each group for comparison. The impact of prolonged horn fly feeding was evident, as 8% of lymph nodes cultured were positive from the 5-day exposure, whereas 50 and 42% were positive from 11- and 19-day exposures, respectively. Higher concentrations of Salmonella were recovered from fly-infested animals than from the microlancet-inoculated control, likely a result of repeated inoculations over time by flies versus a single introduction. The data described provide new insights into the transmission dynamics of Salmonella in cattle

  10. Mosquito Bite Prevention For Travelers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bites. Here’s how: Keep mosquitoes out of your hotel room or lodging Š Choose a hotel or lodging with air conditioning or screens on ... percentages of active ingredient provide longer protection Some brand name examples* (Insect repellents may be sold under ...

  11. K-9 Police Dog Bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vy Han

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 30-year-old male who was brought into the emergency department (ED by police officers after being bitten in the right lower extremity by a police German Shepard after attempting to flee authorities on foot. The patient stated that the dog immediately bit down on his right calf and proceeded to violently shake its head side to side without releasing its grip until police manually pulled the dog off of him. Upon arrival to the ED, he was tachycardic in the 120’s, complaining of severe, throbbing, sharp pain in the right lower extremity, and was neurovascular intact on exam. Significant findings: The photograph is of the anterior compartment of the right lower leg demonstrating multiple deep lacerations with exposed and torn muscle. X-ray showed no foreign body. Discussion: Police dog bites should be treated more cautiously than typical dog bites because these highly-trained dogs are generally larger breeds which are taught to subdue suspects with a bite-and-hold technique rather than bite and release. This can lead to extensive crush injuries, fractures, large caliber lacerations with associated muscle tissue injury and/or severe neurovascular compromise.1 Hence, police dog bites often require provocative diagnostic testing, specialist consultation for possible operative repair, and aggressive irrigation and ultimately admission for intravenous antibiotics.1 This patient’s wound was aggressively irrigated and evaluated by plastic surgery in the ED. He was ultimately admitted for intravenous antibiotics, pain control, wound care, and healing by secondary intention.

  12. Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) midges, the vectors of African horse sickness virus--a host/vector contact study in the Niayes area of Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, Moussa; Diarra, Maryam; Fall, Assane G; Balenghien, Thomas; Seck, Momar T; Bouyer, Jérémy; Garros, Claire; Gimonneau, Geoffrey; Allène, Xavier; Mall, Iba; Delécolle, Jean-Claude; Rakotoarivony, Ignace; Bakhoum, Mame T; Dusom, Ange M; Ndao, Massouka; Konaté, Lassana; Faye, Ousmane; Baldet, Thierry

    2015-01-21

    African horse sickness (AHS) is an equine disease endemic to Senegal. The African horse sickness virus (AHSV) is transmitted to the mammalian hosts by midges of the Culicoides Latreille genus. During the last epizootic outbreak of AHS in Senegal in 2007, 1,169 horses died from this disease entailing an estimated cost of 1.4 million euros. In spite of the serious animal health and economic implications of AHS, very little is known about determinants involved in transmission such as contact between horses and the Culicoides species suspected of being its vectors. The monthly variation in host/vector contact was determined in the Niayes area, Senegal, an area which was severely affected by the 2007 outbreak of AHS. A horse-baited trap and two suction light traps (OVI type) were set up at each of five sites for three consecutive nights every month for one year. Of 254,338 Culicoides midges collected 209,543 (82.4%) were female and 44,795 (17.6%) male. Nineteen of the 41 species collected were new distribution records for Senegal. This increased the number of described Culicoides species found in Senegal to 53. Only 19 species, of the 41 species found in light trap, were collected in the horse-baited trap (23,669 specimens) largely dominated by Culicoides oxystoma (22,300 specimens, i.e. 94.2%) followed by Culicoides imicola (482 specimens, i.e. 2.0%) and Culicoides kingi (446 specimens, i.e. 1.9%). Culicoides oxystoma should be considered as a potential vector of AHSV in the Niayes area of Senegal due to its abundance on horses and its role in the transmission of other Culicoides-borne viruses.

  13. Comparison of Vertebrate Cytochrome b and Prepronociceptin for Blood Meal Analyses in Culicoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadj-Henni, Leila; De Meulemeester, Thibaut; Depaquit, Jérôme; Noël, Philippe; Germain, Adeline; Helder, Remi; Augot, Denis

    2015-01-01

    To date, studies on host preferences and blood meal identification have been conducted for Culicoides species using molecular-based methods such as PCR techniques to amplify only a fragment from universal vertebrate mitochondrial genes such as cytochrome c oxidase subunit I or cytochrome b (Cyt b). The vertebrate prepronociceptin gene (PNOC) was also tested in this field. However, the choice of molecular marker to identify blood meal is critical. The objective of our study is to compare the ability of Cyt b and PNOC as molecular markers for blood meal identification depending on the stage of blood meal digestion. In order to determine whether these Cyt b and PNOC could provide a positive result, 565 blood-fed females of Culicoides spp were collected and morphologically identified. The samples were collected between 2012 and 2014, in two localities in France. The collection localities were near either livestock or a forest. To catch the specimens, we used UV CDC miniature light traps. PNOC sequence of donkeys (Equus asinus) was sequenced and submitted because it was missing in GenBank. Our findings emphasize that the PNOC marker is not suitable to separate closely related Equid species such as horses and donkeys. The Cyt b marker was able to identify 204 more samples when compared to PNOC (99.55% of specimens). Cyt b appears to be better able to detect the origin of blood meals from females with digested blood in their abdomens. We conclude that Cyt b is a good marker as it increases the accuracy of blood meal identification of engorged females containing digested blood in their abdomens. The host opportunist behavior of Culicoides, especially that of C. obsoletus and C. scoticus, the main vectors of BTV in Europe was also highlighted.

  14. Comparison of vertebrate cytochrome b and prepronociceptin for blood meal analyses in Culicoides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila eHadj-henni

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available To date, studies on host preferences and blood meal identification have been conducted for Culicoides species using molecular-based methods such as PCR techniques to amplify only a fragment from universal vertebrate mitochondrial genes such as Cytochrome C oxidase subunit I (COI or Cytochrome b (Cyt b. The vertebrate prepronociceptin gene (PNOC was also tested in this field. However, the choice of molecular marker to identify blood meal is critical.The objective of our study is to compare the ability of Cyt b and PNOC as molecular markers for blood meal identification depending on the stage of blood meal digestion. In order to determine whether these Cyt b and PNOC could provide a positive result, 565 blood-fed females of Culicoides spp were collected and morphologically identified. The samples were collected between 2012 and 2014, in two localities in France. The collection localities were near either livestock or a forest. To catch the specimens, we used UV CDC miniature light traps. PNOC sequence of donkeys (Equus asinus was sequenced and submitted because it was missing in GenBank. Our findings emphasize that the PNOC marker is not suitable to separate closely related Equid species such as horses and donkeys. The Cyt b marker was able to identify 204 more samples when compared to PNOC (99.55% of specimens. Cyt b appears to be better able to detect the origin of blood meals from females with digested blood in their abdomens. We conclude that Cyt b is a good marker as it increases the accuracy of blood meal identification of engorged females containing digested blood in their abdomens. The host opportunist behavior of Culicoides, especially that of C. obsoletus and C. scoticus, the main vectors of BTV in Europe was also highlighted.

  15. Comparison of Vertebrate Cytochrome b and Prepronociceptin for Blood Meal Analyses in Culicoides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadj-Henni, Leila; De Meulemeester, Thibaut; Depaquit, Jérôme; Noël, Philippe; Germain, Adeline; Helder, Remi; Augot, Denis

    2015-01-01

    To date, studies on host preferences and blood meal identification have been conducted for Culicoides species using molecular-based methods such as PCR techniques to amplify only a fragment from universal vertebrate mitochondrial genes such as cytochrome c oxidase subunit I or cytochrome b (Cyt b). The vertebrate prepronociceptin gene (PNOC) was also tested in this field. However, the choice of molecular marker to identify blood meal is critical. The objective of our study is to compare the ability of Cyt b and PNOC as molecular markers for blood meal identification depending on the stage of blood meal digestion. In order to determine whether these Cyt b and PNOC could provide a positive result, 565 blood-fed females of Culicoides spp were collected and morphologically identified. The samples were collected between 2012 and 2014, in two localities in France. The collection localities were near either livestock or a forest. To catch the specimens, we used UV CDC miniature light traps. PNOC sequence of donkeys (Equus asinus) was sequenced and submitted because it was missing in GenBank. Our findings emphasize that the PNOC marker is not suitable to separate closely related Equid species such as horses and donkeys. The Cyt b marker was able to identify 204 more samples when compared to PNOC (99.55% of specimens). Cyt b appears to be better able to detect the origin of blood meals from females with digested blood in their abdomens. We conclude that Cyt b is a good marker as it increases the accuracy of blood meal identification of engorged females containing digested blood in their abdomens. The host opportunist behavior of Culicoides, especially that of C. obsoletus and C. scoticus, the main vectors of BTV in Europe was also highlighted. PMID:26664944

  16. Note faunistique sur les Culicoides (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae du Gouvernorat de Monastir (Tunisie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaker E.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available À la suite de l’arrivée de la fièvre catarrhale ovine (FCO en Tunisie, les auteurs rapportent les résultats de la première enquête effectuée dans le Gouvernorat de Monastir. Ils signalent la présence de neuf espèces de Culicoides dont trois sont nouvelles pour le pays (C. paolae, C. imicola, C. newsteadi, ce qui porte à 22 le nombre d’espèces actuellement connues.

  17. The stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans) (Diptera: Muscidae) recorded from the Faroes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Achim; Bloch, Dorete

    2005-01-01

    The stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans) was recorded from the Faroe Islands in 2002 for the first time in five byres at Velbastaður in the vicinity of Tórshavn. The stable fly breeds in dead and decomposing plant material e.g. dung mixed with straw. If the temperature is higher than 18 ºC the species...... can reproduce all the year in the byres. Both sexes are blood feeding and attack vertebrates with preference for cattle and other ungulates. By high fly population the biting activity can result in reduction of milk and bodyweight in the livestock. S. calcitrans was probably introduced into the Faroes...... in imported cattle feed. Since the first reports on flies biting man were received in 2002, the species was probably recently introduced. In the Velbastaður area the species is widespread and probably mainly dispersed by exchange of cattle or forage. To reduce the fly problem it is important to maintain...

  18. Reliable quantification of bite-force performance requires use of appropriate biting substrate and standardization of bite out-lever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappin, A Kristopher; Jones, Marc E H

    2014-12-15

    Bite-force performance is an ecologically important measure of whole-organism performance that shapes dietary breadth and feeding strategies and, in some taxa, determines reproductive success. It also is a metric that is crucial to testing and evaluating biomechanical models. We reviewed nearly 100 published studies of a range of taxa that incorporate direct in vivo measurements of bite force. Problematically, methods of data collection and processing vary considerably among studies. In particular, there is little consensus on the appropriate substrate to use on the biting surface of force transducers. In addition, the bite out-lever, defined as the distance from the fulcrum (i.e. jaw joint) to the position along the jawline at which the jaws engage the transducer, is rarely taken into account. We examined the effect of bite substrate and bite out-lever on bite-force estimates in a diverse sample of lizards. Results indicate that both variables have a significant impact on the accuracy of measurements. Maximum bite force is significantly greater using leather as the biting substrate compared with a metal substrate. Less-forceful bites on metal are likely due to inhibitory feedback from mechanoreceptors that prevent damage to the feeding apparatus. Standardization of bite out-lever affected which trial produced maximum performance for a given individual. Indeed, maximum bite force is usually underestimated without standardization because it is expected to be greatest at the minimum out-lever (i.e. back of the jaws), which in studies is rarely targeted with success. We assert that future studies should use a pliable substrate, such as leather, and use appropriate standardization for bite out-lever. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbelin, Bruno; Lasserre, Sebastien; Ciger, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Flying Cities is an artistic installation which generates imaginary cities from the speech of its visitors. Thanks to an original interactive process analyzing people's vocal input to create 3D graphics, a tangible correspondence between speech and visuals opens new possibilities of interaction. ...... and a potential application. We believe that it could become a new medium for creativity, and a way to visually perceive a vocal performance in the context of the rehabilitation of people with reduced mobility or language impairments....

  20. The suitability of the Triple trap for the collection of South African livestock-associated Culicoides species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert J. Venter

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The relatively large number of Culicoides midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae that can be collected with a light trap makes it the most widely used tool for this purpose. However, the majority of these traps were originally designed for collecting mosquitoes. The evaluation and improvement of traps to increase their effectiveness in collecting Culicoides midges will unavoidably form part of research on these insects. In the present study the efficiency of the Triple trap for collecting livestock-associated Culicoides midges was compared with that of the Onderstepoort 220 V, the BG-sentinel and the mini-CDC traps. A unique feature of the Triple trap is that selected surfaces are coated with TiO2 (titanium dioxide which, in the presence of ultra violet light, acts as a photo-catalyser to produce CO2, which in turn may attract blood-feeding insects. Overall, the Onderstepoort trap collected significantly higher numbers of midges than the others. Relative efficiency varied between different occasions and under some conditions, for example periods with low midge abundance during the winter, the mean numbers collected with the Triple trap did not differ significantly from those of the Onderstepoort or BG-sentinel traps. By replacing the collection chamber of the Triple trap with a sock and beaker, similar to that of the Onderstepoort trap, it can effectively be used for the collection of Culicoides midges.

  1. Behavioural responses of dairy cattle to the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans, in an open field environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullens, B A; Lii, K-S; Mao, Y; Meyer, J A; Peterson, N G; Szijj, C E

    2006-03-01

    Individual cows (25 in each of four herds) were monitored 8-10 times weekly for 12 weeks (stable fly season) on a southern California dairy, with 100 observations per cow. The numbers of biting stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) on the front legs and the frequencies of four fly-repelling behaviours per 2-min observation period [head throws, front leg stamps, skin twitches (panniculus reflex) and tail flicks] were recorded. Fly numbers varied, peaking at 3.0-3.5 flies per leg in week 9 (late May). Weekly herd mean frequencies of fly-repelling behaviours were highly dependent on fly numbers, with a linear regression r(2) > 0.8. Head throws and stamps were less frequent than skin twitches and tail flicks. Individual cows differed in numbers of stable flies and behaviours. Behaviours were correlated with flies for individual cows, but at a lower level than were herd means (r = 0.3-0.7). Cows that stamped more within a herd tended to have lower fly counts; other fly-repelling behaviours were less effective. Cows maintained ranks within a herd with regard to fly numbers (r = 0.47), head throws (0.48), leg stamps (0.64), skin twitches (0.69) and tail flicks (0.64). Older cows tended to harbour higher fly numbers and to stamp less relative to younger adult cows. Ratios of leg stamps and head throws to fly numbers dropped significantly through time, suggesting habituation to pain associated with fly biting. Tail flicks were not effective for repelling Stomoxys, but were easiest to quantify and may help in monitoring pest intensity. At this low-moderate fly pressure, no consistent impacts on milk yield were detected, but methods incorporating cow behaviour are recommended for future studies of economic impact.

  2. Toxorhynchites-fluorescent antibody system for the detection of bluetongue virus from Culicoides midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibur Rahman, A; Manickam, R

    1997-12-01

    A new system, the Toxorhynchites-fluorescent antibody (TFA) test in which the larvae of Toxorhynchites splendens mosquitoes were used for the detection of bluetongue virus (BTV) from Culicoides midges, was developed. Twenty-seven pools of Culicoides midges were collected from bluetongue-prone areas of Tamil Nadu by use of the light-trap and suction-trap methods. A suspension of each pool was injected intrathoracically into T. splendens IV instar larvae and inoculated onto Vero cell monolayers. An indirect fluorescent antibody technique and an immunoperoxidase test were used to detect BTV antigen in smears of crushed midges, crushed larval head smears after incubation for 7 d at 28 degrees and cell monolayers showing cytopathic effects 48 h post inoculation. The suspensions were also injected intravenously into embryonated chicken eggs, and the characteristic BTV-induced lesion(s), viz. cherry-red appearance of embryos, were observed after 48 h. Virus was confirmed by a qualitative neutralization test conducted simultaneously in embryonated chicken eggs. A total of seven out of 27 samples (26%) were positive for the presence of BTV antigen in all the diagnostic systems used. Since BTV propagates readily in experimentally infected T. splendens larvae and the BTV antigen can be detected by the fluorescent antibody technique with a sensitivity comparable to that for virus propagated in tissue culture and embryonated eggs, the TFA system can be adopted as a new method for the isolation of BTV from vectors. The advantages of the TFA system are discussed.

  3. Using additive and coupled spatiotemporal SPDE models: a flexible illustration for predicting occurrence of Culicoides species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kifle, Yimer Wasihun; Hens, Niel; Faes, Christel

    2017-11-01

    This paper formulates and compares a general class of spatiotemporal models for univariate space-time geostatistical data. The implementation of stochastic partial differential equation (SPDE) approach combined with integrated nested Laplace approximation into the R-INLA package makes it computationally feasible to use spatiotemporal models. However, the impact of specifying models with and without space-time interaction is unclear. We formulate an extensive class of additive and coupled spatiotemporal SPDE models and investigate the distinction between them by (1) Extending their temporal effect, allowing a random walk process in time, (2) varying the spatial correlation function and (3) running a simulation study to assess the effect of misspecifying the spatial and temporal models, and to assess the generalizability of our results to a higher number of locations. Our methods are illustrated with Culicoides data from Belgium. The Bayesian spatial predictions showed that the highest prevalence of Culicoides species was found in the Northeastern and central parts of Belgium during summer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Fly Sings

    OpenAIRE

    Osmond, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Fly Sings (winner of the Bitish Library's 2015 Michael Marks Poetry Illustration award) forms the first installment of a prequel to the deadman and hare stories. It concerns how hare first came to be ‘summoned to the world below’, to look for deadman.\\ud \\ud Strandline Books chapbooks are produced as signed and numbered editions of 48, printed in black inkjet on 90gsm off-white recycled paper. They sell at £8 + £2 p&p. If interested, please email Mat Osmond at

  5. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciger, Jan

    2006-01-01

    of providing a tangible correspondence between the two spaces. This interaction mean has proved to suit the artistic expression well but it also aims at providing anyone with a pleasant and stimulating feedback from speech activity, a new medium for creativity and a way to visually perceive a vocal performance......The Flying Cities artistic installation brings to life imaginary cities made from the speech input of visitors. In this article we describe the original interactive process generating real time 3D graphics from spectators' vocal inputs. This example of cross-modal interaction has the nice property...

  6. Role of Hippoboscidae flies as potential vectors of Bartonella spp. infecting wild and domestic ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halos, Lénaïg; Jamal, Taoufik; Maillard, Renaud; Girard, Benjamin; Guillot, Jacques; Chomel, Bruno; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Boulouis, Henri-Jean

    2004-10-01

    The putative role of biting flies in Bartonella transmission among ruminants was investigated. Amplification of the Bartonella citrate synthase gene from 83 Hippoboscidae was detected in 94% of 48 adult Lipoptena cervi flies, 71% of 17 adult Hippobosca equina flies, 100% of 20 adult Melophagus ovinus flies, and 100% of 10 M. ovinus pupae. Our findings suggest that Hippoboscidae play a role in the transmission of Bartonella among ruminants. The vertical transmission of Bartonella in M. ovinus and the presence of Bartonella DNA in all samples suggest a symbiotic association between Bartonella and M. ovinus.

  7. The influence of bite size and multiple bites on oral texture sensations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, de R.A.; Engelen, L.; Prinz, J.F.; Weenen, H.

    2003-01-01

    The influence of bite size on sensory mouth- and afterfeel sensations was explored in two studies in which single bites of vanilla custard desserts were varied from 2 to 11 ml (study 1) and in which series of five bites of two different custard desserts were presented consecutively (study 2). In

  8. The influence of bite size and multiple bites on oral texture sensations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, R.A. de; Engelen, L.; Prinz, J.F.; Weenen, H.

    2003-01-01

    The influence of bite size on sensory mouthfeel and afterfeel sensations was explored in two studies in which single bites of vanilla custard desserts were varied from 2 to 11 mL (study 1) and in which series of five bites of two different custard desserts were presented consecutively (study 2). In

  9. The immune response to sand fly salivary proteins and its influence on Leishmania immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regis eGomes

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease transmitted by bites of phlebotomine sand flies. During Leishmania transmission, sand fly saliva is co-inoculated with parasites into the skin of the mammalian host. Sand fly saliva consists of roughly thirty different salivary proteins, many with known roles linked to blood feeding facilitation. Apart from the anti-hemostatic capacity of saliva, several sand fly salivary proteins have been shown to be immunogenic upon multiple contacts with a mammalian host. Immunization with single immunogenic salivary proteins or exposure to uninfected bites can produce protective immune responses against leishmaniasis. These sand fly salivary proteins induce cellular immune responses and/or antibodies. Antibodies to saliva are not required for protection in a mouse model against leishmaniasis. A strong body of evidence points to the role for saliva-specific T cells producing IFN-γ in the form of a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction at the bite site as the main protective response. Herein, we review immunity to sand fly salivary proteins in the context of its vector-parasite-host combinations and vaccine potential, as well as some recent advances to shed light on the mechanism of how an immune response to sand fly saliva protects against leishmaniasis.

  10. Seasonal Variation in Biting Rates of Simulium damnosum sensu lato, Vector of Onchocerca volvulus, in Two Sudanese Foci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarroug, Isam M A; Hashim, Kamal; Elaagip, Arwa H; Samy, Abdallah M; Frah, Ehab A; ElMubarak, Wigdan A; Mohamed, Hanan A; Deran, Tong Chor M; Aziz, Nabil; Higazi, Tarig B

    2016-01-01

    The abundance of onchocerciasis vectors affects the epidemiology of disease in Sudan, therefore, studies of vector dynamics are crucial for onchocerciasis control/elimination programs. This study aims to compare the relative abundance, monthly biting-rates (MBR) and hourly-based distribution of onchocerciasis vectors in Abu-Hamed and Galabat foci. These seasonally-based factors can be used to structure vector control efforts to reduce fly-biting rates as a component of onchocerciasis elimination programs. A cross-sectional study was conducted in four endemic villages in Abu-Hamed and Galabat foci during two non-consecutive years (2007-2008 and 2009-2010). Both adults and aquatic stages of the potential onchocerciasis vector Simulium damnosum sensu lato were collected following standard procedures during wet and dry seasons. Adult flies were collected using human landing capture for 5 days/month. The data was recorded on handheld data collection sheets to calculate the relative abundance, MBR, and hourly-based distribution associated with climatic factors. The data analysis was carried out using ANOVA and Spearman rank correlation tests. Data on vector surveillance revealed higher relative abundance of S. damnosum s.l. in Abu- Hamed (39,934 flies) than Galabat (8,202 flies). In Abu-Hamed, vector populations increased in January-April then declined in June-July until they disappeared in August-October. Highest black fly density and MBR were found in March 2007 (N = 9,444, MBR = 58,552.8 bites/person/month), and March 2010 (N = 2,603, MBR = 16,138.6 bites/person/month) while none of flies were collected in August-October (MBR = 0 bites/person/month). In Galabat, vectors increased in September-December, then decreased in February-June. The highest vector density and MBR were recorded in September 2007 (N = 1,138, MBR = 6,828 bites/person/month) and September 2010 (N = 1,163, MBR = 6,978 bites/person/month), whereas, none appeared in collection from April to June. There

  11. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c Tips to prevent and treat bug bites Although most bug bites ... take steps to reduce your risk. To help prevent bug bites, dermatologists recommend the following tips: Use ...

  12. Description and comparison of the pupae of a further two Culicoides (Avaritia species from the dung of large herbivores in South Africa (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Nevill

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2007 Nevill, Venter, Meiswinkel & Nevill demonstrated that the pupae of five Culicoides species belonging to the Imicola complex of the subgenus Avaritia could readily be differentiated from one another using various morphological characters. Three of the described species, Culicoides bolitinos Meiswinkel 1989; Culicoides loxodontis Meiswinkel 1992 and Culicoides sp. # 107 (= C. kwagga, Meiswinkel, unpublished thesis 1995, were reared from the dung of large herbivores, which included buffaloes, elephants, white and black rhinoceroses and zebras. However, during that study a further two Avaritia species, neither of which belonged to the Imicola complex, were reared from dung and these are the subject of the present study. For the past 20 years the adults of these two new closely related species have been known as Culicoides sp. # 54 pale form (p.f. Meiswinkel and Culicoides sp. # 54 dark form (d.f. Meiswinkel. The taxonomic description and formal naming of the adults of these two species has yet to be done. The present description and comparison of their pupae show that they are two clearly distinct species; that there is no group of morphological characters that can be used to differentiate these two species from the previously described five species of the Imicola complex; and finally that there was no difference between the pupae of C. sp. # 54 d.f. nor C. sp. # 54 p.f. reared from the dung of different host animals.

  13. Incidence of dog bites in Milwaukee, wis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndon, J A; Jach, G J; Wehrenberg, W B

    1996-04-01

    Dogs are everywhere. The incidence of and injuries caused by dog bites have grown to such epidemic proportions in certain parts of the United States that they are now considered a major public health concern. Playful Rover is no longer a harmless pet. Uncontrolled, he now can be considered a public nuisance. In this study, we evaluated the epidemiology of dog bites recorded in Milwaukee, for calendar years 1989-1991. This assessment included anatomical location of bites, victims' ages, behavioral antecedents, leading up to the bite incidents, season of the year, and animal ownership. The evaluation also measured the correlation coefficient between the frequency of dog bite incidents and median household income distribution within the city. During the 3-year period, a total of 3,926 animal bites, including 3,244 (83%) dog bites, were reported to the City of Milwaukee Department of Health. Of all the dog bites reported, 60% were on the upper extremities. Children less than 15 years old sustained 44% of the injuries, mostly to the head and face. Provocation by the victim accounted for 19% of the cases. The majority of the incidents (67%) occurred during the spring and summer months. In 49% of all cases, the victims families or neighbors owned the animals involved in the biting. Researchers also observed a significant negative correlation between bites and median household income distribution. Study results suggest a need to educate the public about the magnitude of dog-bite problems, enforce leash laws and impound stray dogs as an integral part of prevention programs.

  14. Injurious tail biting in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Eath, R.B.; Amott, G.; Turner, S. P.

    2014-01-01

    underlying processes of tail biting. A quantitative comparison of the efficacy of different methods of provision of manipulable materials, and a review of current practices in countries and assurance schemes where tail docking is banned, both suggest that daily provision of small quantities of destructible...... and prevention of tail damage. However, there is a lack of scientific studies on how best to respond to outbreaks: the effectiveness of, for example, removing biters and/or bitten pigs, increasing enrichment, or applying substances to tails should be investigated. Finally, some breeding companies are exploring...

  15. In vivo imaging reveals an essential role for neutrophils in Leishmaniasis transmitted by sand flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Nathan C.; Egen, Jackson G.; Secundino, Nagila; Debrabant, Alain; Kimblin, Nicola; Kamhawi, Shaden; Lawyer, Phillip; Fay, Michael P.; Germain, Ronald N.; Sacks, David

    2008-01-01

    Infection with the obligate intracellular protozoan Leishmania is thought to be initiated by direct parasitization of macrophages, but the early events following transmission to the skin by vector sand flies have been difficult to examine directly. Using dynamic intravital microscopy and flow cytometry, we observed a rapid and sustained neutrophilic infiltrate at localized sand fly bite sites. Invading neutrophils efficiently captured Leishmania major (L.m.) parasites early after sand fly transmission or needle inoculation, but phagocytosed L.m. remained viable and infected neutrophils efficiently initiated infection. Furthermore, neutrophil depletion reduced, rather than enhanced, the ability of parasites to establish productive infections. Thus, L.m. appears to have evolved to both evade and exploit the innate host response to sand fly bite in order to establish and promote disease. PMID:18703742

  16. Evaluation of Insecticides, Clothing Repellents, and Other Approaches to the Control of Coastal Sand Flies, Culicoides spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-01

    Meteorlogical data during the insecticide applica- tions were collected by a weather team from the Marine Corp. Air Station, Beufort, South Carolina...u ~ - 0 ’ >4 z 00 0~~1 Cc140 ) ( 4 u 1 -*l,(i AM𔃺 Table 7.-- Meteorlogical Data for Spray Operations Over Parris Island, South Carolina, April 7

  17. Talking to Patients about Preventing Tick Bites

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-14

    This podcast will help health care providers identify patients who are at increased risk of getting tick bites and provide these patients with tick bite prevention and removal tips.  Created: 2/14/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/14/2012.

  18. Tail-biting: a new perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nina R; Main, David C J; Mendl, Mike; Edwards, Sandra A

    2010-11-01

    Tail-biting data from different studies are difficult to compare because a range of definitions of tail-biting behaviour and tail-biting lesions are used. Although records from abattoirs provide a large database, their usefulness is restricted as tail-biting is under-recorded and environmental and husbandry factors associated with the behaviour are unlikely to be known. Both farm and abattoir data provide no information on the number of pigs biting, only those bitten. Studying individual animals that tail-bite should give a better understanding of the pig's motivation to tail-bite and which of the components of its environment should be adjusted to improve welfare. This review examines the existing literature on tail-biting in pigs but considered from a new perspective using three different descriptive behavioural types, namely, 'two-stage', 'sudden-forceful' and 'obsessive', each of which may have different motivational bases. The article also considers the different environmental and husbandry factors which may affect each type of behaviour and discusses why this is such a complicated field and why it is often difficult to draw conclusions from available research. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Functional Analysis and Treatment of Nail Biting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufrene, Brad A.; Watson, T. Steuart; Kazmerski, Jennifer S.

    2008-01-01

    This study applied functional analysis methodology to nail biting exhibited by a 24-year-old female graduate student. Results from the brief functional analysis indicated variability in nail biting across assessment conditions. Functional analysis data were then used to guide treatment development and implementation. Treatment included a…

  20. TYPE OF LIGHT IN SAND FLY CAPTURES (DIPTERA:PSYCHODIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VERÔNICA DE LOURDES SIERPE JERALDO

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The number of cases of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil has been gradually increasing, and one of the strategies to reduce the transmission of this disease is based on the control of the adult forms of its vectors. It is therefore of great epidemiological importance to develop more refined methods for monitoring and controlling its vectors, which are the phlebotomine sand flies, or biting midges. The present study compares the attraction exercised by UV light in comparison with conventional incandescent, or white, light in catching phlebotomine sand flies. Traps baited with UV light caught higher numbers of these flies than traps baited with white light, indicating the potential use of UV light, especially in locations of low demographic density of the flies.

  1. Tick Bite Alopecia: A Report and Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Michael C; Milchak, Marissa A; Parnes, Herbert; Ioffreda, Michael D

    2016-11-01

    Tick bites can cause a number of local inflammatory reactions, which are often difficult to differentiate from those induced by other arthropod bites or stings. These include erythematous nodular or pustular lesions, erosive plaques, annular lesions of erythema chronicum migrans, and both scarring and nonscarring inflammatory alopecia. We report a case of nonscarring alopecia in a 21-year-old male who reported a recent history of tick bite to the scalp. The biopsy demonstrated a dense pseudolymphomatous inflammatory infiltrate with numerous eosinophils associated with hair follicle miniaturization and an elevated catagen-telogen count. Signs of external rubbing, including lichen simplex chronicus and the "hamburger sign", were also visualized and are indicative of the associated pruritus. To the authors' knowledge, this is the fifth report of nonscarring tick bite alopecia in the literature and the first in an adult patient. This text will review the classic clinical presentation, histologic findings, and proposed mechanism of tick bite alopecia.

  2. Iguana bites reported to Texas poison centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Mathias B

    2010-09-01

    Although thousands of iguanas are kept as pets in the United States, information on their bites is limited. The intent of this investigation was to describe the pattern of iguana bites reported to Texas poison centers. Iguana bites reported during 1998-2008 were identified. The distribution of cases by various factors was determined. Of 59 total bites, 71% were managed on-site, 17% of the patients were at or en route to a health care facility when the poison center was contacted, and 10% were referred to a health care facility. The medical outcome was no effect in 9% of the cases, minor effect in 24%, moderate effect in 2%, not followed but minimal effects possible in 64%, and unable to follow but potentially toxic in 2%. Most iguana bites reported to Texas poison centers did not result in serious effects and were managed on-site. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Seasonal Variation in the Prevalence of Sand Flies Infected with Leishmania donovani

    OpenAIRE

    Tiwary, Puja; Kumar, Dinesh; Mishra, Mukesh; Singh, Rudra Pratap; Rai, Madhukar; Sundar, Shyam

    2013-01-01

    Background Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is a life threatening neglected infectious disease in the Indian subcontinent, transmitted by the bite of female sand flies. Estimation of the infectivity in the vector population, collected in different seasons, may be useful to better understanding the transmission dynamics of VL as well as to plan vector control measures. Methodology We collected sand flies from highly endemic regions of Bihar state, India for one year over three seasons. The species ...

  4. Comparisons of antifeedancy and spatial repellency of three natural product repellents against horn flies, Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junwei J; Brewer, Gary J; Boxler, David J; Friesen, Kristina; Taylor, David B

    2015-11-01

    Horn flies are among the most important biting fly pests of cattle in the United States. Horn fly management is largely dependent upon pesticides, which ultimately leads to the rapid development of insecticide resistance. Alternative control strategies, including repellents, have shown promising results in reducing fly biting. In the present study, we examined the efficacy and longevity of recently identified natural product repellents against horn flies. Catnip oil, geraniol and C8910 acids reduced horn fly feeding in a laboratory bioassay and also exhibited spatial repellency in the olfactometer. Residual activity was observed for up to 3 days in laboratory assays; however, 24 h of residual effectiveness was observed from the two repellents when applied on cattle in the field. The limited residual effectiveness was correlated with the high volatility of the major active repellent compounds. All three natural product repellents effectively repel biting horn flies, exhibiting both feeding deterrence and spatial repellency. They may be used for developing an effective push-pull strategy with a slow release matrix that can prolong their effectiveness for horn fly management. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Biting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... get attention or express how they're feeling. Frustration, anger, and fear are strong emotions and toddlers ... in-progress, it's important to create a zero-tolerance culture at home, daycare, and elsewhere. Here are ...

  6. Culicoides species abundance and potential over-wintering of African horse sickness virus in the Onderstepoort area, Gauteng, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert J. Venter

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa, outbreaks of African horse sickness (AHS occur in summer; no cases are reported in winter, from July to September. The AHS virus (AHSV is transmitted almost exclusively by Culicoides midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae, of which Culicoides imicola is considered to be the most important vector. The over-wintering mechanism of AHSV is unknown. In this study, more than 500 000 Culicoides midges belonging to at least 26 species were collected in 88 light traps at weekly intervals between July 2010 and September 2011 near horses in the Onderstepoort area of South Africa. The dominant species was C. imicola. Despite relatively low temperatures and frost, at least 17 species, including C. imicola, were collected throughout winter (June–August. Although the mean number of midges per night fell from > 50 000 (March to < 100 (July and August, no midge-free periods were found. This study, using virus isolation on cell cultures and a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assay, confirmed low infection prevalence in field midges and that the detection of virus correlated to high numbers. Although no virus was detected during this winter period, continuous adult activity indicated that transmission can potentially occur. The absence of AHSV in the midges during winter can be ascribed to the relatively low numbers collected coupled to low infection prevalence, low virus replication rates and low virus titres in the potentially infected midges. Cases of AHS in susceptible animals are likely to start as soon as Culicoides populations reach a critical level.

  7. Impact of Phlebotomine Sand Flies on U.S. Military Operations at Tallil Air Base, Iraq: 1. Background, Military Situation, and Development of a ’Leishmaniasis Control Program’

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Freedom. Soon after arriving at TAB on 22 March 2003, military entomologists determined that 1) high numbers of sand flies were present at TAB, 2...individual soldiers were receiving many sand fly bites in a single night, and 3) Leishmania parasites were present in 1.5% of the female sand flies as...measures by all personnel at TAB, 3) vector and reservoir control, and 4) education of military personnel about sand flies and leishmaniasis. The

  8. Court presentation of bite mark evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinnan, A J; Melton, M J

    1985-12-01

    The uniqueness of an individual's bite mark is generally accepted. The use of bite mark analysis to identify or exclude those suspected of crimes is now a well established activity in forensic dentistry. Although the techniques for evaluating bite mark evidence are extremely sophisticated, it is important that the courtroom presentation of such evidence should be as simple as possible and be directed towards those who must judge it. Dentists likely to be involved in the courtroom presentation of bite mark evidence should: be certain that their local law enforcement personnel are frequently updated on the techniques to be used for producing the optimum evidence needed to evaluate bite marks; become acquainted with the current techniques of evaluating bite mark evidence and understand their difficulties and pitfalls; meet with the lawyers (prosecution or defence) before a courtroom appearance, briefing them on the significance of the particular findings; prepare clear and easily understandable visual aids to present to the court the techniques used in the analysis and the bases for the conclusion reached; and offer conclusions derived from the bite mark investigation.

  9. Talking tails : quantifying the development of tail biting in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zonderland, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    Tail biting is an adverse behaviour characterised by manipulation of a pig’s tail by another pig resulting in tail damage and a possible tail biting outbreak. Tail biting is a common problem in the pig husbandry causing economic losses and reduced animal welfare worldwide. To prevent tail biting,

  10. A survey of dog bites in Salisbury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, H F; Voss, S

    1991-12-01

    A recent survey of patients attending an Accident and Emergency (A&E) department serving several economically depressed Thanet coastal towns found that around 3 per 1000 of the resident population attended each year for the treatment of dog bite injuries (Thomas and Banks, 1990). We report a study of dog bite injuries treated in the A&E department serving Salisbury, a small prosperous Cathedral city, and surrounding villages. In comparison with Thanet, age specific incidence rates for dog bites show a similar pattern but only about half the overall incidence. Some reasons for these findings are suggested and extrapolations for national treatment figures are made.

  11. Feeding preferences of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae), the sand fly vector, for Leishmania infantum (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo-Silva, Virgínia P; Martins, Daniella R A; De Queiroz, Paula Vivianne Souza; Pinheiro, Marcos Paulo G; Freire, Caio C M; Queiroz, José W; Dupnik, Kathryn M; Pearson, Richard D; Wilson, Mary E; Jeronimo, Selma M B; Ximenes, Maria De Fátima F M

    2014-01-01

    Leishmania infantum, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil, is spread mostly by the bite of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva). We trapped sand flies in endemic neighborhoods near Natal, Brazil, where cases of human and dog VL were documented. Amplification of species-specific cytochrome b (Cyt b) genes by polymerase chain reaction revealed that sand flies from rural and periurban areas harbored blood from different sources. The most common source ofbloodmeal was human, but blood from dog, chicken, and armadillo was also present. We tested the preference for a source of bloodmeal experimentally by feeding L. longipalpis F1 with blood from different animals. There were significant differences between the proportion of flies engorged and number of eggs laid among flies fed on different sources, varying from 8.4 to 19 (P longipalpis is an eclectic feeder, and humans are an important source of blood for this sand fly species in periurban areas of Brazil.

  12. A fossil biting midge (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from early Eocene Indian amber with a complex pheromone evaporator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebner, Frauke; Szadziewski, Ryszard; Rühr, Peter T; Singh, Hukam; Hammel, Jörg U; Kvifte, Gunnar Mikalsen; Rust, Jes

    2016-10-04

    The life-like fidelity of organisms captured in amber is unique among all kinds of fossilization and represents an invaluable source for different fields of palaeontological and biological research. One of the most challenging aspects in amber research is the study of traits related to behaviour. Here, indirect evidence for pheromone-mediated mating behaviour is recorded from a biting midge (Ceratopogonidae) in 54 million-year-old Indian amber. Camptopterohelea odora n. sp. exhibits a complex, pocket shaped structure on the wings, which resembles the wing folds of certain moth flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) and scent organs that are only known from butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) so far. Our studies suggests that pheromone releasing structures on the wings have evolved independently in biting midges and might be much more widespread in fossil as well as modern insects than known so far.

  13. A fossil biting midge (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from early Eocene Indian amber with a complex pheromone evaporator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebner, Frauke; Szadziewski, Ryszard; Rühr, Peter T.; Singh, Hukam; Hammel, Jörg U.; Kvifte, Gunnar Mikalsen; Rust, Jes

    2016-10-01

    The life-like fidelity of organisms captured in amber is unique among all kinds of fossilization and represents an invaluable source for different fields of palaeontological and biological research. One of the most challenging aspects in amber research is the study of traits related to behaviour. Here, indirect evidence for pheromone-mediated mating behaviour is recorded from a biting midge (Ceratopogonidae) in 54 million-year-old Indian amber. Camptopterohelea odora n. sp. exhibits a complex, pocket shaped structure on the wings, which resembles the wing folds of certain moth flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) and scent organs that are only known from butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) so far. Our studies suggests that pheromone releasing structures on the wings have evolved independently in biting midges and might be much more widespread in fossil as well as modern insects than known so far.

  14. Flying insects and Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Skovgård, Henrik

    Campylobacter in flies Flies of the Muscidae family forage on all kind of faeces – various fly species have different preferences. M domestica prefer pigs, horses and cattle faeces, animals which are all known to frequently excrete Campylobacter. As a result, the insects pick up pathogenic micro...... organisms, which may collect on their bodies or survive passage through the fly gut. Campylobacter and other pathogens are then easily transferred to other surfaces, for instance peoples food – or to broiler houses where they may be swallowed by chickens or contaminate the environment. On a large material...... of several species of flies collected outside broiler houses, merely ~1% of the flies were found Campylobacter positive. However, the prevalence varied considerably with fly species, time of the year, and availability of Campylobacter sources. Influx of flies to broiler houses As the influx of flies...

  15. Spatial feeding preferences of ornithophilic mosquitoes, blackflies and biting midges

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Černý, O.; Votýpka, Jan; Svobodová, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 1 (2011), 104-108 ISSN 0269-283X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Culex * Culicoides * Eusimulium * Trypanosoma * height preferences * ornithophilic Diptera Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.910, year: 2011

  16. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Center Coding and reimbursement Coding MACRA Fee schedule Managing a practice Prior authorization assistance Teledermatology Compliance HIT ... Child nail care Manicure safety Nail biting Nail changes a dermatologist should examine Anti-aging skin care ...

  17. [Bites of venomous snakes in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plate, Andreas; Kupferschmidt, Hugo; Schneemann, Markus

    2016-06-08

    Although snake bites are rare in Europe, there are a constant number of snake bites in Switzerland. There are two domestic venomous snakes in Switzerland: the aspic viper (Vipera aspis) and the common European adder (Vipera berus). Bites from venomous snakes are caused either by one of the two domestic venomous snakes or by an exotic venomous snake kept in a terrarium. Snake- bites can cause both a local and/or a systemic envenoming. Potentially fatal systemic complications are related to disturbances of the hemostatic- and cardiovascular system as well as the central or peripheral nervous system. Beside a symptomatic therapy the administration of antivenom is the only causal therapy to neutralize the venomous toxins.

  18. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... care / hair loss Injured skin Nail care Anti-aging skin care Kids’ zone About skin: Your body's ... biting Nail changes a dermatologist should examine Anti-aging skin care Kids’ zone Video library Find a ...

  19. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

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    Full Text Available ... nail biting can also leave you vulnerable to infection as you pass harmful bacteria and viruses from ... your nails and develop a skin or nail infection, consult a board-certified dermatologist . "); (function () { var a = "", ...

  20. Tarantula bite leads to death and gangrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banerjee Kalyan

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Chilobrachys hardwikii-giant black hairy spider bite produced two deaths, one case of gangrene of the foot and urticarial rashes in another person in a remote village of Churulia 30 km from Asansol.

  1. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... board-certified dermatologist? Other conditions Diseases: A-Z index Skin, hair, and nail care Skin care Hair ... nails Nail biting typically begins in childhood and can continue through adulthood, and the side effects can ...

  2. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

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    Full Text Available ... Hair care / hair loss Injured skin Nail care Anti-aging skin care Kids’ zone About skin: Your ... Nail biting Nail changes a dermatologist should examine Anti-aging skin care Kids’ zone Video library Find ...

  3. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

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    Full Text Available ... and can continue through adulthood, and the side effects can be more than cosmetic. Repeated nail biting ... 0; c Explore AAD Member resources Practice Tools Education Meetings & events Advocacy Public & patients AAD Resources For: ...

  4. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

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    Full Text Available ... Diseases and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases Cosmetic treatments Dry / ... Injured skin Nail care Artificial nails Healthy nails Child nail care Manicure safety Nail biting Nail changes ...

  5. Eosinophilic Fasciitis Induced by Fire Ant Bites

    OpenAIRE

    Mallepalli, Jyothi R.; Quinet, Robert J.; Sus, Rachana

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To describe a case of eosinophilic fasciitis likely related to proximate fire ant bites and review the literature to summarize the etiology and clinical, laboratory, histopathological, and therapeutic aspects of eosinophilic fasciitis.

  6. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

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    Full Text Available ... figure out how to avoid these situations and develop a plan to stop. Just knowing when you’ ... a doctor. If you bite your nails and develop a skin or nail infection, consult a board- ...

  7. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

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    Full Text Available ... Child nail care Manicure safety Nail biting Nail changes a dermatologist should examine Anti-aging skin care ... 0; c Explore AAD Member resources Practice Tools Education Meetings & events Advocacy Public & patients AAD Resources For: ...

  8. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Year Award Step therapy legislation Scope of practice Melanoma state reporting FSMB Interstate Compact Legislative Conference Position ... as boredom, stress, or anxiety. By figuring out what causes you to bite your nails, you can ...

  9. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

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    Full Text Available ... document.write(""); document.write(" Cart "); } else { document.write(" Sign in Cart "); } })(); AAD American Academy of Dermatology Excellence ... For some people, nail biting may be a sign of a more serious psychological or emotional problem. ...

  10. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

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    Full Text Available ... and treatments Acne and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases Cosmetic treatments Dry / sweaty ... and can continue through adulthood, and the side effects can be more than cosmetic. Repeated nail biting ...

  11. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

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    Full Text Available ... Part 2: Origin Part 3: Function Textbook Study notes Image library 3-D animated image library Board ... gradually stop biting your nails: Some doctors recommend taking a gradual approach to break the habit. Try ...

  12. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

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    Full Text Available ... and Lectureship Clarence S. Livingood Award and Lectureship Marion B. Sulzberger Award and Lectureship Master Dermatologist Award Members ... care Nail care Nail biting "); (function () { var a = "", b = [ "adid=aad-aad-1", "site=ehs.con.aad. ...

  13. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

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    Full Text Available ... programs & events Learn about skin cancer Get involved Free ... like biting your nails, try playing with a stress ball or silly putty instead. This will help keep your hands busy and away from ...

  14. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

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    Full Text Available ... Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases Cosmetic treatments Dry / sweaty skin Eczema / dermatitis Hair and ... and the side effects can be more than cosmetic. Repeated nail biting can make the skin around ...

  15. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Alternative payment models Fee schedule State policy State policy and ... recommend taking a gradual approach to break the habit. Try to stop biting one set of nails, such as your thumb nails, ...

  16. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

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    Full Text Available ... Center Coding and reimbursement Coding MACRA Fee schedule Managing a practice Prior authorization assistance Evaluating practice models ... Child nail care Manicure safety Nail biting Nail changes a dermatologist should examine Anti-aging skin care ...

  17. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... like biting your nails, try playing with a stress ball or silly putty instead. This will help ... of hangnails, or other triggers, such as boredom, stress, or anxiety. By figuring out what causes you ...

  18. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Mohs AUC MyDermPath+ Psoriasis Patient education resources Practice Management Center Coding and reimbursement Coding MACRA Fee schedule ... your nails: Some doctors recommend taking a gradual approach to break the habit. Try to stop biting ...

  19. Philodryas patagoniensis bite and local envenoming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, S A; Silveira, P V

    1994-01-01

    A 5-year-old boy bitten by a specimen of Philodryas patagoniensis, a colubrid snake currently classified as nonvenomous, developed signs of local envenoming characterized by swelling and warmth on the bitten limb. This is the first time that local envenoming following Philodryas patagoniensis bite is recognized. Based on the clinical findings and misidentification of the snake, the patient was treated as a victim of Bothrops bite, having received unnecessarily the specific antivenom. Educational efforts to make doctors and health workers capable to identify correctly venomous snakes are necessary, to avoid inappropriate indication of antivenom and decrease the risk of its potentially harmful untoward effects. Examination of the bite site can be useful to the differential diagnosis between pit viper and colubrid bites.

  20. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Mohs AUC MyDermPath+ Psoriasis Patient education resources Practice Management Center Coding and reimbursement Coding MACRA Fee schedule ... Artificial nails Healthy nails Child nail care Manicure safety Nail biting Nail changes a dermatologist should examine ...

  1. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... nails feel sore, and it can damage the tissue that makes nails grow, resulting in abnormal-looking ... as boredom, stress, or anxiety. By figuring out what causes you to bite your nails, you can ...

  2. Open bite treatment using clear aligners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarneri, Maria Paola; Oliverio, Teresa; Silvestre, Ivana; Lombardo, Luca; Siciliani, Giuseppe

    2013-09-01

    A 35-year-old female patient with dentoalveolar open bite of 4 mm, molar Class I malocclusion, centered midlines, moderate crowding, and labial inclination of the lower incisor was treated with clear aligners to reduce protrusion and close the anterior open bite. The result showed that clear aligners were an effective method with which to correct this malocclusion. The treatment was complete after 18 months. The patient was satisfied with her new appearance and function.

  3. Philodryas patagoniensis bite and local envenoming

    OpenAIRE

    Nishioka,Sérgio de Andrade; Silveira,Paulo Vitor Portella

    1994-01-01

    A 5-year-old boy bitten by a specimen of Philodryas patagoniensis, a colubrid snake currently classified as nonvenomous, developed signs of local envenoming characterized by swelling and warmth on the bitten limb. This is the first time that local envenoming following Philodryas patagoniensis bite is recognized. Based on the clinical findings and misidentification of the snake, the patient was treated as a victim of Bothrops bite, having received unnecessarily the specific antivenom. Educatio...

  4. Anterior open bite: aetiology and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Paul Jonathan; Madahar, Arun K; Murray, Alison

    2011-10-01

    Anterior open bite has a multi-factorial aetiology comprising: genetically inherited skeletal pattern, soft tissue effect and digit-sucking habits. To formulate an appropriate treatment plan, accurate diagnosis is essential. Simple open bites may sometimes resolve completely during the transition from mixed to permanent dentition, if the digit-sucking habit is broken. More significant open bites, however, sometimes extending right back to the terminal molars, rarely resolve spontaneously and will often require complex orthodontic treatment, involving active molar intrusion or even major orthognathic surgery. Unfortunately, surgery has associated risks attached, including pain, swelling, bruising, altered nerve sensation and, occasionally, permanent anaesthesia, as well as involving significant costs, as with any major surgical procedure under general anaesthesia. The introduction of Temporary Anchorage Devices (TADs) has expanded the possibilities of orthodontic treatment, beyond traditional limitations of tooth movement. Molar intrusion can be successfully carried out without the need for major surgical intervention, thus avoiding all the attendant risks and disadvantages. This paper provides an overview of anterior open bite and uses an illustrative case where open bite was successfully treated with a combination of fixed appliance therapy and TADs. Anterior open bite is commonly seen in general practice. A knowledge of the possible aetiological factors and their potential management should be understood by general dental practitioners. The increased popularity of TADS allows a new and less invasive approach to management of these cases.

  5. Case Report of a Newborn Injured By Human Bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel Ataoğlu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bite is a type of wound received from the teeth of an animal, including humans. Human bites are third leading cause of all bites after dog and cat bites. Human bites are severe wounds due to the risk of contamination with mix oral flora and rapid tissue destruction. Bite wounds created by humans are seen in variety of circumstances including aggression, rape, murder, and child abuse. Oral cavity contains beta-hemolytic streptococci, anaerobes and other microorganisms. There have been reported cases of septicemia, severe necrotizing fasciitis, HIV infection, and death caused by human bites. Early reporting and treatment of bite wounds decrease the number and severity of wound infection. Here, we present the case of human bite in a nine-day-old girl and discuss the treatment approaches in the light of the relevant literature.

  6. Total case of dog bites to humans and seasonal patterns of the bites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dog bites are poorly understood and often underestimated public health problem as it causes huge medico-social problem as these attacks result in millions of injuries and thousands of deaths all over the world due to risk of rabies transmission. Approximately 1 in 20 dogs bite a human being during the dogs' lifetime.

  7. The effects of food viscosity on bite size, bite effort and food intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, R.A. de; Zijlstra, N.; Mars, M.; Graaf, C. de; Prinz, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    Two studies investigated the effect of a food's viscosity on bite size, bite effort and food intake using a standardized protocol in which subjects sipped through a straw every 20 s for a period of 15 min from one of two products, a chocolate-flavored dairy drink and a chocolate-flavored dairy

  8. Herpetomonas ztiplika n. sp. (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae): a parasite of the blood-sucking biting midge Culicoides kibunensis Tokunaga, 1937 (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Podlipaev, Sergei; Votýpka, Jan; Jirků, Milan; Svobodová, M.; Lukeš, Julius

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 2 (2004), s. 342-347 ISSN 0022-3395 Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) 147/2002/B-BIO Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : Kinetoplastida * Trypanosomatidae * Herpetomonas Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.439, year: 2004

  9. Animal bites and stings with anaphylactic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, John H; Klotz, Stephen A; Pinnas, Jacob L

    2009-02-01

    Anaphylaxis to animal bites and stings poses a significant medical risk of vascular or respiratory reactions that vary according to the patient's response and nature of the insult. Emergency Physicians frequently see patients who complain of an allergic reaction to an animal bite or sting. Although Hymenoptera stings, specifically those of wasps, bees, and hornets, account for the majority of these cases, other invertebrates and vertebrates are capable of causing allergic reactions and anaphylaxis. Many of the causative animals are quite unusual, and their bites and stings are not commonly appreciated as potential causes of anaphylaxis. We conducted a literature review to identify documented reports of anaphylaxis and anaphylactoid reactions to animal bites and stings. This summary is meant to heighten awareness of the diversity of animals that may cause anaphylaxis, hopefully leading to more rapid diagnosis and treatment of this dangerous condition. A diverse group of animals was found whose bites and stings cause anaphylaxis and anaphylactoid reactions. Some case summaries are presented. A potentially life-saving plan is to direct patients to proper follow-up care to prevent a future life-threatening reaction, including: prescribing epinephrine and antihistamines with proper instructions for their use; referral to an allergist to determine if skin testing, radioallergosorbent test, and immunotherapy are indicated; and reporting the case to state or local Poison Control Centers. In some cases it may be helpful to consult an entomologist or a pest control service for help in identification and elimination of certain offenders.

  10. Efficacy of Permethrin Treated Bed Nets Against Leishmania major Infected Sand Flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Tobin; Davidson, Silas A; Kobylinski, Kevin; Menses, Claudio; Rowton, Edgar

    2015-01-01

    Insecticide treated nets (ITNs) are a potential tool to help control sand flies and prevent Leishmaniasis. However, little is currently known about the response of Leishmania infected sand flies to ITNs. In this study, Phlebotomus duboscqi sand flies were infected with the parasite Leishmania major. Infected and noninfected sand flies were then evaluated against permethrin treated and untreated bed nets in a laboratory assay that required sand flies to pass through suspended netting material to feed on a mouse serving as an attractive host. The number of sand flies passing through the nets and blood feeding was recorded. There was not a significant difference in the ability of infected or noninfected sand flies to move through treated or untreated nets. Fewer sand flies entered the permethrin treated nets compared to the untreated nets, indicating that permethrin creates an effective barrier. The results show that in addition to reducing the nuisance bites of noninfected sand flies, ITNs also protect against Leishmania infected sand flies and therefore can play in key role in reducing the rates of Leishmaniasis. This study is important to the Department of Defense as it continues to develop and field new bed nets to protect service members.

  11. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Advocacy Action Center News Advocacy priorities AADA Health System Reform Principles Drug pricing and availability CVS dermatologic ... Tips to prevent and treat bug bites Although most bug bites are harmless, some can spread dangerous ...

  12. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... board-certified dermatologist? Other conditions Diseases: A-Z index Skin, hair, and nail care Skin care Hair ... bites Although most bug bites are harmless, some can spread dangerous diseases like Zika virus, dengue, Lyme ...

  13. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a dermatologist Why see a board-certified dermatologist? Home Public and patients Skin, hair, and nail care ... bites and stings can be safely treated at home. To treat bug bites and stings at home, ...

  14. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... borne diseases, it’s important to take steps to reduce your risk. To help prevent bug bites, dermatologists ... take an over-the-counter oral antihistamine. To reduce swelling , apply an ice pack to the bite. ...

  15. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... correct dose. For bites that itch , apply an ice pack or an over-the-counter anti-itch ... counter oral antihistamine. To reduce swelling , apply an ice pack to the bite. If you experience any ...

  16. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... var c = 0; c Tips to prevent and treat bug bites Although most bug bites are harmless, some can spread dangerous diseases like Zika virus, dengue, Lyme disease, and malaria. Particularly if you’re ...

  17. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... var c = 0; c Tips to prevent and treat bug bites Although most bug bites are harmless, some can spread dangerous diseases like Zika virus, dengue, Lyme disease, and malaria. Particularly if you’re ...

  18. Epidemiology of sea-snake bites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, H A

    1975-05-01

    Epidemiological features as reflected by 101 patients with unequivocal sea-snake bite received in north-west Malaya are reviewed. Enhydrina schistosa caused over half the bites, including seven of the eight fatal bites. It is the most dangerous sea-snake to man. Over 90 per cent of the victims were male and 80 of the 101 patients were fishermen bitten at their job. Most victims were bitten on the lower limb through treading on the snake, and this resulted in more cases of serious poisoning than upper limb bites (caused through handling nets, sorting fish and so on). Only 14 cathers were bitten (through treading on the sea-snake; no bathers were bitten while swimming). In patients coming to hospital more than six hours after the bite, there was a four-fold increase in serious poisoning compared with patients coming within six hours of the bite. Thus, as time elapses after the bite, the victim is less likely to seek medical help unless poisoning is severe. Despite the lethal toxicity of sea-snake venom, in patients seen during 1957-61 before sea-snake antivenom became available, the mortality was only 10 per cent. Trivial or no poisoning followed in 80 per cent of the bites. On the other hand, of 11 patients (20 per cent) with serious poisoning, over half (six patients) died despite supportive hospital treatment. These epidemiological features observed in Malaya probably apply to most fishing folk along Asian coastlines where sea-snakes abound. If this is so, sea-snake bite must be a common hazard feared by millions of fishing folk, and a common cause of illness and death. But it is unlikely that the extent of this problem will be revealed to orthodox medicine for many decades because most fishing villages are far from medical centres; and even if hospitals or medical centres are available, fishing folk are usually reluctant to attend them. Only one species of sea-snake, Pelamis platurus, extends to the east coasts of Africa and west coasts of the tropical Americas

  19. Scrotal dog bite: unusual case and review of pediatric literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertozzi, M; Prestipino, M; Nardi, N; Falcone, F; Appignani, A

    2009-09-01

    Animal bites to human external genitalia are rare. Only a few cases of scrotal dog bite in children have been reported. We present an additional specific case of a scrotal dog bite in a child because the lesion and its repair have not been previously reported in published pediatric studies. A traumatic resection of the right testicular vas deferens was repaired by microsurgical vasoepididymal anastomosis. A review of the published data was also performed to analyze the management of scrotal dog bite lesions.

  20. Bacteremia with Bacteroides pyogenes after a cat bite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ida Ringsborg; Justesen, Ulrik Stenz

    2011-01-01

    Animal bite wounds are often infected with bacteria from the animal's oral flora. We report what we believe to be the first case of bacteremia with Bacteroides pyogenes resulting from an infected cat bite.......Animal bite wounds are often infected with bacteria from the animal's oral flora. We report what we believe to be the first case of bacteremia with Bacteroides pyogenes resulting from an infected cat bite....

  1. Bite marks on skin and clay: A comparative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    R.K. Gorea; O.P. Jasuja; Abdulwahab Ali Abuderman; Abhinav Gorea

    2014-01-01

    Bite marks are always unique because teeth are distinctive. Bite marks are often observed at the crime scene in sexual and in physical assault cases on the skin of the victims and sometimes on edible leftovers in burglary cases. This piece of evidence is often ignored, but if properly harvested and investigated, bite marks may prove useful in apprehending and successfully prosecuting the criminals. Due to the importance of bite marks, we conducted a progressive randomised experimental study c...

  2. The mechanics of the first bite.

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, Kalpana R; Lucas, Peter W

    2003-01-01

    An analysis of the action of the incisor teeth in humans is presented in terms of the fracture of food particles. It is predicted that the resistance of foods with an essentially linear elastic response to an initial bite by the incisors will depend on the square root of the product of two food properties, Young's modulus and toughness. This quantity should be approximately equal to the product of the stress at cracking during a bite, and the square root of the length of a notch or indentatio...

  3. Black widow spider bite: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaisford, Kristine; Kautz, Donald D

    2011-01-01

    This article is a case study of a patient cared for in the hours before her death. After the patient's death, we learned the patient died of a black widow spider bite. This article sheds light on the potential seriousness of this venom and allows for more rapid detection and treatment of those who are unfortunate enough to be bitten. The authors have documented the sequence of events for the patient, outlined the care the patient received, examined the pathophysiology of the body to a spider bite, and then made a passionate appeal for other nurses who work in critical care to do the same with patients in similar situations.

  4. Biting on human body parts of Simulium vectors and its implication for the manifestation of Onchocerca nodules along Osun River, southwestern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeleke, Monsuru Adebayo; Sam-Wobo, Sammy Olufemi; Akinwale, Olaoluwa Pheabian; Olatunde, Ganiyu Olatunji; Mafiana, Chiedu Felix

    2012-09-01

    The biting preference of Simulium vectors has been known to influence the distribution of Onchocerca nodules and microfilariae in human body. There is, however, variation in biting pattern of Simulium flies in different geographical locations. This study investigates the biting pattern on human parts by Simulium vectors along Osun river system where Simulium soubrense Beffa form has been implicated as the dominant vector and its possible implication on the distribution of Onchocerca nodules on human body along the river. Flies were collected by consented fly capturers on exposed human parts namely head/neck region, arms, upper limb and lower limb in Osun Eleja and Osun Budepo along Osun river in the wet season (August-September) and the dry season (November-December) in 2008. The residents of the communities were also screened for palpable Onchocerca nodules. The results showed that number of flies collected below the ankle region was significantly higher than the number collected on other exposed parts (p body, thus increasing the risk of onchocerciasis transmission.

  5. Vine snake (Thelotornis capensis bite in a dog : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Otto

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A vine snake bite in a dog is reported. There was continued minor bleeding from the assumed nose bite site for 4 days. Currently manufactured snakebite antivenom is not effective against vine snake bites and treatment is supportive.

  6. Bite injuries at Bugando Medical Centre, Mwanza, Tanzania: A five ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Bite injuries constitute a continuing challenge to trauma or general surgeons practicing in developing countries. Little work has been done on bite injuries in our setting. This study describes our experience in the management of bite injuries, outlining the etiological spectrum, injury patterns and results of ...

  7. Forensic dentistry and human bite marks: issues for doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretty, Iain A; Hall, Rachel C

    2002-08-01

    The human dentition can be used as a weapon of attack or defence. Bite mark injuries are common in cases of sexual assault, child abuse and homicide. Many bite injuries are first seen in casualty departments where quick and proper recovery of evidence can assist in analysing these injuries. This article describes different bite injuries, collection of evidence and comparative analysis methods.

  8. Seasonal variations in the biting densities of Simulium damnosum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seasonal variations in the biting densities of Simulium damnosum complex were studied in Uzo-Uwani Local Government Area of Enugu State, Nigeria, with the objectives of discovering the season with the highest biting densities and relating the seasonal biting densities with the farming seasons of the people. The study ...

  9. Cheek-biting disorder: another stereotypic movement disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkhel, Sujit; Praharaj, Samir Kumar; Akhtar, Sayeed

    2011-12-01

    Recurrent cheek biting, a form of self-injurious behavior is a rare entity which presents mostly to dentists and dermatologists. We report a case of recurrent severe cheek biting in an adult male leading to mucosal ulceration. The stereotypic pattern of cheek biting and associated behavior bears striking resemblance to other impulse control disorders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Major upper limb amputation after Snake Bite Gangrene | Ajibade ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Major lower limb amputations following snake bite gangrene have been reported from the savannah belt of Nigeria. In bites delivered to the upper limb, amputations are often of the digits (minor amputations). We report the case of a male farmer who had an above elbow amputation after a snake bite to the hand. Explanation ...

  11. Entomological research on the vectors of bluetongue disease and the monitoring of activity of Culicoides in the Prishtinë region of Kosova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betim Berisha

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Clinical bluetongue (BT caused by BT virus serotype 9 (BTV‑9 was observed in Kosova in 2001 and, although subsequently no further clinical cases was diagnosed, its continuing presence has been demonstrated by serological tests in cattle, sheep and goats. In this study, light traps were placed in stables near Prishtinë to identify possible vectors of BTV in Kosova. Samples were collected from October 2004 until the end of 2006. Culicoides were identified and speciated and results were plotted against temperature data. Samples contained Obsoletus and Pulicaris Complexes but not C. imicola. The first specimens of Culicoides were collected in April and they continued to be detected until November. Generally, Obsoletus Complex was present in the largest numbers, with the exception of the middle of the year when the Pulicaris Complex predominated. The number of Culicoides trapped was directly linked to temperature (p<0.05 and records indicated that Culicoides activity ceased when minimum temperatures fell below 0°C; activity recommenced when minimum temperatures rose to approximately 6°C. These results indicate that there was a lack of a vector for BTV during winter for a period lasting approximately five months.

  12. Horn Fly, (L.), Overwintering

    OpenAIRE

    Allan T. Showler; Weste L.A. Osbrink; Kimberly H. Lohmeyer

    2014-01-01

    The horn fly, Haematobia irritans irritans (L.), is an ectoparasitic blood feeder mainly on cattle. Its cosmopolitan distribution extends from boreal and grassland regions in northern and southern latitudes to the tropics. Stress and blood loss from horn flies can reduce cattle weight gain and milk production. Horn flies show substantial plasticity in their response to winter. Populations in warmer, lower latitudes have been reported to overwinter in a state of dormancy, but most overwinter a...

  13. Determination of blood meal sources of Culicoides Latreille (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae in rural areas of the northern Maranhão state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaudino Marco Cantanhede Gusmão

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The stomach contents of females from the genus Culicoides were studied to determine their blood food sources and the degree of relations established between these insects and their hosts. The specimens were captured by using CDC light traps within the period from March 2009 to February 2010, in two rural towns in the island of São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil. A total of 930 engorged females were captured, belonging to 12 Culicoides species. Precipitin reaction examination was used, which revealed the blood from 7 different vertebrate types that had been sucked, and the most frequent were: bird (41.9%, rodent (21.2%, dog (15.4%, and human being (7.3%. In double reactions there was a predominance of bird/dog (20% and dog/cat, dog/opossum, bird/rodent, opossum/rodent, and cat/human being (13.3% each. Among the Culicoides species found, C. paucienfuscatus Barbosa, 1947 stood out, because it only sucked blood from birds. The 11 remaining species have sucked blood both from domestic and synanthropic animals, and 4 out of them also sucked human blood. The results allowed us to conclude that C. paucienfuscatus showed specific relations, it was considered as ornithophilous and the other species were generalist. The presence of these animals in a peridomestic environment is a factor that favors the maintenance of Culicoides in rural villages and the presence of human being among the most sucked vertebrates indicates that besides being included in the diet of female Culicoides, it may participate in occasional epidemiological cycles of parasites, due to the eclectic habit of these insects.

  14. Geometry of anterior open bite correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Zachary R; Susarla, Srinivas M; Lawler, Matthew E; Choudhri, Asim F; Peacock, Zachary S

    2015-05-01

    Correction of anterior open bite is a frequently encountered and challenging problem for the craniomaxillofacial surgeon and orthodontist. Accurate clinical evaluation, including cephalometric assessment, is paramount for establishing the diagnosis and appropriate treatment plan. The purposes of this technical note were to discuss the basic geometric principles involved in the surgical correction of skeletal anterior open bites and to offer a simple mathematical model for predicting the amount of posterior maxillary impaction with concomitant mandibular rotation required to establish an adequate overbite. Using standard geometric principles, a mathematical model was created to demonstrate the relationship between the magnitude of the open bite and the magnitude of the rotational movements required for correction. This model was then validated using a clinical case. In summary, the amount of open bite closure for a given amount of posterior maxillary impaction depends on anatomic variables, which can be obtained from a lateral cephalogram. The clinical implication of this relationship is as follows: patients with small mandibles and steep mandibular occlusal planes will require greater amounts of posterior impaction.

  15. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for (var c = 0; c public SPOT Skin Cancer™ Diseases and treatments Skin, hair, and nail care Skin care Hair care / hair loss Injured skin Nail care Artificial nails Healthy nails Child nail care Manicure safety Nail biting Nail changes ...

  16. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... library Basement Membrane Zone lecture Full lecture Part 1: Structure Part 2: Origin Part 3: Function Textbook ... biting "); (function () { var a = "", b = [ "adid=aad-aad-1", "site=ehs.con.aad.aad", "size=160x600", "vpos= ...

  17. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Mohs AUC MyDermPath+ Psoriasis Patient education resources Practice Management Center Coding and reimbursement Coding MACRA Fee schedule ... this safe, but awful-tasting formula discourages many people from biting their nails. Get regular manicures: Spending ...

  18. Death secondary to a donkey's bites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Aloja, Ernesto; Grimaldi, Leonardo; Cascini, Fidelia; De Mercurio, Domenico; De-Giorgio, Fabio

    2011-06-01

    We present a unique case of death due to the assault and bites of a donkey on a 65-year-old man. The farmer, found dead in his farmyard, had a very deep wound in the anterior region of the neck, with a sharp transection of the trachea and severe bleeding by several minor vessels wall disruptions. The cause of death was established to be massive bleeding combined with asphyxia due to aspiration of the blood. Moreover, multiple contusions with associated skin abrasions and perforations were present. The general impression of the injuries was consistent with an animal's bite marks. Herbivorous or omnivorous bite attacks on humans are rare; instead, these animals attack by kicking, trampling, and kneeling, resulting in secondary blunt injuries. The donkey is usually a docile animal, but its behavior can be aggressive during the mating season, and the possibility of biting should not be underestimated, as illustrated by the 2 cases published previously as well as by the case presented here.

  19. Bite-marks on battered children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trube-Becker, E

    1977-01-21

    Instances of human bites are generally rare, although it does sometimes occur that people use their teeth as a means of attack of defence. When looking into cases of the ill-treatment of children we often find bite-marks in addition to other signs of abusement. Eleven cases from the Institute of Forensic Medicine at Düsseldorf University are presented out of a total of 48 cases of ill-treatment of children followed by death in which human bite-marks as well as other haematomas on the victims could be proved. In all cases the cause of death was a subdural haematoma. All but three of the offenders were female, and all were young and subject to excess stress so that the act could eventually be regarded as the result of a disintegration of emotional status. The combination of bite-marks with haematomas and other signs of ill-treatment support with sufficient certainty the conclusion that a criminal action of a third person is involved.

  20. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and nail care Nail care Nail biting "); (function () { var a = "", b = [ "adid=aad-aad-1", "site=ehs. ... t", "hpos=l", "zone=public", "mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c "); (function () { var a = "", b = [ "adid= ...

  1. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Mohs AUC MyDermPath+ Psoriasis Patient education resources Practice Management Center Coding and reimbursement Coding MACRA Fee schedule ... Child nail care Manicure safety Nail biting Nail changes a dermatologist should examine Anti-aging skin care ...

  2. Simulation of a flow around biting teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narusawa, Hideaki; Yamamoto, Eriko; Kuwahara, Kunio

    2008-11-01

    We simulated a flow around biting teeth. The decayed tooth is a disease that a majority of people are annoyed. These are often generated from a deep groove at occlusal surface. It is known that a person who bites well doesn't suffer from a decayed tooth easily. Biting forces reach as much as 60 kg/cm^2 by an adult male, and when chewing, upper and lower teeth approach to bite by those forces. The crushed food mixed with saliva becomes high viscosity fluid, and is pushed out of ditches of teeth in the direction of the cheek or the tongue. Teeth with complex three dimension curved surface are thought to form venturi at this time, and to generate big pressure partially. An excellent dental articulation will possibly help a natural generation of a flow to remove dental plaque, i.e. the cause of the decayed tooth. Moreover, the relation of this flow with the destruction of the filled metal or the polymer is doubted. In this research, we try to clarify the pressure distributions by this flow generation as well as its dynamics when chewing. One of our goals is to enable an objective design of the shape of the dental fillings and the artificial tooth. Tooth has a very small uneven ground and a bluff body. In this case, to calculate a computational numerical simulation to solve the Navier-Stokes equations three dimension Cartesian coordinate system is employed.

  3. Formation Flying Concept Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Palkin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The term “formation flying” implies coordinated movement of at least two satellites on coplanar and non-coplanar orbits with a maximum distance between them being much less than the length of the orbit. Peculiarities of formation flying concept also include:- automatic coordination of satellites;- sub-group specialization of formation flying satellites;- equipment and data exchange technology unification in each specialized group or subgroup.Formation flying satellites can be classified according to the configuration stability level (order (array, cluster («swarm», intergroup specialization rules («central satellite», «leader», «slave», manoeuvrability («active» and «passive» satellites.Tasks of formation flying include:- experiments with payload, distributed in formation flying satellites;- various near-earth space and earth-surface research;- super-sized aperture antenna development;- land-based telescope calibration;- «space advertisement» (earth-surface observable satellite compositions of a logotype, word, etc.;- orbital satellite maintenance, etc.Main issues of formation flying satellite system design are:- development of an autonomous satellite group manoeuvring technology;- providing a sufficient characteristic velocity of formation flying satellites;- ballistic and navigation maintenance for satellite formation flying;- technical and economic assessment of formation flying orbital delivery and deployment;- standardization, unification, miniaturization and integration of equipment;- intergroup and intersatellite function redistribution.

  4. Comparison of posterior occlusion between patients with anterior open bite and scissor deep bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Kun; Xu, Yifei; Hou, Yuxia; Wang, Mei-Qing

    2018-01-01

    Objective A minor alteration in the posterior occlusal height elicits a large transformation in the anterior vertical dimension. Thus, the present study was performed to determine whether a posterior cusp-to-cusp relation that increases the posterior vertical dimension contributes to an anterior open bite. Methods Study casts were examined from orthodontic patients aged 10 to 27 years, 21 with an open bite and 28 with a scissor deep bite. A logistic regression model was used to analyze the contribution of various factors to these two anterior occlusal patterns. The dental arch width and number of worn cusps were compared between the two groups. Results Patients with an open bite had a significantly higher incidence of a posterior buccal-lingual cusp-to-cusp relation, wider mandibular arch in the molar region, and larger numbers of worn maxillary buccal cusps and mandibular lingual cusps than patients with a scissor deep bite. Conclusions A posterior buccal-lingual cusp-to-cusp relation is associated with a larger anterior vertical dimension, such as that in patients with an open bite.

  5. Survival and fate of Salmonella enterica serovar Montevideo in adult horn flies (Diptera: Muscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafson, Pia Untalan; Lohmeyer, Kimberly H; Edrington, Thomas S; Loneragan, Guy H

    2014-09-01

    Contamination of cattle peripheral lymph nodes with Salmonella enterica is proposed to occur via a transdermal route of entry. If so, bacteria may be introduced to cattle by biting arthropods. Biting flies, such as horn flies (Haematobia irritans irritans (L.)) (Diptera: Muscidae), are intriguing candidates for transmitting Salmonella to cattle because they provide a route of entry when they breach the skin barrier during blood feeding. Using a green fluorescent protein-expressing strain of Salmonella Montevideo (S. Montevideo-GFP), the current study demonstrated that horn fly grooming subsequent to tactile exposure to the bacteria resulted in acquisition of the bacteria on mouthparts as well as microbial ingestion. Consumption of a bloodmeal containing approximately 10(2), approximately 10(4), or 10(6) S. Montevideo-GFP resulted in horn fly colonization for up to 72 h postingestion (PI). Epifluorescent microscopy indicated that the bacteria were not localized to the crop but were observed within the endoperitrophic space, suggesting that regurgitation is not a primary route of transmission. S. Montevideo-GFP were cultured from excreta of 100% of flies beginning 6-7 h PI of a medium or high dose meal and > 12 h PI in excreta from 60% of flies fed the low-dose meal. Animal hides and manure pats are sources for horn flies to acquire the Salmonella and mechanically transmit them to an animal while feeding. Mean quantities of 5.65-67.5 x 10(2) CFU per fly were cultured from fly excreta passed within 1 d after feeding, suggesting the excreta can provide an additional microbial source on the animal's hide.

  6. Campaign launched to eliminate tsetse fly, which has turned much of Africa into a green desert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    A new campaign to control the deadly tsetse fly in Africa, parasitic carrier of sleeping sickness, has been launched by the Organization of African Unity (OAU). African sleeping sickness affects as many as 500,000 people, 80 percent of whom eventually die, and the bite of the fly causes more than $4 billion in economic losses annually. The tsetse fly has turned much of the fertile African landscape into an uninhabited 'green desert', spreading sleeping sickness -- and killing 3 million livestock animals every year. The fly is the carrier of the single cell parasite, trypanosome, which attacks the blood and nervous system of its victims, causing sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in livestock. The biting tsetse fly transmits it when its seeks a blood meal. Despite various drastic efforts over the past 100 years to eradicate the tsetse fly, most of the time it has recovered. The tsetse, about the size of a house fly, infests 37 sub-Saharan African countries - 32 of them among the 42 most Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPCs) in the world. Much of Africa's best land - particularly in river valleys and moist areas, where the potential for mixed farming is good - lies uncultivated, while tsetse free areas face collapse from overuse by humans. The range of the fly is expanding and in some parts of Africa renewed outbreaks of sleeping sickness are killing more people than any other disease. In 1997 the Tanzanian island of Zanzibar was declared free of the tsetse after conventional methods reduced its numbers and the release of hundreds of thousands of infertile male flies into the wild - sterilized using a nuclear technology - clinched its success. In Burkina Faso in 2001, the Organization of African Unity, inaugurated the Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC), based on the successful Zanzibar program

  7. Snake-bite-induced Acute Kidney Injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naqvi, R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To describe the clinical spectrum and outcome of patients presenting to a tertiary care kidney center, developing acute kidney injury (AKI) after snake-bite. Study Design: An observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Nephrology Department, Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation (SIUT), Karachi, from January 1990 to December 2014. Methodology: All patients coming to SIUT identified as having AKI after snake-bite during the study period were included. AKI was defined according to RIFLE criteria with sudden rise in creatinine or decline in urine output or both. Demographics, clinical presentation, laboratory profile, and final outcome was noted. Result: During the studied period, 115 cases of AKI, secondary to snake-bite, were registered at this institution. Median age of patients was 35.92 ±15.04 (range: 6 - 70) years and male to female ratio was 1.6:1. Time from bite and referral to this hospital ranged from 2 to 28 days (mean: 8.77 ±5.58 days). Oligo-anuria was the most common presentation, being found in 98 (93.90 percentage) patients. Bleeding diathesis was reported in 75 (65.21 percentage) patients on presentation. All patients had normal sized, non-obstructed kidneys on ultrasonography, with no previous comorbids. Renal replacement therapy (RRT) was required in 106 (92.17 percentage) patients. Complete recovery was seen in 59 (51.30 percentage), while 15 (13.04 percentage) patients expired during acute phase of illness, 4 (3.47 percentage) developed CKD, 11 (9.56 percentage) required dialysis beyond 90 days, and 26 (22.60 percentage) were lost to long-term follow-up. Conclusion: Snake-bite, leading to multiple complications including renal failure and death, is a major health issue in tropical countries. Late referral of these patients to specialized centres Result in undesirable outcome. (author)

  8. Is current bite mark analysis a misnomer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, J G; Blackwell, S A

    2010-09-10

    Four human-to-human bite mark cases in which forensic odontological opinion was found to be in error, or at best deeply divided between experts, are described. These are used to illustrate that there is a growing awareness on the part of the legal profession that bite mark opinions by experts may often be little more than that and that these opinions often cannot be substantiated given the paucity of rigorous scientific evaluation, and will therefore be increasingly challenged. This may not best serve justice and so it is argued that forensic odontology needs to bring more scientific rigour to the evaluation of bite marks. This may threaten to disenfranchise some of the current practitioners and there may be some resistance to change. Forensic odontology is not the only identification science facing such problems, but nevertheless a paradigm shift is predicted in the way bite mark evidence will have to be gathered and evaluated in the future. Some new scientific approaches are described that strive to unravel some of the most basic problems confronting our profession when we attempt to make morphometric comparisons between injuries and the dentition of the biter. A need to capture the actions and consequences of biting in 3D dimensions and simultaneously in real-time is proposed as a path of investigation highly likely to bring some clarity to a confused situation. There is also an urgent need for the ongoing controversy between some of our eminent peers relating to the assumed uniqueness, or otherwise, of the human anterior dentition to be resolved. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Analysis and identification of bite marks in forensic casework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Sandeep; Krishan, Kewal; Chatterjee, Preetika M; Kanchan, Tanuj

    2013-09-01

    Analysis of bite marks plays an important role in personal identification in forensic casework. Bite marks can be recorded in violent crimes such as sexual offences, homicides, child abuse cases, and during sports events. The arrangement, size and alignment of human teeth are individualistic to each person. Teeth, acting as tools leave recognizable marks depending on tooth arrangement, malocclusion, habits, occupation, tooth fracture, and missing or extra teeth. Bite mark identification is based on the individuality of a dentition, which is used to match a bite mark to a suspect. Bite marks are often considered as valuable alternative to fingerprinting and DNA identification in forensic examinations. The present review describes the classification, characteristics, mechanism of production, and appearance of bite mark injuries, collection of evidence, comparison techniques, and technical aids in the analysis of the bite marks.

  10. Bite marks on skin and clay: A comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Gorea

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bite marks are always unique because teeth are distinctive. Bite marks are often observed at the crime scene in sexual and in physical assault cases on the skin of the victims and sometimes on edible leftovers in burglary cases. This piece of evidence is often ignored, but if properly harvested and investigated, bite marks may prove useful in apprehending and successfully prosecuting the criminals. Due to the importance of bite marks, we conducted a progressive randomised experimental study conducted on volunteers. A total of 188 bite marks on clay were studied. Based on these findings, 93.34% of the volunteers could be identified from the bite marks on the clay. In addition, 201 impressions on skin were studied, and out of these cases, 41.01% of the same volunteers could be identified based on the bite mark impressions on the skin.

  11. Biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae from Martín García Island, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María M Ronderos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Nearly 230 species of biting midges have been recorded or described from Argentina; 38 of them are known from the Buenos Aires province and only one is cited from Martín García Island. This paper presents the results raised from six collecting trips which took place on the island during spring 2005, summer 2006 and autumn 2009. Diverse sampling sites including permanent and temporary aquatic environments were chosen, most of the ten sampling sites were ponds of diverse origin, some of these environments were covered with floating vegetation as Lemna gibba, Lemna minuscule, Salvinia biloba, Salvinia minima, Azolla filiculoides, Limnobium laevigatum, Pistia stratiotes, Spirodela intermedia, Wolffiella oblonga and Wolffia columbiana. Other sites were placed in urban and suburban areas. Adults were collected with sweep nets at sunrise and sunset and with light traps at intervals of four to five hours at night, depending on electricity availability on the island. Larvae and pupae were collected with different implements depending on characteristics of each surveyed aquatic habitat. In free standing water, they were captured with small sieves or hand pipettes and micropipettes, flotation techniques were utilized for sampling vegetated areas, free and rooted floating hydrophytes were extracted for removing insects among them. Thirteen species of Ceratopogonidae were collected, three of Atrichopogon Kieffer, three of Forcipomyia Meigen, two of Dasyhelea Kieffer, four of Culicoides Latreille, and one of Bezzia Kieffer, all representing new records from the island. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3: 1183-1194. Epub 2011 September 01.Alrededor de 230 especies de ceratopogónidos han sido registradas o descritas en Argentina, 38 de ellas son conocidas para la provincia de Buenos Aires y sólo una ha sido previamente citada para la Isla Martín García. En este trabajo se presentan los resultados obtenidos a partir de muestreos realizados en seis viajes a la isla

  12. The Fly Printer - Extended

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beloff, Laura; Klaus, Malena

    2016-01-01

    points to a divide between the engineered and the organic and shows a human aspiration for control of information and of biological species. Frustratingly, the work does not allow control over the flies and the printing surface; the flies decide whether it is suitable to print on the paper...

  13. Horn Fly, (L., Overwintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan T. Showler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The horn fly, Haematobia irritans irritans (L., is an ectoparasitic blood feeder mainly on cattle. Its cosmopolitan distribution extends from boreal and grassland regions in northern and southern latitudes to the tropics. Stress and blood loss from horn flies can reduce cattle weight gain and milk production. Horn flies show substantial plasticity in their response to winter. Populations in warmer, lower latitudes have been reported to overwinter in a state of dormancy, but most overwinter as active adults in normal or reduced numbers. As latitudes increase, winters are generally colder, and correspondingly, larger percentages of horn fly populations become dormant as pharate adults (a post-pupal, pre-emergent stage or die. Reports on the effect of elevation on horn fly dormancy at high elevations were contradictory. When it occurs, dormancy takes place beneath cattle dung pats and in the underlying soil. The horn fly's mode of dormancy is commonly called diapause, but the collective research on horn fly diapause (behavioral and biochemical is not conclusive. Understanding the horn fly's overwintering behaviors can lead to development of pre-dormancy insecticide spray strategies in colder latitudes while other strategies must be determined for warmer regions.

  14. Field trials of fatty acids and geraniol applied to cattle for suppression of horn flies, Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae), with observations on fly defensive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullens, Bradley A; Watson, D Wes; Gerry, Alec C; Sandelin, Broc A; Soto, Diane; Rawls, Diana; Denning, Steve; Guisewite, Lena; Cammack, Jonathan

    2017-10-15

    Adult horn fly populations were tracked on cattle for 2-week periods before, during and after multiple treatments (every 3-4days) with two repellents in a mineral oil carrier. Cattle were sprayed four times in a two-week period either with 2% geraniol (125ml/cow) or a 15% mixture of short chain fatty acids (C8-C9-C10)(250ml/cow), and there were untreated control cattle. Trials were conducted in California and North Carolina for 3 summers. Short-term fly counts (same day) on treated cattle were reduced by 61-99%, depending on material and trial, and the fatty acid mixture provided better control than geraniol. Horn fly counts were suppressed for 1-3 d and rebounded somewhat after both treatments. Consecutive treatments showed evidence of persistent impact in California where herds were more isolated. Rebounds to pre-treatment levels 3-4 d after treatment occurred more often in North Carolina, where other infested cattle were closer to treated herds. By 3-4 d post-treatment, horn flies were reduced by 29-61% in California and 0-83% in North Carolina, relative to pre-treatment. Background behavior frequencies were assessed from hundreds of counts on untreated, infested California cattle, where horn flies were the only abundant biting fly. Behavior averages were 16.5 tail flicks, 7.6 skin twitches, 1.2 head throws, or 0.2 leg stamps per 2min observation period. At horn fly densities from about 200 to more than 1000 flies per animal (moderate to high numbers), fly defensive behaviors on control cattle were poorly related (or unrelated) to fly numbers. Immediately after repellent application, however, flies were almost absent and behavior frequencies dropped distinctly. Cattle fly defensive behaviors therefore seem to be quite sensitive to low (less than 100 flies/animal) horn fly densities, and behaviors would be a poor quantitative tool to track fly stress at moderate densities and above. Both geraniol and the fatty acids show promise for horn fly control, especially

  15. Mineralogy of fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Moon Young; Park, Suk Whan [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Moo Seung [Chonbuk National University, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    This study is focused on mineralogical and chemical characteristics of coal fly ash collected from Boreong, Honam, Samcheonpo, Gunsan, Seocheon power plants. Mineralogical and chemical characters of fly ashes are clarified by experimental studies, using x-ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscope, differential thermal analyzer, grain size analyzer and chemical analysis. The results of this study can be summarized as follows; The coal fly ashes from the all power plants are mainly consisted with mullite and quartz, and minor quantity of hematite. In particular, fly ash from the Honam power plant is converted into the anorthite under the 1200 degree. According to the result grain size analysis, most of the fly ashes are under the 200 mesh except 66% of fly ashes from the Boreong and Honam, 54% from Seocheon, 83% from Gunsan and 31% from Samcheonpo power plants. The unburned carbon contents are decreased in the small grain size of fly ashes. Under the 200 mesh grain size of Honam fly ashes shows particularly less than 1% content of unburned carbon. Chemical components of fly ashes are found to be 49-80% of SiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} contents in the bituminous and anthracite coal ash are 49-69% and 75-80%, respectively. The Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CaO concentrations in the bituminous coal ash are higher than anthracite coal ash. The trace elements such as Pb and Zn are higher anthracite coal ash than bituminous coal ash, which is mainly due to the grain size characteristic. The fly ash from Honam power plant with high CaO content can be used potassium silicate fertilizer and raw materials for cements after separation of 200 mesh. Anorthite are formed after 1200 degree heating of bituminous coal ash, which can be utilized as aggregate and bricks. (author). 21 refs., 32 figs., 7 tabs.

  16. Vector competence of Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae to epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotype 7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruder Mark G

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae is a vector of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV serotypes 1 and 2 in North America, where these viruses are well-known pathogens of white-tailed deer (WTD and other wild ruminants. Although historically rare, reports of clinical EHDV infection in cattle have increased in some parts of the world over the past decade. In 2006, an EHDV-7 epizootic in cattle resulted in economic loss for the Israeli dairy industry. White-tailed deer are susceptible to EHDV-7 infection and disease; however, this serotype is exotic to the US and the susceptibility of C. sonorensis to this cattle-virulent EHDV is not known. The objective of the study was to determine if C. sonorensis is susceptible to EHDV-7 infection and is a competent vector. Methods To evaluate the susceptibility of C. sonorensis, midges were fed on EHDV-7 infected WTD, held at 22 ± 1°C, and processed individually for virus isolation and titration on 4–16 days post feeding (dpf. Midges with a virus titer of ≥102.7 median tissue culture infective doses (TCID50/midge were considered potentially competent. To determine if infected C. sonorensis were capable of transmitting EHDV-7 to a host, a susceptible WTD was then fed on by a group of 14–16 dpf midges. Results From 4–16 dpf, 45% (156/350 of midges that fed on WTD with high titer viremia (>107 TCID50/ml were virus isolation-positive, and starting from 10–16 dpf, 32% (35/109 of these virus isolation-positive midges were potentially competent (≥102.7 TCID50/midge. Midges that fed on infected deer transmitted the virus to a susceptible WTD at 14–16 dpf. The WTD developed viremia and severe clinical disease. Conclusion This study demonstrates that C. sonorensis is susceptible to EHDV-7 infection and can transmit the virus to susceptible WTD, thus, C. sonorensis should be considered a potential vector of EHDV-7. Together with previous work, this study demonstrates

  17. Dermatite alérgica à picada de Culicoides em muar: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.I.B. Silva

    Full Text Available RESUMO A dermatite alérgica à picada de ectoparasitos é uma enfermidade alergoparasitária bastante comum entre animais domésticos, sendo relatada principalmente em pequenos ruminantes e em animais de companhia. Contudo, a doença é pouco diagnosticada na clínica de equídeos devido a similaridades nosológicas com outras dermatopatias. Objetivou-se, com este relato de caso, descrever a síndrome clínica, o plano diagnóstico e a conduta terapêutica de um muar acometido por essa enfermidade. Atendeu-se, no Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Federal Rural do Pernambuco, uma mula de oito anos de idade, que apresentava lesões cutâneas pápulo-crostosas e pruriginosas com evolução clínica de dois anos. Em três situações anteriores, a doença havia sido tratada como dermatite fúngica por outros médicos veterinários. Para o diagnóstico, foram solicitados exame citopatológico e parasitológico de pele, cultivo bacteriológico e fúngico, análise histopatológica e hemograma. Os exames demonstraram uma dermatite superficial perivascular eosinofílica crônica, sendo indicada a terapia tópica com dimetilsufóxido, sulfadiazina, ureia e vitamina A. O protocolo terapêutico mostrou-se satisfatório, permitindo completa remissão do quadro clínico. Este trabalho relatou achados clínicos e patológicos da dermatite alérgica à picada de Culicoides spp. em muar, além de alertar sobre a importância de exames complementares para a realização do diagnóstico diferencial e para o direcionamento terapêutico adequado.

  18. Primera cita de Culicoides paradoxalis Ramilo & Delécolle, 2013 (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae en España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Murillo, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The ceratopogonid Culicoides paradoxalis Ramilo & Delécolle, 2013 is recorded for the first time in Spain based on reliable morphological evidence according to the previous descriptions of other authors. A total of 438 females (349 nulliparous and 89 parous and a single male were collected with CDC miniature light traps at three different livestock-associated locations in Extremadura Autonomous Community (Spain in 2014. Most specimens were captured between June and August, suggesting a univoltine pattern for this species extended over summer and early autumn. Although the number of collections of C. paradoxalis is low in comparison with the dominant species, the occurrence of this species in monitoring surveillance programs should deserve specific attention in order to estimate the accurate ratio of potential vectors unmistakably. Interesting information about the period of flight and illustrated morphological features are presented for C. paradoxalis in the current paper.Se cita por primera vez en España el ceratopogónido Culicoides paradoxalis Ramilo & Delécolle, 2013, basándose en evidencias morfológicas de acuerdo a las descripciones previas de otros autores. Un total de 438 hembras (349 nulíparas y 89 paras y un macho se recolectaron con minitrampas de luz CDC en tres localidades ganaderas en la Comunidad Autónoma de Extremadura (España en 2014. La mayor parte de los especímenes fueron capturados entre junio y agosto, mostrando un único período de vuelo que se extendió durante todo el verano y principios del otoño. Aunque el número de capturas de C. paradoxalis es reducido en comparación con los Culicoides dominantes, la aparición de esta nueva especie merece especial atención en los programas de vigilancia entomológica con el fin de estimar inequívocamente la proporción exacta de vectores potenciales. Se presenta en este artículo información de interés sobre el período de vuelo así como fotografías de las

  19. The influence of bubbles on the perception carbonation bite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M Wise

    Full Text Available Although many people naively assume that the bite of carbonation is due to tactile stimulation of the oral cavity by bubbles, it has become increasingly clear that carbonation bite comes mainly from formation of carbonic acid in the oral mucosa. In Experiment 1, we asked whether bubbles were in fact required to perceive carbonation bite. Subjects rated oral pungency from several concentrations of carbonated water both at normal atmospheric pressure (at which bubbles could form and at 2.0 atmospheres pressure (at which bubbles did not form. Ratings of carbonation bite under the two pressure conditions were essentially identical, indicating that bubbles are not required for pungency. In Experiment 2, we created controlled streams of air bubbles around the tongue in mildly pungent CO2 solutions to determine how tactile stimulation from bubbles affects carbonation bite. Since innocuous sensations like light touch and cooling often suppress pain, we predicted that bubbles might reduce rated bite. Contrary to prediction, air bubbles flowing around the tongue significantly enhanced rated bite, without inducing perceived bite in blank (un-carbonated solutions. Accordingly, though bubbles are clearly not required for carbonation bite, they may well modulate perceived bite. More generally, the results show that innocuous tactile stimulation can enhance chemogenic pain. Possible physiological mechanisms are discussed.

  20. Bite Forces and Their Measurement in Dogs and Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se Eun Kim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Bite force is generated by the interaction of the masticatory muscles, the mandibles and maxillae, the temporomandibular joints (TMJs, and the teeth. Several methods to measure bite forces in dogs and cats have been described. Direct in vivo measurement of a bite in dogs has been done; however, bite forces were highly variable due to animal volition, situation, or specific measurement technique. Bite force has been measured in vivo from anesthetized dogs by electrical stimulation of jaw adductor muscles, but this may not be reflective of volitional bite force during natural activity. In vitro bite forces have been estimated by calculation of the force produced using mechanical equations representing the jaw adductor muscles and of the mandible and skull structure Bite force can be estimated in silico using finite element analysis (FEA of the computed model of the anatomical structures. FEA can estimate bite force in extinct species; however, estimates may be lower than the measurements in live animals and would have to be validated specifically in domestic dogs and cats to be reliable. The main factors affecting the bite forces in dogs and cats are body weight and the skull’s morphology and size. Other factors such as oral pain, TMJ disorders, masticatory muscle atrophy, and malocclusion may also affect bite force. Knowledge of bite forces in dogs and cats is essential for various clinical and research fields such as the development of implants, materials, and surgical techniques as well as for forensic medicine. This paper is a summary of current knowledge of bite forces in dogs and cats, including the effect of measurement methods and of other factors.

  1. Effectiveness of a fixed anterior bite plane in Class II deep-bite patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deregibus, Andrea; Debernardi, Cesare Lorenzo; Persin, Leonid; Tugarin, Valery; Markova, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Orthodontic treatment of patients with distoclusion combined with dental deep bite and linguo version of the front upper teeth is one of the most difficult forms of malocclusion to treat to a functional and morphological optimum. Our objective was to analyze the efficacy of a fixed anterior bite plane appliance to disclude the teeth and correct this type of malocclusion. At the Department of Orthodontics MSUMD (Moscow State University of Medicine and Dentistry), we proposed the use of a fixed anterior bite plane for the effective treatment of patients with distoclusion combined to a dental deep bite. This appliance was used in 35 patients aged 11 to 15 years (13.2 +/- 1.2) with distoclusion combined with deep bite in a therapeutical approach that also involved an osteopathic correction. The appliance permitted the correction of the distoclusion by discluding the posterior teeth, allowing eruption of the molars and premolars which improved the occlusal plane line (Curve of Spee) and changed the inclination of the upper incisors which liberated the mandible from its retruded position. We also noted an effect on the postural status of the patient.

  2. [Venomous and poisonous animals. II. Viper bites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chippaux, J P

    2006-10-01

    Vipers are the main cause of the snake envenomations on all continents except Australia where they are none. Viper envenomation may lead to a minimal inflammatory syndrome with clinical (pain, edema) and biological (hyperleukocytosis, proteinuria) manifestations that may be accompanied by hypotension or shock. Emergency situations are due to hemorrhagic syndrome. In frequent cases in which envenomation is limited to a dramatic decrease in coagulation factors without clinical manifestations, severe local or systemic hemorrhage may occur especially if treatment is delayed. Necrotic complications around the bite or in distant vital organs are not uncommon and require careful medical and surgical surveillance. Intravenous antivenom therapy is the only effective treatment. It should be given as soon as possible but can be effective even when administered several days after the bite.

  3. Forensic odontology, part 4. Human bite marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchliffe, J

    2011-04-23

    The aim of this paper is to give a brief overview of bite mark analysis: its usefulness and limitations. The study and analysis of such injuries is challenging and complex. The correct protocols for collection, management, preservation, analysis and interpretation of this evidence should be employed if useful information is to be obtained for the courts. It is now possible, with advances in digital technology, to produce more accurate and reproducible comparison techniques which go some way to preventing and reducing problems such as photographic distortions. Research needs to be continued to increase our knowledge of the behaviour of skin when bitten. However, when presented with a high quality bite mark showing good dental detail, and a limited, accessible number of potential biters, it can be extremely useful in establishing a link between the bitten person and the biter or excluding the innocent.

  4. Nepetalactones from essential oil of Nepeta cataria represent a stable fly feeding and oviposition repellent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J J; Berkebile, D R; Dunlap, C A; Zhang, A; Boxler, D; Tangtrakulwanich, K; Behle, R W; Baxendale, F; Brewer, G

    2012-06-01

    The stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), is one of the most serious pests to livestock. It feeds mainly on cattle and causes significant economic losses in the cattle industry. Standard stable fly control involving insecticides and sanitation is usually costly and often has limited effectiveness. As we continue to evaluate and develop safer fly control strategies, the present study reports on the effectiveness of catnip (Nepeta cataria L.) oil and its constituent compounds, nepetalactones, as stable fly repellents. The essential oil of catnip reduced the feeding of stable flies by >96% in an in vitro bioassay system, compared with other sesquiterpene-rich plant oils (e.g. amyris and sandalwood). Catnip oil demonstrated strong repellency against stable flies relative to other chemicals for repelling biting insects, including isolongifolenone, 2-methylpiperidinyl-3-cyclohexen-1-carboxamide and (1S,2'S)-2-methylpiperidinyl-3-cyclohexen-1-carboxamide. The repellency against stable flies of the most commonly used mosquito repellent, DEET, was relatively low. In field trials, two formulations of catnip oil provided >95% protection and were effective for up to 6 h when tested on cattle. Catnip oil also acted as a strong oviposition repellent and reduced gravid stable fly oviposition by 98%. Published 2011. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  5. Relationship between rainfall and stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) abundance on California dairies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullens, Bradley A; Peterson, Nyles G

    2005-07-01

    Populations of adult stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), were visually estimated by counting flies on the front legs of cattle on southern and central California confined dairy feedlots between late April and mid-June (encompassing the peak stable fly activity period). Fly counts on 45-90 animals (three to six dairies) per weekly sample date were conducted in 1985, 1986, 1993, 2002, and 2003. Average biting intensity (flies per front leg) for the peak fly season was not significantly related to early winter (December-January), late winter (February-March), or total period (December-March) rainfall, but it was strongly related (r2 = 0.726) to March rainfall. March rains probably moistened outside decaying manure habitats and similar substrates that are particularly suitable at that time for stable fly oviposition and larval development. Degree-day accumulations link the timing of significant (> or = 1.3 cm) late winter or early spring rains to peak adult stable fly activity two generations later in May and early June.

  6. Evaluation of Snake Bites with Bedside Ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef E Jolissaint

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: While watering his lawn, a 36-year-old man felt two sharp bites to his bilateral ankles. He reports that he then saw a light brown, 2-foot snake slither away from him. He came to the emergency department because of pain and swelling in his ankles and inability to bear weight. Physical examination revealed bilateral ankle swelling and puncture marks on his left lateral heel and medial right ankle. Palpation, passive flexion and extension elicited severe pain bilaterally. Blood work including prothrombin time (PT, partial thromboplastin time (PTT, international normalized ratio (INR, and fibrinogen were within normal limits. Consultation with Poison Control indicated the snake was likely a copperhead, which is a venomous snake whose bites rarely require antivenin. Significant findings: In this case, ultrasonography of the lateral surface of the left foot revealed soft tissue edema (red arrow and fluid collection (white asterisk adjacent to the extensor tendon (white arrow. The edematous area resembles cobblestones, with hypoechoic areas of fluid spanning relatively hyperechoic fat lobules. The tendon is surrounded by anechoic fluid, expanding the potential space in the sheath. No hyperechoic foreign objects were noted. Discussion: The patient was diagnosed with soft tissue injury and extensor tenosynovitis after a snake envenomation. Snake venom contains metalloproteinases and other enzymatic proteins that cause local tissue edema and necrosis.1 After a snake bite, ultrasound can be used to assess for retained fangs, soft tissue edema, tendon sheath fluid, muscle fasciculation, and injury to deeper musculature that may not be readily apparent on physical exam.2,3 Most patients with tenosynovitis will recover with immobilization of the joint and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications.4 Rarely, the tendon may become infected requiring antibiotics and surgical intervention.4 Topics: Ultrasound, snake envenomation

  7. Profile of dog bite victims in Jos Plateau State, Nigeria: a review of dog bite records (2006-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabi, Olaniran; Nguku, Patrick; Chukwukere, Silvester; Gaddo, Ayika; Nsubuga, Peter; Umoh, Joliath

    2014-01-01

    Dogs are the major reservoir of rabies virus in Nigeria; transmission to humans is via a bite by rabid dog. Between 2006 and 2008 National Veterinary Research Institute (NVRI) rabies laboratory reported increased numbers of rabies in dogs and human dog bites. The objective of the study was to use veterinary and health records to develop a profile of bite victims and recommend appropriate public health actions. We used the dog brain specimen result register of Rabies Laboratory of NVRI, from "January, 2006" to "December, 2008" and traced dog bite cases. Structured questionnaires were administered to persons who reported dog bite incident and could be traced. We reviewed records from Evangelical Churches of West Africa (ECWA) clinic from "January, 2006" to "December, 2008" to collect detailed profiles of bite victims. Bite victims linked to positive dog samples were traced to "ECWA clinic" from "January, 2006" to "December, 2008". Most bite victims were dogs were housed and unvaccinated. This study provided important information on the profile of dog bite victims and highlights the need for a sustained awareness and education of children on the dangers of dog bite. It has shown lack of enforcement of regulations for licensing of dogs and rabies vaccination.

  8. Flaccid skin protects hagfishes from shark bites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggett, Sarah; Stiles, Jean-Luc; Summers, Adam P; Fudge, Douglas S

    2017-12-01

    Hagfishes defend themselves from fish predators by releasing large volumes of gill-clogging slime when they are attacked. Slime release is not anticipatory, but is only released after an attack has been initiated, raising the question of how hagfishes survive the initial attack, especially from biting predators such as sharks. We tested two hypotheses that could explain how hagfishes avoid damage from shark bites: puncture-resistant skin, and a loose and flaccid body design that makes it difficult for teeth to penetrate body musculature and viscera. Based on data from skin puncture tests from 22 fish species, we found that hagfish skin is not remarkably puncture resistant. Simulated shark bites on hagfish and their closest living relatives, lamprey, as well as whole animal inflation tests, revealed that the loose attachment of hagfish skin to the rest of the body and the substantial 'slack volume' in the subcutaneous sinus protect hagfish musculature and viscera from penetrating teeth. While recent work has found evidence that the capacious subcutaneous sinus in hagfishes is important for behaviours such as knot-tying and burrowing, our work demonstrates that it also plays a role in predator defence. © 2017 The Author(s).

  9. A patient with severe black fly (Simuliidae) hypersensitivity referred for evaluation of suspected immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orange, Jordan S; Song, Leslie A; Twarog, Frank J; Schneider, Lynda C

    2004-02-01

    Biting flies of the Diptera order and specifically the black fly (Simuliidae family) can be rare causes of severe hypersensitivity reactions. To describe a patient referred for evaluation of immunodeficiency whose clinical course is explained by severe Simuliidae hypersensitivity. The patient's immune system was investigated using standard laboratory evaluations. Hypersensitivity to Simuliidae was pursued because of historical features of her presentation and was specifically examined by skin prick and intradermal testing with whole body extract. The patient's history was notable for recurrent and severe seasonal episodes of presumed cellulitis after black fly bites that responded poorly to intravenous antibiotics. One episode was followed by acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (Guillain-Barré syndrome) and another by minimal change nephrotic syndrome. The results of immunologic investigations were unremarkable, but cutaneous hypersensitivity to Simuliidae was demonstrated with a 6.5-mm wheel and 35-mm flare reaction to intradermal injection of only 0.0005 microg of whole body extract. Similar to Hymenoptera, Simuliidae can rarely result in extreme hypersensitivity and should be considered in appropriate cases. This patient illustrates how severe reactions toinsect bites can be misdiagnosed.

  10. Flying insects and Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Skovgård, Henrik

    organisms, which may collect on their bodies or survive passage through the fly gut. Campylobacter and other pathogens are then easily transferred to other surfaces, for instance peoples food – or to broiler houses where they may be swallowed by chickens or contaminate the environment. On a large material...... period was rather short, as even high doses of Campylobacter remained viable for less than 24 hours in flies, when they were incubated at temperatures from 20 ºC and higher. Lower temperatures are less- or irrelevant, as flies become slow or immobile below 15-20 ºC....

  11. First Pediatric Case of Tularemia after a Coyote Bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno B. Chomel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bite-transmitted tularemia is a rare event in humans and most of the cases have been associated with cat bites. We report the first pediatric case of tularemia caused by a coyote (Canis latrans bite. Coyotes can be healthy carriers of Francisella tularensis and transmit this infectious agent through a bite. Pediatricians should be aware of this risk after a carnivore bite and implement appropriate antibiotic therapy, as amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium (Augmentin may have prolonged the typical two to three days’ incubation period commonly observed for tularemia after an animal bite and was not effective in preventing clinical signs in this child. Finally, it emphasizes again the importance of early and late serum samples for appropriate serodiagnostic.

  12. Biting back: BiTE antibodies as a promising therapy for acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Roland B

    2014-06-01

    The experience with gemtuzumab ozogamicin has highlighted both the potential value and limitations of antibodies in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Recently, bispecific T-cell engager (BiTE) antibodies have emerged as a means to harness polyclonal cytotoxic T-cells and cause highly efficient lysis of targeted tumor cells. Promising early results have been obtained with the CD19-directed BiTE antibody, blinatumomab, in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. A first candidate for AML is the CD33/CD3 molecule, AMG 330, for which several recent preclinical studies demonstrated high potency and efficacy in destroying CD33(+) human AML cells. Many questions remain to be addressed, but BiTE antibodies may offer an exciting new tool in a disease for which the outcomes in many patients remain unsatisfactory.

  13. Implant-Supported Bite Blocks for Open Bite Correction in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umal H Doshi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Altering the vertical dimension of the face remains one of the greatest clinical challenges with a multitude of orthodontic, orthopedic and surgical interventions recommended for the correction of associated skeletal, dental and neuromuscular abnormalities. Along with treatment, long-term stability of open bite corrections remains questionable, mainly because of weak musculature. Use of posterior bite blocks has been advocated to stretch the muscles and in turn increases the muscle strength. Muscle stretching also assists in posterior teeth intrusion. In adult patients, implants have been shown to be quite effective for active intrusion. This article highlights an innovative approach which essentially incorporates posterior bite block with active intruding component, i.e. implants. A specific protocol of treatment and retention with this approach is described.

  14. Mammalian Bite Injuries to the Hand and Their Management

    OpenAIRE

    Jha, Shilpa; Khan, Wasim S; Siddiqui, Nashat A

    2014-01-01

    Bite wounds are a common form of hand injury with the potential to lead to severe local and systemic sequelae and permanent functional impairment. Mammalian bite wounds may be caused by a variety of animal class and species; injuries resulting from dogs, cats and humans are the most widely discussed and reported in the literature. Bite wounds may be contaminated with aggressive pathogens and the anatomical vulnerability of structures within the hand means that without early recognition and tr...

  15. Open Fracture of the Forearm Bones due to Horse Bite

    OpenAIRE

    Santoshi, John Ashutosh; Leshem, Lall

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Fractures have been described mainly following falling accidents in horse-related injuries. Horse bites are uncommon accidents. We present a case of open fracture of the forearm due to horse bite. Case Report: A 35-year-old male farm-worker presented to the emergency room with alleged history of horse bite to the right forearm about 2 hours prior to presentation while feeding the horse. There was deformity of the forearm with multiple puncture wounds, deep abrasions and small...

  16. Bite mark analysis in forensic routine case work

    OpenAIRE

    Lessig, R.; Weber, M.; Wenzel, V.

    2006-01-01

    The individuality of the human dentition frequently allows the Forensic Odonto-Stomatologist (FOS) to reach a strong opinion of association in cases of identification and bite mark analy-sis. Such analysis can often be useful during the investigation of violent crimes, especially those involving sexual assault. Bites from animals are rarely the object of bite mark analysis. The teeth of animals leave patterned injuries that appear quite different from those created by human teeth. This is esp...

  17. Recognition of bite marks in child abuse cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessee, S A

    1994-01-01

    Health professionals must be attentive to any and all signs of child maltreatment. Bite marks are one of several visual expressions of active child abuse. The efforts of forensic odontologists, in conjunction with recent technical advancements in bite mark analysis, support the uniqueness of the human dentition and have contributed to the conviction of numerous child abusers. Through recognition, proper documentation, and reporting dentists can help the forensic community use bite marks to solve cases of child maltreatment.

  18. Approximate MAP Decoding on Tail-Biting Trellises

    OpenAIRE

    Madhu, A. S.; Shankar, Priti

    2005-01-01

    We propose two approximate algorithms for MAP decoding on tail-biting trellises. The algorithms work on a subset of nodes of the tail-biting trellis, judiciously selected. We report the results of simulations on an AWGN channel using the approximate algorithms on tail-biting trellises for the $(24,12)$ Extended Golay Code and a rate 1/2 convolutional code with memory 6.

  19. Nest ecology of blood parasites in the European roller and its ectoparasitic carnid fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Václav, Radovan; Betáková, Tatiana; Švančarová, Petra; Pérez-Serrano, Jorge; Criado-Fornelio, Ángel; Škorvanová, Lucia; Valera, Francisco

    2016-06-01

    Haemosporidian parasites are considered the most important vector-borne parasites. However, vector identity and ecology is unknown for most such host-vector-parasite systems. In this study, we employ microscopic and molecular analyses to examine haemosporidian prevalence in a migratory, cavity-nesting bird, European roller Coracias garrulus, and its nidicolous blood-feeding ectoparasite Carnus hemapterus. This system is unique in that the ectoparasite is confined to a near-closed environment, in contrast to the free-wandering system of haematophagous dipterans such as mosquitoes. Blood film analysis confirms previous works in that Haemoproteus parasites are widely prevalent in adult rollers and belong to a single species, Haemoproteus coraciae. Leucocytozoon sp. and Trypanosoma sp. also are detected in adult rollers at low intensities with this technique. By means of molecular analysis, we report for the first time Plasmodium sp. presence in C. garrulus. Based on PCR results, Plasmodium parasites are relatively less prevalent than Haemoproteus parasites (20% vs. 31%) in rollers. In contrast, haemosporidian prevalences show the opposite trend for Carnus flies: Plasmodium sp. occurrence (62%) clearly predominates over that of Haemoproteus sp. (5%). A comparison between roller and Carnus samples reveals a significantly higher prevalence of Plasmodium sp. in Carnus samples. Insect survey and phylogenetic analysis suggest Culicoides flies as Haemoproteus sp. vectors, which appear to readily transmit the parasite in southern Spain. This study does not find support for Carnus flies to serve as biological or mechanical vectors of haemosporidians. In spite of this, nidicolous blood-feeding ectoparasites, such as carnid flies, appear as a suitable model for studies on the occurrence and temporal dynamics of avian haemosporidians such as Plasmodium sp. present at low intensities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Autonomous Martian flying rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    A remotely programmable, autonomous flying rover is proposed to extensively survey the Martian surface environment. A Mach .3, solar powered, modified flying wing could cover roughly a 2000 mile range during Martian daylight hours. Multiple craft launched from an orbiting mother ship could provide near-global coverage. Each craft is envisioned to fly at about 1 km above the surface and measure atmospheric composition, pressure and temperature, map surface topography, and remotely penetrate the near subsurface looking for water (ice) and perhaps evidence of life. Data collected are relayed to Earth via the orbiting mother ship. Near surface guidance and control capability is an adaptation of current cruise missile technology. A solar powered aircraft designed to fly in the low temperature, low density, carbon dioxide Martian atmosphere near the surface appears feasible.

  1. Fruit fly eradication: Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Fruit exports account for 9% of Argentina's total agricultural exports and generate annually close to $450 million. This could be increased but for fruit flies that cause damage equivalent to 15% to 20% of present production value of fruit and also deny export access to countries imposing quarantine barriers. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, to eradicate the Mediterranean fruit fly using the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). (IAEA)

  2. Bite force measurement based on fiber Bragg grating sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padma, Srivani; Umesh, Sharath; Asokan, Sundarrajan; Srinivas, Talabattula

    2017-10-01

    The maximum level of voluntary bite force, which results from the combined action of muscle of mastication, joints, and teeth, i.e., craniomandibular structure, is considered as one of the major indicators for the functional state of the masticatory system. Measurement of voluntary bite force provides useful data for the jaw muscle function and activity along with assessment of prosthetics. This study proposes an in vivo methodology for the dynamic measurement of bite force employing a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor known as bite force measurement device (BFMD). The BFMD developed is a noninvasive intraoral device, which transduces the bite force exerted at the occlusal surface into strain variations on a metal plate. These strain variations are acquired by the FBG sensor bonded over it. The BFMD developed facilitates adjustment of the distance between the biting platform, which is essential to capture the maximum voluntary bite force at three different positions of teeth, namely incisor, premolar, and molar sites. The clinically relevant bite forces are measured at incisor, molar, and premolar position and have been compared against each other. Furthermore, the bite forces measured with all subjects are segregated according to gender and also compared against each other.

  3. Bite force and dental implant treatment: a short review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flanagan D

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Dennis Flanagan1,2 1Department of Dental Medicine, Implantology LUdeS Foundation, Ricasoli, Malta; 2Private Practice, Willimantic, CT, USA Abstract: Dental implants are placed endosseously, and the bone is the ultimate bearer of the occlusal load. Patients are not uniform in the maximum bite force they can generate. The occlusal biting load in the posterior jaw is usually about three times of that found in the anterior. It is possible for supporting implants to be overloaded by the patients’ biting force, resulting in bone loss and failure of the fixture. Bite force measurement may be an important parameter when planning dental implant treatment. Some patients can generate extreme biting loads that may cause a luxation of the fixture and subsequent loss of osseointegration. A patient with low biting force may be able to have a successful long-term outcome even with poor anatomical bone qualities. Patients with a high bite force capability may have an increased risk for late component fracture or implant failure. There is no correlation of any bite force value that would indicate any overload of a given implant in a given osseous site. Nonetheless, after bite force measurement, a qualitative judgement may be made by the clinician for the selection of an implant diameter and length and prosthetic design. Keywords: occlusal load, newtons, oral function, force, sensor, software

  4. Contact and fumigant toxicity of a botanical-based feeding deterrent of the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junwei J; Li, Andrew Y; Pritchard, Sara; Tangtrakulwanich, Khanobporn; Baxendale, Frederick P; Brewer, Gary

    2011-09-28

    The stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), has been considered one of the most serious biting flies of confined and pastured livestock. The economic losses caused by the stable fly to the cattle industry in the United States exceed $2 billion annually. Current practices for managing stable flies using insecticides provide only marginal control. Insecticide resistance has also been recently reported in stable flies. The present study reports the use of plant-based insecticides, for example, essential oils, as alternatives for managing this fly pest. The toxicity of several plant essential oils and selected ingredient compounds was evaluated by contact and fumigant toxicity bioassays. Catnip oil (20 mg dosage) showed the highest toxicity against stable flies, the shortest knock-down time (∼7 min), and the quickest lethal time (∼19 min). Toxicity levels similar to catnip oil were found among three insect repellent compounds (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide, 2-methylpiperidinyl-3-cyclohexene-1-carboxamide, (1S,2'S)-2-methylpiperidinyl-3-cyclohexene-1-carboxamide). No differences in knock-down and lethal times were found among the catnip oil and its two active ingredient compounds. Similar stable fly mortality was observed using a 20 mg dose of catnip oil in a modified K&D system and a fumigant jar. When catnip oil was topically applied to stable flies, the least lethal dose was 12.5 μg/fly, and a 50 μg/fly dose resulted in 100% mortality. The blood-feeding behavior of stable flies was also negatively affected by the topical application of catnip oil, and the effect was dose-dependent. This study demonstrated that catnip oil has both contact and fumigant toxicity against the stable fly and thus has the potential as an alternative for stable fly control.

  5. Genome-wide association study of insect bite hypersensitivity in two horse populations in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schurink, A.; Wolc, A.; Ducro, B.J.; Frankena, K.; Garrick, D.J.; Dekkers, J.C.M.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Insect bite hypersensitivity is a common allergic disease in horse populations worldwide. Insect bite hypersensitivity is affected by both environmental and genetic factors. However, little is known about genes contributing to the genetic variance associated with insect bite

  6. Entomological research on the vectors of bluetongue disease and the monitoring of activity of Culicoides in the Prishtinë region of Kosova

    OpenAIRE

    Betim Berisha; Izedin Goga; William P. Taylor; Kurtesh Sherifi; Anthony J. Wilsmore; Driton Çaushi; Beqë Hulaj

    2010-01-01

    Clinical bluetongue (BT) caused by BT virus serotype 9 (BTV‑9) was observed in Kosova in 2001 and, although subsequently no further clinical cases was diagnosed, its continuing presence has been demonstrated by serological tests in cattle, sheep and goats. In this study, light traps were placed in stables near Prishtinë to identify possible vectors of BTV in Kosova. Samples were collected from October 2004 until the end of 2006. Culicoides were identified and speciated and results were plotte...

  7. A qualitative investigation of the perceptions of female dog-bite victims and implications for the prevention of dog bites

    OpenAIRE

    Westgarth, Carri; Watkins, Francine

    2015-01-01

    Preventing dog bites is an increasingly important public health and political issue with implications for both human and animal health and welfare. Expert opinion is that most bites are preventable. Intervention materials have been designed to educate people on how to assess the body language of dogs, evaluate risk, and take appropriate action. The effectiveness of this approach is rarely evaluated and the incidence of dog bites is thought to be increasing. Is the traditional approach to dog ...

  8. Estimating maximum bite performance in Tyrannosaurus rex using multi-body dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Bates, K. T.; Falkingham, P. L.

    2012-01-01

    Bite mechanics and feeding behaviour in Tyrannosaurus rex are controversial. Some contend that a modest bite mechanically limited T. rex to scavenging, while others argue that high bite forces facilitated a predatory mode of life. We use dynamic musculoskeletal models to simulate maximal biting in T. rex. Models predict that adult T. rex generated sustained bite forces of 35 000–57 000 N at a single posterior tooth, by far the highest bite forces estimated for any terrestrial animal. Scaling ...

  9. Biting injuries and transmission of Tasmanian devil facial tumour disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamede, Rodrigo K; McCallum, Hamish; Jones, Menna

    2013-01-01

    The Tasmanian devil is threatened with extinction by devil facial tumour disease (DFTD), a unique infectious cancer in which the tumour cells themselves, which derive from a single long-dead host devil, are the infective agent and the tumour is an infectious parasitic cell line. Transmission is thought to occur via direct inoculation of tumour cells when susceptible and infected individuals bite each other or by fomitic transfer of tumour cells. The nature of transmission and the extent to which biting behaviour and devil ecology is associated with infection risk remains unclear. Until our recent study in north-west Tasmania showed reduced population and individual impacts, DFTD had caused massive population declines in all populations monitored. In this paper, we investigate seasonal patterns of injuries resulting from bites between individuals, DFTD infection status and tumour location in two populations to determine whether the number of bites predicts the acquisition of DFTD and to explore the possibility that the reduced impacts of DFTD in north-west Tasmania are attributed to reduced bite rates. Devils with fewer bites were more likely to develop DFTD and primary tumours occurred predominantly inside the oral cavity. These results are not consistent with transmission occurring from the biter to the bitten animal but suggest that dominant individuals delivering bites, possibly by biting the tumours of other devils, are at higher risk of acquiring infection than submissive individuals receiving bites. Bite rates, which were higher during autumn and winter, did not differ between sites, suggesting that the reduced population impacts in north-west Tasmania cannot be explained by lower bite rates. Our study emphasizes the importance of longitudinal studies of individually marked animals for understanding the ecology and transmission dynamics of infectious diseases and parasites in wild populations. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2012 British

  10. Improved capture of stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) by placement of knight stick sticky fly traps protected by electric fence inside animal exhibit yards at the Smithsonian's National Zoological Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogsette, Jerome A; Ose, Gregory A

    2017-12-01

    Stable flies are noxious blood-feeding pests of exotic animals at zoological parks, inflicting painful bites, and causing discomfort to animals. Stable fly management is difficult because of the flies' tendency to remain on the host animals only when feeding. Non-toxic traps can be efficient but traps placed around exhibit perimeters captured fewer-than-expected numbers of flies. By surrounding traps with square electric fence enclosures, traps could be placed in the exhibits with the host animals and compared with an equal number of traps placed along perimeter fences. During a 21-week study, traps inside exhibits captured 5× more stable flies than traps placed along exhibit perimeters. Traps inside exhibits tended to show more fluctuations in fly populations than traps along perimeters. The increased numbers of flies captured using this technique should provide relief from this pestiferous fly and greatly improve animal health and welfare. We believe this to be the first study where traps were used to capture stable flies in exhibit yards at a zoological park. © 2017 The Authors. Zoo Biology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Three-dimensional analyses of human bite-force magnitude and moment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eijden, T M

    1991-01-01

    The effect of the three-dimensional orientation of occlusal force on maximal bite-force magnitude was examined in seven human subjects at three different unilateral anteroposterior bite positions (canine, second premolar and second molar). At each position, bite-force magnitude was registered in 17 precisely defined directions using a three-component force transducer and a feedback method. In addition, to assess the efficiency of transfer of muscle to bite force, for bites produced in the sagittal plane, moment-arm length was determined and the produced bite-force moment calculated. The results showed that the largest possible bite force was not always produced in a direction perpendicular to the occlusal plane. Generally, maximal bite force in medial and posterior directions was larger than that in, respectively, corresponding lateral and anterior directions. In each direction the produced force was larger at the posterior bite point than at the anterior bite point. The combined moment produced by the jaw muscles was largest for vertical bites, smallest for posteriorly directed bites and intermediate for anteriorly directed bites. In the case of vertically and anteriorly directed bites the produced moment did not vary significantly with the bite position. Hence, for these bite positions the jaw closing moment of the muscles must have kept constant. In the case of posteriorly directed bites the produced moment decreased when bite position changed from the anterior to the posterior side of the dentition. This indicated that jaw muscle activity had declined.

  12. [Reactions to insect stings and bites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljubojević, Suzana; Lipozencić, Jasna

    2011-01-01

    Reaction to insect sting and bite may be local, such as erythema, edema and pruritus, or systemic, such as anaphylactic reaction. Diagnosis can be made by patient history, clinical picture, skin testing, total and specific IgE level, and provocation test. Local reactions are treated with cold compresses, topical corticosteroids and oral antihistamines. Oral and intramuscular antihistamines and corticosteroids are used for the treatment of mild systemic reactions, and in severe reaction epinephrine injections are added. Hyposensitization is indicated in patients with severe systemic reaction, positive skin tests and high level of specific IgE antibodies.

  13. The current status of phlebotomine sand flies in Albania and incrimination of Phlebotomus neglectus (Diptera, Psychodidae) as the main vector of Leishmania infantum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velo, Enkelejda; Bongiorno, Gioia; Kadriaj, Perparim; Myrseli, Teita; Crilly, James; Lika, Aldin; Mersini, Kujtim; Di Muccio, Trentina; Bino, Silvia; Gramiccia, Marina; Gradoni, Luigi; Maroli, Michele

    2017-01-01

    The incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Albania is higher than in other countries of southern Europe, however the role of local sand fly species in the transmission of Leishmania infantum was not addressed conclusively. In 2006, a country-wide collection of sand flies performed in 14 sites selected based on recent occurrence of VL cases showed that Phlebotomus neglectus was by far the most prevalent species (95.6%). Furthermore, 15% of pools made from 422 P. neglectus females tested positive for Leishmania sp. genomic DNA. In the same year, Culicoides trapping was performed for bluetongue disease surveillance in 91 sites of southern Albania, targeting livestock farms regardless recent occurrence of VL in the surveyed areas. In 35 sites where sand flies were collected along with midges, Phlebotomus perfiliewi was the most prevalent among the Phlebotomus species identified, however search for leishmanial DNA in females of this species was unsuccessful. In 2011, sand flies were trapped in 4 sites of north Albania characterized by high VL incidence, and females were dissected to search for Leishmania infections. Both P. neglectus and P. tobbi were collected at high densities. Two positive specimens were detected from a sample of 64 P. neglectus trapped in one site (3.1%). Parasites were successfully cultured from one specimen and characterized as belonging to Leishmania infantum zymodeme MON-1, the only zymodeme so far identified as the agent of human and canine leishmaniasis in the country. Altogether our studies indicate that P. neglectus is the main leishmaniasis vector in Albania.

  14. Retrospective study of dog bite cases reported to ECWA Veterinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A retrospective study of dog bite cases reported to ECWA Veterinary Clinic Bukuru was carried out in Plateau State, Nigeria to understand the pattern of occurrence in this region. A total of two hundred and forty seven (247) dog bite cases were reported between May, 2009 and June, 2010. The dogs profile showed that ...

  15. Dog bite as a public health concern in Addis Ababa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjørn

    Dog bite as a public health concern in Addis Ababa. Fasil Mengistu1, Kedir Hussen1, Abraham Ali1, Goroma Getahun1, Dessalegn Sifer1. Abstract. Introduction: Animal bites and scratches represent the most important public health issue related to dogs and cats because of the risk of rabies transmission associated with ...

  16. Human Bites of the Face with Tissue Losses in Cosmopolitan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Milaki Asuku

    Uchendu 6 working in the same center a decade later reported a five-year series consisting of 37 cases of human bite to the lip and tissue loss. In the western world human bites are more frequently encountered in institutions for the care of the developmentally disabled individuals as reported by Lindsey and colleagues 7.

  17. Animal and Human Bites in Children | Osaghae | West African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Mammals that live closely and interact with man and man himself can inflict injury on children in the home through bites. Previous reports on mammalian bites in Nigeria are few and mainly on dogs, though other mammals also inflict injuries on children. There are also no reports on the injuries arising from ...

  18. Bullous reactions to bed bug bites reflect cutaneous vasculitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluates bullous cutaneous reactions and sequential histopathology in an individual sensitized to bed bug bites in an effort to better understand the allergic response and histology associated with these bites. There was a progression of the inflammatory response across time ranging from...

  19. Aeromonas hydrophila wound infection following a tiger bite in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easow, J M; Tuladhar, Rashmi

    2007-09-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is a rare human pathogen. Reports of zoonotic infection developing after large feline bites are even rarer. We are documenting the first case of human wound infection with A. hydrophila following a tiger bite. The patient responded well following wound debridement, secondary suturing and combination antibiotic therapy.

  20. Ward Round - Crocodile bites in Malawi: microbiology and surgical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present a case series of 5 patients admitted over 5 months to Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital who had sustained injuries from a crocodile bite. Three patients required amputation of a limb. The severe soft tissue injury associated with a crocodile bite and the unusual normal oral flora of the crocodile create challenges ...

  1. Human bite and human immune deficiency virus (HIV) transmission ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The concentration of human immune deficiency virus (HIV) in the saliva of a carrier is low. As a result, human bite is not considered the traditional route of HIV infection transmission. Aim: To report a case of HIV sero-positivity following a human bite. Setting: University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port ...

  2. Proximate determinants of bite force in Anolis lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittorski, Antoine; Losos, Jonathan B; Herrel, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Performance measures associated with the vertebrate jaw system may provide important insights into vertebrate ecology and evolution because of their importance in many ecologically relevant tasks. Previous studies have shown that in many taxa, evolution toward higher bite force has gone hand in hand with the evolution of larger body size. However, independent of differences in overall body size, bite force may vary depending on head size and shape as well. Moreover, the underlying musculature may also drive variation in bite force. Here, we investigate the proximate determinants of bite force in lizards of the genus Anolis. We dissected the jaw muscles and quantified muscle mass, fibre length, and cross-sectional area. Data were analysed for both sexes independently given the sexual dimorphism detected in the dataset. Our results show that the traits that explain bite force are similar in both males and females with overall body size and muscle mass being the principal determinants. Among the different muscles examined, the adductor externus and the pseudotemporalis groups were the best determinants of bite force. However, models run for males predicted the variation in bite force better than models for females, suggesting that selection on morphology improving bite force may be stronger in males. © 2015 Anatomical Society.

  3. The Evidentiary Value of Bite Mark Analysis in Criminal Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhail H. Al-Amad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For decades, the comparison between a bite mark injury and a suspect’s teeth was considered evidence linking the suspect to the victim. However, in recent years, many convictions were re-assessed by a legal initiative in the United States called the “Innocence Project”. The outcome of this project was the exoneration of many wrongfully convicted inmates. Some of those exonerations were of prisoners who had been convicted based on bite mark evidence. Consequently, the admissibility and evidentiary value of bite mark evidence came under profound scrutiny. On the other hand, proponents of bite mark evidence advocate the use of bite mark evidence in courts as an evidence of approximation, rather than conclusion. This paper will discuss the genesis and history of bite mark evidence, as well as the modern analysis of bite marks that is based on metric and non-metric digital assessment. The evidentiary value of bite  marks and the weight they should carry in today’s courts will be discussed.

  4. Classification of anterior open bite using individualized cephalometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Jens Johannes; Bock, Franziska; Böhm, Bernhard; Fuhrmann, Robert A

    2005-09-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the cephalometric characteristics of the open bite, and to classify the open bite according to individualized norms. The lateral cephalograms of 134 patients with an anterior open bite (min -0.5 mm) were analyzed. Patients were classified according to the inclination of the jaws, applying the principles of individualized cephalometry. The harmony box described by Hasund was used to define individualized norms for the inclination of the upper and lower jaws in each patient. The open bite was classified into four sub-types: (1) dental, (2) skeletal with enlarged ML-NSL angle, (3) skeletal with reduced ML-NSL angle, and (4) skeletal with deviations in upper and lower jaws. A skeletal open bite was found in 89 patients (66.4%). A dental open bite was found in 45 patients (33.6%). A number of significant differences were found between these four groups using single-factor variance analysis and the Bonferroni a posteriori test, (p < or = 0.05, p < or = 0.01, p < or = 0.001). The most prominent variables were index value of anterior facial hight, total facial height ratio, gonial angle, and Y-axis. No significant differences were found for overbite, however. It was possible to use individualized norms to classify the open bite into four sub-types. The demarcation between the four groups was supported statistically. The extent of the anterior open bite does not allow any conclusions as to the craniofacial pattern.

  5. Maintenance of a deep bite prior to surgical mandibular advancement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Coul, F. Op; Oosterkamp, B. C. M.; Jansma, Johan; Bierman, Michiel; Pruim, G. J.; Sandham, John

    The aim of this study was to compare, retrospectively, two orthodontic treatment approaches in patients treated by a BSSO. In one group (4 males, 20 females; mean age pre-surgery 29.3 years), the deep bite was maintained (deep bite group) while in the other (3 males, 10 females; mean age pre-surgery

  6. Factors Associated with Rabies Awareness and Attitude to Dog Bite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preponderance of stray dogs at the study site necessitated assessment of awareness on rabies and associated factors, attitude to dog bite and knowledge on rabies among students and staff members in a University community. We reviewed hospital records for dog bite cases from 2005 to 2010 and administered structured ...

  7. Individual piglets' contribution to the development of tail biting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zonderland, J.J.; Kemp, B.; Bracke, M.B.M.; Hartog, den L.A.; Spoolder, H.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Conflicting hypotheses exist about the contribution of individual pigs to the development of a tail-biting outbreak, but there is limited quantitative information to support or dismiss them. This study aims to quantify the development of tail-biting behaviour at pen and individual piglet level,

  8. No Biting: Policy and Practice for Toddler Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnell, Gretchen

    Noting that no single issue in programs for toddlers inflames parents and frustrates staff the way biting does, this book provides guidance on program policy and practice. The book is based upon discussions of a task force on biting comprised of caregivers and administrators from the child care centers and Early Head Start in Syracuse, New York,…

  9. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Skin, hair, and nail care Injured skin Bug bites and stings "); (function () { var a = "", b = [ "adid=aad-aad-1", " ... Hair care / hair loss Injured skin Blisters Bug bites and stings How to remove a tick When to see ...

  10. Bonded mandibular posterior bite plane: Fabrication, insertion and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bite planes are one of the most commonly used auxiliaries during orthodontic treatment. They can be used in different segments of the maxillary and mandibular arch depending upon the type of malocclusion. The present paper describes the requirements of the bonded mandibular posterior bite plane and its fabrication.

  11. Snake bite in Gombe | Mustapha | Highland Medical Research Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims: Snake bite is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in Nigeria as in many parts of the tropics. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence and the clinical pattern of snake bite in Gombe. Methods: Two hundred and seven (207) cases of snakebite admitted at the State Specialist Hospital Gombe over ...

  12. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... correct dose. For bites that itch , apply an ice pack or an over-the-counter anti-itch cream, such as hydrocortisone. Another option is to take an over-the-counter oral antihistamine. To reduce swelling , apply an ice pack to the bite. If you experience any ...

  13. Case report: acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis following viper bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Anyi; Shan, Renfei; Huang, Daochao; Zhou, Jiajia; Keenoo, Anaswasseem; Qin, Jie

    2016-11-01

    The most serious complications of the central nervous system that occur after venomous snake bite are intracranial hemorrhage and ischemic stroke.We present a rarely seen central nervous system complication, acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis, after a treated Deinagkistrodon's viper bite.On April 5, 2015, a 50-year-old male farmer was bitten on his right leg by a Deinagkistrodon's viper. The bite rendered the victim unconscious for 14 days, during which he was treated with tetanus toxoid and polyvalent antisnake venom. Acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis (ADEM) was suspected after magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. After a high dose of methylprednisolone was used as diagnostic treatment, the patient started recovering fast.ADEM is a rare complication after snake bite, and is triggered by venom or antivenin. Magnetic resonance imaging helps in the early diagnosis of ADEM, and high-dose corticosteroid therapy appears to be effective in ADEM after viper bite or antivenin management.

  14. Evaluation and treatment of patients with human bite marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, M H; Roenigk, H H; Smith, E S; Pierce, L J

    1989-06-01

    Physicians and other health care workers who care for patients who have sustained human bite marks need a working protocol to ensure that these patients receive proper care. This protocol involves taking a thorough history and performing a physical examination, approximately determining the bite mark age, and administering proper therapy. The history will help to determine whether a criminal act has been committed and which agencies need to be notified. The American Board of Forensic Odontology published criteria for bite mark analysis in 1984 that included a description of the bite mark including its size, shape, and color, along with techniques for collection of evidence from both the victim and suspect. To determine bite mark age, tissue response to injury (inflammation, granulation tissue formation, and matrix formation and remodeling) is reviewed. Finally, the bacteria that are found in these wounds and the proper use of antimicrobial agents are expanded upon.

  15. Nail Biting; Etiology, Consequences and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ghanizadeh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Nail biting (NB is a common, but unresolved, problem in psychiatry, psychology, medicine and dentistry. While it seems that NB is a simple behavior that can be stopped easily, many of the children with NB have already tried to stop it, but they have not been successful. The frustrations due to failed attempt involve others such as parents and siblings. The present review aims at providing an overview of prevalence, co-morbidities, education and counseling, and management for NB. Overall, the reviewed literatures suggest that co-morbidities of psychiatric disorders and other stereotypic behaviors in clinical sample of children with NB is more than 80%, and more than half of the parents suffer from psychiatric disorders mainly depression. Treatment of NB, however, is not as easy as it seems. The management of NB is much more complicated than just focusing on stopping it. Nail biting cannot be managed without considering its co-morbidities, antecedents and consequences. It might be concluded form the reviewed literature that children with NB, parents, siblings, and teachers should be educated about what to do and what not to do about NB. Punishment is not effective. Moreover, clinical randomized controlled trials are required to make available evidence-based behavioral and pharmacologic treatment protocols

  16. Are bruxism and the bite causally related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobbezoo, F; Ahlberg, J; Manfredini, D; Winocur, E

    2012-07-01

    In the dental profession, the belief that bruxism and dental (mal-)occlusion ('the bite') are causally related is widespread. The aim of this review was to critically assess the available literature on this topic. A PubMed search of the English-language literature, using the query 'Bruxism [Majr] AND (Dental Occlusion [Majr] OR Malocclusion [Majr])', yielded 93 articles, of which 46 papers were finally included in the present review*. Part of the included publications dealt with the possible associations between bruxism and aspects of occlusion, from which it was concluded that neither for occlusal interferences nor for factors related to the anatomy of the oro-facial skeleton, there is any evidence available that they are involved in the aetiology of bruxism. Instead, there is a growing awareness of other factors (viz. psychosocial and behavioural ones) being important in the aetiology of bruxism. Another part of the included papers assessed the possible mediating role of occlusion between bruxism and its purported consequences (e.g. tooth wear, loss of periodontal tissues, and temporomandibular pain and dysfunction). Even though most dentists agree that bruxism may have several adverse effects on the masticatory system, for none of these purported adverse effects, evidence for a mediating role of occlusion and articulation has been found to date. Hence, based on this review, it should be concluded that to date, there is no evidence whatsoever for a causal relationship between bruxism and the bite. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Can E. coli fly?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindeberg, Yrja Lisa; Egedal, Karen; Hossain, Zenat Zebin

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the transmission of fecal bacteria by flies to food under natural settings. METHODS: Over a period of two months paired (exposed and non-exposed) containers with cooked rice were placed on the ground in kitchen areas in an urban slum area in Dhaka, Bangladesh, and the nu......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the transmission of fecal bacteria by flies to food under natural settings. METHODS: Over a period of two months paired (exposed and non-exposed) containers with cooked rice were placed on the ground in kitchen areas in an urban slum area in Dhaka, Bangladesh...

  18. Species diversity and relative abundance of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) on three Army installations in the southern United States and susceptibility of a domestic sand fly to infection with Old World Leishmania major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claborn, David M; Rowton, Edgar D; Lawyer, Phillip G; Brown, Grayson C; Keep, Lisa W

    2009-11-01

    Leishmania infections in American veterans of Iraq and Afghanistan have raised concern that veterans could serve as reservoirs of Old World parasites for domestic vector populations. A survey of sand flies on three U.S. Army facilities in the southern United States was conducted to identify potential vectors. Five species, including two new state records, are reported for Fort Hood, TX. Very few flies were detected in Fort Bragg, NC. Large numbers of a man-biting species, Lutzomyia shannoni, were trapped on Fort Campbell, KY. Weekly activity patterns for dominant species are presented. In addition, an infection experiment was conducted to determine if a domestic sand fly is susceptible to infection with Old World Leishmania major. Lu. shannoni became infected and supported Le. major up to 6 days postprandial. Metacyclogenesis and actual transmission of Le. major to an uninfected mouse did not occur because infected flies did not take subsequent blood meals.

  19. Gut sugar analysis in field-caught parasitoids: adapting methods originally developed for biting flies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heimpel, G.E.; Lee, J.E.; Wu, Z.; Weiser, L.; Wäckers, F.L.; Jervis, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    The ability to determine the presence and identity of sugars in the guts of adult parasitoids in the field would aid researchers in addressing long-standing problems in parasitoid ecology. Until very recently, however, gut sugar analyses have not been carried out on parasitoids. This is despite the

  20. A Survey for Biting Flies in three Local Government Areas of Taraba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 9, No 1 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  1. Physiology Flies with Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Amita

    2017-11-30

    The 2017 Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology has been awarded to Jeffrey Hall, Michael Rosbash, and Michael Young for elucidating molecular mechanisms of the circadian clock. From studies beginning in fruit flies, we now know that circadian regulation pervades most biological processes and has strong ties to human health and disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Turbulence and Flying Machines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cluding section. What Makes Flight Possible. It is obvious to most of us today that a body in flight must obey. Newton's laws of motion. Leonardo da Vinci in the early 1500's had already realised that "a bird flies according to mathematical .... Here x is the distance from the leading edge along the wing surface. In a majority of ...

  3. Management of vascular trauma from dog bites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akingba, A George; Robinson, Eric A; Jester, Andrea L; Rapp, Brian M; Tsai, Anthony; Motaganahalli, Raghu L; Dalsing, Michael C; Murphy, Michael P

    2013-11-01

    Vascular trauma from large-dog bites present with a combination of crush and lacerating injuries to the vessel, as well as significant adjacent soft tissue injury and a high potential for wound complications. This retrospective case series evaluates our 15 years of experience in managing this uncommonly seen injury into suggested treatment recommendations. From our database, 371 adult patients presented with dog bites between July 1997 and June 2012. Twenty (5.4%) of those patients had vascular injuries requiring surgical intervention. Patient demographics, anatomic location of injury, clinical presentation, imaging modality, method of repair, and complication rates were reviewed to assess efficacy in preserving limb function. Pediatric patients were managed at the regional children's hospital and, therefore, not included in this study. Among the 20 surgically treated vascular injuries, there were 13 arterial-only injuries, two venous-only injuries, and five combination arterial and venous injuries. Seventeen patients (85%) had upper extremity injuries; three patients had lower extremity injuries (15%). The axillobrachial artery was the most commonly injured single vessel (n = 9/20; 45%), followed by the radial artery (n = 4/20; 20%). Surgical repair of vascular injuries consisted of resection and primary anastomosis (four), interposition bypass of artery with autogenous vein (13), and ligation (two), with (one) being a combination of bypass and ligation. All patients had debridement of devitalized tissue combined with pulse lavage irrigation and perioperative antibiotics. Associated injuries requiring repair included muscle and skin (n = 10/20; 50%), bone (n = 1/20; 5%), nerve (n = 1/20; 5%), and combinations of the three (n = 5/20; 25%). Postoperative antibiotic therapy was administered for 14.7 ± 8.2 days in all 20 patients. Four patients (20%) developed postoperative wound infections, although this did not compromise their vascular repair. Of the patients

  4. Estimation of Dog-Bite Risk and Related Morbidity Among Personnel Working With Military Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermann, H; Eiges, N; Sabag, A; Kazum, E; Albagli, A; Salai, M; Shlaifer, A

    Soldiers serving in the Israel Defense Force Military Working Dogs (MWD) Unit spend many hours taming dogs' special skills, taking them on combat missions, and performing various dogkeeping activities. During this intensive work with the aggressive military dogs, bites are common, and some of them result in permanent disability. However, this phenomenon has not been quantified or reported as an occupational hazard. This was a retrospective cohort study based on self-administered questionnaires. Information was collected about soldiers' baseline demographics, duration of the experience of working with dogs, total number of bites they had, circumstances of bite events, and complications and medical treatment of each bite. Bite risk was quantified by incidence, mean time to first bite, and a Cox proportional hazards model. Rates of complications and the medical burden of bites were compared between combat soldiers and noncombat dogkeepers. Bite locations were presented graphically. Seventy-eight soldiers participated and reported on 139 bites. Mean time of working with dogs was 16 months (standard deviation, ±9.4 months). Overall bite incidence was 11 bites per 100 person-months; the mean time to first bite event was 6.3 months. The Cox proportional hazards model showed that none of baseline characteristics significantly increased bite hazard. About 90% of bites occurred during routine activities, and 3.3% occurred on combat missions. Only in 9% of bite events did soldiers observed the safety precautions code. Bite complications included fractures, need for intravenous antibiotic treatment and surgical repair, prominent scarring, diminished sensation, and stiffness of proximal joints. Bite complications were similar between combat soldiers and dogkeepers. Most bites (57%) were located on hands and arms. MWD bites are an occupational hazard resulting in significant medical burden. Hands and arms were most common bite locations. Observance of safety precautions may be

  5. Snake bite in Northwest Iran: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Eslamian

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: bite affects about 2 million people every year, with more than 100000 mortalities annually. A person bitten by a snake represents a variety of symptoms. Snake bite might be asymptomatic or with mild local symptoms or even could lead to tissue damage and rapid death. This study aimed to investigate characteristics of snake bite in Northwest Iran. Methods: In this retrospective study, medical records of all patients with final diagnosis of snake bite who were admitted to Sina Clinical-Educational Center, the referral center for envenomation in Northwest Iran were investigated from 2002 to 2012. Demographic information and laboratory findings were collected using a checklist. Results: During a 10 year period, 160 individuals with snake bite were admitted, of which 128 (77.6% were male. With regard to occupation, farmers accounted for the largest portion (n = 57, 34.6%. The most prevalent sites bitten by snakes were right hand (25.5% and left leg (24.8%. Fifty-seven patients (34.5% had leukocytosis and four (2.4% had coagulopathy. Pain and swelling were two main complaints, with vomiting, dizziness, and tingling in extremities coming afterwards. Conclusion: Because snake bite is one of the most important emergencies presenting to emergency department and Iran’s geographic status bears wide spectrum of poisonous snakes, this study was performed to further explore the clinical and epidemiologic details of snake bite.

  6. Human behavior preceding dog bites to the face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezac, P; Rezac, K; Slama, P

    2015-12-01

    Facial injuries caused by dog bites pose a serious problem. The aims of this study were to determine human behavior immediately preceding a dog bite to the face and to assess the effects of victim age and gender and dog sex and size on the location of the bite to the face and the need for medical treatment. Complete data on 132 incidents of bites to the face were analysed. A human bending over a dog, putting the face close to the dog's face, and gazing between victim and dog closely preceded a dog bite to the face in 76%, 19% and 5% of cases, respectively. More than half of the bites were directed towards the central area of the victim's face (nose, lips). More than two thirds of the victims were children, none of the victims was an adult dog owner and only adult dogs bit the face. Victim's age and gender and dog's sex and size did not affect the location of the bite on the face. People who were bitten by large dogs sought medical treatment more often than people who were bitten by small dogs (P face close to the dog's face and gazing between human and dog should be avoided, and children should be carefully and constantly supervised when in the presence of dogs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Horse Bite Injury to the Lip – A Case Report | Donkor | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Bite injuries to the face are commonly caused by pets and humans. Bite injury by horse is uncommon. A case of horse bite injury and its management is reported. Patient and method: A 12-year-old boy sustained a full-thickness avulsion injury to the lower lip following a bite by a horse. The lip was reconstructed ...

  8. Biting Behaviors among Preschoolers: A Review of the Literature and a Survey of Practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reguero de Atiles, Julia T.; Stegelin, Delores A.; Long, Janie K.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews research on biting among children in child care settings. Reports a study examining procedures established to handle biting by child care facilities in a southeastern state, which found that 60% of respondents (n=326) handled biting incidents, but only one third reported a policy on biting. Fewer than 3% understood the developmental nature…

  9. A qualitative investigation of the perceptions of female dog-bite victims and implications for the prevention of dog bites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgarth, Carri; Watkins, Francine

    2015-01-01

    Preventing dog bites is an increasingly important public health and political issue with implications for both human and animal health and welfare. Expert opinion is that most bites are preventable. Intervention materials have been designed to educate people on how to assess the body language of dogs, evaluate risk, and take appropriate action. The effectiveness of this approach is rarely evaluated and the incidence of dog bites is thought to be increasing. Is the traditional approach to dog bite prevention working as well as it should? In this novel, small scale qualitative study, the perceptions of victims regarding their dog bite experience were explored in-depth. The study recruited 8 female participants who had been bitten by a dog in the past 5 years. In-depth, one-to-one interviews were conducted, transcribed, and analyzed using thematic analysis. The findings indicate that dog bites may not be as easily preventable as previously presumed, and that education about dog body language may not prevent some types of dog bites. The reasons participants were bitten were multifaceted and complex. In some cases, there was no interaction with the dog before the bite so there was no opportunity to assess the situation and modify behavior around the dog accordingly. Identifying who was to blame, and had responsibility for preventing the bite, was straightforward for the participants in hindsight. Those bitten blamed themselves and/or the dog owner, but not the dog. Most participants already felt they had a theoretical knowledge that would allow them to recognize dog aggression before the dog bite, yet participants, especially those who worked regularly with dogs, routinely believed, "it would not happen to me." We also identified an attitude that bites were "just one of those things," which could also be a barrier prevention initiatives. Rather than being special to the human-canine relationship, the attitudes discovered mirror those found in other areas of injury

  10. Dog bites to the upper extremity in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speirs, Joshua; Showery, James; Abdou, Marwa; Pirela-Cruz, Miguel A; Abdelgawad, Amr A

    2015-12-01

    Dog bites are common injuries in children. A large percentage of these dog bites affect the upper extremity. There is little information describing the results of treatment of upper extremity injuries in children. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records for all children less than 19 years old who presented to the emergency department in our level one trauma centre because of dog bites from 2005 to 2011. During the study period, there were 254 paediatric emergency department visits for animal bites, among these there were 118 dog bites, two were excluded because of inadequate documentation leaving 116 patients; 26 of them (22.4%) had bites to the upper extremity. Among the 26 children with dog bites to the upper extremity, 6 (23.1%) were admitted to the hospital for surgery (four patients) or parenteral antibiotics (two patients). Among the four surgeries, two were for extensive laceration and two were for abscess debridement. Of the 41 who presented with bites to the lower extremities, none were admitted to the hospital (P = 0.002). Compared with those who presented the same day they were injured, the relative risk of hospitalization or surgery in patients who presented 1 and 2 days after their injury was 3.5 and 7.0, respectively. Dog bites at the upper extremity are more prone to require surgical intervention and develop infection than those at the lower extremity, and delayed presentation of these injuries is associated with higher incidence of developing infection. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2015 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  11. An Analytical Study of Mammalian Bite Wounds Requiring Inpatient Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Geun Lee

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMammalian bite injuries create a public health problem because of their frequency, potential severity, and increasing number. Some researchers have performed fragmentary analyses of bite wounds caused by certain mammalian species. However, little practical information is available concerning serious mammalian bite wounds that require hospitalization and intensive wound management. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to perform a general review of serious mammalian bite wounds.MethodsWe performed a retrospective review of the medical charts of 68 patients who were referred to our plastic surgery department for the treatment of bite wounds between January 2003 and October 2012. The cases were analyzed according to the species, patient demographics, environmental factors, injury characteristics, and clinical course.ResultsAmong the 68 cases of mammalian bite injury, 58 (85% were caused by dogs, 8 by humans, and 2 by cats. Most of those bitten by a human and both of those bitten by cats were male. Only one-third of all the patients were children or adolescents. The most frequent site of injury was the face, with 40 cases, followed by the hand, with 16 cases. Of the 68 patients, 7 were treated with secondary intention healing. Sixty-one patients underwent delayed procedures, including delayed direct closure, skin graft, composite graft, and local flap.ConclusionsBased on overall findings from our review of the 68 cases of mammalian bites, we suggest practical guidelines for the management of mammalian bite injuries, which could be useful in the treatment of serious mammalian bite wounds.

  12. Animal Bites in Borujerd: An Overview of Animal Bites in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabouri Ghannad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Rabies has been reported as the most important endemic zoonotic disease in Iran and still remains as a major public health problem. Objectives The main objective of the current research was to study the epidemiology of animal bites in Borujerd County in Iran and to compare its prevalence to other parts of Iran from April 2006 to September 2011. Patients and Methods The data were recorded in questionnaires and analyzed by SPSS version 16. Chi-square test was performed to evaluate the relationship among variables and P value was set as 0.05. Results Dog bites were the most common (69.8%, followed by cat (17.2%, fox and wolf (1.4%, sheep and cow (2.8%, monkey and donkey (5%, mouse and squirrel (2.2% and other animals (1.6%. Leg was the most common bite site forming 46.6% of cases, followed by hands (41.8%, buttocks (4.6%, head (4% and body (2.9%. Most of the subjects belonged to the age group < 10 (175.2 per 100000 populations. The injury location was associated significantly with sex and the residential status. Conclusions This study strongly highlights a high priority goal for health authorities to develop educational programs, recommended for the general population to inform them about the benefits of continuing the medication. Vaccination of domestic dogs and also eradication of stray ones, in addition to educational programs should be prioritized by health authorities.

  13. Afibrinogenemia following snake bite (Crotalus durissus terrificus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F. S. Amaral

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports two cases of afibrinogenemia with normal platelet count following Crotalus durissus terrificus, snake bite Both patients presented high output acute renal failure and case two also had increased blood levels of CPK and LDH compatible with the diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis. Case one was given an unknown amount of antivenom and was treated with epsilonaminocaproic acid and a fresh whole blood transfusion and showed recovery of the coagulation disturbance 40 hours following these measures. Case two was given an adequate amount of crotalide antivenom and the coagulation tests performed 12 hours later showed a normal partial thromboplastin time and fibrinogen 86 mg/100ml. Case one presented no haemorrhagic disturbances. Case two presented persistent bleeding following venopuncture and after removal of impetigo crust in the legs. Acute renal failure was treated conservatively and both patients were discharged from the hospital with recovery of the renal function.

  14. Effects of pyriproxyfen and buprofezin on immature development and reproduction in the stable fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S S; Li, A Y; Lohmeyer, K H; Pérez De León, A A

    2012-12-01

    The stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), is one of the most significant biting flies that affect cattle. The use of traditional insecticides for stable fly control has only a limited success owing to the insect's unique feeding behaviours and immature development sites. A laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the effects of two insect growth regulator (IGR) products, pyriproxyfen and buprofezin, on the development of the immature stages of the stable fly and the effects of pyriproxyfen on oviposition and egg hatch. Both pyriproxyfen and buprofezin had significant inhibitory effects on immature development. The LC(50) s of pyriproxyfen and buprofezin were 0.002 and 18.92 p.p.m., respectively. Topical treatment of adult females with different doses of pyriproxyfen had significant negative effects on both female oviposition and egg hatching when 1- and 3-day-old females were treated, and the effects were dose dependent. A significant reduction in the mean number of eggs laid was observed only at the highest pyriproxyfen dose (8 µg/fly) and egg hatch was unaffected by pyriproxyfen treatment when 5-day-old females were treated. Results from the present study indicate that pyriproxyfen has the potential to be used as part of an integrated stable fly management programme. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  15. Seasonal variation in the prevalence of sand flies infected with Leishmania donovani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwary, Puja; Kumar, Dinesh; Mishra, Mukesh; Singh, Rudra Pratap; Rai, Madhukar; Sundar, Shyam

    2013-01-01

    Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is a life threatening neglected infectious disease in the Indian subcontinent, transmitted by the bite of female sand flies. Estimation of the infectivity in the vector population, collected in different seasons, may be useful to better understanding the transmission dynamics of VL as well as to plan vector control measures. We collected sand flies from highly endemic regions of Bihar state, India for one year over three seasons. The species of the sand flies were confirmed by species-specific PCR-RFLP. Leishmania donovani infection was investigated in 1397 female Phlebotomus argentipes using PCR, targeting the Leishmania specific minicircle of the kDNA region. Further, the parasitic load in the infected sand flies was measured using quantitative PCR. Though sand flies were most abundant in the rainy season, the highest rate of infection was detected in the winter season with 2.84% sand flies infected followed by the summer and rainy seasons respectively. This study can help in vector elimination programmes and to reduce disease transmission.

  16. Infection parameters in the sand fly vector that predict transmission of Leishmania major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamper, Lisa W; Patrick, Rachel L; Fay, Michael P; Lawyer, Phillip G; Elnaiem, Dia-Eldin A; Secundino, Nagila; Debrabant, Alain; Sacks, David L; Peters, Nathan C

    2011-08-01

    To identify parameters of Leishmania infection within a population of infected sand flies that reliably predict subsequent transmission to the mammalian host, we sampled groups of infected flies and compared infection intensity and degree of metacyclogenesis with the frequency of transmission. The percentage of parasites within the midgut that were metacyclic promastigotes had the highest correlation with the frequency of transmission. Meta-analysis of multiple transmission experiments allowed us to establish a percent-metacyclic "cutoff" value that predicted transmission competence. Sand fly infections initiated with variable doses of parasites resulted in correspondingly altered percentages of metacyclic promastigotes, resulting in altered transmission frequency and disease severity. Lastly, alteration of sand fly oviposition status and environmental conditions at the time of transmission also influenced transmission frequency. These observations have implications for transmission of Leishmania by the sand fly vector in both the laboratory and in nature, including how the number of organisms acquired by the sand fly from an infection reservoir may influence the clinical outcome of infection following transmission by bite.

  17. Outbreak of vampire bat biting in a Venezuelan village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro J. Caraballo H.

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of 154 cases of vampire bat biting in a four-month period in the gold mine of Payapal, a Venezuelan village, is reported. All patients were bitten during the night and the most bites were on their toes. No complication attributed to the bite was reported. Diagnoses of rabies virus made by means of immunofluorescence were negative. A possible reason for this outbreak may been the development of mining areas, with the inhabitants providing an alternative food source for the bats.

  18. Acquaintance of bite mark identification procedures in Forensic Odontology

    OpenAIRE

    Yuti Malinda; Dewi Zakiawati

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Bite mark analysis casework strives to connect a biter to the teeth pattern present on the object linked in some way to crime or event. This analysis requiring an immediate response by the forensic odontologist since the marks fade rapidly in the living and the dead in a matter of hours. The aim of this article is to help the dentist to know and understand the procedures of bite mark identification in forensic odontology field. Literature review: Bite marks may be present th...

  19. Electron "bite-outs" in Dusty Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horanyi, M.; Hsu, S.; Kempf, S.

    2012-12-01

    The study of dusty plasmas is still an emerging new field that bridges a number of traditionally separate subjects, including for example, celestial mechanics, and plasma physics. Dust particles immersed in plasmas and UV radiation collect electrostatic charges and respond to electromagnetic forces in addition to all the other forces acting on uncharged grains. Simultaneously, dust can alter its plasma environment. Dust particles in plasmas are unusual charge carriers. They are many orders of magnitude heavier than any other plasma particles, and they can have many orders of magnitude larger (negative or positive) time-dependent charges. Dust particles can communicate non-electromagnetic effects (gravity, drag, radiation pressure) to the plasma that can represent new free energy sources. Their presence can influence the collective plasma behavior, for example, by altering the traditional plasma wave modes and by triggering new types of waves and instabilities. Dusty plasmas represent the most general form of space, laboratory, and industrial plasmas. Interplanetary space, comets, planetary rings, asteroids, the Moon, aerosols in the atmosphere, are all examples where electrons, ions, and dust particles coexist. This talk will focus on "electron bite-outs", the apparent reduction of the electron density due to dust charging in a plasma comprised of electrons, ions and dust particles We will compare the recent observations of the plasma conditions near Enceladus at Saturn to the decades old measurements in the Earth's mesosphere. We present model calculations of dust charging in a region where plasma is maintained by UV radiation, and present the time-dependent charge distribution of grains as function of dust density and size distribution. We will also make estimates for possible dusty plasma wave activities as function of the magnitude of the electron "bite-outs".

  20. An annotated checklist of the horse flies, deer flies, and yellow flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    The family Tabanidae includes the horse flies, deer flies, and yellow flies and is considered a significant pest of livestock throughout the United States, including Florida. Tabanids can easily become a major pest of man, especially salt marsh species which are known to readily feed on humans and o...

  1. Tsetse fly saliva: Could it be useful in fly infection when feeding in chronically aparasitemic mammalian hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.O. Awuoche

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sleeping sickness and nagana are two important diseases cuased by African trypanosomes in humans and animals respectively, in tropical african countries. A number of trypanosome species are implicated in these diseases, but it is the Trypanosoma brucei group that is responsible for the chronic form of sleeping sickness. During the course of this chronic infection the parasite shows a clear tropism for organs and tissues and only sporadically appears in the blood stream. Notwithstanding this feature, tsetse flies normally get infected from chronically infected apparasitemic hosts. For some pathogens like the microfilaria, it has already shown that the saliva of the vector, black fly saliva contribute to orient the pathogen to the site of the vector bite. Chemotaxis of tsetse saliva may perhaps stimulate movement of Trypanosoma brucei parasites from tissues to the bloodstream and via the vascular to the tsetse feeding site, and could explain the relatively high infection rate of tsetse flies feeding on chronically infected animals. This review paper looks into the possible role of trypanosome-vector saliva in ensuring parasite acquisition and its application in the tsetse – trypanosome interaction at the host skin interphase.

  2. WAYS OF ACQUIRING FLYING PHOBIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Bettina; Vriends, Noortje; Margraf, Jürgen; Stieglitz, Rolf-Dieter

    2016-02-01

    The few studies that have explored how flying phobia is acquired have produced contradictory results. We hypothesized that classical conditioning plays a role in acquiring flying phobia and investigated if vicarious (model) learning, informational learning through media, and experiencing stressful life events at the time of onset of phobia also play a role. Thirty patients with flying phobia and thirty healthy controls matched on age, sex, and education were interviewed with the Mini-DIPS, the short German version of the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule (DSM-IV diagnostic criteria) and the Fear-of-Flying History Interview. Fifty Percent of patients with flying phobia and 53% of healthy controls reported frightening events in the air. There was no significant difference between the two samples. Thus there were not more classical conditioning events for patients with flying phobia. There also was no significant difference between the two samples for vicarious (model) learning: 37% of flying phobia patients and 23% of healthy controls felt influenced by model learning. The influence of informational learning through media was significantly higher for the clinical sample (70%) than for the control group (37%). Patients with flying phobia experienced significantly more stressful life events in the period of their frightening flight experience (60%) than healthy controls (19%). Frightening experiences while flying are quite common, but not everybody develops a flying phobia. Stressful life events and other factors might enhance conditionability. Informational learning through negative media reports probably reinforces the development of flying phobia. Clinical implications are discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Comparison of the bite mark pattern and intercanine distance between humans and dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Kashyap, Bina; Anand, Sanjeev; Reddy, Sudhakara; Sahukar, Shruthi Basavaradhya; Supriya, Naga; Pasupuleti, Swetha

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bite marks show uniqueness due to specific characteristics and arrangement of teeth, but when it comes to bite mark analysis, it is complicated by numerous factors such as animal bite, abuse etc., Humans and pet animals (dog) bite marks analysis is by far the most demanding and complicated part of forensic dentistry. Aim: To analyze and compare bite marks of humans and the pet animals (dog) using indirect method, so as to assess its usefulness and application in forensic odontolog...

  4. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases Cosmetic treatments Dry / sweaty skin Eczema / dermatitis Hair and ... it’s important to take steps to reduce your risk. To help prevent bug bites, dermatologists recommend the ...

  5. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... hair, and nail care Skin care Hair care / hair loss Injured skin Nail care Anti-aging skin care ... hair, and nail care Skin care Hair care / hair loss Injured skin Blisters Bug bites and stings How ...

  6. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... laws Quality DataDerm Quality measures Clinical guidelines Appropriate use criteria Choosing Wisely Education Online Learning Center MOC ... prevent bug bites, dermatologists recommend the following tips: Use insect repellent. To protect against mosquitoes, ticks and ...

  7. Dilemmas in Treatment of Recurrent Recalcitrant Dental Anterior Open Bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palencar, Adrian J

    2016-01-01

    An anterior open bite is one of the most difficult occlusal abnormalities to treat. Quite often this aberration entails dental component and/or skeletal component. The skeletal open bite will require intrusion of the posterior sextants with the assistance of bite blocks, temporary anchorage devices, high pull headgear, and as a last resort - orthognathic surgery. The orthodontic treatment should be augmented with the orofacial myofunctional therapy. In this article, the author describes 3 different variations of treatment of the dental anterior open bite, first on acrylic models, and then on the actual patients. Consideration should be given to patients with a 'short upper lip," and in this case, surgical correction should be entertained.

  8. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... aging skin care Kids’ zone About skin: Your body's largest organ About hair: Not just on your ... bug bite, such as a rash, fever, or body aches, see your doctor or a board-certified ...

  9. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... Video library Find a dermatologist "); (function () { var a = "", b = [ ... most bug bites are harmless, some can spread dangerous diseases like Zika virus, dengue, Lyme disease, and malaria. Particularly if you’ ...

  10. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... to remove a tick How to treat a bee sting When to see a dermatologist Burns Frostbite ... following tips: For painful bites , such as a bee sting, take an over-the-counter painkiller, such ...

  11. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... the mattress for maximum protection. Pay attention to outbreaks. Check the CDC Travel Health Notices website and ... that they can examine you for a transmitted disease. Additional related resources Bug bites and stings: When ...

  12. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... hours before wearing them. Use bed nets. If sleeping in the great outdoors, use bed nets to ... that they can examine you for a transmitted disease. Additional related resources Bug bites and stings: When ...

  13. Poisonous Spiders: Bites, Symptoms, and Treatment; an Educational Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Farzad; Banan Khojasteh, Seyed Mahdi; Ebrahimi Bakhtavar, Hanieh; Rahmani, Farnaz; Shahsavari Nia, Kavous; Faridaalaee, Gholamreza

    2014-01-01

    More than 40,000 species of spiders have been identified in the world. Spider bites is a common problem among people, however few of them are harmful but delay in treatment can cause death. Since the spider bites are risk full to human, they should be taken seriously, especially in endemic areas. Our objective in this review was to study about poisonous spiders and find out treatments of them. Therefore, we collected related articles from PubMed database and Google Scholar. Three important syndromes caused by spider bites are loxoscelism, latrodectism and funnel web spider syndrome. Many treatments are used but much more studies should have done to decrease the mortality. In this review, we describes different venomous spiders according to their appearance, symptoms after their bites and available treatments.

  14. Poisonous Spiders: Bites, Symptoms, and Treatment; an Educational Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Rahmani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available More than 40,000 species of spiders have been identified in the world. Spider bites is a common problem among people, however few of them are harmful but delay in treatment can cause death. Since the spider bites are risk full to human, they should be taken seriously, especially in endemic areas. Our objective in this review was to study about poisonous spiders and find out treatments of them. Therefore we collected related articles from PubMed database and Google Scholar. Three important syndromes caused by spider bites are loxoscelism, latrodectism and funnel web spider syndrome. Many treatments are used but much more studies should have done to decrease the mortality. In this review, we describes different venomous spiders according to their appearance, symptoms after their bites and available treatments. 

  15. Facial dog bite injuries in children: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Leite Cavalcanti

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: This case shows a case of a child patient victim of animal bite, with lesions limited to the region of the face. The patient was followed up for a month and showed good wound healing without any complications.

  16. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... Excellence in Dermatopathology™ Excellence in Pediatric Dermatology™ Donate Search Menu Donate Member resources and programs Member benefits ... to bites and stings FIND A DERMATOLOGIST Advanced Search "); (function () { var a = "", b = [ "adid=aad-aad-6", " ...

  17. Effects of skin elasticity on bite mark distortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Cheri; Marroquin, Leonor A

    2015-12-01

    Bite marks have been reported to have an evidentiary value similar to fingerprints. We believed bite mark distortion would impact the accuracy and reliability of bite mark interpretation. Inked denture-stamps were substituted for actual bite marks and were placed onto 40 participating volunteers' shoulders. Four changes in arm position were photographed using an ABFO #2 reference scale. The measurements of individual tooth widths and intercanine distances in each position were compared. The maximum tooth width distortion observed was 53.8%, whereas the maximum intercanine distance distortion was 41.9%. Distortion was found to increase with age and weight and was non-uniform across a dental arch. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... some can spread dangerous diseases like Zika virus, dengue, Lyme disease, and malaria. Particularly if you’re ... after a bug bite, such as a rash, fever, or body aches, see your doctor or a ...

  19. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... and Lectureship Clarence S. Livingood Award and Lectureship Marion B. Sulzberger Award and Lectureship Master Dermatologist Award Members ... skin Bug bites and stings "); (function () { var a = "", b = [ "adid=aad-aad-1", "site=ehs.con.aad. ...

  20. Two bite mark cases with inadequate scale references.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, M L

    1985-07-01

    Most literature addressing comparisons between epidermal bite marks and the perpetrator's bite pattern mandates fastidious coordination between the size of the compared reproductions. While ideal, this is not possible in every case and inability to control this variable in selected cases may not necessarily invalidate the comparison. The first case involves a known perpetrator. All photographic measurements were recorded with acceptable techniques to discover a serious discrepancy in arch size. The second case was degraded by the absence of a ruler in a tangentially made photograph of a bite mark. In both cases, the weight of the conclusions were lessened by these problems but the impartial handling of the evidence and explanation of discrepancies offered credibility to the analyses. Both cases illustrate that a technical infraction in processing and recording bite marks, though serious, need not automatically preempt the analysis.

  1. Insect Repellents: Protect Your Child from Insect Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Choosing an Insect Repellent for Your Child Page Content Mosquitoes, biting ... sunscreen needs to be reapplied often. Reactions to Insect Repellents If you suspect that your child is ...

  2. Risk of Disease from Mosquito and Tick Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insect repellents help reduce the risk of mosquito and tick bites, which can transmit diseases including West Nile Virus, malaria, encephalitis, yellow fever, dengue fever, chikungunya virus, Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and ehrlichiosis.

  3. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

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    Full Text Available ... Choosing Wisely Education Online Learning Center MOC Recognized Credit Basic Derm Curriculum Teaching and learning guides Suggested ... it’s important to take steps to reduce your risk. To help prevent bug bites, dermatologists recommend the ...

  4. First report on human-biting Culex pipiens in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesson, Jenny C; Schäfer, Martina; Lundström, Jan O

    2016-12-07

    Culex mosquitoes are vectors of several bird-hosted arboviruses that cause outbreaks in Europe, such as Sindbis virus and West Nile virus. Recently, the human-biting form of Culex pipiens, Cx. pipiens biotype molestus, was found causing big nuisance in a housing cooperative in Gothenburg in southern Sweden, confirmed by molecular identification. This is the first report of human-biting Culex in Scandinavia, signalling increased risk of arbovirus infection in northern Europe.

  5. Methods for the Analysis of Human Bite Marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naru, A S

    1997-12-01

    The comparison of features within a bite mark injury with the dentition of a suspect may be required during the course of a criminal investigation. A review of the literature regarding bite mark analysis has been undertaken to determine the value of this evidence. Bite marks in skin are complex injuries consisting of abrasions, lacerations, and contusions, caused by the crushing action of the teeth and related structures. Front-line investigators need to recognize and interpret these features, but no standard method of information collection or comparison has been agreed. Many classifications of bite mark types have been proposed, but do not appear to aid mark analysis. Investigations of bite strengths and sucking forces have been inconclusive. Insufficient information exists as to the accuracy and reproducibility of the representation of the dentition by tissue pathology. Histological analysis and collagen staining techniques have attempted to define the area of injury in detail, but have limited application. The quality of the mark is determined by numerous intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Distortion and shrinkage of the tissues introduce dimensional disturbances that require elimination before a comparison can be undertaken. No method exists to quantify and correct these distortions. The investigator must be aware that self-inflicted marks often occur among children and that other events may replicate bite mark injuries. The most common bite mark comparison methods employ an intermediate template produced from the suspect dentition that, when overlaid onto a scale photograph of the injury, demonstrates correspondence. No agreement exists regarding the individuality of human dentition, minimum level of correspondence required to positively identify the assailant, and the accuracy to which tissue pathology can represent these details. It is concluded that bite mark comparison can only exclude a suspect and should not be used for positive identification. Copyright

  6. The Evidentiary Value of Bite Mark Analysis in Criminal Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Suhail H. Al-Amad

    2016-01-01

    For decades, the comparison between a bite mark injury and a suspect’s teeth was considered evidence linking the suspect to the victim. However, in recent years, many convictions were re-assessed by a legal initiative in the United States called the “Innocence Project”. The outcome of this project was the exoneration of many wrongfully convicted inmates. Some of those exonerations were of prisoners who had been convicted based on bite mark evidence. Consequently, the admissibility and evident...

  7. A general review of bite-mark evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furness, J

    1981-03-01

    Bite-mark evidence has been used as an aid in the identification of criminals in many instances. The author, a forensic odontologist in Liverpool, England, during his lifetime, personally investigated the cases presented which include instances of rape and battery. It is shown how perpetrators of violent injuries were detected from bite marks on the victim or the perpetrator, or on foodstuffs found at the scene of the crime, when the marks were compared to dental impressions taken subsequently.

  8. Tail Biting Trellis Representation of Codes: Decoding and Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao. Rose Y.; Lin, Shu; Fossorier, Marc

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents two new iterative algorithms for decoding linear codes based on their tail biting trellises, one is unidirectional and the other is bidirectional. Both algorithms are computationally efficient and achieves virtually optimum error performance with a small number of decoding iterations. They outperform all the previous suboptimal decoding algorithms. The bidirectional algorithm also reduces decoding delay. Also presented in the paper is a method for constructing tail biting trellises for linear block codes.

  9. Habitual biting of oral mucosa: A conservative treatment approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarabjot Kaur Bhatia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic biting of oral mucosa is an innocuous self inflicted injury, commonly seen in children suffering from developmental and psychological problems and has rarely been reported in normal unaffected individuals. The management strategies vary from counseling, prescription of sedatives to different prosthetic shields. The paper highlights the efficacy of a simple approach using soft mouth guard in the management of self inflicted lesions due to habitual biting of oral mucosa in two normal healthy children.

  10. Deep bite malocclusion: exploration of the skeletal and dental factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhateja, N.K.; Fida, M.; Shaikh, A.

    2016-01-01

    Correction of deep bite is crucial for maintenance of dental hard and soft tissue structures and for prevention of temporomandibular joint disorders. Exploration of underlying skeletal and dental factors is essential for efficient and individualized treatment planning. To date etiological factors of dental and skeletal deep bite have not been explored in Pakistani orthodontic patients. The objectives of this study were to explore frequencies of dental and skeletal etiological factors in deep bite patients and to determine correlations amongst dental and skeletal etiological factors of deep bite. Methods: The study included a total of 113 subjects (males=35; females=78) with no craniofacial syndromes or prior orthodontic treatment. Pre-treatment orthodontic records were used to evaluate various dental and skeletal parameters. Descriptive statistics of each parameter were calculated. The various study parameters were correlated using Pearson's Correlation. Results: Deep curve of Spee was most frequently seen factor of dental deep bite (72.6%), followed by increased coronal length of upper incisors (28.3%), retroclined upper incisors (17.7%), retroclined lower incisors (8%) and increased coronal length of lower incisors (5.3%). Decreased gonial angle was most commonly found factor of skeletal deep bite (43.4%), followed by decreased mandibular plane angle (27.4%) and maxillary plane's clockwise rotation (26.5%). Frankfort mandibular plane angle and gonial angle showed a strong positive correlation (r=0.66, p=0.000). Conclusions: Reduced gonial angle is most frequently seen skeletal factor, signifying the importance of angulation and growth of ramus in development of deep bite. Deep curve of Spee is most frequently seen dental etiological component in deep bite subjects, hence signifying the importance of intruding the lower anterior teeth. (author)

  11. Sensitivity to bites by the bedbug, Cimex lectularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, K; Kempke, D; Naylor, R A; Siva-Jothy, M T

    2009-06-01

    Bedbugs are a public health problem and can cause significant economic losses, but little is known about the effects of bites on humans. We reviewed case reports and published papers on bedbug bites to assess the empirical basis of the commonly cited figure that only approximately 80% of the population are sensitive to bedbug bites. We found the sensitivity estimate to be based on only one study carried out 80 years ago. However, this study did not account for the now well-established fact that only repeated exposure to external allergens leads to skin reactions. In our sample, 18 of 19 persons showed a skin reaction after bedbug exposure, but in most cases only after repeated controlled exposure. With repeated exposure, the latency between bite and skin reactions decreased from approximately 10 days to a few seconds. Our results are relevant for the hospitality industry, where apparently increasing infestation rates are likely to lead to an increase in the number of tourists and hotel employees exposed to bedbugs. Medical and public health professionals may expect to see an increase in the prevalence of people with bedbug bite sensitivity. The significance of the delayed reaction time of skin to bites may also have implications in litigation cases where people seek compensation.

  12. Population vulnerability and disability in Kenya's tsetse fly habitats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue C Grady

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT, also referred to as sleeping sickness, and African Animal Trypanosomaisis (AAT, known as nagana, are highly prevalent parasitic vector-borne diseases in sub-Saharan Africa. Humans acquire trypanosomiasis following the bite of a tsetse fly infected with the protozoa Trypanosoma brucei (T.b. spp. -i.e., T.b. gambiense in West and Central Africa and T.b. rhodesiense in East and Southern Africa. Over the last decade HAT diagnostic capacity to estimate HAT prevalence has improved in active case-finding areas but enhanced passive surveillance programs are still lacking in much of rural sub-Saharan Africa.This retrospective-cross-sectional study examined the use of national census data (1999 to estimate population vulnerability and disability in Kenya's 7 tsetse belts to assess the potential of HAT-acquired infection in those areas. A multilevel study design estimated the likelihood of disability in individuals, nested within households, nested within tsetse fly habitats of varying levels of poverty. Residents and recent migrants of working age were studied. Tsetse fly's impact on disability was conceptualised via two exposure pathways: directly from the bite of a pathogenic tsetse fly resulting in HAT infection or indirectly, as the potential for AAT takes land out of agricultural production and diseased livestock leads to livestock morbidity and mortality, contributing to nutritional deficiencies and poverty. Tsetse belts that were significantly associated with increased disability prevalence were identified and the direct and indirect exposure pathways were evaluated.Incorporating reports on disability from the national census is a promising surveillance tool that may enhance future HAT surveillance programs in sub-Saharan Africa. The combined burdens of HAT and AAT and the opportunity costs of agricultural production in AAT areas are likely contributors to disability within tsetse-infested areas. Future research

  13. Studying the effects of Bite plane application in intruding and extruding the teeth in patients with deep bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shirazi

    1987-08-01

    Full Text Available Deep bite is a major clinical problem manifested as higher than normal overbite in anterior region of the jaws. Various studies were conducted to identify the effects of using bite plan and its results. 14 subjects with deep bite were selected out of 400 students of a school who had not proximal caries and had not lost any permanent teeth with healthy periodontal condition. 8 patients were considered as case group and the 6 other as the control group. In case group, a simple labial arc with acrylic palate that caused a gap in occlusion was placed. 2 lateral radiographs were obtained both pre and post 14 months treatment period. After cephalometric analysis, due to bite plane application significant intrusion in mandibular  incisors were observed as well as elongation in both maxillary and mandibular molars.

  14. Evaluation of recombinant Leishmania polyprotein plus glucopyranosyl lipid A stable emulsion vaccines against sand fly-transmitted Leishmania major in C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Nathan C; Bertholet, Sylvie; Lawyer, Phillip G; Charmoy, Melanie; Romano, Audrey; Ribeiro-Gomes, Flavia L; Stamper, Lisa W; Sacks, David L

    2012-11-15

    Numerous experimental Leishmania vaccines have been developed to prevent the visceral and cutaneous forms of Leishmaniasis, which occur after exposure to the bite of an infected sand fly, yet only one is under evaluation in humans. KSAC and L110f, recombinant Leishmania polyproteins delivered in a stable emulsion (SE) with the TLR4 agonists monophosphoryl lipid A or glucopyranosyl lipid A (GLA) have shown protection in animal models. KSAC+GLA-SE protected against cutaneous disease following sand fly transmission of Leishmania major in susceptible BALB/c mice. Similar polyprotein adjuvant combinations are the vaccine candidates most likely to see clinical evaluation. We assessed immunity generated by KSAC or L110f vaccination with GLA-SE following challenge with L. major by needle or infected sand fly bite in resistant C57BL/6 mice. Polyprotein-vaccinated mice had a 60-fold increase in CD4(+)IFN-γ(+) T cell numbers versus control animals at 2 wk post-needle inoculation of L. major, and this correlated with a 100-fold reduction in parasite load. Immunity did not, however, reach levels observed in mice with a healed primary infection. Following challenge by infected sand fly bite, polyprotein-vaccinated animals had comparable parasite loads, greater numbers of neutrophils at the challenge site, and reduced CD4(+)IFN-γ(+)/IL-17(+) ratios versus nonvaccinated controls. In contrast, healed animals had significantly reduced parasite loads and higher CD4(+)IFN-γ(+)/IL-17(+) ratios. These observations demonstrate that vaccine-induced protection against needle challenge does not necessarily translate to protection following challenge by infected sand fly bite.

  15. Behavioural and Brain Gene Expression Profiling in Pigs during Tail Biting Outbreaks - Evidence of a Tail Biting Resistant Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunberg, Emma; Jensen, Per; Isaksson, Anders; Keeling, Linda J

    2013-01-01

    Abnormal tail biting behaviour is a major welfare problem for pigs receiving the behaviour, as well as an indication of decreased welfare in the pigs performing it. However, not all pigs in a pen perform or receive tail biting behaviour and it has recently been shown that these 'neutral' pigs not only differ in their behaviour, but also in their gene expression compared to performers and receivers of tail biting in the same pen. To investigate whether this difference was linked to the cause or a consequence of them not being involved in the outbreak of tail biting, behaviour and brain gene expression was compared with 'control' pigs housed in pens with no tail biting. It was shown that the pigs housed in control pens performed a wider variety of pig-directed abnormal behaviour (belly nosing 0.95±1.59, tail in mouth 0.31±0.60 and 'other' abnormal 1.53±4.26; mean±S.D) compared to the neutral pigs (belly nosing 0.30±0.62, tail in mouth 0.13±0.50 and "other" abnormal 0.42±1.06). With Affymetrix gene expression arrays, 107 transcripts were identified as differently expressed (pbiting in the same pen in an earlier study. Hence, the different expression of these genes cannot be a consequence of the neutral pigs not being involved in tail biting behaviour, but rather linked to the cause contributing to why they were not involved in tail biting interactions. These neutral pigs seem to have a genetic and behavioural profile that somehow contributes to them being resistant to performing or receiving pig-directed abnormal behaviour, such as tail biting, even when housed in an environment that elicits that behaviour in other pigs.

  16. Behavioural and Brain Gene Expression Profiling in Pigs during Tail Biting Outbreaks – Evidence of a Tail Biting Resistant Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunberg, Emma; Jensen, Per; Isaksson, Anders; Keeling, Linda J.

    2013-01-01

    Abnormal tail biting behaviour is a major welfare problem for pigs receiving the behaviour, as well as an indication of decreased welfare in the pigs performing it. However, not all pigs in a pen perform or receive tail biting behaviour and it has recently been shown that these ‘neutral’ pigs not only differ in their behaviour, but also in their gene expression compared to performers and receivers of tail biting in the same pen. To investigate whether this difference was linked to the cause or a consequence of them not being involved in the outbreak of tail biting, behaviour and brain gene expression was compared with ‘control’ pigs housed in pens with no tail biting. It was shown that the pigs housed in control pens performed a wider variety of pig-directed abnormal behaviour (belly nosing 0.95±1.59, tail in mouth 0.31±0.60 and ‘other‘ abnormal 1.53±4.26; mean±S.D) compared to the neutral pigs (belly nosing 0.30±0.62, tail in mouth 0.13±0.50 and “other“ abnormal 0.42±1.06). With Affymetrix gene expression arrays, 107 transcripts were identified as differently expressed (pbiting in the same pen in an earlier study. Hence, the different expression of these genes cannot be a consequence of the neutral pigs not being involved in tail biting behaviour, but rather linked to the cause contributing to why they were not involved in tail biting interactions. These neutral pigs seem to have a genetic and behavioural profile that somehow contributes to them being resistant to performing or receiving pig-directed abnormal behaviour, such as tail biting, even when housed in an environment that elicits that behaviour in other pigs. PMID:23824700

  17. Estimating maximum bite performance in Tyrannosaurus rex using multi-body dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, K T; Falkingham, P L

    2012-08-23

    Bite mechanics and feeding behaviour in Tyrannosaurus rex are controversial. Some contend that a modest bite mechanically limited T. rex to scavenging, while others argue that high bite forces facilitated a predatory mode of life. We use dynamic musculoskeletal models to simulate maximal biting in T. rex. Models predict that adult T. rex generated sustained bite forces of 35 000-57 000 N at a single posterior tooth, by far the highest bite forces estimated for any terrestrial animal. Scaling analyses suggest that adult T. rex had a strong bite for its body size, and that bite performance increased allometrically during ontogeny. Positive allometry in bite performance during growth may have facilitated an ontogenetic change in feeding behaviour in T. rex, associated with an expansion of prey range in adults to include the largest contemporaneous animals.

  18. Risk factors for dog bites occurring during and outside of play: are they different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messam, Locksley L McV; Kass, Philip H; Chomel, Bruno B; Hart, Lynette A

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the effects of selected human-canine interaction/environmental factors on bites occurring when the victim was and was not playing with the dog differed from each other. A veterinary clinic-based retrospective cohort study was conducted in Kingston, Jamaica (709), and San Francisco, USA (513) to compare the effects of selected exposures on non-play bites (161) relative to bites preceded by play with the dog (110) as reported by veterinary clients. Additionally, 951 non-biting dogs were used for a risk factor analysis of bites occurring during play. Using directed acyclic graphs and the change-in-estimate procedure to select and adjust for confounders, modified Poisson regression was used to estimate (a) the ratios of proportions of non-play bites out of all bites comparing exposed to unexposed dogs (proportionate bite ratios) and (b) risk ratios for bites occurring during play for each factor of interest. Proportionate bite ratios ranged from 0.84 to 1.29, with most 95% confidence intervals including one, thus implying a lack of specificity of effects of the examined factors on non-play bites relative to bites occurring during play with the dog. Consistent with this lack of specificity, risk ratios for bites occurring during play were similar in magnitude and direction to risk ratios previously published for non-play bites using the same non-biting dogs as a reference group. No country-specific differences in proportionate bite ratios were detected. Each human-canine environmental factor showed similar levels of association with both types of bites. One possible explanation is that both types of bites have a common causal pathway leading from each factor up to the point of human-canine contact. If the human-canine contact then leads to either play or non-play interactions with dogs and subsequently to both types of bites, the presence of such a common pathway would make the factor non-specific to either type of bite. As

  19. Effects of reserpine on reproduction and serotonin immunoreactivity in the stable fly Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) ✩

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Samuel S.; Li, Andrew Y.; Witt, Colleen M.; Pérez de León, Adalberto A.

    2014-01-01

    Biogenic amines are known to play critical roles in key insect behaviors such as feeding and reproduction. This study documents the effects of reserpine on mating and egg-laying behaviors of the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), which is one of the most significant biting fly pests affecting cattle. Two sperm staining techniques were adapted successfully to reveal the morphology of stable fly sperm, for the first time, and determine successful mating in females through the assessment of sperm transfer. This approach was also applied to assess sperm transfer by males treated with different doses of reserpine. Mating or sperm transfer did not occur in flies during the first 3 days after emergence. Thereafter, the percentage of females that mated increased with age. Reserpine treatment of males reduced sperm transfer in a dose-dependent manner. Older males were more sensitive to reserpine treatment than younger flies. Reserpine treatment of 5 days old females reduced the number of eggs laid, but had no effect on egg-hatching rates. Results of immunoreactivity (IR) experiments indicated that serotonin in the neuronal processes innervating male testes was completely depleted by reserpine within 5 h after treatment. This effect was transient as the serotonin immunoreactive signal was recovered in 33.3% of the males at 1 day post-treatment and in 94.4% of the flies at 3 days post-treatment. The results of this study concur with previous findings in other insect species and extend our knowledge of the critical roles biogenic amines play in mating and oviposition behaviors of the stable fly. The work could provide a foundation to further characterize the specific roles of individual biogenic amines and their receptors in stable fly reproduction. PMID:23321479

  20. Effects of reserpine on reproduction and serotonin immunoreactivity in the stable fly Stomoxys calcitrans (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Samuel S; Li, Andrew Y; Witt, Colleen M; Pérez de León, Adalberto A

    2013-09-01

    Biogenic amines are known to play critical roles in key insect behaviors such as feeding and reproduction. This study documents the effects of reserpine on mating and egg-laying behaviors of the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), which is one of the most significant biting fly pests affecting cattle. Two sperm staining techniques were adapted successfully to reveal the morphology of stable fly sperm, for the first time, and determine successful mating in females through the assessment of sperm transfer. This approach was also applied to assess sperm transfer by males treated with different doses of reserpine. Mating or sperm transfer did not occur in flies during the first 3 days after emergence. Thereafter, the percentage of females that mated increased with age. Reserpine treatment of males reduced sperm transfer in a dose-dependent manner. Older males were more sensitive to reserpine treatment than younger flies. Reserpine treatment of 5 days old females reduced the number of eggs laid, but had no effect on egg-hatching rates. Results of immunoreactivity (IR) experiments indicated that serotonin in the neuronal processes innervating male testes was completely depleted by reserpine within 5h after treatment. This effect was transient as the serotonin immunoreactive signal was recovered in 33.3% of the males at 1 day post-treatment and in 94.4% of the flies at 3 days post-treatment. The results of this study concur with previous findings in other insect species and extend our knowledge of the critical roles biogenic amines play in mating and oviposition behaviors of the stable fly. The work could provide a foundation to further characterize the specific roles of individual biogenic amines and their receptors in stable fly reproduction. Published by Elsevier Ltd.